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Sample records for bmp signaling pathway

  1. Interaction of TGFβ and BMP signaling pathways during chondrogenesis.

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    Bettina Keller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available TGFβ and BMP signaling pathways exhibit antagonistic activities during the development of many tissues. Although the crosstalk between BMP and TGFβ signaling pathways is well established in bone development, the relationship between these two pathways is less well defined during cartilage development and postnatal homeostasis. We generated hypomorphic mouse models of cartilage-specific loss of BMP and TGFβ signaling to assess the interaction of these pathways in postnatal growth plate homeostasis. We further used the chondrogenic ATDC5 cell line to test effects of BMP and TGFβ signaling on each other's downstream targets. We found that conditional deletion of Smad1 in chondrocytes resulted in a shortening of the growth plate. The addition of Smad5 haploinsufficiency led to a more severe phenotype with shorter prehypertrophic and hypertrophic zones and decreased chondrocyte proliferation. The opposite growth plate phenotype was observed in a transgenic mouse model of decreased chondrocytic TGFβ signaling that was generated by expressing a dominant negative form of the TGFβ receptor I (ΔTβRI in cartilage. Histological analysis demonstrated elongated growth plates with enhanced Ihh expression, as well as an increased proliferation rate with altered production of extracellular matrix components. In contrast, in chondrogenic ATDC5 cells, TGFβ was able to enhance BMP signaling, while BMP2 significantly reduces levels of TGF signaling. In summary, our data demonstrate that during endochondral ossification, BMP and TGFβ signaling can have antagonistic effects on chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation in vivo. We also found evidence of direct interaction between the two signaling pathways in a cell model of chondrogenesis in vitro.

  2. Unique players in the BMP pathway: Small C-terminal domain phosphatases dephosphorylate Smad1 to attenuate BMP signaling

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    Knockaert, Marie; Sapkota, Gopal; Alarcón, Claudio; Massagué, Joan; Brivanlou, Ali H.

    2006-01-01

    Smad transcription factors are key signal transducers for the TGF-β/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family of cytokines and morphogens. C-terminal serine phosphorylation by TGF-β and BMP membrane receptors drives Smads into the nucleus as transcriptional regulators. Dephosphorylation and recycling of activated Smads is an integral part of this process, which is critical for agonist sensing by the cell. However, the nuclear phosphatases involved have remained unknown. Here we provide functional, biochemical, and embryological evidence identifying the SCP (small C-terminal domain phosphatase) family of nuclear phosphatases as mediators of Smad1 dephosphorylation in the BMP signaling pathway in vertebrates. Xenopus SCP2/Os4 inhibits BMP activity in the presumptive ectoderm and leads to neuralization. In Xenopus embryos, SCP2/Os4 and human SCP1, 2, and 3 cause selective dephosphorylation of Smad1 compared with Smad2, inhibiting BMP- and Smad1-dependent transcription and leading to the induction of the secondary dorsal axis. In human cells, RNAi-mediated depletion of SCP1 and SCP2 increases the extent and duration of Smad1 phosphorylation in response to BMP, the transcriptional action of Smad1, and the strength of endogenous BMP gene responses. The present identification of the SCP family as Smad C-terminal phosphatases sheds light on the events that attenuate Smad signaling and reveals unexpected links to the essential phosphatases that control RNA polymerase II in eukaryotes. PMID:16882717

  3. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound accelerates tooth movement via activation of the BMP-2 signaling pathway.

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    Hui Xue

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to determine the underlying mechanism of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS induced alveolar bone remodeling and the role of BMP-2 expression in a rat orthodontic tooth movement model. Orthodontic appliances were placed between the homonymy upper first molars and the upper central incisors in rats under general anesthesia, followed by daily 20-min LIPUS or sham LIPUS treatment beginning at day 0. Tooth movement distances and molecular changes were evaluated at each observation point. In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to detect HGF (Hepatocyte growth factor/Runx2/BMP-2 signaling pathways and receptor activator of NFκB ligand (RANKL expression by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry. At day 3, LIPUS had no effect on the rat orthodontic tooth movement distance and BMP-2-induced alveolar bone remodeling. However, beginning at day 5 and for the following time points, LIPUS significantly increased orthodontic tooth movement distance and BMP-2 signaling pathway and RANKL expression compared with the control group. The qRT-PCR and Western blot data in vitro and in vivo to study BMP-2 expression were consistent with the immunohistochemistry observations. The present study demonstrates that LIPUS promotes alveolar bone remodeling by stimulating the HGF/Runx2/BMP-2 signaling pathway and RANKL expression in a rat orthodontic tooth movement model, and LIPUS increased BMP-2 expression via Runx2 regulation.

  4. Drosophila Nociceptive Sensitization Requires BMP Signaling via the Canonical SMAD Pathway.

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    Follansbee, Taylor L; Gjelsvik, Kayla J; Brann, Courtney L; McParland, Aidan L; Longhurst, Colin A; Galko, Michael J; Ganter, Geoffrey K

    2017-08-30

    Nociceptive sensitization is a common feature in chronic pain, but its basic cellular mechanisms are only partially understood. The present study used the Drosophila melanogaster model system and a candidate gene approach to identify novel components required for modulation of an injury-induced nociceptive sensitization pathway presumably downstream of Hedgehog. This study demonstrates that RNAi silencing of a member of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling pathway, Decapentaplegic (Dpp), specifically in the Class IV multidendritic nociceptive neuron, significantly attenuated ultraviolet injury-induced sensitization. Furthermore, overexpression of Dpp in Class IV neurons was sufficient to induce thermal hypersensitivity in the absence of injury. The requirement of various BMP receptors and members of the SMAD signal transduction pathway in nociceptive sensitization was also demonstrated. The effects of BMP signaling were shown to be largely specific to the sensitization pathway and not associated with changes in nociception in the absence of injury or with changes in dendritic morphology. Thus, the results demonstrate that Dpp and its pathway play a crucial and novel role in nociceptive sensitization. Because the BMP family is so strongly conserved between vertebrates and invertebrates, it seems likely that the components analyzed in this study represent potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of chronic pain in humans. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This report provides a genetic analysis of primary nociceptive neuron mechanisms that promote sensitization in response to injury. Drosophila melanogaster larvae whose primary nociceptive neurons were reduced in levels of specific components of the BMP signaling pathway, were injured and then tested for nocifensive responses to a normally subnoxious stimulus. Results suggest that nociceptive neurons use the BMP2/4 ligand, along with identified receptors and intracellular transducers to transition to a

  5. Efficient retina formation requires suppression of both Activin and BMP signaling pathways in pluripotent cells

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    Kimberly A. Wong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Retina formation requires the correct spatiotemporal patterning of key regulatory factors. While it is known that repression of several signaling pathways lead to specification of retinal fates, addition of only Noggin, a known BMP antagonist, can convert pluripotent Xenopus laevis animal cap cells to functional retinal cells. The aim of this study is to determine the intracellular molecular events that occur during this conversion. Surprisingly, blocking BMP signaling alone failed to mimic Noggin treatment. Overexpressing Noggin in pluripotent cells resulted in a concentration-dependent suppression of both Smad1 and Smad2 phosphorylation, which act downstream of BMP and Activin signaling, respectively. This caused a decrease in downstream targets: endothelial marker, xk81, and mesodermal marker, xbra. We treated pluripotent cells with dominant-negative receptors or the chemical inhibitors, dorsomorphin and SB431542, which each target either the BMP or Activin signaling pathway. We determined the effect of these treatments on retina formation using the Animal Cap Transplant (ACT assay; in which treated pluripotent cells were transplanted into the eye field of host embryos. We found that inhibition of Activin signaling, in the presence of BMP signaling inhibition, promotes efficient retinal specification in Xenopus tissue, mimicking the affect of adding Noggin alone. In whole embryos, we found that the eye field marker, rax, expanded when adding both dominant-negative Smad1 and Smad2, as did treating the cells with both dorsomorphin and SB431542. Future studies could translate these findings to a mammalian culture assay, in order to more efficiently produce retinal cells in culture.

  6. Molecular mechanisms of BMP-induced bone formation: Cross-talk between BMP and NF-κB signaling pathways in osteoblastogenesis

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    Eijiro Jimi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Osteoblasts are bone-forming cells that differentiate from mesenchymal stem cells. Differentiation processes are coordinately and dynamically controlled in the mesenchymal cells by specific signal transduction pathways. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs, members of the TGF-β superfamily, induce not only bone formation in vivo, but also osteoblast differentiation of mesenchymal cells in vitro. BMP signals are transduced from plasma membrane receptors to the nucleus through both Smad-dependent and -independent pathways, and are regulated by many extracellular and intercellular proteins that interact with BMPs or components of BMP signaling pathways. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of BMPs in osteoblast differentiation, it is important to elucidate the BMP signaling transduction pathways that are active during osteoblast differentiation. In this review, we summarize the BMP signaling pathways that are known to function in osteoblast development. We also describe our recent findings regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying the cross-talk between BMP/Smad and NF-κB pathways in osteoblast differentiation.

  7. Kaempferol induces chondrogenesis in ATDC5 cells through activation of ERK/BMP-2 signaling pathway.

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    Nepal, Manoj; Li, Liang; Cho, Hyoung Kwon; Park, Jong Kun; Soh, Yunjo

    2013-12-01

    Endochondral bone formation occurs when mesenchymal cells condense to differentiate into chondrocytes, the primary cell types of cartilage. The aim of the present study was to identify novel factors regulating chondrogenesis. We investigated whether kaempferol induces chondrogenic differentiation in clonal mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cells. Kaempferol treatment stimulated the accumulation of cartilage nodules in a dose-dependent manner. Kaempferol-treated ATDC5 cells stained more intensely with alcian blue staining than control cells, suggesting greater synthesis of matrix proteoglycans in the kaempferol-treated cells. Similarly, kaempferol induced greater activation of alkaline phosphatase activity than control cells, and it enhanced the expression of chondrogenic marker genes, such as collagen type I, collagen type X, OCN, Runx2, and Sox9. Kaempferol induced an acute activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) but not c-jun N-terminal kinase or p38 MAP kinase. PD98059, an inhibitor of MAPK/ERK, decreased in stained cells treated with kaempferol. Furthermore, kaempferol greatly expressed the protein and mRNA levels of BMP-2, suggesting chondrogenesis was stimulated via a BMP-2 pathway. Taken together, our results suggest that kaempferol has chondromodulating effects via an ERK/BMP-2 signaling pathway and could potentially be used as a therapeutic agent for bone growth disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biphasic effects of FGF2 on odontoblast differentiation involve changes in the BMP and Wnt signaling pathways.

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    Sagomonyants, Karen; Mina, Mina

    2014-08-01

    Odontoblast differentiation during physiological and reparative dentinogenesis is dependent upon multiple signaling molecules, including fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and Wingless/Integrated (Wnt) ligands. Recent studies in our laboratory showed that continuous exposure of primary dental pulp cultures to FGF2 exerted biphasic effects on the expression of markers of dentinogenesis. In the present study, we examined the possible involvement of the BMP and Wnt signaling pathways in mediating the effects of FGF2 on dental pulp cells. Our results showed that stimulatory effects of FGF2 on dentinogenesis during the proliferation phase of growth were associated with increased expression of the components of the BMP (Bmp2, Dlx5, Msx2, Osx) and Wnt (Wnt10a, Wisp2) pathways, and decreased expression of an inhibitor of the Wnt signaling, Nkd2. Further addition of FGF2 during the differentiation/mineralization phase of growth resulted in decreased expression of components of the BMP signaling (Bmp2, Runx2, Osx) and increased expression of inhibitors of the Wnt signaling (Nkd2, Dkk3). This suggests that both BMP and Wnt pathways may be involved in mediating the effects of FGF2 on dental pulp cells.

  9. Traf2 interacts with Smad4 and regulates BMP signaling pathway in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts

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    Shimada, Koichi; Ikeda, Kyoko; Ito, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play important roles in osteoblast differentiation and maturation. In mammals, the BMP-induced receptor-regulated Smads form complexes with Smad4. These complexes translocate and accumulate in the nucleus, where they regulate the transcription of various target genes. However, the function of Smad4 remains unclear. We performed a yeast two-hybrid screen using Smad4 as bait and a cDNA library derived from bone marrow, to indentify the proteins interacting with Smad4. cDNA clones for Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 2 (Traf2) were identified, and the interaction between the endogenous proteins was confirmed in the mouse osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1. To investigate the function of Traf2, we silenced it with siRNA. The level of BMP-2 protein in the medium, the expression levels of the Bmp2 gene and BMP-induced transcription factor genes, including Runx2, Dlx5, Msx2, and Sp7, and the phosphorylated-Smad1 protein level were increased in cells transfected with Traf2 siRNA. The nuclear accumulation of Smad1 increased with TNF-α stimulation for 30 min at Traf2 silencing. These results suggest that the TNF-α-stimulated nuclear accumulation of Smad1 may be dependent on Traf2. Thus, the interaction between Traf2 and Smad4 may play a role in the cross-talk between TNF-α and BMP signaling pathways.

  10. Gallic acid inhibits vascular calcification through the blockade of BMP2-Smad1/5/8 signaling pathway.

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    Kee, Hae Jin; Cho, Soo-Na; Kim, Gwi Ran; Choi, Sin Young; Ryu, Yuhee; Kim, In Kyeom; Hong, Young Joon; Park, Hyung Wook; Ahn, Youngkeun; Cho, Jeong Gwan; Park, Jong Chun; Jeong, Myung Ho

    2014-11-01

    Vascular calcification is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality in patients with cardiovascular diseases, chronic kidney diseases, and diabetes. Gallic acid, a natural compound found in gallnut and green tea, is known to be antifungal, antioxidant, and anticancer. Here we investigated the effect of gallic acid on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification and the underlying mechanism. Gallic acid inhibited inorganic phosphate-induced osteoblast differentiation markers as well as calcification phenotypes (as determined by calcium deposition, Alizarin Red, and Von Kossa staining). Knockdown of BMP2 or Noggin blocked phosphate-induced calcification. Gallic acid suppressed phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 protein induced by inorganic phosphate. Taken together, we suggest that gallic acid acts as a novel therapeutic agent of vascular calcification by mediating BMP2-Smad1/5/8 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. BMP and TGFbeta pathways in human central chondrosarcoma: enhanced endoglin and Smad 1 signaling in high grade tumors

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    Boeuf, Stephane; Bovée, Judith VMG; Lehner, Burkhard; Akker, Brendy van den; Ruler, Maayke van; Cleton-Jansen, Anne-Marie; Richter, Wiltrud

    2012-01-01

    As major regulators of normal chondrogenesis, the bone morphogenic protein (BMP) and transforming growth factor β (TGFB) signaling pathways may be involved in the development and progression of central chondrosarcoma. In order to uncover their possible implication, the aim of this study was to perform a systematic quantitative study of the expression of BMPs, TGFBs and their receptors and to assess activity of the corresponding pathways in central chondrosarcoma. Gene expression analysis was performed by quantitative RT-PCR in 26 central chondrosarcoma and 6 healthy articular cartilage samples. Expression of endoglin and nuclear localization of phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 and Smad2 was assessed by immunohistochemical analysis. The expression of TGFB3 and of the activin receptor-like kinase ALK2 was found to be significantly higher in grade III compared to grade I chondrosarcoma. Nuclear phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 and Smad2 were found in all tumors analyzed and the activity of both signaling pathways was confirmed by functional reporter assays in 2 chondrosarcoma cell lines. Immunohistochemical analysis furthermore revealed that phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 and endoglin expression were significantly higher in high-grade compared to low-grade chondrosarcoma and correlated to each other. The BMP and TGFβ signaling pathways were found to be active in central chondrosarcoma cells. The correlation of Smad1/5/8 activity to endoglin expression suggests that, as described in other cell types, endoglin could enhance Smad1/5/8 signaling in high-grade chondrosarcoma cells. Endoglin expression coupled to Smad1/5/8 activation could thus represent a functionally important signaling axis for the progression of chondrosarcoma and a regulator of the undifferentiated phenotype of high-grade tumor cells

  12. BMP and TGFbeta pathways in human central chondrosarcoma: enhanced endoglin and Smad 1 signaling in high grade tumors

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    2012-01-01

    Background As major regulators of normal chondrogenesis, the bone morphogenic protein (BMP) and transforming growth factor β (TGFB) signaling pathways may be involved in the development and progression of central chondrosarcoma. In order to uncover their possible implication, the aim of this study was to perform a systematic quantitative study of the expression of BMPs, TGFBs and their receptors and to assess activity of the corresponding pathways in central chondrosarcoma. Methods Gene expression analysis was performed by quantitative RT-PCR in 26 central chondrosarcoma and 6 healthy articular cartilage samples. Expression of endoglin and nuclear localization of phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 and Smad2 was assessed by immunohistochemical analysis. Results The expression of TGFB3 and of the activin receptor-like kinase ALK2 was found to be significantly higher in grade III compared to grade I chondrosarcoma. Nuclear phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 and Smad2 were found in all tumors analyzed and the activity of both signaling pathways was confirmed by functional reporter assays in 2 chondrosarcoma cell lines. Immunohistochemical analysis furthermore revealed that phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 and endoglin expression were significantly higher in high-grade compared to low-grade chondrosarcoma and correlated to each other. Conclusions The BMP and TGFβ signaling pathways were found to be active in central chondrosarcoma cells. The correlation of Smad1/5/8 activity to endoglin expression suggests that, as described in other cell types, endoglin could enhance Smad1/5/8 signaling in high-grade chondrosarcoma cells. Endoglin expression coupled to Smad1/5/8 activation could thus represent a functionally important signaling axis for the progression of chondrosarcoma and a regulator of the undifferentiated phenotype of high-grade tumor cells. PMID:23088614

  13. BMP pathway regulation of and by macrophages.

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    Megha Talati

    Full Text Available Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH is a disease of progressively increasing pulmonary vascular resistance, associated with mutations of the type 2 receptor for the BMP pathway, BMPR2. The canonical signaling pathway for BMPR2 is through the SMAD family of transcription factors. BMPR2 is expressed in every cell type, but the impact of BMPR2 mutations affecting SMAD signaling, such as Bmpr2delx4+, had only previously been investigated in smooth muscle and endothelium. In the present study, we created a mouse with universal doxycycline-inducible expression of Bmpr2delx4+ in order to determine if broader expression had an impact relevant to the development of PAH. We found that the most obvious phenotype was a dramatic, but patchy, increase in pulmonary inflammation. We crossed these double transgenic mice onto an NF-κB reporter strain, and by luciferase assays on live mice, individual organs and isolated macrophages, we narrowed down the origin of the inflammatory phenotype to constitutive activation of tissue macrophages. Study of bone marrow-derived macrophages from mutant and wild-type mice suggested a baseline difference in differentiation state in Bmpr2 mutants. When activated with LPS, both mutant and wild-type macrophages secrete BMP pathway inhibitors sufficient to suppress BMP pathway activity in smooth muscle cells (SMC treated with conditioned media. Functionally, co-culture with macrophages results in a BMP signaling-dependent increase in scratch closure in cultured SMC. We conclude that SMAD signaling through BMP is responsible, in part, for preventing macrophage activation in both live animals and in cells in culture, and that activated macrophages secrete BMP inhibitors in sufficient quantity to cause paracrine effect on vascular smooth muscle.

  14. BMP6 down-regulates GDNF expression through SMAD1/5 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in human granulosa-lutein cells.

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    Zhang, Xin-Yue; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Taylor, Elizabeth L; Leung, Peter C K; Liu, Rui-Zhi

    2018-05-09

    Bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) is a critical regulator of follicular development that is expressed in mammalian oocytes and granulosa cells. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is an intraovarian neurotrophic factor that plays an essential role in regulating mammalian oocyte maturation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of BMP6 on the regulation of GDNF expression and the potential underlying mechanisms. We used an established immortalized human granulosa cell line (SVOG cells) and primary human granulosa-lutein cells as in vitro cell models. Our results showed that BMP6 significantly down-regulated the expression of GDNF in both SVOG and primary human granulosa-lutein cells. Using dual inhibition approaches (kinase receptor inhibitor and small interfering RNA knockdown), our results showed that both ALK2 and ALK3 are involved in BMP6-induced down-regulation of GDNF. In addition, BMP6 induced the phosphorylation of SMAD1/5/8 and ERK1/2 but not AKT or p38. Among three downstream mediators, both SMAD1 and SMAD5 are involved in BMP6-induced down-regulation of GDNF. Moreover, concomitant knockdown of endogenous SMAD4 and inhibition of ERK1/2 activity completely reversed BMP6-induced down-regulation of GDNF, indicating that both SMAD and ERK1/2 signaling pathways are required for the regulatory effect of BMP6 on GDNF expression. Our findings suggest an additional role for an intrafollicular growth factor in regulating follicular function through their paracrine interactions in human granulosa cells.

  15. Zirconium ions up-regulate the BMP/SMAD signaling pathway and promote the proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblasts.

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    Yongjuan Chen

    Full Text Available Zirconium (Zr is an element commonly used in dental and orthopedic implants either as zirconia (ZrO2 or in metal alloys. It can also be incorporated into calcium silicate-based ceramics. However, the effects of in vitro culture of human osteoblasts (HOBs with soluble ionic forms of Zr have not been determined. In this study, primary culture of human osteoblasts was conducted in the presence of medium containing either ZrCl4 or Zirconium (IV oxynitrate (ZrO(NO32 at concentrations of 0, 5, 50 and 500 µM, and osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and calcium deposition were assessed. Incubation of human osteoblast cultures with Zr ions increased the proliferation of human osteoblasts and also gene expression of genetic markers of osteoblast differentiation. In 21 and 28 day cultures, Zr ions at concentrations of 50 and 500 µM increased the deposition of calcium phosphate. In addition, the gene expression of BMP2 and BMP receptors was increased in response to culture with Zr ions and this was associated with increased phosphorylation of SMAD1/5. Moreover, Noggin suppressed osteogenic gene expression in HOBs co-treated with Zr ions. In conclusion, Zr ions appear able to induce both the proliferation and the differentiation of primary human osteoblasts. This is associated with up-regulation of BMP2 expression and activation of BMP signaling suggesting this action is, at least in part, mediated by BMP signaling.

  16. Zirconium Ions Up-Regulate the BMP/SMAD Signaling Pathway and Promote the Proliferation and Differentiation of Human Osteoblasts

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    Chen, Yongjuan; Roohani-Esfahani, Seyed-Iman; Lu, ZuFu; Zreiqat, Hala; Dunstan, Colin R.

    2015-01-01

    Zirconium (Zr) is an element commonly used in dental and orthopedic implants either as zirconia (ZrO2) or in metal alloys. It can also be incorporated into calcium silicate-based ceramics. However, the effects of in vitro culture of human osteoblasts (HOBs) with soluble ionic forms of Zr have not been determined. In this study, primary culture of human osteoblasts was conducted in the presence of medium containing either ZrCl4 or Zirconium (IV) oxynitrate (ZrO(NO3)2) at concentrations of 0, 5, 50 and 500 µM, and osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and calcium deposition were assessed. Incubation of human osteoblast cultures with Zr ions increased the proliferation of human osteoblasts and also gene expression of genetic markers of osteoblast differentiation. In 21 and 28 day cultures, Zr ions at concentrations of 50 and 500 µM increased the deposition of calcium phosphate. In addition, the gene expression of BMP2 and BMP receptors was increased in response to culture with Zr ions and this was associated with increased phosphorylation of SMAD1/5. Moreover, Noggin suppressed osteogenic gene expression in HOBs co-treated with Zr ions. In conclusion, Zr ions appear able to induce both the proliferation and the differentiation of primary human osteoblasts. This is associated with up-regulation of BMP2 expression and activation of BMP signaling suggesting this action is, at least in part, mediated by BMP signaling. PMID:25602473

  17. Manipulation of Fgf and Bmp signaling in teleost fishes suggests potential pathways for the evolutionary origin of multicuspid teeth.

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    Jackman, William R; Davies, Shelby H; Lyons, David B; Stauder, Caitlin K; Denton-Schneider, Benjamin R; Jowdry, Andrea; Aigler, Sharon R; Vogel, Scott A; Stock, David W

    2013-01-01

    Teeth with two or more cusps have arisen independently from an ancestral unicuspid condition in a variety of vertebrate lineages, including sharks, teleost fishes, amphibians, lizards, and mammals. One potential explanation for the repeated origins of multicuspid teeth is the existence of multiple adaptive pathways leading to them, as suggested by their different uses in these lineages. Another is that the addition of cusps required only minor changes in genetic pathways regulating tooth development. Here we provide support for the latter hypothesis by demonstrating that manipulation of the levels of Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) or Bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) signaling produces bicuspid teeth in the zebrafish (Danio rerio), a species lacking multicuspid teeth in its ancestry. The generality of these results for teleosts is suggested by the conversion of unicuspid pharyngeal teeth into bicuspid teeth by similar manipulations of the Mexican Tetra (Astyanax mexicanus). That these manipulations also produced supernumerary teeth in both species supports previous suggestions of similarities in the molecular control of tooth and cusp number. We conclude that despite their apparent complexity, the evolutionary origin of multicuspid teeth is positively constrained, likely requiring only slight modifications of a pre-existing mechanism for patterning the number and spacing of individual teeth. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. BMP suppresses PTEN expression via RAS/ERK signaling.

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    Beck, Stayce E; Carethers, John M

    2007-08-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), a member of the transforming growth factor beta family, classically utilizes the SMAD signaling pathway for its growth suppressive effects,and loss of this signaling cascade may accelerate cell growth. In the colon cancer predisposition syndrome Juvenile Polyposis, as well as in the late progression stages of nonsyndromic colorectal cancers, SMAD4 function is typically abrogated. Here, we utilized the SMAD4-null SW480 colon cancer cell line to examine BMPs effect on a potential target gene, PTEN, and how its expression might be regulated. Initial treatment of the SMAD4-null cells with BMP resulted in mild growth suppression, but with prolonged exposure to BMP, the cells become growth stimulatory, which coincided with observed decreases in transcription and translation of PTEN, and with corresponding increases in phospho-AKT protein levels. BMP-induced PTEN suppression was mediated via the RAS/ERK pathway, as pharmacologic inhibition of RAS/ERK, or interference with protein function in the cytosol by DN-RAS prevented BMP-induced growth promotion and changes in PTEN levels, as did treatment with noggin, a BMP ligand inhibitor. Thus, BMP downregulates PTEN via RAS/ERK in a SMAD4-null environment that contributes to cell growth, and constitutes a SMAD4-independent but BMP-responsive signaling pathway.

  19. Dynamics of BMP signaling in limb bud mesenchyme and polydactyly.

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    Norrie, Jacqueline L; Lewandowski, Jordan P; Bouldin, Cortney M; Amarnath, Smita; Li, Qiang; Vokes, Martha S; Ehrlich, Lauren I R; Harfe, Brian D; Vokes, Steven A

    2014-09-15

    Mutations in the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) pathway are associated with a range of defects in skeletal formation. Genetic analysis of BMP signaling requirements is complicated by the presence of three partially redundant BMPs that are required for multiple stages of limb development. We generated an inducible allele of a BMP inhibitor, Gremlin, which reduces BMP signaling. We show that BMPs act in a dose and time dependent manner in which early reduction of BMPs result in digit loss, while inhibiting overall BMP signaling between E10.5 and E11.5 allows polydactylous digit formation. During this period, inhibiting BMPs extends the duration of FGF signaling. Sox9 is initially expressed in normal digit ray domains but at reduced levels that correlate with the reduction in BMP signaling. The persistence of elevated FGF signaling likely promotes cell proliferation and survival, inhibiting the activation of Sox9 and secondarily, inhibiting the differentiation of Sox9-expressing chondrocytes. Our results provide new insights into the timing and clarify the mechanisms underlying BMP signaling during digit morphogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Basolateral BMP signaling in polarized epithelial cells.

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    Masao Saitoh

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs regulate various biological processes, mostly mediated by cells of mesenchymal origin. However, the roles of BMPs in epithelial cells are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that, in polarized epithelial cells, BMP signals are transmitted from BMP receptor complexes exclusively localized at the basolateral surface of the cell membrane. In addition, basolateral stimulation with BMP increased expression of components of tight junctions and enhanced the transepithelial resistance (TER, counteracting reduction of TER by treatment with TGF-β or an anti-tumor drug. We conclude that BMPs maintain epithelial polarity via intracellular signaling from basolaterally localized BMP receptors.

  1. The zinc transporter SLC39A13/ZIP13 is required for connective tissue development; its involvement in BMP/TGF-beta signaling pathways.

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    Toshiyuki Fukada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Zinc (Zn is an essential trace element and it is abundant in connective tissues, however biological roles of Zn and its transporters in those tissues and cells remain unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report that mice deficient in Zn transporter Slc39a13/Zip13 show changes in bone, teeth and connective tissue reminiscent of the clinical spectrum of human Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS. The Slc39a13 knockout (Slc39a13-KO mice show defects in the maturation of osteoblasts, chondrocytes, odontoblasts, and fibroblasts. In the corresponding tissues and cells, impairment in bone morphogenic protein (BMP and TGF-beta signaling were observed. Homozygosity for a SLC39A13 loss of function mutation was detected in sibs affected by a unique variant of EDS that recapitulates the phenotype observed in Slc39a13-KO mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Hence, our results reveal a crucial role of SLC39A13/ZIP13 in connective tissue development at least in part due to its involvement in the BMP/TGF-beta signaling pathways. The Slc39a13-KO mouse represents a novel animal model linking zinc metabolism, BMP/TGF-beta signaling and connective tissue dysfunction.

  2. Opposing nodal and BMP signals regulate left-right asymmetry in the sea urchin larva.

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    Yi-Jyun Luo

    Full Text Available Nodal and BMP signals are important for establishing left-right (LR asymmetry in vertebrates. In sea urchins, Nodal signaling prevents the formation of the rudiment on the right side. However, the opposing pathway to Nodal signaling during LR axis establishment is not clear. Here, we revealed that BMP signaling is activated in the left coelomic pouch, specifically in the veg2 lineage, but not in the small micromeres. By perturbing BMP activities, we demonstrated that BMP signaling is required for activating the expression of the left-sided genes and the formation of the left-sided structures. On the other hand, Nodal signals on the right side inhibit BMP signaling and control LR asymmetric separation and apoptosis of the small micromeres. Our findings show that BMP signaling is the positive signal for left-sided development in sea urchins, suggesting that the opposing roles of Nodal and BMP signals in establishing LR asymmetry are conserved in deuterostomes.

  3. Orphan nuclear receptor TLX regulates astrogenesis by modulating BMP signaling

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    Song eQin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells (NSCs are self-renewing multipotent progenitors that generate both neurons and glia. The precise control of NSC behavior is fundamental to the architecture and function of the central nervous system. We previously demonstrated that the orphan nuclear receptor TLX is required for postnatal NSC activation and neurogenesis in the neurogenic niche. Here, we show that TLX modulates BMP-SMAD signaling to control the timing of postnatal astrogenesis. Genes involved in the BMP signaling pathway, such as Bmp4, Hes1, and Id3, are upregulated in postnatal brains lacking Tlx. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays reveal that TLX can directly bind the enhancer region of Bmp4. In accordance with elevated BMP signaling, the downstream effectors SMAD1/5/8 are activated by phosphorylation in Tlx mutant mice. Consequently, Tlx mutant brains exhibit an early appearance and increased number of astrocytes with marker expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and S100B. Taken together, these results suggest that TLX tightly controls postnatal astrogenesis through the modulation of BMP-SMAD signaling pathway activity.

  4. Orphan nuclear receptor TLX regulates astrogenesis by modulating BMP signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Song; Niu, Wenze; Iqbal, Nida; Smith, Derek K; Zhang, Chun-Li

    2014-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are self-renewing multipotent progenitors that generate both neurons and glia. The precise control of NSC behavior is fundamental to the architecture and function of the central nervous system. We previously demonstrated that the orphan nuclear receptor TLX is required for postnatal NSC activation and neurogenesis in the neurogenic niche. Here, we show that TLX modulates bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-SMAD signaling to control the timing of postnatal astrogenesis. Genes involved in the BMP signaling pathway, such as Bmp4, Hes1, and Id3, are upregulated in postnatal brains lacking Tlx. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays reveal that TLX can directly bind the enhancer region of Bmp4. In accordance with elevated BMP signaling, the downstream effectors SMAD1/5/8 are activated by phosphorylation in Tlx mutant mice. Consequently, Tlx mutant brains exhibit an early appearance and increased number of astrocytes with marker expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S100B. Taken together, these results suggest that TLX tightly controls postnatal astrogenesis through the modulation of BMP-SMAD signaling pathway activity.

  5. Smad, PI3K/Akt, and Wnt-dependent signaling pathways are involved in BMP-4-induced ESC self-renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Young; Lim, Hyun Woo; Lee, Sang Hun; Han, Ho Jae

    2009-08-01

    It is known that bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) has a diverse effect on ESCs. However, its precise mechanism in mouse ESCs is not fully understood. We evaluated the effect of BMP-4 on ESC proliferation and its related signal cascades in this study. BMP-4 significantly increased the level of [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation in time- (> or =8 hours) and dose- (> or =10 ng/ml) dependent manners. Additionally, BMP-4 increased cyclin D1 and decreased p27(kip1) expression values in a time-dependent manner. The increases in BMP-4-induced [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation and cyclin D1 expression were inhibited by the BMP-4 receptor antagonist noggin. BMP-4 increased Wnt1 expression. Wnt1 expression was attenuated by Smad4 small interfering RNA (siRNA), and BMP-4-induced cyclin D1 expression was inhibited by Smad4 and Wnt1 siRNAs. BMP-4 also activated beta-catenin, which was blocked by Smad4 and Wnt1 siRNAs. In addition, BMP-4 induced Akt phosphorylation. BMP-4-induced beta-catenin activation and cyclin D1 expression were attenuated by phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K) siRNA and Akt inhibitor. Additionally, downregulation of Smad4, Wnt1, and PI3K expression by siRNA decreased the levels of pluripotency marker mRNAs of ESCs, including Oct4, Sox2, and FoxD3. Our results suggested that BMP-4-induced [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation was significantly attenuated by Smad4, Wnt1, and PI3K knockdown. In conclusion, BMP-4 contributed to the maintenance of cell proliferation and the pluripotent state by Smad, PI3K/Akt, and Wnt1/beta-catenin in mouse ESCs.

  6. Bmp signaling mediates endoderm pouch morphogenesis by regulating Fgf signaling in zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Mary E.; McCarthy, Neil; Norrie, Jacqueline L.; Eberhart, Johann K.

    2016-01-01

    The endodermal pouches are a series of reiterated structures that segment the pharyngeal arches and help pattern the vertebrate face. Multiple pathways regulate the complex process of endodermal development, including the Bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) pathway. However, the role of Bmp signaling in pouch morphogenesis is poorly understood. Using genetic and chemical inhibitor approaches, we show that pouch morphogenesis requires Bmp signaling from 10-18 h post-fertilization, immediately following gastrulation. Blocking Bmp signaling during this window results in morphological defects to the pouches and craniofacial skeleton. Using genetic chimeras we show that Bmp signals directly to the endoderm for proper morphogenesis. Time-lapse imaging and analysis of reporter transgenics show that Bmp signaling is necessary for pouch outpocketing via the Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) pathway. Double loss-of-function analyses demonstrate that Bmp and Fgf signaling interact synergistically in craniofacial development. Collectively, our analyses shed light on the tissue and signaling interactions that regulate development of the vertebrate face. PMID:27122171

  7. Breast cancer cells obtain an osteomimetic feature via epithelial-mesenchymal transition that have undergone BMP2/RUNX2 signaling pathway induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cong-Cong; Li, Gui-Xi; Tan, Li-Duan; Du, Xin; Li, Xiao-Qing; He, Rui; Wang, Qing-Shan; Feng, Yu-Mei

    2016-11-29

    Bone is one of the most common organs of breast cancer metastasis. Cancer cells that mimic osteoblasts by expressing bone matrix proteins and factors have a higher likelihood of metastasizing to bone. However, the molecular mechanisms of osteomimicry formation of cancer cells remain undefined. Herein, we identified a set of bone-related genes (BRGs) that are ectopically co-expressed in primary breast cancer tissues and determined that osteomimetic feature is obtained due to the osteoblast-like transformation of epithelial breast cancer cells that have undergone epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) followed by bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) stimulation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that breast cancer cells that transformed into osteoblast-like cells with high expression of BRGs showed enhanced chemotaxis, adhesion, proliferation and multidrug resistance in an osteoblast-mimic bone microenvironment in vitro. During these processes, runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) functioned as a master mediator by suppressing or activating the transcription of BRGs that underlie the dynamic antagonism between the TGF-β/SMAD and BMP/SMAD signaling pathways in breast cancer cells. Our findings suggest a novel mechanism of osteomimicry formation that arises in primary breast tumors, which may explain the propensity of breast cancer to metastasize to the skeleton and contribute to potential strategies for predicting and targeting breast cancer bone metastasis and multidrug resistance.

  8. BMP Suppresses PTEN Expression via RAS/ERK Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Stayce E.; Carethers, John M.

    2007-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), a member of the transforming growth factor β family, classically utilizes the SMAD signaling pathway for its growth suppressive effects, and loss of this signaling cascade may accelerate cell growth. In the colon cancer predisposition syndrome Juvenile Polyposis, as well as in the late progression stages of nonsyndromic colorectal cancers, SMAD4 function is typically abrogated. Here, we utilized the SMAD4-null SW480 colon cancer cell line to examine BMPs effe...

  9. Delta-like 1/fetal antigen 1(DLK1/FA1) inhibits BMP2 induced osteoblast differentiation through modulation of NFκB signaling pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiu, Weimin; Abdallah, Basem; Kassem, Moustapha

    DLK1/FA1 (delta-like 1/fetal antigen-1) is a negative regulator of bone mass that acts to inhibit osteoblast differentiation and stimulate osteoclast differentiation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are not known. Thus, we studied the effect of DLK1/FA1 on different...... osteogenic factors-induced osteoblast differentiation. We identified DLK1/FA1 as an inhibitor of BMP2-induced osteogenesis in mouse myoblast C2C12 cells. Stable overexpression of DLK1/FA1 in C2C12 cells or the addition of its soluble form protein FA1 significantly inhibited BMP2-induced osteogenesis...... as assessed by reduced Alp activity and osteogenic gene expression including Alp, Col1a1, Runx2 and Bglap. In addition, DLK1/FA1 inhibited BMP signaling as demonstrated by reduced gene expression of BMP-responsive genes: Junb and Id1, reduced BMP2 induced luciferase activity in C2C12 BMP luciferase reporter...

  10. Effects of MiR-375-BMPR2 as a Key Factor Downstream of BMP15/GDF9 on the Smad1/5/8 and Smad2/3 Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15 and growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9, which are secreted by oocytes, are important regulators of follicular growth and development and ovarian function. These two factors can regulate the proliferation and apoptosis of cumulus cells via modulation of the Smad signaling pathway. Studies have shown that BMP15 and GDF9 can affect the level of miR-375, whereas the target gene of miR-375 is BMPR2, the type II receptor of BMP15 and GDF9. However, whether or how the BMP15/ GDF9-miR-375-BMPR2 pathway affects the proliferation and apoptosis of bovine cumulus cells through regulation of the Smad signaling pathway remains unclear. Methods: In this study, cumulus cells were first obtained from cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs. Appropriate concentrations of BMP15 and GDF9 were added during the in vitro culture process. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8 analyses and flow cytometry were used to determine the effects of BMP15/GDF9 on bovine cumulus cells proliferation and apoptosis. Subsequently, miR-375 mimics, miR-375 inhibitor and BMPR2 siRNA were synthesized and used for transfection experiments. Western Blot analysis was used to detect changes before and after transfection in the expression levels of the BMP15/GDF9 type I receptors ALK4, ALK5 and ALK6; the phosphorylation levels of Smad2/3 and Smad1/5/8, which are key signaling pathway proteins downstream of BMP15/GDF9; the expression levels of PTX3, HAS2 and PTGS2, which are key genes involved in cumulus cells proliferation; and Bcl2/Bax, which are genes involved in apoptosis. Results: The addition of 100 ng/mL BMP15 or 200 ng/mL GDF9 or the combined addition of 50 ng/mL BMP15 and 100 ng/mL GDF9 effectively inhibited bovine cumulus cell apoptosis and promoted cell proliferation. BMP15/GDF9 negatively regulated miR-375 expression and positively regulated BMPR2 expression. High levels of miR-375 and inhibition of BMPR2 resulted in increased expression of ALK

  11. Dragon enhances BMP signaling and increases transepithelial resistance in kidney epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yin; Babitt, Jodie L; Bouley, Richard; Zhang, Ying; Da Silva, Nicolas; Chen, Shanzhuo; Zhuang, Zhenjie; Samad, Tarek A; Brenner, Gary J; Anderson, Jennifer L; Hong, Charles C; Schneyer, Alan L; Brown, Dennis; Lin, Herbert Y

    2010-04-01

    The neuronal adhesion protein Dragon acts as a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) coreceptor that enhances BMP signaling. Given the importance of BMP signaling in nephrogenesis and its putative role in the response to injury in the adult kidney, we studied the localization and function of Dragon in the kidney. We observed that Dragon localized predominantly to the apical surfaces of tubular epithelial cells in the thick ascending limbs, distal convoluted tubules, and collecting ducts of mice. Dragon expression was weak in the proximal tubules and glomeruli. In mouse inner medullary collecting duct (mIMCD3) cells, Dragon generated BMP signals in a ligand-dependent manner, and BMP4 is the predominant endogenous ligand for the Dragon coreceptor. In mIMCD3 cells, BMP4 normally signaled through BMPRII, but Dragon enhanced its signaling through the BMP type II receptor ActRIIA. Dragon and BMP4 increased transepithelial resistance (TER) through the Smad1/5/8 pathway. In epithelial cells isolated from the proximal tubule and intercalated cells of collecting ducts, we observed coexpression of ActRIIA, Dragon, and BMP4 but not BMPRII. Taken together, these results suggest that Dragon may enhance BMP signaling in renal tubular epithelial cells and maintain normal renal physiology.

  12. Combination of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Platelet-rich Fibrin Promotes the Odontoblastic Differentiation and Mineralization of Human Dental Pulp Cells via BMP/Smad Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Su-Mi; Kim, Won-Jae; Lim, Hae-Soon; Choi, Nam-Ki; Kim, Sun-Hun; Kim, Seon-Mi; Jung, Ji-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports have shown that the combined use of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), an autologous fibrin matrix, and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as root filling material is beneficial for the endodontic management of an open apex. However, the potential of the combination of MTA and PRF as an odontogenic inducer in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) in vitro has not yet been studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the combination of MTA and PRF on odontoblastic maturation in HDPCs. HDPCs extracted from third molars were directly cultured with MTA and PRF extract (PRFe). Odontoblastic differentiation of HDPCs was evaluated by measuring the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and the expression of odontogenesis-related genes was detected using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction or Western blot. Mineralization formation was assessed by alizarin red staining. HDPCs treated with MTA and PRFe significantly up-regulated the expression of dentin sialoprotein and dentin matrix protein-1 and enhanced ALP activity and mineralization compared with those with MTA or PRFe treatment alone. In addition, the combination of MTA and PRFe induced the activation of bone morphogenic proteins (BMP)/Smad, whereas LDN193189, the bone morphogenic protein inhibitor, attenuated dentin sialophosphoprotein and dentin matrix protein-1 expression, ALP activity, and mineralization enhanced by MTA and PRFe treatment. This study shows that the combination of MTA and PRF has a synergistic effect on the stimulation of odontoblastic differentiation of HDPCs via the modulation of the BMP/Smad signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of wise protein and its molecular mechanism to interact with both Wnt and BMP signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintern, Katherine B; Guidato, Sonia; Rowe, Alison; Saldanha, José W; Itasaki, Nobue

    2009-08-21

    Cross-talk of BMP and Wnt signaling pathways has been implicated in many aspects of biological events during embryogenesis and in adulthood. A secreted protein Wise and its orthologs (Sostdc1, USAG-1, and Ectodin) have been shown to modulate Wnt signaling and also inhibit BMP signals. Modulation of Wnt signaling activity by Wise is brought about by an interaction with the Wnt co-receptor LRP6, whereas BMP inhibition is by binding to BMP ligands. Here we have investigated the mode of action of Wise on Wnt and BMP signals. It was found that Wise binds LRP6 through one of three loops formed by the cystine knot. The Wise deletion construct lacking the LRP6-interacting loop domain nevertheless binds BMP4 and inhibits BMP signals. Moreover, BMP4 does not interfere with Wise-LRP6 binding, suggesting separate domains for the physical interaction. Functional assays also show that the ability of Wise to block Wnt1 activity through LRP6 is not impeded by BMP4. In contrast, the ability of Wise to inhibit BMP4 is prevented by additional LRP6, implying a preference of Wise in binding LRP6 over BMP4. In addition to the interaction of Wise with BMP4 and LRP6, the molecular characteristics of Wise, such as glycosylation and association with heparan sulfate proteoglycans on the cell surface, are suggested. This study helps to understand the multiple functions of Wise at the molecular level and suggests a possible role for Wise in balancing Wnt and BMP signals.

  14. BMP and Ihh/PTHrP signaling interact to coordinate chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minina, E; Wenzel, H M; Kreschel, C; Karp, S; Gaffield, W; McMahon, A P; Vortkamp, A

    2001-11-01

    During endochondral ossification, two secreted signals, Indian hedgehog (Ihh) and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), have been shown to form a negative feedback loop regulating the onset of hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), another family of secreted factors regulating bone formation, have been implicated as potential interactors of the Ihh/PTHrP feedback loop. To analyze the relationship between the two signaling pathways, we used an organ culture system for limb explants of mouse and chick embryos. We manipulated chondrocyte differentiation by supplementing these cultures either with BMP2, PTHrP and Sonic hedgehog as activators or with Noggin and cyclopamine as inhibitors of the BMP and Ihh/PTHrP signaling systems. Overexpression of Ihh in the cartilage elements of transgenic mice results in an upregulation of PTHrP expression and a delayed onset of hypertrophic differentiation. Noggin treatment of limbs from these mice did not antagonize the effects of Ihh overexpression. Conversely, the promotion of chondrocyte maturation induced by cyclopamine, which blocks Ihh signaling, could not be rescued with BMP2. Thus BMP signaling does not act as a secondary signal of Ihh to induce PTHrP expression or to delay the onset of hypertrophic differentiation. Similar results were obtained using cultures of chick limbs. We further investigated the role of BMP signaling in regulating proliferation and hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes and identified three functions of BMP signaling in this process. First we found that maintaining a normal proliferation rate requires BMP and Ihh signaling acting in parallel. We further identified a role for BMP signaling in modulating the expression of IHH: Finally, the application of Noggin to mouse limb explants resulted in advanced differentiation of terminally hypertrophic cells, implicating BMP signaling in delaying the process of hypertrophic differentiation itself. This

  15. Osteogenesis differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells by CO2 laser-treatment stimulating macrophages via BMP2 signalling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Wen-Hui; Chen, Yi-Jyun; Hung, Chi-Jr; Huang, Tsui-Hsien; Kao, Chia-Tze; Shie, Ming-You

    2014-01-01

    Immune reactions play an important role in determining the biostimulation of bone formation, either in new bone formation or inflammatory fibrous tissue encapsulation. Macrophage cell, the important effector cells in the immune reaction, which are indispensable for osteogenesis and their heterogeneity and plasticity, render macrophages a primer target for immune system modulation. However, there are very few studies about the effects of macrophage cells on laser treatment-regulated osteogenesis. In this study, we used CO 2 laser as a model biostimulation to investigate the role of macrophage cells on the CO 2 laser stimulated osteogenesis. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) was also significantly up regulated by the CO 2 laser stimulation, indicating that macrophage may participate in the CO 2 laser stimulated osteogenesis. Interestingly, when laser treatment macrophage-conditioned medium were applied to human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLs), the osteogenesis differentiation of hPDLs was significantly enhanced, indicating the important role of macrophages in CO 2 laser-induced osteogenesis. These findings provided valuable insights into the mechanism of CO 2 laser-stimulated osteogenic differentiation, and a strategy to optimize the evaluation system for the in vitro osteogenesis capacity of laser treatment. (paper)

  16. BMP signaling regulates satellite cell-dependent postnatal muscle growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stantzou, Amalia; Schirwis, Elija; Swist, Sandra; Alonso-Martin, Sonia; Polydorou, Ioanna; Zarrouki, Faouzi; Mouisel, Etienne; Beley, Cyriaque; Julien, Anaïs; Le Grand, Fabien; Garcia, Luis; Colnot, Céline; Birchmeier, Carmen; Braun, Thomas; Schuelke, Markus; Relaix, Frédéric; Amthor, Helge

    2017-08-01

    Postnatal growth of skeletal muscle largely depends on the expansion and differentiation of resident stem cells, the so-called satellite cells. Here, we demonstrate that postnatal satellite cells express components of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling machinery. Overexpression of noggin in postnatal mice (to antagonize BMP ligands), satellite cell-specific knockout of Alk3 (the gene encoding the BMP transmembrane receptor) or overexpression of inhibitory SMAD6 decreased satellite cell proliferation and accretion during myofiber growth, and ultimately retarded muscle growth. Moreover, reduced BMP signaling diminished the adult satellite cell pool. Abrogation of BMP signaling in satellite cell-derived primary myoblasts strongly diminished cell proliferation and upregulated the expression of cell cycle inhibitors p21 and p57 In conclusion, these results show that BMP signaling defines postnatal muscle development by regulating satellite cell-dependent myofiber growth and the generation of the adult muscle stem cell pool. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Multiple common susceptibility variants near BMP pathway loci GREM1, BMP4, and BMP2 explain part of the missing heritability of colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian P M Tomlinson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified 14 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs that are associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC, and several of these tagSNPs are near bone morphogenetic protein (BMP pathway loci. The penalty of multiple testing implicit in GWAS increases the attraction of complementary approaches for disease gene discovery, including candidate gene- or pathway-based analyses. The strongest candidate loci for additional predisposition SNPs are arguably those already known both to have functional relevance and to be involved in disease risk. To investigate this proposition, we searched for novel CRC susceptibility variants close to the BMP pathway genes GREM1 (15q13.3, BMP4 (14q22.2, and BMP2 (20p12.3 using sample sets totalling 24,910 CRC cases and 26,275 controls. We identified new, independent CRC predisposition SNPs close to BMP4 (rs1957636, P = 3.93×10(-10 and BMP2 (rs4813802, P = 4.65×10(-11. Near GREM1, we found using fine-mapping that the previously-identified association between tagSNP rs4779584 and CRC actually resulted from two independent signals represented by rs16969681 (P = 5.33×10(-8 and rs11632715 (P = 2.30×10(-10. As low-penetrance predisposition variants become harder to identify-owing to small effect sizes and/or low risk allele frequencies-approaches based on informed candidate gene selection may become increasingly attractive. Our data emphasise that genetic fine-mapping studies can deconvolute associations that have arisen owing to independent correlation of a tagSNP with more than one functional SNP, thus explaining some of the apparently missing heritability of common diseases.

  18. Timing is everything: Reiterative Wnt, BMP and RA signaling regulate developmental competence during endoderm organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Scott A; McCracken, Kyle W; Luedeke, David M; Han, Lu; Wells, James M; Shannon, John M; Zorn, Aaron M

    2018-02-01

    A small number of signaling pathways are used repeatedly during organogenesis, and they can have drastically different effects on the same population of cells depending on the embryonic stage. How cellular competence changes over developmental time is not well understood. Here we used Xenopus, mouse, and human pluripotent stem cells to investigate how the temporal sequence of Wnt, BMP, and retinoic acid (RA) signals regulates endoderm developmental competence and organ induction, focusing on respiratory fate. While Nkx2-1+ lung fate is not induced until late somitogenesis stages, here we show that lung competence is restricted by the gastrula stage as a result of Wnt and BMP-dependent anterior-posterior (A-P) patterning. These early Wnt and BMP signals make posterior endoderm refractory to subsequent RA/Wnt/BMP-dependent lung induction. We further mapped how RA modulates the response to Wnt and BMP in a temporal specific manner. In the gastrula RA promotes posterior identity, however in early somite stages of development RA regulates respiratory versus pharyngeal potential in anterior endoderm and midgut versus hindgut potential in posterior endoderm. Together our data suggest a dynamic and conserved response of vertebrate endoderm during organogenesis, wherein early Wnt/BMP/RA impacts how cells respond to later Wnt/BMP/RA signals, illustrating how reiterative combinatorial signaling can regulate both developmental competence and subsequent fate specification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. BmpR1A is a major type 1 BMP receptor for BMP-Smad signaling during skull development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Haichun; Zhang, Honghao; Abraham, Ponnu; Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Lyons, Karen; Kaartinen, Vesa; Mishina, Yuji

    2017-09-01

    Craniosynostosis is caused by premature fusion of one or more sutures in an infant skull, resulting in abnormal facial features. The molecular and cellular mechanisms by which genetic mutations cause craniosynostosis are incompletely characterized, and many of the causative genes for diverse types of syndromic craniosynostosis have not yet been identified. We previously demonstrated that augmentation of BMP signaling mediated by a constitutively active BMP type IA receptor (ca-BmpR1A) in neural crest cells (ca1A hereafter) causes craniosynostosis and superimposition of heterozygous null mutation of Bmpr1a rescues premature suture fusion (ca1A;1aH hereafter). In this study, we superimposed heterozygous null mutations of the other two BMP type I receptors, Bmpr1b and Acvr1 (ca1A;1bH and ca1A;AcH respectively hereafter) to further dissect involvement of BMP-Smad signaling. Unlike caA1;1aH, ca1A;1bH and ca1A;AcH did not restore the craniosynostosis phenotypes. In our in vivo study, Smad-dependent BMP signaling was decreased to normal levels in mut;1aH mice. However, BMP receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads; pSmad1/5/9 hereafter) levels were comparable between ca1A, ca1A;1bH and ca1A;AcH mice, and elevated compared to control mice. Bmpr1a, Bmpr1b and Acvr1 null cells were used to examine potential mechanisms underlying the differences in ability of heterozygosity for Bmpr1a vs. Bmpr1b or Acvr1 to rescue the mut phenotype. pSmad1/5/9 level was undetectable in Bmpr1a homozygous null cells while pSmad1/5/9 levels did not decrease in Bmpr1b or Acvr1 homozygous null cells. Taken together, our study indicates that different levels of expression and subsequent activation of Smad signaling differentially contribute each BMP type I receptor to BMP-Smad signaling and craniofacial development. These results also suggest differential involvement of each type 1 receptor in pathogenesis of syndromic craniosynostoses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Structural Basis of the Human Endoglin-BMP9 Interaction: Insights into BMP Signaling and HHT1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako Saito

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Endoglin (ENG/CD105 is an essential endothelial cell co-receptor of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β superfamily, mutated in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia type 1 (HHT1 and involved in tumor angiogenesis and preeclampsia. Here, we present crystal structures of the ectodomain of human ENG and its complex with the ligand bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9. BMP9 interacts with a hydrophobic surface of the N-terminal orphan domain of ENG, which adopts a new duplicated fold generated by circular permutation. The interface involves residues mutated in HHT1 and overlaps with the epitope of tumor-suppressing anti-ENG monoclonal TRC105. The structure of the C-terminal zona pellucida module suggests how two copies of ENG embrace homodimeric BMP9, whose binding is compatible with ligand recognition by type I but not type II receptors. These findings shed light on the molecular basis of the BMP signaling cascade, with implications for future therapeutic interventions in this fundamental pathway.

  1. Dual Inhibition of Activin/Nodal/TGF-β and BMP Signaling Pathways by SB431542 and Dorsomorphin Induces Neuronal Differentiation of Human Adipose Derived Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedavathi Madhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage to the nervous system can cause devastating diseases or musculoskeletal dysfunctions and transplantation of progenitor stem cells can be an excellent treatment option in this regard. Preclinical studies demonstrate that untreated stem cells, unlike stem cells activated to differentiate into neuronal lineage, do not survive in the neuronal tissues. Conventional methods of inducing neuronal differentiation of stem cells are complex and expensive. We therefore sought to determine if a simple, one-step, and cost effective method, previously reported to induce neuronal differentiation of embryonic stem cells and induced-pluripotent stem cells, can be applied to adult stem cells. Indeed, dual inhibition of activin/nodal/TGF-β and BMP pathways using SB431542 and dorsomorphin, respectively, induced neuronal differentiation of human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs as evidenced by formation of neurite extensions, protein expression of neuron-specific gamma enolase, and mRNA expression of neuron-specific transcription factors Sox1 and Pax6 and matured neuronal marker NF200. This process correlated with enhanced phosphorylation of p38, Erk1/2, PI3K, and Akt1/3. Additionally, in vitro subcutaneous implants of SB431542 and dorsomorphin treated hADSCs displayed significantly higher expression of active-axonal-growth-specific marker GAP43. Our data offers novel insights into cell-based therapies for the nervous system repair.

  2. Interaction of Wnt Signaling with BMP/Smad Signaling during the Transition from Cell Proliferation to Myogenic Differentiation in Mouse Myoblast-Derived Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumiko Terada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Wnt signaling is involved in muscle formation through β-catenin-dependent or -independent pathways, but interactions with other signaling pathways including transforming growth factor β/Smad have not been precisely elucidated. Results. As Wnt4 stimulates myogenic differentiation by antagonizing myostatin (GDF8 activity, we examined the role of Wnt4 signaling during muscle differentiation in the C2C12 myoblast cell line. Among several extrinsic signaling molecules examined in a microarray analysis of C2C12 cells during the transition from cell proliferation to differentiation after mitogen deprivation, bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4 expression was prominently increased. Wnt4 overexpression had similar effects on BMP4 expression. BMP4 was able to inhibit muscle differentiation when added to the culture medium. BMP4 and noggin had no effects on the cellular localization of β-catenin induced by Wnt3a; however, the BMP4-induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 was enhanced by Wnt4, but not by Wnt3a. The BMP antagonist noggin effectively stimulated muscle differentiation through binding to endogenous BMPs, and the effect of noggin was enhanced by the presence of Wnt3a and Wnt4. Conclusion. These results suggest that BMP/Smad pathways are modified through Wnt signaling during the transition from progenitor cell proliferation to myogenic differentiation, although Wnt/β-catenin signaling is not modified with BMP/Smad signaling.

  3. BMP-2 Overexpression Augments Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Motility by Upregulating Myosin Va via Erk Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The disruption of physiologic vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC migration initiates atherosclerosis development. The biochemical mechanisms leading to dysfunctional VSMC motility remain unknown. Recently, cytokine BMP-2 has been implicated in various vascular physiologic and pathologic processes. However, whether BMP-2 has any effect upon VSMC motility, or by what manner, has never been investigated. Methods. VSMCs were adenovirally transfected to genetically overexpress BMP-2. VSMC motility was detected by modified Boyden chamber assay, confocal time-lapse video assay, and a colony wounding assay. Gene chip array and RT-PCR were employed to identify genes potentially regulated by BMP-2. Western blot and real-time PCR detected the expression of myosin Va and the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (Erk1/2. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed myosin Va expression locale. Intracellular Ca2+ oscillations were recorded. Results. VSMC migration was augmented in VSMCs overexpressing BMP-2 in a dose-dependent manner. siRNA-mediated knockdown of myosin Va inhibited VSMC motility. Both myosin Va mRNA and protein expression significantly increased after BMP-2 administration and were inhibited by Erk1/2 inhibitor U0126. BMP-2 induced Ca2+ oscillations, generated largely by a “cytosolic oscillator”. Conclusion. BMP-2 significantly increased VSMCs migration and myosin Va expression, via the Erk signaling pathway and intracellular Ca2+ oscillations. We provide additional insight into the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, and inhibition of BMP-2-induced myosin Va expression may represent a potential therapeutic strategy.

  4. Tissue-specific regulation of BMP signaling by Drosophila N-glycanase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeone, Antonio; Han, Seung Yeop; Huang, Chengcheng; Hosomi, Akira; Suzuki, Tadashi; Jafar-Nejad, Hamed

    2017-08-04

    Mutations in the human N- glycanase 1 ( NGLY1 ) cause a rare, multisystem congenital disorder with global developmental delay. However, the mechanisms by which NGLY1 and its homologs regulate embryonic development are not known. Here we show that Drosophila Pngl encodes an N -glycanase and exhibits a high degree of functional conservation with human NGLY1. Loss of Pngl results in developmental midgut defects reminiscent of midgut-specific loss of BMP signaling. Pngl mutant larvae also exhibit a severe midgut clearance defect, which cannot be fully explained by impaired BMP signaling. Genetic experiments indicate that Pngl is primarily required in the mesoderm during Drosophila development. Loss of Pngl results in a severe decrease in the level of Dpp homodimers and abolishes BMP autoregulation in the visceral mesoderm mediated by Dpp and Tkv homodimers. Thus, our studies uncover a novel mechanism for the tissue-specific regulation of an evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway by an N -glycanase enzyme.

  5. BMP signaling inhibits intestinal stem cell self-renewal through suppression of Wnt-beta-catenin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xi C; Zhang, Jiwang; Tong, Wei-Gang; Tawfik, Ossama; Ross, Jason; Scoville, David H; Tian, Qiang; Zeng, Xin; He, Xi; Wiedemann, Leanne M; Mishina, Yuji; Li, Linheng

    2004-10-01

    In humans, mutations in BMPR1A, SMAD4 and PTEN are responsible for juvenile polyposis syndrome, juvenile intestinal polyposis and Cowden disease, respectively. The development of polyposis is a common feature of these diseases, suggesting that there is an association between BMP and PTEN pathways. The mechanistic link between BMP and PTEN pathways and the related etiology of juvenile polyposis is unresolved. Here we show that conditional inactivation of Bmpr1a in mice disturbs homeostasis of intestinal epithelial regeneration with an expansion of the stem and progenitor cell populations, eventually leading to intestinal polyposis resembling human juvenile polyposis syndrome. We show that BMP signaling suppresses Wnt signaling to ensure a balanced control of stem cell self-renewal. Mechanistically, PTEN, through phosphatidylinosital-3 kinase-Akt, mediates the convergence of the BMP and Wnt pathways on control of beta-catenin. Thus, BMP signaling may control the duplication of intestinal stem cells, thereby preventing crypt fission and the subsequent increase in crypt number.

  6. Lactoferricin enhances BMP7-stimulated anabolic pathways in intervertebral disc cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellman, Michael B; Kim, Jaesung; An, Howard S; Chen, Di; Kc, Ranjan; Li, Xin; Xiao, Guozhi; Yan, Dongyao; Suh, Joon; van Wjnen, Andre J; Wang, James H-C; Kim, Su-Gwan; Im, Hee-Jeong

    2013-07-25

    Bone-morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP7) is a well-known anabolic and anti-catabolic growth factor on intervertebral disc (IVD) matrix and cell homeostasis. Similarly, Lactoferricin B (LfcinB) has recently been shown to have pro-anabolic, anti-catabolic, anti-oxidative and/or anti-inflammatory effects in bovine disc cells in vitro. In this study, we investigated the potential benefits of using combined peptide therapy with LfcinB and BMP7 for intervertebral disc matrix repair and to understand cellular and signaling mechanisms controlled by these factors. We studied the effects of BMP7 and LfcinB as individual treatments and combined therapy on bovine nucleus pulposus (NP) cells by assessing proteoglycan (PG) accumulation and synthesis, and the gene expression of matrix protein aggrecan and transcription factor SOX-9. We also analyzed the role of Noggin, a BMP antagonist, in IVD tissue and examined its effect after stimulation with LfcinB. To understand the molecular mechanisms by which LfcinB synergizes with BMP7, we investigated the ERK-SP1 axis as a downstream intracellular signaling regulator involved in BMP7 and LfcinB-mediated activities. Treatment of bovine NP cells cultured in alginate with LfcinB plus BMP7 synergistically stimulates PG synthesis and accumulation in part by upregulation of aggrecan gene expression. The synergism results from LfcinB-mediated activation of Sp1 and SMAD signaling pathways by (i) phosphorylation of SMAD 1/5/8; (ii) downregulation of SMAD inhibitory factors [i.e., noggin and SMAD6 (inhibitory SMAD)]; and (iii) upregulation of SMAD4 (universal co-SMAD). These data indicate that LfcinB-suppression of Noggin may eliminate the negative feedback of BMP7, thereby maximizing biological activity of BMP7 and ultimately shifting homeostasis to a pro-anabolic state in disc cells. We propose that combination growth factor therapy using BMP7 and LfcinB may be beneficial for treatment of disc degeneration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All

  7. Integrating patterning signals: Wnt/GSK3 regulates the duration of the BMP/Smad1 signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentealba, Luis C; Eivers, Edward; Ikeda, Atsushi; Hurtado, Cecilia; Kuroda, Hiroki; Pera, Edgar M; De Robertis, Edward M

    2007-11-30

    BMP receptors determine the intensity of BMP signals via Smad1 C-terminal phosphorylations. Here we show that a finely controlled cell biological pathway terminates this activity. The duration of the activated pSmad1(Cter) signal was regulated by sequential Smad1 linker region phosphorylations at conserved MAPK and GSK3 sites required for its polyubiquitinylation and transport to the centrosome. Proteasomal degradation of activated Smad1 and total polyubiquitinated proteins took place in the centrosome. Inhibitors of the Erk, p38, and JNK MAPKs, as well as GSK3 inhibitors, prolonged the duration of a pulse of BMP7. Wnt signaling decreased pSmad1(GSK3) antigen levels and redistributed it from the centrosome to cytoplasmic LRP6 signalosomes. In Xenopus embryos, it was found that Wnts induce epidermis and that this required an active BMP-Smad pathway. Epistatic experiments suggested that the dorsoventral (BMP) and anteroposterior (Wnt/GSK3) patterning gradients are integrated at the level of Smad1 phosphorylations during embryonic pattern formation.

  8. Matrix-immobilized BMP-2 on microcontact printed fibronectin as in vitro tool to study BMP-mediated signaling and cell migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin eHauff

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During development, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs exert important functions in several tissues by regulating signaling for cell differentiation and migration. In vivo the extracellular matrix (ECM not only provides a support for adherent cells, but also presents a reservoir of growth factors (GFs. Several constituents of the ECM provide adhesive cues, which serve as binding sites for cell transmembrane receptors, such as integrins, which convey adhesion-mediated signaling to the intracellular compartment. Integrins do not function alone but rather crosstalk and cooperate with other receptors, such as GF receptors, in regulating cell responses to extracellular signals. To this, we present here the immobilization of BMP-2 onto cellular fibronectin (cFN, a key protein of the ECM, to investigate their impact on GF-mediated signaling and migration.Following biotinylation, BMP-2 was linked to biotinylated cFN using NeutrAvidin (NA as cross-linker. Characterization with QCM-D and ELISA confirmed the efficient immobilization of BMP-2 on cFN over a period of 24 h.To validate the bioactivity of matrix-immobilized BMP-2 (iBMP-2 we investigated short- and long-term responses of C2C12 myoblasts in comparison to soluble BMP-2 (sBMP-2 or in absence of GFs. Similarly to sBMP-2, iBMP-2 triggered Smad 1/5 phosphorylation and translocation into the nucleus corresponding to the activation of BMP-mediated Smad-dependent pathway. Additionally, successful suppression of myotube formation was observed after six days.We next implemented this approach to fabricate cFN micro patterned stripes by soft lithography. These stripes only allowed cell-surface interaction on the pattern due to passivation of the surface in between, thus serving as platform for studies on directed cell migration. During a 10 h-period, cells showed an increased migratory activity upon BMP-2 exposure.Thus, this versatile tool retains the GF's bioactivity and allows the presentation of ECM

  9. BMP signalling differentially regulates distinct haematopoietic stem cell types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Crisan (Mihaela); P. Solaimani Kartalaei (Parham); C.S. Vink (Chris); T. Yamada-Inagawa (Tomoko); K. Bollerot (Karine); W.F.J. van IJcken (Wilfred); R. Van Der Linden (Reinier); S.C. de Sousa Lopes (Susana Chuva); R. Monteiro (Rui); C.L. Mummery (Christine); E.A. Dzierzak (Elaine)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAdult haematopoiesis is the outcome of distinct haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) subtypes with self-renewable repopulating ability, but with different haematopoietic cell lineage outputs. The molecular basis for this heterogeneity is largely unknown. BMP signalling regulates HSCs as they

  10. BMP signaling protects telencephalic fate by repressing eye identity and its Cxcr4-dependent morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielen, Holger; Houart, Corinne

    2012-10-16

    Depletion of Wnt signaling is a major requirement for the induction of the anterior prosencephalon. However, the molecular events driving the differential regionalization of this area into eye-field and telencephalon fates are still unknown. Here we show that the BMP pathway is active in the anterior neural ectoderm during late blastula to early gastrula stage in zebrafish. Bmp2b mutants and mosaic loss-of-function experiments reveal that BMP acts as a repressor of eye-field fate through inhibition of its key transcription factor Rx3, thereby protecting the future telencephalon from acquiring eye identity. This BMP-driven mechanism initiates the establishment of the telencephalon prior to the involvement of Wnt antagonists from the anterior neural border. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Rx3 and BMP are respectively required to maintain and restrict the chemokine receptor cxcr4a, which in turn contributes to the morphogenetic separation of eye-field and telencephalic cells during early neurulation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ginger Stimulates Hematopoiesis via Bmp Pathway in Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri-Lagneau, Karine F.; Moshal, Karni S.; Grimes, Matthew; Zahora, Braden; Lv, Lishuang; Sang, Shengmin; Leung, TinChung

    2012-01-01

    Background Anemia is a hematologic disorder with decreased number of erythrocytes. Erythropoiesis, the process by which red blood cells differentiate, are conserved in humans, mice and zebrafish. The only known agents available to treat pathological anemia are erythropoietin and its biologic derivatives. However, erythropoietin therapy elicits unwanted side-effects, high cost and intravenous or subcutaneous injection, warranting the development of a more cost effective and non-peptide alternative. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been widely used in traditional medicine; however, to date there is no scientific research documenting the potential of ginger to stimulate hematopoiesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we utilized gata1:dsRed transgenic zebrafish embryos to investigate the effect of ginger extract on hematopoiesis in vivo and we identified its bioactive component, 10-gingerol. We confirmed that ginger and 10-gingerol promote the expression of gata1 in erythroid cells and increase the expression of hematopoietic progenitor markers cmyb and scl. We also demonstrated that ginger and 10-gingerol can promote the hematopoietic recovery from acute hemolytic anemia in zebrafish, by quantifying the number of circulating erythroid cells in the dorsal aorta using video microscopy. We found that ginger and 10-gingerol treatment during gastrulation results in an increase of bmp2b and bmp7a expression, and their downstream effectors, gata2 and eve1. At later stages ginger and 10-gingerol can induce bmp2b/7a, cmyb, scl and lmo2 expression in the caudal hematopoietic tissue area. We further confirmed that Bmp/Smad pathway mediates this hematopoiesis promoting effect of ginger by using the Bmp-activated Bmp type I receptor kinase inhibitors dorsomorphin, LND193189 and DMH1. Conclusions/Significance Our study provides a strong foundation to further evaluate the molecular mechanism of ginger and its bioactive components during hematopoiesis and to investigate their

  12. Histone deacetylases control neurogenesis in embryonic brain by inhibition of BMP2/4 signaling.

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    Maya Shakèd

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Histone-modifying enzymes are essential for a wide variety of cellular processes dependent upon changes in gene expression. Histone deacetylases (HDACs lead to the compaction of chromatin and subsequent silencing of gene transcription, and they have recently been implicated in a diversity of functions and dysfunctions in the postnatal and adult brain including ocular dominance plasticity, memory consolidation, drug addiction, and depression. Here we investigate the role of HDACs in the generation of neurons and astrocytes in the embryonic brain. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As a variety of HDACs are expressed in differentiating neural progenitor cells, we have taken a pharmacological approach to inhibit multiple family members. Inhibition of class I and II HDACs in developing mouse embryos with trichostatin A resulted in a dramatic reduction in neurogenesis in the ganglionic eminences and a modest increase in neurogenesis in the cortex. An identical effect was observed upon pharmacological inhibition of HDACs in in vitro-differentiating neural precursors derived from the same brain regions. A reduction in neurogenesis in ganglionic eminence-derived neural precursors was accompanied by an increase in the production of immature astrocytes. We show that HDACs control neurogenesis by inhibition of the bone morphogenetic protein BMP2/4 signaling pathway in radial glial cells. HDACs function at the transcriptional level by inhibiting and promoting, respectively, the expression of Bmp2 and Smad7, an intracellular inhibitor of BMP signaling. Inhibition of the BMP2/4 signaling pathway restored normal levels of neurogenesis and astrogliogenesis to both ganglionic eminence- and cortex-derived cultures in which HDACs were inhibited. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate a transcriptionally-based regulation of BMP2/4 signaling by HDACs both in vivo and in vitro that is critical for neurogenesis in the ganglionic eminences and that modulates cortical

  13. Wnt and BMP signaling crosstalk in regulating dental stem cells: Implications in dental tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fugui Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tooth is a complex hard tissue organ and consists of multiple cell types that are regulated by important signaling pathways such as Wnt and BMP signaling. Serious injuries and/or loss of tooth or periodontal tissues may significantly impact aesthetic appearance, essential oral functions and the quality of life. Regenerative dentistry holds great promise in treating oral/dental disorders. The past decade has witnessed a rapid expansion of our understanding of the biological features of dental stem cells, along with the signaling mechanisms governing stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. In this review, we first summarize the biological characteristics of seven types of dental stem cells, including dental pulp stem cells, stem cells from apical papilla, stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth, dental follicle precursor cells, periodontal ligament stem cells, alveolar bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, and MSCs from gingiva. We then focus on how these stem cells are regulated by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP and/or Wnt signaling by examining the interplays between these pathways. Lastly, we analyze the current status of dental tissue engineering strategies that utilize oral/dental stem cells by harnessing the interplays between BMP and Wnt pathways. We also highlight the challenges that must be addressed before the dental stem cells may reach any clinical applications. Thus, we can expect to witness significant progresses to be made in regenerative dentistry in the coming decade.

  14. Hydroxyapatite paste Ostim, without elevation of full-thickness flaps, improves alveolar healing stimulating BMP- and VEGF-mediated signal pathways: an experimental study in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, R A; Pol, R; Martinasso, G; Muzio, G; Gallesio, G; Mozzati, M

    2013-08-01

    Tooth extraction is considered as the starting point of jaw atrophy via osteoclast activity stimulation. The maintenance of dental alveolar bone depends on surgery procedure and use of materials to maintain prior space favoring bone regeneration. Among substitutes used in dentistry to fill bone defects, Ostim-Pastes (Ostim) is a nanocrystalline paste tested for treatment of severe clinical conditions. This research first investigated the effect of Ostim on alveolar healing, comparing in the same healthy subjects, an Ostim-filled socket with a not-filled one. Moreover, it also proposed a new surgical protocol for the post-extractive socket treatment using the graft materials without elevation of full-thickness flaps. Fourteen patients were enrolled to bilateral maxillary or mandibular extraction that was performed without elevation of full-thickness flaps. In each patient, one socket was filled using Ostim, and the other one was allowed to undergo natural healing. No suture was carried out. Clinical and biologic parameters were screened at 1, 7, and 14 days. Obtained results evidenced that nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite supports bone regeneration, increasing the synthesis of pro-osteogenic factors as bone morphogenetics protein (BMP)-4, BMP-7, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin. Moreover, filling post-extractive socket with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite paste leads to a complete epithelialization already at 7 days after extraction, despite the fact that the teeth were extracted without elevation of full-thickness flaps . The improved epithelialization is mediated by increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. No significant change was observed in inflammatory parameters, with exception of an early and transient IL-1β induction, that could trigger and improve alveolar healing. Clinical and biomolecular observations of this explorative study evidenced that nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite improves alveolar socket healing, increasing angiogenesis

  15. crm-1 facilitates BMP signaling to control body size in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Wong Yan; Fat, Ko Frankie Chi; Eng, Cheah Kathryn Song; Lau, Chow King

    2007-11-01

    We have identified in Caenorhabditis elegans a homologue of the vertebrate Crim1, crm-1, which encodes a putative transmembrane protein with multiple cysteine-rich (CR) domains known to have bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) binding activity. Using the body morphology of C. elegans as an indicator, we showed that attenuation of crm-1 activity leads to a small body phenotype reminiscent of that of BMP pathway mutants. We showed that the crm-1 loss-of-function phenotype can be rescued by constitutive supply of sma-4 activity. crm-1 can enhance BMP signaling and this activity is dependent on the presence of the DBL-1 ligand and its receptors. crm-1 is expressed in neurons at the ventral nerve cord, where the DBL-1 ligand is produced. However, ectopic expression experiments reveal that crm-1 gene products act outside the DBL-1 producing cells and function non-autonomously to facilitate dbl/sma pathway signaling to control body size.

  16. S113R mutation in SLC33A1 leads to neurodegeneration and augmented BMP signaling in a mouse model

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    Pingting Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The S113R mutation (c.339T>G (MIM #603690.0001 in SLC33A1 (MIM #603690, an ER membrane acetyl-CoA transporter, has been previously identified in individuals with hereditary spastic paraplegia type 42 (SPG42; MIM #612539. SLC33A1 has also been shown to inhibit the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signaling pathway in zebrafish. To better understand the function of SLC33A1, we generated and characterized Slc33a1S113R knock-in mice. Homozygous Slc33a1S113R mutant mice were embryonic lethal, whereas heterozygous Slc33a1 mutant mice (Slc33a1wt/mut exhibited behavioral abnormalities and central neurodegeneration, which is consistent with hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP phenotypes. Importantly, we found an upregulation of BMP signaling in the nervous system and mouse embryonic fibroblasts of Slc33a1wt/mut mice. Using a sciatic nerve crush injury model in vivo and dorsal root ganglion (DRG culture in vitro we showed that injury-induced axonal regeneration in Slc33a1wt/mut mice was accelerated and mediated by upregulated BMP signaling. Exogenous addition of BMP signaling antagonist, noggin, could efficiently alleviate the accelerated injury-induced axonal regrowth. These results indicate that SLC33A1 can negatively regulate BMP signaling in mice, further supporting the notion that upregulation of BMP signaling is a common mechanism of a subset of hereditary spastic paraplegias.

  17. mTOR signaling promotes stem cell activation via counterbalancing BMP-mediated suppression during hair regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhili; Lei, Xiaohua; Zhang, Xudong; Zhang, Huishan; Liu, Shuang; Chen, Qi; Hu, Huimin; Wang, Xinyue; Ning, Lina; Cao, Yujing; Zhao, Tongbiao; Zhou, Jiaxi; Chen, Ting; Duan, Enkui

    2015-02-01

    Hair follicles (HFs) undergo cycles of degeneration (catagen), rest (telogen), and regeneration (anagen) phases. Anagen begins when the hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) obtain sufficient activation cues to overcome suppressive signals, mainly the BMP pathway, from their niche cells. Here, we unveil that mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling is activated in HFSCs, which coincides with the HFSC activation at the telogen-to-anagen transition. By using both an inducible conditional gene targeting strategy and a pharmacological inhibition method to ablate or inhibit mTOR signaling in adult skin epithelium before anagen initiation, we demonstrate that HFs that cannot respond to mTOR signaling display significantly delayed HFSC activation and extended telogen. Unexpectedly, BMP signaling activity is dramatically prolonged in mTOR signaling-deficient HFs. Through both gain- and loss-of-function studies in vitro, we show that mTORC1 signaling negatively affects BMP signaling, which serves as a main mechanism whereby mTORC1 signaling facilitates HFSC activation. Indeed, in vivo suppression of BMP by its antagonist Noggin rescues the HFSC activation defect in mTORC1-null skin. Our findings reveal a critical role for mTOR signaling in regulating stem cell activation through counterbalancing BMP-mediated repression during hair regeneration. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, IBCB, SIBS, CAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Apc bridges Wnt/{beta}-catenin and BMP signaling during osteoblast differentiation of KS483 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miclea, Razvan L., E-mail: R.L.Miclea@lumc.nl [Department of Pediatrics, Leiden University Medical Centre (LUMC), Leiden (Netherlands); Horst, Geertje van der, E-mail: G.van_der_Horst@lumc.nl [Department of Urology, LUMC, Leiden (Netherlands); Robanus-Maandag, Els C., E-mail: E.C.Robanus@lumc.nl [Department of Human Genetics, LUMC, Leiden (Netherlands); Loewik, Clemens W.G.M., E-mail: C.W.G.M.Lowik@lumc.nl [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, LUMC, Leiden (Netherlands); Oostdijk, Wilma, E-mail: W.Oostdijk@lumc.nl [Department of Pediatrics, Leiden University Medical Centre (LUMC), Leiden (Netherlands); Wit, Jan M., E-mail: J.M.Wit@lumc.nl [Department of Pediatrics, Leiden University Medical Centre (LUMC), Leiden (Netherlands); Karperien, Marcel, E-mail: H.B.J.Karperien@tnw.utwente.nl [MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, Department of Tissue Regeneration, University of Twente, Zuidhorst Room ZH 144, Drienerlolaan 5, 7522 NB Enschede (Netherlands)

    2011-06-10

    The canonical Wnt signaling pathway influences the differentiation of mesenchymal cell lineages in a quantitative and qualitative fashion depending on the dose of {beta}-catenin signaling. Adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) is the critical intracellular regulator of {beta}-catenin turnover. To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of Apc in regulating the differentiation capacity of skeletal progenitor cells, we have knocked down Apc in the murine mesenchymal stem cell-like KS483 cells by stable expression of Apc-specific small interfering RNA. In routine culture, KSFrt-Apc{sub si} cells displayed a mesenchymal-like spindle shape morphology, exhibited markedly decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis. Apc knockdown resulted in upregulation of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin and the BMP/Smad signaling pathways, but osteogenic differentiation was completely inhibited. This effect could be rescued by adding high concentrations of BMP-7 to the differentiation medium. Furthermore, KSFrt-Apc{sub si} cells showed no potential to differentiate into chondrocytes or adipocytes. These results demonstrate that Apc is essential for the proliferation, survival and differentiation of KS483 cells. Apc knockdown blocks the osteogenic differentiation of skeletal progenitor cells, a process that can be overruled by high BMP signaling.

  19. Kinesin Khc-73/KIF13B modulates retrograde BMP signaling by influencing endosomal dynamics at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Edward H; Gray, Lindsay; Tsurudome, Kazuya; El-Mounzer, Wassim; Elazzouzi, Fatima; Baim, Christopher; Farzin, Sarah; Calderon, Mario R; Kauwe, Grant; Haghighi, A Pejmun

    2018-01-01

    Retrograde signaling is essential for neuronal growth, function and survival; however, we know little about how signaling endosomes might be directed from synaptic terminals onto retrograde axonal pathways. We have identified Khc-73, a plus-end directed microtubule motor protein, as a regulator of sorting of endosomes in Drosophila larval motor neurons. The number of synaptic boutons and the amount of neurotransmitter release at the Khc-73 mutant larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ) are normal, but we find a significant decrease in the number of presynaptic release sites. This defect in Khc-73 mutant larvae can be genetically enhanced by a partial genetic loss of Bone Morphogenic Protein (BMP) signaling or suppressed by activation of BMP signaling in motoneurons. Consistently, activation of BMP signaling that normally enhances the accumulation of phosphorylated form of BMP transcription factor Mad in the nuclei, can be suppressed by genetic removal of Khc-73. Using a number of assays including live imaging in larval motor neurons, we show that loss of Khc-73 curbs the ability of retrograde-bound endosomes to leave the synaptic area and join the retrograde axonal pathway. Our findings identify Khc-73 as a regulator of endosomal traffic at the synapse and modulator of retrograde BMP signaling in motoneurons.

  20. Stiffness-dependent cellular internalization of matrix-bound BMP-2 and its relation to Smad and non-Smad signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilde, Flora; Fourel, Laure; Guillot, Raphael; Pignot-Paintrand, Isabelle; Okada, Takaharu; Fitzpatrick, Vincent; Boudou, Thomas; Albiges-Rizo, Corinne; Picart, Catherine

    2016-12-01

    factors by a biomaterial will open new perspectives for regenerative medicine. However, to date, very little is known about how matrix-bound growth factors are delivered to cells, especially whether they are internalized and how they are signaling to drive key differentiation events. These initial steps are crucial as they will guide the subsequent processes leading to tissue regeneration. In this work, we investigate the uptake and processing by cells of BMP-2 ligands embedded in polyelectrolyte multilayer films in comparison to soluble BMP-2. We show that BMP-2 responsive cells can internalize matrix-bound BMP-2 and that internalization is dependent on the cross-linking level of the polyelectrolyte films. In addition, we show that internalization is mediated by both clathrin- and caveolin-dependent pathways. While inhibiting clathrin-dependent endocytosis affects only non-canonical signaling, blocking caveolin-1-dependent endocytosis reduces both canonical and non-canonical BMP signaling. The signaling pathways found for matrix-bound BMP-2 are similar to those found for soluble BMP-2. These results highlight that BMP-2 presented by a biomaterial at the ventral side of the cell can trigger major endocytic and associated signaling pathways leading to bone regeneration. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Select polyphenolic fractions from dried plum enhance osteoblast activity through BMP-2 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graef, Jennifer L; Rendina-Ruedy, Elizabeth; Crockett, Erica K; Ouyang, Ping; King, Jarrod B; Cichewicz, Robert H; Lucas, Edralin A; Smith, Brenda J

    2018-05-01

    Dried plum supplementation has been shown to enhance bone formation while suppressing bone resorption. Evidence from previous studies has demonstrated that these responses can be attributed in part to the fruit's polyphenolic compounds. The purpose of this study was to identify the most bioactive polyphenolic fractions of dried plum with a focus on their osteogenic activity and to investigate their mechanisms of action under normal and inflammatory conditions. Utilizing chromatographic techniques, six fractions of polyphenolic compounds were prepared from a crude extract of dried plum. Initial screening assays revealed that two fractions (DP-FrA and DP-FrB) had the greatest osteogenic potential. Subsequent experiments using primary bone-marrow-derived osteoblast cultures demonstrated these two fractions enhanced extracellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an indicator of osteoblast activity, and mineralized nodule formation under normal conditions. Both fractions enhanced bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, as indicated by increased Bmp2 and Runx2 gene expression and protein levels of phosphorylated Smad1/5. DP-FrB was most effective at up-regulating Tak1 and Smad1, as well as protein levels of phospho-p38. Under inflammatory conditions, TNF-α suppressed ALP and tended to decrease nodule formation (P=.0674). This response coincided with suppressed gene expression of Bmp2 and the up-regulation of Smad6, an inhibitor of BMP signaling. DP-FrA and DP-FrB partially normalized these responses. Our results show that certain fractions of polyphenolic compounds in dried plum up-regulate osteoblast activity by enhancing BMP signaling, and when this pathway is inhibited by TNF-α, the osteogenic response is attenuated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. SMOC can act as both an antagonist and an expander of BMP signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J Terrig; Eric Dollins, D; Andrykovich, Kristin R; Chu, Tehyen; Stultz, Brian G; Hursh, Deborah A; Moos, Malcolm

    2017-03-21

    The matricellular protein SMOC (Secreted Modular Calcium binding protein) is conserved phylogenetically from vertebrates to arthropods. We showed previously that SMOC inhibits bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling downstream of its receptor via activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. In contrast, the most prominent effect of the Drosophila orthologue, pentagone ( pent ), is expanding the range of BMP signaling during wing patterning. Using SMOC deletion constructs we found that SMOC-∆EC, lacking the extracellular calcium binding (EC) domain, inhibited BMP2 signaling, whereas SMOC-EC (EC domain only) enhanced BMP2 signaling. The SMOC-EC domain bound HSPGs with a similar affinity to BMP2 and could expand the range of BMP signaling in an in vitro assay by competition for HSPG-binding. Together with data from studies in vivo we propose a model to explain how these two activities contribute to the function of Pent in Drosophila wing development and SMOC in mammalian joint formation.

  3. Macrolactin F inhibits RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis by suppressing Akt, MAPK and NFATc1 pathways and promotes osteoblastogenesis through a BMP-2/smad/Akt/Runx2 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Sapkota, Mahesh; Gao, Ming; Choi, Hyukjae; Soh, Yunjo

    2017-11-15

    The balance between bone formation and bone resorption is maintained by osteoblasts and osteoclasts. In the current study, macrolactin F (MF) was investigated for novel biological activity on the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis in primary bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). We found that RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and differentiation from BMMs was significantly inhibited by MF in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity. RANKL-induced F-actin ring formation and bone resorption activity in BMMs which was attenuated by MF. In addition, MF suppressed the expression of osteoclast-related genes, including c-myc, RANK, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1), cathepsin K and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9). Furthermore, the protein expression NFATc1, c-Fos, MMP9, cathepsin K and phosphorylation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 and Akt were also down-regulated by MF treatment. Interestingly, MF promoted pre-osteoblast cell differentiation on Alizarin Red-mineralization activity, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and the expression of osteoblastogenic markers including Runx2, Osterix, Smad4, ALP, type I collagen alpha 1 (Col1α), osteopontin (OPN), and osteocalcin (OCN) via activation of the BMP-2/smad/Akt/Runx2 pathway on MC3T3-E1. Taken together, these results indicate that MF may be useful as a therapeutic agent to enhance bone health and treat osteoporosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Agmatine modulates melanogenesis via MITF signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Eun-Jeong; Kim, Moon-Moo

    2017-01-01

    Agmatine contained in soybean is also found in Manaca, an anti-aging plant, inhabited in Amazon and induces vasodilation by the promotion of NO synthesis in blood vessel. However, the research of agmatine on melanin synthesis related to hair greying is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the melanogenic effect of agmatine via regulation of MITF signaling pathway in B16F1 cells. It was determined whether agmatine regulates melanin synthesis at cellular level in addition to the effect of agmatine on mushroom tyrosinase in vitro in the presence of different concentrations of agmatine. Furthermore, the effect of agmatine on the protein expressions of tyrosinase, TRP-1, TRP-2, BMP-4, BMP-6, C-KIT, p-p38, MITF and C-FOS were examined by western blot analysis. In addition, immunofluorescence staining was carried out to visualize the location of MITF expression in cell. Agmatine at 256μM or more increased melanin synthesis as well as tyrosinase activity. Moreover, whereas agmatine increased the expression levels of TRP-1, BMP-6, p-p38 and MITF, it reduced the expression level of BMP-4. It was also found that agmatine enhanced the expression level of MITF in nucleus. These results suggest that agmatine could induce melanin synthesis though the regulation of MITF transcription factor via BMP-6/p38 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Inhibition of BMP signaling overcomes acquired resistance to cetuximab in oral squamous cell carcinomas.

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    Yin, Jinlong; Jung, Ji-Eun; Choi, Sun Il; Kim, Sung Soo; Oh, Young Taek; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Choi, Eunji; Lee, Sun Joo; Kim, Hana; Kim, Eun Ok; Lee, Yu Sun; Chang, Hee Jin; Park, Joo Yong; Kim, Yeejeong; Yun, Tak; Heo, Kyun; Kim, Youn-Jae; Kim, Hyunggee; Kim, Yun-Hee; Park, Jong Bae; Choi, Sung Weon

    2018-02-01

    Despite expressing high levels of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a majority of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients show limited response to cetuximab and ultimately develop drug resistance. However, mechanism underlying cetuximab resistance in OSCC is not clearly understood. Here, using a mouse orthotopic xenograft model of OSCC, we show that bone morphogenic protein-7-phosphorylated Smad-1, -5, -8 (BMP7-p-Smad1/5/8) signaling contributes to cetuximab resistance. Tumor cells isolated from the recurrent cetuximab-resistant xenograft models exhibited low EGFR expression but extremely high levels of p-Smad1/5/8. Treatment with the bone morphogenic protein receptor type 1 (BMPRI) inhibitor, DMH1 significantly reduced cetuximab-resistant OSCC tumor growth, and combined treatment of DMH1 and cetuximab remarkably reduced relapsed tumor growth in vivo. Importantly, p-Smad1/5/8 level was elevated in cetuximab-resistant patients and this correlated with poor prognosis. Collectively, our results indicate that the BMP7-p-Smad1/5/8 signaling is a key pathway to acquired cetuximab resistance, and demonstrate that combination therapy of cetuximab and a BMP signaling inhibitor as potentially a new therapeutic strategy for overcoming acquired resistance to cetuximab in OSCC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sirenomelia in Bmp7 and Tsg compound mutant mice: requirement for Bmp signaling in the development of ventral posterior mesoderm.

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    Zakin, Lise; Reversade, Bruno; Kuroda, Hiroki; Lyons, Karen M; De Robertis, Eddy M

    2005-05-01

    Sirenomelia or mermaid-like phenotype is one of the principal human congenital malformations that can be traced back to the stage of gastrulation. Sirenomelia is characterized by the fusion of the two hindlimbs into a single one. In the mouse, sirens have been observed in crosses between specific strains and as the consequence of mutations that increase retinoic acid levels. We report that the loss of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (Bmp7) in combination with a half dose or complete loss of twisted gastrulation (Tsg) causes sirenomelia in the mouse. Tsg is a Bmp- and chordin-binding protein that has multiple effects on Bmp metabolism in the extracellular space; Bmp7 is one of many Bmps and is shown here to bind to Tsg. In Xenopus, co-injection of Tsg and Bmp7 morpholino oligonucleotides (MO) has a synergistic effect, greatly inhibiting formation of ventral mesoderm and ventral fin tissue. In the mouse, molecular marker studies indicate that the sirenomelia phenotype is associated with a defect in the formation of ventroposterior mesoderm. These experiments demonstrate that dorsoventral patterning of the mouse posterior mesoderm is regulated by Bmp signaling, as is the case in other vertebrates. Sirens result from a fusion of the hindlimb buds caused by a defect in the formation of ventral mesoderm.

  7. Bmp signaling is at the heart of vertebrate left-right asymmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) signaling is vitally important in many aspects of cardiac development. These include cardiac induction and differentiation and establishing the L/R axis. In this thesis, we focus on the role of Bmp signaling in securing proper cardiac asymmetry, by (1) establishing

  8. BMP signaling modulates hepcidin expression in zebrafish embryos independent of hemojuvelin.

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    Yann Gibert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemojuvelin (Hjv, a member of the repulsive-guidance molecule (RGM family, upregulates transcription of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin by activating the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signaling pathway in mammalian cells. Mammalian models have identified furin, neogenin, and matriptase-2 as modifiers of Hjv's function. Using the zebrafish model, we evaluated the effects of hjv and its interacting proteins on hepcidin expression during embryonic development. We found that hjv is strongly expressed in the notochord and somites of the zebrafish embryo and that morpholino knockdown of hjv impaired the development of these structures. Knockdown of hjv or other hjv-related genes, including zebrafish orthologs of furin or neogenin, however, failed to decrease hepcidin expression relative to liver size. In contrast, overexpression of bmp2b or knockdown of matriptase-2 enhanced the intensity and extent of hepcidin expression in zebrafish embryos, but this occurred in an hjv-independent manner. Furthermore, we demonstrated that zebrafish hjv can activate the human hepcidin promoter and enhance BMP responsive gene expression in vitro, but is expressed at low levels in the zebrafish embryonic liver. Taken together, these data support an alternative mechanism for hepcidin regulation during zebrafish embryonic development, which is independent of hjv.

  9. Regulation of extracellular matrix organization by BMP signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans.

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    Schultz, Robbie D; Bennett, Emily E; Ellis, E Ann; Gumienny, Tina L

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) pathway signaling is important for the growth and homeostasis of extracellular matrix, including basement membrane remodeling, scarring, and bone growth. A conserved BMP member in Caenorhabditis elegans, DBL-1, regulates body length in a dose-sensitive manner. Loss of DBL-1 pathway signaling also results in increased anesthetic sensitivity. However, the physiological basis of these pleiotropic phenotypes is largely unknown. We created a DBL-1 over-expressing strain and show that sensitivity to anesthetics is inversely related to the dose of DBL-1. Using pharmacological, genetic analyses, and a novel dye permeability assay for live, microwave-treated animals, we confirm that DBL-1 is required for the barrier function of the cuticle, a specialized extracellular matrix. We show that DBL-1 signaling is required to prevent animals from forming tail-entangled aggregates in liquid. Stripping lipids off the surface of wild-type animals recapitulates this phenotype. Finally, we find that DBL-1 signaling affects ultrastructure of the nematode cuticle in a dose-dependent manner, as surface lipid content and cuticular organization are disrupted in animals with genetically altered DBL-1 levels. We propose that the lipid layer coating the nematode cuticle normally prevents tail entanglement, and that reduction of this layer by loss of DBL-1 signaling promotes aggregation. This work provides a physiological mechanism that unites the DBL-1 signaling pathway roles of not only body size regulation and drug responsiveness, but also the novel Hoechst 33342 staining and aggregation phenotypes, through barrier function, content, and organization of the cuticle.

  10. Regulation of extracellular matrix organization by BMP signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans.

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    Robbie D Schultz

    Full Text Available In mammals, Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP pathway signaling is important for the growth and homeostasis of extracellular matrix, including basement membrane remodeling, scarring, and bone growth. A conserved BMP member in Caenorhabditis elegans, DBL-1, regulates body length in a dose-sensitive manner. Loss of DBL-1 pathway signaling also results in increased anesthetic sensitivity. However, the physiological basis of these pleiotropic phenotypes is largely unknown. We created a DBL-1 over-expressing strain and show that sensitivity to anesthetics is inversely related to the dose of DBL-1. Using pharmacological, genetic analyses, and a novel dye permeability assay for live, microwave-treated animals, we confirm that DBL-1 is required for the barrier function of the cuticle, a specialized extracellular matrix. We show that DBL-1 signaling is required to prevent animals from forming tail-entangled aggregates in liquid. Stripping lipids off the surface of wild-type animals recapitulates this phenotype. Finally, we find that DBL-1 signaling affects ultrastructure of the nematode cuticle in a dose-dependent manner, as surface lipid content and cuticular organization are disrupted in animals with genetically altered DBL-1 levels. We propose that the lipid layer coating the nematode cuticle normally prevents tail entanglement, and that reduction of this layer by loss of DBL-1 signaling promotes aggregation. This work provides a physiological mechanism that unites the DBL-1 signaling pathway roles of not only body size regulation and drug responsiveness, but also the novel Hoechst 33342 staining and aggregation phenotypes, through barrier function, content, and organization of the cuticle.

  11. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 (BMP15) Acts as a BMP and Wnt Inhibitor during Early Embryogenesis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pasquale, Elisa; Brivanlou, Ali H.

    2009-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) belongs to an unusual subgroup of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily of signaling ligands as it lacks a key cysteine residue in the mature region required for proper intermolecular dimerization. Naturally occurring BMP15 mutation leads to early ovarian failure in humans, and BMP15 has been shown to activate the Smad1/5/8 pathway in that context. Despite its important role in germ cell specification, the embryological function of BMP15 remains unknown. Surprisingly, we find that during early Xenopus embryogenesis BMP15 acts solely as an inhibitor of the Smad1/5/8 pathway and the Wnt pathway. BMP15 gain-of-function leads to embryos with secondary ectopic heads and to direct neural induction in intact explants. BMP15 inhibits BMP4-mediated epidermal induction in dissociated explants. BMP15 strongly inhibits BRE response induced by BMP4 and blocks phosphorylation and activation of Smad1/5/8 MH2-domain. Mechanistically, BMP15 protein specifically interacts with BMP4 protein, suggesting inhibition upstream of receptor binding. Loss-of-function experiments using morpholinos or a naturally occurring human BMP15 dominant-negative mutant (BMP15-Y235C) leads to embryos lacking head. BMP15-Y235C also eliminates the inhibitory activity of BMP15 on BRE (BMP-responsive element). Finally, we show that BMP15 inhibits the canonical branch of the Wnt pathway, upstream of β-catenin. We, thus, demonstrate that BMP15 is necessary and sufficient for the specification of dorso-anterior structures and highlight novel mechanisms of BMP15 function that strongly suggest a reinterpretation of its function in ovaries specially for ovarian failure. PMID:19553676

  12. BMP-7 enhances cell migration and αvβ3 integrin expression via a c-Src-dependent pathway in human chondrosarcoma cells.

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    Jui-Chieh Chen

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenic protein (BMP-7 is a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF-beta superfamily, which is originally identified based on its ability to induce cartilage and bone formation. In recent years, BMP-7 is also defined as a potent promoter of cell motility, invasion, and metastasis. However, there is little knowledge of the role of BMP-7 and its cellular function in chondrosarcoma cells. In the present study, we investigated the biological impact of BMP-7 on cell motility using transwell assay. In addition, the intracellular signaling pathways were also investigated by pharmacological and genetic approaches. Our results demonstrated that treatment with exogenous BMP-7 markedly increased cell migration by activating c-Src/PI3K/Akt/IKK/NF-κB signaling pathway, resulting in the transactivation of αvβ3 integrin expression. Indeed, abrogation of signaling activation, by chemical inhibition or expression of a kinase dead form of the protein attenuated BMP-7-induced expression of integrin αvβ3 and cell migration. These findings may provide a useful tool for diagnostic/prognostic purposes and even therapeutically in late-stage chondrosarcoma as an anti-metastatic agent.

  13. BMP signaling mediates effects of exercise on hippocampal neurogenesis and cognition in mice.

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    Kevin T Gobeske

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to exercise or to environmental enrichment increases the generation of new neurons in the adult hippocampus and promotes certain kinds of learning and memory. While the precise role of neurogenesis in cognition has been debated intensely, comparatively few studies have addressed the mechanisms linking environmental exposures to cellular and behavioral outcomes. Here we show that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signaling mediates the effects of exercise on neurogenesis and cognition in the adult hippocampus. Elective exercise reduces levels of hippocampal BMP signaling before and during its promotion of neurogenesis and learning. Transgenic mice with decreased BMP signaling or wild type mice infused with a BMP inhibitor both exhibit remarkable gains in hippocampal cognitive performance and neurogenesis, mirroring the effects of exercise. Conversely, transgenic mice with increased BMP signaling have diminished hippocampal neurogenesis and impaired cognition. Exercise exposure does not rescue these deficits, suggesting that reduced BMP signaling is required for environmental effects on neurogenesis and learning. Together, these observations show that BMP signaling is a fundamental mechanism linking environmental exposure with changes in cognitive function and cellular properties in the hippocampus.

  14. MiRNA-20a promotes osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells by co-regulating BMP signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-fang; Fu, Wei-ming; He, Ming-liang; Xie, Wei-dong; Lv, Qing; Wan, Gang; Li, Guo; Wang, Hua; Lu, Gang; Hu, Xiang; Jiang, Su; Li, Jian-na; Lin, Marie C M; Zhang, Ya-ou; Kung, Hsiang-fu

    2011-01-01

    Osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a complex process, which is regulated by various factors including microRNAs. Our preliminary data showed that the expression of endogenous miR-20a was increased during the course of osteogenic differentiation. Simultaneously, the expression of osteoblast markers and regulators BMP2, BMP4, Runx2, Osx, OCN and OPN was also elevated whereas adipocyte markers PPARγ and osteoblast antagonist, Bambi and Crim1, were downregulated, thereby suggesting that miR-20a plays an important role in regulating osteoblast differentiation. To validate this hypothesis, we tested its effects on osteogenic differentiation by introducing miR-20a mimics and lentiviral-miR20a-expression vectors into hMSCs. We showed that miR-20a promoted osteogenic differentiation by the upregulation of BMP/Runx2 signaling. We performed bioinformatics analysis and predicted that PPARγ, Bambi and Crim1 would be potential targets of miR-20a. PPARγ is a negative regulator of BMP/Runx2 signaling whereas Bambi or Crim1 are antagonists of the BMP pathway. Furthermore, we confirmed that all these molecules were indeed the targets of miR-20a by luciferase reporter, quantitative RT-PCR and western blot assays. Similarly to miR-20a overexpression, the osteogenesis was enhanced by the silence of PPARγ, Bambi or Crim1 by specific siRNAs. Taken together, for the first time, we demonstrated that miR-20a promoted the osteogenesis of hMSCs in a co-regulatory pattern by targeting PPARγ, Bambi and Crim1, the negative regulators of BMP signaling.

  15. Dual role of BMP signaling in the regulation of Drosophila intestinal stem cell self-renewal.

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    Tian, Aiguo; Jiang, Jin

    2017-10-02

    Many adult organs including Drosophila adult midguts rely on resident stem cells to replenish damaged cells during tissue homeostasis and regeneration. Previous studies have shown that, upon injury, intestinal stem cells (ISCs) in the midguts can increase proliferation and lineage differentiation to meet the demand for tissue repair. Our recent study has demonstrated that, in response to certain injury, midguts can expand ISC population size as an additional regenerative mechanism. We found that injury elicited by bleomycin feeding or bacterial infection increased the production of two BMP ligands (Dpp and Gbb) in enterocytes (ECs), leading to elevated BMP signaling in progenitor cells that drove an expansion of ISCs by promoting their symmetric self-renewing division. Interestingly, we also found that BMP signaling in ECs inhibits the production of Dpp and Gbb, and that this negative feedback mechanism is required to reset ISC pool size to the homeostatic state. Our findings suggest that BMP signaling exerts two opposing influences on stem cell activity depending on where it acts: BMP signaling in progenitor cells promotes ISC self-renewal while BMP signaling in ECs restricts ISC self-renewal by preventing excessive production of BMP ligands. Our results further suggest that transient expansion of ISC population in conjunction with increasing ISC proliferation provides a more effective strategy for tissue regeneration.

  16. DRAGON, a GPI-anchored membrane protein, inhibits BMP signaling in C2C12 myoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanomata, Kazuhiro; Kokabu, Shoichiro; Nojima, Junya; Fukuda, Toru; Katagiri, Takenobu

    2009-06-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) induce osteoblastic differentiation of myoblasts via binding to cell surface receptors. Repulsive guidance molecules (RGMs) have been identified as BMP co-receptors. We report here that DRAGON/RGMb, a member of the RGM family, suppressed BMP signaling in C2C12 myoblasts via a novel mechanism. All RGMs were expressed in C2C12 cells that were differentiated into myocytes and osteoblastic cells, but RGMc was not detected in immature cells. In C2C12 cells, only DRAGON suppressed ALP and Id1 promoter activities induced by BMP-4 or by constitutively activated BMP type I receptors. This inhibition by DRAGON was dependent on the secretory form of the von Willbrand factor type D domain. DRAGON even suppressed BMP signaling induced by constitutively activated Smad1. Over-expression of neogenin did not alter the inhibitory capacity of DRAGON. Taken together, these findings indicate that DRAGON may be an inhibitor of BMP signaling in C2C12 myoblasts. We also suggest that a novel molecule(s) expressed on the cell membrane may mediate the signal transduction of DRAGON in order to suppress BMP signaling in C2C12 myoblasts.

  17. BMP4 signaling is involved in the generation of inner ear sensory epithelia

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    Wang Yucheng

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The robust expression of BMP4 in the incipient sensory organs of the inner ear suggests possible roles for this signaling protein during induction and development of auditory and vestibular sensory epithelia. Homozygous BMP4-/- animals die before the inner ear's sensory organs develop, which precludes determining the role of BMP4 in these organs with simple gene knockout experiments. Results Here we use a chicken otocyst culture system to perform quantitative studies on the development of inner ear cell types and show that hair cell and supporting cell generation is remarkably reduced when BMP signaling is blocked, either with its antagonist noggin or by using soluble BMP receptors. Conversely, we observed an increase in the number of hair cells when cultured otocysts were treated with exogenous BMP4. BMP4 treatment additionally prompted down-regulation of Pax-2 protein in proliferating sensory epithelial progenitors, leading to reduced progenitor cell proliferation. Conclusion Our results implicate BMP4 in two events during chicken inner ear sensory epithelium formation: first, in inducing the switch from proliferative sensory epithelium progenitors to differentiating epithelial cells and secondly, in promoting the differentiation of hair cells within the developing sensory epithelia.

  18. Metastatic function of BMP-2 in gastric cancer cells: The role of PI3K/AKT, MAPK, the NF-{kappa}B pathway, and MMP-9 expression

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    Kang, Myoung Hee [Graduate School of Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Sang Cheul [Division of Oncology/Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun Joo [Department of Pathology, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Han Na; Kim, Jung Lim [Graduate School of Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jun Suk [Division of Oncology/Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Young A., E-mail: ydanbi@korea.ac.kr [Brain Korea 21 Program for Biomedical Science, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-15

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have been implicated in tumorigenesis and metastatic progression in various types of cancer cells, but the role and cellular mechanism in the invasive phenotype of gastric cancer cells is not known. Herein, we determined the roles of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression in BMP-2-mediated metastatic function in gastric cancer. We found that stimulation of BMP-2 in gastric cancer cells enhanced the phosphorylation of AKT and ERK. Accompanying activation of AKT and ERK kinase, BMP-2 also enhanced phosphorylation/degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha} and the nuclear translocation/activation of NF-{kappa}B. Interestingly, blockade of PI3K/AKT and ERK signaling using LY294002 and PD98059, respectively, significantly inhibited BMP-2-induced motility and invasiveness in association with the activation of NF-{kappa}B. Furthermore, BMP-2-induced MMP-9 expression and enzymatic activity was also significantly blocked by treatment with PI3K/AKT, ERK, or NF-{kappa}B inhibitors. Immunohistochemistry staining of 178 gastric tumor biopsies indicated that expression of BMP-2 and MMP-9 had a significant positive correlation with lymph node metastasis and a poor prognosis. These results indicate that the BMP-2 signaling pathway enhances tumor metastasis in gastric cancer by sequential activation of the PI3K/AKT or MAPK pathway followed by the induction of NF-{kappa}B and MMP-9 activity, indicating that BMP-2 has the potential to be a therapeutic molecular target to decrease metastasis.

  19. Dorsoventral patterning by the Chordin-BMP pathway: a unified model from a pattern-formation perspective for Drosophila, vertebrates, sea urchins and Nematostella.

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    Meinhardt, Hans

    2015-09-01

    Conserved from Cnidarians to vertebrates, the dorsoventral (DV) axis is patterned by the Chordin-BMP pathway. However, the functions of the pathway's components are very different in different phyla. By modeling it is shown that many observations can be integrated by the assumption that BMP, acting as an inhibitory component in more ancestral systems, became a necessary and activating component for the generation of a secondary and antipodal-located signaling center. The different realizations seen in vertebrates, Drosophila, sea urchins and Nematostella allow reconstruction of a chain of modifications during evolution. BMP-signaling is proposed to be based on a pattern-forming reaction of the activator-depleted substrate type in which BMP-signaling acts via pSmad as the local self-enhancing component and the depletion of the highly mobile BMP-Chordin complex as the long-ranging antagonistic component. Due to the rapid removal of the BMP/Chordin complex during BMP-signaling, an oriented transport and "shuttling" results, although only ordinary diffusion is involved. The system can be self-organizing, allowing organizer formation even from near homogeneous initial situations. Organizers may regenerate after removal. Although connected with some losses of self-regulation, for large embryos as in amphibians, the employment of maternal determinants is an efficient strategy to make sure that only a single organizer of each type is generated. The generation of dorsoventral positional information along a long-extended anteroposterior (AP) axis cannot be achieved directly by a single patch-like organizer. Nature found different solutions for this task. Corresponding models provide a rationale for the well-known reversal in the dorsoventral patterning between vertebrates and insects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Activation of PKA/CREB Signaling is Involved in BMP9-Induced Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

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    Hongyu Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: BMP9 is highly capable of promoting osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs although the molecular mechanism involved is largely unknown. Here, we explored the detail role of PKA/CREB signaling in BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation. Methods: Activation status of PKA/CREB signaling is assessed by nonradioactive assay and Western blot. Using PKA inhibitors and a dominant negative protein of CREB (A-CREB, we investigated the effect of PKA/CREB signaling on BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation. Results: We found that BMP9 promotes PKA activity and enhances CREB phosphorylation in MSCs. BMP9 is shown to down-regulate protein kinase A inhibitor γ (PKIγ expression. We demonstrated that PKA inhibitors suppress BMP9-induced early osteogenic marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity in MSCs as well as late osteogenic markers osteopontin (OPN, osteocalcin (OCN and matrix mineralization. We found that PKA inhibitor reduces BMP9-induced Runx2 activation and p38 phosphorylation in MSCs. Lastly, interference of CREB function by A-CREB decreased BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation as well. Conclusion: Our results revealed that BMP9 may activate PKA/CREB signaling in MSCs through suppression of PKIγ expression. It is noteworthy that inhibition of PKA/CREB signaling may impair BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation of MSCs, implying that activation of PKA/CREB signaling is required for BMP9 osteoinductive activity.

  1. Transcription regulation of the vegf gene by the BMP/Smad pathway in the angioblast of zebrafish embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Chen; Chen Xiaozhuo

    2005-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a mitogen that is critically involved in vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, and hematopoiesis. However, what and how transcription factors participate in the regulation of vegf gene expression are not fully understood. Here we report the cloning and sequencing of the zebrafish vegf promoter which revealed that the promoter contains a number of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-activated Smad binding elements (SBE), implicating Smad1 and Smad5 in the regulation of BMP-induced expression of vegf. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays of adding recombinant Smad proteins to the SBE-containing DNA oligonucleotides that represent portions of zebrafish vegf promoter resulted in mobility shift of the oligonucleotides. These changes demonstrate potential interactions between Smad1/5 and the vegf promoter. Reporter activity assays using the wild-type or SBE-deleted vegf promoters to drive the luciferase reporter gene expression revealed that Smad1 stimulated while Smad5 repressed the vegf promoter activity in zebrafish embryos. These data indicate that the BMP/Smad signaling pathway is involved in the regulation of zebrafish vegf transcription. In addition, we demonstrate that transgenic expression of human BMP4 in zebrafish embryos induced an expansion of the posterior intermediate cell mass (ICM, also commonly called blood island), a population of cells containing endothelial and hematopoietic precursors. In the expanded ICM, vegf and VEGF receptor 2 (flk-1) were ectopically co-expressed, suggesting that an autocrine/paracrine regulation of vegf expression may exist and contribute to the BMP-induced hemangiogenic cell proliferation

  2. The Gyc76C Receptor Guanylyl Cyclase and the Foraging cGMP-Dependent Kinase Regulate Extracellular Matrix Organization and BMP Signaling in the Developing Wing of Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Justin Schleede

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The developing crossveins of the wing of Drosophila melanogaster are specified by long-range BMP signaling and are especially sensitive to loss of extracellular modulators of BMP signaling such as the Chordin homolog Short gastrulation (Sog. However, the role of the extracellular matrix in BMP signaling and Sog activity in the crossveins has been poorly explored. Using a genetic mosaic screen for mutations that disrupt BMP signaling and posterior crossvein development, we identify Gyc76C, a member of the receptor guanylyl cyclase family that includes mammalian natriuretic peptide receptors. We show that Gyc76C and the soluble cGMP-dependent kinase Foraging, likely linked by cGMP, are necessary for normal refinement and maintenance of long-range BMP signaling in the posterior crossvein. This does not occur through cell-autonomous crosstalk between cGMP and BMP signal transduction, but likely through altered extracellular activity of Sog. We identify a novel pathway leading from Gyc76C to the organization of the wing extracellular matrix by matrix metalloproteinases, and show that both the extracellular matrix and BMP signaling effects are largely mediated by changes in the activity of matrix metalloproteinases. We discuss parallels and differences between this pathway and other examples of cGMP activity in both Drosophila melanogaster and mammalian cells and tissues.

  3. The Gyc76C Receptor Guanylyl Cyclase and the Foraging cGMP-Dependent Kinase Regulate Extracellular Matrix Organization and BMP Signaling in the Developing Wing of Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Schleede, Justin; Blair, Seth S

    2015-10-01

    The developing crossveins of the wing of Drosophila melanogaster are specified by long-range BMP signaling and are especially sensitive to loss of extracellular modulators of BMP signaling such as the Chordin homolog Short gastrulation (Sog). However, the role of the extracellular matrix in BMP signaling and Sog activity in the crossveins has been poorly explored. Using a genetic mosaic screen for mutations that disrupt BMP signaling and posterior crossvein development, we identify Gyc76C, a member of the receptor guanylyl cyclase family that includes mammalian natriuretic peptide receptors. We show that Gyc76C and the soluble cGMP-dependent kinase Foraging, likely linked by cGMP, are necessary for normal refinement and maintenance of long-range BMP signaling in the posterior crossvein. This does not occur through cell-autonomous crosstalk between cGMP and BMP signal transduction, but likely through altered extracellular activity of Sog. We identify a novel pathway leading from Gyc76C to the organization of the wing extracellular matrix by matrix metalloproteinases, and show that both the extracellular matrix and BMP signaling effects are largely mediated by changes in the activity of matrix metalloproteinases. We discuss parallels and differences between this pathway and other examples of cGMP activity in both Drosophila melanogaster and mammalian cells and tissues.

  4. GDF3 is a BMP inhibitor that can activate Nodal signaling only at very high doses

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    Levine, Ariel J.; Levine, Zachary J.; Brivanlou, Ali H.

    2013-01-01

    Within the TGF-β superfamily, there are approximately forty ligands divided into two major branches: the TGF-β/Activin/Nodal ligands and the BMP/GDF ligands. We studied the ligand GDF3 and found that it inhibits signaling by its co-family members, the BMPs; however, GDF3 has been described by others to have Nodal-like activity. Here, we show that GDF3 can activate Nodal signaling, but only at very high doses and only upon mRNA over-expression. In contrast, GDF3 inhibits BMP signaling upon over-expression of GDF3 mRNA, as recombinant protein, and regardless of its dose. We therefore further characterized the mechanism through which GDF3 protein acts as a specific BMP inhibitor and found that the BMP inhibitory activity of GDF3 resides redundantly in the unprocessed, predominant form and in the mature form of the protein. These results confirm and extend the activity that we described for GDF3 and illuminate the experimental basis for the different observations of others. We suggest that GDF3 is either a bi-functional TGF-β ligand, or, more likely, that it is a BMP inhibitor that can artificially activate Nodal signaling under non-physiological conditions. PMID:18823971

  5. TGF-β prevents phosphate-induced osteogenesis through inhibition of BMP and Wnt/β-catenin pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Guerrero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β is a key cytokine during differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC into vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC. High phosphate induces a phenotypic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC into osteogenic-like cells. This study was aimed to evaluate signaling pathways involved during VSMC differentiation of MSC in presence or not of high phosphate. RESULTS: Our results showed that TGF-β induced nuclear translocation of Smad3 as well as the expression of vascular smooth muscle markers, such as smooth muscle alpha actin, SM22α, myocardin, and smooth muscle-myosin heavy chain. The addition of high phosphate to MSC promoted nuclear translocation of Smad1/5/8 and the activation of canonical Wnt/β-catenin in addition to an increase in BMP-2 expression, calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity. The administration of TGF-β to MSC treated with high phosphate abolished all these effects by inhibiting canonical Wnt, BMP and TGF-β pathways. A similar outcome was observed in high phosphate-treated cells after the inhibition of canonical Wnt signaling with Dkk-1. Conversely, addition of both Wnt/β-catenin activators CHIR98014 and lithium chloride enhanced the effect of high phosphate on BMP-2, calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity. CONCLUSIONS: Full VSMC differentiation induced by TGF-β may not be achieved when extracellular phosphate levels are high. Moreover, TGF-β prevents high phosphate-induced osteogenesis by decreasing the nuclear translocation of Smad 1/5/8 and avoiding the activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

  6. Cyclic dermal BMP signalling regulates stem cell activation during hair regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plikus, Maksim V; Mayer, Julie Ann; de la Cruz, Damon; Baker, Ruth E; Maini, Philip K; Maxson, Robert; Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    2008-01-17

    In the age of stem cell engineering it is critical to understand how stem cell activity is regulated during regeneration. Hairs are mini-organs that undergo cyclic regeneration throughout adult life, and are an important model for organ regeneration. Hair stem cells located in the follicle bulge are regulated by the surrounding microenvironment, or niche. The activation of such stem cells is cyclic, involving periodic beta-catenin activity. In the adult mouse, regeneration occurs in waves in a follicle population, implying coordination among adjacent follicles and the extrafollicular environment. Here we show that unexpected periodic expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Bmp2) and Bmp4 in the dermis regulates this process. This BMP cycle is out of phase with the WNT/beta-catenin cycle, thus dividing the conventional telogen into new functional phases: one refractory and the other competent for hair regeneration, characterized by high and low BMP signalling, respectively. Overexpression of noggin, a BMP antagonist, in mouse skin resulted in a markedly shortened refractory phase and faster propagation of the regenerative wave. Transplantation of skin from this mutant onto a wild-type host showed that follicles in donor and host can affect their cycling behaviours mutually, with the outcome depending on the equilibrium of BMP activity in the dermis. Administration of BMP4 protein caused the competent region to become refractory. These results show that BMPs may be the long-sought 'chalone' inhibitors of hair growth postulated by classical experiments. Taken together, results presented in this study provide an example of hierarchical regulation of local organ stem cell homeostasis by the inter-organ macroenvironment. The expression of Bmp2 in subcutaneous adipocytes indicates physiological integration between these two thermo-regulatory organs. Our findings have practical importance for studies using mouse skin as a model for carcinogenesis, intra-cutaneous drug

  7. BMP signaling in the human fetal ovary is developmentally regulated and promotes primordial germ cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Andrew J; Kinnell, Hazel L; Collins, Craig S; Hogg, Kirsten; Bayne, Rosemary A L; Green, Samira J; McNeilly, Alan S; Anderson, Richard A

    2010-08-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the embryonic precursors of gametes in the adult organism, and their development, differentiation, and survival are regulated by a combination of growth factors collectively known as the germ cell niche. Although many candidate niche components have been identified through studies on mouse PGCs, the growth factor composition of the human PGC niche has not been studied extensively. Here we report a detailed analysis of the expression of components of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling apparatus in the human fetal ovary, from postmigratory PGC proliferation to the onset of primordial follicle formation. We find developmentally regulated and reciprocal patterns of expression of BMP2 and BMP4 and identify germ cells to be the exclusive targets of ovarian BMP signaling. By establishing long-term cultures of human fetal ovaries in which PGCs are retained within their physiological niche, we find that BMP4 negatively regulates postmigratory PGC numbers in the human fetal ovary by promoting PGC apoptosis. Finally, we report expression of both muscle segment homeobox (MSX)1 and MSX2 in the human fetal ovary and reveal a selective upregulation of MSX2 expression in human fetal ovary in response to BMP4, suggesting this gene may act as a downstream effector of BMP-induced apoptosis in the ovary, as in other systems. These data reveal for the first time growth factor regulation of human PGC development in a physiologically relevant context and have significant implications for the development of cultures systems for the in vitro maturation of germ cells, and their derivation from pluripotent stem cells.

  8. Abnormal Activation of BMP Signaling Causes Myopathy in Fbn2 Null Mice.

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    Gerhard Sengle

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fibrillins are large extracellular macromolecules that polymerize to form the backbone structure of connective tissue microfibrils. Mutations in the gene for fibrillin-1 cause the Marfan syndrome, while mutations in the gene for fibrillin-2 cause Congenital Contractural Arachnodactyly. Both are autosomal dominant disorders, and both disorders affect musculoskeletal tissues. Here we show that Fbn2 null mice (on a 129/Sv background are born with reduced muscle mass, abnormal muscle histology, and signs of activated BMP signaling in skeletal muscle. A delay in Myosin Heavy Chain 8, a perinatal myosin, was found in Fbn2 null forelimb muscle tissue, consistent with the notion that muscle defects underlie forelimb contractures in these mice. In addition, white fat accumulated in the forelimbs during the early postnatal period. Adult Fbn2 null mice are already known to demonstrate persistent muscle weakness. Here we measured elevated creatine kinase levels in adult Fbn2 null mice, indicating ongoing cycles of muscle injury. On a C57Bl/6 background, Fbn2 null mice showed severe defects in musculature, leading to neonatal death from respiratory failure. These new findings demonstrate that loss of fibrillin-2 results in phenotypes similar to those found in congenital muscular dystrophies and that FBN2 should be considered as a candidate gene for recessive congenital muscular dystrophy. Both in vivo and in vitro evidence associated muscle abnormalities and accumulation of white fat in Fbn2 null mice with abnormally activated BMP signaling. Genetic rescue of reduced muscle mass and accumulation of white fat in Fbn2 null mice was accomplished by deleting a single allele of Bmp7. In contrast to other reports that activated BMP signaling leads to muscle hypertrophy, our findings demonstrate the exquisite sensitivity of BMP signaling to the fibrillin-2 extracellular environment during early postnatal muscle development. New evidence presented here suggests that

  9. Asymmetric BMP4 signalling improves the realism of kidney organoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Christopher G; Lawrence, Melanie L; Munro, David A D; Elhendawi, Mona; Mullins, John J; Davies, Jamie A

    2017-11-01

    We present a strategy for increasing the anatomical realism of organoids by applying asymmetric cues to mimic spatial information that is present in natural embryonic development, and demonstrate it using mouse kidney organoids. Existing methods for making kidney organoids in mice yield developing nephrons arranged around a symmetrical collecting duct tree that has no ureter. We use transplant experiments to demonstrate plasticity in the fate choice between collecting duct and ureter, and show that an environment rich in BMP4 promotes differentiation of early collecting ducts into uroplakin-positive, unbranched, ureter-like epithelial tubules. Further, we show that application of BMP4-releasing beads in one place in an organoid can break the symmetry of the system, causing a nearby collecting duct to develop into a uroplakin-positive, broad, unbranched, ureter-like 'trunk' from one end of which true collecting duct branches radiate and induce nephron development in an arrangement similar to natural kidneys. The idea of using local symmetry-breaking cues to improve the realism of organoids may have applications to organoid systems other than the kidney.

  10. MORN5 expression during craniofacial development and its interaction with the BMP and TGFB pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Cela

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available MORN5 (MORN repeat containing 5 is encoded by a locus positioned on chromosome 17 in the chicken genome. The MORN motif is found in multiple copies in several proteins including junctophilins or phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase family and the MORN proteins themselves are found across the animal and plant kingdoms. MORN5 protein has a characteristic punctate pattern in the cytoplasm in immunofluorescence imaging. Previously, MORN5 was found among differentially expressed genes in a microarray profiling experiment of the chicken embryo head. Here, we provided in situ hybridization to analyse, in detail, the MORN5 expression in chick craniofacial structures. The expression of MORN5 was first observed at stage HH17-18 (E2.5. MORN5 expression gradually appeared on either side of the primitive oral cavity, within the maxillary region. At stage HH20 (E3, prominent expression was localised in the mandibular prominences lateral to the midline. From stage HH20 up to HH29 (E6, there was strong expression in restricted regions of the maxillary and mandibular prominences. The frontonasal mass (in the midline of the face expresses MORN5, starting at HH27 (E5. The expression was concentrated in the corners or globular processes, which will ultimately fuse with the cranial edges of the maxillary prominences. MORN5 expression was maintained in the fusion zone up to stage HH29. In sections in situs, MORN5 expression was localised preferentially in the mesenchyme. We examined signals that regulate MORN5 expression in the face based on a previous microarray study. Here we validated the array results with in situ hybridization and QPCR. MORN5 was downregulated 24h after Noggin and/or RA treatment. We also determined that BMP pathway genes are downstream of MORN5 following siRNA knockdown. Based on these results, we conclude that MORN5 is both regulated by and required for BMP signalling. The restricted expression of MORN5 in the lip fusion zone shown here

  11. Smad4 mediated BMP2 signal is essential for the regulation of GATA4 and Nkx2.5 by affecting the histone H3 acetylation in H9c2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si, Lina; Shi, Jin; Gao, Wenqun; Zheng, Min; Liu, Lingjuan; Zhu, Jing; Tian, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • BMP2 can upregulated cardiac related gene GATA4, Nkx2.5, MEF2c and Tbx5. • Inhibition of Smad4 decreased BMP2-induced hyperacetylation of histone H3. • Inhibition of Smad4 diminished BMP2-induced overexpression of GATA4 and Nkx2.5. • Inhibition of Smad4 decreased hyperacetylated H3 in the promoter of GATA4 and Nkx2.5. • Smad4 is essential for BMP2 induced hyperacetylated histone H3. - Abstract: BMP2 signaling pathway plays critical roles during heart development, Smad4 encodes the only common Smad protein in mammals, which is a pivotal nuclear mediator. Our previous studies showed that BMP2 enhanced the expression of cardiac transcription factors in part by increasing histone H3 acetylation. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that Smad4 mediated BMP2 signaling pathway is essential for the expression of cardiac core transcription factors by affecting the histone H3 acetylation. We successfully constructed a lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA interference vector targeting Smad4 (Lv-Smad4) in rat H9c2 embryonic cardiac myocytes (H9c2 cells) and demonstrated that it suppressed the expression of the Smad4 gene. Cultured H9c2 cells were transfected with recombinant adenoviruses expressing human BMP2 (AdBMP2) with or without Lv-Smad4. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that knocking down of Smad4 substantially inhibited both AdBMP2-induced and basal expression levels of cardiac transcription factors GATA4 and Nkx2.5, but not MEF2c and Tbx5. Similarly, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis showed that knocking down of Smad4 inhibited both AdBMP2-induced and basal histone H3 acetylation levels in the promoter regions of GATA4 and Nkx2.5, but not of Tbx5 and MEF2c. In addition, Lv-Smad4 selectively suppressed AdBMP2-induced expression of HAT p300, but not of HAT GCN5 in H9c2 cells. The data indicated that inhibition of Smad4 diminished both AdBMP2 induced and basal histone acetylation levels in the promoter regions of

  12. Smad4 mediated BMP2 signal is essential for the regulation of GATA4 and Nkx2.5 by affecting the histone H3 acetylation in H9c2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Si, Lina; Shi, Jin; Gao, Wenqun [Heart Centre, Children’s Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 136 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Yu Zhong District, Chongqing 400014 (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Key Laboratory of Pediatrics in Chongqing, Chongqing International Science and Technology Cooperation Center for Child Development and Disorders, 136 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Yu Zhong District, Chongqing 400014 (China); Zheng, Min [Heart Centre, Children’s Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 136 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Yu Zhong District, Chongqing 400014 (China); Liu, Lingjuan; Zhu, Jing [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Key Laboratory of Pediatrics in Chongqing, Chongqing International Science and Technology Cooperation Center for Child Development and Disorders, 136 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Yu Zhong District, Chongqing 400014 (China); Tian, Jie, E-mail: jietian@cqmu.edu.cn [Heart Centre, Children’s Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 136 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Yu Zhong District, Chongqing 400014 (China)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • BMP2 can upregulated cardiac related gene GATA4, Nkx2.5, MEF2c and Tbx5. • Inhibition of Smad4 decreased BMP2-induced hyperacetylation of histone H3. • Inhibition of Smad4 diminished BMP2-induced overexpression of GATA4 and Nkx2.5. • Inhibition of Smad4 decreased hyperacetylated H3 in the promoter of GATA4 and Nkx2.5. • Smad4 is essential for BMP2 induced hyperacetylated histone H3. - Abstract: BMP2 signaling pathway plays critical roles during heart development, Smad4 encodes the only common Smad protein in mammals, which is a pivotal nuclear mediator. Our previous studies showed that BMP2 enhanced the expression of cardiac transcription factors in part by increasing histone H3 acetylation. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that Smad4 mediated BMP2 signaling pathway is essential for the expression of cardiac core transcription factors by affecting the histone H3 acetylation. We successfully constructed a lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA interference vector targeting Smad4 (Lv-Smad4) in rat H9c2 embryonic cardiac myocytes (H9c2 cells) and demonstrated that it suppressed the expression of the Smad4 gene. Cultured H9c2 cells were transfected with recombinant adenoviruses expressing human BMP2 (AdBMP2) with or without Lv-Smad4. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that knocking down of Smad4 substantially inhibited both AdBMP2-induced and basal expression levels of cardiac transcription factors GATA4 and Nkx2.5, but not MEF2c and Tbx5. Similarly, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis showed that knocking down of Smad4 inhibited both AdBMP2-induced and basal histone H3 acetylation levels in the promoter regions of GATA4 and Nkx2.5, but not of Tbx5 and MEF2c. In addition, Lv-Smad4 selectively suppressed AdBMP2-induced expression of HAT p300, but not of HAT GCN5 in H9c2 cells. The data indicated that inhibition of Smad4 diminished both AdBMP2 induced and basal histone acetylation levels in the promoter regions of

  13. Reduced BMP signaling results in hindlimb fusion with lethal pelvic/urogenital organ aplasia: a new mouse model of sirenomelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kentaro; Adachi, Yasuha; Numata, Tomokazu; Nakada, Shoko; Yanagita, Motoko; Nakagata, Naomi; Evans, Sylvia M; Graf, Daniel; Economides, Aris; Haraguchi, Ryuma; Moon, Anne M; Yamada, Gen

    2012-01-01

    Sirenomelia, also known as mermaid syndrome, is a developmental malformation of the caudal body characterized by leg fusion and associated anomalies of pelvic/urogenital organs including bladder, kidney, rectum and external genitalia. Most affected infants are stillborn, and the few born alive rarely survive beyond the neonatal period. Despite the many clinical studies of sirenomelia in humans, little is known about the pathogenic developmental mechanisms that cause the complex array of phenotypes observed. Here, we provide new evidences that reduced BMP (Bone Morphogenetic Protein) signaling disrupts caudal body formation in mice and phenocopies sirenomelia. Bmp4 is strongly expressed in the developing caudal body structures including the peri-cloacal region and hindlimb field. In order to address the function of Bmp4 in caudal body formation, we utilized a conditional Bmp4 mouse allele (Bmp4(flox/flox)) and the Isl1 (Islet1)-Cre mouse line. Isl1-Cre is expressed in the peri-cloacal region and the developing hindimb field. Isl1Cre;Bmp4(flox/flox) conditional mutant mice displayed sirenomelia phenotypes including hindlimb fusion and pelvic/urogenital organ dysgenesis. Genetic lineage analyses indicate that Isl1-expressing cells contribute to both the aPCM (anterior Peri-Cloacal Mesenchyme) and the hindlimb bud. We show Bmp4 is essential for the aPCM formation independently with Shh signaling. Furthermore, we show Bmp4 is a major BMP ligand for caudal body formation as shown by compound genetic analyses of Bmp4 and Bmp7. Taken together, this study reveals coordinated development of caudal body structures including pelvic/urogenital organs and hindlimb orchestrated by BMP signaling in Isl1-expressing cells. Our study offers new insights into the pathogenesis of sirenomelia.

  14. Reduced BMP signaling results in hindlimb fusion with lethal pelvic/urogenital organ aplasia: a new mouse model of sirenomelia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Suzuki

    Full Text Available Sirenomelia, also known as mermaid syndrome, is a developmental malformation of the caudal body characterized by leg fusion and associated anomalies of pelvic/urogenital organs including bladder, kidney, rectum and external genitalia. Most affected infants are stillborn, and the few born alive rarely survive beyond the neonatal period. Despite the many clinical studies of sirenomelia in humans, little is known about the pathogenic developmental mechanisms that cause the complex array of phenotypes observed. Here, we provide new evidences that reduced BMP (Bone Morphogenetic Protein signaling disrupts caudal body formation in mice and phenocopies sirenomelia. Bmp4 is strongly expressed in the developing caudal body structures including the peri-cloacal region and hindlimb field. In order to address the function of Bmp4 in caudal body formation, we utilized a conditional Bmp4 mouse allele (Bmp4(flox/flox and the Isl1 (Islet1-Cre mouse line. Isl1-Cre is expressed in the peri-cloacal region and the developing hindimb field. Isl1Cre;Bmp4(flox/flox conditional mutant mice displayed sirenomelia phenotypes including hindlimb fusion and pelvic/urogenital organ dysgenesis. Genetic lineage analyses indicate that Isl1-expressing cells contribute to both the aPCM (anterior Peri-Cloacal Mesenchyme and the hindlimb bud. We show Bmp4 is essential for the aPCM formation independently with Shh signaling. Furthermore, we show Bmp4 is a major BMP ligand for caudal body formation as shown by compound genetic analyses of Bmp4 and Bmp7. Taken together, this study reveals coordinated development of caudal body structures including pelvic/urogenital organs and hindlimb orchestrated by BMP signaling in Isl1-expressing cells. Our study offers new insights into the pathogenesis of sirenomelia.

  15. Pentagone internalises glypicans to fine-tune multiple signalling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Mark; Vuilleumier, Robin; Springhorn, Alexander; Gawlik, Jennifer; Pyrowolakis, George

    2016-01-01

    Tight regulation of signalling activity is crucial for proper tissue patterning and growth. Here we investigate the function of Pentagone (Pent), a secreted protein that acts in a regulatory feedback during establishment and maintenance of BMP/Dpp morphogen signalling during Drosophila wing development. We show that Pent internalises the Dpp co-receptors, the glypicans Dally and Dally-like protein (Dlp), and propose that this internalisation is important in the establishment of a long range Dpp gradient. Pent-induced endocytosis and degradation of glypicans requires dynamin- and Rab5, but not clathrin or active BMP signalling. Thus, Pent modifies the ability of cells to trap and transduce BMP by fine-tuning the levels of the BMP reception system at the plasma membrane. In addition, and in accordance with the role of glypicans in multiple signalling pathways, we establish a requirement of Pent for Wg signalling. Our data propose a novel mechanism by which morphogen signalling is regulated. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13301.001 PMID:27269283

  16. BMP9 inhibits proliferation and metastasis of HER2-positive SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells through ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei; Liu, Yuehong; Wan, Shaoheng; Fei, Chang; Wang, Wei; Chen, Yingying; Zhang, Zhihui; Wang, Ting; Wang, Jinshu; Zhou, Lan; Weng, Yaguang; He, Tongchuan; Zhang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9), a member of TGF-β superfamily, is reported to inhibit the growth and migration of prostate cancer, osteosarcoma and triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. However, little is known about the effect of on the biological behaviors of HER2-positive SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms. This study aimed to investigate the effects of BMP9 on the proliferation and metastasis of SK-BR-3 cells with BMP9 over-expression or BMP9 down-regulated expression. Results indicated that exogenously expressed BMP9 inhibited the proliferation and metastasis of SK-BR-3 cells while decreased endogenous BMP9 expression in SK-BR-3 cells promoted the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. In SK-BR-3 cells with BMP9 over-expression, the phosphorylation of HER2, ERK1/2 and AKT was markedly suppressed and the HER2 expression decreased at both mRNA and protein levels, while opposite results were observed in SK-BR-3 cells with BMP9 knock down. When the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT was inhibited by PD98059 and LY294002, respectively, the decreased proliferation and invasion induced by BMP9 knock down were eliminated. These findings suggest that BMP9 can inhibit the proliferation and metastasis of SK-BR-3 cells via inactivating ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. Thus, BMP9 may serve as a useful agent in the treatment of HER-2 positive breast cancer.

  17. Mediator Med23 deficiency enhances neural differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells through modulating BMP signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wanqu; Yao, Xiao; Liang, Yan; Liang, Dan; Song, Lu; Jing, Naihe; Li, Jinsong; Wang, Gang

    2015-02-01

    Unraveling the mechanisms underlying early neural differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is crucial to developing cell-based therapies of neurodegenerative diseases. Neural fate acquisition is proposed to be controlled by a 'default' mechanism, for which the molecular regulation is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the functional roles of Mediator Med23 in pluripotency and lineage commitment of murine ESCs. Unexpectedly, we found that, despite the largely unchanged pluripotency and self-renewal of ESCs, Med23 depletion rendered the cells prone to neural differentiation in different differentiation assays. Knockdown of two other Mediator subunits, Med1 and Med15, did not alter the neural differentiation of ESCs. Med15 knockdown selectively inhibited endoderm differentiation, suggesting the specificity of cell fate control by distinctive Mediator subunits. Gene profiling revealed that Med23 depletion attenuated BMP signaling in ESCs. Mechanistically, MED23 modulated Bmp4 expression by controlling the activity of ETS1, which is involved in Bmp4 promoter-enhancer communication. Interestingly, med23 knockdown in zebrafish embryos also enhanced neural development at early embryogenesis, which could be reversed by co-injection of bmp4 mRNA. Taken together, our study reveals an intrinsic, restrictive role of MED23 in early neural development, thus providing new molecular insights for neural fate determination. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Constitutive activation of BMP signalling abrogates experimental metastasis of OVCA429 cells via reduced cell adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shepherd Trevor G

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activation of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP4 signalling in human ovarian cancer cells induces a number of phenotypic changes in vitro, including altered cell morphology, adhesion, motility and invasion, relative to normal human ovarian surface epithelial cells. From these in vitro analyses, we had hypothesized that active BMP signalling promotes the metastatic potential of ovarian cancer. Methods To test this directly, we engineered OVCA429 human ovarian cancer cells possessing doxycycline-inducible expression of a constitutively-active mutant BMP receptor, ALK3QD, and administered these cells to immunocompromised mice. Further characterization was performed in vitro to address the role of activated BMP signalling on the EOC phenotype, with particular emphasis on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and cell adhesion. Results Unexpectedly, doxycycline-induced ALK3QD expression in OVCA429 cells reduced tumour implantation on peritoneal surfaces and ascites formation when xenografted into immunocompromised mice by intraperitoneal injection. To determine the potential mechanisms controlling this in vivo observation, we followed with several cell culture experiments. Doxycycline-induced ALK3QD expression enhanced the refractile, spindle-shaped morphology of cultured OVCA429 cells eliciting an EMT-like response. Using in vitro wound healing assays, we observed that ALK3QD-expressing cells migrated with long, cytoplasmic projections extending into the wound space. The phenotypic alterations of ALK3QD-expressing cells correlated with changes in specific gene expression patterns of EMT, including increased Snail and Slug and reduced E-cadherin mRNA expression. In addition, ALK3QD signalling reduced β1- and β3-integrin expression, critical molecules involved in ovarian cancer cell adhesion. The combination of reduced E-cadherin and β-integrin expression correlates directly with the reduced EOC cell cohesion in spheroids and

  19. A balance of FGF and BMP signals regulates cell cycle exit and Equarin expression in lens cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrin, Miguel; Pandit, Tanushree; Gunhaga, Lena

    2012-01-01

    In embryonic and adult lenses, a balance of cell proliferation, cell cycle exit, and differentiation is necessary to maintain physical function. The molecular mechanisms regulating the transition of proliferating lens epithelial cells to differentiated primary lens fiber cells are poorly characterized. To investigate this question, we used gain- and loss-of-function analyses to modulate fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and/or bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signals in chick lens/retina explants. Here we show that FGF activity plays a key role for proliferation independent of BMP signals. Moreover, a balance of FGF and BMP signals regulates cell cycle exit and the expression of Ccdc80 (also called Equarin), which is expressed at sites where differentiation of lens fiber cells occurs. BMP activity promotes cell cycle exit and induces Equarin expression in an FGF-dependent manner. In contrast, FGF activity is required but not sufficient to induce cell cycle exit or Equarin expression. Furthermore, our results show that in the absence of BMP activity, lens cells have increased cell cycle length or are arrested in the cell cycle, which leads to decreased cell cycle exit. Taken together, these findings suggest that proliferation, cell cycle exit, and early differentiation of primary lens fiber cells are regulated by counterbalancing BMP and FGF signals. PMID:22718906

  20. Progesterone receptor activates Msx2 expression by downregulating TNAP/Akp2 and activating the Bmp pathway in EpH4 mouse mammary epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodie M Fleming

    Full Text Available Previously we demonstrated that EpH4 mouse mammary epithelial cells induced the homeobox transcription factor Msx2 either when transfected with the progesterone receptor (PR or when treated with Bmp2/4. Msx2 upregulation was unaffected by Wnt inhibitors s-FRP or Dkk1, but was inhibited by the Bmp antagonist Noggin. We therefore hypothesized that PR signaling to Msx2 acts through the Bmp receptor pathway. Herein, we confirm that transcripts for Alk2/ActR1A, a non-canonical BmpR Type I, are upregulated in mammary epithelial cells overexpressing PR (EpH4-PR. Increased phosphorylation of Smads 1,5, 8, known substrates for Alk2 and other BmpR Type I proteins, was observed as was their translocation to the nucleus in EpH4-PR cells. Analysis also showed that Tissue Non-Specific Alkaline Phosphatase (TNAP/Akp2 was also found to be downregulated in EpH4-PR cells. When an Akp2 promoter-reporter construct containing a ½PRE site was transfected into EpH4-PR cells, its expression was downregulated. Moreover, siRNA mediated knockdown of Akp2 increased both Alk2 and Msx2 expression. Collectively these data suggest that PR inhibition of Akp2 results in increased Alk2 activity, increased phosphorylation of Smads 1,5,8, and ultimately upregulation of Msx2. These studies imply that re-activation of the Akp2 gene could be helpful in downregulating aberrant Msx2 expression in PR+ breast cancers.

  1. Uncovering the Role of BMP Signaling in Melanocyte Development and Melanoma Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    specifiers’, genes that are initially expressed broadly in the neural crest and help to maintain neural crest identity (Fig. 2G ) (6). As development...melanoma cells, GDF6 and the BMP pathway negatively regulated SOX9 expression (Fig. 3G ; Fig. S13A-C). Epistasis analyses showed that SOX9 knockdown rescued...criteria, if the tumor volume reached >1,000 mm3; if tumor size or location affected the mobility or general health of animal, the animal was euthanized

  2. BMP-2 functions independently of SHH signaling and triggers cell condensation and apoptosis in regenerating axolotl limbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finnson Kenneth

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Axolotls have the unique ability, among vertebrates, to perfectly regenerate complex body parts, such as limbs, after amputation. In addition, axolotls pattern developing and regenerating autopods from the anterior to posterior axis instead of posterior to anterior like all tetrapods studied to date. Sonic hedgehog is important in establishing this anterior-posterior axis of limbs in all tetrapods including axolotls. Interestingly, its expression is conserved (to the posterior side of limb buds and blastemas in axolotl limbs as in other tetrapods. It has been suggested that BMP-2 may be the secondary mediator of sonic hedgehog, although there is mounting evidence to the contrary in mice. Since BMP-2 expression is on the anterior portion of developing and regenerating limbs prior to digit patterning, opposite to the expression of sonic hedgehog, we examined whether BMP-2 expression was dependent on sonic hedgehog signaling and whether it affects patterning of the autopod during regeneration. Results The expression of BMP-2 and SOX-9 in developing and regenerating axolotl limbs corresponded to the first digits forming in the anterior portion of the autopods. The inhibition of sonic hedgehog signaling with cyclopamine caused hypomorphic limbs (during development and regeneration but did not affect the expression of BMP-2 and SOX-9. Overexpression of BMP-2 in regenerating limbs caused a loss of digits. Overexpression of Noggin (BMP inhibitor in regenerating limbs also resulted in a loss of digits. Histological analysis indicated that the loss due to BMP-2 overexpression was the result of increased cell condensation and apoptosis while the loss caused by Noggin was due to a decrease in cell division. Conclusion The expression of BMP-2 and its target SOX-9 was independent of sonic hedgehog signaling in developing and regenerating limbs. Their expression correlated with chondrogenesis and the appearance of skeletal elements has

  3. Critical nodes in signalling pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniguchi, Cullen M; Emanuelli, Brice; Kahn, C Ronald

    2006-01-01

    Physiologically important cell-signalling networks are complex, and contain several points of regulation, signal divergence and crosstalk with other signalling cascades. Here, we use the concept of 'critical nodes' to define the important junctions in these pathways and illustrate their unique role...... using insulin signalling as a model system....

  4. Differential phosphorylation of Smad1 integrates BMP and neurotrophin pathways through Erk/Dusp in axon development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finelli, Mattéa J; Murphy, Kevin J; Chen, Lei; Zou, Hongyan

    2013-05-30

    Sensory axon development requires concerted actions of growth factors for the precise control of axonal outgrowth and target innervation. How developing sensory neurons integrate different cues is poorly understood. We demonstrate here that Smad1 activation is required for neurotrophin-mediated sensory axon growth in vitro and in vivo. Through differential phosphorylation, Smad1 exerts transcriptional selectivity to regulate the expression and activity of Erk1 and Erk2-two key neurotrophin effectors. Specifically, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) signal through carboxy-terminal phosphorylation of Smad1 (pSmad1C) to induce Erk1/2 transcription for enhanced neurotrophin responsiveness. Meanwhile, neurotrophin signaling results in linker phosphorylation of Smad1 (pSmad1L), which in turn upregulates an Erk-specific dual-specificity phosphatase, Dusp6, leading to reduced pErk1/2 and constituting a negative-feedback loop for the prevention of axon overgrowth. Together, the BMP and neurotrophin pathways form a tightly regulated signaling network with a balanced ratio of Erk1/2 and pErk1/2 to direct the precise connections between sensory neurons and peripheral targets. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Non-Smad signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Yabing; Gudey, Shyam Kumar; Landström, Maréne

    2012-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) is a key regulator of cell fate during embryogenesis and has also emerged as a potent driver of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition during tumor progression. TGFβ signals are transduced by transmembrane type I and type II serine/threonine kinase receptors (TβRI and TβRII, respectively). The activated TβR complex phosphorylates Smad2 and Smad3, converting them into transcriptional regulators that complex with Smad4. TGFβ also uses non-Smad signaling pathways such as the p38 and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways to convey its signals. Ubiquitin ligase tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and TGFβ-associated kinase 1 (TAK1) have recently been shown to be crucial for the activation of the p38 and JNK MAPK pathways. Other TGFβ-induced non-Smad signaling pathways include the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt-mTOR pathway, the small GTPases Rho, Rac, and Cdc42, and the Ras-Erk-MAPK pathway. Signals induced by TGFβ are tightly regulated and specified by post-translational modifications of the signaling components, since they dictate the subcellular localization, activity, and duration of the signal. In this review, we discuss recent findings in the field of TGFβ-induced responses by non-Smad signaling pathways.

  6. Patterning of the dorsal-ventral axis in echinoderms: insights into the evolution of the BMP-chordin signaling network.

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    François Lapraz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Formation of the dorsal-ventral axis of the sea urchin embryo relies on cell interactions initiated by the TGFbeta Nodal. Intriguingly, although nodal expression is restricted to the ventral side of the embryo, Nodal function is required for specification of both the ventral and the dorsal territories and is able to restore both ventral and dorsal regions in nodal morpholino injected embryos. The molecular basis for the long-range organizing activity of Nodal is not understood. In this paper, we provide evidence that the long-range organizing activity of Nodal is assured by a relay molecule synthesized in the ventral ectoderm, then translocated to the opposite side of the embryo. We identified this relay molecule as BMP2/4 based on the following arguments. First, blocking BMP2/4 function eliminated the long-range organizing activity of an activated Nodal receptor in an axis rescue assay. Second, we demonstrate that BMP2/4 and the corresponding type I receptor Alk3/6 functions are both essential for specification of the dorsal region of the embryo. Third, using anti-phospho-Smad1/5/8 immunostaining, we show that, despite its ventral transcription, the BMP2/4 ligand triggers receptor mediated signaling exclusively on the dorsal side of the embryo, one of the most extreme cases of BMP translocation described so far. We further report that the pattern of pSmad1/5/8 is graded along the dorsal-ventral axis and that two BMP2/4 target genes are expressed in nested patterns centered on the region with highest levels of pSmad1/5/8, strongly suggesting that BMP2/4 is acting as a morphogen. We also describe the very unusual ventral co-expression of chordin and bmp2/4 downstream of Nodal and demonstrate that Chordin is largely responsible for the spatial restriction of BMP2/4 signaling to the dorsal side. Thus, unlike in most organisms, in the sea urchin, a single ventral signaling centre is responsible for induction of ventral and dorsal cell fates. Finally

  7. Retroactive signaling in short signaling pathways.

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    Jacques-Alexandre Sepulchre

    Full Text Available In biochemical signaling pathways without explicit feedback connections, the core signal transduction is usually described as a one-way communication, going from upstream to downstream in a feedforward chain or network of covalent modification cycles. In this paper we explore the possibility of a new type of signaling called retroactive signaling, offered by the recently demonstrated property of retroactivity in signaling cascades. The possibility of retroactive signaling is analysed in the simplest case of the stationary states of a bicyclic cascade of signaling cycles. In this case, we work out the conditions for which variables of the upstream cycle are affected by a change of the total amount of protein in the downstream cycle, or by a variation of the phosphatase deactivating the same protein. Particularly, we predict the characteristic ranges of the downstream protein, or of the downstream phosphatase, for which a retroactive effect can be observed on the upstream cycle variables. Next, we extend the possibility of retroactive signaling in short but nonlinear signaling pathways involving a few covalent modification cycles.

  8. Aberrant Signaling Pathways in Glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Kita, Daisuke; Watanabe, Takuya; Hayashi, Yutaka; Teng, Lei; Pyko, Ilya V.; Hamada, Jun-Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a WHO grade IV malignant glioma, is the most common and lethal primary brain tumor in adults; few treatments are available. Median survival rates range from 12–15 months. The biological characteristics of this tumor are exemplified by prominent proliferation, active invasiveness, and rich angiogenesis. This is mainly due to highly deregulated signaling pathways in the tumor. Studies of these signaling pathways have greatly increased our understanding of the biology and clinical behavior of GBM. An integrated view of signal transduction will provide a more useful approach in designing novel therapies for this devastating disease. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of GBM signaling pathways with a focus on potential molecular targets for anti-signaling molecular therapies

  9. Modelling and Analysis of Biochemical Signalling Pathway Cross-talk

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    Robin Donaldson

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Signalling pathways are abstractions that help life scientists structure the coordination of cellular activity. Cross-talk between pathways accounts for many of the complex behaviours exhibited by signalling pathways and is often critical in producing the correct signal-response relationship. Formal models of signalling pathways and cross-talk in particular can aid understanding and drive experimentation. We define an approach to modelling based on the concept that a pathway is the (synchronising parallel composition of instances of generic modules (with internal and external labels. Pathways are then composed by (synchronising parallel composition and renaming; different types of cross-talk result from different combinations of synchronisation and renaming. We define a number of generic modules in PRISM and five types of cross-talk: signal flow, substrate availability, receptor function, gene expression and intracellular communication. We show that Continuous Stochastic Logic properties can both detect and distinguish the types of cross-talk. The approach is illustrated with small examples and an analysis of the cross-talk between the TGF-b/BMP, WNT and MAPK pathways.

  10. Review of Signaling Pathways Governing MSC Osteogenic and Adipogenic Differentiation

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    Aaron W. James

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC are multipotent cells, functioning as precursors to a variety of cell types including adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes. Between osteogenic and adipogenic lineage commitment and differentiation, a theoretical inverse relationship exists, such that differentiation towards an osteoblast phenotype occurs at the expense of an adipocytic phenotype. This balance is regulated by numerous, intersecting signaling pathways that converge on the regulation of two main transcription factors: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ and Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2. These two transcription factors, PPARγ and Runx2, are generally regarded as the master regulators of adipogenesis and osteogenesis. This review will summarize signaling pathways that govern MSC fate towards osteogenic or adipocytic differentiation. A number of signaling pathways follow the inverse balance between osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation and are generally proosteogenic/antiadipogenic stimuli. These include β-catenin dependent Wnt signaling, Hedgehog signaling, and NELL-1 signaling. However, other signaling pathways exhibit more context-dependent effects on adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation. These include bone morphogenic protein (BMP signaling and insulin growth factor (IGF signaling, which display both proosteogenic and proadipogenic effects. In summary, understanding those factors that govern osteogenic versus adipogenic MSC differentiation has significant implications in diverse areas of human health, from obesity to osteoporosis to regenerative medicine.

  11. Emerging roles of BMP9 and BMP10 in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

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    Emmanuelle eTillet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome, also known as hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT, is an autosomal dominant vascular disorder. Three genes are causally related to HHT: the ENG gene encoding endoglin, a co-receptor of the TGFß family (HHT1, the ACVRL1 gene encoding ALK1 (activin receptor-like kinase 1, a type I receptor of the TGFß family (HHT2, and the SMAD4 gene, encoding a transcription factor critical for this signaling pathway. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs are growth factors of the TGFß family. Among them, BMP9 and BMP10 have been shown to bind directly with high affinity to ALK1 and endoglin, and BMP9 mutations have recently been linked to a vascular-anomaly syndrome that has phenotypic overlap with HHT. BMP9 and BMP10 are both circulating cytokines in blood, and the current working model is that BMP9 and BMP10 maintain a quiescent endothelial state that is dependent on the level of ALK1/endoglin activation on endothelial cells. In accordance with this model, to explain the etiology of HHT we hypothesize that a deficient BMP9/BMP10/ALK1/endoglin pathway may lead to re-activation of angiogenesis or a greater sensitivity to an angiogenic stimulus. Resulting endothelial hyperproliferation and hypermigration may lead to vasodilatation and formation of arteriovenous malformation (AVM. HHT would thus result from a defect in the angiogenic balance. This review will focus on the emerging role played by BMP9 and BMP10 in the development of this disease and the therapeutic approaches that this opens.

  12. C. elegans DAF-16/FOXO interacts with TGF-ß/BMP signaling to induce germline tumor formation via mTORC1 activation.

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    Wenjing Qi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 by reduced insulin/IGF signaling (IIS is considered to be beneficial in C. elegans due to its ability to extend lifespan and to enhance stress resistance. In the germline, cell-autonomous DAF-16 activity prevents stem cell proliferation, thus acting tumor-suppressive. In contrast, hypodermal DAF-16 causes a tumorous germline phenotype characterized by hyperproliferation of the germline stem cells and rupture of the adjacent basement membrane. Here we show that cross-talk between DAF-16 and the transforming growth factor ß (TGFß/bone morphogenic protein (BMP signaling pathway causes germline hyperplasia and results in disruption of the basement membrane. In addition to activating MADM/NRBP/hpo-11 gene alone, DAF-16 also directly interacts with both R-SMAD proteins SMA-2 and SMA-3 in the nucleus to regulate the expression of mTORC1 pathway. Knocking-down of BMP genes or each of the four target genes in the hypodermis was sufficient to inhibit germline proliferation, indicating a cell-non-autonomously controlled regulation of stem cell proliferation by somatic tissues. We propose the existence of two antagonistic DAF-16/FOXO functions, a cell-proliferative somatic and an anti-proliferative germline activity. Whereas germline hyperplasia under reduced IIS is inhibited by DAF-16 cell-autonomously, activation of somatic DAF-16 in the presence of active IIS promotes germline proliferation and eventually induces tumor-like germline growth. In summary, our results suggest a novel pathway crosstalk of DAF-16 and TGF-ß/BMP that can modulate mTORC1 at the transcriptional level to cause stem-cell hyperproliferation. Such cell-type specific differences may help explaining why human FOXO activity is considered to be tumor-suppressive in most contexts, but may become oncogenic, e.g. in chronic and acute myeloid leukemia.

  13. C. elegans DAF-16/FOXO interacts with TGF-ß/BMP signaling to induce germline tumor formation via mTORC1 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wenjing; Yan, Yijian; Pfeifer, Dietmar; Donner V Gromoff, Erika; Wang, Yimin; Maier, Wolfgang; Baumeister, Ralf

    2017-05-01

    Activation of the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 by reduced insulin/IGF signaling (IIS) is considered to be beneficial in C. elegans due to its ability to extend lifespan and to enhance stress resistance. In the germline, cell-autonomous DAF-16 activity prevents stem cell proliferation, thus acting tumor-suppressive. In contrast, hypodermal DAF-16 causes a tumorous germline phenotype characterized by hyperproliferation of the germline stem cells and rupture of the adjacent basement membrane. Here we show that cross-talk between DAF-16 and the transforming growth factor ß (TGFß)/bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling pathway causes germline hyperplasia and results in disruption of the basement membrane. In addition to activating MADM/NRBP/hpo-11 gene alone, DAF-16 also directly interacts with both R-SMAD proteins SMA-2 and SMA-3 in the nucleus to regulate the expression of mTORC1 pathway. Knocking-down of BMP genes or each of the four target genes in the hypodermis was sufficient to inhibit germline proliferation, indicating a cell-non-autonomously controlled regulation of stem cell proliferation by somatic tissues. We propose the existence of two antagonistic DAF-16/FOXO functions, a cell-proliferative somatic and an anti-proliferative germline activity. Whereas germline hyperplasia under reduced IIS is inhibited by DAF-16 cell-autonomously, activation of somatic DAF-16 in the presence of active IIS promotes germline proliferation and eventually induces tumor-like germline growth. In summary, our results suggest a novel pathway crosstalk of DAF-16 and TGF-ß/BMP that can modulate mTORC1 at the transcriptional level to cause stem-cell hyperproliferation. Such cell-type specific differences may help explaining why human FOXO activity is considered to be tumor-suppressive in most contexts, but may become oncogenic, e.g. in chronic and acute myeloid leukemia.

  14. Morphogen and community effects determine cell fates in response to BMP4 signaling in human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemashkalo, Anastasiia; Ruzo, Albert; Heemskerk, Idse; Warmflash, Aryeh

    2017-09-01

    Paracrine signals maintain developmental states and create cell fate patterns in vivo and influence differentiation outcomes in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in vitro Systematic investigation of morphogen signaling is hampered by the difficulty of disentangling endogenous signaling from experimentally applied ligands. Here, we grow hESCs in micropatterned colonies of 1-8 cells ('µColonies') to quantitatively investigate paracrine signaling and the response to external stimuli. We examine BMP4-mediated differentiation in µColonies and standard culture conditions and find that in µColonies, above a threshold concentration, BMP4 gives rise to only a single cell fate, contrary to its role as a morphogen in other developmental systems. Under standard culture conditions BMP4 acts as a morphogen but this requires secondary signals and particular cell densities. We find that a 'community effect' enforces a common fate within µColonies, both in the state of pluripotency and when cells are differentiated, and that this effect allows a more precise response to external signals. Using live cell imaging to correlate signaling histories with cell fates, we demonstrate that interactions between neighbors result in sustained, homogenous signaling necessary for differentiation. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Intracellular co-delivery of Sr ion and phenamil drug through mesoporous bioglass nanocarriers synergizes BMP signaling and tissue mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Mandakhbayar, Nandin; El-Fiqi, Ahmed; Kim, Hae-Won

    2017-09-15

    Inducing differentiation and maturation of resident multipotent stem cells (MSCs) is an important strategy to regenerate hard tissues in mal-calcification conditions. Here we explore a co-delivery approach of therapeutic molecules comprised of ion and drug through a mesoporous bioglass nanoparticle (MBN) for this purpose. Recently, MBN has offered unique potential as a nanocarrier for hard tissues, in terms of high mesoporosity, bone bioactivity (and possibly degradability), tunable delivery of biomolecules, and ionic modification. Herein Sr ion is structurally doped to MBN while drug Phenamil is externally loaded as a small molecule activator of BMP signaling, for the stimulation of osteo/odontogenesis and mineralization of human MSCs derived from dental pulp. The Sr-doped MBN (85Si:10Ca:5Sr) sol-gel processed presents a high mesoporosity with a pore size of ∼6nm. In particular, Sr ion is released slowly at a daily rate of ∼3ppm per mg nanoparticles for up to 7days, a level therapeutically effective for cellular stimulation. The Sr-MBN is internalized to most MSCs via an ATP dependent macropinocytosis within hours, increasing the intracellular levels of Sr, Ca and Si ions. Phenamil is loaded maximally ∼30% into Sr-MBN and then released slowly for up to 7days. The co-delivered molecules (Sr ion and Phenamil drug) have profound effects on the differentiation and maturation of cells, i.e., significantly enhancing expression of osteo/odontogenic genes, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineralization of cells. Of note, the stimulation is a result of a synergism of Sr and Phenamil, through a Trb3-dependent BMP signaling pathway. This biological synergism is further evidenced in vivo in a mal-calcification condition involving an extracted tooth implantation in dorsal subcutaneous tissues of rats. Six weeks post operation evidences the osseous-dentinal hard tissue formation, which is significantly stimulated by the Sr/Phenamil delivery, based on histomorphometric

  16. A targeted glycan-related gene screen reveals heparan sulfate proteoglycan sulfation regulates WNT and BMP trans-synaptic signaling.

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    Neil Dani

    Full Text Available A Drosophila transgenic RNAi screen targeting the glycan genome, including all N/O/GAG-glycan biosynthesis/modification enzymes and glycan-binding lectins, was conducted to discover novel glycan functions in synaptogenesis. As proof-of-product, we characterized functionally paired heparan sulfate (HS 6-O-sulfotransferase (hs6st and sulfatase (sulf1, which bidirectionally control HS proteoglycan (HSPG sulfation. RNAi knockdown of hs6st and sulf1 causes opposite effects on functional synapse development, with decreased (hs6st and increased (sulf1 neurotransmission strength confirmed in null mutants. HSPG co-receptors for WNT and BMP intercellular signaling, Dally-like Protein and Syndecan, are differentially misregulated in the synaptomatrix of these mutants. Consistently, hs6st and sulf1 nulls differentially elevate both WNT (Wingless; Wg and BMP (Glass Bottom Boat; Gbb ligand abundance in the synaptomatrix. Anterograde Wg signaling via Wg receptor dFrizzled2 C-terminus nuclear import and retrograde Gbb signaling via synaptic MAD phosphorylation and nuclear import are differentially activated in hs6st and sulf1 mutants. Consequently, transcriptional control of presynaptic glutamate release machinery and postsynaptic glutamate receptors is bidirectionally altered in hs6st and sulf1 mutants, explaining the bidirectional change in synaptic functional strength. Genetic correction of the altered WNT/BMP signaling restores normal synaptic development in both mutant conditions, proving that altered trans-synaptic signaling causes functional differentiation defects.

  17. Regulation of Gastric Lgr5+ve Cell Homeostasis by Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP Signaling and Inflammatory StimuliSummary

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    Wei Ye

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Gastric Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5 cells exert important functions during injury and homeostasis. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signaling regulates gastric inflammation and epithelial homeostasis. We investigated if BMP signaling controls the fate of Lgr5+ve cells during inflammation. Methods: The H+/K+-adenosine triphosphatase β-subunit promoter was used to express the BMP inhibitor noggin (Nog in the stomach (H+/K+-Nog mice. Inhibition of BMP signaling in Lgr5 cells was achieved by crossing Lgr5-EGFP-ires-CreERT2 (Lgr5-Cre mice to mice with floxed alleles of BMP receptor 1A (Lgr5-Cre;Bmpr1aflox/flox mice. Lgr5/GFP+ve cells were isolated using flow cytometry. Lineage tracing studies were conducted by crossing Lgr5-Cre mice to mice that express Nog and tdTomato (Lgr5-Cre;H+/K+-Nog;Rosa26-tdTom. Infection with Helicobacter felis was used to induce inflammation. Morphology of the mucosa was analyzed by H&E staining. Distribution of H+/K+-adenosine triphosphatase-, IF-, Ki67-, CD44-, CD44v9-, and bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells was analyzed by immunostaining. Expression of neck and pit cell mucins was determined by staining with the lectins Griffonia (Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin II and Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1, respectively. Id1, Bmpr1a, Lgr5, c-Myc, and Cd44 messenger RNAs were measured by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results: Lgr5-Cre;Bmpr1aflox/flox mice showed diminished expression of Bmpr1a in Lgr5/GFP+ve cells. Infection of Lgr5-Cre;Bmpr1aflox/flox mice with H felis led to enhanced inflammation, increased cell proliferation, parietal cell loss, and to the development of metaplasia and dysplasia. Infected Lgr5-Cre;H+/K+-Nog;Rosa26-tdTom mice, but not control mice, showed the presence of tomato+ve glands lining the lesser curvature that stained positively with Griffonia (Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin II and Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1, and

  18. Essential role of Bmp signaling and its positive feedback loop in the early cell fate evolution of chordates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozmiková, Iryna; Candiani, S.; Fabian, Peter; Gurská, Daniela; Kozmik, Zbyněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 382, č. 2 (2013), s. 538-554 ISSN 0012-1606 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP305/10/J064; GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0027 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Bmp signaling * axial patterning * cell fate * chordates * evolution Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.637, year: 2013

  19. MORN5 Expression during Craniofacial Development and Its Interaction with the BMP and TGF beta Pathways

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Celá, Petra; Hampl, Marek; Fu, K.; Kunová Bosáková, M.; Krejčí, P.; Richman, J. M.; Buchtová, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 378 (2016) ISSN 1664-042X R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-37368G Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : cleft lip * maxillary prominence * mandibular prominence * frontonasal mass * BMP Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 4.134, year: 2016

  20. Convergence of bone morphogenetic protein and laminin-1 signaling pathways promotes proliferation and colony formation by fetal mouse pancreatic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Fangxu; Harrison, Leonard C.

    2005-01-01

    We previously reported that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), members of the transforming growth factor superfamily, together with the basement membrane glycoprotein laminin-1 (Ln-1), promote proliferation of fetal pancreatic cells and formation of colonies containing peripheral insulin-positive cells. Here, we further investigate the cross-talk between BMP and Ln-1 signals. By RT-PCR, receptors for BMP (BMPR) (excepting BMPR-1B) and Ln-1 were expressed in the fetal pancreas between E13.5 and E17.5. Specific blocking antibodies to BMP-4 and -6 and selective BMP antagonists partially inhibited colony formation by fetal pancreas cells. Colony formation induced by BMP-6 and Ln-1 was completely abolished in a dose-dependent manner by blocking Ln-1 binding to its α 6 integrin and α-dystroglycan receptors or by blocking the Ln-1 signaling molecules, phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (P13K) and MAP kinase kinase-1. These results demonstrate a convergence of BMP and Ln-1 signaling through P13K and MAP kinase pathways to induce proliferation and colony formation in E15.5 fetal mouse pancreatic cells

  1. DMH1, a small molecule inhibitor of BMP type i receptors, suppresses growth and invasion of lung cancer.

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    Jijun Hao

    Full Text Available The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signaling cascade is aberrantly activated in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC but not in normal lung epithelial cells, suggesting that blocking BMP signaling may be an effective therapeutic approach for lung cancer. Previous studies demonstrated that some BMP antagonists, which bind to extracellular BMP ligands and prevent their association with BMP receptors, dramatically reduced lung tumor growth. However, clinical application of protein-based BMP antagonists is limited by short half-lives, poor intra-tumor delivery as well as resistance caused by potential gain-of-function mutations in the downstream of the BMP pathway. Small molecule BMP inhibitors which target the intracellular BMP cascades would be ideal for anticancer drug development. In a zebrafish embryo-based structure and activity study, we previously identified a group of highly selective small molecule inhibitors specifically antagonizing the intracellular kinase domain of BMP type I receptors. In the present study, we demonstrated that DMH1, one of such inhibitors, potently reduced lung cell proliferation, promoted cell death, and decreased cell migration and invasion in NSCLC cells by blocking BMP signaling, as indicated by suppression of Smad 1/5/8 phosphorylation and gene expression of Id1, Id2 and Id3. Additionally, DMH1 treatment significantly reduced the tumor growth in human lung cancer xenograft model. In conclusion, our study indicates that small molecule inhibitors of BMP type I receptors may offer a promising novel strategy for lung cancer treatment.

  2. Genetic predisposition to fracture non-union: a case control study of a preliminary single nucleotide polymorphisms analysis of the BMP pathway

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    Giannoudis Peter V

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the known multi-factorial nature of atrophic fracture non-unions, a possible genetic predisposition for the development of this complication after long bone fractures remains unknown. This pilot study aimed to address this issue by performing a preliminary SNP analysis of specific genes known to regulate fracture healing. Methods A total of fifteen SNPs within four genes of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP pathway (BMP-2, BMP-7, NOGGIN and SMAD6 were examined, in 109 randomly selected patients with long bone fractures as a result of motor vehicle accident, fall or direct blow. There were sixty-two patients with atrophic non-union and forty-seven patients (54 fractures with uneventful fracture union. Overall SNPs frequencies were computed with respect to patient's age, gender, smoking habits, fracture-associated parameters and the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, and tested for their association to the impaired bone healing process, using binary logistic regression (STATA 11.1; StataCorp, Texas USA. Results Statistical analysis revealed age to be an important covariate in the development of atrophic non-union (p = 0.01, OR 1.05 [per year], and two specific genotypes (G/G genotype of the rs1372857 SNP, located on NOGGIN and T/T genotype of the rs2053423 SNP, located on SMAD6 to be associated with a greater risk of fracture non-union (p = 0.02, OR 4.56 and p = 0.04, OR 10.27, respectively, after adjustment for age. Conclusions This is the first clinical study to investigate the potential existence of genetic susceptibility to fracture non-union. Even though no concrete conclusions can be obtained from this pilot study, our results indicate the existence of a potential genetically predetermined impairment within the BMP signalling cascade, initiated after a fracture and when combined with other risk factors could synergistically increase the susceptibility of a patient to develop non-union. Further

  3. DMPD: Signal integration between IFNgamma and TLR signalling pathways in macrophages. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16920490 Signal integration between IFNgamma and TLR signalling pathways in macroph...tml) (.csml) Show Signal integration between IFNgamma and TLR signalling pathways in macrophages. PubmedID 16920490 Title Signal inte...gration between IFNgamma and TLR signalling pathways in

  4. Rac1 promotes chondrogenesis by regulating STAT3 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoin; Sonn, Jong Kyung

    2016-09-01

    The small GTPase protein Rac1 is involved in a wide range of biological processes including cell differentiation. Previously, Rac1 was shown to promote chondrogenesis in micromass cultures of limb mesenchyme. However, the pathways mediating Rac1's role in chondrogenesis are not fully understood. This study aimed to explore the molecular mechanisms by which Rac1 regulates chondrogenic differentiation. Phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was increased as chondrogenesis proceeded in micromass cultures of chick wing bud mesenchyme. Inhibition of Rac1 with NSC23766, janus kinase 2 (JAK2) with AG490, or STAT3 with stattic inhibited chondrogenesis and reduced phosphorylation of STAT3. Conversely, overexpression of constitutively active Rac1 (Rac L61) increased phosphorylation of STAT3. Rac L61 expression resulted in increased expression of interleukin 6 (IL-6), and treatment with IL-6 increased phosphorylation of STAT3. NSC23766, AG490, and stattic prohibited cell aggregation, whereas expression of Rac L61 increased cell aggregation, which was reduced by stattic treatment. Our studies indicate that Rac1 induces STAT3 activation through expression and action of IL-6. Overexpression of Rac L61 increased expression of bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4). BMP4 promoted chondrogenesis, which was inhibited by K02288, an activin receptor-like kinase-2 inhibitor, and increased phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase. Overexpression of Rac L61 also increased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, which was reduced by K02288. These results suggest that Rac1 activates STAT3 by expression of IL-6, which in turn increases expression and activity of BMP4, leading to the promotion of chondrogenesis. © 2016 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  5. Augmented BMPRIA-mediated BMP signaling in cranial neural crest lineage leads to cleft palate formation and delayed tooth differentiation.

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    Lu Li

    Full Text Available The importance of BMP receptor Ia (BMPRIa mediated signaling in the development of craniofacial organs, including the tooth and palate, has been well illuminated in several mouse models of loss of function, and by its mutations associated with juvenile polyposis syndrome and facial defects in humans. In this study, we took a gain-of-function approach to further address the role of BMPR-IA-mediated signaling in the mesenchymal compartment during tooth and palate development. We generated transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active form of BmprIa (caBmprIa in cranial neural crest (CNC cells that contributes to the dental and palatal mesenchyme. Mice bearing enhanced BMPRIa-mediated signaling in CNC cells exhibit complete cleft palate and delayed odontogenic differentiation. We showed that the cleft palate defect in the transgenic animals is attributed to an altered cell proliferation rate in the anterior palatal mesenchyme and to the delayed palatal elevation in the posterior portion associated with ectopic cartilage formation. Despite enhanced activity of BMP signaling in the dental mesenchyme, tooth development and patterning in transgenic mice appeared normal except delayed odontogenic differentiation. These data support the hypothesis that a finely tuned level of BMPRIa-mediated signaling is essential for normal palate and tooth development.

  6. Endogenous WNT Signals Mediate BMP-Induced and Spontaneous Differentiation of Epiblast Stem Cells and Human Embryonic Stem Cells

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    Dorota Kurek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic application of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs requires precise control over their differentiation. However, spontaneous differentiation is prevalent, and growth factors induce multiple cell types; e.g., the mesoderm inducer BMP4 generates both mesoderm and trophoblast. Here we identify endogenous WNT signals as BMP targets that are required and sufficient for mesoderm induction, while trophoblast induction is WNT independent, enabling the exclusive differentiation toward either lineage. Furthermore, endogenous WNT signals induce loss of pluripotency in hESCs and their murine counterparts, epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs. WNT inhibition obviates the need to manually remove differentiated cells to maintain cultures and improves the efficiency of directed differentiation. In EpiSCs, WNT inhibition stabilizes a pregastrula epiblast state with novel characteristics, including the ability to contribute to blastocyst chimeras. Our findings show that endogenous WNT signals function as hidden mediators of growth factor-induced differentiation and play critical roles in the self-renewal of hESCs and EpiSCs.

  7. The response of early neural genes to FGF signaling or inhibition of BMP indicate the absence of a conserved neural induction module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogers Crystal D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular mechanism that initiates the formation of the vertebrate central nervous system has long been debated. Studies in Xenopus and mouse demonstrate that inhibition of BMP signaling is sufficient to induce neural tissue in explants or ES cells respectively, whereas studies in chick argue that instructive FGF signaling is also required for the expression of neural genes. Although additional signals may be involved in neural induction and patterning, here we focus on the roles of BMP inhibition and FGF8a. Results To address the question of necessity and sufficiency of BMP inhibition and FGF signaling, we compared the temporal expression of the five earliest genes expressed in the neuroectoderm and determined their requirements for induction at the onset of neural plate formation in Xenopus. Our results demonstrate that the onset and peak of expression of the genes vary and that they have different regulatory requirements and are therefore unlikely to share a conserved neural induction regulatory module. Even though all require inhibition of BMP for expression, some also require FGF signaling; expression of the early-onset pan-neural genes sox2 and foxd5α requires FGF signaling while other early genes, sox3, geminin and zicr1 are induced by BMP inhibition alone. Conclusions We demonstrate that BMP inhibition and FGF signaling induce neural genes independently of each other. Together our data indicate that although the spatiotemporal expression patterns of early neural genes are similar, the mechanisms involved in their expression are distinct and there are different signaling requirements for the expression of each gene.

  8. [Review for treatment effect and signaling pathway regulation of kidney-tonifying traditional Chinese medicine on osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ya-Ping; Zeng, Jie; Jiao, Lin-Na; Xu, Xiao-Yu

    2018-01-01

    The treatment effect and signaling pathway regulation effects of kidney-tonifying traditional Chinese medicine on osteoporosis have been widely studied, but there is no systematic summary currently. This review comprehensively collected and analyzed the traditional Chinese medicines on the treatment and signaling pathway regulation of osteoporosis in recent ten years, such as Epimedii Folium, Drynariae Rhizoma, Cnidii Fructus, Eucommiae Cortex, Psoraleae Fructus and Dipsaci Radix. Based on the existing findings, the following conclusions were obtained: ①kidney-tonifying traditional Chinese medicine treated osteoporosis mainly through BMP-Smads, Wnt/ β -catenin, MAPK, PI3K/AKT signaling pathway to promote osteoblast bone formation and through OPG/RANKL/ RANK, estrogen, CTSK signaling pathway to inhibit osteoclasts of bone resorption. Epimedii Folium, Drynariae Rhizoma, Cnidii Fructus and Psoraleae Fructus up-regulated the expression of key proteins and genes of BMP-Smads and Wnt/ β -catenin signaling pathways to promote bone formation. Epimedii Folium, Drynariae Rhizoma, Cnidii Fructus, Eucommiae Cortex, Psoraleae Fructus and Dipsaci Radix inhibited the bone resorption by mediating the OPG/RANKL/RANK signaling pathway. ②Kidney-tonifying traditional Chinese medicine prevented and treated osteoporosis through a variety of ways: icariin in Epimedii Folium, naringin in Drynariae Rhizoma, osthole in Cnidii Fructus and psoralen in Psoraleae Fructus can regulate BMP-Smads, Wnt/ β -catenin signaling pathway to promote bone formation, but also activate OPG/RANKL/RANK, CTSK and other signaling pathways to inhibit bone resorption. ③The crosstalk of the signaling pathways and the animal experiments of the traditional Chinese medicine on the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis as well as their multi-target mechanism and comprehensive regulation need further clarification. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  9. Dkk1 haploinsufficiency requires expression of Bmp2 for bone anabolic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intini, Giuseppe; Nyman, Jeffry S.

    2015-01-01

    Bone fractures remain a serious health burden and prevention and enhanced healing of fractures has been obtained by augmenting either BMP or Wnt signaling. However, whether BMP and Wnt signaling are both required or are self-sufficient for anabolic and fracture healing activities has never been fully elucidated. Mice haploinsufficient for Dkk1 (Dkk1+/−) exhibit a high bone mass phenotype due to an up-regulation of canonical Wnt signaling while mice lacking Bmp2 expression in the limbs (Bmp2c/c;Prx1::cre) succumb to spontaneous fracture and are unable to initiate fracture healing; combined, these mice offer an opportunity to examine the requirement for activated BMP signaling on the anabolic and fracture healing activity of Wnts. When Dkk1+/− mice were crossed with Bmp2c/c;Prx1::cre mice, the offspring bearing both genetic alterations were unable to increase bone mass and heal fractures, indicating that increased canonical Wnt signaling is unable to exploit its activity in absence of Bmp2. Thus, our data suggest that BMP signaling is required for Wnt-mediated anabolic activity and that therapies aimed at preventing fractures and fostering fracture repair may need to target both pathways for maximal efficacy. PMID:25603465

  10. Genetic variation in bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and colon and rectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Martha L.; Lundgreen, Abbie; Herrick, Jennifer S.; Kadlubar, Susan; Caan, Bette J.; Potter, John D.; Wolff, Roger K.

    2011-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) are part of the TGF-β-signaling pathway; genetic variation in these genes may be involved in colorectal cancer. In this study we evaluated the association between genetic variation in BMP1 (11 tagSNPs), BMP2 (5 tagSNPs), BMP4 (3 tagSNPs), BMPR1A (9 tagSNPs), BMPR1B (21 tagSNPs), BMPR2 (11 tagSNPs), and GDF10 (7 tagSNPs) with risk of colon and rectal cancer and tumor molecular phenotype. We used data from population-based case-control studies (colon cancer n=1574 cases, 1970 controls; rectal cancer n=791 cases, 999 controls). We observed that genetic variation in BMPR1A, BMPR1B, BMPR2, BMP2, and BMP4 was associated with risk of developing colon cancer, with 20 to 30% increased risk for most high-risk genotypes. A summary of high-risk genotypes showed over a twofold increase in colon cancer risk at the upper risk category (OR 2.49 95% CI 1.95, 3.18). BMPR2, BMPR1B, BMP2, and GDF10 were associated with rectal cancer. BMPR2 rs2228545 was associated with an almost twofold increased risk of rectal cancer. The risk associated with the highest category of the summary score for rectal cancer was 2.97 (95% CI 1.87, 4.72). Genes in the BMP-signaling pathway were consistently associated with CIMP+ status in combination with both KRAS-mutated and MSI tumors. BMP genes interacted statistically significantly with other genes in the TGF-β-signaling pathway, including TGFβ1, TGFβR1, Smad 3, Smad 4, and Smad 7. Our data support a role for genetic variation in BMP-related genes in the etiology of colon and rectal cancer. One possible mechanism is via the TGF-β-signaling pathway. PMID:21387313

  11. Decoding resistant hypertension signalling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parreira, Ricardo Cambraia; Lacerda, Leandro Heleno Guimarães; Vasconcellos, Rebecca; Lima, Swiany Silveira; Santos, Anderson Kenedy; Fontana, Vanessa; Sandrim, Valéria Cristina; Resende, Rodrigo Ribeiro

    2017-12-01

    Resistant hypertension (RH) is a clinical condition in which the hypertensive patient has become resistant to drug therapy and is often associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Several signalling pathways have been studied and related to the development and progression of RH: modulation of sympathetic activity by leptin and aldosterone, primary aldosteronism, arterial stiffness, endothelial dysfunction and variations in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). miRNAs comprise a family of small non-coding RNAs that participate in the regulation of gene expression at post-transcriptional level. miRNAs are involved in the development of both cardiovascular damage and hypertension. Little is known of the molecular mechanisms that lead to development and progression of this condition. This review aims to cover the potential roles of miRNAs in the mechanisms associated with the development and consequences of RH, and explore the current state of the art of diagnostic and therapeutic tools based on miRNA approaches. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  12. Functional studies of signaling pathways in peri-implantation development of the mouse embryo by RNAi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell Graham

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of gene function in the mouse have relied mainly on gene targeting via homologous recombination. However, this approach is difficult to apply in specific windows of time, and to simultaneously knock-down multiple genes. Here we report an efficient method for dsRNA-mediated gene silencing in late cleavage-stage mouse embryos that permits examination of phenotypes at post-implantation stages. Results We show that introduction of Bmp4 dsRNA into intact blastocysts by electroporation recapitulates the genetic Bmp4 null phenotype at gastrulation. It also reveals a novel role for Bmp4 in the regulation the anterior visceral endoderm specific gene expression and its positioning. We also show that RNAi can be used to simultaneously target several genes. When applied to the three murine isoforms of Dishevelled, it leads to earlier defects than previously observed in double knock-outs. These include severe delays in post-implantation development and defects in the anterior midline and neural folds at headfold stages. Conclusion Our results indicate that the BMP4 signalling pathway contributes to the development of the anterior visceral endoderm, and reveal an early functional redundancy between the products of the murine Dishevelled genes. The proposed approach constitutes a powerful tool to screen the functions of genes that govern the development of the mouse embryo.

  13. The hedgehog-signaling pathway is repressed during the osteogenic differentiation of dental follicle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsczeck, Christian; Reck, A; Beck, H C

    2017-01-01

    of repressors of the hedgehog-signaling pathway such as Patched 1 (PTCH1), Suppressor of Fused (SUFU), and Parathyroid Hormone-Related Peptide (PTHrP). Previous studies suggested that hedgehog proteins induce the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells via a paracrine pathway. Indian hedgehog (IHH......) induced the expression of the osteogenic transcription factor RUNX2. However, a supplementation of the BMP2-based osteogenic differentiation medium with IHH did not induce the expression of RUNX2. Moreover, IHH inhibited slightly the ALP activity and the mineralization of osteogenic-differentiated DFCs...

  14. Modularized Smad-regulated TGFβ signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfeng; Wang, Minli; Carra, Claudio; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2012-12-01

    The transforming Growth Factor β (TGFβ) signaling pathway is a prominent regulatory signaling pathway controlling various important cellular processes. TGFβ signaling can be induced by several factors including ionizing radiation. The pathway is regulated in a negative feedback loop through promoting the nuclear import of the regulatory Smads and a subsequent expression of inhibitory Smad7, that forms ubiquitin ligase with Smurf2, targeting active TGFβ receptors for degradation. In this work, we proposed a mathematical model to study the Smad-regulated TGFβ signaling pathway. By modularization, we are able to analyze mathematically each component subsystem and recover the nonlinear dynamics of the entire network system. Meanwhile the excitability, a common feature observed in the biological systems, in the TGFβ signaling pathway is discussed and supported as well by numerical simulation, indicating the robustness of the model. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Production of BMP4 by endothelial cells is crucial for endogenous thymic regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheimer, Tobias; Velardi, Enrico; Tsai, Jennifer; Cooper, Kirsten; Xiao, Shiyun; Kloss, Christopher C.; Ottmüller, Katja J.; Mokhtari, Zeinab; Brede, Christian; deRoos, Paul; Kinsella, Sinéad; Palikuqi, Brisa; Ginsberg, Michael; Young, Lauren F.; Kreines, Fabiana; Lieberman, Sophia R.; Lazrak, Amina; Guo, Peipei; Malard, Florent; Smith, Odette M.; Shono, Yusuke; Jenq, Robert R.; Hanash, Alan M.; Nolan, Daniel J.; Butler, Jason M.; Beilhack, Andreas; Manley, Nancy R.; Rafii, Shahin; Dudakov, Jarrod A; van den Brink, Marcel RM

    2018-01-01

    The thymus is extremely sensitive to damage but also has a remarkable ability to repair itself. However, the mechanisms underlying this endogenous regeneration remain poorly understood and this capacity diminishes considerably with age. Here we show that thymic endothelial cells (ECs) comprise a critical pathway of regeneration, via their production of BMP4. ECs increased their production of BMP4 after thymic damage, and abrogating BMP4 signalling or production by either pharmacologic or genetic inhibition impaired thymic repair. EC-derived BMP4 acted on thymic epithelial cells (TECs) to increase their expression of Foxn1, a key transcription factor involved in TEC development, maintenance and regeneration; and its downstream targets such as Dll4, itself a key mediator of thymocyte development and regeneration. These studies demonstrate the importance of the BMP4 pathway in endogenous tissue regeneration and offer a potential clinical approach to enhance T cell immunity. PMID:29330161

  16. BMP9 inhibits the bone metastasis of breast cancer cells by downregulating CCN2 (connective tissue growth factor, CTGF) expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei; Sun, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Ke; Feng, Honglei; Liu, Yuehong; Fei, Chang; Wan, Shaoheng; Wang, Wei; Luo, Jinyong; Shi, Qiong; Tang, Min; Zuo, Guowei; Weng, Yaguang; He, Tongchuan; Zhang, Yan

    2014-03-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which belong to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, regulate a wide range of cellular responses including cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, migration, and apoptosis. BMP9, the latest BMP to be discovered, is reportedly expressed in a variety of human carcinoma cell lines, but the role of BMP9 in breast cancer has not been fully clarified. In a previous study, BMP9 was found to inhibit the growth, migration, and invasiveness of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. In the current study, the effect of BMP9 on the bone metastasis of breast cancer cells was investigated. After absent or low expression of BMP9 was detected in the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and breast non-tumor adjacent tissues using Western blot and immunohistochemistry, In our previous study, BMP9 could inhibit the proliferation and invasiveness of breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 in vitro and in vivo. This paper shows that BMP9 inhibit the bone metastasis of breast cancer cells by activating the BMP/Smad signaling pathway and downregulating connective tissue growth factor (CTGF); however, when CTGF expression was maintained, the inhibitory effect of BMP9 on the MDA-MB-231 cells was abolished. Together, these observations indicate that BMP9 is an important mediator of breast cancer bone metastasis and a potential therapeutic target for treating this deadly disease.

  17. Oxygen-glucose deprivation preconditioning protects neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion induced injury via bone morphogenetic protein-7 mediated ERK, p38 and Smad signalling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Junhong; Du, Shaonan; Lv, Tao; Qu, Shengtao; Fu, Qiang; Yuan, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-7 mediated neuroprotective effect of cerebral ischemic preconditioning (IPC) has been studied in an ischemic animal model, but the underlying cellular mechanisms have not been clearly clarified. In this study, primary cortical neurons and the SH-SY5Y cell line were used to investigate the role of BMP-7 and its downstream signals in the neuroprotective effects of oxygen-glucose deprivation preconditioning (OGDPC). Immunocytochemistry was used to detect the expression of neurofilament in neurons. MTT and lactate dehydrogenase activity assays were used to measure the cytotoxicity. Western blot was used to detect the protein expression of BMP-7 and downstream signals. BMP inhibitor, mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors, Smad inhibitor and siRNA of Smad 1 were used to investigate the role of corresponding signalling pathways in the OGDPC. Results showed that OGDPC-induced overexpression of BMP-7 in primary cortical neurons and SH-SY5Y cells. Both of endogenous and exogenous BMP-7 could replicate the neuroprotective effects seen in OGDPC pretreatment. In addition, extracellular regulated protein kinases, p38 and Smad signalling pathway were found to be involved in the neuroprotective effects mediated by OGDPC via BMP-7. This study primarily reveals the cellular mechanisms of the neuroprotection mediated by OGDPC, and provides evidence for better understanding of this intrinsic factor against ischemia. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Endocardial to myocardial notch-wnt-bmp axis regulates early heart valve development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yidong Wang

    Full Text Available Endocardial to mesenchymal transformation (EMT is a fundamental cellular process required for heart valve formation. Notch, Wnt and Bmp pathways are known to regulate this process. To further address how these pathways coordinate in the process, we specifically disrupted Notch1 or Jagged1 in the endocardium of mouse embryonic hearts and showed that Jagged1-Notch1 signaling in the endocardium is essential for EMT and early valvular cushion formation. qPCR and RNA in situ hybridization assays reveal that endocardial Jagged1-Notch1 signaling regulates Wnt4 expression in the atrioventricular canal (AVC endocardium and Bmp2 in the AVC myocardium. Whole embryo cultures treated with Wnt4 or Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (Wif1 show that Bmp2 expression in the AVC myocardium is dependent on Wnt activity; Wnt4 also reinstates Bmp2 expression in the AVC myocardium of endocardial Notch1 null embryos. Furthermore, while both Wnt4 and Bmp2 rescue the defective EMT resulting from Notch inhibition, Wnt4 requires Bmp for its action. These results demonstrate that Jagged1-Notch1 signaling in endocardial cells induces the expression of Wnt4, which subsequently acts as a paracrine factor to upregulate Bmp2 expression in the adjacent AVC myocardium to signal EMT.

  19. Modularized TGFbeta-Smad Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfeng; Wang, M.; Carra, C.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2011-01-01

    The Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGFbeta) signaling pathway is a prominent regulatory signaling pathway controlling various important cellular processes. It can be induced by several factors, including ionizing radiation. It is regulated by Smads in a negative feedback loop through promoting increases in the regulatory Smads in the cell nucleus, and subsequent expression of inhibitory Smad, Smad7 to form a ubiquitin ligase with Smurf targeting active TGF receptors for degradation. In this work, we proposed a mathematical model to study the radiation-induced Smad-regulated TGF signaling pathway. By modularization, we are able to analyze each module (subsystem) and recover the nonlinear dynamics of the entire network system. Meanwhile the excitability, a common feature observed in the biological systems, along the TGF signaling pathway is discussed by mathematical analysis and numerical simulation.

  20. Signaling pathways regulating murine pancreatic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serup, Palle

    2012-01-01

    The recent decades have seen a huge expansion in our knowledge about pancreatic development. Numerous lineage-restricted transcription factor genes have been identified and much has been learned about their function. Similarly, numerous signaling pathways important for pancreas development have...... been identified and the specific roles have been investigated by genetic and cell biological methods. The present review presents an overview of the principal signaling pathways involved in regulating murine pancreatic growth, morphogenesis, and cell differentiation....

  1. BMP-2 Induced Expression of Alx3 That Is a Positive Regulator of Osteoblast Differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Matsumoto

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs regulate many aspects of skeletal development, including osteoblast and chondrocyte differentiation, cartilage and bone formation, and cranial and limb development. Among them, BMP-2, one of the most potent osteogenic signaling molecules, stimulates osteoblast differentiation, while it inhibits myogenic differentiation in C2C12 cells. To evaluate genes involved in BMP-2-induced osteoblast differentiation, we performed cDNA microarray analyses to compare BMP-2-treated and -untreated C2C12 cells. We focused on Alx3 (aristaless-like homeobox 3 which was clearly induced during osteoblast differentiation. Alx3, a homeobox gene related to the Drosophilaaristaless gene, has been linked to developmental functions in craniofacial structures and limb development. However, little is known about its direct relationship with bone formation. In the present study, we focused on the mechanisms of Alx3 gene expression and function during osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. In C2C12 cells, BMP-2 induced increase of Alx3 gene expression in both time- and dose-dependent manners through the BMP receptors-mediated SMAD signaling pathway. In addition, silencing of Alx3 by siRNA inhibited osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2, as showed by the expressions of alkaline phosphatase (Alp, Osteocalcin, and Osterix, while over-expression of Alx3 enhanced osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. These results indicate that Alx3 expression is enhanced by BMP-2 via the BMP receptors mediated-Smad signaling and that Alx3 is a positive regulator of osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2.

  2. Intercellular signaling pathways active during and after growth and differentiation of the lumbar vertebral growth plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahia, Chitra Lekha; Mahoney, Eric J; Durrani, Atiq A; Wylie, Christopher

    2011-06-15

    Vertebral growth plates at different postnatal ages were assessed for active intercellular signaling pathways. To generate a spatial and temporal map of the major signaling pathways active in the postnatal mouse lumbar vertebral growth plate. The growth of all long bones is known to occur by cartilaginous growth plates. The growth plate is composed of layers of chondrocyets that actively proliferate, differentiate, die and, are replaced by bone. The role of major cell signaling pathways has been suggested for regulation of the fetal long bones. But not much is known about the molecular or cellular signals that control the postnatal vertebral growth plate and hence postnatal vertebral bone growth. Understanding such molecular mechanisms will help design therapeutic treatments for vertebral growth disorders such as scoliosis. Antibodies against activated downstream intermediates were used to identify cells in the growth plate responding to BMP, TGFβ, and FGF in cryosections of lumbar vertebrae from different postnatal age mice to identify the zones that were responding to these signals. Reporter mice were used to identify the chondrocytes responding to hedgehog (Ihh), and Wnt signaling. We present a spatial/temporal map of these signaling pathways during growth, and differentiation of the mouse lumbar vertebral growth plate. During growth and differentiation of the vertebral growth plate, its different components respond at different times to different intercellular signaling ligands. Response to most of these signals is dramatically downregulated at the end of vertebral growth.

  3. Abrogation of epithelial BMP2 and BMP4 causes Amelogenesis Imperfecta by reducing MMP20 and KLK4 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaohua; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Hua; Jani, Priyam H; Lu, Yongbo; Wang, Xiaofang; Zhang, Bin; Qin, Chunlin

    2016-05-05

    Amelogenesis Imperfecta (AI) can be caused by the deficiencies of enamel matrix proteins, molecules responsible for the transportation and secretion of enamel matrix components, and proteases processing enamel matrix proteins. In the present study, we discovered the double deletion of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Bmp2) and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4) in the dental epithelium by K14-cre resulted in hypoplastic enamel and reduced density in X-ray radiography as well as shortened enamel rods under scanning electron microscopy. Such enamel phenotype was consistent with the diagnosis of hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta. Histological and molecular analyses revealed that the removal of matrix proteins in the mutant enamel was drastically delayed, which was coincided with the greatly reduced expression of matrix metalloproteinase 20 (MMP20) and kallikrein 4 (KLK4). Although the expression of multiple enamel matrix proteins was down-regulated in the mutant ameloblasts, the cleavage of ameloblastin was drastically impaired. Therefore, we attributed the AI primarily to the reduction of MMP20 and KLK4. Further investigation found that BMP/Smad4 signaling pathway was down-regulated in the K14-cre;Bmp2(f/f);Bmp4(f/f)ameloblasts, suggesting that the reduced MMP20 and KLK4 expression may be due to the attenuated epithelial BMP/Smad4 signaling.

  4. AcvR1-mediated BMP signaling in second heart field is required for arterial pole development: implications for myocardial differentiation and regional identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Penny S; Rajderkar, Sudha; Lane, Jamie; Mishina, Yuji; Kaartinen, Vesa

    2014-06-15

    BMP signaling plays an essential role in second heart field-derived heart and arterial trunk development, including myocardial differentiation, right ventricular growth, and interventricular, outflow tract and aortico-pulmonary septation. It is mediated by a number of different BMP ligands, and receptors, many of which are present simultaneously. The mechanisms by which they regulate morphogenetic events and degree of redundancy amongst them have still to be elucidated. We therefore assessed the role of BMP Type I receptor AcvR1 in anterior second heart field-derived cell development, and compared it with that of BmpR1a. By removing Acvr1 using the driver Mef2c[AHF]-Cre, we show that AcvR1 plays an essential role in arterial pole morphogenesis, identifying defects in outflow tract wall and cushion morphology that preceded a spectrum of septation defects from double outlet right ventricle to common arterial trunk in mutants. Its absence caused dysregulation in gene expression important for myocardial differentiation (Isl1, Fgf8) and regional identity (Tbx2, Tbx3, Tbx20, Tgfb2). Although these defects resemble to some degree those in the equivalent Bmpr1a mutant, a novel gene knock-in model in which Bmpr1a was expressed in the Acvr1 locus only partially restored septation in Acvr1 mutants. These data show that both BmpR1a and AcvR1 are needed for normal heart development, in which they play some non-redundant roles, and refine our understanding of the genetic and morphogenetic processes underlying Bmp-mediated heart development important in human congenital heart disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Targeting Apoptosis Signaling Pathways for Anticancer Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulda, Simone, E-mail: simone.fulda@kgu.de [Institute for Experimental Cancer Research in Pediatrics, Goethe-University, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2011-08-29

    Treatment approaches for cancer, for example chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or immunotherapy, primarily act by inducing cell death in cancer cells. Consequently, the inability to trigger cell death pathways or alternatively, evasion of cancer cells to the induction of cell death pathways can result in resistance of cancers to current treatment protocols. Therefore, in order to overcome treatment resistance a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms that regulate cell death and survival pathways in cancers and in response to cancer therapy is necessary to develop molecular-targeted therapies. This strategy should lead to more effective and individualized treatment strategies that selectively target deregulated signaling pathways in a tumor type- and patient-specific manner.

  6. Targeting Apoptosis Signaling Pathways for Anticancer Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulda, Simone

    2011-01-01

    Treatment approaches for cancer, for example chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or immunotherapy, primarily act by inducing cell death in cancer cells. Consequently, the inability to trigger cell death pathways or alternatively, evasion of cancer cells to the induction of cell death pathways can result in resistance of cancers to current treatment protocols. Therefore, in order to overcome treatment resistance a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms that regulate cell death and survival pathways in cancers and in response to cancer therapy is necessary to develop molecular-targeted therapies. This strategy should lead to more effective and individualized treatment strategies that selectively target deregulated signaling pathways in a tumor type- and patient-specific manner.

  7. ALK1 signaling inhibits angiogenesis by cooperating with the Notch pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrivée, Bruno; Prahst, Claudia; Gordon, Emma; del Toro, Raquel; Mathivet, Thomas; Duarte, Antonio; Simons, Michael; Eichmann, Anne

    2012-03-13

    Activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1) is an endothelial-specific member of the TGF-β/BMP receptor family that is inactivated in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). How ALK1 signaling regulates angiogenesis remains incompletely understood. Here we show that ALK1 inhibits angiogenesis by cooperating with the Notch pathway. Blocking Alk1 signaling during postnatal development in mice leads to retinal hypervascularization and the appearance of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Combined blockade of Alk1 and Notch signaling further exacerbates hypervascularization, whereas activation of Alk1 by its high-affinity ligand BMP9 rescues hypersprouting induced by Notch inhibition. Mechanistically, ALK1-dependent SMAD signaling synergizes with activated Notch in stalk cells to induce expression of the Notch targets HEY1 and HEY2, thereby repressing VEGF signaling, tip cell formation, and endothelial sprouting. Taken together, these results uncover a direct link between ALK1 and Notch signaling during vascular morphogenesis that may be relevant to the pathogenesis of HHT vascular lesions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sonic hedgehog promotes somitic chondrogenesis by altering the cellular response to BMP signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Murtaugh, L. Charles; Chyung, Jay H.; Lassar, Andrew B.

    1999-01-01

    Previous work has indicated that signals from the floor plate and notochord promote chondrogenesis of the somitic mesoderm. These tissues, acting through the secreted signaling molecule Sonic hedgehog (Shh), appear to be critical for the formation of the sclerotome. Later steps in the differentiation of sclerotome into cartilage may be independent of the influence of these axial tissues. Although the signals involved in these later steps have not yet been pinpointed, there is substantial evid...

  9. Hedgehog signaling pathway in neuroblastoma differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souzaki, Ryota; Tajiri, Tatsuro; Souzaki, Masae; Kinoshita, Yoshiaki; Tanaka, Sakura; Kohashi, Kenichi; Oda, Yoshinao; Katano, Mitsuo; Taguchi, Tomoaki

    2010-12-01

    The hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is activated in some adult cancers. On the other hand, the Hh signaling pathway plays an important role in the development of the neural crest in embryos. The aim of this study is to show the activation of Hh signaling pathway in neuroblastoma (NB), a pediatric malignancy arising from neural crest cells, and to reveal the meaning of the Hh signaling pathway in NB development. This study analyzed the expression of Sonic hedgehog (Shh), GLI1, and Patched 1 (Ptch1), transactivators of Hh signaling pathway, by immunohistochemistry in 82 NB and 10 ganglioneuroblastoma cases. All 92 cases were evaluated for the status of MYCN amplification. Of the 92 cases, 67 (73%) were positive for Shh, 62 cases (67%) were positive for GLI1, and 73 cases (79%) were positive for Ptch1. Only 2 (10%) of the 20 cases with MYCN amplification were positive for Shh and GLI1, and 4 cases (20%) were positive for Ptch1 (MYCN amplification vs no MYCN amplification, P ≦ .01). The percentage of GLI1-positive cells in the cases with INSS stage 1 without MYCN amplification was significantly higher than that with INSS stage 4. Of 72 cases without MYCN amplification, 60 were GLI1-positive. Twelve cases were GLI1-negative, and the prognosis of the GLI1-positive cases was significantly better than that of the GLI1-negative cases (P = .015). Most of NBs without MYCN amplification were positive for Shh, GLI1, and Ptch1. In the cases without MYCN amplification, the high expression of GLI1 was significantly associated with early clinical stage and a good prognosis of the patients. In contrast to adult cancers, the activation of the Hh signaling pathway in NB may be associated with the differentiation of the NB. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Expressional and functional analyses of transcription factors activated by BMP-4s signaling in early xenopus embryo; BMP-4 shigunaru dentatsu kiko to sono hyoteki kakunai tensha inshi ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeno, Mitsugu [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1998-12-16

    The expression and physiological function of two transcription factors, GATA-2 and Xmsx-1, in amphibian embryos has been analyzed. The expression of these mRNAs in embryonic cells were firmly regulated by the BMP-4 signaling, that plays a central role in the formation of ventral tissues. The microinjection studies of GATA-2 RNA into embryonic cells suggested that this factor functions in two adjacent germ layers, mesoderm and ectoderm, to participate in blood cell formation in ventral area of embryo. Embryos injected with Xmsx-1 RNA, but not with GATA-2, in dorsal blastomeres exhibited a ventralized phenotype, with microcephaly and swollen abdomen. Thus, Xmsx-1 is a ventralizing agent. However, on the basis of molecular marker analyses, Xmsx-1 did not promote erythropoietic differentiation, but promoted muscle tissue formation. It has been concluded that Xmsx-1 si a target transcription factor of the BMP-4 signaling, but possesses a distinct activity on dorso-ventral patterning of mesodermal tissues. (author)

  11. A SHH-FOXF1-BMP4 signaling axis regulating growth and differentiation of epithelial and mesenchymal tissues in ureter development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Bohnenpoll

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The differentiated cell types of the epithelial and mesenchymal tissue compartments of the mature ureter of the mouse arise in a precise temporal and spatial sequence from uncommitted precursor cells of the distal ureteric bud epithelium and its surrounding mesenchyme. Previous genetic efforts identified a member of the Hedgehog (HH family of secreted proteins, Sonic hedgehog (SHH as a crucial epithelial signal for growth and differentiation of the ureteric mesenchyme. Here, we used conditional loss- and gain-of-function experiments of the unique HH signal transducer Smoothened (SMO to further characterize the cellular functions and unravel the effector genes of HH signaling in ureter development. We showed that HH signaling is not only required for proliferation and SMC differentiation of cells of the inner mesenchymal region but also for survival of cells of the outer mesenchymal region, and for epithelial proliferation and differentiation. We identified the Forkhead transcription factor gene Foxf1 as a target of HH signaling in the ureteric mesenchyme. Expression of a repressor version of FOXF1 in this tissue completely recapitulated the mesenchymal and epithelial proliferation and differentiation defects associated with loss of HH signaling while re-expression of a wildtype version of FOXF1 in the inner mesenchymal layer restored these cellular programs when HH signaling was inhibited. We further showed that expression of Bmp4 in the ureteric mesenchyme depends on HH signaling and Foxf1, and that exogenous BMP4 rescued cell proliferation and epithelial differentiation in ureters with abrogated HH signaling or FOXF1 function. We conclude that SHH uses a FOXF1-BMP4 module to coordinate the cellular programs for ureter elongation and differentiation, and suggest that deregulation of this signaling axis occurs in human congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT.

  12. A SHH-FOXF1-BMP4 signaling axis regulating growth and differentiation of epithelial and mesenchymal tissues in ureter development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnenpoll, Tobias; Wittern, Anna B; Mamo, Tamrat M; Weiss, Anna-Carina; Rudat, Carsten; Kleppa, Marc-Jens; Schuster-Gossler, Karin; Wojahn, Irina; Lüdtke, Timo H-W; Trowe, Mark-Oliver; Kispert, Andreas

    2017-08-01

    The differentiated cell types of the epithelial and mesenchymal tissue compartments of the mature ureter of the mouse arise in a precise temporal and spatial sequence from uncommitted precursor cells of the distal ureteric bud epithelium and its surrounding mesenchyme. Previous genetic efforts identified a member of the Hedgehog (HH) family of secreted proteins, Sonic hedgehog (SHH) as a crucial epithelial signal for growth and differentiation of the ureteric mesenchyme. Here, we used conditional loss- and gain-of-function experiments of the unique HH signal transducer Smoothened (SMO) to further characterize the cellular functions and unravel the effector genes of HH signaling in ureter development. We showed that HH signaling is not only required for proliferation and SMC differentiation of cells of the inner mesenchymal region but also for survival of cells of the outer mesenchymal region, and for epithelial proliferation and differentiation. We identified the Forkhead transcription factor gene Foxf1 as a target of HH signaling in the ureteric mesenchyme. Expression of a repressor version of FOXF1 in this tissue completely recapitulated the mesenchymal and epithelial proliferation and differentiation defects associated with loss of HH signaling while re-expression of a wildtype version of FOXF1 in the inner mesenchymal layer restored these cellular programs when HH signaling was inhibited. We further showed that expression of Bmp4 in the ureteric mesenchyme depends on HH signaling and Foxf1, and that exogenous BMP4 rescued cell proliferation and epithelial differentiation in ureters with abrogated HH signaling or FOXF1 function. We conclude that SHH uses a FOXF1-BMP4 module to coordinate the cellular programs for ureter elongation and differentiation, and suggest that deregulation of this signaling axis occurs in human congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT).

  13. Gene Expression Profile Reveals Abnormalities of Multiple Signaling Pathways in Mesenchymal Stem Cell Derived from Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

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    Yu Tang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to compare bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs between systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and normal controls by means of cDNA microarray, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and immunoblotting. Our results showed there were a total of 1, 905 genes which were differentially expressed by BMMSCs derived from SLE patients, of which, 652 genes were upregulated and 1, 253 were downregulated. Gene ontology (GO analysis showed that the majority of these genes were related to cell cycle and protein binding. Pathway analysis exhibited that differentially regulated signal pathways involved actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesion, tight junction, and TGF-β pathway. The high protein level of BMP-5 and low expression of Id-1 indicated that there might be dysregulation in BMP/TGF-β signaling pathway. The expression of Id-1 in SLE BMMSCs was reversely correlated with serum TNF-α levels. The protein level of cyclin E decreased in the cell cycling regulation pathway. Moreover, the MAPK signaling pathway was activated in BMMSCs from SLE patients via phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and SAPK/JNK. The actin distribution pattern of BMMSCs from SLE patients was also found disordered. Our results suggested that there were distinguished differences of BMMSCs between SLE patients and normal controls.

  14. Id4 functions downstream of Bmp signaling to restrict TCF function in endocardial cells during atrioventricular valve development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Suchit; Dogra, Deepika; Stainier, Didier Y R; Reischauer, Sven

    2016-04-01

    The atrioventricular canal (AVC) connects the atrial and ventricular chambers of the heart and its formation is critical for the development of the cardiac valves, chamber septation and formation of the cardiac conduction system. Consequently, problems in AVC formation can lead to congenital defects ranging from cardiac arrhythmia to incomplete cardiac septation. While our knowledge about early heart tube formation is relatively comprehensive, much remains to be investigated about the genes that regulate AVC formation. Here we identify a new role for the basic helix-loop-helix factor Id4 in zebrafish AVC valve development and function. id4 is first expressed in the AVC endocardium and later becomes more highly expressed in the atrial chamber. TALEN induced inactivation of id4 causes retrograde blood flow at the AV canal under heat induced stress conditions, indicating defects in AV valve function. At the molecular level, we found that id4 inactivation causes misexpression of several genes important for AVC and AV valve formation including bmp4 and spp1. We further show that id4 appears to control the number of endocardial cells that contribute to the AV valves by regulating Wnt signaling in the developing AVC endocardium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Quinoline compound KM11073 enhances BMP-2-dependent osteogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells via activation of p38 signaling and exhibits in vivo bone forming activity.

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    Seung-hwa Baek

    Full Text Available Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2 has been approved by the FDA for clinical application, but its use is limited due to high cost and a supra-physiological dose for therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, recent studies have focused on the generation of new therapeutic small molecules to induce bone formation or potentiate the osteogenic activity of BMP-2. Here, we show that [4-(7-chloroquinolin-4-yl piperazino][1-phenyl-5-(trifluoromethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl]methanone (KM11073 strongly enhances the BMP-2-stimulated induction of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, an early phase biomarker of osteoblast differentiation, in bi-potential mesenchymal progenitor C2C12 cells. The KM11073-mediated ALP induction was inhibited by the BMP antagonist noggin, suggesting that its osteogenic activity occurs via BMP signaling. In addition, a pharmacological inhibition study suggested the involvement of p38 activation in the osteogenic action of KM11073 accompanied by enhanced expression of BMP-2, -6, and -7 mRNA. Furthermore, the in vivo osteogenic activity of KM11073 was confirmed in zebrafish and mouse calvarial bone formation models, suggesting the possibility of its single use for bone formation. In conclusion, the combination of rhBMP-2 with osteogenic small molecules could reduce the use of expensive rhBMP-2, mitigating the undesirable side effects of its supra-physiological dose for therapeutic efficacy. Moreover, due to their inherent physical properties, small molecules could represent the next generation of regenerative medicine.

  16. The Fog signaling pathway: Insights into signaling in morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Alyssa J.; Rogers, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Epithelia form the building blocks of many tissue and organ types. Epithelial cells often form a contiguous 2-dimensional sheet that is held together by strong adhesions. The mechanical properties conferred by these adhesions allow the cells to undergo dramatic three-dimensional morphogenetic movements while maintaining cell–cell contacts during embryogenesis and post-embryonic development. The Drosophila Folded gastrulation pathway triggers epithelial cell shape changes that drive gastrulation and tissue folding and is one of the most extensively studied examples of epithelial morphogenesis. This pathway has yielded key insights into the signaling mechanisms and cellular machinery involved in epithelial remodeling. In this review, we discuss principles of morphogenesis and signaling that have been discovered through genetic and cell biological examination of this pathway. We also consider various regulatory mechanisms and the system's relevance to mammalian development. We propose future directions that will continue to broaden our knowledge of morphogenesis across taxa. PMID:25127992

  17. CXXC5 is a novel BMP4-regulated modulator of Wnt signaling in neural stem cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Andersson, T.; Södersten, E.; Duckworth, J.K.; Cascante, A.; Fritz, N.; Sacchetti, P.; Červenka, I.; Bryja, Vítězslav; Hermanson, O.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 284, č. 6 (2008), s. 3672-3681 ISSN 0021-9258 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB501630801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : Wnt signaling * CXXC5 * neural stem cells Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 5.520, year: 2008

  18. Activin A inhibits BMP-signaling by binding ACVR2A and ACVR2B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Oddrun Elise; Wader, Karin Fahl; Hella, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Activins are members of the TGF-β family of ligands that have multiple biological functions in embryonic stem cells as well as in differentiated tissue. Serum levels of activin A were found to be elevated in pathological conditions such as cachexia, osteoporosis and cancer. Signaling...

  19. 3-OST-7 regulates BMP-dependent cardiac contraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiela C Samson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The 3-O-sulfotransferase (3-OST family catalyzes rare modifications of glycosaminoglycan chains on heparan sulfate proteoglycans, yet their biological functions are largely unknown. Knockdown of 3-OST-7 in zebrafish uncouples cardiac ventricular contraction from normal calcium cycling and electrophysiology by reducing tropomyosin4 (tpm4 expression. Normal 3-OST-7 activity prevents the expansion of BMP signaling into ventricular myocytes, and ectopic activation of BMP mimics the ventricular noncontraction phenotype seen in 3-OST-7 depleted embryos. In 3-OST-7 morphants, ventricular contraction can be rescued by overexpression of tropomyosin tpm4 but not by troponin tnnt2, indicating that tpm4 serves as a lynchpin for ventricular sarcomere organization downstream of 3-OST-7. Contraction can be rescued by expression of 3-OST-7 in endocardium, or by genetic loss of bmp4. Strikingly, BMP misregulation seen in 3-OST-7 morphants also occurs in multiple cardiac noncontraction models, including potassium voltage-gated channel gene, kcnh2, affected in Romano-Ward syndrome and long-QT syndrome, and cardiac troponin T gene, tnnt2, affected in human cardiomyopathies. Together these results reveal 3-OST-7 as a key component of a novel pathway that constrains BMP signaling from ventricular myocytes, coordinates sarcomere assembly, and promotes cardiac contractile function.

  20. Signaling Pathways in Cardiac Myocyte Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Peng; Liu, Yuening

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, the number 1 cause of death worldwide, are frequently associated with apoptotic death of cardiac myocytes. Since cardiomyocyte apoptosis is a highly regulated process, pharmacological intervention of apoptosis pathways may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for a number of cardiovascular diseases and disorders including myocardial infarction, ischemia/reperfusion injury, chemotherapy cardiotoxicity, and end-stage heart failure. Despite rapid growth of our knowledge in apoptosis signaling pathways, a clinically applicable treatment targeting this cellular process is currently unavailable. To help identify potential innovative directions for future research, it is necessary to have a full understanding of the apoptotic pathways currently known to be functional in cardiac myocytes. Here, we summarize recent progress in the regulation of cardiomyocyte apoptosis by multiple signaling molecules and pathways, with a focus on the involvement of these pathways in the pathogenesis of heart disease. In addition, we provide an update regarding bench to bedside translation of this knowledge and discuss unanswered questions that need further investigation. PMID:28101515

  1. Purinergic signaling pathways in endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelobaba, Ivana; Janjic, Marija M; Stojilkovic, Stanko S

    2015-09-01

    Adenosine-5'-triphosphate is released by neuroendocrine, endocrine, and other cell types and acts as an extracellular agonist for ligand-gated P2X cationic channels and G protein-coupled P2Y receptors in numerous organs and tissues, including the endocrine system. The breakdown of ATP by ectonucleotidases not only terminates its extracellular messenger functions, but also provides a pathway for the generation of two additional agonists: adenosine 5'-diphosphate, acting via some P2Y receptors, and adenosine, a native agonist for G protein-coupled adenosine receptors, also expressed in the endocrine system. This article provides a review of purinergic signaling pathways in the hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory cells and neurohypophysis, hypothalamic parvocellular neuroendocrine system, adenohypophysis, and effector glands organized in five axes: hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, hypothalamic-pituitary-growth hormone, and hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin. We attempted to summarize current knowledge of purinergic receptor subtypes expressed in the endocrine system, including their roles in intracellular signaling, hormone secretion, and other cell functions. We also briefly review the release mechanism for adenosine-5'-triphosphate by neuroendocrine, endocrine and surrounding cells, the enzymes involved in adenosine-5'-triphosphate hydrolysis to adenosine-5'-diphosphate and adenosine, and the relevance of this pathway for sequential activation of receptors and termination of signaling. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Purinergic Signaling Pathways in Endocrine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelobaba, Ivana; Janjic, Marija M.; Stojilkovic, Stanko S.

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine-5′-triphosphate is released by neuroendocrine, endocrine, and other cell types and acts as an extracellular agonist for ligand-gated P2X cationic channels and G protein-coupled P2Y receptors in numerous organs and tissues, including the endocrine system. The breakdown of ATP by ectonucleotidases not only terminates its extracellular messenger functions, but also provides a pathway for the generation of two additional agonists: adenosine 5′-diphosphate, acting via some P2Y receptors, and adenosine, a native agonist for G protein-coupled adenosine receptors, also expressed in the endocrine system. This article provides a review of purinergic signaling pathways in the hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory cells and neurohypophysis, hypothalamic parvocellular neuroendocrine system, adenohypophysis, and effector glands organized in five axes: hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, hypothalamic-pituitary-growth hormone, and hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin. We attempted to summarize current knowledge of purinergic receptor subtypes expressed in the endocrine system, including their roles in intracellular signaling, hormone secretion, and other cell functions. We also briefly review the release mechanism for adenosine-5′-triphosphate by neuroendocrine, endocrine and surrounding cells, the enzymes involved in adenosine-5′-triphosphate hydrolysis to adenosine-5′-diphosphate and adenosine, and the relevance of this pathway for sequential activation of receptors and termination of signaling. PMID:25960051

  3. Strontium doping promotes bioactivity of rhBMP-2 upon calcium phosphate cement via elevated recognition and expression of BMPR-IA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Baolin; Tian, Yu; Zhang, Wenjing; Ma, Yifan; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Changsheng

    2017-11-01

    Preserving and improving osteogenic activity of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) upon implants remains one of the key limitations in bone regeneration. With calcium phosphate cement (CPC) as model, we have developed a series of strontium (Sr)-doped CPC (SCPC) to address this issue. The effects of fixed Sr on the bioactivity of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) as well as the underlying mechanism were investigated. The results suggested that the rhBMP-2-induced osteogenic activity was significantly promoted upon SCPCs, especially with a low amount of fixed Sr (SrCO 3 content IA (BMPR-IA) to rhBMP-2 and an increased expression of BMPR-IA in C2C12 model cells. As a result, the activations of BMP-induced signaling pathways were different in C2C12 cells incubated upon CPC/rhBMP-2 and SCPCs/rhBMP-2. These findings explicitly decipher the mechanism of SCPCs promoting osteogenic bioactivity of rhBMP-2 and signify the promising application of the SCPCs/rhBMP-2 matrix in bone regeneration implants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Drosophila motor neuron retraction during metamorphosis is mediated by inputs from TGF-β/BMP signaling and orphan nuclear receptors.

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    Ana Boulanger

    Full Text Available Larval motor neurons remodel during Drosophila neuro-muscular junction dismantling at metamorphosis. In this study, we describe the motor neuron retraction as opposed to degeneration based on the early disappearance of β-Spectrin and the continuing presence of Tubulin. By blocking cell dynamics with a dominant-negative form of Dynamin, we show that phagocytes have a key role in this process. Importantly, we show the presence of peripheral glial cells close to the neuro-muscular junction that retracts before the motor neuron. We show also that in muscle, expression of EcR-B1 encoding the steroid hormone receptor required for postsynaptic dismantling, is under the control of the ftz-f1/Hr39 orphan nuclear receptor pathway but not the TGF-β signaling pathway. In the motor neuron, activation of EcR-B1 expression by the two parallel pathways (TGF-β signaling and nuclear receptor triggers axon retraction. We propose that a signal from a TGF-β family ligand is produced by the dismantling muscle (postsynapse compartment and received by the motor neuron (presynaptic compartment resulting in motor neuron retraction. The requirement of the two pathways in the motor neuron provides a molecular explanation for the instructive role of the postsynapse degradation on motor neuron retraction. This mechanism insures the temporality of the two processes and prevents motor neuron pruning before postsynaptic degradation.

  5. Drosophila motor neuron retraction during metamorphosis is mediated by inputs from TGF-β/BMP signaling and orphan nuclear receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, Ana; Farge, Morgane; Ramanoudjame, Christophe; Wharton, Kristi; Dura, Jean-Maurice

    2012-01-01

    Larval motor neurons remodel during Drosophila neuro-muscular junction dismantling at metamorphosis. In this study, we describe the motor neuron retraction as opposed to degeneration based on the early disappearance of β-Spectrin and the continuing presence of Tubulin. By blocking cell dynamics with a dominant-negative form of Dynamin, we show that phagocytes have a key role in this process. Importantly, we show the presence of peripheral glial cells close to the neuro-muscular junction that retracts before the motor neuron. We show also that in muscle, expression of EcR-B1 encoding the steroid hormone receptor required for postsynaptic dismantling, is under the control of the ftz-f1/Hr39 orphan nuclear receptor pathway but not the TGF-β signaling pathway. In the motor neuron, activation of EcR-B1 expression by the two parallel pathways (TGF-β signaling and nuclear receptor) triggers axon retraction. We propose that a signal from a TGF-β family ligand is produced by the dismantling muscle (postsynapse compartment) and received by the motor neuron (presynaptic compartment) resulting in motor neuron retraction. The requirement of the two pathways in the motor neuron provides a molecular explanation for the instructive role of the postsynapse degradation on motor neuron retraction. This mechanism insures the temporality of the two processes and prevents motor neuron pruning before postsynaptic degradation.

  6. MiR-22 Suppresses BMP7 in the Development of Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Ji

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: New strategies for the prevention and treatment of cirrhosis are urgently needed for improving therapeutic outcome. A role of microRNAs (miRNAs in the pathogenesis of cirrhosis has been recently acknowledged, whereas the exact involved miRNAs as well as the associated molecular signaling pathways have not been determined. Specifically, the studies on the relationship between miR-22 and bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP7 in the development of cirrhosis are lacking. Methods: We examined the correlation of the levels of miR-22 and bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP7 in the liver biopsies from patients with cirrhosis. We examined overexpression or suppression of miR-22 on BMP7 in hepatocytes. We examined the binding of miR-22 to the 3'-UTR of BMP7 mRNA. Finally, in a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced cirrhosis model in mice, we gave mice adeno-associated viruses carrying antisense of miR-22, and examined its effects on BMP7 levels and the hallmarks of cirrhosis. Results: The levels of miR-22 and BMP7 in the liver biopsies from patients were strongly and inversely correlated. MiR-22 inhibited BMP7 expression in hepatocytes, through directly binding the 3'-UTR of BMP7 mRNA. Expression of antisense miR-22 significantly attenuated the levels of liver fibrosis, portal hypertension and sodium retention caused by CCl4, possibly through upregulation of BMP7. Conclusions: MiR-22 promotes the development of cirrhosis through BMP7 suppression.

  7. Insulin signaling pathways in lepidopteran steroidogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy eSmith

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Molting and metamorphosis are stimulated by the secretion of ecdysteroid hormones from the prothoracic glands. Insulin-like hormones have been found to enhance prothoracic gland activity, providing a mechanism to link molting to nutritional state. In silk moths (Bombyx mori, the prothoracic glands are directly stimulated by insulin and the insulin-like hormone bombyxin. Further, in Bombyx , the neuropeptide prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH appears to act at least in part through the insulin-signaling pathway. In the prothoracic glands of Manduca sexta, while insulin stimulates the phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and Akt, neither insulin nor bombyxin II stimulate ecdysone secretion. Involvement of the insulin-signaling pathway in Manduca prothoracic glands was explored using two inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K, LY294002 and wortmannin. PI3K inhibitors block the phosphorylation of Akt and 4EBP but have no effect on ecdysone secretion, or on the phosphorylation of the MAPkinase, ERK. Inhibitors that block phosphorylation of ERK, including the MEK inhibitor U0126, and high doses of the RSK inhibitor SL0101, effectively inhibit ecdysone secretion. The results highlight differences between the two lepidopteran insects most commonly used to directly study ecdysteroid secretion. In Bombyx, the PTTH and insulin-signaling pathways intersect; both insulin and PTTH enhance the phosphorylation of Akt and stimulate ecdysteroid secretion, and inhibition of PI3K reduces ecdysteroid secretion. By contrast, in Manduca, the action of PTTH is distinct from insulin. The results highlight species differences in the roles of translational regulators such as 4EBP, and members of the MAPkinase pathway such as ERK and RSK, in the effects of nutritionally-sensitive hormones such as insulin on ecdysone secretion and molting.

  8. BMP7 and SHH regulate Pax2 in mouse retinal astrocytes by relieving TLX repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Rachna; Sheibani, Nader; Rhodes, Simon J; Belecky Adams, Teri L

    2009-08-15

    Pax2 is essential for development of the neural tube, urogenital system, optic vesicle, optic cup and optic tract. In the eye, Pax2 deficiency is associated with coloboma, a loss of astrocytes in the optic nerve and retina, and abnormal axonal pathfinding of the ganglion cell axons at the optic chiasm. Thus, appropriate expression of Pax2 is essential for astrocyte determination and differentiation. Although BMP7 and SHH have been shown to regulate Pax2 expression, the molecular mechanism by which this regulation occurs is not well understood. In this study, we determined that BMP7 and SHH activate Pax2 expression in mouse retinal astrocyte precursors in vitro. SHH appeared to play a dual role in Pax2 regulation; 1) SHH may regulate BMP7 expression, and 2) the SHH pathway cooperates with the BMP pathway to regulate Pax2 expression. BMP and SHH pathway members can interact separately or together with TLX, a repressor protein in the tailless transcription factor family. Here we show that the interaction of both pathways with TLX relieves the repression of Pax2 expression in mouse retinal astrocytes. Together these data reveal a new mechanism for the cooperative actions of signaling pathways in astrocyte determination and differentiation and suggest interactions of regulatory pathways that are applicable to other developmental programs.

  9. A BMP7 Variant Inhibits Tumor Angiogenesis In Vitro and In Vivo through Direct Modulation of Endothelial Cell Biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney M Tate

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs, members of the TGF-β superfamily, have numerous biological activities including control of growth, differentiation, and vascular development. Using an in vitro co-culture endothelial cord formation assay, we investigated the role of a BMP7 variant (BMP7v in VEGF, bFGF, and tumor-driven angiogenesis. BMP7v treatment led to disruption of neo-endothelial cord formation and regression of existing VEGF and bFGF cords in vitro. Using a series of tumor cell models capable of driving angiogenesis in vitro, BMP7v treatment completely blocked cord formation. Pre-treatment of endothelial cells with BMP7v significantly reduced their cord forming ability, indicating a direct effect on endothelial cell function. BMP7v activated the canonical SMAD signaling pathway in endothelial cells but targeted gene knockdown using shRNA directed against SMAD4 suggests this pathway is not required to mediate the anti-angiogenic effect. In contrast to SMAD activation, BMP7v selectively decreased ERK and AKT activation, significantly decreased endothelial cell migration and down-regulated expression of critical RTKs involved in VEGF and FGF angiogenic signaling, VEGFR2 and FGFR1 respectively. Importantly, in an in vivo angiogenic plug assay that serves as a measurement of angiogenesis, BMP7v significantly decreased hemoglobin content indicating inhibition of neoangiogenesis. In addition, BMP7v significantly decreased angiogenesis in glioblastoma stem-like cell (GSLC Matrigel plugs and significantly impaired in vivo growth of a GSLC xenograft with a concomitant reduction in microvessel density. These data support BMP7v as a potent anti-angiogenic molecule that is effective in the context of tumor angiogenesis.

  10. A BMP7 Variant Inhibits Tumor Angiogenesis In Vitro and In Vivo through Direct Modulation of Endothelial Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Courtney M; Mc Entire, Jacquelyn; Pallini, Roberto; Vakana, Eliza; Wyss, Lisa; Blosser, Wayne; Ricci-Vitiani, Lucia; D'Alessandris, Quintino Giorgio; Morgante, Liliana; Giannetti, Stefano; Larocca, Luigi Maria; Todaro, Matilde; Benfante, Antonina; Colorito, Maria Luisa; Stassi, Giorgio; De Maria, Ruggero; Rowlinson, Scott; Stancato, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), members of the TGF-β superfamily, have numerous biological activities including control of growth, differentiation, and vascular development. Using an in vitro co-culture endothelial cord formation assay, we investigated the role of a BMP7 variant (BMP7v) in VEGF, bFGF, and tumor-driven angiogenesis. BMP7v treatment led to disruption of neo-endothelial cord formation and regression of existing VEGF and bFGF cords in vitro. Using a series of tumor cell models capable of driving angiogenesis in vitro, BMP7v treatment completely blocked cord formation. Pre-treatment of endothelial cells with BMP7v significantly reduced their cord forming ability, indicating a direct effect on endothelial cell function. BMP7v activated the canonical SMAD signaling pathway in endothelial cells but targeted gene knockdown using shRNA directed against SMAD4 suggests this pathway is not required to mediate the anti-angiogenic effect. In contrast to SMAD activation, BMP7v selectively decreased ERK and AKT activation, significantly decreased endothelial cell migration and down-regulated expression of critical RTKs involved in VEGF and FGF angiogenic signaling, VEGFR2 and FGFR1 respectively. Importantly, in an in vivo angiogenic plug assay that serves as a measurement of angiogenesis, BMP7v significantly decreased hemoglobin content indicating inhibition of neoangiogenesis. In addition, BMP7v significantly decreased angiogenesis in glioblastoma stem-like cell (GSLC) Matrigel plugs and significantly impaired in vivo growth of a GSLC xenograft with a concomitant reduction in microvessel density. These data support BMP7v as a potent anti-angiogenic molecule that is effective in the context of tumor angiogenesis.

  11. Combined Inhibition of the BMP pathway and the RANK-RANKL axis in a Mixed Lytic/blastic Prostate Cancer Lesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virk, Mandeep S.; Alaee, Farhang; Petrigliano, Frank A.; Sugiyama, Osamu; Chatziioannou, Arion F.; Stout, David; Dougall, William C.; Lieberman, Jay R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of combined inhibition of RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) activity in a mixed lytic/blastic prostate cancer lesion in bone. Human prostate cancer cells (C4 2b) were injected into immunocompromised mice using an intratibial injection model to create mixed lytic/blastic lesions. RANK-Fc, a recombinant RANKL antagonist, was injected subcutaneously three times a week (10mg/kg) to inhibit RANKL and subsequent formation, function and survival of osteoclasts. Inhibition of BMP activity was achieved by transducing prostate cancer cells ex vivo with a retroviral vector expressing noggin (retronoggin; RN). There were three treatment groups (RANK-Fc treatment, RN treatment and combined RN and RANK-Fc treatment) and two control groups (untreated control and empty vector control for the RN treatment group). The progression of bone lesion and tumor growth was evaluated using plain radiographs, hind limb tumor size, 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose and 18F-fluoride micro PET-CT, histology and histomorphometry. Treatment with RANK-Fc alone inhibited osteolysis and transformed a mixed lytic/blastic lesion into an osteoblastic phenotype. Treatment with RN alone inhibited the osteoblastic component in a mixed lytic/blastic lesion and resulted in formation of smaller osteolytic bone lesion with smaller soft tissue size. The animals treated with both RN and RANK-Fc demonstrated delayed development of bone lesions, inhibition of osteolysis, small soft tissue tumors and preservation of bone architecture with less tumor induced new bone formation. This study suggests that combined inhibition of the RANKL and the BMP pathway may be an effective biologic therapy to inhibit the progression of established mixed lytic/blastic prostate cancer lesions in bone. PMID:21073986

  12. Interleukin 4 signals through two related pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernis, A; Witthuhn, B; Keegan, A D; Nelms, K; Garfein, E; Ihle, J N; Paul, W E; Pierce, J H; Rothman, P

    1995-08-15

    The interleukin 4 (IL-4) signaling pathway involves activation, by tyrosine phosphorylation, of two distinct substrates, a signal-transducing factor (STF-IL4) and the IL-4-induced phosphotyrosine substrate (4PS). It is not known whether the IL-4-mediated activation of these substrates occurs via related or distinct signaling pathways. We report that 32D cells, an IL-3-dependent myeloid progenitor cell line in which no phosphorylated 4PS is found, activate high levels of STF-IL4 in response to IL-4. Consistent with the known requirement for 4PS or insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) in IL-4-mediated mitogenesis, activation of STF-IL4 in 32D cells is not sufficient for IL-4-inducible c-myc expression. In addition, we have examined the ability of 32D cells transfected with different truncation mutants of the human IL-4 receptor to activate Jak-3 kinase and STF-IL4 in response to human IL-4. As in the case of 4PS/IRS-1, we have found that activation of both Jak-3 and STF-IL4 requires the presence of the IL-4 receptor region comprising aa 437-557. The finding that the same region of the IL-4 receptor is required for the induction of both 4PS/IRS-1 and STF-IL4 suggests that the IL-4-stimulated activation of these two substrates might involve common factors.

  13. Signaling pathways in a Citrus EST database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mehta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus spp. are economically important crops, which in Brazil are grown mainly in the State of São Paulo. Citrus cultures are attacked by several pathogens, causing severe yield losses. In order to better understand this culture, the Millenium Project (IAC Cordeirópolis was launched in order to sequence Citrus ESTs (expressed sequence tags from different tissues, including leaf, bark, fruit, root and flower. Plants were submitted to biotic and abiotic stresses and investigated under different development stages (adult vs. juvenile. Several cDNA libraries were constructed and the sequences obtained formed the Citrus ESTs database with almost 200,000 sequences. Searches were performed in the Citrus database to investigate the presence of different signaling pathway components. Several of the genes involved in the signaling of sugar, calcium, cytokinin, plant hormones, inositol phosphate, MAPKinase and COP9 were found in the citrus genome and are discussed in this paper. The results obtained may indicate that similar mechanisms described in other plants, such as Arabidopsis, occur in citrus. Further experimental studies must be conducted in order to understand the different signaling pathways present.

  14. BMP Sustains Embryonic Stem Cell Self-Renewal through Distinct Functions of Different Krüppel-like Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Masato; Koinuma, Daizo; Mizutani, Anna; Kawasaki, Natsumi; Holmborn, Katarina; Sundqvist, Anders; Tsutsumi, Shuichi; Watabe, Tetsuro; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Heldin, Carl-Henrik; Miyazono, Kohei

    2016-01-12

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling exerts paradoxical roles in pluripotent stem cells (PSCs); it sustains self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), while it induces differentiation in other PSCs, including human ESCs. Here, we revisit the roles of BMP-4 using mouse ESCs (mESCs) in naive and primed states. SMAD1 and SMAD5, which transduce BMP signals, recognize enhancer regions together with KLF4 and KLF5 in naive mESCs. KLF4 physically interacts with SMAD1 and suppresses its activity. Consistently, a subpopulation of cells with active BMP-SMAD can be ablated without disturbing the naive state of the culture. Moreover, Smad1/5 double-knockout mESCs stay in the naive state, indicating that the BMP-SMAD pathway is dispensable for it. In contrast, the MEK5-ERK5 pathway mediates BMP-4-induced self-renewal of mESCs by inducing Klf2, a critical factor for the ground state pluripotency. Our study illustrates that BMP exerts its self-renewing effect through distinct functions of different Krüppel-like factors. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Non-Smad pathways in TGF-β signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ying E

    2009-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β utilizes a multitude of intracellular signaling pathways in addition to Smads to regulate a wide array of cellular functions. These non-canonical, non-Smad pathways are activated directly by ligand-occupied receptors to reinforce, attenuate, or otherwise modulate downstream cellular responses. These non-Smad pathways include various branches of MAP kinase pathways, Rho-like GTPase signaling pathways, and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/AKT pathways. This review focu...

  16. DMPD: When signaling pathways collide: positive and negative regulation of toll-likereceptor signal transduction. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18631453 When signaling pathways collide: positive and negative regulation of toll-...uction. PubmedID 18631453 Title When signaling pathways collide: positive and neg...l) Show When signaling pathways collide: positive and negative regulation of toll-likereceptor signal transd...likereceptor signal transduction. O'Neill LA. Immunity. 2008 Jul 18;29(1):12-20. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csm

  17. Diverse bone morphogenetic protein expression profiles and smad pathway activation in different phenotypes of experimental canine mammary tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Wensman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: BMPs are currently receiving attention for their role in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Currently, most BMP expression studies are performed on carcinomas, and not much is known about the situation in sarcomas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have investigated the BMP expression profiles and Smad activation in clones from different spontaneous canine mammary tumors. Spindle cell tumor and osteosarcoma clones expressed high levels of BMPs, in particular BMP-2, -4 and -6. Clones from a scirrhous carcinoma expressed much lower BMP levels. The various clones formed different tumor types in nude mice but only clones that expressed high levels of BMP-6 gave bone formation. Phosphorylated Smad-1/5, located in the nucleus, was detected in tumors derived from clones expressing high levels of BMPs, indicating an active BMP signaling pathway and BMP-2 stimulation of mammary tumor cell clones in vitro resulted in activation of the Smad-1/5 pathway. In contrast BMP-2 stimulation did not induce phosphorylation of the non-Smad pathway p38 MAPK. Interestingly, an increased level of the BMP-antagonist chordin-like 1 was detected after BMP stimulation of non-bone forming clones. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the specific BMP expression repertoire differs substantially between different types of mammary tumors and that BMP-6 expression most probably has a biological role in bone formation of canine mammary tumors.

  18. DMPD: Regulation of mitochondrial antiviral signaling pathways. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18549796 Regulation of mitochondrial antiviral signaling pathways. Moore CB, Ting J...P. Immunity. 2008 Jun;28(6):735-9. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Regulation of mitochondrial antiviral ...signaling pathways. PubmedID 18549796 Title Regulation of mitochondrial antiviral signaling pathways. Author

  19. DMPD: Signaling pathways activated by microorganisms. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17303405 Signaling pathways activated by microorganisms. Takeuchi O, Akira S. Curr ...Opin Cell Biol. 2007 Apr;19(2):185-91. Epub 2007 Feb 15. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Signaling pathways activated by microorg...anisms. PubmedID 17303405 Title Signaling pathways activated by microorganisms. Auth

  20. Rapamycin inhibits BMP-7-induced osteogenic and lipogenic marker expressions in fetal rat calvarial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Lee-Chuan C; Ma, Xiuye; Ford, Jeffery J; Adamo, Martin L; Lee, John C

    2013-08-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) promote osteoblast differentiation and bone formation in vitro and in vivo. BMPs canonically signal through Smad transcription factors, but BMPs may activate signaling pathways traditionally stimulated by growth factor tyrosine kinase receptors. Of these, the mTOR pathway has received considerable attention because BMPs activate P70S6K, a downstream effector of mTOR, suggesting that BMP-induced osteogenesis is mediated by mTOR activation. However, contradictory effects of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin (RAPA) on bone formation have been reported. Since bone formation is thought to be inversely related to lipid accumulation and mTOR is also important for lipid synthesis, we postulated that BMP-7 may stimulate lipogenic enzyme expression in a RAPA-sensitive mechanism. To test this hypothesis, we determined the effects of RAPA on BMP-7-stimulated expression of osteogenic and lipogenic markers in cultured fetal rat calvarial cells. Our study showed that BMP-7 promoted the expression of osteogenic and lipogenic markers. The effect of BMP-7 on osteogenic markers was greater in magnitude than on lipogenic markers and was temporally more sustained. RAPA inhibited basal and BMP-7-stimulated osteogenic and lipogenic marker expression and bone nodule mineralization. The acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitor TOFA stimulated the expression of osteoblast differentiation markers, whereas palmitate suppressed their expression. We speculate that the BMP-7-stimulated adipogenesis is part of the normal anabolic response to BMPs, but that inappropriate activation of the lipid biosynthetic pathway by mTOR could have deleterious effects on bone formation and could explain paradoxical effects of RAPA to promote bone formation. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Targeting embryonic signaling pathways in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Pamela Jo; Speranza, Giovanna; Dansky Ullmann, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    The embryonic signaling pathways (ESP), Hedgehog, Notch and Wnt, are critical for the regulation of normal stem cells and cellular development processes. They are also activated in the majority of cancers. ESP are operational in putative cancer stem cells (CSC), which drive initial tumorigenesis and sustain cancer progression and recurrence in non-CSC bulk subpopulations. ESP represent novel therapeutic targets. A variety of inhibitors and targeting strategies are being developed. This review discusses the rationale for targeting ESP for cancer treatment, as well as specific inhibitors under development; mainly focusing on those approaching clinical use and the challenges that lie ahead. The data sources utilized are several database search engines (PubMed, Google, Clinicaltrials.gov), and the authors' involvement in the field. CSC research is rapidly evolving. Expectations regarding their therapeutic targeting are rising quickly. Further definition of what constitutes a true CSC, proper validation of CSC markers, a better understanding of cross-talk among ESP and other pathways, and interactions with tumor non-CSC and the tumor microenvironment are needed. The appropriate patient population, the right clinical setting and combination strategies to test these therapies, as well as the proper pharmacodynamic markers to measure, need to be further established.

  2. CEP128 Localizes to the Subdistal Appendages of the Mother Centriole and Regulates TGF-β/BMP Signaling at the Primary Cilium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mönnich, Maren; Borgeskov, Louise; Breslin, Loretta

    2018-01-01

    The centrosome is the main microtubule-organizing center in animal cells and comprises a mother and daughter centriole surrounded by pericentriolar material. During formation of primary cilia, the mother centriole transforms into a basal body that templates the ciliary axoneme. Ciliogenesis depends...... on mother centriole-specific distal appendages, whereas the role of subdistal appendages in ciliary function is unclear. Here, we identify CEP128 as a centriole subdistal appendage protein required for regulating ciliary signaling. Loss of CEP128 did not grossly affect centrosomal or ciliary structure...... but caused impaired transforming growth factor-β/bone morphogenetic protein (TGF-β/BMP) signaling in zebrafish and at the primary cilium in cultured mammalian cells. This phenotype is likely the result of defective vesicle trafficking at the cilium as ciliary localization of RAB11 was impaired upon loss...

  3. A computational model for BMP movement in sea urchin embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heijster, Peter; Hardway, Heather; Kaper, Tasso J; Bradham, Cynthia A

    2014-12-21

    Bone morphogen proteins (BMPs) are distributed along a dorsal-ventral (DV) gradient in many developing embryos. The spatial distribution of this signaling ligand is critical for correct DV axis specification. In various species, BMP expression is spatially localized, and BMP gradient formation relies on BMP transport, which in turn requires interactions with the extracellular proteins Short gastrulation/Chordin (Chd) and Twisted gastrulation (Tsg). These binding interactions promote BMP movement and concomitantly inhibit BMP signaling. The protease Tolloid (Tld) cleaves Chd, which releases BMP from the complex and permits it to bind the BMP receptor and signal. In sea urchin embryos, BMP is produced in the ventral ectoderm, but signals in the dorsal ectoderm. The transport of BMP from the ventral ectoderm to the dorsal ectoderm in sea urchin embryos is not understood. Therefore, using information from a series of experiments, we adapt the mathematical model of Mizutani et al. (2005) and embed it as the reaction part of a one-dimensional reaction-diffusion model. We use it to study aspects of this transport process in sea urchin embryos. We demonstrate that the receptor-bound BMP concentration exhibits dorsally centered peaks of the same type as those observed experimentally when the ternary transport complex (Chd-Tsg-BMP) forms relatively quickly and BMP receptor binding is relatively slow. Similarly, dorsally centered peaks are created when the diffusivities of BMP, Chd, and Chd-Tsg are relatively low and that of Chd-Tsg-BMP is relatively high, and the model dynamics also suggest that Tld is a principal regulator of the system. At the end of this paper, we briefly compare the observed dynamics in the sea urchin model to a version that applies to the fly embryo, and we find that the same conditions can account for BMP transport in the two types of embryos only if Tld levels are reduced in sea urchin compared to fly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  4. Cerebral insulin, insulin signaling pathway, and brain angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yi; Zhang, Le; Hu, Zhiping

    2016-01-01

    Insulin performs unique non-metabolic functions within the brain. Broadly speaking, two major areas of these functions are those related to brain endothelial cells and the blood-brain barrier (BBB) function, and those related to behavioral effects, like cognition in disease states (Alzheimer's disease, AD) and in health. Recent studies showed that both these functions are associated with brain angiogenesis. These findings raise interesting questions such as how they are linked to each other and whether modifying brain angiogenesis by targeting certain insulin signaling pathways could be an effective strategy to treat dementia as in AD, or even to help secure healthy longevity. The two canonical downstream pathways involved in mediating the insulin signaling pathway, the phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades, in the brain are supposed to be similar to those in the periphery. PI3K and MAPK pathways play important roles in angiogenesis. Both are involved in stimulating hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) in angiogenesis and could be activated by the insulin signaling pathway. This suggests that PI3K and MAPK pathways might act as cross-talk between the insulin signaling pathway and the angiogenesis pathway in brain. But the cerebral insulin, insulin signaling pathway, and the detailed mechanism in the connection of insulin signaling pathway, brain angiogenesis pathway, and healthy aging or dementias are still mostly not clear and need further studies.

  5. DMPD: Signalling pathways mediating type I interferon gene expression. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17904888 Signalling pathways mediating type I interferon gene expression. Edwards M...hways mediating type I interferon gene expression. PubmedID 17904888 Title Signalling pathways...R, Slater L, Johnston SL. Microbes Infect. 2007 Sep;9(11):1245-51. Epub 2007 Jul 1. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Signalling pat

  6. Antagonism between Hedgehog and Wnt signaling pathways regulates tumorigenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Mei; Wang, Xin

    2017-12-01

    The crosstalk of multiple cellular signaling pathways is crucial in animal development and tissue homeostasis, and its dysregulation may result in tumor formation and metastasis. The Hedgehog (Hh) and Wnt signaling pathways are both considered to be essential regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation and oncogenesis. Recent studies have indicated that the Hh and Wnt signaling pathways are closely associated and involved in regulating embryogenesis and cellular differentiation. Hh signaling acts upstream of the Wnt signaling pathway, and negative regulates Wnt activity via secreted frizzled-related protein 1 (SFRP1), and the Wnt/β-catenin pathway downregulates Hh activity through glioma-associated oncogene homolog 3 transcriptional regulation. This evidence suggests that the imbalance of Hh and Wnt regulation serves a crucial role in cancer-associated processes. The activation of SFRP1, which inhibits Wnt, has been demonstrated to be an important cross-point between the two signaling pathways. The present study reviews the complex interaction between the Hh and Wnt signaling pathways in embryogenesis and tumorigenicity, and the role of SFRP1 as an important mediator associated with the dysregulation of the Hh and Wnt signaling pathways.

  7. Research advances in Hedgehog signaling pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Jia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hedgehog (Hh signaling pathway is present in many animals and plays an important role in regulating embryonic development and differentiation. Aberrant activation of Hh signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of many malignancies. Recent studies have shown that dysregulated Hh signaling pathway participates in the tumorigenesis, tumor invasion, and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Investigation of the relationship between Hh signaling pathway and HCC will help elucidate the molecular mechanism of pathogenesis of HCC and provide a new insight into the development of novel anticancer therapy and therapeutic target.

  8. Radioresistance-related signaling pathways in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Ya; Zhu Xiaodong; Qu Song; Su Fang; Wang Qi; Zhang Wei

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the difference of gene expression profile between the radioresistant human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line CNE-2R and CNE-2, and to screen the signaling pathway associated with radioresistance of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: The radioresistant nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line CNE-2R was constructed from the original cell line CNE-2. CNE-2R and CNE-2 cells were cultured and administered with 60 Co γ-ray irradiation at the dose of 400 cGy for 15 times. Human-6v 3.0 whole genome expression profile was used to screen the differentially expressed genes. Bioinformatic analysis was used to identify the pathways related to radioresistance. Results: The number of the differentially expressed genes that were found in these 2 experiments was 374. The Kegg pathway and Biocarta pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes showed the biological importance of Toll-like receptor signaling pathway and IL-1 R-mediated signal transduction pathway to the radioresistance of the CNE-2R cells and the significant differences of 13 genes in these 2 pathways,including JUN, MYD88, CCL5, CXCL10, STAT1, LY96, FOS, CCL3, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1α, IL-1β, and IRAK2 (t=13.47-66.57, P<0.05). Conclusions: Toll-like receptor signaling pathway and IL-1R-mediated signal transduction pathway might be related to the occurrence of radioresistance. (authors)

  9. Twisted gastrulation, a BMP antagonist, exacerbates podocyte injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiko Yamada

    Full Text Available Podocyte injury is the first step in the progression of glomerulosclerosis. Previous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (Bmp7 in podocyte injury and the existence of native Bmp signaling in podocytes. Local activity of Bmp7 is controlled by cell-type specific Bmp antagonists, which inhibit the binding of Bmp7 to its receptors. Here we show that the product of Twisted gastrulation (Twsg1, a Bmp antagonist, is the central negative regulator of Bmp function in podocytes and that Twsg1 null mice are resistant to podocyte injury. Twsg1 was the most abundant Bmp antagonist in murine cultured podocytes. The administration of Bmp induced podocyte differentiation through Smad signaling, whereas the simultaneous administration of Twsg1 antagonized the effect. The administration of Bmp also inhibited podocyte proliferation, whereas simultaneous administration of Twsg1 antagonized the effect. Twsg1 was expressed in the glomerular parietal cells (PECs and distal nephron of the healthy kidney, and additionally in damaged glomerular cells in a murine model of podocyte injury. Twsg1 null mice exhibited milder hypoalbuminemia and hyperlipidemia, and milder histological changes while maintaining the expression of podocyte markers during podocyte injury model. Taken together, our results show that Twsg1 plays a critical role in the modulation of protective action of Bmp7 on podocytes, and that inhibition of Twsg1 is a promising means of development of novel treatment for podocyte injury.

  10. Regulatory role of melatonin and BMP-4 in prolactin production by rat pituitary lactotrope GH3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura-Ochi, Kanako; Fujisawa, Satoshi; Iwata, Nahoko; Komatsubara, Motoshi; Nishiyama, Yuki; Tsukamoto-Yamauchi, Naoko; Inagaki, Kenichi; Wada, Jun; Otsuka, Fumio

    2017-08-01

    The effects of melatonin on prolactin production and its regulatory mechanism remain uncertain. We investigated the regulatory role of melatonin in prolactin production using rat pituitary lactotrope GH3 cells by focusing on the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) system. Melatonin receptor activation, induced by melatonin and its receptor agonist ramelteon, significantly suppressed basal and forskolin-induced prolactin secretion and prolactin mRNA expression in GH3 cells. The melatonin MT2 receptor was predominantly expressed in GH3 cells, and the inhibitory effects of melatonin on prolactin production were reversed by treatment with the receptor antagonist luzindole, suggesting functional involvement of MT2 action in the suppression of prolactin release. Melatonin receptor activation also suppressed BMP-4-induced prolactin expression by inhibiting phosphorylation of Smad and transcription of the BMP-target gene Id-1, while BMP-4 treatment upregulated MT2 expression. Melatonin receptor activation suppressed basal, BMP-4-induced and forskolin-induced cAMP synthesis; however, BtcAMP-induced prolactin mRNA expression was not affected by melatonin or ramelteon, suggesting that MT2 activation leads to inhibition of prolactin production through the suppression of Smad signaling and cAMP synthesis. Experiments using intracellular signal inhibitors revealed that the ERK pathway is, at least in part, involved in prolactin induction by GH3 cells. Thus, a new regulatory role of melatonin involving BMP-4 in prolactin secretion was uncovered in lactotrope GH3 cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evolutionary conservation of plant gibberellin signalling pathway components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reski Ralf

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Gibberellins (GA are plant hormones that can regulate germination, elongation growth, and sex determination. They ubiquitously occur in seed plants. The discovery of gibberellin receptors, together with advances in understanding the function of key components of GA signalling in Arabidopsis and rice, reveal a fairly short GA signal transduction route. The pathway essentially consists of GID1 gibberellin receptors that interact with F-box proteins, which in turn regulate degradation of downstream DELLA proteins, suppressors of GA-controlled responses. Results: Arabidopsis sequences of the gibberellin signalling compounds were used to screen databases from a variety of plants, including protists, for homologues, providing indications for the degree of conservation of the pathway. The pathway as such appears completely absent in protists, the moss Physcomitrella patens shares only a limited homology with the Arabidopsis proteins, thus lacking essential characteristics of the classical GA signalling pathway, while the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii contains a possible ortholog for each component. The occurrence of classical GA responses can as yet not be linked with the presence of homologues of the signalling pathway. Alignments and display in neighbour joining trees of the GA signalling components confirm the close relationship of gymnosperms, monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants, as suggested from previous studies. Conclusion: Homologues of the GA-signalling pathway were mainly found in vascular plants. The GA signalling system may have its evolutionary molecular onset in Physcomitrella patens, where GAs at higher concentrations affect gravitropism and elongation growth.

  12. Ectopic application of recombinant BMP-2 and BMP-4 can change patterning of developing chick facial primordia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, A J; Francis-West, P H

    1997-01-01

    The facial primordia initially consist of buds of undifferentiated mesenchyme, which give rise to a variety of tissues including cartilage, muscle and nerve. These must be arranged in a precise spatial order for correct function. The signals that control facial outgrowth and patterning are largely unknown. The bone morphogenetic proteins Bmp-2 and Bmp-4 are expressed in discrete regions at the distal tips of the early facial primordia suggesting possible roles for BMP-2 and BMP-4 during chick facial development. We show that expression of Bmp-4 and Bmp-2 is correlated with the expression of Msx-1 and Msx-2 and that ectopic application of BMP-2 and BMP-4 can activate Msx-1 and Msx-2 gene expression in the developing facial primordia. We correlate this activation of gene expression with changes in skeletal development. For example, activation of Msx-1 gene expression across the distal tip of the mandibular primordium is associated with an extension of Fgf-4 expression in the epithelium and bifurcation of Meckel's cartilage. In the maxillary primordium, extension of the normal domain of Msx-1 gene expression is correlated with extended epithelial expression of shh and bifurcation of the palatine bone. We also show that application of BMP-2 can increase cell proliferation of the mandibular primordia. Our data suggest that BMP-2 and BMP-4 are part of a signalling cascade that controls outgrowth and patterning of the facial primordia.

  13. Intricacies of hedgehog signaling pathways: A perspective in tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kar, Swayamsiddha; Deb, Moonmoon; Sengupta, Dipta; Shilpi, Arunima; Bhutia, Sujit Kumar; Patra, Samir Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway is a crucial negotiator of developmental proceedings in the embryo governing a diverse array of processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, and tissue patterning. The overall activity of the pathway is significantly curtailed after embryogenesis as well as in adults, yet it retains many of its functional capacities. However, aberration in HH signaling mediates the initiation, proliferation and continued sustenance of malignancy in different tissues to varying degrees through different mechanisms. In this review, we provide an overview of the role of constitutively active aberrant HH signaling pathway in different types of human cancer and the underlying molecular and genetic mechanisms that drive tumorigenesis in that particular tissue. An insight into the various modes of anomalous HH signaling in different organs will provide a comprehensive knowledge of the pathway in these tissues and open a window for individually tailored, tissue-specific therapeutic interventions. The synergistic cross talking of HH pathway with many other regulatory molecules and developmentally inclined signaling pathways may offer many avenues for pharmacological advances. Understanding the molecular basis of abnormal HH signaling in cancer will provide an opportunity to inhibit the deregulated pathway in many aggressive and therapeutically challenging cancers where promising options are not available.

  14. Intricacies of hedgehog signaling pathways: A perspective in tumorigenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kar, Swayamsiddha; Deb, Moonmoon; Sengupta, Dipta; Shilpi, Arunima; Bhutia, Sujit Kumar [Epigenetics and Cancer Research Laboratory, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Group, Department of Life Science, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, Odisha 769008 (India); Patra, Samir Kumar, E-mail: samirp@nitrkl.ac.in [Epigenetics and Cancer Research Laboratory, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Group, Department of Life Science, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, Odisha 769008 (India)

    2012-10-01

    The hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway is a crucial negotiator of developmental proceedings in the embryo governing a diverse array of processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, and tissue patterning. The overall activity of the pathway is significantly curtailed after embryogenesis as well as in adults, yet it retains many of its functional capacities. However, aberration in HH signaling mediates the initiation, proliferation and continued sustenance of malignancy in different tissues to varying degrees through different mechanisms. In this review, we provide an overview of the role of constitutively active aberrant HH signaling pathway in different types of human cancer and the underlying molecular and genetic mechanisms that drive tumorigenesis in that particular tissue. An insight into the various modes of anomalous HH signaling in different organs will provide a comprehensive knowledge of the pathway in these tissues and open a window for individually tailored, tissue-specific therapeutic interventions. The synergistic cross talking of HH pathway with many other regulatory molecules and developmentally inclined signaling pathways may offer many avenues for pharmacological advances. Understanding the molecular basis of abnormal HH signaling in cancer will provide an opportunity to inhibit the deregulated pathway in many aggressive and therapeutically challenging cancers where promising options are not available.

  15. Dissection of the insulin signaling pathway via quantitative phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Marcus; Kratchmarova, Irina; Blagoev, Blagoy

    2008-01-01

    spectrum of the tyrosine phosphorylation cascade, we have defined the tyrosine-phosphoproteome of the insulin signaling pathway, using high resolution mass spectrometry in combination with phosphotyrosine immunoprecipitation and stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC......The insulin signaling pathway is of pivotal importance in metabolic diseases, such as diabetes, and in cellular processes, such as aging. Insulin activates a tyrosine phosphorylation cascade that branches to create a complex network affecting multiple biological processes. To understand the full...

  16. Signaling Pathways in Pathogenesis of Diamond Blackfan Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0590 TITLE: SIGNALING PATHWAYS IN PATHOGENESIS OF DIAMOND BLACKFAN ANEMIA PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: KATHLEEN M...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0590 SIGNALING PATHWAYS IN PATHOGENESIS OF DIAMOND BLACKFAN ANEMIA 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES None 14. ABSTRACT: Diamond Blackfan Anemia (DBA) is a disorder that results in pure red cell aplasia, congenital

  17. Oncogenic Signaling Pathways in The Cancer Genome Atlas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Vega, Francisco; Mina, Marco; Armenia, Joshua; Chatila, Walid K.; Luna, Augustin; La, Konnor C.; Dimitriadoy, Sofia; Liu, David L.; Kantheti, Havish S.; Saghafinia, Sadegh; Chakravarty, Debyani; Daian, Foysal; Gao, Qingsong; Bailey, Matthew H.; Liang, Wen Wei; Foltz, Steven M.; Shmulevich, Ilya; Ding, Li; Heins, Zachary J.; Ochoa, Angelica; Gross, Benjamin E.; Gao, Jianjiong; Zhang, Hongxin; Kundra, Ritika; Kandoth, Cyriac; Bahceci, Istemi; Dervishi, Leonard; Dogrusoz, Ugur; Zhou, Wanding; Shen, Hui; Laird, Peter W.; Way, Gregory P.; Greene, Casey S.; Liang, Han; Xiao, Yonghong; Wang, Chen; Iavarone, Antonio; Berger, Alice H.; Bivona, Trever G.; Lazar, Alexander J.; Hammer, Gary D.; Giordano, Thomas; Kwong, Lawrence N.; McArthur, Grant; Huang, Chenfei; Tward, Aaron D.; Frederick, Mitchell J.; McCormick, Frank; Meyerson, Matthew; Caesar-Johnson, Samantha J.; Demchok, John A.; Felau, Ina; Kasapi, Melpomeni; Ferguson, Martin L.; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Sofia, Heidi J.; Tarnuzzer, Roy; Wang, Zhining; Yang, Liming; Zenklusen, Jean C.; Zhang, Jiashan (Julia); Chudamani, Sudha; Liu, Jia; Lolla, Laxmi; Naresh, Rashi; Pihl, Todd; Sun, Qiang; Wan, Yunhu; Wu, Ye; Cho, Juok; DeFreitas, Timothy; Frazer, Scott; Gehlenborg, Nils; Getz, Gad; Heiman, David I.; Kim, Jaegil; Lawrence, Michael S.; Lin, Pei; Meier, Sam; Noble, Michael S.; Saksena, Gordon; Voet, Doug; Zhang, Hailei; Bernard, Brady; Chambwe, Nyasha; Dhankani, Varsha; Knijnenburg, Theo; Kramer, Roger; Leinonen, Kalle; Liu, Yuexin; Miller, Michael; Reynolds, Sheila; Shmulevich, Ilya; Thorsson, Vesteinn; Zhang, Wei; Akbani, Rehan; Broom, Bradley M.; Hegde, Apurva M.; Ju, Zhenlin; Kanchi, Rupa S.; Korkut, Anil; Li, Jun; Liang, Han; Ling, Shiyun; Liu, Wenbin; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon B.; Ng, Kwok Shing; Rao, Arvind; Ryan, Michael; Wang, Jing; Weinstein, John N.; Zhang, Jiexin; Abeshouse, Adam; Armenia, Joshua; Chakravarty, Debyani; Chatila, Walid K.; de Bruijn, Ino; Gao, Jianjiong; Gross, Benjamin E.; Heins, Zachary J.; Kundra, Ritika; La, Konnor; Ladanyi, Marc; Luna, Augustin; Nissan, Moriah G.; Ochoa, Angelica; Phillips, Sarah M.; Reznik, Ed; Sanchez-Vega, Francisco; Sander, Chris; Schultz, Nikolaus; Sheridan, Robert; Sumer, S. Onur; Sun, Yichao; Taylor, Barry S.; Wang, Jioajiao; Zhang, Hongxin; Anur, Pavana; Peto, Myron; Spellman, Paul; Benz, Christopher; Stuart, Joshua M.; Wong, Christopher K.; Yau, Christina; Hayes, D. Neil; Parker, Joel S.; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Ally, Adrian; Balasundaram, Miruna; Bowlby, Reanne; Brooks, Denise; Carlsen, Rebecca; Chuah, Eric; Dhalla, Noreen; Holt, Robert; Jones, Steven J.M.; Kasaian, Katayoon; Lee, Darlene; Ma, Yussanne; Marra, Marco A.; Mayo, Michael; Moore, Richard A.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Mungall, Karen; Robertson, A. Gordon; Sadeghi, Sara; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Sipahimalani, Payal; Tam, Angela; Thiessen, Nina; Tse, Kane; Wong, Tina; Berger, Ashton C.; Beroukhim, Rameen; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Cibulskis, Carrie; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Gao, Galen F.; Ha, Gavin; Meyerson, Matthew; Schumacher, Steven E.; Shih, Juliann; Kucherlapati, Melanie H.; Kucherlapati, Raju S.; Baylin, Stephen; Cope, Leslie; Danilova, Ludmila; Bootwalla, Moiz S.; Lai, Phillip H.; Maglinte, Dennis T.; Van Den Berg, David J.; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Auman, J. Todd; Balu, Saianand; Bodenheimer, Tom; Fan, Cheng; Hoadley, Katherine A.; Hoyle, Alan P.; Jefferys, Stuart R.; Jones, Corbin D.; Meng, Shaowu; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Mose, Lisle E.; Perou, Amy H.; Perou, Charles M.; Roach, Jeffrey; Shi, Yan; Simons, Janae V.; Skelly, Tara; Soloway, Matthew G.; Tan, Donghui; Veluvolu, Umadevi; Fan, Huihui; Hinoue, Toshinori; Laird, Peter W.; Shen, Hui; Zhou, Wanding; Bellair, Michelle; Chang, Kyle; Covington, Kyle; Creighton, Chad J.; Dinh, Huyen; Doddapaneni, Harsha Vardhan; Donehower, Lawrence A.; Drummond, Jennifer; Gibbs, Richard A.; Glenn, Robert; Hale, Walker; Han, Yi; Hu, Jianhong; Korchina, Viktoriya; Lee, Sandra; Lewis, Lora; Li, Wei; Liu, Xiuping; Morgan, Margaret; Morton, Donna; Muzny, Donna; Santibanez, Jireh; Sheth, Margi; Shinbrot, Eve; Wang, Linghua; Wang, Min; Wheeler, David A.; Xi, Liu; Zhao, Fengmei; Hess, Julian; Appelbaum, Elizabeth L.; Bailey, Matthew; Cordes, Matthew G.; Ding, Li; Fronick, Catrina C.; Fulton, Lucinda A.; Fulton, Robert S.; Kandoth, Cyriac; Mardis, Elaine R.; McLellan, Michael D.; Miller, Christopher A.; Schmidt, Heather K.; Wilson, Richard K.; Crain, Daniel; Curley, Erin; Gardner, Johanna; Lau, Kevin; Mallery, David; Morris, Scott; Paulauskis, Joseph; Penny, Robert; Shelton, Candace; Shelton, Troy; Sherman, Mark; Thompson, Eric; Yena, Peggy; Bowen, Jay; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Gerken, Mark; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; Ramirez, Nilsa C.; Wise, Lisa; Zmuda, Erik; Corcoran, Niall; Costello, Tony; Hovens, Christopher; Carvalho, Andre L.; de Carvalho, Ana C.; Fregnani, José H.; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Reis, Rui M.; Scapulatempo-Neto, Cristovam; Silveira, Henrique C.S.; Vidal, Daniel O.; Burnette, Andrew; Eschbacher, Jennifer; Hermes, Beth; Noss, Ardene; Singh, Rosy; Anderson, Matthew L.; Castro, Patricia D.; Ittmann, Michael; Huntsman, David; Kohl, Bernard; Le, Xuan; Thorp, Richard; Andry, Chris; Duffy, Elizabeth R.; Lyadov, Vladimir; Paklina, Oxana; Setdikova, Galiya; Shabunin, Alexey; Tavobilov, Mikhail; McPherson, Christopher; Warnick, Ronald; Berkowitz, Ross; Cramer, Daniel; Feltmate, Colleen; Horowitz, Neil; Kibel, Adam; Muto, Michael; Raut, Chandrajit P.; Malykh, Andrei; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Barrett, Wendi; Devine, Karen; Fulop, Jordonna; Ostrom, Quinn T.; Shimmel, Kristen; Wolinsky, Yingli; Sloan, Andrew E.; De Rose, Agostino; Giuliante, Felice; Goodman, Marc; Karlan, Beth Y.; Hagedorn, Curt H.; Eckman, John; Harr, Jodi; Myers, Jerome; Tucker, Kelinda; Zach, Leigh Anne; Deyarmin, Brenda; Hu, Hai; Kvecher, Leonid; Larson, Caroline; Mural, Richard J.; Somiari, Stella; Vicha, Ales; Zelinka, Tomas; Bennett, Joseph; Iacocca, Mary; Rabeno, Brenda; Swanson, Patricia; Latour, Mathieu; Lacombe, Louis; Têtu, Bernard; Bergeron, Alain; McGraw, Mary; Staugaitis, Susan M.; Chabot, John; Hibshoosh, Hanina; Sepulveda, Antonia; Su, Tao; Wang, Timothy; Potapova, Olga; Voronina, Olga; Desjardins, Laurence; Mariani, Odette; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Sastre, Xavier; Stern, Marc Henri; Cheng, Feixiong; Signoretti, Sabina; Berchuck, Andrew; Bigner, Darell; Lipp, Eric; Marks, Jeffrey; McCall, Shannon; McLendon, Roger; Secord, Angeles; Sharp, Alexis; Behera, Madhusmita; Brat, Daniel J.; Chen, Amy; Delman, Keith; Force, Seth; Khuri, Fadlo; Magliocca, Kelly; Maithel, Shishir; Olson, Jeffrey J.; Owonikoko, Taofeek; Pickens, Alan; Ramalingam, Suresh; Shin, Dong M.; Sica, Gabriel; Van Meir, Erwin G.; Zhang, Hongzheng; Eijckenboom, Wil; Gillis, Ad; Korpershoek, Esther; Looijenga, Leendert; Oosterhuis, Wolter; Stoop, Hans; van Kessel, Kim E.; Zwarthoff, Ellen C.; Calatozzolo, Chiara; Cuppini, Lucia; Cuzzubbo, Stefania; DiMeco, Francesco; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Mattei, Luca; Perin, Alessandro; Pollo, Bianca; Chen, Chu; Houck, John; Lohavanichbutr, Pawadee; Hartmann, Arndt; Stoehr, Christine; Stoehr, Robert; Taubert, Helge; Wach, Sven; Wullich, Bernd; Kycler, Witold; Murawa, Dawid; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Chung, Ki; Edenfield, W. Jeffrey; Martin, Julie; Baudin, Eric; Bubley, Glenn; Bueno, Raphael; De Rienzo, Assunta; Richards, William G.; Kalkanis, Steven; Mikkelsen, Tom; Noushmehr, Houtan; Scarpace, Lisa; Girard, Nicolas; Aymerich, Marta; Campo, Elias; Giné, Eva; Guillermo, Armando López; Van Bang, Nguyen; Hanh, Phan Thi; Phu, Bui Duc; Tang, Yufang; Colman, Howard; Evason, Kimberley; Dottino, Peter R.; Martignetti, John A.; Gabra, Hani; Juhl, Hartmut; Akeredolu, Teniola; Stepa, Serghei; Hoon, Dave; Ahn, Keunsoo; Kang, Koo Jeong; Beuschlein, Felix; Breggia, Anne; Birrer, Michael; Bell, Debra; Borad, Mitesh; Bryce, Alan H.; Castle, Erik; Chandan, Vishal; Cheville, John; Copland, John A.; Farnell, Michael; Flotte, Thomas; Giama, Nasra; Ho, Thai; Kendrick, Michael; Kocher, Jean Pierre; Kopp, Karla; Moser, Catherine; Nagorney, David; O'Brien, Daniel; O'Neill, Brian Patrick; Patel, Tushar; Petersen, Gloria; Que, Florencia; Rivera, Michael; Roberts, Lewis; Smallridge, Robert; Smyrk, Thomas; Stanton, Melissa; Thompson, R. Houston; Torbenson, Michael; Yang, Ju Dong; Zhang, Lizhi; Brimo, Fadi; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Gonzalez, Ana Maria Angulo; Behrens, Carmen; Bondaruk, Jolanta; Broaddus, Russell; Czerniak, Bogdan; Esmaeli, Bita; Fujimoto, Junya; Gershenwald, Jeffrey; Guo, Charles; Lazar, Alexander J.; Logothetis, Christopher; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Moran, Cesar; Ramondetta, Lois; Rice, David; Sood, Anil; Tamboli, Pheroze; Thompson, Timothy; Troncoso, Patricia; Tsao, Anne; Wistuba, Ignacio; Carter, Candace; Haydu, Lauren; Hersey, Peter; Jakrot, Valerie; Kakavand, Hojabr; Kefford, Richard; Lee, Kenneth; Long, Georgina; Mann, Graham; Quinn, Michael; Saw, Robyn; Scolyer, Richard; Shannon, Kerwin; Spillane, Andrew; Stretch, Jonathan; Synott, Maria; Thompson, John; Wilmott, James; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat; Chan, Timothy A.; Ghossein, Ronald; Gopalan, Anuradha; Levine, Douglas A.; Reuter, Victor; Singer, Samuel; Singh, Bhuvanesh; Tien, Nguyen Viet; Broudy, Thomas; Mirsaidi, Cyrus; Nair, Praveen; Drwiega, Paul; Miller, Judy; Smith, Jennifer; Zaren, Howard; Park, Joong Won; Hung, Nguyen Phi; Kebebew, Electron; Linehan, W. Marston; Metwalli, Adam R.; Pacak, Karel; Pinto, Peter A.; Schiffman, Mark; Schmidt, Laura S.; Vocke, Cathy D.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Worrell, Robert; Yang, Hannah; Moncrieff, Marc; Goparaju, Chandra; Melamed, Jonathan; Pass, Harvey; Botnariuc, Natalia; Caraman, Irina; Cernat, Mircea; Chemencedji, Inga; Clipca, Adrian; Doruc, Serghei; Gorincioi, Ghenadie; Mura, Sergiu; Pirtac, Maria; Stancul, Irina; Tcaciuc, Diana; Albert, Monique; Alexopoulou, Iakovina; Arnaout, Angel; Bartlett, John; Engel, Jay; Gilbert, Sebastien; Parfitt, Jeremy; Sekhon, Harman; Thomas, George; Rassl, Doris M.; Rintoul, Robert C.; Bifulco, Carlo; Tamakawa, Raina; Urba, Walter; Hayward, Nicholas; Timmers, Henri; Antenucci, Anna; Facciolo, Francesco; Grazi, Gianluca; Marino, Mirella; Merola, Roberta; de Krijger, Ronald; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne Paule; Piché, Alain; Chevalier, Simone; McKercher, Ginette; Birsoy, Kivanc; Barnett, Gene; Brewer, Cathy; Farver, Carol; Naska, Theresa; Pennell, Nathan A.; Raymond, Daniel; Schilero, Cathy; Smolenski, Kathy; Williams, Felicia; Morrison, Carl; Borgia, Jeffrey A.; Liptay, Michael J.; Pool, Mark; Seder, Christopher W.; Junker, Kerstin; Omberg, Larsson; Dinkin, Mikhail; Manikhas, George; Alvaro, Domenico; Bragazzi, Maria Consiglia; Cardinale, Vincenzo; Carpino, Guido; Gaudio, Eugenio; Chesla, David; Cottingham, Sandra; Dubina, Michael; Moiseenko, Fedor; Dhanasekaran, Renumathy; Becker, Karl Friedrich; Janssen, Klaus Peter; Slotta-Huspenina, Julia; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed H.; Aziz, Dina; Bell, Sue; Cebulla, Colleen M.; Davis, Amy; Duell, Rebecca; Elder, J. Bradley; Hilty, Joe; Kumar, Bahavna; Lang, James; Lehman, Norman L.; Mandt, Randy; Nguyen, Phuong; Pilarski, Robert; Rai, Karan; Schoenfield, Lynn; Senecal, Kelly; Wakely, Paul; Hansen, Paul; Lechan, Ronald; Powers, James; Tischler, Arthur; Grizzle, William E.; Sexton, Katherine C.; Kastl, Alison; Henderson, Joel; Porten, Sima; Waldmann, Jens; Fassnacht, Martin; Asa, Sylvia L.; Schadendorf, Dirk; Couce, Marta; Graefen, Markus; Huland, Hartwig; Sauter, Guido; Schlomm, Thorsten; Simon, Ronald; Tennstedt, Pierre; Olabode, Oluwole; Nelson, Mark; Bathe, Oliver; Carroll, Peter R.; Chan, June M.; Disaia, Philip; Glenn, Pat; Kelley, Robin K.; Landen, Charles N.; Phillips, Joanna; Prados, Michael; Simko, Jeffry; Smith-McCune, Karen; VandenBerg, Scott; Roggin, Kevin; Fehrenbach, Ashley; Kendler, Ady; Sifri, Suzanne; Steele, Ruth; Jimeno, Antonio; Carey, Francis; Forgie, Ian; Mannelli, Massimo; Carney, Michael; Hernandez, Brenda; Campos, Benito; Herold-Mende, Christel; Jungk, Christin; Unterberg, Andreas; von Deimling, Andreas; Bossler, Aaron; Galbraith, Joseph; Jacobus, Laura; Knudson, Michael; Knutson, Tina; Ma, Deqin; Milhem, Mohammed; Sigmund, Rita; Godwin, Andrew K.; Madan, Rashna; Rosenthal, Howard G.; Adebamowo, Clement; Adebamowo, Sally N.; Boussioutas, Alex; Beer, David; Giordano, Thomas; Mes-Masson, Anne Marie; Saad, Fred; Bocklage, Therese; Landrum, Lisa; Mannel, Robert; Moore, Kathleen; Moxley, Katherine; Postier, Russel; Walker, Joan; Zuna, Rosemary; Feldman, Michael; Valdivieso, Federico; Dhir, Rajiv; Luketich, James; Pinero, Edna M.Mora; Quintero-Aguilo, Mario; Carlotti, Carlos Gilberto; Dos Santos, Jose Sebastião; Kemp, Rafael; Sankarankuty, Ajith; Tirapelli, Daniela; Catto, James; Agnew, Kathy; Swisher, Elizabeth; Creaney, Jenette; Robinson, Bruce; Shelley, Carl Simon; Godwin, Eryn M.; Kendall, Sara; Shipman, Cassaundra; Bradford, Carol; Carey, Thomas; Haddad, Andrea; Moyer, Jeffey; Peterson, Lisa; Prince, Mark; Rozek, Laura; Wolf, Gregory; Bowman, Rayleen; Fong, Kwun M.; Yang, Ian; Korst, Robert; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Fantacone-Campbell, J. Leigh; Hooke, Jeffrey A.; Kovatich, Albert J.; Shriver, Craig D.; DiPersio, John; Drake, Bettina; Govindan, Ramaswamy; Heath, Sharon; Ley, Timothy; Van Tine, Brian; Westervelt, Peter; Rubin, Mark A.; Lee, Jung Il; Aredes, Natália D.; Mariamidze, Armaz; Van Allen, Eliezer M.; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Ciriello, Giovanni; Sander, Chris; Schultz, Nikolaus

    2018-01-01

    Genetic alterations in signaling pathways that control cell-cycle progression, apoptosis, and cell growth are common hallmarks of cancer, but the extent, mechanisms, and co-occurrence of alterations in these pathways differ between individual tumors and tumor types. Using mutations, copy-number

  18. Cell volume homeostatic mechanisms: effectors and signalling pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, E K; Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig

    2011-01-01

    . Later work addressed the mechanisms through which cellular signalling pathways regulate the volume regulatory effectors or flux pathways. These studies were facilitated by the molecular identification of most of the relevant channels and transporters, and more recently also by the increased...

  19. Anchoring Proteins as Regulators of Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perino, Alessia; Ghigo, Alessandra; Scott, John D.; Hirsch, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    Spatial and temporal organization of signal transduction is coordinated through the segregation of signaling enzymes in selected cellular compartments. This highly evolved regulatory mechanism ensures the activation of selected enzymes only in the vicinity of their target proteins. In this context, cAMP-responsive triggering of protein kinase A is modulated by a family of scaffold proteins referred to as A-kinase anchoring proteins. A-kinase anchoring proteins form the core of multiprotein complexes and enable simultaneous but segregated cAMP signaling events to occur in defined cellular compartments. In this review we will focus on the description of A-kinase anchoring protein function in the regulation of cardiac physiopathology. PMID:22859670

  20. Human trabecular meshwork cells express BMP antagonist mRNAs and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar-Vidales, Tara; Fitzgerald, Ashley M; Clark, Abbot F

    2016-06-01

    Glaucoma patients have elevated aqueous humor and trabecular meshwork (TM) levels of transforming growth factor-beta2 (TGF-β2). TGF-β2 has been associated with increased extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition (i.e. fibronectin), which is attributed to the increased resistance of aqueous humor outflow through the TM. We have previously demonstrated that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 4 selectively counteracts the profibrotic effect of TGF-β2 with respect to ECM synthesis in the TM, and this action is reversed by the BMP antagonist gremlin. Thus, the BMP and TGF-β signaling pathways antagonize each other's antifibrotic and profibrotic roles. The purpose of this study was to determine whether cultured human TM cells: (a) express other BMP antagonists including noggin, chordin, BMPER, BAMBI, Smurf1 and 2, and (b) whether expression of these proteins is regulated by exogenous TGF-β2 treatment. Primary human trabecular meshwork (TM) cells were grown to confluency and treated with TGF-β2 (5 ng/ml) for 24 or 48 h in serum-free medium. Untreated cell served as controls. qPCR and Western immunoblots (WB) determined that human TM cells expressed mRNAs and proteins for the BMP antagonist proteins: noggin, chordin, BMPER, BAMBI, and Smurf1/2. Exogenous TGF-β2 decreased chordin, BMPER, BAMBI, and Smurf1 mRNA and protein expression. In contrast, TGF-β2 increased secreted noggin and Smurf2 mRNA and protein levels. BMP antagonist members are expressed in the human TM. These molecules may be involved in the normal function of the TM as well as TM pathogenesis. Altered expression of BMP antagonist members may lead to functional changes in the human TM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Is Associated With Increased BMP7 Expression in Human Endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Elliott G; El-Nashar, Sherif A; Schoolmeester, John K; Keeney, Gary L; Mariani, Andrea; Hopkins, Matthew R; Dowdy, Sean C; Daftary, Gaurang S; Famuyide, Abimbola O

    2017-05-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB), a common health concern of women, is a heterogeneous clinical entity that is traditionally categorized into organic and nonorganic causes. Despite varied pharmacologic treatments, few offer sustained efficacy, as most are empiric, unfocused, and do not directly address underlying dysregulated molecular mechanisms. Characterization of such molecular derangements affords the opportunity to develop and use novel, more successful treatments for AUB. Given its implication in other organ systems, we hypothesized that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) expression is altered in patients with AUB and hence comprehensively investigated dysregulation of BMP signaling pathways by systematically screening 489 samples from 365 patients for differences in the expression of BMP2, 4, 6, and 7 ligands, BMPR1A and B receptors, and downstream SMAD4, 6, and 7 proteins. Expression analysis was correlated clinically with data abstracted from medical records, including bleeding history, age at procedure, ethnicity, body mass index, hormone treatment, and histological diagnosis of fibroids, polyps, adenomyosis, hyperplasia, and cancer. Expression of BMP7 ligand was significantly increased in patients with AUB (H-score: 18.0 vs 26.7; P bleeding (menorrhagia) as their specific AUB pattern demonstrated significantly higher BMP7 expression. Significantly, no differences in the expression of any other BMP ligands, receptors, or SMAD proteins were observed in this large patient cohort. However, expression of BMPR1A, BMPR1B, and SMAD4 was significantly decreased in cancer compared to benign samples. Our study demonstrates that BMP7 is a promising target for future investigation and pharmacologic treatment of AUB.

  2. Linking proteins to signaling pathways for experiment design and evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Illés J Farkas

    Full Text Available Biomedical experimental work often focuses on altering the functions of selected proteins. These changes can hit signaling pathways, and can therefore unexpectedly and non-specifically affect cellular processes. We propose PathwayLinker, an online tool that can provide a first estimate of the possible signaling effects of such changes, e.g., drug or microRNA treatments. PathwayLinker minimizes the users' efforts by integrating protein-protein interaction and signaling pathway data from several sources with statistical significance tests and clear visualization. We demonstrate through three case studies that the developed tool can point out unexpected signaling bias in normal laboratory experiments and identify likely novel signaling proteins among the interactors of known drug targets. In our first case study we show that knockdown of the Caenorhabditis elegans gene cdc-25.1 (meant to avoid progeny may globally affect the signaling system and unexpectedly bias experiments. In the second case study we evaluate the loss-of-function phenotypes of a less known C. elegans gene to predict its function. In the third case study we analyze GJA1, an anti-cancer drug target protein in human, and predict for this protein novel signaling pathway memberships, which may be sources of side effects. Compared to similar services, a major advantage of PathwayLinker is that it drastically reduces the necessary amount of manual literature searches and can be used without a computational background. PathwayLinker is available at http://PathwayLinker.org. Detailed documentation and source code are available at the website.

  3. Bmp suppression in mangrove killifish embryos causes a split in the body axis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulayman Mourabit

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmp are major players in the formation of the vertebrate body plan due to their crucial role in patterning of the dorsal-ventral (DV axis. Despite the highly conserved nature of Bmp signalling in vertebrates, the consequences of changing this pathway can be species-specific. Here, we report that Bmp plays an important role in epiboly, yolk syncytial layer (YSL movements, and anterior-posterior (AP axis formation in embryos of the self-fertilizing mangrove killifish, Kryptolebias marmoratus. Stage and dose specific exposures of embryos to the Bmp inhibitor dorsomorphin (DM produced three distinctive morphologies, with the most extreme condition creating the splitbody phenotype, characterised by an extremely short AP axis where the neural tube, somites, and notochord were bilaterally split. In addition, parts of caudal neural tissues were separated from the main body and formed cell islands in the posterior region of the embryo. This splitbody phenotype, which has not been reported in other animals, shows that modification of Bmp may lead to significantly different consequences during development in other vertebrate species.

  4. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor activation enhances BMP-2-induced osteoblast differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Chieri [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan); Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: tsuyo-i@huhs.ac.jp [Division of Pharmacotherapy, Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Hyogo University of Health Sciences, 1-3-6 Minatojima, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-8530 (Japan); Kitano, Sachie; Tsunemi, Sachi; Sano, Hajime [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan)

    2012-06-22

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated the role of S1P signaling for osteoblast differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both S1P and FTY enhanced BMP-2-stimulated osteoblast differentiation by C2C12 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P signaling enhanced BMP-2-stimulated Smad and ERK phosphorylation by C2C12 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MEK/ERK signaling is a pathway underlying S1P signaling for osteoblast differentiation. -- Abstract: We previously demonstrated that sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor-mediated signaling induced proliferation and prostaglandin productions by synovial cells from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. In the present study we investigated the role of S1P receptor-mediated signaling for osteoblast differentiation. We investigated osteoblast differentiation using C2C12 myoblasts, a cell line derived from murine satellite cells. Osteoblast differentiation was induced by the treatment of bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-2 in the presence or absence of either S1P or FTY720 (FTY), a high-affinity agonist of S1P receptors. Osteoblast differentiation was determined by osteoblast-specific transcription factor, Runx2 mRNA expression, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin production by the cells. Smad1/5/8 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 phosphorylation was examined by Western blotting. Osteocalcin production by C2C12 cells were determined by ELISA. Runx2 expression and ALP activity by BMP-2-stimulated C2C12 cells were enhanced by addition of either S1P or FTY. Both S1P and FTY enhanced BMP-2-induced ERK1/2 and Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation. The effect of FTY was stronger than that of S1P. S1P receptor-mediated signaling on osteoblast differentiation was inhibited by addition of mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase (MEK) 1/2 inhibitor, indicating that the S1P receptor-mediated MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling pathway enhanced BMP-2-Smad signaling. These results indicate that S1P

  5. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor activation enhances BMP-2-induced osteoblast differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Chieri; Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi; Kitano, Sachie; Tsunemi, Sachi; Sano, Hajime

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigated the role of S1P signaling for osteoblast differentiation. ► Both S1P and FTY enhanced BMP-2-stimulated osteoblast differentiation by C2C12 cells. ► S1P signaling enhanced BMP-2-stimulated Smad and ERK phosphorylation by C2C12 cells. ► MEK/ERK signaling is a pathway underlying S1P signaling for osteoblast differentiation. -- Abstract: We previously demonstrated that sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor-mediated signaling induced proliferation and prostaglandin productions by synovial cells from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. In the present study we investigated the role of S1P receptor-mediated signaling for osteoblast differentiation. We investigated osteoblast differentiation using C2C12 myoblasts, a cell line derived from murine satellite cells. Osteoblast differentiation was induced by the treatment of bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-2 in the presence or absence of either S1P or FTY720 (FTY), a high-affinity agonist of S1P receptors. Osteoblast differentiation was determined by osteoblast-specific transcription factor, Runx2 mRNA expression, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin production by the cells. Smad1/5/8 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 phosphorylation was examined by Western blotting. Osteocalcin production by C2C12 cells were determined by ELISA. Runx2 expression and ALP activity by BMP-2-stimulated C2C12 cells were enhanced by addition of either S1P or FTY. Both S1P and FTY enhanced BMP-2-induced ERK1/2 and Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation. The effect of FTY was stronger than that of S1P. S1P receptor-mediated signaling on osteoblast differentiation was inhibited by addition of mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase (MEK) 1/2 inhibitor, indicating that the S1P receptor-mediated MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling pathway enhanced BMP-2-Smad signaling. These results indicate that S1P receptor-mediated signaling plays a crucial role for osteoblast differentiation.

  6. Evaluation of Notch and Hypoxia Signaling Pathways in Chemically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common worldwide malignancy. Notch signaling pathway contributes to the genesis of diverse cancers, however, its role in HCC is unclear. Hypoxia is a common feature of HCC. Signal integration between Notch and hypoxia may be involved in HCC. The aim of this study was to ...

  7. DMPD: TLR signaling. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2007 Feb 1. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show TLR signaling. PubmedID 17275323 Title TLR signaling. Author...s Kawai T, Akira S. Publication Semin Immunol. 2007 Feb;19(1):24-32. Epub 2007 Feb 1. Pathway - PNG File (.png) SVG File (.svg) HTML... File (.html) CSML File (.csml) Open .csml file with CIOP

  8. Signal Transduction Pathways that Regulate CAB Gene Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chory, Joanne

    2004-12-31

    The process of chloroplast differentiation, involves the coordinate regulation of many nuclear and chloroplast genes. The cues for the initiation of this developmental program are both extrinsic (e.g., light) and intrinsic (cell-type and plastid signals). During this project period, we utilized a molecular genetic approach to select for Arabidopsis mutants that did not respond properly to environmental light conditions, as well as mutants that were unable to perceive plastid damage. These latter mutants, called gun mutants, define two retrograde signaling pathways that regulate nuclear gene expression in response to chloroplasts. A major finding was to identify a signal from chloroplasts that regulates nuclear gene transcription. This signal is the build-up of Mg-Protoporphyrin IX, a key intermediate of the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. The signaling pathways downstream of this signal are currently being studied. Completion of this project has provided an increased understanding of the input signals and retrograde signaling pathways that control nuclear gene expression in response to the functional state of chloroplasts. These studies should ultimately influence our abilities to manipulate plant growth and development, and will aid in the understanding of the developmental control of photosynthesis.

  9. Signal Transduction Pathways that Regulate CAB Gene Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chory, Joanne

    2006-01-16

    The process of chloroplast differentiation, involves the coordinate regulation of many nuclear and chloroplast genes. The cues for the initiation of this developmental program are both extrinsic (e.g., light) and intrinsic (cell-type and plastid signals). During this project period, we utilized a molecular genetic approach to select for Arabidopsis mutants that did not respond properly to environmental light conditions, as well as mutants that were unable to perceive plastid damage. These latter mutants, called gun mutants, define two retrograde signaling pathways that regulate nuclear gene expression in response to chloroplasts. A major finding was to identify a signal from chloroplasts that regulates nuclear gene transcription. This signal is the build-up of Mg-Protoporphyrin IX, a key intermediate of the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. The signaling pathways downstream of this signal are currently being studied. Completion of this project has provided an increased understanding of the input signals and retrograde signaling pathways that control nuclear gene expression in response to the functional state of chloroplasts. These studies should ultimately influence our abilities to manipulate plant growth and development, and will aid in the understanding of the developmental control of photosynthesis.

  10. Signaling pathway networks mined from human pituitary adenoma proteomics data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Xianquan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We obtained a series of pituitary adenoma proteomic expression data, including protein-mapping data (111 proteins, comparative proteomic data (56 differentially expressed proteins, and nitroproteomic data (17 nitroproteins. There is a pressing need to clarify the significant signaling pathway networks that derive from those proteins in order to clarify and to better understand the molecular basis of pituitary adenoma pathogenesis and to discover biomarkers. Here, we describe the significant signaling pathway networks that were mined from human pituitary adenoma proteomic data with the Ingenuity pathway analysis system. Methods The Ingenuity pathway analysis system was used to analyze signal pathway networks and canonical pathways from protein-mapping data, comparative proteomic data, adenoma nitroproteomic data, and control nitroproteomic data. A Fisher's exact test was used to test the statistical significance with a significance level of 0.05. Statistical significant results were rationalized within the pituitary adenoma biological system with literature-based bioinformatics analyses. Results For the protein-mapping data, the top pathway networks were related to cancer, cell death, and lipid metabolism; the top canonical toxicity pathways included acute-phase response, oxidative-stress response, oxidative stress, and cell-cycle G2/M transition regulation. For the comparative proteomic data, top pathway networks were related to cancer, endocrine system development and function, and lipid metabolism; the top canonical toxicity pathways included mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative phosphorylation, oxidative-stress response, and ERK/MAPK signaling. The nitroproteomic data from a pituitary adenoma were related to cancer, cell death, lipid metabolism, and reproductive system disease, and the top canonical toxicity pathways mainly related to p38 MAPK signaling and cell-cycle G2/M transition regulation. Nitroproteins from a

  11. Epilepsy and the Wnt Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    forebrain development. The primary target is Wnt 8b, which is elevated in this period 4. Fox G1 is also genetically associated with infantile spasms 8...the Warburg effect’s role in non- cancerous tissues is largely unexplored. Second, in other diseases such as diabetes , Wnt signaling has emerged as...epilepsy and infantile spasms, we found that both mechanisms appeared to contribute. Two of the three genes came from our observation that several genes

  12. CCR7 signaling pathway and retinal neovascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Hui Yuan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Retinal neovascularization diseases are the major causes of blindness. C-C chemokine receptor type 7(CCR7can promote the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGFthrough the extracellular signal regulated kinase(ERKpathway, leading to vascular leakage, proliferation of vascular endothelial cell, neovascularization and etc. The detection of CCR7 can guide the diagnosis and treatments of retinal neovascularization diseases.

  13. TSLP signaling pathway map: a platform for analysis of TSLP-mediated signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jun; Sharma, Jyoti; Raju, Rajesh; Palapetta, Shyam Mohan; Prasad, T S Keshava; Huang, Tai-Chung; Yoda, Akinori; Tyner, Jeffrey W; van Bodegom, Diederik; Weinstock, David M; Ziegler, Steven F; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2014-01-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a four-helix bundle cytokine that plays a critical role in the regulation of immune responses and in the differentiation of hematopoietic cells. TSLP signals through a heterodimeric receptor complex consisting of an interleukin-7 receptor α chain and a unique TSLP receptor (TSLPR) [also known as cytokine receptor-like factor 2 (CRLF2)]. Cellular targets of TSLP include dendritic cells, B cells, mast cells, regulatory T (Treg) cells and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. The TSLP/TSLPR axis can activate multiple signaling transduction pathways including the JAK/STAT pathway and the PI-3 kinase pathway. Aberrant TSLP/TSLPR signaling has been associated with a variety of human diseases including asthma, atopic dermatitis, nasal polyposis, inflammatory bowel disease, eosinophilic eosophagitis and, most recently, acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A centralized resource of the TSLP signaling pathway cataloging signaling events is not yet available. In this study, we present a literature-annotated resource of reactions in the TSLP signaling pathway. This pathway map is publicly available through NetPath (http://www.netpath.org/), an open access signal transduction pathway resource developed previously by our group. This map includes 236 molecules and 252 reactions that are involved in TSLP/TSLPR signaling pathway. We expect that the TSLP signaling pathway map will provide a rich resource to study the biology of this important cytokine as well as to identify novel therapeutic targets for diseases associated with dysregulated TSLP/TSLPR signaling. Database URL: http://www.netpath.org/pathways?path_id=NetPath_24.

  14. Oscillatory Dynamics of the Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankaran, Harish; Wiley, H. S.

    2010-12-01

    The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is a central signaling pathway in development and disease and is regulated by multiple negative and positive feedback loops. Recent studies have shown negative feedback from ERK to upstream regulators can give rise to biochemical oscillations with a periodicity of between 15-30 minutes. Feedback due to the stimulated transcription of negative regulators of the ERK pathway can also give rise to transcriptional oscillations with a periodicity of 1-2h. The biological significance of these oscillations is not clear, but recent evidence suggests that transcriptional oscillations participate in developmental processes, such as somite formation. Biochemical oscillations are more enigmatic, but could provide a mechanism for encoding different types of inputs into a common signaling pathway.

  15. Microenvironment Dependent Photobiomodulation on Function-Specific Signal Transduction Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timon Cheng-Yi Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular photobiomodulation on a cellular function has been shown to be homeostatic. Its function-specific pathway mechanism would be further discussed in this paper. The signal transduction pathways maintaining a normal function in its function-specific homeostasis (FSH, resisting the activation of many other irrelative signal transduction pathways, are so sparse that it can be supposed that there may be normal function-specific signal transduction pathways (NSPs. A low level laser irradiation or monochromatic light may promote the activation of partially activated NSP and/or its redundant NSP so that it may induce the second-order phase transition of a function from its dysfunctional one far from its FSH to its normal one in a function-specific microenvironment and may also induce the first-order functional phase transition of the normal function from low level to high level.

  16. Targeting Signaling Pathways in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Haybaeck

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian carcinoma (OC is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. Response to platinum-based chemotherapy is poor in some patients and, thus, current research is focusing on new therapy options. The various histological types of OC are characterized by distinctive molecular genetic alterations that are relevant for ovarian tumorigenesis. The understanding of these molecular pathways is essential for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Purpose: We want to give an overview on the molecular genetic changes of the histopathological types of OC and their role as putative therapeutic targets. In Depth Review of Existing Data: In 2012, the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF inhibitor, bevacizumab, was approved for OC treatment. Bevacizumab has shown promising results as single agent and in combination with conventional chemotherapy, but its target is not distinctive when analyzed before treatment. At present, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitors, poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibitors and components of the EGFR pathway are in the focus of clinical research. Interestingly, some phytochemical substances show good synergistic effects when used in combination with chemotherapy. Conclusion: Ongoing studies of targeted agents in conjunction with chemotherapy will show whether there are alternative options to bevacizumab available for OC patients. Novel targets which can be assessed before therapy to predict efficacy are needed. The assessment of therapeutic targets is continuously improved by molecular pathological analyses on tumor tissue. A careful selection of patients for personalized treatment will help to reduce putative side effects and toxicity.

  17. ERβ induces the differentiation of cultured osteoblasts by both Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and estrogen signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Xinhua [Department of Spine Surgery, Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha (China); Wang, Xiaoyuan [Department of Nephrology, Xi An Honghui Hospital, Xi an (China); Hu, Xiongke; Chen, Yong; Zeng, Kefeng [Department of Spine Surgery, Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha (China); Zhang, Hongqi, E-mail: zhq9699@126.com [Department of Spine Surgery, Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha (China)

    2015-07-01

    Although 17β-estradial (E2) is known to stimulate bone formation, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Recent studies have implicated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway as a major signaling cascade in bone biology. The interactions between Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and estrogen signaling pathways have been reported in many tissues. In this study, E2 significantly increased the expression of β-catenin by inducing phosphorylations of GSK3β at serine 9. ERβ siRNAs were transfected into MC3T3-E1 cells and revealed that ERβ involved E2-induced osteoblasts proliferation and differentiation via Wnt/β-catenin signaling. The osteoblast differentiation genes (BGP, ALP and OPN) and proliferation related gene (cyclin D1) expression were significantly induced by E2-mediated ERβ. Furthermore immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that E2 induced the accumulation of β-catenin protein in the nucleus which leads to interaction with T-cell-specific transcription factor/lymphoid enhancer binding factor (TCF/LEF) transcription factors. Taken together, these findings suggest that E2 promotes osteoblastic proliferation and differentiation by inducing proliferation-related and differentiation-related gene expression via ERβ/GSK-3β-dependent Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Our findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms of action of E2 in osteoblastogenesis. - Highlights: • 17β-estradial (E2) promotes GSK3-β phosphorylation. • E2 activates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. • The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway interacts with estrogen signaling pathways. • E2-mediated ER induced osteoblast differentiation and proliferation related genes expression.

  18. ERβ induces the differentiation of cultured osteoblasts by both Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and estrogen signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Xinhua; Wang, Xiaoyuan; Hu, Xiongke; Chen, Yong; Zeng, Kefeng; Zhang, Hongqi

    2015-01-01

    Although 17β-estradial (E2) is known to stimulate bone formation, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Recent studies have implicated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway as a major signaling cascade in bone biology. The interactions between Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and estrogen signaling pathways have been reported in many tissues. In this study, E2 significantly increased the expression of β-catenin by inducing phosphorylations of GSK3β at serine 9. ERβ siRNAs were transfected into MC3T3-E1 cells and revealed that ERβ involved E2-induced osteoblasts proliferation and differentiation via Wnt/β-catenin signaling. The osteoblast differentiation genes (BGP, ALP and OPN) and proliferation related gene (cyclin D1) expression were significantly induced by E2-mediated ERβ. Furthermore immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that E2 induced the accumulation of β-catenin protein in the nucleus which leads to interaction with T-cell-specific transcription factor/lymphoid enhancer binding factor (TCF/LEF) transcription factors. Taken together, these findings suggest that E2 promotes osteoblastic proliferation and differentiation by inducing proliferation-related and differentiation-related gene expression via ERβ/GSK-3β-dependent Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Our findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms of action of E2 in osteoblastogenesis. - Highlights: • 17β-estradial (E2) promotes GSK3-β phosphorylation. • E2 activates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. • The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway interacts with estrogen signaling pathways. • E2-mediated ER induced osteoblast differentiation and proliferation related genes expression

  19. Autophagy and the nutritional signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long HE,Shabnam ESLAMFAM,Xi MA,Defa LI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available During their growth and development, animals adapt to tremendous changes in order to survive. These include responses to both environmental and physiological changes and autophagy is one of most important adaptive and regulatory mechanisms. Autophagy is defined as an autolytic process to clear damaged cellular organelles and recycle the nutrients via lysosomic degradation. The process of autophagy responds to special conditions such as nutrient withdrawal. Once autophagy is induced, phagophores form and then elongate and curve to form autophagosomes. Autophagosomes then engulf cargo, fuse with endosomes, and finally fuse with lysosomes for maturation. During the initiation process, the ATG1/ULK1 (unc-51-like kinase 1 and VPS34 (which encodes a class III phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns 3-kinase complexes are critical in recruitment and assembly of other complexes required for autophagy. The process of autophagy is regulated by autophagy related genes (ATGs. Amino acid and energy starvation mediate autophagy by activating mTORC1 (mammalian target of rapamycin and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK. AMPK is the energy status sensor, the core nutrient signaling component and the metabolic kinase of cells. This review mainly focuses on the mechanism of autophagy regulated by nutrient signaling especially for the two important complexes, ULK1 and VPS34.

  20. Distinct and overlapping gene regulatory networks in BMP- and HDAC-controlled cell fate determination in the embryonic forebrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholl Catharina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs and histone deacetylases (HDACs have previously been established to play a role in the development of the three major cell types of the central nervous system: neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. We have previously established a connection between these two protein families, showing that HDACs suppress BMP-promoted astrogliogenesis in the embryonic striatum. Since HDACs act in the nucleus to effect changes in transcription, an unbiased analysis of their transcriptional targets could shed light on their downstream effects on BMP-signaling. Results Using neurospheres from the embryonic striatum as an in vitro system to analyze this phenomenon, we have performed microarray expression profiling on BMP2- and TSA-treated cultures, followed by validation of the findings with quantitative RT-PCR and protein analysis. In BMP-treated cultures we first observed an upregulation of genes involved in cell-cell communication and developmental processes such as members of BMP and canonical Wnt signaling pathways. In contrast, in TSA-treated cultures we first observed an upregulation of genes involved in chromatin modification and transcription. Interestingly, we could not record direct changes in the protein levels of canonical members of BMP2 signaling, but we did observe an upregulation of both the transcription factor STAT3 and its active isoform phospho-STAT3 at the protein level. Conclusions STAT3 and SMAD1/5/8 interact synergistically to promote astrogliogenesis, and thus we show for the first time that HDACs act to suppress BMP-promoted astrogliogenesis by suppression of the crucial partner STAT3.

  1. Signaling flux redistribution at toll-like receptor pathway junctions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Selvarajoo

    Full Text Available Various receptors on cell surface recognize specific extracellular molecules and trigger signal transduction altering gene expression in the nucleus. Gain or loss-of-function mutations of one molecule have shown to affect alternative signaling pathways with a poorly understood mechanism. In Toll-like receptor (TLR 4 signaling, which branches into MyD88- and TRAM-dependent pathways upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulation, we investigated the gain or loss-of-function mutations of MyD88. We predict, using a computational model built on the perturbation-response approach and the law of mass conservation, that removal and addition of MyD88 in TLR4 activation, enhances and impairs, respectively, the alternative TRAM-dependent pathway through signaling flux redistribution (SFR at pathway branches. To verify SFR, we treated MyD88-deficient macrophages with LPS and observed enhancement of TRAM-dependent pathway based on increased IRF3 phosphorylation and induction of Cxcl10 and Ifit2. Furthermore, increasing the amount of MyD88 in cultured cells showed decreased TRAM binding to TLR4. Investigating another TLR4 pathway junction, from TRIF to TRAF6, RIP1 and TBK1, the removal of MyD88-dependent TRAF6 increased expression of TRAM-dependent Cxcl10 and Ifit2. Thus, we demonstrate that SFR is a novel mechanism for enhanced activation of alternative pathways when molecules at pathway junctions are removed. Our data suggest that SFR may enlighten hitherto unexplainable intracellular signaling alterations in genetic diseases where gain or loss-of-function mutations are observed.

  2. Using Proteomics To Elucidate Critical Signaling Pathways

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Heba

    2012-11-01

    Despite important advances in the therapy of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) the majority of patients will die from their disease (Appelbaum, Rowe, Radich, & Dick, 2001). Characterization of the aberrant molecular pathways responsible for this malignancy provides a platform to discover alternative treatments to help alter the fate of patients. AML is characterized by a blockage in the differentiation of myeloid cells resulting in the accumulation of highly proliferating immature hematopoietic cells. Since treatments such as chemotherapy rarely destroy the leukemic cells entirely, differentiation induction therapy has become a very attractive treatment option. Interestingly, previous experiments have shown that ligation of CD44, a cell surface glycoprotein strongly expressed on all AML cells, with anti-CD44 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) could reverse this block in differentiation of leukemic blasts regardless of the AML subtype. To expand the understanding of the cellular regulation and circuitry involved, we aim to apply quantitative phosphoproteomics to monitor dynamic changes in phosphorylation state in response to anti-CD44 treatment. Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation is a highly controlled biochemical process that responds to various intracellular and extracellular stimuli. As phosphorylation is a dynamic process, quantification of these phosphorylation events would be vastly insightful. The main objective of this project is to determine the differentiation-dependent phosphoproteome of AML cells upon treatment of cells with the anti-CD44 mAb.In these experiments, optimization of protein extraction, phosphopeptide enrichment and data processing and analysis has been achieved. The primary results show successful phosphoproteome extraction complemented with efficient phosphopeptide enrichment and informative data processing. Further quantification with stable isotope labeling techniques is anticipated to provide candidates for targeted therapy.

  3. Computational identification of signalling pathways in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyelade, Jelili; Ewejobi, Itunu; Brors, Benedikt; Eils, Roland; Adebiyi, Ezekiel

    2011-06-01

    Malaria is one of the world's most common and serious diseases causing death of about 3 million people each year. Its most severe occurrence is caused by the protozoan Plasmodium falciparum. Reports have shown that the resistance of the parasite to existing drugs is increasing. Therefore, there is a huge and urgent need to discover and validate new drug or vaccine targets to enable the development of new treatments for malaria. The ability to discover these drug or vaccine targets can only be enhanced from our deep understanding of the detailed biology of the parasite, for example how cells function and how proteins organize into modules such as metabolic, regulatory and signal transduction pathways. It has been noted that the knowledge of signalling transduction pathways in Plasmodium is fundamental to aid the design of new strategies against malaria. This work uses a linear-time algorithm for finding paths in a network under modified biologically motivated constraints. We predicted several important signalling transduction pathways in Plasmodium falciparum. We have predicted a viable signalling pathway characterized in terms of the genes responsible that may be the PfPKB pathway recently elucidated in Plasmodium falciparum. We obtained from the FIKK family, a signal transduction pathway that ends up on a chloroquine resistance marker protein, which indicates that interference with FIKK proteins might reverse Plasmodium falciparum from resistant to sensitive phenotype. We also proposed a hypothesis that showed the FIKK proteins in this pathway as enabling the resistance parasite to have a mechanism for releasing chloroquine (via an efflux process). Furthermore, we also predicted a signalling pathway that may have been responsible for signalling the start of the invasion process of Red Blood Cell (RBC) by the merozoites. It has been noted that the understanding of this pathway will give insight into the parasite virulence and will facilitate rational vaccine design

  4. SPV: a JavaScript Signaling Pathway Visualizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderone, Alberto; Cesareni, Gianni

    2018-03-24

    The visualization of molecular interactions annotated in web resources is useful to offer to users such information in a clear intuitive layout. These interactions are frequently represented as binary interactions that are laid out in free space where, different entities, cellular compartments and interaction types are hardly distinguishable. SPV (Signaling Pathway Visualizer) is a free open source JavaScript library which offers a series of pre-defined elements, compartments and interaction types meant to facilitate the representation of signaling pathways consisting of causal interactions without neglecting simple protein-protein interaction networks. freely available under Apache version 2 license; Source code: https://github.com/Sinnefa/SPV_Signaling_Pathway_Visualizer_v1.0. Language: JavaScript; Web technology: Scalable Vector Graphics; Libraries: D3.js. sinnefa@gmail.com.

  5. POSTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATIONS OF P53: UPSTREAM SIGNALING PATHWAYS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDERSON,C.W.APPELLA,E.

    2003-10-23

    The p53 tumor suppressor is a tetrameric transcription factor that is posttranslational modified at >20 different sites by phosphorylation, acetylation, or sumoylation in response to various cellular stress conditions. Specific posttranslational modifications, or groups of modifications, that result from the activation of different stress-induced signaling pathways are thought to modulate p53 activity to regulate cell fate by inducing cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, or cellular senescence. Here we review recent progress in characterizing the upstream signaling pathways whose activation in response to various genotoxic and non-genotoxic stresses result in p53 posttranslational modifications.

  6. Clinical Implications of Hedgehog Pathway Signaling in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Suzman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Activity in the Hedgehog pathway, which regulates GLI-mediated transcription, is important in organogenesis and stem cell regulation in self-renewing organs, but is pathologically elevated in many human malignancies. Mutations leading to constitutive activation of the pathway have been implicated in medulloblastoma and basal cell carcinoma, and inhibition of the pathway has demonstrated clinical responses leading to the approval of the Smoothened inhibitor, vismodegib, for the treatment of advanced basal cell carcinoma. Aberrant Hedgehog pathway signaling has also been noted in prostate cancer with evidence suggesting that it may render prostate epithelial cells tumorigenic, drive the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and contribute towards the development of castration-resistance through autocrine and paracrine signaling within the tumor microenvironment and cross-talk with the androgen pathway. In addition, there are emerging clinical data suggesting that inhibition of the Hedgehog pathway may be effective in the treatment of recurrent and metastatic prostate cancer. Here we will review these data and highlight areas of active clinical research as they relate to Hedgehog pathway inhibition in prostate cancer.

  7. Phylogenetic diversity of stress signalling pathways in fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stansfield Ian

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbes must sense environmental stresses, transduce these signals and mount protective responses to survive in hostile environments. In this study we have tested the hypothesis that fungal stress signalling pathways have evolved rapidly in a niche-specific fashion that is independent of phylogeny. To test this hypothesis we have compared the conservation of stress signalling molecules in diverse fungal species with their stress resistance. These fungi, which include ascomycetes, basidiomycetes and microsporidia, occupy highly divergent niches from saline environments to plant or mammalian hosts. Results The fungi displayed significant variation in their resistance to osmotic (NaCl and sorbitol, oxidative (H2O2 and menadione and cell wall stresses (Calcofluor White and Congo Red. There was no strict correlation between fungal phylogeny and stress resistance. Rather, the human pathogens tended to be more resistant to all three types of stress, an exception being the sensitivity of Candida albicans to the cell wall stress, Calcofluor White. In contrast, the plant pathogens were relatively sensitive to oxidative stress. The degree of conservation of osmotic, oxidative and cell wall stress signalling pathways amongst the eighteen fungal species was examined. Putative orthologues of functionally defined signalling components in Saccharomyces cerevisiae were identified by performing reciprocal BLASTP searches, and the percent amino acid identities of these orthologues recorded. This revealed that in general, central components of the osmotic, oxidative and cell wall stress signalling pathways are relatively well conserved, whereas the sensors lying upstream and transcriptional regulators lying downstream of these modules have diverged significantly. There was no obvious correlation between the degree of conservation of stress signalling pathways and the resistance of a particular fungus to the corresponding stress. Conclusion Our

  8. Wnt pathway in Dupuytren disease: connecting profibrotic signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beuge, Marike M; Ten Dam, Evert-Jan P M; Werker, Paul M N; Bank, Ruud A

    2015-12-01

    A role of Wnt signaling in Dupuytren disease, a fibroproliferative disease of the hand and fingers, has not been fully elucidated. We examined a large set of Wnt pathway components and signaling targets and found significant dysregulation of 41 Wnt-related genes in tissue from the Dupuytren nodules compared with patient-matched control tissue. A large proportion of genes coding for Wnt proteins themselves was downregulated. However, both canonical Wnt targets and components of the noncanonical signaling pathway were upregulated. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that protein expression of Wnt1-inducible secreted protein 1 (WISP1), a known Wnt target, was increased in nodules compared with control tissue, but knockdown of WISP1 using small interfering RNA (siRNA) in the Dupuytren myofibroblasts did not confirm a functional role. The protein expression of noncanonical pathway components Wnt5A and VANGL2 as well as noncanonical coreceptors Ror2 and Ryk was increased in nodules. On the contrary, the strongest downregulated genes in this study were 4 antagonists of Wnt signaling (DKK1, FRZB, SFRP1, and WIF1). Downregulation of these genes in the Dupuytren tissue was mimicked in vitro by treating normal fibroblasts with transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), suggesting cross talk between different profibrotic pathways. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated knockdown of these antagonists in normal fibroblasts led to increased nuclear translocation of Wnt target β-catenin in response to TGF-β1 treatment. In conclusion, we have shown extensive dysregulation of Wnt signaling in affected tissue from Dupuytren disease patients. Components of both the canonical and the noncanonical pathways are upregulated, whereas endogenous antagonists are downregulated, possibly via interaction with other profibrotic pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. BMP and Hedgehog Regulate Distinct AGM Hematopoietic Stem Cells Ex Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Crisan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC, the self-renewing cells of the adult blood differentiation hierarchy, are generated during embryonic stages. The first HSCs are produced in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM region of the embryo through endothelial to a hematopoietic transition. BMP4 and Hedgehog affect their production and expansion, but it is unknown whether they act to affect the same HSCs. In this study using the BRE GFP reporter mouse strain that identifies BMP/Smad-activated cells, we find that the AGM harbors two types of adult-repopulating HSCs upon explant culture: One type is BMP-activated and the other is a non-BMP-activated HSC type that is indirectly controlled by Hedgehog signaling through the VEGF pathway. Transcriptomic analyses demonstrate that the two HSC types express distinct but overlapping genetic programs. These results revealing the bifurcation in HSC types at early embryonic stages in the AGM explant model suggest that their development is dependent upon the signaling molecules in the microenvironment.

  10. Role of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7 (BMP7 in the Modulation of Corneal Stromal and Epithelial Cell Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavani S. Kowtharapu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the cornea, healing of the wounded avascular surface is an intricate process comprising the involvement of epithelial, stromal and neuronal cell interactions. These interactions result to the release of various growth factors that play prominent roles during corneal wound healing response. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs are unique multi-functional potent growth factors of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β superfamily. Treatment of corneal epithelial cells with substance P and nerve growth factor resulted to an increase in the expression of BMP7 mRNA. Since BMP7 is known to modulate the process of corneal wound healing, in this present study, we investigated the influence of exogenous rhBMP7 on human corneal epithelial cell and stromal cell (SFs function. To obtain a high-fidelity expression profiling of activated biomarkers and pathways, transcriptome-wide gene-level expression profiling of epithelial cells in the presence of BMP7 was performed. Gene ontology analysis shows BMP7 stimulation activated TGF-β signaling and cell cycle pathways, whereas biological processes related to cell cycle, microtubule and intermediate filament cytoskeleton organization were significantly impacted in corneal epithelial cells. Scratch wound healing assay showed increased motility and migration of BMP7 treated epithelial cells. BMP7 stimulation studies show activation of MAPK cascade proteins in epithelial cells and SFs. Similarly, a difference in the expression of claudin, Zink finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 was observed along with phosphorylation levels of cofilin in epithelial cells. Stimulation of SFs with BMP7 activated them with increased expression of α-smooth muscle actin. In addition, an elevated phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor following BMP7 stimulation was also observed both in corneal epithelial cells and SFs. Based on our transcriptome analysis data on epithelial cells and the results obtained in SFs, we

  11. YAP regulates neuronal differentiation through Sonic hedgehog signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yi-Ting; Ding, Jing-Ya; Li, Ming-Yang; Yeh, Tien-Shun; Wang, Tsu-Wei; Yu, Jenn-Yah

    2012-01-01

    Tight regulation of cell numbers by controlling cell proliferation and apoptosis is important during development. Recently, the Hippo pathway has been shown to regulate tissue growth and organ size in Drosophila. In mammalian cells, it also affects cell proliferation and differentiation in various tissues, including the nervous system. Interplay of several signaling cascades, such as Notch, Wnt, and Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) pathways, control cell proliferation during neuronal differentiation. However, it remains unclear whether the Hippo pathway coordinates with other signaling cascades in regulating neuronal differentiation. Here, we used P19 cells, a mouse embryonic carcinoma cell line, as a model to study roles of YAP, a core component of the Hippo pathway, in neuronal differentiation. P19 cells can be induced to differentiate into neurons by expressing a neural bHLH transcription factor gene Ascl1. Our results showed that YAP promoted cell proliferation and inhibited neuronal differentiation. Expression of Yap activated Shh but not Wnt or Notch signaling activity during neuronal differentiation. Furthermore, expression of Yap increased the expression of Patched homolog 1 (Ptch1), a downstream target of the Shh signaling. Knockdown of Gli2, a transcription factor of the Shh pathway, promoted neuronal differentiation even when Yap was over-expressed. We further demonstrated that over-expression of Yap inhibited neuronal differentiation in primary mouse cortical progenitors and Gli2 knockdown rescued the differentiation defect in Yap over-expressing cells. In conclusion, our study reveals that Shh signaling acts downstream of YAP in regulating neuronal differentiation. -- Highlights: ► YAP promotes cell proliferation and inhibits neuronal differentiation in P19 cells. ► YAP promotes Sonic hedgehog signaling activity during neuronal differentiation. ► Knockdown of Gli2 rescues the Yap-overexpression phenotype in P19 cells. ► Knockdown of Gli2 rescues the Yap

  12. YAP regulates neuronal differentiation through Sonic hedgehog signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yi-Ting; Ding, Jing-Ya [Department of Life Sciences and Institute of Genome Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Li, Ming-Yang [Department of Life Science, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Tien-Shun [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Wang, Tsu-Wei [Department of Life Science, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Yu, Jenn-Yah [Department of Life Sciences and Institute of Genome Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Brain Research Center, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China)

    2012-09-10

    Tight regulation of cell numbers by controlling cell proliferation and apoptosis is important during development. Recently, the Hippo pathway has been shown to regulate tissue growth and organ size in Drosophila. In mammalian cells, it also affects cell proliferation and differentiation in various tissues, including the nervous system. Interplay of several signaling cascades, such as Notch, Wnt, and Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) pathways, control cell proliferation during neuronal differentiation. However, it remains unclear whether the Hippo pathway coordinates with other signaling cascades in regulating neuronal differentiation. Here, we used P19 cells, a mouse embryonic carcinoma cell line, as a model to study roles of YAP, a core component of the Hippo pathway, in neuronal differentiation. P19 cells can be induced to differentiate into neurons by expressing a neural bHLH transcription factor gene Ascl1. Our results showed that YAP promoted cell proliferation and inhibited neuronal differentiation. Expression of Yap activated Shh but not Wnt or Notch signaling activity during neuronal differentiation. Furthermore, expression of Yap increased the expression of Patched homolog 1 (Ptch1), a downstream target of the Shh signaling. Knockdown of Gli2, a transcription factor of the Shh pathway, promoted neuronal differentiation even when Yap was over-expressed. We further demonstrated that over-expression of Yap inhibited neuronal differentiation in primary mouse cortical progenitors and Gli2 knockdown rescued the differentiation defect in Yap over-expressing cells. In conclusion, our study reveals that Shh signaling acts downstream of YAP in regulating neuronal differentiation. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer YAP promotes cell proliferation and inhibits neuronal differentiation in P19 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer YAP promotes Sonic hedgehog signaling activity during neuronal differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of Gli2 rescues the Yap

  13. DMPD: Multiple signaling pathways leading to the activation of interferon regulatoryfactor 3. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 12213596 Multiple signaling pathways leading to the activation of interferon regula...(.html) (.csml) Show Multiple signaling pathways leading to the activation of interferon regulatoryfactor 3.... PubmedID 12213596 Title Multiple signaling pathways leading to the activation of

  14. Signaling Pathways in Leiomyoma: Understanding Pathobiology and Implications for Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borahay, Mostafa A; Al-Hendy, Ayman; Kilic, Gokhan S; Boehning, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas are the most common tumors of the female genital tract, affecting 50% to 70% of females by the age of 50. Despite their prevalence and enormous medical and economic impact, no effective medical treatment is currently available. This is, in part, due to the poor understanding of their underlying pathobiology. Although they are thought to start as a clonal proliferation of a single myometrial smooth muscle cell, these early cytogenetic alterations are considered insufficient for tumor development and additional complex signaling pathway alterations are crucial. These include steroids, growth factors, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β)/Smad; wingless-type (Wnt)/β-catenin, retinoic acid, vitamin D, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). An important finding is that several of these pathways converge in a summative way. For example, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt pathways seem to act as signal integrators, incorporating input from several signaling pathways, including growth factors, estrogen and vitamin D. This underlines the multifactorial origin and complex nature of these tumors. In this review, we aim to dissect these pathways and discuss their interconnections, aberrations and role in leiomyoma pathobiology. We also aim to identify potential targets for development of novel therapeutics. PMID:25879625

  15. Network features and pathway analyses of a signal transduction cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoji Yanashima

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The scale-free and small-world network models reflect the functional units of networks. However, when we investigated the network properties of a signaling pathway using these models, no significant differences were found between the original undirected graphs and the graphs in which inactive proteins were eliminated from the gene expression data. We analyzed signaling networks by focusing on those pathways that best reflected cellular function. Therefore, our analysis of pathways started from the ligands and progressed to transcription factors and cytoskeletal proteins. We employed the Python module to assess the target network. This involved comparing the original and restricted signaling cascades as a directed graph using microarray gene expression profiles of late onset Alzheimer's disease. The most commonly used method of shortest-path analysis neglects to consider the influences of alternative pathways that can affect the activation of transcription factors or cytoskeletal proteins. We therefore introduced included k-shortest paths and k-cycles in our network analysis using the Python modules, which allowed us to attain a reasonable computational time and identify k-shortest paths. This technique reflected results found in vivo and identified pathways not found when shortest path or degree analysis was applied. Our module enabled us to comprehensively analyse the characteristics of biomolecular networks and also enabled analysis of the effects of diseases considering the feedback loop and feedforward loop control structures as an alternative path.

  16. Interaction Dynamics Determine Signaling and Output Pathway Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klement Stojanovski

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of interaction dynamics in signaling pathways can shed light on pathway architecture and provide insights into targets for intervention. Here, we explored the relevance of kinetic rate constants of a key upstream osmosensor in the yeast high-osmolarity glycerol-mitogen-activated protein kinase (HOG-MAPK pathway to signaling output responses. We created mutant pairs of the Sln1-Ypd1 complex interface that caused major compensating changes in the association (kon and dissociation (koff rate constants (kinetic perturbations but only moderate changes in the overall complex affinity (Kd. Yeast cells carrying a Sln1-Ypd1 mutant pair with moderate increases in kon and koff displayed a lower threshold of HOG pathway activation than wild-type cells. Mutants with higher kon and koff rates gave rise to higher basal signaling and gene expression but impaired osmoadaptation. Thus, the kon and koff rates of the components in the Sln1 osmosensor determine proper signaling dynamics and osmoadaptation.

  17. DMPD: TLR signaling. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available kira S. Publication Cell Death Differ. 2006 May;13(5):816-25. Pathway - PNG File (.png) SVG File (.svg) HTML File (.html...16410796 TLR signaling. Kawai T, Akira S. Cell Death Differ. 2006 May;13(5):816-25. (.png) (.svg) (.html

  18. Regulation of insect behavior via the insulin-signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renske eErion

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS pathway is well established as a critical regulator of growth and metabolic homeostasis across the animal kingdom. Insulin-like peptides (ILPs, the functional analogs of mammalian insulin, were initially discovered in the silkmoth Bombyx mori and subsequently identified in many other insect species. Initial research focused on the role of insulin signaling in metabolism, cell proliferation, development, reproduction and aging. More recently however, increasing attention has been given to the role of insulin in the regulation of neuronal function and behavior. Here we review the role of insulin signaling in two specific insect behaviors: feeding and locomotion.

  19. BMP9 ameliorates amyloidosis and the cholinergic defect in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Rebecca M; Norman, Timothy A; Haydar, Tarik F; Slack, Barbara E; Leeman, Susan E; Blusztajn, Jan Krzysztof; Mellott, Tiffany J

    2013-11-26

    Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) promotes the acquisition of the cholinergic phenotype in basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN) during development and protects these neurons from cholinergic dedifferentiation following axotomy when administered in vivo. A decline in BFCN function occurs in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and contributes to the AD-associated memory deficits. We infused BMP9 intracerebroventricularly for 7 d in transgenic AD model mice expressing green fluorescent protein specifically in cholinergic neurons (APP.PS1/CHGFP) and in wild-type littermate controls (WT/CHGFP). We used 5-mo-old mice, an age when the AD transgenics display early amyloid deposition and few cholinergic defects, and 10-mo-old mice, by which time these mice exhibit established disease. BMP9 infusion reduced the number of Aβ42-positive amyloid plaques in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of 5- and 10-mo-old APP.PS1/CHGFP mice and reversed the reductions in choline acetyltransferase protein levels in the hippocampus of 10-mo-old APP.PS1/CHGFP mice. The treatment increased cholinergic fiber density in the hippocampus of both WT/CHGFP and APP.PS1/CHGFP mice at both ages. BMP9 infusion also increased hippocampal levels of neurotrophin 3, insulin-like growth factor 1, and nerve growth factor and of the nerve growth factor receptors, tyrosine kinase receptor A and p75/NGFR, irrespective of the genotype of the mice. These data show that BMP9 administration is effective in reducing the Aβ42 amyloid plaque burden, reversing cholinergic neuron abnormalities, and generating a neurotrophic milieu for BFCN in a mouse model of AD and provide evidence that the BMP9-signaling pathway may constitute a therapeutic target for AD.

  20. Role of Notch signalling pathway in cancer and its association with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Notch signalling pathway is an evolutionarily conserved cell signalling pathway involved in the development of organ- ... Abnormal Notch signalling is seen in many cancers like T-cell acute ...... Morgan T. H. 1917 The theory of the gene.

  1. Bmp indicator mice reveal dynamic regulation of transcriptional response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L Javier

    Full Text Available Cellular responses to Bmp ligands are regulated at multiple levels, both extracellularly and intracellularly. Therefore, the presence of these growth factors is not an accurate indicator of Bmp signaling activity. While a common approach to detect Bmp signaling activity is to determine the presence of phosphorylated forms of Smad1, 5 and 8 by immunostaining, this approach is time consuming and not quantitative. In order to provide a simpler readout system to examine the presence of Bmp signaling in developing animals, we developed BRE-gal mouse embryonic stem cells and a transgenic mouse line that specifically respond to Bmp ligand stimulation. Our reporter identifies specific transcriptional responses that are mediated by Smad1 and Smad4 with the Schnurri transcription factor complex binding to a conserved Bmp-Responsive Element (BRE, originally identified among Drosophila, Xenopus and human Bmp targets. Our BRE-gal mES cells specifically respond to Bmp ligands at concentrations as low as 5 ng/ml; and BRE-gal reporter mice, derived from the BRE-gal mES cells, show dynamic activity in many cellular sites, including extraembryonic structures and mammary glands, thereby making this a useful scientific tool.

  2. NK cell activation: distinct stimulatory pathways counterbalancing inhibitory signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, A B; Wu, J; Phillips, J H; Lanier, L L

    2000-01-01

    A delicate balance between positive and negative signals regulates NK cell effector function. Activation of NK cells may be initiated by the triggering of multiple adhesion or costimulatory molecules, and can be counterbalanced by inhibitory signals induced by receptors for MHC class I. A common pathway of inhibitory signaling is provided by immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs) in the cytoplasmic domains of these receptors which mediate the recruitment of SH2 domain-bearing tyrosine phosphate-1 (SHP-1). In contrast to the extensive progress that has been made regarding the negative regulation of NK cell function, our knowledge of the signals that activate NK cells is still poor. Recent studies of the activating receptor complexes have shed new light on the induction of NK cell effector function. Several NK receptors using novel adaptors with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) and with PI 3-kinase recruiting motifs have been implicated in NK cell stimulation.

  3. NOX4 mediates BMP4-induced upregulation of TRPC1 and 6 protein expressions in distal pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Jiang

    Full Text Available Our previous studies demonstrated that bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4 mediated, elevated expression of canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC largely accounts for the enhanced proliferation in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs. In the present study, we sought to determine the signaling pathway through which BMP4 up-regulates TRPC expression.We employed recombinant human BMP4 (rhBMP4 to determine the effects of BMP4 on NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4 and reactive oxygen species (ROS production in rat distal PASMCs. We also designed small interfering RNA targeting NOX4 (siNOX4 and detected whether NOX4 knockdown affects rhBMP4-induced ROS, TRPC1 and 6 expression, cell proliferation and intracellular Ca2+ determination in PASMCs.In rhBMP4 treated rat distal PASMCs, NOX4 expression was (226.73±11.13 %, and the mean ROS level was (123.65±1.62 % of that in untreated control cell. siNOX4 transfection significantly reduced rhBMP4-induced elevation of the mean ROS level in PASMCs. Moreover, siNOX4 transfection markedly reduced rhBMP4-induced elevation of TRPC1 and 6 proteins, basal [Ca2+]i and SOCE. Furthermore, compared with control group (0.21±0.001, the proliferation of rhBMP4 treated cells was significantly enhanced (0.41±0.001 (P<0.01. However, such increase was attenuated by knockdown of NOX4. Moreover, external ROS (H2O2 100 µM, 24 h rescued the effects of NOX4 knockdown, which included the declining of TRPC1 and 6 expression, basal intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i and store-operated calcium entry (SOCE, suggesting that NOX4 plays as an important mediator in BMP4-induced proliferation and intracellular calcium homeostasis.These results suggest that BMP4 may increase ROS level, enhance TRPC1 and 6 expression and proliferation by up-regulating NOX4 expression in PASMCs.

  4. Signal transduction pathways involved in mechanotransduction in bone cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liedert, Astrid; Kaspar, Daniela; Blakytny, Robert; Claes, Lutz; Ignatius, Anita

    2006-01-01

    Several in vivo and in vitro studies with different loading regimens showed that mechanical stimuli have an influence on proliferation and differentiation of bone cells. Prerequisite for this influence is the transduction of mechanical signals into the cell, a phenomenon that is termed mechanotransduction, which is essential for the maintenance of skeletal homeostasis in adults. Mechanoreceptors, such as the integrins, cadherins, and stretch-activated Ca 2+ channels, together with various signal transduction pathways, are involved in the mechanotransduction process that ultimately regulates gene expression in the nucleus. Mechanotransduction itself is considered to be regulated by hormones, the extracellular matrix of the osteoblastic cells and the mode of the mechanical stimulus

  5. Signaling transduction pathways involved in basophil adhesion and histamine release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sha, Quan; Poulsen, Lars K.; Gerwien, Jens

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about basophil with respect to the different signaling transduction pathways involved in spontaneous, cytokine or anti-IgE induced adhesion and how this compares to IgE-dependent and IgE-independent mediator secretion. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the roles...... of beta1 and beta2 integrins in basophil adhesion as well as hosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), src-kinases and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in basophil adhesion and histamine release (HR)....

  6. Probing the canonicity of the Wnt/Wingless signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Franz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The hallmark of canonical Wnt signaling is the transcriptional induction of Wnt target genes by the beta-catenin/TCF complex. Several studies have proposed alternative interaction partners for beta-catenin or TCF, but the relevance of potential bifurcations in the distal Wnt pathway remains unclear. Here we study on a genome-wide scale the requirement for Armadillo (Arm, Drosophila beta-catenin and Pangolin (Pan, Drosophila TCF in the Wnt/Wingless(Wg-induced transcriptional response of Drosophila Kc cells. Using somatic genetics, we demonstrate that both Arm and Pan are absolutely required for mediating activation and repression of target genes. Furthermore, by means of STARR-sequencing we identified Wnt/Wg-responsive enhancer elements and found that all responsive enhancers depend on Pan. Together, our results confirm the dogma of canonical Wnt/Wg signaling and argue against the existence of distal pathway branches in this system.

  7. Aberrant Signaling Pathways in T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiovanni, Deborah; Saccomani, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive disease caused by the malignant transformation of immature progenitors primed towards T-cell development. Clinically, T-ALL patients present with diffuse infiltration of the bone marrow by immature T-cell blasts high blood cell counts, mediastinal involvement, and diffusion to the central nervous system. In the past decade, the genomic landscape of T-ALL has been the target of intense research. The identification of specific genomic alterations has contributed to identify strong oncogenic drivers and signaling pathways regulating leukemia growth. Notwithstanding, T-ALL patients are still treated with high-dose multiagent chemotherapy, potentially exposing these patients to considerable acute and long-term side effects. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the signaling pathways relevant for the pathogenesis of T-ALL and the opportunities offered for targeted therapy. PMID:28872614

  8. BMP4 and LGL1 are Down Regulated in an Ovine Model of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather eEmmerton-Coughlin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: The molecular pathophysiology of lung hypoplasia in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH remains poorly understood. The Wnt signaling pathway and downstream targets, such as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP 4 and other factors such as late gestation lung protein 1 (LGL1, are essential to normal lung development. Nitrofen-induced hypoplastic CDH rodent lungs demonstrate down regulation of the Wnt pathway including BMP4 and reduced LGL1 expression. The aim of the current study was to examine the molecular pathophysiology associated with a surgically induced CDH in an ovine model. Methods: Left thoracotomy was performed at 80 days in 14 fetal sheep; CDH was created in 7 experimental animals. Lungs were harvested at 136 days (term=145d. Lung weight and mean terminal bronchiole density (MTBD were measured to determine the degree of pulmonary hypoplasia. Quantitative real time PCR was undertaken to analyze Wnt2, Wnt7b, BMP4 and LGL1 mRNA expression. Results: Total lung weight was decreased while MTBD was increased in the CDH group (p<0.05, confirming pulmonary hypoplasia. BMP4 and LGL1 mRNA was significantly reduced in CDH lungs (p<0.05. Wnt2 mRNA was decreased, although not significantly (p<0.06. Conclusions: For the first time, down regulation of BMP4 and Lgl1 are reported in an ovine CDH model. In contrast to other animal models, these changes are persistent to near term. These findings suggest that mechanical compression from herniated viscera may play a more important role in causing pulmonary hypoplasia in CDH, rather than a primary defect in lung organogenesis.

  9. GAS6/TAM Pathway Signaling in Hemostasis and Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Luke A; Graham, Douglas K; Di Paola, Jorge; Branchford, Brian R

    2018-01-01

    The GAS6/TYRO3-AXL-MERTK (TAM) signaling pathway is essential for full and sustained platelet activation, as well as thrombus stabilization. Inhibition of this pathway decreases platelet aggregation, shape change, clot retraction, aggregate formation under flow conditions, and surface expression of activation markers. Transgenic mice deficient in GAS6, or any of the TAM family of receptors that engage this ligand, exhibit in vivo protection against arterial and venous thrombosis but do not demonstrate either spontaneous or prolonged bleeding compared to their wild-type counterparts. Comparable results are observed in wild-type mice treated with pharmacological inhibitors of the GAS6-TAM pathway. Thus, GAS6/TAM inhibition offers an attractive novel therapeutic option that may allow for a moderate reduction in platelet activation and decreased thrombosis while still permitting the primary hemostatic function of platelet plug formation.

  10. Inflammation Activates the Interferon Signaling Pathways in Taste Bud Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hong; Zhou, Minliang; Brand, Joseph; Huang, Liquan

    2007-01-01

    Patients with viral and bacterial infections or other inflammatory illnesses often experience taste dysfunctions. The agents responsible for these taste disorders are thought to be related to infection-induced inflammation, but the mechanisms are not known. As a first step in characterizing the possible role of inflammation in taste disorders, we report here evidence for the presence of interferon (IFN)-mediated signaling pathways in taste bud cells. IFN receptors, particularly the IFN-γ rece...

  11. Herpes simplex virus triggers activation of calcium-signaling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshenko, Natalia; Del Rosario, Brian; Woda, Craig; Marcellino, Daniel; Satlin, Lisa M.; Herold, Betsy C.

    2003-01-01

    The cellular pathways required for herpes simplex virus (HSV) invasion have not been defined. To test the hypothesis that HSV entry triggers activation of Ca2+-signaling pathways, the effects on intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) after exposure of cells to HSV were examined. Exposure to virus results in a rapid and transient increase in [Ca2+]i. Pretreatment of cells with pharmacological agents that block release of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3)–sensitive endoplasmic reticulum stores abrogates the response. Moreover, treatment of cells with these pharmacological agents inhibits HSV infection and prevents focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation, which occurs within 5 min after viral infection. Viruses deleted in glycoprotein L or glycoprotein D, which bind but do not penetrate, fail to induce a [Ca2+]i response or trigger FAK phosphorylation. Together, these results support a model for HSV infection that requires activation of IP3-responsive Ca2+-signaling pathways and that is associated with FAK phosphorylation. Defining the pathway of viral invasion may lead to new targets for anti-viral therapy. PMID:14568989

  12. BMP4 and BMP7 Suppress StAR and Progesterone Production via ALK3 and SMAD1/5/8-SMAD4 in Human Granulosa-Lutein Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Klausen, Christian; Zhu, Hua; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Leung, Peter C K

    2015-11-01

    Adequate production of progesterone by the corpus luteum is critical to the successful establishment of pregnancy. In animal models, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 4 and BMP7 have been shown to suppress either basal or gonadotropin-induced progesterone production, depending on the species examined. However, the effects of BMP4 and BMP7 on progesterone production in human granulosa cells are unknown. In the present study, we used immortalized (SVOG) and primary human granulosa-lutein cells to investigate the effects of BMP4 and BMP7 on steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) expression and progesterone production and to examine the underlying molecular mechanism. Treatment of primary and immortalized human granulosa cells with recombinant BMP4 or BMP7 decreased StAR expression and progesterone accumulation. In SVOG cells, the suppressive effects of BMP4 and BMP7 on StAR expression were blocked by pretreatment with inhibitors of activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)2/3/6 (dorsomorphin) or ALK2/3 (DMH1) but not ALK4/5/7 (SB-431542). Moreover, small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of ALK3, but not ALK2 or ALK6, reversed the effects of BMP4 and BMP7 on StAR expression. Likewise, BMP4- and BMP7-induced phosphorylation of SMAD 1/5/8 was reversed by treatment with DMH1 or small interfering RNA targeting ALK3. Knockdown of SMAD4, the essential common SMAD for BMP/TGF-β signaling, abolished the effects of BMP4 and BMP7 on StAR expression. Our results suggest that BMP4 and BMP7 down-regulate StAR and progesterone production via ALK3 and SMAD1/5/8-SMAD4 signaling in human granulosa-lutein cells.

  13. Kaempferol inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell migration by modulating BMP-mediated miR-21 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwangho; Kim, Sunghwan; Moh, Sang Hyun; Kang, Hara

    2015-09-01

    Bioflavonoids are known to induce cardioprotective effects by inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration. Kaempferol has been shown to inhibit VSMC proliferation. However, little is known about the effect of kaempferol on VSMC migration and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Our studies provide the first evidence that kaempferol inhibits VSMC migration by modulating the BMP4 signaling pathway and microRNA expression levels. Kaempferol activates the BMP signaling pathway, induces miR-21 expression and downregulates DOCK4, 5, and 7, leading to inhibition of cell migration. Moreover, kaempferol antagonizes the PDGF-mediated pro-migratory effect. Therefore, our study uncovers a novel regulatory mechanism of VSMC migration by kaempferol and suggests that miRNA modulation by kaempferol is a potential therapy for cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Interleukins and their signaling pathways in the Reactome biological pathway database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupe, Steve; Ray, Keith; Roca, Corina Duenas; Varusai, Thawfeek; Shamovsky, Veronica; Stein, Lincoln; D'Eustachio, Peter; Hermjakob, Henning

    2018-04-01

    much molecular detail as possible and are linked to literature citations that contain supporting experimental details. All newly created events undergo a peer-review process before they are added to the database and made available on the associated Web site. New content is added quarterly. The 63rd release of Reactome in December 2017 contains 10,996 human proteins participating in 11,426 events in 2,179 pathways. In addition, analytic tools allow data set submission for the identification and visualization of pathway enrichment and representation of expression profiles as an overlay on Reactome pathways. Protein-protein and compound-protein interactions from several sources, including custom user data sets, can be added to extend pathways. Pathway diagrams and analytic result displays can be downloaded as editable images, human-readable reports, and files in several standard formats that are suitable for computational reuse. Reactome content is available programmatically through a REpresentational State Transfer (REST)-based content service and as a Neo4J graph database. Signaling pathways for IL-1 to IL-38 are hierarchically classified within the pathway "signaling by interleukins." The classification used is largely derived from Akdis et al. The addition to Reactome of a complete set of the known human interleukins, their receptors, and established signaling pathways linked to annotations of relevant aspects of immune function provides a significant computationally accessible resource of information about this important family. This information can be extended easily as new discoveries become accepted as the consensus in the field. A key aim for the future is to increase coverage of gene expression changes induced by interleukin signaling. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Chondrogenesis of Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induced by TGFβ1 and BMP7 Through Increased TGFβ Receptor Expression and Endogenous TGFβ1 Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Patrick T; Li, Wan-Ju

    2017-01-01

    For decades stem cells have proven to be invaluable to the study of tissue development. More recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) (ESC-MSCs) have emerged as a cell source with great potential for the future of biomedical research due to their enhanced proliferative capability compared to adult tissue-derived MSCs and effectiveness of musculoskeletal lineage-specific cell differentiation compared to ESCs. We have previously compared the properties and differentiation potential of ESC-MSCs to bone marrow-derived MSCs. In this study, we evaluated the potential of TGFβ1 and BMP7 to induce chondrogenic differentiation of ESC-MSCs compared to that of TGFβ1 alone and further investigated the cellular phenotype and intracellular signaling in response to these induction conditions. Our results showed that the expression of cartilage-associated markers in ESC-MSCs induced by the TGFβ1 and BMP7 combination was increased compared to induction with TGFβ1 alone. The TGFβ1 and BMP7 combination upregulated the expression of TGFβ receptor and the production of endogenous TGFβs compared to TGFβ1 induction. The growth factor combination also increasingly activated both of the TGF and BMP signaling pathways, and inhibition of the signaling pathways led to reduced chondrogenesis of ESC-MSCs. Our findings suggest that by adding BMP7 to TGFβ1-supplemented induction medium, ESC-MSC chondrogenesis is upregulated through increased production of endogenous TGFβ and activities of TGFβ and BMP signaling. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 172-181, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Signaling Pathway: An Update on Molecular Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warut Tulalamba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is an uncommon cancer, which has a distinctive ethnic and geographic distribution. Etiology of NPC is considered to be related with a complex interaction of environmental and genetic factors as well as Epstein-Barr virus infection. Since NPC is located in the silent painless area, the disease is usually therefore diagnosed at the advanced stages; hence early detection of NPC is difficult. Furthermore, understanding in molecular pathogenesis is still lacking, pondering the identification of effective prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers. Dysregulation of signaling molecules in intracellular signal transduction, which regulate cell proliferation, apoptosis, and adhesion, underlines the basis of NPC pathogenesis. In this paper, the molecular signaling pathways in the NPC are discussed for the holistic view of NPC development and progression. The important insights toward NPC pathogenesis may offer strategies for identification of novel biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis.

  17. Signal Transduction Pathways of TNAP: Molecular Network Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Négyessy, László; Györffy, Balázs; Hanics, János; Bányai, Mihály; Fonta, Caroline; Bazsó, Fülöp

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing body of evidence pointing on the involvement of tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) in brain function and diseases like epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease, our understanding about the role of TNAP in the regulation of neurotransmission is severely limited. The aim of our study was to integrate the fragmented knowledge into a comprehensive view regarding neuronal functions of TNAP using objective tools. As a model we used the signal transduction molecular network of a pyramidal neuron after complementing with TNAP related data and performed the analysis using graph theoretic tools. The analyses show that TNAP is in the crossroad of numerous pathways and therefore is one of the key players of the neuronal signal transduction network. Through many of its connections, most notably with molecules of the purinergic system, TNAP serves as a controller by funnelling signal flow towards a subset of molecules. TNAP also appears as the source of signal to be spread via interactions with molecules involved among others in neurodegeneration. Cluster analyses identified TNAP as part of the second messenger signalling cascade. However, TNAP also forms connections with other functional groups involved in neuronal signal transduction. The results indicate the distinct ways of involvement of TNAP in multiple neuronal functions and diseases.

  18. Romidepsin targets multiple survival signaling pathways in malignant T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdez, B C; Brammer, J E; Li, Y; Murray, D; Liu, Y; Hosing, C; Nieto, Y; Champlin, R E; Andersson, B S

    2015-01-01

    Romidepsin is a cyclic molecule that inhibits histone deacetylases. It is Food and Drug Administration-approved for treatment of cutaneous and peripheral T-cell lymphoma, but its precise mechanism of action against malignant T cells is unknown. To better understand the biological effects of romidepsin in these cells, we exposed PEER and SUPT1 T-cell lines, and a primary sample from T-cell lymphoma patient (Patient J) to romidepsin. We then examined the consequences in some key oncogenic signaling pathways. Romidepsin displayed IC 50 values of 10.8, 7.9 and 7.0 nm in PEER, SUPT1 and Patient J cells, respectively. Strong inhibition of histone deacetylases and demethylases, increased production of reactive oxygen species and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential were observed, which may contribute to the observed DNA-damage response and apoptosis. The stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathway and unfolded protein response in the endoplasmic reticulum were activated, whereas the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) and β-catenin pro-survival pathways were inhibited. The decreased level of β-catenin correlated with the upregulation of its inhibitor SFRP1 through romidepsin-mediated hypomethylation of its gene promoter. Our results provide new insights into how romidepsin invokes malignant T-cell killing, show evidence of its associated DNA hypomethylating activity and offer a rationale for the development of romidepsin-containing combination therapies

  19. Prevotella intermedia induces prostaglandin E2 via multiple signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, S-M; Fu, S-M; He, J-J; Zhang, M

    2011-01-01

    Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) plays important roles in the bone resorption of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis via specific prostaglandin receptors (i.e., EP1-EP4). In this study, the authors examined whether Prevotella intermedia regulates PGE(2) production and EP expression in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPDLs); they also explored the potential signaling pathways involved in PGE(2) production. P. intermedia induced PGE(2) production and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Indomethacin and NS-398 completely abrogated the P. intermedia-induced PGE(2) production without modulating COX-2 expression. Specific inhibitors of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and protein kinase C--but not c-AMP and protein kinase A--significantly attenuated the P. intermedia-induced COX-2 and PGE(2) expression. P. intermedia reduced EP1 expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The results indicate that the COX-2-dependent induction of PGE(2) by P. intermedia in hPDLs is mediated by multiple signaling pathways.

  20. Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinases in Phytohormone Signaling Pathways

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    Wuwu Xu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CPKs/CDPKs are Ca2+-sensors that decode Ca2+ signals into specific physiological responses. Research has reported that CDPKs constitute a large multigene family in various plant species, and play diverse roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. Although numerous CDPKs have been exhaustively studied, and many of them have been found to be involved in plant hormone biosynthesis and response mechanisms, a comprehensive overview of the manner in which CDPKs participate in phytohormone signaling pathways, regulating nearly all aspects of plant growth, has not yet been undertaken. In this article, we reviewed the structure of CDPKs and the mechanism of their subcellular localization. Some CDPKs were elucidated to influence the intracellular localization of their substrates. Since little work has been done on the interaction between CDPKs and cytokinin signaling pathways, or on newly defined phytohormones such as brassinosteroids, strigolactones and salicylic acid, this paper mainly focused on discussing the integral associations between CDPKs and five plant hormones: auxins, gibberellins, ethylene, jasmonates, and abscisic acid. A perspective on future work is provided at the end.

  1. Notch pathway signaling in the skin antagonizes Merkel cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Gregory J; Wright, Margaret C; Kubicki, Adam C; Maricich, Stephen M

    2018-02-15

    Merkel cells are mechanosensitive skin cells derived from the epidermal lineage whose development requires expression of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Atoh1. The genes and pathways involved in regulating Merkel cell development during embryogenesis are poorly understood. Notch pathway signaling antagonizes Atoh1 expression in many developing body regions, so we hypothesized that Notch signaling might inhibit Merkel cell development. We found that conditional, constitutive overexpression of the Notch intracellular domain (NICD) in mouse epidermis significantly decreased Merkel cell numbers in whisker follicles and touch domes of hairy skin. Conversely, conditional deletion of the obligate NICD binding partner RBPj in the epidermis significantly increased Merkel cell numbers in whisker follicles, led to the development of ectopic Merkel cells outside of touch domes in hairy skin epidermis, and altered the distribution of Merkel cells in touch domes. Deletion of the downstream Notch effector gene Hes1 also significantly increased Merkel cell numbers in whisker follicles. Together, these data demonstrate that Notch signaling regulates Merkel cell production and patterning. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiation-induced adaptive response and intracellular signal transduction pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, Akira

    2009-01-01

    As an essential biological function, cells can sense the radiation even at low dose and respond to it, and which is one of bases of the radiation-induced adaptive response (AR) where effects caused by high dose radiation are reduced by prior exposure to low dose radiation (LDR). Here described are studies of AR in well established m5S cells on the intracellular signal transduction that involves sensing of LDR and transmitting of its signal within the cell network. The first signal for AR yielded by LDR on the cell membrane is exactly unknown though hydrogen peroxide and phorbol ester (PMA) can reportedly cause AR. As PMA activates protein kinase C (PKC) and its inhibitors suppress AR, participation of PKC in AR has been suggested and supported by studies showing PKCα activation by LDR. In addition, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is shown to participate in AR by those facts that the enzyme is activated by LDR, a p38 MAPK inhibitor suppresses AR, and PKC inhibitors suppress the enzyme activation, which also suggesting that the signaling from PKC to p38 MAPK can become operative by LDR. However, the possible reverse signaling is also suggested, and thus the activation of positive feedback mechanism is postulated in PKC/p38 MAPK/phospholipase δ1/ PKC pathway. Cells introduced with siRNA against Prkca gene (coding PKCs) produce reduced amount of the enzyme, particularly, of PKCα. In those cells, AR by 5 Gy X-ray is not observed and thereby PKCα is involved in AR. The signaling in AR is only partly elucidated at present as above, and more detailed studies including identification of more PKC subtypes and signaling to DNA repair system are considered necessary. (K.T.)

  3. Interleukin-2 signaling pathway analysis by quantitative phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osinalde, Nerea; Moss, Helle; Arrizabalaga, Onetsine

    2011-01-01

    among which 79 were found with increased abundance in the tyrosine-phosphorylated complexes, including several previously not reported IL-2 downstream effectors. Combinatorial site-specific phosphoproteomic analysis resulted in identification of 99 phosphorylated sites mapping to the identified proteins...... with increased abundance in the tyrosine-phosphorylated complexes, of which 34 were not previously described. In addition, chemical inhibition of the identified IL-2-mediated JAK, PI3K and MAPK signaling pathways, resulted in distinct alteration on the IL-2 dependent proliferation....

  4. Understanding Resolvin Signaling Pathways to Improve Oral Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura De Oleo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of resolvins has been a major breakthrough for understanding the processes involved in resolution of inflammation. Resolvins belong to a family of novel lipid mediators that possess dual anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution actions. Specifically, they protect healthy tissue during immune-inflammatory responses to infection or injury, thereby aiding inflammation resolution and promoting tissue healing. One of the major concerns in modern medicine is the management and treatment of oral diseases, as they are related to systemic outcomes impacting the quality of life of many patients. This review summarizes known signaling pathways utilized by resolvins to regulate inflammatory responses associated with the oral cavity.

  5. Inflammation activates the interferon signaling pathways in taste bud cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Zhou, Minliang; Brand, Joseph; Huang, Liquan

    2007-10-03

    Patients with viral and bacterial infections or other inflammatory illnesses often experience taste dysfunctions. The agents responsible for these taste disorders are thought to be related to infection-induced inflammation, but the mechanisms are not known. As a first step in characterizing the possible role of inflammation in taste disorders, we report here evidence for the presence of interferon (IFN)-mediated signaling pathways in taste bud cells. IFN receptors, particularly the IFN-gamma receptor IFNGR1, are coexpressed with the taste cell-type markers neuronal cell adhesion molecule and alpha-gustducin, suggesting that both the taste receptor cells and synapse-forming cells in the taste bud can be stimulated by IFN. Incubation of taste bud-containing lingual epithelia with recombinant IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma triggered the IFN-mediated signaling cascades, resulting in the phosphorylation of the downstream STAT1 (signal transducer and activator of transcription protein 1) transcription factor. Intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid into mice, mimicking bacterial and viral infections, respectively, altered gene expression patterns in taste bud cells. Furthermore, the systemic administration of either IFN-alpha or IFN-gamma significantly increased the number of taste bud cells undergoing programmed cell death. These findings suggest that bacterial and viral infection-induced IFNs can act directly on taste bud cells, affecting their cellular function in taste transduction, and that IFN-induced apoptosis in taste buds may cause abnormal cell turnover and skew the representation of different taste bud cell types, leading to the development of taste disorders. To our knowledge, this is the first study providing direct evidence that inflammation can affect taste buds through cytokine signaling pathways.

  6. Autonomous rexinoid death signaling is suppressed by converging signaling pathways in immature leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, G R; Flexor, M; Besançon, F; Altucci, L; Rossin, A; Hillion, J; Balajthy, Z; Legres, L; Ségal-Bendirdjian, E; Gronemeyer, H; Lanotte, M

    2001-07-01

    On their own, retinoid X receptor (RXR)-selective ligands (rexinoids) are silent in retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-RXR heterodimers, and no selective rexinoid program has been described as yet in cellular systems. We report here on the rexinoid signaling capacity that triggers apoptosis of immature promyelocytic NB4 cells as a default pathway in the absence of survival factors. Rexinoid-induced apoptosis displays all features of bona fide programmed cell death and is inhibited by RXR, but not RAR antagonists. Several types of survival signals block rexinoid-induced apoptosis. RARalpha agonists switch the cellular response toward differentiation and induce the expression of antiapoptosis factors. Activation of the protein kinase A pathway in the presence of rexinoid agonists induces maturation and blocks immature cell apoptosis. Addition of nonretinoid serum factors also blocks cell death but does not induce cell differentiation. Rexinoid-induced apoptosis is linked to neither the presence nor stability of the promyelocytic leukemia-RARalpha fusion protein and operates also in non-acute promyelocytic leukemia cells. Together our results support a model according to which rexinoids activate in certain leukemia cells a default death pathway onto which several other signaling paradigms converge. This pathway is entirely distinct from that triggered by RAR agonists, which control cell maturation and postmaturation apoptosis.

  7. A new molecular logic for BMP-mediated dorsoventral patterning in the leech Helobdella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Dian-Han; Weisblat, David A

    2011-08-09

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling is broadly implicated in dorsoventral (DV) patterning of bilaterally symmetric animals [1-3], and its role in axial patterning apparently predates the birth of Bilateria [4-7]. In fly and vertebrate embryos, BMPs and their antagonists (primarily Sog/chordin) diffuse and interact to generate signaling gradients that pattern fields of cells [8-10]. Work in other species reveals diversity in essential facets of this ancient patterning process, however. Here, we report that BMP signaling patterns the DV axis of segmental ectoderm in the leech Helobdella, a clitellate annelid (superphylum Lophotrochozoa) featuring stereotyped developmental cell lineages, but the detailed mechanisms of DV patterning in Helobdella differ markedly from fly and vertebrates. In Helobdella, BMP2/4s are expressed broadly, rather than in dorsal territory, whereas a dorsally expressed BMP5-8 specifies dorsal fate by short-range signaling. A BMP antagonist, gremlin, is upregulated by BMP5-8 in dorsolateral, rather than ventral territory, and yet the BMP-antagonizing activity of gremlin is required for normal ventral cell fates. Gremlin promotes ventral fates without disrupting dorsal fates by selectively inhibiting BMP2/4s, not BMP5-8. Thus, DV patterning in the development of the leech revealed unexpected evolutionary plasticity of the conserved BMP patterning system, presumably reflecting its adaptation to different modes of embryogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. TNF-α Upregulates Expression of BMP-2 and BMP-3 Genes in the Rat Dental Follicle – Implications for Tooth Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shaomian; Prpic, Veronica; Pan, Fenghui; Wise, Gary E.

    2011-01-01

    The dental follicle appears to regulate both the alveolar bone resorption and bone formation needed for tooth eruption. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha ( TNF-α) gene expression is maximally upregulated at postnatal day 9 in the rat dental follicle of the 1st mandibular molar, a time that correlates with rapid bone growth at the base of the tooth crypt, as well as a minor burst of osteoclastogenesis. TNF-α expression is correlated with the expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), a molecule expressed in the dental follicle that can promote bone formation. Because BMP-2 signaling may be augmented by bone morphogenetic protein-3 (BMP-3), it was the objective of this study to determine 1) if the dental follicle expresses BMP-3 and 2) if TNF-α stimulates the dental follicle cells to express BMP-2 and BMP-3. Dental follicles were collected from different postnatal ages of rat pups. Dental follicle cells were incubated with TNF-α to study its dosage and time-course effects on gene expression of BMP-2 and BMP-3, as determined by real-time RT-PCR. Next, immunostaining was conducted to confirm if the protein was synthesized and ELISA of the conditioned medium was conducted to determine if BMP-2 was secreted. We found that BMP-3 expression is correlated with the expression of TNF-α in the dental follicle and TNF-α significantly increased BMP-2 and BMP-3 expression in vitro. Immunostaining and ELISA showed that BMP-2 and BMP-3 were synthesized and secreted. This study suggests that TNF-α can upregulate the expression of bone formation genes that may be needed for tooth eruption. PMID:20067418

  9. A feed-forward circuit linking wingless, fat-dachsous signaling, and the warts-hippo pathway to Drosophila wing growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Zecca

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available During development, the Drosophila wing primordium undergoes a dramatic increase in cell number and mass under the control of the long-range morphogens Wingless (Wg, a Wnt and Decapentaplegic (Dpp, a BMP. This process depends in part on the capacity of wing cells to recruit neighboring, non-wing cells into the wing primordium. Wing cells are defined by activity of the selector gene vestigial (vg and recruitment entails the production of a vg-dependent "feed-forward signal" that acts together with morphogen to induce vg expression in neighboring non-wing cells. Here, we identify the protocadherins Fat (Ft and Dachsous (Ds, the Warts-Hippo tumor suppressor pathway, and the transcriptional co-activator Yorkie (Yki, a YES associated protein, or YAP as components of the feed-forward signaling mechanism, and we show how this mechanism promotes wing growth in response to Wg. We find that vg generates the feed-forward signal by creating a steep differential in Ft-Ds signaling between wing and non-wing cells. This differential down-regulates Warts-Hippo pathway activity in non-wing cells, leading to a burst of Yki activity and the induction of vg in response to Wg. We posit that Wg propels wing growth at least in part by fueling a wave front of Ft-Ds signaling that propagates vg expression from one cell to the next.

  10. Curcumin mediates anticancer effects by modulating multiple cell signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnumakkara, Ajaikumar B; Bordoloi, Devivasha; Harsha, Choudhary; Banik, Kishore; Gupta, Subash C; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2017-08-01

    Curcumin, a component of a spice native to India, was first isolated in 1815 by Vogel and Pelletier from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa (turmeric) and, subsequently, the chemical structure of curcumin as diferuloylmethane was reported by Milobedzka et al. [(1910) 43., 2163-2170]. Since then, this polyphenol has been shown to exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, antibacterial, and antifungal activities. The current review primarily focuses on the anticancer potential of curcumin through the modulation of multiple cell signaling pathways. Curcumin modulates diverse transcription factors, inflammatory cytokines, enzymes, kinases, growth factors, receptors, and various other proteins with an affinity ranging from the pM to the mM range. Furthermore, curcumin effectively regulates tumor cell growth via modulation of numerous cell signaling pathways and potentiates the effect of chemotherapeutic agents and radiation against cancer. Curcumin can interact with most of the targets that are modulated by FDA-approved drugs for cancer therapy. The focus of this review is to discuss the molecular basis for the anticancer activities of curcumin based on preclinical and clinical findings. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  11. The chromatin remodeler SPLAYED regulates specific stress signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin W Walley

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Organisms are continuously exposed to a myriad of environmental stresses. Central to an organism's survival is the ability to mount a robust transcriptional response to the imposed stress. An emerging mechanism of transcriptional control involves dynamic changes in chromatin structure. Alterations in chromatin structure are brought about by a number of different mechanisms, including chromatin modifications, which covalently modify histone proteins; incorporation of histone variants; and chromatin remodeling, which utilizes ATP hydrolysis to alter histone-DNA contacts. While considerable insight into the mechanisms of chromatin remodeling has been gained, the biological role of chromatin remodeling complexes beyond their function as regulators of cellular differentiation and development has remained poorly understood. Here, we provide genetic, biochemical, and biological evidence for the critical role of chromatin remodeling in mediating plant defense against specific biotic stresses. We found that the Arabidopsis SWI/SNF class chromatin remodeling ATPase SPLAYED (SYD is required for the expression of selected genes downstream of the jasmonate (JA and ethylene (ET signaling pathways. SYD is also directly recruited to the promoters of several of these genes. Furthermore, we show that SYD is required for resistance against the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea but not the biotrophic pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. These findings demonstrate not only that chromatin remodeling is required for selective pathogen resistance, but also that chromatin remodelers such as SYD can regulate specific pathways within biotic stress signaling networks.

  12. A SNP uncoupling Mina expression from the TGFβ signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Shang L; Mihi, Belgacem; Koyanagi, Madoka; Nakayama, Toshinori; Bix, Mark

    2018-03-01

    Mina is a JmjC family 2-oxoglutarate oxygenase with pleiotropic roles in cell proliferation, cancer, T cell differentiation, pulmonary inflammation, and intestinal parasite expulsion. Although Mina expression varies according to cell-type, developmental stage and activation state, its transcriptional regulation is poorly understood. Across inbred mouse strains, Mina protein level exhibits a bimodal distribution, correlating with inheritance of a biallelic haplotype block comprising 21 promoter/intron 1-region SNPs. We previously showed that heritable differences in Mina protein level are transcriptionally regulated. Accordingly, we decided to test the hypothesis that at least one of the promoter/intron 1-region SNPs perturbs a Mina cis-regulatory element (CRE). Here, we have comprehensively scanned for CREs across a Mina locus-spanning 26-kilobase genomic interval. We discovered 8 potential CREs and functionally validated 4 of these, the strongest of which (E2), residing in intron 1, contained a SNP whose BALB/c-but not C57Bl/6 allele-abolished both Smad3 binding and transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) responsiveness. Our results demonstrate the TGFβ signaling pathway plays a critical role in regulating Mina expression and SNP rs4191790 controls heritable variation in Mina expression level, raising important questions regarding the evolution of an allele that uncouples Mina expression from the TGFβ signaling pathway. © 2017 The Authors. Immunity, Inflammation and Disease Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Aberrant signaling pathways in medulloblastomas: a stem cell connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Oliveira Rodini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma is a highly malignant primary tumor of the central nervous system. It represents the most frequent type of solid tumor and the leading cause of death related to cancer in early childhood. Current treatment includes surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy which may lead to severe cognitive impairment and secondary brain tumors. New perspectives for therapeutic development have emerged with the identification of stem-like cells displaying high tumorigenic potential and increased radio- and chemo-resistance in gliomas. Under the cancer stem cell hypothesis, transformation of neural stem cells and/or granular neuron progenitors of the cerebellum are though to be involved in medulloblastoma development. Dissecting the genetic and molecular alterations associated with this process should significantly impact both basic and applied cancer research. Based on cumulative evidences in the fields of genetics and molecular biology of medulloblastomas, we discuss the possible involvement of developmental signaling pathways as critical biochemical switches determining normal neurogenesis or tumorigenesis. From the clinical viewpoint, modulation of signaling pathways such as TGFβ, regulating neural stem cell proliferation and tumor development, might be attempted as an alternative strategy for future drug development aiming at more efficient therapies and improved clinical outcome of patients with pediatric brain cancers.

  14. Modulation of neurotrophic signaling pathways by polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moosavi F

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fatemeh Moosavi,1,2 Razieh Hosseini,1,2 Luciano Saso,3 Omidreza Firuzi1 1Medicinal and Natural Products Chemistry Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran; 2Department of Pharmacology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran; 3Department of Physiology and Pharmacology “Vittorio Erspamer”, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy Abstract: Polyphenols are an important class of phytochemicals, and several lines of evidence have demonstrated their beneficial effects in the context of a number of pathologies including neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. In this report, we review the studies on the effects of polyphenols on neuronal survival, growth, proliferation and differentiation, and the signaling pathways involved in these neurotrophic actions. Several polyphenols including flavonoids such as baicalein, daidzein, luteolin, and nobiletin as well as nonflavonoid polyphenols such as auraptene, carnosic acid, curcuminoids, and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives including caffeic acid phentyl ester enhance neuronal survival and promote neurite outgrowth in vitro, a hallmark of neuronal differentiation. Assessment of underlying mechanisms, especially in PC12 neuronal-like cells, reveals that direct agonistic effect on tropomyosin receptor kinase (Trk receptors, the main receptors of neurotrophic factors including nerve growth factor (NGF and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF explains the action of few polyphenols such as 7,8-dihydroxyflavone. However, several other polyphenolic compounds activate extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt pathways. Increased expression of neurotrophic factors in vitro and in vivo is the mechanism of neurotrophic action of flavonoids such as scutellarin, daidzein, genistein, and fisetin, while compounds like apigenin and ferulic acid increase cyclic adenosine monophosphate

  15. Signaling Pathways Involved in Lunar Dust Induced Cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Lam, Chiu-Wing; Scully, Robert R.; Williams, Kyle; Zalesak, Selina; Wu, Honglu; James, John T.

    2014-01-01

    The Moon's surface is covered by a layer of fine, reactive dust. Lunar dust contain about 1-2% of very fine dust (pathways involved in lunar dust-induced toxicity. F344 rats were exposed for 4 weeks (6h/d; 5d/wk) in nose-only inhalation chambers to concentrations of 0 (control air), 2.1, 6.1, 21, and 61 mg/m(exp 3) of lunar dust. Five rats per group were euthanized 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after the last inhalation exposure. The total RNAs were isolated from the blood or lung tissue after being lavaged, using the Qigen RNeasy kit. The Rat Fibrosis RT2 Profile PCR Array was used to profile the expression of 84 genes relevant to fibrosis. The genes with significant expression changes are identified and the gene expression data were further analyzed using IPA pathway analysis tool to determine the signaling pathways with significant changes.

  16. MicroRNA-gene signaling pathways in pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Drakaki

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most frequent cause of cancer-related deaths and is characterized by early metastasis and pronounced resistance to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Despite extensive esearch efforts, there is not any substantial progress regarding the identification of novel drugs against pancreatic cancer. Although the introduction of the chemotherapeutic agent gemcitabine improved clinical response, the prognosis of these patients remained extremely poor with a 5-year survival rate of 3-5%. Thus, the identification of the novel molecular pathways involved in pancreatic oncogenesis and the development of new and potent therapeutic options are highly desirable. Here, we describe how microRNAs control signaling pathways that are frequently deregulated during pancreatic oncogenesis. In addition, we provide evidence that microRNAs could be potentially used as novel pancreatic cancer therapeutics through reversal of chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistance or regulation of essential molecular pathways. Further studies should integrate the deregulated genes and microRNAs into molecular networks in order to identify the central regulators of pancreatic oncogenesis. Targeting these central regulators could lead to the development of novel targeted therapeutic approaches for pancreatic cancer patients.

  17. Signaling Pathways Regulating Redox Balance in Cancer Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Maria Chiara; Porporato, Paolo Ettore; Martini, Miriam; Morandi, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    The interplay between rewiring tumor metabolism and oncogenic driver mutations is only beginning to be appreciated. Metabolic deregulation has been described for decades as a bystander effect of genomic aberrations. However, for the biology of malignant cells, metabolic reprogramming is essential to tackle a harsh environment, including nutrient deprivation, reactive oxygen species production, and oxygen withdrawal. Besides the well-investigated glycolytic metabolism, it is emerging that several other metabolic fluxes are relevant for tumorigenesis in supporting redox balance, most notably pentose phosphate pathway, folate, and mitochondrial metabolism. The relationship between metabolic rewiring and mutant genes is still unclear and, therefore, we will discuss how metabolic needs and oncogene mutations influence each other to satisfy cancer cells' demands. Mutations in oncogenes, i.e., PI3K/AKT/mTOR, RAS pathway, and MYC, and tumor suppressors, i.e., p53 and liver kinase B1, result in metabolic flexibility and may influence response to therapy. Since metabolic rewiring is shaped by oncogenic driver mutations, understanding how specific alterations in signaling pathways affect different metabolic fluxes will be instrumental for the development of novel targeted therapies. In the era of personalized medicine, the combination of driver mutations, metabolite levels, and tissue of origins will pave the way to innovative therapeutic interventions.

  18. Nanostructured hydroxyapatite surfaces-mediated adsorption alters recognition of BMP receptor IA and bioactivity of bone morphogenetic protein-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Baolin; Yuan, Yuan; Ding, Sai; Li, Jianbo; Ren, Jie; Feng, Bo; Li, Tong; Gu, Yuantong; Liu, Changsheng

    2015-11-01

    Highly efficient loading of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) onto carriers with desirable performance is still a major challenge in the field of bone regeneration. Till now, the nanoscaled surface-induced changes of the structure and bioactivity of BMP-2 remains poorly understood. Here, the effect of nanoscaled surface on the adsorption and bioactivity of BMP-2 was investigated with a series of hydroxyapatite surfaces (HAPs): HAP crystal-coated surface (HAP), HAP crystal-coated polished surface (HAP-Pol), and sintered HAP crystal-coated surface (HAP-Sin). The adsorption dynamics of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) and the accessibility of the binding epitopes of adsorbed rhBMP-2 for BMP receptors (BMPRs) were examined by a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation. Moreover, the bioactivity of adsorbed rhBMP-2 and the BMP-induced Smad signaling were investigated with C2C12 model cells. A noticeably high mass-uptake of rhBMP-2 and enhanced recognition of BMPR-IA to adsorbed rhBMP-2 were found on the HAP-Pol surface. For the rhBMP-2-adsorbed HAPs, both ALP activity and Smad signaling increased in the order of HAP-Sinuses of rhBMP-2 in clinical applications and arouse broad interests among researchers in the fields of nano-biotechnology, biomaterials and bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An algorithm for modularization of MAPK and calcium signaling pathways: comparative analysis among different species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Losiana; De, Rajat K

    2007-12-01

    Signaling pathways are large complex biochemical networks. It is difficult to analyze the underlying mechanism of such networks as a whole. In the present article, we have proposed an algorithm for modularization of signal transduction pathways. Unlike studying a signaling pathway as a whole, this enables one to study the individual modules (less complex smaller units) easily and hence to study the entire pathway better. A comparative study of modules belonging to different species (for the same signaling pathway) has been made, which gives an overall idea about development of the signaling pathways over the taken set of species of calcium and MAPK signaling pathways. The superior performance, in terms of biological significance, of the proposed algorithm over an existing community finding algorithm of Newman [Newman MEJ. Modularity and community structure in networks. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2006;103(23):8577-82] has been demonstrated using the aforesaid pathways of H. sapiens.

  20. PSFC: a Pathway Signal Flow Calculator App for Cytoscape [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilit Nersisyan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cell signaling pathways are sequences of biochemical reactions that propagate an input signal, such as a hormone binding to a cell-surface receptor, into the cell to trigger a reactive process. Assessment of pathway activities is crucial for determining which pathways play roles in disease versus normal conditions. To date various pathway flow/perturbation assessment tools are available, however they are constrained to specific algorithms and specific data types. There are no accepted standards for evaluation of pathway activities or simulation of flow propagation events in pathways, and the results of different software are difficult to compare. Here we present Pathway Signal Flow Calculator (PSFC, a Cytoscape app for calculation of a pathway signal flow based on the pathway topology and node input data. The app provides a rich framework for customization of different signal flow algorithms to allow users to apply various approaches within a single computational framework.

  1. Si-Wu-tang extract stimulates bone formation through PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathways in osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chi-Ming; Chen, Po-Chun; Li, Te-Mao; Fong, Yi-Chin; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2013-10-24

    Si-Wu-Tang (SWT), a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula, is widely used for the treatment of gynopathies diseases such as menstrual discomfort, climacteric syndrome, dysmenorrhea, and other estrogen-related diseases. Recent studies have shown that SWT can treat primary dysmenorrhea, have anti-pruritic anti-inflammatory effects, and protect against radiation-induced bone marrow damage in an animal model. It has been reported that anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant agents have the potential to treat osteoporosis by increasing bone formation and/or suppressing bone resorption. However, the effect of SWT on bone cell function has not yet been reported. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP)-2, and osteopontin (OPN) mRNA expression was analyzed by qPCR. The mechanism of action of SWT extract was investigated using western blotting. The in vivo anti-osteoporotic effect of SWT extract was assessed in ovariectomized mice. Here, we report that SWT increases ALP, BMP-2, and OPN expression as well as bone mineralization. In addition, we show that the PI3K, Akt, and NF-κB signaling pathways may be involved in the SWT-mediated increase in gene expression and bone mineralization. Notably, treatment of mice with SWT extract prevented bone loss induced by ovariectomy in vivo. SWT may be used to stimulate bone formation for the treatment of osteoporosis.

  2. Yeast signaling pathways in the oxidative stress response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikner, Aminah [Section of Microbiology, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Shiozaki, Kazuhiro [Section of Microbiology, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)]. E-mail: kshiozaki@ucdavis.edu

    2005-01-06

    Oxidative stress that generates the reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the major causes of DNA damage and mutations. The 'DNA damage checkpoint' that arrests cell cycle and repairs damaged DNA has been a focus of recent studies, and the genetically amenable model systems provided by yeasts have been playing a leading role in the eukaryotic checkpoint research. However, means to eliminate ROS are likely to be as important as the DNA repair mechanisms in order to suppress mutations in the chromosomal DNA, and yeasts also serve as excellent models to understand how eukaryotes combat oxidative stress. In this article, we present an overview of the signaling pathways that sense oxidative stress and induce expression of various anti-oxidant genes in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Three conserved signaling modules have been identified in the oxidative stress response of these diverse yeast species: the stress-responsive MAP kinase cascade, the multistep phosphorelay and the AP-1-like transcription factor. The structure and function of these signaling modules are discussed.

  3. Yeast signaling pathways in the oxidative stress response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikner, Aminah; Shiozaki, Kazuhiro

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative stress that generates the reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the major causes of DNA damage and mutations. The 'DNA damage checkpoint' that arrests cell cycle and repairs damaged DNA has been a focus of recent studies, and the genetically amenable model systems provided by yeasts have been playing a leading role in the eukaryotic checkpoint research. However, means to eliminate ROS are likely to be as important as the DNA repair mechanisms in order to suppress mutations in the chromosomal DNA, and yeasts also serve as excellent models to understand how eukaryotes combat oxidative stress. In this article, we present an overview of the signaling pathways that sense oxidative stress and induce expression of various anti-oxidant genes in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Three conserved signaling modules have been identified in the oxidative stress response of these diverse yeast species: the stress-responsive MAP kinase cascade, the multistep phosphorelay and the AP-1-like transcription factor. The structure and function of these signaling modules are discussed

  4. Meeting report - TGF-β superfamily: signaling in development and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying E; Newfeld, Stuart J

    2013-11-01

    The latest advances on the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathways were reported at the July 2013 FASEB Summer Research Conference 'The TGF-β Superfamily: Development and Disease'. The meeting was held in Steamboat Springs, Colorado, USA at 6700 feet above sea level in the Rocky Mountains. This was the seventh biannual meeting in the series. In attendance were investigators from a broad range of disciplines with a common interest in the mechanics of TGF-β and BMP signaling pathways, their normal developmental and homeostatic functions, and the diseases associated with pathway misregulation.

  5. Increased bone morphogenetic protein signaling contributes to age-related declines in neurogenesis and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Emily A; Gobeske, Kevin T; Bond, Allison M; Jarrett, Jennifer C; Peng, Chian-Yu; Kessler, John A

    2016-02-01

    Aging is associated with decreased neurogenesis in the hippocampus and diminished hippocampus-dependent cognitive functions. Expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) increases with age by more than 10-fold in the mouse dentate gyrus while levels of the BMP inhibitor, noggin, decrease. This results in a profound 30-fold increase in phosphorylated-SMAD1/5/8, the effector of canonical BMP signaling. Just as observed in mice, a profound increase in expression of BMP4 is observed in the dentate gyrus of humans with no known cognitive abnormalities. Inhibition of BMP signaling either by overexpression of noggin or transgenic manipulation not only increases neurogenesis in aging mice, but remarkably, is associated with a rescue of cognitive deficits to levels comparable to young mice. Additive benefits are observed when combining inhibition of BMP signaling and environmental enrichment. These findings indicate that increased BMP signaling contributes significantly to impairments in neurogenesis and to cognitive decline associated with aging, and identify this pathway as a potential druggable target for reversing age-related changes in cognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. In vitro reconstitution of an abscisic acid signalling pathway

    KAUST Repository

    Fujii, Hiroaki; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Rodrigues, Americo; Rubio, Silvia; Antoni, Regina; Park, Sang-Youl; Cutler, Sean R.; Sheen, Jen; Rodriguez, Pedro L.; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2009-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates the expression of many genes in plants; it has critical functions in stress resistance and in growth and development. Several proteins have been reported to function as ABA receptors, and many more are known to be involved in ABA signalling. However, the identities of ABA receptors remain controversial and the mechanism of signalling from perception to downstream gene expression is unclear. Here we show that by combining the recently identified ABA receptor PYR1 with the type 2C protein phosphatase (PP2C) ABI1, the serine/threonine protein kinase SnRK2.6/OST1 and the transcription factor ABF2/AREB1, we can reconstitute ABA-triggered phosphorylation of the transcription factor in vitro. Introduction of these four components into plant protoplasts results in ABA-responsive gene expression. Protoplast and test-tube reconstitution assays were used to test the function of various members of the receptor, protein phosphatase and kinase families. Our results suggest that the default state of the SnRK2 kinases is an autophosphorylated, active state and that the SnRK2 kinases are kept inactive by the PP2Cs through physical interaction and dephosphorylation. We found that in the presence of ABA, the PYR/PYL (pyrabactin resistance 1/PYR1-like) receptor proteins can disrupt the interaction between the SnRK2s and PP2Cs, thus preventing the PP2C-mediated dephosphorylation of the SnRK2s and resulting in the activation of the SnRK2 kinases. Our results reveal new insights into ABA signalling mechanisms and define a minimal set of core components of a complete major ABA signalling pathway. © 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  7. In vitro reconstitution of an abscisic acid signalling pathway

    KAUST Repository

    Fujii, Hiroaki

    2009-11-18

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates the expression of many genes in plants; it has critical functions in stress resistance and in growth and development. Several proteins have been reported to function as ABA receptors, and many more are known to be involved in ABA signalling. However, the identities of ABA receptors remain controversial and the mechanism of signalling from perception to downstream gene expression is unclear. Here we show that by combining the recently identified ABA receptor PYR1 with the type 2C protein phosphatase (PP2C) ABI1, the serine/threonine protein kinase SnRK2.6/OST1 and the transcription factor ABF2/AREB1, we can reconstitute ABA-triggered phosphorylation of the transcription factor in vitro. Introduction of these four components into plant protoplasts results in ABA-responsive gene expression. Protoplast and test-tube reconstitution assays were used to test the function of various members of the receptor, protein phosphatase and kinase families. Our results suggest that the default state of the SnRK2 kinases is an autophosphorylated, active state and that the SnRK2 kinases are kept inactive by the PP2Cs through physical interaction and dephosphorylation. We found that in the presence of ABA, the PYR/PYL (pyrabactin resistance 1/PYR1-like) receptor proteins can disrupt the interaction between the SnRK2s and PP2Cs, thus preventing the PP2C-mediated dephosphorylation of the SnRK2s and resulting in the activation of the SnRK2 kinases. Our results reveal new insights into ABA signalling mechanisms and define a minimal set of core components of a complete major ABA signalling pathway. © 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  8. Interconnection between thyroid hormone signalling pathways and parvovirus cytotoxic functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacker, J M; Laudet, V; Adelmant, G; Stéhelin, D; Rommelaere, J

    1993-01-01

    Nonstructural (NS) proteins of autonomous parvoviruses can repress expression driven by heterologous promoters, an activity which thus far has not been separated from their cytotoxic effects. It is shown here that, in transient transfection assays, the NS-1 protein of the parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVMp) activates the promoter of the human c-erbA1 gene, encoding the thyroid hormone (T3) receptor alpha. The endogenous c-erbA1 promoter is also a target for induction upon MVMp infection. Moreover, T3 was found to up-modulate the level of cell sensitivity to parvovirus attack. These data suggest an interconnection between T3 signalling and NS cytotoxic pathways. Images PMID:8230488

  9. Use of glycolytic pathways for inhibiting or measuring oncogenic signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Yasuhito; Bissell, Mina

    2017-06-27

    Disclosed are methods in which glucose metabolism is correlated to oncogenesis through certain specific pathways; inhibition of certain enzymes is shown to interfere with oncogenic signaling, and measurement of certain enzyme levels is correlated with patient survival. The present methods comprise measuring level of expression of at least one of the enzymes involved in glucose uptake or metabolism, wherein increased expression of the at least one of the enzymes relative to expression in a normal cell correlates with poor prognosis of disease in a patient. Preferably the genes whose expression level is measured include GLUT3, PFKP, GAPDH, ALDOC, LDHA and GFPT2. Also disclosed are embodiments directed towards downregulating the expression of some genes in glucose uptake and metabolism.

  10. Current Views of Toll-Like Receptor Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Yamamoto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available On microbial invasion, the host immediately evokes innate immune responses. Recent studies have demonstrated that Toll-like receptors (TLRs play crucial roles in innate responses that lead not only to the clearance of pathogens but also to the efficient establishment of acquired immunity by directly detecting molecules from microbes. In terms of intracellular TLR-mediated signaling pathways, cytoplasmic adaptor molecules containing Toll/IL-1R (TIR domains play important roles in inflammatory immune responses through the production of proinflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide, and type I interferon, and upregulation of costimulatory molecules. In this paper, we will describe our current understanding of the relationship between TLRs and their ligands derived from pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. Moreover, we will review the historical and current literature to describe the mechanisms behind TLR-mediated activation of innate immune responses.

  11. Signal transduction in mitogenesis: Further evidence for multiple pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozengurt, E.; Erusalimsky, J.; Mehmet, H.; Morris, C.; Nanberg, E.; Sinnett-Smith, J.

    1988-01-01

    Growth factors are implicated in a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes, including embryogenesis, hematopoiesis, would healing, immune responses, atherosclerosis, and neoplasia. An important link between growth factors and their receptors and oncogene products has also been established. Thus, the elucidation of the mechanism of action of growth factors has emerged as one of the fundamental problems in biology and may prove crucial for understanding the unrestrained proliferation of cancer cells. A new and intriguing development is the discovery that neuropeptides localized in neural and neuroendocrine cells of mammalian tissue can also act as growth factors for cells in culture. Furthermore, indirect evidence is accumulating that the mitogenic effects of neuropeptides may be relevant for a variety of long-term biological processes, including development and oncogenesis. In this context, the peptides of the bombesin family are of particular significance. These peptides are potent mitogens for Swiss 3T3 cells and may act as autocrine growth factors for small cell lung cancer. Here, the authors summarize their recent studies using bombesin-like peptides for elucidating the signal transduction pathways leading to mitogenesis and compare these pathways with those elicited by other growth factors

  12. Andrographolide Exerts Pro-Osteogenic Effect by Activation of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongmeng Jiang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disorders that tortures about millions of people worldwide. Recent studies showed that Andrographolide (AP is a promising natural compound for the treatment of osteoclast-related bone diseases. However, its potential in treatment of osteoporosis has not been fully explored. Methods: In this study, the effect of AP on osteoblasts metabolism was investigated via the detection of cell proliferation, cell viability, ALP activity, the expression of osteogenic specific genes including runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2, bone sialoprotein (BSP, osteocalcin (OCN, Bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP2 and Alkaline phosphatase(ALP for 3, 5 and 7 days respectively. Further exploration of the association of AP with WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway was performed by examination of the expression of WNT related genes and proteins. Results: Results showed that AP of 4.46 and 8.92 µM, especially 8.92 µM was beneficial to osteogenic differentiation by upregulating ALP activity and expression of osteogenic related genes (PConclusion: This study indicates that AP exerts its pro-osteogenic potential via activation of the WNT/β-catenin in osteoblasts and thus may represent a candidate of therapeutic agent for osteoporosis.

  13. Systems biology derived source-sink mechanism of BMP gradient formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinski, Joseph; Bu, Ye; Wang, Xu; Dou, Wei; Umulis, David; Mullins, Mary C

    2017-08-09

    A morphogen gradient of Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling patterns the dorsoventral embryonic axis of vertebrates and invertebrates. The prevailing view in vertebrates for BMP gradient formation is through a counter-gradient of BMP antagonists, often along with ligand shuttling to generate peak signaling levels. To delineate the mechanism in zebrafish, we precisely quantified the BMP activity gradient in wild-type and mutant embryos and combined these data with a mathematical model-based computational screen to test hypotheses for gradient formation. Our analysis ruled out a BMP shuttling mechanism and a bmp transcriptionally-informed gradient mechanism. Surprisingly, rather than supporting a counter-gradient mechanism, our analyses support a fourth model, a source-sink mechanism, which relies on a restricted BMP antagonist distribution acting as a sink that drives BMP flux dorsally and gradient formation. We measured Bmp2 diffusion and found that it supports the source-sink model, suggesting a new mechanism to shape BMP gradients during development.

  14. The Spectrin cytoskeleton regulates the Hippo signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Georgina C; Elbediwy, Ahmed; Khanal, Ichha; Ribeiro, Paulo S; Tapon, Nic; Thompson, Barry J

    2015-04-01

    The Spectrin cytoskeleton is known to be polarised in epithelial cells, yet its role remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the Spectrin cytoskeleton controls Hippo signalling. In the developing Drosophila wing and eye, loss of apical Spectrins (alpha/beta-heavy dimers) produces tissue overgrowth and mis-regulation of Hippo target genes, similar to loss of Crumbs (Crb) or the FERM-domain protein Expanded (Ex). Apical beta-heavy Spectrin binds to Ex and co-localises with it at the apical membrane to antagonise Yki activity. Interestingly, in both the ovarian follicular epithelium and intestinal epithelium of Drosophila, apical Spectrins and Crb are dispensable for repression of Yki, while basolateral Spectrins (alpha/beta dimers) are essential. Finally, the Spectrin cytoskeleton is required to regulate the localisation of the Hippo pathway effector YAP in response to cell density human epithelial cells. Our findings identify both apical and basolateral Spectrins as regulators of Hippo signalling and suggest Spectrins as potential mechanosensors. © 2015 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  15. Functions and Signaling Pathways of Amino Acids in Intestinal Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang He

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestine is always exposed to external environment and intestinal microorganism; thus it is more sensitive to dysfunction and dysbiosis, leading to intestinal inflammation, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, and diarrhea. An increasing number of studies indicate that dietary amino acids play significant roles in preventing and treating intestinal inflammation. The review aims to summarize the functions and signaling mechanisms of amino acids in intestinal inflammation. Amino acids, including essential amino acids (EAAs, conditionally essential amino acids (CEAAs, and nonessential amino acids (NEAAs, improve the functions of intestinal barrier and expressions of anti-inflammatory cytokines and tight junction proteins but decrease oxidative stress and the apoptosis of enterocytes as well as the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines in the intestinal inflammation. The functions of amino acids are associated with various signaling pathways, including mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR, nuclear factor-kappa-B (NF-κB, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, nuclear erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2, general controlled nonrepressed kinase 2 (GCN2, and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2.

  16. The Transcriptional Landscape of p53 Signalling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chizu Tanikawa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although recent cancer genomics studies have identified a large number of genes that were mutated in human cancers, p53 remains as the most frequently mutated gene. To further elucidate the p53-signalling network, we performed transcriptome analysis on 24 tissues in p53+/+ or p53−/− mice after whole-body X-ray irradiation. Here we found transactivation of a total of 3551 genes in one or more of the 24 tissues only in p53+/+ mice, while 2576 genes were downregulated. p53 mRNA expression level in each tissue was significantly associated with the number of genes upregulated by irradiation. Annotation using TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas database revealed that p53 negatively regulated mRNA expression of several cancer therapeutic targets or pathways such as BTK, SYK, and CTLA4 in breast cancer tissues. In addition, stomach exhibited the induction of Krt6, Krt16, and Krt17 as well as loricrin, an epidermal differentiation marker, after the X-ray irradiation only in p53+/+ mice, implying a mechanism to protect damaged tissues by rapid induction of differentiation. Our comprehensive transcriptome analysis elucidated tissue specific roles of p53 and its signalling networks in DNA-damage response that will enhance our understanding of cancer biology.

  17. Tofacitinib Represses the Janus Kinase-Signal Transducer and Activators of Transcription Signalling Pathway in Keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ankit; Ståhle, Mona; Pivarcsi, Andor; Sonkoly, Enikö

    2018-05-08

    Tofacitinib is a Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor, which has shown efficacy in treating psoriasis. The mode of action of tofacitinib is not completely understood but it has been thought to be mediated by the inhibition of CD4+ T-cell activation. Here, we investigated whether the molecular targets of tofacitinib are expressed in keratinocytes, and whether tofacitinib can modulate the activity of the JAK/Signal Transducer and Activators of Transcription (STAT)-pathway in keratinocytes. Transcriptomic profiling of human keratinocytes treated with IL-22 in combination with tofacitinib revealed that tofacitinib could prevent the majority of IL-22-mediated gene expression changes. Pathway analysis of tofacitinib-regulated genes in keratinocytes revealed enrichment of genes involved in the JAK/STAT signalling pathway. Quantitative real-time-PCR confirmed the upregulation of S100A7 and downregulation of EGR1 expression by IL-22, which was prevented by tofacitinib pre-treatment. These results indicate a direct effect of tofacinitib on keratinocytes, which can have relevance for systemic as well as for topical treatment of psoriasis with tofacitinib.

  18. Systems Biomedicine of Rabies Delineates the Affected Signaling pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Hamid Reza Mozhgani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The prototypical neurotropic virus, rabies, is a member of the Rhabdoviridae family that causes lethal encephalomyelitis. Although there have been a plethora of studies investigating the etiological mechanism of the rabies virus and many precautionary methods have been implemented to avert the disease outbreak over the last century, the disease has surprisingly no definite remedy at its late stages. The psychological symptoms and the underlying etiology, as well as the rare survival rate from rabies encephalitis, has still remained a mystery. We, therefore, undertook a systems biomedicine approach to identify the network of gene products implicated in rabies. This was done by meta-analyzing whole-transcriptome microarray datasets of the CNS infected by strain CVS-11, and integrating them with interactome data using computational and statistical methods. We first determined the differentially expressed genes (DEGs in each study and horizontally integrated the results at the mRNA and microRNA levels separately. A total of 61 seed genes involved in signal propagation system were obtained by means of unifying mRNA and microRNA detected integrated DEGs. We then reconstructed a refined protein-protein interaction network (PPIN of infected cells to elucidate the rabies-implicated signal transduction network (RISN. To validate our findings, we confirmed differential expression of randomly selected genes in the network using Real-time PCR. In conclusion, the identification of seed genes and their network neighborhood within the refined PPIN can be useful for demonstrating signaling pathways including interferon circumvent, toward proliferation and survival, and neuropathological clue, explaining the intricate underlying molecular neuropathology of rabies infection and thus rendered a molecular framework for predicting potential drug targets.

  19. Systems Biomedicine of Rabies Delineates the Affected Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimzadeh Jamalkandi, Sadegh; Mozhgani, Sayed-Hamidreza; Gholami Pourbadie, Hamid; Mirzaie, Mehdi; Noorbakhsh, Farshid; Vaziri, Behrouz; Gholami, Alireza; Ansari-Pour, Naser; Jafari, Mohieddin

    2016-01-01

    The prototypical neurotropic virus, rabies, is a member of the Rhabdoviridae family that causes lethal encephalomyelitis. Although there have been a plethora of studies investigating the etiological mechanism of the rabies virus and many precautionary methods have been implemented to avert the disease outbreak over the last century, the disease has surprisingly no definite remedy at its late stages. The psychological symptoms and the underlying etiology, as well as the rare survival rate from rabies encephalitis, has still remained a mystery. We, therefore, undertook a systems biomedicine approach to identify the network of gene products implicated in rabies. This was done by meta-analyzing whole-transcriptome microarray datasets of the CNS infected by strain CVS-11, and integrating them with interactome data using computational and statistical methods. We first determined the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in each study and horizontally integrated the results at the mRNA and microRNA levels separately. A total of 61 seed genes involved in signal propagation system were obtained by means of unifying mRNA and microRNA detected integrated DEGs. We then reconstructed a refined protein–protein interaction network (PPIN) of infected cells to elucidate the rabies-implicated signal transduction network (RISN). To validate our findings, we confirmed differential expression of randomly selected genes in the network using Real-time PCR. In conclusion, the identification of seed genes and their network neighborhood within the refined PPIN can be useful for demonstrating signaling pathways including interferon circumvent, toward proliferation and survival, and neuropathological clue, explaining the intricate underlying molecular neuropathology of rabies infection and thus rendered a molecular framework for predicting potential drug targets. PMID:27872612

  20. Systems Biomedicine of Rabies Delineates the Affected Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimzadeh Jamalkandi, Sadegh; Mozhgani, Sayed-Hamidreza; Gholami Pourbadie, Hamid; Mirzaie, Mehdi; Noorbakhsh, Farshid; Vaziri, Behrouz; Gholami, Alireza; Ansari-Pour, Naser; Jafari, Mohieddin

    2016-01-01

    The prototypical neurotropic virus, rabies, is a member of the Rhabdoviridae family that causes lethal encephalomyelitis. Although there have been a plethora of studies investigating the etiological mechanism of the rabies virus and many precautionary methods have been implemented to avert the disease outbreak over the last century, the disease has surprisingly no definite remedy at its late stages. The psychological symptoms and the underlying etiology, as well as the rare survival rate from rabies encephalitis, has still remained a mystery. We, therefore, undertook a systems biomedicine approach to identify the network of gene products implicated in rabies. This was done by meta-analyzing whole-transcriptome microarray datasets of the CNS infected by strain CVS-11, and integrating them with interactome data using computational and statistical methods. We first determined the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in each study and horizontally integrated the results at the mRNA and microRNA levels separately. A total of 61 seed genes involved in signal propagation system were obtained by means of unifying mRNA and microRNA detected integrated DEGs. We then reconstructed a refined protein-protein interaction network (PPIN) of infected cells to elucidate the rabies-implicated signal transduction network (RISN). To validate our findings, we confirmed differential expression of randomly selected genes in the network using Real-time PCR. In conclusion, the identification of seed genes and their network neighborhood within the refined PPIN can be useful for demonstrating signaling pathways including interferon circumvent, toward proliferation and survival, and neuropathological clue, explaining the intricate underlying molecular neuropathology of rabies infection and thus rendered a molecular framework for predicting potential drug targets.

  1. Myocardial Tbx20 regulates early atrioventricular canal formation and endocardial epithelial-mesenchymal transition via Bmp2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiaoqiang; Nomura-Kitabayashi, Aya; Cai, Weibin; Yan, Jianyun; Christoffels, Vincent M; Cai, Chen-Leng

    2011-12-15

    During early embryogenesis, the formation of the cardiac atrioventricular canal (AVC) facilitates the transition of the heart from a linear tube into a chambered organ. However, the genetic pathways underlying this developmental process are poorly understood. The T-box transcription factor Tbx20 is expressed predominantly in the AVC of early heart tube. It was shown that Tbx20 activates Nmyc1 and suppresses Tbx2 expression to promote proliferation and specification of the atrial and ventricular chambers, yet it is not known if Tbx20 is involved in early AVC development. Here, we report that mice lacking Tbx20 in the AVC myocardium fail to form the AVC constriction, and the endocardial epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is severely perturbed. Tbx20 maintains expression of a variety of genes, including Bmp2, Tbx3 and Hand1 in the AVC myocardium. Intriguingly, we found Bmp2 downstream genes involved in the EMT initiation are also downregulated. In addition, re-expression of Bmp2 in the AVC myocardium substantially rescues the EMT defects resulting from the lack of Tbx20, suggesting Bmp2 is one of the key downstream targets of Tbx20 in AVC development. Our data support a complex signaling network with Tbx20 suppressing Tbx2 in the AVC myocardium but also indirectly promoting Tbx2 expression through Bmp2. The spatiotemporal expression of Tbx2 in the AVC appears to be balanced between these two opposing signals. Overall, our study provides genetic evidence that Tbx20 has essential roles in regulating AVC development that coordinate early cardiac chamber formation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A BMP responsive transcriptional region in the chicken type X collagen gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, S W; Luvalle, P; Leask, T; Leboy, P S

    1998-10-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) were originally identified by their ability to induce ectopic bone formation and have been shown to promote both chondrogenesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy. BMPs have recently been found to activate a membrane serine/threonine kinase signaling mechanism in a variety of cell types, but the downstream effectors of BMP signaling in chondrocyte differentiation remain unidentified. We have previously reported that BMP-2 markedly stimulates type X collagen expression in prehypertrophic chick sternal chondrocytes, and that type X collagen mRNA levels in chondrocytes cultured under serum-free (SF) conditions are elevated 3- to 5-fold within 24 h. To better define the molecular mechanisms of induction of chondrocyte hypertrophy by BMPs, we examined the effect of BMPs on type X collagen production by 15-day chick embryo sternal chondrocytes cultured under SF conditions in the presence or absence of 30 ng/ml BMP-2, BMP-4, or BMP-7. Two populations of chondrocytes were used: one representing resting cartilage isolated from the caudal third of the sterna and the second representing prehypertrophic cartilage from the cephalic third of the sterna. BMP-2, BMP-4, and BMP-7 all effectively promoted chondrocyte maturation of cephalic sternal chondrocytes as measured by high levels of alkaline phosphatase, diminished levels of type II collagen, and induction of the hypertrophic chondrocyte-specific marker, type X collagen. To test whether BMP control of type X collagen expression occurs at the transcriptional level, we utilized plasmid constructs containing the chicken collagen X promoter and 5' flanking regions fused to a reporter gene. Constructs were transiently transfected into sternal chondrocytes cultured under SF conditions in the presence or absence of 30 ng/ml BMP-2, BMP-4, or BMP-7. A 533 bp region located 2.4-2.9 kb upstream from the type X collagen transcriptional start site was both necessary and sufficient for strong BMP responsiveness

  3. Signals of Ezh2, Src, and Akt Involve in Myostatin-Pax7 Pathways Regulating the Myogenic Fate Determination during the Sheep Myoblast Proliferation and Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Liu, Ruizao; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Fuping; Lu, Jian; Zhang, Xiaoning; Du, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Myostatin and Pax7 have been well documented individually, however, the mechanism by which Myostatin regulates Pax7 is seldom reported. Here, based on muscle transcriptome analysis in Texel (Myostatin mutant) and Ujumqin (wild type) sheep across the five fetal stages, we constructed and examined the Myostatin-Pax7 pathways in muscle. Then we validated the signals by RNAi in the proliferating and differentiating sheep myoblasts in vitro at mRNA, protein, and cell morphological levels. We reveal that Myostatin signals to Pax7 at least through Ezh2, Src, and Akt during the sheep myoblast proliferation and differentiation. Other signals such as p38MAPK, mTOR, Erk1/2, Wnt, Bmp2, Smad, Tgfb1, and p21 are most probably involved in the Myostatin-affected myogenic events. Myostatin knockdown significantly reduces the counts of nucleus and myotube, but not the fusion index of myoblasts during cell differentiation. In addition, findings also indicate that Myostatin is required for normal myogenic differentiation of the sheep myoblasts, which is different from the C2C12 myoblasts. We expand the regulatory network of Myostatin-Pax7 pathways and first illustrate that Myostatin as a global regulator participates in the epigenetic events involved in myogenesis, which contributes to understand the molecular mechanism of Myostatin in regulation of myogenesis. PMID:25811841

  4. A BMP-mediated transcriptional cascade involving Cash1 and Tlx-3 specifies first-order relay sensory neurons in the developing hindbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbruch, Amata; Ma, Grace; Ballermann, Mark A; Tumova, Katerina; Liu, Dan; Cairine Logan, C

    2005-07-01

    The divergent homeobox-containing transcription factor, Tlx-3 (also known as Hox11L2/Rnx), is required for proper formation of first-order relay sensory neurons in the developing vertebrate brainstem. To date, however, the inductive signals and transcriptional regulatory cascade underlying their development are poorly understood. We previously isolated the chick Tlx-3 homologue and showed it is expressed early (i.e. beginning at HH15) in distinct subcomponents of both the trigeminal/solitary and vestibular nuclei. Here we show via in vivo rhombomere inversions that expression of Tlx-3 is under control of local environmental signals. Our RNA in situ analysis shows expression of the BMP-specific receptor, Bmpr-1b, correlates well with Tlx-3. Furthermore, manipulation of the BMP signaling pathway in vivo via electroporation of expression vectors encoding either BMP or NOGGIN coupled with MASH1 gain-of-function experiments demonstrate that a BMP-mediated transcriptional cascade involving Cash1 and Tlx-3 specifies first-order relay sensory neurons in the developing brainstem. Notably, high-level Noggin misexpression results in an increase in newly differentiated Tlx-3+ neurons that correlates with a corresponding increase in the number of Calretinin+ neurons in vestibular nuclei at later developmental stages strongly suggesting that Tlx-3, in addition to being required for proper formation of somatic as well as visceral sensory neurons in the trigeminal and solitary nuclei, respectively, is sufficient for proper formation of special somatic sensory neurons in vestibular nuclei.

  5. Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas: Opening Access to the Biology of Nuclear Receptor Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becnel, Lauren B; Darlington, Yolanda F; Ochsner, Scott A; Easton-Marks, Jeremy R; Watkins, Christopher M; McOwiti, Apollo; Kankanamge, Wasula H; Wise, Michael W; DeHart, Michael; Margolis, Ronald N; McKenna, Neil J

    2015-01-01

    Signaling pathways involving nuclear receptors (NRs), their ligands and coregulators, regulate tissue-specific transcriptomes in diverse processes, including development, metabolism, reproduction, the immune response and neuronal function, as well as in their associated pathologies. The Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas (NURSA) is a Consortium focused around a Hub website (www.nursa.org) that annotates and integrates diverse 'omics datasets originating from the published literature and NURSA-funded Data Source Projects (NDSPs). These datasets are then exposed to the scientific community on an Open Access basis through user-friendly data browsing and search interfaces. Here, we describe the redesign of the Hub, version 3.0, to deploy "Web 2.0" technologies and add richer, more diverse content. The Molecule Pages, which aggregate information relevant to NR signaling pathways from myriad external databases, have been enhanced to include resources for basic scientists, such as post-translational modification sites and targeting miRNAs, and for clinicians, such as clinical trials. A portal to NURSA's Open Access, PubMed-indexed journal Nuclear Receptor Signaling has been added to facilitate manuscript submissions. Datasets and information on reagents generated by NDSPs are available, as is information concerning periodic new NDSP funding solicitations. Finally, the new website integrates the Transcriptomine analysis tool, which allows for mining of millions of richly annotated public transcriptomic data points in the field, providing an environment for dataset re-use and citation, bench data validation and hypothesis generation. We anticipate that this new release of the NURSA database will have tangible, long term benefits for both basic and clinical research in this field.

  6. Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas: Opening Access to the Biology of Nuclear Receptor Signaling Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren B Becnel

    Full Text Available Signaling pathways involving nuclear receptors (NRs, their ligands and coregulators, regulate tissue-specific transcriptomes in diverse processes, including development, metabolism, reproduction, the immune response and neuronal function, as well as in their associated pathologies. The Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas (NURSA is a Consortium focused around a Hub website (www.nursa.org that annotates and integrates diverse 'omics datasets originating from the published literature and NURSA-funded Data Source Projects (NDSPs. These datasets are then exposed to the scientific community on an Open Access basis through user-friendly data browsing and search interfaces. Here, we describe the redesign of the Hub, version 3.0, to deploy "Web 2.0" technologies and add richer, more diverse content. The Molecule Pages, which aggregate information relevant to NR signaling pathways from myriad external databases, have been enhanced to include resources for basic scientists, such as post-translational modification sites and targeting miRNAs, and for clinicians, such as clinical trials. A portal to NURSA's Open Access, PubMed-indexed journal Nuclear Receptor Signaling has been added to facilitate manuscript submissions. Datasets and information on reagents generated by NDSPs are available, as is information concerning periodic new NDSP funding solicitations. Finally, the new website integrates the Transcriptomine analysis tool, which allows for mining of millions of richly annotated public transcriptomic data points in the field, providing an environment for dataset re-use and citation, bench data validation and hypothesis generation. We anticipate that this new release of the NURSA database will have tangible, long term benefits for both basic and clinical research in this field.

  7. In Vivo Characterization of Intracellular Signaling Pathways Activated by the Nerve Agent Sarin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shih, Tsung-Ming A; Snyder, Gretchen L; Hendrick, Joseph P; Fienberg, Allen A; McDonough, John H

    2004-01-01

    ..., an excessive stimulation of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. Preliminary evidence using diverse OPs indicates that the DARPP-32/PP-1 signaling pathway is activated by nicotinic receptor stimulation...

  8. Molecular Signaling Pathways Mediating Osteoclastogenesis Induced by Prostate Cancer Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafiei, Shahrzad; Komarova, Svetlana V

    2013-01-01

    Advanced prostate cancer commonly metastasizes to bone leading to osteoblastic and osteolytic lesions. Although an osteolytic component governed by activation of bone resorbing osteoclasts is prominent in prostate cancer metastasis, the molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer-induced osteoclastogenesis are not well-understood. We studied the effect of soluble mediators released from human prostate carcinoma cells on osteoclast formation from mouse bone marrow and RAW 264.7 monocytes. Soluble factors released from human prostate carcinoma cells significantly increased viability of naïve bone marrow monocytes, as well as osteoclastogenesis from precursors primed with receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL). The prostate cancer-induced osteoclastogenesis was not mediated by RANKL as it was not inhibited by osteoprotegerin (OPG). However inhibition of TGFβ receptor I (TβRI), or macrophage-colony stimulating factor (MCSF) resulted in attenuation of prostate cancer-induced osteoclastogenesis. We characterized the signaling pathways induced in osteoclast precursors by soluble mediators released from human prostate carcinoma cells. Prostate cancer factors increased basal calcium levels and calcium fluctuations, induced nuclear localization of nuclear factor of activated t-cells (NFAT)c1, and activated prolonged phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in RANKL-primed osteoclast precursors. Inhibition of calcium signaling, NFATc1 activation, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation significantly reduced the ability of prostate cancer mediators to stimulate osteoclastogenesis. This study reveals the molecular mechanisms underlying the direct osteoclastogenic effect of prostate cancer derived factors, which may be beneficial in developing novel osteoclast-targeting therapeutic approaches

  9. Cross talk between insulin and bone morphogenetic protein signaling systems in brown adipogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hongbin; Schulz, Tim J; Espinoza, Daniel O

    2010-01-01

    Both insulin and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling systems are important for adipocyte differentiation. Analysis of gene expression in BMP7-treated fibroblasts revealed a coordinated change in insulin signaling components by BMP7. To further investigate the cross talk between insulin...... BMP7's suppressive effect on pref-1 transcription. Together, these data suggest cross talk between the insulin and BMP signaling systems by which BMP7 can rescue brown adipogenesis in cells with insulin resistance....

  10. ent-Steroids: novel tools for studies of signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Douglas F

    2009-07-01

    Membrane receptors are often modulated by steroids and it is necessary to distinguish the effects of steroids at these receptors from effects occurring at nuclear receptors. Additionally, it may also be mechanistically important to distinguish between direct effects caused by binding of steroids to membrane receptors and indirect effects on membrane receptor function caused by steroid perturbation of the membrane containing the receptor. In this regard, ent-steroids, the mirror images of naturally occurring steroids, are novel tools for distinguishing between these various actions of steroids. The review provides a background for understanding the different actions that can be expected of steroids and ent-steroids in biological systems, references for the preparation of ent-steroids, a short discussion about relevant forms of stereoisomerism and the requirements that need to be fulfilled for the interaction between two molecules to be enantioselective. The review then summarizes results of biophysical, biochemical and pharmacological studies published since 1992 in which ent-steroids have been used to investigate the actions of steroids in membranes and/or receptor-mediated signaling pathways.

  11. Functional comparison of innate immune signaling pathways in primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis B Barreiro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Humans respond differently than other primates to a large number of infections. Differences in susceptibility to infectious agents between humans and other primates are probably due to inter-species differences in immune response to infection. Consistent with that notion, genes involved in immunity-related processes are strongly enriched among recent targets of positive selection in primates, suggesting that immune responses evolve rapidly, yet providing only indirect evidence for possible inter-species functional differences. To directly compare immune responses among primates, we stimulated primary monocytes from humans, chimpanzees, and rhesus macaques with lipopolysaccharide (LPS and studied the ensuing time-course regulatory responses. We find that, while the universal Toll-like receptor response is mostly conserved across primates, the regulatory response associated with viral infections is often lineage-specific, probably reflecting rapid host-virus mutual adaptation cycles. Additionally, human-specific immune responses are enriched for genes involved in apoptosis, as well as for genes associated with cancer and with susceptibility to infectious diseases or immune-related disorders. Finally, we find that chimpanzee-specific immune signaling pathways are enriched for HIV-interacting genes. Put together, our observations lend strong support to the notion that lineage-specific immune responses may help explain known inter-species differences in susceptibility to infectious diseases.

  12. Erythrocyte signal transduction pathways, their oxygenation dependence and functional significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barvitenko, Nadezhda N; Adragna, Norma C; Weber, Roy E

    2005-01-01

    Erythrocytes play a key role in human and vertebrate metabolism. Tissue O2 supply is regulated by both hemoglobin (Hb)-O2 affinity and erythrocyte rheology, a key determinant of tissue perfusion. Oxygenation-deoxygenation transitions of Hb may lead to re-organization of the cytoskeleton and signalling pathways activation/deactivation in an O2-dependent manner. Deoxygenated Hb binds to the cytoplasmic domain of the anion exchanger band 3, which is anchored to the cytoskeleton, and is considered a major mechanism underlying the oxygenation-dependence of several erythrocyte functions. This work discusses the multiple modes of Hb-cytoskeleton interactions. In addition, it reviews the effects of Mg2+, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, NO, shear stress and Ca2+, all factors accompanying the oxygenation-deoxygenation cycle in circulating red cells. Due to the extensive literature on the subject, the data discussed here, pertain mainly to human erythrocytes whose O2 affinity is modulated by 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, ectothermic vertebrate erythrocytes that use ATP, and to bird erythrocytes that use inositol pentaphosphate. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. The Wnt signaling pathway in familial exudative vitreoretinopathy and Norrie disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, Scott M; Andreoli, Christopher M; Mukai, Shizuo

    2007-01-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway is highly conserved among species and has an important role in many cell biological processes throughout the body. This signaling cascade is involved in regulating ocular growth and development, and recent findings indicate that this is particularly true in the retina. Mutations involving different aspects of the Wnt signaling pathway are being linked to several diseases of retinal development. The aim of this article is to first review the Wnt signaling pathway. We will then describe two conditions, familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) and Norrie disease (ND), which have been shown to be caused in part by defects in the Wnt signaling cascade.

  14. Urotensin II inhibits skeletal muscle glucose transport signaling pathways via the NADPH oxidase pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Xia Wang

    Full Text Available Our previous studies have demonstrated that the urotensin (UII and its receptor are up-regulated in the skeletal muscle of mice with type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM, but the significance of UII in skeletal muscle insulin resistance remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of UII on NADPH oxidase and glucose transport signaling pathways in the skeletal muscle of mice with T2DM and in C2C12 mouse myotube cells. KK/upj-AY/J mice (KK mice were divided into the following groups: KK group, with saline treatment for 2 weeks; KK+ urantide group, with daily 30 µg/kg body weight injections over the same time period of urantide, a potent urotensin II antagonist peptide; Non-diabetic C57BL/6J mice were used as normal controls. After urantide treatment, mice were subjected to an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, in addition to measurements of the levels of ROS, NADPH oxidase and the phosphorylated AKT, PKC and ERK. C2C12 cells were incubated with serum-free DMEM for 24 hours before conducting the experiments, and then administrated with 100 nM UII for 2 hours or 24 hours. Urantide treatment improved glucose tolerance, decreased the translocation of the NADPH subunits p40-phox and p47-phox, and increased levels of the phosphorylated PKC, AKT and ERK. In contrast, UII treatment increased ROS production and p47-phox and p67-phox translocation, and decreased the phosphorylated AKT, ERK1/2 and p38MAPK; Apocynin abrogated this effect. In conclusion, UII increased ROS production by NADPH oxidase, leading to the inhibition of signaling pathways involving glucose transport, such as AKT/PKC/ERK. Our data imply a role for UII at the molecular level in glucose homeostasis, and possibly in skeletal muscle insulin resistance in T2DM.

  15. Testosterone induces molecular changes in dopamine signaling pathway molecules in the adolescent male rat nigrostriatal pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tertia D Purves-Tyson

    Full Text Available Adolescent males have an increased risk of developing schizophrenia, implicating testosterone in the precipitation of dopamine-related psychopathology. Evidence from adult rodent brain indicates that testosterone can modulate nigrostriatal dopamine. However, studies are required to understand the role testosterone plays in maturation of dopamine pathways during adolescence and to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s by which testosterone exerts its effects. We hypothesized that molecular indices of dopamine neurotransmission [synthesis (tyrosine hydroxylase, breakdown (catechol-O-methyl transferase; monoamine oxygenase, transport [vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT, dopamine transporter (DAT] and receptors (DRD1-D5] would be changed by testosterone or its metabolites, dihydrotestosterone and 17β-estradiol, in the nigrostriatal pathway of adolescent male rats. We found that testosterone and dihydrotestosterone increased DAT and VMAT mRNAs in the substantia nigra and that testosterone increased DAT protein at the region of the cell bodies, but not in target regions in the striatum. Dopamine receptor D2 mRNA was increased and D3 mRNA was decreased in substantia nigra and/or striatum by androgens. These data suggest that increased testosterone at adolescence may change dopamine responsivity of the nigrostriatal pathway by modulating, at a molecular level, the capacity of neurons to transport and respond to dopamine. Further, dopamine turnover was increased in the dorsal striatum following gonadectomy and this was prevented by testosterone replacement. Gene expression changes in the dopaminergic cell body region may serve to modulate both dendritic dopamine feedback inhibition and reuptake in the dopaminergic somatodendritic field as well as dopamine release and re-uptake dynamics at the presynaptic terminals in the striatum. These testosterone-induced changes of molecular indices of dopamine neurotransmission in males are primarily androgen

  16. Gold nanoparticles stimulate differentiation and mineralization of primary osteoblasts through the ERK/MAPK signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dawei; Liu, Dandan; Zhang, Jinchao; Fong, Chichun; Yang, Mengsu

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have shown great promise for a variety of applications, including chemistry, biology, and medicine. Recently, AuNPs have found promising applications in cartilage and bone repair. However, to realize the above promised applications, more work needs to be carried out to clarify the interactions between biological systems and AuNPs. In the present study, primary osteoblasts were used to evaluate the biocompatibility of 20-nm and 40-nm AuNPs, including morphology, proliferation, differentiation, gene and protein expression, and the underlying mechanisms. The results demonstrated that AuNPs were taken up by osteoblasts and aggregated in perinuclear compartment and vescular structures, but no morphological changes were observed. AuNPs could significantly promote the proliferation of osteoblasts, enhance the ALP activities, and increase the number of bone nodules and calcium content in vitro. In addition, the expression of BMP-2, Runx-2, OCN and Col-1 was remarkably up-regulated in the presence of AuNPs. It is noteworthy that 20-nm AuNPs are more potent than 40-nm AuNPs in regulating osteoblast activities. Besides, AuNPs increased the level of ERK phosphorylation/total ERK, suggesting the activation of ERK/MAPK pathway is involved in above activities. In conclusion, AuNPs exhibited great biocompatibility with osteoblasts, and have tremendous potential to be used as drug and/or gene delivery carrier for bone and tissue engineering in the future. - Highlights: • AuNPs aggregated in perinuclear compartment and vescular structures of osteoblasts. • AuNPs up-regulated the expression of Runx-2, BMP-2, OCN and Col I of osteoblasts. • AuNPs enhanced osteoblast differentiation by activating the ERK/MAPK pathway. • The size of nanoparticles may be important to exhibit their biological effects. • AuNPs have tremendous potential in bone and tissue engineering in future

  17. A right-handed signalling pathway drives heart looping in vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña, Oscar H.; Coskun, Hakan; Minguillón, Carolina; Murawala, Prayag; Tanaka, Elly M.; Galcerán, Joan; Muñoz-Chapuli, Ramón; Nieto, M. Angela

    2017-01-01

    The majority of animals show external bilateral symmetry, precluding the observation of multiple internal left-right (L/R) asymmetries that are fundamental for organ packaging and function1,2. In vertebrates, left identity is mediated by the left-specific Nodal-Pitx2 axis that is repressed on the right-hand side by the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) inducer Snail13,4. Despite some existing evidence3,5, it remains unclear whether an equivalent instructive pathway provides right-hand specific information to the embryo. Here we show that in zebrafish, BMP mediates the L/R asymmetric activation of another EMT inducer, Prrx1a, in the lateral plate mesoderm (LPM) with higher levels on the right. Prrx1a drives L/R differential cell movements towards the midline leading to a leftward displacement of the cardiac posterior pole through an actomyosin-dependent mechanism. Downregulation of Prrx1a prevents heart looping and leads to mesocardia. Two parallel and mutually repressed pathways, respectively driven by Nodal and BMP on the left and right LPM, converge on the asymmetric activation of Pitx2 and Prrx1, two transcription factors that integrate left and right information to govern heart morphogenesis. This mechanism is conserved in the chicken embryo and, in the mouse, Snail1 fulfills the role played by Prrx1 in fish and chick. Thus, a differential L/R EMT produces asymmetric cell movements and forces, more prominent from the right, that drive heart laterality in vertebrates. PMID:28880281

  18. Targeting Wnt signaling in colorectal cancer. A Review in the Theme: Cell Signaling: Proteins, Pathways and Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novellasdemunt, Laura; Antas, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved Wnt signaling pathway plays essential roles during embryonic development and tissue homeostasis. Notably, comprehensive genetic studies in Drosophila and mice in the past decades have demonstrated the crucial role of Wnt signaling in intestinal stem cell maintenance by regulating proliferation, differentiation, and cell-fate decisions. Wnt signaling has also been implicated in a variety of cancers and other diseases. Loss of the Wnt pathway negative regulator adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is the hallmark of human colorectal cancers (CRC). Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing further reveal many novel recurrent Wnt pathway mutations in addition to the well-characterized APC and β-catenin mutations in CRC. Despite attractive strategies to develop drugs for Wnt signaling, major hurdles in therapeutic intervention of the pathway persist. Here we discuss the Wnt-activating mechanisms in CRC and review the current advances and challenges in drug discovery. PMID:26289750

  19. Wnt and the Wnt signaling pathway in bone development and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiping; Li, Yi-Ping; Paulson, Christie; Shao, Jian-Zhong; Zhang, Xiaoling; Wu, Mengrui; Chen, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Wnt signaling affects both bone modeling, which occurs during development, and bone remodeling, which is a lifelong process involving tissue renewal. Wnt signals are especially known to affect the differentiation of osteoblasts. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of Wnt signaling, which is divided into two major branches: the canonical pathway and the noncanonical pathway. The canonical pathway is also called the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. There are two major noncanonical pathways: the Wnt-planar cell polarity pathway (Wnt-PCP pathway) and the Wnt-calcium pathway (Wnt-Ca2+ pathway). This review also discusses how Wnt ligands, receptors, intracellular effectors, transcription factors, and antagonists affect both the bone modeling and bone remodeling processes. We also review the role of Wnt ligands, receptors, intracellular effectors, transcription factors, and antagonists in bone as demonstrated in mouse models. Disrupted Wnt signaling is linked to several bone diseases, including osteoporosis, van Buchem disease, and sclerosteosis. Studying the mechanism of Wnt signaling and its interactions with other signaling pathways in bone will provide potential therapeutic targets to treat these bone diseases. PMID:24389191

  20. BLM promotes the activation of Fanconi Anemia signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneerselvam, Jayabal; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Jun; Che, Raymond; Yu, Herbert; Fei, Peiwen

    2016-05-31

    Mutations in the human RecQ helicase, BLM, causes Bloom Syndrome, which is a rare autosomal recessive disorder and characterized by genomic instability and an increased risk of cancer. Fanconi Anemia (FA), resulting from mutations in any of the 19 known FA genes and those yet to be known, is also characterized by chromosomal instability and a high incidence of cancer. BLM helicase and FA proteins, therefore, may work in a common tumor-suppressor signaling pathway. To date, it remains largely unclear as to how BLM and FA proteins work concurrently in the maintenance of genome stability. Here we report that BLM is involved in the early activation of FA group D2 protein (FANCD2). We found that FANCD2 activation is substantially delayed and attenuated in crosslinking agent-treated cells harboring deficient Blm compared to similarly treated control cells with sufficient BLM. We also identified that the domain VI of BLM plays an essential role in promoting FANCD2 activation in cells treated with DNA crosslinking agents, especially ultraviolet B. The similar biological effects performed by ΔVI-BLM and inactivated FANCD2 further confirm the relationship between BLM and FANCD2. Mutations within the domain VI of BLM detected in human cancer samples demonstrate the functional importance of this domain, suggesting human tumorigenicity resulting from mtBLM may be at least partly attributed to mitigated FANCD2 activation. Collectively, our data show a previously unknown regulatory liaison in advancing our understanding of how the cancer susceptibility gene products act in concert to maintain genome stability.

  1. Oncogenic signalling pathways in benign odontogenic cysts and tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Marina Gonçalves; Gomes, Carolina Cavalieri; de Sousa, Sílvia Ferreira; Xavier, Guilherme Machado; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago

    2017-09-01

    The first step towards the prevention of cancer is to develop an in-depth understanding of tumourigenesis and the molecular basis of malignant transformation. What drives tumour initiation? Why do most benign tumours fail to metastasize? Oncogenic mutations, previously considered to be the hallmark drivers of cancers, are reported in benign cysts and tumours, including those that have an odontogenic origin. Despite the presence of such alterations, the vast majority of odontogenic lesions are benign and never progress to the stage of malignant transformation. As these lesions are likely to develop due to developmental defects, it is possible that they harbour quiet genomes. Now the question arises - do they result from DNA replication errors? Specific candidate genes have been sequenced in odontogenic lesions, revealing recurrent BRAF mutation in the case of ameloblastoma, KRAS mutation in adenomatoid odontogenic tumours, PTCH1 mutation in odontogenic keratocysts, and CTNNB1 (Beta-catenin) mutation in calcifying odontogenic cysts. Studies on these benign and rare entities might reveal important information about the tumorigenic process and the mechanisms that hinder/halt neoplastic progression. This is because the role of relatively common oncogenic mutations seems to be context dependent. In this review, each mutation signature of the odontogenic lesion and the affected signalling pathways are discussed in the context of tooth development and tumorigenesis. Furthermore, behavioural differences between different types of odontogenic lesions are explored and discussed based on the molecular alteration described. This review also includes the employment of molecular results for guiding therapeutic approaches towards odontogenic lesions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. From tyrosine to melanin: Signaling pathways and factors regulating melanogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Rzepka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Melanins are natural pigments of skin, hair and eyes and can be classified into two main types: brown to black eumelanin and yellow to reddish-brown pheomelanin. Biosynthesis of melanins takes place in melanosomes, which are specialized cytoplasmic organelles of melanocytes - dendritic cells located in the basal layer of the epidermis, uveal tract of the eye, hair follicles, as well as in the inner ear, central nervous system and heart. Melanogenesis is a multistep process and begins with the conversion of amino acid L-tyrosine to DOPAquinone. The addition of cysteine or glutathione to DOPAquinone leads to the intermediates formation, followed by subsequent transformations and polymerization to the final product, pheomelanin. In the absence of thiol compounds DOPAquinone undergoes an intramolecular cyclization and oxidation to form DOPAchrome, which is then converted to 5,6-dihydroksyindole (DHI or 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA. Eumelanin is formed by polymerization of DHI and DHICA and their quinones. Regulation of melanogenesis is achieved by physical and biochemical factors. The article presents the intracellular signaling pathways: cAMP/PKA/CREB/MITF cascade, MAP kinases cascade, PLC/DAG/PKCβ cascade and NO/cGMP/PKG cascade, which are involved in the regulation of expression and activity of the melanogenesis-related proteins by ultraviolet radiation and endogenous agents (cytokines, hormones. Activity of the key melanogenic enzyme, tyrosinase, is also affected by pH and temperature. Many pharmacologically active substances are able to inhibit or stimulate melanin biosynthesis, as evidenced by in vitro studies on cultured pigment cells.

  3. Mast cell chemotaxis – Chemoattractants and signaling pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana eHalova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Migration of mast cells is essential for their recruitment within target tissues where they play an important role in innate and adaptive immune responses. These processes rely on the ability of mast cells to recognize appropriate chemotactic stimuli and react to them by a chemotactic response. Another level of intercellular communication is attained by production of chemoattractants by activated mast cells, which results in accumulation of mast cells and other hematopoietic cells at the sites of inflammation. Mast cells express numerous surface receptors for various ligands with properties of potent chemoattractants. They include the stem cell factor recognized by c-Kit, antigen, which binds to immunoglobulin E (IgE anchored to the high affinity IgE receptor (FcRI, highly cytokinergic IgE recognized by FcRI, lipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P, which binds to G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs. Other large groups of chemoattractants are eicosanoids [prostaglandin E2 and D2, leukotriene (LT B4, LTD4 and LTC4, and others] and chemokines (CC, CXC, C and CX3X, which also bind to various GPCRs. Further noteworthy chemoattractants are isoforms of transforming growth factor (TGF , which are sensitively recognized by TGF- serine/threonine type I and II  receptors, adenosine, C1q, C3a, and C5a components of the complement, 5-hydroxytryptamine, neuroendocrine peptide catestatin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor- and others. Here we discuss the major types of chemoattractants recognized by mast cells, their target receptors, as well as signaling pathways they utilize. We also briefly deal with methods used for studies of mast cell chemotaxis and with ways of how these studies profited from the results obtained in other cellular systems.

  4. Porcine Circovirus-Like Virus P1 Inhibits Wnt Signaling Pathway in Vivo and in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuejiao; Wen, Libin; Sheng, Shaoyang; Wang, Wei; Xiao, Qi; Qu, Meng; Hu, Yiyi; Liu, Chuanmin; He, Kongwang

    2018-01-01

    Porcine circovirus-like virus P1 is an important pathogen of the current pig industry, the infection mechanism is not entirely clear. Wnt signaling pathway plays an important role in the growth of young animals and infection of some viruses. This study was designed to demonstrate the effects of P1 infection on the Wnt signaling pathway. In vivo experiments, we demonstrated the down-regulatory effects of P1 infection in piglets and mice on the downstream components expression levels of Wnt signaling pathway, and the effects of Wnt signaling pathway activation on the pathogenesis of P1. In vitro studies, we found P1 infection down-regulated protein level of β-catenin and mRNA level of mmp2, prevented the β-catenin from entering into nucleus, abolished the TCF/LEF promoter activity, proved that P1 could inhibit the activation of Wnt signaling pathway in vitro . Finally, we found that VP1 of P1 virus also had the inhibitory effects on Wnt signaling pathway in vitro , elucidated the mechanism of P1's inhibitory effects on the Wnt signaling pathway and offered the possibility that the suppression of Wnt signaling pathway was involved in the post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), laying a foundation for elucidating the pathogenesis of P1.

  5. Porcine Circovirus-Like Virus P1 Inhibits Wnt Signaling Pathway in Vivo and in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejiao Zhu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Porcine circovirus-like virus P1 is an important pathogen of the current pig industry, the infection mechanism is not entirely clear. Wnt signaling pathway plays an important role in the growth of young animals and infection of some viruses. This study was designed to demonstrate the effects of P1 infection on the Wnt signaling pathway. In vivo experiments, we demonstrated the down-regulatory effects of P1 infection in piglets and mice on the downstream components expression levels of Wnt signaling pathway, and the effects of Wnt signaling pathway activation on the pathogenesis of P1. In vitro studies, we found P1 infection down-regulated protein level of β-catenin and mRNA level of mmp2, prevented the β-catenin from entering into nucleus, abolished the TCF/LEF promoter activity, proved that P1 could inhibit the activation of Wnt signaling pathway in vitro. Finally, we found that VP1 of P1 virus also had the inhibitory effects on Wnt signaling pathway in vitro, elucidated the mechanism of P1’s inhibitory effects on the Wnt signaling pathway and offered the possibility that the suppression of Wnt signaling pathway was involved in the post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS, laying a foundation for elucidating the pathogenesis of P1.

  6. Dact gene expression profiles suggest a role for this gene family in integrating Wnt and TGF-β signaling pathways during chicken limb development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensiate, Lucimara Aparecida; Sobreira, Débora R; Da Veiga, Fernanda Cristina; Peterlini, Denner Jefferson; Pedrosa, Angelica Vasconcelos; Rirsch, Thaís; Joazeiro, Paulo Pinto; Schubert, Frank R; Collares-Buzato, Carla Beatriz; Xavier-Neto, José; Dietrich, Susanne; Alvares, Lúcia Elvira

    2014-03-01

    Dact gene family encodes multifunctional proteins that are important modulators of Wnt and TGF-β signaling pathways. Given that these pathways coordinate multiple steps of limb development, we investigated the expression pattern of the two chicken Dact genes (Dact1 and Dact2) from early limb bud up to stages when several tissues are differentiating. During early limb development (HH24-HH30) Dact1 and Dact2 were mainly expressed in the cartilaginous rudiments of the appendicular skeleton and perichondrium, presenting expression profiles related, but distinct. At later stages of development (HH31-HH35), the main sites of Dact1 and Dact2 expression were the developing synovial joints. In this context, Dact1 expression was shown to co-localize with regions enriched in the nuclear β-catenin protein, such as developing joint capsule and interzone. In contrast, Dact2 expression was restricted to the interzone surrounding the domains of bmpR-1b expression, a TGF-β receptor with crucial roles during digit morphogenesis. Additional sites of Dact expression were the developing tendons and digit blastemas. Our data indicate that Dact genes are good candidates to modulate and, possibly, integrate Wnt and TGF-β signaling during limb development, bringing new and interesting perspectives about the roles of Dact molecules in limb birth defects and human diseases. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Inhibition of the adrenomedullin/nitric oxide signaling pathway in early diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Jan J; Giove, Thomas J; Favazza, Tara L; Akula, James D; Eldred, William D

    2011-06-01

    The nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway is integrally involved in visual processing and changes in the NO pathway are measurable in eyes of diabetic patients. The small peptide adrenomedullin (ADM) can activate a signaling pathway to increase the enzyme activity of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). ADM levels are elevated in eyes of diabetic patients and therefore, ADM may play a role in the pathology of diabetic retinopathy. The goal of this research was to test the effects of inhibiting the ADM/NO signaling pathway in early diabetic retinopathy. Inhibition of this pathway decreased NO production in high-glucose retinal cultures. Treating diabetic mice with the PKC β inhibitor ruboxistaurin for 5 weeks lowered ADM mRNA levels and ADM-like immunoreactivity and preserved retinal function as assessed by electroretinography. The results of this study indicate that inhibiting the ADM/NO signaling pathway prevents neuronal pathology and functional losses in early diabetic retinopathy.

  8. The role of the Hedgehog signaling pathway in cancer: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marija Skoda

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Hedgehog (Hh signaling pathway was first identified in the common fruit fly. It is a highly conserved evolutionary pathway of signal transmission from the cell membrane to the nucleus. The Hh signaling pathway plays an important role in the embryonic development. It exerts its biological effects through a signaling cascade that culminates in a change of balance between activator and repressor forms of glioma-associated oncogene (Gli transcription factors. The components of the Hh signaling pathway involved in the signaling transfer to the Gli transcription factors include Hedgehog ligands (Sonic Hh [SHh], Indian Hh [IHh], and Desert Hh [DHh], Patched receptor (Ptch1, Ptch2, Smoothened receptor (Smo, Suppressor of fused homolog (Sufu, kinesin protein Kif7, protein kinase A (PKA, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP. The activator form of Gli travels to the nucleus and stimulates the transcription of the target genes by binding to their promoters. The main target genes of the Hh signaling pathway are PTCH1, PTCH2, and GLI1. Deregulation of the Hh signaling pathway is associated with developmental anomalies and cancer, including Gorlin syndrome, and sporadic cancers, such as basal cell carcinoma, medulloblastoma, pancreatic, breast, colon, ovarian, and small-cell lung carcinomas. The aberrant activation of the Hh signaling pathway is caused by mutations in the related genes (ligand-independent signaling or by the excessive expression of the Hh signaling molecules (ligand-dependent signaling – autocrine or paracrine. Several Hh signaling pathway inhibitors, such as vismodegib and sonidegib, have been developed for cancer treatment. These drugs are regarded as promising cancer therapies, especially for patients with refractory/advanced cancers.

  9. Signaling pathways activation profiles make better markers of cancer than expression of individual genes

    OpenAIRE

    Borisov, Nikolay M.; Terekhanova, Nadezhda V.; Aliper, Alexander M.; Venkova, Larisa S.; Smirnov, Philip Yu; Roumiantsev, Sergey; Korzinkin, Mikhail B.; Zhavoronkov, Alex A.; Buzdin, Anton A.

    2014-01-01

    Identification of reliable and accurate molecular markers remains one of the major challenges of contemporary biomedicine. We developed a new bioinformatic technique termed OncoFinder that for the first time enables to quantatively measure activation of intracellular signaling pathways basing on transcriptomic data. Signaling pathways regulate all major cellular events in health and disease. Here, we showed that the Pathway Activation Strength (PAS) value itself may serve as the biomarker for...

  10. DMPD: Signal transduction pathways mediated by the interaction of CpG DNA withToll-like receptor 9. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 14751759 Signal transduction pathways mediated by the interaction of CpG DNA withTo...;16(1):17-22. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Signal transduction pathways mediated by the interaction of... CpG DNA withToll-like receptor 9. PubmedID 14751759 Title Signal transduction pathways media

  11. Cross-regulation of signaling pathways: An example of nuclear hormone receptors and the canonical Wnt pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beildeck, Marcy E. [Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, 3970 Reservoir Road, NW, Washington, DC 20057 (United States); Gelmann, Edward P. [Columbia University, Department of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Byers, Stephen W., E-mail: byerss@georgetown.edu [Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, 3970 Reservoir Road, NW, Washington, DC 20057 (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Predicting the potential physiological outcome(s) of any given molecular pathway is complex because of cross-talk with other pathways. This is particularly evident in the case of the nuclear hormone receptor and canonical Wnt pathways, which regulate cell growth and proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and metastatic potential in numerous tissues. These pathways are known to intersect at many levels: in the intracellular space, at the membrane, in the cytoplasm, and within the nucleus. The outcomes of these interactions are important in the control of stem cell differentiation and maintenance, feedback loops, and regulating oncogenic potential. The aim of this review is to demonstrate the importance of considering pathway cross-talk when predicting functional outcomes of signaling, using nuclear hormone receptor/canonical Wnt pathway cross-talk as an example.

  12. Cross-regulation of signaling pathways: An example of nuclear hormone receptors and the canonical Wnt pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beildeck, Marcy E.; Gelmann, Edward P.; Byers, Stephen W.

    2010-01-01

    Predicting the potential physiological outcome(s) of any given molecular pathway is complex because of cross-talk with other pathways. This is particularly evident in the case of the nuclear hormone receptor and canonical Wnt pathways, which regulate cell growth and proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and metastatic potential in numerous tissues. These pathways are known to intersect at many levels: in the intracellular space, at the membrane, in the cytoplasm, and within the nucleus. The outcomes of these interactions are important in the control of stem cell differentiation and maintenance, feedback loops, and regulating oncogenic potential. The aim of this review is to demonstrate the importance of considering pathway cross-talk when predicting functional outcomes of signaling, using nuclear hormone receptor/canonical Wnt pathway cross-talk as an example.

  13. Identification of a novel Gnao-mediated alternate olfactory signaling pathway in murine OSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eScholz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is generally agreed that in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs, the binding of odorant molecules to their specific olfactory receptor (OR triggers a cAMP-dependent signaling cascade, activating cyclic-nucleotide gated (CNG channels. However, considerable controversy dating back more than 20 years has surrounded the question of whether alternate signaling plays a role in mammalian olfactory transduction. In this study, we demonstrate a specific alternate signaling pathway in Olfr73-expressing OSNs. Methylisoeugenol (MIEG and at least one other known weak Olfr73 agonist (Raspberry Ketone trigger a signaling cascade independent from the canonical pathway, leading to the depolarization of the cell. Interestingly, this pathway is mediated by Gnao activation, leading to Cl- efflux; however, the activation of adenylyl cyclase III (ACIII, the recruitment of Ca2+ from extra-or intracellular stores, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent signaling (PI signaling are not involved. Furthermore, we demonstrated that our newly identified pathway coexists with the canonical olfactory cAMP pathway in the same OSN and can be triggered by the same OR in a ligand-selective manner. We suggest that this pathway might reflect a mechanism for odor recognition predominantly used in early developmental stages before olfactory cAMP signaling is fully developed. Taken together, our findings support the existence of at least one odor-induced alternate signal transduction pathway in native OSNs mediated by Olfr73 in a ligand-selective manner.

  14. Interactions among oscillatory pathways in NF-kappa B signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Michael RH

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sustained stimulation with tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha induces substantial oscillations—observed at both the single cell and population levels—in the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B system. Although the mechanism has not yet been elucidated fully, a core system has been identified consisting of a negative feedback loop involving NF-kappa B (RelA:p50 hetero-dimer and its inhibitor I-kappa B-alpha. Many authors have suggested that this core oscillator should couple to other oscillatory pathways. Results First we analyse single-cell data from experiments in which the NF-kappa B system is forced by short trains of strong pulses of TNF-alpha. Power spectra of the ratio of nuclear-to-cytoplasmic concentration of NF-kappa B suggest that the cells' responses are entrained by the pulsing frequency. Using a recent model of the NF-kappa B system due to Caroline Horton, we carried out extensive numerical simulations to analyze the response frequencies induced by trains of pulses of TNF-alpha stimulation having a wide range of frequencies and amplitudes. These studies suggest that for sufficiently weak stimulation, various nonlinear resonances should be observable. To explore further the possibility of probing alternative feedback mechanisms, we also coupled the model to sinusoidal signals with a wide range of strengths and frequencies. Our results show that, at least in simulation, frequencies other than those of the forcing and the main NF-kappa B oscillator can be excited via sub- and superharmonic resonance, producing quasiperiodic and even chaotic dynamics. Conclusions Our numerical results suggest that the entrainment phenomena observed in pulse-stimulated experiments is a consequence of the high intensity of the stimulation. Computational studies based on current models suggest that resonant interactions between periodic pulsatile forcing and the system's natural frequencies may become evident for sufficiently

  15. Promotion of bone morphogenetic protein signaling by tetraspanins and glycosphingolipids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyu Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs belong to the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ superfamily of secreted molecules. BMPs play essential roles in multiple developmental and homeostatic processes in metazoans. Malfunction of the BMP pathway can cause a variety of diseases in humans, including cancer, skeletal disorders and cardiovascular diseases. Identification of factors that ensure proper spatiotemporal control of BMP signaling is critical for understanding how this pathway is regulated. We have used a unique and sensitive genetic screen to identify the plasma membrane-localized tetraspanin TSP-21 as a key new factor in the C. elegans BMP-like "Sma/Mab" signaling pathway that controls body size and postembryonic M lineage development. We showed that TSP-21 acts in the signal-receiving cells and genetically functions at the ligand-receptor level. We further showed that TSP-21 can associate with itself and with two additional tetraspanins, TSP-12 and TSP-14, which also promote Sma/Mab signaling. TSP-12 and TSP-14 can also associate with SMA-6, the type I receptor of the Sma/Mab pathway. Finally, we found that glycosphingolipids, major components of the tetraspanin-enriched microdomains, are required for Sma/Mab signaling. Our findings suggest that the tetraspanin-enriched membrane microdomains are important for proper BMP signaling. As tetraspanins have emerged as diagnostic and prognostic markers for tumor progression, and TSP-21, TSP-12 and TSP-14 are all conserved in humans, we speculate that abnormal BMP signaling due to altered expression or function of certain tetraspanins may be a contributing factor to cancer development.

  16. Lung cancer, intracellular signaling pathways, and preclinical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mordant, P.

    2012-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT and Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homologue (KRAS) can induce cellular immortalization, proliferation, and resistance to anticancer therapeutics such as epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors or chemotherapy. This study assessed the consequences of inhibiting these two pathways in tumor cells with activation of KRAS, PI3K-AKT, or both. We investigated whether the combination of a novel RAF/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor, RAF265, with a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, RAD001 (everolimus), could lead to enhanced anti-tumoral effects in vitro and in vivo. To address this question, we used cell lines with different status regarding KRAS, PIK3CA, and BRAF mutations, using immunoblotting to evaluate the inhibitors, and MTT and clonogenic assays for effects on cell viability and proliferation. Subcutaneous xenografts were used to assess the activity of the combination in vivo. RAD001 inhibited mTOR downstream signaling in all cell lines, whereas RAF265 inhibited RAF downstream signaling only in BRAF mutant cells. In vitro, addition of RAF265 to RAD001 led to decreased AKT, S6, and Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 phosphorylation in HCT116 cells. In vitro and in vivo, RAD001 addition enhanced the anti-tumoral effect of RAF265 in HCT116 and H460 cells (both KRAS mut, PIK3CA mut); in contrast, the combination of RAF265 and RAD001 yielded no additional activity in A549 and MDAMB231 cells. The combination of RAF and mTOR inhibitors is effective for enhancing anti-tumoral effects in cells with deregulation of both RAS-RAF and PI3K, possibly through the cross-inhibition of 4E binding protein 1 and S6 protein. We then focus on animal models. Preclinical models of NSCLC require better clinical relevance to study disease mechanisms and innovative

  17. Expression and functional study of extracellular BMP antagonists during the morphogenesis of the digits and their associated connective tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos I Lorda-Diez

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to gain insight into the role of BMP signaling in the diversification of the embryonic limb mesodermal progenitors destined to form cartilage, joints, and tendons. Given the importance of extracellular BMP modulators in in vivo systems, we performed a systematic search of those expressed in the developing autopod during the formation of the digits. Here, we monitored the expression of extracellular BMP modulators including: Noggin, Chordin, Chordin-like 1, Chordin-like 2, Twisted gastrulation, Dan, BMPER, Sost, Sostdc1, Follistatin, Follistatin-like 1, Follistatin-like 5 and Tolloid. These factors show differential expression domains in cartilage, joints and tendons. Furthermore, they are induced in specific temporal patterns during the formation of an ectopic extra digit, preceding the appearance of changes that are identifiable by conventional histology. The analysis of gene regulation, cell proliferation and cell death that are induced by these factors in high density cultures of digit progenitors provides evidence of functional specialization in the control of mesodermal differentiation but not in cell proliferation or apoptosis. We further show that the expression of these factors is differentially controlled by the distinct signaling pathways acting in the developing limb at the stages covered by this study. In addition, our results provide evidence suggesting that TWISTED GASTRULATION cooperates with CHORDINS, BMPER, and NOGGIN in the establishment of tendons or cartilage in a fashion that is dependent on the presence or absence of TOLLOID.

  18. Aberrant Wnt signaling pathway in medial temporal lobe structures of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riise, Jesper; Plath, Niels; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2015-01-01

    alterations of the intracellular Wnt pathway signaling components β-catenin, Gsk3β and Tcf7l1/Tcf3 and the phosphorylation state of β-catenin and Gsk3β in the hippocampus suggestive of a link between AD and aberrant canonical activity. Alterations in Gsk3β co-appeared with hippocampal kinase...... on isolated Wnt pathway components. Here, we provide the first comprehensive pathway-focused evaluation of the Wnt pathway in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus of AD brains. Our data demonstrate altered Wnt pathway gene expression at all levels of the pathway in both medial temporal lobe regions...

  19. Regulation of bone morphogenetic protein signalling and cranial osteogenesis by Gpc1 and Gpc3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Prem P; Grose, Randall H; Filmus, Jorge; Hii, Charles S T; Xian, Cory J; Anderson, Peter J; Powell, Barry C

    2013-08-01

    From birth, the vault of the skull grows at a prodigious rate, driven by the activity of osteoblastic cells at the fibrous joints (sutures) that separate the bony calvarial plates. One in 2500 children is born with a medical condition known as craniosynostosis because of premature bony fusion of the calvarial plates and a cessation of bone growth at the sutures. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are potent growth factors that promote bone formation. Previously, we found that Glypican-1 (GPC1) and Glypican-3 (GPC3) are expressed in cranial sutures and are decreased during premature suture fusion in children. Although glypicans are known to regulate BMP signalling, a mechanistic link between GPC1, GPC3 and BMPs and osteogenesis has not yet been investigated. We now report that human primary suture mesenchymal cells coexpress GPC1 and GPC3 on the cell surface and release them into the media. We show that they inhibit BMP2, BMP4 and BMP7 activities, which both physically interact with BMP2 and that immunoblockade of endogenous GPC1 and GPC3 potentiates BMP2 activity. In contrast, increased levels of GPC1 and GPC3 as a result of overexpression or the addition of recombinant protein, inhibit BMP2 signalling and BMP2-mediated osteogenesis. We demonstrate that BMP signalling in suture mesenchymal cells is mediated by both SMAD-dependent and SMAD-independent pathways and that GPC1 and GPC3 inhibit both pathways. GPC3 inhibition of BMP2 activity is independent of attachment of the glypican on the cell surface and post-translational glycanation, and thus appears to be mediated by the core glypican protein. The discovery that GPC1 and GPC3 regulate BMP2-mediated osteogenesis, and that inhibition of endogenous GPC1 and GPC3 potentiates BMP2 responsiveness of human suture mesenchymal cells, indicates how downregulation of glypican expression could lead to the bony suture fusion that characterizes craniosynostosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The node-weighted Steiner tree approach to identify elements of cancer-related signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yahui; Ma, Chenkai; Halgamuge, Saman

    2017-12-28

    Cancer constitutes a momentous health burden in our society. Critical information on cancer may be hidden in its signaling pathways. However, even though a large amount of money has been spent on cancer research, some critical information on cancer-related signaling pathways still remains elusive. Hence, new works towards a complete understanding of cancer-related signaling pathways will greatly benefit the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer. We propose the node-weighted Steiner tree approach to identify important elements of cancer-related signaling pathways at the level of proteins. This new approach has advantages over previous approaches since it is fast in processing large protein-protein interaction networks. We apply this new approach to identify important elements of two well-known cancer-related signaling pathways: PI3K/Akt and MAPK. First, we generate a node-weighted protein-protein interaction network using protein and signaling pathway data. Second, we modify and use two preprocessing techniques and a state-of-the-art Steiner tree algorithm to identify a subnetwork in the generated network. Third, we propose two new metrics to select important elements from this subnetwork. On a commonly used personal computer, this new approach takes less than 2 s to identify the important elements of PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways in a large node-weighted protein-protein interaction network with 16,843 vertices and 1,736,922 edges. We further analyze and demonstrate the significance of these identified elements to cancer signal transduction by exploring previously reported experimental evidences. Our node-weighted Steiner tree approach is shown to be both fast and effective to identify important elements of cancer-related signaling pathways. Furthermore, it may provide new perspectives into the identification of signaling pathways for other human diseases.

  1. Bmp2 deletion causes an amelogenesis imperfecta phenotype via regulating enamel gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feng; Feng, Junsheng; Wang, Feng; Li, Wentong; Gao, Qingping; Chen, Zhuo; Shoff, Lisa; Donly, Kevin J; Gluhak-Heinrich, Jelica; Chun, Yong Hee Patricia; Harris, Stephen E; MacDougall, Mary; Chen, Shuo

    2015-08-01

    Although Bmp2 is essential for tooth formation, the role of Bmp2 during enamel formation remains unknown in vivo. In this study, the role of Bmp2 in regulation of enamel formation was investigated by the Bmp2 conditional knock out (Bmp2 cKO) mice. Teeth of Bmp2 cKO mice displayed severe and profound phenotypes with asymmetric and misshaped incisors as well as abrasion of incisors and molars. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that the enamel layer was hypoplastic and enamel lacked a typical prismatic pattern. Teeth from null mice were much more brittle as tested by shear and compressive moduli. Expression of enamel matrix protein genes, amelogenin, enamelin, and enamel-processing proteases, Mmp-20 and Klk4 was reduced in the Bmp2 cKO teeth as reflected in a reduced enamel formation. Exogenous Bmp2 up-regulated those gene expressions in mouse enamel organ epithelial cells. This result for the first time indicates Bmp2 signaling is essential for proper enamel development and mineralization in vivo. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Comparison of growth factor signalling pathway utilisation in cultured normal melanocytes and melanoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Eun; Stones, Clare; Joseph, Wayne R; Leung, Euphemia; Finlay, Graeme J; Shelling, Andrew N; Phillips, Wayne A; Shepherd, Peter R; Baguley, Bruce C

    2012-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K-PKB), mitogen activated protein kinase (MEK-ERK) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR- p70S6K), are thought to regulate many aspects of tumour cell proliferation and survival. We have examined the utilisation of these three signalling pathways in a number of cell lines derived from patients with metastatic malignant melanoma of known PIK3CA, PTEN, NRAS and BRAF mutational status. Western blotting was used to compare the phosphorylation status of components of the PI3K-PKB, MEK-ERK and mTOR-p70S6K signalling pathways, as indices of pathway utilisation. Normal melanocytes could not be distinguished from melanoma cells on the basis of pathway utilisation when grown in the presence of serum, but could be distinguished upon serum starvation, where signalling protein phosphorylation was generally abrogated. Surprisingly, the differential utilisation of individual pathways was not consistently associated with the presence of an oncogenic or tumour suppressor mutation of genes in these pathways. Utilisation of the PI3K-PKB, MEK-ERK and mTOR-p70S6K signalling pathways in melanoma, as determined by phosphorylation of signalling components, varies widely across a series of cell lines, and does not directly reflect mutation of genes coding these components. The main difference between cultured normal melanocytes and melanoma cells is not the pathway utilisation itself, but rather in the serum dependence of pathway utilisation

  3. Optimal structural inference of signaling pathways from unordered and overlapping gene sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Lipi R; Judeh, Thair; Wang, Guangdi; Zhu, Dongxiao

    2012-02-15

    A plethora of bioinformatics analysis has led to the discovery of numerous gene sets, which can be interpreted as discrete measurements emitted from latent signaling pathways. Their potential to infer signaling pathway structures, however, has not been sufficiently exploited. Existing methods accommodating discrete data do not explicitly consider signal cascading mechanisms that characterize a signaling pathway. Novel computational methods are thus needed to fully utilize gene sets and broaden the scope from focusing only on pairwise interactions to the more general cascading events in the inference of signaling pathway structures. We propose a gene set based simulated annealing (SA) algorithm for the reconstruction of signaling pathway structures. A signaling pathway structure is a directed graph containing up to a few hundred nodes and many overlapping signal cascades, where each cascade represents a chain of molecular interactions from the cell surface to the nucleus. Gene sets in our context refer to discrete sets of genes participating in signal cascades, the basic building blocks of a signaling pathway, with no prior information about gene orderings in the cascades. From a compendium of gene sets related to a pathway, SA aims to search for signal cascades that characterize the optimal signaling pathway structure. In the search process, the extent of overlap among signal cascades is used to measure the optimality of a structure. Throughout, we treat gene sets as random samples from a first-order Markov chain model. We evaluated the performance of SA in three case studies. In the first study conducted on 83 KEGG pathways, SA demonstrated a significantly better performance than Bayesian network methods. Since both SA and Bayesian network methods accommodate discrete data, use a 'search and score' network learning strategy and output a directed network, they can be compared in terms of performance and computational time. In the second study, we compared SA and

  4. Sensitivity analysis of intracellular signaling pathway kinetics predicts targets for stem cell fate control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alborz Mahdavi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Directing stem cell fate requires knowledge of how signaling networks integrate temporally and spatially segregated stimuli. We developed and validated a computational model of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (Stat3 pathway kinetics, a signaling network involved in embryonic stem cell (ESC self-renewal. Our analysis identified novel pathway responses; for example, overexpression of the receptor glycoprotein-130 results in reduced pathway activation and increased ESC differentiation. We used a systematic in silico screen to identify novel targets and protein interactions involved in Stat3 activation. Our analysis demonstrates that signaling activation and desensitization (the inability to respond to ligand restimulation is regulated by balancing the activation state of a distributed set of parameters including nuclear export of Stat3, nuclear phosphatase activity, inhibition by suppressor of cytokine signaling, and receptor trafficking. This knowledge was used to devise a temporally modulated ligand delivery strategy that maximizes signaling activation and leads to enhanced ESC self-renewal.

  5. Role of CSL-dependent and independent Notch signaling pathways in cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chong; Xing, Rui; Liu, Jing; Xing, Feiyue

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis is a normally biological phenomenon in various organisms, involving complexly molecular mechanisms with a series of signaling processes. Notch signaling is found evolutionarily conserved in many species, playing a critical role in embryonic development, normal tissue homeostasis, angiogenesis and immunoregulation. The focus of this review is on currently novel advances about roles of CSL-dependent and independent Notch signaling pathways in cell apoptosis. The CSL can bind Notch intracellular domain (NIC) to act as a switch in mediating transcriptional activation or inactivation of the Notch signaling pathway downstream genes in the nucleus. It shows that CSL-dependent signaling regulates the cell apoptosis through Hes-1-PTEN-AKT-mTOR signaling, but rather the CSL-independent signaling mediates the cell apoptosis possibly via NIC-mTORC2-AKT-mTOR signaling, providing a new insight into apoptotic mechanisms.

  6. Rapidly exploring structural and dynamic properties of signaling networks using PathwayOracle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Prahlad T

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In systems biology the experimentalist is presented with a selection of software for analyzing dynamic properties of signaling networks. These tools either assume that the network is in steady-state or require highly parameterized models of the network of interest. For biologists interested in assessing how signal propagates through a network under specific conditions, the first class of methods does not provide sufficiently detailed results and the second class requires models which may not be easily and accurately constructed. A tool that is able to characterize the dynamics of a signaling network using an unparameterized model of the network would allow biologists to quickly obtain insights into a signaling network's behavior. Results We introduce PathwayOracle, an integrated suite of software tools for computationally inferring and analyzing structural and dynamic properties of a signaling network. The feature which differentiates PathwayOracle from other tools is a method that can predict the response of a signaling network to various experimental conditions and stimuli using only the connectivity of the signaling network. Thus signaling models are relatively easy to build. The method allows for tracking signal flow in a network and comparison of signal flows under different experimental conditions. In addition, PathwayOracle includes tools for the enumeration and visualization of coherent and incoherent signaling paths between proteins, and for experimental analysis – loading and superimposing experimental data, such as microarray intensities, on the network model. Conclusion PathwayOracle provides an integrated environment in which both structural and dynamic analysis of a signaling network can be quickly conducted and visualized along side experimental results. By using the signaling network connectivity, analyses and predictions can be performed quickly using relatively easily constructed signaling network models

  7. Homeobox protein MSX-1 inhibits expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2, bone morphogenetic protein 4, and lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 via Wnt/β-catenin signaling to prevent differentiation of dental mesenchymal cells during the late bell stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiao-Yu; Wu, Xiao-Shan; Wang, Jin-Song; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Wang, Song-Lin

    2018-02-01

    Homeobox protein MSX-1 (hereafter referred to as MSX-1) is essential for early tooth-germ development. Tooth-germ development is arrested at bud stage in Msx1 knockout mice, which prompted us to study the functions of MSX-1 beyond this stage. Here, we investigated the roles of MSX-1 during late bell stage. Mesenchymal cells of the mandibular first molar were isolated from mice at embryonic day (E)17.5 and cultured in vitro. We determined the expression levels of β-catenin, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Bmp2), Bmp4, and lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (Lef1) after knockdown or overexpression of Msx1. Our findings suggest that knockdown of Msx1 promoted expression of Bmp2, Bmp4, and Lef1, resulting in elevated differentiation of odontoblasts, which was rescued by blocking the expression of these genes. In contrast, overexpression of Msx1 decreased the expression of Bmp2, Bmp4, and Lef1, leading to a reduction in odontoblast differentiation. The regulation of Bmp2, Bmp4, and Lef1 by Msx1 was mediated by the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Additionally, knockdown of Msx1 impaired cell proliferation and slowed S-phase progression, while overexpression of Msx1 also impaired cell proliferation and prolonged G1-phase progression. We therefore conclude that MSX-1 maintains cell proliferation by regulating transition of cells from G1-phase to S-phase and prevents odontoblast differentiation by inhibiting expression of Bmp2, Bmp4, and Lef1 at the late bell stage via the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. © 2017 Eur J Oral Sci.

  8. Activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway mediates bone morphogenetic protein 2-induced invasion of pancreatic cancer cells Panc-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiong; Liao, Jie; Lu, YeBin; Duan, XiaoHui; Sun, WeiJia

    2011-06-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) signaling has an emerging role in pancreatic cancer. However, because of the multiple effects of different BMPs, no final conclusions have been made as to the role of BMPs in pancreatic cancer. In our studies, we have focused on bone morphogenetic protein 2(BMP-2) because it induces an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and accelerates invasion in the human pancreatic cancer cell line Panc-1. It has been reported that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway mediates invasion of gastric and colon cancer cells, which is unrevealed in pancreatic cancer cells. The objective of our study was to investigate whether BMP-2 mediated invasion might pass through the PI3K/Akt pathway. Our results show that expression of phosphorylation of Akt was increased by treatment with BMP-2, but not Noggin, a BMP-2 antagonist. Then pretreatment of Panc-1 cells with LY294002, an inhibitor of the PI3K/AKT pathway, significantly inhibited BMP-2-induced EMT and invasiveness. The data suggest that BMP-2 accelerates invasion of panc-1 cells via the PI3K/AKT pathway in panc-1 cells, which gives clues to searching new therapy targets in advanced pancreatic cancer.

  9. Sex and hedgehog: roles of genes in the hedgehog signaling pathway in mammalian sexual differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Heather L; Yao, Humphrey H-C

    2012-01-01

    The chromosome status of the mammalian embryo initiates a multistage process of sexual development in which the bipotential reproductive system establishes itself as either male or female. These events are governed by intricate cell-cell and interorgan communication that is regulated by multiple signaling pathways. The hedgehog signaling pathway was originally identified for its key role in the development of Drosophila, but is now recognized as a critical developmental regulator in many species, including humans. In addition to its developmental roles, the hedgehog signaling pathway also modulates adult organ function, and misregulation of this pathway often leads to diseases, such as cancer. The hedgehog signaling pathway acts through its morphogenetic ligands that signal from ligand-producing cells to target cells over a specified distance. The target cells then respond in a graded manner based on the concentration of the ligands that they are exposed to. Through this unique mechanism of action, the hedgehog signaling pathway elicits cell fate determination, epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, and cellular homeostasis. Here, we review current findings on the roles of hedgehog signaling in the sexually dimorphic development of the reproductive organs with an emphasis on mammals and comparative evidence in other species.

  10. A comparative study of the molecular evolution of signalling pathway ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-08-05

    Aug 5, 2013 ... formed using DnaSP ver. 5 (Librado and Rozas 2009) from ... a context of global divergence within each phylum we exam- ined genomewide ... suggests that the overall conserved sensory signalling cas- cade members are ...

  11. Requirement of Xmsx-1 in the BMP-triggered ventralization of Xenopus embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, T S; Takagi, C; Ueno, N

    2000-03-01

    Signaling triggered by polypeptide growth factors leads to the activation of their target genes. Several homeobox genes are known to be induced in response to polypeptide growth factors in early Xenopus development. In particular, Xmsx-1, an amphibian homologue of vertebrate Msx-1, is well characterized as a target gene of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). Here, using a dominant-negative form of Xmsx-1 (VP-Xmsx-1), which is a fusion protein made with the virus-derived VP16 activation domain, we have examined whether Xmsx-1 activity is required in the endogenous ventralizing pathway. VP-Xmsx-1 induced a secondary body axis, complete with muscle and neural tissues, when overexpressed in ventral blastomeres, suggesting that Xmsx-1 activity is necessary for both mesoderm and ectoderm to be ventralized. We have also examined the epistatic relationship between Xmsx-1 and another ventralizing homeobox protein, Xvent-1, and show that Xmsx-1 is likely to be acting upstream of Xvent-1. We propose that Xmsx-1 is required in the BMP-stimulated ventralization pathway that involves the downstream activation of Xvent-1.

  12. Correlated cone noise decreases rod signal contributions to the post-receptoral pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathibelagal, Amithavikram R; Feigl, Beatrix; Zele, Andrew J

    2018-04-01

    This study investigated how invisible extrinsic temporal white noise that correlates with the activity of one of the three [magnocellular (MC), parvocellular (PC), or koniocellular (KC)] post-receptoral pathways alters mesopic rod signaling. A four-primary photostimulator provided independent control of the rod and three cone photoreceptor excitations. The rod contributions to the three post-receptoral pathways were estimated by perceptually matching a 20% contrast rod pulse by independently varying the LMS (MC pathway), +L-M (PC pathway), and S-cone (KC pathway) excitations. We show that extrinsic cone noise caused a predominant decrease in the overall magnitude and ratio of the rod contributions to each pathway. Thus, the relative cone activity in the post-receptoral pathways determines the relative mesopic rod inputs to each pathway.

  13. The ABA-INSENSITIVE-4 (ABI4) transcription factor links redox, hormone and sugar signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Christine H; Kerchev, Pavel I; Hancock, Robert D

    2012-02-01

    The cellular reduction-oxidation (redox) hub processes information from metabolism and the environment and so regulates plant growth and defense through integration with the hormone signaling network. One key pathway of redox control involves interactions with ABSCISIC ACID (ABA). Accumulating evidence suggests that the ABA-INSENSITIVE-4 (ABI4) transcription factor plays a key role in transmitting information concerning the abundance of ascorbate and hence the ability of cells to buffer oxidative challenges. ABI4 is required for the ascorbate-dependent control of growth, a process that involves enhancement of salicylic acid (SA) signaling and inhibition of jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathways. Low redox buffering capacity reinforces SA- JA- interactions through the mediation of ABA and ABI4 to fine-tune plant growth and defense in relation to metabolic cues and environmental challenges. Moreover, ABI4-mediated pathways of sugar sensitivity are also responsive to the abundance of ascorbate, providing evidence of overlap between redox and sugar signaling pathways.

  14. Characterization of Heregulin-Stimulated Signal Transduction Pathways to the Nucleus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Kristin

    2000-01-01

    ... 40% of breast cancers and correlates with a poor prognosis for women with breast cancer. Mapping the molecular determinants of the heregulin/ErbB2 signaling pathway will be important in determining viable cellular targets for therapeutic intervention...

  15. Investigation of radiation-induced multilayered signalling response of the inflammatory pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babini, G.; Ugolini, M.; Morini, J.; Baiocco, G.; Ottolenghi, A.; Mariotti, L.; Tabarelli de Fatis, P.; Liotta, M.

    2015-01-01

    Ionising radiation exposure of cells might induce the perturbation of cell functions and, in particular, the activation or inhibition of several important pathways. This perturbation can cause the deregulation of both intra- and extra-cellular signalling cascades (such as the inflammatory pathway) and alter not only the behaviour of directly exposed cells but also the neighbouring nonirradiated ones, through the so-called bystander effect. The aim of the present work was to investigate the complex nonlinear interactions between the inflammatory pathway and other strictly interlaced signalling pathways, such as Erk1/2 and Akt/PKB, focusing on the radiation-induced perturbation of such pathways in the dose range of 0 -2 Gy. The results show how radiation affects these interconnected pathways and how confounding factors, such as the change of culture medium, can hide radiation-induced perturbations. (authors)

  16. Molecular pathway profiling of T lymphocyte signal transduction pathways; Th1 and Th2 genomic fingerprints are defined by TCR and CD28-mediated signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Ruben L.; Fleuren, Wilco W. M.; He, Xuehui; Vink, Paul M.; Wijnands, Frank; Gorecka, Monika; Klop, Henri; Bauerschmidt, Sussane; Garritsen, Anja; Koenen, Hans J. P. M.; Joosten, Irma; Boots, Annemieke M. H.; Alkema, Wynand

    2012-01-01

    Background: T lymphocytes are orchestrators of adaptive immunity. Naive T cells may differentiate into Th1, Th2, Th17 or iTreg phenotypes, depending on environmental co-stimulatory signals. To identify genes and pathways involved in differentiation of Jurkat T cells towards Th1 and Th2 subtypes we

  17. Molecular pathway profiling of T lymphocyte signal transduction pathways; Th1 and Th2 genomic fingerprints are defined by TCR and CD28-mediated signaling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, R.L.; Fleuren, W.W.M.; He, X.; Vink, P.M.; Wijnands, F.; Gorecka, M.; Klop, H.; Bauerschmidt, S.; Garritsen, A.; Koenen, H.J.P.M.; Joosten, I.; Boots, A.M.H.; Alkema, W.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: T lymphocytes are orchestrators of adaptive immunity. Naive T cells may differentiate into Th1, Th2, Th17 or iTreg phenotypes, depending on environmental co-stimulatory signals. To identify genes and pathways involved in differentiation of Jurkat T cells towards Th1 and Th2 subtypes we

  18. The Drosophila rolled locus encodes a MAP kinase required in the sevenless signal transduction pathway.

    OpenAIRE

    Biggs, W H; Zavitz, K H; Dickson, B; van der Straten, A; Brunner, D; Hafen, E; Zipursky, S L

    1994-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases have been proposed to play a critical role in receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-mediated signal transduction pathways. Although genetic and biochemical studies of RTK pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster and mammals have revealed remarkable similarities, a genetic requirement for MAP kinases in RTK signaling has not been established. During retinal development in Drosophila, the sevenless (Sev) RTK is required for development of the ...

  19. Inferring the functional effect of gene expression changes in signaling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastián-León, Patricia; Carbonell, José; Salavert, Francisco; Sanchez, Rubén; Medina, Ignacio; Dopazo, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    Signaling pathways constitute a valuable source of information that allows interpreting the way in which alterations in gene activities affect to particular cell functionalities. There are web tools available that allow viewing and editing pathways, as well as representing experimental data on them. However, few methods aimed to identify the signaling circuits, within a pathway, associated to the biological problem studied exist and none of them provide a convenient graphical web interface. We present PATHiWAYS, a web-based signaling pathway visualization system that infers changes in signaling that affect cell functionality from the measurements of gene expression values in typical expression microarray case–control experiments. A simple probabilistic model of the pathway is used to estimate the probabilities for signal transmission from any receptor to any final effector molecule (taking into account the pathway topology) using for this the individual probabilities of gene product presence/absence inferred from gene expression values. Significant changes in these probabilities allow linking different cell functionalities triggered by the pathway to the biological problem studied. PATHiWAYS is available at: http://pathiways.babelomics.org/. PMID:23748960

  20. A SNARE-protein has opposing functions in penetration resistance and defence signalling pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ziguo; Feechan, Angela; Pedersen, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    Penetration resistance is often the first line of defence against fungal pathogens. Subsequently induced defences are mediated by the programmed cell death (PCD) reaction pathway and the salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) signalling pathways. We previously demonstrated...

  1. A splice donor mutation in NAA10 results in the dysregulation of the retinoic acid signaling pathway and causes Lenz microphthalmia syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmailpour, Taraneh; Riazifar, Hamidreza; Liu, Linan; Donkervoort, Sandra; Huang, Vincent H; Madaan, Shreshtha; Shoucri, Bassem M; Busch, Anke; Wu, Jie; Towbin, Alexander; Chadwick, Robert B; Sequeira, Adolfo; Vawter, Marquis P; Sun, Guoli; Johnston, Jennifer J; Biesecker, Leslie G; Kawaguchi, Riki; Sun, Hui; Kimonis, Virginia; Huang, Taosheng

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Lenz microphthalmia syndrome (LMS) is a genetically heterogeneous X-linked disorder characterised by microphthalmia/anophthalmia, skeletal abnormalities, genitourinary malformations, and anomalies of the digits, ears, and teeth. Intellectual disability and seizure disorders are seen in about 60% of affected males. To date, no gene has been identified for LMS in the microphthalmia syndrome 1 locus (MCOPS1). In this study, we aim to find the disease-causing gene for this condition. Methods and results Using exome sequencing in a family with three affected brothers, we identified a mutation in the intron 7 splice donor site (c.471+2T→A) of the N-acetyltransferase NAA10 gene. NAA10 has been previously shown to be mutated in patients with Ogden syndrome, which is clinically distinct from LMS. Linkage studies for this family mapped the disease locus to Xq27-Xq28, which was consistent with the locus of NAA10. The mutation co-segregated with the phenotype and cDNA analysis showed aberrant transcripts. Patient fibroblasts lacked expression of full length NAA10 protein and displayed cell proliferation defects. Expression array studies showed significant dysregulation of genes associated with genetic forms of anophthalmia such as BMP4, STRA6, and downstream targets of BCOR and the canonical WNT pathway. In particular, STRA6 is a retinol binding protein receptor that mediates cellular uptake of retinol/vitamin A and plays a major role in regulating the retinoic acid signalling pathway. A retinol uptake assay showed that retinol uptake was decreased in patient cells. Conclusions We conclude that the NAA10 mutation is the cause of LMS in this family, likely through the dysregulation of the retinoic acid signalling pathway. PMID:24431331

  2. Evolution and Design Governing Signal Precision and Amplification in a Bacterial Chemosensory Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Guzzo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the principles underlying the plasticity of signal transduction networks is fundamental to decipher the functioning of living cells. In Myxococcus xanthus, a particular chemosensory system (Frz coordinates the activity of two separate motility systems (the A- and S-motility systems, promoting multicellular development. This unusual structure asks how signal is transduced in a branched signal transduction pathway. Using combined evolution-guided and single cell approaches, we successfully uncoupled the regulations and showed that the A-motility regulation system branched-off an existing signaling system that initially only controlled S-motility. Pathway branching emerged in part following a gene duplication event and changes in the circuit structure increasing the signaling efficiency. In the evolved pathway, the Frz histidine kinase generates a steep biphasic response to increasing external stimulations, which is essential for signal partitioning to the motility systems. We further show that this behavior results from the action of two accessory response regulator proteins that act independently to filter and amplify signals from the upstream kinase. Thus, signal amplification loops may underlie the emergence of new connectivity in signal transduction pathways.

  3. Dietary influence on MAPK-signaling pathways and risk of colon and rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Martha L; Lundgreen, Abbie; Wolff, Roger K

    2013-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways regulate cellular functions including cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis. Associations between genes in the DUSP, ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 MAPK-signaling pathways and dietary factors associated with growth factors, inflammation, and oxidative stress and risk of colon and rectal cancer were evaluated. Data include colon cases (n = 1555) and controls (n = 1956) and rectal cases (n = 754) and controls (n = 959). Statistically significant interactions were observed for the MAPK-signaling pathways after adjustment for multiple comparisons. DUSP genes interacted with carbohydrates, mutagen index, calories, calcium, vitamin D, lycopene, dietary fats, folic acid, and selenium. MAPK1, MAPK3, MAPK1, and RAF1 within the ERK1/2 MAPK-signaling pathway interacted with dietary fats and cruciferous vegetables. Within the JNK MAPK-signaling pathway, interactions between MAP3K7 and protein, vitamin C, iron, folic acid, carbohydrates, and cruciferous vegetables; MAP3K10 and folic acid; MAP3K9 and lutein/zeaxanthin; MAPK8 and calcium; MAP3K3 and calcium and lutein; MAP3K1 and cruciferous vegetables. Interaction within the p38-signaling pathway included MAPK14 with calories, carbohydrates saturated fat, selenium, vitamin C; MAP3K2 and carbohydrates, and folic acid. These data suggest that dietary factors involved in inflammation and oxidative stress interact with MAPK-signaling genes to alter risk of colorectal cancer.

  4. Regulation of PCP by the Fat signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matis, Maja; Axelrod, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) in epithelia, orthogonal to the apical–basal axis, is essential for numerous developmental events and physiological functions. Drosophila model systems have been at the forefront of studies revealing insights into mechanisms regulating PCP and have revealed distinct signaling modules. One of these, involving the atypical cadherins Fat and Dachsous and the ectokinase Four-jointed, appears to link the direction of cell polarization to the tissue axes. We discuss models for the function of this signaling module as well as several unanswered questions that may guide future investigations. PMID:24142873

  5. [The function of transcription factor P63 and its signaling pathway during limb development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei; Tian, Wen

    2014-08-01

    The development of human limb is controlled by several transcription factors and signaling pathways, which are organized in precise time- and space-restricted manners. Recent studies showed that P63 and its signaling pathway play important roles in this process. Transcription factor P63, one member of the P53 family, is characterized by a similar amino acid domain, plays a crucial role in the development of limb and ectoderm differentiation, especially with its DNA binding domain, and sterile alpha motif domains. Mutated P63 gene may produce abnormal transcription factor P63 which can affect the signaling pathway. Furthermore, defective signaling protein in structure and/or quantity is synthesized though the pathway. Eventually, members of the signaling protein family are involved in the regulation of differentiation and development of stem cell, which causes deformity of limbs. In brief, three signaling pathways are related to the digit formation along three axes, including SHH-ZPA, FGFs-AER and Lmx1B-Wnt7a-En1. Each contains numerous signaling molecules which are integrated in self-regulatory modules that assure the acquisition or the correct digit complements. These finding has brought new clues for deciphering the etiology of congenital limb malformation and may provide alternatives for both prevention and treatment.

  6. Intercellular signaling pathways active during intervertebral disc growth, differentiation, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahia, Chitra Lekha; Mahoney, Eric J; Durrani, Atiq A; Wylie, Christopher

    2009-03-01

    Intervertebral discs at different postnatal ages were assessed for active intercellular signaling pathways. To generate a spatial and temporal map of the signaling pathways active in the postnatal intervertebral disc (IVD). The postnatal IVD is a complex structure, consisting of 3 histologically distinct components, the nucleus pulposus, fibrous anulus fibrosus, and endplate. These differentiate and grow during the first 9 weeks of age in the mouse. Identification of the major signaling pathways active during and after the growth and differentiation period will allow functional analysis using mouse genetics and identify targets for therapy for individual components of the disc. Antibodies specific for individual cell signaling pathways were used on cryostat sections of IVD at different postnatal ages to identify which components of the IVD were responding to major classes of intercellular signal, including sonic hedgehog, Wnt, TGFbeta, FGF, and BMPs. We present a spatial/temporal map of these signaling pathways during growth, differentiation, and aging of the disc. During growth and differentiation of the disc, its different components respond at different times to different intercellular signaling ligands. Most of these are dramatically downregulated at the end of disc growth.

  7. Interactions between BMP-7 and USAG-1 (uterine sensitization-associated gene-1 regulate supernumerary organ formations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honoka Kiso

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs are highly conserved signaling molecules that are part of the transforming growth factor (TGF-beta superfamily, and function in the patterning and morphogenesis of many organs including development of the dentition. The functions of the BMPs are controlled by certain classes of molecules that are recognized as BMP antagonists that inhibit BMP binding to their cognate receptors. In this study we tested the hypothesis that USAG-1 (uterine sensitization-associated gene-1 suppresses deciduous incisors by inhibition of BMP-7 function. We learned that USAG-1 and BMP-7 were expressed within odontogenic epithelium as well as mesenchyme during the late bud and early cap stages of tooth development. USAG-1 is a BMP antagonist, and also modulates Wnt signaling. USAG-1 abrogation rescued apoptotic elimination of odontogenic mesenchymal cells. BMP signaling in the rudimentary maxillary incisor, assessed by expressions of Msx1 and Dlx2 and the phosphorylation of Smad protein, was significantly enhanced. Using explant culture and subsequent subrenal capsule transplantation of E15 USAG-1 mutant maxillary incisor tooth primordia supplemented with BMP-7 demonstrated in USAG-1+/- as well as USAG-1-/- rescue and supernumerary tooth development. Based upon these results, we conclude that USAG-1 functions as an antagonist of BMP-7 in this model system. These results further suggest that the phenotypes of USAG-1 and BMP-7 mutant mice reported provide opportunities for regenerative medicine and dentistry.

  8. Signaling pathways and stem cells in uterus and fallopian tubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Wang (Yongqian)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractDuring her fertile years, the endometrium of fertile women undergoes regular cycles of regeneration, differentiation and shedding, driven by changing concentrations of the steroid hormones estradiol and progesterone. In the present study, the role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in relation

  9. Signaling pathways regulated by Brassicaceae extract inhibit the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The goal of this study was identification signaling molecules mediated the formation of AGEs in brain of rats injected with CdCl2 and the role of camel whey proteins and Brassicaceae extract on formation of AGEs in brain. Methods: Ninety male rats were randomly grouped into five groups; Normal control (GpI) ...

  10. cGMP signalling : different ways to create a pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, Jeroen; Smith, Janet L.; Haastert, Peter J.M. van

    Recently, a novel cGMP signalling cascade was uncovered in Dictyostelium, a eukaryote that diverged from the lineage leading to metazoa after plants and before yeast. In both Dictyostelium and metazoa, the ancient cAMP-binding (cNB) motif of bacterial CAP has been modified and assembled with other

  11. Responses of the insulin signaling pathways in the brown adipose tissue of rats following cold exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Wahl, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The insulin signaling pathway is critical for the control of blood glucose levels. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has also been implicated as important in glucose homeostasis. The effect of short-term cold exposure on this pathway in BAT has not been explored. We evaluated the effect of 4 hours of cold exposure on the insulin pathway in the BAT of rats. Whole genomic microarray chips were used to examine the transcripts of the pathway in BAT of rats exposed to 4°C and 22°C for 4 hours. The 4 most significantly altered pathways following 4 hours of cold exposure were the insulin signaling pathway, protein kinase A, PI3K/AKT and ERK/MAPK signaling. The insulin signaling pathway was the most affected. In the documented 142 genes of the insulin pathway, 42 transcripts (29.6%) responded significantly to this cold exposure with the least false discovery rate (Benjamini-Hochberg Multiple Testing: -log10 (p-value)  = 7.18). Twenty-seven genes (64%) were up-regulated, including the insulin receptor (Insr), insulin substrates 1 and 2 (Irs1 and Irs2). Fifteen transcripts (36%) were down-regulated. Multiple transcripts of the primary target and secondary effector targets for the insulin signaling were also up-regulated, including those for carbohydrate metabolism. Using western blotting, we demonstrated that the cold induced higher Irs2, Irs1, and Akt-p protein levels in the BAT than in the BAT of controls maintained at room temperature, and higher Akt-p protein level in the muscle. this study demonstrated that 4 hours of cold exposure stimulated the insulin signaling pathway in the BAT and muscle of overnight fasted rats. This raises the possibility that acute cold stimulation may have potential to improve glucose clearance and insulin sensitivity.

  12. Calcium Supplement Derived from Gallus gallus domesticus Promotes BMP-2/RUNX2/SMAD5 and Suppresses TRAP/RANK Expression through MAPK Signaling Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Seok Yoo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the effects of a calcium (Ca supplement derived from Gallus gallus domesticus (GD on breaking force, microarchitecture, osteogenic differentiation and osteoclast differentiation factor expression in vivo in Ca-deficient ovariectomized (OVX rats. One percent of Ca supplement significantly improved Ca content and bone strength of the tibia. In micro-computed tomography analysis, 1% Ca supplement attenuated OVX- and low Ca-associated changes in bone mineral density, trabecular thickness, spacing and number. Moreover, 1% Ca-supplemented diet increased the expression of osteoblast differentiation marker genes, such as bone morphogenetic protein-2, Wnt3a, small mothers against decapentaplegic 1/5/8, runt-related transcription factor 2, osteocalcin and collagenase-1, while it decreased the expression of osteoclast differentiation genes, such as thrombospondin-related anonymous protein, cathepsin K and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B. Furthermore, 1% Ca-supplemented diet increased the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. The increased expression of osteoblast differentiation marker genes and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling were associated with significant increases in trabecular bone volume, which plays an important role in the overall skeletal strength. Our results demonstrated that 1% Ca supplement inhibited osteoclastogenesis, stimulated osteoblastogenesis and restored bone loss in OVX rats.

  13. Curcumin and emodin down-regulate TGF-β signaling pathway in human cervical cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Chandrakant Thacker

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the major cause of cancer related deaths in women, especially in developing countries and Human Papilloma Virus infection in conjunction with multiple deregulated signaling pathways leads to cervical carcinogenesis. TGF-β signaling in later stages of cancer is known to induce epithelial to mesenchymal transition promoting tumor growth. Phytochemicals, curcumin and emodin, are effective as chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic compounds against several cancers including cervical cancer. The main objective of this work was to study the effect of curcumin and emodin on TGF-β signaling pathway and its functional relevance to growth, migration and invasion in two cervical cancer cell lines, SiHa and HeLa. Since TGF-β and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways are known to cross talk having common downstream targets, we analyzed the effect of TGF-β on β-catenin (an important player in Wnt/β-catenin signaling and also studied whether curcumin and emodin modulate them. We observed that curcumin and emodin effectively down regulate TGF-β signaling pathway by decreasing the expression of TGF-β Receptor II, P-Smad3 and Smad4, and also counterbalance the tumorigenic effects of TGF-β by inhibiting the TGF-β-induced migration and invasion. Expression of downstream effectors of TGF-β signaling pathway, cyclinD1, p21 and Pin1, was inhibited along with the down regulation of key mesenchymal markers (Snail and Slug upon curcumin and emodin treatment. Curcumin and emodin were also found to synergistically inhibit cell population and migration in SiHa and HeLa cells. Moreover, we found that TGF-β activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in HeLa cells, and curcumin and emodin down regulate the pathway by inhibiting β-catenin. Taken together our data provide a mechanistic basis for the use of curcumin and emodin in the treatment of cervical cancer.

  14. RGM regulates BMP-mediated secondary axis formation in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclère, Lucas; Rentzsch, Fabian

    2014-12-11

    Patterning of the metazoan dorsoventral axis is mediated by a complex interplay of BMP signaling regulators. Repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) is a conserved BMP coreceptor that has not been implicated in axis specification. We show that NvRGM is a key positive regulator of BMP signaling during secondary axis establishment in the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis. NvRGM regulates first the generation and later the shape of a BMP-dependent Smad1/5/8 gradient with peak activity on the side opposite the NvBMP/NvRGM/NvChordin expression domain. Full knockdown of Smad1/5/8 signaling blocks the formation of endodermal structures, the mesenteries, and the establishment of bilateral symmetry, while altering the gradient through partial NvRGM or NvBMP knockdown shifts the boundaries of asymmetric gene expression and the positioning of the mesenteries along the secondary axis. These findings provide insight into the diversification of axis specification mechanisms and identify a previously unrecognized role for RGM in BMP-mediated axial patterning. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Interactions between Bmp-4 and Msx-1 act to restrict gene expression to odontogenic mesenchyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, A S; Al Khamis, A; Sharpe, P T

    1998-08-01

    Tooth development is regulated by a reciprocal series of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Bmp4 has been identified as a candidate signalling molecule in these interactions, initially as an epithelial signal and then later at the bud stage as a mesenchymal signal (Vainio et al. [1993] Cell 75:45-58). A target gene for Bmp4 signalling is the homeobox gene Msx-1, identified by the ability of recombinant Bmp4 protein to induce expression in mesenchyme. There is, however, no evidence that Bmp4 is the endogenous inducer of Msx-1 expression. Msx-1 and Bmp-4 show dynamic, interactive patterns of expression in oral epithelium and ectomesenchyme during the early stages of tooth development. In this study, we compare the temporal and spatial expression of these two genes to determine whether the changing expression patterns of these genes are consistent with interactions between the two molecules. We show that changes in Bmp-4 expression precede changes in Msx-1 expression. At embryonic day (E)10.5-E11.0, expression patterns are consistent with BMP4 from the epithelium, inducing or maintaining Msx-1 in underlying mesenchyme. At E11.5, Bmp-4 expression shifts from epithelium to mesenchyme and is rapidly followed by localised up-regulation of Msx-1 expression at the sites of Bmp-4 expression. Using cultured explants of developing mandibles, we confirm that exogenous BMP4 is capable of replacing the endogenous source in epithelium and inducing Msx-1 gene expression in mesenchyme. By using noggin, a BMP inhibitor, we show that endogenous Msx-1 expression can be inhibited at E10.5 and E11.5, providing the first evidence that endogenous Bmp-4 from the epithelium is responsible for regulating the early spatial expression of Msx-1. We also show that the mesenchymal shift in Bmp-4 is responsible for up-regulating Msx-1 specifically at the sites of future tooth formation. Thus, we establish that a reciprocal series of interactions act to restrict expression of both genes to future

  16. Pan-cancer analysis of TCGA data reveals notable signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neapolitan, Richard; Horvath, Curt M.; Jiang, Xia

    2015-01-01

    A signal transduction pathway (STP) is a network of intercellular information flow initiated when extracellular signaling molecules bind to cell-surface receptors. Many aberrant STPs have been associated with various cancers. To develop optimal treatments for cancer patients, it is important to discover which STPs are implicated in a cancer or cancer-subtype. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) makes available gene expression level data on cases and controls in ten different types of cancer including breast cancer, colon adenocarcinoma, glioblastoma, kidney renal papillary cell carcinoma, low grade glioma, lung adenocarcinoma, lung squamous cell carcinoma, ovarian carcinoma, rectum adenocarcinoma, and uterine corpus endometriod carcinoma. Signaling Pathway Impact Analysis (SPIA) is a software package that analyzes gene expression data to identify whether a pathway is relevant in a given condition. We present the results of a study that uses SPIA to investigate all 157 signaling pathways in the KEGG PATHWAY database. We analyzed each of the ten cancer types mentioned above separately, and we perform a pan-cancer analysis by grouping the data for all the cancer types. In each analysis several pathways were found to be markedly more significant than all the other pathways. We call them notable. Research has already established a connection between many of these pathways and the corresponding cancer type. However, some of our discovered pathways appear to be new findings. Altogether there were 37 notable findings in the separate analyses, 26 of them occurred in 7 pathways. These 7 pathways included the 4 notable pathways discovered in the pan-cancer analysis. So, our results suggest that these 7 pathways account for much of the mechanisms of cancer. Furthermore, by looking at the overlap among pathways, we identified possible regions on the pathways where the aberrant activity is occurring. We obtained 37 notable findings concerning 18 pathways. Some of them appear to be

  17. The cAMP Signaling and MAP Kinase Pathways in Plant Pathogenic Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehrabi, R.; Zhao, X.; Kim, Y.; Xu, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    The key components of the well conserved cyclic AMP signaling and MAP kinase pathways have been functionally characterized in the corn smut Ustilago maydis, rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea, and a few other fungal pathogens. In general, the cAMP signaling and the MAP kinase cascade homologous to

  18. Sensors and signal transduction pathways in vertebrate cell volume regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else K; Pedersen, Stine F

    2006-01-01

    The ability to control cell volume is fundamental for proper cell function. This review highlights recent advances in the understanding of the complex sequences of events by which acute cell volume perturbation alters the activity of osmolyte transport proteins in cells from vertebrate organisms...... will be discussed. In contrast to the simple pathway of osmosensing in yeast, cells from vertebrate organisms appear to exhibit multiple volume sensing systems, the specific mechanism(s) activated being cell type- and stimulus-dependent. Candidate sensors include integrins and growth factor receptors, while other...

  19. The Role of Notch Signaling Pathway in Breast Cancer Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    breast cancer cells, I tested whether ErbB2 overexpression will cooperate with Notch in HMLE cells. While overexpression of activated Notch1 failed to...tyrosine kinase upstream of Ras normally found overexpressed in many breast cancers , also failed to transform HMLE cells. These observations suggested...cooperation between Notch1IC and ErbB2 signaling in transforming HMLE cells. Breast cancers typically do not harbor oncogenic Ras mutations; nevertheless

  20. Non Linear Programming (NLP) formulation for quantitative modeling of protein signal transduction pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsos, Alexander; Melas, Ioannis N; Morris, Melody K; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G

    2012-01-01

    Modeling of signal transduction pathways plays a major role in understanding cells' function and predicting cellular response. Mathematical formalisms based on a logic formalism are relatively simple but can describe how signals propagate from one protein to the next and have led to the construction of models that simulate the cells response to environmental or other perturbations. Constrained fuzzy logic was recently introduced to train models to cell specific data to result in quantitative pathway models of the specific cellular behavior. There are two major issues in this pathway optimization: i) excessive CPU time requirements and ii) loosely constrained optimization problem due to lack of data with respect to large signaling pathways. Herein, we address both issues: the former by reformulating the pathway optimization as a regular nonlinear optimization problem; and the latter by enhanced algorithms to pre/post-process the signaling network to remove parts that cannot be identified given the experimental conditions. As a case study, we tackle the construction of cell type specific pathways in normal and transformed hepatocytes using medium and large-scale functional phosphoproteomic datasets. The proposed Non Linear Programming (NLP) formulation allows for fast optimization of signaling topologies by combining the versatile nature of logic modeling with state of the art optimization algorithms.

  1. Non Linear Programming (NLP formulation for quantitative modeling of protein signal transduction pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Mitsos

    Full Text Available Modeling of signal transduction pathways plays a major role in understanding cells' function and predicting cellular response. Mathematical formalisms based on a logic formalism are relatively simple but can describe how signals propagate from one protein to the next and have led to the construction of models that simulate the cells response to environmental or other perturbations. Constrained fuzzy logic was recently introduced to train models to cell specific data to result in quantitative pathway models of the specific cellular behavior. There are two major issues in this pathway optimization: i excessive CPU time requirements and ii loosely constrained optimization problem due to lack of data with respect to large signaling pathways. Herein, we address both issues: the former by reformulating the pathway optimization as a regular nonlinear optimization problem; and the latter by enhanced algorithms to pre/post-process the signaling network to remove parts that cannot be identified given the experimental conditions. As a case study, we tackle the construction of cell type specific pathways in normal and transformed hepatocytes using medium and large-scale functional phosphoproteomic datasets. The proposed Non Linear Programming (NLP formulation allows for fast optimization of signaling topologies by combining the versatile nature of logic modeling with state of the art optimization algorithms.

  2. Balancing act: matching growth with environment by the TOR signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Rossana; Bögre, László; Horváth, Beátrix; Magyar, Zoltán

    2014-06-01

    One of the most fundamental aspects of growth in plants is its plasticity in relation to fluctuating environmental conditions. Growth of meristematic cells relies predominantly on protein synthesis, one of the most energy-consuming activities in cells, and thus is tightly regulated in accordance with the available nutrient and energy supplies. The Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signalling pathway takes a central position in this regulation. The core of the TOR signalling pathway is conserved throughout evolution, and can be traced back to the last eukaryotic common ancestor. In plants, a single complex constitutes the TOR signalling pathway. Manipulating the components of the TOR complex in Arabidopsis highlighted its common role as a major regulator of protein synthesis and metabolism, that is also involved in other biological functions such as cell-wall integrity, regulation of cell proliferation, and cell size. TOR, as an integral part of the auxin signalling pathway, connects hormonal and nutrient pathways. Downstream of TOR, S6 kinase and the ribosomal S6 protein have been shown to mediate several of these responses, although there is evidence of other complex non-linear TOR signalling pathway structures. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. The Signaling Pathways Involved in Chondrocyte Differentiation and Hypertrophic Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmei Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chondrocytes communicate with each other mainly via diffusible signals rather than direct cell-to-cell contact. The chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs is well regulated by the interactions of varieties of growth factors, cytokines, and signaling molecules. A number of critical signaling molecules have been identified to regulate the differentiation of chondrocyte from mesenchymal progenitor cells to their terminal maturation of hypertrophic chondrocytes, including bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs, SRY-related high-mobility group-box gene 9 (Sox9, parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP, Indian hedgehog (Ihh, fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3, and β-catenin. Except for these molecules, other factors such as adenosine, O2 tension, and reactive oxygen species (ROS also have a vital role in cartilage formation and chondrocyte maturation. Here, we outlined the complex transcriptional network and the function of key factors in this network that determine and regulate the genetic program of chondrogenesis and chondrocyte differentiation.

  4. Multiple intracellular signaling pathways orchestrate adipocytic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayesh Hafez Ali, Dalia; Abuelreich, Sarah; Alkeraishan, Nora

    2018-01-01

    during adipocyte differentiation of human bone marrow stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSCs) and identified 2,589 up-regulated and 2,583 down-regulated mRNA transcripts. Pathway analysis on the up-regulated gene list untraveled enrichment in multiple signaling pathways including insulin receptor......Bone marrow adipocyte formation plays a role in bone homeostasis and whole body energy metabolism. However, the transcriptional landscape and signaling pathways associated with adipocyte lineage commitment and maturation are not fully delineated. Thus, we performed global gene expression profiling...... signaling, focal Adhesion, metapathway biotransformation, a number of metabolic pathways e.g. selenium metabolism, Benzo(a)pyrene metabolism, fatty acid, triacylglycerol, ketone body metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, and catalytic cycle of mammalian flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMOs). On the other hand...

  5. Construction of large signaling pathways using an adaptive perturbation approach with phosphoproteomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melas, Ioannis N; Mitsos, Alexander; Messinis, Dimitris E; Weiss, Thomas S; Rodriguez, Julio-Saez; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G

    2012-04-01

    Construction of large and cell-specific signaling pathways is essential to understand information processing under normal and pathological conditions. On this front, gene-based approaches offer the advantage of large pathway exploration whereas phosphoproteomic approaches offer a more reliable view of pathway activities but are applicable to small pathway sizes. In this paper, we demonstrate an experimentally adaptive approach to construct large signaling pathways from phosphoproteomic data within a 3-day time frame. Our approach--taking advantage of the fast turnaround time of the xMAP technology--is carried out in four steps: (i) screen optimal pathway inducers, (ii) select the responsive ones, (iii) combine them in a combinatorial fashion to construct a phosphoproteomic dataset, and (iv) optimize a reduced generic pathway via an Integer Linear Programming formulation. As a case study, we uncover novel players and their corresponding pathways in primary human hepatocytes by interrogating the signal transduction downstream of 81 receptors of interest and constructing a detailed model for the responsive part of the network comprising 177 species (of which 14 are measured) and 365 interactions.

  6. Developmental roles of the BMP1/TLD metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Gaoxiang; Greenspan, Daniel S

    2006-03-01

    -beta-like morphogens BMP2 and 4 and their invertebrate ortholog decapentaplegic, from latent complexes with the vertebrate extracellular antagonist chordin and its invertebrate ortholog short gastrulation (SOG), respectively. The result is formation of the BMP signaling gradients that form the dorsal-ventral axis in embryogenesis. Thus, BMP1/TLD-like proteinases appear to be key to regulating and orchestrating formation of the ECM and signaling by various TGF-beta-like proteins in morphogenetic and homeostatic events. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. The octadecanoid signalling pathway in plants mediates a response to ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conconi, A.; Smerdon, M.J.; Howe, G.A.; Ryan, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    Many plant genes that respond to environmental and developmental changes are regulated by jasmonic acid, which is derived from linolenic acid via the octadecanoid pathway. Linolenic acid is an important fatty-acid constituent of membranes in most plant species and its intracellular levels increase in response to certain signals. Here we report that irradiation of tomato leaves with ultraviolet light induces the expression of several plant defensive genes that are normally activated through the octadecanoid pathway after wounding. The response to ultraviolet light is blocked by an inhibitor of the octadecanoid pathway and it does not occur in a tomato mutant defective in this pathway. The ultraviolet irradiation maximally induces the defence genes at levels where cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer formation, an indicator of DNA damage, is less than 0.2 dimers per gene. Our evidence indicates that this plant defence response to certain wavelengths of ultraviolet radiation requires the activation of the octadecanoid defence signalling pathway. (author)

  8. UTP-induced ATP release is a fine-tuned signalling pathway in osteocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kringelbach, Tina M.; Aslan, Derya; Novak, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Osteocytes reside as a cellular network throughout the mineralised matrix of bone and are considered the primary mechanosensors of this tissue. They sense mechanical stimulation such as fluid flow and are able to regulate osteoblast and osteoclast functions on the bone surface. Previously, we fou...... signals may be propagated by P2 receptor activation and further ATP release in the osteocyte network and implicate purinergic signalling as a central signalling pathway in osteocyte mechanotransduction....

  9. Discovery and characterization of a potent Wnt and hedgehog signaling pathways dual inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Haikuo; Chen, Qin; Zhu, Fang; Zheng, Jiyue; Li, Jiajun; Zhang, Hongjian; Chen, Shuaishuai; Xing, Haimei; Luo, Lusong; Zheng, Long Tai; He, Sudan; Zhang, Xiaohu

    2018-04-10

    Embryonic stem cell pathways such as hedgehog and Wnt pathways are central to the tumorigenic properties of cancer stem cells (CSC). Since CSCs are characterized by their ability to self-renew, form differentiated progeny, and develop resistance to anticancer therapies, targeting the Wnt and hedgehog signaling pathways has been an important strategy for cancer treatment. Although molecules targeting either Wnt or hedgehog are common, to the best of our knowledge, those targeting both pathways have not been documented. Here we report a small molecule (compound 1) that inhibits both Wnt (IC 50  = 0.5 nM) and hedgehog (IC 50  = 71 nM) pathways based on reporter gene assays. We further identified that the molecular target of 1 for Wnt pathway inhibition was porcupine (a member of the membrane-bound O-acyltransferase family of proteins), a post-translational modification node in Wnt signaling; while the target of 1 mitigating hedgehog pathway was Smoothened, a key G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) mediating hedgehog signal transduction. Preliminary analysis of structure-activity-relationship identified key functional elements for hedgehog/Wnt inhibition. In in vivo studies, compound 1 demonstrated good oral exposure and bioavailability while eliciting no overt toxicity in mice. An important consideration in cancer treatment is the potential therapeutic escape through compensatory activation of an interconnected pathway when only one signaling pathway is inhibited. Toward this end, compound 1 may not only lead to the development of new therapeutics for Wnt and hedgehog related cancers, but may also help to develop potential cancer treatment which needs to target Wnt and hedgehog signaling simultaneously. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Encoding of temporal signals by the TGF-β pathway and implications for embryonic patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorre, Benoit; Warmflash, Aryeh; Brivanlou, Ali H.; Siggia, Eric D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Genetics and biochemistry have defined the components and wiring of the signaling pathways that pattern the embryo. Among them, the TGF-β pathway has the potential to behave as a morphogen: invitro experiments have clearly established that it can dictate cell fate in a concentration dependent manner. How morphogens convey positional information in a developing embryo, where signal levels are changing with time, is less understood. Using integrated microfluidic cell culture and time-lapse microscopy, we demonstrate here that the speed of ligand presentation has a key and previously unexpected influence on TGF-β signaling outcomes. The response to a TGF-β concentration step is transient and adaptive, slowly increasing the ligand concentration diminishes the response and well-spaced pulses of ligand combine additively resulting in greater pathway output than with constant stimulation. Our results suggest that in an embryonic context, the speed of change of ligand concentration is an instructive signal for patterning. PMID:25065773

  11. Gremlin-2 is a BMP antagonist that is regulated by the circadian clock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeung, Ching-Yan Chloé; Gossan, Nicole; Lu, Yinhui

    2014-01-01

    knowledge of tendon gene regulation is essential for a complete understanding of FCT biology. Here we show autonomous circadian rhythms in mouse tendon and primary human tenocytes, controlled by an intrinsic molecular circadian clock. Time-series microarrays identified the first circadian transcriptome...... of murine tendon, revealing that 4.6% of the transcripts (745 genes) are expressed in a circadian manner. One of these genes was Grem2, which oscillated in antiphase to BMP signaling. Moreover, recombinant human Gremlin-2 blocked BMP2-induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5 and osteogenic differentiation...... of human tenocytes in vitro. We observed dampened Grem2 expression, deregulated BMP signaling, and spontaneously calcifying tendons in young CLOCKΔ19 arrhythmic mice and aged wild-type mice. Thus, disruption of circadian control, through mutations or aging, of Grem2/BMP signaling becomes a new focus...

  12. Human Cytomegalovirus: Coordinating Cellular Stress, Signaling, and Metabolic Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Thomas; Alwine, James C

    2014-11-01

    Viruses face a multitude of challenges when they infect a host cell. Cells have evolved innate defenses to protect against pathogens, and an infecting virus may induce a stress response that antagonizes viral replication. Further, the metabolic, oxidative, and cell cycle state may not be conducive to the viral infection. But viruses are fabulous manipulators, inducing host cells to use their own characteristic mechanisms and pathways to provide what the virus needs. This article centers on the manipulation of host cell metabolism by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). We review the features of the metabolic program instituted by the virus, discuss the mechanisms underlying these dramatic metabolic changes, and consider how the altered program creates a synthetic milieu that favors efficient HCMV replication and spread.

  13. Hypoxia signaling pathways: modulators of oxygen-related organelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönenberger, Miriam J.; Kovacs, Werner J.

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen (O2) is an essential substrate in cellular metabolism, bioenergetics, and signaling and as such linked to the survival and normal function of all metazoans. Low O2 tension (hypoxia) is a fundamental feature of physiological processes as well as pathophysiological conditions such as cancer and ischemic diseases. Central to the molecular mechanisms underlying O2 homeostasis are the hypoxia-inducible factors-1 and -2 alpha (HIF-1α and EPAS1/HIF-2α) that function as master regulators of the adaptive response to hypoxia. HIF-induced genes promote characteristic tumor behaviors, including angiogenesis and metabolic reprogramming. The aim of this review is to critically explore current knowledge of how HIF-α signaling regulates the abundance and function of major O2-consuming organelles. Abundant evidence suggests key roles for HIF-1α in the regulation of mitochondrial homeostasis. An essential adaptation to sustained hypoxia is repression of mitochondrial respiration and induction of glycolysis. HIF-1α activates several genes that trigger mitophagy and represses regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis. Several lines of evidence point to a strong relationship between hypoxia, the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, and activation of the unfolded protein response. Surprisingly, although peroxisomes depend highly on molecular O2 for their function, there has been no evidence linking HIF signaling to peroxisomes. We discuss our recent findings that establish HIF-2α as a negative regulator of peroxisome abundance and suggest a mechanism by which cells attune peroxisomal function with O2 availability. HIF-2α activation augments peroxisome turnover by pexophagy and thereby changes lipid composition reminiscent of peroxisomal disorders. We discuss potential mechanisms by which HIF-2α might trigger pexophagy and place special emphasis on the potential pathological implications of HIF-2α-mediated pexophagy for human health. PMID:26258123

  14. Xtalk: a path-based approach for identifying crosstalk between signaling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegge, Allison N.; Sharp, Nicholas; Murali, T. M.

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Cells communicate with their environment via signal transduction pathways. On occasion, the activation of one pathway can produce an effect downstream of another pathway, a phenomenon known as crosstalk. Existing computational methods to discover such pathway pairs rely on simple overlap statistics. Results: We present Xtalk, a path-based approach for identifying pairs of pathways that may crosstalk. Xtalk computes the statistical significance of the average length of multiple short paths that connect receptors in one pathway to the transcription factors in another. By design, Xtalk reports the precise interactions and mechanisms that support the identified crosstalk. We applied Xtalk to signaling pathways in the KEGG and NCI-PID databases. We manually curated a gold standard set of 132 crosstalking pathway pairs and a set of 140 pairs that did not crosstalk, for which Xtalk achieved an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.65, a 12% improvement over the closest competing approach. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve varied with the pathway, suggesting that crosstalk should be evaluated on a pathway-by-pathway level. We also analyzed an extended set of 658 pathway pairs in KEGG and to a set of more than 7000 pathway pairs in NCI-PID. For the top-ranking pairs, we found substantial support in the literature (81% for KEGG and 78% for NCI-PID). We provide examples of networks computed by Xtalk that accurately recovered known mechanisms of crosstalk. Availability and implementation: The XTALK software is available at http://bioinformatics.cs.vt.edu/~murali/software. Crosstalk networks are available at http://graphspace.org/graphs?tags=2015-bioinformatics-xtalk. Contact: ategge@vt.edu, murali@cs.vt.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26400040

  15. Signaling pathways and immune evasion mechanisms in classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W Robert; Shipp, Margaret A

    2017-11-23

    Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) is an unusual B-cell-derived malignancy in which rare malignant Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells are surrounded by an extensive but ineffective inflammatory/immune cell infiltrate. This striking feature suggests that malignant HRS cells escape immunosurveillance and interact with immune cells in the cancer microenvironment for survival and growth. We previously found that cHLs have a genetic basis for immune evasion: near-uniform copy number alterations of chromosome 9p24.1 and the associated PD-1 ligand loci, CD274/PD-L1 and PDCD1LG2/PD-L2, and copy number-dependent increased expression of these ligands. HRS cells expressing PD-1 ligands are thought to engage PD-1 receptor-positive immune effectors in the tumor microenvironment and induce PD-1 signaling and associated immune evasion. The genetic bases of enhanced PD-1 signaling in cHL make these tumors uniquely sensitive to PD-1 blockade. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  16. Overexpression of BMP3 in the developing skeleton alters endochondral bone formation resulting in spontaneous rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamer, Laura W; Cox, Karen; Carlo, Joelle M; Rosen, Vicki

    2009-09-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein-3 (BMP) has been identified as a negative regulator in the skeleton as mice lacking BMP3 have increased bone mass. To further understand how BMP3 mediates bone formation, we created transgenic mice overexpressing BMP3 using the type I collagen promoter. BMP3 transgenic mice displayed spontaneous rib fractures that were first detected at E17.0. The fractures were due to defects in differentiation of the periosteum and late hypertrophic chondrocytes resulting in thinner cortical bone with decreased mineralization. As BMP3 modulates BMP and activin signaling through ActRIIB, we examined the ribs of ActRIIB receptor knockout mice and found they had defects in late chondrogenesis and mineralization similar to BMP3 transgenic mice. These data suggest that BMP3 exerts its effects in the skeleton by altering signaling through ActRIIB in chondrocytes and the periosteum, and this results in defects in bone collar formation and late hypertrophic chondrocyte maturation leading to decreased mineralization and less bone. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Signalling pathways involved in adult heart formation revealed by gene expression profiling in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Zeitouni

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila provides a powerful system for defining the complex genetic programs that drive organogenesis. Under control of the steroid hormone ecdysone, the adult heart in Drosophila forms during metamorphosis by a remodelling of the larval cardiac organ. Here, we evaluated the extent to which transcriptional signatures revealed by genomic approaches can provide new insights into the molecular pathways that underlie heart organogenesis. Whole-genome expression profiling at eight successive time-points covering adult heart formation revealed a highly dynamic temporal map of gene expression through 13 transcript clusters with distinct expression kinetics. A functional atlas of the transcriptome profile strikingly points to the genomic transcriptional response of the ecdysone cascade, and a sharp regulation of key components belonging to a few evolutionarily conserved signalling pathways. A reverse genetic analysis provided evidence that these specific signalling pathways are involved in discrete steps of adult heart formation. In particular, the Wnt signalling pathway is shown to participate in inflow tract and cardiomyocyte differentiation, while activation of the PDGF-VEGF pathway is required for cardiac valve formation. Thus, a detailed temporal map of gene expression can reveal signalling pathways responsible for specific developmental programs and provides here substantial grasp into heart formation.

  18. Modular and Stochastic Approaches to Molecular Pathway Models of ATM, TGF beta, and WNT Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; O'Neill, Peter; Ponomarev, Artem; Carra, Claudio; Whalen, Mary; Pluth, Janice M.

    2009-01-01

    Deterministic pathway models that describe the biochemical interactions of a group of related proteins, their complexes, activation through kinase, etc. are often the basis for many systems biology models. Low dose radiation effects present a unique set of challenges to these models including the importance of stochastic effects due to the nature of radiation tracks and small number of molecules activated, and the search for infrequent events that contribute to cancer risks. We have been studying models of the ATM, TGF -Smad and WNT signaling pathways with the goal of applying pathway models to the investigation of low dose radiation cancer risks. Modeling challenges include introduction of stochastic models of radiation tracks, their relationships to more than one substrate species that perturb pathways, and the identification of a representative set of enzymes that act on the dominant substrates. Because several pathways are activated concurrently by radiation the development of modular pathway approach is of interest.

  19. Are innate immune signaling pathways in plants and animals conserved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausubel, Frederick M

    2005-10-01

    Although adaptive immunity is unique to vertebrates, the innate immune response seems to have ancient origins. Common features of innate immunity in vertebrates, invertebrate animals and plants include defined receptors for microbe-associated molecules, conserved mitogen-associated protein kinase signaling cascades and the production of antimicrobial peptides. It is commonly reported that these similarities in innate immunity represent a process of divergent evolution from an ancient unicellular eukaryote that pre-dated the divergence of the plant and animal kingdoms. However, at present, data suggest that the seemingly analogous regulatory modules used in plant and animal innate immunity are a consequence of convergent evolution and reflect inherent constraints on how an innate immune system can be constructed.

  20. Insulin-like growth factor-1 suppresses the Myostatin signaling pathway during myogenic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retamales, A.; Zuloaga, R.; Valenzuela, C.A.; Gallardo-Escarate, C.; Molina, A.; Valdés, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Myogenic differentiation is a complex and well-coordinated process for generating mature skeletal muscle fibers. This event is autocrine/paracrine regulated by growth factors, principally Myostatin (MSTN) and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1). Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth in vertebrates that exerts its inhibitory function by activating Smad transcription factors. In contrast, IGF-1 promotes the differentiation of skeletal myoblasts by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. This study reports on a novel functional crosstalk between the IGF-1 and MSTN signaling pathways, as mediated through interaction between PI3K/Akt and Smad3. Stimulation of skeletal myoblasts with MSTN resulted in a transient increase in the pSmad3:Smad3 ratio and Smad-dependent transcription. Moreover, MSTN inhibited myod gene expression and myoblast fusion in an Activin receptor-like kinase/Smad3-dependent manner. Preincubation of skeletal myoblasts with IGF-1 blocked MSTN-induced Smad3 activation, promoting myod expression and myoblast differentiation. This inhibitory effect of IGF-1 on the MSTN signaling pathway was dependent on IGF-1 receptor, PI3K, and Akt activities. Finally, immunoprecipitation assay analysis determined that IGF-1 pretreatment increased Akt and Smad3 interaction. These results demonstrate that the IGF-1/PI3K/Akt pathway may inhibit MSTN signaling during myoblast differentiation, providing new insight to existing knowledge on the complex crosstalk between both growth factors. - Highlights: • IGF-1 inhibits Myostatin canonical signaling pathway through IGF-1R/PI3K/Akt pathway. • IGF-1 promotes myoblast differentiation through a direct blocking of Myostatin signaling pathway. • IGF-1 induces the interaction of Akt with Smad3 in skeletal myoblast

  1. Insulin-like growth factor-1 suppresses the Myostatin signaling pathway during myogenic differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retamales, A.; Zuloaga, R.; Valenzuela, C.A. [Laboratorio de Biotecnología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Andrés Bello, Santiago (Chile); Gallardo-Escarate, C. [Laboratory of Biotechnology and Aquatic Genomics, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción (Chile); Interdisciplinary Center for Aquaculture Research (INCAR), P.O. Box 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Molina, A. [Laboratorio de Biotecnología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Andrés Bello, Santiago (Chile); Interdisciplinary Center for Aquaculture Research (INCAR), P.O. Box 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Valdés, J.A., E-mail: jvaldes@unab.cl [Laboratorio de Biotecnología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Andrés Bello, Santiago (Chile); Interdisciplinary Center for Aquaculture Research (INCAR), P.O. Box 160-C, Concepción (Chile)

    2015-08-21

    Myogenic differentiation is a complex and well-coordinated process for generating mature skeletal muscle fibers. This event is autocrine/paracrine regulated by growth factors, principally Myostatin (MSTN) and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1). Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth in vertebrates that exerts its inhibitory function by activating Smad transcription factors. In contrast, IGF-1 promotes the differentiation of skeletal myoblasts by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. This study reports on a novel functional crosstalk between the IGF-1 and MSTN signaling pathways, as mediated through interaction between PI3K/Akt and Smad3. Stimulation of skeletal myoblasts with MSTN resulted in a transient increase in the pSmad3:Smad3 ratio and Smad-dependent transcription. Moreover, MSTN inhibited myod gene expression and myoblast fusion in an Activin receptor-like kinase/Smad3-dependent manner. Preincubation of skeletal myoblasts with IGF-1 blocked MSTN-induced Smad3 activation, promoting myod expression and myoblast differentiation. This inhibitory effect of IGF-1 on the MSTN signaling pathway was dependent on IGF-1 receptor, PI3K, and Akt activities. Finally, immunoprecipitation assay analysis determined that IGF-1 pretreatment increased Akt and Smad3 interaction. These results demonstrate that the IGF-1/PI3K/Akt pathway may inhibit MSTN signaling during myoblast differentiation, providing new insight to existing knowledge on the complex crosstalk between both growth factors. - Highlights: • IGF-1 inhibits Myostatin canonical signaling pathway through IGF-1R/PI3K/Akt pathway. • IGF-1 promotes myoblast differentiation through a direct blocking of Myostatin signaling pathway. • IGF-1 induces the interaction of Akt with Smad3 in skeletal myoblast.

  2. Necrotrophic pathogens use the salicylic acid signaling pathway to promote disease development in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Taha Abd El; Oirdi, Mohamed El; Gonzalez-Lamothe, Rocio; Bouarab, Kamal

    2012-12-01

    Plants use different immune pathways to combat pathogens. The activation of the jasmonic acid (JA)-signaling pathway is required for resistance against necrotrophic pathogens; however, to combat biotrophic pathogens, the plants activate mainly the salicylic acid (SA)-signaling pathway. SA can antagonize JA signaling and vice versa. NPR1 (noninducible pathogenesis-related 1) is considered a master regulator of SA signaling. NPR1 interacts with TGA transcription factors, ultimately leading to the activation of SA-dependent responses. SA has been shown to promote disease development caused by the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea through NPR1, by suppressing the expression of two JA-dependent defense genes, proteinase inhibitors I and II. We show here that the transcription factor TGA1.a contributes to disease development caused by B. cinerea in tomato by suppressing the expression of proteinase inhibitors I and II. Finally, we present evidence that the SA-signaling pathway contributes to disease development caused by another necrotrophic pathogen, Alternaria solani, in tomato. Disease development promoted by SA through NPR1 requires the TGA1.a transcription factor. These data highlight how necrotrophs manipulate the SAsignaling pathway to promote their disease in tomato.

  3. Constraint-based modeling and kinetic analysis of the Smad dependent TGF-beta signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhike Zi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Investigation of dynamics and regulation of the TGF-beta signaling pathway is central to the understanding of complex cellular processes such as growth, apoptosis, and differentiation. In this study, we aim at using systems biology approach to provide dynamic analysis on this pathway. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We proposed a constraint-based modeling method to build a comprehensive mathematical model for the Smad dependent TGF-beta signaling pathway by fitting the experimental data and incorporating the qualitative constraints from the experimental analysis. The performance of the model generated by constraint-based modeling method is significantly improved compared to the model obtained by only fitting the quantitative data. The model agrees well with the experimental analysis of TGF-beta pathway, such as the time course of nuclear phosphorylated Smad, the subcellular location of Smad and signal response of Smad phosphorylation to different doses of TGF-beta. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The simulation results indicate that the signal response to TGF-beta is regulated by the balance between clathrin dependent endocytosis and non-clathrin mediated endocytosis. This model is useful to be built upon as new precise experimental data are emerging. The constraint-based modeling method can also be applied to quantitative modeling of other signaling pathways.

  4. Signaling pathway deregulation and molecular alterations across pediatric medulloblastomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhermitte, B; Blandin, A F; Coca, A; Guerin, E; Durand, A; Entz-Werlé, N

    2018-05-15

    Medulloblastomas (MBs) account for 15% of brain tumors in children under the age of 15. To date, the overall 5-year survival rate for all children is only around 60%. Recent advances in cancer genomics have led to a fundamental change in medulloblastoma classification and is evolving along with the genomic discoveries, allowing to regularly reclassify this disease. The previous molecular classification defined 4 groups (WNT-activated MB, SHH-activated MB and the groups 3 and 4 characterized partially by NMYC and MYC driven MBs). This stratification moved forward recently to better define these groups and their correlation to outcome. This new stratification into 7 novel subgroups was helpful to lay foundations and complementary data on the understanding regarding molecular pathways and gene mutations underlying medulloblastoma biology. This review was aimed at answering the recent key questions on MB genomics and go further in the relevance of those genes in MB development as well as in their targeted therapies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. An interplay between 2 signaling pathways: Melatonin-cAMP and IP3–Ca2+ signaling pathways control intraerythrocytic development of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuyama, Wakako; Enomoto, Masahiro; Mossaad, Ehab; Kawai, Satoru; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Kawazu, Shin-ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A melatonin receptor antagonist blocked Ca 2+ oscillation in P. falciparum and inhibited parasite growth. • P. falciparum development is controlled by Ca 2+ - and cAMP-signaling pathways. • The cAMP-signaling pathway at ring form and late trophozoite stages governs parasite growth of P. falciparum. - Abstract: Plasmodium falciparum spends most of its asexual life cycle within human erythrocytes, where proliferation and maturation occur. Development into the mature forms of P. falciparum causes severe symptoms due to its distinctive sequestration capability. However, the physiological roles and the molecular mechanisms of signaling pathways that govern development are poorly understood. Our previous study showed that P. falciparum exhibits stage-specific spontaneous Calcium (Ca 2+ ) oscillations in ring and early trophozoites, and the latter was essential for parasite development. In this study, we show that luzindole (LZ), a selective melatonin receptor antagonist, inhibits parasite growth. Analyses of development and morphology of LZ-treated P. falciparum revealed that LZ severely disrupted intraerythrocytic maturation, resulting in parasite death. When LZ was added at ring stage, the parasite could not undergo further development, whereas LZ added at the trophozoite stage inhibited development from early into late schizonts. Live-cell Ca 2+ imaging showed that LZ treatment completely abolished Ca 2+ oscillation in the ring forms while having little effect on early trophozoites. Further, the melatonin-induced cAMP increase observed at ring and late trophozoite stage was attenuated by LZ treatment. These suggest that a complex interplay between IP 3 –Ca 2+ and cAMP signaling pathways is involved in intraerythrocytic development of P. falciparum

  6. Iron regulation of hepcidin despite attenuated Smad1,5,8 signaling in mice without transferrin receptor 2 or Hfe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, Elena; Rozier, Molly; Meynard, Delphine; Odhiambo, Adam; Lin, Herbert Y.; Feng, Qi; Migas, Mary C.; Britton, Robert S.; Babitt, Jodie L.; Fleming, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims HFE and transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2) are each necessary for the normal relationship between body iron status and liver hepcidin expression. In murine Hfe and Tfr2 knockout models of hereditary hemochromatosis (HH), signal transduction to hepcidin via the bone morphogenetic protein 6 (Bmp6)/Smad1,5,8 pathway is attenuated. We examined the effect of dietary iron on regulation of hepcidin expression via the Bmp6/Smad1,5,8 pathway using mice with targeted disruption of Tfr2, Hfe, or both genes. Methods Hepatic iron concentrations and mRNA expression of Bmp6 and hepcidin were compared with wild-type mice in each of the HH models on standard or iron-loading diets. Liver phospho-Smad (P-Smad)1,5,8 and Id1 mRNA levels were measured as markers of Bmp/Smad signaling. Results While Bmp6 expression was increased, liver hepcidin and Id1 expression were decreased in each of the HH models compared with wild-type mice. Each of the HH models also demonstrated attenuated P-Smad1,5,8 levels relative to liver iron status. Mice with combined Hfe/Tfr2 disruption were most affected. Dietary iron loading increased hepcidin and Id1 expression in each of the HH models. Compared with wild-type mice, HH mice demonstrated attenuated (Hfe knockout) or no increases in P-Smad1,5,8 levels in response to dietary iron loading. Conclusions These observations demonstrate that Tfr2 and Hfe are each required for normal signaling of iron status to hepcidin via Bmp6/Smad1,5,8 pathway. Mice with combined loss of Hfe and Tfr2 up-regulate hepcidin in response to dietary iron loading without increases in liver BMP6 mRNA or steady-state P-Smad1,5,8 levels. PMID:21745449

  7. CD147 regulates extrinsic apoptosis in spermatocytes by modulating NFκB signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaoqun; Fok, Kin Lam; Cai, Zhiming; Chen, Hao; Chan, Hsiao Chang

    2017-01-10

    CD147 null mutant male mice are infertile with arrested spermatogenesis and increased apoptotic germ cells. Our previous studies have shown that CD147 prevents apoptosis in mouse spermatocytes but not spermatogonia. However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. In the present study, we aim to determine the CD147-regulated apoptotic pathway in mouse spermatocytes. Our results showed that immunodepletion of CD147 triggered apoptosis through extrinsic apoptotic pathway in mouse testis and spermatocyte cell line (GC-2 cells), accompanied by activation of non-canonical NFκB signaling and suppression of canonical NFκB signaling. Furthermore, CD147 was found to interact with TRAF2, a factor known to regulate NFκB and extrinsic apoptotic signaling, and interfering CD147 led to the decrease of TRAF2. Consistently, depletion of CD147 by CRISPR/Cas9 technique in GC-2 cells down-regulated TRAF2 and resulted in cell death with suppressed canonical NFκB and activated non-canonical NFκB signaling. On the contrary, interfering of CD147 had no effect on NFκB signaling pathways as well as TRAF2 protein level in mouse spermatogonia cell line (GC-1 cells). Taken together, these results suggested that CD147 plays a key role in reducing extrinsic apoptosis in spermatocytes, but not spermatogonia, through modulating NFκB signaling pathway.

  8. Novel lipid signaling pathways in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulos, Phillip F; Joshi, Yash B; Praticò, Domenico

    2014-04-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. With an increasing longevity and the absence of a cure, AD has become not only a major health problem but also a heavy social and economic burden worldwide. In addition to the presence of abundant intra- and extra-cellular neurotoxic amyloid β (Aβ) peptides, which form the amyloid plaques, and intracellular hyperphosphorylated tau protein, the main component of neurofibrillary tangles, consistent evidence indicates that the AD brain is characterized by extensive neuroinflammatory processes. The 5-lipoxygenase (5LO) is a pro-inflammatory enzymatic pathway widely distributed within the central nervous system and is up-regulated in AD. In the last five years our group has been involved in unraveling the neurobiology of this protein and investigating its relationship with cellular and molecular events of functional importance in AD pathogenesis. By using a combination of in vitro and in vivo experimental tools and implementing genetic as well as pharmacological approaches today we know that 5LO is likely an endogenous regulator of Aβ formation via the modulation of the γ-secretase complex, and tau metabolism by modulating its phosphorylation state at specific epitopes via the cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (cdk-5). In addition, 5LO influences synaptic function and integrity and by doing so significantly affects learning and memory in the Tg2576 and 3xTg AD transgenic mouse models. Taken together our data establish this protein as a pleiotropic contributor to the development of the full spectrum of the AD-like phenotype in these mouse models of the disease, making it a viable therapeutic target for the treatment of AD in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cardiogenic induction of pluripotent stem cells streamlined through a conserved SDF-1/VEGF/BMP2 integrated network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Chiriac

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pluripotent stem cells produce tissue-specific lineages through programmed acquisition of sequential gene expression patterns that function as a blueprint for organ formation. As embryonic stem cells respond concomitantly to diverse signaling pathways during differentiation, extraction of a pro-cardiogenic network would offer a roadmap to streamline cardiac progenitor output. METHODS AND RESULTS: To resolve gene ontology priorities within precursor transcriptomes, cardiogenic subpopulations were here generated according to either growth factor guidance or stage-specific biomarker sorting. Innate expression profiles were independently delineated through unbiased systems biology mapping, and cross-referenced to filter transcriptional noise unmasking a conserved progenitor motif (55 up- and 233 down-regulated genes. The streamlined pool of 288 genes organized into a core biological network that prioritized the "Cardiovascular Development" function. Recursive in silico deconvolution of the cardiogenic neighborhood and associated canonical signaling pathways identified a combination of integrated axes, CXCR4/SDF-1, Flk-1/VEGF and BMP2r/BMP2, predicted to synchronize cardiac specification. In vitro targeting of the resolved triad in embryoid bodies accelerated expression of Nkx2.5, Mef2C and cardiac-MHC, enhanced beating activity, and augmented cardiogenic yield. CONCLUSIONS: Transcriptome-wide dissection of a conserved progenitor profile thus revealed functional highways that coordinate cardiogenic maturation from a pluripotent ground state. Validating the bioinformatics algorithm established a strategy to rationally modulate cell fate, and optimize stem cell-derived cardiogenesis.

  10. Downstream reporter gene imaging for signal transduction pathway of dopamine type 2 receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Uyenchi N.; Min, Jung Joon; Moon, Sung Min; Bom, Hee Seung

    2004-01-01

    The Dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) signal pathway regulates gene expression by phosphorylation of proteins including cAMP reponse element-binding protein (CREB), a transcription factor. In this study, we developed a reporter strategy using the GAL4 fusion CREB to assess the phosphorylation of CREB, one of the targets of the D2R signal transduction pathway. We used three plasmids: GAL4 fusion transactivator (pCMV-CREB), firefly luciferase reporter with GAL4 binding sites (pG5-FLUC), and D2R plasmid (pCMV-D2R). Group 1 293T cells were transiently transfected with pCMV-CREB and pG5-FLUC, and group 2 cells were transfected with all three plasmids. Transfected cells were stimulated with different concentrations of dopamine (0-200 M). For animal studies, group 1 and 2 cells (1x10 6 ) were subcutaneously injected on the left and right thigh of six nude mice, respectively. Dopamine stimiulation was performed with intraperitoneal injection of L-DOPA incombination with carbidopa, a peripheral DOPA decarboxylase inhibitor. Bioluminescence optical imaging studies were performed before and after L-DOPA injection. In cell culture studies, group 1 cells showed strong luciferase activity which implies direct activation of the signaling pathway due to growth factors contained in culture medium. Group 2 cells showed strong luciferase activity and a further increase after administration of dopamine. In animal studies, group 1 and 2 cells showed bioluminescence signal before L-DOPA injection, but signal from group 2 cells significantly increased 12 h after L-DOPA injection. The signal from group 1 cells disappeared thereafter, but group 2 cells continued to show signal until 36 h of L-DOPA injection. This study demonstrates imaging of the D2R signal transduction pathway and should be useful for noninvasive imaging of downstream effects of G-coupled protein pathways

  11. Differential and directional estrogenic signaling pathways induced by enterolignans and their precursors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Zhu

    Full Text Available Mammalian lignans or enterolignans are metabolites of plant lignans, an important category of phytochemicals. Although they are known to be associated with estrogenic activity, cell signaling pathways leading to specific cell functions, and especially the differences among lignans, have not been explored. We examined the estrogenic activity of enterolignans and their precursor plant lignans and cell signaling pathways for some cell functions, cell cycle and chemokine secretion. We used DNA microarray-based gene expression profiling in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells to examine the similarities, as well as the differences, among enterolignans, enterolactone and enterodiol, and their precursors, matairesinol, pinoresinol and sesamin. The profiles showed moderate to high levels of correlation (R values: 0.44 to 0.81 with that of estrogen (17β-estradiol or E2. Significant correlations were observed among lignans (R values: 0.77 to 0.97, and the correlations were higher for cell functions related to enzymes, signaling, proliferation and transport. All the enterolignans/precursors examined showed activation of the Erk1/2 and PI3K/Akt pathways, indicating the involvement of rapid signaling through the non-genomic estrogen signaling pathway. However, when their effects on specific cell functions, cell cycle progression and chemokine (MCP-1 secretion were examined, positive effects were observed only for enterolactone, suggesting that signals are given in certain directions at a position closer to cell functions. We hypothesized that, while estrogen signaling is initiated by the enterolignans/precursors examined, their signals are differentially and directionally modulated later in the pathways, resulting in the differences at the cell function level.

  12. Signaling Pathways in Exosomes Biogenesis, Secretion and Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Emiliani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles (30–100 nm derived from the endosomal system, which have raised considerable interest in the last decade. Several studies have shown that they mediate cell-to-cell communication in a variety of biological processes. Thus, in addition to cell-to-cell direct interaction or secretion of active molecules, they are now considered another class of signal mediators. Exosomes can be secreted by several cell types and retrieved in many body fluids, such as blood, urine, saliva and cerebrospinal fluid. In addition to proteins and lipids, they also contain nucleic acids, namely mRNA and miRNA. These features have prompted extensive research to exploit them as a source of biomarkers for several pathologies, such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. In this context, exosomes also appear attractive as gene delivery vehicles. Furthermore, exosome immunomodulatory and regenerative properties are also encouraging their application for further therapeutic purposes. Nevertheless, several issues remain to be addressed: exosome biogenesis and secretion mechanisms have not been clearly understood, and physiological functions, as well as pathological roles, are far from being satisfactorily elucidated.

  13. Primary cilia and coordination of signaling pathways in heart development and tissue Homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clement, Christian Alexandro

    of primary cilia in coordinating Hh signaling in human pancreatic development and postnatal tissue homeostasis. In cultures of human pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma cell lines PANC-1 and CFPAC-1, Ptc in addition to Gli2 and Smo localize to primary cilia. These findings are consistent with the idea...... that the primary cilium continues to coordinate Hh signaling in cells derived from the mature pancreas. The fact that the Hh signaling pathway is active in the CFPAC-1 and PANC-1 cell lines without Hh stimulation suggests that ciliary Hh signaling plays a potential role in tumorigenesis. In conclusion, this thesis...

  14. The regulation of ras-raf signaling pathway on G1 phase of the irradiated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Dehuang; Dong Bo; Liu Nongle; Wen Gengyun; Luo Qingliang; Mao Bingzhi

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the way of ras-raf signaling pathway which regulate the G 1 phase in irradiated KG-1 cells. Methods: Blocked the GM-CSF signaling pathway by transfected DN-ras and then momentary transfected cyclin D1 into irradiated KG-1 cells, the effects of cyclin D1 on G 1 phase was examined. Results: The irradiated KG-1 cells transfected DN-ras can't recover form G 1 phase arrest even though the GM-CSF was given,momentary transfected cyclin D1 promote the irradiated KG-1 cells from G 1 arrest. Conclusion: Activation of ras-raf signaling pathway regulate the cell cycle of the irradiated KG-1 cells through promotion the expression of the cyclin D1

  15. Phosphoproteomic Analysis Identifies Signaling Pathways Regulated by Curcumin in Human Colon Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tatsuhiro; Higuchi, Yutaka; Shibagaki, Yoshio; Hattori, Seisuke

    2017-09-01

    Curcumin, a major polyphenol of the spice turmeric, acts as a potent chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent in several cancer types, including colon cancer. Although various proteins have been shown to be affected by curcumin, how curcumin exerts its anticancer activity is not fully understood. Phosphoproteomic analyses were performed using SW480 and SW620 human colon cancer cells to identify curcumin-affected signaling pathways. Curcumin inhibited the growth of the two cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Thirty-nine curcumin-regulated phosphoproteins were identified, five of which are involved in cancer signaling pathways. Detailed analyses revealed that the mTORC1 and p53 signaling pathways are main targets of curcumin. Our results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of the anticancer activities of curcumin and future molecular targets for its clinical application. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  16. Stem cell maintenance by manipulating signaling pathways: past, current and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Ye, Shoudong; Ying, Qi-Long

    2015-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells only exist in a narrow window during early embryonic development, whereas multipotent stem cells are abundant throughout embryonic development and are retainedin various adult tissues and organs. While pluripotent stem cell lines have been established from several species, including mouse, rat, and human, it is still challenging to establish stable multipotent stem cell lines from embryonic or adult tissues. Based on current knowledge, we anticipate that by manipulating extrinsic and intrinsic signaling pathways, most if not all types of stem cells can be maintained in a long-term culture. In this article, we summarize current culture conditions established for the long-term maintenance of authentic pluripotent and multipotent stem cells and the signaling pathways involved. We also discuss the general principles of stem cell maintenance and propose several strategies on the establishment of novel stem cell lines through manipulation of signaling pathways. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(12): 668-676] PMID:26497581

  17. Radiotracers For Lipid Signaling Pathways In Biological Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatley, S. J. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-09-26

    The primary focus of this project continues to be the development of radiotracers and radiotracer methodology for studying physiology and biochemistry. The compounds that have been labeled areacylethanolamines and acylglycerols that are, as classes, represented in both in plants and in animals. In the latter, some of these act as ligands for cannabinoid receptors and they are therefore known as endocannabinoids. Cannabinoid receptors are not found in plant genomes so that plants must contain other receptors and signaling systems that use acylethanolamines. Relatively little work has been done on that issue, though acylethanolamines do modulate plant growth and stress resistance, thus possessing obvious relevance to agriculture and energy production. Progress has been described in five peer-reviewed papers and seven meeting abstracts. Preparation of 2-acylglycerol lipid messengers in high purity. A novel enzymatic synthesis was developedthat gave pure 2-acylglycerols free of any rearrrangement to the thermodynamically more stable 1(3)-acylglycerol byproducts. The method utilized 1,3-dibutyryl-2-acylglycerol substrate ethanolysis by a resinimobilized lipase. Thus, pure radiolabeled 2-acylglycerols can now be conveniently prepared just prior to their utilization. These synthetic studies were published in the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2011. Diacylglycerol lipase assay methodology. Diacylglycerol lipases (DAGLs) generate 2- acylglycerols, and are thus potential targets for disease- or growth-modifying agents, by means of reducing formation of 2-acylglycerols. A radioTLC assay of the hydrolysis of radiolabeled diglyceride substrate [1''-carbon-14]2-arachidonoyl-1-stearoyl-sn-glycerol has been implemented, and used to validate a novel, potentially highthroughput fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) based assay. A number of new DAGL inhibitors that have selectivity for DAGLs were synthesized and screened. This work was very recently published in

  18. Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) and BMP10 enhance tumor necrosis factor-α-induced monocyte recruitment to the vascular endothelium mainly via activin receptor-like kinase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofan, Claudia-Gabriela; Appleby, Sarah L; Nash, Gerard B; Mallat, Ziad; Chilvers, Edwin R; Upton, Paul D; Morrell, Nicholas W

    2017-08-18

    Bone morphogenetic proteins 9 and 10 (BMP9/BMP10) are circulating cytokines with important roles in endothelial homeostasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of BMP9 and BMP10 in mediating monocyte-endothelial interactions using an in vitro flow adhesion assay. Herein, we report that whereas BMP9/BMP10 alone had no effect on monocyte recruitment, at higher concentrations both cytokines synergized with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) to increase recruitment to the vascular endothelium. The BMP9/BMP10-mediated increase in monocyte recruitment in the presence of TNFα was associated with up-regulated expression levels of E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1), and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) on endothelial cells. Using siRNAs to type I and II BMP receptors and the signaling intermediaries (Smads), we demonstrated a key role for ALK2 in the BMP9/BMP10-induced surface expression of E-selectin, and both ALK1 and ALK2 in the up-regulation of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. The type II receptors, BMPR-II and ACTR-IIA were both required for this response, as was Smad1/5. The up-regulation of cell surface adhesion molecules by BMP9/10 in the presence of TNFα was inhibited by LDN193189, which inhibits ALK2 but not ALK1. Furthermore, LDN193189 inhibited monocyte recruitment induced by TNFα and BMP9/10. BMP9/10 increased basal IκBα protein expression, but did not alter p65/RelA levels. Our findings suggest that higher concentrations of BMP9/BMP10 synergize with TNFα to induce the up-regulation of endothelial selectins and adhesion molecules, ultimately resulting in increased monocyte recruitment to the vascular endothelium. This process is mediated mainly via the ALK2 type I receptor, BMPR-II/ACTR-IIA type II receptors, and downstream Smad1/5 signaling. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Genital Sensory Stimulation Shifts Estradiol Intraoviductal Signaling from Nongenomic to Genomic Pathways, Independently from Prolactin Surges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C PEÑARROJA-MATUTAN0

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Estradiol (E2 accelerates oviductal egg transport through nongenomic pathways involving oviductal protein phosphorylation in non-mated rats, and through genomic pathways in mated rats. Here we investigated the ability of cervico-vaginal stimulation (CVS to switch the mode of action of E2 in the absence of other male-associated components. Pro-estrous rats were subjected to CVS with a glass rod and 12 hours later were injected subcutaneously with E2 and intrabursally with the RNA synthesis inhibitor Actinomycin D or the protein phosphorylation inhibitor H-89. The number of eggs in the oviduct, assessed 24 h later, showed that Actinomycin D, but not H-89 blocked the E2-induced egg transport acceleration. This clearly indicates that CVS alone, without other mating-associated signals, is able to shift E2 signaling from nongenomic to genomic pathways. Since mating and CVS activate a neuroendocrine reflex that causes iterative prolactin (PRL surges, the involvement of PRL pathway in this phenomenon was evaluated. Prolactin receptor mRNA and protein expression in the rat oviduct was demonstrated by RT-PCR and Western blot, but their levels were not different on day 2 of the cycle (C2 or pregnancy (P2. Activated ST AT 5a/b (phosphorylated was detected by Western blot on P2 in the ovary, but not in the oviduct, showing that mating does not stimulate this PRL signalling pathway in the oviduct. Other rats subjected to CVS in the evening of pro-estrus were treated with bromoergocriptine to suppress PRL surges. In these rats, H-89 did not block the E2-induced acceleration of egg transport suggesting that PRL surges are not essential to shift E2 signaling pathways in the oviduct. We conclude that CVS is one of the components of mating that shifts E2 signaling in the oviduct from nongenomic to genomic pathways, and this effect is independent of PRL surges elicited by mating

  20. Modeling the Intra- and Extracellular Cytokine Signaling Pathway under Heat Stroke in the Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    to be construed as official or as reflecting the views of the Army or the Department of Defense. Citations of commercial organizations and trade names...commercial organizations and trade names in this report do not constitute an official Department of the Army endorsement or approval of the products or...pathway. Nature Medicine 6: 422–428. 93. Murray PJ (2007) The jak-stat signaling pathway: Input and output intergration . Journal of Immunology 178

  1. Homocysteine enhances MMP-9 production in murine macrophages via ERK and Akt signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Jin; Lee, Yi Sle; Seo, Kyo Won; Bae, Jin Ung; Kim, Gyu Hee; Park, So Youn; Kim, Chi Dae

    2012-01-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) at elevated levels is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Hcy on the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) in murine macrophages. Among the MMP known to regulate the activities of collagenase and gelatinase, Hcy exclusively increased the gelatinolytic activity of MMP-9 in J774A.1 cells as well as in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Furthermore, this activity was found to be correlated with Western blot findings in J774A.1 cells, which showed that MMP-9 expression was concentration- and time-dependently increased by Hcy. Inhibition of the ERK and Akt pathways led to a significant decrease in Hcy-induced MMP-9 expression, and combined treatment with inhibitors of the ERK and Akt pathways showed an additive effects. Activity assays for ERK and Akt showed that Hcy increased the phosphorylation of both, but these phosphorylation were not affected by inhibitors of the Akt and ERK pathways. In line with these findings, the molecular inhibition of ERK and Akt using siRNA did not affect the Hcy-induced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK, respectively. Taken together, these findings suggest that Hcy enhances MMP-9 production in murine macrophages by separately activating the ERK and Akt signaling pathways. -- Highlights: ► Homocysteine (Hcy) induced MMP-9 production in murine macrophages. ► Hcy induced MMP-9 production through ERK and Akt signaling pathways. ► ERK and Akt signaling pathways were activated by Hcy in murine macrophages. ► ERK and Akt pathways were additively act on Hcy-induced MMP-9 production. ► Hcy enhances MMP-9 production in macrophages via activation of ERK and Akt signaling pathways in an independent manner.

  2. Homocysteine enhances MMP-9 production in murine macrophages via ERK and Akt signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Jin; Lee, Yi Sle; Seo, Kyo Won; Bae, Jin Ung; Kim, Gyu Hee; Park, So Youn; Kim, Chi Dae, E-mail: chidkim@pusan.ac.kr

    2012-04-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) at elevated levels is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Hcy on the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) in murine macrophages. Among the MMP known to regulate the activities of collagenase and gelatinase, Hcy exclusively increased the gelatinolytic activity of MMP-9 in J774A.1 cells as well as in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Furthermore, this activity was found to be correlated with Western blot findings in J774A.1 cells, which showed that MMP-9 expression was concentration- and time-dependently increased by Hcy. Inhibition of the ERK and Akt pathways led to a significant decrease in Hcy-induced MMP-9 expression, and combined treatment with inhibitors of the ERK and Akt pathways showed an additive effects. Activity assays for ERK and Akt showed that Hcy increased the phosphorylation of both, but these phosphorylation were not affected by inhibitors of the Akt and ERK pathways. In line with these findings, the molecular inhibition of ERK and Akt using siRNA did not affect the Hcy-induced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK, respectively. Taken together, these findings suggest that Hcy enhances MMP-9 production in murine macrophages by separately activating the ERK and Akt signaling pathways. -- Highlights: ► Homocysteine (Hcy) induced MMP-9 production in murine macrophages. ► Hcy induced MMP-9 production through ERK and Akt signaling pathways. ► ERK and Akt signaling pathways were activated by Hcy in murine macrophages. ► ERK and Akt pathways were additively act on Hcy-induced MMP-9 production. ► Hcy enhances MMP-9 production in macrophages via activation of ERK and Akt signaling pathways in an independent manner.

  3. The Notch Signaling Pathway Is Balancing Type 1 Innate Lymphoid Cell Immune Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibaut Perchet

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The Notch pathway is one of the canonical signaling pathways implicated in the development of various solid tumors. During carcinogenesis, the Notch pathway dysregulation induces tumor expression of Notch receptor ligands participating to escape the immune surveillance. The Notch pathway conditions both the development and the functional regulation of lymphoid subsets. Its importance on T cell subset polarization has been documented contrary to its action on innate lymphoid cells (ILC. We aim to analyze the effect of the Notch pathway on type 1 ILC polarization and functions after disruption of the RBPJk-dependent Notch signaling cascade. Indeed, type 1 ILC comprises conventional NK (cNK cells and type 1 helper innate lymphoid cells (ILC1 that share Notch-related functional characteristics such as the IFNg secretion downstream of T-bet expression. cNK cells have strong antitumor properties. However, data are controversial concerning ILC1 functions during carcinogenesis with models showing antitumoral capacities and others reporting ILC1 inability to control tumor growth. Using various mouse models of Notch signaling pathway depletion, we analyze the effects of its absence on type 1 ILC differentiation and cytotoxic functions. We also provide clues into its role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis in tissues. We show that modulating the Notch pathway is not only acting on tumor-specific T cell activity but also on ILC immune subset functions. Hence, our study uncovers the intrinsic Notch signaling pathway in ILC1/cNK populations and their response in case of abnormal Notch ligand expression. This study help evaluating the possible side effects mediated by immune cells different from T cells, in case of multivalent forms of the Notch receptor ligand delta 1 treatments. In definitive, it should help determining the best novel combination of therapeutic strategies in case of solid tumors.

  4. Ties that bind: the integration of plastid signalling pathways in plant cell metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunkard, Jacob O; Burch-Smith, Tessa M

    2018-04-13

    Plastids are critical organelles in plant cells that perform diverse functions and are central to many metabolic pathways. Beyond their major roles in primary metabolism, of which their role in photosynthesis is perhaps best known, plastids contribute to the biosynthesis of phytohormones and other secondary metabolites, store critical biomolecules, and sense a range of environmental stresses. Accordingly, plastid-derived signals coordinate a host of physiological and developmental processes, often by emitting signalling molecules that regulate the expression of nuclear genes. Several excellent recent reviews have provided broad perspectives on plastid signalling pathways. In this review, we will highlight recent advances in our understanding of chloroplast signalling pathways. Our discussion focuses on new discoveries illuminating how chloroplasts determine life and death decisions in cells and on studies elucidating tetrapyrrole biosynthesis signal transduction networks. We will also examine the role of a plastid RNA helicase, ISE2, in chloroplast signalling, and scrutinize intriguing results investigating the potential role of stromules in conducting signals from the chloroplast to other cellular locations. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  5. Transcription Profiles Reveal Sugar and Hormone Signaling Pathways Mediating Flower Induction in Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Li-Bo; Zhang, Dong; Li, You-Mei; Shen, Ya-Wen; Zhao, Cai-Ping; Ma, Juan-Juan; An, Na; Han, Ming-Yu

    2015-10-01

    Flower induction in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) is regulated by complex gene networks that involve multiple signal pathways to ensure flower bud formation in the next year, but the molecular determinants of apple flower induction are still unknown. In this research, transcriptomic profiles from differentiating buds allowed us to identify genes potentially involved in signaling pathways that mediate the regulatory mechanisms of flower induction. A hypothetical model for this regulatory mechanism was obtained by analysis of the available transcriptomic data, suggesting that sugar-, hormone- and flowering-related genes, as well as those involved in cell-cycle induction, participated in the apple flower induction process. Sugar levels and metabolism-related gene expression profiles revealed that sucrose is the initiation signal in flower induction. Complex hormone regulatory networks involved in cytokinin (CK), abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid pathways also induce apple flower formation. CK plays a key role in the regulation of cell formation and differentiation, and in affecting flowering-related gene expression levels during these processes. Meanwhile, ABA levels and ABA-related gene expression levels gradually increased, as did those of sugar metabolism-related genes, in developing buds, indicating that ABA signals regulate apple flower induction by participating in the sugar-mediated flowering pathway. Furthermore, changes in sugar and starch deposition levels in buds can be affected by ABA content and the expression of the genes involved in the ABA signaling pathway. Thus, multiple pathways, which are mainly mediated by crosstalk between sugar and hormone signals, regulate the molecular network involved in bud growth and flower induction in apple trees. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  6. Dynamics and control of the ERK signaling pathway: Sensitivity, bistability, and oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkun, Yaman; Yasemi, Mohammadreza

    2018-01-01

    Cell signaling is the process by which extracellular information is transmitted into the cell to perform useful biological functions. The ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) signaling controls several cellular processes such as cell growth, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The ERK signaling pathway considered in this work starts with an extracellular stimulus and ends with activated (double phosphorylated) ERK which gets translocated into the nucleus. We model and analyze this complex pathway by decomposing it into three functional subsystems. The first subsystem spans the initial part of the pathway from the extracellular growth factor to the formation of the SOS complex, ShC-Grb2-SOS. The second subsystem includes the activation of Ras which is mediated by the SOS complex. This is followed by the MAPK subsystem (or the Raf-MEK-ERK pathway) which produces the double phosphorylated ERK upon being activated by Ras. Although separate models exist in the literature at the subsystems level, a comprehensive model for the complete system including the important regulatory feedback loops is missing. Our dynamic model combines the existing subsystem models and studies their steady-state and dynamic interactions under feedback. We establish conditions under which bistability and oscillations exist for this important pathway. In particular, we show how the negative and positive feedback loops affect the dynamic characteristics that determine the cellular outcome.

  7. [Cell signaling pathways interaction in cellular proliferation: Potential target for therapeutic interventionism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdespino-Gómez, Víctor Manuel; Valdespino-Castillo, Patricia Margarita; Valdespino-Castillo, Víctor Edmundo

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, cellular physiology is best understood by analysing their interacting molecular components. Proteins are the major components of the cells. Different proteins are organised in the form of functional clusters, pathways or networks. These molecules are ordered in clusters of receptor molecules of extracellular signals, transducers, sensors and biological response effectors. The identification of these intracellular signaling pathways in different cellular types has required a long journey of experimental work. More than 300 intracellular signaling pathways have been identified in human cells. They participate in cell homeostasis processes for structural and functional maintenance. Some of them participate simultaneously or in a nearly-consecutive progression to generate a cellular phenotypic change. In this review, an analysis is performed on the main intracellular signaling pathways that take part in the cellular proliferation process, and the potential use of some components of these pathways as target for therapeutic interventionism are also underlined. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  8. Aluminum stress and its role in the phospholipid signaling pathway in plants and possible biotechnological applications.

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    Poot-Poot, Wilberth; Hernandez-Sotomayor, Soledad M Teresa

    2011-10-01

    An early response of plants to environmental signals or abiotic stress suggests that the phospholipid signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in these mechanisms. The phospholipid signaling cascade is one of the main systems of cellular transduction and is related to other signal transduction mechanisms. These other mechanisms include the generation of second messengers and their interactions with various proteins, such as ion channels. This phospholipid signaling cascade is activated by changes in the environment, such as phosphate starvation, water, metals, saline stres, and plant-pathogen interactions. One important factor that impacts agricultural crops is metal-induced stress. Because aluminum has been considered to be a major toxic factor for agriculture conducted in acidic soils, many researchers have focused on understanding the mechanisms of aluminum toxicity in plants. We have contributed the last fifteen years in this field by studying the effects of aluminum on phospholipid signaling in coffee, one of the Mexico's primary crops. We have focused our research on aluminum toxicity mechanisms in Coffea arabica suspension cells as a model for developing future contributions to the biotechnological transformation of coffee crops such that they can be made resistant to aluminum toxicity. We conclude that aluminum is able to not only generate a signal cascade in plants but also modulate other signal cascades generated by other types of stress in plants. The aim of this review is to discuss possible involvement of the phospholipid signaling pathway in the aluminum toxicity response of plant cells. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Advances in cell proliferation and apoptosis signal pathway and therapies of polycystic kidney disease

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    Xiao-ying LIAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic kidney disease (PKD is one of the monogenic inherited diseases. In PKD, excessive cell proliferation and fluid secretion, and disruption of the mechanisms controlling tubular diameter may all lead to cyst formation. Current evidence has demonstrated that intracellular calcium ion and cAMP imbalance drive both abnormal cell proliferation and apoptosis signal pathway. The present paper summarized the evidence implicating calcium ion and cAMP as central players in the signaling pathway of cell proliferation and apoptosis in PKD, and considered the potential therapeutic approaches targeted to slow cyst growth in PKD. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.11.13

  10. New Insights into Glomerular Parietal Epithelial Cell Activation and Its Signaling Pathways in Glomerular Diseases

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    Hua Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The glomerular parietal epithelial cells (PECs have aroused an increasing attention recently. The proliferation of PECs is the main feature of crescentic glomerulonephritis; besides that, in the past decade, PEC activation has been identified in several types of noninflammatory glomerulonephropathies, such as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, diabetic glomerulopathy, and membranous nephropathy. The pathogenesis of PEC activation is poorly understood; however, a few studies delicately elucidate the potential mechanisms and signaling pathways implicated in these processes. In this review we will focus on the latest observations and concepts about PEC activation in glomerular diseases and the newest identified signaling pathways in PEC activation.

  11. The self-renewal signaling pathways utilized by gastric cancer stem cells.

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    Fu, Ying; Li, Hui; Hao, Xishan

    2017-04-01

    Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Cancer stem cells are the source of tumor recurrence and metastasis. Self-renewal is a marker of cancer stem cells and also the basis of long-lasting survival and tumor progression. Although the mechanism of gastric cancer stem cell self-renewal is not clear, there are several signaling pathways and environmental factors known to be involved. This mini review describes recent developments in the self-renewal signaling pathway of gastric cancer stem cell research. Advancements made in this field of research will likely support the development of novel therapeutic strategies for gastric cancer.

  12. Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway mediated aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis in kainic acid-induced epilepsy.

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    Qu, Zhengyi; Su, Fang; Qi, Xueting; Sun, Jianbo; Wang, Hongcai; Qiao, Zhenkui; Zhao, Hong; Zhu, Yulan

    2017-10-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is a chronic disorder of nerve system, mainly characterized by hippocampal sclerosis with massive neuronal loss and severe gliosis. Aberrant neurogenesis has been shown in the epileptogenesis process of temporal lobe epilepsy. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying aberrant neurogenesis remain unclear. The roles of Wnt signalling cascade have been well established in neurogenesis during multiple aspects. Here, we used kainic acid-induced rat epilepsy model to investigate whether Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway is involved in the aberrant neurogenesis in temporal lobe epilepsy. Immunostaining and western blotting results showed that the expression levels of β-catenin, Wnt3a, and cyclin D1, the key regulators in Wnt signalling pathway, were up-regulated during acute epilepsy induced by the injection of kainic acids, indicating that Wnt signalling pathway was activated in kainic acid-induced temporal lobe epilepsy. Moreover, BrdU labelling results showed that blockade of the Wnt signalling by knocking down β-catenin attenuated aberrant neurogenesis induced by kainic acids injection. Altogether, Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway mediated hippocampal neurogenesis during epilepsy, which might provide new strategies for clinical treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy is a chronic disorder of nerve system, mainly characterized by hippocampal sclerosis. Aberrant neurogenesis has been shown to involve in the epileptogenesis process of temporal lobe epilepsy. In the present study, we discovered that Wnt3a/β-catenin signalling pathway serves as a link between aberrant neurogenesis and underlying remodelling in the hippocampus, leading to temporal lobe epilepsy, which might provide new strategies for clinical treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Bipolar cell gap junctions serve major signaling pathways in the human retina.

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    Kántor, Orsolya; Varga, Alexandra; Nitschke, Roland; Naumann, Angela; Énzsöly, Anna; Lukáts, Ákos; Szabó, Arnold; Németh, János; Völgyi, Béla

    2017-08-01

    Connexin36 (Cx36) constituent gap junctions (GJ) throughout the brain connect neurons into functional syncytia. In the retina they underlie the transmission, averaging and correlation of signals prior conveying visual information to the brain. This is the first study that describes retinal bipolar cell (BC) GJs in the human inner retina, whose function is enigmatic even in the examined animal models. Furthermore, a number of unique features (e.g. fovea, trichromacy, midget system) necessitate a reexamination of the animal model results in the human retina. Well-preserved postmortem human samples of this study are allowed to identify Cx36 expressing BCs neurochemically. Results reveal that both rod and cone pathway interneurons display strong Cx36 expression. Rod BC inputs to AII amacrine cells (AC) appear in juxtaposition to AII GJs, thus suggesting a strategic AII cell targeting by rod BCs. Cone BCs serving midget, parasol or koniocellular signaling pathways display a wealth of Cx36 expression to form homologously coupled arrays. In addition, they also establish heterologous GJ contacts to serve an exchange of information between parallel signaling streams. Interestingly, a prominent Cx36 expression was exhibited by midget system BCs that appear to maintain intimate contacts with bistratified BCs serving other pathways. These findings suggest that BC GJs in parallel signaling streams serve both an intra- and inter-pathway exchange of signals in the human retina.

  14. Regulation of Cell Wall Biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: The Cell Wall Integrity Signaling Pathway

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    Levin, David E.

    2011-01-01

    The yeast cell wall is a strong, but elastic, structure that is essential not only for the maintenance of cell shape and integrity, but also for progression through the cell cycle. During growth and morphogenesis, and in response to environmental challenges, the cell wall is remodeled in a highly regulated and polarized manner, a process that is principally under the control of the cell wall integrity (CWI) signaling pathway. This pathway transmits wall stress signals from the cell surface to the Rho1 GTPase, which mobilizes a physiologic response through a variety of effectors. Activation of CWI signaling regulates the production of various carbohydrate polymers of the cell wall, as well as their polarized delivery to the site of cell wall remodeling. This review article centers on CWI signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through the cell cycle and in response to cell wall stress. The interface of this signaling pathway with other pathways that contribute to the maintenance of cell wall integrity is also discussed. PMID:22174182

  15. Endothelial Mechanotransduction, Redox Signaling and the Regulation of Vascular Inflammatory Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shampa Chatterjee

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The endothelium that lines the interior of blood vessels is directly exposed to blood flow. The shear stress arising from blood flow is “sensed” by the endothelium and is “transduced” into biochemical signals that eventually control vascular tone and homeostasis. Sensing and transduction of physical forces occur via signaling processes whereby the forces associated with blood flow are “sensed” by a mechanotransduction machinery comprising of several endothelial cell elements. Endothelial “sensing” involves converting the physical cues into cellular signaling events such as altered membrane potential and activation of kinases, which are “transmission” signals that cause oxidant production. Oxidants produced are the “transducers” of the mechanical signals? What is the function of these oxidants/redox signals? Extensive data from various studies indicate that redox signals initiate inflammation signaling pathways which in turn can compromise vascular health. Thus, inflammation, a major response to infection or endotoxins, can also be initiated by the endothelium in response to various flow patterns ranging from aberrant flow to alteration of flow such as cessation or sudden increase in blood flow. Indeed, our work has shown that endothelial mechanotransduction signaling pathways participate in generation of redox signals that affect the oxidant and inflammation status of cells. Our goal in this review article is to summarize the endothelial mechanotransduction pathways that are activated with stop of blood flow and with aberrant flow patterns; in doing so we focus on the complex link between mechanical forces and inflammation on the endothelium. Since this “inflammation susceptible” phenotype is emerging as a trigger for pathologies ranging from atherosclerosis to rejection post-organ transplant, an understanding of the endothelial machinery that triggers these processes is very crucial and timely.

  16. Cartography of Pathway Signal Perturbations Identifies Distinct Molecular Pathomechanisms in Malignant and Chronic Lung Diseases

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    Arakelyan, Arsen; Nersisyan, Lilit; Petrek, Martin; Löffler-Wirth, Henry; Binder, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Lung diseases are described by a wide variety of developmental mechanisms and clinical manifestations. Accurate classification and diagnosis of lung diseases are the bases for development of effective treatments. While extensive studies are conducted toward characterization of various lung diseases at molecular level, no systematic approach has been developed so far. Here we have applied a methodology for pathway-centered mining of high throughput gene expression data to describe a wide range of lung diseases in the light of shared and specific pathway activity profiles. We have applied an algorithm combining a Pathway Signal Flow (PSF) algorithm for estimation of pathway activity deregulation states in lung diseases and malignancies, and a Self Organizing Maps algorithm for classification and clustering of the pathway activity profiles. The analysis results allowed clearly distinguish between cancer and non-cancer lung diseases. Lung cancers were characterized by pathways implicated in cell proliferation, metabolism, while non-malignant lung diseases were characterized by deregulations in pathways involved in immune/inflammatory response and fibrotic tissue remodeling. In contrast to lung malignancies, chronic lung diseases had relatively heterogeneous pathway deregulation profiles. We identified three groups of interstitial lung diseases and showed that the development of characteristic pathological processes, such as fibrosis, can be initiated by deregulations in different signaling pathways. In conclusion, this paper describes the pathobiology of lung diseases from systems viewpoint using pathway centered high-dimensional data mining approach. Our results contribute largely to current understanding of pathological events in lung cancers and non-malignant lung diseases. Moreover, this paper provides new insight into molecular mechanisms of a number of interstitial lung diseases that have been studied to a lesser extent. PMID:27200087

  17. Saw Palmetto Extract Inhibits Metastasis and Antiangiogenesis through STAT3 Signal Pathway in Glioma Cell