Kopf, Jessica; Petersen, Ansgar; Duda, Georg N; Knaus, Petra
Efficient osteogenic differentiation is highly dependent on coordinated signals arising from growth factor signalling and mechanical forces. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are secreted proteins that trigger Smad and non-Smad pathways and thereby influence transcriptional and non-transcriptional differentiation cues. Crosstalk at multiple levels allows for promotion or attenuation of signalling intensity and specificity. Similar to BMPs, mechanical stimulation enhances bone formation. However, the molecular mechanism by which mechanical forces crosstalk to biochemical signals is still unclear. Here, we use a three-dimensional bioreactor system to describe how mechanical forces are integrated into the BMP pathway. Time-dependent phosphorylation of Smad, mitogen-activated protein kinases and Akt in human fetal osteoblasts was investigated under loading and/or BMP2 stimulation conditions. The phosphorylation of R-Smads is increased both in intensity and duration under BMP2 stimulation with concurrent mechanical loading. Interestingly, the synergistic effect of both stimuli on immediate early Smad phosphorylation is reflected in the transcription of only a subset of BMP target genes, while others are differently affected. Together this results in a cooperative regulation of osteogenesis that is guided by both signalling pathways. Mechanical signals are integrated into the BMP signalling pathway by enhancing immediate early steps within the Smad pathway, independent of autocrine ligand secretion. This suggests a direct crosstalk of both mechanotransduction and BMP signalling, most likely at the level of the cell surface receptors. Furthermore, the crosstalk of both pathways over longer time periods might occur on several signalling levels.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient osteogenic differentiation is highly dependent on coordinated signals arising from growth factor signalling and mechanical forces. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs are secreted proteins that trigger Smad and non-Smad pathways and thereby influence transcriptional and non-transcriptional differentiation cues. Crosstalk at multiple levels allows for promotion or attenuation of signalling intensity and specificity. Similar to BMPs, mechanical stimulation enhances bone formation. However, the molecular mechanism by which mechanical forces crosstalk to biochemical signals is still unclear. Results Here, we use a three-dimensional bioreactor system to describe how mechanical forces are integrated into the BMP pathway. Time-dependent phosphorylation of Smad, mitogen-activated protein kinases and Akt in human fetal osteoblasts was investigated under loading and/or BMP2 stimulation conditions. The phosphorylation of R-Smads is increased both in intensity and duration under BMP2 stimulation with concurrent mechanical loading. Interestingly, the synergistic effect of both stimuli on immediate early Smad phosphorylation is reflected in the transcription of only a subset of BMP target genes, while others are differently affected. Together this results in a cooperative regulation of osteogenesis that is guided by both signalling pathways. Conclusions Mechanical signals are integrated into the BMP signalling pathway by enhancing immediate early steps within the Smad pathway, independent of autocrine ligand secretion. This suggests a direct crosstalk of both mechanotransduction and BMP signalling, most likely at the level of the cell surface receptors. Furthermore, the crosstalk of both pathways over longer time periods might occur on several signalling levels.
Dong, Xiuqing; Shen, Bin; Ruan, Ningsheng; Guan, Zhen; Zhang, Yanding; Chen, YiPing; Hu, Xuefeng
The developing murine tooth has been used as an excellent model system to study the molecular mechanism of organ development and regeneration. While the expression patterns of numerous regulatory genes have been examined and their roles have begun to be revealed in the developing murine tooth, little is known about gene expression and function in human tooth development. In order to unveil the molecular mechanisms that regulate human tooth morphogenesis, we examined the expression patterns of the major BMP signaling pathway molecules in the developing human tooth germ at the cap and bell stages by in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and real-time RT-PCR. Expression of BMP ligands and antagonist, including BMP2, BMP3, BMP4, BMP7, and NOOGGIN, exhibited uniform patterns in the tooth germs of incisor and molar at the cap and bell stages with stronger expression in the inner dental epithelium than that in the dental mesenchyme. Both type I and type II BMP receptors were present in widespread expression pattern in the whole-enamel organ and the dental mesenchyme with the strongest expression in inner dental epithelium at the cap and bell stages. SMAD4 and SMAD1/5/8 showed an expression pattern similar to that of BMP ligands with more intensive signals in the inner dental epithelium. Despite some unique and distinct patterns as compared to the mouse, the intensive expression of BMP signaling pathway molecules in the developing human tooth strongly suggests conserved functions of BMP signaling during human odontogenesis, such as in mediating tissue interactions and regulating differentiation and organization of odontogenic tissues. Our results provide an important set of documents for studying molecular regulatory mechanisms underlying tooth development and regeneration in humans.
Full Text Available Intermittent application of parathyroid hormone (PTH has well established anabolic effects on bone mass in rodents and humans. Although transcriptional mechanisms responsible for these effects are not fully understood, it is recognized that transcriptional factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB mediates PTH signaling in osteoblasts, and that there is a communication between the PTH-CREB pathway and the BMP2 signaling pathway, which is important for osteoblast differentiation and bone formations. These findings, in conjunction with putative cAMP response elements (CREs in the BMP2 promoter, led us to hypothesize that the PTH-CREB pathway could be a positive regulator of BMP2 transcription in osteoblasts. To test this hypothesis, we first demonstrated that PTH signaling activated CREB by phosphorylation in osteoblasts, and that both PTH and CREB were capable of promoting osteoblastic differentiation of primary mouse osteoblast cells and multiple rodent osteoblast cell lines. Importantly, we found that the PTH-CREB signaling pathway functioned as an effective activator of BMP2 expression, as pharmacologic and genetic modulation of PTH-CREB activity significantly affected BMP2 expression levels in these cells. Lastly, through multiple promoter assays, including promoter reporter deletion, mutation, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA, we identified a specific CRE in the BMP2 promoter which is responsible for CREB transactivation of the BMP2 gene in osteoblasts. Together, these results demonstrate that the anabolic function of PTH signaling in bone is mediated, at least in part, by CREB transactivation of BMP2 expression in osteoblasts.
Esteban J Beckwith
Full Text Available Living organisms use biological clocks to maintain their internal temporal order and anticipate daily environmental changes. In Drosophila, circadian regulation of locomotor behavior is controlled by ∼150 neurons; among them, neurons expressing the PIGMENT DISPERSING FACTOR (PDF set the period of locomotor behavior under free-running conditions. To date, it remains unclear how individual circadian clusters integrate their activity to assemble a distinctive behavioral output. Here we show that the BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN (BMP signaling pathway plays a crucial role in setting the circadian period in PDF neurons in the adult brain. Acute deregulation of BMP signaling causes period lengthening through regulation of dClock transcription, providing evidence for a novel function of this pathway in the adult brain. We propose that coherence in the circadian network arises from integration in PDF neurons of both the pace of the cell-autonomous molecular clock and information derived from circadian-relevant neurons through release of BMP ligands.
Kimberly A. Wong
Full Text Available Retina formation requires the correct spatiotemporal patterning of key regulatory factors. While it is known that repression of several signaling pathways lead to specification of retinal fates, addition of only Noggin, a known BMP antagonist, can convert pluripotent Xenopus laevis animal cap cells to functional retinal cells. The aim of this study is to determine the intracellular molecular events that occur during this conversion. Surprisingly, blocking BMP signaling alone failed to mimic Noggin treatment. Overexpressing Noggin in pluripotent cells resulted in a concentration-dependent suppression of both Smad1 and Smad2 phosphorylation, which act downstream of BMP and Activin signaling, respectively. This caused a decrease in downstream targets: endothelial marker, xk81, and mesodermal marker, xbra. We treated pluripotent cells with dominant-negative receptors or the chemical inhibitors, dorsomorphin and SB431542, which each target either the BMP or Activin signaling pathway. We determined the effect of these treatments on retina formation using the Animal Cap Transplant (ACT assay; in which treated pluripotent cells were transplanted into the eye field of host embryos. We found that inhibition of Activin signaling, in the presence of BMP signaling inhibition, promotes efficient retinal specification in Xenopus tissue, mimicking the affect of adding Noggin alone. In whole embryos, we found that the eye field marker, rax, expanded when adding both dominant-negative Smad1 and Smad2, as did treating the cells with both dorsomorphin and SB431542. Future studies could translate these findings to a mammalian culture assay, in order to more efficiently produce retinal cells in culture.
Soukup, Vladimír; Kozmik, Zbyněk
Roč. 143, č. 1 (2018), s. 164-174 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-20839P; GA MŠk LH12047; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015062; GA MŠk LO1419; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015040 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Bmp signaling * Nodal pathway * Amphioxus * Left-right asymmetry Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology
Nepal, Manoj; Li, Liang; Cho, Hyoung Kwon; Park, Jong Kun; Soh, Yunjo
Endochondral bone formation occurs when mesenchymal cells condense to differentiate into chondrocytes, the primary cell types of cartilage. The aim of the present study was to identify novel factors regulating chondrogenesis. We investigated whether kaempferol induces chondrogenic differentiation in clonal mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cells. Kaempferol treatment stimulated the accumulation of cartilage nodules in a dose-dependent manner. Kaempferol-treated ATDC5 cells stained more intensely with alcian blue staining than control cells, suggesting greater synthesis of matrix proteoglycans in the kaempferol-treated cells. Similarly, kaempferol induced greater activation of alkaline phosphatase activity than control cells, and it enhanced the expression of chondrogenic marker genes, such as collagen type I, collagen type X, OCN, Runx2, and Sox9. Kaempferol induced an acute activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) but not c-jun N-terminal kinase or p38 MAP kinase. PD98059, an inhibitor of MAPK/ERK, decreased in stained cells treated with kaempferol. Furthermore, kaempferol greatly expressed the protein and mRNA levels of BMP-2, suggesting chondrogenesis was stimulated via a BMP-2 pathway. Taken together, our results suggest that kaempferol has chondromodulating effects via an ERK/BMP-2 signaling pathway and could potentially be used as a therapeutic agent for bone growth disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cao, Huojun; Jheon, Andrew; Li, Xiao; Sun, Zhao; Wang, Jianbo; Florez, Sergio; Zhang, Zichao; McManus, Michael T; Klein, Ophir D; Amendt, Brad A
The mouse incisor is a remarkable tooth that grows throughout the animal's lifetime. This continuous renewal is fueled by adult epithelial stem cells that give rise to ameloblasts, which generate enamel, and little is known about the function of microRNAs in this process. Here, we describe the role of a novel Pitx2:miR-200c/141:noggin regulatory pathway in dental epithelial cell differentiation. miR-200c repressed noggin, an antagonist of Bmp signaling. Pitx2 expression caused an upregulation of miR-200c and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed endogenous Pitx2 binding to the miR-200c/141 promoter. A positive-feedback loop was discovered between miR-200c and Bmp signaling. miR-200c/141 induced expression of E-cadherin and the dental epithelial cell differentiation marker amelogenin. In addition, miR-203 expression was activated by endogenous Pitx2 and targeted the Bmp antagonist Bmper to further regulate Bmp signaling. miR-200c/141 knockout mice showed defects in enamel formation, with decreased E-cadherin and amelogenin expression and increased noggin expression. Our in vivo and in vitro studies reveal a multistep transcriptional program involving the Pitx2:miR-200c/141:noggin regulatory pathway that is important in epithelial cell differentiation and tooth development.
Shimada, Koichi; Ikeda, Kyoko; Ito, Koichi
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play important roles in osteoblast differentiation and maturation. In mammals, the BMP-induced receptor-regulated Smads form complexes with Smad4. These complexes translocate and accumulate in the nucleus, where they regulate the transcription of various target genes. However, the function of Smad4 remains unclear. We performed a yeast two-hybrid screen using Smad4 as bait and a cDNA library derived from bone marrow, to indentify the proteins interacting with Smad4. cDNA clones for Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 2 (Traf2) were identified, and the interaction between the endogenous proteins was confirmed in the mouse osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1. To investigate the function of Traf2, we silenced it with siRNA. The level of BMP-2 protein in the medium, the expression levels of the Bmp2 gene and BMP-induced transcription factor genes, including Runx2, Dlx5, Msx2, and Sp7, and the phosphorylated-Smad1 protein level were increased in cells transfected with Traf2 siRNA. The nuclear accumulation of Smad1 increased with TNF-α stimulation for 30 min at Traf2 silencing. These results suggest that the TNF-α-stimulated nuclear accumulation of Smad1 may be dependent on Traf2. Thus, the interaction between Traf2 and Smad4 may play a role in the cross-talk between TNF-α and BMP signaling pathways.
Kumar, Jitender; Swanberg, Maria; McGuigan, Fiona; Callreus, Mattias; Gerdhem, Paul; Akesson, Kristina
Osteoporosis is a common complex disorder in postmenopausal women leading to changes in the micro-architecture of bone and increased risk of fracture. Members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) gene family regulates the development and physiology of bone through the Wnt/β-catenin (Wnt) pathway that in turn cross-talks with the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway. In two cohorts of Swedish women: OPRA (n=1002; age 75 years) and PEAK-25 (n=1005; age 25 years), eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from Wnt pathway genes (LRP4; LRP5; G protein-coupled receptor 177, GPR177) were analyzed for association with Bone Mineral Density (BMD), rate of bone loss, hip geometry, quantitative ultrasound and fracture. Additionally, interaction of LRP4 with LRP5, GPR177 and BMP2 were analyzed. LRP4 (rs6485702) was associated with higher total body (TB) and lumbar spine (LS) BMD in the PEAK-25 cohort (p=0.006 and 0.005 respectively), and interaction was observed with LRP5 (p=0.007) and BMP2 (p=0.004) for TB BMD. LRP4 also showed significant interaction with LRP5 for femoral neck (FN) and LS BMD in this cohort. In the OPRA cohort, LRP4 polymorphisms were associated with significantly lower fracture incidence overall (p=0.008-0.001) and fewer hip fractures (rs3816614, p=0.006). Significant interaction in the OPRA cohort was observed for LRP4 with BMP2 and GPR177 for FN BMD as well as for rate of bone loss at TB and FN (p=0.007-0.0001). In conclusion, LRP4 and interaction between LRP4 and genes in the Wnt and BMP signaling pathways modulate bone phenotypes including peak bone mass and fracture, the clinical endpoint of osteoporosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH is a disease of progressively increasing pulmonary vascular resistance, associated with mutations of the type 2 receptor for the BMP pathway, BMPR2. The canonical signaling pathway for BMPR2 is through the SMAD family of transcription factors. BMPR2 is expressed in every cell type, but the impact of BMPR2 mutations affecting SMAD signaling, such as Bmpr2delx4+, had only previously been investigated in smooth muscle and endothelium. In the present study, we created a mouse with universal doxycycline-inducible expression of Bmpr2delx4+ in order to determine if broader expression had an impact relevant to the development of PAH. We found that the most obvious phenotype was a dramatic, but patchy, increase in pulmonary inflammation. We crossed these double transgenic mice onto an NF-κB reporter strain, and by luciferase assays on live mice, individual organs and isolated macrophages, we narrowed down the origin of the inflammatory phenotype to constitutive activation of tissue macrophages. Study of bone marrow-derived macrophages from mutant and wild-type mice suggested a baseline difference in differentiation state in Bmpr2 mutants. When activated with LPS, both mutant and wild-type macrophages secrete BMP pathway inhibitors sufficient to suppress BMP pathway activity in smooth muscle cells (SMC treated with conditioned media. Functionally, co-culture with macrophages results in a BMP signaling-dependent increase in scratch closure in cultured SMC. We conclude that SMAD signaling through BMP is responsible, in part, for preventing macrophage activation in both live animals and in cells in culture, and that activated macrophages secrete BMP inhibitors in sufficient quantity to cause paracrine effect on vascular smooth muscle.
Full Text Available Zirconium (Zr is an element commonly used in dental and orthopedic implants either as zirconia (ZrO2 or in metal alloys. It can also be incorporated into calcium silicate-based ceramics. However, the effects of in vitro culture of human osteoblasts (HOBs with soluble ionic forms of Zr have not been determined. In this study, primary culture of human osteoblasts was conducted in the presence of medium containing either ZrCl4 or Zirconium (IV oxynitrate (ZrO(NO32 at concentrations of 0, 5, 50 and 500 µM, and osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and calcium deposition were assessed. Incubation of human osteoblast cultures with Zr ions increased the proliferation of human osteoblasts and also gene expression of genetic markers of osteoblast differentiation. In 21 and 28 day cultures, Zr ions at concentrations of 50 and 500 µM increased the deposition of calcium phosphate. In addition, the gene expression of BMP2 and BMP receptors was increased in response to culture with Zr ions and this was associated with increased phosphorylation of SMAD1/5. Moreover, Noggin suppressed osteogenic gene expression in HOBs co-treated with Zr ions. In conclusion, Zr ions appear able to induce both the proliferation and the differentiation of primary human osteoblasts. This is associated with up-regulation of BMP2 expression and activation of BMP signaling suggesting this action is, at least in part, mediated by BMP signaling.
Lamplot, Joseph D; Qin, Jiaqiang; Nan, Guoxin; Wang, Jinhua; Liu, Xing; Yin, Liangjun; Tomal, Justin; Li, Ruidong; Shui, Wei; Zhang, Hongyu; Kim, Stephanie H; Zhang, Wenwen; Zhang, Jiye; Kong, Yuhan; Denduluri, Sahitya; Rogers, Mary Rose; Pratt, Abdullah; Haydon, Rex C; Luu, Hue H; Angeles, Jovito; Shi, Lewis L; He, Tong-Chuan
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the TGF-β superfamily and play a critical role in skeletal development, bone formation and stem cell differentiation. Disruptions in BMP signaling result in a variety of skeletal and extraskeletal anomalies. BMP9 is a poorly characterized member of the BMP family and is among the most osteogenic BMPs, promoting osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) both in vitro and in vivo. Recent findings from various in vivo and molecular studies strongly suggest that the mechanisms governing BMP9-mediated osteoinduction differ from other osteogenic BMPs. Many signaling pathways with diverse functions have been found to play a role in BMP9-mediated osteogenesis. Several of these pathways are also critical in the differentiation of other cell lineages, including adipocytes and chondrocytes. While BMP9 is known to be a potent osteogenic factor, it also influences several other pathways including cancer development, angiogenesis and myogenesis. Although BMP9 has been demonstrated as one of the most osteogenic BMPs, relatively little is known about the specific mechanisms responsible for these effects. BMP9 has demonstrated efficacy in promoting spinal fusion and bony non-union repair in animal models, demonstrating great translational promise. This review aims to summarize our current knowledge of BMP9-mediated osteogenesis by presenting recently completed work which may help us to further elucidate these pathways. PMID:23671813
Bai, Yan; Wang, Jun; Morikawa, Yuka; Bonilla-Claudio, Margarita; Klysik, Elzbieta; Martin, James F
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a devastating anomaly that affects ∼1% of live births. Defects of the outflow tract (OFT) make up a large percentage of human CHD. We investigated Bmp signaling in mouse OFT development by conditionally deleting both Bmp4 and Bmp7 in the second heart field (SHF). SHF Bmp4/7 deficiency resulted in defective epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and reduced cardiac neural crest ingress, with resultant persistent truncus arteriosus. Using a candidate gene approach, we found that Vegfa was upregulated in the Bmp4/7 mutant hearts. To determine if Vegfa is a downstream Bmp effector during EMT, we examined whether Vegfa is transcriptionally regulated by the Bmp receptor-regulated Smad. Our findings indicate that Smad directly binds to Vegfa chromatin and represses Vegfa transcriptional activity. We also found that Vegfa is a direct target for the miR-17-92 cluster, which is also regulated by Bmp signaling in the SHF. Deletion of miR-17-92 reveals similar phenotypes to Bmp4/7 SHF deletion. To directly address the function of Vegfa repression in Bmp-mediated EMT, we performed ex vivo explant cultures from Bmp4/7 and miR-17-92 mutant hearts. EMT was defective in explants from the Bmp4/7 double conditional knockout (dCKO; Mef2c-Cre;Bmp4/7(f/f)) and miR-17-92 null. By antagonizing Vegfa activity in explants, EMT was rescued in Bmp4/7 dCKO and miR-17-92 null culture. Moreover, overexpression of miR-17-92 partially suppressed the EMT defect in Bmp4/7 mutant embryos. Our study reveals that Vegfa levels in the OFT are tightly controlled by Smad- and microRNA-dependent pathways to modulate OFT development.
Goto, Keiko; Kimura, Taichi; Kitamura, Nobuto; Semba, Shingo; Ohmiya, Yoshihiro; Aburatani, Sachiyo; Matsukura, Satoko; Tsuda, Masumi; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Ping Gong, Jian; Tanaka, Shinya; Yasuda, Kazunori
The purposes of this study were to identify signaling pathways that were specifically activated in ATDC5 cells cultured on poly (2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) (PAMPS) gel in insulin-free maintenance medium and to evaluate the significance of the determined signaling pathways in the chondrogenic differentiation induced by this gel. In this study, ATDC5 cells cultured on PAMPS gel using the maintenance medium without insulin (PAMPS Culture) were compared with cells cultured on polystyrene using the differentiation medium containing insulin (PS-I Culture). The microarray analysis, Western blot analysis, and real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that the TGF-β/BMP signaling pathway was significantly enhanced at Days 1, 2, and 3 in the PAMPS Culture when compared with the PS-I Culture. Inhibition of the BMP type-I receptor reduced the phosphorylation level of Smad1/5 and expression of type-2 collagen and aggrecan mRNA in the cells accompanied by a reduction in cell aggregation at Day 13 in the PAMPS Culture. The inhibition of the TGF-β/BMP signaling pathway significantly inhibited the chondrogenic differentiation induced by the PAMPS gel. The present study demonstrated that synthetic PAMPS gel activates the TGF-β/BMP/Smad signaling pathway in the ATDC5 cells in the absence of insulin, and that this activation plays a significant role in the chondrogenic differentiation induced by PAMPS gel. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 734-746, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Jiang, Lingling; Xu, Jincao; Jin, Ran; Bai, Huanju; Zhang, Meiguang; Yang, Siyuan; Zhang, Xuebo; Zhang, Xinwen; Han, Zhongming; Zeng, Shaoju
Unlike mammalian hair cells, which are essentially unable to regenerate after damage, avian hair cells have a robust capacity for regeneration. The prerequisite for understanding the above difference is knowing the genetic programming of avian hair cell regeneration. Although the major processes have been known, the precise molecular signaling that induces regeneration remains unclear. To address this issue, we performed a high-throughput transcriptomic analysis of gene expression during hair cell regeneration in the chick cochlea after antibiotic injury in vivo. A total of 16,588 genes were found to be expressed in the cochlea, of which about 1000 genes were differentially expressed among the four groups studied, i.e., 2 days (d) or 3 d post-treatment with gentamicin or physiological saline. The differentially expressed genes were distributed across approximately one hundred signaling pathways, including the Notch, MAPK (FGF), Wnt and TGF-β (BMP) pathways that have been shown to play important roles in embryonic development. Some differentially expressed genes (2-3 in each pathway) were further verified by qRT-PCR. After blocking Notch, FGF or BMP signaling, the number of regenerating hair cells and mitotic supporting cells increased. However, the opposite effect was observed after suppressing the Wnt pathway or enhancing BMP signaling. To our knowledge, the present study provided a relatively complete dataset of candidate genes and signaling pathways most likely involved in hair cell regeneration and should be a useful start in deciphering the genetic circuitry for inducing hair cell regeneration in the chick cochlea. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Zinc (Zn is an essential trace element and it is abundant in connective tissues, however biological roles of Zn and its transporters in those tissues and cells remain unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report that mice deficient in Zn transporter Slc39a13/Zip13 show changes in bone, teeth and connective tissue reminiscent of the clinical spectrum of human Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS. The Slc39a13 knockout (Slc39a13-KO mice show defects in the maturation of osteoblasts, chondrocytes, odontoblasts, and fibroblasts. In the corresponding tissues and cells, impairment in bone morphogenic protein (BMP and TGF-beta signaling were observed. Homozygosity for a SLC39A13 loss of function mutation was detected in sibs affected by a unique variant of EDS that recapitulates the phenotype observed in Slc39a13-KO mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Hence, our results reveal a crucial role of SLC39A13/ZIP13 in connective tissue development at least in part due to its involvement in the BMP/TGF-beta signaling pathways. The Slc39a13-KO mouse represents a novel animal model linking zinc metabolism, BMP/TGF-beta signaling and connective tissue dysfunction.
Full Text Available Nodal and BMP signals are important for establishing left-right (LR asymmetry in vertebrates. In sea urchins, Nodal signaling prevents the formation of the rudiment on the right side. However, the opposing pathway to Nodal signaling during LR axis establishment is not clear. Here, we revealed that BMP signaling is activated in the left coelomic pouch, specifically in the veg2 lineage, but not in the small micromeres. By perturbing BMP activities, we demonstrated that BMP signaling is required for activating the expression of the left-sided genes and the formation of the left-sided structures. On the other hand, Nodal signals on the right side inhibit BMP signaling and control LR asymmetric separation and apoptosis of the small micromeres. Our findings show that BMP signaling is the positive signal for left-sided development in sea urchins, suggesting that the opposing roles of Nodal and BMP signals in establishing LR asymmetry are conserved in deuterostomes.
Karolak Michele J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs regulate essential processes during organogenesis, and a functional understanding of these secreted proteins depends on identification of their target cells. In this study, we generate a transgenic reporter for organogenesis studies that we use to define BMP pathway activation in the developing kidney. Results Mouse strains reporting on BMP pathway activation were generated by transgenically expressing β-galactosidase under the control of BMP responsive elements from Id1. Reporter expression corresponds well with immunoassays for pathway activation in all organs studied, validating the model. Using these reporters we have generated a detailed map of cellular targets of BMP signaling in the developing kidney. We find that SMAD dependent BMP signaling is active in collecting duct trunks, but not tips. Furthermore, glomerular endothelial cells, and proximal nephron tubules from the renal vesicle stage onward show pathway activation. Surprisingly, little activation is detected in the nephrogenic zone of the kidney, and in organ culture BMP treatment fails to activate SMAD dependent BMP signaling in nephron progenitor cells. In contrast, signaling is efficiently induced in collecting duct tips. Conclusion Transgenic reporters driven by control elements from BMP responsive genes such as Id1 offer significant advantages in sensitivity and consistency over immunostaining for studies of BMP pathway activation. They also provide opportunities for analysis of BMP signaling in organ and primary cell cultures subjected to experimental manipulation. Using such a reporter, we made the surprising finding that SMAD dependent BMP signaling is inactive in nephron progenitors, and that these cells are refractory to activation by applied growth factors. Furthermore, we find that the BMP pathway is not normally active in collecting duct tips, but that it can be ectopically activated by BMP treatment, offering a
Tan, Li-Duan; Du, Xin; Li, Xiao-Qing; He, Rui; Wang, Qing-Shan; Feng, Yu-Mei
Bone is one of the most common organs of breast cancer metastasis. Cancer cells that mimic osteoblasts by expressing bone matrix proteins and factors have a higher likelihood of metastasizing to bone. However, the molecular mechanisms of osteomimicry formation of cancer cells remain undefined. Herein, we identified a set of bone-related genes (BRGs) that are ectopically co-expressed in primary breast cancer tissues and determined that osteomimetic feature is obtained due to the osteoblast-like transformation of epithelial breast cancer cells that have undergone epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) followed by bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) stimulation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that breast cancer cells that transformed into osteoblast-like cells with high expression of BRGs showed enhanced chemotaxis, adhesion, proliferation and multidrug resistance in an osteoblast-mimic bone microenvironment in vitro. During these processes, runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) functioned as a master mediator by suppressing or activating the transcription of BRGs that underlie the dynamic antagonism between the TGF-β/SMAD and BMP/SMAD signaling pathways in breast cancer cells. Our findings suggest a novel mechanism of osteomimicry formation that arises in primary breast tumors, which may explain the propensity of breast cancer to metastasize to the skeleton and contribute to potential strategies for predicting and targeting breast cancer bone metastasis and multidrug resistance. PMID:27806311
Víctor G Martínez
Full Text Available Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs form a group of secreted factors that belongs to the TGF-β superfamily. Among different roles in a number of immune cell types, BMPs are known to regulate T cell development within the thymus, although the role of BMP signaling in human mature T cells remains elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that canonical BMP signaling is necessary during two critical events that regulate the size and function of human naive CD4+ T cell population: activation and homeostasis. Upon stimulation via TCR, naive CD4+ T cells upregulate the expression of BMP ligands triggering canonical BMP signaling in CD25+ cells. Blockade of BMP signaling severely impairs CD4+ T cell proliferation after activation mainly through regulation of IL-2, since the addition of this cytokine recuperates normal T cell expansion after inhibition of BMP signaling. Similarly, activation of canonical BMP pathway is required for both the maintenance of cell survival and the homeostatic proliferation induced by IL-7, a key factor for T cell homeostasis. Moreover, upregulation of two critical receptors for T cell homeostasis, CXCR4 and CCR9, triggered by IL-7 is also abrogated in the absence of BMP signaling. Collectively, we describe important roles of the canonical BMP signaling in human naive CD4+ T cell activation and homeostasis that could be valuable for clinical application.
Woo, Su-Mi; Kim, Won-Jae; Lim, Hae-Soon; Choi, Nam-Ki; Kim, Sun-Hun; Kim, Seon-Mi; Jung, Ji-Yeon
Recent reports have shown that the combined use of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), an autologous fibrin matrix, and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as root filling material is beneficial for the endodontic management of an open apex. However, the potential of the combination of MTA and PRF as an odontogenic inducer in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) in vitro has not yet been studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the combination of MTA and PRF on odontoblastic maturation in HDPCs. HDPCs extracted from third molars were directly cultured with MTA and PRF extract (PRFe). Odontoblastic differentiation of HDPCs was evaluated by measuring the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and the expression of odontogenesis-related genes was detected using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction or Western blot. Mineralization formation was assessed by alizarin red staining. HDPCs treated with MTA and PRFe significantly up-regulated the expression of dentin sialoprotein and dentin matrix protein-1 and enhanced ALP activity and mineralization compared with those with MTA or PRFe treatment alone. In addition, the combination of MTA and PRFe induced the activation of bone morphogenic proteins (BMP)/Smad, whereas LDN193189, the bone morphogenic protein inhibitor, attenuated dentin sialophosphoprotein and dentin matrix protein-1 expression, ALP activity, and mineralization enhanced by MTA and PRFe treatment. This study shows that the combination of MTA and PRF has a synergistic effect on the stimulation of odontoblastic differentiation of HDPCs via the modulation of the BMP/Smad signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stantzou, Amalia; Schirwis, Elija; Swist, Sandra; Alonso-Martin, Sonia; Polydorou, Ioanna; Zarrouki, Faouzi; Mouisel, Etienne; Beley, Cyriaque; Julien, Anaïs; Le Grand, Fabien; Garcia, Luis; Colnot, Céline; Birchmeier, Carmen; Braun, Thomas; Schuelke, Markus; Relaix, Frédéric; Amthor, Helge
Postnatal growth of skeletal muscle largely depends on the expansion and differentiation of resident stem cells, the so-called satellite cells. Here, we demonstrate that postnatal satellite cells express components of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling machinery. Overexpression of noggin in postnatal mice (to antagonize BMP ligands), satellite cell-specific knockout of Alk3 (the gene encoding the BMP transmembrane receptor) or overexpression of inhibitory SMAD6 decreased satellite cell proliferation and accretion during myofiber growth, and ultimately retarded muscle growth. Moreover, reduced BMP signaling diminished the adult satellite cell pool. Abrogation of BMP signaling in satellite cell-derived primary myoblasts strongly diminished cell proliferation and upregulated the expression of cell cycle inhibitors p21 and p57 In conclusion, these results show that BMP signaling defines postnatal muscle development by regulating satellite cell-dependent myofiber growth and the generation of the adult muscle stem cell pool. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Ian P M Tomlinson
Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified 14 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs that are associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC, and several of these tagSNPs are near bone morphogenetic protein (BMP pathway loci. The penalty of multiple testing implicit in GWAS increases the attraction of complementary approaches for disease gene discovery, including candidate gene- or pathway-based analyses. The strongest candidate loci for additional predisposition SNPs are arguably those already known both to have functional relevance and to be involved in disease risk. To investigate this proposition, we searched for novel CRC susceptibility variants close to the BMP pathway genes GREM1 (15q13.3, BMP4 (14q22.2, and BMP2 (20p12.3 using sample sets totalling 24,910 CRC cases and 26,275 controls. We identified new, independent CRC predisposition SNPs close to BMP4 (rs1957636, P = 3.93×10(-10 and BMP2 (rs4813802, P = 4.65×10(-11. Near GREM1, we found using fine-mapping that the previously-identified association between tagSNP rs4779584 and CRC actually resulted from two independent signals represented by rs16969681 (P = 5.33×10(-8 and rs11632715 (P = 2.30×10(-10. As low-penetrance predisposition variants become harder to identify-owing to small effect sizes and/or low risk allele frequencies-approaches based on informed candidate gene selection may become increasingly attractive. Our data emphasise that genetic fine-mapping studies can deconvolute associations that have arisen owing to independent correlation of a tagSNP with more than one functional SNP, thus explaining some of the apparently missing heritability of common diseases.
Phillips, Marjorie A.; Qin, Qin [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616-8588 (United States); Hu, Qin; Zhao, Bin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Rice, Robert H., E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616-8588 (United States)
Arsenic, a human skin carcinogen, suppresses differentiation of cultured keratinocytes. Exploring the mechanism of this suppression revealed that BMP-6 greatly increased levels of mRNA for keratins 1 and 10, two of the earliest differentiation markers expressed, a process prevented by co-treatment with arsenite. BMP also stimulated, and arsenite suppressed, mRNA for FOXN1, an important transcription factor driving early keratinocyte differentiation. Keratin mRNAs increased slowly after BMP-6 addition, suggesting they are indirect transcriptional targets. Inhibition of Notch1 activation blocked BMP induction of keratins 1 and 10, while FOXN1 induction was largely unaffected. Supporting a requirement for Notch1 signaling in keratin induction, BMP increased levels of activated Notch1, which was blocked by arsenite. BMP also greatly decreased active ERK, while co-treatment with arsenite maintained active ERK. Inhibition of ERK signaling mimicked BMP by inducing keratin and FOXN1 mRNAs and by increasing active Notch1, effects blocked by arsenite. Of 6 dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSPs) targeting ERK, two were induced by BMP unless prevented by simultaneous exposure to arsenite and EGF. Knockdown of DUSP2 or DUSP14 using shRNAs greatly reduced FOXN1 and keratins 1 and 10 mRNA levels and their induction by BMP. Knockdown also decreased activated Notch1, keratin 1 and keratin 10 protein levels, both in the presence and absence of BMP. Thus, one of the earliest effects of BMP is induction of DUSPs, which increases FOXN1 transcription factor and activates Notch1, both required for keratin gene expression. Arsenite prevents this cascade by maintaining ERK signaling, at least in part by suppressing DUSP expression. - Highlights: • BMP induces FOXN1 transcription. • BMP induces DUSP2 and DUSP14, suppressing ERK activation. • Arsenite suppresses levels of phosphorylated Smad1/5 and FOXN1 and DUSP mRNA. • These actions rationalize arsenite suppression of keratinocyte
Tadokoro, Tomomi; Gao, Xia; Hong, Charles C; Hotten, Danielle; Hogan, Brigid L M
The pseudostratified epithelium of the lung contains ciliated and secretory luminal cells and basal stem/progenitor cells. To identify signals controlling basal cell behavior we screened factors that alter their self-renewal and differentiation in a clonal organoid (tracheosphere) assay. This revealed that inhibitors of the canonical BMP signaling pathway promote proliferation but do not affect lineage choice, whereas exogenous Bmp4 inhibits proliferation and differentiation. We therefore followed changes in BMP pathway components in vivo in the mouse trachea during epithelial regeneration from basal cells after injury. The findings suggest that BMP signaling normally constrains proliferation at steady state and this brake is released transiently during repair by the upregulation of endogenous BMP antagonists. Early in repair, the packing of epithelial cells along the basal lamina increases, but density is later restored by active extrusion of apoptotic cells. Systemic administration of the BMP antagonist LDN-193189 during repair initially increases epithelial cell number but, following the shedding phase, normal density is restored. Taken together, these results reveal crucial roles for both BMP signaling and cell shedding in homeostasis of the respiratory epithelium. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Caja, Laia; Tzavlaki, Kalliopi; Dadras, Mahsa S; Tan, E-Jean; Hatem, Gad; Maturi, Naga P; Morén, Anita; Wik, Lotta; Watanabe, Yukihide; Savary, Katia; Kamali-Moghaddan, Masood; Uhrbom, Lene; Heldin, Carl-Henrik; Moustakas, Aristidis
Glioblastoma multiforme is a brain malignancy characterized by high heterogeneity, invasiveness, and resistance to current therapies, attributes related to the occurrence of glioma stem cells (GSCs). Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) promotes self-renewal and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) induces differentiation of GSCs. BMP7 induces the transcription factor Snail to promote astrocytic differentiation in GSCs and suppress tumor growth in vivo. We demonstrate that Snail represses stemness in GSCs. Snail interacts with SMAD signaling mediators, generates a positive feedback loop of BMP signaling and transcriptionally represses the TGFB1 gene, decreasing TGFβ1 signaling activity. Exogenous TGFβ1 counteracts Snail function in vitro, and in vivo promotes proliferation and re-expression of Nestin, confirming the importance of TGFB1 gene repression by Snail. In conclusion, novel insight highlights mechanisms whereby Snail differentially regulates the activity of the opposing BMP and TGFβ pathways, thus promoting an astrocytic fate switch and repressing stemness in GSCs.
Full Text Available The specification of primordial germ cells (PGCs and subsequent maintenance of germ-line identity in Drosophila embryos has long been thought to occur solely under the control of cell-autonomous factors deposited in the posterior pole plasm during oogenesis. However, here we document a novel role for somatic BMP signaling in the maintenance of PGC fate during the period leading up to embryonic gonad coalescence. We find that PGCs fail to maintain their germline identity when BMP signaling is compromised. They initiate but are unable to properly assemble the germline stem cell-specific organelle, the spectrosome, and they lose expression of the germline-specific gene Vasa. BMP signaling must, however, be finely tuned as there are deleterious consequences to PGCs when the pathway is excessively active. We show that one mechanism used to calibrate the effects of BMP signals is dependent on the Ubc9 homolog Lesswright (Lwr.
Deshpande, Girish; Willis, Elinor; Chatterjee, Sandip; Fernandez, Robert; Dias, Kristen; Schedl, Paul
The specification of primordial germ cells (PGCs) and subsequent maintenance of germ-line identity in Drosophila embryos has long been thought to occur solely under the control of cell-autonomous factors deposited in the posterior pole plasm during oogenesis. However, here we document a novel role for somatic BMP signaling in the maintenance of PGC fate during the period leading up to embryonic gonad coalescence. We find that PGCs fail to maintain their germline identity when BMP signaling is compromised. They initiate but are unable to properly assemble the germline stem cell-specific organelle, the spectrosome, and they lose expression of the germline-specific gene Vasa. BMP signaling must, however, be finely tuned as there are deleterious consequences to PGCs when the pathway is excessively active. We show that one mechanism used to calibrate the effects of BMP signals is dependent on the Ubc9 homolog Lesswright (Lwr). PMID:24551179
Rankin, Scott A; McCracken, Kyle W; Luedeke, David M; Han, Lu; Wells, James M; Shannon, John M; Zorn, Aaron M
A small number of signaling pathways are used repeatedly during organogenesis, and they can have drastically different effects on the same population of cells depending on the embryonic stage. How cellular competence changes over developmental time is not well understood. Here we used Xenopus, mouse, and human pluripotent stem cells to investigate how the temporal sequence of Wnt, BMP, and retinoic acid (RA) signals regulates endoderm developmental competence and organ induction, focusing on respiratory fate. While Nkx2-1+ lung fate is not induced until late somitogenesis stages, here we show that lung competence is restricted by the gastrula stage as a result of Wnt and BMP-dependent anterior-posterior (A-P) patterning. These early Wnt and BMP signals make posterior endoderm refractory to subsequent RA/Wnt/BMP-dependent lung induction. We further mapped how RA modulates the response to Wnt and BMP in a temporal specific manner. In the gastrula RA promotes posterior identity, however in early somite stages of development RA regulates respiratory versus pharyngeal potential in anterior endoderm and midgut versus hindgut potential in posterior endoderm. Together our data suggest a dynamic and conserved response of vertebrate endoderm during organogenesis, wherein early Wnt/BMP/RA impacts how cells respond to later Wnt/BMP/RA signals, illustrating how reiterative combinatorial signaling can regulate both developmental competence and subsequent fate specification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Control of osteogenesis by the canonical Wnt and BMP pathways in vivo: cooperation and antagonism between the canonical Wnt and BMP pathways as cells differentiate from osteochondroprogenitors to osteoblasts and osteocytes.
Marcellini, Sylvain; Henriquez, Juan Pablo; Bertin, Ariana
Although many regulators of skeletogenesis have been functionally characterized, one current challenge is to integrate this information into regulatory networks. Here, we discuss how the canonical Wnt and Smad-dependent BMP pathways interact together and play antagonistic or cooperative roles at different steps of osteogenesis, in the context of the developing vertebrate embryo. Early on, BMP signaling specifies multipotent mesenchymal cells into osteochondroprogenitors. In turn, the function of Wnt signaling is to drive these osteochondroprogenitors towards an osteoblastic fate. Subsequently, both pathways promote osteoblast differentiation, albeit with notable mechanistic differences. In osteocytes, the ultimate stage of osteogenic differentiation, the Wnt and BMP pathways exert opposite effects on the control of bone resorption by osteoclasts. We describe how the dynamic molecular wiring of the canonical Wnt and Smad-dependent BMP signaling into the skeletal cell genetic programme is critical for the generation of bone-specific cell types during development. Copyright © 2012 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Damage to the nervous system can cause devastating diseases or musculoskeletal dysfunctions and transplantation of progenitor stem cells can be an excellent treatment option in this regard. Preclinical studies demonstrate that untreated stem cells, unlike stem cells activated to differentiate into neuronal lineage, do not survive in the neuronal tissues. Conventional methods of inducing neuronal differentiation of stem cells are complex and expensive. We therefore sought to determine if a simple, one-step, and cost effective method, previously reported to induce neuronal differentiation of embryonic stem cells and induced-pluripotent stem cells, can be applied to adult stem cells. Indeed, dual inhibition of activin/nodal/TGF-β and BMP pathways using SB431542 and dorsomorphin, respectively, induced neuronal differentiation of human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs as evidenced by formation of neurite extensions, protein expression of neuron-specific gamma enolase, and mRNA expression of neuron-specific transcription factors Sox1 and Pax6 and matured neuronal marker NF200. This process correlated with enhanced phosphorylation of p38, Erk1/2, PI3K, and Akt1/3. Additionally, in vitro subcutaneous implants of SB431542 and dorsomorphin treated hADSCs displayed significantly higher expression of active-axonal-growth-specific marker GAP43. Our data offers novel insights into cell-based therapies for the nervous system repair.
Full Text Available Background. The disruption of physiologic vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC migration initiates atherosclerosis development. The biochemical mechanisms leading to dysfunctional VSMC motility remain unknown. Recently, cytokine BMP-2 has been implicated in various vascular physiologic and pathologic processes. However, whether BMP-2 has any effect upon VSMC motility, or by what manner, has never been investigated. Methods. VSMCs were adenovirally transfected to genetically overexpress BMP-2. VSMC motility was detected by modified Boyden chamber assay, confocal time-lapse video assay, and a colony wounding assay. Gene chip array and RT-PCR were employed to identify genes potentially regulated by BMP-2. Western blot and real-time PCR detected the expression of myosin Va and the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (Erk1/2. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed myosin Va expression locale. Intracellular Ca2+ oscillations were recorded. Results. VSMC migration was augmented in VSMCs overexpressing BMP-2 in a dose-dependent manner. siRNA-mediated knockdown of myosin Va inhibited VSMC motility. Both myosin Va mRNA and protein expression significantly increased after BMP-2 administration and were inhibited by Erk1/2 inhibitor U0126. BMP-2 induced Ca2+ oscillations, generated largely by a “cytosolic oscillator”. Conclusion. BMP-2 significantly increased VSMCs migration and myosin Va expression, via the Erk signaling pathway and intracellular Ca2+ oscillations. We provide additional insight into the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, and inhibition of BMP-2-induced myosin Va expression may represent a potential therapeutic strategy.
Garside, Victoria C.; Chang, Alex C.; Karsan, Aly; Hoodless, Pamela A.
Congenital heart defects affect approximately 1–5% of human newborns each year and of these cardiac defects, 20–30% are due to heart valve abnormalities. Recent literature indicates that key factors and pathways that regulate valve development are also implicated in congenital heart defects and valve disease. Currently, there are limited options for treatment of valve disease and therefore, having a better understanding of valve development can contribute critical insight into congenital valve defects and disease. There are three major signalling pathways required for early specification and initiation of Endothelial-to-Mesenchymal Transformation (EMT) in the cardiac cushions: BMP, TGFβ, and Notch signalling. BMPs secreted from the myocardium setup the environment for the overlying endocardium to become activated, Notch signalling initiates EMT, and both BMP and TGFβ signalling synergizes with Notch to promote the transition of endothelia to mesenchyme and to promote mesenchymal cell invasiveness. Together, these three essential signalling pathways help to form the cardiac cushions and populate them with mesenchyme and, consequently, set off the cascade of events required to develop mature heart valves. Furthermore, integration and cross-talk between these pathways generate highly stratified and delicate valve leaflets and septa of the heart. Here, we discuss BMP, TGFβ, and Notch signalling pathways during mouse cardiac cushion formation and how they together produce a coordinated EMT response in the developing mouse valves. PMID:23161060
Manson, Scott R; Austin, Paul F; Guo, Qiusha; Moore, Katelynn H
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant health problem that most commonly results from congenital abnormalities in children and chronic renal injury in adults. The therapeutic potential of BMP-7 was first recognized nearly two decades ago with studies demonstrating its requirement for kidney development and ability to inhibit the pathogenesis of renal injury in models of CKD. Since this time, our understanding of CKD has advanced considerably and treatment strategies have evolved with the identification of many additional signaling pathways, cell types, and pathologic processes that contribute to disease progression. The purpose of this review is to revisit the seminal studies that initially established the importance of BMP-7, highlight recent advances in BMP-7 research, and then integrate this knowledge with current research paradigms. We will provide an overview of the evolutionarily conserved roles of BMP proteins and the features that allow BMP signaling pathways to function as critical signaling nodes for controlling biological processes, including those related to CKD. We will discuss the multifaceted functions of BMP-7 during kidney development and the potential for alterations in BMP-7 signaling to result in congenital abnormalities and pediatric kidney disease. We will summarize the renal protective effects of recombinant BMP-7 in experimental models of CKD and then propose a model to describe the potential physiological role of endogenous BMP-7 in the innate repair mechanisms of the kidneys that respond to renal injury. Finally, we will highlight emerging clinical approaches for applying our knowledge of BMP-7 toward improving the treatment of patients with CKD. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available During development, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs exert important functions in several tissues by regulating signaling for cell differentiation and migration. In vivo the extracellular matrix (ECM not only provides a support for adherent cells, but also presents a reservoir of growth factors (GFs. Several constituents of the ECM provide adhesive cues, which serve as binding sites for cell transmembrane receptors, such as integrins, which convey adhesion-mediated signaling to the intracellular compartment. Integrins do not function alone but rather crosstalk and cooperate with other receptors, such as GF receptors, in regulating cell responses to extracellular signals. To this, we present here the immobilization of BMP-2 onto cellular fibronectin (cFN, a key protein of the ECM, to investigate their impact on GF-mediated signaling and migration.Following biotinylation, BMP-2 was linked to biotinylated cFN using NeutrAvidin (NA as cross-linker. Characterization with QCM-D and ELISA confirmed the efficient immobilization of BMP-2 on cFN over a period of 24 h.To validate the bioactivity of matrix-immobilized BMP-2 (iBMP-2 we investigated short- and long-term responses of C2C12 myoblasts in comparison to soluble BMP-2 (sBMP-2 or in absence of GFs. Similarly to sBMP-2, iBMP-2 triggered Smad 1/5 phosphorylation and translocation into the nucleus corresponding to the activation of BMP-mediated Smad-dependent pathway. Additionally, successful suppression of myotube formation was observed after six days.We next implemented this approach to fabricate cFN micro patterned stripes by soft lithography. These stripes only allowed cell-surface interaction on the pattern due to passivation of the surface in between, thus serving as platform for studies on directed cell migration. During a 10 h-period, cells showed an increased migratory activity upon BMP-2 exposure.Thus, this versatile tool retains the GF's bioactivity and allows the presentation of ECM
Pandit, Tanushree; Jidigam, Vijay K; Patthey, Cedric; Gunhaga, Lena
The eye has served as a classical model to study cell specification and tissue induction for over a century. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the induction and maintenance of eye-field cells, and the specification of neural retina cells are poorly understood. Moreover, within the developing anterior forebrain, how prospective eye and telencephalic cells are differentially specified is not well defined. In the present study, we have analyzed these issues by manipulating signaling pathways in intact chick embryo and explant assays. Our results provide evidence that at blastula stages, BMP signals inhibit the acquisition of eye-field character, but from neural tube/optic vesicle stages, BMP signals from the lens are crucial for the maintenance of eye-field character, inhibition of dorsal telencephalic cell identity and specification of neural retina cells. Subsequently, our results provide evidence that a Rax2-positive eye-field state is not sufficient for the progress to a neural retina identity, but requires BMP signals. In addition, our results argue against any essential role of Wnt or FGF signals during the specification of neural retina cells, but provide evidence that Wnt signals together with BMP activity are sufficient to induce cells of retinal pigment epithelial character. We conclude that BMP activity emanating from the lens ectoderm maintains eye-field identity, inhibits telencephalic character and induces neural retina cells. Our findings link the requirement of the lens ectoderm for neural retina specification with the molecular mechanism by which cells in the forebrain become specified as neural retina by BMP activity. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Pandit, Tanushree; Jidigam, Vijay K.; Patthey, Cedric; Gunhaga, Lena
The eye has served as a classical model to study cell specification and tissue induction for over a century. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the induction and maintenance of eye-field cells, and the specification of neural retina cells are poorly understood. Moreover, within the developing anterior forebrain, how prospective eye and telencephalic cells are differentially specified is not well defined. In the present study, we have analyzed these issues by manipulating signaling pathways in intact chick embryo and explant assays. Our results provide evidence that at blastula stages, BMP signals inhibit the acquisition of eye-field character, but from neural tube/optic vesicle stages, BMP signals from the lens are crucial for the maintenance of eye-field character, inhibition of dorsal telencephalic cell identity and specification of neural retina cells. Subsequently, our results provide evidence that a Rax2-positive eye-field state is not sufficient for the progress to a neural retina identity, but requires BMP signals. In addition, our results argue against any essential role of Wnt or FGF signals during the specification of neural retina cells, but provide evidence that Wnt signals together with BMP activity are sufficient to induce cells of retinal pigment epithelial character. We conclude that BMP activity emanating from the lens ectoderm maintains eye-field identity, inhibits telencephalic character and induces neural retina cells. Our findings link the requirement of the lens ectoderm for neural retina specification with the molecular mechanism by which cells in the forebrain become specified as neural retina by BMP activity. PMID:25968316
Bracken, Christina M; Mizeracka, Karolina; McLaughlin, Kelly A
The Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) mediate a wide range of diverse cellular behaviors throughout development. Previous studies implicated an important role for BMP signaling during the differentiation of the definitive mammalian kidney, the metanephros. In order to examine whether BMP signaling also plays an important role during the patterning of earlier renal systems, we examined the development of the earliest nephric system, the pronephros. Using the amphibian model system Xenopus laevis, in combination with reagents designed to inhibit BMP signaling during specific stages of nephric development, we revealed an evolutionarily conserved role for this signaling pathway during renal morphogenesis. Our results demonstrate that conditional BMP inhibition after specification of the pronephric anlagen is completed, but prior to the onset of morphogenesis and differentiation of renal tissues, results in the severe malformation of both the pronephric duct and tubules. Importantly, the effects of BMP signaling on the developing nephron during this developmental window are specific, only affecting the developing duct and tubules, but not the glomus. These data, combined with previous studies examining metanephric development in mice, provide further support that BMP functions to mediate morphogenesis of the specified renal field during vertebrate embryogenesis. Specifically, BMP signaling is required for the differentiation of two types of nephric structures, the pronephric tubules and duct.
Fugui Zhang; Jinlin Song; Hongmei Zhang; Enyi Huang; Dongzhe Song; Viktor Tollemar; Jing Wang; Jinhua Wang; Maryam Mohammed; Qiang Wei; Jiaming Fan; Junyi Liao; Yulong Zou; Feng Liu; Xue Hu
Tooth is a complex hard tissue organ and consists of multiple cell types that are regulated by important signaling pathways such as Wnt and BMP signaling. Serious injuries and/or loss of tooth or periodontal tissues may significantly impact aesthetic appearance, essential oral functions and the quality of life. Regenerative dentistry holds great promise in treating oral/dental disorders. The past decade has witnessed a rapid expansion of our understanding of the biological features of dental ...
M. Crisan (Mihaela); P. Solaimani Kartalaei (Parham); C.S. Vink (Chris); T. Yamada-Inagawa (Tomoko); K. Bollerot (Karine); W.F.J. van IJcken (Wilfred); R. Van Der Linden (Reinier); S.C. de Sousa Lopes (Susana Chuva); R. Monteiro (Rui); C.L. Mummery (Christine); E.A. Dzierzak (Elaine)
textabstractAdult haematopoiesis is the outcome of distinct haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) subtypes with self-renewable repopulating ability, but with different haematopoietic cell lineage outputs. The molecular basis for this heterogeneity is largely unknown. BMP signalling regulates HSCs as they
Molina, M Dolores; Saló, Emili; Cebrià, Francesc
The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway has been shown to play an important role in the establishment of the dorsoventral axis during development in both vertebrate and invertebrate species. In an attempt to unravel the role of BMPs in pattern formation during planarian regeneration, we studied this signaling pathway in Schmidtea mediterranea. Here, we functionally characterize planarian homologues of two key elements of the pathway: Smed-BMP and Smed-Smad1. Whole-mount in situ hybridization showed that Smed-BMP is expressed at the planarian dorsal midline, suggesting a role in dorsoventral patterning, while Smed-Smad1 is widely expressed throughout the mesenchyme and in the central nervous system. RNA interference (RNAi) knockdowns of Smed-BMP or Smed-Smad1 led to the disappearance of dorsal markers along with the ectopic expression of ventral markers on the dorsal side of the treated animals. In almost all cases, a duplicated central nervous system differentiated dorsally after Smed-BMP or Smed-Smad1 RNAi. These defects were observed not only during regeneration but also in intact non-regenerating animals. Our results suggest that the BMP signaling pathway is conserved in planarians and that it plays a key role in the regeneration and maintenance of the dorsoventral axis.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Histone-modifying enzymes are essential for a wide variety of cellular processes dependent upon changes in gene expression. Histone deacetylases (HDACs lead to the compaction of chromatin and subsequent silencing of gene transcription, and they have recently been implicated in a diversity of functions and dysfunctions in the postnatal and adult brain including ocular dominance plasticity, memory consolidation, drug addiction, and depression. Here we investigate the role of HDACs in the generation of neurons and astrocytes in the embryonic brain. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As a variety of HDACs are expressed in differentiating neural progenitor cells, we have taken a pharmacological approach to inhibit multiple family members. Inhibition of class I and II HDACs in developing mouse embryos with trichostatin A resulted in a dramatic reduction in neurogenesis in the ganglionic eminences and a modest increase in neurogenesis in the cortex. An identical effect was observed upon pharmacological inhibition of HDACs in in vitro-differentiating neural precursors derived from the same brain regions. A reduction in neurogenesis in ganglionic eminence-derived neural precursors was accompanied by an increase in the production of immature astrocytes. We show that HDACs control neurogenesis by inhibition of the bone morphogenetic protein BMP2/4 signaling pathway in radial glial cells. HDACs function at the transcriptional level by inhibiting and promoting, respectively, the expression of Bmp2 and Smad7, an intracellular inhibitor of BMP signaling. Inhibition of the BMP2/4 signaling pathway restored normal levels of neurogenesis and astrogliogenesis to both ganglionic eminence- and cortex-derived cultures in which HDACs were inhibited. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate a transcriptionally-based regulation of BMP2/4 signaling by HDACs both in vivo and in vitro that is critical for neurogenesis in the ganglionic eminences and that modulates cortical
Yang, Xu; Huo, Hui; Xiu, Chunyu; Song, Miao; Han, Yanfei; Li, Yanfei; Zhu, Yanzhu
Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)/Smad signaling pathway plays an important role in regulating osteoblast (OB) differentiation. OB differentiation is a key process of bone formation. Aluminum (Al) exposure inhibits bone formation and causes Al-induced bone disease. However, the mechanism is not fully understood. To investigate whether BMP-2/Smad signaling pathway is associated with OB differentiation in aluminum trichloride (AlCl 3 )-treated OBs, the primary rat OBs were cultured and exposed to 0 (control group, CG), 1/40 IC 50 (low-dose group, LG), 1/20 IC 50 (mid-dose group, MG), and 1/10 IC 50 (high-dose group, HG) of AlCl 3 for 24 h, respectively. We found that the expressions of OB differentiation markers (Runx-2, Osterix and ALP) and BMP-2/Smad signaling pathway components (BMP-2, BMPR-IA, p-BMPR-IA, BMPR-II, p-Smad1/5/8 and p-Smad1/5/8/4) were all decreased in AlCl 3 -treated OBs compared with the CG. These results indicated that inhibition of OB differentiation by AlCl 3 was associated with inhibition of BMP-2/Smad pathway component expression. Our findings provide a novel insight into the mechanism of AlCl 3 -induced bone disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Fugui; Song, Jinglin; Zhang, Hongmei; Huang, Enyi; Song, Dongzhe; Tollemar, Viktor; Wang, Jing; Wang, Jinhua; Mohammed, Maryam; Wei, Qiang; Fan, Jiaming; Liao, Junyi; Zou, Yulong; Liu, Feng; Hu, Xue; Qu, Xiangyang; Chen, Liqun; Yu, Xinyi; Luu, Hue H; Lee, Michael J; He, Tong-Chuan; Ji, Ping
Tooth is a complex hard tissue organ and consists of multiple cell types that are regulated by important signaling pathways such as Wnt and BMP signaling. Serious injuries and/or loss of tooth or periodontal tissues may significantly impact aesthetic appearance, essential oral functions and the quality of life. Regenerative dentistry holds great promise in treating oral/dental disorders. The past decade has witnessed a rapid expansion of our understanding of the biological features of dental stem cells, along with the signaling mechanisms governing stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. In this review, we first summarize the biological characteristics of seven types of dental stem cells, including dental pulp stem cells, stem cells from apical papilla, stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth, dental follicle precursor cells, periodontal ligament stem cells, alveolar bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and MSCs from gingiva. We then focus on how these stem cells are regulated by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and/or Wnt signaling by examining the interplays between these pathways. Lastly, we analyze the current status of dental tissue engineering strategies that utilize oral/dental stem cells by harnessing the interplays between BMP and Wnt pathways. We also highlight the challenges that must be addressed before the dental stem cells may reach any clinical applications. Thus, we can expect to witness significant progresses to be made in regenerative dentistry in the coming decade.
Full Text Available Tooth is a complex hard tissue organ and consists of multiple cell types that are regulated by important signaling pathways such as Wnt and BMP signaling. Serious injuries and/or loss of tooth or periodontal tissues may significantly impact aesthetic appearance, essential oral functions and the quality of life. Regenerative dentistry holds great promise in treating oral/dental disorders. The past decade has witnessed a rapid expansion of our understanding of the biological features of dental stem cells, along with the signaling mechanisms governing stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. In this review, we first summarize the biological characteristics of seven types of dental stem cells, including dental pulp stem cells, stem cells from apical papilla, stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth, dental follicle precursor cells, periodontal ligament stem cells, alveolar bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, and MSCs from gingiva. We then focus on how these stem cells are regulated by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP and/or Wnt signaling by examining the interplays between these pathways. Lastly, we analyze the current status of dental tissue engineering strategies that utilize oral/dental stem cells by harnessing the interplays between BMP and Wnt pathways. We also highlight the challenges that must be addressed before the dental stem cells may reach any clinical applications. Thus, we can expect to witness significant progresses to be made in regenerative dentistry in the coming decade.
Canuto, R A; Pol, R; Martinasso, G; Muzio, G; Gallesio, G; Mozzati, M
Tooth extraction is considered as the starting point of jaw atrophy via osteoclast activity stimulation. The maintenance of dental alveolar bone depends on surgery procedure and use of materials to maintain prior space favoring bone regeneration. Among substitutes used in dentistry to fill bone defects, Ostim-Pastes (Ostim) is a nanocrystalline paste tested for treatment of severe clinical conditions. This research first investigated the effect of Ostim on alveolar healing, comparing in the same healthy subjects, an Ostim-filled socket with a not-filled one. Moreover, it also proposed a new surgical protocol for the post-extractive socket treatment using the graft materials without elevation of full-thickness flaps. Fourteen patients were enrolled to bilateral maxillary or mandibular extraction that was performed without elevation of full-thickness flaps. In each patient, one socket was filled using Ostim, and the other one was allowed to undergo natural healing. No suture was carried out. Clinical and biologic parameters were screened at 1, 7, and 14 days. Obtained results evidenced that nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite supports bone regeneration, increasing the synthesis of pro-osteogenic factors as bone morphogenetics protein (BMP)-4, BMP-7, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin. Moreover, filling post-extractive socket with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite paste leads to a complete epithelialization already at 7 days after extraction, despite the fact that the teeth were extracted without elevation of full-thickness flaps . The improved epithelialization is mediated by increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. No significant change was observed in inflammatory parameters, with exception of an early and transient IL-1β induction, that could trigger and improve alveolar healing. Clinical and biomolecular observations of this explorative study evidenced that nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite improves alveolar socket healing, increasing angiogenesis
Fung, Wong Yan; Fat, Ko Frankie Chi; Eng, Cheah Kathryn Song; Lau, Chow King
We have identified in Caenorhabditis elegans a homologue of the vertebrate Crim1, crm-1, which encodes a putative transmembrane protein with multiple cysteine-rich (CR) domains known to have bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) binding activity. Using the body morphology of C. elegans as an indicator, we showed that attenuation of crm-1 activity leads to a small body phenotype reminiscent of that of BMP pathway mutants. We showed that the crm-1 loss-of-function phenotype can be rescued by constitutive supply of sma-4 activity. crm-1 can enhance BMP signaling and this activity is dependent on the presence of the DBL-1 ligand and its receptors. crm-1 is expressed in neurons at the ventral nerve cord, where the DBL-1 ligand is produced. However, ectopic expression experiments reveal that crm-1 gene products act outside the DBL-1 producing cells and function non-autonomously to facilitate dbl/sma pathway signaling to control body size.
Kang, Min Jung; Hansen, Timothy J.; Mickiewicz, Monique; Kaczynski, Tadeusz J.; Fye, Samantha; Gunawardena, Shermali
Formation of new synapses or maintenance of existing synapses requires the delivery of synaptic components from the soma to the nerve termini via axonal transport. One pathway that is important in synapse formation, maintenance and function of the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-signaling pathway. Here we show that perturbations in axonal transport directly disrupt BMP signaling, as measured by its downstream signal, phospho Mad (p-Mad). We found that components of the BMP pathway genetically interact with both kinesin-1 and dynein motor proteins. Thick vein (TKV) vesicle motility was also perturbed by reductions in kinesin-1 or dynein motors. Interestingly, dynein mutations severely disrupted p-Mad signaling while kinesin-1 mutants showed a mild reduction in p-Mad signal intensity. Similar to mutants in components of the BMP pathway, both kinesin-1 and dynein motor protein mutants also showed synaptic morphological defects. Strikingly TKV motility and p-Mad signaling were disrupted in larvae expressing two human disease proteins; expansions of glutamine repeats (polyQ77) and human amyloid precursor protein (APP) with a familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) mutation (APPswe). Consistent with axonal transport defects, larvae expressing these disease proteins showed accumulations of synaptic proteins along axons and synaptic abnormalities. Taken together our results suggest that similar to the NGF-TrkA signaling endosome, a BMP signaling endosome that directly interacts with molecular motors likely exist. Thus problems in axonal transport occurs early, perturbs BMP signaling, and likely contributes to the synaptic abnormalities observed in these two diseases. PMID:25127478
Kang, Min Jung; Hansen, Timothy J; Mickiewicz, Monique; Kaczynski, Tadeusz J; Fye, Samantha; Gunawardena, Shermali
Formation of new synapses or maintenance of existing synapses requires the delivery of synaptic components from the soma to the nerve termini via axonal transport. One pathway that is important in synapse formation, maintenance and function of the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-signaling pathway. Here we show that perturbations in axonal transport directly disrupt BMP signaling, as measured by its downstream signal, phospho Mad (p-Mad). We found that components of the BMP pathway genetically interact with both kinesin-1 and dynein motor proteins. Thick vein (TKV) vesicle motility was also perturbed by reductions in kinesin-1 or dynein motors. Interestingly, dynein mutations severely disrupted p-Mad signaling while kinesin-1 mutants showed a mild reduction in p-Mad signal intensity. Similar to mutants in components of the BMP pathway, both kinesin-1 and dynein motor protein mutants also showed synaptic morphological defects. Strikingly TKV motility and p-Mad signaling were disrupted in larvae expressing two human disease proteins; expansions of glutamine repeats (polyQ77) and human amyloid precursor protein (APP) with a familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) mutation (APPswe). Consistent with axonal transport defects, larvae expressing these disease proteins showed accumulations of synaptic proteins along axons and synaptic abnormalities. Taken together our results suggest that similar to the NGF-TrkA signaling endosome, a BMP signaling endosome that directly interacts with molecular motors likely exist. Thus problems in axonal transport occurs early, perturbs BMP signaling, and likely contributes to the synaptic abnormalities observed in these two diseases.
-matrices stimulated Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, which was proven by the inhibition study. Collectively, the designed therapeutic nanofiber matrices that incorporate BGN and deliver DEX were demonstrated to promote odontogenesis of HDPCs, and the integrins, bone morphogenetic protein, and mTOR signaling pathways are proposed to be the possible molecular mechanisms. While further in vivo studies are still needed, the DEX-releasing bioactive scaffolds are considered as a potential therapeutic nanomatrix for regenerative endodontics and tissue engineering. Keywords: drug delivery, therapeutic matrix, dexamethasone, bioactive glass, human dental pulp cells, odontogenic differentiation
Gilde, Flora; Fourel, Laure; Guillot, Raphael; Pignot-Paintrand, Isabelle; Okada, Takaharu; Fitzpatrick, Vincent; Boudou, Thomas; Albiges-Rizo, Corinne; Picart, Catherine
factors by a biomaterial will open new perspectives for regenerative medicine. However, to date, very little is known about how matrix-bound growth factors are delivered to cells, especially whether they are internalized and how they are signaling to drive key differentiation events. These initial steps are crucial as they will guide the subsequent processes leading to tissue regeneration. In this work, we investigate the uptake and processing by cells of BMP-2 ligands embedded in polyelectrolyte multilayer films in comparison to soluble BMP-2. We show that BMP-2 responsive cells can internalize matrix-bound BMP-2 and that internalization is dependent on the cross-linking level of the polyelectrolyte films. In addition, we show that internalization is mediated by both clathrin- and caveolin-dependent pathways. While inhibiting clathrin-dependent endocytosis affects only non-canonical signaling, blocking caveolin-1-dependent endocytosis reduces both canonical and non-canonical BMP signaling. The signaling pathways found for matrix-bound BMP-2 are similar to those found for soluble BMP-2. These results highlight that BMP-2 presented by a biomaterial at the ventral side of the cell can trigger major endocytic and associated signaling pathways leading to bone regeneration. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Signaling by Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMP has been implicated in early lung development, adult lung homeostasis and tissue-injury repair. However, the precise mechanism of action and the spatio-temporal pattern of BMP-signaling during these processes remains inadequately described. To address this, we have utilized a transgenic line harboring a BMP-responsive eGFP-reporter allele (BRE-eGFP to construct the first detailed spatiotemporal map of canonical BMP-pathway activation during lung development, homeostasis and adult-lung injury repair. We demonstrate that during the pseudoglandular stage, when branching morphogenesis progresses in the developing lung, canonical BMP-pathway is active mainly in the vascular network and the sub-epithelial smooth muscle layer of the proximal airways. Activation of the BMP-pathway becomes evident in epithelial compartments only after embryonic day (E 14.5 primarily in cells negative for epithelial-lineage markers, located in the proximal portion of the airway-tree, clusters adjacent to neuro-epithelial-bodies (NEBs and in a substantial portion of alveolar epithelial cells. The pathway becomes activated in isolated E12.5 mesenchyme-free distal epithelial buds cultured in Matrigel suggesting that absence of reporter activity in these regions stems from a dynamic cross-talk between endoderm and mesenchyme. Epithelial cells with activated BMP-pathway are enriched in progenitors capable of forming colonies in three-dimensional Matrigel cultures.As lung morphogenesis approaches completion, eGFP-expression declines and in adult lung its expression is barely detectable. However, upon tissue-injury, either with naphthalene or bleomycin, the canonical BMP-pathways is re-activated, in bronchial or alveolar epithelial cells respectively, in a manner reminiscent to early lung development and in tissue areas where reparatory progenitor cells reside. Our studies illustrate the dynamic activation of canonical BMP-pathway
Li, Liang; Sapkota, Mahesh; Gao, Ming; Choi, Hyukjae; Soh, Yunjo
The balance between bone formation and bone resorption is maintained by osteoblasts and osteoclasts. In the current study, macrolactin F (MF) was investigated for novel biological activity on the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis in primary bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). We found that RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and differentiation from BMMs was significantly inhibited by MF in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity. RANKL-induced F-actin ring formation and bone resorption activity in BMMs which was attenuated by MF. In addition, MF suppressed the expression of osteoclast-related genes, including c-myc, RANK, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1), cathepsin K and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9). Furthermore, the protein expression NFATc1, c-Fos, MMP9, cathepsin K and phosphorylation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 and Akt were also down-regulated by MF treatment. Interestingly, MF promoted pre-osteoblast cell differentiation on Alizarin Red-mineralization activity, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and the expression of osteoblastogenic markers including Runx2, Osterix, Smad4, ALP, type I collagen alpha 1 (Col1α), osteopontin (OPN), and osteocalcin (OCN) via activation of the BMP-2/smad/Akt/Runx2 pathway on MC3T3-E1. Taken together, these results indicate that MF may be useful as a therapeutic agent to enhance bone health and treat osteoporosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Endoglin (ENG, a co-receptor for several TGFβ-family cytokines, is expressed in dividing endothelial cells alongside ALK1, the ACVRL1 gene product. ENG and ACVRL1 are both required for angiogenesis and mutations in either gene are associated with Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangectasia, a rare genetic vascular disorder. ENG and ALK1 function in the same genetic pathway but the relative contribution of TGFβ and BMP9 to SMAD1/5/8 activation and the requirement of ENG as a co-mediator of SMAD phosphorylation in endothelial cells remain debated. Here, we show that BMP9 and TGFβ1 induce distinct SMAD phosphorylation responses in primary human endothelial cells and that, unlike BMP9, TGFβ only induces SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation in a subset of immortalized mouse endothelial cell lines, but not in primary human endothelial cells. We also demonstrate, using siRNA depletion of ENG and novel anti-ENG antibodies, that ENG is required for BMP9/pSMAD1 signaling in all human and mouse endothelial cells tested. Finally, anti-ENG antibodies that interfere with BMP9/pSMAD1 signaling, but not with TGFβ1/pSMAD3 signaling, also decrease in vitro HUVEC endothelial tube formation and inhibit BMP9 binding to recombinant ENG in vitro. Our data demonstrate that BMP9 signaling inhibition is a key and previously unreported mechanism of action of TRC105, an anti-angiogenic anti-Endoglin antibody currently evaluated in clinical trials.
Bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) signaling is vitally important in many aspects of cardiac development. These include cardiac induction and differentiation and establishing the L/R axis. In this thesis, we focus on the role of Bmp signaling in securing proper cardiac asymmetry, by (1) establishing
Abdallah, Basem M.; Figeac, Florence; Larsen, Kenneth H.
% increase in bone mass, increased mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate, compared to wild-type controls. Increased bone mass in Crmp4(-/-) mice was associated with enhanced BMP2 signaling and BMP2-induced osteoblast differentiation in Crmp4(-/-) osteoblasts (OBs). Furthermore, Crmp4(-/-) OBs...
Kevin T Gobeske
Full Text Available Exposure to exercise or to environmental enrichment increases the generation of new neurons in the adult hippocampus and promotes certain kinds of learning and memory. While the precise role of neurogenesis in cognition has been debated intensely, comparatively few studies have addressed the mechanisms linking environmental exposures to cellular and behavioral outcomes. Here we show that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signaling mediates the effects of exercise on neurogenesis and cognition in the adult hippocampus. Elective exercise reduces levels of hippocampal BMP signaling before and during its promotion of neurogenesis and learning. Transgenic mice with decreased BMP signaling or wild type mice infused with a BMP inhibitor both exhibit remarkable gains in hippocampal cognitive performance and neurogenesis, mirroring the effects of exercise. Conversely, transgenic mice with increased BMP signaling have diminished hippocampal neurogenesis and impaired cognition. Exercise exposure does not rescue these deficits, suggesting that reduced BMP signaling is required for environmental effects on neurogenesis and learning. Together, these observations show that BMP signaling is a fundamental mechanism linking environmental exposure with changes in cognitive function and cellular properties in the hippocampus.
Brazil, Derek P; Church, Rachel H; Surae, Satnam; Godson, Catherine; Martin, Finian
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are secreted extracellular matrix (ECM)-associated proteins that regulate a wide range of developmental processes, including limb and kidney formation. A critical element of BMP regulation is the presence of secreted antagonists that bind and inhibit BMP binding to their cognate Ser/Thr kinase receptors at the plasma membrane. Antagonists such as Noggin, Chordin, Gremlin (Grem1), and twisted gastrulation-1 (Twsg1) have been shown to inhibit BMP action in a range of different cell types and developmental stage-specific contexts. Here we review new developments in the field of BMP and BMP antagonist biology during mammalian development and suggest strategies for targeting these proteins in human disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Jin-fang; Fu, Wei-ming; He, Ming-liang; Xie, Wei-dong; Lv, Qing; Wan, Gang; Li, Guo; Wang, Hua; Lu, Gang; Hu, Xiang; Jiang, Su; Li, Jian-na; Lin, Marie C M; Zhang, Ya-ou; Kung, Hsiang-fu
Osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a complex process, which is regulated by various factors including microRNAs. Our preliminary data showed that the expression of endogenous miR-20a was increased during the course of osteogenic differentiation. Simultaneously, the expression of osteoblast markers and regulators BMP2, BMP4, Runx2, Osx, OCN and OPN was also elevated whereas adipocyte markers PPARγ and osteoblast antagonist, Bambi and Crim1, were downregulated, thereby suggesting that miR-20a plays an important role in regulating osteoblast differentiation. To validate this hypothesis, we tested its effects on osteogenic differentiation by introducing miR-20a mimics and lentiviral-miR20a-expression vectors into hMSCs. We showed that miR-20a promoted osteogenic differentiation by the upregulation of BMP/Runx2 signaling. We performed bioinformatics analysis and predicted that PPARγ, Bambi and Crim1 would be potential targets of miR-20a. PPARγ is a negative regulator of BMP/Runx2 signaling whereas Bambi or Crim1 are antagonists of the BMP pathway. Furthermore, we confirmed that all these molecules were indeed the targets of miR-20a by luciferase reporter, quantitative RT-PCR and western blot assays. Similarly to miR-20a overexpression, the osteogenesis was enhanced by the silence of PPARγ, Bambi or Crim1 by specific siRNAs. Taken together, for the first time, we demonstrated that miR-20a promoted the osteogenesis of hMSCs in a co-regulatory pattern by targeting PPARγ, Bambi and Crim1, the negative regulators of BMP signaling.
Tian, Aiguo; Jiang, Jin
Many adult organs including Drosophila adult midguts rely on resident stem cells to replenish damaged cells during tissue homeostasis and regeneration. Previous studies have shown that, upon injury, intestinal stem cells (ISCs) in the midguts can increase proliferation and lineage differentiation to meet the demand for tissue repair. Our recent study has demonstrated that, in response to certain injury, midguts can expand ISC population size as an additional regenerative mechanism. We found that injury elicited by bleomycin feeding or bacterial infection increased the production of two BMP ligands (Dpp and Gbb) in enterocytes (ECs), leading to elevated BMP signaling in progenitor cells that drove an expansion of ISCs by promoting their symmetric self-renewing division. Interestingly, we also found that BMP signaling in ECs inhibits the production of Dpp and Gbb, and that this negative feedback mechanism is required to reset ISC pool size to the homeostatic state. Our findings suggest that BMP signaling exerts two opposing influences on stem cell activity depending on where it acts: BMP signaling in progenitor cells promotes ISC self-renewal while BMP signaling in ECs restricts ISC self-renewal by preventing excessive production of BMP ligands. Our results further suggest that transient expansion of ISC population in conjunction with increasing ISC proliferation provides a more effective strategy for tissue regeneration.
Le Page Cécile
Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously observed the over-expression of BMP-2 in primary cultures of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC cells as compared to normal epithelial cells based on Affymetrix microarray profiling 1. Here we investigate the effect of BMP-2 on several parameters of ovarian cancer tumorigenesis using the TOV-2223, TOV-1946 and TOV-112D EOC cell lines. Methods We treated each EOC cell line with recombinant BMP-2 and assayed various parameters associated with tumorigenesis. More specifically, cell signaling events induced by BMP-2 treatment were investigated by western-blot using anti-phosphospecific antibodies. Induction of Id1, Snail and Smad6 mRNA expression was investigated by real time RT-PCR. The ability of cells to migrate was tested using the scratch assay. Cell-cell adhesion was analyzed by the ability of cells to form spheroids. We also investigated BMP-2 expression in tissue samples from a series of EOC patients. Results Treatment of these cell lines with recombinant BMP-2 induced a rapid phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 and Erk MAPKs. Increased expression of Id1, Smad6 and Snail mRNAs was also observed. Only in the TOV-2223 cell line were these signaling events accompanied by an alteration in cell proliferation. We also observed that BMP-2 efficiently increased the motility of all three cell lines. In contrast, BMP-2 treatment decreased the ability of TOV-1946 and TOV-112D cell lines to form spheroids indicating an inhibition of cell-cell adhesion. The expression of BMP-2 in tumor tissues from patients was inversely correlated with survival. Conclusion These results suggest that EOC cell secretion of BMP-2 in the tumor environment contributes to a modification of tumor cell behavior through a change in motility and adherence. We also show that BMP-2 expression in tumor tissues is associated with a poorer prognosis for ovarian cancer patients.
Willems, Brecht A; Furmanik, Malgorzata; Caron, Marjolein M J; Chatrou, Martijn L L; Kusters, Dennis H M; Welting, Tim J M; Stock, Michael; Rafael, Marta S; Viegas, Carla S B; Simes, Dina C; Vermeer, Cees; Reutelingsperger, Chris P M; Schurgers, Leon J
Vascular calcification (VC) is the process of deposition of calcium phosphate crystals in the blood vessel wall, with a central role for vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). VC is highly prevalent in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and thought, in part, to be induced by phosphate imbalance. The molecular mechanisms that regulate VC are not fully known. Here we propose a novel role for the mineralisation regulator Ucma/GRP (Upper zone of growth plate and Cartilage Matrix Associated protein/Gla Rich Protein) in phosphate-induced VSMC calcification. We show that Ucma/GRP is present in calcified atherosclerotic plaques and highly expressed in calcifying VSMCs in vitro. VSMCs from Ucma/GRP -/- mice showed increased mineralisation and expression of osteo/chondrogenic markers (BMP-2, Runx2, β-catenin, p-SMAD1/5/8, ALP, OCN), and decreased expression of mineralisation inhibitor MGP, suggesting that Ucma/GRP is an inhibitor of mineralisation. Using BMP signalling inhibitor noggin and SMAD1/5/8 signalling inhibitor dorsomorphin we showed that Ucma/GRP is involved in inhibiting the BMP-2-SMAD1/5/8 osteo/chondrogenic signalling pathway in VSMCs treated with elevated phosphate concentrations. Additionally, we showed for the first time evidence of a direct interaction between Ucma/GRP and BMP-2. These results demonstrate an important role of Ucma/GRP in regulating osteo/chondrogenic differentiation and phosphate-induced mineralisation of VSMCs.
Jovanovic, Vukasin M; Salti, Ahmad; Tilleman, Hadas; Zega, Ksenija; Jukic, Marin M; Zou, Hongyan; Friedel, Roland H; Prakash, Nilima; Blaess, Sandra; Edenhofer, Frank; Brodski, Claude
The embryonic formation of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons in vivo provides critical guidelines for the in vitro differentiation of mDA neurons from stem cells, which are currently being developed for Parkinson's disease cell replacement therapy. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)/SMAD inhibition is routinely used during early steps of stem cell differentiation protocols, including for the generation of mDA neurons. However, the function of the BMP/SMAD pathway for in vivo specification of mammalian mDA neurons is virtually unknown. Here, we report that BMP5/7-deficient mice ( Bmp5 -/- ; Bmp7 -/- ) lack mDA neurons due to reduced neurogenesis in the mDA progenitor domain. As molecular mechanisms accounting for these alterations in Bmp5 -/- ; Bmp7 -/- mutants, we have identified expression changes of the BMP/SMAD target genes MSX1/2 (msh homeobox 1/2) and SHH (sonic hedgehog). Conditionally inactivating SMAD1 in neural stem cells of mice in vivo ( Smad1 Nes ) hampered the differentiation of progenitor cells into mDA neurons by preventing cell cycle exit, especially of TH + SOX6 + (tyrosine hydroxylase, SRY-box 6) and TH + GIRK2 + (potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily-J member-6) substantia nigra neurons. BMP5/7 robustly increased the in vitro differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells and induced neural stem cells to mDA neurons by up to threefold. In conclusion, we have identified BMP/SMAD signaling as a novel critical pathway orchestrating essential steps of mammalian mDA neurogenesis in vivo that balances progenitor proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, we demonstrate the potential of BMPs to improve the generation of stem-cell-derived mDA neurons in vitro , highlighting the importance of sequential BMP/SMAD inhibition and activation in this process. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We identify bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)/SMAD signaling as a novel essential pathway regulating the development of mammalian midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons
Villacorte, Mylah; Suzuki, Kentaro; Hayashi, Katsuhiko; de Sousa-Lopes, Susana Chuva; Haraguchi, Ryuma; Taketo, Makoto; Nakagata, Naomi; Yamada, Gen
Digit and interdigit (D/ID) development is one of the important research fields in molecular developmental biology. Interdigital cell death (ICD) is a morphogenetic event which has been considered as an essential process for D/ID formation. Although, some growth factors including Bmp and Fgf signaling can modulate ICD, growth factor crosstalk regulating ICD is poorly understood. Wnt canonical pathway and Bmp signal crosstalk has been considered as the essential growth factor crosstalk in organogenesis. To elucidate the crosstalk to regulate the D/ID formation, we analyzed conditional mutant mice with limb bud ectoderm expressing constitutively activated β-catenin signaling. We showed that modulation of Wnt/β–catenin signal in the limb ectoderm including the AER regulates ID apoptosis. We also demonstrated that Wnt/β–catenin signaling in the ectoderm can positively regulate Fgf8 possibly antagonizing the epithelial derived Bmp signaling. Human birth defects for digit abnormalities have been known to be affected by multiple parameters. Elucidation of the potential mechanisms underlying such D/ID development is an urgent medical issue to be solved. This work would be one of the first studies showing essential growth factor cascades in the D/ID formation. PMID:20043884
Conserved from Cnidarians to vertebrates, the dorsoventral (DV) axis is patterned by the Chordin-BMP pathway. However, the functions of the pathway's components are very different in different phyla. By modeling it is shown that many observations can be integrated by the assumption that BMP, acting as an inhibitory component in more ancestral systems, became a necessary and activating component for the generation of a secondary and antipodal-located signaling center. The different realizations seen in vertebrates, Drosophila, sea urchins and Nematostella allow reconstruction of a chain of modifications during evolution. BMP-signaling is proposed to be based on a pattern-forming reaction of the activator-depleted substrate type in which BMP-signaling acts via pSmad as the local self-enhancing component and the depletion of the highly mobile BMP-Chordin complex as the long-ranging antagonistic component. Due to the rapid removal of the BMP/Chordin complex during BMP-signaling, an oriented transport and "shuttling" results, although only ordinary diffusion is involved. The system can be self-organizing, allowing organizer formation even from near homogeneous initial situations. Organizers may regenerate after removal. Although connected with some losses of self-regulation, for large embryos as in amphibians, the employment of maternal determinants is an efficient strategy to make sure that only a single organizer of each type is generated. The generation of dorsoventral positional information along a long-extended anteroposterior (AP) axis cannot be achieved directly by a single patch-like organizer. Nature found different solutions for this task. Corresponding models provide a rationale for the well-known reversal in the dorsoventral patterning between vertebrates and insects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Xu, Hongjie; Wu, Feng; Zhang, Hongyu; Yang, Chao; Li, Kai; Wang, Hailong; Yang, Honghui; Liu, Yue; Ding, Bai; Tan, Yingjun; Yuan, Ming; Li, Yinghui; Dai, Zhongquan
Microgravity influences the activity of osteoblast, induces actin microfilament disruption and leads to bone loss during spaceflight. Mechanical stress such as gravity, regulates cell function, response and differentiation through dynamic cytoskeleton changes, but the mechanotransduction mechanism remains to be fully elucidated. Previous, we demonstrated actin microfilament mediated osteoblast Cbfa1 responsiveness to BMP2 under simulated microgravity (SMG). Here, we explored a potential molecular and its detailed mechanism of actin cytoskeleton functioning on BMP2-Smad signaling in MC3T3-E1 under SMG. Results showed that the actin microfilament-disrupting agent, cytochalasin B (CB), reduced BMP2-induced activation, translocation of Smad1/5/8 and Runx2 expression. SMG also inhibited BMP2-Smad signaling, which was rescued by actin cytoskeleton stabilizing agent, Jasplakinolide (JAS). Furthermore, we found that siRNA mediated knockdown of calponin 1 (CNN1), an actin binding protein, markedly promoted BMP2-Smad signaling and abolished both inhibition of CB, SMG on BMP2-Smad signaling and the rescue action of JAS. Overexpression of CNN1 inhibited the p-Smad induced by BMP2. Bidirectional Co-IP experiments demonstrated CNN1 could interacted with Smad or p-Smad protein. Furthermore, CB or SMG decreased the phosphorylated CNN1 and increased its interaction with Smad or p-Smad. Combined with the phosphorylation of CNN1 inhibites its actin binding activity, these results indicate that actin cytoskeleton depolymerization inhibites BMP2 signaling via blocking of Smad by dephosphorylated CNN1 in osteoblast cells. Thus, we provide new important insights into the mechanism of mechanotransduction under SMG condition, which probably contribute to bone formation decrease induced by SMG. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Danesh, Shahab M.; Villasenor, Alethia; Chong, Diana; Soukup, Carrie; Cleaver, Ondine
Cell-cell communication is critical for regulating embryonic organ growth and differentiation. The Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) family of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) molecules represents one class of such cell-cell signaling molecules that regulate the morphogenesis of several organs. Due to high redundancy between the myriad BMP ligands and receptors in certain tissues, it has been challenging to address the role of BMP signaling using targeting of single Bmp genes in mouse models. Here, we present a detailed study of the developmental expression profiles of three BMP ligands (Bmp2, Bmp4, Bmp7) and three BMP receptors (Bmpr1a, Bmpr1b, and BmprII), as well as their molecular antagonist (noggin), in the early embryo during the initial steps of murine organogenesis. In particular, we focus on the expression of Bmp family members in the first organs and tissues that take shape during embryogenesis, such as the heart, vascular system, lungs, liver, stomach, nervous system, somites and limbs. Using in situ hybridization, we identify domains where ligand(s) and receptor(s) are either singly or co-expressed in specific tissues. In addition, we identify a previously unnoticed asymmetric expression of Bmp4 in the gut mesogastrium, which initiates just prior to gut turning and the establishment of organ asymmetry in the gastrointestinal tract. Our studies will aid in the future design and/or interpretation of targeted deletion of individual Bmp or Bmpr genes, since this study identifies organs and tissues where redundant BMP signaling pathways are likely to occur. PMID:19393343
Jonathan W. Lowery
Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs constitute the largest subdivision of the TGF-β family of ligands and are unequivocally involved in regulating stem cell behavior. Appropriate regulation of canonical BMP signaling is critical for the development and homeostasis of numerous human organ systems, as aberrations in the BMP pathway or its regulation are increasingly associated with diverse human pathologies. In this review, we provide a wide-perspective on strategies that increase or decrease BMP signaling. We briefly outline the current FDA-approved approaches, highlight emerging next-generation technologies, and postulate prospective avenues for future investigation. We also detail how activating other pathways may indirectly modulate BMP signaling, with a particular emphasis on the relationship between the BMP and Activin/TGF-β pathways.
Fitzpatrick, Vincent; Fourel, Laure; Destaing, Olivier; Gilde, Flora; Albigès-Rizo, Corinne; Picart, Catherine; Boudou, Thomas
In vivo, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) exists both in solution and bound to the extracellular matrix (ECM). While these two modes of presentation are known to influence cell behavior distinctly, their role in the niche microenvironment and their functional relevance in the genesis of a biological response has sparsely been investigated at a cellular level. Here we used the natural affinity of BMP-2 for fibronectin (FN) to engineer cell-sized micropatterns of BMP-2. This technique allowed the simultaneous control of the spatial presentation of fibronectin-bound BMP-2 and cell spreading. These micropatterns induced a specific actin and adhesion organization around the nucleus, and triggered the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of SMAD1/5/8 in C2C12 myoblasts and mesenchymal stem cells, an early indicator of their osteoblastic trans-differentiation. We found that cell spreading itself potentiated a BMP-2-dependent phosphorylation of SMAD1/5/8. Finally, we demonstrated that FN/BMP-2-mediated early SMAD signaling depended on LIM kinase 2 and ROCK, rather than myosin II activation. Altogether, our results show that FN/BMP-2 micropatterns are a useful tool to study the mechanisms underlying BMP-2-mediated mechanotransduction. More broadly, our approach could be adapted to other combinations of ECM proteins and growth factors, opening an exciting avenue to recreate tissue-specific niches in vitro.
Phillip A Vanlandingham
Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP retrograde signaling is crucial for neuronal development and synaptic plasticity. However, how the BMP effector phospho-Mother against decapentaplegic (pMad is processed following receptor activation remains poorly understood. Here we show that Drosophila Epsin1/Liquid facets (Lqf positively regulates synaptic growth through post-endocytotic processing of pMad signaling complex. Lqf and the BMP receptor Wishful thinking (Wit interact genetically and biochemically. lqf loss of function (LOF reduces bouton number whereas overexpression of lqf stimulates bouton growth. Lqf-stimulated synaptic overgrowth is suppressed by genetic reduction of wit. Further, synaptic pMad fails to accumulate inside the motoneuron nuclei in lqf mutants and lqf suppresses synaptic overgrowth in spinster (spin mutants with enhanced BMP signaling by reducing accumulation of nuclear pMad. Interestingly, lqf mutations reduce nuclear pMad levels without causing an apparent blockage of axonal transport itself. Finally, overexpression of Lqf significantly increases the number of multivesicular bodies (MVBs in the synapse whereas lqf LOF reduces MVB formation, indicating that Lqf may function in signaling endosome recycling or maturation. Based on these observations, we propose that Lqf plays a novel endosomal role to ensure efficient retrograde transport of BMP signaling endosomes into motoneuron nuclei.
C.F.C. Gaspar (Claudia)
textabstractThe main issue addressed in this thesis is how different levels of signaling activity of the Wnt and TGF-β/BMP pathways can affect transcriptional responses in particular relevant for self-renewal and differentiation both in homeostasis and in cancer. Chapter 1 presents an overview
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β is a key cytokine during differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC into vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC. High phosphate induces a phenotypic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC into osteogenic-like cells. This study was aimed to evaluate signaling pathways involved during VSMC differentiation of MSC in presence or not of high phosphate. RESULTS: Our results showed that TGF-β induced nuclear translocation of Smad3 as well as the expression of vascular smooth muscle markers, such as smooth muscle alpha actin, SM22α, myocardin, and smooth muscle-myosin heavy chain. The addition of high phosphate to MSC promoted nuclear translocation of Smad1/5/8 and the activation of canonical Wnt/β-catenin in addition to an increase in BMP-2 expression, calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity. The administration of TGF-β to MSC treated with high phosphate abolished all these effects by inhibiting canonical Wnt, BMP and TGF-β pathways. A similar outcome was observed in high phosphate-treated cells after the inhibition of canonical Wnt signaling with Dkk-1. Conversely, addition of both Wnt/β-catenin activators CHIR98014 and lithium chloride enhanced the effect of high phosphate on BMP-2, calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity. CONCLUSIONS: Full VSMC differentiation induced by TGF-β may not be achieved when extracellular phosphate levels are high. Moreover, TGF-β prevents high phosphate-induced osteogenesis by decreasing the nuclear translocation of Smad 1/5/8 and avoiding the activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway.
Sengle, Gerhard; Carlberg, Valerie; Tufa, Sara F.; Charbonneau, Noe L.; Smaldone, Silvia; Carlson, Eric J.; Ramirez, Francesco; Keene, Douglas R.; Sakai, Lynn Y.
Fibrillins are large extracellular macromolecules that polymerize to form the backbone structure of connective tissue microfibrils. Mutations in the gene for fibrillin-1 cause the Marfan syndrome, while mutations in the gene for fibrillin-2 cause Congenital Contractural Arachnodactyly. Both are autosomal dominant disorders, and both disorders affect musculoskeletal tissues. Here we show that Fbn2 null mice (on a 129/Sv background) are born with reduced muscle mass, abnormal muscle histology, and signs of activated BMP signaling in skeletal muscle. A delay in Myosin Heavy Chain 8, a perinatal myosin, was found in Fbn2 null forelimb muscle tissue, consistent with the notion that muscle defects underlie forelimb contractures in these mice. In addition, white fat accumulated in the forelimbs during the early postnatal period. Adult Fbn2 null mice are already known to demonstrate persistent muscle weakness. Here we measured elevated creatine kinase levels in adult Fbn2 null mice, indicating ongoing cycles of muscle injury. On a C57Bl/6 background, Fbn2 null mice showed severe defects in musculature, leading to neonatal death from respiratory failure. These new findings demonstrate that loss of fibrillin-2 results in phenotypes similar to those found in congenital muscular dystrophies and that FBN2 should be considered as a candidate gene for recessive congenital muscular dystrophy. Both in vivo and in vitro evidence associated muscle abnormalities and accumulation of white fat in Fbn2 null mice with abnormally activated BMP signaling. Genetic rescue of reduced muscle mass and accumulation of white fat in Fbn2 null mice was accomplished by deleting a single allele of Bmp7. In contrast to other reports that activated BMP signaling leads to muscle hypertrophy, our findings demonstrate the exquisite sensitivity of BMP signaling to the fibrillin-2 extracellular environment during early postnatal muscle development. New evidence presented here suggests that fibrillin-2 can
Full Text Available Fibrillins are large extracellular macromolecules that polymerize to form the backbone structure of connective tissue microfibrils. Mutations in the gene for fibrillin-1 cause the Marfan syndrome, while mutations in the gene for fibrillin-2 cause Congenital Contractural Arachnodactyly. Both are autosomal dominant disorders, and both disorders affect musculoskeletal tissues. Here we show that Fbn2 null mice (on a 129/Sv background are born with reduced muscle mass, abnormal muscle histology, and signs of activated BMP signaling in skeletal muscle. A delay in Myosin Heavy Chain 8, a perinatal myosin, was found in Fbn2 null forelimb muscle tissue, consistent with the notion that muscle defects underlie forelimb contractures in these mice. In addition, white fat accumulated in the forelimbs during the early postnatal period. Adult Fbn2 null mice are already known to demonstrate persistent muscle weakness. Here we measured elevated creatine kinase levels in adult Fbn2 null mice, indicating ongoing cycles of muscle injury. On a C57Bl/6 background, Fbn2 null mice showed severe defects in musculature, leading to neonatal death from respiratory failure. These new findings demonstrate that loss of fibrillin-2 results in phenotypes similar to those found in congenital muscular dystrophies and that FBN2 should be considered as a candidate gene for recessive congenital muscular dystrophy. Both in vivo and in vitro evidence associated muscle abnormalities and accumulation of white fat in Fbn2 null mice with abnormally activated BMP signaling. Genetic rescue of reduced muscle mass and accumulation of white fat in Fbn2 null mice was accomplished by deleting a single allele of Bmp7. In contrast to other reports that activated BMP signaling leads to muscle hypertrophy, our findings demonstrate the exquisite sensitivity of BMP signaling to the fibrillin-2 extracellular environment during early postnatal muscle development. New evidence presented here suggests that
Allaire, Joannie M; Roy, Sébastien A B; Ouellet, Camille; Lemieux, Étienne; Jones, Christine; Paquet, Marilène; Boudreau, Francois; Perreault, Nathalie
In the colon, myofibroblasts are primary contributors in the establishment of the microenvironment involved in tissue homeostasis. Alterations in myofibroblast functions lead to changes resulting in a toxic microenvironment nurturing tumorigenesis. Bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmps) are morphogens known to play key roles in adult gut homeostasis. Studies in genetically-modified mice have shown that Bmp disruption in all cell layers leads to the development of gut polyposis. In contrast, our studies showed that loss of Bmp exclusively in the gastrointestinal epithelium resulted in increased epithelial proliferation without polyposis initiation, thus suggesting a key role for mesenchymal Bmp signaling in polyposis initiation. In order to identify the role of mesenchymal Bmp signaling on the microenvironment and its impact on colonic mucosa, a mouse model was generated with suppression of Bmp signaling exclusively in myofibroblasts (Bmpr1aΔMES). Bmpr1aΔMES mice exhibited increased subepithelial proliferation with changes in cellular composition leading to the development of a primed stroma with modulation of extracellular matrix proteins, immune cells and cytokines as early as 90 days of age. This microenvironmental deregulation was associated with increased polyposis initiation at one year of age. These results are the first to demonstrate that mesenchymal Bmpr1a inactivation alone is sufficient to prompt an expansion of myofibroblasts leading to the development of a reactive mesenchyme that contributes to polyposis initiation in the colon. These findings support the novel concept that inhibition of Bmp signaling in mesenchymal cells surrounding the normal epithelium leads to important changes instructing a toxic microenvironment sufficient to induce colonic polyposis. © 2016 UICC.
Mills, Christopher G; Lawrence, Melanie L; Munro, David A D; Elhendawi, Mona; Mullins, John J; Davies, Jamie A
We present a strategy for increasing the anatomical realism of organoids by applying asymmetric cues to mimic spatial information that is present in natural embryonic development, and demonstrate it using mouse kidney organoids. Existing methods for making kidney organoids in mice yield developing nephrons arranged around a symmetrical collecting duct tree that has no ureter. We use transplant experiments to demonstrate plasticity in the fate choice between collecting duct and ureter, and show that an environment rich in BMP4 promotes differentiation of early collecting ducts into uroplakin-positive, unbranched, ureter-like epithelial tubules. Further, we show that application of BMP4-releasing beads in one place in an organoid can break the symmetry of the system, causing a nearby collecting duct to develop into a uroplakin-positive, broad, unbranched, ureter-like 'trunk' from one end of which true collecting duct branches radiate and induce nephron development in an arrangement similar to natural kidneys. The idea of using local symmetry-breaking cues to improve the realism of organoids may have applications to organoid systems other than the kidney.
Full Text Available MORN5 (MORN repeat containing 5 is encoded by a locus positioned on chromosome 17 in the chicken genome. The MORN motif is found in multiple copies in several proteins including junctophilins or phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase family and the MORN proteins themselves are found across the animal and plant kingdoms. MORN5 protein has a characteristic punctate pattern in the cytoplasm in immunofluorescence imaging. Previously, MORN5 was found among differentially expressed genes in a microarray profiling experiment of the chicken embryo head. Here, we provided in situ hybridization to analyse, in detail, the MORN5 expression in chick craniofacial structures. The expression of MORN5 was first observed at stage HH17-18 (E2.5. MORN5 expression gradually appeared on either side of the primitive oral cavity, within the maxillary region. At stage HH20 (E3, prominent expression was localised in the mandibular prominences lateral to the midline. From stage HH20 up to HH29 (E6, there was strong expression in restricted regions of the maxillary and mandibular prominences. The frontonasal mass (in the midline of the face expresses MORN5, starting at HH27 (E5. The expression was concentrated in the corners or globular processes, which will ultimately fuse with the cranial edges of the maxillary prominences. MORN5 expression was maintained in the fusion zone up to stage HH29. In sections in situs, MORN5 expression was localised preferentially in the mesenchyme. We examined signals that regulate MORN5 expression in the face based on a previous microarray study. Here we validated the array results with in situ hybridization and QPCR. MORN5 was downregulated 24h after Noggin and/or RA treatment. We also determined that BMP pathway genes are downstream of MORN5 following siRNA knockdown. Based on these results, we conclude that MORN5 is both regulated by and required for BMP signalling. The restricted expression of MORN5 in the lip fusion zone shown here
Si, Lina; Shi, Jin; Gao, Wenqun; Zheng, Min; Liu, Lingjuan; Zhu, Jing; Tian, Jie
Highlights: • BMP2 can upregulated cardiac related gene GATA4, Nkx2.5, MEF2c and Tbx5. • Inhibition of Smad4 decreased BMP2-induced hyperacetylation of histone H3. • Inhibition of Smad4 diminished BMP2-induced overexpression of GATA4 and Nkx2.5. • Inhibition of Smad4 decreased hyperacetylated H3 in the promoter of GATA4 and Nkx2.5. • Smad4 is essential for BMP2 induced hyperacetylated histone H3. - Abstract: BMP2 signaling pathway plays critical roles during heart development, Smad4 encodes the only common Smad protein in mammals, which is a pivotal nuclear mediator. Our previous studies showed that BMP2 enhanced the expression of cardiac transcription factors in part by increasing histone H3 acetylation. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that Smad4 mediated BMP2 signaling pathway is essential for the expression of cardiac core transcription factors by affecting the histone H3 acetylation. We successfully constructed a lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA interference vector targeting Smad4 (Lv-Smad4) in rat H9c2 embryonic cardiac myocytes (H9c2 cells) and demonstrated that it suppressed the expression of the Smad4 gene. Cultured H9c2 cells were transfected with recombinant adenoviruses expressing human BMP2 (AdBMP2) with or without Lv-Smad4. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that knocking down of Smad4 substantially inhibited both AdBMP2-induced and basal expression levels of cardiac transcription factors GATA4 and Nkx2.5, but not MEF2c and Tbx5. Similarly, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis showed that knocking down of Smad4 inhibited both AdBMP2-induced and basal histone H3 acetylation levels in the promoter regions of GATA4 and Nkx2.5, but not of Tbx5 and MEF2c. In addition, Lv-Smad4 selectively suppressed AdBMP2-induced expression of HAT p300, but not of HAT GCN5 in H9c2 cells. The data indicated that inhibition of Smad4 diminished both AdBMP2 induced and basal histone acetylation levels in the promoter regions of
Si, Lina; Shi, Jin; Gao, Wenqun [Heart Centre, Children’s Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 136 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Yu Zhong District, Chongqing 400014 (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Key Laboratory of Pediatrics in Chongqing, Chongqing International Science and Technology Cooperation Center for Child Development and Disorders, 136 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Yu Zhong District, Chongqing 400014 (China); Zheng, Min [Heart Centre, Children’s Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 136 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Yu Zhong District, Chongqing 400014 (China); Liu, Lingjuan; Zhu, Jing [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Key Laboratory of Pediatrics in Chongqing, Chongqing International Science and Technology Cooperation Center for Child Development and Disorders, 136 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Yu Zhong District, Chongqing 400014 (China); Tian, Jie, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Heart Centre, Children’s Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 136 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Yu Zhong District, Chongqing 400014 (China)
Highlights: • BMP2 can upregulated cardiac related gene GATA4, Nkx2.5, MEF2c and Tbx5. • Inhibition of Smad4 decreased BMP2-induced hyperacetylation of histone H3. • Inhibition of Smad4 diminished BMP2-induced overexpression of GATA4 and Nkx2.5. • Inhibition of Smad4 decreased hyperacetylated H3 in the promoter of GATA4 and Nkx2.5. • Smad4 is essential for BMP2 induced hyperacetylated histone H3. - Abstract: BMP2 signaling pathway plays critical roles during heart development, Smad4 encodes the only common Smad protein in mammals, which is a pivotal nuclear mediator. Our previous studies showed that BMP2 enhanced the expression of cardiac transcription factors in part by increasing histone H3 acetylation. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that Smad4 mediated BMP2 signaling pathway is essential for the expression of cardiac core transcription factors by affecting the histone H3 acetylation. We successfully constructed a lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA interference vector targeting Smad4 (Lv-Smad4) in rat H9c2 embryonic cardiac myocytes (H9c2 cells) and demonstrated that it suppressed the expression of the Smad4 gene. Cultured H9c2 cells were transfected with recombinant adenoviruses expressing human BMP2 (AdBMP2) with or without Lv-Smad4. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that knocking down of Smad4 substantially inhibited both AdBMP2-induced and basal expression levels of cardiac transcription factors GATA4 and Nkx2.5, but not MEF2c and Tbx5. Similarly, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis showed that knocking down of Smad4 inhibited both AdBMP2-induced and basal histone H3 acetylation levels in the promoter regions of GATA4 and Nkx2.5, but not of Tbx5 and MEF2c. In addition, Lv-Smad4 selectively suppressed AdBMP2-induced expression of HAT p300, but not of HAT GCN5 in H9c2 cells. The data indicated that inhibition of Smad4 diminished both AdBMP2 induced and basal histone acetylation levels in the promoter regions of
Full Text Available Sirenomelia, also known as mermaid syndrome, is a developmental malformation of the caudal body characterized by leg fusion and associated anomalies of pelvic/urogenital organs including bladder, kidney, rectum and external genitalia. Most affected infants are stillborn, and the few born alive rarely survive beyond the neonatal period. Despite the many clinical studies of sirenomelia in humans, little is known about the pathogenic developmental mechanisms that cause the complex array of phenotypes observed. Here, we provide new evidences that reduced BMP (Bone Morphogenetic Protein signaling disrupts caudal body formation in mice and phenocopies sirenomelia. Bmp4 is strongly expressed in the developing caudal body structures including the peri-cloacal region and hindlimb field. In order to address the function of Bmp4 in caudal body formation, we utilized a conditional Bmp4 mouse allele (Bmp4(flox/flox and the Isl1 (Islet1-Cre mouse line. Isl1-Cre is expressed in the peri-cloacal region and the developing hindimb field. Isl1Cre;Bmp4(flox/flox conditional mutant mice displayed sirenomelia phenotypes including hindlimb fusion and pelvic/urogenital organ dysgenesis. Genetic lineage analyses indicate that Isl1-expressing cells contribute to both the aPCM (anterior Peri-Cloacal Mesenchyme and the hindlimb bud. We show Bmp4 is essential for the aPCM formation independently with Shh signaling. Furthermore, we show Bmp4 is a major BMP ligand for caudal body formation as shown by compound genetic analyses of Bmp4 and Bmp7. Taken together, this study reveals coordinated development of caudal body structures including pelvic/urogenital organs and hindlimb orchestrated by BMP signaling in Isl1-expressing cells. Our study offers new insights into the pathogenesis of sirenomelia.
Suzuki, Kentaro; Adachi, Yasuha; Numata, Tomokazu; Nakada, Shoko; Yanagita, Motoko; Nakagata, Naomi; Evans, Sylvia M.; Graf, Daniel; Economides, Aris; Haraguchi, Ryuma; Moon, Anne M.; Yamada, Gen
Sirenomelia, also known as mermaid syndrome, is a developmental malformation of the caudal body characterized by leg fusion and associated anomalies of pelvic/urogenital organs including bladder, kidney, rectum and external genitalia. Most affected infants are stillborn, and the few born alive rarely survive beyond the neonatal period. Despite the many clinical studies of sirenomelia in humans, little is known about the pathogenic developmental mechanisms that cause the complex array of phenotypes observed. Here, we provide new evidences that reduced BMP (Bone Morphogenetic Protein) signaling disrupts caudal body formation in mice and phenocopies sirenomelia. Bmp4 is strongly expressed in the developing caudal body structures including the peri-cloacal region and hindlimb field. In order to address the function of Bmp4 in caudal body formation, we utilized a conditional Bmp4 mouse allele (Bmp4flox/flox) and the Isl1 (Islet1)-Cre mouse line. Isl1-Cre is expressed in the peri-cloacal region and the developing hindimb field. Isl1Cre;Bmp4flox/flox conditional mutant mice displayed sirenomelia phenotypes including hindlimb fusion and pelvic/urogenital organ dysgenesis. Genetic lineage analyses indicate that Isl1-expressing cells contribute to both the aPCM (anterior Peri-Cloacal Mesenchyme) and the hindlimb bud. We show Bmp4 is essential for the aPCM formation independently with Shh signaling. Furthermore, we show Bmp4 is a major BMP ligand for caudal body formation as shown by compound genetic analyses of Bmp4 and Bmp7. Taken together, this study reveals coordinated development of caudal body structures including pelvic/urogenital organs and hindlimb orchestrated by BMP signaling in Isl1-expressing cells. Our study offers new insights into the pathogenesis of sirenomelia. PMID:23028455
Suzuki, Kentaro; Adachi, Yasuha; Numata, Tomokazu; Nakada, Shoko; Yanagita, Motoko; Nakagata, Naomi; Evans, Sylvia M; Graf, Daniel; Economides, Aris; Haraguchi, Ryuma; Moon, Anne M; Yamada, Gen
Sirenomelia, also known as mermaid syndrome, is a developmental malformation of the caudal body characterized by leg fusion and associated anomalies of pelvic/urogenital organs including bladder, kidney, rectum and external genitalia. Most affected infants are stillborn, and the few born alive rarely survive beyond the neonatal period. Despite the many clinical studies of sirenomelia in humans, little is known about the pathogenic developmental mechanisms that cause the complex array of phenotypes observed. Here, we provide new evidences that reduced BMP (Bone Morphogenetic Protein) signaling disrupts caudal body formation in mice and phenocopies sirenomelia. Bmp4 is strongly expressed in the developing caudal body structures including the peri-cloacal region and hindlimb field. In order to address the function of Bmp4 in caudal body formation, we utilized a conditional Bmp4 mouse allele (Bmp4(flox/flox)) and the Isl1 (Islet1)-Cre mouse line. Isl1-Cre is expressed in the peri-cloacal region and the developing hindimb field. Isl1Cre;Bmp4(flox/flox) conditional mutant mice displayed sirenomelia phenotypes including hindlimb fusion and pelvic/urogenital organ dysgenesis. Genetic lineage analyses indicate that Isl1-expressing cells contribute to both the aPCM (anterior Peri-Cloacal Mesenchyme) and the hindlimb bud. We show Bmp4 is essential for the aPCM formation independently with Shh signaling. Furthermore, we show Bmp4 is a major BMP ligand for caudal body formation as shown by compound genetic analyses of Bmp4 and Bmp7. Taken together, this study reveals coordinated development of caudal body structures including pelvic/urogenital organs and hindlimb orchestrated by BMP signaling in Isl1-expressing cells. Our study offers new insights into the pathogenesis of sirenomelia.
Norman, Mark; Vuilleumier, Robin; Springhorn, Alexander; Gawlik, Jennifer; Pyrowolakis, George
Tight regulation of signalling activity is crucial for proper tissue patterning and growth. Here we investigate the function of Pentagone (Pent), a secreted protein that acts in a regulatory feedback during establishment and maintenance of BMP/Dpp morphogen signalling during Drosophila wing development. We show that Pent internalises the Dpp co-receptors, the glypicans Dally and Dally-like protein (Dlp), and propose that this internalisation is important in the establishment of a long range Dpp gradient. Pent-induced endocytosis and degradation of glypicans requires dynamin- and Rab5, but not clathrin or active BMP signalling. Thus, Pent modifies the ability of cells to trap and transduce BMP by fine-tuning the levels of the BMP reception system at the plasma membrane. In addition, and in accordance with the role of glypicans in multiple signalling pathways, we establish a requirement of Pent for Wg signalling. Our data propose a novel mechanism by which morphogen signalling is regulated. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13301.001 PMID:27269283
Ryan B Rountree
Full Text Available Articular cartilage plays an essential role in health and mobility, but is frequently damaged or lost in millions of people that develop arthritis. The molecular mechanisms that create and maintain this thin layer of cartilage that covers the surface of bones in joint regions are poorly understood, in part because tools to manipulate gene expression specifically in this tissue have not been available. Here we use regulatory information from the mouse Gdf5 gene (a bone morphogenetic protein [BMP] family member to develop new mouse lines that can be used to either activate or inactivate genes specifically in developing joints. Expression of Cre recombinase from Gdf5 bacterial artificial chromosome clones leads to specific activation or inactivation of floxed target genes in developing joints, including early joint interzones, adult articular cartilage, and the joint capsule. We have used this system to test the role of BMP receptor signaling in joint development. Mice with null mutations in Bmpr1a are known to die early in embryogenesis with multiple defects. However, combining a floxed Bmpr1a allele with the Gdf5-Cre driver bypasses this embryonic lethality, and leads to birth and postnatal development of mice missing the Bmpr1a gene in articular regions. Most joints in the body form normally in the absence of Bmpr1a receptor function. However, articular cartilage within the joints gradually wears away in receptor-deficient mice after birth in a process resembling human osteoarthritis. Gdf5-Cre mice provide a general system that can be used to test the role of genes in articular regions. BMP receptor signaling is required not only for early development and creation of multiple tissues, but also for ongoing maintenance of articular cartilage after birth. Genetic variation in the strength of BMP receptor signaling may be an important risk factor in human osteoarthritis, and treatments that mimic or augment BMP receptor signaling should be
Full Text Available Similar to estrogens, bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4 promotes the accumulation of more metabolically active subcutaneous fat and reduction of visceral fat. However, whether there is a cross-talk between BMP4 and estrogen signaling remained unknown. Herein, we found that BMP4 deficiency in white adipose tissue (WAT increased the estrogen receptor α (ERα level and its signaling, which prevented adult female mice from developing high fat diet (HFD-induced obesity and insulin resistance; estrogens depletion up regulated BMP4 expression to overcome overt adiposity and impaired insulin sensitivity with aging, and failure of BMP4 regulation due to genetic knockout led to more fat gain in aged female mice. This mutual regulation between BMP4 and estrogen/ERα signaling may also happen in adipose tissue of women, since the BMP4 level significantly increased after menopause, and was inversely correlated with body mass index (BMI. These findings suggest a counterbalance between BMP4 and estrogen/ERα signaling in the regulation of adiposity and relative metabolism in females.
Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9, a member of TGF-β superfamily, is reported to inhibit the growth and migration of prostate cancer, osteosarcoma and triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. However, little is known about the effect of on the biological behaviors of HER2-positive SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms. This study aimed to investigate the effects of BMP9 on the proliferation and metastasis of SK-BR-3 cells with BMP9 over-expression or BMP9 down-regulated expression. Results indicated that exogenously expressed BMP9 inhibited the proliferation and metastasis of SK-BR-3 cells while decreased endogenous BMP9 expression in SK-BR-3 cells promoted the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. In SK-BR-3 cells with BMP9 over-expression, the phosphorylation of HER2, ERK1/2 and AKT was markedly suppressed and the HER2 expression decreased at both mRNA and protein levels, while opposite results were observed in SK-BR-3 cells with BMP9 knock down. When the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT was inhibited by PD98059 and LY294002, respectively, the decreased proliferation and invasion induced by BMP9 knock down were eliminated. These findings suggest that BMP9 can inhibit the proliferation and metastasis of SK-BR-3 cells via inactivating ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. Thus, BMP9 may serve as a useful agent in the treatment of HER-2 positive breast cancer.
Pengjam, Yutthana; Madhyastha, Harishkumar; Madhyastha, Radha; Yamaguchi, Yuya; Nakajima, Yuichi; Maruyama, Masugi
Osteoporosis is a bone pathology leading to increased fracture risk and challenging the quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an anthraquinone glycoside, aloin, on osteogenic induction of MC3T3-E1 cells. Aloin increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, an early differentiation marker of osteoblasts. Aloin also increased the ALP activity in adult human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSC), indicating that the action of aloin was not cell-type specific.Alizarin red S staining revealed a signifiant amount of calcium deposition in cells treated with aloin. Aloin enhanced the expression of osteoblast differentiation genes, Bmp-2, Runx2 and collagen 1a, in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot analysis revealed that noggin and inhibitors of p38 MAPK and SAPK/JNK signals attenuated aloin-promoted expressions of Bmp-2 and Runx2 proteins. siRNA mediated blocking of Wnt-5a signaling pathway also annulled the influenceof aloin, indicating Wnt-5a dependent activity. Inhibition of the different signal pathways abrogated the influenceof aloin on ALP activity, confirmingthat aloin induced MC3T3-E1 cells into osteoblasts through MAPK mediated Wnt and Bmp signaling pathway.
Full Text Available The extent to which cell signaling is integrated outside the cell is not currently appreciated. We show that a member of the low-density receptor-related protein family, Lrp4 modulates and integrates Bmp and canonical Wnt signalling during tooth morphogenesis by binding the secreted Bmp antagonist protein Wise. Mouse mutants of Lrp4 and Wise exhibit identical tooth phenotypes that include supernumerary incisors and molars, and fused molars. We propose that the Lrp4/Wise interaction acts as an extracellular integrator of epithelial-mesenchymal cell signaling. Wise, secreted from mesenchyme cells binds to BMP's and also to Lrp4 that is expressed on epithelial cells. This binding then results in the modulation of Wnt activity in the epithelial cells. Thus in this context Wise acts as an extracellular signaling molecule linking two signaling pathways. We further show that a downstream mediator of this integration is the Shh signaling pathway.
Washio, Ayako; Kitamura, Chiaki; Morotomi, Takahiko; Terashita, Masamichi; Nishihara, Tatsuji
We examined the effects of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) on growth, differentiation, and intracellular signaling pathways of odontoblast-like cells, KN-3 cells, to clarify molecular mechanisms of odontoblast differentiation during pulp regeneration process. After treatment with BMP-2, the cell morphology, growth, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and the activation and expression of BMP-induced intracellular signaling molecules, such as Smad1/5/8 and Smad6/7, as well as activities o...
Shepherd Trevor G
Full Text Available Abstract Background Activation of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP4 signalling in human ovarian cancer cells induces a number of phenotypic changes in vitro, including altered cell morphology, adhesion, motility and invasion, relative to normal human ovarian surface epithelial cells. From these in vitro analyses, we had hypothesized that active BMP signalling promotes the metastatic potential of ovarian cancer. Methods To test this directly, we engineered OVCA429 human ovarian cancer cells possessing doxycycline-inducible expression of a constitutively-active mutant BMP receptor, ALK3QD, and administered these cells to immunocompromised mice. Further characterization was performed in vitro to address the role of activated BMP signalling on the EOC phenotype, with particular emphasis on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and cell adhesion. Results Unexpectedly, doxycycline-induced ALK3QD expression in OVCA429 cells reduced tumour implantation on peritoneal surfaces and ascites formation when xenografted into immunocompromised mice by intraperitoneal injection. To determine the potential mechanisms controlling this in vivo observation, we followed with several cell culture experiments. Doxycycline-induced ALK3QD expression enhanced the refractile, spindle-shaped morphology of cultured OVCA429 cells eliciting an EMT-like response. Using in vitro wound healing assays, we observed that ALK3QD-expressing cells migrated with long, cytoplasmic projections extending into the wound space. The phenotypic alterations of ALK3QD-expressing cells correlated with changes in specific gene expression patterns of EMT, including increased Snail and Slug and reduced E-cadherin mRNA expression. In addition, ALK3QD signalling reduced β1- and β3-integrin expression, critical molecules involved in ovarian cancer cell adhesion. The combination of reduced E-cadherin and β-integrin expression correlates directly with the reduced EOC cell cohesion in spheroids and
Prall, Wolf Christian; Haasters, Florian; Heggebö, Jostein; Polzer, Hans; Schwarz, Christina; Gassner, Christoph; Grote, Stefan; Anz, David; Jäger, Marcus; Mutschler, Wolf; Schieker, Matthias
Osteoporotic fractures show reduced callus formation and delayed bone healing. Cellular sources of fracture healing are mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) that differentiate into osteoblasts by stimulation with osteoinductive cytokines, such as BMP-2. We hypothesized that impaired signal transduction and reduced osteogenic differentiation capacity in response to BMP-2 may underlie the delayed fracture healing. Therefore, MSC were isolated from femoral heads of healthy and osteoporotic patients. Grouping was carried out by bone mineral densitometry in an age-matched manner. MSC were stimulated with BMP-2. Signal transduction was assessed by western blotting of pSMAD1/5/8 and pERK1/2 as well as by quantitative RT-PCR of Runx-2, Dlx5, and Osteocalcin. Osteogenic differentiation was assessed by quantifying Alizarin Red staining. Osteoporotic MSC featured an accurate phosphorylation pattern of SMAD1/5/8 but a significantly reduced activation of ERK1/2 by BMP-2 stimulation. Furthermore, osteoporotic MSC showed significantly reduced basal expression levels of Runx-2 and Dlx5. However, Runx-2, Dlx5, and Osteocalcin expression showed adequate up-regulation due to BMP-2 stimulation. The global osteogenic differentiation in standard osteogenic differentiation media was reduced in osteoporotic MSC. Nevertheless, osteoporotic MSC were shown to feature an adequate induction of osteogenic differentiation due to BMP-2 stimulation. Taken together, we here demonstrate osteoporosis associated alterations in BMP-2 signaling but sustained specific osteogenic differentiation capacity in response to BMP-2. Therefore, BMP-2 may represent a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of fractures in osteoporotic patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jodie M Fleming
Full Text Available Previously we demonstrated that EpH4 mouse mammary epithelial cells induced the homeobox transcription factor Msx2 either when transfected with the progesterone receptor (PR or when treated with Bmp2/4. Msx2 upregulation was unaffected by Wnt inhibitors s-FRP or Dkk1, but was inhibited by the Bmp antagonist Noggin. We therefore hypothesized that PR signaling to Msx2 acts through the Bmp receptor pathway. Herein, we confirm that transcripts for Alk2/ActR1A, a non-canonical BmpR Type I, are upregulated in mammary epithelial cells overexpressing PR (EpH4-PR. Increased phosphorylation of Smads 1,5, 8, known substrates for Alk2 and other BmpR Type I proteins, was observed as was their translocation to the nucleus in EpH4-PR cells. Analysis also showed that Tissue Non-Specific Alkaline Phosphatase (TNAP/Akp2 was also found to be downregulated in EpH4-PR cells. When an Akp2 promoter-reporter construct containing a ½PRE site was transfected into EpH4-PR cells, its expression was downregulated. Moreover, siRNA mediated knockdown of Akp2 increased both Alk2 and Msx2 expression. Collectively these data suggest that PR inhibition of Akp2 results in increased Alk2 activity, increased phosphorylation of Smads 1,5,8, and ultimately upregulation of Msx2. These studies imply that re-activation of the Akp2 gene could be helpful in downregulating aberrant Msx2 expression in PR+ breast cancers.
Kan, Lixin; Liu, Yijie; McGuire, Tammy L; Bonaguidi, Michael A; Kessler, John A
Skin stem cells contribute to all three major lineages of epidermal appendages, i.e., the epidermis, the hair follicle, and the sebaceous gland. In hair follicles, highly proliferative committed progenitor cells, called matrix cells, are located at the base of the follicle in the hair bulb. The differentiation of these early progenitor cells leads to specification of a central hair shaft surrounded by an inner root sheath (IRS) and a companion layer. Multiple signaling molecules, including bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), have been implicated in this process. To further probe the contribution of BMP signaling to hair follicle development and maintenance we employed a transgenic mouse that expresses the BMP inhibitor, Noggin, to disrupt BMP signaling specifically in subset of hair follicle progenitors under the control of neuron specific enolase (Nse) promoter. We then studied the skin tumor phenotypes of the transgenic mice through histology, immunohistochemistry and Western Blotting to delineate the underlying mechanisms. Double transgenic mice expressing BMP as well as noggin under control of the Nse promoter were used to rescue the skin tumor phenotypes. We found that the transgene is expressed specifically in a subpopulation of P-cadherin positive progenitor cells in Nse-Noggin mice. Blocking BMP signaling in this cell population led to benign hair follicle-derived neoplasias resembling human trichofolliculomas, associated with down-regulation of E-cadherin expression and dynamic regulation of CD44. These observations further define a critical role for BMP signaling in maintaining the homeostasis of hair follicles, and suggest that dysregulation of BMP signaling in hair follicle progenitors may contribute to human trichofolliculoma.
Rodríguez-Carballo, Edgardo; Ulsamer, Arnau; Susperregui, Antonio R G; Manzanares-Céspedes, Cristina; Sánchez-García, Eva; Bartrons, Ramon; Rosa, José Luis; Ventura, Francesc
Osteoblast differentiation depends on the coordinated network of evolutionary conserved transcription factors during bone formation and homeostasis. Evidence indicates that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Wnt proteins regulate several steps of skeletal development. Here, we provide a molecular description of the cooperative effects of BMP and Wnt canonical pathway on the expression of the early osteogenic genes Dlx5, Msx2, and Runx2 in C2C12 cells, primary cultures of bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells, and organotypic calvarial cultures. Coordinated regulation of these genes leads to the cooperative activation of their downstream osteogenic target gene osterix. Induction of these genes is mediated through enhancer regions with an evolutionary conserved structure encompassing both Smad and TCF/LEF1 DNA-binding sites. Formation of a cooperative complex is mediated through DNA binding of Smads and TCF4/β-catenin to their cognate sequences, as well as protein-protein interactions between them. The formation of these cooperative transcriptional complexes results in a more efficient recruitment of coactivators such as p300. We propose that evolutionary conserved regulatory regions in specific osteogenic master genes are key integrative modules during osteogenesis. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
Kumar, Yogesh; Biswas, Tathagata; Thacker, Gatha; Kanaujiya, Jitendra Kumar; Kumar, Sandeep; Shukla, Anukampa; Khan, Kainat; Sanyal, Sabyasachi; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Bandyopadhyay, Amitabha; Trivedi, Arun Kumar
During endochondral ossification, cartilage template is eventually replaced by bone. This process involves several well characterized, stereotypic, molecular and cellular changes in the cartilage primordia. These steps involve transition from resting to proliferative and then pre-hypertrophic to finally hypertrophic cartilage. BMP signaling is necessary and sufficient for osteogenesis. However, the specific step(s) of endochondral ossification in which BMP signaling plays an essential role is not yet known. In this study we have identified Prdx1, a known scavenger of ROS, to be expressed in pre-hypertrophic chondrocytes in a BMP signaling-dependent manner. We demonstrate that BMP signaling inhibition increases ROS levels in osteogenic cells. Further, Prdx1 regulates osteogenesis in vivo by helping maintenance of Ihh expressing pre-hypertrophic cells, in turn regulating these cells' transition into hypertrophy. Therefore, our data suggests that one of the key roles of BMP signaling in endochondral ossification is to maintain pre-hypertrophic state. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kantarci, Husniye; Edlund, Renee K; Groves, Andrew K; Riley, Bruce B
Neurons of the statoacoustic ganglion (SAG) transmit auditory and vestibular information from the inner ear to the hindbrain. SAG neuroblasts originate in the floor of the otic vesicle. New neuroblasts soon delaminate and migrate towards the hindbrain while continuing to proliferate, a phase known as transit amplification. SAG cells eventually come to rest between the ear and hindbrain before terminally differentiating. Regulation of these events is only partially understood. Fgf initiates neuroblast specification within the ear. Subsequently, Fgf secreted by mature SAG neurons exceeds a maximum threshold, serving to terminate specification and delay maturation of transit-amplifying cells. Notch signaling also limits SAG development, but how it is coordinated with Fgf is unknown. Here we show that transcription factor Tfap2a coordinates multiple signaling pathways to promote neurogenesis in the zebrafish inner ear. In both zebrafish and chick, Tfap2a is expressed in a ventrolateral domain of the otic vesicle that includes neurogenic precursors. Functional studies were conducted in zebrafish. Loss of Tfap2a elevated Fgf and Notch signaling, thereby inhibiting SAG specification and slowing maturation of transit-amplifying cells. Conversely, overexpression of Tfap2a inhibited Fgf and Notch signaling, leading to excess and accelerated SAG production. However, most SAG neurons produced by Tfap2a overexpression died soon after maturation. Directly blocking either Fgf or Notch caused less dramatic acceleration of SAG development without neuronal death, whereas blocking both pathways mimicked all observed effects of Tfap2a overexpression, including apoptosis of mature neurons. Analysis of genetic mosaics showed that Tfap2a acts non-autonomously to inhibit Fgf. This led to the discovery that Tfap2a activates expression of Bmp7a, which in turn inhibits both Fgf and Notch signaling. Blocking Bmp signaling reversed the effects of overexpressing Tfap2a. Together, these data
He, Fang; Wang, Han; Ren, Wen-Yan; Ma, Yan; Liao, Yun-Peng; Zhu, Jia-Hui; Cui, Jin; Deng, Zhong-Liang; Su, Yu-Xi; Gan, Hua; He, Bai-Cheng
Vascular calcification is a notable risk factor for cardiovascular system. High phosphate can induce calcification in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), but the detail mechanism underlying this process remains unclear. In the present study, we determined the relationship between high phosphate and bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) in VSMCs, the effect of BMP9 on calcification in VSMCs and the effect of COX-2 on BMP9 induced calcification in VSMCs, as well as the possible mechanism underlying this biological process. We found that high phosphate obviously up-regulates the expression of BMP9 in VSMCs. Over-expression of BMP9 decreases the level of alpha-smooth muscle cell actin (α-SMA) apparently, but increases the level of Runx-2, Dlx-5, and ALP in VSMCs. Meanwhile, BMP9 increases the level of OPN and OCN, promotes mineralization in VSMCs and induces calcification in thoracic aorta. High phosphate and over-expression of BMP9 increases the level of COX-2. Over-expression of COX-2 enhances the inhibitory effect of BMP9 on α-SAM and increases the level of OPN and OCN induced by BMP9. However, inhibition of COX-2 decreases the BMP9-induced calcification in VSMCs and thoracic aorta. For mechanism, we found that high phosphate or BMP9 increases the level of β-catenin and p-GSK3β in VSMCs, but no substantial effect on GSK3β. However, COX-2 inhibitor decreases the expression of β-catenin induced by BMP9. Our findings indicated that BMP9 is involved in the phosphate-induced calcification in VSMCs and COX-2 partly mediates the BMP9-induced calcification in VSMCs through activating Wnt/β-catenin pathway. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Albers, Christoph E; Hofstetter, Wilhelm; Sebald, Hans-Jörg; Sebald, Walter; Siebenrock, Klaus A; Klenke, Frank M
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) have to be applied at high concentrations to stimulate bone healing. The limited therapeutic efficacy may be due to the local presence of BMP antagonists such as Noggin. Thus, inhibiting BMP antagonists is an attractive therapeutic option. We hypothesized that the engineered BMP2 variant L51P stimulates osteoinduction by antagonizing Noggin-mediated inhibition of BMP2. Primary murine osteoblasts (OB) were treated with L51P, BMP2, and Noggin. OB proliferation and differentiation were quantified with XTT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assays. BMP receptor dependent intracellular signaling in OB was evaluated with Smad and p38 MAPK phosphorylation assays. BMP2, Noggin, BMP receptor Ia/Ib/II, osteocalcin, and ALP mRNA expressions were analyzed with real-time PCR. L51P stimulated OB differentiation by blocking Noggin mediated inhibition of BMP2. L51P did not induce OB differentiation directly and did not activate BMP receptor dependent intracellular signaling via the Smad pathway. Treatment of OB cultures with BMP2 but not with L51P resulted in an increased expression of ALP, BMP2, and Noggin mRNA. By inhibiting the BMP antagonist Noggin, L51P enhances BMP2 activity and stimulates osteoinduction without exhibiting direct osteoinductive function. Indirect osteoinduction with L51P seems to be advantageous to osteoinduction with BMP2 as BMP2 stimulates the expression of Noggin thereby self-limiting its own osteoinductive activity. Treatment with L51P is the first protein-based approach available to augment BMP2 induced bone regeneration through inhibition of BMP antagonists. The described strategy may help to decrease the amounts of exogenous BMPs currently required to stimulate bone healing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Taniguchi, Cullen M; Emanuelli, Brice; Kahn, C Ronald
Physiologically important cell-signalling networks are complex, and contain several points of regulation, signal divergence and crosstalk with other signalling cascades. Here, we use the concept of 'critical nodes' to define the important junctions in these pathways and illustrate their unique role...
Kulessa, H; Turk, G; Hogan, B L
Growth and differentiation of postnatal hair follicles are controlled by reciprocal interactions between the dermal papilla and the surrounding epidermal hair precursors. The molecular nature of these interactions is largely unknown, but they are likely to involve several families of signaling molecules, including Fgfs, Wnts and Bmps. To analyze the function of Bmp signaling in postnatal hair development, we have generated transgenic mice expressing the Bmp inhibitor, Noggin, under the control of the proximal Msx2 promoter, which drives expression in proliferating hair matrix cells and differentiating hair precursor cells. Differentiation of the hair shaft but not the inner root sheath is severely impaired in Msx2-Noggin transgenic mice. In addition to hair keratins, the expression of several transcription factors implicated in hair development, including Foxn1 and Hoxc13, is severely reduced in the transgenic hair follicles. Proliferating cells, which are normally restricted to the hair matrix surrounding the dermal papilla, are found in the precortex and hair shaft region. These results identify Bmps as key regulators of the genetic program controlling hair shaft differentiation in postnatal hair follicles.
Full Text Available Formation of the dorsal-ventral axis of the sea urchin embryo relies on cell interactions initiated by the TGFbeta Nodal. Intriguingly, although nodal expression is restricted to the ventral side of the embryo, Nodal function is required for specification of both the ventral and the dorsal territories and is able to restore both ventral and dorsal regions in nodal morpholino injected embryos. The molecular basis for the long-range organizing activity of Nodal is not understood. In this paper, we provide evidence that the long-range organizing activity of Nodal is assured by a relay molecule synthesized in the ventral ectoderm, then translocated to the opposite side of the embryo. We identified this relay molecule as BMP2/4 based on the following arguments. First, blocking BMP2/4 function eliminated the long-range organizing activity of an activated Nodal receptor in an axis rescue assay. Second, we demonstrate that BMP2/4 and the corresponding type I receptor Alk3/6 functions are both essential for specification of the dorsal region of the embryo. Third, using anti-phospho-Smad1/5/8 immunostaining, we show that, despite its ventral transcription, the BMP2/4 ligand triggers receptor mediated signaling exclusively on the dorsal side of the embryo, one of the most extreme cases of BMP translocation described so far. We further report that the pattern of pSmad1/5/8 is graded along the dorsal-ventral axis and that two BMP2/4 target genes are expressed in nested patterns centered on the region with highest levels of pSmad1/5/8, strongly suggesting that BMP2/4 is acting as a morphogen. We also describe the very unusual ventral co-expression of chordin and bmp2/4 downstream of Nodal and demonstrate that Chordin is largely responsible for the spatial restriction of BMP2/4 signaling to the dorsal side. Thus, unlike in most organisms, in the sea urchin, a single ventral signaling centre is responsible for induction of ventral and dorsal cell fates. Finally
James M. Halstead
Full Text Available Synaptic plasticity involves the modulation of synaptic connections in response to neuronal activity via multiple pathways. One mechanism modulates synaptic transmission by retrograde signals from the post-synapse that influence the probability of vesicle release in the pre-synapse. Despite its importance, very few factors required for the expression of retrograde signals, and proper synaptic transmission, have been identified. Here, we identify the conserved RNA binding protein Syncrip as a new factor that modulates the efficiency of vesicle release from the motoneuron and is required for correct synapse structure. We show that syncrip is required genetically and its protein product is detected only in the muscle and not in the motoneuron itself. This unexpected non-autonomy is at least partly explained by the fact that Syncrip modulates retrograde BMP signals from the muscle back to the motoneuron. We show that Syncrip influences the levels of the Bone Morphogenic Protein ligand Glass Bottom Boat from the post-synapse and regulates the pre-synapse. Our results highlight the RNA-binding protein Syncrip as a novel regulator of synaptic output. Given its known role in regulating translation, we propose that Syncrip is important for maintaining a balance between the strength of presynaptic vesicle release and postsynaptic translation.
Full Text Available In biochemical signaling pathways without explicit feedback connections, the core signal transduction is usually described as a one-way communication, going from upstream to downstream in a feedforward chain or network of covalent modification cycles. In this paper we explore the possibility of a new type of signaling called retroactive signaling, offered by the recently demonstrated property of retroactivity in signaling cascades. The possibility of retroactive signaling is analysed in the simplest case of the stationary states of a bicyclic cascade of signaling cycles. In this case, we work out the conditions for which variables of the upstream cycle are affected by a change of the total amount of protein in the downstream cycle, or by a variation of the phosphatase deactivating the same protein. Particularly, we predict the characteristic ranges of the downstream protein, or of the downstream phosphatase, for which a retroactive effect can be observed on the upstream cycle variables. Next, we extend the possibility of retroactive signaling in short but nonlinear signaling pathways involving a few covalent modification cycles.
Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Kita, Daisuke; Watanabe, Takuya; Hayashi, Yutaka; Teng, Lei; Pyko, Ilya V.; Hamada, Jun-Ichiro
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a WHO grade IV malignant glioma, is the most common and lethal primary brain tumor in adults; few treatments are available. Median survival rates range from 12–15 months. The biological characteristics of this tumor are exemplified by prominent proliferation, active invasiveness, and rich angiogenesis. This is mainly due to highly deregulated signaling pathways in the tumor. Studies of these signaling pathways have greatly increased our understanding of the biology and clinical behavior of GBM. An integrated view of signal transduction will provide a more useful approach in designing novel therapies for this devastating disease. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of GBM signaling pathways with a focus on potential molecular targets for anti-signaling molecular therapies
Full Text Available Signalling pathways are abstractions that help life scientists structure the coordination of cellular activity. Cross-talk between pathways accounts for many of the complex behaviours exhibited by signalling pathways and is often critical in producing the correct signal-response relationship. Formal models of signalling pathways and cross-talk in particular can aid understanding and drive experimentation. We define an approach to modelling based on the concept that a pathway is the (synchronising parallel composition of instances of generic modules (with internal and external labels. Pathways are then composed by (synchronising parallel composition and renaming; different types of cross-talk result from different combinations of synchronisation and renaming. We define a number of generic modules in PRISM and five types of cross-talk: signal flow, substrate availability, receptor function, gene expression and intracellular communication. We show that Continuous Stochastic Logic properties can both detect and distinguish the types of cross-talk. The approach is illustrated with small examples and an analysis of the cross-talk between the TGF-b/BMP, WNT and MAPK pathways.
Spagnolli, Ester; Ernande, Laura; Thoonen, Robrecht; Kolodziej, Starsha A.; Leyton, Patricio A.; Cheng, Juan; Tainsh, Robert E. T.; Mayeur, Claire; Rhee, David K.; Wu, Mei. X.; Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle; Buys, Emmanuel S.; Zapol, Warren M.; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Bloch, Donald B.
Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling contributes to the development of cardiac hypertrophy. However, the identity of the BMP type I receptor involved in cardiac hypertrophy and the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. By using quantitative PCR and immunoblotting, we demonstrated that BMP signaling increased during phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCs), as evidenced by increased phosphorylation of Smads 1 and 5 and induction of Id1 gene expression. Inhibition of BMP signaling with LDN193189 or noggin, and silencing of Smad 1 or 4 using small interfering RNA diminished the ability of phenylephrine to induce hypertrophy in NRCs. Conversely, activation of BMP signaling with BMP2 or BMP4 induced hypertrophy in NRCs. Luciferase reporter assay further showed that BMP2 or BMP4 treatment of NRCs repressed atrogin-1 gene expression concomitant with an increase in calcineurin protein levels and enhanced activity of nuclear factor of activated T cells, providing a mechanism by which BMP signaling contributes to cardiac hypertrophy. In a model of cardiac hypertrophy, C57BL/6 mice treated with angiotensin II (A2) had increased BMP signaling in the left ventricle. Treatment with LDN193189 attenuated A2-induced cardiac hypertrophy and collagen deposition in left ventricles. Cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of BMP type I receptor ALK2 (activin-like kinase 2), but not ALK1 or ALK3, inhibited BMP signaling and mitigated A2-induced cardiac hypertrophy and left ventricular fibrosis in mice. The results suggest that BMP signaling upregulates the calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cell pathway via BMP type I receptor ALK2, contributing to cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. PMID:26873969
Qi, Wenjing; Yan, Yijian; Pfeifer, Dietmar; Donner V Gromoff, Erika; Wang, Yimin; Maier, Wolfgang; Baumeister, Ralf
Activation of the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 by reduced insulin/IGF signaling (IIS) is considered to be beneficial in C. elegans due to its ability to extend lifespan and to enhance stress resistance. In the germline, cell-autonomous DAF-16 activity prevents stem cell proliferation, thus acting tumor-suppressive. In contrast, hypodermal DAF-16 causes a tumorous germline phenotype characterized by hyperproliferation of the germline stem cells and rupture of the adjacent basement membrane. Here we show that cross-talk between DAF-16 and the transforming growth factor ß (TGFß)/bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling pathway causes germline hyperplasia and results in disruption of the basement membrane. In addition to activating MADM/NRBP/hpo-11 gene alone, DAF-16 also directly interacts with both R-SMAD proteins SMA-2 and SMA-3 in the nucleus to regulate the expression of mTORC1 pathway. Knocking-down of BMP genes or each of the four target genes in the hypodermis was sufficient to inhibit germline proliferation, indicating a cell-non-autonomously controlled regulation of stem cell proliferation by somatic tissues. We propose the existence of two antagonistic DAF-16/FOXO functions, a cell-proliferative somatic and an anti-proliferative germline activity. Whereas germline hyperplasia under reduced IIS is inhibited by DAF-16 cell-autonomously, activation of somatic DAF-16 in the presence of active IIS promotes germline proliferation and eventually induces tumor-like germline growth. In summary, our results suggest a novel pathway crosstalk of DAF-16 and TGF-ß/BMP that can modulate mTORC1 at the transcriptional level to cause stem-cell hyperproliferation. Such cell-type specific differences may help explaining why human FOXO activity is considered to be tumor-suppressive in most contexts, but may become oncogenic, e.g. in chronic and acute myeloid leukemia.
Full Text Available Activation of the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 by reduced insulin/IGF signaling (IIS is considered to be beneficial in C. elegans due to its ability to extend lifespan and to enhance stress resistance. In the germline, cell-autonomous DAF-16 activity prevents stem cell proliferation, thus acting tumor-suppressive. In contrast, hypodermal DAF-16 causes a tumorous germline phenotype characterized by hyperproliferation of the germline stem cells and rupture of the adjacent basement membrane. Here we show that cross-talk between DAF-16 and the transforming growth factor ß (TGFß/bone morphogenic protein (BMP signaling pathway causes germline hyperplasia and results in disruption of the basement membrane. In addition to activating MADM/NRBP/hpo-11 gene alone, DAF-16 also directly interacts with both R-SMAD proteins SMA-2 and SMA-3 in the nucleus to regulate the expression of mTORC1 pathway. Knocking-down of BMP genes or each of the four target genes in the hypodermis was sufficient to inhibit germline proliferation, indicating a cell-non-autonomously controlled regulation of stem cell proliferation by somatic tissues. We propose the existence of two antagonistic DAF-16/FOXO functions, a cell-proliferative somatic and an anti-proliferative germline activity. Whereas germline hyperplasia under reduced IIS is inhibited by DAF-16 cell-autonomously, activation of somatic DAF-16 in the presence of active IIS promotes germline proliferation and eventually induces tumor-like germline growth. In summary, our results suggest a novel pathway crosstalk of DAF-16 and TGF-ß/BMP that can modulate mTORC1 at the transcriptional level to cause stem-cell hyperproliferation. Such cell-type specific differences may help explaining why human FOXO activity is considered to be tumor-suppressive in most contexts, but may become oncogenic, e.g. in chronic and acute myeloid leukemia.
Celá, Petra; Buchtová, Marcela; Veselá, Iva; Fu, Kathy; Bogardi, Jean-Philippe; Song, Yiping; Barlow, Amanda; Buxton, Paul; Medalová, Jirina; Francis-West, Philippa; Richman, Joy M
Lineage tracing has shown that most of the facial skeleton is derived from cranial neural crest cells. However, the local signals that influence postmigratory, neural crest-derived mesenchyme also play a major role in patterning the skeleton. Here, we study the role of BMP signaling in regulating the fate of chondro-osteoprogenitor cells in the face. A single Noggin-soaked bead inserted into stage 15 chicken embryos induced an ectopic cartilage resembling the interorbital septum within the palate and other midline structures. In contrast, the same treatment in stage 20 embryos caused a loss of bones. The molecular basis for the stage-specific response to Noggin lay in the simultaneous up-regulation of SOX9 and downregulation of RUNX2 in the maxillary mesenchyme, increased cell adhesiveness as shown by N-cadherin induction around the beads and increased RA pathway gene expression. None of these changes were observed in stage 20 embryos. These experiments demonstrate how slight changes in expression of growth factors such as BMPs could lead to gain or loss of cartilage in the upper jaw during vertebrate evolution. In addition, BMPs have at least two roles: one in patterning the skull and another in regulating the skeletogenic fates of neural crest-derived mesenchyme. Developmental Dynamics 245:947-962, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome, also known as hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT, is an autosomal dominant vascular disorder. Three genes are causally related to HHT: the ENG gene encoding endoglin, a co-receptor of the TGFß family (HHT1, the ACVRL1 gene encoding ALK1 (activin receptor-like kinase 1, a type I receptor of the TGFß family (HHT2, and the SMAD4 gene, encoding a transcription factor critical for this signaling pathway. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs are growth factors of the TGFß family. Among them, BMP9 and BMP10 have been shown to bind directly with high affinity to ALK1 and endoglin, and BMP9 mutations have recently been linked to a vascular-anomaly syndrome that has phenotypic overlap with HHT. BMP9 and BMP10 are both circulating cytokines in blood, and the current working model is that BMP9 and BMP10 maintain a quiescent endothelial state that is dependent on the level of ALK1/endoglin activation on endothelial cells. In accordance with this model, to explain the etiology of HHT we hypothesize that a deficient BMP9/BMP10/ALK1/endoglin pathway may lead to re-activation of angiogenesis or a greater sensitivity to an angiogenic stimulus. Resulting endothelial hyperproliferation and hypermigration may lead to vasodilatation and formation of arteriovenous malformation (AVM. HHT would thus result from a defect in the angiogenic balance. This review will focus on the emerging role played by BMP9 and BMP10 in the development of this disease and the therapeutic approaches that this opens.
Kloen, Peter; Lauzier, Dominique; Hamdy, Reggie C
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are increasingly being used clinically to enhance fracture repair and healing of non-unions. However, the potential efficacy of supraphysiological dosing for clinical results warrants further clarification of the BMP signaling pathway in human fracture healing. As BMP signaling can be fine-tuned at numerous levels, the role of BMP-inhibitors has become a major focus. The aim of the present study was to document co-expression of BMPs, pSmad 1/5/8, and BMP-inhibitors in human fracture callus and human non-unions. Using human tissue of fracture callus (n=14) and non-unions (n=4) we documented expression of BMPs (BMP2, BMP3 and BMP7), pSmad 1/5/8 and the BMP-inhibitors noggin, gremlin, chordin, Smad-6, Smad-7 and BAMBI. Co-expression of pSmad 1/5/8, BMPs and BMP-inhibitors was noted in the osteoblasts of fracture callus as well as of non-unions. Expression of BMP-inhibitors was generally stronger in non-unions than in fracture callus. The most pertinent differences were noted in the cartilaginous tissue components. Expression of BMP2 in chondrocytes was markedly decreased in non-unions compared to fracture callus and that of BMP7 was almost completely absent. Expression of BMP-inhibitors was almost the same in osteoblasts, chondrocytes and fibroblasts of fracture callus and well as in non-unions. Interestingly, although BMP ligands were present in the chondrocytes and fibroblasts of non-unions, they did not co-express pSmad 1/5/8 suggesting that BMP signaling may have been inhibited at some point before Smad 1/5/8 phosphorylation. These results suggest co-expression of BMP, pSmad 1/5/8 and BMP-inhibitors occurs in human fracture callus as well as non-unions but the relative expression of BMPs vs. BMP-inhibitors was different between these two tissue types. In contrast to our expectations, the expression of BMP inhibitors was comparable between fracture callus and non-unions, whereas the expression of BMPs was notably lower in the
Nemashkalo, Anastasiia; Ruzo, Albert; Heemskerk, Idse; Warmflash, Aryeh
Paracrine signals maintain developmental states and create cell fate patterns in vivo and influence differentiation outcomes in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in vitro Systematic investigation of morphogen signaling is hampered by the difficulty of disentangling endogenous signaling from experimentally applied ligands. Here, we grow hESCs in micropatterned colonies of 1-8 cells ('µColonies') to quantitatively investigate paracrine signaling and the response to external stimuli. We examine BMP4-mediated differentiation in µColonies and standard culture conditions and find that in µColonies, above a threshold concentration, BMP4 gives rise to only a single cell fate, contrary to its role as a morphogen in other developmental systems. Under standard culture conditions BMP4 acts as a morphogen but this requires secondary signals and particular cell densities. We find that a 'community effect' enforces a common fate within µColonies, both in the state of pluripotency and when cells are differentiated, and that this effect allows a more precise response to external signals. Using live cell imaging to correlate signaling histories with cell fates, we demonstrate that interactions between neighbors result in sustained, homogenous signaling necessary for differentiation. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Kestens, C.; Siersema, P.D.; Offerhaus, G.J.; Baal, J.W.P.M. van
BACKGROUND: Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) signaling is involved in the development of Barrett's esophagus (BE), a precursor of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). In various cancers, BMP4 has been found to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) but its function in the development of EAC
Kestens, Christine; Siersema, Peter D|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/110603826; Offerhaus, G Johan A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070543283; van Baal, Jantine W P M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298731533
Background: Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) signaling is involved in the development of Barrett's esophagus (BE), a precursor of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). In various cancers, BMP4 has been found to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) but its function in the development of EAC
Singh, Pratik Narendra Pratap; Shea, Claire A; Sonker, Shashank Kumar; Rolfe, Rebecca A; Ray, Ayan; Kumar, Sandeep; Gupta, Pankaj; Murphy, Paula; Bandyopadhyay, Amitabha
Dynamic mechanical loading of synovial joints is necessary for normal joint development, as evidenced in certain clinical conditions, congenital disorders and animal models where dynamic muscle contractions are reduced or absent. Although the importance of mechanical forces on joint development is unequivocal, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved. Here, using chick and mouse embryos, we observed that molecular changes in expression of multiple genes analyzed in the absence of mechanical stimulation are consistent across species. Our results suggest that abnormal joint development in immobilized embryos involves inappropriate regulation of Wnt and BMP signaling during definition of the emerging joint territories, i.e. reduced β-catenin activation and concomitant upregulation of pSMAD1/5/8 signaling. Moreover, dynamic mechanical loading of the developing knee joint activates Smurf1 expression; our data suggest that Smurf1 insulates the joint region from pSMAD1/5/8 signaling and is essential for maintenance of joint progenitor cell fate. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Falke, Lucas L; Kinashi, Hiroshi; Dendooven, Amelie; Broekhuizen, Roel; Stoop, Reinout; Joles, Jaap A; Nguyen, Tri Q; Goldschmeding, Roel
Age is associated with an increased prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD), which, through progressive tissue damage and fibrosis, ultimately leads to loss of kidney function. Although much effort is put into studying CKD development experimentally, age has rarely been taken into account. Therefore, we investigated the effect of age on the development of renal tissue damage and fibrosis in a mouse model of obstructive nephropathy (i.e., unilateral ureter obstruction; UUO). We observed that after 14 days, obstructed kidneys of old mice had more tubulointerstitial atrophic damage but less fibrosis than those of young mice. This was associated with reduced connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and higher bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) expression and pSMAD1/5/8 signaling, while transforming growth factor-β expression and transcriptional activity were no different in obstructed kidneys of old and young mice. In vitro, CTGF bound to and inhibited BMP6 activity. In summary, our data suggest that in obstructive nephropathy atrophy increases and fibrosis decreases with age and that this relates to increased BMP signaling, most likely due to higher BMP6 and lower CTGF expression. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.
Sarmah, Swapnalee; Muralidharan, Pooja; Marrs, James A
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), birth defects associated with ethanol exposure in utero, includes a wide spectrum of congenital heart defects (CHDs), the most prevalent of which are septal and conotruncal defects. Zebrafish FASD model was used to dissect the mechanisms underlying FASD-associated CHDs. Embryonic ethanol exposure (3-24 hours post fertilization) led to defects in atrio-ventricular (AV) valvulogenesis beginning around 37 hpf, a morphogenetic event that arises long after ethanol withdrawal. Valve leaflets of the control embryos comprised two layers of cells confined at the compact atrio-ventricular canal (AVC). Ethanol treated embryos had extended AVC and valve forming cells were found either as rows of cells spanning the AVC or as unorganized clusters near the AV boundary. Ethanol exposure reduced valve precursors at the AVC, but some ventricular cells in ethanol treated embryos exhibited few characteristics of valve precursors. Late staged larvae and juvenile fish exposed to ethanol during embryonic development had faulty AV valves. Examination of AVC morphogenesis regulatory networks revealed that early ethanol exposure disrupted the Bmp signaling gradient in the heart during valve formation. Bmp signaling was prominent at the AVC in controls, but ethanol-exposed embryos displayed active Bmp signaling throughout the ventricle. Ethanol exposure also led to mislocalization of Notch signaling cells in endocardium during AV valve formation. Normally, highly active Notch signaling cells were organized at the AVC. In ethanol-exposed embryos, highly active Notch signaling cells were dispersed throughout the ventricle. At later stages, ethanol-exposed embryos exhibited reduced Wnt/β-catenin activity at the AVC. We conclude that early embryonic ethanol exposure alters Bmp, Notch and other signaling activities during AVC differentiation leading to faulty valve morphogenesis and valve defects persist in juvenile fish.
Full Text Available A Drosophila transgenic RNAi screen targeting the glycan genome, including all N/O/GAG-glycan biosynthesis/modification enzymes and glycan-binding lectins, was conducted to discover novel glycan functions in synaptogenesis. As proof-of-product, we characterized functionally paired heparan sulfate (HS 6-O-sulfotransferase (hs6st and sulfatase (sulf1, which bidirectionally control HS proteoglycan (HSPG sulfation. RNAi knockdown of hs6st and sulf1 causes opposite effects on functional synapse development, with decreased (hs6st and increased (sulf1 neurotransmission strength confirmed in null mutants. HSPG co-receptors for WNT and BMP intercellular signaling, Dally-like Protein and Syndecan, are differentially misregulated in the synaptomatrix of these mutants. Consistently, hs6st and sulf1 nulls differentially elevate both WNT (Wingless; Wg and BMP (Glass Bottom Boat; Gbb ligand abundance in the synaptomatrix. Anterograde Wg signaling via Wg receptor dFrizzled2 C-terminus nuclear import and retrograde Gbb signaling via synaptic MAD phosphorylation and nuclear import are differentially activated in hs6st and sulf1 mutants. Consequently, transcriptional control of presynaptic glutamate release machinery and postsynaptic glutamate receptors is bidirectionally altered in hs6st and sulf1 mutants, explaining the bidirectional change in synaptic functional strength. Genetic correction of the altered WNT/BMP signaling restores normal synaptic development in both mutant conditions, proving that altered trans-synaptic signaling causes functional differentiation defects.
Kozmiková, Iryna; Candiani, S.; Fabian, Peter; Gurská, Daniela; Kozmik, Zbyněk
Roč. 382, č. 2 (2013), s. 538-554 ISSN 0012-1606 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP305/10/J064; GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0027 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Bmp signaling * axial patterning * cell fate * chordates * evolution Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.637, year: 2013
Jiang Fangxu; Harrison, Leonard C.
We previously reported that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), members of the transforming growth factor superfamily, together with the basement membrane glycoprotein laminin-1 (Ln-1), promote proliferation of fetal pancreatic cells and formation of colonies containing peripheral insulin-positive cells. Here, we further investigate the cross-talk between BMP and Ln-1 signals. By RT-PCR, receptors for BMP (BMPR) (excepting BMPR-1B) and Ln-1 were expressed in the fetal pancreas between E13.5 and E17.5. Specific blocking antibodies to BMP-4 and -6 and selective BMP antagonists partially inhibited colony formation by fetal pancreas cells. Colony formation induced by BMP-6 and Ln-1 was completely abolished in a dose-dependent manner by blocking Ln-1 binding to its α 6 integrin and α-dystroglycan receptors or by blocking the Ln-1 signaling molecules, phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (P13K) and MAP kinase kinase-1. These results demonstrate a convergence of BMP and Ln-1 signaling through P13K and MAP kinase pathways to induce proliferation and colony formation in E15.5 fetal mouse pancreatic cells
Celá, Petra; Hampl, Marek; Fu, K.; Kunová Bosáková, M.; Krejčí, P.; Richman, J. M.; Buchtová, Marcela
Roč. 7, č. 378 (2016) ISSN 1664-042X R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-37368G Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : cleft lip * maxillary prominence * mandibular prominence * frontonasal mass * BMP Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 4.134, year: 2016
well as age- related decline in androgens may cause the change in expres- sion of BMP7 that allows the recurrent growth of dormant cancer cells... Hedgehog (Visvader and Lindeman, 2008; Rosen and Jordan, 2009). Understanding the signaling pathway of BMP7-induced dormancy is an intriguing question
Full Text Available 16920490 Signal integration between IFNgamma and TLR signalling pathways in macroph...tml) (.csml) Show Signal integration between IFNgamma and TLR signalling pathways in macrophages. PubmedID 1...6920490 Title Signal integration between IFNgamma and TLR signalling pathways in
Li, Xiaoguang; Ishii, Norito; Ohata, Chika; Furumura, Minao; Hashimoto, Takashi
Acantholysis in pemphigus vulgaris is induced by binding of autoantibodies to desmoglein 3 (Dsg3). The roles of signalling pathways on development of acantholysis have recently been extensively studied. In the study by Sayar et al., recently published in Exp Dermatol, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signalling was activated in both in vivo and in vitro pemphigus vulgaris experimental models. However, while EGFR inhibitors suppressed activity of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) linearly, they suppressed activity of c-Myc and acantholysis in a non-linear, V-shaped relationship. These findings indicated complicated interactions among EGFR, p38MAPK and c-Myc in pemphigus vulgaris pathology. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kim, Hyoin; Sonn, Jong Kyung
The small GTPase protein Rac1 is involved in a wide range of biological processes including cell differentiation. Previously, Rac1 was shown to promote chondrogenesis in micromass cultures of limb mesenchyme. However, the pathways mediating Rac1's role in chondrogenesis are not fully understood. This study aimed to explore the molecular mechanisms by which Rac1 regulates chondrogenic differentiation. Phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was increased as chondrogenesis proceeded in micromass cultures of chick wing bud mesenchyme. Inhibition of Rac1 with NSC23766, janus kinase 2 (JAK2) with AG490, or STAT3 with stattic inhibited chondrogenesis and reduced phosphorylation of STAT3. Conversely, overexpression of constitutively active Rac1 (Rac L61) increased phosphorylation of STAT3. Rac L61 expression resulted in increased expression of interleukin 6 (IL-6), and treatment with IL-6 increased phosphorylation of STAT3. NSC23766, AG490, and stattic prohibited cell aggregation, whereas expression of Rac L61 increased cell aggregation, which was reduced by stattic treatment. Our studies indicate that Rac1 induces STAT3 activation through expression and action of IL-6. Overexpression of Rac L61 increased expression of bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4). BMP4 promoted chondrogenesis, which was inhibited by K02288, an activin receptor-like kinase-2 inhibitor, and increased phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase. Overexpression of Rac L61 also increased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, which was reduced by K02288. These results suggest that Rac1 activates STAT3 by expression of IL-6, which in turn increases expression and activity of BMP4, leading to the promotion of chondrogenesis. © 2016 International Federation for Cell Biology.
Gaviño, Michael A.; Reddien, Peter W.
Animal embryos have diverse anatomy and vary greatly in size. It is therefore remarkable that a common signaling pathway – BMP signaling – controls development of the dorsoventral (DV) axis throughout the Bilateria [1-8]. In vertebrates, spatially opposed expression of the BMP-family signaling proteins Bmp4 and Admp (anti-dorsalizing morphogenetic protein) can promote restoration of DV pattern following tissue removal [9-11]. bmp4 orthologs have been identified in all three groups of the Bilateria (deuterostomes, ecdysozoans, and lophotrochozoans) . By contrast, the absence of admp orthologs in ecdysozoans such as Drosophila and C. elegans has suggested that a DV regulatory circuit of oppositely expressed bmp4 and admp genes represents an innovation specific to deuterostomes. Here we describe the existence of spatially opposed bmp and admp expression in a protostome. An admp ortholog (Smed-admp) is expressed at the ventral pole and laterally in adult Schmidtea mediterranea planarians, spatially opposing the dorsal-pole domain of Smed-bmp4 expression. Smed-admp is required for planarian regeneration following parasagittal amputation. Furthermore, Smed-admp promotes Smed-bmp4 expression and Smed-bmp4 inhibits Smed-admp expression, generating a regulatory circuit that buffers against perturbations of Bmp signaling. These results suggest that a Bmp/Admp regulatory circuit is a central feature of the Bilateria, used broadly for the establishment, maintenance, and regeneration of the DV axis. PMID:21295483
Full Text Available The importance of BMP receptor Ia (BMPRIa mediated signaling in the development of craniofacial organs, including the tooth and palate, has been well illuminated in several mouse models of loss of function, and by its mutations associated with juvenile polyposis syndrome and facial defects in humans. In this study, we took a gain-of-function approach to further address the role of BMPR-IA-mediated signaling in the mesenchymal compartment during tooth and palate development. We generated transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active form of BmprIa (caBmprIa in cranial neural crest (CNC cells that contributes to the dental and palatal mesenchyme. Mice bearing enhanced BMPRIa-mediated signaling in CNC cells exhibit complete cleft palate and delayed odontogenic differentiation. We showed that the cleft palate defect in the transgenic animals is attributed to an altered cell proliferation rate in the anterior palatal mesenchyme and to the delayed palatal elevation in the posterior portion associated with ectopic cartilage formation. Despite enhanced activity of BMP signaling in the dental mesenchyme, tooth development and patterning in transgenic mice appeared normal except delayed odontogenic differentiation. These data support the hypothesis that a finely tuned level of BMPRIa-mediated signaling is essential for normal palate and tooth development.
Gaviño, Michael A; Reddien, Peter W
Animal embryos have diverse anatomy and vary greatly in size. It is therefore remarkable that a common signaling pathway, BMP signaling, controls development of the dorsoventral (DV) axis throughout the Bilateria. In vertebrates, spatially opposed expression of the BMP family proteins Bmp4 and Admp (antidorsalizing morphogenetic protein) can promote restoration of DV pattern following tissue removal. bmp4 orthologs have been identified in all three groups of the Bilateria (deuterostomes, ecdysozoans, and lophotrochozoans). By contrast, the absence of admp orthologs in ecdysozoans such as Drosophila and C. elegans has suggested that a regulatory circuit of oppositely expressed bmp4 and admp genes represents a deuterostome-specific innovation. Here we describe the existence of spatially opposed bmp and admp expression in a protostome. An admp ortholog (Smed-admp) is expressed ventrally and laterally in adult Schmidtea mediterranea planarians, opposing the dorsal-pole expression of Smed-bmp4. Smed-admp is required for regeneration following parasagittal amputation. Furthermore, Smed-admp promotes Smed-bmp4 expression and Smed-bmp4 inhibits Smed-admp expression, generating a regulatory circuit that buffers against perturbations of Bmp signaling. These results suggest that a Bmp/Admp regulatory circuit is a central feature of the Bilateria, used broadly for the establishment, maintenance, and regeneration of the DV axis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Fei Tong,1 Bo Dong,1 Rongkui Chai,1 Ke Tong,2,3 Yini Wang,4 Shipiao Chen,1 Xinmei Zhou,1 Daojun Liu5 1Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology, Provincial Key Discipline of Pharmacology, Jiaxing University Medical College, Jiaxing, Zhejiang, 2College of Life Science and Engineering, 3State Defense Key Laboratory of Fundamental Science on Nuclear Wastes and Environment, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang, Sichuan, 4Department of Nursing, Zhejiang Rongjun Hospital, The Third People’s Hospital of Jiaxing, Jiaxing, Zhejiang, 5Department of Pharmacochemistry, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The purpose of the research was to explore the therapeutic action of simvastatin-loaded poly(ethylene glycol-b-poly(gamma-benzyl l-glutamate (PEG-b-PBLG50 on intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury (II/RI through downregulating bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4/cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 pathway as compared to free simvastatin (Sim. Sprague Dawley rats were preconditioned with 20 mg/kg Sim or simvastatin/PEG-b-PBLG50 (Sim/P compounds, and then subjected to 45 min of ischemia and 1 h of reperfusion. The blood and small intestines were collected, serum levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4, interleukin-6 (IL-6, interleukin-10 (IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α, and nitric oxide (NO were checked, and the dry/wet intestine ratios, superoxide dismutase activity, myeloperoxidase content, reactive oxygen species, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, protein 47 kDa phagocyte oxidase (p47phox, BMP4, COX-2, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK expressions were measured in intestinal tissues. Both Sim and Sim/P pretreatment reduced intestinal oxidative damnification, restricted inflammatory harm, and downregulated the BMP4 and COX-2 expressions as compared to II/RI groups, while Sim/P remarkably improved this effect. Keywords: PEG-b-PBLG50, II/RI, simvastatin, BMP4, COX-2
Lopez-Escobar, Beatriz; de Felipe, Beatriz; Sanchez-Alcazar, Jose Antonio; Sasaki, Takako; Copp, Andrew J.; Ybot-Gonzalez, Patricia
Background The ventral ectodermal ridge (VER) is an important signalling centre in the mouse tail-bud following completion of gastrulation. BMP regulation is essential for VER function, but how these signals are transmitted between adjacent tissues is unclear. Results We investigated the idea that extracellular matrix components might be involved, using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation to detect all known α, β and γ laminin chains and their mRNAs in the early tail bud. We identified an apparently novel laminin variant, comprising α5, β3 and γ2 chains, as a major component of the VER basement membrane at E9.5. Strikingly, only the mRNAs for these chains were co-expressed in VER cells, suggesting that lamin532 may be the sole basement membrane laminin at this stage. Since α6 integrin was also expressed in VER cells, this raises the possibility of cell-matrix interactions regulating BMP signalling at this site of caudal morphogenesis. Conclusions Laminin532 could interact with α6-containing integrin to direct differentiation of the specialised VER cells from surface ectoderm. PMID:22911573
Full Text Available Therapeutic application of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs requires precise control over their differentiation. However, spontaneous differentiation is prevalent, and growth factors induce multiple cell types; e.g., the mesoderm inducer BMP4 generates both mesoderm and trophoblast. Here we identify endogenous WNT signals as BMP targets that are required and sufficient for mesoderm induction, while trophoblast induction is WNT independent, enabling the exclusive differentiation toward either lineage. Furthermore, endogenous WNT signals induce loss of pluripotency in hESCs and their murine counterparts, epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs. WNT inhibition obviates the need to manually remove differentiated cells to maintain cultures and improves the efficiency of directed differentiation. In EpiSCs, WNT inhibition stabilizes a pregastrula epiblast state with novel characteristics, including the ability to contribute to blastocyst chimeras. Our findings show that endogenous WNT signals function as hidden mediators of growth factor-induced differentiation and play critical roles in the self-renewal of hESCs and EpiSCs.
Jonathan W Lowery
Full Text Available The Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP pathway is a multi-member signaling cascade whose basic components are found in all animals. One member, BMP3, which arose more recently in evolution and is found only in deuterostomes, serves a unique role as an antagonist to both the canonical BMP and Activin pathways. However, the mechanisms that control BMP3 expression, and the cis-regulatory regions mediating this regulation, remain poorly defined. With this in mind, we sought to identify the Bmp3 promoter in mouse (M. musculus through functional and comparative genomic analyses. We found that the minimal promoter required for expression in resides within 0.8 kb upstream of Bmp3 in a region that is highly conserved with rat (R. norvegicus. We also found that an upstream region abutting the minimal promoter acts as a repressor of the minimal promoter in HEK293T cells and osteoblasts. Strikingly, a portion of this region is conserved among all available eutherian mammal genomes (47/47, but not in any non-eutherian animal (0/136. We also identified multiple conserved transcription factor binding sites in the Bmp3 upstream ECR, suggesting that this region may preserve common cis-regulatory elements that govern Bmp3 expression across eutherian mammals. Since dysregulation of BMP signaling appears to play a role in human health and disease, our findings may have application in the development of novel therapeutics aimed at modulating BMP signaling in humans.
Rogers Crystal D
Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular mechanism that initiates the formation of the vertebrate central nervous system has long been debated. Studies in Xenopus and mouse demonstrate that inhibition of BMP signaling is sufficient to induce neural tissue in explants or ES cells respectively, whereas studies in chick argue that instructive FGF signaling is also required for the expression of neural genes. Although additional signals may be involved in neural induction and patterning, here we focus on the roles of BMP inhibition and FGF8a. Results To address the question of necessity and sufficiency of BMP inhibition and FGF signaling, we compared the temporal expression of the five earliest genes expressed in the neuroectoderm and determined their requirements for induction at the onset of neural plate formation in Xenopus. Our results demonstrate that the onset and peak of expression of the genes vary and that they have different regulatory requirements and are therefore unlikely to share a conserved neural induction regulatory module. Even though all require inhibition of BMP for expression, some also require FGF signaling; expression of the early-onset pan-neural genes sox2 and foxd5α requires FGF signaling while other early genes, sox3, geminin and zicr1 are induced by BMP inhibition alone. Conclusions We demonstrate that BMP inhibition and FGF signaling induce neural genes independently of each other. Together our data indicate that although the spatiotemporal expression patterns of early neural genes are similar, the mechanisms involved in their expression are distinct and there are different signaling requirements for the expression of each gene.
Xiao, Ya-Ping; Zeng, Jie; Jiao, Lin-Na; Xu, Xiao-Yu
The treatment effect and signaling pathway regulation effects of kidney-tonifying traditional Chinese medicine on osteoporosis have been widely studied, but there is no systematic summary currently. This review comprehensively collected and analyzed the traditional Chinese medicines on the treatment and signaling pathway regulation of osteoporosis in recent ten years, such as Epimedii Folium, Drynariae Rhizoma, Cnidii Fructus, Eucommiae Cortex, Psoraleae Fructus and Dipsaci Radix. Based on the existing findings, the following conclusions were obtained: ①kidney-tonifying traditional Chinese medicine treated osteoporosis mainly through BMP-Smads, Wnt/ β -catenin, MAPK, PI3K/AKT signaling pathway to promote osteoblast bone formation and through OPG/RANKL/ RANK, estrogen, CTSK signaling pathway to inhibit osteoclasts of bone resorption. Epimedii Folium, Drynariae Rhizoma, Cnidii Fructus and Psoraleae Fructus up-regulated the expression of key proteins and genes of BMP-Smads and Wnt/ β -catenin signaling pathways to promote bone formation. Epimedii Folium, Drynariae Rhizoma, Cnidii Fructus, Eucommiae Cortex, Psoraleae Fructus and Dipsaci Radix inhibited the bone resorption by mediating the OPG/RANKL/RANK signaling pathway. ②Kidney-tonifying traditional Chinese medicine prevented and treated osteoporosis through a variety of ways: icariin in Epimedii Folium, naringin in Drynariae Rhizoma, osthole in Cnidii Fructus and psoralen in Psoraleae Fructus can regulate BMP-Smads, Wnt/ β -catenin signaling pathway to promote bone formation, but also activate OPG/RANKL/RANK, CTSK and other signaling pathways to inhibit bone resorption. ③The crosstalk of the signaling pathways and the animal experiments of the traditional Chinese medicine on the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis as well as their multi-target mechanism and comprehensive regulation need further clarification. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Full Text Available We examined the effects of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 on growth, differentiation, and intracellular signaling pathways of odontoblast-like cells, KN-3 cells, to clarify molecular mechanisms of odontoblast differentiation during pulp regeneration process. After treatment with BMP-2, the cell morphology, growth, alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity, and the activation and expression of BMP-induced intracellular signaling molecules, such as Smad1/5/8 and Smad6/7, as well as activities of dentin sialoprotein (DSP and dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1, were examined. BMP-2 had no effects on the morphology, growth, or ALP activity of KN-3 cells, whereas it induced the phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 and expression of Smad6/7. BMP-2 also induced the expressions of DSP and DMP-1. Our results suggest that KN-3 cells may express an odontoblastic phenotype with the addition of BMP-2 through the activation of Smad signaling pathways.
Slattery, Martha L.; Lundgreen, Abbie; Herrick, Jennifer S.; Kadlubar, Susan; Caan, Bette J.; Potter, John D.; Wolff, Roger K.
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) are part of the TGF-β-signaling pathway; genetic variation in these genes may be involved in colorectal cancer. In this study we evaluated the association between genetic variation in BMP1 (11 tagSNPs), BMP2 (5 tagSNPs), BMP4 (3 tagSNPs), BMPR1A (9 tagSNPs), BMPR1B (21 tagSNPs), BMPR2 (11 tagSNPs), and GDF10 (7 tagSNPs) with risk of colon and rectal cancer and tumor molecular phenotype. We used data from population-based case-control studies (colon cancer n=1574 cases, 1970 controls; rectal cancer n=791 cases, 999 controls). We observed that genetic variation in BMPR1A, BMPR1B, BMPR2, BMP2, and BMP4 was associated with risk of developing colon cancer, with 20 to 30% increased risk for most high-risk genotypes. A summary of high-risk genotypes showed over a twofold increase in colon cancer risk at the upper risk category (OR 2.49 95% CI 1.95, 3.18). BMPR2, BMPR1B, BMP2, and GDF10 were associated with rectal cancer. BMPR2 rs2228545 was associated with an almost twofold increased risk of rectal cancer. The risk associated with the highest category of the summary score for rectal cancer was 2.97 (95% CI 1.87, 4.72). Genes in the BMP-signaling pathway were consistently associated with CIMP+ status in combination with both KRAS-mutated and MSI tumors. BMP genes interacted statistically significantly with other genes in the TGF-β-signaling pathway, including TGFβ1, TGFβR1, Smad 3, Smad 4, and Smad 7. Our data support a role for genetic variation in BMP-related genes in the etiology of colon and rectal cancer. One possible mechanism is via the TGF-β-signaling pathway. PMID:21387313
Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of gene function in the mouse have relied mainly on gene targeting via homologous recombination. However, this approach is difficult to apply in specific windows of time, and to simultaneously knock-down multiple genes. Here we report an efficient method for dsRNA-mediated gene silencing in late cleavage-stage mouse embryos that permits examination of phenotypes at post-implantation stages. Results We show that introduction of Bmp4 dsRNA into intact blastocysts by electroporation recapitulates the genetic Bmp4 null phenotype at gastrulation. It also reveals a novel role for Bmp4 in the regulation the anterior visceral endoderm specific gene expression and its positioning. We also show that RNAi can be used to simultaneously target several genes. When applied to the three murine isoforms of Dishevelled, it leads to earlier defects than previously observed in double knock-outs. These include severe delays in post-implantation development and defects in the anterior midline and neural folds at headfold stages. Conclusion Our results indicate that the BMP4 signalling pathway contributes to the development of the anterior visceral endoderm, and reveal an early functional redundancy between the products of the murine Dishevelled genes. The proposed approach constitutes a powerful tool to screen the functions of genes that govern the development of the mouse embryo.
The idea is used here to break human calcium signalling pathway into simple entities known as ... [Nayak L and De R K 2007 Modularized study of human calcium signalling pathway; J. Biosci. 32 1009–1017] http://www.ias.ac.in/ ..... cellular physiology of intracellular calcium stores; Physiol. Rev. 74 595–636. Bertram R ...
Lu, Tsai-Ming; Luo, Yi-Jyun; Yu, Jr-Kai
The evolution of the nervous system has been a topic of great interest. To gain more insight into the evolution of the peripheral sensory system, we used the cephalochordate amphioxus. Amphioxus is a basal chordate that has a dorsal central nervous system (CNS) and a peripheral nervous system (PNS) comprising several types of epidermal sensory neurons (ESNs). Here, we show that a proneural basic helix-loop-helix gene (Ash) is co-expressed with the Delta ligand in ESN progenitor cells. Using pharmacological treatments, we demonstrate that Delta/Notch signaling is likely to be involved in the specification of amphioxus ESNs from their neighboring epidermal cells. We also show that BMP signaling functions upstream of Delta/Notch signaling to induce a ventral neurogenic domain. This patterning mechanism is highly similar to that of the peripheral sensory neurons in the protostome and vertebrate model animals, suggesting that they might share the same ancestry. Interestingly, when BMP signaling is globally elevated in amphioxus embryos, the distribution of ESNs expands to the entire epidermal ectoderm. These results suggest that by manipulating BMP signaling levels, a conserved neurogenesis circuit can be initiated at various locations in the epidermal ectoderm to generate peripheral sensory neurons in amphioxus embryos. We hypothesize that during chordate evolution, PNS progenitors might have been polarized to different positions in various chordate lineages owing to differential regulation of BMP signaling in the ectoderm.
Clavel, Carlos; Grisanti, Laura; Zemla, Roland; Rezza, Amelie; Barros, Rita; Sennett, Rachel; Mazloom, Amin; Chung, Chi-Yeh; Cai, Xiaoqiang; Cai, Chen-Leng; Pevny, Larysa; Nicolis, Silvia; Ma’ayan, Avi; Rendl, Michael
SUMMARY How dermal papilla (DP) niche cells regulate hair follicle progenitors to control hair growth remains unclear. Using Tbx18Cre to target embryonic DP precursors, we ablate the transcription factor Sox2 early and efficiently, resulting in diminished hair shaft outgrowth. We find that DP niche expression of Sox2 controls the migration rate of differentiating hair shaft progenitors. Transcriptional profiling of Sox2 null DPs reveals increased Bmp6 and decreased Bmp inhibitor Sostdc1, a direct Sox2 transcriptional target. Subsequently, we identify upregulated Bmp signaling in knockout hair shaft progenitors and demonstrate that Bmps inhibit cell migration, an effect that can be attenuated by Sostdc1. A shorter and Sox2-negative hair type lacks Sostdc1 in the DP and shows reduced migration and increased Bmp activity of hair shaft progenitors. Collectively, our data identify Sox2 as a key regulator of hair growth that controls progenitor migration by fine-tuning Bmp-mediated mesenchymal-epithelial crosstalk. PMID:23153495
Full Text Available Endocardial to mesenchymal transformation (EMT is a fundamental cellular process required for heart valve formation. Notch, Wnt and Bmp pathways are known to regulate this process. To further address how these pathways coordinate in the process, we specifically disrupted Notch1 or Jagged1 in the endocardium of mouse embryonic hearts and showed that Jagged1-Notch1 signaling in the endocardium is essential for EMT and early valvular cushion formation. qPCR and RNA in situ hybridization assays reveal that endocardial Jagged1-Notch1 signaling regulates Wnt4 expression in the atrioventricular canal (AVC endocardium and Bmp2 in the AVC myocardium. Whole embryo cultures treated with Wnt4 or Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (Wif1 show that Bmp2 expression in the AVC myocardium is dependent on Wnt activity; Wnt4 also reinstates Bmp2 expression in the AVC myocardium of endocardial Notch1 null embryos. Furthermore, while both Wnt4 and Bmp2 rescue the defective EMT resulting from Notch inhibition, Wnt4 requires Bmp for its action. These results demonstrate that Jagged1-Notch1 signaling in endocardial cells induces the expression of Wnt4, which subsequently acts as a paracrine factor to upregulate Bmp2 expression in the adjacent AVC myocardium to signal EMT.
Li, Yongfeng; Wang, M.; Carra, C.; Cucinotta, F. A.
The Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGFbeta) signaling pathway is a prominent regulatory signaling pathway controlling various important cellular processes. It can be induced by several factors, including ionizing radiation. It is regulated by Smads in a negative feedback loop through promoting increases in the regulatory Smads in the cell nucleus, and subsequent expression of inhibitory Smad, Smad7 to form a ubiquitin ligase with Smurf targeting active TGF receptors for degradation. In this work, we proposed a mathematical model to study the radiation-induced Smad-regulated TGF signaling pathway. By modularization, we are able to analyze each module (subsystem) and recover the nonlinear dynamics of the entire network system. Meanwhile the excitability, a common feature observed in the biological systems, along the TGF signaling pathway is discussed by mathematical analysis and numerical simulation.
Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Patrad, Elham; Tafsiri, Elham; Peng, Warner; Fangman, Benjamin; Pluard, Timothy J; Accurso, Anthony; Salacz, Michael; Shah, Kushal; Ricke, Brandon; Bi, Danse; Kimura, Kyle; Graves, Leland; Najad, Marzieh Khajoie; Dolatkhah, Roya; Sanaat, Zohreh; Yazdi, Mina; Tavakolinia, Naeimeh; Mazani, Mohammad; Amani, Mojtaba; Ghavami, Saeid; Gartell, Robyn; Reilly, Colleen; Naima, Zaid; Esfandyari, Tuba; Farassati, Faris
The Ral (Ras-Like) signaling pathway plays an important role in the biology of cells. A plethora of effects is regulated by this signaling pathway and its prooncogenic effectors. Our team has demonstrated the overactivation of the RalA signaling pathway in a number of human malignancies including cancers of the liver, ovary, lung, brain, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Additionally, we have shown that the activation of RalA in cancer stem cells is higher in comparison with differentiated cancer cells. In this article, we review the role of Ral signaling in health and disease with a focus on the role of this multifunctional protein in the generation of therapies for cancer. An improved understanding of this pathway can lead to development of a novel class of anticancer therapies that functions on the basis of intervention with RalA or its downstream effectors. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Asmussen, Johanne Wirenfeldt; Von Sperling, Marie Louise; Penkowa, Milena
-protein-coupled pathway but not on protein tyrosine kinases or on receptor tyrosine kinases. Activation of phospholipase C was necessary for MT-induced neurite outgrowth, and furthermore it was shown that inhibition of several intracellular protein kinases, such as protein kinase A, protein kinase C, phosphatidylinositol...
The recent decades have seen a huge expansion in our knowledge about pancreatic development. Numerous lineage-restricted transcription factor genes have been identified and much has been learned about their function. Similarly, numerous signaling pathways important for pancreas development have...... been identified and the specific roles have been investigated by genetic and cell biological methods. The present review presents an overview of the principal signaling pathways involved in regulating murine pancreatic growth, morphogenesis, and cell differentiation....
Vishnubalaji, Radhakrishnan; Yue, Shijun; Alfayez, Musaad
BACKGROUND: Molecular profiling of colorectal cancer (CRC) based on global gene expression has revealed multiple dysregulated signalling pathways associated with drug resistance and poor prognosis. However, the role of BMP2 signaling in CRC is not fully characterised. METHODS: Bioinformatics data...... datasets revealed significant downregulation of BMP2 in metastatic recurrent compared to non-metastatic cancer (p = 0.02). Global gene expression analysis in CRC cells over-expressing BMP2 revealed multiple dysregulated pathways mostly affecting cell cycle and DNA damage response. Concordantly, lentiviral...
Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs regulate many aspects of skeletal development, including osteoblast and chondrocyte differentiation, cartilage and bone formation, and cranial and limb development. Among them, BMP-2, one of the most potent osteogenic signaling molecules, stimulates osteoblast differentiation, while it inhibits myogenic differentiation in C2C12 cells. To evaluate genes involved in BMP-2-induced osteoblast differentiation, we performed cDNA microarray analyses to compare BMP-2-treated and -untreated C2C12 cells. We focused on Alx3 (aristaless-like homeobox 3 which was clearly induced during osteoblast differentiation. Alx3, a homeobox gene related to the Drosophilaaristaless gene, has been linked to developmental functions in craniofacial structures and limb development. However, little is known about its direct relationship with bone formation. In the present study, we focused on the mechanisms of Alx3 gene expression and function during osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. In C2C12 cells, BMP-2 induced increase of Alx3 gene expression in both time- and dose-dependent manners through the BMP receptors-mediated SMAD signaling pathway. In addition, silencing of Alx3 by siRNA inhibited osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2, as showed by the expressions of alkaline phosphatase (Alp, Osteocalcin, and Osterix, while over-expression of Alx3 enhanced osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. These results indicate that Alx3 expression is enhanced by BMP-2 via the BMP receptors mediated-Smad signaling and that Alx3 is a positive regulator of osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2.
Hence, we analysed the expression of Notch, Wnt and Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) pathway genes during differentiation of R1 cells into early vascular lineages. Notch-, Wnt-and Shh-mediated signalling is important during embryonic development. Regulation of gene expression through these signalling molecules is a frequently ...
Treatment approaches for cancer, for example chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or immunotherapy, primarily act by inducing cell death in cancer cells. Consequently, the inability to trigger cell death pathways or alternatively, evasion of cancer cells to the induction of cell death pathways can result in resistance of cancers to current treatment protocols. Therefore, in order to overcome treatment resistance a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms that regulate cell death and survival pathways in cancers and in response to cancer therapy is necessary to develop molecular-targeted therapies. This strategy should lead to more effective and individualized treatment strategies that selectively target deregulated signaling pathways in a tumor type- and patient-specific manner.
Murtaugh, L. Charles; Chyung, Jay H.; Lassar, Andrew B.
Previous work has indicated that signals from the floor plate and notochord promote chondrogenesis of the somitic mesoderm. These tissues, acting through the secreted signaling molecule Sonic hedgehog (Shh), appear to be critical for the formation of the sclerotome. Later steps in the differentiation of sclerotome into cartilage may be independent of the influence of these axial tissues. Although the signals involved in these later steps have not yet been pinpointed, there is substantial evid...
Full Text Available The differentiated cell types of the epithelial and mesenchymal tissue compartments of the mature ureter of the mouse arise in a precise temporal and spatial sequence from uncommitted precursor cells of the distal ureteric bud epithelium and its surrounding mesenchyme. Previous genetic efforts identified a member of the Hedgehog (HH family of secreted proteins, Sonic hedgehog (SHH as a crucial epithelial signal for growth and differentiation of the ureteric mesenchyme. Here, we used conditional loss- and gain-of-function experiments of the unique HH signal transducer Smoothened (SMO to further characterize the cellular functions and unravel the effector genes of HH signaling in ureter development. We showed that HH signaling is not only required for proliferation and SMC differentiation of cells of the inner mesenchymal region but also for survival of cells of the outer mesenchymal region, and for epithelial proliferation and differentiation. We identified the Forkhead transcription factor gene Foxf1 as a target of HH signaling in the ureteric mesenchyme. Expression of a repressor version of FOXF1 in this tissue completely recapitulated the mesenchymal and epithelial proliferation and differentiation defects associated with loss of HH signaling while re-expression of a wildtype version of FOXF1 in the inner mesenchymal layer restored these cellular programs when HH signaling was inhibited. We further showed that expression of Bmp4 in the ureteric mesenchyme depends on HH signaling and Foxf1, and that exogenous BMP4 rescued cell proliferation and epithelial differentiation in ureters with abrogated HH signaling or FOXF1 function. We conclude that SHH uses a FOXF1-BMP4 module to coordinate the cellular programs for ureter elongation and differentiation, and suggest that deregulation of this signaling axis occurs in human congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT.
Wittern, Anna B.; Weiss, Anna-Carina; Rudat, Carsten; Schuster-Gossler, Karin; Wojahn, Irina; Lüdtke, Timo H.-W.; Trowe, Mark-Oliver
The differentiated cell types of the epithelial and mesenchymal tissue compartments of the mature ureter of the mouse arise in a precise temporal and spatial sequence from uncommitted precursor cells of the distal ureteric bud epithelium and its surrounding mesenchyme. Previous genetic efforts identified a member of the Hedgehog (HH) family of secreted proteins, Sonic hedgehog (SHH) as a crucial epithelial signal for growth and differentiation of the ureteric mesenchyme. Here, we used conditional loss- and gain-of-function experiments of the unique HH signal transducer Smoothened (SMO) to further characterize the cellular functions and unravel the effector genes of HH signaling in ureter development. We showed that HH signaling is not only required for proliferation and SMC differentiation of cells of the inner mesenchymal region but also for survival of cells of the outer mesenchymal region, and for epithelial proliferation and differentiation. We identified the Forkhead transcription factor gene Foxf1 as a target of HH signaling in the ureteric mesenchyme. Expression of a repressor version of FOXF1 in this tissue completely recapitulated the mesenchymal and epithelial proliferation and differentiation defects associated with loss of HH signaling while re-expression of a wildtype version of FOXF1 in the inner mesenchymal layer restored these cellular programs when HH signaling was inhibited. We further showed that expression of Bmp4 in the ureteric mesenchyme depends on HH signaling and Foxf1, and that exogenous BMP4 rescued cell proliferation and epithelial differentiation in ureters with abrogated HH signaling or FOXF1 function. We conclude that SHH uses a FOXF1-BMP4 module to coordinate the cellular programs for ureter elongation and differentiation, and suggest that deregulation of this signaling axis occurs in human congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT). PMID:28797033
Bohnenpoll, Tobias; Wittern, Anna B; Mamo, Tamrat M; Weiss, Anna-Carina; Rudat, Carsten; Kleppa, Marc-Jens; Schuster-Gossler, Karin; Wojahn, Irina; Lüdtke, Timo H-W; Trowe, Mark-Oliver; Kispert, Andreas
The differentiated cell types of the epithelial and mesenchymal tissue compartments of the mature ureter of the mouse arise in a precise temporal and spatial sequence from uncommitted precursor cells of the distal ureteric bud epithelium and its surrounding mesenchyme. Previous genetic efforts identified a member of the Hedgehog (HH) family of secreted proteins, Sonic hedgehog (SHH) as a crucial epithelial signal for growth and differentiation of the ureteric mesenchyme. Here, we used conditional loss- and gain-of-function experiments of the unique HH signal transducer Smoothened (SMO) to further characterize the cellular functions and unravel the effector genes of HH signaling in ureter development. We showed that HH signaling is not only required for proliferation and SMC differentiation of cells of the inner mesenchymal region but also for survival of cells of the outer mesenchymal region, and for epithelial proliferation and differentiation. We identified the Forkhead transcription factor gene Foxf1 as a target of HH signaling in the ureteric mesenchyme. Expression of a repressor version of FOXF1 in this tissue completely recapitulated the mesenchymal and epithelial proliferation and differentiation defects associated with loss of HH signaling while re-expression of a wildtype version of FOXF1 in the inner mesenchymal layer restored these cellular programs when HH signaling was inhibited. We further showed that expression of Bmp4 in the ureteric mesenchyme depends on HH signaling and Foxf1, and that exogenous BMP4 rescued cell proliferation and epithelial differentiation in ureters with abrogated HH signaling or FOXF1 function. We conclude that SHH uses a FOXF1-BMP4 module to coordinate the cellular programs for ureter elongation and differentiation, and suggest that deregulation of this signaling axis occurs in human congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT).
Modularization is a process by which we can break a network into small units for better analysis of the original network. The idea is used here to break human calcium signalling pathway into simple entities known as modules. Since there is no single definition of a module, we have followed certain criteria to create them.
Egerman, Marc A.
The molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle maintenance involve interplay between multiple signaling pathways. Under normal physiological conditions, a network of interconnected signals serves to control and coordinate hypertrophic and atrophic messages, culminating in a delicate balance between muscle protein synthesis and proteolysis. Loss of skeletal muscle mass, termed “atrophy”, is a diagnostic feature of cachexia seen in settings of cancer, heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, kidney disease, and burns. Cachexia increases the likelihood of death from these already serious diseases. Recent studies have further defined the pathways leading to gain and loss of skeletal muscle as well as the signaling events that induce differentiation and post-injury regeneration, which are also essential for the maintenance of skeletal muscle mass. In this review, we summarize and discuss the relevant recent literature demonstrating these previously undiscovered mediators governing anabolism and catabolism of skeletal muscle. PMID:24237131
Andersson, T.; Södersten, E.; Duckworth, J.K.; Cascante, A.; Fritz, N.; Sacchetti, P.; Červenka, I.; Bryja, Vítězslav; Hermanson, O.
Roč. 284, č. 6 (2008), s. 3672-3681 ISSN 0021-9258 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB501630801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : Wnt signaling * CXXC5 * neural stem cells Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 5.520, year: 2008
Shiela C Samson
Full Text Available The 3-O-sulfotransferase (3-OST family catalyzes rare modifications of glycosaminoglycan chains on heparan sulfate proteoglycans, yet their biological functions are largely unknown. Knockdown of 3-OST-7 in zebrafish uncouples cardiac ventricular contraction from normal calcium cycling and electrophysiology by reducing tropomyosin4 (tpm4 expression. Normal 3-OST-7 activity prevents the expansion of BMP signaling into ventricular myocytes, and ectopic activation of BMP mimics the ventricular noncontraction phenotype seen in 3-OST-7 depleted embryos. In 3-OST-7 morphants, ventricular contraction can be rescued by overexpression of tropomyosin tpm4 but not by troponin tnnt2, indicating that tpm4 serves as a lynchpin for ventricular sarcomere organization downstream of 3-OST-7. Contraction can be rescued by expression of 3-OST-7 in endocardium, or by genetic loss of bmp4. Strikingly, BMP misregulation seen in 3-OST-7 morphants also occurs in multiple cardiac noncontraction models, including potassium voltage-gated channel gene, kcnh2, affected in Romano-Ward syndrome and long-QT syndrome, and cardiac troponin T gene, tnnt2, affected in human cardiomyopathies. Together these results reveal 3-OST-7 as a key component of a novel pathway that constrains BMP signaling from ventricular myocytes, coordinates sarcomere assembly, and promotes cardiac contractile function.
Full Text Available Fibrosis of the glomerular and tubulointerstitial compartments is a common feature of chronic kidney disease leading to end-stage renal failure. This fibrotic process involves a number of pathologic mechanisms, including cell death and inflammation. This review focuses on the role of the c-Jun amino terminal kinase (JNK signaling pathway in the development of renal fibrosis. The JNK pathway is activated in response to various cellular stresses and plays an important role in cell death and inflammation. Activation of JNK signaling is a common feature in most forms of human kidney injury, evident in both intrinsic glomerular and tubular cells as well as in infiltrating leukocytes. Similar patterns of JNK activation are evident in animal models of acute and chronic renal injury. Administration of JNK inhibitors can protect against acute kidney injury and suppress the development of glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. In particular, JNK activation in tubular epithelial cells may be a pivotal mechanism in determining the outcome of both acute kidney injury and progression of chronic kidney disease. JNK signaling promotes tubular epithelial cell production of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic molecules as well as tubular cell de-differentiation toward a mesenchymal phenotype. However, the role of JNK within renal fibroblasts is less well-characterized. The JNK pathway interacts with other pro-fibrotic pathways, most notable with the TGF-β/SMAD pathway. JNK activation can augment TGF-β gene transcription, induce expression of enzymes that activate the latent form of TGF-β, and JNK directly phosphorylates SMAD3 to enhance transcription of pro-fibrotic molecules. In conclusion, JNK signaling plays an integral role in several key mechanisms operating in renal fibrosis. Targeting of JNK enzymes has therapeutic potential for the treatment of fibrotic kidney diseases.
Xia, Peng; Liu, Yuening
Cardiovascular diseases, the number 1 cause of death worldwide, are frequently associated with apoptotic death of cardiac myocytes. Since cardiomyocyte apoptosis is a highly regulated process, pharmacological intervention of apoptosis pathways may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for a number of cardiovascular diseases and disorders including myocardial infarction, ischemia/reperfusion injury, chemotherapy cardiotoxicity, and end-stage heart failure. Despite rapid growth of our knowledge in apoptosis signaling pathways, a clinically applicable treatment targeting this cellular process is currently unavailable. To help identify potential innovative directions for future research, it is necessary to have a full understanding of the apoptotic pathways currently known to be functional in cardiac myocytes. Here, we summarize recent progress in the regulation of cardiomyocyte apoptosis by multiple signaling molecules and pathways, with a focus on the involvement of these pathways in the pathogenesis of heart disease. In addition, we provide an update regarding bench to bedside translation of this knowledge and discuss unanswered questions that need further investigation. PMID:28101515
Sogayar Mari C
Full Text Available Abstract Findings We set out to analyse the gene expression profile of pre-osteoblastic C2C12 cells during osteodifferentiation induced by both rhBMP2 and rhBMP7 using DNA microarrays. Induced and repressed genes were intercepted, resulting in 1,318 induced genes and 704 repressed genes by both rhBMP2 and rhBMP7. We selected and validated, by RT-qPCR, 24 genes which were upregulated by rhBMP2 and rhBMP7; of these, 13 are related to transcription (Runx2, Dlx1, Dlx2, Dlx5, Id1, Id2, Id3, Fkhr1, Osx, Hoxc8, Glis1, Glis3 and Cfdp1, four are associated with cell signalling pathways (Lrp6, Dvl1, Ecsit and PKCδ and seven are associated with the extracellular matrix (Ltbp2, Grn, Postn, Plod1, BMP1, Htra1 and IGFBP-rP10. The novel identified genes include: Hoxc8, Glis1, Glis3, Ecsit, PKCδ, LrP6, Dvl1, Grn, BMP1, Ltbp2, Plod1, Htra1 and IGFBP-rP10. Background BMPs (bone morphogenetic proteins are members of the TGFβ (transforming growth factor-β super-family of proteins, which regulate growth and differentiation of different cell types in various tissues, and play a critical role in the differentiation of mesenchymal cells into osteoblasts. In particular, rhBMP2 and rhBMP7 promote osteoinduction in vitro and in vivo, and both proteins are therapeutically applied in orthopaedics and dentistry. Conclusion Using DNA microarrays and RT-qPCR, we identified both previously known and novel genes which are upregulated by rhBMP2 and rhBMP7 during the onset of osteoblastic transdifferentiation of pre-myoblastic C2C12 cells. Subsequent studies of these genes in C2C12 and mesenchymal or pre-osteoblastic cells should reveal more details about their role during this type of cellular differentiation induced by BMP2 or BMP7. These studies are relevant to better understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying osteoblastic differentiation and bone repair.
da Silva, Alexandre A.; Wang, Zhen; Fang, Taolin; Aberdein, Nicola; de Lara Rodriguez, Cecilia E. P.; Hall, John E.
Obesity greatly increases the risk for cardiovascular, metabolic, and renal diseases and is one of the most significant and preventable causes of increased blood pressure (BP) in patients with essential hypertension. This review high-lights recent advances in our understanding of central nervous system (CNS) signaling pathways that contribute to the etiology and pathogenesis of obesity-induced hypertension. We discuss the role of excess adiposity and activation of the brain leptin-melanocortin system in causing increased sympathetic activity in obesity. In addition, we highlight other potential brain mechanisms by which increased weight gain modulates metabolic and cardiovascular functions. Unraveling the CNS mechanisms responsible for increased sympathetic activation and hypertension and how circulating hormones activate brain signaling pathways to control BP offer potentially important therapeutic targets for obesity and hypertension. PMID:27262997
Bjelobaba, Ivana; Janjic, Marija M.; Stojilkovic, Stanko S.
Adenosine-5′-triphosphate is released by neuroendocrine, endocrine, and other cell types and acts as an extracellular agonist for ligand-gated P2X cationic channels and G protein-coupled P2Y receptors in numerous organs and tissues, including the endocrine system. The breakdown of ATP by ectonucleotidases not only terminates its extracellular messenger functions, but also provides a pathway for the generation of two additional agonists: adenosine 5′-diphosphate, acting via some P2Y receptors, and adenosine, a native agonist for G protein-coupled adenosine receptors, also expressed in the endocrine system. This article provides a review of purinergic signaling pathways in the hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory cells and neurohypophysis, hypothalamic parvocellular neuroendocrine system, adenohypophysis, and effector glands organized in five axes: hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, hypothalamic-pituitary-growth hormone, and hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin. We attempted to summarize current knowledge of purinergic receptor subtypes expressed in the endocrine system, including their roles in intracellular signaling, hormone secretion, and other cell functions. We also briefly review the release mechanism for adenosine-5′-triphosphate by neuroendocrine, endocrine and surrounding cells, the enzymes involved in adenosine-5′-triphosphate hydrolysis to adenosine-5′-diphosphate and adenosine, and the relevance of this pathway for sequential activation of receptors and termination of signaling. PMID:25960051
Bjelobaba, Ivana; Janjic, Marija M; Stojilkovic, Stanko S
Adenosine-5'-triphosphate is released by neuroendocrine, endocrine, and other cell types and acts as an extracellular agonist for ligand-gated P2X cationic channels and G protein-coupled P2Y receptors in numerous organs and tissues, including the endocrine system. The breakdown of ATP by ectonucleotidases not only terminates its extracellular messenger functions, but also provides a pathway for the generation of two additional agonists: adenosine 5'-diphosphate, acting via some P2Y receptors, and adenosine, a native agonist for G protein-coupled adenosine receptors, also expressed in the endocrine system. This article provides a review of purinergic signaling pathways in the hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory cells and neurohypophysis, hypothalamic parvocellular neuroendocrine system, adenohypophysis, and effector glands organized in five axes: hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, hypothalamic-pituitary-growth hormone, and hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin. We attempted to summarize current knowledge of purinergic receptor subtypes expressed in the endocrine system, including their roles in intracellular signaling, hormone secretion, and other cell functions. We also briefly review the release mechanism for adenosine-5'-triphosphate by neuroendocrine, endocrine and surrounding cells, the enzymes involved in adenosine-5'-triphosphate hydrolysis to adenosine-5'-diphosphate and adenosine, and the relevance of this pathway for sequential activation of receptors and termination of signaling. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available Larval motor neurons remodel during Drosophila neuro-muscular junction dismantling at metamorphosis. In this study, we describe the motor neuron retraction as opposed to degeneration based on the early disappearance of β-Spectrin and the continuing presence of Tubulin. By blocking cell dynamics with a dominant-negative form of Dynamin, we show that phagocytes have a key role in this process. Importantly, we show the presence of peripheral glial cells close to the neuro-muscular junction that retracts before the motor neuron. We show also that in muscle, expression of EcR-B1 encoding the steroid hormone receptor required for postsynaptic dismantling, is under the control of the ftz-f1/Hr39 orphan nuclear receptor pathway but not the TGF-β signaling pathway. In the motor neuron, activation of EcR-B1 expression by the two parallel pathways (TGF-β signaling and nuclear receptor triggers axon retraction. We propose that a signal from a TGF-β family ligand is produced by the dismantling muscle (postsynapse compartment and received by the motor neuron (presynaptic compartment resulting in motor neuron retraction. The requirement of the two pathways in the motor neuron provides a molecular explanation for the instructive role of the postsynapse degradation on motor neuron retraction. This mechanism insures the temporality of the two processes and prevents motor neuron pruning before postsynaptic degradation.
Eyckmans, J; Roberts, S J; Schrooten, J; Luyten, F P
In this study, we investigated a clinically relevant model of in vivo ectopic bone formation utilizing human periosteum derived cells (HPDCs) seeded in a Collagraft carrier and explored the mechanisms by which this process is driven. Bone formation occurred after eight weeks when a minimum of one million HPDCs was loaded on Collagraft carriers and implanted subcutaneously in NMRI nu/nu mice. De novo bone matrix, mainly secreted by the HPDCs, was found juxta-proximal of the calcium phosphate (CaP) granules suggesting that CaP may have triggered the 'osteoinductive program'. Indeed, removal of the CaP granules by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid decalcification prior to cell seeding and implantation resulted in loss of bone formation. In addition, inhibition of endogenous bone morphogenetic protein and Wnt signalling by overexpression of the secreted antagonists Noggin and Frzb, respectively, also abrogated osteoinduction. Proliferation of the engrafted HPDCs was strongly reduced in the decalcified scaffolds or when seeded with adenovirus-Noggin/Frzb transduced HPDCs indicating that cell division of the engrafted HPDCs is required for the direct bone formation cascade. These data suggest that this model of bone formation is similar to that observed during physiological intramembranous bone development and may be of importance when investigating tissue engineering strategies.
Slattery, Martha L; Lundgreen, Abbie; Stern, Marianna C; Hines, Lisa; Wolff, Roger K; Giuliano, Anna R; Baumgartner, Kathy B; John, Esther M
The TGF-β signaling pathway regulates cellular proliferation and differentiation. We evaluated genetic variation in this pathway, its association with breast cancer survival, and survival differences by genetic ancestry and self-reported ethnicity. The Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study includes participants from the 4-Corners Breast Cancer Study (n = 1,391 cases) and the San Francisco Bay Area Breast Cancer Study (n = 946 cases) who have been followed for survival. We evaluated 28 genes in the TGF-β signaling pathway using a tagSNP approach. Adaptive rank truncated product (ARTP) was used to test the gene and pathway significance by Native American (NA) ancestry and by self-reported ethnicity (non-Hispanic white (NHW) and Hispanic/NA). Genetic variation in the TGF-β signaling pathway was associated with overall breast cancer survival (P ARTP = 0.05), especially for women with low NA ancestry (P ARTP = 0.007) and NHW women (P ARTP = 0.006). BMP2, BMP4, RUNX1, and TGFBR3 were significantly associated with breast cancer survival overall (P ARTP = 0.04, 0.02, 0.002, and 0.04, respectively). Among women with low NA, ancestry associations were as follows: BMP4 (P ARTP = 0.007), BMP6 (P ARTP = 0.001), GDF10 (P ARTP = 0.05), RUNX1 (P ARTP = 0.002), SMAD1 (P ARTP = 0.05), and TGFBR2 (P ARTP = 0.02). A polygenic risk model showed that women with low NA ancestry and high numbers of at-risk alleles had twice the risk of dying from breast cancer as did women with high NA ancestry. Our data suggest that genetic variation in the TGF-β signaling pathway influences breast cancer survival. Associations were similar when the analyses were stratified by genetic ancestry or by self-reported ethnicity.
Huang, Baolin; Tian, Yu; Zhang, Wenjing; Ma, Yifan; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Changsheng
Preserving and improving osteogenic activity of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) upon implants remains one of the key limitations in bone regeneration. With calcium phosphate cement (CPC) as model, we have developed a series of strontium (Sr)-doped CPC (SCPC) to address this issue. The effects of fixed Sr on the bioactivity of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) as well as the underlying mechanism were investigated. The results suggested that the rhBMP-2-induced osteogenic activity was significantly promoted upon SCPCs, especially with a low amount of fixed Sr (SrCO 3 content IA (BMPR-IA) to rhBMP-2 and an increased expression of BMPR-IA in C2C12 model cells. As a result, the activations of BMP-induced signaling pathways were different in C2C12 cells incubated upon CPC/rhBMP-2 and SCPCs/rhBMP-2. These findings explicitly decipher the mechanism of SCPCs promoting osteogenic bioactivity of rhBMP-2 and signify the promising application of the SCPCs/rhBMP-2 matrix in bone regeneration implants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Watson, Cheryl S.; Jeng, Yow-Jiun; Kochukov, Mikhail Y.
Xenoestrogens can affect the healthy functioning of a variety of tissues by acting as potent estrogens via nongenomic signaling pathways or by interfering with those actions of multiple physiological estrogens. Collectively, our and other studies have compared a wide range of estrogenic compounds, including some closely structurally related subgroups. The estrogens that have been studied include environmental contaminants of different subclasses, dietary estrogens, and several prominent physiological metabolites. By comparing the nongenomic signaling and functional responses to these compounds, we have begun to address the structural requirements for their actions through membrane estrogen receptors in the pituitary, in comparison to other tissues, and to gain insights into their typical non-monotonic dose-response behavior. Their multiple inputs into cellular signaling begin processes that eventually integrate at the level of mitogen-activated protein kinase activities to coordinately regulate broad cellular destinies, such as proliferation, apoptosis, or differentiation. PMID:19955490
Full Text Available Background/Aims: New strategies for the prevention and treatment of cirrhosis are urgently needed for improving therapeutic outcome. A role of microRNAs (miRNAs in the pathogenesis of cirrhosis has been recently acknowledged, whereas the exact involved miRNAs as well as the associated molecular signaling pathways have not been determined. Specifically, the studies on the relationship between miR-22 and bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP7 in the development of cirrhosis are lacking. Methods: We examined the correlation of the levels of miR-22 and bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP7 in the liver biopsies from patients with cirrhosis. We examined overexpression or suppression of miR-22 on BMP7 in hepatocytes. We examined the binding of miR-22 to the 3'-UTR of BMP7 mRNA. Finally, in a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced cirrhosis model in mice, we gave mice adeno-associated viruses carrying antisense of miR-22, and examined its effects on BMP7 levels and the hallmarks of cirrhosis. Results: The levels of miR-22 and BMP7 in the liver biopsies from patients were strongly and inversely correlated. MiR-22 inhibited BMP7 expression in hepatocytes, through directly binding the 3'-UTR of BMP7 mRNA. Expression of antisense miR-22 significantly attenuated the levels of liver fibrosis, portal hypertension and sodium retention caused by CCl4, possibly through upregulation of BMP7. Conclusions: MiR-22 promotes the development of cirrhosis through BMP7 suppression.
Lee J Samuel
Full Text Available Cardiac induction, the first step in heart development in vertebrate embryos, is thought to be initiated by anterior endoderm during gastrulation, but what the signals are and how they act is unknown. Several signaling pathways, including FGF, Nodal, BMP and Wnt have been implicated in cardiac specification, in both gain- and loss-of-function experiments. However, as these pathways regulate germ layer formation and patterning, their specific roles in cardiac induction have been difficult to define.To investigate the mechanisms of cardiac induction directly we devised an assay based on conjugates of anterior endoderm from early gastrula stage Xenopus embryos as the inducing tissue and pluripotent ectodermal explants as the responding tissue. We show that the anterior endoderm produces a specific signal, as skeletal muscle is not induced. Cardiac inducing signal needs up to two hours of interaction with the responding tissue to produce an effect. While we found that the BMP pathway was not necessary, our results demonstrate that the FGF and Nodal pathways are essential for cardiogenesis. They were required only during the first hour of cardiogenesis, while sustained activation of ERK was required for at least four hours. Our results also show that transient early activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway has no effect on cardiogenesis, while later activation of the pathway antagonizes cardiac differentiation.We have described an assay for investigating the mechanisms of cardiac induction by anterior endoderm. The assay was used to provide evidence for a direct, early and transient requirement of FGF and Nodal pathways. In addition, we demonstrate that Wnt/beta-catenin pathway plays no direct role in vertebrate cardiac specification, but needs to be suppressed just prior to differentiation.
Monteiro, R.; van Dinther, M.; Bakkers, J.; Wilkinson, R.; Patient, R.; ten Dijke, P.; Mummery, C.L.
Ligands of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) superfamily, like Nodal and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), are pivotal to establish left-right (LR) asymmetry in vertebrates. However, the receptors mediating this process are unknown. Here we identified two new type II receptors for BMPs
Virk, Mandeep S.; Alaee, Farhang; Petrigliano, Frank A.; Sugiyama, Osamu; Chatziioannou, Arion F.; Stout, David; Dougall, William C.; Lieberman, Jay R.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of combined inhibition of RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) activity in a mixed lytic/blastic prostate cancer lesion in bone. Human prostate cancer cells (C4 2b) were injected into immunocompromised mice using an intratibial injection model to create mixed lytic/blastic lesions. RANK-Fc, a recombinant RANKL antagonist, was injected subcutaneously three times a week (10mg/kg) to inhibit RANKL and subsequent formation, function and survival of osteoclasts. Inhibition of BMP activity was achieved by transducing prostate cancer cells ex vivo with a retroviral vector expressing noggin (retronoggin; RN). There were three treatment groups (RANK-Fc treatment, RN treatment and combined RN and RANK-Fc treatment) and two control groups (untreated control and empty vector control for the RN treatment group). The progression of bone lesion and tumor growth was evaluated using plain radiographs, hind limb tumor size, 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose and 18F-fluoride micro PET-CT, histology and histomorphometry. Treatment with RANK-Fc alone inhibited osteolysis and transformed a mixed lytic/blastic lesion into an osteoblastic phenotype. Treatment with RN alone inhibited the osteoblastic component in a mixed lytic/blastic lesion and resulted in formation of smaller osteolytic bone lesion with smaller soft tissue size. The animals treated with both RN and RANK-Fc demonstrated delayed development of bone lesions, inhibition of osteolysis, small soft tissue tumors and preservation of bone architecture with less tumor induced new bone formation. This study suggests that combined inhibition of the RANKL and the BMP pathway may be an effective biologic therapy to inhibit the progression of established mixed lytic/blastic prostate cancer lesions in bone. PMID:21073986
Pernis, A; Witthuhn, B; Keegan, A D; Nelms, K; Garfein, E; Ihle, J N; Paul, W E; Pierce, J H; Rothman, P
The interleukin 4 (IL-4) signaling pathway involves activation, by tyrosine phosphorylation, of two distinct substrates, a signal-transducing factor (STF-IL4) and the IL-4-induced phosphotyrosine substrate (4PS). It is not known whether the IL-4-mediated activation of these substrates occurs via related or distinct signaling pathways. We report that 32D cells, an IL-3-dependent myeloid progenitor cell line in which no phosphorylated 4PS is found, activate high levels of STF-IL4 in response to IL-4. Consistent with the known requirement for 4PS or insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) in IL-4-mediated mitogenesis, activation of STF-IL4 in 32D cells is not sufficient for IL-4-inducible c-myc expression. In addition, we have examined the ability of 32D cells transfected with different truncation mutants of the human IL-4 receptor to activate Jak-3 kinase and STF-IL4 in response to human IL-4. As in the case of 4PS/IRS-1, we have found that activation of both Jak-3 and STF-IL4 requires the presence of the IL-4 receptor region comprising aa 437-557. The finding that the same region of the IL-4 receptor is required for the induction of both 4PS/IRS-1 and STF-IL4 suggests that the IL-4-stimulated activation of these two substrates might involve common factors.
Full Text Available Citrus spp. are economically important crops, which in Brazil are grown mainly in the State of São Paulo. Citrus cultures are attacked by several pathogens, causing severe yield losses. In order to better understand this culture, the Millenium Project (IAC Cordeirópolis was launched in order to sequence Citrus ESTs (expressed sequence tags from different tissues, including leaf, bark, fruit, root and flower. Plants were submitted to biotic and abiotic stresses and investigated under different development stages (adult vs. juvenile. Several cDNA libraries were constructed and the sequences obtained formed the Citrus ESTs database with almost 200,000 sequences. Searches were performed in the Citrus database to investigate the presence of different signaling pathway components. Several of the genes involved in the signaling of sugar, calcium, cytokinin, plant hormones, inositol phosphate, MAPKinase and COP9 were found in the citrus genome and are discussed in this paper. The results obtained may indicate that similar mechanisms described in other plants, such as Arabidopsis, occur in citrus. Further experimental studies must be conducted in order to understand the different signaling pathways present.
Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signaling exerts paradoxical roles in pluripotent stem cells (PSCs; it sustains self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs, while it induces differentiation in other PSCs, including human ESCs. Here, we revisit the roles of BMP-4 using mouse ESCs (mESCs in naive and primed states. SMAD1 and SMAD5, which transduce BMP signals, recognize enhancer regions together with KLF4 and KLF5 in naive mESCs. KLF4 physically interacts with SMAD1 and suppresses its activity. Consistently, a subpopulation of cells with active BMP-SMAD can be ablated without disturbing the naive state of the culture. Moreover, Smad1/5 double-knockout mESCs stay in the naive state, indicating that the BMP-SMAD pathway is dispensable for it. In contrast, the MEK5-ERK5 pathway mediates BMP-4-induced self-renewal of mESCs by inducing Klf2, a critical factor for the ground state pluripotency. Our study illustrates that BMP exerts its self-renewing effect through distinct functions of different Krüppel-like factors.
Zhang, Ying E
Transforming growth factor-β utilizes a multitude of intracellular signaling pathways in addition to Smads to regulate a wide array of cellular functions. These non-canonical, non-Smad pathways are activated directly by ligand-occupied receptors to reinforce, attenuate, or otherwise modulate downstream cellular responses. These non-Smad pathways include various branches of MAP kinase pathways, Rho-like GTPase signaling pathways, and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/AKT pathways. This review focu...
Fearon, Kenneth C H; Glass, David J; Guttridge, Denis C
Cancer cachexia is characterized by a significant reduction in body weight resulting predominantly from loss of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Cachexia causes reduced cancer treatment tolerance and reduced quality and length of life, and remains an unmet medical need. Therapeutic progress has been impeded, in part, by the marked heterogeneity of mediators, signaling, and metabolic pathways both within and between model systems and the clinical syndrome. Recent progress in understanding conserved, molecular mechanisms of skeletal muscle atrophy/hypertrophy has provided a downstream platform for circumventing the variations and redundancy in upstream mediators and may ultimately translate into new targeted therapies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Kairui; Asai, Shuji; Hast, Michael W.; Liu, Min; Usami, Yu; Iwamoto, Masahiro; Soslowsky, Louis J.; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi
Ectopic tendon mineralization can develop following tendon rupture or trauma surgery. The pathogenesis of ectopic tendon mineralization and its clinical impact have not been fully elucidated yet. In this study, we utilized a mouse Achilles tendon injury model to determine whether ectopic tendon mineralization alters the biomechanical properties of the tendon and whether BMP signaling is involved in this condition. A complete transverse incision was made at the midpoint of the right Achilles tendon in 8-week-old CD1 mice and the gap was left open. Ectopic cartilaginous mass formation was found in the injured tendon by 4 weeks post-surgery and ectopic mineralization was detected at 8–10 weeks post-surgery. Ectopic mineralization grew over time and volume of the mineralized materials of 25-weeks samples was about 2.5 fold bigger than that of 10-weeks samples, indicating that injury-induced ectopic tendon mineralization is progressive. In vitro mechanical testing showed that max force, max stress and mid-substance modulus in the 25-weeks samples were significantly lower than the 10-weeks samples. We observed substantial increases in expression of bone morphogenetic protein family genes in injured tendons 1 week post-surgery. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that phosphorylation of both Smad1 and Smad3 were highly increased in injured tendons as early as 1 week post-injury and remained high in ectopic chondrogenic lesions 4 weeks post-injury. Treatment with the BMP receptor kinase inhibitor (LDN193189) significantly inhibited injury-induced tendon mineralization. These findings indicate that injury-induced ectopic tendon mineralization is progressive, involves BMP signaling and associated with deterioration of tendon biomechanical properties. PMID:26825318
Full Text Available 18631453 When signaling pathways collide: positive and negative regulation of toll-...uction. PubmedID 18631453 Title When signaling pathways collide: positive and neg...l) Show When signaling pathways collide: positive and negative regulation of toll-likereceptor signal transd...likereceptor signal transduction. O'Neill LA. Immunity. 2008 Jul 18;29(1):12-20. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csm
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: BMPs are currently receiving attention for their role in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Currently, most BMP expression studies are performed on carcinomas, and not much is known about the situation in sarcomas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have investigated the BMP expression profiles and Smad activation in clones from different spontaneous canine mammary tumors. Spindle cell tumor and osteosarcoma clones expressed high levels of BMPs, in particular BMP-2, -4 and -6. Clones from a scirrhous carcinoma expressed much lower BMP levels. The various clones formed different tumor types in nude mice but only clones that expressed high levels of BMP-6 gave bone formation. Phosphorylated Smad-1/5, located in the nucleus, was detected in tumors derived from clones expressing high levels of BMPs, indicating an active BMP signaling pathway and BMP-2 stimulation of mammary tumor cell clones in vitro resulted in activation of the Smad-1/5 pathway. In contrast BMP-2 stimulation did not induce phosphorylation of the non-Smad pathway p38 MAPK. Interestingly, an increased level of the BMP-antagonist chordin-like 1 was detected after BMP stimulation of non-bone forming clones. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the specific BMP expression repertoire differs substantially between different types of mammary tumors and that BMP-6 expression most probably has a biological role in bone formation of canine mammary tumors.
Full Text Available 18304834 LPS/TLR4 signal transduction pathway. Lu YC, Yeh WC, Ohashi PS. Cytokine. ...2008 May;42(2):145-51. Epub 2008 Mar 4. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show LPS/TLR4 signal transduction path...way. PubmedID 18304834 Title LPS/TLR4 signal transduction pathway. Authors Lu YC, Yeh WC, Ohashi PS. Publica
Full Text Available 17303405 Signaling pathways activated by microorganisms. Takeuchi O, Akira S. Curr ...Opin Cell Biol. 2007 Apr;19(2):185-91. Epub 2007 Feb 15. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Signaling pathways... activated by microorganisms. PubmedID 17303405 Title Signaling pathways activated by microorganisms. Auth
Full Text Available 18549796 Regulation of mitochondrial antiviral signaling pathways. Moore CB, Ting J...P. Immunity. 2008 Jun;28(6):735-9. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Regulation of mitochondrial antiviral signaling pathways.... PubmedID 18549796 Title Regulation of mitochondrial antiviral signaling pathways. Author
Naye, François; Voz, Marianne L; Detry, Nathalie; Hammerschmidt, Matthias; Peers, Bernard; Manfroid, Isabelle
In vertebrates, pancreas and liver arise from bipotential progenitors located in the embryonic gut endoderm. Bone morphogenic protein (BMP) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling pathways have been shown to induce hepatic specification while repressing pancreatic fate. Here we show that BMP and FGF factors also play crucial function, at slightly later stages, in the specification of the ventral pancreas. By analyzing the pancreatic markers pdx1, ptf1a, and hlxb9la in different zebrafish models of BMP loss of function, we demonstrate that the BMP pathway is required between 20 and 24 h postfertilization to specify the ventral pancreatic bud. Knockdown experiments show that bmp2a, expressed in the lateral plate mesoderm at these stages, is essential for ventral pancreas specification. Bmp2a action is not restricted to the pancreatic domain and is also required for the proper expression of hepatic markers. By contrast, through the analysis of fgf10(-/-); fgf24(-/-) embryos, we reveal the specific role of these two FGF ligands in the induction of the ventral pancreas and in the repression of the hepatic fate. These mutants display ventral pancreas agenesis and ectopic masses of hepatocytes. Overall, these data highlight the dynamic role of BMP and FGF in the patterning of the hepatopancreatic region.
Schiaffino, Maria Vittoria
Melanosomes are the specialized intracellular organelles of pigment cells devoted to the synthesis, storage and transport of melanin pigments, which are responsible for most visible pigmentation in mammals and other vertebrates. As a direct consequence, any genetic mutation resulting in alteration of melanosomal function, either because affecting pigment cell survival, migration and differentiation, or because interfering with melanosome biogenesis, transport and transfer to keratinocytes, is immediately translated into color variations of skin, fur, hair or eyes. Thus, over 100 genes and proteins have been identified as pigmentary determinants in mammals, providing us with a deep understanding of this biological system, which functions by using mechanisms and processes that have parallels in other tissues and organs. In particular, many genes implicated in melanosome biogenesis have been characterized, so that melanosomes represent an incredible source of information and a model for organelles belonging to the secretory pathway. Furthermore, the function of melanosomes can be associated with common physiological phenotypes, such as variation of pigmentation among individuals, and with rare pathological conditions, such as albinism, characterized by severe visual defects. Among the most relevant mechanisms operating in melanosome biogenesis are the signal transduction pathways mediated by two peculiar G protein-coupled receptors: the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), involved in the fair skin/red hair phenotype and skin cancer; and OA1 (GPR143), whose loss-of-function results in X-linked ocular albinism. This review will focus on the most recent novelties regarding the functioning of these two receptors, by highlighting emerging signaling mechanisms and general implications for cell biology and pathology. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The molecular clock is intimately linked to metabolic regulation, and brown adipose tissue plays a key role in energy homeostasis. However, whether the cell-intrinsic clock machinery participates in brown adipocyte development is unknown. Here, we show that Bmal1 (also known as ARNTL), the essential...
Harris, Pamela Jo; Speranza, Giovanna; Dansky Ullmann, Claudio
The embryonic signaling pathways (ESP), Hedgehog, Notch and Wnt, are critical for the regulation of normal stem cells and cellular development processes. They are also activated in the majority of cancers. ESP are operational in putative cancer stem cells (CSC), which drive initial tumorigenesis and sustain cancer progression and recurrence in non-CSC bulk subpopulations. ESP represent novel therapeutic targets. A variety of inhibitors and targeting strategies are being developed. This review discusses the rationale for targeting ESP for cancer treatment, as well as specific inhibitors under development; mainly focusing on those approaching clinical use and the challenges that lie ahead. The data sources utilized are several database search engines (PubMed, Google, Clinicaltrials.gov), and the authors' involvement in the field. CSC research is rapidly evolving. Expectations regarding their therapeutic targeting are rising quickly. Further definition of what constitutes a true CSC, proper validation of CSC markers, a better understanding of cross-talk among ESP and other pathways, and interactions with tumor non-CSC and the tumor microenvironment are needed. The appropriate patient population, the right clinical setting and combination strategies to test these therapies, as well as the proper pharmacodynamic markers to measure, need to be further established.
Hyzy, Sharon; Olivares-Navarrete, Rene; Hutton, Daphne L.; Tan, Christian; Boyan, Barbara D.; Schwartz, Zvi
Microtextured implant surfaces increase osteoblast differentiation in vitro and enhance bone-to-implant contact in vivo and clinically. These implants may be used in combination with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) to enhance peri-implant bone formation. However, the effect of surface modifications alone or in combination with rhBMP-2 on osteoblast-produced inflammatory microenvironment is unknown. MG63 cells were cultured on tissue culture polystyrene or titanium substrates: smooth pretreated (PT, Ra=0.2μm), sandblasted/acid-etched (SLA, Ra=3.2μm), or hydrophilic-SLA (modSLA). Expression and protein production of pro-inflammatory interleukins (IL1b, IL6, IL8, IL17) and anti-inflammatory interleukins (IL10) were measured in cells with or without rhBMP-2. To determine which BMP signaling pathways were involved, cultures were incubated with BMP pathway inhibitors to blocking Smad (dorsomorphin), TAB/TAK1 ((5Z)-7-oxozeaenol), or PKA (H-8) signaling. Culture on rough SLA and modSLA surfaces decreased pro-inflammatory interleukins and increased anti-inflammatory IL10. This effect was negated in cells treated with rhBMP-2, which caused an increase in pro-inflammatory interleukins and a decrease in anti-inflammatory interleukins through TAB/TAK signaling. The results suggest that surface microtexture modulates the inflammatory process during osseointegration, an effect that may enhance healing. However, rhBMP-2 in combination with microtextured titanium implants can influence the effect of cells on these surfaces, and may adversely affect cells involved in osseointegration. PMID:23123301
Kumar, Megha; Ray, Poulomi; Chapman, Susan C.
Summary The pharyngeal endoderm is hypothesized as the source of local signals that specify the identity of neural crest-derived mesenchyme in the arches. Sox9 is induced and maintained in pre-chondrogenic cells during condensation formation and endochondral ossification. Using explant culture we determined that pharyngeal endoderm was sufficient, but not necessary for specifying pre-chondrogenic identity, as surrounding tissues including the otic vesicle can compensate for signals from the pharyngeal endoderm. Multiple Fgf genes are expressed specifically in the pharyngeal endoderm subjacent to the neural crest-derived mesenchyme. FGF signaling is both sufficient and required for specification of Sox9 expression and specification of pre-chondrogenic identity, as demonstrated by the addition of recombinant FGF protein or the FGF receptor inhibitor (SU5402) to explanted tissue, respectively. However, FGF signaling cannot maintain Sox9 expression or initiate the chondrogenic program as indicated by the absence of Col2a1 transcripts. BMP4 signaling can induce and maintain Sox9 expression in isolated mesenchyme, but only in combination with FGF signaling induce Col2a1 expression, and thus, chondrogenesis. Given the spatio-temporal expression patterns of FGFs and BMPs in the pharyngeal arches, we suggest that this may represent a general mechanism of local signals specifying pre-chondrogenic identity and initiation of the chondrogenic program. PMID:22411638
Muravyov, Alexei; Tikhomirova, Irina
The exposure of red blood cells (RBC) to some hormones (epinephrine, insulin and glucagon) and agonists of α- and β-adrenergic receptors (phenylephrine, clonidine and isoproterenol) may modify RBC aggregation (RBCA). Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) significantly decreased RBCA, and PGE2 had a similar but lesser effect. Adenylyl cyclase (AC) stimulator forskolin added to RBC suspension, caused a decrease of RBCA. More marked lowering of RBCA occurred after RBC treatment by dB-cAMP. Phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors markedly reduced RBCA. Ca2+ influx stimulated by A23187 was accompanied by an increase of RBCA. The blocking of Ca2+ entry into the RBC by verapamil or the chelation of Ca2+ by EGTA led to a significant RBCA decrease. Lesser changes of aggregation were found after RBC incubation with protein kinase C stimulator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). A significant inhibitory effect of tyrosine protein kinase (TPK) activator cisplatin on RBCA was revealed, while selective TPK inhibitor, lavendustin, eliminated the above mentioned effect. Taken together, the data demonstrate that changes in RBCA are connected with activation of different intracellular signaling pathways. We suggest that alterations in RBCA are mainly associated with the crosstalk between the adenylyl cyclase-cAMP system and Ca2+ control mechanisms.
Hwang, Hee-Don; Lee, Jung-Tae; Koh, Jeong-Tae; Jung, Hong-Moon; Lee, Heon-Jin; Kwon, Tae-Geon
Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) protein and its receptor, CXCR-4, play an important role in tissue repair and regeneration in various organs, including the bone. SDF-1 is indispensable for bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)-induced osteogenic differentiation. However, SDF-1 is not needed after the osteogenic induction has been activated. Since the precise condition for the additive effects of combined DF-1 and BMP-2 in bone healing had not been fully investigated, we aimed to determine the optimal conditions for SDF-1- and BMP-2-mediated bone regeneration. We examined the in vitro osteoblastic differentiation and cell migration after sequential treatments with SDF-1 and BMP-2. Based on the in vitro additive effects of SDF-1 and BMP-2, the critical size defects of mice calvaria were treated with these cytokines in various sequences. Phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-, SDF-1-, or BMP-2-soaked collagen scaffolds were implanted into the calvarial defects (n=36). Periodic percutaneous injections of PBS or the cytokine SDF-1 and BMP-2 into the implanted scaffolds were performed on days 3 and 6, postoperatively. Six experimental groups were used according to the types and sequences of the cytokine treatments. After 28 days, the mice were euthanized and bone formation was evaluated with microcomputed tomography and histology. The molecular mechanism of the additive effect of SDF-1 and BMP-2 was evaluated by analyzing intracellular signal transduction through Smad and Erk phosphorylation. The in vitro experiments revealed that, among all the treatments, the treatment with BMP-2 after SDF-1 showed the strongest osteoblastic differentiation and enhanced cell migration. Similarly, in the animal model, the treatment with SDF-1 followed by BMP-2 treatment showed the highest degree of new bone regeneration than any other groups, including the one with continuous BMP-2 treatment. This new bone formation can be partially explained by the activation of Smad and Erk pathways
Zeng, Yi; Zhang, Le; Hu, Zhiping
Insulin performs unique non-metabolic functions within the brain. Broadly speaking, two major areas of these functions are those related to brain endothelial cells and the blood-brain barrier (BBB) function, and those related to behavioral effects, like cognition in disease states (Alzheimer's disease, AD) and in health. Recent studies showed that both these functions are associated with brain angiogenesis. These findings raise interesting questions such as how they are linked to each other and whether modifying brain angiogenesis by targeting certain insulin signaling pathways could be an effective strategy to treat dementia as in AD, or even to help secure healthy longevity. The two canonical downstream pathways involved in mediating the insulin signaling pathway, the phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades, in the brain are supposed to be similar to those in the periphery. PI3K and MAPK pathways play important roles in angiogenesis. Both are involved in stimulating hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) in angiogenesis and could be activated by the insulin signaling pathway. This suggests that PI3K and MAPK pathways might act as cross-talk between the insulin signaling pathway and the angiogenesis pathway in brain. But the cerebral insulin, insulin signaling pathway, and the detailed mechanism in the connection of insulin signaling pathway, brain angiogenesis pathway, and healthy aging or dementias are still mostly not clear and need further studies.
van Heijster, Peter; Hardway, Heather; Kaper, Tasso J; Bradham, Cynthia A
Bone morphogen proteins (BMPs) are distributed along a dorsal-ventral (DV) gradient in many developing embryos. The spatial distribution of this signaling ligand is critical for correct DV axis specification. In various species, BMP expression is spatially localized, and BMP gradient formation relies on BMP transport, which in turn requires interactions with the extracellular proteins Short gastrulation/Chordin (Chd) and Twisted gastrulation (Tsg). These binding interactions promote BMP movement and concomitantly inhibit BMP signaling. The protease Tolloid (Tld) cleaves Chd, which releases BMP from the complex and permits it to bind the BMP receptor and signal. In sea urchin embryos, BMP is produced in the ventral ectoderm, but signals in the dorsal ectoderm. The transport of BMP from the ventral ectoderm to the dorsal ectoderm in sea urchin embryos is not understood. Therefore, using information from a series of experiments, we adapt the mathematical model of Mizutani et al. (2005) and embed it as the reaction part of a one-dimensional reaction-diffusion model. We use it to study aspects of this transport process in sea urchin embryos. We demonstrate that the receptor-bound BMP concentration exhibits dorsally centered peaks of the same type as those observed experimentally when the ternary transport complex (Chd-Tsg-BMP) forms relatively quickly and BMP receptor binding is relatively slow. Similarly, dorsally centered peaks are created when the diffusivities of BMP, Chd, and Chd-Tsg are relatively low and that of Chd-Tsg-BMP is relatively high, and the model dynamics also suggest that Tld is a principal regulator of the system. At the end of this paper, we briefly compare the observed dynamics in the sea urchin model to a version that applies to the fly embryo, and we find that the same conditions can account for BMP transport in the two types of embryos only if Tld levels are reduced in sea urchin compared to fly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
Okada, Motohiro; Kim, Jin Hwan; Yoon, Sangwook Tim; Hutton, William C
An in vitro study using human intervertebral disc (IVD) cells. To determine if pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) plus bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 could upregulate IVD-cell matrix synthesis more than either BMP-2 alone or PEMF alone. BMP-7 and BMP-2 can both upregulate IVD-cell matrix synthesis. There are problems associated with using either BMP-2 or BMP-7. They can diffuse away rather quickly after injection into the IVD space, they cost a lot, and they have side effects such as soft-tissue inflammation and swelling. PEMF has been reported to stimulate various types of cells. PEMF is safe, inexpensive, and noninvasive, thus multiple use is possible. However, PEMF alone has a rather weak effect on disc cells. We decided to carry out an experiment whereby we combined PEMF with BMP-2. Our thoughts were that BMP-2 plus PEMF could be better than either alone. The PEMF signal used was similar to that used in the clinical treatment of fracture nonunions or delayed fracture healing. Human disc cells were treated with BMP-2 alone or PEMF alone or PEMF plus BMP-2. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to determine mRNA expression levels of aggrecan, collagen-2, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, BMP-2, and BMP-7. Sulfated glycosaminoglycansynthesis was analyzed using the dimethylmethylene blue method. Western blot analysis was performed to determine the protein levels of TGF-β, BMP-2, and BMP-7. PEMF plus BMP-2 upregulates IVD-cell matrix synthesis more than BMP-2 alone or PEMF alone, and the effect seems to be synergistic. Also, PEMF plus BMP-2 induces more endogenous BMP-7 and BMP-2 mRNA levels as well as protein levels, as compared with either PEMF alone or BMP-2 alone. PEMF plus BMP-2 acts in synergy to upregulate intervertebral disc-cell matrix synthesis more than either BMP-2 alone or PEMF alone.
Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP expression and signaling are altered in a variety of cancers, but the functional impact of these alterations is uncertain. In this study we investigated the impact of expression of multiple BMPs and their signaling pathway components in human B-cell lymphoma. BMP messages, in particular BMP7, were detected in normal and malignant B cells. Addition of exogenous BMPs inhibited DNA synthesis in most lymphoma cell lines examined, but some cell lines were resistant. Tumor specimens from three out of five lymphoma patients were also resistant to BMPs, as determined by no activation of the BMP effectors Smad1/5/8. We have previously shown that BMP-7 potently induced apoptosis in normal B cells, which was in contrast to no or little inhibitory effect of this BMP in the lymphoma cells tested. BMP-resistance mechanisms were investigated by comparing sensitive and resistant cell lines. While BMP receptors are downregulated in many cancers, we documented similar receptor levels in resistant and sensitive lymphoma cells. We found a positive correlation between activation of Smad1/5/8 and inhibition of DNA synthesis. Gene expression analysis of two independent data sets showed that the levels of inhibitory Smads varied across different B-cell lymphoma. Furthermore, stable overexpression of Smad7 in two different BMP-sensitive cell lines with low endogenous levels of SMAD7, rendered them completely resistant to BMPs. This work highlights the role of Smads in determining the sensitivity to BMPs and shows that upregulation of Smad7 in cancer cells is sufficient to escape the negative effects of BMPs.
Full Text Available 17904888 Signalling pathways mediating type I interferon gene expression. Edwards M...hways mediating type I interferon gene expression. PubmedID 17904888 Title Signalling pathways...R, Slater L, Johnston SL. Microbes Infect. 2007 Sep;9(11):1245-51. Epub 2007 Jul 1. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Signalling pat
Ding, Mei; Wang, Xin
The crosstalk of multiple cellular signaling pathways is crucial in animal development and tissue homeostasis, and its dysregulation may result in tumor formation and metastasis. The Hedgehog (Hh) and Wnt signaling pathways are both considered to be essential regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation and oncogenesis. Recent studies have indicated that the Hh and Wnt signaling pathways are closely associated and involved in regulating embryogenesis and cellular differentiation. Hh signaling acts upstream of the Wnt signaling pathway, and negative regulates Wnt activity via secreted frizzled-related protein 1 (SFRP1), and the Wnt/β-catenin pathway downregulates Hh activity through glioma-associated oncogene homolog 3 transcriptional regulation. This evidence suggests that the imbalance of Hh and Wnt regulation serves a crucial role in cancer-associated processes. The activation of SFRP1, which inhibits Wnt, has been demonstrated to be an important cross-point between the two signaling pathways. The present study reviews the complex interaction between the Hh and Wnt signaling pathways in embryogenesis and tumorigenicity, and the role of SFRP1 as an important mediator associated with the dysregulation of the Hh and Wnt signaling pathways.
Full Text Available Hedgehog (Hh signaling pathway is present in many animals and plays an important role in regulating embryonic development and differentiation. Aberrant activation of Hh signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of many malignancies. Recent studies have shown that dysregulated Hh signaling pathway participates in the tumorigenesis, tumor invasion, and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Investigation of the relationship between Hh signaling pathway and HCC will help elucidate the molecular mechanism of pathogenesis of HCC and provide a new insight into the development of novel anticancer therapy and therapeutic target.
Full Text Available Podocyte injury is the first step in the progression of glomerulosclerosis. Previous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (Bmp7 in podocyte injury and the existence of native Bmp signaling in podocytes. Local activity of Bmp7 is controlled by cell-type specific Bmp antagonists, which inhibit the binding of Bmp7 to its receptors. Here we show that the product of Twisted gastrulation (Twsg1, a Bmp antagonist, is the central negative regulator of Bmp function in podocytes and that Twsg1 null mice are resistant to podocyte injury. Twsg1 was the most abundant Bmp antagonist in murine cultured podocytes. The administration of Bmp induced podocyte differentiation through Smad signaling, whereas the simultaneous administration of Twsg1 antagonized the effect. The administration of Bmp also inhibited podocyte proliferation, whereas simultaneous administration of Twsg1 antagonized the effect. Twsg1 was expressed in the glomerular parietal cells (PECs and distal nephron of the healthy kidney, and additionally in damaged glomerular cells in a murine model of podocyte injury. Twsg1 null mice exhibited milder hypoalbuminemia and hyperlipidemia, and milder histological changes while maintaining the expression of podocyte markers during podocyte injury model. Taken together, our results show that Twsg1 plays a critical role in the modulation of protective action of Bmp7 on podocytes, and that inhibition of Twsg1 is a promising means of development of novel treatment for podocyte injury.
Ogura-Ochi, Kanako; Fujisawa, Satoshi; Iwata, Nahoko; Komatsubara, Motoshi; Nishiyama, Yuki; Tsukamoto-Yamauchi, Naoko; Inagaki, Kenichi; Wada, Jun; Otsuka, Fumio
The effects of melatonin on prolactin production and its regulatory mechanism remain uncertain. We investigated the regulatory role of melatonin in prolactin production using rat pituitary lactotrope GH3 cells by focusing on the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) system. Melatonin receptor activation, induced by melatonin and its receptor agonist ramelteon, significantly suppressed basal and forskolin-induced prolactin secretion and prolactin mRNA expression in GH3 cells. The melatonin MT2 receptor was predominantly expressed in GH3 cells, and the inhibitory effects of melatonin on prolactin production were reversed by treatment with the receptor antagonist luzindole, suggesting functional involvement of MT2 action in the suppression of prolactin release. Melatonin receptor activation also suppressed BMP-4-induced prolactin expression by inhibiting phosphorylation of Smad and transcription of the BMP-target gene Id-1, while BMP-4 treatment upregulated MT2 expression. Melatonin receptor activation suppressed basal, BMP-4-induced and forskolin-induced cAMP synthesis; however, BtcAMP-induced prolactin mRNA expression was not affected by melatonin or ramelteon, suggesting that MT2 activation leads to inhibition of prolactin production through the suppression of Smad signaling and cAMP synthesis. Experiments using intracellular signal inhibitors revealed that the ERK pathway is, at least in part, involved in prolactin induction by GH3 cells. Thus, a new regulatory role of melatonin involving BMP-4 in prolactin secretion was uncovered in lactotrope GH3 cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Huang, Jie; Liu, Ying; Oltean, Alina; Beebe, David C.
Previous studies of mouse embryos concluded that after the optic vesicle evaginates from the ventral forebrain and contacts the surface ectoderm, signals from the ectoderm specify the distal region of the optic vesicle to become retina and signals from the optic vesicle induce the lens. Germline deletion of Bmp4 resulted in failure of lens formation. We performed conditional deletion of Bmp4 from the optic vesicle to test the function of Bmp4 in murine eye development. The optic vesicle evagi...
Gudesblat, G.E.; Schneider-Pizon, J.; Betti, C.; Mayerhofer, J.; Vanhoutte, I.; Dongen, van W.M.A.M.; Boeren, J.A.; Zhiponova, M.; Vries, de S.C.; Jonak, C.; Russinova, E.T.
Stomatal formation is regulated by multiple developmental and environmental signals, but how these signals are integrated to control this process is not fully understood1. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor SPEECHLESS (SPCH) regulates the entry, amplifying and
Notch signalling during embryonic develop- ment in mouse regulates vascular morphogenesis and remodelling (Krebs et al 2000). Aberrant Notch signalling is also implicated in many cancers and diseases including. T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL), multiple sclerosis (MS), Alagille syndrome and Alzheimer's ...
Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a prevalent complex trait disorder manifested by severe neurocognitive dysfunctions and lifelong disability. During the past few years several studies have provided direct evidence for the involvement of different signaling pathways in schizophrenia. In this review, we mainly focus on AKT/GSK3 signaling pathways in schizophrenia. The original study on the involvement of this pathway in schizophrenia was published by Emamian et al in 2004. This study reported convergent evidence for a decrease in AKT1 protein levels and levels of phosphorylation of GSK3β in the peripheral lymphocytes and brains of individuals with schizophrenia; a significant association between schizophrenia and an AKT1 haplotype; and a greater sensitivity to the sensorimotor gating−disruptive effect of amphetamine, conferred by AKT1 deficiency. It also showed that haloperidol can induce a stepwise increase in regulatory phosphorylation of AKT1 in the brains of treated mice that could compensate for the impaired function of this signaling pathway in schizophrenia. Following this study, several independent studies were published that not only confirmed the association of this signaling pathway with schizophrenia across different populations, but also shed light on the mechanisms by which AKT/GSK3 pathway may contribute to the development of this complex disorder. In this review, following an introduction on the role of AKT in human diseases and its functions in neuronal & non-neuronal cells, a review on the results of studies published on AKT/GSK3 signaling pathway in schizophrenia after the original 2004 paper will be provided. A brief review on other signaling pathways involved in schizophrenia and the possible connections with AKT/GSK3 signaling pathway will be discussed. Moreover, some possible molecular mechanisms acting through this pathway will be discussed besides the mechanisms by which they may contribute to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Finally
Kar, Swayamsiddha; Deb, Moonmoon; Sengupta, Dipta; Shilpi, Arunima; Bhutia, Sujit Kumar [Epigenetics and Cancer Research Laboratory, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Group, Department of Life Science, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, Odisha 769008 (India); Patra, Samir Kumar, E-mail: email@example.com [Epigenetics and Cancer Research Laboratory, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Group, Department of Life Science, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, Odisha 769008 (India)
The hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway is a crucial negotiator of developmental proceedings in the embryo governing a diverse array of processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, and tissue patterning. The overall activity of the pathway is significantly curtailed after embryogenesis as well as in adults, yet it retains many of its functional capacities. However, aberration in HH signaling mediates the initiation, proliferation and continued sustenance of malignancy in different tissues to varying degrees through different mechanisms. In this review, we provide an overview of the role of constitutively active aberrant HH signaling pathway in different types of human cancer and the underlying molecular and genetic mechanisms that drive tumorigenesis in that particular tissue. An insight into the various modes of anomalous HH signaling in different organs will provide a comprehensive knowledge of the pathway in these tissues and open a window for individually tailored, tissue-specific therapeutic interventions. The synergistic cross talking of HH pathway with many other regulatory molecules and developmentally inclined signaling pathways may offer many avenues for pharmacological advances. Understanding the molecular basis of abnormal HH signaling in cancer will provide an opportunity to inhibit the deregulated pathway in many aggressive and therapeutically challenging cancers where promising options are not available.
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0590 TITLE: SIGNALING PATHWAYS IN PATHOGENESIS OF DIAMOND BLACKFAN ANEMIA PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: KATHLEEN M...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0590 SIGNALING PATHWAYS IN PATHOGENESIS OF DIAMOND BLACKFAN ANEMIA 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES None 14. ABSTRACT: Diamond Blackfan Anemia (DBA) is a disorder that results in pure red cell aplasia, congenital
Krüger, Marcus; Kratchmarova, Irina; Blagoev, Blagoy
spectrum of the tyrosine phosphorylation cascade, we have defined the tyrosine-phosphoproteome of the insulin signaling pathway, using high resolution mass spectrometry in combination with phosphotyrosine immunoprecipitation and stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC......The insulin signaling pathway is of pivotal importance in metabolic diseases, such as diabetes, and in cellular processes, such as aging. Insulin activates a tyrosine phosphorylation cascade that branches to create a complex network affecting multiple biological processes. To understand the full...
Flechsig, Paul; Dadrich, Monika; Bickelhaupt, Sebastian; Jenne, Jürgen; Hauser, Kai; Timke, Carmen; Peschke, Peter; Hahn, Eric W; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; Yingling, Jonathan; Lahn, Michael; Wirkner, Ute; Huber, Peter E
Radiotherapy is used for the treatment of lung cancer, but at the same time induces acute pneumonitis and subsequent pulmonary fibrosis, where TGF-β signaling is considered to play an important role. We irradiated thoraces of C57BL/6 mice (single dose, 20 Gy) and administered them a novel small-molecule TGF-β receptor I serine/threonine kinase inhibitor (LY2109761) orally for 4 weeks before, during, or after radiation. Noninvasive lung imaging including volume computed tomography (VCT) and MRI was conducted 6, 16, and 20 weeks after irradiation and was correlated to histologic findings. Expression profiling analysis and protein analysis was conducted in human primary fibroblasts. Radiation alone induced acute pulmonary inflammation and lung fibrosis after 16 weeks associated with reduced life span. VCT, MRI, and histology showed that LY2109761 markedly reduced inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis resulting in prolonged survival. Mechanistically, we found that LY2109761 reduced p-SMAD2 and p-SMAD1 expression, and transcriptomics revealed that LY2109761 suppressed expression of genes involved in canonical and noncanonical TGF-β signaling and downstream signaling of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP). LY2109761 also suppressed radiation-induced inflammatory [e.g., interleukin (IL)-6, IL-7R, IL-8] and proangiogenic genes (e.g., ID1) indicating that LY2109761 achieves its antifibrotic effect by suppressing radiation-induced proinflammatory, proangiogenic, and profibrotic signals. Small-molecule inhibitors of the TGF-β receptor I kinase may offer a promising approach to treat or attenuate radiation-induced lung toxicity or other diseases associated with fibrosis. ©2012 AACR.
However, though ES cells of different origins are regarded as equally pluripotent, their in vitro differentiation potential varies, suggesting that their response to developmental signals is different. The R1 cell line is widely used for gene manipulation due to its good growth characteristics and highly efficient germline ...
Illés J Farkas
Full Text Available Biomedical experimental work often focuses on altering the functions of selected proteins. These changes can hit signaling pathways, and can therefore unexpectedly and non-specifically affect cellular processes. We propose PathwayLinker, an online tool that can provide a first estimate of the possible signaling effects of such changes, e.g., drug or microRNA treatments. PathwayLinker minimizes the users' efforts by integrating protein-protein interaction and signaling pathway data from several sources with statistical significance tests and clear visualization. We demonstrate through three case studies that the developed tool can point out unexpected signaling bias in normal laboratory experiments and identify likely novel signaling proteins among the interactors of known drug targets. In our first case study we show that knockdown of the Caenorhabditis elegans gene cdc-25.1 (meant to avoid progeny may globally affect the signaling system and unexpectedly bias experiments. In the second case study we evaluate the loss-of-function phenotypes of a less known C. elegans gene to predict its function. In the third case study we analyze GJA1, an anti-cancer drug target protein in human, and predict for this protein novel signaling pathway memberships, which may be sources of side effects. Compared to similar services, a major advantage of PathwayLinker is that it drastically reduces the necessary amount of manual literature searches and can be used without a computational background. PathwayLinker is available at http://PathwayLinker.org. Detailed documentation and source code are available at the website.
Richards, Elliott G; El-Nashar, Sherif A; Schoolmeester, John K; Keeney, Gary L; Mariani, Andrea; Hopkins, Matthew R; Dowdy, Sean C; Daftary, Gaurang S; Famuyide, Abimbola O
Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB), a common health concern of women, is a heterogeneous clinical entity that is traditionally categorized into organic and nonorganic causes. Despite varied pharmacologic treatments, few offer sustained efficacy, as most are empiric, unfocused, and do not directly address underlying dysregulated molecular mechanisms. Characterization of such molecular derangements affords the opportunity to develop and use novel, more successful treatments for AUB. Given its implication in other organ systems, we hypothesized that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) expression is altered in patients with AUB and hence comprehensively investigated dysregulation of BMP signaling pathways by systematically screening 489 samples from 365 patients for differences in the expression of BMP2, 4, 6, and 7 ligands, BMPR1A and B receptors, and downstream SMAD4, 6, and 7 proteins. Expression analysis was correlated clinically with data abstracted from medical records, including bleeding history, age at procedure, ethnicity, body mass index, hormone treatment, and histological diagnosis of fibroids, polyps, adenomyosis, hyperplasia, and cancer. Expression of BMP7 ligand was significantly increased in patients with AUB (H-score: 18.0 vs 26.7; P reporting heavy menstrual bleeding (menorrhagia) as their specific AUB pattern demonstrated significantly higher BMP7 expression. Significantly, no differences in the expression of any other BMP ligands, receptors, or SMAD proteins were observed in this large patient cohort. However, expression of BMPR1A, BMPR1B, and SMAD4 was significantly decreased in cancer compared to benign samples. Our study demonstrates that BMP7 is a promising target for future investigation and pharmacologic treatment of AUB.
Sato, Chieri [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan); Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Division of Pharmacotherapy, Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Hyogo University of Health Sciences, 1-3-6 Minatojima, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-8530 (Japan); Kitano, Sachie; Tsunemi, Sachi; Sano, Hajime [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan)
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated the role of S1P signaling for osteoblast differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both S1P and FTY enhanced BMP-2-stimulated osteoblast differentiation by C2C12 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P signaling enhanced BMP-2-stimulated Smad and ERK phosphorylation by C2C12 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MEK/ERK signaling is a pathway underlying S1P signaling for osteoblast differentiation. -- Abstract: We previously demonstrated that sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor-mediated signaling induced proliferation and prostaglandin productions by synovial cells from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. In the present study we investigated the role of S1P receptor-mediated signaling for osteoblast differentiation. We investigated osteoblast differentiation using C2C12 myoblasts, a cell line derived from murine satellite cells. Osteoblast differentiation was induced by the treatment of bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-2 in the presence or absence of either S1P or FTY720 (FTY), a high-affinity agonist of S1P receptors. Osteoblast differentiation was determined by osteoblast-specific transcription factor, Runx2 mRNA expression, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin production by the cells. Smad1/5/8 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 phosphorylation was examined by Western blotting. Osteocalcin production by C2C12 cells were determined by ELISA. Runx2 expression and ALP activity by BMP-2-stimulated C2C12 cells were enhanced by addition of either S1P or FTY. Both S1P and FTY enhanced BMP-2-induced ERK1/2 and Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation. The effect of FTY was stronger than that of S1P. S1P receptor-mediated signaling on osteoblast differentiation was inhibited by addition of mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase (MEK) 1/2 inhibitor, indicating that the S1P receptor-mediated MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling pathway enhanced BMP-2-Smad signaling. These results indicate that S1P
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common worldwide malignancy. Notch signaling pathway contributes to the genesis of diverse cancers, however, its role in HCC is unclear. Hypoxia is a common feature of HCC. Signal integration between Notch and hypoxia may be involved in HCC. The aim of this study was to ...
The process of chloroplast differentiation, involves the coordinate regulation of many nuclear and chloroplast genes. The cues for the initiation of this developmental program are both extrinsic (e.g., light) and intrinsic (cell-type and plastid signals). During this project period, we utilized a molecular genetic approach to select for Arabidopsis mutants that did not respond properly to environmental light conditions, as well as mutants that were unable to perceive plastid damage. These latter mutants, called gun mutants, define two retrograde signaling pathways that regulate nuclear gene expression in response to chloroplasts. A major finding was to identify a signal from chloroplasts that regulates nuclear gene transcription. This signal is the build-up of Mg-Protoporphyrin IX, a key intermediate of the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. The signaling pathways downstream of this signal are currently being studied. Completion of this project has provided an increased understanding of the input signals and retrograde signaling pathways that control nuclear gene expression in response to the functional state of chloroplasts. These studies should ultimately influence our abilities to manipulate plant growth and development, and will aid in the understanding of the developmental control of photosynthesis.
The process of chloroplast differentiation, involves the coordinate regulation of many nuclear and chloroplast genes. The cues for the initiation of this developmental program are both extrinsic (e.g., light) and intrinsic (cell-type and plastid signals). During this project period, we utilized a molecular genetic approach to select for Arabidopsis mutants that did not respond properly to environmental light conditions, as well as mutants that were unable to perceive plastid damage. These latter mutants, called gun mutants, define two retrograde signaling pathways that regulate nuclear gene expression in response to chloroplasts. A major finding was to identify a signal from chloroplasts that regulates nuclear gene transcription. This signal is the build-up of Mg-Protoporphyrin IX, a key intermediate of the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. The signaling pathways downstream of this signal are currently being studied. Completion of this project has provided an increased understanding of the input signals and retrograde signaling pathways that control nuclear gene expression in response to the functional state of chloroplasts. These studies should ultimately influence our abilities to manipulate plant growth and development, and will aid in the understanding of the developmental control of photosynthesis.
Full Text Available Abstract Background We obtained a series of pituitary adenoma proteomic expression data, including protein-mapping data (111 proteins, comparative proteomic data (56 differentially expressed proteins, and nitroproteomic data (17 nitroproteins. There is a pressing need to clarify the significant signaling pathway networks that derive from those proteins in order to clarify and to better understand the molecular basis of pituitary adenoma pathogenesis and to discover biomarkers. Here, we describe the significant signaling pathway networks that were mined from human pituitary adenoma proteomic data with the Ingenuity pathway analysis system. Methods The Ingenuity pathway analysis system was used to analyze signal pathway networks and canonical pathways from protein-mapping data, comparative proteomic data, adenoma nitroproteomic data, and control nitroproteomic data. A Fisher's exact test was used to test the statistical significance with a significance level of 0.05. Statistical significant results were rationalized within the pituitary adenoma biological system with literature-based bioinformatics analyses. Results For the protein-mapping data, the top pathway networks were related to cancer, cell death, and lipid metabolism; the top canonical toxicity pathways included acute-phase response, oxidative-stress response, oxidative stress, and cell-cycle G2/M transition regulation. For the comparative proteomic data, top pathway networks were related to cancer, endocrine system development and function, and lipid metabolism; the top canonical toxicity pathways included mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative phosphorylation, oxidative-stress response, and ERK/MAPK signaling. The nitroproteomic data from a pituitary adenoma were related to cancer, cell death, lipid metabolism, and reproductive system disease, and the top canonical toxicity pathways mainly related to p38 MAPK signaling and cell-cycle G2/M transition regulation. Nitroproteins from a
Zhong, Jun; Sharma, Jyoti; Raju, Rajesh; Palapetta, Shyam Mohan; Prasad, T S Keshava; Huang, Tai-Chung; Yoda, Akinori; Tyner, Jeffrey W; van Bodegom, Diederik; Weinstock, David M; Ziegler, Steven F; Pandey, Akhilesh
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a four-helix bundle cytokine that plays a critical role in the regulation of immune responses and in the differentiation of hematopoietic cells. TSLP signals through a heterodimeric receptor complex consisting of an interleukin-7 receptor α chain and a unique TSLP receptor (TSLPR) [also known as cytokine receptor-like factor 2 (CRLF2)]. Cellular targets of TSLP include dendritic cells, B cells, mast cells, regulatory T (Treg) cells and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. The TSLP/TSLPR axis can activate multiple signaling transduction pathways including the JAK/STAT pathway and the PI-3 kinase pathway. Aberrant TSLP/TSLPR signaling has been associated with a variety of human diseases including asthma, atopic dermatitis, nasal polyposis, inflammatory bowel disease, eosinophilic eosophagitis and, most recently, acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A centralized resource of the TSLP signaling pathway cataloging signaling events is not yet available. In this study, we present a literature-annotated resource of reactions in the TSLP signaling pathway. This pathway map is publicly available through NetPath (http://www.netpath.org/), an open access signal transduction pathway resource developed previously by our group. This map includes 236 molecules and 252 reactions that are involved in TSLP/TSLPR signaling pathway. We expect that the TSLP signaling pathway map will provide a rich resource to study the biology of this important cytokine as well as to identify novel therapeutic targets for diseases associated with dysregulated TSLP/TSLPR signaling. Database URL: http://www.netpath.org/pathways?path_id=NetPath_24.
Bjelobaba, Ivana; Janjic, Marija M.; Stojilkovic, Stanko S.
Adenosine-5′-triphosphate is released by neuroendocrine, endocrine, and other cell types and acts as an extracellular agonist for ligand-gated P2X cationic channels and G protein-coupled P2Y receptors in numerous organs and tissues, including the endocrine system. The breakdown of ATP by ectonucleotidases not only terminates its extracellular messenger functions, but also provides a pathway for the generation of two additional agonists: adenosine 5′-diphosphate, acting via some P2Y receptors,...
Tufts University School of Medicine Boston, MA 02111 REPORT DATE: August 2016 TYPE OF REPORT: Final PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and...Medical Campus Building 500 Mail Stop F428, PO Box 6508 Aurora, CO 80045 Tufts University School of Medicine Dept. of DMCB Jaharis 614 150...delineating a time course for Wnt signaling in mouse to complement Audrey Yee’s studies in the rat. We have complementary evidence for the increase
Full Text Available Background: miR-124-3p has been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases by modulating a variety of signaling pathways. In this study, we aimed to understand the impact of miR-124-3p expression level on the fracture healing in the patients of metaphyseal fracture of distal tibia, who received minimal invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis. Methods: We firstly collected 195 patients of metaphyseal fracture of distal tibia, and the genotype of rs531564 was determined: GG (n=124 and GC+CC (n=71. We collected information of the participants including age, gender, total in-hospital time, smoking and alcohol consumption. Subsequently, we searched the miRNA database online to identify the possible binding sequence of miR-124-3p located within the 3’-UTR of the target gene. We did correlation analysis and luciferase to understand the regulatory relationship between miR-124-3p and BMP6. Meanwhile, we also conducted real time PCR and western blotting analysis to study the mRNA and protein expression level of BMP6 in different genotype groups. We then treated the cells with scramble control, miR-124-3p mimics, BMP6 siRNA and miR-124-3p inhibitors to investigate the influence of miR-124-3p on the expression of BMP6, viability and apoptosis of cells. Results: Total in-hospital time was significantly longer in GC+CC group than GG group. MiR-124-3p was up-regulated in GG group than GC and CC groups. BMP6 was virtual target of miR-124-3p. There existed negative regulatory relationship betweenmiR-124-3p and BMP6. The mRNA and protein expression level of BMP6 decreased in GG group. MiR-124-3p decreased the expression of BMP6. MiR-124-3p negatively interfered with the viability of cells and BMP6 positively interfered with the viability of cells. MiR-124-3p reduced apoptosis and BMP6 promoted apoptosis. Conclusion: These data proved the expression of miR-124-3p was associated with the healing of metaphyseal fracture of distal tibia, and
Rosell, Rafael; Molina, Miguel Angel; Viteri, Santiago
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations occur in 17% of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with notable response to single agent therapy but with low complete remission rate and, eventually, disease progression. Priming BIM, a pro-apoptotic signaling BH3-only protein, induces sensitivity to erlotinib in EGFR-mutant cell lines. Synthetic lethal approaches and preemptive therapies based on the initial expression of BIM may significantly improve the treatment outcome. EGFR mutations result in transient pro-death imbalance of survival and apoptotic signaling in response to EGFR inhibition. SHP2 is essential to the balance between ERK and the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT and signal transducer activator of transcription (STAT) activity, while mTOR can be an additional marker for patients with high BIM expression. Furthermore, stromal hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) confers EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) resistance and induces interreceptor crosstalk with integrin-b4, Eph2, CUB domain-containing protein-1 (CDCP1), AXL and JAK1. Only by understanding better, and in more depth, complex cancer molecular biology will we have the information that will help us to design strategies to augment efficacy of EGFR TKIs and offer our patients the best, most correct therapeutic option. PMID:25806289
Full Text Available Ovarian carcinoma (OC is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. Response to platinum-based chemotherapy is poor in some patients and, thus, current research is focusing on new therapy options. The various histological types of OC are characterized by distinctive molecular genetic alterations that are relevant for ovarian tumorigenesis. The understanding of these molecular pathways is essential for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Purpose: We want to give an overview on the molecular genetic changes of the histopathological types of OC and their role as putative therapeutic targets. In Depth Review of Existing Data: In 2012, the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF inhibitor, bevacizumab, was approved for OC treatment. Bevacizumab has shown promising results as single agent and in combination with conventional chemotherapy, but its target is not distinctive when analyzed before treatment. At present, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitors, poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibitors and components of the EGFR pathway are in the focus of clinical research. Interestingly, some phytochemical substances show good synergistic effects when used in combination with chemotherapy. Conclusion: Ongoing studies of targeted agents in conjunction with chemotherapy will show whether there are alternative options to bevacizumab available for OC patients. Novel targets which can be assessed before therapy to predict efficacy are needed. The assessment of therapeutic targets is continuously improved by molecular pathological analyses on tumor tissue. A careful selection of patients for personalized treatment will help to reduce putative side effects and toxicity.
Yin, Xinhua [Department of Spine Surgery, Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha (China); Wang, Xiaoyuan [Department of Nephrology, Xi An Honghui Hospital, Xi an (China); Hu, Xiongke; Chen, Yong; Zeng, Kefeng [Department of Spine Surgery, Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha (China); Zhang, Hongqi, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Spine Surgery, Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha (China)
Although 17β-estradial (E2) is known to stimulate bone formation, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Recent studies have implicated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway as a major signaling cascade in bone biology. The interactions between Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and estrogen signaling pathways have been reported in many tissues. In this study, E2 significantly increased the expression of β-catenin by inducing phosphorylations of GSK3β at serine 9. ERβ siRNAs were transfected into MC3T3-E1 cells and revealed that ERβ involved E2-induced osteoblasts proliferation and differentiation via Wnt/β-catenin signaling. The osteoblast differentiation genes (BGP, ALP and OPN) and proliferation related gene (cyclin D1) expression were significantly induced by E2-mediated ERβ. Furthermore immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that E2 induced the accumulation of β-catenin protein in the nucleus which leads to interaction with T-cell-specific transcription factor/lymphoid enhancer binding factor (TCF/LEF) transcription factors. Taken together, these findings suggest that E2 promotes osteoblastic proliferation and differentiation by inducing proliferation-related and differentiation-related gene expression via ERβ/GSK-3β-dependent Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Our findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms of action of E2 in osteoblastogenesis. - Highlights: • 17β-estradial (E2) promotes GSK3-β phosphorylation. • E2 activates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. • The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway interacts with estrogen signaling pathways. • E2-mediated ER induced osteoblast differentiation and proliferation related genes expression.
Yin, Xinhua; Wang, Xiaoyuan; Hu, Xiongke; Chen, Yong; Zeng, Kefeng; Zhang, Hongqi
Although 17β-estradial (E2) is known to stimulate bone formation, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Recent studies have implicated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway as a major signaling cascade in bone biology. The interactions between Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and estrogen signaling pathways have been reported in many tissues. In this study, E2 significantly increased the expression of β-catenin by inducing phosphorylations of GSK3β at serine 9. ERβ siRNAs were transfected into MC3T3-E1 cells and revealed that ERβ involved E2-induced osteoblasts proliferation and differentiation via Wnt/β-catenin signaling. The osteoblast differentiation genes (BGP, ALP and OPN) and proliferation related gene (cyclin D1) expression were significantly induced by E2-mediated ERβ. Furthermore immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that E2 induced the accumulation of β-catenin protein in the nucleus which leads to interaction with T-cell-specific transcription factor/lymphoid enhancer binding factor (TCF/LEF) transcription factors. Taken together, these findings suggest that E2 promotes osteoblastic proliferation and differentiation by inducing proliferation-related and differentiation-related gene expression via ERβ/GSK-3β-dependent Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Our findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms of action of E2 in osteoblastogenesis. - Highlights: • 17β-estradial (E2) promotes GSK3-β phosphorylation. • E2 activates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. • The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway interacts with estrogen signaling pathways. • E2-mediated ER induced osteoblast differentiation and proliferation related genes expression
Long HE,Shabnam ESLAMFAM,Xi MA,Defa LI
Full Text Available During their growth and development, animals adapt to tremendous changes in order to survive. These include responses to both environmental and physiological changes and autophagy is one of most important adaptive and regulatory mechanisms. Autophagy is defined as an autolytic process to clear damaged cellular organelles and recycle the nutrients via lysosomic degradation. The process of autophagy responds to special conditions such as nutrient withdrawal. Once autophagy is induced, phagophores form and then elongate and curve to form autophagosomes. Autophagosomes then engulf cargo, fuse with endosomes, and finally fuse with lysosomes for maturation. During the initiation process, the ATG1/ULK1 (unc-51-like kinase 1 and VPS34 (which encodes a class III phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns 3-kinase complexes are critical in recruitment and assembly of other complexes required for autophagy. The process of autophagy is regulated by autophagy related genes (ATGs. Amino acid and energy starvation mediate autophagy by activating mTORC1 (mammalian target of rapamycin and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK. AMPK is the energy status sensor, the core nutrient signaling component and the metabolic kinase of cells. This review mainly focuses on the mechanism of autophagy regulated by nutrient signaling especially for the two important complexes, ULK1 and VPS34.
Longo, Diane M; Louie, Brent; Mathi, Kavita; Pos, Zoltan; Wang, Ena; Hawtin, Rachael E; Marincola, Francesco M; Cesano, Alessandra
Single-cell network profiling (SCNP) is a multi-parametric flow cytometry-based approach that simultaneously measures basal and modulated intracellular signaling activity in multiple cell subpopulations. Previously, SCNP analysis of a broad panel of immune signaling pathways in cell subsets within PBMCs from 60 healthy donors identified a race-associated difference in B cell anti-IgD-induced PI3K pathway activity. The present study extended this analysis to a broader range of signaling pathway components downstream of the B cell receptor (BCR) in European Americans and African Americans using a subset of donors from the previously analyzed cohort of 60 healthy donors. Seven BCR signaling nodes (a node is defined as a paired modulator and intracellular readout) were measured at multiple time points by SCNP in PBMCs from 10 healthy donors [5 African Americans (36-51 yrs), 5 European Americans (36-56 yrs), all males]. Analysis of BCR signaling activity in European American and African American PBMC samples revealed that, compared to the European American donors, B cells from African Americans had lower anti-IgD induced phosphorylation of multiple BCR pathway components, including the membrane proximal proteins Syk and SFK as well as proteins in the PI3K pathway (S6 and Akt), the MAPK pathways (Erk and p38), and the NF-κB pathway (NF-κB). In addition to differences in the magnitude of anti-IgD-induced pathway activation, racial differences in BCR signaling kinetic profiles were observed. Further, the frequency of IgD+ B cells differed by race and strongly correlated with BCR pathway activation. Thus, the race-related difference in BCR pathway activation appears to be attributable at least in part to a race-associated difference in IgD+ B cell frequencies. SCNP analysis enabled the identification of statistically significant race-associated differences in BCR pathway activation within PBMC samples from healthy donors. Understanding race-associated contrasts in immune
Longo Diane M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Single-cell network profiling (SCNP is a multi-parametric flow cytometry-based approach that simultaneously measures basal and modulated intracellular signaling activity in multiple cell subpopulations. Previously, SCNP analysis of a broad panel of immune signaling pathways in cell subsets within PBMCs from 60 healthy donors identified a race-associated difference in B cell anti-IgD-induced PI3K pathway activity. Methods The present study extended this analysis to a broader range of signaling pathway components downstream of the B cell receptor (BCR in European Americans and African Americans using a subset of donors from the previously analyzed cohort of 60 healthy donors. Seven BCR signaling nodes (a node is defined as a paired modulator and intracellular readout were measured at multiple time points by SCNP in PBMCs from 10 healthy donors [5 African Americans (36-51 yrs, 5 European Americans (36-56 yrs, all males]. Results Analysis of BCR signaling activity in European American and African American PBMC samples revealed that, compared to the European American donors, B cells from African Americans had lower anti-IgD induced phosphorylation of multiple BCR pathway components, including the membrane proximal proteins Syk and SFK as well as proteins in the PI3K pathway (S6 and Akt, the MAPK pathways (Erk and p38, and the NF-κB pathway (NF-κB. In addition to differences in the magnitude of anti-IgD-induced pathway activation, racial differences in BCR signaling kinetic profiles were observed. Further, the frequency of IgD+ B cells differed by race and strongly correlated with BCR pathway activation. Thus, the race-related difference in BCR pathway activation appears to be attributable at least in part to a race-associated difference in IgD+ B cell frequencies. Conclusions SCNP analysis enabled the identification of statistically significant race-associated differences in BCR pathway activation within PBMC samples from
Full Text Available Abstract Background Both bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs and histone deacetylases (HDACs have previously been established to play a role in the development of the three major cell types of the central nervous system: neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. We have previously established a connection between these two protein families, showing that HDACs suppress BMP-promoted astrogliogenesis in the embryonic striatum. Since HDACs act in the nucleus to effect changes in transcription, an unbiased analysis of their transcriptional targets could shed light on their downstream effects on BMP-signaling. Results Using neurospheres from the embryonic striatum as an in vitro system to analyze this phenomenon, we have performed microarray expression profiling on BMP2- and TSA-treated cultures, followed by validation of the findings with quantitative RT-PCR and protein analysis. In BMP-treated cultures we first observed an upregulation of genes involved in cell-cell communication and developmental processes such as members of BMP and canonical Wnt signaling pathways. In contrast, in TSA-treated cultures we first observed an upregulation of genes involved in chromatin modification and transcription. Interestingly, we could not record direct changes in the protein levels of canonical members of BMP2 signaling, but we did observe an upregulation of both the transcription factor STAT3 and its active isoform phospho-STAT3 at the protein level. Conclusions STAT3 and SMAD1/5/8 interact synergistically to promote astrogliogenesis, and thus we show for the first time that HDACs act to suppress BMP-promoted astrogliogenesis by suppression of the crucial partner STAT3.
Despite important advances in the therapy of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) the majority of patients will die from their disease (Appelbaum, Rowe, Radich, & Dick, 2001). Characterization of the aberrant molecular pathways responsible for this malignancy provides a platform to discover alternative treatments to help alter the fate of patients. AML is characterized by a blockage in the differentiation of myeloid cells resulting in the accumulation of highly proliferating immature hematopoietic cells. Since treatments such as chemotherapy rarely destroy the leukemic cells entirely, differentiation induction therapy has become a very attractive treatment option. Interestingly, previous experiments have shown that ligation of CD44, a cell surface glycoprotein strongly expressed on all AML cells, with anti-CD44 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) could reverse this block in differentiation of leukemic blasts regardless of the AML subtype. To expand the understanding of the cellular regulation and circuitry involved, we aim to apply quantitative phosphoproteomics to monitor dynamic changes in phosphorylation state in response to anti-CD44 treatment. Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation is a highly controlled biochemical process that responds to various intracellular and extracellular stimuli. As phosphorylation is a dynamic process, quantification of these phosphorylation events would be vastly insightful. The main objective of this project is to determine the differentiation-dependent phosphoproteome of AML cells upon treatment of cells with the anti-CD44 mAb.In these experiments, optimization of protein extraction, phosphopeptide enrichment and data processing and analysis has been achieved. The primary results show successful phosphoproteome extraction complemented with efficient phosphopeptide enrichment and informative data processing. Further quantification with stable isotope labeling techniques is anticipated to provide candidates for targeted therapy.
Bartuzi, Damian; Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Matosiuk, Dariusz
In recent years, our understanding of function of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) has changed from a picture of simple signal relays, transmitting only a particular signal to a particular G protein heterotrimer, to versatile machines, capable of various responses to different stimuli and being modulated by various factors. Some recent reports provide not only the data on ligands/modulators and resultant signals induced by them, but also deeper insights into exact pathways of signal migration and mechanisms of signal transmission through receptor structure. Combination of these computational and experimental data sheds more light on underlying mechanisms of signal transmission and signaling bias in GPCRs. In this review we focus on available clues on allosteric pathways responsible for complex signal processing within GPCRs structures, with particular emphasis on linking compatible in silico- and in vitro-derived data on the most probable allosteric connections.
Calderone, Alberto; Cesareni, Gianni
Castillo, Daniel; Puig, Sonia; Iglesias, Mar; Seoane, Agustín; de Bolós, Carme; Munitiz, Vicente; Parrilla, Pascual; Comerma, Laura; Poulsom, Richard; Krishnadath, Kausilia K.; Grande, Luís; Pera, Manuel
Background A human model of gastroesophageal reflux disease was used to examine the contribution of a non-specialized columnar type of metaplasia (NSCM) and key molecular events (BMP4 and CDX2) in the development of Barrett's esophagus. Methods Biopsies of the remnant esophagus from 18 patients
da Silva, Henrique B.; Amaral, Eduardo P.; Nolasco, Eduardo L.; de Victo, Nathalia C.; Atique, Rodrigo; Jank, Carina C.; Anschau, Valesca; Zerbini, Luiz F.; Correa, Ricardo G.
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common malignancies found in males. The development of PCa involves several mutations in prostate epithelial cells, usually linked to developmental changes, such as enhanced resistance to apoptotic death, constitutive proliferation, and, in some cases, to differentiation into an androgen deprivation-resistant phenotype, leading to the appearance of castration-resistant PCa (CRPCa), which leads to a poor prognosis in patients. In this review, we summarize recent findings concerning the main deregulations into signaling pathways that will lead to the development of PCa and/or CRPCa. Key mutations in some pathway molecules are often linked to a higher prevalence of PCa, by directly affecting the respective cascade and, in some cases, by deregulating a cross-talk node or junction along the pathways. We also discuss the possible environmental and nonenvironmental inducers for these mutations, as well as the potential therapeutic strategies targeting these signaling pathways. A better understanding of how some risk factors induce deregulation of these signaling pathways, as well as how these deregulated pathways affect the development of PCa and CRPCa, will further help in the development of new treatments and prevention strategies for this disease. PMID:23738079
The p53 tumor suppressor is a tetrameric transcription factor that is posttranslational modified at >20 different sites by phosphorylation, acetylation, or sumoylation in response to various cellular stress conditions. Specific posttranslational modifications, or groups of modifications, that result from the activation of different stress-induced signaling pathways are thought to modulate p53 activity to regulate cell fate by inducing cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, or cellular senescence. Here we review recent progress in characterizing the upstream signaling pathways whose activation in response to various genotoxic and non-genotoxic stresses result in p53 posttranslational modifications.
Daniel L. Suzman
Full Text Available Activity in the Hedgehog pathway, which regulates GLI-mediated transcription, is important in organogenesis and stem cell regulation in self-renewing organs, but is pathologically elevated in many human malignancies. Mutations leading to constitutive activation of the pathway have been implicated in medulloblastoma and basal cell carcinoma, and inhibition of the pathway has demonstrated clinical responses leading to the approval of the Smoothened inhibitor, vismodegib, for the treatment of advanced basal cell carcinoma. Aberrant Hedgehog pathway signaling has also been noted in prostate cancer with evidence suggesting that it may render prostate epithelial cells tumorigenic, drive the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and contribute towards the development of castration-resistance through autocrine and paracrine signaling within the tumor microenvironment and cross-talk with the androgen pathway. In addition, there are emerging clinical data suggesting that inhibition of the Hedgehog pathway may be effective in the treatment of recurrent and metastatic prostate cancer. Here we will review these data and highlight areas of active clinical research as they relate to Hedgehog pathway inhibition in prostate cancer.
Lin, Yi-Ting; Ding, Jing-Ya [Department of Life Sciences and Institute of Genome Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Li, Ming-Yang [Department of Life Science, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Tien-Shun [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Wang, Tsu-Wei, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Life Science, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Yu, Jenn-Yah, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Life Sciences and Institute of Genome Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Brain Research Center, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China)
Tight regulation of cell numbers by controlling cell proliferation and apoptosis is important during development. Recently, the Hippo pathway has been shown to regulate tissue growth and organ size in Drosophila. In mammalian cells, it also affects cell proliferation and differentiation in various tissues, including the nervous system. Interplay of several signaling cascades, such as Notch, Wnt, and Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) pathways, control cell proliferation during neuronal differentiation. However, it remains unclear whether the Hippo pathway coordinates with other signaling cascades in regulating neuronal differentiation. Here, we used P19 cells, a mouse embryonic carcinoma cell line, as a model to study roles of YAP, a core component of the Hippo pathway, in neuronal differentiation. P19 cells can be induced to differentiate into neurons by expressing a neural bHLH transcription factor gene Ascl1. Our results showed that YAP promoted cell proliferation and inhibited neuronal differentiation. Expression of Yap activated Shh but not Wnt or Notch signaling activity during neuronal differentiation. Furthermore, expression of Yap increased the expression of Patched homolog 1 (Ptch1), a downstream target of the Shh signaling. Knockdown of Gli2, a transcription factor of the Shh pathway, promoted neuronal differentiation even when Yap was over-expressed. We further demonstrated that over-expression of Yap inhibited neuronal differentiation in primary mouse cortical progenitors and Gli2 knockdown rescued the differentiation defect in Yap over-expressing cells. In conclusion, our study reveals that Shh signaling acts downstream of YAP in regulating neuronal differentiation. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer YAP promotes cell proliferation and inhibits neuronal differentiation in P19 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer YAP promotes Sonic hedgehog signaling activity during neuronal differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of Gli2 rescues the Yap
Hu, Diane; Young, Nathan M.; Li, Xin; Xu, Yanhua; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Marcucio, Ralph S.
The mechanisms of morphogenesis are not well understood, yet shaping structures during development is essential for establishing correct organismal form and function. Here, we examine mechanisms that help to shape the developing face during the crucial period of facial primordia fusion. This period of development is a time when the faces of amniote embryos exhibit the greatest degree of similarity, and it probably results from the necessity for fusion to occur to establish the primary palate. Our results show that hierarchical induction mechanisms, consisting of iterative signaling by Sonic hedgehog (SHH) followed by Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), regulate a dynamic expression pattern of Shh in the ectoderm covering the frontonasal (FNP) and maxillary (MxP) processes. Furthermore, this Shh expression domain contributes to the morphogenetic processes that drive the directional growth of the globular process of the FNP toward the lateral nasal process and MxP, in part by regulating cell proliferation in the facial mesenchyme. The nature of the induction mechanism that we discovered suggests that the process of fusion of the facial primordia is intrinsically buffered against producing maladaptive morphologies, such as clefts of the primary palate, because there appears to be little opportunity for variation to occur during expansion of the Shh expression domain in the ectoderm of the facial primordia. Ultimately, these results might explain why this period of development constitutes a phylotypic stage of facial development among amniotes. PMID:25605783
Association study of the oestrogen signalling pathway genes in relation to age at natural menopause. Li-Na He ... The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education and Institute of Molecular Genetics, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China ...
[He Li-Na, Xiong D.-H., Liu Y.-J., Zhang F., Recker R. R. and Deng H.-W. 2007 Association study of the oestrogen signalling pathway genes in relation to age at natural menopause. J. Genet. 86, 269–276]. Introduction. Age at natural menopause (AANM) is closely related to women's psychological and physical well being. It.
Full Text Available The use of human pluripotent cell progeny for cardiac disease modeling, drug testing and therapeutics requires the ability to efficiently induce pluripotent cells into the cardiomyogenic lineage. Although direct activation of the Activin-A and/or Bmp pathways with growth factors yields context-dependent success, recent studies have shown that induction of Wnt signaling using low molecular weight molecules such as CHIR, which in turn induces the Activin-A and Bmp pathways, is widely effective. To further enhance the reproducibility of CHIR-induced cardiomyogenesis, and to ultimately promote myocyte maturation, we are using exogenous growth factors to optimize cardiomyogenic signaling downstream of CHIR induction. As indicated by RNA-seq, induction with CHIR during Day 1 (Days 0-1 was followed by immediate expression of Nodal ligands and receptors, followed later by Bmp ligands and receptors. Co-induction with CHIR and high levels of the Nodal mimetic Activin-A (50-100 ng/ml during Day 0-1 efficiently induced definitive endoderm, whereas CHIR supplemented with Activin-A at low levels (10 ng/ml consistently improved cardiomyogenic efficiency, even when CHIR alone was ineffective. Moreover, co-induction using CHIR and low levels of Activin-A apparently increased the rate of cardiomyogenesis, as indicated by the initial appearance of rhythmically beating cells by Day 6 instead of Day 8. By contrast, co-induction with CHIR plus low levels (3-10 ng/ml of Bmp4 during Day 0-1 consistently and strongly inhibited cardiomyogenesis. These findings, which demonstrate that cardiomyogenic efficacy is improved by optimizing levels of CHIR-induced growth factors when applied in accord with their sequence of endogenous expression, are consistent with the idea that Nodal (Activin-A levels toggle the entry of cells into the endodermal or mesodermal lineages, while Bmp levels regulate subsequent allocation into mesodermal cell types.
Full Text Available Abstract The biochemistry of the mitogen activated protein kinases ERK, JNK, and p38 have been studied in prostate physiology in an attempt to elucidate novel mechanisms and pathways for the treatment of prostatic disease. We reviewed articles examining mitogen-activated protein kinases using prostate tissue or cell lines. As with other tissue types, these signaling modules are links/transmitters for important pathways in prostate cells that can result in cellular survival or apoptosis. While the activation of the ERK pathway appears to primarily result in survival, the roles of JNK and p38 are less clear. Manipulation of these pathways could have important implications for the treatment of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hypertrophy.
Nachaliel, N; Re'Em-Kalma, Y; Eshed, O; Elias, S; Frank, D
Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) plays an important role in mesoderm patterning in Xenopus. The ectopic expression of BMP-4 protein hyperventralizes embryos, whereas embryos expressing a BMP-2/4 dominant-negative receptor (DNR) are hyperdorsalized. Mesoderm is initially induced in the marginal zone by cells in the underlying vegetal pole. While much is known about BMP's expression and role in patterning the marginal zone, little is known about its early role in regulating vegetal mesoderm induction centre formation. The role of BMP in regulating formation of vegetal mesoderm inducing centres during early Xenopus development was examined. Ectopic BMP-4 expression in vegetal pole cells inhibited dorsal mesoderm induction but increased ventral mesoderm induction when recombined with animal cap ectoderm in Nieuwkoop explants. 32-cell embryos injected with BMP-4 RNA in the most vegetal blastomere tier were not hyperdorsalized by LiCl treatment. The ectopic expression of Smad or Mix.1 proteins in the vegetal pole also inhibited dorsal mesoderm induction in explants and embryos. Expression of the BMP 2/4 DNR in the vegetal pole increased dorsal mesoderm induction and inhibited ventral mesoderm induction in explants and embryos. These results support a role for BMP signalling in regulating ventral vegetal and dorsal vegetal mesoderm induction centre formation during early Xenopus development.
Full Text Available Wolbachia pipientis is a widespread endosymbiont of filarial nematodes and arthropods. While in worms the symbiosis is obligate, in arthropods Wolbachia induces several reproductive manipulations (i.e. cytoplasmic incompatibility, parthenogenesis, feminization of genetic males and male-killing in order to increase the number of infected females. These various phenotypic effects may be linked to differences in host physiology, and in particular to endocrine-related processes governing growth, development and reproduction. Indeed, a number of evidences links Wolbachia symbiosis to insulin and ecdysteroid signalling, two multilayered pathways known to work antagonistically, jointly or even independently for the regulation of different molecular networks. At present it is not clear whether Wolbachia manipulates one pathway, thus affecting other related metabolic networks, or if it targets both pathways, even interacting at several points in each of them. Interestingly, in view of the interplay between hormone signalling and epigenetic machinery, a direct influence of the infection on hormonal signalling involving ecdysteroids might be achievable through the manipulation of the host’s epigenetic pathways.
Full Text Available The conserved serine/threonine kinase mTOR (the mammalian target of rapamycin, a downstream effector of the PI3K/AKT pathway, forms two distinct multiprotein complexes: mTORC1 and mTORC2. mTORC1 is sensitive to rapamycin, activates S6K1 and 4EBP1, which are involved in mRNA translation. It is activated by diverse stimuli, such as growth factors, nutrients, energy and stress signals, and essential signalling pathways, such as PI3K, MAPK and AMPK, in order to control cell growth, proliferation and survival. mTORC2 is considered resistant to rapamycin and is generally insensitive to nutrients and energy signals. It activates PKC-α and AKT and regulates the actin cytoskeleton. Deregulation of multiple elements of the mTOR pathway (PI3K amplification/mutation, PTEN loss of function, AKT overexpression, and S6K1, 4EBP1 and eIF4E overexpression has been reported in many types of cancers, particularly in melanoma, where alterations in major components of the mTOR pathway were reported to have significant effects on tumour progression. Therefore, mTOR is an appealing therapeutic target and mTOR inhibitors, including the rapamycin analogues deforolimus, everolimus and temsirolimus, are submitted to clinical trials for treating multiple cancers, alone or in combination with inhibitors of other pathways. Importantly, temsirolimus and everolimus were recently approved by the FDA for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma, PNET and giant cell astrocytoma. Small molecules that inhibit mTOR kinase activity and dual PI3K-mTOR inhibitors are also being developed. In this review, we aim to survey relevant research, the molecular mechanisms of signalling, including upstream activation and downstream effectors, and the role of mTOR in cancer, mainly in melanoma.
Sha, Quan; Poulsen, Lars K.; Gerwien, Jens
Little is known about basophil with respect to the different signaling transduction pathways involved in spontaneous, cytokine or anti-IgE induced adhesion and how this compares to IgE-dependent and IgE-independent mediator secretion. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the roles ...... of beta1 and beta2 integrins in basophil adhesion as well as hosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), src-kinases and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in basophil adhesion and histamine release (HR)....
Gautam K Malhotra
Full Text Available Recent advances in our understanding of breast cancer biology have led to the identification of a subpopulation of cells within tumors that appear to be responsible for initiating and propagating the cancer. These tumor initiating cells are not only unique in their ability to generate tumors, but also share many similarities with elements of normal adult tissue stem cells, and have therefore been termed cancer stem cells (CSCs. These CSCs often inappropriately use many of the same signaling pathways utilized by their normal stem cell counterparts which may present a challenge to the development of CSC specific therapies. Here, we discuss three major stem cell signaling pathways (Notch, Wnt, and Hedgehog; with a focus on their function in normal mammary gland development and their misuse in breast cancer stem cell fate determination.
Full Text Available The hallmark of canonical Wnt signaling is the transcriptional induction of Wnt target genes by the beta-catenin/TCF complex. Several studies have proposed alternative interaction partners for beta-catenin or TCF, but the relevance of potential bifurcations in the distal Wnt pathway remains unclear. Here we study on a genome-wide scale the requirement for Armadillo (Arm, Drosophila beta-catenin and Pangolin (Pan, Drosophila TCF in the Wnt/Wingless(Wg-induced transcriptional response of Drosophila Kc cells. Using somatic genetics, we demonstrate that both Arm and Pan are absolutely required for mediating activation and repression of target genes. Furthermore, by means of STARR-sequencing we identified Wnt/Wg-responsive enhancer elements and found that all responsive enhancers depend on Pan. Together, our results confirm the dogma of canonical Wnt/Wg signaling and argue against the existence of distal pathway branches in this system.
Full Text Available Our previous studies demonstrated that bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4 mediated, elevated expression of canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC largely accounts for the enhanced proliferation in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs. In the present study, we sought to determine the signaling pathway through which BMP4 up-regulates TRPC expression.We employed recombinant human BMP4 (rhBMP4 to determine the effects of BMP4 on NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4 and reactive oxygen species (ROS production in rat distal PASMCs. We also designed small interfering RNA targeting NOX4 (siNOX4 and detected whether NOX4 knockdown affects rhBMP4-induced ROS, TRPC1 and 6 expression, cell proliferation and intracellular Ca2+ determination in PASMCs.In rhBMP4 treated rat distal PASMCs, NOX4 expression was (226.73±11.13 %, and the mean ROS level was (123.65±1.62 % of that in untreated control cell. siNOX4 transfection significantly reduced rhBMP4-induced elevation of the mean ROS level in PASMCs. Moreover, siNOX4 transfection markedly reduced rhBMP4-induced elevation of TRPC1 and 6 proteins, basal [Ca2+]i and SOCE. Furthermore, compared with control group (0.21±0.001, the proliferation of rhBMP4 treated cells was significantly enhanced (0.41±0.001 (P<0.01. However, such increase was attenuated by knockdown of NOX4. Moreover, external ROS (H2O2 100 µM, 24 h rescued the effects of NOX4 knockdown, which included the declining of TRPC1 and 6 expression, basal intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i and store-operated calcium entry (SOCE, suggesting that NOX4 plays as an important mediator in BMP4-induced proliferation and intracellular calcium homeostasis.These results suggest that BMP4 may increase ROS level, enhance TRPC1 and 6 expression and proliferation by up-regulating NOX4 expression in PASMCs.
Pandey, A; Andersen, Jens S.; Mann, M
biochemical assays have been used to identify molecules involved in signaling pathways. Lately, mass spectrometry, combined with elegant biochemical approaches, has become a powerful tool for identifying proteins and posttranslational modifications. With this protocol, we hope to bridge the gap between...... identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry and nanoelectrospray tandem mass spectrometry. We discuss the special requirements for the identification of phosphorylation sites in proteins by mass spectrometry. We describe enrichment of phosphopeptides from unseparated...
Full Text Available Background/Purpose: The molecular pathophysiology of lung hypoplasia in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH remains poorly understood. The Wnt signaling pathway and downstream targets, such as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP 4 and other factors such as late gestation lung protein 1 (LGL1, are essential to normal lung development. Nitrofen-induced hypoplastic CDH rodent lungs demonstrate down regulation of the Wnt pathway including BMP4 and reduced LGL1 expression. The aim of the current study was to examine the molecular pathophysiology associated with a surgically induced CDH in an ovine model. Methods: Left thoracotomy was performed at 80 days in 14 fetal sheep; CDH was created in 7 experimental animals. Lungs were harvested at 136 days (term=145d. Lung weight and mean terminal bronchiole density (MTBD were measured to determine the degree of pulmonary hypoplasia. Quantitative real time PCR was undertaken to analyze Wnt2, Wnt7b, BMP4 and LGL1 mRNA expression. Results: Total lung weight was decreased while MTBD was increased in the CDH group (p<0.05, confirming pulmonary hypoplasia. BMP4 and LGL1 mRNA was significantly reduced in CDH lungs (p<0.05. Wnt2 mRNA was decreased, although not significantly (p<0.06. Conclusions: For the first time, down regulation of BMP4 and Lgl1 are reported in an ovine CDH model. In contrast to other animal models, these changes are persistent to near term. These findings suggest that mechanical compression from herniated viscera may play a more important role in causing pulmonary hypoplasia in CDH, rather than a primary defect in lung organogenesis.
Hou, Jianglong; Kang, Y. James
Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is a key risk factor for heart failure. It is associated with increased interstitial fibrosis, cell death and cardiac dysfunction. The progression of pathological cardiac hypertrophy has long been considered as irreversible. However, recent clinical observations and experimental studies have produced evidence showing the reversal of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Left ventricle assist devices used in heart failure patients for bridging to transplantation not only improve peripheral circulation but also often cause reverse remodeling of the geometry and recovery of the function of the heart. Dietary supplementation with physiologically relevant levels of copper can reverse pathological cardiac hypertrophy in mice. Angiogenesis is essential and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a constitutive factor for the regression. The action of VEGF is mediated by VEGF receptor-1, whose activation is linked to cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase-1 (PKG-1) signaling pathways, and inhibition of cyclic GMP degradation leads to regression of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Most of these pathways are regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor. Potential therapeutic targets for promoting the regression include: promotion of angiogenesis, selective enhancement of VEGF receptor-1 signaling pathways, stimulation of PKG-1 pathways, and sustention of hypoxia-inducible factor transcriptional activity. More exciting insights into the regression of pathological cardiac hypertrophy are emerging. The time of translating the concept of regression of pathological cardiac hypertrophy to clinical practice is coming. PMID:22750195
Hou, Jianglong; Kang, Y James
Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is a key risk factor for heart failure. It is associated with increased interstitial fibrosis, cell death and cardiac dysfunction. The progression of pathological cardiac hypertrophy has long been considered as irreversible. However, recent clinical observations and experimental studies have produced evidence showing the reversal of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Left ventricle assist devices used in heart failure patients for bridging to transplantation not only improve peripheral circulation but also often cause reverse remodeling of the geometry and recovery of the function of the heart. Dietary supplementation with physiologically relevant levels of copper can reverse pathological cardiac hypertrophy in mice. Angiogenesis is essential and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a constitutive factor for the regression. The action of VEGF is mediated by VEGF receptor-1, whose activation is linked to cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase-1 (PKG-1) signaling pathways, and inhibition of cyclic GMP degradation leads to regression of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Most of these pathways are regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor. Potential therapeutic targets for promoting the regression include: promotion of angiogenesis, selective enhancement of VEGF receptor-1 signaling pathways, stimulation of PKG-1 pathways, and sustention of hypoxia-inducible factor transcriptional activity. More exciting insights into the regression of pathological cardiac hypertrophy are emerging. The time of translating the concept of regression of pathological cardiac hypertrophy to clinical practice is coming. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Liu, Ying; Liu, Fei; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid; Gong, Cheng-Xin
Brain glucose metabolism is impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is reported to increase the risk for dementia, including AD, but the underlying mechanism is not understood. Here, we investigated the brain insulin-PI3K-AKT signalling pathway in the autopsied frontal cortices from nine AD, 10 T2DM, eight T2DM-AD and seven control cases. We found decreases in the levels and activities of several components of the insulin-PI3K-AKT signalling pathway in AD and T2DM cases. The deficiency of insulin-PI3K-AKT signalling was more severe in individuals with both T2DM and AD (T2DM-AD). This decrease in insulin-PI3K-AKT signalling could lead to activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β, the major tau kinase. The levels and the activation of the insulin-PI3K-AKT signalling components correlated negatively with the level of tau phosphorylation and positively with protein O-GlcNAcylation, suggesting that impaired insulin-PI3K-AKT signalling might contribute to neurodegeneration in AD through down-regulation of O-GlcNAcylation and the consequent promotion of abnormal tau hyperphosphorylation and neurodegeneration. The decrease in brain insulin-PI3K-AKT signalling also correlated with the activation of calpain I in the brain, suggesting that the decrease might be caused by calpain over-activation. Our findings provide novel insight into the molecular mechanism by which type 2 diabetes mellitus increases the risk for developing cognitive impairment and dementia in Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2011 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Li, Bo; Yang, Yuehua; Jiang, Shengdan; Ni, Binbin; Chen, Ke; Jiang, Leisheng
Following the publication of this article, an interested reader drew to our attention an anomaly associated with the presentation of the western blots in Fig. 4B and C. These contained the same GAPDH control data, even though Fig. 4B and C were intended to show the inhibition of osteosarcoma cell migration by a recombinant adenovirus (ad) expressing bone morphogenetic protein 9 (adBMP-9) in two different cell lines, MG-63 and HOS, respectively. After having re-examined our original data, we realize that the same GAPDH control bands were inadvertently selected for Fig. 4B and C. A corrected version of Fig. 4, containing alternative data obtained from the experiments performed in duplicate, is presented below. Western blot assay was performed to examine the effect of adBMP-9 on metalloproteinase‑9 (MMP-9) expression, showing that the expression of MMP-9 protein was significantly inhibited in the adBMP-9 group compared with the ad-green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the control (CON) groups in the MG-63 and HOS cell lines. In addition, no marked differences were noted between the ad-GFP group and the CON group. The error made with the selection of the control data did not affect the results in this study. We sincerely apologize for this mistake, and thank the reader of our article who drew this matter to our attention. Furthermore, we regret any inconvenience this mistake has caused. [the original article was published in the International Journal of Oncology 41: 1809-1819, 2012; DOI: 10.3892/ijo.2012.1617].
Kim, Kwangho; Kim, Sunghwan; Moh, Sang Hyun; Kang, Hara
Bioflavonoids are known to induce cardioprotective effects by inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration. Kaempferol has been shown to inhibit VSMC proliferation. However, little is known about the effect of kaempferol on VSMC migration and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Our studies provide the first evidence that kaempferol inhibits VSMC migration by modulating the BMP4 signaling pathway and microRNA expression levels. Kaempferol activates the BMP signaling pathway, induces miR-21 expression and downregulates DOCK4, 5, and 7, leading to inhibition of cell migration. Moreover, kaempferol antagonizes the PDGF-mediated pro-migratory effect. Therefore, our study uncovers a novel regulatory mechanism of VSMC migration by kaempferol and suggests that miRNA modulation by kaempferol is a potential therapy for cardiovascular diseases.
Zhang, Han; Klausen, Christian; Zhu, Hua; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Leung, Peter C K
Adequate production of progesterone by the corpus luteum is critical to the successful establishment of pregnancy. In animal models, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 4 and BMP7 have been shown to suppress either basal or gonadotropin-induced progesterone production, depending on the species examined. However, the effects of BMP4 and BMP7 on progesterone production in human granulosa cells are unknown. In the present study, we used immortalized (SVOG) and primary human granulosa-lutein cells to investigate the effects of BMP4 and BMP7 on steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) expression and progesterone production and to examine the underlying molecular mechanism. Treatment of primary and immortalized human granulosa cells with recombinant BMP4 or BMP7 decreased StAR expression and progesterone accumulation. In SVOG cells, the suppressive effects of BMP4 and BMP7 on StAR expression were blocked by pretreatment with inhibitors of activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)2/3/6 (dorsomorphin) or ALK2/3 (DMH1) but not ALK4/5/7 (SB-431542). Moreover, small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of ALK3, but not ALK2 or ALK6, reversed the effects of BMP4 and BMP7 on StAR expression. Likewise, BMP4- and BMP7-induced phosphorylation of SMAD 1/5/8 was reversed by treatment with DMH1 or small interfering RNA targeting ALK3. Knockdown of SMAD4, the essential common SMAD for BMP/TGF-β signaling, abolished the effects of BMP4 and BMP7 on StAR expression. Our results suggest that BMP4 and BMP7 down-regulate StAR and progesterone production via ALK3 and SMAD1/5/8-SMAD4 signaling in human granulosa-lutein cells.
Chen, Zhi-Qiang; Han, Xin-Huan; Cao, Xin
During inner ear development, Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway is involved in the ventral otic identity, cell fate determination of statoacoustic ganglion neurons and hair cell development. Shh protein, secreted from floor plate, antagonizes Wnt protein from roof plate, which refines and maintains dorsoventral axial patterning in the ear. Shh, served as a mitogen during neurogenesis, directly promotes the development of spiral ganglion neuron. After Shh signaling pathway is activated, Ngn1 is freed from Tbx1 repression. As a result, Shh indirectly upregulates the expression of Ngn1, thus regulating neurogenic patterning of inner ear. In addition, Shh regulates the differentiation of hair cells by influencing cell cycle of the progenitor cells located in the cochlea. The basal-to-apical wave of Shh decline ensures the normal devel- opment pattern of hair cells. It is confirmed by a quantity of researches conducted in both animals and patients with hereditary hearing impairment that abnormal Shh signaling results in aberrant transcription of target genes, disturbance of the proper development of inner ear, and human hearing impairment. In humans, diseases accompanied by hearing disorders caused by abnormal Shh signaling include Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome (GCPS), Pallister-Hall syndrome (PHS), Waardenburg syndrome (WS) and medulloblastoma, etc. This review would provide a theoretical basis for further study of molecular mechanisms and clinical use of inner ear development.
Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is an uncommon cancer, which has a distinctive ethnic and geographic distribution. Etiology of NPC is considered to be related with a complex interaction of environmental and genetic factors as well as Epstein-Barr virus infection. Since NPC is located in the silent painless area, the disease is usually therefore diagnosed at the advanced stages; hence early detection of NPC is difficult. Furthermore, understanding in molecular pathogenesis is still lacking, pondering the identification of effective prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers. Dysregulation of signaling molecules in intracellular signal transduction, which regulate cell proliferation, apoptosis, and adhesion, underlines the basis of NPC pathogenesis. In this paper, the molecular signaling pathways in the NPC are discussed for the holistic view of NPC development and progression. The important insights toward NPC pathogenesis may offer strategies for identification of novel biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis.
Jupe, Steve; Ray, Keith; Roca, Corina Duenas; Varusai, Thawfeek; Shamovsky, Veronica; Stein, Lincoln; D'Eustachio, Peter; Hermjakob, Henning
much molecular detail as possible and are linked to literature citations that contain supporting experimental details. All newly created events undergo a peer-review process before they are added to the database and made available on the associated Web site. New content is added quarterly. The 63rd release of Reactome in December 2017 contains 10,996 human proteins participating in 11,426 events in 2,179 pathways. In addition, analytic tools allow data set submission for the identification and visualization of pathway enrichment and representation of expression profiles as an overlay on Reactome pathways. Protein-protein and compound-protein interactions from several sources, including custom user data sets, can be added to extend pathways. Pathway diagrams and analytic result displays can be downloaded as editable images, human-readable reports, and files in several standard formats that are suitable for computational reuse. Reactome content is available programmatically through a REpresentational State Transfer (REST)-based content service and as a Neo4J graph database. Signaling pathways for IL-1 to IL-38 are hierarchically classified within the pathway "signaling by interleukins." The classification used is largely derived from Akdis et al. The addition to Reactome of a complete set of the known human interleukins, their receptors, and established signaling pathways linked to annotations of relevant aspects of immune function provides a significant computationally accessible resource of information about this important family. This information can be extended easily as new discoveries become accepted as the consensus in the field. A key aim for the future is to increase coverage of gene expression changes induced by interleukin signaling. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lee, Patrick T; Li, Wan-Ju
For decades stem cells have proven to be invaluable to the study of tissue development. More recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) (ESC-MSCs) have emerged as a cell source with great potential for the future of biomedical research due to their enhanced proliferative capability compared to adult tissue-derived MSCs and effectiveness of musculoskeletal lineage-specific cell differentiation compared to ESCs. We have previously compared the properties and differentiation potential of ESC-MSCs to bone marrow-derived MSCs. In this study, we evaluated the potential of TGFβ1 and BMP7 to induce chondrogenic differentiation of ESC-MSCs compared to that of TGFβ1 alone and further investigated the cellular phenotype and intracellular signaling in response to these induction conditions. Our results showed that the expression of cartilage-associated markers in ESC-MSCs induced by the TGFβ1 and BMP7 combination was increased compared to induction with TGFβ1 alone. The TGFβ1 and BMP7 combination upregulated the expression of TGFβ receptor and the production of endogenous TGFβs compared to TGFβ1 induction. The growth factor combination also increasingly activated both of the TGF and BMP signaling pathways, and inhibition of the signaling pathways led to reduced chondrogenesis of ESC-MSCs. Our findings suggest that by adding BMP7 to TGFβ1-supplemented induction medium, ESC-MSC chondrogenesis is upregulated through increased production of endogenous TGFβ and activities of TGFβ and BMP signaling. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 172-181, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Liu, Xiaohua; Ji, Caixia; Xu, Li; Yu, TingTing; Dong, Chaoqun; Luo, Jinyong
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitors that can differentiate into a variety of cell types under proper stimuli. Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) is able to simultaneously induce both adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs although the regulatory molecules involved remain to be fully identified and characterized. Heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1) plays an essential role not only in fat metabolism, but also in bone development. In the present study, we investigated the functional role of Hmox1 in BMP9-induced osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation in MSCs line C3H10T1/2 and probed the possible mechanism involved. We found that BMP9 promoted the endogenous expression of Hmox1 in C3H10T1/2 cells. Overexpression of Hmox1 or cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP), an inducer of Hmox1, increased BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation in vitro. Subcutaneous stem cell implantation in nude mice further confirmed that Hmox1 potentiated BMP9-induced ectopic bone formation in vivo. In contrast, Hmox1 reduced BMP9-induced adipogenic differentiation in C3H10T1/2 cells. Although had no obvious effect on BMP9-induced Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation, Hmox1 enhanced phosphorylation of p38 and AKT, while decreased phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Furthermore, Hmox1 increased total β-catenin protein level, and promoted the nuclear translocation of β-catenin in C3H10T1/2 cells. Taken together, our study strongly suggests that Hmox1 is likely to potentiate osteogenic differentiation and yet decrease adipogenic differentiation induced by BMP9 possibly through regulation of multiple signaling pathways. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Valdez, B C; Brammer, J E; Li, Y; Murray, D; Liu, Y; Hosing, C; Nieto, Y; Champlin, R E; Andersson, B S
Romidepsin is a cyclic molecule that inhibits histone deacetylases. It is Food and Drug Administration-approved for treatment of cutaneous and peripheral T-cell lymphoma, but its precise mechanism of action against malignant T cells is unknown. To better understand the biological effects of romidepsin in these cells, we exposed PEER and SUPT1 T-cell lines, and a primary sample from T-cell lymphoma patient (Patient J) to romidepsin. We then examined the consequences in some key oncogenic signaling pathways. Romidepsin displayed IC 50 values of 10.8, 7.9 and 7.0 nm in PEER, SUPT1 and Patient J cells, respectively. Strong inhibition of histone deacetylases and demethylases, increased production of reactive oxygen species and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential were observed, which may contribute to the observed DNA-damage response and apoptosis. The stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathway and unfolded protein response in the endoplasmic reticulum were activated, whereas the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) and β-catenin pro-survival pathways were inhibited. The decreased level of β-catenin correlated with the upregulation of its inhibitor SFRP1 through romidepsin-mediated hypomethylation of its gene promoter. Our results provide new insights into how romidepsin invokes malignant T-cell killing, show evidence of its associated DNA hypomethylating activity and offer a rationale for the development of romidepsin-containing combination therapies
Guan, S-M; Fu, S-M; He, J-J; Zhang, M
Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) plays important roles in the bone resorption of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis via specific prostaglandin receptors (i.e., EP1-EP4). In this study, the authors examined whether Prevotella intermedia regulates PGE(2) production and EP expression in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPDLs); they also explored the potential signaling pathways involved in PGE(2) production. P. intermedia induced PGE(2) production and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Indomethacin and NS-398 completely abrogated the P. intermedia-induced PGE(2) production without modulating COX-2 expression. Specific inhibitors of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and protein kinase C--but not c-AMP and protein kinase A--significantly attenuated the P. intermedia-induced COX-2 and PGE(2) expression. P. intermedia reduced EP1 expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The results indicate that the COX-2-dependent induction of PGE(2) by P. intermedia in hPDLs is mediated by multiple signaling pathways.
Rodriguez, J; Vernus, B; Chelh, I; Cassar-Malek, I; Gabillard, J C; Hadj Sassi, A; Seiliez, I; Picard, B; Bonnieu, A
Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, is a potent negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth and is conserved in many species, from rodents to humans. Myostatin inactivation can induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy, while its overexpression or systemic administration causes muscle atrophy. As it represents a potential target for stimulating muscle growth and/or preventing muscle wasting, myostatin regulation and functions in the control of muscle mass have been extensively studied. A wealth of data strongly suggests that alterations in skeletal muscle mass are associated with dysregulation in myostatin expression. Moreover, myostatin plays a central role in integrating/mediating anabolic and catabolic responses. Myostatin negatively regulates the activity of the Akt pathway, which promotes protein synthesis, and increases the activity of the ubiquitin-proteasome system to induce atrophy. Several new studies have brought new information on how myostatin may affect both ribosomal biogenesis and translation efficiency of specific mRNA subclasses. In addition, although myostatin has been identified as a modulator of the major catabolic pathways, including the ubiquitin-proteasome and the autophagy-lysosome systems, the underlying mechanisms are only partially understood. The goal of this review is to highlight outstanding questions about myostatin-mediated regulation of the anabolic and catabolic signaling pathways in skeletal muscle. Particular emphasis has been placed on (1) the cross-regulation between myostatin, the growth-promoting pathways and the proteolytic systems; (2) how myostatin inhibition leads to muscle hypertrophy; and (3) the regulation of translation by myostatin.
Hoffmann, E K; Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig
Cell volume homeostasis and its fine-tuning to the specific physiological context at any given moment are processes fundamental to normal cell function. The understanding of cell volume regulation owes much to August Krogh, yet has advanced greatly over the last decades. In this review, we outline...... the historical context of studies of cell volume regulation, focusing on the lineage started by Krogh, Bodil Schmidt-Nielsen, Hans-Henrik Ussing, and their students. The early work was focused on understanding the functional behaviour, kinetics and thermodynamics of the volume-regulatory ion transport mechanisms....... Later work addressed the mechanisms through which cellular signalling pathways regulate the volume regulatory effectors or flux pathways. These studies were facilitated by the molecular identification of most of the relevant channels and transporters, and more recently also by the increased...
Smith, Sakima; Curran, Jerry; Hund, Thomas J.; Mohler, Peter J.
Ankyrin polypeptides are cellular adapter proteins that tether integral membrane proteins to the cytoskeleton in a host of human organs. Initially identified as integral components of the cytoskeleton in erythrocytes, a recent explosion in ankyrin research has demonstrated that these proteins play prominent roles in cytoskeletal signaling pathways and membrane protein trafficking/regulation in a variety of excitable and non-excitable cells including heart and brain. Importantly, ankyrin research has translated from bench to bedside with the discovery of human gene variants associated with ventricular arrhythmias that alter ankyrin–based pathways. Ankyrin polypeptides have also been found to play an instrumental role in various forms of sinus node disease and atrial fibrillation (AF). Mouse models of ankyrin-deficiency have played fundamental roles in the translation of ankyrin-based research to new clinical understanding of human sinus node disease, AF, and ventricular tachycardia. PMID:22586405
Wang, Dingjie; Jin, Suoqin; Zou, Xiufen
The control of complex networks is one of the most challenging problems in the fields of biology and engineering. In this study, the authors explored the controllability and control energy of several signalling networks, which consisted of many interconnected pathways, including networks with a bow-tie architecture. On the basis of the theory of structure controllability, they revealed that biological mechanisms, such as cross-pathway interactions, compartmentalisation and so on make the networks easier to fully control. Furthermore, using numerical simulations for two realistic examples, they demonstrated that the control energy of normal networks with crosstalk is lower than in networks without crosstalk. These results indicate that the biological networks are optimally designed to achieve their normal functions from the viewpoint of the control theory. The authors' work provides a comprehensive understanding of the impact of network structures and properties on controllability.
Bardot, Boris; Lecoin, Laure; Fliniaux, Ingrid; Huillard, Emmanuelle; Marx, Maria; Viallet, Jean P
The pattern of feather buds in a tract is thought to result from the relative ratios between activator and inhibitor signals through a lateral inhibition process. We analyse the role of Drm/Gremlin, a BMPs antagonist expressed during feather pattern formation, in the dermal precursor, the dense dermis, the interbud dermis and in the posterior dermal condensation. We have altered the activity of Drm in embryonic chick skin using retroviral vectors expressing drm/ gremlin and bmps. We show that expression of endogenous drm is under the control of a feedback loop induced by the BMP pathway, and that overexpression of drm results in fusion between adjacent feather buds. We propose that endogenous BMP proteins induce drm expression in the interbud dermis. In turn, the Drm/Gremlin protein limits the inhibitory effect of BMPs, allowing the adjacent row of feathers to form. Thus, the balance between BMPs and its antagonist Drm would regulate the size and spacing of the buds.
Hoffmann, Else K; Pedersen, Stine F
to the identification of transporter binding partners such as protein kinases and phosphatases, cytoskeletal elements and lipids. Considerable progress has also been made recently in understanding the upstream elements in volume sensing and volume-sensitive signal transduction, and salient features of these systems...... will be discussed. In contrast to the simple pathway of osmosensing in yeast, cells from vertebrate organisms appear to exhibit multiple volume sensing systems, the specific mechanism(s) activated being cell type- and stimulus-dependent. Candidate sensors include integrins and growth factor receptors, while other...
Kuo, Dian-Han; Weisblat, David A
Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling is broadly implicated in dorsoventral (DV) patterning of bilaterally symmetric animals [1-3], and its role in axial patterning apparently predates the birth of Bilateria [4-7]. In fly and vertebrate embryos, BMPs and their antagonists (primarily Sog/chordin) diffuse and interact to generate signaling gradients that pattern fields of cells [8-10]. Work in other species reveals diversity in essential facets of this ancient patterning process, however. Here, we report that BMP signaling patterns the DV axis of segmental ectoderm in the leech Helobdella, a clitellate annelid (superphylum Lophotrochozoa) featuring stereotyped developmental cell lineages, but the detailed mechanisms of DV patterning in Helobdella differ markedly from fly and vertebrates. In Helobdella, BMP2/4s are expressed broadly, rather than in dorsal territory, whereas a dorsally expressed BMP5-8 specifies dorsal fate by short-range signaling. A BMP antagonist, gremlin, is upregulated by BMP5-8 in dorsolateral, rather than ventral territory, and yet the BMP-antagonizing activity of gremlin is required for normal ventral cell fates. Gremlin promotes ventral fates without disrupting dorsal fates by selectively inhibiting BMP2/4s, not BMP5-8. Thus, DV patterning in the development of the leech revealed unexpected evolutionary plasticity of the conserved BMP patterning system, presumably reflecting its adaptation to different modes of embryogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shu, Jinling; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Lingling; Wei, Wei
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are transmembrane receptor proteins, which allow the transfer of signals across the membrane. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by synovitis and accompanied with inflammatory and abnormal immune response. GPCRs signaling pathways play a significant role in inflammatory and immune response processes including RA. In this review, we have focused on the advances in GPCRs signaling pathway implicating the inflammatory and immune response of RA. The signaling pathways of GPCRs-adenylyl cyclase (AC)-cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cAMP) include β 2 adrenergic receptors (β 2 -ARs)-AC-cAMP signaling pathways, E-prostanoid2/4 (EP2/4)-AC-cAMP signaling pathways and so on. Regulatory proteins, such as G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) and β-arrestins, play important modulatory roles in GPCRs signaling pathway. GPCRs signaling pathway and regulatory proteins implicate the pathogenesis process of inflammatory and immune response. GPCRs-AC-cAMP signal pathways involve in the inflammatory and immune response of RA. Different signaling pathways are mediated by different receptors, such as β 2 -AR, PGE2 receptor, chemokines receptor, and adenosine receptor. GRKs and β-arrestins are crucial proteins in the regulation of GPCRs signaling pathways. The potential therapeutic targets as well as strategies to modulate GPCRs signaling pathway are new development trends.
Carolina Oliveira Rodini
Full Text Available Medulloblastoma is a highly malignant primary tumor of the central nervous system. It represents the most frequent type of solid tumor and the leading cause of death related to cancer in early childhood. Current treatment includes surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy which may lead to severe cognitive impairment and secondary brain tumors. New perspectives for therapeutic development have emerged with the identification of stem-like cells displaying high tumorigenic potential and increased radio- and chemo-resistance in gliomas. Under the cancer stem cell hypothesis, transformation of neural stem cells and/or granular neuron progenitors of the cerebellum are though to be involved in medulloblastoma development. Dissecting the genetic and molecular alterations associated with this process should significantly impact both basic and applied cancer research. Based on cumulative evidences in the fields of genetics and molecular biology of medulloblastomas, we discuss the possible involvement of developmental signaling pathways as critical biochemical switches determining normal neurogenesis or tumorigenesis. From the clinical viewpoint, modulation of signaling pathways such as TGFβ, regulating neural stem cell proliferation and tumor development, might be attempted as an alternative strategy for future drug development aiming at more efficient therapies and improved clinical outcome of patients with pediatric brain cancers.
Kunnumakkara, Ajaikumar B; Bordoloi, Devivasha; Harsha, Choudhary; Banik, Kishore; Gupta, Subash C; Aggarwal, Bharat B
Curcumin, a component of a spice native to India, was first isolated in 1815 by Vogel and Pelletier from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa (turmeric) and, subsequently, the chemical structure of curcumin as diferuloylmethane was reported by Milobedzka et al. [(1910) 43., 2163-2170]. Since then, this polyphenol has been shown to exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, antibacterial, and antifungal activities. The current review primarily focuses on the anticancer potential of curcumin through the modulation of multiple cell signaling pathways. Curcumin modulates diverse transcription factors, inflammatory cytokines, enzymes, kinases, growth factors, receptors, and various other proteins with an affinity ranging from the pM to the mM range. Furthermore, curcumin effectively regulates tumor cell growth via modulation of numerous cell signaling pathways and potentiates the effect of chemotherapeutic agents and radiation against cancer. Curcumin can interact with most of the targets that are modulated by FDA-approved drugs for cancer therapy. The focus of this review is to discuss the molecular basis for the anticancer activities of curcumin based on preclinical and clinical findings. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.
Johnson, Mark L; Recker, Robert R
The goal of this paper is to evaluate critically the literature published over the past 3 years regarding the Wnt signaling pathway. The Wnt pathway was found to be involved in bone biology in 2001-2002 with the discovery of a (G171V) mutation in the lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) that resulted in high bone mass and another mutation that completely inactivated Lrp5 function and resulted in osteoporosis pseudoglioma syndrome (OPPG). The molecular biology has been complex, and very interesting. It has provided many opportunities for exploitation to develop new clinical treatments, particularly for osteoporosis. More clinical possibilities include: treatments for fracture healing, corticosteroid osteoporosis, osteogenesis imperfecta, and others. In addition, we wish to provide historical information coming from distant publications (~350 years ago) regarding bone biology that have been confirmed by study of Wnt signaling. A recent finding is the development of an antibody to sclerostin that is under study as a treatment for osteoporosis. Development of treatments for other forms of osteoporosis, such as corticosteroid osteoporosis, is also underway. The full range of the applications of the work is not yet been achieved.
Lian, Shang L; Mihi, Belgacem; Koyanagi, Madoka; Nakayama, Toshinori; Bix, Mark
Mina is a JmjC family 2-oxoglutarate oxygenase with pleiotropic roles in cell proliferation, cancer, T cell differentiation, pulmonary inflammation, and intestinal parasite expulsion. Although Mina expression varies according to cell-type, developmental stage and activation state, its transcriptional regulation is poorly understood. Across inbred mouse strains, Mina protein level exhibits a bimodal distribution, correlating with inheritance of a biallelic haplotype block comprising 21 promoter/intron 1-region SNPs. We previously showed that heritable differences in Mina protein level are transcriptionally regulated. Accordingly, we decided to test the hypothesis that at least one of the promoter/intron 1-region SNPs perturbs a Mina cis-regulatory element (CRE). Here, we have comprehensively scanned for CREs across a Mina locus-spanning 26-kilobase genomic interval. We discovered 8 potential CREs and functionally validated 4 of these, the strongest of which (E2), residing in intron 1, contained a SNP whose BALB/c-but not C57Bl/6 allele-abolished both Smad3 binding and transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) responsiveness. Our results demonstrate the TGFβ signaling pathway plays a critical role in regulating Mina expression and SNP rs4191790 controls heritable variation in Mina expression level, raising important questions regarding the evolution of an allele that uncouples Mina expression from the TGFβ signaling pathway. © 2017 The Authors. Immunity, Inflammation and Disease Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Yao, Shaomian; Prpic, Veronica; Pan, Fenghui; Wise, Gary E
The dental follicle appears to regulate both the alveolar bone resorption and bone formation needed for tooth eruption. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) gene expression is maximally upregulated at postnatal day 9 in the rat dental follicle of the first mandibular molar, a time that correlates with rapid bone growth at the base of the tooth crypt, as well as a minor burst of osteoclastogenesis. TNF-alpha expression is correlated with the expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), a molecule expressed in the dental follicle that can promote bone formation. Because BMP-2 signaling may be augmented by bone morphogenetic protein-3 (BMP-3), our objective in this study was to determine if the dental follicle expresses BMP-3 and if TNF-alpha stimulates the dental follicle cells to express BMP-2 and BMP-3. Dental follicles were collected from different postnatal ages of rat pups. Dental follicle cells were incubated with TNF-alpha to study its dosage and time-course effects on gene expression of BMP-2 and BMP-3, as determined by real-time RT-PCR. Next, immunostaining was conducted to confirm if the protein was synthesized and ELISA of the conditioned medium was conducted to determine if BMP-2 was secreted. We found that BMP-3 expression is correlated with the expression of TNF-alpha in the dental follicle and TNF-alpha significantly increased BMP-2 and BMP-3 expression in vitro. Immunostaining and ELISA showed that BMP-2 and BMP-3 were synthesized and secreted. This study suggests that TNF-alpha can upregulate the expression of bone formation genes that may be needed for tooth eruption.
Yao, Shaomian; Prpic, Veronica; Pan, Fenghui; Wise, Gary E.
The dental follicle appears to regulate both the alveolar bone resorption and bone formation needed for tooth eruption. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha ( TNF-α) gene expression is maximally upregulated at postnatal day 9 in the rat dental follicle of the 1st mandibular molar, a time that correlates with rapid bone growth at the base of the tooth crypt, as well as a minor burst of osteoclastogenesis. TNF-α expression is correlated with the expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), a molecule expressed in the dental follicle that can promote bone formation. Because BMP-2 signaling may be augmented by bone morphogenetic protein-3 (BMP-3), it was the objective of this study to determine 1) if the dental follicle expresses BMP-3 and 2) if TNF-α stimulates the dental follicle cells to express BMP-2 and BMP-3. Dental follicles were collected from different postnatal ages of rat pups. Dental follicle cells were incubated with TNF-α to study its dosage and time-course effects on gene expression of BMP-2 and BMP-3, as determined by real-time RT-PCR. Next, immunostaining was conducted to confirm if the protein was synthesized and ELISA of the conditioned medium was conducted to determine if BMP-2 was secreted. We found that BMP-3 expression is correlated with the expression of TNF-α in the dental follicle and TNF-α significantly increased BMP-2 and BMP-3 expression in vitro. Immunostaining and ELISA showed that BMP-2 and BMP-3 were synthesized and secreted. This study suggests that TNF-α can upregulate the expression of bone formation genes that may be needed for tooth eruption. PMID:20067418
Full Text Available Fatemeh Moosavi,1,2 Razieh Hosseini,1,2 Luciano Saso,3 Omidreza Firuzi1 1Medicinal and Natural Products Chemistry Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran; 2Department of Pharmacology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran; 3Department of Physiology and Pharmacology “Vittorio Erspamer”, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy Abstract: Polyphenols are an important class of phytochemicals, and several lines of evidence have demonstrated their beneficial effects in the context of a number of pathologies including neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. In this report, we review the studies on the effects of polyphenols on neuronal survival, growth, proliferation and differentiation, and the signaling pathways involved in these neurotrophic actions. Several polyphenols including flavonoids such as baicalein, daidzein, luteolin, and nobiletin as well as nonflavonoid polyphenols such as auraptene, carnosic acid, curcuminoids, and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives including caffeic acid phentyl ester enhance neuronal survival and promote neurite outgrowth in vitro, a hallmark of neuronal differentiation. Assessment of underlying mechanisms, especially in PC12 neuronal-like cells, reveals that direct agonistic effect on tropomyosin receptor kinase (Trk receptors, the main receptors of neurotrophic factors including nerve growth factor (NGF and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF explains the action of few polyphenols such as 7,8-dihydroxyflavone. However, several other polyphenolic compounds activate extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt pathways. Increased expression of neurotrophic factors in vitro and in vivo is the mechanism of neurotrophic action of flavonoids such as scutellarin, daidzein, genistein, and fisetin, while compounds like apigenin and ferulic acid increase cyclic adenosine monophosphate
Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most frequent cause of cancer-related deaths and is characterized by early metastasis and pronounced resistance to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Despite extensive esearch efforts, there is not any substantial progress regarding the identification of novel drugs against pancreatic cancer. Although the introduction of the chemotherapeutic agent gemcitabine improved clinical response, the prognosis of these patients remained extremely poor with a 5-year survival rate of 3-5%. Thus, the identification of the novel molecular pathways involved in pancreatic oncogenesis and the development of new and potent therapeutic options are highly desirable. Here, we describe how microRNAs control signaling pathways that are frequently deregulated during pancreatic oncogenesis. In addition, we provide evidence that microRNAs could be potentially used as novel pancreatic cancer therapeutics through reversal of chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistance or regulation of essential molecular pathways. Further studies should integrate the deregulated genes and microRNAs into molecular networks in order to identify the central regulators of pancreatic oncogenesis. Targeting these central regulators could lead to the development of novel targeted therapeutic approaches for pancreatic cancer patients.
Zhang, Ye; Lam, Chiu-Wing; Scully, Robert R.; Williams, Kyle; Zalesak, Selina; Wu, Honglu; James, John T.
The Moon's surface is covered by a layer of fine, reactive dust. Lunar dust contain about 1-2% of very fine dust (pathways involved in lunar dust-induced toxicity. F344 rats were exposed for 4 weeks (6h/d; 5d/wk) in nose-only inhalation chambers to concentrations of 0 (control air), 2.1, 6.1, 21, and 61 mg/m(exp 3) of lunar dust. Five rats per group were euthanized 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after the last inhalation exposure. The total RNAs were isolated from the blood or lung tissue after being lavaged, using the Qigen RNeasy kit. The Rat Fibrosis RT2 Profile PCR Array was used to profile the expression of 84 genes relevant to fibrosis. The genes with significant expression changes are identified and the gene expression data were further analyzed using IPA pathway analysis tool to determine the signaling pathways with significant changes.
Full Text Available Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs are important growth factors that regulate many cellular processes. During embryogenesis they act as morphogens and play a critical role during organ development. They influence cell fates via concentration-gradients in the embryos where cells transduce this extracellular information into gene expression profiles and cell fate decisions. How receiving cells decode and quantify BMP2/4 signals is hardly understood. There is little data on the quantitative relationships between signal input, transducing molecules, their states and location, and ultimately their ability to integrate graded systemic inputs and generate qualitative responses. Understanding this signaling network on a quantitative level should be considered a prerequisite for efficient pathway modulation, as the BMP pathway is a prime target for therapeutic invention. Hence, we quantified the spatial distribution of the main signal transducer of the BMP2/4 pathway in response to different types and levels of stimuli in c2c12 cells. We found that the subcellular localization of Smad1 is independent of ligand concentration. In contrast, Smad1 phosphorylation levels relate proportionally to BMP2 ligand concentrations and they are entirely located in the nucleus. Interestingly, we found that BMP2 stimulates target gene expression in non-linear, wave-like forms. Amplitudes showed a clear concentration-dependency, for sustained and transient stimulation. We found that even burst-stimulation triggers gene-expression wave-like modulations that are detectable for at least 30 h. Finally, we show here that target gene expression oscillations depend on receptor kinase activity, as the kinase drives further expression pulses without receptor reactivation and the target gene expression breaks off after inhibitor treatment in c2c12 cells.
Schul, Daniela; Schmitt, Alexandra; Regneri, Janine; Schartl, Manfred; Wagner, Toni Ulrich
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) are important growth factors that regulate many cellular processes. During embryogenesis they act as morphogens and play a critical role during organ development. They influence cell fates via concentration-gradients in the embryos where cells transduce this extracellular information into gene expression profiles and cell fate decisions. How receiving cells decode and quantify BMP2/4 signals is hardly understood. There is little data on the quantitative relationships between signal input, transducing molecules, their states and location, and ultimately their ability to integrate graded systemic inputs and generate qualitative responses. Understanding this signaling network on a quantitative level should be considered a prerequisite for efficient pathway modulation, as the BMP pathway is a prime target for therapeutic invention. Hence, we quantified the spatial distribution of the main signal transducer of the BMP2/4 pathway in response to different types and levels of stimuli in c2c12 cells. We found that the subcellular localization of Smad1 is independent of ligand concentration. In contrast, Smad1 phosphorylation levels relate proportionally to BMP2 ligand concentrations and they are entirely located in the nucleus. Interestingly, we found that BMP2 stimulates target gene expression in non-linear, wave-like forms. Amplitudes showed a clear concentration-dependency, for sustained and transient stimulation. We found that even burst-stimulation triggers gene-expression wave-like modulations that are detectable for at least 30 h. Finally, we show here that target gene expression oscillations depend on receptor kinase activity, as the kinase drives further expression pulses without receptor reactivation and the target gene expression breaks off after inhibitor treatment in c2c12 cells.
Stockman, Andrew; Henning, G Bruce; Anwar, Sharif; Starba, Robert; Rider, Andrew T
Cone signals in the luminance or achromatic pathway were investigated by measuring how the perceptual timing of M- or L-cone-detected flicker depended on temporal frequency and chromatic adaptation. Relative timings were measured, as a function of temporal frequency, by superimposing M- or L-cone-isolating flicker on "equichromatic" flicker (flicker of the same wavelength as the background) and asking observers to vary contrast and phase to cancel the perception of flicker. Measurements were made in four observers on up to 35 different backgrounds varying in wavelength and radiance. Observers showed substantial perceptual delays or advances of L- and M-cone flicker that varied systematically with cone class, background wavelength, and radiance. Delays were largest for M-cone-isolating flicker. Although complex, the results can be characterised by a surprisingly simple model in which the representations of L- and M-cone flicker are comprised not only of a fast copy of the flicker signal, but also of a slow copy that is delayed by roughly 30 ms and varies in strength and sign with both background wavelength and radiance. The delays, which are too large to be due to selective cone adaptation by the chromatic backgrounds, must arise postreceptorally. Clear evidence for the slow signals can also be found in physiological measurements of horizontal and magnocellular ganglion cells, thus placing the origin of the slow signals in the retina-most likely in an extended horizontal cell network. Luminance-equated stimuli chosen to isolate chromatic channels may inadvertently generate slow signals in the luminance channel.
Full Text Available Cell signaling pathways are sequences of biochemical reactions that propagate an input signal, such as a hormone binding to a cell-surface receptor, into the cell to trigger a reactive process. Assessment of pathway activities is crucial for determining which pathways play roles in disease versus normal conditions. To date various pathway flow/perturbation assessment tools are available, however they are constrained to specific algorithms and specific data types. There are no accepted standards for evaluation of pathway activities or simulation of flow propagation events in pathways, and the results of different software are difficult to compare. Here we present Pathway Signal Flow Calculator (PSFC, a Cytoscape app for calculation of a pathway signal flow based on the pathway topology and node input data. The app provides a rich framework for customization of different signal flow algorithms to allow users to apply various approaches within a single computational framework.
Yu, Zaiqiang; Seya, Kazuhiko; Daitoku, Kazuyuki; Motomura, Shigeru; Fukuda, Ikuo; Furukawa, Ken-Ichi
Calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAS) is the most frequent heart valve disease in the elderly, accompanied by valve calcification. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a pleiotropic cytokine secreted mainly from macrophages, has been detected in human calcified valves. However, the role of TNF-α in valve calcification remains unclear. To clarify whether TNF-α accelerates the calcification of aortic valves, we investigated the effect of TNF-α on human aortic valve interstitial cells (HAVICs) obtained from patients with CAS (CAS group) and with aortic regurgitation or aortic dissection having a noncalcified aortic valve (control group). HAVICs (2 × 10(4)) were cultured in a 12-well dish in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium with 10% fetal bovine serum. The medium containing TNF-α (30 ng/ml) was replenished every 3 days after the cells reached confluence. TNF-α significantly accelerated the calcification and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of HAVICs from CAS but not the control group after 12 days of culture. Furthermore, gene expression of calcigenic markers, ALP, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), and distal-less homeobox 5 (Dlx5) were significantly increased after 6 days of TNF-α treatment in the CAS group but not the control group. Dorsomorphin, an inhibitor of mothers against decapentaplegic homologs (Smads) 1/5/8 phosphorylation, significantly inhibited the enhancement of TNF-α-induced calcification, ALP activity, Smad phosphorylation, and Dlx5 gene expression of HAVICs from the CAS group. These results suggest that HAVICs from the CAS group have greater sensitivity to TNF-α, which accelerates the calcification of aortic valves via the BMP2-Dlx5 pathway.
Kim Richard H
Full Text Available Abstract Background The intracellular signaling events of the Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs involve the R-Smad family members Smad1, Smad5, Smad8 and the Co-Smad, Smad4. Smads are currently considered to be DNA-binding transcriptional modulators and shown to recruit the master transcriptional co-activator CBP/p300 for transcriptional activation. SNIP1 is a recently discovered novel repressor of CBP/p300. Currently, the detailed molecular mechanisms that allow R-Smads and Co-Smad to co-operatively modulate transcription events are not fully understood. Results Here we report a novel physical and functional link between Smad1 and the 26S proteasome that contributes to Smad1- and Smad4-mediated transcriptional regulation. Smad1 forms a complex with a proteasome β subunit HsN3 and the ornithine decarboxylase antizyme (Az. The interaction is enhanced upon BMP type I receptor activation and occur prior to the incorporation of HsN3 into the mature 20S proteasome. Furthermore, BMPs trigger the translocation of Smad1, HsN3 and Az into the nucleus, where the novel CBP/p300 repressor protein SNIP1 is further recruited to Smad1/HsN3/Az complex and degraded in a Smad1-, Smad4- and Az-dependent fashion. The degradation of the CBP/p300 repressor SNIP1 is likely an essential step for Smad1-, Smad4-mediated transcriptional activation, since increased SNIP1 expression inhibits BMP-induced gene responses. Conclusions Our studies thus add two additional important functional partners of Smad1 into the signaling web of BMPs and also suggest a novel mechanism for Smad1 and Smad4 to co-modulate transcription via regulating proteasomal degradation of CBP/p300 repressor SNIP1.
Zhang, Ying E; Newfeld, Stuart J
The latest advances on the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathways were reported at the July 2013 FASEB Summer Research Conference 'The TGF-β Superfamily: Development and Disease'. The meeting was held in Steamboat Springs, Colorado, USA at 6700 feet above sea level in the Rocky Mountains. This was the seventh biannual meeting in the series. In attendance were investigators from a broad range of disciplines with a common interest in the mechanics of TGF-β and BMP signaling pathways, their normal developmental and homeostatic functions, and the diseases associated with pathway misregulation.
The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates the expression of many genes in plants; it has critical functions in stress resistance and in growth and development. Several proteins have been reported to function as ABA receptors, and many more are known to be involved in ABA signalling. However, the identities of ABA receptors remain controversial and the mechanism of signalling from perception to downstream gene expression is unclear. Here we show that by combining the recently identified ABA receptor PYR1 with the type 2C protein phosphatase (PP2C) ABI1, the serine/threonine protein kinase SnRK2.6/OST1 and the transcription factor ABF2/AREB1, we can reconstitute ABA-triggered phosphorylation of the transcription factor in vitro. Introduction of these four components into plant protoplasts results in ABA-responsive gene expression. Protoplast and test-tube reconstitution assays were used to test the function of various members of the receptor, protein phosphatase and kinase families. Our results suggest that the default state of the SnRK2 kinases is an autophosphorylated, active state and that the SnRK2 kinases are kept inactive by the PP2Cs through physical interaction and dephosphorylation. We found that in the presence of ABA, the PYR/PYL (pyrabactin resistance 1/PYR1-like) receptor proteins can disrupt the interaction between the SnRK2s and PP2Cs, thus preventing the PP2C-mediated dephosphorylation of the SnRK2s and resulting in the activation of the SnRK2 kinases. Our results reveal new insights into ABA signalling mechanisms and define a minimal set of core components of a complete major ABA signalling pathway. © 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available On microbial invasion, the host immediately evokes innate immune responses. Recent studies have demonstrated that Toll-like receptors (TLRs play crucial roles in innate responses that lead not only to the clearance of pathogens but also to the efficient establishment of acquired immunity by directly detecting molecules from microbes. In terms of intracellular TLR-mediated signaling pathways, cytoplasmic adaptor molecules containing Toll/IL-1R (TIR domains play important roles in inflammatory immune responses through the production of proinflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide, and type I interferon, and upregulation of costimulatory molecules. In this paper, we will describe our current understanding of the relationship between TLRs and their ligands derived from pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. Moreover, we will review the historical and current literature to describe the mechanisms behind TLR-mediated activation of innate immune responses.
Onodera, Yasuhito; Bissell, Mina
Disclosed are methods in which glucose metabolism is correlated to oncogenesis through certain specific pathways; inhibition of certain enzymes is shown to interfere with oncogenic signaling, and measurement of certain enzyme levels is correlated with patient survival. The present methods comprise measuring level of expression of at least one of the enzymes involved in glucose uptake or metabolism, wherein increased expression of the at least one of the enzymes relative to expression in a normal cell correlates with poor prognosis of disease in a patient. Preferably the genes whose expression level is measured include GLUT3, PFKP, GAPDH, ALDOC, LDHA and GFPT2. Also disclosed are embodiments directed towards downregulating the expression of some genes in glucose uptake and metabolism.
Tang, Fen; Pacheco, Mario Thiego F; Chen, Ping; Liang, Dan; Li, Wei
Secretogranin III (Scg3) was recently discovered as the first highly diabetic retinopathy-associated angiogenic factor, and its neutralizing antibody alleviated the disease with high efficacy in diabetic mice. Investigation of its molecular mechanisms will facilitate the translation of this novel therapy. Scg3 was reported to induce the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Here we characterized the importance of MEK/ERK activation to Scg3 angiogenic activity. Our results showed that MEK inhibitor PD98059 blocked Scg3-induced proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). This finding was corroborated by PD98059 inhibition of HUVEC migration and tube formation. Furthermore, ERK inhibitor SCH772984 also suppressed Scg3-induced proliferation and migration of HUVECs. Taken together, these findings suggest that MEK-ERK pathway plays an important role in Scg3-induced angiogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pasupathy, K.; Krishna, M.; Bhattacharya, R.K.
Phosphorylation of endogenous phospholipids of rat liver mitochondrial fractions with γ[ 32 P]ATP revealed formation of all the known inositol phospholipids, such as phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol phosphate and phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate. Additionally, a new inositol phospholipid was detected. Incorporation of [ 3 H]-labelled inositol followed a similar profile. Enzymatic experiments indicated that the new lipid could possibly be phosphatidylinositoltrisphosphate. The presence of phosphoinositides-generated second messengers such as diacylglycerol and inositol trisphosphate was also confirmed. Protein kinase C, which acts as mediator between second messengers and nuclear factors, was also found to be present in mitochondria in significant amount. These results suggest that phosphoinositide signal transduction pathway is operative in rat liver mitochondria. (author)
Plotkin, Lilian I; Bellido, Teresita
Osteocytes are differentiated osteoblasts that become surrounded by matrix during the process of bone formation. Acquisition of the osteocyte phenotype is achieved by profound changes in gene expression that facilitate adaptation to the changing cellular environment and constitute the molecular signature of osteocytes. During osteocytogenesis, the expression of genes that are characteristic of the osteoblast are altered and the expression of genes and/or proteins that impart dendritic cellular morphology, regulate matrix mineralization and control the function of cells at the bone surface are ordely modulated. The discovery of mutations in human osteocytic genes has contributed, in a large part, to our understanding of the role of osteocytes in bone homeostasis. Osteocytes are targets of the mechanical force imposed on the skeleton and have a critical role in integrating mechanosensory pathways with the action of hormones, which thereby leads to the orchestrated response of bone to environmental cues. Current, therapeutic approaches harness this accumulating knowledge by targeting osteocytic signalling pathways and messengers to improve skeletal health.
Luan, Bing; Yoon, Young-Sil; Le Lay, John; Kaestner, Klaus H; Hedrick, Susan; Montminy, Marc
Obesity is thought to promote insulin resistance in part via activation of the innate immune system. Increases in proinflammatory cytokine production by M1 macrophages inhibit insulin signaling in white adipose tissue. In contrast, M2 macrophages have been found to enhance insulin sensitivity in part by reducing adipose tissue inflammation. The paracrine hormone prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) enhances M2 polarization in part through activation of the cAMP pathway, although the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here we show that PGE2 stimulates M2 polarization via the cyclic AMP-responsive element binding (CREB)-mediated induction of Krupple-like factor 4 (KLF4). Targeted disruption of CREB or the cAMP-regulated transcriptional coactivators 2 and 3 (CRTC2/3) in macrophages down-regulated M2 marker gene expression and promoted insulin resistance in the context of high-fat diet feeding. As re-expression of KLF4 rescued M2 marker gene expression in CREB-depleted cells, our results demonstrate the importance of the CREB/CRTC pathway in maintaining insulin sensitivity in white adipose tissue via its effects on the innate immune system.
Full Text Available Background/Aims: Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disorders that tortures about millions of people worldwide. Recent studies showed that Andrographolide (AP is a promising natural compound for the treatment of osteoclast-related bone diseases. However, its potential in treatment of osteoporosis has not been fully explored. Methods: In this study, the effect of AP on osteoblasts metabolism was investigated via the detection of cell proliferation, cell viability, ALP activity, the expression of osteogenic specific genes including runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2, bone sialoprotein (BSP, osteocalcin (OCN, Bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP2 and Alkaline phosphatase(ALP for 3, 5 and 7 days respectively. Further exploration of the association of AP with WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway was performed by examination of the expression of WNT related genes and proteins. Results: Results showed that AP of 4.46 and 8.92 µM, especially 8.92 µM was beneficial to osteogenic differentiation by upregulating ALP activity and expression of osteogenic related genes (PConclusion: This study indicates that AP exerts its pro-osteogenic potential via activation of the WNT/β-catenin in osteoblasts and thus may represent a candidate of therapeutic agent for osteoporosis.
Full Text Available Intestine is always exposed to external environment and intestinal microorganism; thus it is more sensitive to dysfunction and dysbiosis, leading to intestinal inflammation, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, and diarrhea. An increasing number of studies indicate that dietary amino acids play significant roles in preventing and treating intestinal inflammation. The review aims to summarize the functions and signaling mechanisms of amino acids in intestinal inflammation. Amino acids, including essential amino acids (EAAs, conditionally essential amino acids (CEAAs, and nonessential amino acids (NEAAs, improve the functions of intestinal barrier and expressions of anti-inflammatory cytokines and tight junction proteins but decrease oxidative stress and the apoptosis of enterocytes as well as the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines in the intestinal inflammation. The functions of amino acids are associated with various signaling pathways, including mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR, nuclear factor-kappa-B (NF-κB, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, nuclear erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2, general controlled nonrepressed kinase 2 (GCN2, and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2.
Fletcher, Georgina C; Elbediwy, Ahmed; Khanal, Ichha; Ribeiro, Paulo S; Tapon, Nic; Thompson, Barry J
The Spectrin cytoskeleton is known to be polarised in epithelial cells, yet its role remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the Spectrin cytoskeleton controls Hippo signalling. In the developing Drosophila wing and eye, loss of apical Spectrins (alpha/beta-heavy dimers) produces tissue overgrowth and mis-regulation of Hippo target genes, similar to loss of Crumbs (Crb) or the FERM-domain protein Expanded (Ex). Apical beta-heavy Spectrin binds to Ex and co-localises with it at the apical membrane to antagonise Yki activity. Interestingly, in both the ovarian follicular epithelium and intestinal epithelium of Drosophila, apical Spectrins and Crb are dispensable for repression of Yki, while basolateral Spectrins (alpha/beta dimers) are essential. Finally, the Spectrin cytoskeleton is required to regulate the localisation of the Hippo pathway effector YAP in response to cell density human epithelial cells. Our findings identify both apical and basolateral Spectrins as regulators of Hippo signalling and suggest Spectrins as potential mechanosensors. © 2015 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.
Azimzadeh Jamalkandi, Sadegh; Mozhgani, Sayed-Hamidreza; Gholami Pourbadie, Hamid; Mirzaie, Mehdi; Noorbakhsh, Farshid; Vaziri, Behrouz; Gholami, Alireza; Ansari-Pour, Naser; Jafari, Mohieddin
The prototypical neurotropic virus, rabies, is a member of the Rhabdoviridae family that causes lethal encephalomyelitis. Although there have been a plethora of studies investigating the etiological mechanism of the rabies virus and many precautionary methods have been implemented to avert the disease outbreak over the last century, the disease has surprisingly no definite remedy at its late stages. The psychological symptoms and the underlying etiology, as well as the rare survival rate from rabies encephalitis, has still remained a mystery. We, therefore, undertook a systems biomedicine approach to identify the network of gene products implicated in rabies. This was done by meta-analyzing whole-transcriptome microarray datasets of the CNS infected by strain CVS-11, and integrating them with interactome data using computational and statistical methods. We first determined the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in each study and horizontally integrated the results at the mRNA and microRNA levels separately. A total of 61 seed genes involved in signal propagation system were obtained by means of unifying mRNA and microRNA detected integrated DEGs. We then reconstructed a refined protein–protein interaction network (PPIN) of infected cells to elucidate the rabies-implicated signal transduction network (RISN). To validate our findings, we confirmed differential expression of randomly selected genes in the network using Real-time PCR. In conclusion, the identification of seed genes and their network neighborhood within the refined PPIN can be useful for demonstrating signaling pathways including interferon circumvent, toward proliferation and survival, and neuropathological clue, explaining the intricate underlying molecular neuropathology of rabies infection and thus rendered a molecular framework for predicting potential drug targets. PMID:27872612
The Notch signalling pathway is an evolutionarily conserved cell signalling pathway involved in the development of organisms as diverse as humans and fruit flies. It plays a pivotal role in cell fate determination. Dysregulated Notch signalling is oncogenic, inhibits apoptosis and promotes cell survival. Abnormal Notch ...
Li, Ning; Hong, Tianqi; Li, Rong; Wang, Yao; Guo, Mengjiao; Cao, Zongxi; Cai, Yumei; Liu, Sidang; Chai, Tongjie; Wei, Liangmeng
Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS), an adaptor protein of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs)-mediated signal pathway, is involved in innate immunity. In this study, Cherry Valley duck MAVS (duMAVS) was cloned from the spleen and analyzed. duMAVS was determined to have a caspase activation and recruitment domain at N-terminal, followed by a proline-rich domain and a transmembrane domain at C-terminal. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that duMAVS was expressed in all tissues tested across a broad expression spectrum. The expression of duMAVS was significantly upregulated after infection with duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV). Overexpression of duMAVS could drive the activation of interferon (IFN)-β, nuclear factor-κB, interferon regulatory factor 7, and many downstream factors (such as Mx, PKR, OAS, and IL-8) in duck embryo fibroblast cells. What is more, RNA interference further confirmed that duMAVS was an important adaptor for IFN-β activation. The antiviral assay showed that duMAVS could suppress the various viral replications (DTMUV, novel reovirus, and duck plague virus) at early stages of infection. Overall, these results showed that the main signal pathway mediated by duMAVS and it had a broad-spectrum antiviral ability. This research will be helpful to better understanding the innate immune system of ducks.
Arndt, Stephanie; Wacker, Eva; Dorn, Christoph; Koch, Andreas; Saugspier, Michael; Thasler, Wolfgang E; Hartmann, Arndt; Bosserhoff, Anja Katrin; Hellerbrand, Claus
Bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) has been identified as crucial regulator of iron homeostasis. However, its further role in liver pathology including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its advanced form non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and function of BMP6 in chronic liver disease. BMP6 was analysed in hepatic samples from murine models of chronic liver injury and patients with chronic liver diseases. Furthermore, a tissue microarray comprising 110 human liver tissues with different degree of steatosis and inflammation was assessed. BMP6-deficient (BMP6(-/-)) and wild-type mice were compared in two dietary NASH-models, that is, methionine choline-deficient (MCD) and high-fat (HF) diets. BMP6 was solely upregulated in NAFLD but not in other murine liver injury models or diseased human livers. In NAFLD, BMP6 expression correlated with hepatic steatosis but not with inflammation or hepatocellular damage. Also, in vitro cellular lipid accumulation in primary human hepatocytes induced increased BMP6 expression. MCD and HF diets caused more hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in BMP6(-/-) compared with wild-type mice. However, only in the MCD and not in the HF diet model BMP6(-/-) mice developed marked hepatic iron overload, suggesting that further mechanisms are responsible for protective BMP6 effect. In vitro analysis revealed that recombinant BMP6 inhibited the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and reduced proinflammatory and profibrogenic gene expression in already activated HSCs. Steatosis-induced upregulation of BMP6 in NAFLD is hepatoprotective. Induction of BMP6-signalling may be a promising antifibrogenic strategy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Full Text Available The Notch signaling pathway plays a key role in angiogenesis and endothelial cell formation, but it remains unclear whether it is involved in vascular repair by endothelial progenitor cells after traumatic brain injury. Therefore, in the present study, we controlled the Notch signaling pathway using overexpression and knockdown constructs. Activation of the Notch signaling pathway by Notch1 or Jagged1 overexpression enhanced the migration, invasiveness and angiogenic ability of endothelial progenitor cells. Suppression of the Notch signaling pathway with Notch1 or Jagged1 siRNAs reduced the migratory capacity, invasiveness and angiogenic ability of endothelial progenitor cells. Activation of the Notch signaling pathway in vivo in a rat model of mild traumatic brain injury promoted neurovascular repair. These findings suggest that the activation of the Notch signaling pathway promotes blood vessel formation and tissue repair after brain trauma.
Cai, Xiaoqiang; Nomura-Kitabayashi, Aya; Cai, Weibin; Yan, Jianyun; Christoffels, Vincent M; Cai, Chen-Leng
During early embryogenesis, the formation of the cardiac atrioventricular canal (AVC) facilitates the transition of the heart from a linear tube into a chambered organ. However, the genetic pathways underlying this developmental process are poorly understood. The T-box transcription factor Tbx20 is expressed predominantly in the AVC of early heart tube. It was shown that Tbx20 activates Nmyc1 and suppresses Tbx2 expression to promote proliferation and specification of the atrial and ventricular chambers, yet it is not known if Tbx20 is involved in early AVC development. Here, we report that mice lacking Tbx20 in the AVC myocardium fail to form the AVC constriction, and the endocardial epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is severely perturbed. Tbx20 maintains expression of a variety of genes, including Bmp2, Tbx3 and Hand1 in the AVC myocardium. Intriguingly, we found Bmp2 downstream genes involved in the EMT initiation are also downregulated. In addition, re-expression of Bmp2 in the AVC myocardium substantially rescues the EMT defects resulting from the lack of Tbx20, suggesting Bmp2 is one of the key downstream targets of Tbx20 in AVC development. Our data support a complex signaling network with Tbx20 suppressing Tbx2 in the AVC myocardium but also indirectly promoting Tbx2 expression through Bmp2. The spatiotemporal expression of Tbx2 in the AVC appears to be balanced between these two opposing signals. Overall, our study provides genetic evidence that Tbx20 has essential roles in regulating AVC development that coordinate early cardiac chamber formation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic analysis in the mouse revealed that GREMLIN1 (GREM1-mediated antagonism of BMP4 is essential for ureteric epithelial branching as the disruption of ureteric bud outgrowth and renal agenesis in Grem1-deficient embryos is restored by additional inactivation of one Bmp4 allele. Another BMP ligand, BMP7, was shown to control the proliferative expansion of nephrogenic progenitors and its requirement for nephrogenesis can be genetically substituted by Bmp4. Therefore, we investigated whether BMP7 in turn also participates in inhibiting ureteric bud outgrowth during the initiation of metanephric kidney development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genetic inactivation of one Bmp7 allele in Grem1-deficient mouse embryos does not alleviate the bilateral renal agenesis, while complete inactivation of Bmp7 restores ureteric bud outgrowth and branching. In mouse embryos lacking both Grem1 and Bmp7, GDNF/WNT11 feedback signaling and the expression of the Etv4 target gene, which regulates formation of the invading ureteric bud tip, are restored. In contrast to the restoration of ureteric bud outgrowth and branching, nephrogenesis remains aberrant as revealed by the premature loss of Six2 expressing nephrogenic progenitor cells. Therefore, very few nephrons develop in kidneys lacking both Grem1 and Bmp7 and the resulting dysplastic phenotype is indistinguishable from the one of Bmp7-deficient mouse embryos. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study reveals an unexpected inhibitory role of BMP7 during the onset of ureteric bud outgrowth. As BMP4, BMP7 and GREM1 are expressed in distinct mesenchymal and epithelial domains, the localized antagonistic interactions of GREM1 with BMPs could restrict and guide ureteric bud outgrowth and branching. The robustness and likely significant redundancy of the underlying signaling system is evidenced by the fact that global reduction of Bmp4 or inactivation of Bmp7 are both able to restore ureteric bud outgrowth
Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs are a group of signalling molecules that belong to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily of proteins. Initially identified for their ability to induce bone formation, recent advances in the understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms regarding BMPs have led to the use of the growth factor to accelerate bone healing. Recent clinical trials have demonstrated that BMPs, BMP-7 in particular, may present an alternative line of treatment other than the gold standard, autogenous bone grafting, in the treatment of fracture nonunion. We performed a literature search in September 2014 of PubMed and Embase using search terms, including “bone morphogenetic proteins”, “BMP-7”, “non-union”, “fracture healing” and “cost-effectiveness”, reviewing the efficacy, safety, and cost of treatment of nonunions with BMP-7. The authors further canvassed the reference lists of selected articles and used online search tools, such as Google Scholar. BMP-7 uses both the canonical and noncanonical signalling pathways. The treatment of fracture nonunion with recombinant human BMP-7 (rhBMP-7 has a comparable efficacy with that of autogenous bone grafting with an average union rate of 87% compared with 93% for bone grafting. Furthermore, fewer complications have been described with the use of rhBMP-7 compared with traditional bone grafting. We describe the signalling pathways that BMP-7 uses to exert its effect on bone. In nonunions, rhBMP-7 has been shown to have a similar efficacy to bone grafting with fewer complications.
Volk, S W; Luvalle, P; Leask, T; Leboy, P S
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) were originally identified by their ability to induce ectopic bone formation and have been shown to promote both chondrogenesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy. BMPs have recently been found to activate a membrane serine/threonine kinase signaling mechanism in a variety of cell types, but the downstream effectors of BMP signaling in chondrocyte differentiation remain unidentified. We have previously reported that BMP-2 markedly stimulates type X collagen expression in prehypertrophic chick sternal chondrocytes, and that type X collagen mRNA levels in chondrocytes cultured under serum-free (SF) conditions are elevated 3- to 5-fold within 24 h. To better define the molecular mechanisms of induction of chondrocyte hypertrophy by BMPs, we examined the effect of BMPs on type X collagen production by 15-day chick embryo sternal chondrocytes cultured under SF conditions in the presence or absence of 30 ng/ml BMP-2, BMP-4, or BMP-7. Two populations of chondrocytes were used: one representing resting cartilage isolated from the caudal third of the sterna and the second representing prehypertrophic cartilage from the cephalic third of the sterna. BMP-2, BMP-4, and BMP-7 all effectively promoted chondrocyte maturation of cephalic sternal chondrocytes as measured by high levels of alkaline phosphatase, diminished levels of type II collagen, and induction of the hypertrophic chondrocyte-specific marker, type X collagen. To test whether BMP control of type X collagen expression occurs at the transcriptional level, we utilized plasmid constructs containing the chicken collagen X promoter and 5' flanking regions fused to a reporter gene. Constructs were transiently transfected into sternal chondrocytes cultured under SF conditions in the presence or absence of 30 ng/ml BMP-2, BMP-4, or BMP-7. A 533 bp region located 2.4-2.9 kb upstream from the type X collagen transcriptional start site was both necessary and sufficient for strong BMP responsiveness
Becnel, Lauren B; Darlington, Yolanda F; Ochsner, Scott A; Easton-Marks, Jeremy R; Watkins, Christopher M; McOwiti, Apollo; Kankanamge, Wasula H; Wise, Michael W; DeHart, Michael; Margolis, Ronald N; McKenna, Neil J
Signaling pathways involving nuclear receptors (NRs), their ligands and coregulators, regulate tissue-specific transcriptomes in diverse processes, including development, metabolism, reproduction, the immune response and neuronal function, as well as in their associated pathologies. The Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas (NURSA) is a Consortium focused around a Hub website (www.nursa.org) that annotates and integrates diverse 'omics datasets originating from the published literature and NURSA-funded Data Source Projects (NDSPs). These datasets are then exposed to the scientific community on an Open Access basis through user-friendly data browsing and search interfaces. Here, we describe the redesign of the Hub, version 3.0, to deploy "Web 2.0" technologies and add richer, more diverse content. The Molecule Pages, which aggregate information relevant to NR signaling pathways from myriad external databases, have been enhanced to include resources for basic scientists, such as post-translational modification sites and targeting miRNAs, and for clinicians, such as clinical trials. A portal to NURSA's Open Access, PubMed-indexed journal Nuclear Receptor Signaling has been added to facilitate manuscript submissions. Datasets and information on reagents generated by NDSPs are available, as is information concerning periodic new NDSP funding solicitations. Finally, the new website integrates the Transcriptomine analysis tool, which allows for mining of millions of richly annotated public transcriptomic data points in the field, providing an environment for dataset re-use and citation, bench data validation and hypothesis generation. We anticipate that this new release of the NURSA database will have tangible, long term benefits for both basic and clinical research in this field.
Lauren B Becnel
Full Text Available Signaling pathways involving nuclear receptors (NRs, their ligands and coregulators, regulate tissue-specific transcriptomes in diverse processes, including development, metabolism, reproduction, the immune response and neuronal function, as well as in their associated pathologies. The Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas (NURSA is a Consortium focused around a Hub website (www.nursa.org that annotates and integrates diverse 'omics datasets originating from the published literature and NURSA-funded Data Source Projects (NDSPs. These datasets are then exposed to the scientific community on an Open Access basis through user-friendly data browsing and search interfaces. Here, we describe the redesign of the Hub, version 3.0, to deploy "Web 2.0" technologies and add richer, more diverse content. The Molecule Pages, which aggregate information relevant to NR signaling pathways from myriad external databases, have been enhanced to include resources for basic scientists, such as post-translational modification sites and targeting miRNAs, and for clinicians, such as clinical trials. A portal to NURSA's Open Access, PubMed-indexed journal Nuclear Receptor Signaling has been added to facilitate manuscript submissions. Datasets and information on reagents generated by NDSPs are available, as is information concerning periodic new NDSP funding solicitations. Finally, the new website integrates the Transcriptomine analysis tool, which allows for mining of millions of richly annotated public transcriptomic data points in the field, providing an environment for dataset re-use and citation, bench data validation and hypothesis generation. We anticipate that this new release of the NURSA database will have tangible, long term benefits for both basic and clinical research in this field.
Mao, G-S; Yan, M; Ma, Z-Z; Sun, L-Z; Liu, Y
To investigate the activation of the BMP7 and laminin pathway is associated with glioma cell proliferation and differentiation. We enrolled 65 patients with primary operable glioma. Laminin and BMP7 protein expression and its subcellular localization were studied by immunofluorescence. We detected a higher level of BMP7 expression in glioma tissue in patients with a lower grade of glioma who had a lower eosinophil count. Compared to patients with a higher grade of glioma, we observed a lower level of laminin expression in patients with a lower grade of glioma. Our data indicated a potential link between eosinophil counts and the expression levels of laminin and BMP7 in glioma differentiation.
Lai, Chung-Fang; Cheng, Su-Li
of matrix mineralization. Although BMP-2 retains its receptor-binding capability in the presence of L230, BMP-2 stimulation of Smad signaling is abolished by L230. BMP-2 upregulates the expression of alphavbeta integrins, and these integrins, in turn, play a critical role in BMP-2 function in osteoblasts.
Full Text Available Nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT is a family of transcription factors important for innate and adaptive immune responses. NFAT activation is tightly regulated through the calcineurin/NFAT signaling pathway. There is increasing evidence on non-coding RNAs such as miRNAs playing a crucial role in regulating transcription factors and signaling pathways. However, not much is known about microRNAs (miRNAs targeting the calcineurin/NFAT signaling pathway involved in immune response in human. In this study, a comprehensive pathway level analysis has been carried out to identify miRNAs regulating the calcineurin/NFAT signaling pathway. Firstly, by incorporating experimental data and computational predictions, 191 unique miRNAs were identified to be targeting the calcineurin/NFAT signaling pathway in humans. Secondly, combining miRNA expression data from activated T cells and computational predictions, 32 miRNAs were observed to be induced by NFAT transcription factors. Finally, 11 miRNAs were identified to be involved in a feedback loop to modulate the calcineurin/NFAT signaling pathway activity. This data demonstrate the potential role of miRNAs as regulators of the calcineurin/NFAT signaling pathway. The present study thus emphasizes the importance of pathway level analysis to identify miRNAs and understands their role in modulating signaling pathways and transcription factor activity.
Kurkewich, Jeffrey L; Hansen, Justin; Klopfenstein, Nathan; Zhang, Helen; Wood, Christian; Boucher, Austin; Hickman, Joseph; Muench, David E; Grimes, H Leighton; Dahl, Richard
MicroRNA cluster mirn23a has previously been shown to promote myeloid development at the expense of lymphoid development in overexpression and knockout mouse models. This polarization is observed early in hematopoietic development, with an increase in common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) and a decrease in all myeloid progenitor subsets in adult bone marrow. The pool size of multipotential progenitors (MPPs) is unchanged; however, in this report we observe by flow cytometry that polarized subsets of MPPs are changed in the absence of mirn23a. Additionally, in vitro culture of MPPs and sorted MPP transplants showed that these cells have decreased myeloid and increased lymphoid potential in vitro and in vivo. We investigated the mechanism by which mirn23a regulates hematopoietic differentiation and observed that mirn23a promotes myeloid development of hematopoietic progenitors through regulation of hematopoietic transcription factors and signaling pathways. Early transcription factors that direct the commitment of MPPs to CLPs (Ikzf1, Runx1, Satb1, Bach1 and Bach2) are increased in the absence of mirn23a miRNAs as well as factors that commit the CLP to the B cell lineage (FoxO1, Ebf1, and Pax5). Mirn23a appears to buffer transcription factor levels so that they do not stochastically reach a threshold level to direct differentiation. Intriguingly, mirn23a also inversely regulates the PI3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt and BMP/Smad signaling pathways. Pharmacological inhibitor studies, coupled with dominant active/dominant negative biochemical experiments, show that both signaling pathways are critical to mirn23a's regulation of hematopoietic differentiation. Lastly, consistent with mirn23a being a physiological inhibitor of B cell development, we observed that the essential B cell transcription factor EBF1 represses expression of mirn23a. In summary, our data demonstrates that mirn23a regulates a complex array of transcription and signaling pathways to modulate adult hematopoiesis.
Jeffrey L Kurkewich
Full Text Available MicroRNA cluster mirn23a has previously been shown to promote myeloid development at the expense of lymphoid development in overexpression and knockout mouse models. This polarization is observed early in hematopoietic development, with an increase in common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs and a decrease in all myeloid progenitor subsets in adult bone marrow. The pool size of multipotential progenitors (MPPs is unchanged; however, in this report we observe by flow cytometry that polarized subsets of MPPs are changed in the absence of mirn23a. Additionally, in vitro culture of MPPs and sorted MPP transplants showed that these cells have decreased myeloid and increased lymphoid potential in vitro and in vivo. We investigated the mechanism by which mirn23a regulates hematopoietic differentiation and observed that mirn23a promotes myeloid development of hematopoietic progenitors through regulation of hematopoietic transcription factors and signaling pathways. Early transcription factors that direct the commitment of MPPs to CLPs (Ikzf1, Runx1, Satb1, Bach1 and Bach2 are increased in the absence of mirn23a miRNAs as well as factors that commit the CLP to the B cell lineage (FoxO1, Ebf1, and Pax5. Mirn23a appears to buffer transcription factor levels so that they do not stochastically reach a threshold level to direct differentiation. Intriguingly, mirn23a also inversely regulates the PI3 kinase (PI3K/Akt and BMP/Smad signaling pathways. Pharmacological inhibitor studies, coupled with dominant active/dominant negative biochemical experiments, show that both signaling pathways are critical to mirn23a's regulation of hematopoietic differentiation. Lastly, consistent with mirn23a being a physiological inhibitor of B cell development, we observed that the essential B cell transcription factor EBF1 represses expression of mirn23a. In summary, our data demonstrates that mirn23a regulates a complex array of transcription and signaling pathways to modulate adult
Luis B Barreiro
Full Text Available Humans respond differently than other primates to a large number of infections. Differences in susceptibility to infectious agents between humans and other primates are probably due to inter-species differences in immune response to infection. Consistent with that notion, genes involved in immunity-related processes are strongly enriched among recent targets of positive selection in primates, suggesting that immune responses evolve rapidly, yet providing only indirect evidence for possible inter-species functional differences. To directly compare immune responses among primates, we stimulated primary monocytes from humans, chimpanzees, and rhesus macaques with lipopolysaccharide (LPS and studied the ensuing time-course regulatory responses. We find that, while the universal Toll-like receptor response is mostly conserved across primates, the regulatory response associated with viral infections is often lineage-specific, probably reflecting rapid host-virus mutual adaptation cycles. Additionally, human-specific immune responses are enriched for genes involved in apoptosis, as well as for genes associated with cancer and with susceptibility to infectious diseases or immune-related disorders. Finally, we find that chimpanzee-specific immune signaling pathways are enriched for HIV-interacting genes. Put together, our observations lend strong support to the notion that lineage-specific immune responses may help explain known inter-species differences in susceptibility to infectious diseases.
Xu, Wei; Liang, Chao-Ge; Li, Yi-Fan; Ji, Yun-Han; Qiu, Wen-Jun; Tang, Xian-Zhong
We aimed to investigate the role of Notch1/Hes signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of abnormal ossification of hip ligament in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). 22 AS patients scheduled for artificial hip arthroplasty were randomly chosen as AS group. As controls, we used 4 patients diagnosed with transcervical fracture who underwent hip replacement surgery. Notch1 and Hes mRNA expressions were detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RFQ-PCR). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to detect Notch1 and Hes protein expression. Correlation analyses of Notch-l and Hes with AS-related clinical factors were conducted with spearman's correlation analysis and partial correlation analysis. RFQ-PCR results showed significant differences in Notch1 and Hes mRNA expressions between AS group and the control group (all Ppathways. Semi-quantitative IHC showed a higher Notch1 and Hes expression levels in AS group compared to the control group (all Ppathways mediated by Notch1-Hes may contribute to ligament ossification of hip joints in AS patients.
Full Text Available 17275323 TLR signaling. Kawai T, Akira S. Semin Immunol. 2007 Feb;19(1):24-32. Epub... 2007 Feb 1. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show TLR signaling. PubmedID 17275323 Title TLR signaling. Author
Full Text Available 16410796 TLR signaling. Kawai T, Akira S. Cell Death Differ. 2006 May;13(5):816-25.... (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show TLR signaling. PubmedID 16410796 Title TLR signaling. Authors Kawai T, A
Signal transduction allows cells to respond to signals from their environment and is therefore important for most biological processes. The binding of an extracellular signalling molecule to a cell-surface receptor is the first step in most signal transduction pathways. Cell-surface receptors
Tertia D Purves-Tyson
Full Text Available Adolescent males have an increased risk of developing schizophrenia, implicating testosterone in the precipitation of dopamine-related psychopathology. Evidence from adult rodent brain indicates that testosterone can modulate nigrostriatal dopamine. However, studies are required to understand the role testosterone plays in maturation of dopamine pathways during adolescence and to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s by which testosterone exerts its effects. We hypothesized that molecular indices of dopamine neurotransmission [synthesis (tyrosine hydroxylase, breakdown (catechol-O-methyl transferase; monoamine oxygenase, transport [vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT, dopamine transporter (DAT] and receptors (DRD1-D5] would be changed by testosterone or its metabolites, dihydrotestosterone and 17β-estradiol, in the nigrostriatal pathway of adolescent male rats. We found that testosterone and dihydrotestosterone increased DAT and VMAT mRNAs in the substantia nigra and that testosterone increased DAT protein at the region of the cell bodies, but not in target regions in the striatum. Dopamine receptor D2 mRNA was increased and D3 mRNA was decreased in substantia nigra and/or striatum by androgens. These data suggest that increased testosterone at adolescence may change dopamine responsivity of the nigrostriatal pathway by modulating, at a molecular level, the capacity of neurons to transport and respond to dopamine. Further, dopamine turnover was increased in the dorsal striatum following gonadectomy and this was prevented by testosterone replacement. Gene expression changes in the dopaminergic cell body region may serve to modulate both dendritic dopamine feedback inhibition and reuptake in the dopaminergic somatodendritic field as well as dopamine release and re-uptake dynamics at the presynaptic terminals in the striatum. These testosterone-induced changes of molecular indices of dopamine neurotransmission in males are primarily androgen
Wang, Da-Zhi; Jin, Ya-Nan; Ding, Xi-Han; Wang, Wen-Jia; Zhai, Shan-Shan; Bai, Li-Ping; Guo, Zhi-Fu
Low temperature is an abiotic stress that adversely affects the growth and production of plants. Resistance and adaptation of plants to cold stress is dependent upon the activation of molecular networks and pathways involved in signal transduction and the regulation of cold-stress related genes. Because it has numerous and complex genes, regulation factors, and pathways, research on the ICE-CBF-COR signaling pathway is the most studied and detailed, which is thought to be rather important for cold resistance of plants. In this review, we focus on the function of each member, interrelation among members, and the influence of manipulators and repressors in the ICE-CBF-COR pathway. In addition, regulation and signal transduction concerning plant hormones, circadian clock, and light are discussed. The studies presented provide a detailed picture of the ICE-CBF-COR pathway.
Novellasdemunt, Laura; Antas, Pedro
The evolutionarily conserved Wnt signaling pathway plays essential roles during embryonic development and tissue homeostasis. Notably, comprehensive genetic studies in Drosophila and mice in the past decades have demonstrated the crucial role of Wnt signaling in intestinal stem cell maintenance by regulating proliferation, differentiation, and cell-fate decisions. Wnt signaling has also been implicated in a variety of cancers and other diseases. Loss of the Wnt pathway negative regulator adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is the hallmark of human colorectal cancers (CRC). Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing further reveal many novel recurrent Wnt pathway mutations in addition to the well-characterized APC and β-catenin mutations in CRC. Despite attractive strategies to develop drugs for Wnt signaling, major hurdles in therapeutic intervention of the pathway persist. Here we discuss the Wnt-activating mechanisms in CRC and review the current advances and challenges in drug discovery. PMID:26289750
Blechert, S; Brodschelm, W; Hölder, S; Kammerer, L; Kutchan, T M; Mueller, M J; Xia, Z Q; Zenk, M H
Plant defense against microbial pathogens and herbivores relies heavily on the induction of defense proteins and low molecular weight antibiotics. The signals between perception of the aggression, gene activation, and the subsequent biosynthesis of secondary compounds are assumed to be pentacylic oxylipin derivatives. The rapid, but transient, synthesis of cis-jasmonic acid was demonstrated after insect attack on a food plant and by microbial elicitor addition to plant suspension cultures. This effect is highly specific and not caused by a number of environmental stresses such as light, heavy metals, or cold or heat shock. Elicitation of Eschscholtzia cell cultures also led to a rapid alkalinization of the growth medium prior to jasmonate formation. Inhibition of this alkalinization process by the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine also inhibited jasmonate formation. The induction of specific enzymes in the benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloid pathway leading to the antimicrobial sanguinarine was induced to a qualitatively and quantitatively similar extent by fungal elicitor, methyl jasmonate, and its linolenic acid-derived precursor 12-oxophytodienoic acid. It is herein proposed that a second oxylipid cascade may exist in plants starting from linoleic acid via 15,16-dihydro-12-oxophytodienoic acid to 9,10-dihydrojasmonate. Experiments with synthetic trihomojasmonate demonstrated that beta-oxidation is not a prerequisite for biological activity and that 12-oxophytodienoic acid and derivatives are most likely fully active as signal transducers. Octadecanoic acid-derived compounds are essential elements in modulating the synthesis of antibiotic compounds and are thus integral to plant defense.
Horasawa, Noriko; Yamashita, Teruhito; Uehara, Shunsuke; Udagawa, Nobuyuki
Titanium has been widely used as a dental implant material. However, it takes several months for the implant body to bind with the jawbone. To develop new bioactive modification on titanium surfaces to achieve full osseointegration expeditiously, we used fibrinogen and fibronectin as bioactive scaffolds on the titanium plate, which are common extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. We analyzed the features of the surface of ECM-modified titanium plates by atomic force microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry. We also evaluated the effect of ECM modification on promoting the differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts on these surfaces. Fibrinogen had excellent adsorption on titanium surfaces even at low concentrations, due to the binding ability of fibrinogen via its RGD motif. The surface was composed of a fibrinogen monolayer, in which the ratio of β-sheets was decreased. Osteoblast proliferation on ECM-modified titanium surface was significantly promoted compared with titanium alone. Calcification on the modified surface was also accelerated. These ECM-promoting effects correlated with increased expression of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) by the osteoblasts themselves and were inhibited by Noggin, a BMP inhibitor. These results suggest that the fibrinogen monolayer-modified titanium surface is recognized as bioactive scaffolds and promotes bone formation, resulting in the acceleration of osseointegration. - Highlights: • Fibrinogen had an excellent adsorption on titanium at low concentrations. • Fibrinogen on titanium formed composite layer with a decrease in β-sheet structure. • Osteoblast proliferation and calcification on the ECM-modified titanium plates were significant. • These effects of fibrinogen were increased of BMPs by osteoblasts themselves. • The scaffolds of fibrinogen on titanium might accelerate osseointegration
Horasawa, Noriko, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Dental Materials, Matsumoto Dental University, 1780 Hiro-oka Gobara, Shiojiri, Nagano 399-0781 (Japan); Yamashita, Teruhito [Institute for Oral Science, Matsumoto Dental University, 1780 Hiro-oka Gobara, Shiojiri, Nagano 399-0781 (Japan); Uehara, Shunsuke; Udagawa, Nobuyuki [Department of Biochemistry, Matsumoto Dental University, 1780 Hiro-oka Gobara, Shiojiri, Nagano 399-0781 (Japan)
Titanium has been widely used as a dental implant material. However, it takes several months for the implant body to bind with the jawbone. To develop new bioactive modification on titanium surfaces to achieve full osseointegration expeditiously, we used fibrinogen and fibronectin as bioactive scaffolds on the titanium plate, which are common extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. We analyzed the features of the surface of ECM-modified titanium plates by atomic force microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry. We also evaluated the effect of ECM modification on promoting the differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts on these surfaces. Fibrinogen had excellent adsorption on titanium surfaces even at low concentrations, due to the binding ability of fibrinogen via its RGD motif. The surface was composed of a fibrinogen monolayer, in which the ratio of β-sheets was decreased. Osteoblast proliferation on ECM-modified titanium surface was significantly promoted compared with titanium alone. Calcification on the modified surface was also accelerated. These ECM-promoting effects correlated with increased expression of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) by the osteoblasts themselves and were inhibited by Noggin, a BMP inhibitor. These results suggest that the fibrinogen monolayer-modified titanium surface is recognized as bioactive scaffolds and promotes bone formation, resulting in the acceleration of osseointegration. - Highlights: • Fibrinogen had an excellent adsorption on titanium at low concentrations. • Fibrinogen on titanium formed composite layer with a decrease in β-sheet structure. • Osteoblast proliferation and calcification on the ECM-modified titanium plates were significant. • These effects of fibrinogen were increased of BMPs by osteoblasts themselves. • The scaffolds of fibrinogen on titanium might accelerate osseointegration.
Ocaña, Oscar H.; Coskun, Hakan; Minguillón, Carolina; Murawala, Prayag; Tanaka, Elly M.; Galcerán, Joan; Muñoz-Chapuli, Ramón; Nieto, M. Angela
The majority of animals show external bilateral symmetry, precluding the observation of multiple internal left-right (L/R) asymmetries that are fundamental for organ packaging and function1,2. In vertebrates, left identity is mediated by the left-specific Nodal-Pitx2 axis that is repressed on the right-hand side by the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) inducer Snail13,4. Despite some existing evidence3,5, it remains unclear whether an equivalent instructive pathway provides right-hand specific information to the embryo. Here we show that in zebrafish, BMP mediates the L/R asymmetric activation of another EMT inducer, Prrx1a, in the lateral plate mesoderm (LPM) with higher levels on the right. Prrx1a drives L/R differential cell movements towards the midline leading to a leftward displacement of the cardiac posterior pole through an actomyosin-dependent mechanism. Downregulation of Prrx1a prevents heart looping and leads to mesocardia. Two parallel and mutually repressed pathways, respectively driven by Nodal and BMP on the left and right LPM, converge on the asymmetric activation of Pitx2 and Prrx1, two transcription factors that integrate left and right information to govern heart morphogenesis. This mechanism is conserved in the chicken embryo and, in the mouse, Snail1 fulfills the role played by Prrx1 in fish and chick. Thus, a differential L/R EMT produces asymmetric cell movements and forces, more prominent from the right, that drive heart laterality in vertebrates. PMID:28880281
Zhang, Dawei; Liu, Dandan; Zhang, Jinchao; Fong, Chichun; Yang, Mengsu
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have shown great promise for a variety of applications, including chemistry, biology, and medicine. Recently, AuNPs have found promising applications in cartilage and bone repair. However, to realize the above promised applications, more work needs to be carried out to clarify the interactions between biological systems and AuNPs. In the present study, primary osteoblasts were used to evaluate the biocompatibility of 20-nm and 40-nm AuNPs, including morphology, proliferation, differentiation, gene and protein expression, and the underlying mechanisms. The results demonstrated that AuNPs were taken up by osteoblasts and aggregated in perinuclear compartment and vescular structures, but no morphological changes were observed. AuNPs could significantly promote the proliferation of osteoblasts, enhance the ALP activities, and increase the number of bone nodules and calcium content in vitro. In addition, the expression of BMP-2, Runx-2, OCN and Col-1 was remarkably up-regulated in the presence of AuNPs. It is noteworthy that 20-nm AuNPs are more potent than 40-nm AuNPs in regulating osteoblast activities. Besides, AuNPs increased the level of ERK phosphorylation/total ERK, suggesting the activation of ERK/MAPK pathway is involved in above activities. In conclusion, AuNPs exhibited great biocompatibility with osteoblasts, and have tremendous potential to be used as drug and/or gene delivery carrier for bone and tissue engineering in the future. - Highlights: • AuNPs aggregated in perinuclear compartment and vescular structures of osteoblasts. • AuNPs up-regulated the expression of Runx-2, BMP-2, OCN and Col I of osteoblasts. • AuNPs enhanced osteoblast differentiation by activating the ERK/MAPK pathway. • The size of nanoparticles may be important to exhibit their biological effects. • AuNPs have tremendous potential in bone and tissue engineering in future
Wang, Yiping; Li, Yi-Ping; Paulson, Christie; Shao, Jian-Zhong; Zhang, Xiaoling; Wu, Mengrui; Chen, Wei
Wnt signaling affects both bone modeling, which occurs during development, and bone remodeling, which is a lifelong process involving tissue renewal. Wnt signals are especially known to affect the differentiation of osteoblasts. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of Wnt signaling, which is divided into two major branches: the canonical pathway and the noncanonical pathway. The canonical pathway is also called the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. There are two major noncanonical pathways: the Wnt-planar cell polarity pathway (Wnt-PCP pathway) and the Wnt-calcium pathway (Wnt-Ca2+ pathway). This review also discusses how Wnt ligands, receptors, intracellular effectors, transcription factors, and antagonists affect both the bone modeling and bone remodeling processes. We also review the role of Wnt ligands, receptors, intracellular effectors, transcription factors, and antagonists in bone as demonstrated in mouse models. Disrupted Wnt signaling is linked to several bone diseases, including osteoporosis, van Buchem disease, and sclerosteosis. Studying the mechanism of Wnt signaling and its interactions with other signaling pathways in bone will provide potential therapeutic targets to treat these bone diseases. PMID:24389191
Zhu, Xuejiao; Wen, Libin; Sheng, Shaoyang; Wang, Wei; Xiao, Qi; Qu, Meng; Hu, Yiyi; Liu, Chuanmin; He, Kongwang
Porcine circovirus-like virus P1 is an important pathogen of the current pig industry, the infection mechanism is not entirely clear. Wnt signaling pathway plays an important role in the growth of young animals and infection of some viruses. This study was designed to demonstrate the effects of P1 infection on the Wnt signaling pathway. In vivo experiments, we demonstrated the down-regulatory effects of P1 infection in piglets and mice on the downstream components expression levels of Wnt signaling pathway, and the effects of Wnt signaling pathway activation on the pathogenesis of P1. In vitro studies, we found P1 infection down-regulated protein level of β-catenin and mRNA level of mmp2, prevented the β-catenin from entering into nucleus, abolished the TCF/LEF promoter activity, proved that P1 could inhibit the activation of Wnt signaling pathway in vitro . Finally, we found that VP1 of P1 virus also had the inhibitory effects on Wnt signaling pathway in vitro , elucidated the mechanism of P1's inhibitory effects on the Wnt signaling pathway and offered the possibility that the suppression of Wnt signaling pathway was involved in the post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), laying a foundation for elucidating the pathogenesis of P1.
Full Text Available Porcine circovirus-like virus P1 is an important pathogen of the current pig industry, the infection mechanism is not entirely clear. Wnt signaling pathway plays an important role in the growth of young animals and infection of some viruses. This study was designed to demonstrate the effects of P1 infection on the Wnt signaling pathway. In vivo experiments, we demonstrated the down-regulatory effects of P1 infection in piglets and mice on the downstream components expression levels of Wnt signaling pathway, and the effects of Wnt signaling pathway activation on the pathogenesis of P1. In vitro studies, we found P1 infection down-regulated protein level of β-catenin and mRNA level of mmp2, prevented the β-catenin from entering into nucleus, abolished the TCF/LEF promoter activity, proved that P1 could inhibit the activation of Wnt signaling pathway in vitro. Finally, we found that VP1 of P1 virus also had the inhibitory effects on Wnt signaling pathway in vitro, elucidated the mechanism of P1’s inhibitory effects on the Wnt signaling pathway and offered the possibility that the suppression of Wnt signaling pathway was involved in the post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS, laying a foundation for elucidating the pathogenesis of P1.
Zivanovic, Branka D.; Shabala, Lana I.; Elzenga, Theo J. M.; Shabala, Sergey N.
Blue light signalling pathway in broad bean leaf epidermal cells includes key membrane transporters: plasma- and endomembrane channels and pumps of H (+) , Ca (2+) and K (+) ions, and plasma membrane redox system. Blue light signalling pathway in epidermal tissue isolated from the abaxial side of
Krasnova, Irina N; Justinova, Zuzana; Cadet, Jean Lud
Addiction to psychostimulant methamphetamine (METH) remains a major public health problem in the world. Animal models that use METH self-administration incorporate many features of human drug-taking behavior and are very helpful in elucidating mechanisms underlying METH addiction. These models are also helping to decipher the neurobiological substrates of associated neuropsychiatric complications. This review summarizes our work on the influence of METH self-administration on dopamine systems, transcription and immune responses in the brain. We used the rat model of METH self-administration with extended access (15 h/day for eight consecutive days) to investigate the effects of voluntary METH intake on the markers of dopamine system integrity and changes in gene expression observed in the brain at 2 h-1 month after cessation of drug exposure. Extended access to METH self-administration caused changes in the rat brain that are consistent with clinical findings reported in neuroimaging and postmortem studies of human METH addicts. In addition, gene expression studies using striatal tissues from METH self-administering rats revealed increased expression of genes involved in cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) signaling pathway and in the activation of neuroinflammatory response in the brain. These data show an association of METH exposure with activation of neuroplastic and neuroinflammatory cascades in the brain. The neuroplastic changes may be involved in promoting METH addiction. Neuroinflammatory processes in the striatum may underlie cognitive deficits, depression, and parkinsonism reported in METH addicts. Therapeutic approaches that include suppression of neuroinflammation may be beneficial to addicted patients.
Full Text Available Migration of mast cells is essential for their recruitment within target tissues where they play an important role in innate and adaptive immune responses. These processes rely on the ability of mast cells to recognize appropriate chemotactic stimuli and react to them by a chemotactic response. Another level of intercellular communication is attained by production of chemoattractants by activated mast cells, which results in accumulation of mast cells and other hematopoietic cells at the sites of inflammation. Mast cells express numerous surface receptors for various ligands with properties of potent chemoattractants. They include the stem cell factor recognized by c-Kit, antigen, which binds to immunoglobulin E (IgE anchored to the high affinity IgE receptor (FcRI, highly cytokinergic IgE recognized by FcRI, lipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P, which binds to G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs. Other large groups of chemoattractants are eicosanoids [prostaglandin E2 and D2, leukotriene (LT B4, LTD4 and LTC4, and others] and chemokines (CC, CXC, C and CX3X, which also bind to various GPCRs. Further noteworthy chemoattractants are isoforms of transforming growth factor (TGF , which are sensitively recognized by TGF- serine/threonine type I and II receptors, adenosine, C1q, C3a, and C5a components of the complement, 5-hydroxytryptamine, neuroendocrine peptide catestatin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor- and others. Here we discuss the major types of chemoattractants recognized by mast cells, their target receptors, as well as signaling pathways they utilize. We also briefly deal with methods used for studies of mast cell chemotaxis and with ways of how these studies profited from the results obtained in other cellular systems.
Sensiate, Lucimara Aparecida; Sobreira, Débora R; Da Veiga, Fernanda Cristina; Peterlini, Denner Jefferson; Pedrosa, Angelica Vasconcelos; Rirsch, Thaís; Joazeiro, Paulo Pinto; Schubert, Frank R; Collares-Buzato, Carla Beatriz; Xavier-Neto, José; Dietrich, Susanne; Alvares, Lúcia Elvira
Dact gene family encodes multifunctional proteins that are important modulators of Wnt and TGF-β signaling pathways. Given that these pathways coordinate multiple steps of limb development, we investigated the expression pattern of the two chicken Dact genes (Dact1 and Dact2) from early limb bud up to stages when several tissues are differentiating. During early limb development (HH24-HH30) Dact1 and Dact2 were mainly expressed in the cartilaginous rudiments of the appendicular skeleton and perichondrium, presenting expression profiles related, but distinct. At later stages of development (HH31-HH35), the main sites of Dact1 and Dact2 expression were the developing synovial joints. In this context, Dact1 expression was shown to co-localize with regions enriched in the nuclear β-catenin protein, such as developing joint capsule and interzone. In contrast, Dact2 expression was restricted to the interzone surrounding the domains of bmpR-1b expression, a TGF-β receptor with crucial roles during digit morphogenesis. Additional sites of Dact expression were the developing tendons and digit blastemas. Our data indicate that Dact genes are good candidates to modulate and, possibly, integrate Wnt and TGF-β signaling during limb development, bringing new and interesting perspectives about the roles of Dact molecules in limb birth defects and human diseases. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
By identifying and studying novel regulators, the studies described in this thesis give substantive insights into the molecular mechanisms and different levels of control of TGF-β/BMP, IL-1β and Wnt signaling pathways. Crucially, our work for the first time demonstrated the monoubiquitination of an
Ana Marija Skoda
Full Text Available The Hedgehog (Hh signaling pathway was first identified in the common fruit fly. It is a highly conserved evolutionary pathway of signal transmission from the cell membrane to the nucleus. The Hh signaling pathway plays an important role in the embryonic development. It exerts its biological effects through a signaling cascade that culminates in a change of balance between activator and repressor forms of glioma-associated oncogene (Gli transcription factors. The components of the Hh signaling pathway involved in the signaling transfer to the Gli transcription factors include Hedgehog ligands (Sonic Hh [SHh], Indian Hh [IHh], and Desert Hh [DHh], Patched receptor (Ptch1, Ptch2, Smoothened receptor (Smo, Suppressor of fused homolog (Sufu, kinesin protein Kif7, protein kinase A (PKA, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP. The activator form of Gli travels to the nucleus and stimulates the transcription of the target genes by binding to their promoters. The main target genes of the Hh signaling pathway are PTCH1, PTCH2, and GLI1. Deregulation of the Hh signaling pathway is associated with developmental anomalies and cancer, including Gorlin syndrome, and sporadic cancers, such as basal cell carcinoma, medulloblastoma, pancreatic, breast, colon, ovarian, and small-cell lung carcinomas. The aberrant activation of the Hh signaling pathway is caused by mutations in the related genes (ligand-independent signaling or by the excessive expression of the Hh signaling molecules (ligand-dependent signaling – autocrine or paracrine. Several Hh signaling pathway inhibitors, such as vismodegib and sonidegib, have been developed for cancer treatment. These drugs are regarded as promising cancer therapies, especially for patients with refractory/advanced cancers.
Full Text Available 14751759 Signal transduction pathways mediated by the interaction of CpG DNA withTo...;16(1):17-22. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Signal transduction pathways mediated by the interaction of... CpG DNA withToll-like receptor 9. PubmedID 14751759 Title Signal transduction pathways
Shao, Shuai; Cai, Wenwei; Sheng, Jing; Yin, Lingni
To investigate the effects of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and Wnt signaling pathway on the bioactivities of myofibroblasts (MFs) and the expressions of SDF-1 and components of Wnt signaling pathway in the myocardium of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). BMSCs were induced to differentiate into MFs in vitro, and SDF-1 and Wnt signaling pathway were independently or simultaneously blocked. Then, the migration of MFs and the secretion of Col I and α-SMA were determined in MFs. Heart function, progression of myocardial fibrosis and structure of the heart were evaluated. The expression of SDF-1 and components of Wnt signaling pathway in SHR was detected. TGF-β could induce the differentiation of BMSCs into B-MFs; Blocking SDF-1/CXCR4 axis and/or Wnt signaling pathway was able to inhibit the MFs migration and Col I secretion; Blocking Wnt signaling pathway inhibited the differentiation of BMSCs into MFs; Serum SDF-1 increased with the increase in blood pressure, and serum β-catenin elevated with the fluctuation of blood pressure; Protein and mRNA expressions of SDF-1 in the myocardium increased, and those of DKK-1 (an inhibitor of Wnt signaling pathway) and GSK-3 reduced in SHR. SDF-1 and Wnt signaling pathway are involved in the differentiation of BMSCs into MFs, as well as the migration and collagen secretion of MFs; Hypertension affects the expressions of SDF-1 and components of Wnt signaling pathway. In the myocardium of SHR, SDF-1 expression increases, but the expression of inhibitor of Wnt signaling pathway reduces.
Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Yahong; Peng, Su; Zhang, Shuqiang; Wang, Meihong; Chen, Yeyue; Zhang, Shan; Yang, Yumin; Sun, Cheng
Schwann cell (SC) myelination is pivotal for the proper physiological functioning of the nervous system, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains less well understood. Here, we showed that the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) inversely correlates with myelin gene expression during peripheral myelination, which suggests that BMP7 is likely a negative regulator for myelin gene expression. Our experiments further showed that the application of BMP7 attenuates the cAMP induced myelin gene expression in SCs. Downstream pathway analysis suggested that both p38 MAPK and SMAD are activated by exogenous BMP7 in SCs. The pharmacological intervention and gene silence studies revealed that p38 MAPK, not SMAD, is responsible for BMP7-mediated suppression of myelin gene expression. In addition, c-Jun, a potential negative regulator for peripheral myelination, was up-regulated by BMP7. In vivo experiments showed that BMP7 treatment greatly impaired peripheral myelination in newborn rats. Together, our results established that BMP7 is a negative regulator for peripheral myelin gene expression and that p38 MAPK/c-Jun axis might be the main downstream target of BMP7 in this process. PMID:27491681
Beildeck, Marcy E.; Gelmann, Edward P.; Byers, Stephen W.
Predicting the potential physiological outcome(s) of any given molecular pathway is complex because of cross-talk with other pathways. This is particularly evident in the case of the nuclear hormone receptor and canonical Wnt pathways, which regulate cell growth and proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and metastatic potential in numerous tissues. These pathways are known to intersect at many levels: in the intracellular space, at the membrane, in the cytoplasm, and within the nucleus. The outcomes of these interactions are important in the control of stem cell differentiation and maintenance, feedback loops, and regulating oncogenic potential. The aim of this review is to demonstrate the importance of considering pathway cross-talk when predicting functional outcomes of signaling, using nuclear hormone receptor/canonical Wnt pathway cross-talk as an example.
Riise, Jesper; Plath, Niels; Pakkenberg, Bente
Cognitive decline is a cardinal feature of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) predominantly linked to synaptic failure, disrupted network connectivity and neurodegeneration. A large body of evidence associates the Wnt pathway with synaptic modulation and cognitive processes, suggesting a potential role...... for aberrant Wnt signaling in cognitive impairment. In fact, altered expression of key Wnt pathway components has been found in brains of AD patients as well as AD animal models supporting a deregulated pathway in AD. The evidence for deregulated Wnt signaling in AD, however, remains sparse and focused...... on isolated Wnt pathway components. Here, we provide the first comprehensive pathway-focused evaluation of the Wnt pathway in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus of AD brains. Our data demonstrate altered Wnt pathway gene expression at all levels of the pathway in both medial temporal lobe regions...
Scholz, Paul; Mohrhardt, Julia; Jansen, Fabian; Kalbe, Benjamin; Haering, Claudia; Klasen, Katharina; Hatt, Hanns; Osterloh, Sabrina
It is generally agreed that in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), the binding of odorant molecules to their specific olfactory receptor (OR) triggers a cAMP-dependent signaling cascade, activating cyclic-nucleotide gated (CNG) channels. However, considerable controversy dating back more than 20 years has surrounded the question of whether alternate signaling plays a role in mammalian olfactory transduction. In this study, we demonstrate a specific alternate signaling pathway in Olfr73-expressing OSNs. Methylisoeugenol (MIEG) and at least one other known weak Olfr73 agonist (Raspberry Ketone) trigger a signaling cascade independent from the canonical pathway, leading to the depolarization of the cell. Interestingly, this pathway is mediated by Gnao activation, leading to Cl(-) efflux; however, the activation of adenylyl cyclase III (ACIII), the recruitment of Ca(2+) from extra-or intracellular stores, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent signaling (PI signaling) are not involved. Furthermore, we demonstrated that our newly identified pathway coexists with the canonical olfactory cAMP pathway in the same OSN and can be triggered by the same OR in a ligand-selective manner. We suggest that this pathway might reflect a mechanism for odor recognition predominantly used in early developmental stages before olfactory cAMP signaling is fully developed. Taken together, our findings support the existence of at least one odor-induced alternate signal transduction pathway in native OSNs mediated by Olfr73 in a ligand-selective manner.
Full Text Available It is generally agreed that in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs, the binding of odorant molecules to their specific olfactory receptor (OR triggers a cAMP-dependent signaling cascade, activating cyclic-nucleotide gated (CNG channels. However, considerable controversy dating back more than 20 years has surrounded the question of whether alternate signaling plays a role in mammalian olfactory transduction. In this study, we demonstrate a specific alternate signaling pathway in Olfr73-expressing OSNs. Methylisoeugenol (MIEG and at least one other known weak Olfr73 agonist (Raspberry Ketone trigger a signaling cascade independent from the canonical pathway, leading to the depolarization of the cell. Interestingly, this pathway is mediated by Gnao activation, leading to Cl- efflux; however, the activation of adenylyl cyclase III (ACIII, the recruitment of Ca2+ from extra-or intracellular stores, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent signaling (PI signaling are not involved. Furthermore, we demonstrated that our newly identified pathway coexists with the canonical olfactory cAMP pathway in the same OSN and can be triggered by the same OR in a ligand-selective manner. We suggest that this pathway might reflect a mechanism for odor recognition predominantly used in early developmental stages before olfactory cAMP signaling is fully developed. Taken together, our findings support the existence of at least one odor-induced alternate signal transduction pathway in native OSNs mediated by Olfr73 in a ligand-selective manner.
DeVries, S H; Baylor, D A
Rod signals in the mammalian retina are thought to reach ganglion cells over the circuit rod-->rod depolarizing bipolar cell-->AII amacrine cell-->cone bipolar cells-->ganglion cells. A possible alternative pathway involves gap junctions linking the rods and cones, the circuit being rod-->cone-->cone bipolar cells-->ganglion cells. It is not clear whether this second pathway indeed relays rod signals to ganglion cells. We studied signal flow in the isolated rabbit retina with a multielectrode...
Guzzo, Mathilde; Agrebi, Rym; Espinosa, Leon; Baronian, Gr?gory; Molle, Virginie; Mauriello, Emilia M. F.; Brochier-Armanet, C?line; Mignot, T?m
Author Summary Deciphering the circuit design of signal transduction networks is a fundamental question in cell biology. This task is challenging because many pathways are branched and control multiple cellular processes in response to one or several environmental signals. Studying pathway diversification in bacteria could be a powerful approach because these organisms contain so-called chemosensory systems, modular signaling units that have been adapted multiple times independently to regula...
White Michael RH
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sustained stimulation with tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha induces substantial oscillations—observed at both the single cell and population levels—in the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B system. Although the mechanism has not yet been elucidated fully, a core system has been identified consisting of a negative feedback loop involving NF-kappa B (RelA:p50 hetero-dimer and its inhibitor I-kappa B-alpha. Many authors have suggested that this core oscillator should couple to other oscillatory pathways. Results First we analyse single-cell data from experiments in which the NF-kappa B system is forced by short trains of strong pulses of TNF-alpha. Power spectra of the ratio of nuclear-to-cytoplasmic concentration of NF-kappa B suggest that the cells' responses are entrained by the pulsing frequency. Using a recent model of the NF-kappa B system due to Caroline Horton, we carried out extensive numerical simulations to analyze the response frequencies induced by trains of pulses of TNF-alpha stimulation having a wide range of frequencies and amplitudes. These studies suggest that for sufficiently weak stimulation, various nonlinear resonances should be observable. To explore further the possibility of probing alternative feedback mechanisms, we also coupled the model to sinusoidal signals with a wide range of strengths and frequencies. Our results show that, at least in simulation, frequencies other than those of the forcing and the main NF-kappa B oscillator can be excited via sub- and superharmonic resonance, producing quasiperiodic and even chaotic dynamics. Conclusions Our numerical results suggest that the entrainment phenomena observed in pulse-stimulated experiments is a consequence of the high intensity of the stimulation. Computational studies based on current models suggest that resonant interactions between periodic pulsatile forcing and the system's natural frequencies may become evident for sufficiently
Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs belong to the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ superfamily of secreted molecules. BMPs play essential roles in multiple developmental and homeostatic processes in metazoans. Malfunction of the BMP pathway can cause a variety of diseases in humans, including cancer, skeletal disorders and cardiovascular diseases. Identification of factors that ensure proper spatiotemporal control of BMP signaling is critical for understanding how this pathway is regulated. We have used a unique and sensitive genetic screen to identify the plasma membrane-localized tetraspanin TSP-21 as a key new factor in the C. elegans BMP-like "Sma/Mab" signaling pathway that controls body size and postembryonic M lineage development. We showed that TSP-21 acts in the signal-receiving cells and genetically functions at the ligand-receptor level. We further showed that TSP-21 can associate with itself and with two additional tetraspanins, TSP-12 and TSP-14, which also promote Sma/Mab signaling. TSP-12 and TSP-14 can also associate with SMA-6, the type I receptor of the Sma/Mab pathway. Finally, we found that glycosphingolipids, major components of the tetraspanin-enriched microdomains, are required for Sma/Mab signaling. Our findings suggest that the tetraspanin-enriched membrane microdomains are important for proper BMP signaling. As tetraspanins have emerged as diagnostic and prognostic markers for tumor progression, and TSP-21, TSP-12 and TSP-14 are all conserved in humans, we speculate that abnormal BMP signaling due to altered expression or function of certain tetraspanins may be a contributing factor to cancer development.
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT and Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homologue (KRAS) can induce cellular immortalization, proliferation, and resistance to anticancer therapeutics such as epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors or chemotherapy. This study assessed the consequences of inhibiting these two pathways in tumor cells with activation of KRAS, PI3K-AKT, or both. We investigated whether the combination of a novel RAF/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor, RAF265, with a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, RAD001 (everolimus), could lead to enhanced anti-tumoral effects in vitro and in vivo. To address this question, we used cell lines with different status regarding KRAS, PIK3CA, and BRAF mutations, using immunoblotting to evaluate the inhibitors, and MTT and clonogenic assays for effects on cell viability and proliferation. Subcutaneous xenografts were used to assess the activity of the combination in vivo. RAD001 inhibited mTOR downstream signaling in all cell lines, whereas RAF265 inhibited RAF downstream signaling only in BRAF mutant cells. In vitro, addition of RAF265 to RAD001 led to decreased AKT, S6, and Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 phosphorylation in HCT116 cells. In vitro and in vivo, RAD001 addition enhanced the anti-tumoral effect of RAF265 in HCT116 and H460 cells (both KRAS mut, PIK3CA mut); in contrast, the combination of RAF265 and RAD001 yielded no additional activity in A549 and MDAMB231 cells. The combination of RAF and mTOR inhibitors is effective for enhancing anti-tumoral effects in cells with deregulation of both RAS-RAF and PI3K, possibly through the cross-inhibition of 4E binding protein 1 and S6 protein. We then focus on animal models. Preclinical models of NSCLC require better clinical relevance to study disease mechanisms and innovative
Sun, Yahui; Ma, Chenkai; Halgamuge, Saman
Cancer constitutes a momentous health burden in our society. Critical information on cancer may be hidden in its signaling pathways. However, even though a large amount of money has been spent on cancer research, some critical information on cancer-related signaling pathways still remains elusive. Hence, new works towards a complete understanding of cancer-related signaling pathways will greatly benefit the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer. We propose the node-weighted Steiner tree approach to identify important elements of cancer-related signaling pathways at the level of proteins. This new approach has advantages over previous approaches since it is fast in processing large protein-protein interaction networks. We apply this new approach to identify important elements of two well-known cancer-related signaling pathways: PI3K/Akt and MAPK. First, we generate a node-weighted protein-protein interaction network using protein and signaling pathway data. Second, we modify and use two preprocessing techniques and a state-of-the-art Steiner tree algorithm to identify a subnetwork in the generated network. Third, we propose two new metrics to select important elements from this subnetwork. On a commonly used personal computer, this new approach takes less than 2 s to identify the important elements of PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways in a large node-weighted protein-protein interaction network with 16,843 vertices and 1,736,922 edges. We further analyze and demonstrate the significance of these identified elements to cancer signal transduction by exploring previously reported experimental evidences. Our node-weighted Steiner tree approach is shown to be both fast and effective to identify important elements of cancer-related signaling pathways. Furthermore, it may provide new perspectives into the identification of signaling pathways for other human diseases.
Carlos I Lorda-Diez
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to gain insight into the role of BMP signaling in the diversification of the embryonic limb mesodermal progenitors destined to form cartilage, joints, and tendons. Given the importance of extracellular BMP modulators in in vivo systems, we performed a systematic search of those expressed in the developing autopod during the formation of the digits. Here, we monitored the expression of extracellular BMP modulators including: Noggin, Chordin, Chordin-like 1, Chordin-like 2, Twisted gastrulation, Dan, BMPER, Sost, Sostdc1, Follistatin, Follistatin-like 1, Follistatin-like 5 and Tolloid. These factors show differential expression domains in cartilage, joints and tendons. Furthermore, they are induced in specific temporal patterns during the formation of an ectopic extra digit, preceding the appearance of changes that are identifiable by conventional histology. The analysis of gene regulation, cell proliferation and cell death that are induced by these factors in high density cultures of digit progenitors provides evidence of functional specialization in the control of mesodermal differentiation but not in cell proliferation or apoptosis. We further show that the expression of these factors is differentially controlled by the distinct signaling pathways acting in the developing limb at the stages covered by this study. In addition, our results provide evidence suggesting that TWISTED GASTRULATION cooperates with CHORDINS, BMPER, and NOGGIN in the establishment of tendons or cartilage in a fashion that is dependent on the presence or absence of TOLLOID.
Krantz, Marcus; Ahmadpour, Doryaneh; Ottosson, Lars-Göran; Warringer, Jonas; Waltermann, Christian; Nordlander, Bodil; Klipp, Edda; Blomberg, Anders; Hohmann, Stefan; Kitano, Hiroaki
Cellular signalling networks integrate environmental stimuli with the information on cellular status. These networks must be robust against stochastic fluctuations in stimuli as well as in the amounts of signalling components. Here, we challenge the yeast HOG signal-transduction pathway with systematic perturbations in components' expression levels under various external conditions in search for nodes of fragility. We observe a substantially higher frequency of fragile nodes in this signal-transduction pathway than that has been observed for other cellular processes. These fragilities disperse without any clear pattern over biochemical functions or location in pathway topology and they are largely independent of pathway activation by external stimuli. However, the strongest toxicities are caused by pathway hyperactivation. In silico analysis highlights the impact of model structure on in silico robustness, and suggests complex formation and scaffolding as important contributors to the observed fragility patterns. Thus, in vivo robustness data can be used to discriminate and improve mathematical models.
Hu, Fang; Liu, Feng
It has been well established that most of the age-related diseases such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and atherosclerosis are all closely related to metabolic dysfunction. On the other hand, interventions on metabolism such as calorie restriction or genetic manipulations of key metabolic signaling pathways such as the insulin and mTOR signaling pathways slow down the aging process and improve healthy aging. These findings raise an important question as to whether improving energy homeostasis by targeting certain metabolic signaling pathways in specific tissues could be an effective anti-aging strategy. With a more comprehensive understanding of the tissue-specific roles of distinct metabolic signaling pathways controlling energy homeostasis and the cross-talks between these pathways during aging may lead to the development of more effective therapeutic interventions not only for metabolic dysfunction but also for aging.
Kim, Ji Eun; Stones, Clare; Joseph, Wayne R; Leung, Euphemia; Finlay, Graeme J; Shelling, Andrew N; Phillips, Wayne A; Shepherd, Peter R; Baguley, Bruce C
The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K-PKB), mitogen activated protein kinase (MEK-ERK) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR- p70S6K), are thought to regulate many aspects of tumour cell proliferation and survival. We have examined the utilisation of these three signalling pathways in a number of cell lines derived from patients with metastatic malignant melanoma of known PIK3CA, PTEN, NRAS and BRAF mutational status. Western blotting was used to compare the phosphorylation status of components of the PI3K-PKB, MEK-ERK and mTOR-p70S6K signalling pathways, as indices of pathway utilisation. Normal melanocytes could not be distinguished from melanoma cells on the basis of pathway utilisation when grown in the presence of serum, but could be distinguished upon serum starvation, where signalling protein phosphorylation was generally abrogated. Surprisingly, the differential utilisation of individual pathways was not consistently associated with the presence of an oncogenic or tumour suppressor mutation of genes in these pathways. Utilisation of the PI3K-PKB, MEK-ERK and mTOR-p70S6K signalling pathways in melanoma, as determined by phosphorylation of signalling components, varies widely across a series of cell lines, and does not directly reflect mutation of genes coding these components. The main difference between cultured normal melanocytes and melanoma cells is not the pathway utilisation itself, but rather in the serum dependence of pathway utilisation
Full Text Available Despite the growing understanding of pdgf signaling, studies of pdgf function have encountered two major obstacles: the functional redundancy of PDGFRalpha and PDGFRbeta in vitro and their distinct roles in vivo. Here we used wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF, MEF null for either PDGFRalpha, beta, or both to dissect PDGF-PDGFR signaling pathways. These four PDGFR genetically defined cells provided us a platform to study the relative contributions of the pathways triggered by the two PDGF receptors. They were treated with PDGF-BB and analyzed for differential gene expression, in vitro proliferation and differential response to pharmacological effects. No genes were differentially expressed in the double null cells, suggesting minimal receptor-independent signaling. Protean differentiation and proliferation pathways are commonly regulated by PDGFRalpha, PDGFRbeta and PDGFRalpha/beta while each receptor is also responsible for regulating unique signaling pathways. Furthermore, some signaling is solely modulated through heterodimeric PDGFRalpha/beta.
Acharya, Lipi R; Judeh, Thair; Wang, Guangdi; Zhu, Dongxiao
A plethora of bioinformatics analysis has led to the discovery of numerous gene sets, which can be interpreted as discrete measurements emitted from latent signaling pathways. Their potential to infer signaling pathway structures, however, has not been sufficiently exploited. Existing methods accommodating discrete data do not explicitly consider signal cascading mechanisms that characterize a signaling pathway. Novel computational methods are thus needed to fully utilize gene sets and broaden the scope from focusing only on pairwise interactions to the more general cascading events in the inference of signaling pathway structures. We propose a gene set based simulated annealing (SA) algorithm for the reconstruction of signaling pathway structures. A signaling pathway structure is a directed graph containing up to a few hundred nodes and many overlapping signal cascades, where each cascade represents a chain of molecular interactions from the cell surface to the nucleus. Gene sets in our context refer to discrete sets of genes participating in signal cascades, the basic building blocks of a signaling pathway, with no prior information about gene orderings in the cascades. From a compendium of gene sets related to a pathway, SA aims to search for signal cascades that characterize the optimal signaling pathway structure. In the search process, the extent of overlap among signal cascades is used to measure the optimality of a structure. Throughout, we treat gene sets as random samples from a first-order Markov chain model. We evaluated the performance of SA in three case studies. In the first study conducted on 83 KEGG pathways, SA demonstrated a significantly better performance than Bayesian network methods. Since both SA and Bayesian network methods accommodate discrete data, use a 'search and score' network learning strategy and output a directed network, they can be compared in terms of performance and computational time. In the second study, we compared SA and
Full Text Available 18515054 Calcium signaling in lymphocytes. Oh-hora M, Rao A. Curr Opin Immunol. 200...8 Jun;20(3):250-8. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Calcium signaling in lymphocytes. PubmedID 18515054 Title Calcium sign
Full Text Available The Hippo pathway effectors YAP and TAZ act as nuclear sensors of mechanical signals in response to extracellular matrix (ECM cues. However, the identity and nature of regulators in the ECM and the precise pathways relaying mechanoresponsive signals into intracellular sensors remain unclear. Here, we uncover a functional link between the ECM proteoglycan Agrin and the transcriptional co-activator YAP. Importantly, Agrin transduces matrix and cellular rigidity signals that enhance stability and mechanoactivity of YAP through the integrin-focal adhesion- and Lrp4/MuSK receptor-mediated signaling pathways. Agrin antagonizes focal adhesion assembly of the core Hippo components by facilitating ILK-PAK1 signaling and negating the functions of Merlin and LATS1/2. We further show that Agrin promotes oncogenesis through YAP-dependent transcription and is clinically relevant in human liver cancer. We propose that Agrin acts as a mechanotransduction signal in the ECM.
Zeng, Chong; Xing, Rui; Liu, Jing; Xing, Feiyue
Apoptosis is a normally biological phenomenon in various organisms, involving complexly molecular mechanisms with a series of signaling processes. Notch signaling is found evolutionarily conserved in many species, playing a critical role in embryonic development, normal tissue homeostasis, angiogenesis and immunoregulation. The focus of this review is on currently novel advances about roles of CSL-dependent and independent Notch signaling pathways in cell apoptosis. The CSL can bind Notch intracellular domain (NIC) to act as a switch in mediating transcriptional activation or inactivation of the Notch signaling pathway downstream genes in the nucleus. It shows that CSL-dependent signaling regulates the cell apoptosis through Hes-1-PTEN-AKT-mTOR signaling, but rather the CSL-independent signaling mediates the cell apoptosis possibly via NIC-mTORC2-AKT-mTOR signaling, providing a new insight into apoptotic mechanisms.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Signal transduction is one of the most important biological processes by which cells convert an external signal into a response. Novel computational approaches to mapping proteins onto signaling pathways are needed to fully take advantage of the rapid accumulation of genomic and proteomics information. However, despite their importance, research on signaling pathways reconstruction utilizing large-scale genomics and proteomics information has been limited. Results We have developed an approach for predicting the order of signaling pathway components, assuming all the components on the pathways are known. Our method is built on a score function that integrates protein-protein interaction data and microarray gene expression data. Compared to the individual datasets, either protein interactions or gene transcript abundance measurements, the integrated approach leads to better identification of the order of the pathway components. Conclusions As demonstrated in our study on the yeast MAPK signaling pathways, the integration analysis of high-throughput genomics and proteomics data can be a powerful means to infer the order of pathway components, enabling the transformation from molecular data into knowledge of cellular mechanisms.
Franco, Heather L; Yao, Humphrey H-C
The chromosome status of the mammalian embryo initiates a multistage process of sexual development in which the bipotential reproductive system establishes itself as either male or female. These events are governed by intricate cell-cell and interorgan communication that is regulated by multiple signaling pathways. The hedgehog signaling pathway was originally identified for its key role in the development of Drosophila, but is now recognized as a critical developmental regulator in many species, including humans. In addition to its developmental roles, the hedgehog signaling pathway also modulates adult organ function, and misregulation of this pathway often leads to diseases, such as cancer. The hedgehog signaling pathway acts through its morphogenetic ligands that signal from ligand-producing cells to target cells over a specified distance. The target cells then respond in a graded manner based on the concentration of the ligands that they are exposed to. Through this unique mechanism of action, the hedgehog signaling pathway elicits cell fate determination, epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, and cellular homeostasis. Here, we review current findings on the roles of hedgehog signaling in the sexually dimorphic development of the reproductive organs with an emphasis on mammals and comparative evidence in other species.
González-Sastre, Alejandro; Molina, Ma Dolores; Saló, Emili
Planarians represent an excellent model to study the processes of body axis and organ re-specification during regeneration. Previous studies have revealed a conserved role for the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway and its intracellular mediators Smad1/5/8 and Smad4 in planarian dorsoventral (DV) axis re-establishment. In an attempt to gain further insight into the role of this signalling pathway in planarians, we have isolated and functionally characte-rized the inhibitory Smads (I-Smads) in Schmidtea mediterranea. Two I-Smad homologues have been identified: Smed-smad6/7-1 and Smed-smad6/7-2. Expression of smad6/7-1 was detected in the parenchyma, while smad6/7-2 was found to be ex-pressed in the central nervous system and the eyes. Neither single smad6/7-1 and smad6/7-2 nor double smad6/7-1,-2 silencing gave rise to any apparent disruption of the DV axis. However, both regenerating and intact smad6/7-2 (RNAi) planarians showed defects in eye morphogenesis and displayed small, rounded eyes that lacked the anterior subpopulation of photoreceptor cells. The number of pigment cells was also reduced in these animals at later stages of regeneration. In contrast, after low doses of Smed-bmp(RNAi), planarians regenerated larger eyes in which the anterior subpopulation of photoreceptor cells was expanded. Our results suggest that Smed-smad6/7-2 and Smed-bmp control the re-specification and maintenance of anterior photoreceptor cell number in S. mediterranea.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Members of the TGF-β superfamily are characterized by a highly promiscuous ligand-receptor interaction as is readily apparent from the numeral discrepancy of only seven type I and five type II receptors available for more than 40 ligands. Structural and functional studies have been used to address the question of how specific signals can be deduced from a limited number of receptor combinations and to unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying the protein-protein recognition that allow such limited specificity. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we have investigated how an antigen binding antibody fragment (Fab raised against the extracellular domain of the BMP receptor type IA (BMPR-IA recognizes the receptor's BMP-2 binding epitope and thereby neutralizes BMP-2 receptor activation. The crystal structure of the complex of the BMPR-IA ectodomain bound to the Fab AbD1556 revealed that the contact surface of BMPR-IA overlaps extensively with the contact surface for BMP-2 interaction. Although the structural epitopes of BMPR-IA to both binding partners coincides, the structures of BMPR-IA in the two complexes differ significantly. In contrast to the structural differences, alanine-scanning mutagenesis of BMPR-IA showed that the functional determinants for binding to the antibody and BMP-2 are almost identical. CONCLUSIONS: Comparing the structures of BMPR-IA bound to BMP-2 or bound to the Fab AbD1556 with the structure of unbound BMPR-IA shows that binding of BMPR-IA to its interaction partners follows a selection fit mechanism, possibly indicating that the ligand promiscuity of BMPR-IA is inherently encoded by structural adaptability. The functional and structural analysis of the BMPR-IA binding antibody AbD1556 mimicking the BMP-2 binding epitope may thus pave the way for the design of low-molecular weight synthetic receptor binders/inhibitors.
Gallarda, Benjamin W.; Bonanomi, Dario; Müller, Daniel; Brown, Arthur; Alaynick, William A.; Andrews, Shane E.; Lemke, Greg; Pfaff, Samuel L.; Marquardt, Till
Execution of motor behaviors relies on circuitries effectively integrating immediate sensory feedback to efferent pathways controlling muscle activity. It remains unclear how, during neuromuscular circuit assembly, sensory and motor projections become incorporated into tightly coordinated, yet functionally separate pathways. We report that, within axial nerves, establishment of discrete afferent and efferent pathways depends on coordinate signaling between coextending sensory and motor projections. These heterotypic axon-axon interactions require motor axonal EphA3/EphA4 receptor tyrosine kinases activated by cognate sensory axonal ephrin-A ligands. Genetic elimination of trans-axonal ephrin-A → EphA signaling in mice triggers drastic motor-sensory miswiring, culminating in functional efferents within proximal afferent pathways. Effective assembly of a key circuit underlying motor behaviors thus critically depends on trans-axonal signaling interactions resolving motor and sensory projections into discrete pathways. PMID:18403711
Foyer, Christine H; Kerchev, Pavel I; Hancock, Robert D
The cellular reduction-oxidation (redox) hub processes information from metabolism and the environment and so regulates plant growth and defense through integration with the hormone signaling network. One key pathway of redox control involves interactions with ABSCISIC ACID (ABA). Accumulating evidence suggests that the ABA-INSENSITIVE-4 (ABI4) transcription factor plays a key role in transmitting information concerning the abundance of ascorbate and hence the ability of cells to buffer oxidative challenges. ABI4 is required for the ascorbate-dependent control of growth, a process that involves enhancement of salicylic acid (SA) signaling and inhibition of jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathways. Low redox buffering capacity reinforces SA- JA- interactions through the mediation of ABA and ABI4 to fine-tune plant growth and defense in relation to metabolic cues and environmental challenges. Moreover, ABI4-mediated pathways of sugar sensitivity are also responsive to the abundance of ascorbate, providing evidence of overlap between redox and sugar signaling pathways.
Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis (SSc is a multisystem fibrotic and autoimmune disease. Both genetic and epigenetic elements mediate SSc pathophysiology. This review summarizes the role of one epigenetic element, known as microRNAs (miRNAs, involved in different signaling pathways of SSc pathogenesis. The expression of key components in transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β signaling pathway has been found to be regulated by miRNAs both upstream and downstream of TGF-β. We are specifically interested in the pathway components upstream of TGF-β, while miRNAs in other signaling pathways have not been extensively studied. The emerging role of miRNAs in vasculopathy of SSc suggests a promising new direction for future investigation. Elucidation of the regulatory role of miRNAs in the expression of signaling factors may facilitate the discovery of novel biomarkers in SSc and improve the understanding and treatment of this disease.
Ayesh Hafez Ali, Dalia; Abuelreich, Sarah; Alkeraishan, Nora
Bone marrow adipocyte formation plays a role in bone homeostasis and whole body energy metabolism. However, the transcriptional landscape and signaling pathways associated with adipocyte lineage commitment and maturation are not fully delineated. Thus, we performed global gene expression profilin...
CDC42 signalling pathways in development of breast cancer (BC). Primary BC samples (n = 150), comprising of almost equal proportion of four subtypes were tested for molecu- lar alterations of SLIT2, ROBO1, ROBO2 and ...
Szymanska, Ewelina; Budick-Harmelin, Noga; Miaczynska, Marta
The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs) machinery consists of four protein assemblies (ESCRT-0 to -III subcomplexes) which mediate various processes of membrane remodeling in the cell. In the endocytic pathway, ESCRTs sort cargo destined for degradation into intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) of endosomes. Cargos targeted by ESCRTs include various signaling molecules, mainly internalized cell-surface receptors but also some cytosolic proteins. It is therefore expected that aberrant trafficking caused by ESCRT dysfunction affects different signaling pathways. Here we review how perturbation of ESCRT activity alters intracellular transport of membrane receptors, causing their accumulation on endocytic compartments, decreased degradation and/or altered recycling to the plasma membrane. We further describe how perturbed trafficking of receptors impacts the activity of their downstream signaling pathways, with or without changes in transcriptional responses. Finally, we present evidence that ESCRT components can also control activity and intracellular distribution of cytosolic signaling proteins (kinases, other effectors and soluble receptors). The underlying mechanisms involve sequestration of such proteins in ILVs, their sorting for degradation or towards non-lysosomal destinations, and regulating their availability in various cellular compartments. All these ESCRT-mediated processes can modulate final outputs of multiple signaling pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Biggs, W H; Zavitz, K H; Dickson, B; van der Straten, A; Brunner, D; Hafen, E; Zipursky, S L
Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases have been proposed to play a critical role in receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-mediated signal transduction pathways. Although genetic and biochemical studies of RTK pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster and mammals have revealed remarkable similarities, a genetic requirement for MAP kinases in RTK signaling has not been established. During retinal development in Drosophila, the sevenless (Sev) RTK is required for development of the ...
Smeets, Ruben L.; Fleuren, Wilco W. M.; He, Xuehui; Vink, Paul M.; Wijnands, Frank; Gorecka, Monika; Klop, Henri; Bauerschmidt, Sussane; Garritsen, Anja; Koenen, Hans J. P. M.; Joosten, Irma; Boots, Annemieke M. H.; Alkema, Wynand
Background: T lymphocytes are orchestrators of adaptive immunity. Naive T cells may differentiate into Th1, Th2, Th17 or iTreg phenotypes, depending on environmental co-stimulatory signals. To identify genes and pathways involved in differentiation of Jurkat T cells towards Th1 and Th2 subtypes we
Smeets, R.L.; Fleuren, W.W.M.; He, X.; Vink, P.M.; Wijnands, F.; Gorecka, M.; Klop, H.; Bauerschmidt, S.; Garritsen, A.; Koenen, H.J.P.M.; Joosten, I.; Boots, A.M.H.; Alkema, W.
BACKGROUND: T lymphocytes are orchestrators of adaptive immunity. Naive T cells may differentiate into Th1, Th2, Th17 or iTreg phenotypes, depending on environmental co-stimulatory signals. To identify genes and pathways involved in differentiation of Jurkat T cells towards Th1 and Th2 subtypes we
Sebastián-León, Patricia; Carbonell, José; Salavert, Francisco; Sanchez, Rubén; Medina, Ignacio; Dopazo, Joaquín
Signaling pathways constitute a valuable source of information that allows interpreting the way in which alterations in gene activities affect to particular cell functionalities. There are web tools available that allow viewing and editing pathways, as well as representing experimental data on them. However, few methods aimed to identify the signaling circuits, within a pathway, associated to the biological problem studied exist and none of them provide a convenient graphical web interface. We present PATHiWAYS, a web-based signaling pathway visualization system that infers changes in signaling that affect cell functionality from the measurements of gene expression values in typical expression microarray case–control experiments. A simple probabilistic model of the pathway is used to estimate the probabilities for signal transmission from any receptor to any final effector molecule (taking into account the pathway topology) using for this the individual probabilities of gene product presence/absence inferred from gene expression values. Significant changes in these probabilities allow linking different cell functionalities triggered by the pathway to the biological problem studied. PATHiWAYS is available at: http://pathiways.babelomics.org/. PMID:23748960
Full Text Available Understanding the principles underlying the plasticity of signal transduction networks is fundamental to decipher the functioning of living cells. In Myxococcus xanthus, a particular chemosensory system (Frz coordinates the activity of two separate motility systems (the A- and S-motility systems, promoting multicellular development. This unusual structure asks how signal is transduced in a branched signal transduction pathway. Using combined evolution-guided and single cell approaches, we successfully uncoupled the regulations and showed that the A-motility regulation system branched-off an existing signaling system that initially only controlled S-motility. Pathway branching emerged in part following a gene duplication event and changes in the circuit structure increasing the signaling efficiency. In the evolved pathway, the Frz histidine kinase generates a steep biphasic response to increasing external stimulations, which is essential for signal partitioning to the motility systems. We further show that this behavior results from the action of two accessory response regulator proteins that act independently to filter and amplify signals from the upstream kinase. Thus, signal amplification loops may underlie the emergence of new connectivity in signal transduction pathways.
Zhang, Ziguo; Feechan, Angela; Pedersen, Carsten
Penetration resistance is often the first line of defence against fungal pathogens. Subsequently induced defences are mediated by the programmed cell death (PCD) reaction pathway and the salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) signalling pathways. We previously demonstrated...
Slattery, Martha L; Lundgreen, Abbie; Wolff, Roger K
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways regulate cellular functions including cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis. Associations between genes in the DUSP, ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 MAPK-signaling pathways and dietary factors associated with growth factors, inflammation, and oxidative stress and risk of colon and rectal cancer were evaluated. Data include colon cases (n = 1555) and controls (n = 1956) and rectal cases (n = 754) and controls (n = 959). Statistically significant interactions were observed for the MAPK-signaling pathways after adjustment for multiple comparisons. DUSP genes interacted with carbohydrates, mutagen index, calories, calcium, vitamin D, lycopene, dietary fats, folic acid, and selenium. MAPK1, MAPK3, MAPK1, and RAF1 within the ERK1/2 MAPK-signaling pathway interacted with dietary fats and cruciferous vegetables. Within the JNK MAPK-signaling pathway, interactions between MAP3K7 and protein, vitamin C, iron, folic acid, carbohydrates, and cruciferous vegetables; MAP3K10 and folic acid; MAP3K9 and lutein/zeaxanthin; MAPK8 and calcium; MAP3K3 and calcium and lutein; MAP3K1 and cruciferous vegetables. Interaction within the p38-signaling pathway included MAPK14 with calories, carbohydrates saturated fat, selenium, vitamin C; MAP3K2 and carbohydrates, and folic acid. These data suggest that dietary factors involved in inflammation and oxidative stress interact with MAPK-signaling genes to alter risk of colorectal cancer.
Full Text Available The epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin and provides a protective barrier against environmental insults. It is a rapidly-renewing tissue undergoing constant regeneration, maintained by several types of stem cells. The Hedgehog (HH signaling pathway is one of the fundamental signaling pathways that contributes to epidermal development, homeostasis, and repair, as well as to hair follicle development and follicle bulge stem cell maintenance. The HH pathway interacts with other signal transduction pathways, including those activated by Wnt, bone morphogenetic protein, platelet-derived growth factor, Notch, and ectodysplasin. Furthermore, aberrant activation of HH signaling is associated with various tumors, including basal cell carcinoma. Therefore, an understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of the HH signaling pathway is important for elucidating fundamental mechanisms underlying both organogenesis and carcinogenesis. In this review, we discuss the role of the HH signaling pathway in the development and homeostasis epidermis and hair follicles, and in basal cell carcinoma formation, providing an update of current knowledge in this field.
Boneh, Uri; Biton, Iris; Schwartz, Amnon; Ben-Ari, Giora
The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates many key processes in plants including the response to abiotic stress. ABA signal transduction consists of a double-negative regulatory mechanism, whereby ABA-bound PYR/RCARs inhibit PP2C activity, and PP2Cs inactivate SnRK2s. We studied and analyzed the various genes participating in the ABA signaling cascade of the grape (Vitis vinifera). The grape ABA signal transduction consists of at least six SnRK2s. Yeast two-hybrid system was used to test direct interactions between core components of grape ABA signal transduction. We found that a total of forty eight interactions can occur between the various components. Exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and abiotic stresses such as drought, high salt concentration and cold, were applied to vines growing in a hydroponic system. These stresses regulated the expression of various grape SnRK2s as well as ABFs in leaves and roots. Based on the interactions between SnRK2s and its targets and the expression pattern, we suggest that VvSnRK2.1 and VvSnRK2.6, can be considered the major VvSnRK2 candidates involved in the stomata response to abiotic stress. Furthermore, we found that the expression pattern of the two grape ABF genes indicates organ specificity of these genes. The key role of ABA signaling in response to abiotic stresses makes the genes involve in this signaling potential candidates for manipulation in programs designed to improve fruit tree performance in extreme environments. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Olsen, Niels Thue; Dimaano, Veronica L; Fritz-Hansen, Thomas
The development of left ventricular hypertrophy and dysfunction in aortic regurgitation (AR) has only been sparsely studied experimentally. In a new model of chronic AR in rats, we examined activation of molecular pathways involved in myocardial hypertrophy. Chronic AR was produced by damaging one...... at both 2 and 12 weeks, while activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 was unchanged. Expression of calcineurin and ANF was also unchanged. Eccentric hypertrophy and early cardiac dysfunction in experimental AR are associated with a pattern...... of activation of intracellular pathways different from that seen with pathological hypertrophy in pressure overload, and more similar to that associated with benign physiological hypertrophy....
Mönnich, Maren; Borgeskov, Louise; Breslin, Loretta
The centrosome is the main microtubule-organizing center in animal cells and comprises a mother and daughter centriole surrounded by pericentriolar material. During formation of primary cilia, the mother centriole transforms into a basal body that templates the ciliary axoneme. Ciliogenesis depends...... on mother centriole-specific distal appendages, whereas the role of subdistal appendages in ciliary function is unclear. Here, we identify CEP128 as a centriole subdistal appendage protein required for regulating ciliary signaling. Loss of CEP128 did not grossly affect centrosomal or ciliary structure...
hours in culture. Cells were sorted for green fluorescent protein (GFP) after 3 to 5 days and harvested for downstream assays as indicated in the...hours after transduction, and culture media was harvested 5 days after transduction. TNF-a was detected with a human TNF-a high sensitivity enzyme...cells involving p38 MAPK pathway, GATA-1 and FOG -1 downregulation and GATA-2 upregulation. Biochem Pharmacol. 2008;76(10):1229-1239. 19. Vassilev LT
Ma, Wei; Tian, Wen
The development of human limb is controlled by several transcription factors and signaling pathways, which are organized in precise time- and space-restricted manners. Recent studies showed that P63 and its signaling pathway play important roles in this process. Transcription factor P63, one member of the P53 family, is characterized by a similar amino acid domain, plays a crucial role in the development of limb and ectoderm differentiation, especially with its DNA binding domain, and sterile alpha motif domains. Mutated P63 gene may produce abnormal transcription factor P63 which can affect the signaling pathway. Furthermore, defective signaling protein in structure and/or quantity is synthesized though the pathway. Eventually, members of the signaling protein family are involved in the regulation of differentiation and development of stem cell, which causes deformity of limbs. In brief, three signaling pathways are related to the digit formation along three axes, including SHH-ZPA, FGFs-AER and Lmx1B-Wnt7a-En1. Each contains numerous signaling molecules which are integrated in self-regulatory modules that assure the acquisition or the correct digit complements. These finding has brought new clues for deciphering the etiology of congenital limb malformation and may provide alternatives for both prevention and treatment.
Background: The goal of this study was identification signaling molecules mediated the formation of AGEs in brain of rats injected with CdCl2 and the role of camel whey proteins and Brassicaceae extract on formation of AGEs in brain. Methods: Ninety male rats were randomly grouped into five groups; Normal control (GpI) ...
Veltman, Douwe M.; Keizer-Gunnink, Ineke; Van Haastert, Peter J. M.
Chemotaxis is the ability of cells to move in the direction of an external gradient of signaling molecules. Cells are guided by actin-filled protrusions in the front, whereas myosin filaments retract the rear of the cell. Previous work demonstrated that chernotaxis of unpolarized amoeboid
Y. Wang (Yongqian)
textabstractDuring her fertile years, the endometrium of fertile women undergoes regular cycles of regeneration, differentiation and shedding, driven by changing concentrations of the steroid hormones estradiol and progesterone. In the present study, the role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in relation
Aldakinah, Amat-Alrazaq A; Al-Shorbagy, Muhammad Y; Abdallah, Dalaal M; El-Abhar, Hanan S
Trigonelline (TRG) is known to have an antidiabetic efficacy; however, its mechanism is not entirely elucidated. Hence, its effect on insulin signaling, besides its effectiveness in combination with vildagliptin (VLD) in a Type 2 diabetes model has been tested. TRG (50 mg/kg; p.o) lowered serum glucose, fructosamine, insulin, and HOMA-IR index and increased insulin sensitivity in soleus muscle via augmenting insulin receptor autophosphorylation (IR-PH), pT308-Akt, and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4). Additionally, it reduced muscle advanced glycation end products and lipid peroxides with increased glutathione. TRG showed an anti-lipidemic effect lowering serum and/or muscle total cholesterol, triglycerides, and FFAs to decrease body weight, and visceral/epididymal indices. Furthermore, VLD (3 and 10 mg/kg, p.o) increased IR-PH, pT308-Akt, and GLUT4 to improve insulin signaling. The combined effect of TRG with the low dose of VLD was mostly confined to the reduction of the aberrant lipid profile. The beneficial effect of TRG on insulin sensitivity and glucose/ lipid homeostasis is mediated by the enhancement of the insulin signaling and antioxidant property. Moreover, the positive impact of VLD on pT308-Akt is an integral part in insulin signaling, and hence its antidiabetic effect. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Silvia Anahi Valdés-Rives
Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most hostile type of brain cancer. Its aggressiveness is due to increased invasion, migration, proliferation, angiogenesis, and a decreased apoptosis. In this review, we discuss the role of key regulators of apoptosis in GBM and glioblastoma stem cells. Given their importance in the etiology and pathogenesis of GBM, these signaling molecules may represent potential therapeutic targets.
Wang, Xiaofei; Wahl, Richard
The insulin signaling pathway is critical for the control of blood glucose levels. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has also been implicated as important in glucose homeostasis. The effect of short-term cold exposure on this pathway in BAT has not been explored. We evaluated the effect of 4 hours of cold exposure on the insulin pathway in the BAT of rats. Whole genomic microarray chips were used to examine the transcripts of the pathway in BAT of rats exposed to 4°C and 22°C for 4 hours. The 4 most significantly altered pathways following 4 hours of cold exposure were the insulin signaling pathway, protein kinase A, PI3K/AKT and ERK/MAPK signaling. The insulin signaling pathway was the most affected. In the documented 142 genes of the insulin pathway, 42 transcripts (29.6%) responded significantly to this cold exposure with the least false discovery rate (Benjamini-Hochberg Multiple Testing: -log10 (p-value) = 7.18). Twenty-seven genes (64%) were up-regulated, including the insulin receptor (Insr), insulin substrates 1 and 2 (Irs1 and Irs2). Fifteen transcripts (36%) were down-regulated. Multiple transcripts of the primary target and secondary effector targets for the insulin signaling were also up-regulated, including those for carbohydrate metabolism. Using western blotting, we demonstrated that the cold induced higher Irs2, Irs1, and Akt-p protein levels in the BAT than in the BAT of controls maintained at room temperature, and higher Akt-p protein level in the muscle. this study demonstrated that 4 hours of cold exposure stimulated the insulin signaling pathway in the BAT and muscle of overnight fasted rats. This raises the possibility that acute cold stimulation may have potential to improve glucose clearance and insulin sensitivity.
Wang, Ning; Kim, Hyung-Gyoong; Cotta, Claudiu V; Wan, Mei; Tang, Yi; Klug, Christopher A; Cao, Xu
Homeobox (Hox) gene mutations and their altered expressions are frequently linked to human leukemia. Here, we report that transforming growth factor β (TGFβ)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) inhibits the bone marrow transformation capability of Hoxa9 and Nup98-Hoxa9, the chimeric fusion form of Hoxa9 identified in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML), through Smad4, the common Smad (Co-Smad) in the TGFβ/BMP signaling pathway. Smad4 interacts directly with the homeodomain of Hoxa9 and blocks the ability of Nup98-Hoxa9 to bind DNA, thereby suppressing its ability to regulate downstream gene transcription. Mapping data revealed that the amino-terminus of Smad4 mediates this interaction and overexpression of the Hoxa9 interaction domain of Smad4 was sufficient to inhibit the enhanced serial replating ability of primary bone marrow cells induced by Nup98-Hoxa9. These studies establish a novel mechanism by which TGFβ/BMP regulates hematopoiesis and suggest that modification of Hox DNA-binding activity may serve as a novel therapeutic intervention for those leukemias that involve deregulation of Hox. PMID:16525506
Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs are highly conserved signaling molecules that are part of the transforming growth factor (TGF-beta superfamily, and function in the patterning and morphogenesis of many organs including development of the dentition. The functions of the BMPs are controlled by certain classes of molecules that are recognized as BMP antagonists that inhibit BMP binding to their cognate receptors. In this study we tested the hypothesis that USAG-1 (uterine sensitization-associated gene-1 suppresses deciduous incisors by inhibition of BMP-7 function. We learned that USAG-1 and BMP-7 were expressed within odontogenic epithelium as well as mesenchyme during the late bud and early cap stages of tooth development. USAG-1 is a BMP antagonist, and also modulates Wnt signaling. USAG-1 abrogation rescued apoptotic elimination of odontogenic mesenchymal cells. BMP signaling in the rudimentary maxillary incisor, assessed by expressions of Msx1 and Dlx2 and the phosphorylation of Smad protein, was significantly enhanced. Using explant culture and subsequent subrenal capsule transplantation of E15 USAG-1 mutant maxillary incisor tooth primordia supplemented with BMP-7 demonstrated in USAG-1+/- as well as USAG-1-/- rescue and supernumerary tooth development. Based upon these results, we conclude that USAG-1 functions as an antagonist of BMP-7 in this model system. These results further suggest that the phenotypes of USAG-1 and BMP-7 mutant mice reported provide opportunities for regenerative medicine and dentistry.
Pooja Chandrakant Thacker
Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the major cause of cancer related deaths in women, especially in developing countries and Human Papilloma Virus infection in conjunction with multiple deregulated signaling pathways leads to cervical carcinogenesis. TGF-β signaling in later stages of cancer is known to induce epithelial to mesenchymal transition promoting tumor growth. Phytochemicals, curcumin and emodin, are effective as chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic compounds against several cancers including cervical cancer. The main objective of this work was to study the effect of curcumin and emodin on TGF-β signaling pathway and its functional relevance to growth, migration and invasion in two cervical cancer cell lines, SiHa and HeLa. Since TGF-β and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways are known to cross talk having common downstream targets, we analyzed the effect of TGF-β on β-catenin (an important player in Wnt/β-catenin signaling and also studied whether curcumin and emodin modulate them. We observed that curcumin and emodin effectively down regulate TGF-β signaling pathway by decreasing the expression of TGF-β Receptor II, P-Smad3 and Smad4, and also counterbalance the tumorigenic effects of TGF-β by inhibiting the TGF-β-induced migration and invasion. Expression of downstream effectors of TGF-β signaling pathway, cyclinD1, p21 and Pin1, was inhibited along with the down regulation of key mesenchymal markers (Snail and Slug upon curcumin and emodin treatment. Curcumin and emodin were also found to synergistically inhibit cell population and migration in SiHa and HeLa cells. Moreover, we found that TGF-β activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in HeLa cells, and curcumin and emodin down regulate the pathway by inhibiting β-catenin. Taken together our data provide a mechanistic basis for the use of curcumin and emodin in the treatment of cervical cancer.
Xie, Keping; Abbruzzese, James L
The hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays many roles in invertebrate and vertebrate development. For example, specific inhibition of sonic Hh expression is critical during early stages of pancreas organogenesis, but an active Hh pathway appears to be required for maintenance of adult endocrine functions. Mutational inactivation of the Hh pathway has been demonstrated in human malignancies of the skin, cerebellum, and skeletal muscle. Now, two papers implicate aberrant Hh signaling in human upper gastrointestinal cancers including those developing from the esophagus, stomach, biliary tract, and pancreas.
Mehrabi, R.; Zhao, X.; Kim, Y.; Xu, J.R.
The key components of the well conserved cyclic AMP signaling and MAP kinase pathways have been functionally characterized in the corn smut Ustilago maydis, rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea, and a few other fungal pathogens. In general, the cAMP signaling and the MAP kinase cascade homologous to
Neapolitan, Richard; Horvath, Curt M.; Jiang, Xia
A signal transduction pathway (STP) is a network of intercellular information flow initiated when extracellular signaling molecules bind to cell-surface receptors. Many aberrant STPs have been associated with various cancers. To develop optimal treatments for cancer patients, it is important to discover which STPs are implicated in a cancer or cancer-subtype. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) makes available gene expression level data on cases and controls in ten different types of cancer including breast cancer, colon adenocarcinoma, glioblastoma, kidney renal papillary cell carcinoma, low grade glioma, lung adenocarcinoma, lung squamous cell carcinoma, ovarian carcinoma, rectum adenocarcinoma, and uterine corpus endometriod carcinoma. Signaling Pathway Impact Analysis (SPIA) is a software package that analyzes gene expression data to identify whether a pathway is relevant in a given condition. We present the results of a study that uses SPIA to investigate all 157 signaling pathways in the KEGG PATHWAY database. We analyzed each of the ten cancer types mentioned above separately, and we perform a pan-cancer analysis by grouping the data for all the cancer types. In each analysis several pathways were found to be markedly more significant than all the other pathways. We call them notable. Research has already established a connection between many of these pathways and the corresponding cancer type. However, some of our discovered pathways appear to be new findings. Altogether there were 37 notable findings in the separate analyses, 26 of them occurred in 7 pathways. These 7 pathways included the 4 notable pathways discovered in the pan-cancer analysis. So, our results suggest that these 7 pathways account for much of the mechanisms of cancer. Furthermore, by looking at the overlap among pathways, we identified possible regions on the pathways where the aberrant activity is occurring. We obtained 37 notable findings concerning 18 pathways. Some of them appear to be
Leclère, Lucas; Rentzsch, Fabian
Patterning of the metazoan dorsoventral axis is mediated by a complex interplay of BMP signaling regulators. Repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) is a conserved BMP coreceptor that has not been implicated in axis specification. We show that NvRGM is a key positive regulator of BMP signaling during secondary axis establishment in the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis. NvRGM regulates first the generation and later the shape of a BMP-dependent Smad1/5/8 gradient with peak activity on the side opposite the NvBMP/NvRGM/NvChordin expression domain. Full knockdown of Smad1/5/8 signaling blocks the formation of endodermal structures, the mesenteries, and the establishment of bilateral symmetry, while altering the gradient through partial NvRGM or NvBMP knockdown shifts the boundaries of asymmetric gene expression and the positioning of the mesenteries along the secondary axis. These findings provide insight into the diversification of axis specification mechanisms and identify a previously unrecognized role for RGM in BMP-mediated axial patterning. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shi, SongTing; Hoogaars, Willem M H; de Gorter, David J J; van Heiningen, Sandra H; Lin, Herbert Y; Hong, Charles C; Kemaladewi, Dwi U; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; ten Dijke, Peter; 't Hoen, Peter A C
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked lethal muscle wasting disease characterized by muscle fiber degeneration and necrosis. The progressive pathology of DMD can be explained by an insufficient regenerative response resulting in fibrosis and adipose tissue formation. BMPs are known to inhibit myogenic differentiation and in a previous study we found an increased expression of a BMP family member BMP4 in DMD myoblasts. The aim of the current study was therefore to investigate whether inhibition of BMP signaling could be beneficial for myoblast differentiation and muscle regeneration processes in a DMD context. All tested BMP inhibitors, Noggin, dorsomorphin and LDN-193189, were able to accelerate and enhance myogenic differentiation. However, dorsomorphin repressed both BMP and TGFβ signaling and was found to be toxic to primary myoblast cell cultures. In contrast, Noggin was found to be a potent and selective BMP inhibitor and was therefore tested in vivo in a DMD mouse model. Local adenoviral-mediated overexpression of Noggin in muscle resulted in an increased expression of the myogenic regulatory genes Myog and Myod1 and improved muscle histology. In conclusion, our results suggest that repression of BMP signaling may constitute an attractive adjunctive therapy for DMD patients. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Henriques, Rossana; Bögre, László; Horváth, Beátrix; Magyar, Zoltán
One of the most fundamental aspects of growth in plants is its plasticity in relation to fluctuating environmental conditions. Growth of meristematic cells relies predominantly on protein synthesis, one of the most energy-consuming activities in cells, and thus is tightly regulated in accordance with the available nutrient and energy supplies. The Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signalling pathway takes a central position in this regulation. The core of the TOR signalling pathway is conserved throughout evolution, and can be traced back to the last eukaryotic common ancestor. In plants, a single complex constitutes the TOR signalling pathway. Manipulating the components of the TOR complex in Arabidopsis highlighted its common role as a major regulator of protein synthesis and metabolism, that is also involved in other biological functions such as cell-wall integrity, regulation of cell proliferation, and cell size. TOR, as an integral part of the auxin signalling pathway, connects hormonal and nutrient pathways. Downstream of TOR, S6 kinase and the ribosomal S6 protein have been shown to mediate several of these responses, although there is evidence of other complex non-linear TOR signalling pathway structures. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Full Text Available Modeling of signal transduction pathways plays a major role in understanding cells' function and predicting cellular response. Mathematical formalisms based on a logic formalism are relatively simple but can describe how signals propagate from one protein to the next and have led to the construction of models that simulate the cells response to environmental or other perturbations. Constrained fuzzy logic was recently introduced to train models to cell specific data to result in quantitative pathway models of the specific cellular behavior. There are two major issues in this pathway optimization: i excessive CPU time requirements and ii loosely constrained optimization problem due to lack of data with respect to large signaling pathways. Herein, we address both issues: the former by reformulating the pathway optimization as a regular nonlinear optimization problem; and the latter by enhanced algorithms to pre/post-process the signaling network to remove parts that cannot be identified given the experimental conditions. As a case study, we tackle the construction of cell type specific pathways in normal and transformed hepatocytes using medium and large-scale functional phosphoproteomic datasets. The proposed Non Linear Programming (NLP formulation allows for fast optimization of signaling topologies by combining the versatile nature of logic modeling with state of the art optimization algorithms.
Zhu, Peican; Aliabadi, Hamidreza Montazeri; Uludağ, Hasan; Han, Jie
The investigation of vulnerable components in a signaling pathway can contribute to development of drug therapy addressing aberrations in that pathway. Here, an original signaling pathway is derived from the published literature on breast cancer models. New stochastic logical models are then developed to analyze the vulnerability of the components in multiple signalling sub-pathways involved in this signaling cascade. The computational results are consistent with the experimental results, where the selected proteins were silenced using specific siRNAs and the viability of the cells were analyzed 72 hours after silencing. The genes elF4E and NFkB are found to have nearly no effect on the relative cell viability and the genes JAK2, Stat3, S6K, JUN, FOS, Myc, and Mcl1 are effective candidates to influence the relative cell growth. The vulnerabilities of some targets such as Myc and S6K are found to vary significantly depending on the weights of the sub-pathways; this will be indicative of the chosen target to require customization for therapy. When these targets are utilized, the response of breast cancers from different patients will be highly variable because of the known heterogeneities in signaling pathways among the patients. The targets whose vulnerabilities are invariably high might be more universally acceptable targets.
Mitsos, Alexander; Melas, Ioannis N; Morris, Melody K; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G
Modeling of signal transduction pathways plays a major role in understanding cells' function and predicting cellular response. Mathematical formalisms based on a logic formalism are relatively simple but can describe how signals propagate from one protein to the next and have led to the construction of models that simulate the cells response to environmental or other perturbations. Constrained fuzzy logic was recently introduced to train models to cell specific data to result in quantitative pathway models of the specific cellular behavior. There are two major issues in this pathway optimization: i) excessive CPU time requirements and ii) loosely constrained optimization problem due to lack of data with respect to large signaling pathways. Herein, we address both issues: the former by reformulating the pathway optimization as a regular nonlinear optimization problem; and the latter by enhanced algorithms to pre/post-process the signaling network to remove parts that cannot be identified given the experimental conditions. As a case study, we tackle the construction of cell type specific pathways in normal and transformed hepatocytes using medium and large-scale functional phosphoproteomic datasets. The proposed Non Linear Programming (NLP) formulation allows for fast optimization of signaling topologies by combining the versatile nature of logic modeling with state of the art optimization algorithms.
Wilson, Gary M; Blanco, Rocky; Coon, Joshua J; Hornberger, Troy A
We propose that phosphoproteomic-based studies will radically advance our knowledge about exercise regulated signaling events. However, these studies utilize cutting-edge technologies that can be difficult for non-specialists to understand. Hence, this review is intended to help non-specialists: 1) understand the fundamental technologies behind phosphoproteomic analysis and 2) employ various bioinformatic tools that can be used to interrogate phosphoproteomic datasets.
Fang He; Chenlu Wu; Pan Li; Nengzhang Li; Dong Zhang; Quoqiang Zhu; Wenkai Ren; Yuanyi Peng
Intestine is always exposed to external environment and intestinal microorganism; thus it is more sensitive to dysfunction and dysbiosis, leading to intestinal inflammation, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and diarrhea. An increasing number of studies indicate that dietary amino acids play significant roles in preventing and treating intestinal inflammation. The review aims to summarize the functions and signaling mechanisms of amino acids in intestin...
Brosius, Frank C.; Coward, Richard J.
Alterations and injury to glomerular podocytes play a key role in the initiation and early progression of diabetic kidney disease. Multiple factors in the diabetic milieu cause abnormalities in podocyte signaling that lead to podocyte foot process effacement, hypertrophy, detachment, loss and death. Alterations in insulin action and mTOR activation have been well documented to lead to pathology. For example, reduced insulin action directly leads to albuminuria, increased glomerular matrix accumulation, thickening of the glomerular basement membrane, podocyte apoptosis and glomerulosclerosis. In addition, the podocyte generates factors that alter signaling in other glomerular cells. Prominent among these is VEGF-A which plays a complex role in maintaining glomerular endothelium viability but causes endothelial cell pathology when generated at too high a level. Finally, circulating vascular factors, such as activated protein C have a profound effect on podocyte stability and survival. This cytoprotective factor is critical for podocyte health and its deficiency promotes podocyte injury and apoptosis. Thus, the podocyte sits in the center of a network of paracrine and hormonal signaling systems that in health keep the podocyte adaptable and viable, but in diabetes can lead to pathologic changes, detachment and death. This podocyte injury is a critical determinant of the progression of diabetic kidney disease. PMID:24780459
Touré, Fatouma; Chitayat, Seth; Pei, Renjun; Song, Fei; Li, Qing; Zhang, Jinghua; Rosario, Rosa; Ramasamy, Ravichandran; Chazin, Walter J.
The endogenous phospholipid lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) regulates fundamental cellular processes such as proliferation, survival, motility, and invasion implicated in homeostatic and pathological conditions. Hence, delineation of the full range of molecular mechanisms by which LPA exerts its broad effects is essential. We report avid binding of LPA to the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, and mapping of the LPA binding site on this receptor. In vitro, RAGE was required for LPA-mediated signal transduction in vascular smooth muscle cells and C6 glioma cells, as well as proliferation and migration. In vivo, the administration of soluble RAGE or genetic deletion of RAGE mitigated LPA-stimulated vascular Akt signaling, autotaxin/LPA-driven phosphorylation of Akt and cyclin D1 in the mammary tissue of transgenic mice vulnerable to carcinogenesis, and ovarian tumor implantation and development. These findings identify novel roles for RAGE as a conduit for LPA signaling and suggest targeting LPA–RAGE interaction as a therapeutic strategy to modify the pathological actions of LPA. PMID:23209312
Tang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Lingling; Wei, Wei
B cell activating factor (BAFF) is an important cytokine for the maintenance of B cell development, survival and homeostasis. BAFF/BAFF-R could directly activate nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. Tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) are key regulatory proteins in NF-κB signaling pathways. TRAF1 enhances the activation of tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNF-R2) induced by NF-κB. TRAF2 and TRAF3 signal adapters act cooperatively to control the maturation and survival signals mediated by BAFF receptor. TRAF5 is most homologous to TRAF3, as well as most functionally similar to TRAF2. TRAF6 is also required for the BAFF-mediated activation of NF-κB signal pathway. TRAF7 is involved in signal transduction pathways that lead either to activation or repression of NF-κB transcription factor. In this article, we reviewed the roles of TRAFs in NF-κB signaling pathway mediated by BAFF. Copyright © 2018 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ma, Haikuo; Chen, Qin; Zhu, Fang; Zheng, Jiyue; Li, Jiajun; Zhang, Hongjian; Chen, Shuaishuai; Xing, Haimei; Luo, Lusong; Zheng, Long Tai; He, Sudan; Zhang, Xiaohu
Embryonic stem cell pathways such as hedgehog and Wnt pathways are central to the tumorigenic properties of cancer stem cells (CSC). Since CSCs are characterized by their ability to self-renew, form differentiated progeny, and develop resistance to anticancer therapies, targeting the Wnt and hedgehog signaling pathways has been an important strategy for cancer treatment. Although molecules targeting either Wnt or hedgehog are common, to the best of our knowledge, those targeting both pathways have not been documented. Here we report a small molecule (compound 1) that inhibits both Wnt (IC 50 = 0.5 nM) and hedgehog (IC 50 = 71 nM) pathways based on reporter gene assays. We further identified that the molecular target of 1 for Wnt pathway inhibition was porcupine (a member of the membrane-bound O-acyltransferase family of proteins), a post-translational modification node in Wnt signaling; while the target of 1 mitigating hedgehog pathway was Smoothened, a key G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) mediating hedgehog signal transduction. Preliminary analysis of structure-activity-relationship identified key functional elements for hedgehog/Wnt inhibition. In in vivo studies, compound 1 demonstrated good oral exposure and bioavailability while eliciting no overt toxicity in mice. An important consideration in cancer treatment is the potential therapeutic escape through compensatory activation of an interconnected pathway when only one signaling pathway is inhibited. Toward this end, compound 1 may not only lead to the development of new therapeutics for Wnt and hedgehog related cancers, but may also help to develop potential cancer treatment which needs to target Wnt and hedgehog signaling simultaneously. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK- mediated signaling pathways have been known to have important functions in eukaryotic organisms. The mechanisms by which the filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata senses and responds to environmental signals have begun to be elucidated. Available data indicate that A. alternata utilizes the Fus3, Hog1 and Slt2 MAPK-mediated signaling pathways, either separately or in a cooperative manner, for conidia formation, resistance to oxidative and osmotic stress, and pathogenesis to citrus. This review provides an overview of our current knowledge of MAPK signaling pathways, in conjunction with the two-component histidine kinase and the Skn7 response regulator, in the tangerine pathotype of A. alternata.
Voutsadakis Ioannis A
Full Text Available Abstract Epithelial to Mesenchymal transition (EMT in cancer, a process permitting cancer cells to become mobile and metastatic, has a signaling hardwire forged from development. Multiple signaling pathways that regulate carcinogenesis enabling characteristics in neoplastic cells such as proliferation, resistance to apoptosis and angiogenesis are also the main players in EMT. These pathways, as almost all cellular processes, are in their turn regulated by ubiquitination and the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System (UPS. Ubiquitination is the covalent link of target proteins with the small protein ubiquitin and serves as a signal to target protein degradation by the proteasome or to other outcomes such as endocytosis, degradation by the lysosome or specification of cellular localization. This paper reviews signal transduction pathways regulating EMT and being regulated by ubiquitination.
Tang, Zhurong; Wang, Zhe; Qing, Fangzhu; Ni, Yilu; Fan, Yujiang; Tan, Yanfei; Zhang, Xingdong
Porous calcium phosphate ceramics (CaP ceramics) could induce ectopic bone formation which was regulated by various signal molecules. In this work, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were cultured on the surface of osteoinductive hydroxyapatite (HA) and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramics in comparison with control (culture plate) for up to 14 days to detect the signal molecules which might be affected by the CaP ceramics. Without adding osteogenic factors, MSCs cultured on HA and BCP both expressed higher Runx2, Osterix, collagen type I, osteopontin, bone sialoprotein, and osteocalcin at various stages compared with control, thus confirmed the osteoblastic differentiation of MSCs. Later study demonstrated the messenger RNA level of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and BMP4 were also significantly enhanced by HA and BCP. Furthermore, Smad1, 4, 5, and Dlx5, the main molecules in the BMP/Smads signaling pathway, were upregulated by HA and BCP. Moreover, the higher expression of Smads and BMP2, 4 in BCP over HA, corresponded to the better performance of BCP in stimulating in vitro osteoblastic differentiation of MSCs. This was in accordance with the better osteoinductivity of BCP over HA in vivo. Altogether, these results implied that the CaP ceramics may initiate the osteoblastic differentiation of MSCs by influencing the expression of molecules in BMP/Smads pathway. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Shenk, Thomas; Alwine, James C
Viruses face a multitude of challenges when they infect a host cell. Cells have evolved innate defenses to protect against pathogens, and an infecting virus may induce a stress response that antagonizes viral replication. Further, the metabolic, oxidative, and cell cycle state may not be conducive to the viral infection. But viruses are fabulous manipulators, inducing host cells to use their own characteristic mechanisms and pathways to provide what the virus needs. This article centers on the manipulation of host cell metabolism by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). We review the features of the metabolic program instituted by the virus, discuss the mechanisms underlying these dramatic metabolic changes, and consider how the altered program creates a synthetic milieu that favors efficient HCMV replication and spread.
Mc Gee, Margaret M.
Mitotic catastrophe, as defined in 2012 by the International Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death, is a bona fide intrinsic oncosuppressive mechanism that senses mitotic failure and responds by driving a cell to an irreversible antiproliferative fate of death or senescence. Thus, failed mitotic catastrophe can promote the unrestrained growth of defective cells, thereby representing a major gateway to tumour development. Furthermore, the activation of mitotic catastrophe offers significant therapeutic advantage which has been exploited in the action of conventional and targeted anticancer agents. Yet, despite its importance in tumour prevention and treatment, the molecular mechanism of mitotic catastrophe is not well understood. A better understanding of the signals that determine cell fate following failed or defective mitosis will reveal new opportunities to selectively target and enhance the programme for therapeutic benefit and reveal biomarkers to predict patient response. This review is focused on the molecular mechanism of mitotic catastrophe induction and signalling and highlights current strategies to exploit the process in cancer therapy. PMID:26491220
Liu, W Robert; Shipp, Margaret A
Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) is an unusual B-cell-derived malignancy in which rare malignant Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells are surrounded by an extensive but ineffective inflammatory/immune cell infiltrate. This striking feature suggests that malignant HRS cells escape immunosurveillance and interact with immune cells in the cancer microenvironment for survival and growth. We previously found that cHLs have a genetic basis for immune evasion: near-uniform copy number alterations of chromosome 9p24.1 and the associated PD-1 ligand loci, CD274/PD-L1 and PDCD1LG2/PD-L2, and copy number-dependent increased expression of these ligands. HRS cells expressing PD-1 ligands are thought to engage PD-1 receptor-positive immune effectors in the tumor microenvironment and induce PD-1 signaling and associated immune evasion. The genetic bases of enhanced PD-1 signaling in cHL make these tumors uniquely sensitive to PD-1 blockade. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.
Full Text Available Drosophila provides a powerful system for defining the complex genetic programs that drive organogenesis. Under control of the steroid hormone ecdysone, the adult heart in Drosophila forms during metamorphosis by a remodelling of the larval cardiac organ. Here, we evaluated the extent to which transcriptional signatures revealed by genomic approaches can provide new insights into the molecular pathways that underlie heart organogenesis. Whole-genome expression profiling at eight successive time-points covering adult heart formation revealed a highly dynamic temporal map of gene expression through 13 transcript clusters with distinct expression kinetics. A functional atlas of the transcriptome profile strikingly points to the genomic transcriptional response of the ecdysone cascade, and a sharp regulation of key components belonging to a few evolutionarily conserved signalling pathways. A reverse genetic analysis provided evidence that these specific signalling pathways are involved in discrete steps of adult heart formation. In particular, the Wnt signalling pathway is shown to participate in inflow tract and cardiomyocyte differentiation, while activation of the PDGF-VEGF pathway is required for cardiac valve formation. Thus, a detailed temporal map of gene expression can reveal signalling pathways responsible for specific developmental programs and provides here substantial grasp into heart formation.
Full Text Available In active sensation, sensory information is acquired via movements of sensory organs; rats move their whiskers repetitively to scan the environment, thus detecting, localizing, and identifying objects. Sensory information, in turn, affects future motor movements. How this motor-sensory-motor functional loop is implemented across anatomical loops of the whisker system is not yet known. While inducing artificial whisking in anesthetized rats, we recorded the activity of individual neurons from three thalamic nuclei of the whisker system, each belonging to a different major afferent pathway: paralemniscal, extralemniscal (a recently discovered pathway, or lemniscal. We found that different sensory signals related to active touch are conveyed separately via the thalamus by these three parallel afferent pathways. The paralemniscal pathway conveys sensor motion (whisking signals, the extralemniscal conveys contact (touch signals, and the lemniscal pathway conveys combined whisking-touch signals. This functional segregation of anatomical pathways raises the possibility that different sensory-motor processes, such as those related to motion control, object localization, and object identification, are implemented along different motor-sensory-motor loops.
Ausubel, Frederick M
Although adaptive immunity is unique to vertebrates, the innate immune response seems to have ancient origins. Common features of innate immunity in vertebrates, invertebrate animals and plants include defined receptors for microbe-associated molecules, conserved mitogen-associated protein kinase signaling cascades and the production of antimicrobial peptides. It is commonly reported that these similarities in innate immunity represent a process of divergent evolution from an ancient unicellular eukaryote that pre-dated the divergence of the plant and animal kingdoms. However, at present, data suggest that the seemingly analogous regulatory modules used in plant and animal innate immunity are a consequence of convergent evolution and reflect inherent constraints on how an innate immune system can be constructed.
Retamales, A.; Zuloaga, R.; Valenzuela, C.A. [Laboratorio de Biotecnología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Andrés Bello, Santiago (Chile); Gallardo-Escarate, C. [Laboratory of Biotechnology and Aquatic Genomics, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción (Chile); Interdisciplinary Center for Aquaculture Research (INCAR), P.O. Box 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Molina, A. [Laboratorio de Biotecnología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Andrés Bello, Santiago (Chile); Interdisciplinary Center for Aquaculture Research (INCAR), P.O. Box 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Valdés, J.A., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Laboratorio de Biotecnología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Andrés Bello, Santiago (Chile); Interdisciplinary Center for Aquaculture Research (INCAR), P.O. Box 160-C, Concepción (Chile)
Myogenic differentiation is a complex and well-coordinated process for generating mature skeletal muscle fibers. This event is autocrine/paracrine regulated by growth factors, principally Myostatin (MSTN) and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1). Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth in vertebrates that exerts its inhibitory function by activating Smad transcription factors. In contrast, IGF-1 promotes the differentiation of skeletal myoblasts by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. This study reports on a novel functional crosstalk between the IGF-1 and MSTN signaling pathways, as mediated through interaction between PI3K/Akt and Smad3. Stimulation of skeletal myoblasts with MSTN resulted in a transient increase in the pSmad3:Smad3 ratio and Smad-dependent transcription. Moreover, MSTN inhibited myod gene expression and myoblast fusion in an Activin receptor-like kinase/Smad3-dependent manner. Preincubation of skeletal myoblasts with IGF-1 blocked MSTN-induced Smad3 activation, promoting myod expression and myoblast differentiation. This inhibitory effect of IGF-1 on the MSTN signaling pathway was dependent on IGF-1 receptor, PI3K, and Akt activities. Finally, immunoprecipitation assay analysis determined that IGF-1 pretreatment increased Akt and Smad3 interaction. These results demonstrate that the IGF-1/PI3K/Akt pathway may inhibit MSTN signaling during myoblast differentiation, providing new insight to existing knowledge on the complex crosstalk between both growth factors. - Highlights: • IGF-1 inhibits Myostatin canonical signaling pathway through IGF-1R/PI3K/Akt pathway. • IGF-1 promotes myoblast differentiation through a direct blocking of Myostatin signaling pathway. • IGF-1 induces the interaction of Akt with Smad3 in skeletal myoblast.
Watanabe Costa, Renata; da Silveira, Jose F.; Bahia, Diana
Chagas disease is one of the prevalent neglected tropical diseases, affecting at least 6–7 million individuals in Latin America. It is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted to vertebrate hosts by blood-sucking insects. After infection, the parasite invades and multiplies in the myocardium, leading to acute myocarditis that kills around 5% of untreated individuals. T. cruzi secretes proteins that manipulate multiple host cell signaling pathways to promote host cell invasion. The primary secreted lysosomal peptidase in T. cruzi is cruzipain, which has been shown to modulate the host immune response. Cruzipain hinders macrophage activation during the early stages of infection by interrupting the NF-kB P65 mediated signaling pathway. This allows the parasite to survive and replicate, and may contribute to the spread of infection in acute Chagas disease. Another secreted protein P21, which is expressed in all of the developmental stages of T. cruzi, has been shown to modulate host phagocytosis signaling pathways. The parasite also secretes soluble factors that exert effects on host extracellular matrix, such as proteolytic degradation of collagens. Finally, secreted phospholipase A from T. cruzi contributes to lipid modifications on host cells and concomitantly activates the PKC signaling pathway. Here, we present a brief review of the interaction between secreted proteins from T. cruzi and the host cells, emphasizing the manipulation of host signaling pathways during invasion. PMID:27065960
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Investigation of dynamics and regulation of the TGF-beta signaling pathway is central to the understanding of complex cellular processes such as growth, apoptosis, and differentiation. In this study, we aim at using systems biology approach to provide dynamic analysis on this pathway. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We proposed a constraint-based modeling method to build a comprehensive mathematical model for the Smad dependent TGF-beta signaling pathway by fitting the experimental data and incorporating the qualitative constraints from the experimental analysis. The performance of the model generated by constraint-based modeling method is significantly improved compared to the model obtained by only fitting the quantitative data. The model agrees well with the experimental analysis of TGF-beta pathway, such as the time course of nuclear phosphorylated Smad, the subcellular location of Smad and signal response of Smad phosphorylation to different doses of TGF-beta. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The simulation results indicate that the signal response to TGF-beta is regulated by the balance between clathrin dependent endocytosis and non-clathrin mediated endocytosis. This model is useful to be built upon as new precise experimental data are emerging. The constraint-based modeling method can also be applied to quantitative modeling of other signaling pathways.
Renata Watanabe Costa
Full Text Available Chagas disease is one of the prevalent neglected tropical diseases, affecting at least 6-7 million individuals in Latin America. It is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi, which is transmitted to vertebrate hosts by blood-sucking insects. After infection, the parasite invades and multiplies in the myocardium, leading to acute myocarditis that kills around 5% of untreated individuals. T. cruzi secretes proteins that manipulate multiple host cell signaling pathways to promote host cell invasion. The primary secreted lysosomal peptidase in T. cruzi is cruzipain, which has been shown to modulate the host immune response. Cruzipain hinders macrophage activation during the early stages of infection by interrupting the NF-kB P65 mediated signaling pathway. This allows the parasite to survive and replicate, and may contribute to the spread of infection in acute Chagas disease. Another secreted protein P21, which is expressed in all of the developmental stages of T. cruzi, has been shown to modulate host phagocytosis signaling pathways. The parasite also secretes soluble factors that exert effects on host extracellular matrix, such as proteolytic degradation of collagens. Finally, secreted phospholipase A from T. cruzi contributes to lipid modifications on host cells and concomitantly activates the PKC signaling pathway. Here we present a brief review of the interaction between secreted proteins from T. cruzi and the host cells, emphasizing the manipulation of host signaling pathways during invasion.
Cucinotta, Francis A.; O'Neill, Peter; Ponomarev, Artem; Carra, Claudio; Whalen, Mary; Pluth, Janice M.
Deterministic pathway models that describe the biochemical interactions of a group of related proteins, their complexes, activation through kinase, etc. are often the basis for many systems biology models. Low dose radiation effects present a unique set of challenges to these models including the importance of stochastic effects due to the nature of radiation tracks and small number of molecules activated, and the search for infrequent events that contribute to cancer risks. We have been studying models of the ATM, TGF -Smad and WNT signaling pathways with the goal of applying pathway models to the investigation of low dose radiation cancer risks. Modeling challenges include introduction of stochastic models of radiation tracks, their relationships to more than one substrate species that perturb pathways, and the identification of a representative set of enzymes that act on the dominant substrates. Because several pathways are activated concurrently by radiation the development of modular pathway approach is of interest.
Brooks, David G.; Arlen, Philip A.; Gao, Lianying; Kitchen, Christina M. R.; Zack, Jerome A.
Eradication of HIV infection depends on the elimination of a small, but stable population of latently infected T cells. After the discontinuation of therapy, activation of latent virus can rekindle infection. To purge this reservoir, it is necessary to define cellular signaling pathways that lead to activation of latent HIV. We used the SCID-hu (Thy/Liv) mouse model of HIV latency to analyze a broad array of T cell-signaling pathways and show in primary, quiescent cells that viral induction depends on the activation of two primary intracellular signaling pathways, protein kinase C or nuclear factor of activated T cells (NF-AT). In contrast, inhibition or activation of other important T cell stimulatory pathways (such as mitogen-activated protein kinase, calcium flux, or histone deacetylation) do not significantly induce virus expression. We found that the activation of NF-κB is critical to viral reactivation; however, all pathways that stimulate NF-κBdonot reactivate latent virus. Our studies further show that inhibition of NF-κB does not prevent activation of HIV by NF-AT, indicating that these pathways can function independently to activate the HIV LTR. Thus, we define several molecular pathways that trigger HIV reactivation from latency and provide evidence that latent HIV infection is maintained by the functional lack of particular transcription factors in quiescent cells. PMID:14569007
Medici, Anna; Krouk, Gabriel
Nitrate (NO3(-)) application strongly affects gene expression in plants. This regulation is thought to be crucial for their adaptation in response to a changing nutritional environment. Depending on the conditions preceding or concomitant with nitrate provision, the treatment can affect up to a 10th of genome expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. The early events occurring after NO3(-) provision are often called the Primary Nitrate Response (PNR). Despite this simple definition, PNR is a complex process that is difficult to properly delineate. Here we report the different concepts related to PNR, review the different molecular components known to control it, and show, using meta-analysis, that this concept/pathway is not monolithic. We especially bring our attention to the genome-wide effects of LBD37 and LBD38 overexpression, NLP7, and CHL1/NRT1.1 mutations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Furuyama, Wakako; Enomoto, Masahiro; Mossaad, Ehab; Kawai, Satoru; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Kawazu, Shin-ichiro
Highlights: • A melatonin receptor antagonist blocked Ca 2+ oscillation in P. falciparum and inhibited parasite growth. • P. falciparum development is controlled by Ca 2+ - and cAMP-signaling pathways. • The cAMP-signaling pathway at ring form and late trophozoite stages governs parasite growth of P. falciparum. - Abstract: Plasmodium falciparum spends most of its asexual life cycle within human erythrocytes, where proliferation and maturation occur. Development into the mature forms of P. falciparum causes severe symptoms due to its distinctive sequestration capability. However, the physiological roles and the molecular mechanisms of signaling pathways that govern development are poorly understood. Our previous study showed that P. falciparum exhibits stage-specific spontaneous Calcium (Ca 2+ ) oscillations in ring and early trophozoites, and the latter was essential for parasite development. In this study, we show that luzindole (LZ), a selective melatonin receptor antagonist, inhibits parasite growth. Analyses of development and morphology of LZ-treated P. falciparum revealed that LZ severely disrupted intraerythrocytic maturation, resulting in parasite death. When LZ was added at ring stage, the parasite could not undergo further development, whereas LZ added at the trophozoite stage inhibited development from early into late schizonts. Live-cell Ca 2+ imaging showed that LZ treatment completely abolished Ca 2+ oscillation in the ring forms while having little effect on early trophozoites. Further, the melatonin-induced cAMP increase observed at ring and late trophozoite stage was attenuated by LZ treatment. These suggest that a complex interplay between IP 3 –Ca 2+ and cAMP signaling pathways is involved in intraerythrocytic development of P. falciparum
Watson, Cheryl S.; Jeng, Yow-Juin; Guptarak, Jutatip
When inappropriate (non-physiologic) estrogens affect organisms at critical times of estrogen sensitivity, disruption of normal endocrine functions can result. Non-physiologic estrogen mimetics (environmental, dietary, pharmaceutical) can signal rapidly and potently via the membrane versions of estrogen receptors, as can physiologic estrogens. Both physiologic and non-physiologic estrogens activate multiple signaling pathways, leading to altered cellular functions (eg. peptide release, cell proliferation or death, transport). Xenoestrogens’ mimicry of physiologic estrogens is imperfect. When superimposed, xenoestrogens can alter endogenous estrogens’ signaling and thereby disrupt normal signaling pathways, leading to malfunctions in many tissue types. Though these xenoestrogen actions occur rapidly via nongenomic signaling pathways, they can be sustained with continuing ligand stimulation, combinations of ligands, and signaling that perpetuates downstream, eventually also impinging on genomic regulation by controlling the activation state of transcription factors. Because via these pathways estrogens and xenoestrogens cause nonmonotonic stimulation patterns, they must be carefully tested for activity and toxicity over wide dose ranges. Nongenomic actions of xenoestrogens in combination with each other, and with physiologic estrogens, are still largely unexplored from these mechanistic perspectives. PMID:21300151
Full Text Available Mammalian lignans or enterolignans are metabolites of plant lignans, an important category of phytochemicals. Although they are known to be associated with estrogenic activity, cell signaling pathways leading to specific cell functions, and especially the differences among lignans, have not been explored. We examined the estrogenic activity of enterolignans and their precursor plant lignans and cell signaling pathways for some cell functions, cell cycle and chemokine secretion. We used DNA microarray-based gene expression profiling in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells to examine the similarities, as well as the differences, among enterolignans, enterolactone and enterodiol, and their precursors, matairesinol, pinoresinol and sesamin. The profiles showed moderate to high levels of correlation (R values: 0.44 to 0.81 with that of estrogen (17β-estradiol or E2. Significant correlations were observed among lignans (R values: 0.77 to 0.97, and the correlations were higher for cell functions related to enzymes, signaling, proliferation and transport. All the enterolignans/precursors examined showed activation of the Erk1/2 and PI3K/Akt pathways, indicating the involvement of rapid signaling through the non-genomic estrogen signaling pathway. However, when their effects on specific cell functions, cell cycle progression and chemokine (MCP-1 secretion were examined, positive effects were observed only for enterolactone, suggesting that signals are given in certain directions at a position closer to cell functions. We hypothesized that, while estrogen signaling is initiated by the enterolignans/precursors examined, their signals are differentially and directionally modulated later in the pathways, resulting in the differences at the cell function level.
Giannopoulos, Phillip F; Joshi, Yash B; Praticò, Domenico
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. With an increasing longevity and the absence of a cure, AD has become not only a major health problem but also a heavy social and economic burden worldwide. In addition to the presence of abundant intra- and extra-cellular neurotoxic amyloid β (Aβ) peptides, which form the amyloid plaques, and intracellular hyperphosphorylated tau protein, the main component of neurofibrillary tangles, consistent evidence indicates that the AD brain is characterized by extensive neuroinflammatory processes. The 5-lipoxygenase (5LO) is a pro-inflammatory enzymatic pathway widely distributed within the central nervous system and is up-regulated in AD. In the last five years our group has been involved in unraveling the neurobiology of this protein and investigating its relationship with cellular and molecular events of functional importance in AD pathogenesis. By using a combination of in vitro and in vivo experimental tools and implementing genetic as well as pharmacological approaches today we know that 5LO is likely an endogenous regulator of Aβ formation via the modulation of the γ-secretase complex, and tau metabolism by modulating its phosphorylation state at specific epitopes via the cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (cdk-5). In addition, 5LO influences synaptic function and integrity and by doing so significantly affects learning and memory in the Tg2576 and 3xTg AD transgenic mouse models. Taken together our data establish this protein as a pleiotropic contributor to the development of the full spectrum of the AD-like phenotype in these mouse models of the disease, making it a viable therapeutic target for the treatment of AD in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Brogi, Simone; Tafi, Andrea; Désaubry, Laurent; Nebigil, Canan G
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are seven integral transmembrane proteins that are the primary targets of almost 30% of approved drugs and continue to represent a major focus of pharmaceutical research. All of GPCR targeted medicines were discovered by classical medicinal chemistry approaches. After the first GPCR crystal structures were determined, the docking screens using these structures lead to discovery of more novel and potent ligands. There are over 360 pharmaceutically relevant GPCRs in the human genome and to date about only 30 of structures have been determined. For these reasons, computational techniques such as homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulations have proven their usefulness to explore the structure and function of GPCRs. Furthermore, structure-based drug design and in silico screening (High Throughput Docking) are still the most common computational procedures in GPCRs drug discovery. Moreover, ligand-based methods such as three-dimensional quantitative structure-selectivity relationships, are the ideal molecular modeling approaches to rationalize the activity of tested GPCR ligands and identify novel GPCR ligands. In this review, we discuss the most recent advances for the computational approaches to effectively guide selectivity and affinity of ligands. We also describe novel approaches in medicinal chemistry, such as the development of biased agonists, allosteric modulators, and bivalent ligands for class A GPCRs. Furthermore, we highlight some knockout mice models in discovering biased signaling selectivity.
Brogi, Simone; Tafi, Andrea; Désaubry, Laurent; Nebigil, Canan G.
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are seven integral transmembrane proteins that are the primary targets of almost 30% of approved drugs and continue to represent a major focus of pharmaceutical research. All of GPCR targeted medicines were discovered by classical medicinal chemistry approaches. After the first GPCR crystal structures were determined, the docking screens using these structures lead to discovery of more novel and potent ligands. There are over 360 pharmaceutically relevant GPCRs in the human genome and to date about only 30 of structures have been determined. For these reasons, computational techniques such as homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulations have proven their usefulness to explore the structure and function of GPCRs. Furthermore, structure-based drug design and in silico screening (High Throughput Docking) are still the most common computational procedures in GPCRs drug discovery. Moreover, ligand-based methods such as three-dimensional quantitative structure–selectivity relationships, are the ideal molecular modeling approaches to rationalize the activity of tested GPCR ligands and identify novel GPCR ligands. In this review, we discuss the most recent advances for the computational approaches to effectively guide selectivity and affinity of ligands. We also describe novel approaches in medicinal chemistry, such as the development of biased agonists, allosteric modulators, and bivalent ligands for class A GPCRs. Furthermore, we highlight some knockout mice models in discovering biased signaling selectivity. PMID:25506327
Full Text Available Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles (30–100 nm derived from the endosomal system, which have raised considerable interest in the last decade. Several studies have shown that they mediate cell-to-cell communication in a variety of biological processes. Thus, in addition to cell-to-cell direct interaction or secretion of active molecules, they are now considered another class of signal mediators. Exosomes can be secreted by several cell types and retrieved in many body fluids, such as blood, urine, saliva and cerebrospinal fluid. In addition to proteins and lipids, they also contain nucleic acids, namely mRNA and miRNA. These features have prompted extensive research to exploit them as a source of biomarkers for several pathologies, such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. In this context, exosomes also appear attractive as gene delivery vehicles. Furthermore, exosome immunomodulatory and regenerative properties are also encouraging their application for further therapeutic purposes. Nevertheless, several issues remain to be addressed: exosome biogenesis and secretion mechanisms have not been clearly understood, and physiological functions, as well as pathological roles, are far from being satisfactorily elucidated.
Wu, Xuechang; Chi, Xiaoqin; Wang, Pinmei; Zheng, Daoqiong; Ding, Rui; Li, Yudong
Responses to extracellular stress are required for microbes to survive in changing environments. Although the stress response mechanisms have been characterized extensively, the evolution of stress response pathway remains poorly understood. Here, we studied the evolution of High Osmolarity Glycerol (HOG) pathway, one of the important osmotic stress response pathways, across 10 yeast species and underpinned the evolutionary forces acting on the pathway evolution. Although the HOG pathway is well conserved across the surveyed yeast species, the evolutionary rate of the genes in this pathway varied substantially among or within different lineages. The fast divergence of MSB2 gene indicates that this gene is subjected to positive selection. Moreover, transcription factors in HOG pathway tend to evolve more rapidly, but the genes in conserved MAPK cascade underwent stronger functional selection. Remarkably, the dN/dS values are negatively correlated with pathway position along HOG pathway from Sln1 (Sho1) to Hog1 for transmitting external signal into nuclear. The increased gradient of selective constraints from upstream to downstream genes suggested that the downstream genes are more pleiotropic, being required for a wider range of pathways. In addition, protein length, codon usage, gene expression, and protein interaction appear to be important factors to determine the evolution of genes in HOG pathway. Taken together, our results suggest that functional constraints play a large role in the evolutionary rate variation in HOG pathway, but the genetic variation was influenced by quite complicated factors, such as pathway position, protein length and so on. These findings provide some insights into how HOG pathway genes evolved rapidly for responding to environmental osmotic stress changes. This article was reviewed by Han Liang (nominated by Laura Landweber), Georgy Bazykin (nominated by Mikhail Gelfand) and Zhenguo Lin (nominated by John Logsdon).
Full Text Available Abstract Background Responses to extracellular stress are required for microbes to survive in changing environments. Although the stress response mechanisms have been characterized extensively, the evolution of stress response pathway remains poorly understood. Here, we studied the evolution of High Osmolarity Glycerol (HOG pathway, one of the important osmotic stress response pathways, across 10 yeast species and underpinned the evolutionary forces acting on the pathway evolution. Results Although the HOG pathway is well conserved across the surveyed yeast species, the evolutionary rate of the genes in this pathway varied substantially among or within different lineages. The fast divergence of MSB2 gene indicates that this gene is subjected to positive selection. Moreover, transcription factors in HOG pathway tend to evolve more rapidly, but the genes in conserved MAPK cascade underwent stronger functional selection. Remarkably, the dN/dS values are negatively correlated with pathway position along HOG pathway from Sln1 (Sho1 to Hog1 for transmitting external signal into nuclear. The increased gradient of selective constraints from upstream to downstream genes suggested that the downstream genes are more pleiotropic, being required for a wider range of pathways. In addition, protein length, codon usage, gene expression, and protein interaction appear to be important factors to determine the evolution of genes in HOG pathway. Conclusions Taken together, our results suggest that functional constraints play a large role in the evolutionary rate variation in HOG pathway, but the genetic variation was influenced by quite complicated factors, such as pathway position, protein length and so on. These findings provide some insights into how HOG pathway genes evolved rapidly for responding to environmental osmotic stress changes. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Han Liang (nominated by Laura Landweber, Georgy Bazykin (nominated by Mikhail Gelfand
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pluripotent stem cells produce tissue-specific lineages through programmed acquisition of sequential gene expression patterns that function as a blueprint for organ formation. As embryonic stem cells respond concomitantly to diverse signaling pathways during differentiation, extraction of a pro-cardiogenic network would offer a roadmap to streamline cardiac progenitor output. METHODS AND RESULTS: To resolve gene ontology priorities within precursor transcriptomes, cardiogenic subpopulations were here generated according to either growth factor guidance or stage-specific biomarker sorting. Innate expression profiles were independently delineated through unbiased systems biology mapping, and cross-referenced to filter transcriptional noise unmasking a conserved progenitor motif (55 up- and 233 down-regulated genes. The streamlined pool of 288 genes organized into a core biological network that prioritized the "Cardiovascular Development" function. Recursive in silico deconvolution of the cardiogenic neighborhood and associated canonical signaling pathways identified a combination of integrated axes, CXCR4/SDF-1, Flk-1/VEGF and BMP2r/BMP2, predicted to synchronize cardiac specification. In vitro targeting of the resolved triad in embryoid bodies accelerated expression of Nkx2.5, Mef2C and cardiac-MHC, enhanced beating activity, and augmented cardiogenic yield. CONCLUSIONS: Transcriptome-wide dissection of a conserved progenitor profile thus revealed functional highways that coordinate cardiogenic maturation from a pluripotent ground state. Validating the bioinformatics algorithm established a strategy to rationally modulate cell fate, and optimize stem cell-derived cardiogenesis.
Yuan, Tong-Ling; Chen, Jin; Tong, Yan-Li; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Wei, James Cheng-Chung; Liu, Yi; Zhao, Yi; Herrmann, Martin
Backgrounds. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been reported to play a regulatory role in osteoclastogenesis. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathways induce osteoblastic differentiation and bone remodeling. Aims. To identify serum levels of HO-1, BMP-7, and Runt related-transcription factor 2 (Runx2) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and to investigate the relationships between HO-1, BMP-7, Runx2, and other common biomarkers for bone metabolism. Results. Serum levels of HO-1 and BMP-7 were revealed to be significantly higher in patients with RA or AS than in healthy controls (p pathways in the two types of arthritis.
Edeling, Maria; Ragi, Grace; Huang, Shizheng; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Susztak, Katalin
Kidney fibrosis is a common histological manifestation of functional decline in the kidney. Fibrosis is a reactive process that develops in response to excessive epithelial injury and inflammation, leading to myofibroblast activation and an accumulation of extracellular matrix. Here, we describe how three key developmental signalling pathways - Notch, Wnt and Hedgehog (Hh) - are reactivated in response to kidney injury and contribute to the fibrotic response. Although transient activation of these pathways is needed for repair of injured tissue, their sustained activation is thought to promote fibrosis. Excessive Wnt and Notch expression prohibit epithelial differentiation, whereas increased Wnt and Hh expression induce fibroblast proliferation and myofibroblastic transdifferentiation. Notch, Wnt and Hh are fundamentally different signalling pathways, but their choreographed activation seems to be just as important for fibrosis as it is for embryonic kidney development. Decreasing the activity of Notch, Wnt or Hh signalling could potentially provide a new therapeutic strategy to ameliorate the development of fibrosis in chronic kidney disease.
Denby, Katherine J; Jason, Laure J M; Murray, Shane L; Last, Robert L
We report the characterization of an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant, ups1, isolated on the basis of reduced expression of phosphoribosylanthranilate transferase, a tryptophan biosynthetic enzyme. ups1 also exhibits defects in a wide range of defence responses. After infection with Pseudomonas syringae or Botrytis cinerea, the expression of genes regulated by both the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid/ethylene pathways is reduced in ups1 compared with wild type. Camalexin accumulation in ups1 is greatly reduced after infection with these two pathogens, as well as after amino acid starvation or oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated gene expression is also compromised in ups1 indicating that this mutant is defective in signalling pathways activated in response to both biotic and abiotic stress. The fact that all three major defence signalling pathways are disrupted in ups1, together with the oxidative stress phenotype, leads us to suggest that UPS1 is involved in ROS signal transduction.
Sato, Tatsuhiro; Higuchi, Yutaka; Shibagaki, Yoshio; Hattori, Seisuke
Curcumin, a major polyphenol of the spice turmeric, acts as a potent chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent in several cancer types, including colon cancer. Although various proteins have been shown to be affected by curcumin, how curcumin exerts its anticancer activity is not fully understood. Phosphoproteomic analyses were performed using SW480 and SW620 human colon cancer cells to identify curcumin-affected signaling pathways. Curcumin inhibited the growth of the two cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Thirty-nine curcumin-regulated phosphoproteins were identified, five of which are involved in cancer signaling pathways. Detailed analyses revealed that the mTORC1 and p53 signaling pathways are main targets of curcumin. Our results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of the anticancer activities of curcumin and future molecular targets for its clinical application. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Obesity and related metabolic syndromes are prevalent on the global scale. Thus far, non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL disease has caused wide attention from domestic and overseas scholars. NAFL cirrhosis is considered to be the central part and inevitable stage of liver cirrhosis developed from simple fatty liver and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. The effect of Hedgehog signaling pathway on hepatocytes in the progression of NAFL fibrosis was elucidated and investigated by a population study. Results showed that abnormal activation of the Hedgehog signaling pathway promoted the progression of NAFL fibrosis. In-depth study on the Hedgehog signaling pathway may provide a new approach for the treatment of NAFL fibrosis.
Chen, Xi; Ye, Shoudong; Ying, Qi-Long
Pluripotent stem cells only exist in a narrow window during early embryonic development, whereas multipotent stem cells are abundant throughout embryonic development and are retainedin various adult tissues and organs. While pluripotent stem cell lines have been established from several species, including mouse, rat, and human, it is still challenging to establish stable multipotent stem cell lines from embryonic or adult tissues. Based on current knowledge, we anticipate that by manipulating extrinsic and intrinsic signaling pathways, most if not all types of stem cells can be maintained in a long-term culture. In this article, we summarize current culture conditions established for the long-term maintenance of authentic pluripotent and multipotent stem cells and the signaling pathways involved. We also discuss the general principles of stem cell maintenance and propose several strategies on the establishment of novel stem cell lines through manipulation of signaling pathways. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(12): 668-676] PMID:26497581
Kim, Soo-Yeon; Choi, Jihye; Lee, Da-Hye; Park, Jun-Hyeok; Hwang, Young-Jae; Baek, Kwang-Hyun
Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) play an important role in the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) by eliminating ubiquitins from substrates and inhibiting proteasomal degradation. Protein phosphatase methylesterase 1 (PME-1) inactivates protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and enhances the ERK and Akt signaling pathways, which increase cell proliferation and malignant cell transformation. In this study, we demonstrate that USP36 regulates PME-1 through its deubiquitinating enzyme activity. USP36 increases PME-1 stability, and depletion of USP36 decreases the PME-1 expression level. Furthermore, we demonstrate that USP36 promotes the ERK and Akt signaling pathways. In summary, it is suggested that USP36 regulates PME-1 as a DUB and participates in the ERK and Akt signaling pathways. © 2018 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.
Gatley, S. J. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)
The primary focus of this project continues to be the development of radiotracers and radiotracer methodology for studying physiology and biochemistry. The compounds that have been labeled areacylethanolamines and acylglycerols that are, as classes, represented in both in plants and in animals. In the latter, some of these act as ligands for cannabinoid receptors and they are therefore known as endocannabinoids. Cannabinoid receptors are not found in plant genomes so that plants must contain other receptors and signaling systems that use acylethanolamines. Relatively little work has been done on that issue, though acylethanolamines do modulate plant growth and stress resistance, thus possessing obvious relevance to agriculture and energy production. Progress has been described in five peer-reviewed papers and seven meeting abstracts. Preparation of 2-acylglycerol lipid messengers in high purity. A novel enzymatic synthesis was developedthat gave pure 2-acylglycerols free of any rearrrangement to the thermodynamically more stable 1(3)-acylglycerol byproducts. The method utilized 1,3-dibutyryl-2-acylglycerol substrate ethanolysis by a resinimobilized lipase. Thus, pure radiolabeled 2-acylglycerols can now be conveniently prepared just prior to their utilization. These synthetic studies were published in the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2011. Diacylglycerol lipase assay methodology. Diacylglycerol lipases (DAGLs) generate 2- acylglycerols, and are thus potential targets for disease- or growth-modifying agents, by means of reducing formation of 2-acylglycerols. A radioTLC assay of the hydrolysis of radiolabeled diglyceride substrate [1''-carbon-14]2-arachidonoyl-1-stearoyl-sn-glycerol has been implemented, and used to validate a novel, potentially highthroughput fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) based assay. A number of new DAGL inhibitors that have selectivity for DAGLs were synthesized and screened. This work was very recently published in
Full Text Available Estradiol (E2 accelerates oviductal egg transport through nongenomic pathways involving oviductal protein phosphorylation in non-mated rats, and through genomic pathways in mated rats. Here we investigated the ability of cervico-vaginal stimulation (CVS to switch the mode of action of E2 in the absence of other male-associated components. Pro-estrous rats were subjected to CVS with a glass rod and 12 hours later were injected subcutaneously with E2 and intrabursally with the RNA synthesis inhibitor Actinomycin D or the protein phosphorylation inhibitor H-89. The number of eggs in the oviduct, assessed 24 h later, showed that Actinomycin D, but not H-89 blocked the E2-induced egg transport acceleration. This clearly indicates that CVS alone, without other mating-associated signals, is able to shift E2 signaling from nongenomic to genomic pathways. Since mating and CVS activate a neuroendocrine reflex that causes iterative prolactin (PRL surges, the involvement of PRL pathway in this phenomenon was evaluated. Prolactin receptor mRNA and protein expression in the rat oviduct was demonstrated by RT-PCR and Western blot, but their levels were not different on day 2 of the cycle (C2 or pregnancy (P2. Activated ST AT 5a/b (phosphorylated was detected by Western blot on P2 in the ovary, but not in the oviduct, showing that mating does not stimulate this PRL signalling pathway in the oviduct. Other rats subjected to CVS in the evening of pro-estrus were treated with bromoergocriptine to suppress PRL surges. In these rats, H-89 did not block the E2-induced acceleration of egg transport suggesting that PRL surges are not essential to shift E2 signaling pathways in the oviduct. We conclude that CVS is one of the components of mating that shifts E2 signaling in the oviduct from nongenomic to genomic pathways, and this effect is independent of PRL surges elicited by mating
Yu, Meiling; Zou, Qi; Wu, Xiaoxiang; Han, Guangshu; Tong, Xuhui
Doxorubicin (DOX) is first-line chemotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the effect is not satisfactory. The resistance of HCC cells to DOX is the main reason leading to treatment failure. Therefore, it is necessary to study the mechanism of DOX resistance in HCC. In this study, expression of connexin (Cx)32 was significantly decreased in HCC tissues compared with corresponding paracancerous tissues, and activity of the Src/focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling pathway was significantly enhanced. Expression of Cx32 was closely associated with activity of the Src/FAK signaling pathway, Cx32, and the Src/FAK signaling pathway was also correlated with degree of HCC differentiation. In DOX-resistant HepG2 cells, compared with DOX-sensitive HepG2 cells, expression of Cx32 was significantly reduced and activity of the Src/FAK pathway increased. After silencing Cx32 in HepG2 cells, activity of the Src/FAK pathway increased and sensitivity to DOX decreased. In contrast, overexpression of Cx32 in HepG2/DOX cells decreased activity of the Src/FAK pathway and increased sensitivity to DOX. Dasatinib and KX2-391, inhibitors of the Src/FAK pathway, significantly increased the sensitivity of HepG2/DOX cells to DOX. The results suggest that Src/FAK is a downstream regulator of Cx32 and Cx32 regulates the sensitivity of HCC cells to DOX via the Src/FAK signaling pathway. Our study demonstrates a potential mechanism of DOX resistance in HCC cells and supports that Cx32-Src/FAK is an important target for reversing drug resistance of HCC. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Lee, Seung Jin; Lee, Yi Sle; Seo, Kyo Won; Bae, Jin Ung; Kim, Gyu Hee; Park, So Youn; Kim, Chi Dae, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Homocysteine (Hcy) at elevated levels is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Hcy on the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) in murine macrophages. Among the MMP known to regulate the activities of collagenase and gelatinase, Hcy exclusively increased the gelatinolytic activity of MMP-9 in J774A.1 cells as well as in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Furthermore, this activity was found to be correlated with Western blot findings in J774A.1 cells, which showed that MMP-9 expression was concentration- and time-dependently increased by Hcy. Inhibition of the ERK and Akt pathways led to a significant decrease in Hcy-induced MMP-9 expression, and combined treatment with inhibitors of the ERK and Akt pathways showed an additive effects. Activity assays for ERK and Akt showed that Hcy increased the phosphorylation of both, but these phosphorylation were not affected by inhibitors of the Akt and ERK pathways. In line with these findings, the molecular inhibition of ERK and Akt using siRNA did not affect the Hcy-induced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK, respectively. Taken together, these findings suggest that Hcy enhances MMP-9 production in murine macrophages by separately activating the ERK and Akt signaling pathways. -- Highlights: ► Homocysteine (Hcy) induced MMP-9 production in murine macrophages. ► Hcy induced MMP-9 production through ERK and Akt signaling pathways. ► ERK and Akt signaling pathways were activated by Hcy in murine macrophages. ► ERK and Akt pathways were additively act on Hcy-induced MMP-9 production. ► Hcy enhances MMP-9 production in macrophages via activation of ERK and Akt signaling pathways in an independent manner.
Xing, Li-Bo; Zhang, Dong; Li, You-Mei; Shen, Ya-Wen; Zhao, Cai-Ping; Ma, Juan-Juan; An, Na; Han, Ming-Yu
Flower induction in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) is regulated by complex gene networks that involve multiple signal pathways to ensure flower bud formation in the next year, but the molecular determinants of apple flower induction are still unknown. In this research, transcriptomic profiles from differentiating buds allowed us to identify genes potentially involved in signaling pathways that mediate the regulatory mechanisms of flower induction. A hypothetical model for this regulatory mechanism was obtained by analysis of the available transcriptomic data, suggesting that sugar-, hormone- and flowering-related genes, as well as those involved in cell-cycle induction, participated in the apple flower induction process. Sugar levels and metabolism-related gene expression profiles revealed that sucrose is the initiation signal in flower induction. Complex hormone regulatory networks involved in cytokinin (CK), abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid pathways also induce apple flower formation. CK plays a key role in the regulation of cell formation and differentiation, and in affecting flowering-related gene expression levels during these processes. Meanwhile, ABA levels and ABA-related gene expression levels gradually increased, as did those of sugar metabolism-related genes, in developing buds, indicating that ABA signals regulate apple flower induction by participating in the sugar-mediated flowering pathway. Furthermore, changes in sugar and starch deposition levels in buds can be affected by ABA content and the expression of the genes involved in the ABA signaling pathway. Thus, multiple pathways, which are mainly mediated by crosstalk between sugar and hormone signals, regulate the molecular network involved in bud growth and flower induction in apple trees. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.
Lorenzo, Oscar; Piqueras, Raquel; Sánchez-Serrano, Jose J.; Solano, Roberto
Cross-talk between ethylene and jasmonate signaling pathways determines the activation of a set of defense responses against pathogens and herbivores. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie this cross-talk are poorly understood. Here, we show that ethylene and jasmonate pathways converge in the transcriptional activation of ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 (ERF1), which encodes a transcription factor that regulates the expression of pathogen response genes that prevent disease progression. The expression of ERF1 can be activated rapidly by ethylene or jasmonate and can be activated synergistically by both hormones. In addition, both signaling pathways are required simultaneously to activate ERF1, because mutations that block any of them prevent ERF1 induction by any of these hormones either alone or in combination. Furthermore, 35S:ERF1 expression can rescue the defense response defects of coi1 (coronative insensitive1) and ein2 (ethylene insensitive2); therefore, it is a likely downstream component of both ethylene and jasmonate signaling pathways. Transcriptome analysis in Col;35S:ERF1 transgenic plants and ethylene/jasmonate-treated wild-type plants further supports the notion that ERF1 regulates in vivo the expression of a large number of genes responsive to both ethylene and jasmonate. These results suggest that ERF1 acts downstream of the intersection between ethylene and jasmonate pathways and suggest that this transcription factor is a key element in the integration of both signals for the regulation of defense response genes. PMID:12509529
Full Text Available Signaling pathways and epigenetic mechanisms have both been shown to play essential roles in regulating stem cell activity. While the role of either mechanism in this regulation is well established in multiple stem cell lineages, how the two mechanisms interact to regulate stem cell activity is not as well understood. Here we report that in the Drosophila testis, an H3K4me3-specific histone demethylase encoded by little imaginal discs (lid maintains germline stem cell (GSC mitotic index and prevents GSC premature differentiation. Lid is required in germ cells for proper expression of the Stat92E transcription factor, the downstream effector of the Janus kinase signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT signaling pathway. Our findings support a germ cell autonomous role for the JAK-STAT pathway in maintaining GSCs and place Lid as an upstream regulator of this pathway. Our study provides new insights into the biological functions of a histone demethylase in vivo and sheds light on the interaction between epigenetic mechanisms and signaling pathways in regulating stem cell activities.
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0172 TITLE: Novel mTORC1 and 2 Signaling Pathways in Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Charles...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0172 Novel mTORC1 and 2 Signaling Pathways in Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...live PKD mice. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Polycystic kidney disease , PKD, mTORC1, mTORC2, Raptor, Rictor. 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF
Full Text Available Polycystic kidney disease (PKD is one of the monogenic inherited diseases. In PKD, excessive cell proliferation and fluid secretion, and disruption of the mechanisms controlling tubular diameter may all lead to cyst formation. Current evidence has demonstrated that intracellular calcium ion and cAMP imbalance drive both abnormal cell proliferation and apoptosis signal pathway. The present paper summarized the evidence implicating calcium ion and cAMP as central players in the signaling pathway of cell proliferation and apoptosis in PKD, and considered the potential therapeutic approaches targeted to slow cyst growth in PKD. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.11.13
Valishkevych B. V.
Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the influence of carbonyl/oxidative stress induced by glyoxal, methylglyoxal and hydrogen peroxide on the survival of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, defective for different parts of TOR- signaling pathway, grown on glucose or fructose. Methods. The assessment of number of colony-forming units to determine the yeast reproductive ability. Results. It was shown that at certain concentrations the mentioned above toxicants caused an increase in yeast survival, indicating the hormetic effect. Conclusions. The TOR signaling pathway is involved in the hormetic effect, but it is specific for each strain and depends on the type of carbohydrate in the incubation medium.
Qu, Zhengyi; Su, Fang; Qi, Xueting; Sun, Jianbo; Wang, Hongcai; Qiao, Zhenkui; Zhao, Hong; Zhu, Yulan
Temporal lobe epilepsy is a chronic disorder of nerve system, mainly characterized by hippocampal sclerosis with massive neuronal loss and severe gliosis. Aberrant neurogenesis has been shown in the epileptogenesis process of temporal lobe epilepsy. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying aberrant neurogenesis remain unclear. The roles of Wnt signalling cascade have been well established in neurogenesis during multiple aspects. Here, we used kainic acid-induced rat epilepsy model to investigate whether Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway is involved in the aberrant neurogenesis in temporal lobe epilepsy. Immunostaining and western blotting results showed that the expression levels of β-catenin, Wnt3a, and cyclin D1, the key regulators in Wnt signalling pathway, were up-regulated during acute epilepsy induced by the injection of kainic acids, indicating that Wnt signalling pathway was activated in kainic acid-induced temporal lobe epilepsy. Moreover, BrdU labelling results showed that blockade of the Wnt signalling by knocking down β-catenin attenuated aberrant neurogenesis induced by kainic acids injection. Altogether, Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway mediated hippocampal neurogenesis during epilepsy, which might provide new strategies for clinical treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy is a chronic disor