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Sample records for bmi measures based

  1. Correction of self-reported BMI based on objective measurements: a Belgian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drieskens, S; Demarest, S; Bel, S; De Ridder, K; Tafforeau, J

    2018-01-01

    Based on successive Health Interview Surveys (HIS), it has been demonstrated that also in Belgium obesity, measured by means of a self-reported body mass index (BMI in kg/m 2 ), is a growing public health problem that needs to be monitored as accurately as possible. Studies have shown that a self-reported BMI can be biased. Consequently, if the aim is to rely on a self-reported BMI, adjustment is recommended. Data on measured and self-reported BMI, derived from the Belgian Food Consumption Survey (FCS) 2014 offers the opportunity to do so. The HIS and FCS are cross-sectional surveys based on representative population samples. This study focused on adults aged 18-64 years (sample HIS = 6545 and FCS = 1213). Measured and self-reported BMI collected in FCS were used to assess possible misreporting. Using FCS data, correction factors (measured BMI/self-reported BMI) were calculated in function of a combination of background variables (region, gender, educational level and age group). Individual self-reported BMI of the HIS 2013 were then multiplied with the corresponding correction factors to produce a corrected BMI-classification. When compared with the measured BMI, the self-reported BMI in the FCS was underestimated (mean 0.97 kg/m 2 ). 28% of the obese people underestimated their BMI. After applying the correction factors, the prevalence of obesity based on HIS data significantly increased (from 13% based on the original HIS data to 17% based on the corrected HIS data) and approximated the measured one derived from the FCS data. Since self-reported calculations of BMI are underestimated, it is recommended to adjust them to obtain accurate estimates which are important for decision making.

  2. Associations between Three School-Based Measures of Health: Is BMI Enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Emily H.; Houser, Robert F.; Au, Lauren E.; Sacheck, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    School-based body mass index (BMI) notification programs are often used to raise parental awareness of childhood overweight and obesity, but how BMI results are associated with physical fitness and diet is less clear. This study examined the relationship between BMI, fitness, and diet quality in a diverse sample of urban schoolchildren…

  3. BMI calculation in older people: The effect of using direct and surrogate measures of height in a community-based setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Rose; McClinchy, Jane; Morreale-Parker, Claudia; Marsh, Wendy; Rennie, Kirsten L

    2017-12-01

    There is currently no consensus on which measure of height should be used in older people's body mass index (BMI) calculation. Most estimates of nutritional status include a measurement of body weight and height which should be reliable and accurate, however at present several different methods are used interchangeably. BMI, a key marker in malnutrition assessment, does not reflect age-related changes in height or changes in body composition such as loss of muscle mass or presence of oedema. The aim of this pilot study was to assess how the use of direct and surrogate measures of height impacts on BMI calculation in people aged ≥75 years. A cross-sectional study of 64 free-living older people (75-96 yrs) quantified height by two direct measurements, current height (H C ), and self-report (H R ) and surrogate equations using knee height (H K ) and ulna length (H U ). BMI calculated from current height measurement (BMI C ) was compared with BMI calculated using self-reported height (BMI R ) and height estimated from surrogate equations for knee height (BMI K ) and ulna length (BMI U ). Median difference of BMI C -BMI R was 2.31 kg/m 2 . BMI K gave the closest correlation to BMI C . The percentage of study participants identified at increased risk of under-nutrition (BMI BMI; from 5% (BMI C ), 7.8% (BMI K ), 12.5% (BMI U ), to 14% (BMI R ) respectively. The results of this pilot study in a relatively healthy sample of older people suggest that interchangeable use of current and reported height in people ≥75 years can introduce substantial significant systematic error. This discrepancy could impact nutritional assessment of older people in poor health and lead to misclassification during nutritional screening if other visual and clinical clues are not taken into account. This could result in long-term clinical and cost implications if individuals who need nutrition support are not correctly identified. A consensus is required on which method should be used to

  4. Can self-reported BMI be used as a valid measure among novice runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Martin Serup; Nielsen, R.O.; Rasmussen, Sten

    There is an increased risk of running related injuries (RRI) among novice runners with a Body Mass Index (BMI) above 25. Information about BMI can be collected through questionnaires, when studies investigate if there is an association between BMI and RRI among novice runners. But can self......-reported BMI be used as a valid measure compared to BMI measured with a calibrated weight. PURPOSE : To determine the validity of self-reported BMI among novice runners. METHODS: Data on BMI was obtained from a prospective follow-up study investigating the link between training exposure and the development...... invited to a test at baseline after meeting the requirements for participation. Information about BMI was obtained in two ways; firstly, from the online based questionnaire where the participants had to report height and weight themselves. Secondly, the weight was measured with calibrated weight (Tanita...

  5. Is BMI a valid measure of obesity in postmenopausal women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banack, Hailey R; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Hovey, Kathleen M; Stokes, Andrew

    2018-03-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is a widely used indicator of obesity status in clinical settings and population health research. However, there are concerns about the validity of BMI as a measure of obesity in postmenopausal women. Unlike BMI, which is an indirect measure of obesity and does not distinguish lean from fat mass, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) provides a direct measure of body fat and is considered a gold standard of adiposity measurement. The goal of this study is to examine the validity of using BMI to identify obesity in postmenopausal women relative to total body fat percent measured by DXA scan. Data from 1,329 postmenopausal women participating in the Buffalo OsteoPerio Study were used in this analysis. At baseline, women ranged in age from 53 to 85 years. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m and body fat percent (BF%) greater than 35%, 38%, or 40%. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value to evaluate the validity of BMI-defined obesity relative BF%. We further explored the validity of BMI relative to BF% using graphical tools, such as scatterplots and receiver-operating characteristic curves. Youden's J index was used to determine the empirical optimal BMI cut-point for each level of BF% defined obesity. The sensitivity of BMI-defined obesity was 32.4% for 35% body fat, 44.6% for 38% body fat, and 55.2% for 40% body fat. Corresponding specificity values were 99.3%, 97.1%, and 94.6%, respectively. The empirical optimal BMI cut-point to define obesity is 24.9 kg/m for 35% BF, 26.49 kg/m for 38% BF, and 27.05 kg/m for 40% BF according to the Youden's index. Results demonstrate that a BMI cut-point of 30 kg/m does not appear to be an appropriate indicator of true obesity status in postmenopausal women. Empirical estimates of the validity of BMI from this study may be used by other investigators to account for BMI-related misclassification in older women.

  6. A Comparison of Perceived and Measured Paternal Weight and BMI, and Relationship to Weight and BMI of his Children

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, RF

    2018-02-01

    Nineteen percent of 9 years old Irish children are overweight; seven percent are obese. Our aims were: to examine whether differences exist between paternal self-reported and measured height, weight and BMI in a population representative sample; and to explore paternal perceptions of their own weight status.\\r\

  7. Assessing the accuracy of two proxy measures for BMI in a semi-rural, low-resource setting in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, Jonathan N; Hruschka, Daniel J

    2014-09-19

    Validation studies of self-reported BMI are limited to populations in high-income countries or urban settings. Here, we assess the accuracy of two proxy measures of measured height, weight and BMI - self-reported values and the Stunkard figure scale - in a semi-rural population in Guatemala. Self-reported values and Stunkard figure selection were elicited prior to biometric measurements from a total of 175 non-pregnant women recruited based on a stratified random sample of households, with 92 women providing full data for validation across measures. 86.3% of participants self-reported weight and 62.3% height. Among those responding, self-reported weight is highly accurate though lower relationships for height contribute to error in reported BMI. The Stunkard scale has a higher response rate (97.1%) and while less accurate in predicting BMI values, more accurately predicts BMI categories. Self-reported measures are more accurate than the Stunkard scale in estimating BMI values, while the latter is more accurate in estimating BMI categories. High non-response rates and lower correlations between reported and measured height caution against using self-reported biometric data other than raw weight in low-resource settings.

  8. Associations between depression and different measures of obesity (BMI, WC, WHtR, WHR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltink, Jörg; Michal, Matthias; Wild, Philipp S; Zwiener, Isabella; Blettner, Maria; Münzel, Thomas; Schulz, Andreas; Kirschner, Yvonne; Beutel, Manfred E

    2013-09-12

    Growing evidence suggests that abdominal obesity is a more important risk factor for the prognosis of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases than BMI. Somatic-affective symptoms of depression have also been linked to cardiovascular risk. The relationship between obesity and depression, however, has remained contradictory. Our aim was therefore to relate body mass index (BMI) and different measures for abdominal obesity (waist circumference, WC, waist-to-hip ratio, WHR, waist-to-height ratio, WHtR) to somatic vs. cognitive-affective symptoms of depression. In a cross-sectional population based study, data on the first N = 5000 participants enrolled in the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS) are reported. To analyze the relationship between depression and obesity, we computed linear regression models with the anthropometric measure (BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR) as the dependent variable and life style factors, cardiovascular risk factors and psychotropic medications as potential confounders of obesity/depression. We found that only the somatic, but not the cognitive-affective symptoms of depression are consistently positively associated with anthropometric measures of obesity. We could demonstrate that the somatic-affective symptoms of depression rather than the cognitive-affective symptoms are strongly related to anthropometric measures. This is also true for younger obese starting at the age of 35 years. Our results are in line with previous studies indicating that visceral adipose tissue plays a key role in the relationship between obesity, depression and cardiovascular disease.

  9. Gender and Stress Perception Based Differences in BMI, Hormonal Response and Appetite in Adult Pakistani Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, Z.; Haleem, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the gender based variations in stress perception induced changes in leptin, cortisol and serotonin (5-HT) trends, appetite and Body Mass Index (BMI). Study Design: An analytical comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Neurochemistry Laboratory, University of Karachi, from January to August 2013. Methodology: Appetite, BMI and serum leptin, cortisol, and 5-HT were measured in 100 men and women of aged 30 - 60 years, working in teaching institutes of Karachi, to evaluate gender based, stress perception induced variations. The samples were identified by stratified random technique. The chemical variables were estimated through ELISA. Results were analysed using one-way ANOVA and multivariate general linear model using SPSS version 17. Results: Mean stress perception, BMI and serum leptin levels were significantly more in women (p < 0.05). Serum cortisol and 5-HT were found significantly reduced in women (p < 0.05). BMI, serum cortisol and leptin were found to be increased with increasing level of stress perception (p < 0.05). VAS for hunger and desire to eat as the measure of appetite was significantly higher in men (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Stress perception attenuates the positive effect of cortisol and negative effects of leptin and 5-HT on appetite through changes in their circulatory levels. Women perceive more stress and exhibit significantly attenuated changes in hormonal levels and appetite which may be the contributing factor towards obesity. Increased BMI in women despite decreased appetite merits more studies. (author)

  10. Body Mass Index (BMI) in women booking for antenatal care: comparison between selfreported and digital measurements.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fattah, Chro

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: We set out to compare measurement of Body Mass Index (BMI) with selfreporting in women early in pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: We studied 100 women booking for antenatal care in the first trimester with a normal ongoing pregnancy. Selfreported maternal weight and height were recorded and the Body Mass Index was calculated. Afterwards maternal weight and height were digitally measured and actual BMI was calculated. RESULTS: If selfreporting is used for BMI classification, we found that 22% of women were classified incorrectly when BMI was measured. 12% of the women who were classified as having a normal selfreported BMI were overweight and 5% classified as overweight were obese. Similar findings have been reported outside pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: These findings have implications for clinical practice, and for research studies exploring the relationship between maternal adiposity and pregnancy complications.

  11. Supplementation of vitamin D after birth affects body size and BMI in Polish children during the first 3.5 years of life - an analysis based on two cohorts measured in the years 1993-1997 and 2004-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruszkowska-Przybylska, Paulina; Nieczuja-Dwojacka, Joanna; Żądzińska, Elżbieta

    2018-03-28

    Objectives : The aim of this study was to assess whether the time of vitamin D supplementation after birth, season of birth and the type of feeding affected current body weight, body height and BMI among children aged 3-56 months from two cohorts. Additionally, it was analysed whether birth weight and birth length correlated with current BMI, body height and body weight in both cohorts of children. Methods : The study material included 1930 children from the two cohorts, measured in two following periods: 1993-1997 and 2004-2008. Finally 849 healthy individuals aged 3-56 months were included in the analysis. Multiple stepwise regression model was applied to find the group of the most important variables explaining current body weight, body height and BMI. Moreover generalized linear models for two way interactions were used. Results : The season of birth, time of supplementation of vitamin D, but also birth weight and length might affect current body weight. Individuals' height could be associated with birth length and the season of birth. BMI value was probably regulated by birth length and weight. Furthermore, interactions between the time of vitamin D supplementation and season of birth and also between the time of vitamin D supplementation and type of feeding resulting in variation of body weight and BMI in the first years of life were also observed. Conclusions : The study underlines the importance of a supplementation of vitamin D, season of birth and birth weight and length in current weight, height and body proportion in the first 3.5 years of life.

  12. Associations between depression and different measures of obesity (BMI, WC, WHtR, WHR)

    OpenAIRE

    Wiltink, J?rg; Michal, Matthias; Wild, Philipp S; Zwiener, Isabella; Blettner, Maria; M?nzel, Thomas; Schulz, Andreas; Kirschner, Yvonne; Beutel, Manfred E

    2013-01-01

    Background Growing evidence suggests that abdominal obesity is a more important risk factor for the prognosis of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases than BMI. Somatic-affective symptoms of depression have also been linked to cardiovascular risk. The relationship between obesity and depression, however, has remained contradictory. Our aim was therefore to relate body mass index (BMI) and different measures for abdominal obesity (waist circumference, WC, waist-to-hip ratio, WHR, waist-to-heig...

  13. BMI and BMI SDS in childhood: annual increments and conditional change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannsether, Bente; Eide, Geir Egil; Roelants, Mathieu; Bjerknes, Robert; Júlíusson, Pétur Benedikt

    2017-02-01

    Background Early detection of abnormal weight gain in childhood may be important for preventive purposes. It is still debated which annual changes in BMI should warrant attention. Aim To analyse 1-year increments of Body Mass Index (BMI) and standardised BMI (BMI SDS) in childhood and explore conditional change in BMI SDS as an alternative method to evaluate 1-year changes in BMI. Subjects and methods The distributions of 1-year increments of BMI (kg/m 2 ) and BMI SDS are summarised by percentiles. Differences according to sex, age, height, weight, initial BMI and weight status on the BMI and BMI SDS increments were assessed with multiple linear regression. Conditional change in BMI SDS was based on the correlation between annual BMI measurements converted to SDS. Results BMI increments depended significantly on sex, height, weight and initial BMI. Changes in BMI SDS depended significantly only on the initial BMI SDS. The distribution of conditional change in BMI SDS using a two-correlation model was close to normal (mean = 0.11, SD = 1.02, n = 1167), with 3.2% (2.3-4.4%) of the observations below -2 SD and 2.8% (2.0-4.0%) above +2 SD. Conclusion Conditional change in BMI SDS can be used to detect unexpected large changes in BMI SDS. Although this method requires the use of a computer, it may be clinically useful to detect aberrant weight development.

  14. Associations between parity and maternal BMI in a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Ditte S; Kesmodel, Ulrik S; Ovesen, Per G

    2018-02-07

    We aimed to investigate the change in prevalence of overweight and obesity in pregnant Danish women from 2004 to 2012, and investigate whether increasing parity was associated with a change in body mass index (BMI) prevalence. We obtained a population-based cohort from the Danish Medical Birth Registry consisting of all Danish women giving birth in 2004-2012 (n = 572 321). This registry contains information on 99.8% of all births in Denmark. We calculated the overall change in prepregnancy BMI status among pregnant women in Denmark, and a multiple linear regression model with adjustment for several potential confounders was used to examine the change in prepregnancy BMI with increasing parity. In 2004, the prevalence of prepregnancy overweight and obesity (BMI ≥ 25) and obesity alone (BMI ≥ 30) was 31.9 and 11%, respectively. In 2012, the prevalence had reached 34.2 and 12.8%. The mean BMI increased for every additional parity from 23.80 (95% CI 23.77-23.82) in parity group 1 to 26.70 (26.52-26.90) in parity group 5+. A multiple linear regression adjusted for potential confounders showed that women on average gained 0.62 (0.58-0.65) BMI units after every additional birth. This study showed a 7.2% increase in overweight and obesity (BMI ≥ 25) and a 16.4% increase in obesity alone (BMI ≥ 30) for pregnant women in Denmark from 2004 to 2012. In addition, an increase in interpregnancy BMI was seen at every additional delivery, suggesting that obesity is an increasing challenge in obstetrics. © 2018 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. Know Your Body Mass Index (BMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Special Section Know Your Body Mass Index (BMI) Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents For ... it pays to understand your body mass index (BMI), a measure of body fat based on height ...

  16. ERD-based online brain-machine interfaces (BMI) in the context of neurorehabilitation: optimizing BMI learning and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soekadar, Surjo R; Witkowski, Matthias; Mellinger, Jürgen; Ramos, Ander; Birbaumer, Niels; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2011-10-01

    Event-related desynchronization (ERD) of sensori-motor rhythms (SMR) can be used for online brain-machine interface (BMI) control, but yields challenges related to the stability of ERD and feedback strategy to optimize BMI learning.Here, we compared two approaches to this challenge in 20 right-handed healthy subjects (HS, five sessions each, S1-S5) and four stroke patients (SP, 15 sessions each, S1-S15). ERD was recorded from a 275-sensor MEG system. During daily training,motor imagery-induced ERD led to visual and proprioceptive feedback delivered through an orthotic device attached to the subjects' hand and fingers. Group A trained with a heterogeneous reference value (RV) for ERD detection with binary feedback and Group B with a homogenous RV and graded feedback (10 HS and 2 SP in each group). HS in Group B showed better BMI performance than Group A (p learning was significantly better (p learning relative to use of a heterogeneous RV and binary feedback.

  17. Understanding Pediatricians' Views toward School-Based BMI Screening in Massachusetts: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietras, Stefanie A.; Rhodes, Erinn T.; Meyers, Alan; Goodman, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Background: Massachusetts (MA) mandated body mass index (BMI) screening in schools in 2010. However, little is known about pediatricians' views on school-based screening or how the pediatricians' perspectives might affect the school-based screening process. We assessed MA pediatricians' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices concerning BMI…

  18. EFFECTS OF A SCHOOL-BASED INTERVENTION ON BMI AND MOTOR ABILITIES IN CHILDHOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Graf

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity in childhood is increasing worldwide. To combat overweight and obesity in childhood, the school-based Children's Health InterventionaL Trial (CHILT project combines health education and physical activity. This paper examines the effect of intervention on the body mass index (BMI and motor abilities after 20.8 ± 1.0 months in 12 randomly selected primary schools compared with 5 randomly selected control schools. The anthropometric data were assessed, BMI was calculated. Coordination was determined by lateral jumping and endurance performance by a 6-minute run. No difference in the prevalence of overweight and obesity was found between the intervention (IS and control schools (CS either at baseline or following intervention (each p > 0.05. The increase in the number of lateral jumps was significantly higher in the IS than in the CS (p < 0.001. For the 6-minute run the increase in distance run was significantly improved in IS (p = 0.020. All variables were controlled for gender and age. Overweight and obese children in both IS and CS produced significantly lower scores in coordination and endurance tasks than normal and underweight children during both examinations (each p < 0.001, adjusted for gender and age. Preventive intervention in primary schools offers an effective means to improve motor skills in childhood and to break through the vicious circle of physical inactivity - motor deficits - frustration - increasing inactivity possibly combined with an excess energy intake and weight gain. To prevent overweight and obesity these measures have to be intensified

  19. Correlation between physical activity measured by accelerometry and BMI in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Stabelini Neto

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between physical activity measured by accelerometry and excess weight in schoolchildren. Three hundred and ninety one school-age adolescents (10 to 18 years old participated in the study. The cut-off points used to estimate time spent in physical activity were: moderate ≥3.0 METs and vigorous ≥6.0 METs. Student’s t-test and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient were used to verify statistical differences and correlations between physical activity and body mass index (BMI. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Male schoolchildren spent more time in moderate (96.1 ± 39.6 min.day-1 and vigorous (9.7 ± 8.8 min.day-1 physical activity than their female peers (moderate: 73.7 ± 37.7 min.day-1; vigorous: 6.1 ± 6.8 min.day-1. For both sexes, younger schoolchildren (10 to 14 years old were more physically active than older ones (14 to 18 years old. Time spent in moderate-vigorous physical activity was inversely related to BMI. These findings suggest that regular physical activity (RPA is related to body weight reduction in schoolchildren. Therefore, RPA can be used as an obesity prevention strategy in elementary school.

  20. School-Based BMI and Body Composition Screening and Parent Notification in California: Methods and Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Kristine A.; Linchey, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Background: School-based body mass index (BMI) or body composition screening is increasing, but little is known about the process of parent notification. Since 2001, California has required annual screening of body composition via the FITNESSGRAM, with optional notification. This study sought to identify the prevalence of parental notification…

  1. Design and Optimization of an EEG-Based Brain Machine Interface (BMI) to an Upper-Limb Exoskeleton for Stroke Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Nikunj A.; Venkatakrishnan, Anusha; Abibullaev, Berdakh; Artz, Edward J.; Yozbatiran, Nuray; Blank, Amy A.; French, James; Karmonik, Christof; Grossman, Robert G.; O'Malley, Marcia K.; Francisco, Gerard E.; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L.

    2016-01-01

    This study demonstrates the feasibility of detecting motor intent from brain activity of chronic stroke patients using an asynchronous electroencephalography (EEG)-based brain machine interface (BMI). Intent was inferred from movement related cortical potentials (MRCPs) measured over an optimized set of EEG electrodes. Successful intent detection triggered the motion of an upper-limb exoskeleton (MAHI Exo-II), to guide movement and to encourage active user participation by providing instantaneous sensory feedback. Several BMI design features were optimized to increase system performance in the presence of single-trial variability of MRCPs in the injured brain: (1) an adaptive time window was used for extracting features during BMI calibration; (2) training data from two consecutive days were pooled for BMI calibration to increase robustness to handle the day-to-day variations typical of EEG, and (3) BMI predictions were gated by residual electromyography (EMG) activity from the impaired arm, to reduce the number of false positives. This patient-specific BMI calibration approach can accommodate a broad spectrum of stroke patients with diverse motor capabilities. Following BMI optimization on day 3, testing of the closed-loop BMI-MAHI exoskeleton, on 4th and 5th days of the study, showed consistent BMI performance with overall mean true positive rate (TPR) = 62.7 ± 21.4% on day 4 and 67.1 ± 14.6% on day 5. The overall false positive rate (FPR) across subjects was 27.74 ± 37.46% on day 4 and 27.5 ± 35.64% on day 5; however for two subjects who had residual motor function and could benefit from the EMG-gated BMI, the mean FPR was quite low (BMI for stroke patients can be designed and optimized to perform well across multiple days without system recalibration. PMID:27065787

  2. Renal cortical volume measured using automatic contouring software for computed tomography and its relationship with BMI, age and renal function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muto, Natalia Sayuri, E-mail: nataliamuto@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Hospital, N15 W7, kita-ku, Sapporo City, 0608638 (Japan); Kamishima, Tamotsu, E-mail: ktamotamo2@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Hospital, N15 W7, kita-ku, Sapporo City, 0608638 (Japan); Harris, Ardene A., E-mail: ardene_b@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Hospital, N15 W7, kita-ku, Sapporo City, 0608638 (Japan); Kato, Fumi, E-mail: fumikato@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Hospital, N15 W7, kita-ku, Sapporo City, 0608638 (Japan); Onodera, Yuya, E-mail: yuyaonodera@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Hospital, N15 W7, kita-ku, Sapporo City, 0608638 (Japan); Terae, Satoshi, E-mail: saterae@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Hospital, N15 W7, kita-ku, Sapporo City, 0608638 (Japan); Shirato, Hiroki, E-mail: shirato@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Hospital, N15 W7, kita-ku, Sapporo City, 0608638 (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between renal cortical volume, measured by an automatic contouring software, with body mass index (BMI), age and renal function. Materials and methods: The study was performed in accordance to the institutional guidelines at our hospital. Sixty-four patients (34 men, 30 women), aged 19 to 79 years had their CT scans for diagnosis or follow-up of hepatocellular carcinoma retrospectively examined by a computer workstation using a software that automatically contours the renal cortex and the renal parenchyma. Body mass index and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were calculated based on data collected. Statistical analysis was done using the Student t-test, multiple regression analysis, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: The ICC for total renal and renal cortical volumes were 0.98 and 0.99, respectively. Renal volume measurements yielded a mean cortical volume of 105.8 cm{sup 3} {+-} 28.4 SD, mean total volume of 153 cm{sup 3} {+-} 39 SD and mean medullary volume of 47.8 cm{sup 3} {+-} 19.5 SD. The correlation between body weight/height/BMI and both total renal and cortical volumes presented r = 0.6, 0.6 and 0.4, respectively, p < 0.05, while the correlation between renal cortex and age was r = -0.3, p < 0.05. eGFR showed correlation with renal cortical volume r = 0.6, p < 0.05. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that renal cortical volume had a moderate positive relationship with BMI, moderate negative relationship with age, and a strong positive relationship with the renal function, and provided a new method to routinely produce volumetric assessment of the kidney.

  3. Renal cortical volume measured using automatic contouring software for computed tomography and its relationship with BMI, age and renal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, Natalia Sayuri; Kamishima, Tamotsu; Harris, Ardene A.; Kato, Fumi; Onodera, Yuya; Terae, Satoshi; Shirato, Hiroki

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between renal cortical volume, measured by an automatic contouring software, with body mass index (BMI), age and renal function. Materials and methods: The study was performed in accordance to the institutional guidelines at our hospital. Sixty-four patients (34 men, 30 women), aged 19 to 79 years had their CT scans for diagnosis or follow-up of hepatocellular carcinoma retrospectively examined by a computer workstation using a software that automatically contours the renal cortex and the renal parenchyma. Body mass index and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were calculated based on data collected. Statistical analysis was done using the Student t-test, multiple regression analysis, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: The ICC for total renal and renal cortical volumes were 0.98 and 0.99, respectively. Renal volume measurements yielded a mean cortical volume of 105.8 cm 3 ± 28.4 SD, mean total volume of 153 cm 3 ± 39 SD and mean medullary volume of 47.8 cm 3 ± 19.5 SD. The correlation between body weight/height/BMI and both total renal and cortical volumes presented r = 0.6, 0.6 and 0.4, respectively, p < 0.05, while the correlation between renal cortex and age was r = -0.3, p < 0.05. eGFR showed correlation with renal cortical volume r = 0.6, p < 0.05. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that renal cortical volume had a moderate positive relationship with BMI, moderate negative relationship with age, and a strong positive relationship with the renal function, and provided a new method to routinely produce volumetric assessment of the kidney.

  4. A hybrid BMI-based exoskeleton for paresis: EMG control for assisting arm movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Toshihiro; Sakurada, Takeshi; Koike, Yasuharu; Kansaku, Kenji

    2017-02-01

    Objective. Brain-machine interface (BMI) technologies have succeeded in controlling robotic exoskeletons, enabling some paralyzed people to control their own arms and hands. We have developed an exoskeleton asynchronously controlled by EEG signals. In this study, to enable real-time control of the exoskeleton for paresis, we developed a hybrid system with EEG and EMG signals, and the EMG signals were used to estimate its joint angles. Approach. Eleven able-bodied subjects and two patients with upper cervical spinal cord injuries (SCIs) performed hand and arm movements, and the angles of the metacarpophalangeal (MP) joint of the index finger, wrist, and elbow were estimated from EMG signals using a formula that we derived to calculate joint angles from EMG signals, based on a musculoskeletal model. The formula was exploited to control the elbow of the exoskeleton after automatic adjustments. Four able-bodied subjects and a patient with upper cervical SCI wore an exoskeleton controlled using EMG signals and were required to perform hand and arm movements to carry and release a ball. Main results. Estimated angles of the MP joints of index fingers, wrists, and elbows were correlated well with the measured angles in 11 able-bodied subjects (correlation coefficients were 0.81  ±  0.09, 0.85  ±  0.09, and 0.76  ±  0.13, respectively) and the patients (e.g. 0.91  ±  0.01 in the elbow of a patient). Four able-bodied subjects successfully positioned their arms to adequate angles by extending their elbows and a joint of the exoskeleton, with root-mean-square errors  BMI-based exoskeleton for paralyzed arms and hands using real-time control was realized by designing a new method to estimate joint angles based on EMG signals, and these may be useful for practical rehabilitation and the support of daily actions.

  5. A BMI-based occupational therapy assist suit: asynchronous control by SSVEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi eSakurada

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A brain-machine interface (BMI is an interface technology that uses neurophysiological signals from the brain to control external machines. Recent invasive BMI technologies have succeeded in the asynchronous control of robot arms for a useful series of actions, such as reaching and grasping. In this study, we developed non-invasive BMI technologies aiming to make such useful movements using the subject's own hands by preparing a BMI-based occupational therapy assist suit (BOTAS. We prepared a pre-recorded series of useful actionsa grasping-a-ball movement and a carrying-the-ball movementand added asynchronous control using steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP signals. A SSVEP signal was used to trigger the grasping-a-ball movement and another SSVEP signal was used to trigger the carrying-the-ball movement. A support vector machine was used to classify EEG signals recorded from the visual cortex (Oz in real time. Untrained, able-bodied participants (n = 12 operated the system successfully. Classification accuracy and time required for SSVEP detection were approximately 88% and 3 s, respectively. We further recruited three patients with upper cervical spinal cord injuries; they also succeeded in operating the system without training. These data suggest that our BOTAS system is potentially useful in terms of rehabilitation of patients with upper limb disabilities.

  6. A BMI-based occupational therapy assist suit: asynchronous control by SSVEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurada, Takeshi; Kawase, Toshihiro; Takano, Kouji; Komatsu, Tomoaki; Kansaku, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    A brain-machine interface (BMI) is an interface technology that uses neurophysiological signals from the brain to control external machines. Recent invasive BMI technologies have succeeded in the asynchronous control of robot arms for a useful series of actions, such as reaching and grasping. In this study, we developed non-invasive BMI technologies aiming to make such useful movements using the subject's own hands by preparing a BMI-based occupational therapy assist suit (BOTAS). We prepared a pre-recorded series of useful actions-a grasping-a-ball movement and a carrying-the-ball movement-and added asynchronous control using steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) signals. A SSVEP signal was used to trigger the grasping-a-ball movement and another SSVEP signal was used to trigger the carrying-the-ball movement. A support vector machine was used to classify EEG signals recorded from the visual cortex (Oz) in real time. Untrained, able-bodied participants (n = 12) operated the system successfully. Classification accuracy and time required for SSVEP detection were ~88% and 3 s, respectively. We further recruited three patients with upper cervical spinal cord injuries (SCIs); they also succeeded in operating the system without training. These data suggest that our BOTAS system is potentially useful in terms of rehabilitation of patients with upper limb disabilities.

  7. BMI gain and insulin resistance among school-aged children: a population-based longitudinal study in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Barbara H; Gimeno, Suely G A; Cardoso, Marly A

    2014-12-14

    Investigation of the determinants of metabolic outcomes associated with non-communicable diseases is increasingly important in developing countries, but such parameters have not been explored extensively during childhood. The present study assessed the impact of weight gain, measured as BMI-for-age Z-scores, on glucose and insulin concentrations, homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure during school years among Amazonian children. A population-based prospective study of 696 children aged >4 to ≤ 10 years with complete anthropometric information at baseline (51% females and 86% of mixed race) was carried out; 411 children had data on metabolic parameters after a median follow-up period of 2.0 years (range 1.7-2.6 years). During follow-up, there was a significant increase in the proportion of overweight children (BMI-for-age Z-score >1) from 10.1 to 15.8% (P= 0.003). In linear regression models adjusted for the child's sex, age, race/ethnicity, baseline household wealth, birth weight and pubertal development stage, for each unit of BMI-for-age Z-score variation during follow-up, an increase of 8.58 (95% CI 7.68, 9.60) pmol/l in fasting plasma insulin concentrations and 1.47 (95% CI 1.30, 1.66) in HOMA-IR values was observed. There was no significant impact of weight gain on glucose concentrations and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. In conclusion, we found evidence that an increase in BMI during a 2-year period affected insulin resistance during school years. Considering the significant increase in overweight in this age group, special attention should be paid to monitoring increases in BMI in children from the Brazilian Amazon.

  8. Infant BMI peak as a predictor of overweight and obesity at age 2 years in a Chinese community-based cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Nwaru, Bright I; Hua, Jing; Li, Xiaohong; Wu, Zhuochun

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Infant body mass index (BMI) peak has proven to be a useful indicator for predicting childhood obesity risk in American and European populations. However, it has not been assessed in China. We characterised infant BMI trajectories in a Chinese longitudinal cohort and evaluated whether BMI peak can predict overweight and obesity at age 2 years. Methods Serial measurements (n=6–12) of weight and length were taken from healthy term infants (n=2073) in a birth cohort established in urban Shanghai. Measurements were used to estimate BMI growth curves from birth to 13.5 months using a polynomial regression model. BMI peak characteristics, including age (in months) and magnitude (BMI, in kg/m2) at peak and prepeak velocities (in kg/m2/month), were estimated. The relationship between infant BMI peak and childhood BMI at age 2 years was examined using binary logistic analysis. Results Mean age at peak BMI was 7.61 months, with a magnitude of 18.33 kg/m2. Boys (n=1022) had a higher average peak BMI (18.60 vs 18.07 kg/m2, pBMI and 1 month increase in peak time, the risk of overweight at age 2 years increased by 2.11 times (OR 3.11; 95% CI 2.64 to 3.66) and 35% (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.21 to 1.50), respectively. Similarly, higher BMI magnitude (OR 2.69; 95% CI 2.00 to 3.61) and later timing of infant BMI peak (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.68) were associated with an increased risk of childhood obesity at age 2 years. Conclusions We have shown that infant BMI peak is valuable for predicting early childhood overweight and obesity in urban Shanghai. Because this is the first Chinese community-based cohort study of this nature, future research is required to examine infant populations in other areas of China. PMID:28988164

  9. Infant BMI peak as a predictor of overweight and obesity at age 2 years in a Chinese community-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Nwaru, Bright I; Hua, Jing; Li, Xiaohong; Wu, Zhuochun

    2017-10-06

    Infant body mass index (BMI) peak has proven to be a useful indicator for predicting childhood obesity risk in American and European populations. However, it has not been assessed in China. We characterised infant BMI trajectories in a Chinese longitudinal cohort and evaluated whether BMI peak can predict overweight and obesity at age 2 years. Serial measurements (n=6-12) of weight and length were taken from healthy term infants (n=2073) in a birth cohort established in urban Shanghai. Measurements were used to estimate BMI growth curves from birth to 13.5 months using a polynomial regression model. BMI peak characteristics, including age (in months) and magnitude (BMI, in kg/m 2 ) at peak and prepeak velocities (in kg/m 2 /month), were estimated. The relationship between infant BMI peak and childhood BMI at age 2 years was examined using binary logistic analysis. Mean age at peak BMI was 7.61 months, with a magnitude of 18.33 kg/m 2 . Boys (n=1022) had a higher average peak BMI (18.60 vs 18.07 kg/m 2 , pBMI and 1 month increase in peak time, the risk of overweight at age 2 years increased by 2.11 times (OR 3.11; 95% CI 2.64 to 3.66) and 35% (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.21 to 1.50), respectively. Similarly, higher BMI magnitude (OR 2.69; 95% CI 2.00 to 3.61) and later timing of infant BMI peak (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.68) were associated with an increased risk of childhood obesity at age 2 years. We have shown that infant BMI peak is valuable for predicting early childhood overweight and obesity in urban Shanghai. Because this is the first Chinese community-based cohort study of this nature, future research is required to examine infant populations in other areas of China. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Comparison of BMI Derived from Parent-Reported Height and Weight with Measured Values: Results from the German KiGGS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Schaffrath Rosario

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of parent-reported height and weight is a cost-efficient instrument to assess the prevalence of children’s weight status in large-scale surveys. This study aimed to examine the accuracy of BMI derived from parent-reported height and weight and to identify potential predictors of the validity of BMI derived from parent-reported data. A subsample of children aged 2–17 years (n = 9,187 was taken from the 2003–2006 cross-sectional German KiGGS study. Parent-reported and measured height and weight were collected and BMI was calculated. Besides descriptive analysis, linear regression models with BMI difference and logistic regression models with weight status misclassification as dependent variables were calculated. Height differences varied by gender and were generally small. Weight and BMI were under-reported in all age groups, the under-reporting getting stronger with increasing age. Overall, the proportion for overweight and obesity based on parental and measured reports differed slightly. In the youngest age group, the proportion of overweight children was overestimated, while it was underestimated for older children and adolescents. Main predictors of the difference between parent reported and measured values were age, gender, weight status and parents’ perception of the child’s weight. In summary, the exclusive use of uncorrected parental reports for assessment of prevalence rates of weight status is not recommended.

  11. Muscle mass, BMI, and mortality among adults in the United States: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowitz, Matthew K; Hall, Charles B; Amodu, Afolarin; Sharma, Deep; Androga, Lagu; Hawkins, Meredith

    2018-01-01

    The level of body-mass index (BMI) associated with the lowest risk of death remains unclear. Although differences in muscle mass limit the utility of BMI as a measure of adiposity, no study has directly examined the effect of muscle mass on the BMI-mortality relationship. Body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in 11,687 participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. Low muscle mass was defined using sex-specific thresholds of the appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI). Proportional hazards models were created to model associations with all-cause mortality. At any level of BMI ≥22, participants with low muscle mass had higher body fat percentage (%TBF), an increased likelihood of diabetes, and higher adjusted mortality than other participants. Increases in %TBF manifested as 30-40% smaller changes in BMI than were observed in participants with preserved muscle mass. Excluding participants with low muscle mass or adjustment for ASMI attenuated the risk associated with low BMI, magnified the risk associated with high BMI, and shifted downward the level of BMI associated with the lowest risk of death. Higher ASMI was independently associated with lower mortality. Effects were similar in never-smokers and ever-smokers. Additional adjustment for waist circumference eliminated the risk associated with higher BMI. Results were unchanged after excluding unintentional weight loss, chronic illness, early mortality, and participants performing muscle-strengthening exercises or recommended levels of physical activity. Muscle mass mediates associations of BMI with adiposity and mortality and is inversely associated with the risk of death. After accounting for muscle mass, the BMI associated with the greatest survival shifts downward toward the normal range. These results provide a concrete explanation for the obesity paradox.

  12. Self-reported and measured weight, height and body mass index (BMI) in Italy, the Netherlands and North America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krul, A.J.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Choi, H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Self-reported values of height and weight are used increasingly despite warnings that these data - and derived body mass index (BMI) values - might be biased. The present study investigates whether differences between self-reported and measured values are the same for populations from

  13. Design and Optimization of an EEG-Based Brain Machine Interface (BMI) to an Upper-Limb Exoskeleton for Stroke Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Nikunj A; Venkatakrishnan, Anusha; Abibullaev, Berdakh; Artz, Edward J; Yozbatiran, Nuray; Blank, Amy A; French, James; Karmonik, Christof; Grossman, Robert G; O'Malley, Marcia K; Francisco, Gerard E; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L

    2016-01-01

    This study demonstrates the feasibility of detecting motor intent from brain activity of chronic stroke patients using an asynchronous electroencephalography (EEG)-based brain machine interface (BMI). Intent was inferred from movement related cortical potentials (MRCPs) measured over an optimized set of EEG electrodes. Successful intent detection triggered the motion of an upper-limb exoskeleton (MAHI Exo-II), to guide movement and to encourage active user participation by providing instantaneous sensory feedback. Several BMI design features were optimized to increase system performance in the presence of single-trial variability of MRCPs in the injured brain: (1) an adaptive time window was used for extracting features during BMI calibration; (2) training data from two consecutive days were pooled for BMI calibration to increase robustness to handle the day-to-day variations typical of EEG, and (3) BMI predictions were gated by residual electromyography (EMG) activity from the impaired arm, to reduce the number of false positives. This patient-specific BMI calibration approach can accommodate a broad spectrum of stroke patients with diverse motor capabilities. Following BMI optimization on day 3, testing of the closed-loop BMI-MAHI exoskeleton, on 4th and 5th days of the study, showed consistent BMI performance with overall mean true positive rate (TPR) = 62.7 ± 21.4% on day 4 and 67.1 ± 14.6% on day 5. The overall false positive rate (FPR) across subjects was 27.74 ± 37.46% on day 4 and 27.5 ± 35.64% on day 5; however for two subjects who had residual motor function and could benefit from the EMG-gated BMI, the mean FPR was quite low (< 10%). On average, motor intent was detected -367 ± 328 ms before movement onset during closed-loop operation. These findings provide evidence that closed-loop EEG-based BMI for stroke patients can be designed and optimized to perform well across multiple days without system recalibration.

  14. Design and optimization of an EEG-based brain machine interface (BMI to an upper-limb exoskeleton for stroke survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikunj Arunkumar Bhagat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the feasibility of detecting motor intent from brain activity of chronic stroke patients using an asynchronous electroencephalography (EEG-based brain machine interface (BMI. Intent was inferred from movement related cortical potentials (MRCPs measured over an optimized set of EEG electrodes. Successful intent detection triggered the motion of an upper-limb exoskeleton (MAHI Exo-II, to guide movement and to encourage active user participation by providing instantaneous sensory feedback. Several BMI design features were optimized to increase system performance in the presence of single-trial variability of MRCPs in the injured brain: 1 an adaptive time window was used for extracting features during BMI calibration; 2 training data from two consecutive days were pooled for BMI calibration to increase robustness to handle the day-to-day variations typical of EEG, and 3 BMI predictions were gated by residual electromyography (EMG activity from the impaired arm, to reduce the number of false positives. This patient-specific BMI calibration approach can accommodate a broad spectrum of stroke patients with diverse motor capabilities. Following BMI optimization on day 3, testing of the closed-loop BMI-MAHI exoskeleton, on 4th and 5th days of the study, showed consistent BMI performance with overall mean true positive rate (TPR = 62.7 +/- 21.4 % on day 4 and 67.1 +/- 14.6 % on day 5. The overall false positive rate (FPR across subjects was 27.74 +/- 37.46 % on day 4 and 27.5 +/- 35.64 % on day 5; however for two subjects who had residual motor function and could benefit from the EMG-gated BMI, the mean FPR was quite low (< 10 %. On average, motor intent was detected -367 +/- 328 ms before movement onset during closed-loop operation. These findings provide evidence that closed-loop EEG-based BMI for stroke patients can be designed and optimized to perform well across multiple days without system recalibration.

  15. BMI and Lifetime Changes in BMI and Cancer Mortality Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taghizadeh, Niloofar; Boezen, H Marike; Schouten, Jan P; Schröder, Carolien P; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Vonk, Judith M

    2015-01-01

    Body Mass Index (BMI) is known to be associated with cancer mortality, but little is known about the link between lifetime changes in BMI and cancer mortality in both males and females. We studied the association of BMI measurements (at baseline, highest and lowest BMI during the study-period) and

  16. Cycling to School Is Associated With Lower BMI and Lower Odds of Being Overweight or Obese in a Large Population-Based Study of Danish Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars; Grøntved, Anders; Bjørkelund Børrestad, Line Anita

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have been inconclusive concerning the effect of active transport on BMI. Our objective was to investigate the association between travel mode and BMI in a large community-based sample of Danish adolescents.......Previous studies have been inconclusive concerning the effect of active transport on BMI. Our objective was to investigate the association between travel mode and BMI in a large community-based sample of Danish adolescents....

  17. Use of high-frequency visual stimuli above the critical flicker frequency in a SSVEP-based BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurada, Takeshi; Kawase, Toshihiro; Komatsu, Tomoaki; Kansaku, Kenji

    2015-10-01

    This study presents a new steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain-machine interface (BMI) using flickering visual stimuli at frequencies greater than the critical flicker frequency (CFF). We first asked participants to fixate on a green/blue flicker (30-70Hz), and SSVEP amplitude was evaluated. Participants were asked to indicate whether the stimulus was visibly flickering and to report their subjective level of discomfort. We then assessed visibly (41, 43, and 45Hz) vs. invisibly (61, 63, and 65Hz) flickering stimulus in an SSVEP-based BMI. Visual fatigue was assessed via the flicker test before and after operation of the BMI. Higher frequency stimuli reduced participants' subjective discomfort. Participants successfully controlled the SSVEP-based BMI using both the visibly and invisibly flickering stimuli (93.1% and 88.0%, respectively); the flicker test revealed a decrease in CFF (i.e., visual fatigue) under the visible condition only (-5.7%, Pflicker stimuli above the CFF were able to induce SSVEPs and may prove useful in the development of BMI-based assistive products. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The impact of serum adropin and ischemia modified albumin levels based on BMI in PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inal, Zeynep Ozturk; Erdem, Sami; Gederet, Yavuz; Duran, Cevdet; Kucukaydin, Zehra; Kurku, Huseyin; Sakarya, Derya Kilic

    2018-02-21

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and body mass index (BMI) on serum adropin and ischemia modified albumin (IMA) levels. This prospective cross-sectional study was performed with a total of 120 women [group1; non-PCOS = 60 (BMI PCOS = 60 (BMI PCOS and non-PCOS patients in the lean and overweight groups (pPCOS group were lower than in the lean non-PCOS group (pPCOS group than in the overweight non-PCOS group (pPCOS group than in the non-PCOS group in both the lean and overweight groups (pPCOS group, IMA levels increased. Further studies are needed to determine the effects of adropin and IMA in women with PCOS and to use a new marker to monitorize treatment outcomes.

  19. Associations between objectively assessed and questionnaire-based sedentary behaviour with BMI-defined obesity among general population children and adolescents living in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Ngaire A; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2015-06-18

    Sedentary behaviour (SB) is an emerging candidate risk factor for obesity in young people. Evidence to date is conflicting and it is unclear how different SB types are associated with obesity independently of physical activity. The objective of this study was to examine associations between a range of objectively measured and questionnaire-based SB indicators with obesity and body mass index (BMI) to assess whether these associations were independent of physical activity. 4469 (705 with accelerometer data) children aged 5-15 years from the 2008 Health Survey for England. The outcome was adiposity, classified using age-specific and sex-specific BMI SD scores (continuous) and obesity cut-offs (binary). Questionnaire-based measures comprised TV time, non-TV sitting time (such as homework, drawing, time at a computer or playing video games), total sitting time (TV time+non-TV sitting time) and average daily MVPA time. Objective SB and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) time were measured using an Actigraph GT1M accelerometer, with cut-offs of 100 and 200 counts per minute for SB, and 2802 counts per minute for MVPA. Multiple logistic and multiple linear regression models examined associations between each indicator of sedentary time with obesity and BMI SD scores. TV time (but not non-TV sitting or objectively-measured SB) was consistently associated with higher levels of obesity and BMI SD score, even after adjusting for MVPA and other potential confounders. Weaker associations were observed for total sitting time. TV viewing (but not other forms of objectively-measured or questionnaire-based sedentary time) was associated with obesity in children and adolescents. Although a causal relationship cannot be established, TV time may be a reasonable target for obesity prevention in young populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. BMI, RQ, diabetes, and sex affect the relationships between amino acids and clamp measures of insulin action in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E; Ingram, Katherine H; Guo, Fangjian; Ilkayeva, Olga; Newgard, Christopher B; Garvey, W Timothy

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have used indirect measures of insulin sensitivity to link circulating amino acids with insulin resistance and identify potential biomarkers of diabetes risk. Using direct measures (i.e., hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps), we examined the relationships between the metabolomic amino acid profile and insulin action (i.e., glucose disposal rate [GDR]). Relationships between GDR and serum amino acids were determined among insulin-sensitive, insulin-resistant, and type 2 diabetic (T2DM) individuals. In all subjects, glycine (Gly) had the strongest correlation with GDR (positive association), followed by leucine/isoleucine (Leu/Ile) (negative association). These relationships were dramatically influenced by BMI, the resting respiratory quotient (RQ), T2DM, and sex. Gly had a strong positive correlation with GDR regardless of BMI, RQ, or sex but became nonsignificant in T2DM. In contrast, Leu/Ile was negatively associated with GDR in nonobese and T2DM subjects. Increased resting fat metabolism (i.e., low RQ) and obesity were observed to independently promote and negate the association between Leu/Ile and insulin resistance, respectively. Additionally, the relationship between Leu/Ile and GDR was magnified in T2DM males. Future studies are needed to determine whether Gly has a mechanistic role in glucose homeostasis and whether dietary Gly enrichment may be an effective intervention in diseases characterized by insulin resistance.

  1. Sexual orientation and bias in self-reported BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Tracy K; Walls, Courtney E; Austin, S Bryn

    2012-08-01

    Our objective was to determine if sexual orientation groups differ in accuracy of BMI (kg/m(2)) calculated from self-reported height and weight and if weight status modifies possible differences. Using gender-stratified multiple linear regression to analyze Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 12,197), we examined the association of sexual orientation with BMI calculated from self-reported height and weight (self-reported BMI), controlling for BMI calculated from objectively measured height and weight (objectively measured BMI) as well as demographic, health, and behavioral variables. We tested for effect modification of the relationship between sexual orientation and self-reported BMI by objectively measured BMI. The population underestimated their BMI (females: β = 0.87, P Sexual orientation groups differed little in their accuracy of reporting; only gay males had significant underreporting (β = -0.37, P = 0.038) relative to their heterosexual peers. We found no evidence of effect modification of the relationship of sexual orientation and self-reported BMI by objectively measured BMI. With the exception of gay males, sexual orientation groups are consistent in their underreporting of BMI thus providing confidence in most comparisons of weight status based on self-report. Self-reporting of weight and height by gay males may exaggerate the differences in BMI between gay and heterosexual males.

  2. Asthma, Smoking and BMI in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Community-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, L.; Naqvi, H.; Russ, L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recent research evidence from the general population has shown that tobacco smoking and raised body mass index (BMI) are associated with worse asthma outcomes. There are indications that asthma morbidity and mortality may be higher among people with intellectual disabilities (ID) than the general population, but the reason for this is…

  3. BMI and an Anthropometry-Based Estimate of Fat Mass Percentage Are Both Valid Discriminators of Cardiometabolic Risk: A Comparison with DXA and Bioimpedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völgyi, Eszter; Savonen, Kai; Tylavsky, Frances A.; Alén, Markku; Cheng, Sulin

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether categories of obesity based on BMI and an anthropometry-based estimate of fat mass percentage (FM% equation) have similar discriminative ability for markers of cardiometabolic risk as measurements of FM% by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) or bioimpedance analysis (BIA). Design and Methods. A study of 40–79-year-old male (n = 205) and female (n = 388) Finns. Weight, height, blood pressure, triacylglycerols, HDL cholesterol, and fasting blood glucose were measured. Body composition was assessed by DXA and BIA and a FM%-equation. Results. For grade 1 hypertension, dyslipidaemia, and impaired fasting glucose >6.1 mmol/L, the categories of obesity as defined by BMI and the FM% equation had 1.9% to 3.7% (P < 0.01) higher discriminative power compared to DXA. For grade 2 hypertension the FM% equation discriminated 1.2% (P = 0.05) lower than DXA and 2.8% (P < 0.01) lower than BIA. Receiver operation characteristics confirmed BIA as best predictor of grade 2 hypertension and the FM% equation as best predictor of grade 1 hypertension. All other differences in area under curve were small (≤0.04) and 95% confidence intervals included 0. Conclusions. Both BMI and FM% equations may predict cardiometabolic risk with similar discriminative ability as FM% measured by DXA or BIA. PMID:24455216

  4. An investigation of factors affecting elementary school students' BMI values based on the system dynamics modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tian-Syung; Chen, Kai-Ling; Chen, Pin-Chang; Ku, Chao-Tai; Chiu, Pei-Hsuan; Wang, Meng-Hsiang

    2014-01-01

    This study used system dynamics method to investigate the factors affecting elementary school students' BMI values. The construction of the dynamic model is divided into the qualitative causal loop and the quantitative system dynamics modeling. According to the system dynamics modeling, this study consisted of research on the four dimensions: student's personal life style, diet-relevant parenting behaviors, advocacy and implementation of school nutrition education, and students' peer interaction. The results of this study showed that students with more adequate health concepts usually have better eating behaviors and consequently have less chance of becoming obese. In addition, this study also verified that educational attainment and socioeconomic status of parents have a positive correlation with students' amounts of physical activity, and nutrition education has a prominent influence on changing students' high-calorie diets.

  5. Discordance Between Body Mass Index (BMI) and a Novel Body Composition Change Index (BCCI) as Outcome Measures in Weight Change Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Stephen D; Kaats, Gilbert R; Preuss, Harry G

    2018-01-01

    A general assumption is that the body mass index (BMI) reflects changes in fat mass (FM). However, it fails to distinguish the type of weight that is lost or gained-fat mass (FM) or fat-free mass (FFM). The BMI treats both changes the same although they have opposite health consequences. The objective of this study was to propose a more precise measure, a body composition change index (BCCI), which distinguishes between changes in FM and FFM, and this study compares it with using the BMI as an outcome measure. Data were obtained from 3,870 subjects who had completed dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) total body scans at baseline and end-of-study when participating in a variety of weight-loss interventions. Since height remained constant in this adult cohort, changes in the BMI corresponded with scale weight changes (r = 0.994), allowing BMI changes to be converted to "lbs." to match the statistic used for calculation of the BCCI. The BCCI is calculated by scoring increases in FFM (lbs.) and decreases in FM (lbs.) as positive outcomes and scoring decreases in FFM and increases in FM as negative outcomes. The BCCI is the net sum of these calculations. Differences between scale weight changes and BCCI values were subsequently compared to obtain "discordance scores." Discordance scores ranged from 0.0 lbs. to >30.0 lbs. with a mean absolute value of between the two measures of 7.79 lbs. (99% confidence interval: 7.49-8.10, p BMI to evaluate the efficacy of weight loss interventions. If assessing changes in body composition is a treatment goal, use of the BMI could result in significantly erroneous conclusions.

  6. Group-based developmental BMI trajectories, polycystic ovary syndrome, and gestational diabetes: a community-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakoly, Nadira Sultana; Earnest, Arul; Moran, Lisa J; Teede, Helena J; Joham, Anju E

    2017-11-06

    Obesity is common in young women, increasing insulin resistance (IR) and worsening pregnancy complications, including gestational diabetes (GDM). Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are commonly obese, which aggravates the severity of PCOS clinical expression. Relationships between these common insulin-resistant conditions, however, remain unclear. We conducted a secondary analysis of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) database, including data from 8009 women aged 18-36 years across six surveys. We used latent-curve growth modelling to identify distinct body mass index (BMI) trajectories and multinomial logistic regression to explore sociodemographic and health variables characterizing BMI group membership. Logistic regression was used to assess independent risk of GDM. A total of 662 women (8.29%, 95% CI 7.68-8.89) reported PCOS. Three distinct BMI trajectories emerged, namely low stable (LSG) (63.8%), defined as an average trajectory remaining at ~25 kg/m 2 ; moderately rising (MRG) (28.8%), a curvilinear trajectory commencing in a healthy BMI and terminating in the overweight range; and high-rising (HRG) (7.4%), a curvilinear trajectory starting and terminating in the obese range. A high BMI in early reproductive life predicted membership in higher trajectories. The HRG BMI trajectory was independently associated with GDM (OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.80-3.48) and was a stronger correlate than PCOS (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.41-2.54), maternal age, socioeconomic status, or parity. Our results suggest heterogeneity in BMI change among Australian women of reproductive age, with and without PCOS. Reducing early adult life weight represents an ideal opportunity to intervene at an early stage of reproductive life and decreases the risk of long-term metabolic complications such as GDM.

  7. Differences in genetic and environmental variation in adult BMI by sex, age, time period, and region: an individual-based pooled analysis of 40 twin cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E; Mack, Thomas M; Honda, Chika; Inui, Fujio; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Mikio; Tomizawa, Rie; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Rissanen, Aila; Siribaddana, Sisira H; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Pang, Zengchang; Piirtola, Maarit; Aaltonen, Sari; Öncel, Sevgi Y; Aliev, Fazil; Rebato, Esther; Hjelmborg, Jacob B; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Silberg, Judy L; Eaves, Lindon J; Cutler, Tessa L; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Franz, Carol E; Kremen, William S; Lyons, Michael J; Busjahn, Andreas; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Kandler, Christian; Jang, Kerry L; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A; Stazi, Maria A; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Jeong, Hoe-Uk; Swan, Gary E; Krasnow, Ruth; Magnusson, Patrik Ke; Pedersen, Nancy L; Dahl Aslan, Anna K; McAdams, Tom A; Eley, Thalia C; Gregory, Alice M; Tynelius, Per; Baker, Laura A; Tuvblad, Catherine; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Spector, Timothy D; Mangino, Massimo; Lachance, Genevieve; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Harris, Jennifer R; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas S; Krueger, Robert F; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Corley, Robin P; Huibregtse, Brooke M; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina Em; Willemsen, Gonneke; Goldberg, Jack H; Rasmussen, Finn; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Derom, Catherine A; Vlietinck, Robert F; Loos, Ruth Jf; Hopper, John L; Sung, Joohon; Maes, Hermine H; Turkheimer, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I; Sørensen, Thorkild Ia; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2017-08-01

    Background: Genes and the environment contribute to variation in adult body mass index [BMI (in kg/m 2 )], but factors modifying these variance components are poorly understood. Objective: We analyzed genetic and environmental variation in BMI between men and women from young adulthood to old age from the 1940s to the 2000s and between cultural-geographic regions representing high (North America and Australia), moderate (Europe), and low (East Asia) prevalence of obesity. Design: We used genetic structural equation modeling to analyze BMI in twins ≥20 y of age from 40 cohorts representing 20 countries (140,379 complete twin pairs). Results: The heritability of BMI decreased from 0.77 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.78) and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.75) in men and women 20-29 y of age to 0.57 (95% CI: 0.54, 0.60) and 0.59 (95% CI: 0.53, 0.65) in men 70-79 y of age and women 80 y of age, respectively. The relative influence of unique environmental factors correspondingly increased. Differences in the sets of genes affecting BMI in men and women increased from 20-29 to 60-69 y of age. Mean BMI and variances in BMI increased from the 1940s to the 2000s and were greatest in North America and Australia, followed by Europe and East Asia. However, heritability estimates were largely similar over measurement years and between regions. There was no evidence of environmental factors shared by co-twins affecting BMI. Conclusions: The heritability of BMI decreased and differences in the sets of genes affecting BMI in men and women increased from young adulthood to old age. The heritability of BMI was largely similar between cultural-geographic regions and measurement years, despite large differences in mean BMI and variances in BMI. Our results show a strong influence of genetic factors on BMI, especially in early adulthood, regardless of the obesity level in the population. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Association between excessive BMI increase during puberty and risk of cardiovascular mortality in adult men: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Claes; Bygdell, Maria; Sondén, Arvid; Rosengren, Annika; Kindblom, Jenny M

    2016-12-01

    Being overweight during childhood and adolescence is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood, but the relative contribution of prepubertal childhood BMI and BMI change during puberty to adult mortality due to cardiovascular disease is unknown. We assessed the contribution of these two distinct developmental BMI parameters for cardiovascular mortality in adult men. As a part of the ongoing population-based BMI Epidemiology Study (BEST) in Gothenburg, Sweden, men born between 1945 and 1961 with information on both their childhood BMI at age 8 years and BMI change during puberty were included in the study and followed up until December, 2013. Participants who died or emigrated before age 20 years were excluded from the analysis. BMI was collected from paediatric growth charts and mandatory military conscription tests. Childhood overweight (BMI of ≥17·9 kg/m 2 ) was defined according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's cutoff at 8 years of age, and BMI change during puberty was defined as the difference between young adult BMI and childhood BMI (BMI at age 20 years minus BMI at age 8 years). Information on mortality was retrieved from high quality national registers with the participants' ten-digit personal identity number. We used Cox proportional hazard regression to analyse the association between exposures and mortality. The ethics committee of the University of Gothenburg, Sweden, approved the study and waived the requirement for written informed consent. We followed 37 672 Swedish men from age 20 years for a mean of 37·8 years (1 422 185 person-years follow-up). 3188 all-cause deaths and 710 cardiovascular deaths occurred during follow-up. The correlation between childhood BMI and BMI change during puberty was marginal (r=0·06). BMI change during puberty, but not childhood BMI, was independently associated with adult all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in men. Boys that became overweight during puberty

  9. Earlier BMI rebound and lower pre-rebound BMI as risk of obesity among Japanese preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, N; Isojima, T; Yokoya, S; Tanaka, T; Ono, A; Yokomichi, H; Yamagata, Z; Tanaka, S; Matsubara, H; Ishikuro, M; Kikuya, M; Chida, S; Hosoya, M; Kuriyama, S; Kure, S

    2018-01-01

    Longitudinal growth data of children were analyzed to clarify the relationship between the timing of body mass index (BMI) rebound and obesity risk in later ages. Of 54 558 children born between April 2004 and March 2005 and longitudinally measured in April and October every year in the preschool period, 15 255 children were analyzed wherein no longitudinal measurement is missing after 1 year of age. BMI rebound age was determined as the age with smallest BMI value across longitudinal individual data after 1 year of age. Rebound age was compared between overweight and non-overweight groups. The subjects were divided into groups based on the timing of rebound. The sex- and age-adjusted mean of the BMI, height and weight s.d. scores for age group, along with 6 months weight and height gain, were compared among groups using analysis of covariance. Among those who were overweight at 66-71 months of age, BMI rebound age obtained at approximately 3 years of age was compared with the non-overweight group, whose BMI rebound age was utmost 66 months or later (PBMI age group showed that earlier BMI rebound results in larger BMI (PBMI rebound earlier than 30 months of age, low BMI was observed (PBMI rebound among groups with rebound age earlier than 60 months of age (PBMI rebound timing with pre-rebound low BMI leads to greater childhood obesity risk; hence, early detection and prevention is necessary for such cases.

  10. Increased Coagulation and Decreased Fibrinolysis as Measured with Overall Hemostatic Potential Are Dependent on BMI and Not Associated with PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakusa, Matej; Jensterle, Mojca; Božič-Mijovski, Mojca; Janez, Andrej

    2017-05-01

    Overall hemostatic potential (OHP) captures all factors that affect coagulation and fibrinolysis cascade. It has not yet been assessed in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The aim of the study was to identify the relationship of OHP with a syndrome per se and body mass index (BMI). In 90 women with PCOS aged 30.9 ± 8.1 years (50 obese, 13 overweight, and 27 lean) and 21 healthy age-matched controls (11 obese and 10 lean), OHP with overall coagulation potential (OCP) and overall fibrinolytic potential (OFP) was determined spectrophotometrically. OFP was calculated. OHP increased with BMI in PCOS (9.6 ± 2.3 in lean, 12.5 ± 5.1 in overweight, and 15.5 ± 3.8 Abs-sum in obese) and in controls (9.1 ± 1.0 in lean and 17.3 ± 4.6 Abs-sum in obese). There was significant difference between lean and obese PCOS (P PCOS (P PCOS (P PCOS did not differ significantly, while OHP for healthy obese was increased in comparison to overweight and lean PCOS (P PCOS was not associated with increased OHP compared with BMI and age-matched controls. However, increase in OHP was positively associated with BMI in PCOS and healthy women.

  11. A population study of 5 to 15 year olds: full time maternal employment not associated with high BMI. The importance of screen-based activity, reading for pleasure and sleep duration in children's BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Anne W; Winefield, Helen; Kettler, Lisa; Roberts, Rachel; Gill, Tiffany K

    2012-04-01

    To describe the relationship between maternal full time employment and health-related and demographic variables associated with children aged 5-15 years, and the factors associated with child overweight/obesity. Data from a chronic disease and risk factor surveillance system were limited to children aged 5-15 years whose mothers responded on their behalf (n = 641). Univariate/multivariate analyses described the differences between mothers who did and did not work full time. The same data were analysed comparing children who are overweight/obese against those with a normal BMI. The children of mothers who worked full time are more likely to be older, live in a household with a higher household income, be an only child or have one sibling or other child in the household, have a sole mother family structure and not spend any time reading for pleasure. No relationship was found between maternal employment and BMI. Compared with children of normal weight, those who were overweight/obese were more likely to spend no time studying, spend more than 2 h per day in screen-based activity and sleep less than 10 h per night. Child BMI status was not related to maternal employment. Although this analysis included eight diet related variables none proved to be significant in the final models.This study has shown that mothers' working status is not related to children's BMI. The relationship between overweight/obesity of children and high levels of screen-based activity, low levels of studying, and short sleep duration suggests a need for better knowledge and understanding of sedentary behaviours of children.

  12. Does BMI generated by self-reported height and weight measure up in older adults from middle-income countries? Results from the study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildner, Theresa E; Barrett, Tyler M; Liebert, Melissa A; Kowal, Paul; Snodgrass, J Josh

    2015-01-01

    Self-reported (SR) body mass index (BMI) values are often used to determine obesity prevalence. However, individuals frequently overestimate their height and underestimate their weight, resulting in artificially lower obesity prevalence rates. These patterns are especially apparent among older adults and overweight individuals. The present cross-sectional study uses nationally representative datasets from five countries to assess the accuracy of SR BMI values in diverse settings. Samples of older adults (≥50 years old) and comparative samples of younger adults (18-49 years old) were drawn from five middle-income countries (China, India, Mexico, Russian Federation, and South Africa) in the World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE). Participant-reported and researcher-obtained height and weight measures were used to calculate SR and measured BMI, respectively. Paired t-tests assessed differences between SR and measured BMI values by country. Linear regressions examined the contribution of measured weight and age to differences between SR and measured BMI. Significant differences between SR and measured BMI values were observed (p BMI in all countries (p BMI discrepancy, except in China (p BMI may not accurately reflect measured BMI in middle-income countries, but the direction of this discrepancy varies by country. This has considerable implications for obesity-related disease estimates reliant on SR data.

  13. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and intelligence quotient (IQ in 5-year-old children: a cohort based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Bliddal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and childhood intelligence quotient (IQ has repeatedly been found but it is unknown if this association is causal or due to confounding caused by genetic or social factors. METHODS: We used a cohort of 1,783 mothers and their 5-year-old children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The children participated between 2003 and 2008 in a neuropsychological assessment of cognitive ability including IQ tests taken by both the mother and the child. Linear regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between parental BMI and child IQ adjusted for a comprehensive set of potential confounders. Child IQ was assessed with the Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scales of Intelligence--Revised (WPPSI-R. RESULTS: The crude association between maternal BMI and child IQ showed that BMI was adversely associated with child IQ with a reduction in IQ of -0.40 point for each one unit increase in BMI. This association was attenuated after adjustment for social factors and maternal IQ to a value of -0.27 (-0.50 to -0.03. After mutual adjustment for the father's BMI and all other factors except maternal IQ, the association between paternal BMI and child IQ yielded a regression coefficient of -0.26 (-0.59 to 0.07, which was comparable to that seen for maternal BMI (-0.20 (-0.44 to 0.04. CONCLUSION: Although maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was inversely associated with the IQ of her child, the similar association with paternal BMI suggests that it is not a specific pregnancy related adiposity effect.

  14. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and intelligence quotient (IQ) in 5-year-old children: a cohort based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliddal, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Støvring, Henrik; Eriksen, Hanne-Lise F; Kesmodel, Ulrik S; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Nøhr, Ellen A

    2014-01-01

    An association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and childhood intelligence quotient (IQ) has repeatedly been found but it is unknown if this association is causal or due to confounding caused by genetic or social factors. We used a cohort of 1,783 mothers and their 5-year-old children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The children participated between 2003 and 2008 in a neuropsychological assessment of cognitive ability including IQ tests taken by both the mother and the child. Linear regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between parental BMI and child IQ adjusted for a comprehensive set of potential confounders. Child IQ was assessed with the Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scales of Intelligence--Revised (WPPSI-R). The crude association between maternal BMI and child IQ showed that BMI was adversely associated with child IQ with a reduction in IQ of -0.40 point for each one unit increase in BMI. This association was attenuated after adjustment for social factors and maternal IQ to a value of -0.27 (-0.50 to -0.03). After mutual adjustment for the father's BMI and all other factors except maternal IQ, the association between paternal BMI and child IQ yielded a regression coefficient of -0.26 (-0.59 to 0.07), which was comparable to that seen for maternal BMI (-0.20 (-0.44 to 0.04)). Although maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was inversely associated with the IQ of her child, the similar association with paternal BMI suggests that it is not a specific pregnancy related adiposity effect.

  15. A Novel Inflammation- and Nutrition-Based Prognostic System for Patients with Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Combination of Red Blood Cell Distribution Width and Body Mass Index (COR-BMI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yan; Mao, Yize; Chen, Shiqi; Yang, Ankui; Zhang, Quan

    Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is a head and neck cancer type. In this study, we introduced a novel inflammation- and nutrition-based prognostic system, referred to as COR-BMI (Combination of red blood cell distribution width and body mass index), for LSCC patients. A total of 807 LSCC patients (784 male and 23 female, 22-87 y of age) who underwent surgery were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. The patients were stratified by COR-BMI into three groups: COR-BMI (0) (RDW ≤ 13.1 and BMI ≥ 25); COR-BMI (1) (RDW ≤ 13.1 and BMI 13.1 and 18.5 ≤ BMI COR-BMI (2) (RDW > 13.1 and BMI COR-BMI and cancer-specific survival (CSS) rate among LSCC patients. The 5-y, 10-y, and 15-y CSS rates were 71.6%, 60.1%, and 55.4%, respectively. There were significant differences among the COR-BMI groups in age (COR-BMI (1 versus 0: HR = 1.76; 95% CI = 0.98-3.15; 2 versus 0: HR = 2.91; 95% CI = 1.53-5.54, P = 0.001) was a significant independent predictor of CSS. COR-BMI is a novel inflammation- and nutrition-based prognostic system, which could predict long-term survival in LSCC patients who underwent surgery.

  16. BMI and Lifetime Changes in BMI and Cancer Mortality Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Niloofar; Boezen, H. Marike; Schouten, Jan P.; Schröder, Carolien P.; de Vries, E. G. Elisabeth; Vonk, Judith M.

    2015-01-01

    Body Mass Index (BMI) is known to be associated with cancer mortality, but little is known about the link between lifetime changes in BMI and cancer mortality in both males and females. We studied the association of BMI measurements (at baseline, highest and lowest BMI during the study-period) and lifetime changes in BMI (calculated over different time periods (i.e. short time period: annual change in BMI between successive surveys, long time period: annual change in BMI over the entire study period) with mortality from any cancer, and lung, colorectal, prostate and breast cancer in a large cohort study (n=8,645. Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen, 1965-1990) with a follow-up on mortality status on December 31st 2008. We used multivariate Cox regression models with adjustments for age, smoking, sex, and place of residence. Being overweight at baseline was associated with a higher risk of prostate cancer mortality (hazard ratio (HR) =2.22; 95% CI 1.19-4.17). Obesity at baseline was associated with a higher risk of any cancer mortality [all subjects (1.23 (1.01-1.50)), and females (1.40 (1.07-1.84))]. Chronically obese females (females who were obese during the entire study-period) had a higher risk of mortality from any cancer (2.16 (1.47-3.18), lung (3.22 (1.06-9.76)), colorectal (4.32 (1.53-12.20)), and breast cancer (2.52 (1.15-5.54)). We found no significant association between long-term annual change in BMI and cancer mortality risk. Both short-term annual increase and decrease in BMI were associated with a lower mortality risk from any cancer [all subjects: (0.67 (0.47-0.94)) and (0.73 (0.55-0.97)), respectively]. In conclusion, a higher BMI is associated with a higher cancer mortality risk. This study is the first to show that short-term annual changes in BMI were associated with lower mortality from any type of cancer. PMID:25881129

  17. Soft drink intake at age six and nine and the association with BMI three and seven years later - A follow-up study based on the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Wang; Nielsen, Birgit Marie; Husby, Ida

    Introduction: The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is one of the few dietary components that have been associated with the development of obesity. However, most previous studies have been based on children or adolescents aged 8 years or more. Method: The study was based on the Copenhagen......-days pre-printed food record. Analyses were conducted using the mixed model approach for repeated measurements and were adjusted for gender, puberty, parental BMI, municipality, school, baseline BMI, SES and physical activity. Results: 154 children, 68 boys and 86 girls were included in the analyses....... Mean intake of soft drinks was 0.14 l/d at age 6 and 0.12 l/d at age 9 (difference p=0.08). No associations were found between intake of soft drink at age 6 and BMI at age 13 (b:-0.8; p=0.91), or intake at age 9 and BMI at age 13 (b:-0.3; p= 0.80). Neither was the change in intake of soft drinks from...

  18. Mixed land use and walkability: Variations in land use measures and relationships with BMI, overweight, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Barbara B; Yamada, Ikuho; Smith, Ken R; Zick, Cathleen D; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Fan, Jessie X

    2009-12-01

    Few studies compare alternative measures of land use diversity or mix in relationship to body mass index. We compare four types of diversity measures: entropy scores (measures of equal distributions of walkable land use categories), distances to walkable destinations (parks and transit stops), proxy measures of mixed use (walk to work measures and neighborhood housing ages), and land use categories used in entropy scores. Generalized estimating equations, conducted on 5000 randomly chosen licensed drivers aged 25-64 in Salt Lake County, Utah, relate lower BMIs to older neighborhoods, components of a 6-category land use entropy score, and nearby light rail stops. Thus the presence of walkable land uses, rather than their equal mixture, relates to healthy weight.

  19. The measurement of polychlorinated biphenyl level in breast milk after delivery, and its association with breast milk fat and mother\\'s BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Nayeri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human breast milk contains high levels of fat and toxins. These substances which exist in our country based on many reports. This study aimed to evaluate the concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs in the mother’s milk during the first postnatal week. Methods: This study was accomplished on 50 mothers who gave birth to a healthy infant at Vali-e-Asr University Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, from 2014 through 2015. Within the first postnatal week a 20 cc sample of mother’s breast milk was obtained and was sent for laboratory analysis to measure PCB levels via GC-Mass method. Except of PCBs, triglycerides (TG, high-density cholesterol in breast milk was also measured. Also the relation between fat and polychlorinated bi phenyl was assessed. The association between PCBs and body mass index of mothers was investigated. Results: Mean age of mothers was 29.41±6.14 year. PCB180 was significantly correlated with TG values, while this correlation was not observed for other types of PCBs. There was no correlation between cholesterol and fat high-density with PCBs. Other PCB isomers 138, 153, 180 and 101, had not correlation with triglyceride, cholesterol and high density fat. There was a significant correlation between increasing weight and the concentration of PCB101, and PCB180 concentrations. It was also observed between increasing weight and the concentration of PCB101 (P=0.033, r=0.293 and concentrations of PCB180 (P=0.034, r=0.428, there was a significant correlation. In our study PCB101, (r=0.278, P=0.048 and PCb28 (r=0.328, P=0.021 were significantly correlated with body mass index (BMI. Conclusion: The present study showed a higher than normal concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls in breast milk. And therefore these compounds will be transferred to the baby. Due to the damaging effects of these toxins, it is recommended additional studies on larger groups and other types of samples

  20. The Report Card on BMI Report Cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hannah R; Madsen, Kristine A

    2017-06-01

    Half of states in the USA have legislation requiring that schools conduct body mass index (BMI) screening among students; just under half of these states report results to parents. The effectiveness of school-based BMI screening and reporting in reducing childhood obesity is not established and the practice has raised concerns about the potential for increased weight-based stigmatization. Recent experimental studies of BMI screening and reporting have not demonstrated a positive impact on students' weight status. However, the language and formatting of BMI reports used in studies to date have been suboptimal and have likely limited the potential effectiveness of the practice. This article reviews the recent literature on school-based BMI screening and reporting and highlights important areas for future inquiry. The present review suggests that evidence to date is not sufficient to support definitive conclusions about the value of school-based BMI screening and reporting as a childhood obesity prevention tool.

  1. Maternal nutritional status (as measured by height, weight and BMI) in Bangladesh: trends and socio-economic association over the period 1996 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsena, Masuda; Goto, Rie; Mascie-Taylor, Cg Nicholas

    2016-06-01

    To analyse trends in maternal nutritional status in Bangladesh over a 12-year period and to examine the associations between nutritional status and socio-economic variables. Maternal nutritional status indicators were height, weight and BMI. Socio-economic variables used were region, residency, education and occupation of the mothers and their husbands, house type, and possession score in the household. Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys (1996, 2000, 2004 and 2007) were the source of data. A total of 16 278 mothers were included. All of the socio-economic variables showed significant associations with maternal nutritional status indicators. Regional variation was found to be present; all three indicators were found to be lowest in the Sylhet division. Upward trends in maternal height, weight and BMI were evident from no possessions to four possessions in households, and for no education to higher education of women and their husbands. Bangladeshi mothers measured in 2007 were found to be on average 0·34 cm taller and 3·36 kg heavier than mothers measured in 1996. Between 1996 and 2007 maternal underweight fell from nearly 50 % to just over 30 % while overweight and obesity increased from about 3 % to over 9 % (WHO cut-offs) or from 7 % to nearly 18 % (Asian cut-offs). The study reveals that over the 12-year period in Bangladesh there has been a substantial reduction in maternal underweight accompanied by a considerable increase in obesity. It is also evident that malnutrition in Bangladesh is a multidimensional problem that warrants a proper policy mix and programme intervention.

  2. Relationships of objectively measured physical activity and sleep with BMI and academic outcomes in 8-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Susan Ann

    2013-05-01

    Current guidelines in place for sleep and physical activity in childhood are the result of data collected in the form of self-reports. Exact measurement of activity dimensions and sleep characteristics are essential. The purpose of clearly established parameters is for the intent of verifying health outcomes and evaluating interventions. The purpose of this research was to determine the relationships between the objective dimensions of physical activity, sleep, weight status, academic achievement, and academic behavior. This cross-sectional correlational descriptive design examined the activity and sleep patterns continuously for 24 hours/7 days with triaxial accelerometers in a low income African American sample of 8-year-olds. A qualitative component gathered additional identifiers. This sample was overweight/obese, inactive, and sleep-deprived. Moderate-vigorous activity was correlated with reading scores. Confirmed in this research was the association between sleep duration, physical activity intensities, and academics. Positive health outcomes in children are endorsed by an energy balance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Association Between Perceived Health Care Stigmatization and BMI Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena M. Hansson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: This study examined the association between experiences of health care stigmatization and BMI changes in men and women with normal weight and obesity in Sweden. Methods: The participants were drawn from a population-based survey in Sweden (1996-2006, and data on their perceived health care stigmatization were measured in 2008. They were categorized in individuals with normal weight (n = 1,064, moderate obesity (n = 1,273, and severe obesity (n = 291. The main outcome measure was change in BMI. Results: Individuals with severe obesity experiencing any health care stigmatization showed a BMI increase by 1.5 kg/m2 more than individuals with severe obesity with no such experience. For individuals with moderate obesity, insulting treatment by a physician and avoidance of health care were associated with a relative BMI increase of 0.40 and 0.75 kg/m2, respectively, compared with their counterparts who did not experience stigmatization in these areas. No difference in experience of any form of health care stigmatizing associated BMI change was observed for men and women with normal weight. Conclusion: In this large, population-based study, perceived health care stigmatization was associated with an increased relative BMI in individuals with severe obesity. For moderate obesity, the evidence of an association was inconclusive.

  4. BMI Trajectories Associated With Resolution of Elevated Youth BMI and Incident Adult Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscot, Marie-Jeanne; Thomson, Russell J; Juonala, Markus; Sabin, Matthew A; Burgner, David P; Lehtimäki, Terho; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Viikari, Jorma S A; Jokinen, Eero; Tossavainen, Paivi; Laitinen, Tomi; Raitakari, Olli T; Magnussen, Costan G

    2018-01-01

    Youth with high BMI who become nonobese adults have the same cardiovascular risk factor burden as those who were never obese. However, the early-life BMI trajectories for overweight or obese youth who avoid becoming obese adults have not been described. We aimed to determine and compare the young-childhood BMI trajectories of participants according to their BMI status in youth and adulthood. Bayesian hierarchical piecewise regression modeling was used to analyze the BMI trajectories of 2717 young adults who had up to 8 measures of BMI from childhood (ages 3-18 years) to adulthood (ages 34-49 years). Compared with those with persistently high BMI, those who resolved their high youth BMI by adulthood had lower average BMI at age 6 years and slower rates of BMI change from young childhood. In addition, their BMI levels started to plateau at 16 years old for females and 21 years old for males, whereas the BMI of those whose high BMI persisted did not stabilize until 25 years old for male subjects and 27 years for female subjects. Compared with those youth who were not overweight or obese and who remained nonobese in adulthood, those who developed obesity had a higher BMI rate of change from 6 years old, and their BMI continued to increase linearly until age 30 years. Efforts to alter BMI trajectories for adult obesity should ideally commence before age 6 years. The natural resolution of high BMI starts in adolescence for males and early adulthood for females, suggesting a critical window for secondary prevention. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    In a method for performing a refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid such as chemical composition or temperature by observing an apparent angular shift in an interference fringe pattern produced by back or forward scattering interferometry, ambiguities in the measurement caused...

  6. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid is measured in an apparatus comprising a variable wavelength coherent light source (16), a sample chamber (12), a wavelength controller (24), a light sensor (20), a data recorder (26) and a computation apparatus (28), by - directing...

  7. About BMI for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 95% of similarly aged boys in this reference population – and he would be considered to have obesity. For more information and to access the CDC Growth Charts For adults, the interpretation of BMI does ...

  8. A Novel Inflammation- and Nutrition-Based Prognostic System for Patients with Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Combination of Red Blood Cell Distribution Width and Body Mass Index (COR-BMI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Fu

    Full Text Available Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC is a head and neck cancer type. In this study, we introduced a novel inflammation- and nutrition-based prognostic system, referred to as COR-BMI (Combination of red blood cell distribution width and body mass index, for LSCC patients.A total of 807 LSCC patients (784 male and 23 female, 22-87 y of age who underwent surgery were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. The patients were stratified by COR-BMI into three groups: COR-BMI (0 (RDW ≤ 13.1 and BMI ≥ 25; COR-BMI (1 (RDW ≤ 13.1 and BMI 13.1 and 18.5 ≤ BMI 13.1 and BMI < 18.5. Cox regression models were used to investigate the association between COR-BMI and cancer-specific survival (CSS rate among LSCC patients.The 5-y, 10-y, and 15-y CSS rates were 71.6%, 60.1%, and 55.4%, respectively. There were significant differences among the COR-BMI groups in age (< 60 versus ≥ 60 y; P = 0.005 and T stage (T1, T2, T3, or T4; P = 0.013. Based on the results, COR-BMI (1 versus 0: HR = 1.76; 95% CI = 0.98-3.15; 2 versus 0: HR = 2.91; 95% CI = 1.53-5.54, P = 0.001 was a significant independent predictor of CSS.COR-BMI is a novel inflammation- and nutrition-based prognostic system, which could predict long-term survival in LSCC patients who underwent surgery.

  9. Females, younger patients and patients with high BMI have the highest pre-operative knee awareness measured using the Forgotten Joint Score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Dana; Troelsen, A; Ingelsrud, L

    2018-01-01

    in the study. Age, gender, body mass index (BMI), pre-operative FJS and pre-operative OKS were obtained maximum 2 weeks prior to surgery. Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) grade, alignment and joint space width (JSW) were evaluated on pre-operative radiographs. RESULTS: Mean FJS was 21.1 ± 15.6. Females, younger...... patients and patients with high BMI had significantly the worst pre-operative FJS (p BMI point...... indicated worse knee awareness with higher BMI. There was a strong positive correlation between pre-operative FJS and pre-operative OKS according to the Spearman's rank order test (p BMI had significantly the worst pre-operative joint...

  10. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    In a method for performing a refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid such as chemical composition or temperature, a chirp in the local spatial frequency of interference fringes of an interference pattern is reduced by mathematical manipulation of the recorded light intensity...

  11. Representativeness and optimal use of body mass index (BMI) in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaran, Krishnan; Forbes, Harriet J; Douglas, Ian; Leon, David A; Smeeth, Liam

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess the completeness and representativeness of body mass index (BMI) data in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), and determine an optimal strategy for their use. Design Descriptive study. Setting Electronic healthcare records from primary care. Participants A million patient random sample from the UK CPRD primary care database, aged ≥16 years. Primary and secondary outcome measures BMI completeness in CPRD was evaluated by age, sex and calendar period. CPRD-based summary BMI statistics for each calendar year (2003–2010) were age-standardised and sex-standardised and compared with equivalent statistics from the Health Survey for England (HSE). Results BMI completeness increased over calendar time from 37% in 1990–1994 to 77% in 2005–2011, was higher among females and increased with age. When BMI at specific time points was assigned based on the most recent record, calendar–year-specific mean BMI statistics underestimated equivalent HSE statistics by 0.75–1.1 kg/m2. Restriction to those with a recent (≤3 years) BMI resulted in mean BMI estimates closer to HSE (≤0.28 kg/m2 underestimation), but excluded up to 47% of patients. An alternative strategy of imputing up-to-date BMI based on modelled changes in BMI over time since the last available record also led to mean BMI estimates that were close to HSE (≤0.37 kg/m2 underestimation). Conclusions Completeness of BMI in CPRD increased over time and varied by age and sex. At a given point in time, a large proportion of the most recent BMIs are unlikely to reflect current BMI; consequent BMI misclassification might be reduced by employing model-based imputation of current BMI. PMID:24038008

  12. GOCS cohort: children's eating behavior scores and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, U; Weisstaub, G; Santos, J L; Corvalán, C; Uauy, R

    2016-08-01

    In Chile, approximately one in three children under 6 years of age reported overweight/obese, while one in four children in elementary school suffer from obesity. There is a paucity of population-based information on the influence of childhood eating behavior on anthropometric measures related to obesity. To assess the association between eating behavior scores and Body Mass Index (BMI) z-scores in 7-10-year-old Chilean children. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 1058 children aged 7-10 (51% girls) from the 'Growth and Obesity Chilean Cohort Study' (GOCS). Direct measures of weight and height were used to compute BMI z-scores according to World Health Organization (WHO) curves. Children were classified as normal weight (-1obese (⩾2 s.d.). Eating behavior scores were measured through the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ), previously adapted and validated for Chilean children. Multiple linear regressions were carried out using BMI z-score as the outcome and eating behavior scores as explanatory variables. All models were adjusted by age and gender. BMI z-scores were positively associated with pro-intake scores in the subscales 'enjoyment of food', 'emotional overeating' and 'food responsiveness' (Peating' and 'food-fussiness' scores were negatively associated with BMI z-scores (Peating behavior scores and BMI z-scores in Chilean children, showing that BMI in 7-10-year-old Chilean children is positively associated with pro-intake eating behavior scores and negatively associated with anti-intake eating behavior scores. The identification of specific eating behaviors patterns related to obesity will provide important information for the implementation of prevention programs for this disease.

  13. Relationship between body fat and BMI in a U.S. Hispanic population-based cohort study: Results from HCHS/SOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the percentage of body fat (%BF)-BMI relationship, identify %BF levels corresponding to adult BMI cut points, and examine %BF-BMI agreement in a diverse Hispanic/Latino population. %BF by bioelectrical impedance analysis was corrected against %BF by 18O dilution in 434 participants of th...

  14. Low birth weight, adult BMI and inflammation in middle age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jolene Lee Masters; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Avlund, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the association between birthweight and adult BMI with inflammation in middle age measured by interleukin 6 (IL- 6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), interleukin 18 (IL-18), high sensitivity Creactive protein (hsCRP) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (tnf-α). The study is based on partic...

  15. Characterization and novel analyses of acute stress response patterns in a population-based cohort of young adults: influence of gender, smoking, and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbison, Carly E; Henley, David; Marsh, Julie; Atkinson, Helen; Newnham, John P; Matthews, Stephen G; Lye, Stephen J; Pennell, Craig E

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of the biological stress response system has been implicated in the development of psychological, metabolic, and cardiovascular disease. Whilst changes in stress response are often quantified as an increase or decrease in cortisol levels, three different patterns of stress response have been reported in the literature for the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) (reactive-responders (RR), anticipatory-responders (AR) and non-responders (NR)). However, these have never been systematically analyzed in a large population-based cohort. The aims of this study were to examine factors that contribute to TSST variation (gender, oral contraceptive use, menstrual cycle phase, smoking, and BMI) using traditional methods and novel analyses of stress response patterns. We analyzed the acute stress response of 798, 18-year-old participants from a community-based cohort using the TSST. Plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone, plasma cortisol, and salivary cortisol levels were quantified. RR, AR, and NR patterns comprised 56.6%, 26.2%, and 17.2% of the cohort, respectively. Smokers were more likely to be NR than (RR or AR; adjusted, p stress-response patterns, in addition to other parameters vary with gender, smoking, and BMI. The distribution of these patterns has the potential to vary with adult health and disease and may represent a biomarker for future investigation.

  16. Patient Understanding of Body Mass Index (BMI) in Primary Care Practices: A Two-State Practice-based Research (PBR) Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Robert E; Mendiratta, Megha; Haggerty, Treah; Bozek, Alexia; Doyle, Gregory; Xiang, Jun; King, Dana E

    2015-01-01

    The concept of body mass index (BMI) may not be well understood by patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate patients' knowledge of BMI in the primary care setting. Adult patients seen in 18 practices in West Virginia and New Jersey were invited to complete a voluntary survey. The survey assessed the patient's baseline knowledge of BMI as well as demographic information and whether the patient had known chronic conditions associated with increased BMI, including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and sleep apnea. While the majority (59.9%) of primary care patients knew the meaning of BMI and that it is related to obesity, there was little knowledge of BMI cutoff values; more than 80% of responses were incorrect when asked to define specific BMI levels and their meaning. Self-awareness of obesity was limited as well, with only 16.4% aware of their own personal BMI. Furthermore, nearly 70% of patients could not recall having discussed BMI with their physician. Findings indicate low comprehension of the term BMI. Increasing awareness of BMI may help patients address this key risk factor and significantly affect public health. © Copyright 2015 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  17. Body Mass Index (BMI) Charts (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... try to prevent adult obesity through changes in eating and exercise habits. What the Figures Mean BMI percentiles show how kids' measurements compare with others the same gender and age. For example, if a child has ...

  18. Beyond BMI: Conceptual Issues Related to Overweight and Obese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred James Müller

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BMI is widely used as a measure of weight status and disease risks; it defines overweight and obesity based on statistical criteria. BMI is a score; neither is it biologically sound nor does it reflect a suitable phenotype worthwhile to study. Because of its limited value, BMI cannot provide profound insight into obesity biology and its co-morbidity. Alternative assessments of weight status include detailed phenotyping by body composition analysis (BCA. However, predicting disease risks, fat mass, and fat-free mass as assessed by validated techniques (i.e., densitometry, dual energy X ray absorptiometry, and bioelectrical impedance analysis does not exceed the value of BMI. Going beyond BMI and descriptive BCA, the concept of functional body composition (FBC integrates body components into regulatory systems. FBC refers to the masses of body components, organs, and tissues as well as to their inter-relationships within the context of endocrine, metabolic and immune functions. FBC can be used to define specific phenotypes of obesity, e.g. the sarcopenic-obese patient. Well-characterized obesity phenotypes are a precondition for targeted research (e.g., on the genomics of obesity and patient-centered care (e.g., adequate treatment of individual obese phenotypes such as the sarcopenic-obese patient. FBC contributes to a future definition of overweight and obesity based on physiological criteria rather than on body weight alone.

  19. Prospectively measured lifestyle factors and BMI explain differences in health-related quality of life between colorectal cancer patients with and without comorbid diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, P.A.J.; Thong, M.S.Y.; Pouwer, F.; Creemers, G.-J.; Slooter, G.D.; van de Poll-Franse, L.V.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to assess the longitudinal association between lifestyle factors, body mass index (BMI), and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among colorectal cancer patients with (CRCDM+) and without diabetes (CRCDM−). Methods Data from a longitudinal study among CRC patients

  20. Modification of Bisphenol-A Based Bismaleimide Resin (BPA-BMI) with an Allyl-Terminated Hyperbranched Polyimide (AT-PAEKI)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qin, Haihu; Mather, Patrick T; Baek, Jong-Beom; Tan, Loon-Seng

    2006-01-01

    ... bismaleimide resin (BPA-BMI). This was pursued in anticipation of improvements in processability as well as physical properties including glass transition temperature, elastic modulus, and fracture toughness...

  1. Sex differences in heritability of BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Karoline; Willemsen, Gonneke; Kyvik, Kirsten O

    2003-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI), a simple anthropometric measure, is the most frequently used measure of adiposity and has been instrumental in documenting the worldwide increase in the prevalence of obesity witnessed during the last decades. Although this increase in overweight and obesity is thought...... to be mainly due to environmental changes, i.e., sedentary lifestyles and high caloric diets, consistent evidence from twin studies demonstrates high heritability and the importance of genetic differences for normal variation in BMI. We analysed self-reported data on BMI from approximately 37,000 complete twin...... pairs (including opposite sex pairs) aged 20-29 and 30-39 from eight different twin registries participating in the GenomEUtwin project. Quantitative genetic analyses were conducted and sex differences were explored. Variation in BMI was greater for women than for men, and in both sexes was primarily...

  2. Effects of early pregnancy BMI, mid-gestational weight gain, glucose and lipid levels in pregnancy on offspring's birth weight and subcutaneous fat: A population-based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer, Christine; Sletner, Line; Mørkrid, Kjersti; Jenum, Anne Karen; Birkeland, Kåre Inge

    2015-01-01

    Background: Maternal glucose and lipid levels are associated with neonatal anthropometry of the offspring, also independently of maternal body mass index (BMI). Gestational weight gain, however, is often not accounted for. The objective was to explore whether the effects of maternal glucose and lipid levels on offspring’s birth weight and subcutaneous fat were independent of early pregnancy BMI and mid-gestational weight gain. Methods: In a population-based, multi-ethnic, prospect...

  3. Body Mass Index (BMI) and Cognitive Functions in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momtaz, Yadollah A; Haron, Sharifah A; Hamid, Tengku A; Ibrahim, Rahimah; Tanjani, Parisa T

    2018-01-01

    The findings from previous studies exploring the association between BMI and cognitive function in the elderly are conflicting. The purpose of the present study is twofold; to verify the association between BMI and cognitive functions and examine whether this association is impacted by height, when adjusted for possible covariates. The data for this study, consisted of 2287 older adults aged 60 years and above, drawn from a nationally representative population-based survey entitled "Determinants of Wellness among Older Malaysians: A Health Promotion Perspective" conducted in 2009. The mean age of the respondents was 68.7 (SD=6.6) years. The average score of cognitive function, measured by MMSE was 24.5 (SD=5.6). About 40% of the respondents were classified as overweight. Results of the multiple linear regression analysis revealed a significant association between BMI and cognitive function (Beta=.10, pFactorial ANCOVA revealed significant interaction effect between BMI and height on cognitive function (F= 10.8, p<.001), after adjusting for possible covariates. The findings from the current study indicating the positive association between BMI and cognitive function depends on height, therefore it is suggested that short people might be targeted for dementia prevention. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Prospectively measured lifestyle factors and BMI explain differences in health-related quality of life between colorectal cancer patients with and without comorbid diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissers, Pauline A J; Thong, Melissa S Y; Pouwer, Frans

    2016-01-01

    diagnosed between 2000 and 2009 were used. Clinical characteristics were retrieved from the Netherlands Cancer Registry and questionnaires were sent in 2010, 2011, and 2012 using the Patient Reported Outcomes Following Initial Treatment and Long term Evaluation of Survivorship (PROFILES) registry. Lifestyle......PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the longitudinal association between lifestyle factors, body mass index (BMI), and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among colorectal cancer patients with (CRCDM+) and without diabetes (CRCDM-). METHODS: Data from a longitudinal study among CRC patients....... CRCDM+ patients had a higher BMI (29.1 ± 4.2 vs. 26.4 ± 3.7 kg/m(2)), whereas the number of alcohol users was lower (50 vs. 70 %, p value cancer characteristics showed that CRCDM+ patients reported...

  5. Comparison of Body Mass Index (BMI) Categories Based on Asian and Universal Standards and Language Spoken at Home among Asian American University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tiffany; McMahan, Shari; Mouttapa, Michele; Tanjasiri, Sora Park; Beam, William

    2009-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization released lower Body Mass Index (BMI) cutoff points for Asian individuals to account for increased body fat percentage (BF%) and risk of obesity-related conditions at a lower body mass index. Purpose: This preliminary study: (1) explores the impact of utilizing Asian BMI standards (compared to universal…

  6. Child fitness and father's BMI are important factors in childhood obesity: a school based cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinead Brophy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study examines obesity and factors associated with obesity in children aged 11-13 years in the UK. METHODS: 1147 children from ten secondary schools participated in a health survey that included blood samples, fitness test and anthropometric measures. Factors associated with obesity were examined using multilevel logistic regression. FINDINGS: Of the children examined (490 male; 657 female a third were overweight, 1 in 6 had elevated blood pressure, more than 1 in 10 had high cholesterol, 58% consumed more fat than recommended, whilst 37% were classified as unfit. Children in deprived areas had a higher proportion of risk factors; for example, they had higher blood pressure (20% (deprived compared to 11% (non-deprived, difference: 9.0% (95%CI: 4.7%-13.4%. Obesity is associated with risk factors for heart disease and diabetes. Maintaining fitness is associated with a reduction in the risk factors for heart disease (high blood pressure and cholesterol but not on risk factors for diabetes (insulin levels. In order of importance, the main risk factors for childhood obesity are being unfit, having an obese father, and being large at birth. CONCLUSION: The high proportion of children with risk factors suggests future interventions need to focus on community and policy change to shift the population norm rather than targeting the behaviour of high risk individuals. Interventions need to focus on mothers' lifestyle in pregnancy, fathers' health, as well as promoting fitness among children. Obesity was not associated with deprivation. Therefore, strategies should be adopted in both deprived and non deprived areas.

  7. The Non-Linear Relationship between BMI and Health Care Costs and the Resulting Cost Fraction Attributable to Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxy, Michael; Stark, Renée; Peters, Annette; Hauner, Hans; Holle, Rolf; Teuner, Christina M

    2017-08-30

    This study aims to analyse the non-linear relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and direct health care costs, and to quantify the resulting cost fraction attributable to obesity in Germany. Five cross-sectional surveys of cohort studies in southern Germany were pooled, resulting in data of 6757 individuals (31-96 years old). Self-reported information on health care utilisation was used to estimate direct health care costs for the year 2011. The relationship between measured BMI and annual costs was analysed using generalised additive models, and the cost fraction attributable to obesity was calculated. We found a non-linear association of BMI and health care costs with a continuously increasing slope for increasing BMI without any clear threshold. Under the consideration of the non-linear BMI-cost relationship, a shift in the BMI distribution so that the BMI of each individual is lowered by one point is associated with a 2.1% reduction of mean direct costs in the population. If obesity was eliminated, and the BMI of all obese individuals were lowered to 29.9 kg/m², this would reduce the mean direct costs by 4.0% in the population. Results show a non-linear relationship between BMI and health care costs, with very high costs for a few individuals with high BMI. This indicates that population-based interventions in combination with selective measures for very obese individuals might be the preferred strategy.

  8. The Non-Linear Relationship between BMI and Health Care Costs and the Resulting Cost Fraction Attributable to Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Laxy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyse the non-linear relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI and direct health care costs, and to quantify the resulting cost fraction attributable to obesity in Germany. Five cross-sectional surveys of cohort studies in southern Germany were pooled, resulting in data of 6757 individuals (31–96 years old. Self-reported information on health care utilisation was used to estimate direct health care costs for the year 2011. The relationship between measured BMI and annual costs was analysed using generalised additive models, and the cost fraction attributable to obesity was calculated. We found a non-linear association of BMI and health care costs with a continuously increasing slope for increasing BMI without any clear threshold. Under the consideration of the non-linear BMI-cost relationship, a shift in the BMI distribution so that the BMI of each individual is lowered by one point is associated with a 2.1% reduction of mean direct costs in the population. If obesity was eliminated, and the BMI of all obese individuals were lowered to 29.9 kg/m2, this would reduce the mean direct costs by 4.0% in the population. Results show a non-linear relationship between BMI and health care costs, with very high costs for a few individuals with high BMI. This indicates that population-based interventions in combination with selective measures for very obese individuals might be the preferred strategy.

  9. Association of BMI and height with the risk of endometrial cancer, overall and by histological subtype: a population-based prospective cohort study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawachi, Asuka; Shimazu, Taichi; Budhathoki, Sanjeev; Sawada, Norie; Yamaji, Taiki; Iwasaki, Motoki; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2018-04-18

    Evidence on the association between BMI, height, and endometrial cancer risk, including by subtypes, among Asian populations remains limited. We evaluated the impact of BMI and height on the risk of endometrial cancer, overall and by histological subtype. We prospectively investigated 53 651 Japanese women aged 40-69 years. With an average follow-up duration of 18.6 years, 180 newly diagnosed endometrial cancers were reported, including 119 type 1 and 21 type 2. The association between BMI, height, and endometrial cancer risk was assessed using a Cox proportional hazards regression model with adjustment for potential confounders. Overweight and obesity were associated positively with the risk of endometrial cancer. Compared with BMI of 23.0-24.9 kg/m, hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence intervals) were 1.93 (1.17-3.16) for BMI of 27.0-29.9 kg/m and 2.37 (1.20-4.66) for BMI of at least 30.0 kg/m. On analysis by histological subtype, with each increase in BMI of 5 U, the estimated HR of type 1 endometrial cancer increased (HR=1.54, 95% confidence interval: 1.21-1.98), but HR of type 2 endometrial cancer was unaffected. There was no statistically significant association between height and endometrial cancer risk. In conclusion, the risk of endometrial cancer was elevated in women with a BMI of at least 27.0 kg/m. By histological subtype, BMI was associated with type 1, but not type 2 endometrial cancer risk among a population with a relatively low BMI compared with western populations.

  10. Socioeconomic differences in childhood BMI trajectories in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rita; Tilling, Kate; Lawlor, Debbie A; Howe, Laura D; Hughes, Rachael A; Bogdanovich, Natalia; Matush, Lidia; Nicoli, Emily; Oken, Emily; Kramer, Michael S; Martin, Richard M

    2018-02-28

    To examine associations of parental socioeconomic position with early-life offspring body mass index (BMI) trajectories in a middle-income country. Overall, 12,385 Belarusian children born 1996-97 and enrolled in a randomised breastfeeding promotion trial at birth, with 3-14 measurements of BMI from birth to 7 years. Cohort analysis in which exposures were parental education (common secondary or less; advanced secondary or partial university; completed university) and occupation (manual; non-manual) at birth, and the outcome was BMI z-score trajectories estimated using multilevel linear spline models, controlling for trial arm, location, parental BMI, maternal smoking status and number of older siblings. Infants born to university-educated mothers were heavier at birth than those born to secondary school-educated mothers [by 0.13 BMI z-score units (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.07, 0.19) for girls and 0.11 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.17) for boys; equivalent for an infant of average birth length to 43 and 38 g, respectively]. Between the ages of 3-7 years children of the most educated mothers had larger BMI increases than children of the least educated mothers. At age 7 years, after controlling for trial arm and location,  children of university-educated mothers had higher BMIs than those born to secondary school-educated mothers by 0.11 z-score (95% CI: 0.03, 0.19) among girls and 0.18 (95% CI: 0.1, 0.27) among boys, equivalent to differences in BMI for a child of average height of 0.19 and 0.26 kg/m 2 , respectively. After further controlling for parental BMI, these differences attenuated to 0.08 z-score (95% CI: 0, 0.16) and 0.16 z-score (95% CI: 0.07, 0.24), respectively, but changed very little after additional adjustment for number of older siblings and mother's smoking status. Associations were similar when based on paternal educational attainment and highest household occupation. In Belarus, consistent with some middle-income countries, higher socioeconomic

  11. BMI Trajectories from Birth to Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Shannon M; Osganian, Stavroula K; Feldman, Henry A; Milliren, Carly E; Field, Alison E; Richmond, Tracy K

    2018-04-19

    This study aimed to compare BMI trajectories from childhood to early adulthood in those with overweight and/or obesity versus severe obesity. Longitudinal BMI values (2,542 measurements) were calculated from measured heights and weights for 103 children, adolescents, or young adults with overweight, obesity, or severe obesity. Segmented regression with splines was used to model BMI trajectories. Sixty-nine participants were classified as ever having severe obesity versus 34 who never had severe obesity. Trajectories and slopes did not differ by sex or race/ethnicity. Compared with those who never had severe obesity, BMI was higher in the group with severe obesity at all ages, and BMI slope was higher for those with severe obesity at age 14 (P = 0.002), with peak slope occurring later (18 years vs. 16 years) and higher (4.5 ± 0.5 kg/m 2 /y vs. 2.9 ± 0.5 kg/m 2 /y; P BMI fell below zero by the mid-20s (-0.3 ± 0.6 kg/m 2 /y); in those with severe obesity, BMI slope never reached zero (0.9 ± 0.5 kg/m 2 /y). Youth with severe obesity, compared with their peers without, started with higher BMIs, had more rapid rates of BMI increase beginning at age 14, as well as a higher peak and longer period of increase, and never achieved weight stabilization. © 2018 The Obesity Society.

  12. Behavioural patterns only predict concurrent BMI status and not BMI trajectories in a sample of youth in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxer, Rachel E; Cooke, Martin; Dubin, Joel A; Brownson, Ross C; Chaurasia, Ashok; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2018-01-01

    Youth are engaging in multiple risky behaviours, increasing their risk of overweight, obesity, and related chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of engaging in unique clusters of unhealthy behaviours on youths' body mass index (BMI) trajectories. This study used a linked-longitudinal sample of Grades 9 and 10 students (13 to 17 years of age) participating in the COMPASS host study. Students reported obesity-related and other risky behaviours at baseline and height and weight (to derive BMI) at baseline (2012/2013) and annually for 2 years post-baseline (2013/14 and 2014/15). Students were grouped into behavioural clusters based on response probabilities. Linear mixed effects models, using BMI as a continuous outcome measure, were used to examine the effect of engaging in clusters of risky behaviours on BMI trajectories. There were significant differences in BMI of the four behavioural clusters at baseline that remained consistent over time. Higher BMI values were found among youth classified at baseline to be Typical High School Athletes (β = 0.232 kg/m2, [confidence interval (CI): 0.03-0.50]), Inactive High Screen-User (β = 0.348 kg/m2, CI: 0.11-0.59) and Moderately Active Substance Users (β = 0.759 kg/m2, CI: 0.36-1.15) compared to students classified as Health Conscious. Despite these baseline differences, BMI appeared to increase across all behavioural clusters annually by the same amount (β = 0.6097 kg/m2, (CI) = 0.57-0.64). Although annual increases in BMI did not differ by behavioural clusters, membership in a particular behavioural cluster was associated with baseline BMI, and these differences remained consistent over time. Results indicate that intervening and modifying unhealthy behaviours earlier might have a greater impact than during adolescence. Health promotion strategies targeting the highest risk youth as they enter secondary school might be promising means to prevent or delay the onset of obesity.

  13. Nutritional status in sick children and adolescents is not accurately reflected by BMI-SDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusch, Gerhard; Raja, Preeya; Dung, Nguyen Quang; Karaolis-Danckert, Nadina; Barr, Ronald; Fusch, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional status provides helpful information of disease severity and treatment effectiveness. Body mass index standard deviation scores (BMI-SDS) provide an approximation of body composition and thus are frequently used to classify nutritional status of sick children and adolescents. However, the accuracy of estimating body composition in this population using BMI-SDS has not been assessed. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the accuracy of nutritional status classification in sick infants and adolescents using BMI-SDS, upon comparison to classification using percentage body fat (%BF) reference charts. BMI-SDS was calculated from anthropometric measurements and %BF was measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for 393 sick children and adolescents (5 months-18 years). Subjects were classified by nutritional status (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese), using 2 methods: (1) BMI-SDS, based on age- and gender-specific percentiles, and (2) %BF reference charts (standard). Linear regression and a correlation analysis were conducted to compare agreement between both methods of nutritional status classification. %BF reference value comparisons were also made between 3 independent sources based on German, Canadian, and American study populations. Correlation between nutritional status classification by BMI-SDS and %BF agreed moderately (r (2) = 0.75, 0.76 in boys and girls, respectively). The misclassification of nutritional status in sick children and adolescents using BMI-SDS was 27% when using German %BF references. Similar rates observed when using Canadian and American %BF references (24% and 23%, respectively). Using BMI-SDS to determine nutritional status in a sick population is not considered an appropriate clinical tool for identifying individual underweight or overweight children or adolescents. However, BMI-SDS may be appropriate for longitudinal measurements or for screening purposes in large field studies. When accurate nutritional

  14. Definition of new cut-offs of BMI and waist circumference based on body composition and insulin resistance: differences between children, adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübers, M; Pourhassan, M; Braun, W; Geisler, C; Müller, M J

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to determine associations between anthropometric traits, regional fat depots and insulin resistance in children, adolescents and adults to define new cut-offs of body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC). Cross-sectional data were assessed in 433 children, adolescents and adults (aged: 6-60 years, BMI: 23.6 [21.0-27.7] kg m -2 ). Total adipose tissue (TAT), regional subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT total , SAT trunk ) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were determined by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging, fat mass by air-displacement plethysmography. Insulin resistance was evaluated by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Bivariate as well as partial correlations and regression analyses were used. Cut-off values of BMI and WC related to regional fat depots and HOMA-IR were analysed by receiver operating characteristics curve. In adults, TAT, SAT total and SAT trunk increased linearly with increasing BMI and WC, whereas they followed a cubic function in children and adolescents with a steep increase at BMI and WC ≥1 standard deviation score and VAT at WC ≥2 standard deviation score. Sex differences were apparent in adults with women having higher masses of TAT and SAT and men having higher VAT. Using established BMI or WC cut-offs, correspondent masses of TAT, SAT total , SAT trunk and VAT increased from childhood to adulthood. In all age groups, there were positive associations between BMI, WC, SAT trunk , VAT and HOMA-IR. When compared with normative cut-offs of BMI or WC, HOMA-IR-derived cut-offs of regional fat depots were lower in all age groups. Associations between BMI, WC and regional fat depots varied between children, adolescents, young and older adults. When compared with BMI-derived and WC-derived values, an insulin resistance-derived cut-off corresponded to lower masses of regional fat depots. Thus, established BMI and WC cut-offs are not appropriate to assess metabolic disturbances associated

  15. Maternal Prepregnancy BMI and Risk of Cerebral Palsy in Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forthun, Ingeborg; Wilcox, Allen J.; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and risk of cerebral palsy (CP) in offspring. METHODS: The study population consisted of 188 788 children in the Mothers and Babies in Norway and Denmark CP study, using data from 2 population-based, prospective birth...... cohorts: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study and the Danish National Birth Cohort. Prepregnancy BMI was classified as underweight (BMI BMI 18.5–22.9), upper normal weight (BMI 23.0–24.9), overweight (BMI 25.0–29.9), and obese (BMI ≥30). CP diagnoses were obtained from...... the national CP registries. Associations between maternal prepregnancy BMI and CP in offspring were investigated by using log-binomial regression models. RESULTS: The 2 cohorts had 390 eligible cases of CP (2.1 per 1000 live-born children). Compared with mothers in the lower normal weight group, mothers...

  16. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Nutritional Education based on Health Belief Model on Self-Esteem and BMI of Overweight and at Risk of Overweight Adolescent Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leili Rabiei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Due to significant increases in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents in developed countries, much attention has been focused on this issue. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of nutritional education based on Health Belief Model (HBM on self-esteem and body mass index (BMI of overweight and at risk of overweight adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: The study subjects consist of 140 female students recruited from two high schools, who were randomly allocated to the intervention (n=70 and control (n=70 groups. The data collection instrument included sections on socio-demographic status, transportation method, physical status, and knowledge and attitudes of the students towards nutrition, which was designed according to HBM. As the intervention, model-based educational program was implemented through six 60-minute sessions, focusing on the overweight and at-risk students. Results were compared in the beginning, and three months after the intervention to find the possible impacts. Results: Average score of model structures and self-esteem of students in both groups had no significant difference at baseline, but immediately after the intervention and 3 months after treatment, the mean component scores were significantly higher in intervention group than controls (P

  17. The effect of prenatal maternal cigarette smoking on children's BMI z-score with SGA as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salahuddin, Meliha; Pérez, Adriana; Ranjit, Nalini; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Kelder, Steven H

    2018-02-21

    The goal of this study was to assess the effect of prenatal maternal cigarette smoking on children's BMI z-score trajectories, and to evaluate whether small-for-gestational-age (SGA) acts as a potential mediator between prenatal maternal cigarette smoking and child's BMI z-score at 4 years of age. Group-based trajectory modeling (GBTM) methods were employed to describe and classify developmental BMI z-score trajectories (the outcome of interest) in children from 9 months to 4 years of age (n = 5221) in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) study (2001-2005). Further analysis examined whether the identified BMI z-score trajectories varied with the exposure, prenatal maternal cigarette smoking. Mediation analyses were utilized to examine whether being SGA (binary measure) acted as a potential mediator in the relationship between prenatal maternal cigarette smoking and BMI z-score among 4-year-old children. Using GBTM, two BMI z-score trajectory groups were identified: normal BMI z-score (57.8%); and high BMI z-score (42.2%). Children of mothers who smoked cigarettes during pregnancy were 2.1 times (RR 95% CI: 1.1-4.0, P value = 0.023) more at risk of being in the high BMI z-score trajectory group. Prenatal cigarette smoking was positively related to SGA at birth, but SGA was inversely related to BMI z-score at 4 years. The direct effect (0.19, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.19; P value BMI z-score among 4-year-old children was stronger and in the opposite direction of the indirect effect (-0.04, 95% CI: -0.04, -0.04; P value BMI z-score group, as well with SGA. The effects of prenatal smoking on BMI z-score at 4 years appears to act through pathways other than SGA.

  18. Community-Specific BMI Cutoff Points for South Indian Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Kishore Mohan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze multiparameters related to total body composition, with specific emphasis on obesity in South Indian females, in order to derive community-specific BMI cutoff points. Patients and Methods. A total number of 87 females (of age 37.33±13.12 years from South Indian Chennai urban population participated in this clinical study. Body composition analysis and anthropometric measurements were acquired after conducting careful clinical examination. Results. BMI demonstrated high significance when normal group (21.02±1.47 kg/m2 was compared with obese group (29.31±3.95 kg/m2, <0.0001. BFM displayed high significance when normal group (14.92±4.28 kg was compared with obese group (29.94 ± 8.1 kg, <0.0001. Conclusion. Community-specific BMI cutoffs are necessary to assess obesity in different ethnic groups, and relying on WHO-based universal BMI cutoff points would be a wrong strategy.

  19. Longitudinal trends in nutritional status and the relation between lung function and BMI in cystic fibrosis: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Anne L; Mannik, Lisa A; Walsh, Shirley; Brotherwood, Michelle; Robert, Ronalee; Darling, Pauline B; Nisenbaum, Rosane; Moerman, Joost; Stanojevic, Sanja

    2013-04-01

    A high-calorie diet has been a standard of care in cystic fibrosis (CF) for >3 decades. However, energy requirements may have changed with new treatments and milder genotypes. The objectives of this study were to describe longitudinal trends in nutritional status and to evaluate the relation between nutritional status and lung function. This longitudinal cohort study included 909 individuals followed at the Adult CF Clinic in Toronto from 1985 to 2011. Nutritional status was classified on the basis of WHO BMI guidelines. Multivariable linear regression with the use of generalized estimating equations was applied to evaluate the relation between BMI and lung function. The proportion of underweight individuals decreased from 20.6% before 1990 to 11.1% in the most recent decade, whereas the proportion of overweight and obese subjects increased from 7.0% to 18.4% (P underweight group, an increase in BMI resulted in improved lung function, whereas this effect was half of that in overweight individuals. The greatest advantage of improved nutrition on lung function was observed in the underweight group and in pancreatic- insufficient patients. Modification to a high-fat diet may be required in some individuals with CF to optimize nutritional health. Higher BMI is associated with improvements in lung function, although the lung function benefit of increasing one's BMI (in kg/m(2)) to >25 is small and needs to be balanced against the known health risks of obesity.

  20. Comparison between BMI and Inverted BMI in Evaluating Metabolic Risk and Body Composition in Iranian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Saki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare BMI and inverted BMI in evaluating body measurement, resting blood pressure, Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA parameters of fat mass and metabolic risk factors in Iranian children Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study on 477 children aged 9-18 yearsin the South of Iran. Weight, height, resting blood pressure, waist and hip circumference and pubertal stage of all participants was measured with standard methods. DEXA was used to determine body composition index. Blood samples were checked for serum lipid profiles and fasting blood sugar (FBS. Metabolic risk score (MRS was calculated by the summation of the Z-scores for TC, TG/HDL, LDL, systolic blood pressure, and waist circumference minus HDL Z-score. Results: BMI did not have a normal distribution in our participants but iBMI had a normal distribution. IBMI had more significant correlation with waist to hip ratio and systolic blood pressure (r2=0.053 and r2=0.182 than BMI (r2=0.041 and r2=0.101. MRS had a positive correlation with BMI (P

  1. Bidirectional associations between mothers' and fathers' parenting consistency and child BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Pauline W; Giallo, Rebecca; Westrupp, Elizabeth M; Wake, Melissa; Nicholson, Jan M

    2013-12-01

    Research suggests that general parenting dimensions and styles are associated with children's BMI, but directionality in this relationship remains unknown. Moreover, there has been little attention to the influences of both mothers' and fathers' parenting. We aimed to examine reciprocal relationships between maternal and paternal parenting consistency and child BMI. Participants were 4002 children and their parents in the population-based Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Mothers and fathers self-reported parenting consistency, and children's BMI was measured at 4 biennial waves starting at age 4 to 5 years in 2004. Bidirectionality between parenting and child BMI was examined by using regression analyses in cross-lagged models. The best-fitting models indicated a modest influence from parenting to child BMI, whereas no support was found for bidirectional influences. For mothers, higher levels of parenting consistency predicted lower BMI in children from Waves 1 to 2 and 3 to 4; for example, for every SD increase in mothers' parenting consistency at Wave 1, child BMIz fell by 0.025 in Wave 2 (95% confidence interval: -0.05 to -0.003). For fathers, higher levels of parenting consistency were associated with lower child BMI from Waves 1 to 2 and 2 to 3. Parenting inconsistency of mothers and fathers prospectively predicted small increases in offspring BMI over 2-year periods across middle childhood. However, child BMI did not appear to influence parenting behavior. These findings support recent calls for expanding childhood overweight interventions to address the broad parenting context while involving both mothers and fathers.

  2. Education modifies genetic and environmental influences on BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Wendy; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Skytthe, Axel

    2011-01-01

    , and education data. Body mass index (BMI = kg weight/ m height(2)) was used to measure degree of obesity. We used quantitative genetic modeling to examine how genetic and shared and nonshared environmental variance in BMI differed by level of education and to estimate how genetic and shared and nonshared...... environmental correlations between education and BMI differed by level of education, analyzing women and men separately. Correlations between education and BMI were -.13 in women, -.15 in men. High BMI's were less frequent among well-educated participants, generating less variance. In women, this was due...... to restriction of all forms of variance, overall by a factor of about 2. In men, genetic variance did not vary with education, but results for shared and nonshared environmental variance were similar to those for women. The contributions of the shared environment to the correlations between education and BMI...

  3. BMI change during puberty and the risk of heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindblom, J M; Bygdell, M; Sondén, A; Célind, J; Rosengren, A; Ohlsson, C

    2018-03-12

    Hospitalization for heart failure amongst younger men has increased. The reason for this is unknown but it coincides with the obesity epidemic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between childhood BMI (Body Mass Index) and BMI change during puberty for risk of adult heart failure in men. Using the BMI Epidemiology Study (BEST), a population-based study in Gothenburg, Sweden, we collected information on childhood BMI at age 8 years and BMI change during puberty (BMI at age 20 - BMI at 8) for men born 1945-1961, followed until December 2013 (n = 37 670). BMI was collected from paediatric growth charts and mandatory military conscription tests. Information on heart failure was retrieved from high-quality national registers (342 first hospitalizations for heart failure). BMI change during puberty was independently of childhood BMI associated with risk of heart failure in a nonlinear J-shaped manner. Subjects in the upper quartile of BMI change during puberty (Q4) had more than twofold increased risk of heart failure compared with subjects in Q1 [HR (Hazard Ratio) = 2.29, 95% CI (Confidence Interval) 1.68-3.12]. Childhood BMI was not independently associated with risk of heart failure. Boys developing overweight during puberty (HR 3.14; 95% CI 2.25-4.38) but not boys with childhood overweight that normalized during puberty (HR 1.12, 95% CI 0.63-2.00) had increased risk of heart failure compared with boys without childhood or young adult overweight. BMI change during puberty is a novel risk factor for adult heart failure in men. © 2018 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  4. BMI in patients with obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrowolska-Zarzycka Magdalena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a disease of multicasual etiology. The risk factors include obesity, among other issues. Hence, it is extremely important to determine the effect of body weight on the severity of OSA. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the body weight expressed as body mass index (BMI, on the value of upper airways diameter and on the AHI (Apnea-Hypopnea Index value. The study was comprised of 41 patients diagnosed with OSA by way of polysomnography. Each patient was first examine via a lateral cephalometric image of the skull, which served to measure the upper and lower diameter of the upper airways. BMI was also calculated for each patient. Statistical analysis was carried out in accordance with Pearson’s correlation coefficient test. Our work demonstrated a negative correlation between BMI and the diameter of the upper airways, and a positive correlation between BMI and AHI value. We thus put forward that the increase in body weight in patients with OSA can contribute to the severity of the disease, regardless of the fact that it may not lead to a reduction of the lumen of the upper airways.

  5. Software-based acoustical measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Miyara, Federico

    2017-01-01

    This textbook provides a detailed introduction to the use of software in combination with simple and economical hardware (a sound level meter with calibrated AC output and a digital recording system) to obtain sophisticated measurements usually requiring expensive equipment. It emphasizes the use of free, open source, and multiplatform software. Many commercial acoustical measurement systems use software algorithms as an integral component; however the methods are not disclosed. This book enables the reader to develop useful algorithms and provides insight into the use of digital audio editing tools to document features in the signal. Topics covered include acoustical measurement principles, in-depth critical study of uncertainty applied to acoustical measurements, digital signal processing from the basics, and metrologically-oriented spectral and statistical analysis of signals. The student will gain a deep understanding of the use of software for measurement purposes; the ability to implement software-based...

  6. Is BMI a relevant marker of fat mass in 4 year old children? Results from the MINISTOP trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Henriksson, Pontus; Ek, Anna; Henriksson, Hanna; Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Löf, Marie

    2018-03-20

    Due to the increase in childhood obesity, identifying children with excess body fat as early as possible is essential. Body mass index (BMI) is commonly used as a marker of body fat in children, adolescents, and adults, yet whether BMI is a valid marker of body fat in pre-school aged children remains to be confirmed. Therefore, we analyzed the associations of BMI with fat and fat-free mass in healthy 4-year-old Swedish children. The study comprised of 303 children (135 girls) participating in the MINISTOP obesity prevention trial. Fat and fat-free mass were measured using air displacement plethysmography and we computed fat mass index (FMI) and fat free mass index (FFMI) as fat and fat free mass (kg)/height 2 (m). BMI was positively yet weakly associated with percent fat mass (boys: r 2  = 0.120, P BMI and the FMI (boys: r 2  = 0.468, P BMI and the FFMI (boys: r 2  = 0.621, P BMI was strongly associated to both FMI and FFMI. Therefore, caution is needed when interpreting body fat status based on BMI values in pre-school children.

  7. Food brand recognition and BMI in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Kristen; Moorman, Jessica; Peralta, Mericarmen; Fayhee, Kally

    2017-07-01

    Children's food brand recognition predicts health-related outcomes such as preference for obesogenic foods and increased risk for overweight. However, it is uncertain to what degree food brand recognition acts as a proxy for other factors such as parental education and income, child vocabulary, child age, child race/ethnicity, parent healthy eating guidance, child commercial TV viewing, and child dietary intake, all of which may influence or be influenced by food brand recognition. U.S. preschoolers (N = 247, average age 56 months) were measured for BMI and completed the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test plus recognition and recall measures for a selection of U.S. food brands. Parents completed measures of healthy eating guidance, child dietary intake, child commercial TV viewing, parent education, household income, parent BMI, and child age and race/ethnicity. Controlling these variables, child food brand recognition predicted higher child BMI percentile. Further, qualitative examination of children's incorrect answers to recall items demonstrated perceptual confusion between brand mascots and other fantasy characters to which children are exposed during the preschool years, extending theory on child consumer development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Strain measurement based battery testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jeff Qiang; Steiber, Joe; Wall, Craig M.; Smith, Robert; Ng, Cheuk

    2017-05-23

    A method and system for strain-based estimation of the state of health of a battery, from an initial state to an aged state, is provided. A strain gauge is applied to the battery. A first strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at a selected charge capacity of the battery and at the initial state of the battery. A second strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at the selected charge capacity of the battery and at the aged state of the battery. The capacity degradation of the battery is estimated as the difference between the first and second strain measurements divided by the first strain measurement.

  9. Longitudinal Analysis of Genetic Susceptibility and BMI Throughout Adult Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingyang; Zheng, Yan; Qi, Lu; Hu, Frank B; Chan, Andrew T; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2018-02-01

    Little is known about the genetic influence on BMI trajectory throughout adulthood. We created a genetic risk score (GRS) comprising 97 adult BMI-associated variants among 9,971 women and 6,405 men of European ancestry. Serial measures of BMI were assessed from 18 (women) or 21 (men) years to 85 years of age. We also examined BMI change in early (from 18 or 21 to 45 years of age), middle (from 45 to 65 years of age), and late adulthood (from 65 to 80 years of age). GRS was positively associated with BMI across all ages, with stronger associations in women than in men. The associations increased from early to middle adulthood, peaked at 45 years of age in men and at 60 years of age in women (0.91 and 1.35 kg/m 2 per 10-allele increment, respectively) and subsequently declined in late adulthood. For women, each 10-allele increment in the GRS was associated with an average BMI gain of 0.54 kg/m 2 in early adulthood, whereas no statistically significant association was found for BMI change in middle or late adulthood or for BMI change in any life period in men. Our findings indicate that genetic predisposition exerts a persistent effect on adiposity throughout adult life and increases early adulthood weight gain in women. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  10. Effect of inhaled corticosteroid use on weight (BMI) in pediatric patients with moderate-severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jennifer; Nguyen, John; Kim, Yuna; Geng, Bob; Romanowski, Gale; Alejandro, Lawrence; Proudfoot, James; Xu, Ronghui; Leibel, Sydney

    2018-04-19

    Assess the relationship between inhaled corticosteroid use (ICS) and weight (BMI) in pediatric patients with moderate-severe asthma. Assess if the number of emergency department (ED) visits correlates with overall BMI trajectory. Assess the trend of prescribing biologic therapy in pediatric patients with moderate-severe asthma and determine its relationship with weight (BMI). A retrospective chart review was performed on 93 pediatric patients with moderate-severe asthma to determine the relationship between ICS use and weight (BMI), biologic therapy and BMI, and number of ED visits and BMI trajectory. A mixed effects model was employed with the correlation between repeated measures accounted for through the random effects. There is a statistically significant increase of 0.369 kg/m 2 in BMI trajectory per year in subjects on high-dose steroids compared to an increase of 0.195 kg/m 2 in the low dose group (p BMI of subjects initiated on biologic therapy (omalizumab or mepolizumab) had a statistically significant decrease in BMI trajectory of 0.818 kg/m 2 per year (p BMI trajectory (p BMI trajectory; the higher the dose, the greater the projected BMI increase per year. Initiation of biologic therapy decreased BMI trajectory over time. Lastly, those with frequent ED visits had a higher BMI trend. Future prospective studies are warranted that further evaluate the potential metabolic impacts of ICS and assess the effects of biologic therapy on BMI.

  11. Is the BMI a Relic of the Past?

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Wang-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The most widely used measure of adiposity is to express weight adjusted for height using the body mass index (BMI). However, its limitations such as its inability to distinguish muscle weight from fat weight are well known, leading public health authorities in the UK and US to recommend measuring waist circumference as a complementary diagnostic tool for obesity. Recent attention placed on the syndrome referred to as 'normal weight obesity' – individuals with normal BMI but high body fat cont...

  12. Association between infancy BMI peak and body composition and blood pressure at age 5-6 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, Michel H. P.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; de Hoog, Marieke L. A.; van Eijsden, Manon; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.

    2013-01-01

    The development of overweight is often measured with the body mass index (BMI). During childhood the BMI curve has two characteristic points: the adiposity rebound at 6 years and the BMI peak at 9 months of age. In this study, the associations between the BMI peak and body composition measures and

  13. Measurements based dynamic climate observer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaabene, Maher [The High Institute of Technological Studies (ISET), Sfax (Tunisia); Unite de Commande de Machines et Reseaux de Puissance CMERP-ENIS, Tunisia, Rte Mahdia Km 2, BP88A, ElBustan 3099 Sfax (Tunisia)

    2008-09-15

    This paper introduces a dynamic prediction of solar radiation and ambient temperature. Medium term prediction is based on climatic parameters behaviours during the day before and on time distribution models. As for short term prediction, it is ensured by an ARMA predictor using Kalman filter. Herein, we describe our method and present prediction results. Validation is based on measures taken during the year 2005 in the north of Tunisia. The work effectiveness is illustrated by a short term and medium term prediction of the electric energy produced by a 1 KWp photovoltaic panel (PVP) installed at the Energy and Thermal Research Centre (CRTEn) in the north of Tunisia. Since our work delivers accurate climatic parameters prediction, the obtained results can be easily adapted to predict any other solar conversion system output. (author)

  14. Effects of early pregnancy BMI, mid-gestational weight gain, glucose and lipid levels in pregnancy on offspring's birth weight and subcutaneous fat: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Christine; Sletner, Line; Mørkrid, Kjersti; Jenum, Anne Karen; Birkeland, Kåre Inge

    2015-04-03

    Maternal glucose and lipid levels are associated with neonatal anthropometry of the offspring, also independently of maternal body mass index (BMI). Gestational weight gain, however, is often not accounted for. The objective was to explore whether the effects of maternal glucose and lipid levels on offspring's birth weight and subcutaneous fat were independent of early pregnancy BMI and mid-gestational weight gain. In a population-based, multi-ethnic, prospective cohort of 699 women and their offspring, maternal anthropometrics were collected in gestational week 15 and 28. Maternal fasting plasma lipids, fasting and 2-hour glucose post 75 g glucose load, were collected in gestational week 28. Maternal risk factors were standardized using z-scores. Outcomes were neonatal birth weight and sum of skinfolds in four different regions. Mean (standard deviation) birth weight was 3491 ± 498 g and mean sum of skinfolds was 18.2 ± 3.9 mm. Maternal fasting glucose and HDL-cholesterol were predictors of birth weight, and fasting and 2-hour glucose were predictors of neonatal sum of skinfolds, independently of weight gain as well as early pregnancy BMI, gestational week at inclusion, maternal age, parity, smoking status, ethnic origin, gestational age and offspring's sex. However, weight gain was the strongest independent predictor of both birth weight and neonatal sum of skinfolds, with a 0.21 kg/week increased weight gain giving a 110.7 (95% confidence interval 76.6-144.9) g heavier neonate, and with 0.72 (0.38-1.06) mm larger sum of skinfolds. The effect size of mother's early pregnancy BMI on birth weight was higher in non-Europeans than in Europeans. Maternal fasting glucose and HDL-cholesterol were predictors of offspring's birth weight, and fasting and 2-hour glucose were predictors of neonatal sum of skinfolds, independently of weight gain. Mid-gestational weight gain was a stronger predictor of both birth weight and neonatal sum of skinfolds than early

  15. Differences in genetic and environmental variation in adult BMI by sex, age, time period, and region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo

    2017-01-01

    Background: Genes and the environment contribute to variation in adult body mass index [BMI (in kg/m(2))], but factors modifying these variance components are poorly understood. Objective: We analyzed genetic and environmental variation in BMI between men and women from young adulthood to old age...... and women increased from young adulthood to old age. The heritability of BMI was largely similar between cultural-geographic regions and measurement years, despite large differences in mean BMI and variances in BMI. Our results show a strong influence of genetic factors on BMI, especially in early adulthood...

  16. Body composition in 13-year-old adolescents with abdominal obesity, depending on the BMI value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goluch-Koniuszy, Zuzanna S; Kuchlewska, Magdalena

    2017-09-01

    Excessive adipocyte growth during the pubertal transition predisposes to the development and persistence of obesity in adulthood. Visceral accumulation of body fat is particularly disadvantageous when it is correlated with insulin resistance, secondary hyperinsulinaemia, dysglicaemia, and atherogenic dyslipidemia. The aim of this study was to conduct a nutritional status assessment and body composition analysis in 13-year-old adolescents of both genders with visceral fat accumulation (WC ≥ 90th percentile) and different BMI values. The evaluation of state of nutrition of 1,738 Polish boys (n = 882) and girls (n = 856) aged 13 was done based on anthropometric measurements and calculated BMI (body mass index), WC (waist circumference) and WHtR indices (waist-to-height ratio). Taking into consideration the value of WC ≥ 90 pc, 353 people were designated (20.3 % of the total) with visceral obesity (but with various BMI), whose body composition was examined by the method of bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA). A total of 249 adolescents of both sexes (70.5% of the selected, 102 boys and 147 girls) and their parents agreed to the study. In adolescents with visceral obesity a significant change of body content was ascertained depending on the value of the BMI. Even in the people with a proper value of the BMI, a significantly higher than standard increase of the percentage of total body fat (TBF) and decrease of both the percentage of body lean (BL) and the content of total body water (TBW) in the body was observed. The values of the BMI, WC and WHtR in adolescents were significantly correlated with each other as well as with TBF, BL and TBW, and the strength of correlation was dependent on sex. The state of nutrition in adolescents with visceral obesity, even with a proper BMI, might contribute to the development of a metabolic syndrome.

  17. Distance from skin to epidural space: Correlation with body mass index (BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komaljit Kaur Ravi

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: We formulated predictive equation of depth of epidural space from skin in relation to BMI based on linear regression analysis as: Depth (mm = a + b (BMI. Where a = 17.7966 and b = 0.9777.

  18. Prediction of cold and heat patterns using anthropometric measures based on machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bum Ju; Lee, Jae Chul; Nam, Jiho; Kim, Jong Yeol

    2018-01-01

    To examine the association of body shape with cold and heat patterns, to determine which anthropometric measure is the best indicator for discriminating between the two patterns, and to investigate whether using a combination of measures can improve the predictive power to diagnose these patterns. Based on a total of 4,859 subjects (3,000 women and 1,859 men), statistical analyses using binary logistic regression were performed to assess the significance of the difference and the predictive power of each anthropometric measure, and binary logistic regression and Naive Bayes with the variable selection technique were used to assess the improvement in the predictive power of the patterns using the combined measures. In women, the strongest indicators for determining the cold and heat patterns among anthropometric measures were body mass index (BMI) and rib circumference; in men, the best indicator was BMI. In experiments using a combination of measures, the values of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve in women were 0.776 by Naive Bayes and 0.772 by logistic regression, and the values in men were 0.788 by Naive Bayes and 0.779 by logistic regression. Individuals with a higher BMI have a tendency toward a heat pattern in both women and men. The use of a combination of anthropometric measures can slightly improve the diagnostic accuracy. Our findings can provide fundamental information for the diagnosis of cold and heat patterns based on body shape for personalized medicine.

  19. Predictors of Change in BMI From the Age of 4 to 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinsbekk, Silje; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2015-01-01

    To examine appetite traits, level of physical activity, and television (TV) time as predictors of change in Body Mass Index Standard Deviation Score (BMI SDS) from age 6 to 8 and to explore the effect of BMI SDS (from age 4) on appetite traits. In all, 995 Norwegian children participated at age 4; 760 and 687 of these children took part in the assessment at ages 6 and 8, respectively. Appetite traits were assessed using the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire, activity was measured using accelerometers, and TV time was based on parental reports. High food responsiveness predicted a steeper increase in BMI SDS. A reversed effect was also observed: High BMI SDS predicted increased food responsiveness and decreased satiety responsiveness. Physical activity and TV time were unrelated to BMI SDS. Children whose eating is especially triggered by the sight and smell of food show prospective increased weight gain. Excess weight and weight gain also predict increased food-approaching behavior. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Assessing the Influence of Sleep-Wake Variables on Body Mass Index (BMI in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Randler

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has established an association between overweight/obesity and sleep duration, suggesting that short sleep duration and timing of sleeping may lead to overweight. Most of these studies considered sleep-length rather than any other aspects associated with the sleep and wake rhythm, e.g. chronotype, which is a measure of timing of sleeping (‘when to sleep’; based on the midpoint of sleep. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of different factors of the sleep-wake cycle and of co-variates on the Body Mass Index in a cross-sectional questionnaire study. Nine hundred and thirteen pupils (406 boys, 507 girls from Southwestern Germany participated in this study. Mean age was 13.7 ± 1.5 (SD years and range was between 11 – 16 years. We found that chronotype (β = .079 and social jetlag (β = .063 showed a significant influence on Body Mass Index (BMI, while sleep duration did not. Social jetlag is the absolute difference between mid-sleep time on workdays and free days. Further, screen time (in front of TV, computer, β = .13 was positively related with BMI. Self-efficacy on nutrition (β = -.11, a psychological variable important in health-behaviour models, showed an influence with high scores on self-efficacy related to lower BMI. A high BMI was correlated with low fast-food consumption (β = -.12 suggesting that adolescents with high BMI may exert some control over their eating.

  1. Television, sleep, outdoor play and BMI in young children: the GECKO Drenthe cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijtsma, Anna; Koller, Marjory; Sauer, Pieter J J; Corpeleijn, Eva

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the interplay between screen time, sleep duration, outdoor play, having a television in the bedroom and the number of televisions at home and their association with body mass index (BMI) in preschool children. All participants, 3-4 years of age (n = 759), were part of the Groningen expert center for kids with obesity (GECKO) Drenthe birth cohort. Weight and height were measured. Total screen time, number of televisions at home, a television in the bedroom, sleep duration and time of outdoor play were self-reported by parents in a questionnaire. Ordinary least square (OLS) regression-based path analysis was used to estimate direct and indirect effects on BMI in mediation models. A television in the bedroom or more televisions at home gave a higher screen time, which were associated with decreased sleep duration and resulted in higher BMI (indirect effect = 0.0115, 95% bootstrap interval = 0.0016; 0.0368 and indirect effect = 0.0026, 95% bootstrap interval = 0.0004; 0.0078, respectively). In contrast to the direct effect of screen time, sleep duration and a television in the bedroom on BMI, no direct effect was found for outdoor play and number or televisions at home on BMI. Short sleep duration, long screen time and a television in the bedroom were associated with the presence of overweight in preschool children.

  2. Education modifies genetic and environmental influences on BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wendy; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Skytthe, Axel; Deary, Ian J; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2011-01-19

    Obesity is more common among the less educated, suggesting education-related environmental triggers. Such triggers may act differently dependent on genetic and environmental predisposition to obesity. In a Danish Twin Registry survey, 21,522 twins of same-sex pairs provided zygosity, height, weight, and education data. Body mass index (BMI = kg weight/ m height(2)) was used to measure degree of obesity. We used quantitative genetic modeling to examine how genetic and shared and nonshared environmental variance in BMI differed by level of education and to estimate how genetic and shared and nonshared environmental correlations between education and BMI differed by level of education, analyzing women and men separately. Correlations between education and BMI were -.13 in women, -.15 in men. High BMI's were less frequent among well-educated participants, generating less variance. In women, this was due to restriction of all forms of variance, overall by a factor of about 2. In men, genetic variance did not vary with education, but results for shared and nonshared environmental variance were similar to those for women. The contributions of the shared environment to the correlations between education and BMI were substantial among the well-educated, suggesting importance of familial environmental influences common to high education and lower BMI. Family influence was particularly important in linking high education and lower levels of obesity.

  3. Alternative regression models to assess increase in childhood BMI

    OpenAIRE

    Beyerlein, Andreas; Fahrmeir, Ludwig; Mansmann, Ulrich; Toschke, André M

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Body mass index (BMI) data usually have skewed distributions, for which common statistical modeling approaches such as simple linear or logistic regression have limitations. Methods Different regression approaches to predict childhood BMI by goodness-of-fit measures and means of interpretation were compared including generalized linear models (GLMs), quantile regression and Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS). We analyzed data of 4967 childre...

  4. BMI and BMI SDS in childhood: annual increments and conditional change

    OpenAIRE

    Brannsether-Ellingsen, Bente; Eide, Geir Egil; Roelants, Mathieu; Bjerknes, Robert; Juliusson, Petur Benedikt

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early detection of abnormal weight gain in childhood may be important for preventive purposes. It is still debated which annual changes in BMI should warrant attention. Aim: To analyse 1-year increments of Body Mass Index (BMI) and standardised BMI (BMI SDS) in childhood and explore conditional change in BMI SDS as an alternative method to evaluate 1-year changes in BMI. Subjects and methods: The distributions of 1-year increments of BMI (kg/m2) and BMI SDS are summarised by...

  5. Obesity in Korean pre-adolescent school children: comparison of various anthropometric measurements based on bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, S; Lee, S-Y; Kim, K-N; Sung, E

    2006-07-01

    To examine the relationships between body mass index (BMI), percentage-weight-for-height (PWH) and percentage body fat (PBF), and to compare their validity based on PBF with the BMI criteria of International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) for childhood obesity in Korean pre-adolescent school children. Statistical comparative analysis for anthropometric measures. Korean pre-adolescent children (438 boys and 454 girls, aged 8-12 years, mean BMI 19.5+/-3.4 kg/m2). Body mass index and PWH were calculated as body size indices from height and weight. Hand-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was performed to obtain PBF values, with obese children defined as PBF above 35%. Sensitivity and specificity were displayed with the gold standard of PBF, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to assess the performance of BMI and PWH in detecting obesity. The prevalence of obesity varied by the criteria: 18.8% by Korean BMI standards for 95 percentile, 11% by the IOTF-BMI 30 kg/m2 and 29.4% by Korean PWH cutoffs. Body mass index and PWH were significantly correlated with PBF after adjusting for age, 0.910 (Pobesity among Korean pre-adolescent children widely varied according to the diagnostic criteria applied. Universally recommended cutoffs for children by IOTF showed the lowest sensitivity among the criteria used, and may therefore underestimate obesity in this population.

  6. Danske skolebørns BMI målt i perioden 1986/1987-1996/1997 sammenlignet med danske målinger fra 1971/1972

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Tove Anne-Grete; Rasmussen, Søren; Madsen, Mette

    2002-01-01

    were calculated and BMI centiles were constructed. The data covered a total of 11,167 measurements of 3371 children. RESULTS: The children in our study had higher BMI values than had children in 1971/1972, both on average and for the highest centiles. The average BMI values were significantly higher......INTRODUCTION: A global epidemic in overweight and obesity in children has been postulated. There is a lack of consensus over definitions however, and national standards of BMI centiles have been published in various countries. This has made results on the prevalence of overweight difficult...... to interpret. Internationally based cut-off points have now been published, and a British study reports trends in overweight and obesity in children, as defined by these. The aim of this study was to compare the BMI of a sample of Danish children attending school in 1986/1987-1996/1997 to that of Danish...

  7. Childhood BMI growth trajectories and endometrial cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael; Tilling, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Previously, we found that excess weight already in childhood has positive associations with endometrial cancer, however, associations with changes in body mass index (BMI) during childhood are not well understood. Therefore, we examined whether growth in childhood BMI is associated with endometrial...... cancer and its sub-types. A cohort of 155,505 girls from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register with measured weights and heights at the ages of 6 to 14 years and born 1930-89 formed the analytical population. BMI was transformed to age-specific z-scores. Using linear spline multilevel models......, each girl's BMI growth trajectory was estimated as the deviance from the average trajectory for three different growth periods (6.25-7.99, 8.0-10.99, 11.0-14.0 years). Via a link to health registers, 1020 endometrial cancer cases were identified, and Cox regressions were performed. A greater gain...

  8. Weight stigma mediates the association between BMI and self-reported health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Jeffrey M; Major, Brenda

    2015-02-01

    Weight stigma is pervasive in the United States. We tested the hypothesis that stigma may be a mechanism through which obesity negatively affects self-reported health. Two studies examined whether perceived weight-based discrimination and concerns over weight stigma mediated the association between BMI and self-reported psychological health (Study 1) and physical health (Study 2). In 2 online studies, adult community members completed measures of stigma-relevant mediators (perceived weight discrimination, weight stigma concerns) and provided their height and weight. In Study 1 (N = 171) participants also completed measures of psychological health (depression, self-esteem, quality of life), whereas participants in Study 2 (N = 194) also completed a measure of self-reported physical health. Process modeling was used to simultaneously test for mediation through perceived discrimination and stigma concerns independently as well as for serial mediation through both variables. Across both studies, we hypothesized and found support for serial mediation such that BMI was indirectly related to poorer self-reported health through its effect on perceived discrimination and concerns about stigma. Additionally, concerns about stigma mediated the association between BMI and health independent of perceived discrimination. Weight stigma is an important mediator of the association between BMI and self-reported health. Furthermore, results indicate that concerns about facing stigma in the future mediate the link between perceived past experiences of discrimination and psychological and physical health.

  9. Reduced cortical thickness associated with visceral fat and BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Veit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural brain imaging studies have shown that obesity is associated with widespread reductions in gray matter (GM volume. Although the body mass index (BMI is an easily accessible anthropometric measure, substantial health problems are more related to specific body fat compartments, like visceral adipose tissue (VAT. We investigated cortical thickness measures in a group of 72 healthy subjects (BMI range 20–35 kg/m2, age range 19–50 years. Multiple regression analyses were performed using VAT and BMI as predictors and age, gender, total surface area and education as confounds. BMI and VAT were independently associated with reductions in cortical thickness in clusters comprising the left lateral occipital area, the left inferior temporal cortex, and the left precentral and inferior parietal area, while the right insula, the left fusiform gyrus and the right inferior temporal area showed a negative correlation with VAT only. In addition, we could show significant reductions in cortical thickness with increasing VAT adjusted for BMI in the left temporal cortex. We were able to detect widespread cortical thinning in a young to middle-aged population related to BMI and VAT; these findings show close resemblance to studies focusing on GM volume differences in diabetic patients. This may point to the influence of VAT related adverse effects, like low-grade inflammation, as a potentially harmful factor on brain integrity already in individuals at risk of developing diabetes, metabolic syndromes and arteriosclerosis.

  10. Optimum BMI cut points to screen asian americans for type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araneta, Maria Rosario G; Kanaya, Alka M; Hsu, William C; Chang, Healani K; Grandinetti, Andrew; Boyko, Edward J; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Kahn, Steven E; Leonetti, Donna L; McNeely, Marguerite J; Onishi, Yukiko; Sato, Kyoko K; Fujimoto, Wilfred Y

    2015-05-01

    Asian Americans manifest type 2 diabetes at low BMI levels but may not undergo diagnostic testing for diabetes if the currently recommended BMI screening cut point of ≥25 kg/m(2) is followed. We aimed to ascertain an appropriate lower BMI cut point among Asian-American adults without a prior diabetes diagnosis. We consolidated data from 1,663 participants, ages ≥45 years, without a prior diabetes diagnosis, from population- and community-based studies, including the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America study, the North Kohala Study, the Seattle Japanese American Community Diabetes Study, and the University of California San Diego Filipino Health Study. Clinical measures included a 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test, BMI, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Mean age was 59.7 years, mean BMI was 25.4 kg/m(2), 58% were women, and type 2 diabetes prevalence (American Diabetes Association 2010 criteria) was 16.9%. At BMI ≥25 kg/m(2), sensitivity (63.7%), specificity (52.8%), and Youden index (0.16) values were low; limiting screening to BMI ≥25 kg/m(2) would miss 36% of Asian Americans with type 2 diabetes. For screening purposes, higher sensitivity is desirable to minimize missing cases, especially if the diagnostic test is relatively simple and inexpensive. At BMI ≥23 kg/m(2), sensitivity (84.7%) was high in the total sample and by sex and Asian-American subgroup and would miss only ∼15% of Asian Americans with diabetes. The BMI cut point for identifying Asian Americans who should be screened for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes should be <25 kg/m(2), and ≥23 kg/m(2) may be the most practical. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  11. Association between Infancy BMI Peak and Body Composition and Blood Pressure at Age 5–6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hof, Michel H. P.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; de Hoog, Marieke L. A.; van Eijsden, Manon; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The development of overweight is often measured with the body mass index (BMI). During childhood the BMI curve has two characteristic points: the adiposity rebound at 6 years and the BMI peak at 9 months of age. In this study, the associations between the BMI peak and body composition measures and blood pressure at age 5–6 years were investigated. Methods Measurements from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) study were available for this study. Blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) and body composition measures (BMI, waist-to-height ratio, fat percentage) were gathered during a health check at about 6 years of age (n = 2822). All children had multiple BMI measurements between the 0–4 years of age. For boys and girls separately, child-specific BMI peaks were extracted from mixed effect models. Associations between the estimated BMI peak and the health check measurements were analysed with linear models. In addition, we investigated the potential use of the BMI at 9 months as a surrogate measure for the magnitude of the BMI peak. Results After correction for the confounding effect of fetal growth, both timing and magnitude of the BMI peak were significantly and positively associated (pBMI peak showed no direct association with blood pressure at the age 5–6 year, but was mediated by the current BMI. The correlation between the magnitude of the BMI peak and BMI at 9 months was approximately 0.93 and similar associations with the measures at 5–6 years were found. Conclusion The magnitude of the BMI peak was associated with body composition measures at 5–6 years of age. Moreover, the BMI at 9 months could be used as surrogate measure for the magnitude of the BMI peak. PMID:24324605

  12. Modification of Bisphenol-A Based Bismaleimide Resin (BPA-BMI) with an Allyl-Terminated Hyperbranched Polyimide (AT-PAEKI)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qin, Haihu; Mather, Patrick T; Baek, Jong-Beom; Tan, Loon-Seng

    2006-01-01

    As a continuation of previous work involving synthesis of an allyl-functionalized hyperbranched polyimide, AT-PAEKI, we have studied the use of this reactive polymer as a modifier of bisphenol-A based...

  13. NUTRITIONAL ESTIMATES OF SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN BASED ON ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS: STUDY FROM A RURAL AREA OF VARANASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M K Gupta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the adoption of western lifestyle the problem of overweight and obesity is gradually increasing in children, while problem of malnutrition is persisting continuously in the country. With this background a school based cross sectional study was conducted to assess the nutritional status of school going children in a rural area: Chiraigaon block of Varanasi. Study period: July 2010 to September 2010 Methods: A school-based study with cross-sectional design was adopted. A total of 1448 school children were examined from 3 middle-schools that were selected by simple random sampling method. Height and weight of the children were measured, and BMI and other parameters were assessed. Results: On applying the BMI-for-age criteria, twelve percent of the children (12.4% boys and 11.1% girls were found underweight while 5.4% were overweight or obese (5.71% of the boys and 4.63% of the girls. But when the previous WHO’s BMI classification was used, 86.5% children had BMI <18.5 (88.4% of total boys and 81.9% of all girls. Conclusion: Nutritional status of school going children based on WHO criteria of BMI for age has been satisfactory. However, this approach needs scientific validation by undertaking a multi-centric study.

  14. Potential for waist-to-height ratio to detect overfat adolescents from a Pacific Island, even those within the normal BMI range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frayon, Stéphane; Cavaloc, Yolande; Wattelez, Guillaume; Cherrier, Sophie; Lerrant, Yannick; Ashwell, Margaret; Galy, Olivier

    2017-12-15

    Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) is a simple anthropometric proxy for central body fat; it is easy to use from a health education perspective. A WHtR value >0.5 has been proposed as a first level indicator of health risk. The first aim of this study was to compare WHtR with values based on body mass index (BMI) in their prediction of the percentage of body fat (%BF) in a multi-ethnic population of adolescents from New-Caledonia (age 11-16year). Secondly, to see whether WHtR >0.5 could be used to detect overfat subjects whose BMI was in the normal range. Body fat percentage (%BF, based on skinfold measurements), BMI and WHtR were calculated for New Caledonian adolescents from different ethnic backgrounds. The relationship between %BF, BMI and WHtR was determined using quadratic models and from linear regression equations. The sensitivity and specificity of WHtR for detecting overfat adolescents (%BF >25% in boys and >30% in girls) were assessed and compared with those from the BMI-based classification. WHtR showed better correlation with %BF than BMI-based measurements. WHtR >0.5 was also more accurate than BMI in detecting overfat adolescents. Moreover, using this boundary value, 8% of adolescents in the normal BMI range were shown to be over-fat. WHtR is a good anthropometric proxy to detect overfat adolescents. Detecting overfat adolescents within the normal BMI range is particularly important for preventing non communicable diseases. We therefore recommend using WHtR for health education programs in the Pacific area and more generally. Copyright © 2017 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Low BMI at age 20 years predicts gestational diabetes independent of BMI in early pregnancy in Japan: Tanaka Women's Clinic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yachi, Y; Tanaka, Y; Nishibata, I; Sugawara, A; Kodama, S; Saito, K; Sone, H

    2013-01-01

    Maternal obesity and weight gain since early adulthood are known predictors of gestational diabetes in Western countries. However, their impact has not been evaluated well in Asia, where mean BMI levels are generally lower than in Western countries. We therefore examined the associations of BMI at age 20 years and BMI change since age 20 years with the risk of gestational diabetes in Japanese pregnant women. Six hundred and twenty-four consecutive pregnant women without recognized diabetes before pregnancy, whose initial obstetric clinic visit was before 13 weeks' gestation, were prospectively observed. Weight at age 20 years was self-reported. Baseline height and weight measurements were obtained at the initial obstetric visit. Multivariate logistic regression analysis estimated the risk of incident gestational diabetes for BMI change since 20 years and BMI at age 20 years. Twenty-eight women developed incident gestational diabetes. By multivariate logistic regression analysis that adjusted for maternal age, parity and baseline BMI, we observed a statistically significant inverse association between BMI at age 20 years and incidence of gestational diabetes (odds ratio 0.68, 95% CI 0.51-0.92). Similarly, when we assessed the association of BMI change since age 20 years, adjusted for maternal age and parity, BMI change was associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes (odds ratio 1.26, 95% CI 1.03-1.53). When we focused on the threshold of risk of gestational diabetes, women with BMI at 20 years of less than 18 kg/m(2) had a 6.30-fold (2.26-17.59) greater risk than women with both BMI at age 20 years of 18 kg/m(2) or more and BMI change since age 20 years of less than 1.85. Both low BMI at age 20 years and BMI change since age 20 years were significantly associated with increased risk of incident gestational diabetes. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.

  16. Medically inoperable endometrial cancer in patients with a high body mass index (BMI): Patterns of failure after 3-D image-based high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acharya, Sahaja; Esthappan, Jacqueline; Badiyan, Shahed

    2016-01-01

    the patterns of failure after definitive treatment with 3-D image-based high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy for medically inoperable endometrial cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-three consecutive patients with endometrial cancer FIGO stages I-III were treated definitively with HDR brachytherapy...

  17. SQUID-based measuring systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    field produced by a given two-dimensional current density distribution is inverted using the Fourier transform technique. Keywords ... Superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) are the most sensitive detectors for measurement of ... omagnetic prospecting, detection of gravity waves etc. Judging the importance ...

  18. SQUID-based measuring systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cryostats and precision X-Y table with stepper motor for accurate positioning for the re- construction of electrical current density from measured spatial variation of magnetic field. A planar gradiometric DC SQUID sensor for NDE has been designed and developed to be used in relatively unshielded environment and is shown ...

  19. European wet deposition maps based on measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen EP van; Erisman JW; Draaijers GPJ; Potma CJM; Pul WAJ van; LLO

    1995-01-01

    To date, wet deposition maps on a European scale have been based on long-range transport model results. For most components wet deposition maps based on measurements are only available on national scales. Wet deposition maps of acidifying components and base cations based on measurements are needed

  20. Smoking, physical exercise, BMI and late foetal death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, Maria; Nohr, Ellen A; Bech, Bodil H

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to estimate the effect of maternal and paternal smoking on foetal death (miscarriage and stillbirth) and to estimate potential interactions with physical exercise and pre-pregnancy body mass index. We selected 87,930 pregnancies from the population-based Danish National......) for predominantly late foetal death (miscarriage and stillbirth). An interaction contrast ratio was used to assess potential effect measure modification of smoking by physical exercise and body mass index. The adjusted hazard ratio of foetal death was 1.22 (95 % CI 1.02-1.46) for couples where both parents smoked...... with a slightly higher hazard ratio for foetal death if both parents smoked. This study suggests that smoking may increase the negative effect of a high BMI on foetal death, but results were not statistically significant for the interaction between smoking and physical exercise....

  1. BMI1: A Biomarker of Hematologic Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anagh A. Sahasrabuddhe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BMI1 oncogene is a catalytic member of epigenetic repressor polycomb group proteins. It plays a critical role in the regulation of gene expression pattern and consequently several cellular processes during development, including cell cycle progression, senescence, aging, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and importantly self-renewal of adult stem cells of several lineages. Preponderance of evidences indicates that deregulated expression of PcG protein BMI1 is associated with several human malignancies, cancer stem cell maintenance, and propagation. Importantly, overexpression of BMI1 correlates with therapy failure in cancer patients and tumor relapse. This review discusses the diverse mode of BMI1 regulation at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and posttranslational levels as well as at various critical signaling pathways regulated by BMI1 activity. Furthermore, this review highlights the role of BMI1 as a biomarker and therapeutic target for several subtypes of hematologic malignancies and the importance to target this biomarker for therapeutic applications.

  2. Spectrophotometer-Based Color Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-24

    ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) October 2017 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) March 2016 to October 2016 4. TITLE AND...evaluated using nominal values for L*a*b* (color space) from international paint suppliers. The results demonstrate the value of using a spectrophotometer...for color measurements. The experimental L*a*b* values for a large number of colors from the federal color standard listing are reported. 15

  3. Brain-machine interface (BMI) in paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, U; Birbaumer, N; Curado, M R

    2015-02-01

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) use brain activity to control external devices, facilitating paralyzed patients to interact with the environment. In this review, we focus on the current advances of non-invasive BMIs for communication in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and for restoration of motor impairment after severe stroke. BMI represents a promising strategy to establish communication with paralyzed ALS patients as it does not need muscle engagement for its use. Distinct techniques have been explored to assess brain neurophysiology to control BMI for patients' communication, especially electroencephalography (EEG) and more recently near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Previous studies demonstrated successful communication with ALS patients using EEG-BMI when patients still showed residual eye control, but patients with complete paralysis were unable to communicate with this system. We recently introduced functional NIRS (fNIRS)-BMI for communication in ALS patients in the complete locked-in syndrome (i.e., when ALS patients are unable to engage any muscle), opening new doors for communication in ALS patients after complete paralysis. In addition to assisted communication, BMI is also being extensively studied for motor recovery after stroke. BMI for stroke motor recovery includes intensive BMI training linking brain activity related to patient's intention to move the paretic limb with the contingent sensory feedback of the paretic limb movement guided by assistive devices. BMI studies in this area are mainly focused on EEG- or magnetoencephalography (MEG)-BMI systems due to their high temporal resolution, which facilitates online contingency between intention to move and sensory feedback of the intended movement. EEG-BMI training was recently demonstrated in a controlled study to significantly improve motor performance in stroke patients with severe paresis. Neural basis for BMI-induced restoration of motor function and perspectives for future

  4. Using Resistin, glucose, age and BMI to predict the presence of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Patrício, Miguel; Pereira, José; Crisóstomo, Joana; Matafome, Paulo; Gomes, Manuel; Seiça, Raquel; Caramelo, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    Background The goal of this exploratory study was to develop and assess a prediction model which can potentially be used as a biomarker of breast cancer, based on anthropometric data and parameters which can be gathered in routine blood analysis. Methods For each of the 166 participants several clinical features were observed or measured, including age, BMI, Glucose, Insulin, HOMA, Leptin, Adiponectin, Resistin and MCP-1. Machine learning algorithms (logistic regression, random forests, suppo...

  5. Change in BMI accurately predicted by social exposure to acquaintances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman O Oloritun

    Full Text Available Research has mostly focused on obesity and not on processes of BMI change more generally, although these may be key factors that lead to obesity. Studies have suggested that obesity is affected by social ties. However these studies used survey based data collection techniques that may be biased toward select only close friends and relatives. In this study, mobile phone sensing techniques were used to routinely capture social interaction data in an undergraduate dorm. By automating the capture of social interaction data, the limitations of self-reported social exposure data are avoided. This study attempts to understand and develop a model that best describes the change in BMI using social interaction data. We evaluated a cohort of 42 college students in a co-located university dorm, automatically captured via mobile phones and survey based health-related information. We determined the most predictive variables for change in BMI using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO method. The selected variables, with gender, healthy diet category, and ability to manage stress, were used to build multiple linear regression models that estimate the effect of exposure and individual factors on change in BMI. We identified the best model using Akaike Information Criterion (AIC and R(2. This study found a model that explains 68% (p<0.0001 of the variation in change in BMI. The model combined social interaction data, especially from acquaintances, and personal health-related information to explain change in BMI. This is the first study taking into account both interactions with different levels of social interaction and personal health-related information. Social interactions with acquaintances accounted for more than half the variation in change in BMI. This suggests the importance of not only individual health information but also the significance of social interactions with people we are exposed to, even people we may not consider as

  6. BMI-for-age in South Asian children of 0-20 years in the Netherlands: secular changes and misclassification by WHO growth references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wilde, J A; Dekker, M; Middelkoop, B J C

    2018-03-01

    South Asians are prone to cardiometabolic disease at lower BMI levels than most other ethnic groups, starting in childhood. The magnitude of BMI misclassifications is unknown. To compare the BMI distribution of contemporary South Asian 0-20 year olds in the Netherlands with: (1) The South Asian norm reference (secular trends); and (2) The WHO child growth standard and reference. The BMI-for-age distribution of 6677 routine measurements of 3322 South Asian children, aged 0-20 years, was described with the LMS method and BMI z-scores. The BMI distribution in South Asian 0-4 year olds was almost similar to the norm reference (mean BMI z-score = 0.11, skewness = 0.31, SD = 1.0), whereas in 5-19 year olds the distribution had shifted upwards (mean = 0.53) and widened (skewness = -0.12, SD = 1.08). Overweight (incl. obesity) and obesity peaked at 8-10 years, at 45-48% and 35-37%, respectively. Relative to the WHO references, the BMI distribution was left-shifted at ages 0-4 years (mean BMI z-score = -0.46, skewness = 0.23, SD = 0.98) and widened at ages 5-20 years (mean = 0.05; skewness = -0.02, SD = 1.40). At most ages, thinness rates were significantly higher and obesity rates lower than based on South Asian norms. A secular change of BMI-for-age in South Asian children mostly affected children >4 years. WHO references likely under-estimate overweight and obesity rates in South Asian children.

  7. BMI at birth and overweight at age four.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Jonathan D; Taylor, Yhenneko; Mowrer, Lauren; Winter, Katherine M; Dulin, Michael F

    Extensive investigation has established that an elevated weight at birth is associated with subsequent obesity and obesity related negative health outcomes. The significance of overweight at birth, however, remains ill-defined. Historically, it has been difficult to approximate adiposity in infancy in a way that is both simple and meaningful. Body-mass-index (BMI) growth charts for children younger than two years of age only became available in 2006 when published by the WHO. This retrospective cohort analysis utilised anthropometric data extracted from the electronic medical record of a large integrated healthcare system in North Carolina. BMI and weight-for-age (WFA) >85% of WHO growth charts measured newborn overweight and macrosomia respectively. Logistic regression models assessed the associations between newborn macrosomia and overweight and overweight at 4 years of age, as well as associations with maternal BMI. Models included demographic data, gestational age, and maternal diabetes status as covariates. Both BMI and WFA >85% at birth were significantly associated with overweight at age 4 years. However, the greater odds of overweight was associated with newborn BMI >85%, with an adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of 2.08 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-3.08) versus 1.57 (95% CI: 1.08-2.27). Maternal obesity was also more robustly correlated with newborn BMI >85%, AOR of 4.14 (95% CI: 1.6-10.7), than with newborn WFA >85%, AOR of 3.09 (95% CI: 1.41-6.77). BMI >85% at birth is independently associated with overweight at 4 years. Newborn overweight is perhaps superior to newborn macrosomia in predicting overweight at age 4. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Eating tasty food to cope. Longitudinal association with BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggiano, M M; Wenger, L E; Turan, B; Tatum, M M; Morgan, P R; Sylvester, M D

    2015-04-01

    The goals of this study were to determine if a change in certain motives to eat highly palatable food, as measured by the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS), could predict a change in body mass index (BMI) over time, to assess the temporal stability of these motive scores, and to test the reliability of previously reported associations between eating tasty foods to cope and BMI. BMI, demographics, and scores on the PEMS and the Binge Eating Scale were obtained from 192 college students. Test-retest analysis was performed on the PEMS motives in groups varying in three gap times between tests. Regression analyses determined what PEMS motives predicted a change in BMI over two years. The results replicated previous findings that eating palatable food for Coping motives (e.g., to forget about problems, reduce negative feelings) is associated with BMI. Test-retest correlations revealed that motive scores, while somewhat stable, can change over time. Importantly, among overweight participants, a change in Coping scores predicted a change in BMI over 2 years, such that a 1-point change in Coping predicted a 1.76 change in BMI (equivalent to a 10.5 lb. change in body weight) independent of age, sex, ethnicity, and initial binge-eating status (Cohen's f(2) effect size = 1.44). The large range in change of Coping scores suggests it is possible to decrease frequency of eating to cope by more than 1 scale point to achieve weight losses greater than 10 lbs. in young overweight adults, a group already at risk for rapid weight gain. Hence, treatments aimed specifically at reducing palatable food intake for coping reasons vs. for social, reward, or conformity reasons, should help achieve a healthier body weight and prevent obesity if this motive-type is identified prior to significant weight gain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The measurement of maternal adiposity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fattah, C

    2012-02-01

    The issue of maternal obesity has become a major public health problem. Internationally, the diagnosis of obesity is based on body mass index (BMI) that is, weight in kg\\/height in m2. While epidemiological associations have been shown between different BMI categories and adverse clinical outcomes, there is also a growing realisation that BMI has significant limitations. In this review, we assess current methods to measure body fat and, in particular, their application in pregnant women.

  10. Postoperative Complications of Total Joint Arthroplasty in Obese Patients Stratified by BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zusmanovich, Mikhail; Kester, Benjamin S; Schwarzkopf, Ran

    2018-03-01

    High body mass index (BMI) is associated with significant complications in patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty. Many studies have evaluated this trend, but few have looked at the rates of complications based on BMI as a continuous variable. The purpose of this study was to stratify obese patients into 3 BMI categories and evaluate their rates of complications and gauge whether transitioning from higher to lower BMI category lowers complication. Patients undergoing primary total joint arthroplasty were selected from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database from 2008-2015 and arranged into 3 groups based on BMI: O1 (BMI 30-34.9 kg/m 2 ), O2 (BMI 35-39.9 kg/m 2 ), and O3 (BMI >40 kg/m 2 ). Thirty-day complications were recorded and evaluated utilizing univariate and multivariate analyses stratified by BMI. A total of 268,663 patients were identified. Patients with a BMI >30 kg/m 2 had more infectious and medical complications compared with nonobese patients. Furthermore, there were increased complications as the BMI categories increased. Patients with a BMI >40 kg/m 2 (O3) had longer operating times, length of stay, higher rates of readmissions, reoperations, deep venous thrombosis, renal insufficiency, superficial infections, deep infections, and wound dehiscence. These trends were present when comparing the O2 with O1 category as well. We have demonstrated increased rates of medical and surgical complications in obese patients. Furthermore, we demonstrated a stepwise increase in complication rates when transitioning to higher BMI groups. Based on our data, we believe that preoperative counseling and interventions to decrease BMI should be explored before offering elective surgery to obese patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship of glycemic and triglycerides with BMI in diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvez, A.; Ihsanullah; Rafiq, A.; Ahmad, N.; Khan, E.H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterised by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism arising from defect in insulin secretion or action or both. The clinical guidelines recommend measurement of BMI as vital signs for evaluating the obese and diabetic patients. Methods: This study was carried out on 160 diabetics, which were divided on the basis of BMI into obese (120) and non-obese (40) diabetics from Peshawar district. All patients had their triglycerides and glucose checked after over night fast. Results: The serum triglyceride in diabetics having BMI >30 (obese) was increased as compared to patients having BMI <30 (non-obese). The comparison of serum glucose level in obese diabetics was found to be significantly raised as compared to non-obese diabetics. Conclusions and Recommendations: It was concluded that dyslipidemia is common in all diabetics. The abnormal triglyceride level can improve with good glycemic control, but do not reach the normal state. Good glycaemic control, Reducing BMI, periodic checkups of lipids and blood glucose are recommended for all diabetics in order to avoid complications. (author)

  12. Use of BMI as marker of adiposity in a metabolic syndrome severity score: derivation and validation in predicting long-term disease outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurka, Matthew J; Filipp, Stephanie L; Musani, Solomon K; Sims, Mario; DeBoer, Mark D

    2018-02-01

    Estimates of adiposity in evaluating the metabolic syndrome (MetS) have traditionally utilized measures of waist circumference (WC), whereas body mass index (BMI) is more commonly used clinically. Our objective was to determine if a MetS severity Z-score employing BMI as its measure of adiposity (MetS-Z-BMI) would perform similarly to a WC-based score (MetS-Z-WC) in predicting future disease. To formulate the MetS-Z-BMI, we performed confirmatory factor analysis on a sex- and race/ethnicity-specific basis on MetS-related data for 6870 adult participants of the National Health and Nutrition Survey 1999-2010. We then validated this score and compared it to MetS-Z-WC in assessing correlations with future coronary heart disease (CHD) and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using Cox proportional hazard analysis of 13,094 participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study and Jackson Heart Study. Loading factors, which represent the relative contribution of each component to the latent MetS factor, were lower for BMI than for WC in formulating the two respective scores (MetS-Z-BMI and MetS-Z-WC). Nevertheless, MetS-Z-BMI and MetS-Z-WC exhibited similar hazard ratios (HR) toward future disease. For each one standard-deviation-unit increase in MetS-Z-BMI, HR for CHD was 1.76 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.65, 1.88) and HR for T2DM was 3.39 (CI 3.16, 3.63) (both p BMI scores in their associations with future CHD and T2DM. A MetS severity Z-score utilizing BMI as its measure of adiposity operated similarly to a WC-based score in predicting future CHD and T2DM, suggesting overall similarity in MetS-based risk as estimated by both measures of adiposity. This indicates potential clinical usefulness of MetS-Z-BMI in assessing and following MetS-related risk over time. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Improved Body Mass Index Measures Following a Middle School-Based Obesity Intervention--The MATCH Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazorick, Suzanne; Fang, Xiangming; Hardison, George T.; Crawford, Yancey

    2015-01-01

    Background: Motivating Adolescents with Technology to CHOOSE Health™ (MATCH) is an educational and behavioral intervention in seventh grade. Methods: Teachers in 2 schools delivered the MATCH curriculum, with 1 control school. Using a quasi-experimental design, outcome measures included lessons completed, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-score (zBMI),…

  14. No Obesity Paradox—BMI Incapable of Adequately Capturing the Relation of Obesity with All-Cause Mortality: An Inception Diabetes Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Bozorgmanesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To reconcile “the obesity paradox,” we tested if (1 the contribution of anthropometric measures to mortality was nonlinear and (2 the confounding of hip circumference contributed to the obesity paradox recently observed among diabetic patients. Methods. We analyzed data of diabetic patients attending a community-based prospective, “Tehran lipid and glucose study.” In the mortality analysis, anthropometric measures—body mass index (BMI, waist, and hip circumference—were assessed using Cox models incorporating cubic spline functions. Results. During 12 990 person-years follow-up, BMI levels below 27 and those above 40 kg·m−2 were associated with increased mortality. When we added waist circumference to the BMI in the multivariate-adjusted model, the steepness of BMI-mortality association curve slope for values below 27 kg·m−2 increased, whereas the steepness of BMI-mortality association curve slope for values above this threshold decreased. Further adjusting the model for hip circumference, the steepness of the slopes of the association curve moved towards null on both extremes and no associations between BMI and all-cause mortality remained. Conclusion. BMI harbors intermixed positive and negative confounding effects on mortality of waist and hip circumference. Failing to control for the confounding effect of hip circumference may stymie unbiased hazard estimation and render conclusions paradoxical.

  15. BMI, a performance parameter for speed improvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Sedeaud

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between anthropometric characteristics and performance in all track and field running events and assess Body Mass Index (BMI as a relevant performance indicator. Data of mass, height, BMI and speed were collected for the top 100 international men athletes in track events from 100 m to marathon for the 1996-2011 seasons, and analyzed by decile of performance. Speed is significantly associated with mass (r = 0.71 and BMI (r = 0.71 in world-class runners and moderately with height (r = 0.39. Athletes, on average were continuously lighter and smaller with distance increments. In track and field, speed continuously increases with BMI. In each event, performances are organized through physique gradients. « Lighter and smaller is better » in endurance events but « heavier and taller is better » for sprints. When performance increases, BMI variability progressively tightens, but it is always centered around a distance-specific optimum. Running speed is organized through biometric gradients, which both drives and are driven by performance optimization. The highest performance level is associated with narrower biometric intervals. Through BMI indicators, diversity is possible for sprints whereas for long distance events, there is a more restrictive aspect in terms of physique. BMI is a relevant indicator, which allows for a clear differentiation of athletes' capacities between each discipline and level of performance in the fields of human possibilities.

  16. Majoring in nutrition influences BMI of female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mee Young; Shepanski, Tahirih L; Gaylis, Jaclyn B

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining healthy eating habits in college is challenging. Interventions focused on nutrition education can assist in reversing these trends of poor eating habits among college students. The purpose of the study was to identify factors affecting the dietary habits, food choices and BMI of college females majoring in nutrition (NMs) compared with non-nutrition majors (OMs). A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey study of dietary behaviour and food frequency of 202 college females was conducted at San Diego State University. Data were analysed by using t tests, χ(2) tests and regression analysis in SPSS. NMs exhibited a lower BMI than OMs (P habits and superior food choices among young adult females. More regular meal patterns, healthier snack choice and adherence to dietary guidelines may contribute to the lower BMI values observed among NMs compared with OMs.

  17. Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy in Patients With BMI >50: Single Surgeon Outcomes and Feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeper, Necole M; Radtke, Andrew C; Penniston, Kristina L; McDermott, John C; Nakada, Stephen Y

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the use of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) and technical approach in the super obese population (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 50). We performed a retrospective review of 31 consecutive PNL cases with a BMI > 50 from a single surgeon (SYN) from 1995 to 2013. Procedures were performed in the prone position, and upper pole access was used. Operative time, length of hospital stay, stone burden, complication rates, and stone-free rates were measured. Of the 31 patients who underwent PNL (age 51.2 ± 12; 71% female), the mean BMI was 59.1 ± 6 kg/m(2) (range 50.4-71.7 kg/m(2)). Mean stone burden was 3.8 cm ± 2. The majority of patients (90.3%) had an upper pole puncture site for access with an operative time of 122.1 ± 75 minutes. The technique was similar to non-obese patients; however, there was a need for extra-long instrumentation. The overall stone-free rate was 71%, with utilization of a second-look PNL in 11 cases. The complication rate, Clavien grade 3 or higher, was 9.7% (3 of 31). PNL is technically feasible, safe, and effective in patients with a BMI ≥ 50. The complication rate, length of hospital stay, and stone-free rate with use of second-look PNL in super obese patients are comparable to severely obese patients. Intervention should not be automatically ruled out or delayed based on the patient's BMI alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Shifting Patterns of BMI and Skinfold Fatness among US Children: 1985/87 vs. 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood obesity has been recognized as a major public health concern. The purpose of this study was to determine specific shifting patterns of BMI and skinfold fatness across different age and sex groups between 1985/87 and 2012. Methods: The data of 9,366 children aged 8-15 years from two nationally representative surveys, i.e., 1985/87 National Children and Youth Fitness Study I & II and 2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey National Youth Fitness Survey, were analyzed. Specifically, changes of BMI-based obesity prevalence and shifting patterns of BMI, height, weight, skinfold body fat percentage (skinfold-fat%, subscapular skinfold, and triceps skinfold from 1985/87 to 2012 were estimated by age and sex using the 1985/87 quartiles as the baseline. Results: Significantly increased obesity prevalence were reconfirmed for both boys (12.12%, P <.001 and girls (3.53%, P <.001 from 1985/87 to 2012. Except for height, all other measures in 2012 experienced an unbalanced shifting pattern, mainly from other quartiles into the 4th quartile of 1985/87. Conclusion: The shifting of both boys’ and girls’ BMI and skinfold-fat% were all concentrated in the 4th quartile of 1985/87, indicating not only that there was a significant increase in BMI and skinfold-fat% in the U.S. children from 1985/87 to 2012, but also into the overweight and obese subgroups, which serves as a serious warning for childhood obesity epidemic and public health.

  19. Neurodevelopmental problems and extremes in BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nóra Kerekes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Over the last few decades, an increasing number of studies have suggested a connection between neurodevelopmental problems (NDPs and body mass index (BMI. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and autism spectrum disorders (ASD both seem to carry an increased risk for developing extreme BMI. However, the results are inconsistent, and there have been only a few studies of the general population of children.Aims. We had three aims with the present study: (1 to define the prevalence of extreme (low or high BMI in the group of children with ADHD and/or ASDs compared to the group of children without these NDPs; (2 to analyze whether extreme BMI is associated with the subdomains within the diagnostic categories of ADHD or ASD; and (3 to investigate the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to BMI in boys and girls at ages 9 and 12.Method. Parents of 9- or 12-year-old twins (n = 12,496 were interviewed using the Autism—Tics, ADHD and other Comorbidities (A-TAC inventory as part of the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS. Univariate and multivariate generalized estimated equation models were used to analyze associations between extremes in BMI and NDPs.Results. ADHD screen-positive cases followed BMI distributions similar to those of children without ADHD or ASD. Significant association was found between ADHD and BMI only among 12-year-old girls, where the inattention subdomain of ADHD was significantly associated with the high extreme BMI. ASD scores were associated with both the low and the high extremes of BMI. Compared to children without ADHD or ASD, the prevalence of ASD screen-positive cases was three times greater in the high extreme BMI group and double as much in the low extreme BMI group. Stereotyped and repetitive behaviors were significantly associated with high extreme BMIs.Conclusion. Children with ASD, with or without coexisting ADHD, are more prone to have low or high extreme BMIs than

  20. The link between BMI and waist circumference in northern Iranian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objectives: Waist circumference and not body mass index explains a greater variance in obesity-related health risk. The present study assesses the link between BMI and WC in Iranian adults. Methods: In a population based cross- sectional study on 3600 adults, northern Iran, we investigated the link ...

  1. Physical activity modifies the FTO effect on BMI change in Japanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozaki, Keiko; Okuda, Masayuki; Okayama, Naoko; Kunitsugu, Ichiro

    2018-04-14

    Evidence of the effects of fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene variation and long-term effects of physical activity (PA) on adiposity in adolescents is largely scarce. This study aimed to investigate whether physical activity modulates the effects of the FTO gene on body mass index (BMI) changes in Japanese adolescents between the ages of 13 and 18 years. Data of 343 subjects (156 boys; 187 girls) who were enrolled in 2006 and 2007 from schools on Shunan City, Japan, were collected. Genotyping (rs1558902) was conducted, and anthropometric measurements and blood test results were recorded for subjects in the eighth grade. A second survey involving self-reporting of anthropometric measurements was conducted when the subjects were in the twelfth grade. PA was estimated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in this survey. BMI and the standard deviation score for BMI (BMI-SDS) were calculated. BMI changes and BMI-SDS changes were compared among FTO genotypes using a multivariate model. The effect of the interaction between PA and the FTO genotype on BMI changes was significant among boys but not girls. Among boys, PA had a significant negative influence on BMI-SDS changes in those with the AA genotype and a significant positive influence on BMI and BMI-SDS changes in those with the TT genotype. These data suggest that the influence of PA on BMI changes and BMI-SDS changes varied on the basis of genotype. PA modified the effect of the FTO gene on BMI changes in Japanese boys. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Alternative regression models to assess increase in childhood BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansmann Ulrich

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body mass index (BMI data usually have skewed distributions, for which common statistical modeling approaches such as simple linear or logistic regression have limitations. Methods Different regression approaches to predict childhood BMI by goodness-of-fit measures and means of interpretation were compared including generalized linear models (GLMs, quantile regression and Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS. We analyzed data of 4967 children participating in the school entry health examination in Bavaria, Germany, from 2001 to 2002. TV watching, meal frequency, breastfeeding, smoking in pregnancy, maternal obesity, parental social class and weight gain in the first 2 years of life were considered as risk factors for obesity. Results GAMLSS showed a much better fit regarding the estimation of risk factors effects on transformed and untransformed BMI data than common GLMs with respect to the generalized Akaike information criterion. In comparison with GAMLSS, quantile regression allowed for additional interpretation of prespecified distribution quantiles, such as quantiles referring to overweight or obesity. The variables TV watching, maternal BMI and weight gain in the first 2 years were directly, and meal frequency was inversely significantly associated with body composition in any model type examined. In contrast, smoking in pregnancy was not directly, and breastfeeding and parental social class were not inversely significantly associated with body composition in GLM models, but in GAMLSS and partly in quantile regression models. Risk factor specific BMI percentile curves could be estimated from GAMLSS and quantile regression models. Conclusion GAMLSS and quantile regression seem to be more appropriate than common GLMs for risk factor modeling of BMI data.

  3. Alternative regression models to assess increase in childhood BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyerlein, Andreas; Fahrmeir, Ludwig; Mansmann, Ulrich; Toschke, André M

    2008-09-08

    Body mass index (BMI) data usually have skewed distributions, for which common statistical modeling approaches such as simple linear or logistic regression have limitations. Different regression approaches to predict childhood BMI by goodness-of-fit measures and means of interpretation were compared including generalized linear models (GLMs), quantile regression and Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS). We analyzed data of 4967 children participating in the school entry health examination in Bavaria, Germany, from 2001 to 2002. TV watching, meal frequency, breastfeeding, smoking in pregnancy, maternal obesity, parental social class and weight gain in the first 2 years of life were considered as risk factors for obesity. GAMLSS showed a much better fit regarding the estimation of risk factors effects on transformed and untransformed BMI data than common GLMs with respect to the generalized Akaike information criterion. In comparison with GAMLSS, quantile regression allowed for additional interpretation of prespecified distribution quantiles, such as quantiles referring to overweight or obesity. The variables TV watching, maternal BMI and weight gain in the first 2 years were directly, and meal frequency was inversely significantly associated with body composition in any model type examined. In contrast, smoking in pregnancy was not directly, and breastfeeding and parental social class were not inversely significantly associated with body composition in GLM models, but in GAMLSS and partly in quantile regression models. Risk factor specific BMI percentile curves could be estimated from GAMLSS and quantile regression models. GAMLSS and quantile regression seem to be more appropriate than common GLMs for risk factor modeling of BMI data.

  4. Interactive Effects of Early Exclusive Breastfeeding and Pre-Pregnancy Maternal Weight Status on Young Children's BMI - A Chinese Birth Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Mei

    Full Text Available To assess if the maternal pre-pregnancy weight status (MPWS alters the association of early infant feeding pattern (at one and third months with infant body mass index (BMI in the first two years of life.A cohort of 2,220 neonates were recruited in a community-based study conducted in China. Body weight and length were measured at birth, at age one and two, with BMI calculated accordingly. The BMI z-scores (BMI-Z were computed according to the World Health Organization Growth Standard (2006. Feeding patterns were classified as exclusive breastfeeding (EBF, mixed feeding (MF, and formula feeding (FF. General linear models (GLM were employed to estimate main and interaction effects of EBF and MPWS on children's BMI-Z.No main effect of MPWS was found on child BMI-Z at ages one and two, nor the feeding patterns. An interaction between MPWS and feeding patterns was detected (p<0.05. For children who were formula fed during the first month, those who were born to overweight/obesity (OW/OB mothers had a significantly greater BMI-Z at ages one and two, compared with those with underweight/normal weight (UW/NW mothers. FF children had greater BMI-Z at ages one and two compared with their EBF and MF counterparts, when they were born to OW/OB mothers.Maternal pre-pregnancy weight control and early initiation of EBF for children are essential for healthy development in children's BMI, hence the prevention of early life obesity.

  5. Anthropometric measures change and quality of life in elderly people: a longitudinal population-based study in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessari, Ana Aparecida; Giehl, Maruí Weber Corseuil; Schneider, Ione Jayce Ceola; González-Chica, David Alejandro

    2016-12-01

    To analyze the effects of anthropometric measures change on quality of life (QoL) in elderly, using measured anthropometric data on body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Population-based cohort study investigating a sample of elderly (≥60) assessed in 2009 (n = 1705) and followed up in 2013 (n = 1197). QoL was evaluated in 2013 using the CASP-19. Variables evaluated as exposure including BMI and WC in 2009 (both standardized), categories of anthropometric measures change from 2009 to 2013 (excess weight = BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m 2 ; large WC = top quartile), and the absolute BMI and WC change in same period. Multivariate linear regressions adjusted for possible confounding factors and mediators were used. Both BMI and WC at baseline were associated with lower QoL scores, even after adjustment for confounding variables (β BMI  = -0.9; 95 % CI -1.5; -0.3 and β WC  = -1.0; 95 % CI -1.7; -0.4). Additionally, QoL scores were lower among elderly with excess weight (β = -1.4; 95 % CI -2.9; 0.0) or large WC (β = -3.3; 95 % CI -5.2; -1.4) in both waves than among those whose BMI and WC were always normal, but changes in anthropometric measures did not affect QoL. The presence of chronic diseases was a partial mediator of these associations, especially for effects of BMI change. Anthropometric measures change treated as a continuous variable was not associated with QoL. Having excess weight and large WC in both waves was associated with lower QoL scores in elderly, but changing the anthropometric measures did not affect this outcome. Maintaining weight and WC within normal limits during aging can help to preserve QoL.

  6. BMI increase through puberty and adolescence is associated with risk of adult stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Claes; Bygdell, Maria; Sondén, Arvid; Jern, Christina; Rosengren, Annika; Kindblom, Jenny M

    2017-07-25

    To evaluate the contribution of prepubertal childhood body mass index (BMI) and BMI change through puberty and adolescence, 2 distinct developmental BMI parameters, for risk of adult stroke in men. In this population-based study in Gothenburg, Sweden, men born in 1945-1961 with information on both childhood BMI at age 8 and BMI change through puberty and adolescence (BMI at age 20-BMI at age 8) were followed until December 2013 (n = 37,669). Information on stroke events was retrieved from high-quality national registers (918 first stroke events, 672 ischemic stroke events [IS], 207 intracerebral hemorrhage events [ICH]). BMI increase through puberty and adolescence (hazard ratio [HR] 1.21 per SD increase; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-1.28), but not childhood BMI, was independently associated with risk of adult stroke. Subanalyses revealed that BMI increase through puberty and adolescence was associated with both IS (HR per SD increase 1.19; 95% CI 1.11-1.28) and ICH (HR per SD increase 1.29; 95% CI 1.15-1.46). High BMI increase during puberty was strongly associated with increased risk of adult hypertension (odds ratio per SD increase 1.35; 95% CI 1.32-1.39). BMI increase through puberty and adolescence is associated with risk of adult IS and ICH in men. We propose that greater BMI increases during puberty contribute to increased risk of adult stroke at least partly via increased blood pressure. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  7. Longitudinal association between marital disruption and child BMI and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkes, Jeremy

    2012-08-01

    This research examines whether family disruptions (i.e., divorces and separation) contribute to children's weight problems. The sample consists of 7,299 observations for 2,333 children, aged 5-14, over the 1986-2006 period, from a US representative sample from the Child and Young Adult Survey accompanying the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). The study uses individual-fixed-effects models in a longitudinal framework to compare children's BMI and weight problems before and after a disruption. Furthermore, besides doing a before-after comparison for children, the study also estimates the effects at various periods relative to the disruption in order to examine whether children are affected before the disruption and whether any effects change as time passes from the disruption, as some effects may be temporary or slow to develop. Despite having a larger sample than the previous studies, the results provide no evidence that, on average, children's BMI and BMI percentile scores (measured with continuous outcomes) are affected before the disruption, after the disruption, and as time passes from the disruption, relative to a baseline period a few years before the disruption. However, children experiencing a family disruption do have an increased risk of obesity (having a BMI percentile score of 95 or higher) in the two years leading up to the disruption as well as after the disruption, and as time passes from the disruption.

  8. A new coherence measure based on fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C. L.; Zhang, Da-Jian; Yu, Xiao-Dong; Ding, Qi-Ming; Liu, Longjiang

    2017-08-01

    Quantifying coherence is an essential endeavor for both quantum foundations and quantum technologies. In this paper, we put forward a quantitative measure of coherence by following the axiomatic definition of coherence measures introduced in Baumgratz et al. (Phys Rev Lett 113:140401, 2014). Our measure is based on fidelity and analytically computable for arbitrary states of a qubit. As one of its applications, we show that our measure can be used to examine whether a pure qubit state can be transformed into another pure or mixed qubit state only by incoherent operations.

  9. STUDY OF EFFECT OF BMI AND WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE ON BLOOD PRESSURE IN FIRST YEAR MEDICAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedada

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study is undertaken to evaluate any association between BMI, WC and Blood pressure and any tendency to develop prehypertension. The study comprises of 100 medical students of NRI medical college, Sangivalasa near Visakhapatnam. It was carried out ongirl students with age of 17 ye ars. Their BMI, WC and Blood pressure were determined. The examination included measurement of weight, height of the student to determine BMI, measurement of waist circumference, and measurement of blood pressure by sphygmomanometer. In the present study t he results are consistent with early clinical studies reporting that there is elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure with increasing BMI and waist circumference and there is tendency to develop prehypertension in students with higher BMI. Modificat ion of life style factors should be emphasized.

  10. Role of sleep timing in caloric intake and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Kelly G; Reid, Kathryn J; Kern, Andrew S; Zee, Phyllis C

    2011-07-01

    Sleep duration has been linked to obesity and there is also an emerging literature in animals demonstrating a relationship between the timing of feeding and weight regulation. However, there is a paucity of research evaluating timing of sleep and feeding on weight regulation in humans. The goal of this study was to evaluate the role of sleep timing in dietary patterns and BMI. Participants included 52 (25 females) volunteers who completed 7 days of wrist actigraphy and food logs. Fifty-six percent were "normal sleepers" (midpoint of fast food, full-calorie soda and lower fruit and vegetable consumption. Higher BMI was associated with shorter sleep duration, later sleep timing, caloric consumption after 8:00 PM, and fast food meals. In multivariate models, sleep timing was independently associated with calories consumed after 8:00 PM and fruit and vegetable consumption but did not predict BMI after controlling for sleep duration. Calories consumed after 8:00 PM predicted BMI after controlling for sleep timing and duration. These findings indicate that caloric intake after 8:00 PM may increase the risk of obesity, independent of sleep timing and duration. Future studies should investigate the biological and social mechanisms linking timing of sleep and feeding in order to develop novel time-based interventions for weight management.

  11. Effects of social mobility from childhood to adolescence on BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, Ana Paula; Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Sichieri, Rosely

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about the contribution of childhood socio-economic position (SEP) and social mobility to weight change. The present study evaluated the effect of family SEP during the pre-school years and social mobility on BMI between birth and adolescence. Longitudinal. The SEP of each child's family was classified according to an asset-based wealth index as low, medium or high. Four different categories of childhood-adolescence SEP groups were created in order to examine social mobility: low-medium/high, medium-medium, medium-high and high-high/medium. For each of these categories, BMI was tracked from birth to adolescence. Linear mixed-effects models were used to analyse the data. Cuiabá-MT, Brazil. A population-based cohort of children born between 1994 and 1999 was assessed between 1999 and 2000, and again between 2009 and 2011. A total of 1716 adolescents were followed from childhood to adolescence (71·4 % of baseline). The prevalence of overweight/obesity was 20·4 % in childhood and 27·7 % in adolescence. A higher SEP in childhood was associated with a greater prevalence of overweight in adolescence. Expressive upward social mobility occurred, mainly in the lowest SEP group. There was a greater rate of change in BMI between birth and adolescence among children with a higher SEP in childhood and children who remained in the higher SEP from childhood to adolescence. Individuals from a higher SEP in childhood and those who remained in the higher social classes showed greater rate of change in BMI. Thus, initial SEP was the major determinant of changes in BMI.

  12. Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016:a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults

    OpenAIRE

    Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those of adults. Methods: We pooled 2416 population-based studies with measurements of height and weight on 128·9 milli...

  13. Associations of maternal macronutrient intake during pregnancy with infant BMI peak characteristics and childhood BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling-Wei; Aris, Izzuddin M; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Tint, Mya-Thway; Colega, Marjorelee; Gluckman, Peter D; Tan, Kok Hian; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Chong, Yap-Seng; Yap, Fabian; Godfrey, Keith M; van Dam, Rob M; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong; Lee, Yung Seng

    2017-03-01

    Background: Infant body mass index (BMI) peak characteristics and early childhood BMI are emerging markers of future obesity and cardiometabolic disease risk, but little is known about their maternal nutritional determinants. Objective: We investigated the associations of maternal macronutrient intake with infant BMI peak characteristics and childhood BMI in the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes study. Design: With the use of infant BMI data from birth to age 18 mo, infant BMI peak characteristics [age (in months) and magnitude (BMI peak ; in kg/m 2 ) at peak and prepeak velocities] were derived from subject-specific BMI curves that were fitted with the use of mixed-effects model with a natural cubic spline function. Associations of maternal macronutrient intake (assessed by using a 24-h recall during late gestation) with infant BMI peak characteristics ( n = 910) and BMI z scores at ages 2, 3, and 4 y were examined with the use of multivariable linear regression. Results: Mean absolute maternal macronutrient intakes (percentages of energy) were 72 g protein (15.6%), 69 g fat (32.6%), and 238 g carbohydrate (51.8%). A 25-g (∼100-kcal) increase in maternal carbohydrate intake was associated with a 0.01/mo (95% CI: 0.0003, 0.01/mo) higher prepeak velocity and a 0.04 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.08) higher BMI peak These associations were mainly driven by sugar intake, whereby a 25-g increment of maternal sugar intake was associated with a 0.02/mo (95% CI: 0.01, 0.03/mo) higher infant prepeak velocity and a 0.07 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.13) higher BMI peak Higher maternal carbohydrate and sugar intakes were associated with a higher offspring BMI z score at ages 2-4 y. Maternal protein and fat intakes were not consistently associated with the studied outcomes. Conclusion: Higher maternal carbohydrate and sugar intakes are associated with unfavorable infancy BMI peak characteristics and higher early childhood BMI. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT

  14. Changes in Adult BMI and Waist Circumference Are Associated with Increased Risk of Advanced Colorectal Neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathirua-Mwangi, Wambui G; Monahan, Patrick; Song, Yiqing; Zollinger, Terrell W; Champion, Victoria L; Stump, Timothy E; Imperiale, Thomas F

    2017-11-01

    Waist circumference (WC) is a stronger predictor of colon cancer (CRC) risk than body mass index (BMI). However, how well change in either WC or BMI predicts risk of advanced colorectal neoplasia (AN) is unclear. To determine the relationship between change in BMI and WC from early adulthood to later age and the risk of AN and which change measure is a stronger predictor. In 4500 adults, ages 50-80, with no previous neoplasia and undergoing screening colonoscopy, BMI and WC at age 21 and at time of screening were reported. Changes in BMI and WC were defined using universal risk cutoffs. Known CRC risk factors were controlled in the logistic models. Overall, model statistics showed WC change (omnibus test χ 2  = 10.15, 2 DF, p value = 0.006) was a statistically stronger predictor of AN than BMI change (omnibus test χ 2  = 5.66, 5 DF, p value = 0.34). Independent of BMI change, participants who increased WC (OR 1.44; 95% CI 1.05-1.96) or maintained a high-risk WC (OR 2.50; 95% CI 1.38-4.53) at age 21 and at screening had an increased risk of AN compared to those with a low-risk WC. Study participants who were obese at age 21 and at screening had an increased risk of AN (OR 1.87; 95% CI 1.08-3.23) compared to those who maintained a healthy BMI. Maintaining an overweight BMI or increasing BMI was not associated with AN. Maintaining an unhealthy BMI and WC throughout adult life may increase risk of AN. WC change may be a better predictor of AN than BMI change.

  15. The Role of BMI1 in CRPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    12 5. Changes /Problems...….………………………………………………12 6. Products…………………………………….……….….…………….13 7. Participants & Other Collaborating Organizations...that BMI1 is a master regulator of castration- resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) progression. Our objective is to determine how BMI interacts with...oncogenic functions by recruiting AR and distinct binding partners to promote castration- resistance of PCa. Furthermore, we will evaluate the

  16. Toward Measuring Network Aesthetics Based on Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengqiang Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this exploratory paper, we discuss quantitative graph-theoretical measures of network aesthetics. Related work in this area has typically focused on geometrical features (e.g., line crossings or edge bendiness of drawings or visual representations of graphs which purportedly affect an observer’s perception. Here we take a very different approach, abandoning reliance on geometrical properties, and apply information-theoretic measures to abstract graphs and networks directly (rather than to their visual representaions as a means of capturing classical appreciation of structural symmetry. Examples are used solely to motivate the approach to measurement, and to elucidate our symmetry-based mathematical theory of network aesthetics.

  17. Radiometer Design Analysis Based Upon Measurement Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Paul E.; Lang, Roger H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a method for predicting the performance of a radiometer design based on calculating the measurement uncertainty. The variety in radiometer designs and the demand for improved radiometric measurements justify the need for a more general and comprehensive method to assess system performance. Radiometric resolution, or sensitivity, is a figure of merit that has been commonly used to characterize the performance of a radiometer. However when evaluating the performance of a calibration design for a radiometer, the use of radiometric resolution has limited application. These limitations are overcome by considering instead the measurement uncertainty. A method for calculating measurement uncertainty for a generic radiometer design including its calibration algorithm is presented. The result is a generalized technique by which system calibration architectures and design parameters can be studied to optimize instrument performance for given requirements and constraints. Example applications demonstrate the utility of using measurement uncertainty as a figure of merit.

  18. Accuracy of magnetic resonance based susceptibility measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdevig, Hannah E.; Russek, Stephen E.; Carnicka, Slavka; Stupic, Karl F.; Keenan, Kathryn E.

    2017-05-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is increasingly used to map the magnetic susceptibility of tissue to identify cerebral microbleeds associated with traumatic brain injury and pathological iron deposits associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Accurate measurements of susceptibility are important for determining oxygen and iron content in blood vessels and brain tissue for use in noninvasive clinical diagnosis and treatment assessments. Induced magnetic fields with amplitude on the order of 100 nT, can be detected using MRI phase images. The induced field distributions can then be inverted to obtain quantitative susceptibility maps. The focus of this research was to determine the accuracy of MRI-based susceptibility measurements using simple phantom geometries and to compare the susceptibility measurements with magnetometry measurements where SI-traceable standards are available. The susceptibilities of paramagnetic salt solutions in cylindrical containers were measured as a function of orientation relative to the static MRI field. The observed induced fields as a function of orientation of the cylinder were in good agreement with simple models. The MRI susceptibility measurements were compared with SQUID magnetometry using NIST-traceable standards. MRI can accurately measure relative magnetic susceptibilities while SQUID magnetometry measures absolute magnetic susceptibility. Given the accuracy of moment measurements of tissue mimicking samples, and the need to look at small differences in tissue properties, the use of existing NIST standard reference materials to calibrate MRI reference structures is problematic and better reference materials are required.

  19. The effects of media, self-esteem, and BMI on youth's unhealthy weight control behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Brown, Sarah; Lawless, Casey; Fedele, David; Dumont-Driscoll, Marilyn; Janicke, David M

    2016-04-01

    Youth engage in a variety of methods to manage their weight, including unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs). The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with youth's engagement in UWCBs, including media influence, youth's BMI z-score and self-esteem. Participants were 179 youth, aged 10-17, attending a primary care clinic appointment. Youth completed questionnaires assessing frequency of UWCBs, global self-worth, and perception of media influence to lose weight. BMI z-score was calculated based on height and weight measurements obtained from medical charts. The SPSS macro, PROCESS, was used to conduct moderation analyses. Over 40% of youth endorsed using at least one UWCB in the past year. Girls reported using more UWCBs and engaging in UWCBs more frequently than boys. For boys, media influence to lose weight was only related to UWCB frequency for those with a BMI z-score of 1.23 and above. For girls, media influence was only related to UWCB frequency for those with low to average levels of global self-worth. Girls' and boys' use of UWCBs is impacted by different factors. Prevention efforts should consider targeting factors, such as weight status and self-esteem, which are uniquely associated with gender. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Using Resistin, glucose, age and BMI to predict the presence of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrício, Miguel; Pereira, José; Crisóstomo, Joana; Matafome, Paulo; Gomes, Manuel; Seiça, Raquel; Caramelo, Francisco

    2018-01-04

    The goal of this exploratory study was to develop and assess a prediction model which can potentially be used as a biomarker of breast cancer, based on anthropometric data and parameters which can be gathered in routine blood analysis. For each of the 166 participants several clinical features were observed or measured, including age, BMI, Glucose, Insulin, HOMA, Leptin, Adiponectin, Resistin and MCP-1. Machine learning algorithms (logistic regression, random forests, support vector machines) were implemented taking in as predictors different numbers of variables. The resulting models were assessed with a Monte Carlo Cross-Validation approach to determine 95% confidence intervals for the sensitivity, specificity and AUC of the models. Support vector machines models using Glucose, Resistin, Age and BMI as predictors allowed predicting the presence of breast cancer in women with sensitivity ranging between 82 and 88% and specificity ranging between 85 and 90%. The 95% confidence interval for the AUC was [0.87, 0.91]. These findings provide promising evidence that models combining age, BMI and metabolic parameters may be a powerful tool for a cheap and effective biomarker of breast cancer.

  1. Process Optimization of Bismaleimide (BMI) Resin Infused Carbon Fiber Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Joshua W.; Tate, LaNetra C.; Cox, Sarah B.; Taylor, Brian J.; Wright, M. Clara; Caraccio, Anne J.; Sampson, Jeffery W.

    2013-01-01

    Bismaleimide (BMI) resins are an attractive new addition to world-wide composite applications. This type of thermosetting polyimide provides several unique characteristics such as excellent physical property retention at elevated temperatures and in wet environments, constant electrical properties over a vast array of temperature settings, and nonflammability properties as well. This makes BMI a popular choice in advance composites and electronics applications [I]. Bismaleimide-2 (BMI-2) resin was used to infuse intermediate modulus 7 (IM7) based carbon fiber. Two panel configurations consisting of 4 plies with [+45deg, 90deg]2 and [0deg]4 orientations were fabricated. For tensile testing, a [90deg]4 configuration was tested by rotating the [0deg]4 configirration to lie orthogonal with the load direction of the test fixture. Curing of the BMI-2/IM7 system utilized an optimal infusion process which focused on the integration of the manufacturer-recommended ramp rates,. hold times, and cure temperatures. Completion of the cure cycle for the BMI-2/IM7 composite yielded a product with multiple surface voids determined through visual and metallographic observation. Although the curing cycle was the same for the three panellayups, the surface voids that remained within the material post-cure were different in abundance, shape, and size. For tensile testing, the [0deg]4 layup had a 19.9% and 21.7% greater average tensile strain performance compared to the [90deg]4 and [+45deg, 90deg, 90deg,-45degg] layups, respectively, at failure. For tensile stress performance, the [0deg]4 layup had a 5.8% and 34.0% greater average performance% than the [90deg]4 and [+45deg, 90deg, 90deg,-45deg] layups.

  2. Prenatal risk factors influencing childhood BMI and overweight independent of birth weight and infancy BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, C S; Ängquist, L; Baker, J L

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Prenatal risk factors for childhood overweight may operate indirectly through development in body size in early life and/or directly independent hereof. We quantified the effects of maternal and paternal body mass index (BMI), maternal age, socioeconomic position (SEP......), parity, gestational weight gain, maternal smoking during pregnancy, caesarean section, birth weight, and BMI at 5 and 12 months on BMI and overweight at 7 and 11 years. METHODS: Family triads with information on maternal, paternal and child BMI at ages 7 (n=29 374) and 11 years (n=18 044) were selected...... from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Information originated from maternal interviews and medical health examinations. Path analysis was used to estimate the direct and indirect effects of prenatal risk factors on childhood BMI z-scores (BMIz per unit score of the risk factor). Logistic regression...

  3. Representativeness and optimal use of body mass index (BMI) in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaran, Krishnan; Forbes, Harriet J; Douglas, Ian; Leon, David A; Smeeth, Liam

    2013-09-13

    To assess the completeness and representativeness of body mass index (BMI) data in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), and determine an optimal strategy for their use. Descriptive study. Electronic healthcare records from primary care. A million patient random sample from the UK CPRD primary care database, aged ≥16 years. BMI completeness in CPRD was evaluated by age, sex and calendar period. CPRD-based summary BMI statistics for each calendar year (2003-2010) were age-standardised and sex-standardised and compared with equivalent statistics from the Health Survey for England (HSE). BMI completeness increased over calendar time from 37% in 1990-1994 to 77% in 2005-2011, was higher among females and increased with age. When BMI at specific time points was assigned based on the most recent record, calendar-year-specific mean BMI statistics underestimated equivalent HSE statistics by 0.75-1.1 kg/m(2). Restriction to those with a recent (≤3 years) BMI resulted in mean BMI estimates closer to HSE (≤0.28 kg/m(2) underestimation), but excluded up to 47% of patients. An alternative strategy of imputing up-to-date BMI based on modelled changes in BMI over time since the last available record also led to mean BMI estimates that were close to HSE (≤0.37 kg/m(2) underestimation). Completeness of BMI in CPRD increased over time and varied by age and sex. At a given point in time, a large proportion of the most recent BMIs are unlikely to reflect current BMI; consequent BMI misclassification might be reduced by employing model-based imputation of current BMI.

  4. The common FTO variant rs9939609 is not associated with BMI in a longitudinal study on a cohort of Swedish men born 1920-1924.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsson, Josefin A; Risérus, Ulf; Axelsson, Tomas; Lannfelt, Lars; Schiöth, Helgi B; Fredriksson, Robert

    2009-12-09

    Common FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) gene variants have recently been strongly associated with body mass index and obesity in several large studies. Here we set out to examine the association of the FTO variant rs9939609 with BMI in a 32 year follow up study of men born 1920-1924. Moreover, we analyzed the effect of physical activity on the different genotypes. The FTO rs9936609 was genotyped using an Illumina golden gate assay. BMI was calculated using standard methods and body fat was estimated by measuring skinfold thickness using a Harpenden caliper. Physical activity was assessed using a four question medical questionnaire. FTO rs9939609 was genotyped in 1153 elderly Swedish men taking part of a population-based cohort study, the ULSAM cohort. The risk of obesity and differences in BMI according to genotype at the ages of 50, 60, 70, 77 and 82 were investigated. We found no increased risk of obesity and no association with BMI at any age with the FTO rs9939609 variant. We found however interaction between physical activity at the age of 50 years and genotype on BMI levels (p = 0.039) and there was a clear trend towards larger BMI differences between the TT and AA carriers as well as between AT and AA carriers in the less physically active subjects. Here we found that the well established obesity risk allele for a common variant in FTO does not associate with increased BMI levels in a Swedish population of adult men which reached adulthood before the appearance of today's obesogenic enviroment. There is an interaction between physical activity and the effect of the FTO genotype on BMI levels suggesting that lack of physical activity is a requirement for an association of FTO gene variants to obesity.

  5. Green maritime transportation: Market based measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to introduce the concept of Market Based Measures (MBMs) to reduce Green House Gas (GHG) emissions from ships, and review several distinct MBM proposals that have been under consideration by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The chapter discusses...

  6. Genetic and environmental effects on body mass index from infancy to the onset of adulthood: an individual-based pooled analysis of 45 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) study123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Honda, Chika; Hjelmborg, Jacob vB; Möller, Sören; Ooki, Syuichi; Aaltonen, Sari; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Rebato, Esther; Busjahn, Andreas; Kandler, Christian; Saudino, Kimberly J; Jang, Kerry L; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E; Mack, Thomas M; Gao, Wenjing; Yu, Canqing; Li, Liming; Corley, Robin P; Huibregtse, Brooke M; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Derom, Catherine A; Vlietinck, Robert F; Loos, Ruth JF; Heikkilä, Kauko; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fisher, Abigail; McAdams, Tom A; Eley, Thalia C; Gregory, Alice M; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Stazi, Maria A; Fagnani, Corrado; D’Ippolito, Cristina; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Silberg, Judy L; Eaves, Lindon J; Maes, Hermine H; Krueger, Robert F; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos CEM; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard; Freitas, Duarte L; Maia, José Antonio; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Chong, Youngsook; Swan, Gary E; Krasnow, Ruth; Magnusson, Patrik KE; Pedersen, Nancy L; Tynelius, Per; Lichtenstein, Paul; Haworth, Claire MA; Plomin, Robert; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Öncel, Sevgi Y; Aliev, Fazil; Spector, Timothy; Mangino, Massimo; Lachance, Genevieve; Baker, Laura A; Tuvblad, Catherine; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Willemsen, Gonneke; Rasmussen, Finn; Goldberg, Jack H; Sørensen, Thorkild IA; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2016-01-01

    Background: Both genetic and environmental factors are known to affect body mass index (BMI), but detailed understanding of how their effects differ during childhood and adolescence is lacking. Objectives: We analyzed the genetic and environmental contributions to BMI variation from infancy to early adulthood and the ways they differ by sex and geographic regions representing high (North America and Australia), moderate (Europe), and low levels (East Asia) of obesogenic environments. Design: Data were available for 87,782 complete twin pairs from 0.5 to 19.5 y of age from 45 cohorts. Analyses were based on 383,092 BMI measurements. Variation in BMI was decomposed into genetic and environmental components through genetic structural equation modeling. Results: The variance of BMI increased from 5 y of age along with increasing mean BMI. The proportion of BMI variation explained by additive genetic factors was lowest at 4 y of age in boys (a2 = 0.42) and girls (a2 = 0.41) and then generally increased to 0.75 in both sexes at 19 y of age. This was because of a stronger influence of environmental factors shared by co-twins in midchildhood. After 15 y of age, the effect of shared environment was not observed. The sex-specific expression of genetic factors was seen in infancy but was most prominent at 13 y of age and older. The variance of BMI was highest in North America and Australia and lowest in East Asia, but the relative proportion of genetic variation to total variation remained roughly similar across different regions. Conclusions: Environmental factors shared by co-twins affect BMI in childhood, but little evidence for their contribution was found in late adolescence. Our results suggest that genetic factors play a major role in the variation of BMI in adolescence among populations of different ethnicities exposed to different environmental factors related to obesity. PMID:27413137

  7. Genetic and environmental effects on body mass index from infancy to the onset of adulthood: an individual-based pooled analysis of 45 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Honda, Chika; Hjelmborg, Jacob vB; Möller, Sören; Ooki, Syuichi; Aaltonen, Sari; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Rebato, Esther; Busjahn, Andreas; Kandler, Christian; Saudino, Kimberly J; Jang, Kerry L; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E; Mack, Thomas M; Gao, Wenjing; Yu, Canqing; Li, Liming; Corley, Robin P; Huibregtse, Brooke M; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Derom, Catherine A; Vlietinck, Robert F; Loos, Ruth Jf; Heikkilä, Kauko; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fisher, Abigail; McAdams, Tom A; Eley, Thalia C; Gregory, Alice M; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Stazi, Maria A; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Silberg, Judy L; Eaves, Lindon J; Maes, Hermine H; Krueger, Robert F; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos Cem; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard; Freitas, Duarte L; Maia, José Antonio; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Chong, Youngsook; Swan, Gary E; Krasnow, Ruth; Magnusson, Patrik Ke; Pedersen, Nancy L; Tynelius, Per; Lichtenstein, Paul; Haworth, Claire Ma; Plomin, Robert; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Öncel, Sevgi Y; Aliev, Fazil; Spector, Timothy; Mangino, Massimo; Lachance, Genevieve; Baker, Laura A; Tuvblad, Catherine; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Willemsen, Gonneke; Rasmussen, Finn; Goldberg, Jack H; Sørensen, Thorkild Ia; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2016-08-01

    Both genetic and environmental factors are known to affect body mass index (BMI), but detailed understanding of how their effects differ during childhood and adolescence is lacking. We analyzed the genetic and environmental contributions to BMI variation from infancy to early adulthood and the ways they differ by sex and geographic regions representing high (North America and Australia), moderate (Europe), and low levels (East Asia) of obesogenic environments. Data were available for 87,782 complete twin pairs from 0.5 to 19.5 y of age from 45 cohorts. Analyses were based on 383,092 BMI measurements. Variation in BMI was decomposed into genetic and environmental components through genetic structural equation modeling. The variance of BMI increased from 5 y of age along with increasing mean BMI. The proportion of BMI variation explained by additive genetic factors was lowest at 4 y of age in boys (a(2) = 0.42) and girls (a(2) = 0.41) and then generally increased to 0.75 in both sexes at 19 y of age. This was because of a stronger influence of environmental factors shared by co-twins in midchildhood. After 15 y of age, the effect of shared environment was not observed. The sex-specific expression of genetic factors was seen in infancy but was most prominent at 13 y of age and older. The variance of BMI was highest in North America and Australia and lowest in East Asia, but the relative proportion of genetic variation to total variation remained roughly similar across different regions. Environmental factors shared by co-twins affect BMI in childhood, but little evidence for their contribution was found in late adolescence. Our results suggest that genetic factors play a major role in the variation of BMI in adolescence among populations of different ethnicities exposed to different environmental factors related to obesity. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Body Mass Index (BMI) Trajectories in Infancy Differ by Population Ancestry and May Presage Disparities in Early Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sani M.; Chesi, Alessandra; Mentch, Frank; Xiao, Rui; Chiavacci, Rosetta; Mitchell, Jonathan A.; Kelly, Andrea; Hakonarson, Hakon; Grant, Struan F.A.; Zemel, Babette S.

    2015-01-01

    Context: No consensus definition exists for excess adiposity during infancy. After age 2 years, high body mass index (BMI) is related to adverse cardiometabolic outcomes. Before age 2 years, the utility of BMI as a metric of excess adiposity is unknown. Objectives: The objective of the study was to characterize infant BMI trajectories in a diverse, longitudinal cohort and investigate the relationship between the infancy BMI trajectory and childhood obesity. Subjects: Healthy, nonpreterm infants (n = 2114) in the Genetic Causes for Complex Pediatric Disorders study (The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia) with six or more BMI measurements in the first 13.5 months participated in the study. Design: For each infant, the BMI trajectory was modeled using polynomial regression. Independent effects of clinical factors on magnitude and timing of peak BMI were assessed. The relationship between infancy BMI and early childhood BMI (age 4 y) was examined (n = 1075). Results: The cohort was 53% male and 61% African-American. Peak BMI was 18.6 ± 1.7 kg/m2 and occurred at 8.6 ± 1.4 months. In multivariate analysis, boys had a higher (0.50 kg/m2, P BMI than girls. The peak was higher (0.53 kg/m2, P ≤ .001) and occurred earlier (by 12 d, P BMI. Conclusions: We demonstrate sex- and ancestry-specific differences in infancy BMI and an association of infancy peak BMI with childhood BMI. These findings support the potential utility of infancy BMI to identify children younger than age 2 years with increased risk for later obesity. PMID:25636051

  9. Genetic Influences on Growth Traits of BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Fagnani, Corrado; Silventoinen, Karri

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the interplay between genetic factors influencing baseline level and changes in BMI in adulthood.Methods and Procedures:A longitudinal twin study of the cohort of Finnish twins (N = 10,556 twin individuals) aged 20-46 years at baseline was conducted and followed up 15 years....... Data on weight and height were obtained from mailed surveys in 1975, 1981, and 1990.Results:Latent growth models revealed a substantial genetic influence on BMI level at baseline in males and females (heritability (h(2)) 80% (95% confidence interval 0.79-0.80) for males and h(2) = 82% (0.81, 0.......84) for females) and a moderate-to-high influence on rate of change in BMI (h(2) = 58% (0.50, 0.69) for males and h(2) = 64% (0.58, 0.69) for females). Only very weak evidence for genetic pleiotropy was observed; the genetic correlation between baseline and rate of change in BMI was very modest (-0.070 (-0.13, -0...

  10. Two functional serotonin polymorphisms moderate the effect of food reinforcement on BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Katelyn A; Lin, Henry; Fletcher, Kelly D; Sucheston, Lara; Singh, Prashant K; Salis, Robbert J; Erbe, Richard W; Faith, Myles S; Allison, David B; Stice, Eric; Epstein, Leonard H

    2013-06-01

    Food reinforcement, or the motivation to eat, has been associated with increased energy intake, greater body weight, and prospective weight gain. Much of the previous research on the reinforcing value of food has focused on the role of dopamine, but it may be worthwhile to examine genetic polymorphisms in the serotonin and opioid systems as these neurotransmitters have been shown to be related to reinforcement processes and to influence energy intake. We examined the relationship among 44 candidate genetic polymorphisms in the dopamine, serotonin, and opioid systems, as well as food reinforcement and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 245 individuals. Polymorphisms in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA-LPR) and serotonin receptor 2A genes (rs6314) moderated the effect of food reinforcement on BMI, accounting for an additional 5-10% variance and revealed a potential role of the single nucleotide polymorphism, rs6314, in the serotonin 2A receptor as a differential susceptibility factor for obesity. Differential susceptibility describes a factor that can confer either risk or protection depending on a second variable, such that rs6314 is predictive of both high and low BMI based on the level of food reinforcement, while the diathesis stress or dual-gain model only influences one end of the outcome measure. The interaction with MAOA-LPR better fits the diathesis stress model, with the 3.5R/4R allele conferring protection for individuals low in food reinforcement. These results provide new insight into genes theoretically involved in obesity, and support the hypothesis that genetics moderate the association between food reinforcement and BMI. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Integrated genomic and BMI analysis for type 2 diabetes risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrón-Aldea, Dayanara; Dhurandhar, Emily J; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paulino; Klimentidis, Yann C; Tiwari, Hemant K; Vazquez, Ana I

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is a chronic disease arising from the development of insulin absence or resistance within the body, and a complex interplay of environmental and genetic factors. The incidence of T2D has increased throughout the last few decades, together with the occurrence of the obesity epidemic. The consideration of variants identified by Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) into risk assessment models for T2D could aid in the identification of at-risk patients who could benefit from preventive medicine. In this study, we build several risk assessment models, evaluated with two different classification approaches (Logistic Regression and Neural Networks), to measure the effect of including genetic information in the prediction of T2D. We used data from to the Original and the Offspring cohorts of the Framingham Heart Study, which provides phenotypic and genetic information for 5245 subjects (4306 controls and 939 cases). Models were built by using several covariates: gender, exposure time, cohort, body mass index (BMI), and 65 SNPs associated to T2D. We fitted Logistic Regressions and Bayesian Regularized Neural Networks and then assessed their predictive ability by using a ten-fold cross validation. We found that the inclusion of genetic information into the risk assessment models increased the predictive ability by 2%, when compared to the baseline model. Furthermore, the models that included BMI at the onset of diabetes as a possible effector, gave an improvement of 6% in the area under the curve derived from the ROC analysis. The highest AUC achieved (0.75) belonged to the model that included BMI, and a genetic score based on the 65 established T2D-associated SNPs. Finally, the inclusion of SNPs and BMI raised predictive ability in all models as expected; however, results from the AUC in Neural Networks and Logistic Regression did not differ significantly in their prediction accuracy.

  12. Integrated genomic and BMI analysis for type 2 diabetes risk assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayanara eLebrón-Aldea

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 Diabetes (T2D is a chronic disease arising from the development of insulin absence or resistance within the body, and a complex interplay of environmental and genetic factors. The incidence of T2D has increased throughout the last few decades, together with the occurrence of the obesity epidemic. The consideration of variants identified by Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS into risk assessment models for T2D could aid in the identification of at-risk patients who could benefit from preventive medicine. In this study, we build several risk assessment models, and evaluated them with two different classification approaches (Logistic Regression and Neural Networks, to measure the effect of including genetic information in the prediction of T2D. We used data from to the Original and the Offspring cohorts of the Framingham Heart Study, which provides phenotypic and genetic information for 5,245 subjects (4,306 controls and 939 cases. Models were built by using several covariates: gender, exposure time, cohort, body mass index (BMI, and 65 established T2D-associated SNPs. We fitted Logistic Regressions and Bayesian Regularized Neural Network and then assessed their predictive ability by using a ten-fold cross validation. We found that the inclusion of genetic information into the risk assessment models increased the predictive ability by 2%, when compared to the baseline model. Furthermore, the models that included BMI at the onset of diabetes as a possible effector, gave an improvement of 6% in the area under the curve derived from the ROC analysis. The highest AUC achieved (0.75 belonged to the model that included BMI, and a genetic score based on the 65 established T2D-associated SNPs. Finally, the inclusion of SNPs and BMI raised predictive ability in all models as expected; however, results from the AUC in Neural Networks and Logistic Regression did not differ significantly in their prediction accuracy.

  13. Warm Parenting Associated with Decreasing or Stable Child BMI during Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Kyung E; Jelalian, Elissa; Boutelle, Kerri; Dickstein, Susan; Seifer, Ronald; Wing, Rena

    2016-04-01

    While authoritative parenting, which includes high levels of warmth and behavioral control, has been associated with lower risk of obesity, little is known about how general parenting impacts child weight loss during treatment. Our goal was to examine the relationship between several general parenting dimensions and 'decreasing /stable' child BMI during a 16-week family-based behavioral weight control program. Forty-four overweight parent-child dyads (child age 8 to 12 years) enrolled in the program. Families were videotaped at baseline eating dinner in their home. Using the General Parenting Observational Scale (GPOS), meals were coded for several general parenting dimensions. Primary outcome was percent of children whose BMI 'decreased or stayed the same.' Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between general parenting and decreasing/stable child BMI. Forty families (91%) completed the program. Children had a mean BMI change of -0.40 (SD 1.57), which corresponds to a -0.15 (SD 0.20) change in BMI z-score (BMI-Z); 75% of children had decreasing/stable BMI. In the unadjusted models, lower parent BMI, higher parent education, and higher levels of parental warmth were significantly associated with decreasing/stable child BMI. In the multivariable model, only higher level of warmth was associated with increased odds of decreasing/stable child BMI (OR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.01, 1.62). Baseline parental warmth may influence a child's ability to lower/maintain BMI during a standard family-based behavioral weight control program. Efforts to increase parent displays of warmth and emotional support towards their overweight child may help to increase the likelihood of treatment success.

  14. Association between obesity measures and albuminuria: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Meng; Sun, Kan; Li, Feng; Qi, Yi Qin; Lin, Diao Zhu; Li, Na; Li, Yan; Yan, Li

    2016-04-01

    The effects of obesity on the micro vascular diseases have drawn much attention. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between obesity measures and albuminuria in Chinese population. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in 8600 subjects aged 40 years or older from a community in Guangzhou. Urinary albumin excretion and creatinine were measured and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) was calculated as urinary albumin divided by creatinine. Low-grade albuminuria was classified as the highest quartile of ACR in participants without increased urinary albumin excretion. Increased urinary albumin excretion was defined according to the ACR ranges greater or equal than 30 mg/g. Pearson's correlation analysis and multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and body fat content were significantly correlated with ACR (all Palbuminuria and increased urinary albumin excretion gradually increased across the BMI, waist circumference and body fat content quartiles (all P for trendalbuminuria and increased urinary albumin excretion in logistic regression analysis after adjustment for age, sex, physical activity, fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and HbA1c (all P<0.05). Obesity measures are associated with urinary albumin excretion in middle-aged and elderly Chinese. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Reliability-Based Planning of Chloride Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Engelund, S.

    1996-01-01

    In reinforced concrete structures corrosion is initiated when the chloride concentration around the reinforcement exceeds a threshold value. If corrosion starts then expensive repairs can be necessary. The estimation of the probability that corrosion has been initiated in a given structure is based...... on measurements of the chloride content obtained from the given structure. In the present paper optimal planning of measurements of the chloride content in reinforced concrete structures is considered. It is shown how optimal experimental plans can be obtained using FORM-analysis. Bayesian statistics are used...

  16. Infant BMI peak, breastfeeding, and body composition at age 3 y

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Signe Marie; Ritz, Christian; Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With the increasing focus on obesity, growth patterns in infancy and early childhood have gained much attention. Although the adiposity rebound has been in focus because of a shown association with adult obesity, not much has been published about the infant peak in body mass index (BMI......). OBJECTIVE: This study links age and BMI at infant peak to duration of breastfeeding and body composition at 3 y of age. DESIGN: Frequent weight and height measurements for 311 Danish children in the SKOT (Complementary and Young Child Feeding - Impact on Short and Long Term Development and Health; in Danish......) cohort were used to estimate BMI growth curves for the age span from 14 d to 19 mo by using a nonlinear mixed-effects model. BMI growth velocity before peak and age and BMI at peak were derived from the subject-specific models. Information about pregnancy and breastfeeding was assessed from background...

  17. Statistical inference based on divergence measures

    CERN Document Server

    Pardo, Leandro

    2005-01-01

    The idea of using functionals of Information Theory, such as entropies or divergences, in statistical inference is not new. However, in spite of the fact that divergence statistics have become a very good alternative to the classical likelihood ratio test and the Pearson-type statistic in discrete models, many statisticians remain unaware of this powerful approach.Statistical Inference Based on Divergence Measures explores classical problems of statistical inference, such as estimation and hypothesis testing, on the basis of measures of entropy and divergence. The first two chapters form an overview, from a statistical perspective, of the most important measures of entropy and divergence and study their properties. The author then examines the statistical analysis of discrete multivariate data with emphasis is on problems in contingency tables and loglinear models using phi-divergence test statistics as well as minimum phi-divergence estimators. The final chapter looks at testing in general populations, prese...

  18. Food and drinking patterns as predictors of 6-year BMI-adjusted changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Jytte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Tjønneland, Anne

    2004-01-01

    of concurrent changes in BMI as a measure of general obesity. The subjects were 2300 middle-aged men and women with repeated measurements of dietary intake, BMI and WC from 1982 to 1993. Intakes from ten food groups and from coffee, tea, wine, beer and spirits were assessed; gender-specific food factors were...... for refined bread, but not for potatoes, after adjustment for concurrent BMI changes. Among women, but not men, high intakes of beer and spirits were associated with gain in WC in both models. A high intake of coffee for women and moderate to high intake of tea for men were associated with gain in WC...

  19. Bioimpedance measurement based evaluation of wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekonen, Atte; Bergelin, Mikael; Eriksson, Jan-Erik; Vaalasti, Annikki; Ylänen, Heimo; Viik, Jari

    2017-06-22

    Our group has developed a bipolar bioimpedance measurement-based method for determining the state of wound healing. The objective of this study was to assess the capability of the method. To assess the performance of the method, we arranged a follow-up study of four acute wounds. The wounds were measured using the method and photographed throughout the healing process. Initially the bioimpedance of the wounds was significantly lower than the impedance of the undamaged skin, used as a baseline. Gradually, as healing progressed, the wound impedance increased and finally reached the impedance of the undamaged skin. The clinical appearance of the wounds examined in this study corresponded well with the parameters derived from the bioimpedance data. Hard-to-heal wounds are a significant and growing socioeconomic burden, especially in the developed countries, due to aging populations and to the increasing prevalence of various lifestyle related diseases. The assessment and the monitoring of chronic wounds are mainly based on visual inspection by medical professionals. The dressings covering the wound must be removed before assessment; this may disturb the wound healing process and significantly increases the work effort of the medical staff. There is a need for an objective and quantitative method for determining the status of a wound without removing the wound dressings. This study provided evidence of the capability of the bioimpedance based method for assessing the wound status. In the future measurements with the method should be extended to concern hard-to-heal wounds.

  20. Trends in BMI, diet and lifestyle between 1976 and 2005 in North Sydney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Lillian M; Worsley, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Although the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Australia has increased during the past 30 years, little is known about the dietary and behavioural antecedents of body mass index (BMI). We examined changes in mean BMI, diet, and other lifestyle behaviours between 1976 and 2005 and described the cross-sectional associations between these factors and BMI. A series of biennial biomedical surveys by Sydney Adventist Hospital from 1976 to 2005 allowed examination of BMI trends, while the selection of three surveys enabled detailed examination of likely dietary and lifestyle associations. Subjects included in this study were: 384 men and 338 women in 1976; 160 men and 146 women in 1978; 166 men and 141 women in 1980; 164 men and 142 women in 1982; 177 men and 13 women in 1984; 239 men and 227 women in 1986; 210 men and 225 women in 1988; 165 men and 148 women in 1990; 138 men and 167 women in 1992 and 270 men and 62 women in 2005. Height and weight were measured by hospital staff. Mean BMI increased in the early 1990s. Salt, coffee, cola, alcohol and meat consumption, dieting to lose weight and eating between meals were positively associated with BMI while physical activity, food variety, large breakfasts and consumption of spreads were negatively associated. Food consumption and daily activities have important associations with BMI, though their specific associations differ by sex. "Affluent" lifestyle patterns appear to contribute to higher BMI, while a more "prudent" lifestyle seems to protect from such increases.

  1. BMI in relation to sperm count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sermondade, N; Faure, C; Fezeu, L

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The global obesity epidemic has paralleled a decrease in semen quality. Yet, the association between obesity and sperm parameters remains controversial. The purpose of this report was to update the evidence on the association between BMI and sperm count through a systematic review...... with meta-analysis. METHODS A systematic review of available literature (with no language restriction) was performed to investigate the impact of BMI on sperm count. Relevant studies published until June 2012 were identified from a Pubmed and EMBASE search. We also included unpublished data (n = 717 men...... studies were included in the meta-analysis, resulting in a sample of 13 077 men from the general population and attending fertility clinics. Data were stratified according to the total sperm count as normozoospermia, oligozoospermia and azoospermia. Standardized weighted mean differences in sperm...

  2. Palo Verde Unit 3 BMI nozzle modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waskey, D.

    2015-01-01

    The 61 BMI (Bottom Mount Instrumentation) nozzles of the unit 3 of the Palo Verde plant have been examined through ASME Code Case N722. The nozzle 3 was the only one with leakage noted. The ultrasound testing results are characteristic of PWSCC (Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking). The initiation likely occurred at a weld defect which was exposed to the primary water environment resulting in PWSCC. All other nozzles (60) showed no unacceptable indications. Concerning nozzle 3 one crack in J-groove weld connected large defect to primary water. An environmental model has been used to simulate and optimize the repair. The AREVA crew was on site 18 days after contract award and the job was completed in 12 days, 30 hours ahead of baseline schedule. This series of slides describes the examination of the BMI nozzles, the repair steps, and alternative design concepts

  3. Animal-based measures for welfare assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino Sevi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal welfare assessment can’t be irrespective of measures taken on animals. Indeed, housing parametersrelatedtostructures, designandmicro-environment, evenifreliable parameters related to structures, design and micro-environment, even if reliable and easier to take, can only identify conditions which could be detrimental to animal welfare, but can’t predict poor welfare in animals per se. Welfare assessment through animal-based measures is almost complex, given that animals’ responses to stressful conditions largely depend on the nature, length and intensity of challenges and on physiological status, age, genetic susceptibility and previous experience of animals. Welfare assessment requires a multi-disciplinary approach and the monitoring of productive, ethological, endocrine, immunological and pathological param- eters to be exhaustive and reliable. So many measures are needed, because stresses can act only on some of the mentioned parameters or on all of them but at different times and degree. Under this point of view, the main aim of research is to find feasible and most responsive indicators of poor animal welfare. In last decades, studies focused on the following parameters for animal wel- fare assessment indexes of biological efficiency, responses to behavioral tests, cortisol secretion, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, lymphocyte proliferation, production of antigen specific IgG and cytokine release, somatic cell count and acute phase proteins. Recently, a lot of studies have been addressed to reduce handling and constraint of animals for taking measures to be used in welfare assessment, since such procedures can induce stress in animals and undermined the reliability of measures taken for welfare assessment. Range of animal-based measures for welfare assessment is much wider under experimental condition than at on-farm level. In welfare monitoring on-farm the main aim is to find feasible measures of proved validity and reliability

  4. Property-Based Software Engineering Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briand, Lionel C.; Morasca, Sandro; Basili, Victor R.

    1997-01-01

    Little theory exists in the field of software system measurement. Concepts such as complexity, coupling, cohesion or even size are very often subject to interpretation and appear to have inconsistent definitions in the literature. As a consequence, there is little guidance provided to the analyst attempting to define proper measures for specific problems. Many controversies in the literature are simply misunderstandings and stem from the fact that some people talk about different measurement concepts under the same label (complexity is the most common case). There is a need to define unambiguously the most important measurement concepts used in the measurement of software products. One way of doing so is to define precisely what mathematical properties characterize these concepts, regardless of the specific software artifacts to which these concepts are applied. Such a mathematical framework could generate a consensus in the software engineering community and provide a means for better communication among researchers, better guidelines for analysts, and better evaluation methods for commercial static analyzers for practitioners. In this paper, we propose a mathematical framework which is generic, because it is not specific to any particular software artifact and rigorous, because it is based on precise mathematical concepts. We use this framework to propose definitions of several important measurement concepts (size, length, complexity, cohesion, coupling). It does not intend to be complete or fully objective; other frameworks could have been proposed and different choices could have been made. However, we believe that the formalisms and properties we introduce are convenient and intuitive. This framework contributes constructively to a firmer theoretical ground of software measurement.

  5. Trajectories of BMI change impact glucose and insulin metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, E I; Shaw, J; Cherbuin, N

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine, in a community setting, whether trajectory of weight change over twelve years is associated with glucose and insulin metabolism at twelve years. Participants were 532 community-living middle-aged and elderly adults from the Personality and Total Health (PATH) Through Life study. They spanned the full weight range (underweight/normal/overweight/obese). Latent class analysis and multivariate generalised linear models were used to investigate the association of Body Mass Index (BMI, kg/m 2 ) trajectory over twelve years with plasma insulin (μlU/ml), plasma glucose (mmol/L), and HOMA2 insulin resistance and beta cell function at follow-up. All models were adjusted for age, gender, hypertension, pre-clinical diabetes status (normal fasting glucose or impaired fasting glucose) and physical activity. Four weight trajectories were extracted; constant normal (mean baseline BMI = 25; follow-up BMI = 25), constant high (mean baseline BMI = 36; follow-up BMI = 37), increase (mean baseline BMI = 26; follow-up BMI = 32) and decrease (mean baseline BMI = 34; follow-up BMI = 28). At any given current BMI, individuals in the constant high and increase trajectories had significantly higher plasma insulin, greater insulin resistance, and higher beta cell function than those in the constant normal trajectory. Individuals in the decrease trajectory did not differ from the constant normal trajectory. Current BMI significantly interacted with preceding BMI trajectory in its association with plasma insulin, insulin resistance, and beta cell function. The trajectory of preceding weight has an independent effect on blood glucose metabolism beyond body weight measured at any given point in time. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier

  6. Effects of an Obesity Intervention Integrating Physical Activity and Psychological Strategy on BMI, Physical Activity, and Psychological Variables in Male Obese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, HakGweon; Kim, YoungHo

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated the effect of an obesity intervention incorporating physical activity and behavior-based motivational enhancement intervention on BMI, physical activity levels, and psychological variables toward physical activity in male obese adolescents. Single group study without having a control group was carried out in Korea. Sixty-eight obese male adolescents who had BMI greater than 25 kg/m(2) participated in the 16-week obesity intervention. During this period, the study participants' BMI, physical activity levels, self-efficacy, and perceived benefits and barriers were measured at the three time point (baseline, after week 8, and after week 16). Results indicated that obese adolescents' BMI significantly decreased (F = 3.51, p = .03) and physical activity (F = 4.01, p = .02) significantly increased over the 16-week obesity intervention. In addition, Exercise self-efficacy (F = 5.02) and perceived benefits toward physical activity (F = 5.34) significantly increased but perceived barriers of physical activity (F = 5.10) gradually decreased over the intervention. This study suggests that an obesity intervention combining physical activity and behavior-based motivational enhancement intervention significantly contributed to decreased BMI, increased physical activity, and positively changed psychological variables related to physical activity. This first application has resulted in preliminary support for this intervention modality within non-western obese adolescents.

  7. MEMS based Doppler velocity measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Minchul

    The design, fabrication, modeling and characterization of a capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (cMUT) based in-air Doppler velocity measurement system using a 1 cm2 planar array are described. Continuous wave operation in a narrowband was chosen in order to maximize range, as it allows for better rejection of broadband noise. The sensor array has a 160-185 kHz resonant frequency to achieve a 10 degree beamwidth. A model for the cMUT and the acoustic system which includes electrical, mechanical, and acoustic components is provided. Furthermore, characterization of the cMUT sensor with a variety of testing procedures is provided. Laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV), beampattern, reflection, and velocity testing characterize the performance of the sensors. The sensor is capable of measuring the velocity of a moving specular reflector with a resolution of 5 cm/s, an update rate of 0.016 second, and a range of 1.5 m.

  8. The associations of Bmi-1 with progression of glomerular chronic kidney disease
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoxia; Bai, Ming; Ning, Xiaoxuan; Ma, Feng; Liu, Limin; Liu, Ting; Liu, Minna; Wang, Hanmin; Sun, Shiren

    2018-02-01

    Our previous studies indicated that Bmi-1 plays an important role in hypoxia-induced tubular epithelial-mesenchymal transition and the development of kidney fibrosis in cellular and animal models. However, circulating Bmi-1 levels in human chronic kidney disease (CKD) and their relation to progression remains unknown. We conducted a post-hoc analysis of a prospective cohort study. The blood samples and clinical data of 230 patients with glomerular CKD and 67 healthy adults were prospectively collected between January 2010 and June 2012. Serum Bmi-1 was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CKD patients had significantly higher serum Bmi-1 concentrations than the healthy controls (496.4 (363.1 - 675.4) pg/mL compared with 257.3 (235.4 - 303.8) pg/mL, p Bmi-1 level inversely correlated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (r = -0.346, p Bmi-1 levels and serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, cystatin C concentration, and the severity of tubulointerstitial fibrosis (r = 0.248, p Bmi-1 level was associated with a shorter duration of renal survival. Cox multivariate analyses further demonstrated that serum Bmi-1 concentration was an independent prognostic factor for CKD patients (HR = 6.48, p Bmi-1 levels were associated with adverse kidney disease outcome, suggesting that Bmi-1 is a novel biomarker for glomerular CKD progression. More data from larger longitudinal studies are required to validate our findings.
.

  9. Measuring Modularity in Open Source Code Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Milev

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Modularity of an open source software code base has been associated with growth of the software development community, the incentives for voluntary code contribution, and a reduction in the number of users who take code without contributing back to the community. As a theoretical construct, modularity links OSS to other domains of research, including organization theory, the economics of industry structure, and new product development. However, measuring the modularity of an OSS design has proven difficult, especially for large and complex systems. In this article, we describe some preliminary results of recent research at Carleton University that examines the evolving modularity of large-scale software systems. We describe a measurement method and a new modularity metric for comparing code bases of different size, introduce an open source toolkit that implements this method and metric, and provide an analysis of the evolution of the Apache Tomcat application server as an illustrative example of the insights gained from this approach. Although these results are preliminary, they open the door to further cross-discipline research that quantitatively links the concerns of business managers, entrepreneurs, policy-makers, and open source software developers.

  10. Differential models of twin correlations in skew for body-mass index (BMI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Siny; Duncan, Glen E; Dinescu, Diana; Turkheimer, Eric

    2018-01-01

    Body Mass Index (BMI), like most human phenotypes, is substantially heritable. However, BMI is not normally distributed; the skew appears to be structural, and increases as a function of age. Moreover, twin correlations for BMI commonly violate the assumptions of the most common variety of the classical twin model, with the MZ twin correlation greater than twice the DZ correlation. This study aimed to decompose twin correlations for BMI using more general skew-t distributions. Same sex MZ and DZ twin pairs (N = 7,086) from the community-based Washington State Twin Registry were included. We used latent profile analysis (LPA) to decompose twin correlations for BMI into multiple mixture distributions. LPA was performed using the default normal mixture distribution and the skew-t mixture distribution. Similar analyses were performed for height as a comparison. Our analyses are then replicated in an independent dataset. A two-class solution under the skew-t mixture distribution fits the BMI distribution for both genders. The first class consists of a relatively normally distributed, highly heritable BMI with a mean in the normal range. The second class is a positively skewed BMI in the overweight and obese range, with lower twin correlations. In contrast, height is normally distributed, highly heritable, and is well-fit by a single latent class. Results in the replication dataset were highly similar. Our findings suggest that two distinct processes underlie the skew of the BMI distribution. The contrast between height and weight is in accord with subjective psychological experience: both are under obvious genetic influence, but BMI is also subject to behavioral control, whereas height is not.

  11. Entropy-based Measures of EEG Arousals as Biomarkers for Sleep Dynamics: Applications to Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamasebi, Reza; Redline, Susan; Patel, Sanjay R; Loparo, Kenneth A.

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: We propose a generation of PSG-derived measures that using entropy can quantify temporal patterns of sleep, and investigate the role of these measures as predictors of hypertension. We also investigate the influence of age on these entropy-based measures as compared to traditional indices. Design and Setting: Cross-sectional analyses of the association between hypertension status with traditional PSG and novel measures using adjusted and unadjusted logistic regression models. The novel measures were developed to quantify variability of the arousal event process. Patients or Participants: Analyses were based on a subsample of subjects from the Cleveland Family Study with clearly disparate hypertension status. Measurements and Results: Among traditional PSG indices, the apnea hypopnea index (AHI) has the highest Odds Ratio (unadjusted and adjusted for age, gender, race, BMI: OR = 2.36 (95% CI: 1.48, 3.75, P = 0.0003) and 1.18, (95% CI: 0.76, 1.84, P = 0.46), respectively). The best predictor among the entropy-based measures is derived from analysis of the temporal patterns of arousal duration with unadjusted and adjusted ORs of 1.36 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.71, P = 0.0085) and 2.08 (95% CI: 1.19, 3.64, P = 0.01), respectively. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that when adjusted for common confounders such as age, gender, race, and BMI, the entropy-based features that quantify the variability of the arousal event process are more strongly associated with hypertension as compared to traditional PSG indices; they are not as strongly influenced by age as are the traditional indices. The result implies that the regularity of arousals may be an important feature associated with hypertension. These measures may provide a powerful tool for discriminating individuals at risk for comorbidities, such as hypertension, associated with sleep disturbances. Citation: Jamasebi R; Redline S; Patel SR; Loparo KA. Entropy-based measures of EEG arousals as biomarkers for sleep

  12. The association between BMI and health-related quality of life in the US population: sex, age and ethnicity matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxy, M; Teuner, C; Holle, R; Kurz, C

    2018-03-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem. Detailed knowledge about the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and health-related quality of life (HRQL) is important for deriving effective and cost-effective prevention and weight management strategies. This study aims to describe the sex-, age- and ethnicity-specific association between BMI and HRQL in the US adult population. Analyses are based on pooled cross-sectional data from 41 459 participants of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) Household Component (HC) for the years 2000-2003. BMI was calculated using self-reported height and weight, and HRQL was assessed with the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire. Generalized additive models were fitted with a smooth function for BMI and a smooth-factor interaction for BMI with sex adjusted for age, ethnicity, poverty, smoking and physical activity. Models were further stratified by age and ethnicity. The association between BMI and HRQL is inverse U-shaped with a HRQL high point at a BMI of 22 kg m -2 in women and a HRQL high plateau at BMI values of 22-30 kg m -2 in men. Men aged 50 years and older with a BMI of 29 kg m -2 reported on average five-point higher visual analog scale (VAS) scores than peers with a BMI of 20 kg m -2 . The inverse U-shaped association is more pronounced in older people, and the BMI-HRQL relationship differs between ethnicities. In Hispanics, the BMI associated with the highest HRQL is higher than in white people and, in black women, the BMI-HRQL association has an almost linear negative slope. The results show that a more differentiated use of BMI cutoffs in scientific discussions and daily practice is indicated. The findings should be considered in the design of future weight loss and weight management programs.

  13. BMI in Japanese children since 1948: no evidence of a major rise in the prevalence of obesity in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanussen, Michael; Molinari, Luciano; Satake, Takashi

    2007-09-01

    The dramatic world-wide trend towards increasing body weight seems to be less obvious in the Japanese population. The aim of this study is to extract potentially useful information regarding childhood and adolescence obesity in Japan from series of mean height and mean body mass index between 1948 and 2003. Mean values for height and weight of Japanese boys and girls aged 5+ to 17+ years were obtained from the "Reports on School Health Survey", Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, comprising approximately 4.5% of all children and adolescents in Japan between 1948 and 2003. The data were fitted by the Preece and Baines model (Preece & Baines 1978) in order to obtain estimates of the age of peak height velocity (APHV) and final height. Isochrones for height and BMI were calculated based upon measurements that were obtained at the same chronological ages at different historic epochs. The APHV as estimated by Preece & Baines (1978) has decreased from 14.07 to 12.03 years in Japanese boys, and from 11.80 to 9.92 years in Japanese girls, indicating that the tempo of child and adolescent maturation (maturational tempo) has accelerated. Body height increased by 10.1 cm in near adult 17+ year old Japanese males and by 5.7 cm in 17+ year old Japanese females since 1948. Due to the acceleration and the earlier attainment of adult stature, isochrones for height tend to diverge for prepubertal ages and to converge for postpubertal ages. The same is true for weight. Body weight has increased by 11.8 kg in near adult males, and by 4.4 kg in near adult females. Also BMI has increased since 1948. But in contrast to height and weight, the rise in BMI only reflects the acceleration of the maturational tempo. Tempo-conditioned isochrones for BMI are almost horizontal, and even tended to temporarily decrease during the 60ies and the 70's. The BMI of Japanese children and adolescents dramatically contrasts the recent and historic BMI changes in the Western

  14. Associations among parent acculturation, child BMI, and child fruit and vegetable consumption in a Hispanic sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Monica I; Madanat, Hala; Crespo, Noe C; Lemus, Hector; Elder, John

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association of parent acculturation with child fruit and vegetable consumption and obesity, as measured by body mass index (BMI). Participants included 250 Mexican-American and other Hispanic families living within San Diego County. Height and weight measurements were collected to calculate the age- and sex-specific BMI for each child and parent, and parents completed self-administered surveys. Child BMI z-score was significantly related to parent BMI after controlling for parent acculturation and parent birth place (β = 0.05, p vegetable consumption was not significantly related to parent acculturation. Findings suggest that parental weight status may be more predictive of child obesity than acculturation, and highlight the need to examine culturally relevant behavioral and psychosocial factors related to childhood obesity and dietary behaviors.

  15. Association of family income with BMI from childhood to adult life: a birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigante, Denise P; Victora, Cesar G; Matijasevich, Alícia; Horta, Bernardo L; Barros, Fernando C

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the association of family income at birth with BMI among young adults who have been followed since birth. A birth cohort study. In 1982, all children born in Pelotas, southern Brazil, were included in a perinatal survey and visited at ages 1, 2, 4, 15, 18-19 and 23 years. Cohort members (n 4297) were traced and interviewed in 2004-2005. In all follow-ups, participants were weighed and measured, and BMI and prevalence of obesity were calculated for each age. Family income was obtained in minimum wages in 1982 and as a continuous variable, in reais, in later follow-ups. Skin colour was self-reported in 2004-2005. Mean BMI and prevalence of obesity differed between males and females. In males, a direct relationship was found throughout life and among females this relationship was modified by age. During childhood, BMI was higher among girls from higher income groups and this association was inversed at age 23 years. At this same age, mean BMI among black women was 1·3 kg/m2 higher than among white women, even after adjustment for current family income. The findings show in men that the relationship between income and BMI is similar to that seen in less developed areas, whereas among adult women the relationship is similar to that observed in developed countries. In addition to the effect of socio-economic status, skin colour also has an influence on the BMI of adult women.

  16. Attenuated associations between increasing BMI and unfavorable lipid profiles in Chinese Buddhist vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui-Jie; Han, Peng; Sun, Su-Yun; Wang, Li-Ying; Yan, Bing; Zhang, Jin-Hua; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Shu-Yu; Li, Xue-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is related to hyperlipidemia and risk of cardiovascular disease. Health benefits of vegetarian diets have well-documented in the Western countries where both obesity and hyperlipidemia were prevalent. We studied the association between BMI and various lipid/lipoprotein measures, as well as between BMI and predicted coronary heart disease probability in lean, low risk populations in Southern China. The study included 170 Buddhist monks (vegetarians) and 126 omnivore men. Interaction between BMI and vegetarian status was tested in the multivariable regression analysis adjusting for age, education, smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical activity. Compared with omnivores, vegetarians had significantly lower mean BMI, blood pressures, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein ratio, triglycerides, apolipoprotein B and A-I, as well as lower predicted probability of coronary heart disease. Higher BMI was associated with unfavorable lipid/lipoprotein profile and predicted probability of coronary heart disease in both vegetarians and omnivores. However, the associations were significantly diminished in Buddhist vegetarians. Vegetarian diets not only lower BMI, but also attenuate the BMI-related increases of atherogenic lipid/ lipoprotein and the probability of coronary heart disease.

  17. Linear systems a measurement based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharyya, S P; Mohsenizadeh, D N

    2014-01-01

    This brief presents recent results obtained on the analysis, synthesis and design of systems described by linear equations. It is well known that linear equations arise in most branches of science and engineering as well as social, biological and economic systems. The novelty of this approach is that no models of the system are assumed to be available, nor are they required. Instead, a few measurements made on the system can be processed strategically to directly extract design values that meet specifications without constructing a model of the system, implicitly or explicitly. These new concepts are illustrated by applying them to linear DC and AC circuits, mechanical, civil and hydraulic systems, signal flow block diagrams and control systems. These applications are preliminary and suggest many open problems. The results presented in this brief are the latest effort in this direction and the authors hope these will lead to attractive alternatives to model-based design of engineering and other systems.

  18. Quantitative Analysis and Comparison of BMI among Han, Tibetan, and Uygur University Students in Northwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Jingya, Bai; Ye, He; Jing, Wang; Xi, Huanjiu; Tao, Hai

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To fully analyze and compare BMI among Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students, to discuss the differences in their physical properties and physical health, and thus to provide some theoretical suggestions for the improvement of students’ physical health. Methods. The cross-sectional random cluster sampling was used to investigate 10103 Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students, aged 20–24 in Northwest China, and their height and weight were measured to calculate BMI. The BM...

  19. Sagittal abdominal diameter shows better correlation with cardiovascular risk factors than waist circumference and BMI

    OpenAIRE

    de Souza, Natalia Cavalheri; de Oliveira, Erick Prado

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity (abdominal adiposity) is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and the most used methods to measure the adiposity are body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD). Objective To correlate BMI, WC, and SAD with biochemical parameters and blood pressure in adults. Methods A non-experimental exploratory/descriptive and cross sectional study was developed and it was assessed 133 subjects (59 men and 74 women) aging between 18 and 87?...

  20. The Role of Polycomb Group Gene BMI1 in the Development of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    thymidine taken up by dividing cells (for DNA synthesis ) thus gives a measure of the rate of division or proliferation of cells. BMI1 silenced and BMI1...Invest. 2005; 115:1503-21. 13. Siddique HR, Liao DJ, Mishra SK, Schuster T, Wang L, Matter B et al. Epicatechin-rich cocoa polyphenol inhibits kras...isolation and cDNA synthesis Total RNA was isolated from cells in culture plates using Trizol reagent as per the vendors protocol (Invitrogen). 1 mg

  1. Using satellite-based measurements to explore ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    New particle formation (NPF) can potentially alter regional climate by increasing aerosol particle (hereafter particle) number concentrations and ultimately cloud condensation nuclei. The large scales on which NPF is manifest indicate potential to use satellite-based (inherently spatially averaged) measurements of atmospheric conditions to diagnose the occurrence of NPF and NPF characteristics. We demonstrate the potential for using satellite-measurements of insolation (UV), trace gas concentrations (sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), formaldehyde (HCHO), ozone (O3)), aerosol optical properties (aerosol optical depth (AOD), Ångström exponent (AE)), and a proxy of biogenic volatile organic compound emissions (leaf area index (LAI), temperature (T)) as predictors for NPF characteristics: formation rates, growth rates, survival probabilities, and ultrafine particle (UFP) concentrations at five locations across North America. NPF at all sites is most frequent in spring, exhibits a one-day autocorrelation, and is associated with low condensational sink (AOD×AE) and HCHO concentrations, and high UV. However, there are important site-to-site variations in NPF frequency and characteristics, and in which of the predictor variables (particularly gas concentrations) significantly contribute to the explanatory power of regression models built to predict those characteristics. This finding may provide a partial explanation for the reported spatia

  2. Prospective associations between sedentary lifestyle and BMI in midlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Siegler, Ilene C; Barefoot, John C

    2006-01-01

    A strong positive cross-sectional relationship between BMI and a sedentary lifestyle has been consistently observed in numerous studies. However, it has been questioned whether high BMI is a determinant or a consequence of a sedentary lifestyle.......A strong positive cross-sectional relationship between BMI and a sedentary lifestyle has been consistently observed in numerous studies. However, it has been questioned whether high BMI is a determinant or a consequence of a sedentary lifestyle....

  3. Body mass index (BMI) in patients attending the anaesthesia clinic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Body Mass Index (BMI) ranged between 16.3 kg/m2 and 44.4 kg/m2. The mean BMI was 26.16 kg/m2 with a standard deviation of 4.65. Overall, 43.2 patients had a normal BMI, 35.4% of patients were overweight, 20.3% of patients were obese and 1.2% were underweight. Amongst males, 62.2% had a normal BMI, ...

  4. Predictors of BMI Vary along the BMI Range of German Adults – Results of the German National Nutrition Survey II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Kilson; Krems, Carolin; Heuer, Thorsten; Roth, Alexander; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of the study was to identify predictors of BMI in German adults by considering the BMI distribution and to determine whether the association between BMI and its predictors varies along the BMI distribution. Methods The sample included 9,214 adults aged 18–80 years from the German National Nutrition Survey II (NVS II). Quantile regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between BMI and the following predictors: age, sports activities, socio-economic status (SES), healthy eating index-NVS II (HEI-NVS II), dietary knowledge, sleeping duration and energy intake as well as status of smoking, partner relationship and self-reported health. Results Age, SES, self-reported health status, sports activities and energy intake were the strongest predictors of BMI. The important outcome of this study is that the association between BMI and its predictors varies along the BMI distribution. Especially, energy intake, health status and SES were marginally associated with BMI in normal-weight subjects; this relationships became stronger in the range of overweight, and were strongest in the range of obesity. Conclusions Predictors of BMI and the strength of these associations vary across the BMI distribution in German adults. Consequently, to identify predictors of BMI, the entire BMI distribution should be considered. PMID:28219069

  5. Childhood obesity treatment; Effects on BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Dahl, Maria; Mollerup, Pernille Maria; Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2018-01-01

    The body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) may not adequately reflect changes in fat mass during childhood obesity treatment. This study aimed to investigate associations between BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations at baseline and during childhood obesity treatment. 876 children and adolescents (498 girls) with overweight/obesity, median age 11.2 years (range 1.6-21.7), and median BMI SDS 2.8 (range 1.3-5.7) were enrolled in a multidisciplinary outpatient treatment program and followed for a median of 1.8 years (range 0.4-7.4). Height and weight, body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations were assessed at baseline and at follow-up. Lipid concentrations (total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), non-HDL, and triglycerides (TG)) were available in 469 individuals (264 girls). Linear regressions were performed to investigate the associations between BMI SDS, body composition indices, and lipid concentrations. At baseline, BMI SDS was negatively associated with concentrations of HDL (p = 6.7*10-4) and positively with TG (p = 9.7*10-6). Reductions in BMI SDS were associated with reductions in total body fat percentage (pBMI SDS were associated with improvements in concentrations of TC, LDL, HDL, non-HDL, LDL/HDL-ratio, and TG (all p BMI SDS, 61% improved their body composition, and 80% improved their lipid concentrations. Reductions in the degree of obesity during multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment are accompanied by improvements in body composition and fasting plasma lipid concentrations. Even in individuals increasing their BMI SDS, body composition and lipid concentrations may improve.

  6. Childhood obesity treatment; Effects on BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Dahl, Maria; Mollerup, Pernille Maria; Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2018-01-01

    Objective The body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) may not adequately reflect changes in fat mass during childhood obesity treatment. This study aimed to investigate associations between BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations at baseline and during childhood obesity treatment. Methods 876 children and adolescents (498 girls) with overweight/obesity, median age 11.2 years (range 1.6–21.7), and median BMI SDS 2.8 (range 1.3–5.7) were enrolled in a multidisciplinary outpatient treatment program and followed for a median of 1.8 years (range 0.4–7.4). Height and weight, body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations were assessed at baseline and at follow-up. Lipid concentrations (total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), non-HDL, and triglycerides (TG)) were available in 469 individuals (264 girls). Linear regressions were performed to investigate the associations between BMI SDS, body composition indices, and lipid concentrations. Results At baseline, BMI SDS was negatively associated with concentrations of HDL (p = 6.7*10−4) and positively with TG (p = 9.7*10−6). Reductions in BMI SDS were associated with reductions in total body fat percentage (pBMI SDS were associated with improvements in concentrations of TC, LDL, HDL, non-HDL, LDL/HDL-ratio, and TG (all p BMI SDS, 61% improved their body composition, and 80% improved their lipid concentrations. Conclusion Reductions in the degree of obesity during multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment are accompanied by improvements in body composition and fasting plasma lipid concentrations. Even in individuals increasing their BMI SDS, body composition and lipid concentrations may improve. PMID:29444114

  7. Universal equation for estimating ideal body weight and body weight at any BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Courtney M; Thomas, Diana M; Blackburn, George L; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2016-05-01

    Ideal body weight (IBW) equations and body mass index (BMI) ranges have both been used to delineate healthy or normal weight ranges, although these 2 different approaches are at odds with each other. In particular, past IBW equations are misaligned with BMI values, and unlike BMI, the equations have failed to recognize that there is a range of ideal or target body weights. For the first time, to our knowledge, we merged the concepts of a linear IBW equation and of defining target body weights in terms of BMI. With the use of calculus and approximations, we derived an easy-to-use linear equation that clinicians can use to calculate both IBW and body weight at any target BMI value. We measured the empirical accuracy of the equation with the use of NHANES data and performed a comparative analysis with past IBW equations. Our linear equation allowed us to calculate body weights for any BMI and height with a mean empirical accuracy of 0.5-0.7% on the basis of NHANES data. Moreover, we showed that our body weight equation directly aligns with BMI values for both men and women, which avoids the overestimation and underestimation problems at the upper and lower ends of the height spectrum that have plagued past IBW equations. Our linear equation increases the sophistication of IBW equations by replacing them with a single universal equation that calculates both IBW and body weight at any target BMI and height. Therefore, our equation is compatible with BMI and can be applied with the use of mental math or a calculator without the need for an app, which makes it a useful tool for both health practitioners and the general public. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Raised BMI cut-off for overweight in Greenland Inuit – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Andersen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity is associated with increased morbidity and premature death. Obesity rates have increased worldwide and the WHO recommends monitoring. A steep rise in body mass index (BMI, a measure of adiposity, was detected in Greenland from 1963 to 1998. Interestingly, the BMI starting point was in the overweight range. This is not conceivable in a disease-free, physically active, pre-western hunter population. Objective. This led us to reconsider the cut-off point for overweight among Inuit in Greenland. Design and findings. We found 3 different approaches to defining the cut-off point of high BMI in Inuit. First, the contribution to the height by the torso compared to the legs is relatively high. This causes relatively more kilograms per centimetre of height that increases the BMI by approximately 10% compared to Caucasian whites. Second, defining the cut-off by the upper 90-percentile of BMI from height and weight in healthy young Inuit surveyed in 1963 estimated the cut-off point to be around 10% higher compared to Caucasians. Third, if similar LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides are assumed for a certain BMI in Caucasians, the corresponding BMI in Inuit in both Greenland and Canada is around 10% higher. However, genetic admixture of Greenland Inuit and Caucasian Danes will influence this difference and hamper a clear distinction with time. Conclusion. Defining overweight according to the WHO cut-off of a BMI above 25 kg/m2 in Greenland Inuit may overestimate the number of individuals with elevated BMI.

  9. Bmi-1 promotes the aggressiveness of glioma via activating the NF-kappaB/MMP-9 signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Lili; Wu, Jueheng; Yang, Yi; Liu, Liping; Song, Libing; Li, Jun; Li, Mengfeng

    2012-01-01

    The prognosis of human glioma is poor, and the highly invasive nature of the disease represents a major impediment to current therapeutic modalities. The oncoprotein B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 protein (Bmi-1) has been linked to the development and progression of glioma; however, the biological role of Bmi-1 in the invasion of glioma remains unclear. A172 and LN229 glioma cells were engineered to overexpress Bmi-1 via stable transfection or to be silenced for Bmi-1 expression using RNA interfering method. Migration and invasiveness of the engineered cells were assessed using wound healing assay, Transwell migration assay, Transwell matrix penetration assay and 3-D spheroid invasion assay. MMP-9 expression and activity were measured using real-time PCR, ELISA and the gelatin zymography methods. Expression of NF-kappaB target genes was quantified using real-time PCR. NF-kappaB transcriptional activity was assessed using an NF-kappaB luciferase reporter system. Expression of Bmi-1 and MMP-9 in clinical specimens was analyzed using immunohistochemical assay. Ectopic overexpression of Bmi-1 dramatically increased, whereas knockdown of endogenous Bmi-1 reduced, the invasiveness and migration of glioma cells. NF-kappaB transcriptional activity and MMP-9 expression and activity were significantly increased in Bmi-1-overexpressing but reduced in Bmi-1-silenced cells. The reporter luciferase activity driven by MMP-9 promoter in Bmi-1-overexpressing cells was dependent on the presence of a functional NF-kappaB binding site, and blockade of NF-kappaB signaling inhibited the upregulation of MMP-9 in Bmi-1 overexpressing cells. Furthermore, expression of Bmi-1 correlated with NF-kappaB nuclear translocation as well as MMP-9 expression in clinical glioma samples. Bmi-1 may play an important role in the development of aggressive phenotype of glioma via activating the NF-kappaB/MMP-9 pathway and therefore might represent a novel therapeutic

  10. Maternal BMI during Pregnancy: Effect on trace elements Status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal BMI was significantly positively related to age, parity and socioeconomic status. While a negative relationship was found between plasma copper and maternal BMI, significantly (p < 0.05) lower zinc levels were found in underweight and obese women when compared to women with normal BMI. Maternal anaemia ...

  11. Childhood obesity treatment; Effects on BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Dahl, Maria

    2018-01-01

    )) were available in 469 individuals (264 girls). Linear regressions were performed to investigate the associations between BMI SDS, body composition indices, and lipid concentrations. RESULTS: At baseline, BMI SDS was negatively associated with concentrations of HDL (p = 6.7*10-4) and positively with TG.......4-7.4). Height and weight, body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations were assessed at baseline and at follow-up. Lipid concentrations (total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), non-HDL, and triglycerides (TG...... (p = 9.7*10-6). Reductions in BMI SDS were associated with reductions in total body fat percentage (ppercent truncal body fat (pBMI SDS were associated with improvements in concentrations of TC, LDL, HDL, non-HDL, LDL/HDL-ratio, and TG (all p

  12. Challenging the role of social norms regarding body weight as an explanation for weight, height, and BMI misreporting biases: Development and application of a new approach to examining misreporting and misclassification bias in surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van den Broeck Jan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultural pressures to be thin and tall are postulated to cause people to misreport their body weight and height towards more socially normative (i.e., desirable values, but a paucity of direct evidence supports this idea. We developed a novel non-linear approach to examining weight, height, and BMI misreporting biases and used this approach to examine the association between socially non-normative weight and misreporting biases in adults. Methods The Survey of Lifestyles, Attitudes, and Nutrition 2007 (SLÁN 2007, a nationally representative survey of the Republic of Ireland (N = 1942 analyzed was used. Self-reported weight (height was classified as under-reported by ≥2.0 kg (2.0 cm, over-reported by ≥2.0 kg (2.0 cm, or accurately reported within 2.0 kg (2.0 cm to account for technical errors of measurement and short-term fluctuations in measured weight (height. A simulation strategy was used to define self-report-based BMI as under-estimated by more than 1.40 kg/m2, over-estimated by more than 1.40 kg/m2, or accurately estimated within 1.40 kg/m2. Patterns of biases in self-reported weight, height, and BMI were explored. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with mis-estimated BMI and to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AOR and 99% confidence intervals (99%CI. Results The patterns of bias contributing the most to BMI mis-estimation were consistently, in decreasing order of influence, (1 under-reported weight combined with over-reported height, (2 under-reported weight with accurately reported height, and (3 accurately reported weight with over-reported height. Average bias in self-report-based BMI was -1.34 kg/m2 overall and -0.49, -1.33, and -2.66 kg/m2 in normal, overweight, and obese categories, respectively. Despite the increasing degree of bias with progressively higher BMI categories, persons describing themselves as too heavy were, within any given BMI category, less likely to have under

  13. Effects of BMI, Fat Mass, and Lean Mass on Asthma in Childhood: A Mendelian Randomization Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granell, Raquel; Henderson, A. John; Evans, David M.; Smith, George Davey; Ness, Andrew R.; Lewis, Sarah; Palmer, Tom M.; Sterne, Jonathan A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Observational studies have reported associations between body mass index (BMI) and asthma, but confounding and reverse causality remain plausible explanations. We aim to investigate evidence for a causal effect of BMI on asthma using a Mendelian randomization approach. Methods and Findings We used Mendelian randomization to investigate causal effects of BMI, fat mass, and lean mass on current asthma at age 7½ y in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). A weighted allele score based on 32 independent BMI-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was derived from external data, and associations with BMI, fat mass, lean mass, and asthma were estimated. We derived instrumental variable (IV) estimates of causal risk ratios (RRs). 4,835 children had available data on BMI-associated SNPs, asthma, and BMI. The weighted allele score was strongly associated with BMI, fat mass, and lean mass (all p-valuesBMI on asthma was 1.55 (95% CI 1.16–2.07) per kg/m2, p = 0.003. This effect appeared stronger for non-atopic (1.90, 95% CI 1.19–3.03) than for atopic asthma (1.37, 95% CI 0.89–2.11) though there was little evidence of heterogeneity (p = 0.31). The estimated causal RRs for the effects of fat mass and lean mass on asthma were 1.41 (95% CI 1.11–1.79) per 0.5 kg and 2.25 (95% CI 1.23–4.11) per kg, respectively. The possibility of genetic pleiotropy could not be discounted completely; however, additional IV analyses using FTO variant rs1558902 and the other BMI-related SNPs separately provided similar causal effects with wider confidence intervals. Loss of follow-up was unlikely to bias the estimated effects. Conclusions Higher BMI increases the risk of asthma in mid-childhood. Higher BMI may have contributed to the increase in asthma risk toward the end of the 20th century. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24983943

  14. Analysis list: BMI1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BMI1 Blood,Digestive tract,Neural,Prostate + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/BMI...1.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/BMI1.5.tsv http://db...archive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/BMI1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/BMI...1.Blood.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/BMI1.Diges...tive_tract.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/BMI1.Neural.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscie

  15. BMI percentile-for-age overestimates adiposity in early compared with late maturing pubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Juul, Anders

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Early pubertal timing is consistently associated with increased BMI percentile-for-age in pubertal girls, while data in boys are more ambiguous. However, higher BMI percentile-for-age may be a result of the earlier puberty per se rather than vice versa. The aim was to evaluate markers...... of adiposity in relation to pubertal timing and reproductive hormone levels in healthy pubertal boys and girls. STUDY DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study (The Copenhagen Puberty Study). Eight-hundred and two healthy Caucasian children and adolescents (486 girls) aged 8.5-16.5 years participated. BMI...... and bioelectric impedance analyses (BIA) were used to estimate adiposity. Clinical pubertal markers (Tanner stages and testicular volume) were evaluated. LH, FSH, estradiol, testosterone, SHBG and IGF1 levels were determined by immunoassays. RESULTS: In all age groups, higher BMI (all 1 year age-groups, P ≤ 0...

  16. Maternal and offspring intelligence in relation to BMI across childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wraw, Christina; Deary, Ian J; Der, Geoff; Gale, Catharine R

    2018-01-30

    The present study tested the association between both mothers' and offspring's intelligence and offspring's body mass index (BMI) in youth. Participants were members of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY-79) Children and Young Adults cohort (n = 11,512) and their biological mothers who were members of the NLSY-79 (n = 4932). Offspring's IQ was measured with the Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT). Mothers' IQ was measured with the Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT). A series of regression analyses tested the association between IQ and offspring's BMI by age group, while adjusting for pre-pregnancy BMI and family SES. The analyses were stratified by sex and ethnicity (non-Black and non-Hispanic, Black, and Hispanic). The following associations were observed in the fully adjusted analyses. For the non-Blacks and non-Hispanics, a SD increment in mothers' IQ was negatively associated with daughters' BMI across all age-groups, ranging from β = -0.12 (95% CI -0.22 to -0.02, p = 0.021) in late childhood, to β = -0.17 (95% C.I. -0.27 to -0.07, p = 0001), in early adolescence and a SD increment in boys' IQ was positively associated with their BMI in early adolescence β = 0.09 (95% CI 0.01-0.18, p = 0.031). For Blacks, there was a non-linear relationship between mothers' IQ and daughters' BMI across childhood and between girls' IQ and BMI across adolescence. There was a positive association between mothers' IQ and sons' BMI in early adolescence (β = 0.17, 95% CI 0.02-0.32, p = 0.030). For Hispanic boys, there was a positive IQ-BMI association in late childhood (β = 0.19, 95% CI 0.05-0.33, p = 0.008) and early adolescence (β = 0.17, 95% CI 0.04-0.31, p = 0.014). Mothers' IQ and offspring's IQ were associated with offspring's BMI. The relationships varied in direction and strength across ethnicity, age group and sex. Obesity interventions may benefit from acknowledging the heterogeneous

  17. The Role of BMI in Hip Fracture Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinleye, Sheriff D; Garofolo, Garret; Culbertson, Maya Deza; Homel, Peter; Erez, Orry

    2018-01-01

    Obesity is an oft-cited cause of surgical morbidity and many institutions require extensive supplementary screening for obese patients prior to surgical intervention. However, in the elderly patients, obesity has been described as a protective factor. This article set out to examine the effect of body mass index (BMI) on outcomes and morbidity after hip fracture surgery. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was queried for all patients undergoing 1 of 4 surgical procedures to manage hip fracture between 2008 and 2012. Patient demographics, BMI, and known factors that lead to poor surgical outcomes were included as putative predictors for complications that included infectious, cardiac, pulmonary, renal, and neurovascular events. Using χ 2 tests, 30-day postoperative complication rates were compared between 4 patient groups stratified by BMI as low weight (BMI BMI = 20-30), obese (BMI = 30-40), and morbidly obese (BMI > 40). A total of 15 108 patients underwent surgery for hip fracture over the examined 5-year period. Of these, 18% were low weight (BMI BMI = 20-30), 13% were obese (BMI = 30-40), and 2% were morbidly obese (BMI > 40). The low-weight and morbidly obese patients had both the highest mortality rates and the lowest superficial infection rates. There was a significant increase in blood transfusion rates that decreased linearly with increasing BMI. Deep surgical site infection and renal failure increased linearly with increasing BMI, however, these outcomes were confounded by comorbidities. This study demonstrates that patients at either extreme of the BMI spectrum, rather than solely the obese, are at greatest risk of major adverse events following hip fracture surgery. This runs contrary to the notion that obese hip fracture patients automatically require additional preoperative screening and perioperative services, as currently implemented in many institutions.

  18. Refractive index measurement based on confocal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Zhe; Xu, XiPing; Yang, JinHua; Qiao, Yang; Liu, Yang

    2017-10-01

    The development of transparent materials is closed to optoelectronic technology. It plays an increasingly important role in various fields. It is not only widely used in optical lens, optical element, optical fiber grating, optoelectronics, but also widely used in the building material, pharmaceutical industry with vessel, aircraft windshield and daily wear glasses.Regard of solving the problem of refractive index measurement in optical transparent materials. We proposed that using the polychromatic confocal method to measuring the refractive index of transparent materials. In this article, we describes the principle of polychromatic confocal method for measuring the refractive index of glass,and sketched the optical system and its optimization. Then we establish the measurement model of the refractive index, and set up the experimental system. In this way, the refractive index of the glass has been calibrated for refractive index experiment. Due to the error in the experimental process, we manipulated the experiment data to compensate the refractive index measurement formula. The experiment taking the quartz glass for instance. The measurement accuracy of the refractive index of the glass is +/-1.8×10-5. This method is more practical and accurate, especially suitable for non-contact measurement occasions, which environmental requirements is not high. Environmental requirements are not high, the ordinary glass production line up to the ambient temperature can be fully adapted. There is no need for the color of the measured object that you can measure the white and a variety of colored glass.

  19. Orthogonality Measurement for Homogenous Projects-Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan, Ion; Sandu, Andrei; Popa, Marius

    2009-01-01

    The homogenous projects-base concept is defined. Next, the necessary steps to create a homogenous projects-base are presented. A metric system is built, which then will be used for analyzing projects. The indicators which are meaningful for analyzing a homogenous projects-base are selected. The given hypothesis is experimentally verified. The…

  20. Human milk insulin is related to maternal plasma insulin and BMI: but other components of human milk do not differ by BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, B E; Patinkin, Z; Palmer, C; de la Houssaye, B; Barbour, L A; Hernandez, T; Friedman, J E; Krebs, N F

    2017-09-01

    The impact of maternal BMI and insulin sensitivity on bioactive components of human milk (HM) is not well understood. As the prevalence of obesity and diabetes rises, it is increasingly critical that we understand how maternal BMI and hormones associated with metabolic disease relate to concentrations of bioactive components in HM. This longitudinal cohort design followed 48 breastfeeding mothers through the first four months of lactation, collecting fasting morning HM samples at 2-weeks and 1, 2, 3 and 4-months, and fasting maternal blood at 2-weeks and 4-months. Insulin, glucose, adipokines leptin and adiponectin, appetite regulating hormone ghrelin, marker of oxidative stress 8OHdG and inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-a) were measured in HM and maternal plasma. A total of 26 normal weight (NW) (BMI=21.4±2.0 kg/m 2 ) and 22 overweight/obese (OW/Ob) (BMI=30.4±4.2 kg/m 2 ) were followed. Of all HM analytes measured, only insulin and leptin were different between groups - consistently higher in the OW/Ob group (leptin: P<0.001; insulin: P<0.03). HM insulin was 98% higher than maternal plasma insulin at 2-weeks and 32% higher at 4-months (P<0.001). Maternal fasting plasma insulin and HOMA-IR were positively related to HM insulin at 2-weeks (P<0.001, R 2 ⩾0.38, n=31), and 4-months (P⩽0.005, R 2 ⩾0.20, n=38). The concentrations of insulin in HM are higher than in maternal plasma and are related to maternal BMI and insulin sensitivity. With the exception of leptin, there were minimal other differences observed in HM composition across a wide range in maternal BMI.

  1. Characteristics of screen media use associated with higher BMI in young adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickham, David S; Blood, Emily A; Walls, Courtney E; Shrier, Lydia A; Rich, Michael

    2013-05-01

    This study investigates how characteristics of young adolescents' screen media use are associated with their BMI. By examining relationships between BMI and both time spent using each of 3 screen media and level of attention allocated to use, we sought to contribute to the understanding of mechanisms linking media use and obesity. We measured heights and weights of 91 13- to 15-year-olds and calculated their BMIs. Over 1 week, participants completed a weekday and a Saturday 24-hour time-use diary in which they reported the amount of time they spent using TV, computers, and video games. Participants carried handheld computers and responded to 4 to 7 random signals per day by completing onscreen questionnaires reporting activities to which they were paying primary, secondary, and tertiary attention. Higher proportions of primary attention to TV were positively associated with higher BMI. The difference between 25th and 75th percentiles of attention to TV corresponded to an estimated +2.4 BMI points. Time spent watching television was unrelated to BMI. Neither duration of use nor extent of attention paid to video games or computers was associated with BMI. These findings support the notion that attention to TV is a key element of the increased obesity risk associated with TV viewing. Mechanisms may include the influence of TV commercials on preferences for energy-dense, nutritionally questionable foods and/or eating while distracted by TV. Interventions that interrupt these processes may be effective in decreasing obesity among screen media users.

  2. Influence of premorbid BMI on clinical characteristics at presentation of adolescent girls with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenne, Ingemar

    2016-03-31

    Considering the prevalence of obesity in society it can be expected that some adolescents with an eating disorder (ED) start weight loss from an overweight and present at a near-normal weight. Presently, the influence of premorbid BMI on clinical characteristics of adolescent girls presenting with an ED has ben studied. Premorbid growth charts were available for 275 postmenarcheal adolescent girls presenting with an ED (anorexia nervosa = 27, (subthreshold) bulimia nervosa = 9, restrictive EDNOS = 239). Initial assessment included measurement of weight and length, physical examination, blood sampling and administration of the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire youth version (EDE-Q). Despite greater weight loss girls with a high premorbid body mass index (BMI) had a higher BMI at presentation compared to those with a lower premorbid BMI. Although not underweight some presented with clinical and laboratory signs of starvation. These signs were related to not only low BMI but also to rapid and large weight loss. Their EDE-Q scores did not differ from those of girls who presented with an underweight. Girls with a restrictive ED and premorbid overweight may present with a near-normal BMI. They can nevertheless be medically compromised and have eating disturbed cognitions at the level of underweight girls. They should not be regarded as having a less severe ED but merit full assessment and a start of treatment.

  3. Overweight or obese BMI is associated with earlier, but not later survival after common acute illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Hallie C; Chang, Virginia W

    2018-02-06

    Obesity has been associated with improved short-term mortality following common acute illness, but its relationship with longer-term mortality is unknown. Observational study of U.S. Health and Retirement Study (HRS) participants with federal health insurance (fee-for-service Medicare) coverage, hospitalized with congestive heart failure (N = 4287), pneumonia (N = 4182), or acute myocardial infarction (N = 2001), 1996-2012. Using cox proportional hazards models, we examined the association between overweight or obese BMI (BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m 2 ) and mortality to 5 years after hospital admission, adjusted for potential confounders measured at the same time as BMI, including age, race, sex, education, partnership status, income, wealth, and smoking status. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from self-reported height and weight collected at the HRS survey prior to hospitalization (a median 1.1 year prior to hospitalization). The referent group was patients with a normal BMI (18.5 to BMI was associated with lower mortality at 1 year after hospitalization for congestive heart failure, pneumonia, and acute myocardial infarction-with adjusted hazard ratios of 0.68 (95% CI 0.59-0.79), 0.74 (95% CI: 0.64-0.84), and 0.65 (95%CI: 0.53-0.80), respectively. Among participants who lived to one year, however, subsequent survival was similar between patients with normal versus overweight/obese BMI. In older Americans, overweight or obese BMI was associated with improved survival following hospitalization for congestive heart failure, pneumonia, and acute myocardial infarction. This association, however, is limited to the shorter-term. Conditional on surviving to one year, we did not observe a survival advantage associated with excess weight.

  4. Increased genetic variance of BMI with a higher prevalence of obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Rokholm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is no doubt that the dramatic worldwide increase in obesity prevalence is due to changes in environmental factors. However, twin studies suggest that genetic differences are responsible for the major part of the variation in body mass index (BMI and other measures of body fatness within populations. Several recent studies suggest that the genetic effects on adiposity may be stronger when combined with presumed risk factors for obesity. We tested the hypothesis that a higher prevalence of obesity and overweight and a higher BMI mean is associated with a larger genetic variation in BMI. METHODS: The data consisted of self-reported height and weight from two Danish twin surveys in 1994 and 2002. A total of 15,017 monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs were divided into subgroups by year of birth (from 1931 through 1982 and sex. The genetic and environmental variance components of BMI were calculated for each subgroup using the classical twin design. Likewise, the prevalence of obesity, prevalence of overweight and the mean of the BMI distribution was calculated for each subgroup and tested as explanatory variables in a random effects meta-regression model with the square root of the additive genetic variance (equal to the standard deviation as the dependent variable. RESULTS: The size of additive genetic variation was positively and significantly associated with obesity prevalence (p = 0.001 and the mean of the BMI distribution (p = 0.015. The association with prevalence of overweight was positive but not statistically significant (p = 0.177. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the genetic variation in BMI increases as the prevalence of obesity, prevalence of overweight and the BMI mean increases. The findings suggest that the genes related to body fatness are expressed more aggressively under the influence of an obesity-promoting environment.

  5. BMI distribution/social stratification in Swiss conscripts from 1875 to present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staub, K; Rühli, F J; Woitek, U; Pfister, C

    2010-04-01

    We aimed to extend the actual overweight discussion with new unbiased Swiss conscript data from 2005 to 2006, and to present for the first time Swiss data on body mass index (BMI) before 1950 and for the late-nineteenth century. For this study, 19-year-old Swiss male conscripts (draft army; Cantons Bern, Zurich, Basel-Stadt and Basel-Land) from the census of 1875-1879, 1933-1939 and 2005-2006 (N=28 033; 2005-2006 census) were included. BMI distribution (World Health Organization (WHO) classification) and social stratification (International Labour Organization classification) were main outcome measures. Mean BMI of 19-year-old men in Switzerland increased in the 50 years between the 1870s and the 1930s by 0.80 kg/m(2) and between the 1930s and 2005 by 1.45 kg/m(2). The modern BMI sample is much more right skewed and s.d. is higher. Obesity prevalence (according to modern WHO classification) has increased by a factor of 105 from 1870s until present. Over 23% of our representative sample of Swiss men in 2005-2006 had a BMI of over 25 kg/m(2). In 2005-2006, contrary to the nineteenth century, unskilled workers had articulately higher BMI values at the 75th, 90th and 95th percentile than students; 12% of unskilled workers were obese against 2% of students. It thus seems that BMI relations between the upper and the lower end of the socio-economic strata changed inversely from the late-nineteenth century to 2005-2006. We further propose that the phenomenon of massive right-skewing BMI distribution between the 1930s and 2005-2006 affected the lower socio-economic strata to a far greater extent than the higher socio-economic group.

  6. A Multi-Component Day-Camp Weight-Loss Program Is Effective in Reducing BMI in Children after One Year: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Traberg Larsen

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a one-year multi-component immersive day-camp weight-loss intervention for children with overweight and obesity. The study design was a parallel-group randomized controlled trial. One hundred fifteen 11-13-year-old children with overweight and obesity were randomized into either: A six-week day-camp intervention arm focusing on increased physical activity, and healthy diet followed by a subsequent one-year family-based intervention, or a standard intervention arm consisting of one weekly exercise session for six weeks. Body mass index (BMI was the primary outcome. BMI z-score, clustered cardiovascular risk z-score, and body composition were secondary outcomes. All outcomes were measured at baseline, six week-, and 52 week follow-up. After six weeks, children from the day-camp intervention arm had improved their BMI (-2.2 kg/m2 (95% CI -2.6 to -1.7, P<0.001 and all secondary outcomes when compared to the children from the standard intervention arm. After 52 weeks, the day-camp intervention arm had a lower BMI (-1.2 kg/m2 (95% CI -1.8 to -0.5, P = 0.001, and BMI z-score (-0.20 (95% CI -0.35 to -0.05, P = 0.008, and clustered cardiovascular risk z-score (-0.23 (95% CI -0.37 to -0.08, P = 0.002 compared to the standard intervention arm. No group differences were detected in body composition after 52 weeks. This study shows that the day-camp intervention arm is effective in reducing BMI and improving the metabolic health of children with overweight and obesity. However, the effects seem to be diminishing over time.

  7. Summer effects on body mass index (BMI gain and growth patterns of American Indian children from kindergarten to first grade: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jianduan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity are highly prevalent among American Indian children, especially those living on reservations. There is little scientific evidence about the effects of summer vacation on obesity development in children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of summer vacation between kindergarten and first grade on growth in height, weight, and body mass index (BMI for a sample of American Indian children. Methods Children had their height and weight measured in four rounds of data collection (yielded three intervals: kindergarten, summer vacation, and first grade as part of a school-based obesity prevention trial (Bright Start in a Northern Plains Indian Reservation. Demographic variables were collected at baseline from parent surveys. Growth velocities (Z-score units/year for BMI, weight, and height were estimated and compared for each interval using generalized linear mixed models. Results The children were taller and heavier than median of same age counterparts. Height Z-scores were positively associated with increasing weight status category. The mean weight velocity during summer was significantly less than during the school year. More rapid growth velocity in height during summer than during school year was observed. Obese children gained less adjusted-BMI in the first grade after gaining more than their counterparts during the previous two intervals. No statistically significant interval effects were found for height and BMI velocities. Conclusions There was no indication of a significant summer effect on children's BMI. Rather than seasonal or school-related patterns, the predominant pattern indicated by weight-Z and BMI-Z velocities might be related to age or maturation. Trial registration Bright Start: Obesity Prevention in American Indian Children Clinical Trial Govt ID# NCT00123032

  8. Relationship between 8/9-yr-old school children BMI, parents' BMI and educational level: a cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilato Valentina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents are responsible not only for the genetic structure of their children, but also for passing onto them their behaviours and attitudes toward life. The aim of this study was to analyse the connection between school-age children's obesity and that of their parents as well as between child obesity and parents' educational level, as a proxy indicator of the socio-economic status (SES of families in Tuscany. Methods The children sample was selected from "OKkio alla Salute 2010" (a cross sectional survey carried out by the Italian Institute of Health and consisted of 1,751 (922 males and 855 females 8-9 year-old school children. Weight and height were measured by ad hoc trained personnel, and Body Mass Index (BMI categories were calculated using Cole et al.'s cut-off. Parents' weight, height and educational level were collected by a self-administered questionnaire. The educational levels were classified as high, medium and low. Results The prevalence of obese children increased along the parents' BMI category: from 1.4% for underweight mothers to 30.3% for obese mothers and from 4% for under-normal-weight fathers to 23.9% for obese fathers (p Conclusion Parents' obesity and the cultural resources of the family, particularly the father's, seem to influence the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Tuscan children.

  9. Cortisol in human milk predicts child BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn-Holbrook, Jennifer; Le, Tran Bao; Chung, Anna; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M

    2016-12-01

    Breastfeeding has been linked to lower rates of childhood obesity. Human milk contains cortisol, known to regulate glucose storage and metabolism. The aim of this study was to to test the hypothesis that early exposure to cortisol in human breast milk helps to modulate infant body mass index (BMI) trajectories over the first 2 years of life. Growth curve modeling was used to examine whether infant exposure to cortisol in human milk at 3 months predicted changes in child body mass index percentile (BMIP) at 6, 12, and 24 months of age in 51 breastfeeding mother-child pairs. Infants exposed to higher milk cortisol levels at 3 months were less likely to exhibit BMIP gains over the first 2 years of life, compared with infants exposed to lower milk cortisol. By age 2, infants exposed to higher milk cortisol levels had lower BMIPs than infants exposed to lower milk cortisol. Milk cortisol was a stronger predictor of BMIP change in girls than boys. Cortisol exposure through human milk may help to program metabolic functioning and childhood obesity risk. Further, because infant formula contains only trace amounts of glucocorticoids, these findings suggest that cortisol in milk is a novel biological pathway through which breastfeeding may protect against later obesity. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  10. Measuring globalization-based acculturation in Ladakh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozer, Simon; Schwartz, Seth

    2016-01-01

    for othersas well). This study explores the development, usability, and validity of a tridimensionalacculturation measure aiming to capture the multicultural orientations initiated by theprocess of globalization in Ladakh. The tridimensional acculturation scale was found to fitthe data significantly better...

  11. Energy Based Acoustic Measurement Senors, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research focuses on fully developing energy density sensors that will yield a significant benefit both for measurements of interest to NASA, as well as for...

  12. Energy Based Acoustic Measurement Senors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research focuses on fully developing energy density sensors that will yield a significant benefit both for measurements of interest to NASA, as well as for...

  13. The Association between BMI and Different Frailty Domains: A U-Shaped Curve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietman, M L; van der A, D L; van Oostrom, S H; Picavet, H S J; Dollé, M E T; van Steeg, H; Verschuren, W M M; Spijkerman, A M W

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies showed a U-shaped association between BMI and (physical) frailty. We studied the association between BMI and physical, cognitive, psychological, and social frailty. Furthermore, the overlap between and prevalence of these frailty domains was examined. Cross-sectional study. The Doetinchem Cohort Study is a longitudinal population-based study starting in 1987-1991 examining men and women aged 20-59 with follow-up examinations every 5 yrs. For the current analyses, we used data from round 5 (2008-2012) with 4019 participants aged 41-81 yrs. Physical frailty was defined as having ≥ 2 of 4 frailty criteria from the Frailty Phenotype (unintentional weight loss, exhaustion, physical activity, handgrip strength). Cognitive frailty was defined as the BMI was divided into four classes. Analyses were adjusted for sex, age, level of education, and smoking. A U-shaped association was observed between BMI and physical frailty, a small linear association for BMI and cognitive frailty and no association between BMI and psychological and social frailty. The four frailty domains showed only a small proportion of overlap. The prevalence of physical, cognitive and social frailty increased with age, whereas psychological frailty did not. We confirm that not only underweight but also obesity is associated with physical frailty. Obesity also seems to be associated with cognitive frailty. Further, frailty prevention should focus on multiple domains and target individuals at a younger age (<65yrs).

  14. Adrenocortical regulation, eating in the absence of hunger and BMI in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, L A; Granger, D A; Susman, E J

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relations among adrenocortical regulation, eating in the absence of hunger, and body mass index (BMI) in children ages 5-9years (N=43). Saliva was collected before and after the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C), and was later assayed for cortisol. Area under the curve with respect to increase (AUCi) was used as a measure of changes in cortisol release from baseline to 60min post-TSST-C. Age- and sex-specific BMI scores were calculated from measured height and weight, and eating in the absence of hunger was assessed using weighed food intake during a behavioral procedure. We also included a measure of parents' report of child impulsivity, as well as family demographic information. Participants were stratified by age into younger (5-7years) and older (8-9years) groups. In younger children, parents' reports of child impulsivity were significantly and positively associated with BMI; cortisol AUCi was not associated with BMI or eating in the absence of hunger. In older children, however, greater stress-related cortisol AUCi was related to higher BMI scores and greater energy intake in the absence of hunger. The results suggest that cortisol AUCi in response to psychosocial stress may be linked to problems with energy balance in children, with some variation by age. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Parkinson's disease detection based on dysphonia measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmiri, Salim

    2017-04-01

    Assessing dysphonic symptoms is a noninvasive and effective approach to detect Parkinson's disease (PD) in patients. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of different dysphonia measurements on PD detection by support vector machine (SVM). Seven categories of dysphonia measurements are considered. Experimental results from ten-fold cross-validation technique demonstrate that vocal fundamental frequency statistics yield the highest accuracy of 88 % ± 0.04. When all dysphonia measurements are employed, the SVM classifier achieves 94 % ± 0.03 accuracy. A refinement of the original patterns space by removing dysphonia measurements with similar variation across healthy and PD subjects allows achieving 97.03 % ± 0.03 accuracy. The latter performance is larger than what is reported in the literature on the same dataset with ten-fold cross-validation technique. Finally, it was found that measures of ratio of noise to tonal components in the voice are the most suitable dysphonic symptoms to detect PD subjects as they achieve 99.64 % ± 0.01 specificity. This finding is highly promising for understanding PD symptoms.

  16. BMI-1, a promising therapeutic target for human cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, MIN-CONG; LI, CHUN-LI; CUI, JIE; JIAO, MIN; WU, TAO; JING, LI; NAN, KE-JUN

    2015-01-01

    BMI-1 oncogene is a member of the polycomb-group gene family and a transcriptional repressor. Overexpression of BMI-1 has been identified in various human cancer tissues and is known to be involved in cancer cell proliferation, cell invasion, distant metastasis, chemosensitivity and patient survival. Accumulating evidence has revealed that BMI-1 is also involved in the regulation of self-renewal, differentiation and tumor initiation of cancer stem cells (CSCs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these biological processes remain unclear. The present review summarized the function of BMI-1 in different human cancer types and CSCs, and discussed the signaling pathways in which BMI-1 is potentially involved. In conclusion, BMI-1 may represent a promising target for the prevention and therapy of various cancer types. PMID:26622537

  17. BMI and recommended levels of physical activity in school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillipp Schwarzfischer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity (PA and its health benefits are a continuous point of discussion. Recommendations for children’s daily PA vary between guidelines. To better define the amount of PA necessary to prevent overweight and obesity in children, further research is needed. The present study investigates children’s compliance to physical activity guidelines (PAGs and the association between objectively measured PA and body mass index (BMI. Methods Participating children were 11 years old (n = 419 and part of the European CHOP trial, which was conducted in Germany, Belgium, Poland, Spain, Italy. At least 2 days of PA measurements were collected from each child using a SenseWear™ armband. BMI was calculated from children’s height and weight. Thresholds of min·day−1 in PA needed to differentiate between normal and excess weight (overweight/obesity were determined with Receiver Operator Characteristics (ROC analysis. Additionally, adjusted linear and logistic regressions models were calculated for group differences and effects of a 5, 15 and 60 min·day−1 increases in PA on BMI. Results Median time spent in total PA was 462 min·day−1 (25th percentile; 75th percentile: 389; 534 and 75 min·day−1 (41; 115 in moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA. Girls spent 36 min·day−1 less in MVPA than boys and overweight/obese children 24 min·day−1 less than normal weight children (linear regression, p < 0.001. 63.2% of the children met PAGs of 60 min·day−1 in MVPA. The optimal threshold for min·day−1 in MVPA determined with ROC analysis was 46 min·day−1. Comparing 5, 15 and 60 min·day−1 increases in PA revealed that an additional 15 min·day−1 of vigorous PA had the same effect as 60 min·day−1 of MVPA. Sedentary time and light PA showed contrary associations to one another, with light PA being negatively and sedentary time being positively associated with excessive weight. Conclusions Current PAGs are

  18. Dating violence, childhood maltreatment, and BMI from adolescence to young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Cari Jo; Spencer, Rachael A; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Brady, Sonya S; Mason, Susan M; Connett, John E; Henderson, Kimberly M; To, Michelle; Suglia, Shakira F

    2014-10-01

    This study tested whether dating violence (DV) victimization is associated with increases in BMI across the transition from adolescence to young adulthood and whether gender and previous exposure to child maltreatment modify such increases. Data were from participants (N = 9295; 49.9% female) in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. BMI was calculated from measured height and weight at waves 2, 3, and 4 of the study. DV victimization was measured at waves 2, 3, and 4 by using items from the revised Conflict Tactics Scales. Linear regression by using generalized estimating equations with robust SEs was used to test the association. Models were stratified according to gender and history of child maltreatment. From baseline to wave 4, BMI increased on average 6.5 units (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.2-6.7) and 6.8 units (95% CI: 6.5-7.1) among men and women, respectively, and nearly one-half (45.5% of men; 43.9% of women) reported DV at some point. In stratified models, DV victimization (β: 0.3 [95% CI: 0.0-0.6]) independently predicted BMI increase over time in women. Exposure to childhood sexual abuse magnified the increase in BMI associated with DV victimization (β: 1.3 [95% CI: 0.3-2.3]). No other types of childhood maltreatment were significant modifiers of the DV-BMI association. Violence victimization was not associated with BMI among men. Screening and support for DV victims, especially women who have also experienced childhood maltreatment, may be warranted to reduce the likelihood of health consequences associated with victimization. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Challenging the role of social norms regarding body weight as an explanation for weight, height, and BMI misreporting biases: development and application of a new approach to examining misreporting and misclassification bias in surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brestoff, Jonathan R; Perry, Ivan J; Van den Broeck, Jan

    2011-05-18

    Cultural pressures to be thin and tall are postulated to cause people to misreport their body weight and height towards more socially normative (i.e., desirable) values, but a paucity of direct evidence supports this idea. We developed a novel non-linear approach to examining weight, height, and BMI misreporting biases and used this approach to examine the association between socially non-normative weight and misreporting biases in adults. The Survey of Lifestyles, Attitudes, and Nutrition 2007 (SLÁN 2007), a nationally representative survey of the Republic of Ireland (N = 1942 analyzed) was used. Self-reported weight (height) was classified as under-reported by ≥ 2.0 kg (2.0 cm), over-reported by ≥ 2.0 kg (2.0 cm), or accurately reported within 2.0 kg (2.0 cm) to account for technical errors of measurement and short-term fluctuations in measured weight (height). A simulation strategy was used to define self-report-based BMI as under-estimated by more than 1.40 kg/m2, over-estimated by more than 1.40 kg/m2, or accurately estimated within 1.40 kg/m2. Patterns of biases in self-reported weight, height, and BMI were explored. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with mis-estimated BMI and to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 99% confidence intervals (99%CI). The patterns of bias contributing the most to BMI mis-estimation were consistently, in decreasing order of influence, (1) under-reported weight combined with over-reported height, (2) under-reported weight with accurately reported height, and (3) accurately reported weight with over-reported height. Average bias in self-report-based BMI was -1.34 kg/m2 overall and -0.49, -1.33, and -2.66 kg/m2 in normal, overweight, and obese categories, respectively. Despite the increasing degree of bias with progressively higher BMI categories, persons describing themselves as too heavy were, within any given BMI category, less likely to have under-estimated BMI (AOR 0.5, 99%CI: 0.3-0.8, P

  20. Torsional ultrasonic wave based level measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, David E [Oak Ridge, TN; Kisner, Roger A [Knoxville, TN

    2012-07-10

    A level measurement system suitable for use in a high temperature and pressure environment to measure the level of coolant fluid within the environment, the system including a volume of coolant fluid located in a coolant region of the high temperature and pressure environment and having a level therein; an ultrasonic waveguide blade that is positioned within the desired coolant region of the high temperature and pressure environment; a magnetostrictive electrical assembly located within the high temperature and pressure environment and configured to operate in the environment and cooperate with the waveguide blade to launch and receive ultrasonic waves; and an external signal processing system located outside of the high temperature and pressure environment and configured for communicating with the electrical assembly located within the high temperature and pressure environment.

  1. Does high optimism protect against the inter-generational transmission of high BMI? The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serlachius, Anna; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Juonala, Markus; Sabin, Matthew; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Elovainio, Marko

    2017-09-01

    The transmission of overweight from one generation to the next is well established, however little is known about what psychosocial factors may protect against this familial risk. The aim of this study was to examine whether optimism plays a role in the intergenerational transmission of obesity. Our sample included 1043 participants from the prospective Cardiovascular Risk in Young FINNS Study. Optimism was measured in early adulthood (2001) when the cohort was aged 24-39years. BMI was measured in 2001 (baseline) and 2012 when they were aged 35-50years. Parental BMI was measured in 1980. Hierarchical linear regression and logistic regression were used to examine the association between optimism and future BMI/obesity, and whether an interaction existed between optimism and parental BMI when predicting BMI/obesity 11years later. High optimism in young adulthood demonstrated a negative relationship with high BMI in mid-adulthood, but only in women (β=-0.127, p=0.001). The optimism×maternal BMI interaction term was a significant predictor of future BMI in women (β=-0.588, p=0.036). The logistic regression results confirmed that high optimism predicted reduced obesity in women (OR=0.68, 95% CI, 0.55-0.86), however the optimism × maternal obesity interaction term was not a significant predictor (OR=0.50, 95% CI, 0.10-2.48). Our findings supported our hypothesis that high optimism mitigated the intergenerational transmission of high BMI, but only in women. These findings also provided evidence that positive psychosocial factors such as optimism are associated with long-term protective effects on BMI in women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Statistical Measures for Usage-Based Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gries, Stefan Th.; Ellis, Nick C.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of usage-/exemplar-based approaches has resulted in a major change in the theoretical landscape of linguistics, but also in the range of methodologies that are brought to bear on the study of language acquisition/learning, structure, and use. In particular, methods from corpus linguistics are now frequently used to study distributional…

  3. Consumption-Based Measures in Developing Nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanjouw, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This chapter is concerned with deriving a welfare indicator for households that captures the economic dimensions of well-being. It focuses specifically on Brazil, and illustrates how, in this setting, to construct a welfare indicator based on consumption expenditures. In Brazil, detailed information

  4. Heterogeneity of hemodynamic parameters in untreated primary hypertension, and individualization of antihypertensive therapy based on noninvasive hemodynamic measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoka, Yoshikazu; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa; Kasanuki, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Noninvasive measurement of hemodynamic parameter was undertaken in 240 patients with untreated primary hypertension using impedance cardiography (ICG) in outpatient clinics. High output was defined as a cardiac index (CI) >3.6 L/minute/m(2) and high resistance was defined as the total peripheral resistance index (TPRI) >2700 dyne·s·m(2)/cm(5). Of all patients, 67% had high-resistance hypertension (high TPRI with normal or low CI), and 16% had high-output hypertension (high CI with normal TPRI). Treatment with β-blockers for high-output hypertension and with calcium channel blockers for high-resistance hypertension reduced blood pressure equally, and restored normal hemodynamic balance, as reported in studies using invasive monitoring methods. These findings suggest that it is appropriate to use noninvasive ICG measurements to guide antihypertensive therapy. Multivariate analysis showed that female gender, tachycardia, and low body mass index (BMI) were associated with high-output hypertension, but age was not. Heterogeneity of hemodynamic parameters is thought to be one of the reasons why the efficacies of antihypertensive agents differ between patients. It may be feasible to predict which antihypertensive agent would be the most effective for a particular patient based on hemodynamic measurements or combination of gender, heart rate, and BMI.

  5. BMI modulates calorie-dependent dopamine changes in accumbens from glucose intake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene-Jack Wang

    Full Text Available Dopamine mediates the rewarding effects of food that can lead to overeating and obesity, which then trigger metabolic neuroadaptations that further perpetuate excessive food consumption. We tested the hypothesis that the dopamine response to calorie intake (independent of palatability in striatal brain regions is attenuated with increases in weight.We used positron emission tomography with [11C]raclopride to measure dopamine changes triggered by calorie intake by contrasting the effects of an artificial sweetener (sucralose devoid of calories to that of glucose to assess their association with body mass index (BMI in nineteen healthy participants (BMI range 21-35.Neither the measured blood glucose concentrations prior to the sucralose and the glucose challenge days, nor the glucose concentrations following the glucose challenge vary as a function of BMI. In contrast the dopamine changes in ventral striatum (assessed as changes in non-displaceable binding potential of [11C]raclopride triggered by calorie intake (contrast glucose - sucralose were significantly correlated with BMI (r = 0.68 indicating opposite responses in lean than in obese individuals. Specifically whereas in normal weight individuals (BMI <25 consumption of calories was associated with increases in dopamine in the ventral striatum in obese individuals it was associated with decreases in dopamine.These findings show reduced dopamine release in ventral striatum with calorie consumption in obese subjects, which might contribute to their excessive food intake to compensate for the deficit between the expected and the actual response to food consumption.

  6. Effects of injected dose, BMI and scanner type on NECR and image noise in PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Tingting; Chang Guoping; Clark, John W Jr; Kohlmyer, Steve; Rohren, Eric; Mawlawi, Osama R

    2011-01-01

    Noise equivalent count rate (NECR) and image noise are two different but related metrics that have been used to predict and assess image quality, respectively. The aim of this study is to investigate, using patient studies, the relationships between injected dose (ID), body mass index (BMI) and scanner type on NECR and image noise measurements in PET imaging. Two groups of 90 patients each were imaged on a GE DSTE and a DRX PET/CT scanner, respectively. The patients in each group were divided into nine subgroups according to three BMI (20-24.9, 25-29.9, 30-45 kg m -2 ) and three ID (296-444, 444-555, 555-740 MBq) ranges, resulting in ten patients/subgroup. All PET data were acquired in 3D mode and reconstructed using the VuePoint HD (registered) fully 3D OSEM algorithm (2 iterations, 21(DRX) or 20 (DSTE) subsets). NECR and image noise measurements for bed positions covering the liver were calculated for each patient. NECR was calculated from the trues, randoms and scatter events recorded in the DICOM header of each patient study, while image noise was determined as the standard deviation of 50 non-neighboring voxels in the liver of each patient. A t-test compared the NECR and image noise for different scanners but with the same BMI and ID. An ANOVA test on the other hand was used to compare the results of patients with different BMI but the same ID and scanner type as well as different ID but the same BMI and scanner type. As expected the t-test showed a significant difference in NECR between the two scanners for all BMI and ID subgroups. However, contrary to what is expected no such findings were observed for image noise measurement. The ANOVA results showed a statistically significant difference in both NECR and image noise among the different BMI for each ID and scanner subgroup. However, there was no statistically significant difference in NECR and image noise across different ID for each BMI and scanner subgroup. Although the GE DRX PET/CT scanner has better

  7. MUC1-C activates BMI1 in human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraki, M; Maeda, T; Bouillez, A; Alam, M; Tagde, A; Hinohara, K; Suzuki, Y; Markert, T; Miyo, M; Komura, K; Ahmad, R; Rajabi, H; Kufe, D

    2017-05-18

    B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (BMI1) is a component of the polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) complex that is overexpressed in breast and other cancers, and promotes self-renewal of cancer stem-like cells. The oncogenic mucin 1 (MUC1) C-terminal (MUC1-C) subunit is similarly overexpressed in human carcinoma cells and has been linked to their self-renewal. There is no known relationship between MUC1-C and BMI1 in cancer. The present studies demonstrate that MUC1-C drives BMI1 transcription by a MYC-dependent mechanism in breast and other cancer cells. In addition, we show that MUC1-C blocks miR-200c-mediated downregulation of BMI1 expression. The functional significance of this MUC1-C→︀BMI1 pathway is supported by the demonstration that targeting MUC1-C suppresses BMI1-induced ubiquitylation of H2A and thereby derepresses homeobox HOXC5 and HOXC13 gene expression. Notably, our results further show that MUC1-C binds directly to BMI1 and promotes occupancy of BMI1 on the CDKN2A promoter. In concert with BMI1-induced repression of the p16 INK4a tumor suppressor, we found that targeting MUC1-C is associated with induction of p16 INK4a expression. In support of these results, analysis of three gene expresssion data sets demonstrated highly significant correlations between MUC1-C and BMI1 in breast cancers. These findings uncover a previously unrecognized role for MUC1-C in driving BMI1 expression and in directly interacting with this stem cell factor, linking MUC1-C with function of the PRC1 in epigenetic gene silencing.

  8. Development of microcontroller based water flow measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Muhammad Miftahul; Surachman, Arif; Fathonah, Indra Wahyudin; Billah, Muhammad Aziz; Khairurrijal, Mahfudz, Hernawan; Rimawan, Ririn; Lestari, Slamet

    2015-04-01

    A digital instrument for measuring water flow was developed using an AT89S52 microcontroller, DS1302 real time clock (RTC), and EEPROM for an external memory. The sensor used for probing the current was a propeller that will rotate if immersed in a water flow. After rotating one rotation, the sensor sends one pulse and the number of pulses are counted for a certain time of counting. The measurement data, i.e. the number of pulses per unit time, are converted into water flow velocity (m/s) through a mathematical formula. The microcontroller counts the pulse sent by the sensor and the number of counted pulses are stored into the EEPROM memory. The time interval for counting is provided by the RTC and can be set by the operator. The instrument was tested under various time intervals ranging from 10 to 40 seconds and several standard propellers owned by Experimental Station for Hydraulic Structure and Geotechnics (BHGK), Research Institute for Water Resources (Pusair). Using the same propellers and water flows, it was shown that water flow velocities obtained from the developed digital instrument and those found by the provided analog one are almost similar.

  9. Miniaturized diffraction based interferometric distance measurement sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byungki

    In this thesis, new metrology hardware is designed, fabricated, and tested to provide improvements over current MEMS metrology. The metrology system is a micromachined scanning interferometer (muSI) having a sub-nm resolution in a compact design. The proposed microinterferometer forms a phase sensitive diffraction grating with interferomeric sensitivity, while adding the capability of better lateral resolution by focusing the laser to a smaller spot size. A detailed diffraction model of the microinterferometer was developed to simulate the device performance and to suggest the location of photo detectors for integrated optoelectronics. A particular device is fabricated on a fused silica substrate using aluminum to form the deformable diffraction grating fingers and AZ P4620 photo resist (PR) for the microlens. The details of the fabrication processes are presented. The structure also enables optoelectronics to be integrated so that the interferometer with photo detectors can fit in an area that is 1 mm x 1 mm. The scanning results using a fixed grating muSI demonstrated that it could measure vibration profile as well as static vertical (less than a half wave length) and lateral dimension of MEMS. The muSI, which is integrated with photo diodes, demonstrated its operation by scanning a cMUT. The PID control has been tested and resulted in improvement in scanned images. The integrated muSI demonstrated that the deformable grating could be used to tune the measurement keep the interferometer in quadrature for highest sensitivity.

  10. Bridge continuous deformation measurement technology based on fiber optic gyro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Weibing; Hu, Wenbin; Liu, Fang; Tang, Jianguang; Li, Sheng; Yang, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Bridge is an important part of modern transportation systems and deformation is a key index for bridge's safety evaluation. To achieve the long span bridge curve measurement rapidly and timely and accurately locate the bridge maximum deformation, the continuous deformation measurement system (CDMS) based on inertial platform is presented and validated in this paper. Firstly, based on various bridge deformation measurement methods, the method of deformation measurement based on the fiber optic gyro (FOG) is introduced. Secondly, the basic measurement principle based on FOG is presented and the continuous curve trajectory is derived by the formula. Then the measurement accuracy is analyzed in theory and the relevant factors are presented to ensure the measurement accuracy. Finally, the deformation measurement experiments are conducted on a bridge across the Yangtze River. Experimental results show that the presented deformation measurement method is feasible, practical, and reliable; the system can accurately and quickly locate the maximum deformation and has extensive and broad application prospects.

  11. Bmi-1 plays a critical role in the protection from acute tubular necrosis by mobilizing renal stem/progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xianhui; Yu, Zhenzhen; Xie, Chunfeng; Dai, Xiuliang; Li, Qing; Miao, Dengshun; Jin, Jianliang

    2017-01-22

    The regeneration of injured tubular cell occurs primarily from intrinsic renal stem/progenitor cells (RSCs) labeled with CD24 and CD133 after acute tubular necrosis (ATN). Bmi-1 plays a crucial role in regulating self-renewal, differentiation and aging of multiple adult stem cells and progenitor cells. Bmi-1 was rapidly elevated in the induction of adult kidney regeneration by renal injury. To determine whether Bmi-1 maintained mobilization of RSCs in the protection from ATN, glycerol-rhabdomyolysis-induced ATN were performed in wild type (WT) and Bmi-1-deficient (Bmi-1 -/- ) mice. Their ATN phenotypes were analyzed; CD24 and CD133 double positive (CD24 + CD133 + ) cells were measured; and the levels of serum urea nitrogen (SUN) and serum creatinine (SCr) were detected. We found that CD24 + CD133 + RSCs were mobilized in WT ATN mice with the increased expression of Bmi-1; Bmi-1 deficiency led to increased tubular cast formation and necrosis, elevated levels of SUN and SCr, decreased tubular proliferation, and immobilized ratio of RSCs in ATN. These findings indicated that Bmi-1 played a critical role in the protection from ATN by maintaining mobilization of RSCs and would be a novel therapeutic target for preventing the progression of ATN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Eating frequency in relation to BMI in very young children: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rachael W; Iosua, Ella; Heath, Anne-Louise M; Gray, Andrew R; Taylor, Barry J; Lawrence, Julie A; Hanna, Maha; Cameron, Sonya L; Sayers, Rachel; Galland, Barbara

    2017-06-01

    Eating less frequently is associated with increased obesity risk in older children but data are potentially confounded by reverse causation, where bigger children eat less often in an effort to control their weight. Longitudinal data, particularly in younger children, are scarce. We aimed to determine whether eating frequency (meals and snacks) at 2 years of age is associated with past, current or subsequent BMI. Cohort analysis of a randomised controlled trial. Eating frequency at 2 years of age was estimated using 48 h diaries that recorded when each child ate meals and snacks (parent-defined) in five-minute blocks. Body length/height and weight were measured at 1, 2 and 3·5 years of age. Linear regression assessed associations between the number of eating occasions and BMI Z-score, before and after adjustment for potential confounding variables. Prevention of Overweight in Infancy (POI) study, Dunedin, New Zealand. Children (n 371) aged 1-3·5 years. On average, children ate 5·5 (sd 1·2) times/d at 2 years of age, with most children (88-89 %) eating 4-7 times/d. Eating frequency at 2 years was not associated with current (difference in BMI Z-score per additional eating occasion; 95 % CI: -0·02; -0·10, 0·05) or subsequent change (0·02; -0·03, 0·06) in BMI. Similarly, BMI at age 1 year did not predict eating frequency at 2 years of age (difference in eating frequency per additional BMI Z-score unit; 95 % CI: -0·03; -0·19, 0·13). Number of eating occasions per day was not associated with BMI in young children in the present study.

  13. A Transdermal Measurement Platform Based on Microfluidics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ying Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Franz diffusion cell is one of the most widely used devices to evaluate transdermal drug delivery. However, this static and nonflowing system has some limitations, such as a relatively large solution volume and skin area and the development of gas bubbles during sampling. To overcome these disadvantages, this study provides a proof of concept for miniaturizing models of transdermal delivery by using a microfluidic chip combined with a diffusion cell. The proposed diffusion microchip system requires only 80 μL of sample solution and provides flow circulation. Two model compounds, Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 and potassium ferricyanide, were successfully tested for transdermal delivery experiments. The diffusion rate is high for a high sample concentration or a large membrane pore size. The developed diffusion microchip system, which is feasible, can be applied for transdermal measurement in the future.

  14. BMI from 3-6 y of age is predicted by TV viewing and physical activity, not diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, R; Baranowski, T; Baranowski, J C; Thompson, D; Greaves, K A

    2005-06-01

    To investigate whether, diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior or television (TV) viewing predicted body mass index (BMI) among 3-7-y-old children. A triethnic cohort of 3-4-y-old children was followed for 3 y from 1986 to 1989. BMI was assessed at the beginning and end of each measurement year. Heart rate monitoring and observation were used to assess physical activity. Diet (calories, % calories from fat and carbohydrate), sedentary behavior and TV viewing were assessed by direct observation in each year. A repeated measures regression analysis with year as a factor and BMI at the end of each year as dependent variables was run. Nonsignificant variables were removed in a stepwise backward deletion process and significant interactions graphed. The interactions between minutes of TV viewing per hour and study year and minutes of physical activity per hour and study year were significant (Peffects for TV viewing, physical activity and BMI from the beginning of the study. The model accounted for 65% of the variance in BMI across the three study years. Plotting the significant interactions demonstrated that physical activity was positively associated with BMI in year 1, and negatively associated in years 2 and 3 with a stronger negative relationship in year 3 than 2. TV viewing became positively associated with BMI during the third study year. Physical activity and TV viewing were the only significant predictors (other than baseline BMI) of BMI among a triethnic cohort of 3-4-y-old children followed for 3 y with both physical activity (negatively associated) and TV viewing (positively associated) becoming stronger predictors as the children aged. It appears that 6 or 7 y is a critical age when TV viewing and physical activity may affect BMI. Therefore, focusing on reducing time spent watching television and increasing time spent in physical activity may be successful means of preventing obesity among this age group.

  15. BMI may underestimate the socioeconomic gradient in true obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, G.; van Eijsden, M.; Vrijkotte, T. G. M.; Gemke, R. J. B. J.

    2013-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) does not make a distinction between fat mass and lean mass. In children, high fat mass appears to be associated with low maternal education, as well as low lean mass because maternal education is associated with physical activity. Therefore, BMI might underestimate true obesity

  16. Facilitating Factors and Barriers to BMI Screening in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalter, Ann M.; Chaudry, Rosemary V.; Polivka, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    The National Association of School Nurses advocates for body mass index (BMI) screening. Little research describes school nurse practice of BMI screening. In this descriptive study, 25 Ohio school nurses participated in three focus groups. An adapted "Healthy People 2010" Determinants of Health Model guided the research questions. School…

  17. Competency-Based Education: A Framework for Measuring Quality Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Jackie; Dias, Laura Portolese; Schedler, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The growth of competency-based education in an online environment requires the development and measurement of quality competency-based courses. While quality measures for online courses have been developed and standardized, they do not directly align with emerging best practices and principles in the design of quality competency-based online…

  18. Danske skolebørns BMI målt i perioden 1986/1987-1996/1997 sammenlignet med danske målinger fra 1971/1972

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Tove Anne-Grete; Rasmussen, Søren; Madsen, Mette

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A global epidemic in overweight and obesity in children has been postulated. There is a lack of consensus over definitions however, and national standards of BMI centiles have been published in various countries. This has made results on the prevalence of overweight difficult...... to interpret. Internationally based cut-off points have now been published, and a British study reports trends in overweight and obesity in children, as defined by these. The aim of this study was to compare the BMI of a sample of Danish children attending school in 1986/1987-1996/1997 to that of Danish...... schoolchildren in 1971/1972. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The school health officers in 23 municipalities representing a "mini-Denmark" collected from the school health records 3-4 routine measurements of height and weight in children attending school in 1986/1987-1996/1997. From these measurements, the children's BMIs...

  19. Positive parenting mitigates the effects of poor self-regulation on BMI trajectories from age 4 to 15 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Lauren E.; Francis, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study sought to determine whether parenting style moderated the effects of delay of gratification on BMI trajectories from age 4 to 15 years. Methods Longitudinal data were analyzed on 778 children drawn from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, neglectful) was created from measures of mothers’ sensitivity and expectations for self-control when children were age 4 years. Self-regulation was also measured at 4 years using a well-known delay of gratification protocol. BMI was calculated from measured height and weight at each time point. Mixed modeling was used to test the interaction of parenting styles and ability to delay gratification on BMI trajectories from 4 to 15 years. Results There was a significant interaction effect of parenting and ability to delay on BMI growth from 4 to 15 years for boys. Boys who had authoritarian mothers and failed to delay gratification had a significantly steeper rate of growth in BMI from childhood through adolescence than children in any other parenting x delay group. Conclusions Authoritative and permissive parenting styles were protective against more rapid BMI gains for boys who could not delay gratification. Ability to delay gratification was protective against BMI gains for boys who had parents with authoritarian or neglectful parenting styles. PMID:23977874

  20. BASE 04 Transmission Loss Measurement and Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    réverbérations BREVER. Cet ajout avait pour but de permettre l’inversion des résultats de réverbérations établis à partir des données acoustiques ...données modélisées de séries temporelles de réverbérations basées sur une série de paramètres d’entrée décrivant les paramètres acoustiques d’une zone du...l’inversion des résultats de réverbérations établis à partir des données acoustiques enregistrées durant les essais BASE 04. Les essais effectués avec

  1. Genetic and environmental influences on BMI from late childhood to adolescence are modified by parental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajunen, Hanna-Reetta; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rose, Richard J; Pulkkinen, Lea; Silventoinen, Karri

    2012-03-01

    To investigate how parental education modifies genetic and environmental influences on variation in BMI during adolescence, self-reported BMI at 11-12, 14, and 17 years of age was collected from a population sample of 2,432 complete Finnish twin pairs born in 1983-1987. Based on parental report, twins were divided to those with high (both parents high school graduates), mixed level (one parent a graduate, the other not), and limited (neither parent a graduate) parental education. Genetic and environmental influences on variation in BMI in different education classes were modeled using twin analysis. Heritability of BMI among 11-12-year-olds with high parental education was 85-87% whereas it was 61-68% if parental education was limited or mixed level. Common environmental effect, i.e., effect of environmental factors shared by family members, was found (17-22%) if parental education was limited or mixed level but not if it was high. With increasing parental education, common environmental variance in BMI decreased at age 14 among boys (from 22 to 3%) and girls (from 17 to 10%); heritability increased among boys from 63 to 78%, but did not change among girls. The common environmental component disappeared and heritability of BMI was larger at the age of 17 in all parental education classes. To conclude, common environment did not affect variation of adolescent BMI in high-educated families but did so in families with limited parental education. This suggests that intervention and prevention campaigns could effectively target families identified by limited parental education.

  2. Impact of Baseline BMI upon the Success of Latina Participants Enrolled in a 6-Month Physical Activity Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri J. Hartman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High rates of obesity in Latinas highlight the need to determine if physical activity interventions are equally effective across the body mass index (BMI range. Thus, this study assessed how BMI impacts success of Spanish-speaking Latinas in a culturally and linguistically adapted theory-based physical activity intervention (=45. Longitudinal regression models tested the relationship between baseline BMI and outcomes. Overall, a trend for a negative association was found between baseline BMI and self-reported physical activity and theoretical constructs targeted by the intervention over time. For example, someone with a 25 kg/m2 BMI would report, on average, 27.5 more minutes/week of activity compared to someone with a 30 kg/m2 BMI at followup. Furthermore, higher baseline BMI was significantly associated with lower self-efficacy, behavioral and cognitive processes of change, and family social support over time. These findings suggest that participants with higher BMI may need additional intervention to promote physical activity.

  3. Union Transitions and Changes in BMI among Adults in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeer, Kammi K.

    2013-01-01

    This study utilizes nationally representative, longitudinal data from the Mexico Family Life Survey to examine the associations between union transitions and changes in body mass index (BMI) among adults in Mexico. Results from change score regression models (N = 11,339) indicate larger BMI gains for those entering a union than for those remaining single, net of baseline weight status and socioeconomic controls. Further, a significant moderating effect of baseline weight status suggests that overweight individuals entering a union gain almost two BMI points more than overweight single individuals during this three-year period. Individuals experiencing a union dissolution gain less BMI than those entering a union, but are predicted to lose BMI (as found in the United States) only if they are overweight before the transition. PMID:22660828

  4. Change with age in regression construction of fat percentage for BMI in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Katsunori; Mishima, Takaaki; Watanabe, Eiji; Seki, Kazuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    In this study, curvilinear regression was applied to the relationship between BMI and body fat percentage, and an analysis was done to see whether there are characteristic changes in that curvilinear regression from elementary to middle school. Then, by simultaneously investigating the changes with age in BMI and body fat percentage, the essential differences in BMI and body fat percentage were demonstrated. The subjects were 789 boys and girls (469 boys, 320 girls) aged 7.5 to 14.5 years from all parts of Japan who participated in regular sports activities. Body weight, total body water (TBW), soft lean mass (SLM), body fat percentage, and fat mass were measured with a body composition analyzer (Tanita BC-521 Inner Scan), using segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis & multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. Height was measured with a digital height measurer. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as body weight (km) divided by the square of height (m). The results for the validity of regression polynomials of body fat percentage against BMI showed that, for both boys and girls, first-order polynomials were valid in all school years. With regard to changes with age in BMI and body fat percentage, the results showed a temporary drop at 9 years in the aging distance curve in boys, followed by an increasing trend. Peaks were seen in the velocity curve at 9.7 and 11.9 years, but the MPV was presumed to be at 11.9 years. Among girls, a decreasing trend was seen in the aging distance curve, which was opposite to the changes in the aging distance curve for body fat percentage.

  5. Representing Context in Simulator-based Human Performance Measurement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stacy, Webb; Merket, Danielle C; Puglisi, Matt; Haimson, Craig

    2006-01-01

    .... How would we measure FO performance in simulator-based training for this scenario? It's not enough simply to take obvious measurements like target location error or target/ammunition combination...

  6. Calibration Base Lines for Electronic Distance Measuring Instruments (EDMI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A calibration base line (CBL) is a precisely measured, straight-line course of approximately 1,400 m used to calibrate Electronic Distance Measuring Instruments...

  7. Comparison of Body Composition Assessed by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry and BMI in Current and Former U.S. Navy Service Members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heath G Gasier

    Full Text Available Little is known of the diagnostic accuracy of BMI in classifying obesity in active duty military personnel and those that previously served. Thus, the primary objectives were to determine the relationship between lean and fat mass, and body fat percentage (BF% with BMI, and assess the agreement between BMI and BF% in defining obesity.Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 462 males (20-91 years old who currently or previously served in the U.S. Navy. A BMI of ≥ 30 kg/m2 and a BF% ≥ 25% were used for obesity classification.The mean BMI (± SD and BF% were 28.8 ± 4.1 and 28.9 ± 6.6%, respectively, with BF% increasing with age. Lean mass, fat mass, and BF% were significantly correlated with BMI for all age groups. The exact agreement of obesity defined by BMI and BF% was fair (61%, however, 38% were misclassified by a BMI cut-off of 30 when obesity was defined by BF%.From this data we determined that there is a good correlation between body composition and BMI, and fair agreement between BMI and BF% in classifying obesity in a group of current and former U.S. Navy service members. However, as observed in the general population, a significant proportion of individuals with excess fat are misclassified by BMI cutoffs.

  8. Are BMI and Sedentariness Correlated? A Multilevel Study in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; dos Santos, Fernanda Karina; de Chaves, Raquel Nichele; Santos, Daniel; Pereira, Sara; Champagne, Catherine M; Hedeker, Donald; Maia, José

    2015-07-16

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and sedentariness (Sed) in children and to examine the influence of child and school correlates on their variation. The sample comprises 580 children (337 girls, 9-11 years). Sedentariness was assessed with an accelerometer, and BMI was computed. Child- and school-level covariates were analyzed using multilevel models. No significant correlation between Sed and BMI was found. School context explains 5% and 1.5% of the total variance in Sed and BMI, respectively. At the child level, only moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was associated with both Sed (β = -0.02 ± 0.002) and BMI (β = -0.005 ± 0.002). Sleep time is related to Sed (β = -0.42 ± 0.04), while sex (β = 1.97 ± 0.13), biological maturity (β = 1.25 ± 0.07), media in the bedroom (β = 0.26 ± 0.08) and healthy (β = -0.09 ± 0.03) and unhealthy (β = -0.07 ± 0.04) diet scores were associated with BMI. None of the school-level covariates were related to BMI, but access to cafeteria (β = -0.97 ± 0.25), playground equipment (β = -0.67 ± 0.20) and restaurants (β = 0.16 ± 0.08) were related to Sed. In conclusion, Sed and BMI were not correlated. Further, they have different correlates, while children's traits seem to play more relevant roles in their differences in Sed and BMI than the school milieu. This information should be taken into account when strategies to reduce Sed and BMI are implemented.

  9. Are BMI and Sedentariness Correlated? A Multilevel Study in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayse Natacha Gomes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI and sedentariness (Sed in children and to examine the influence of child and school correlates on their variation. The sample comprises 580 children (337 girls, 9–11 years. Sedentariness was assessed with an accelerometer, and BMI was computed. Child- and school-level covariates were analyzed using multilevel models. No significant correlation between Sed and BMI was found. School context explains 5% and 1.5% of the total variance in Sed and BMI, respectively. At the child level, only moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was associated with both Sed (β = −0.02 ± 0.002 and BMI (β = −0.005 ± 0.002. Sleep time is related to Sed (β = −0.42 ± 0.04, while sex (β = 1.97 ± 0.13, biological maturity (β = 1.25 ± 0.07, media in the bedroom (β = 0.26 ± 0.08 and healthy (β = −0.09 ± 0.03 and unhealthy (β = −0.07 ± 0.04 diet scores were associated with BMI. None of the school-level covariates were related to BMI, but access to cafeteria (β = −0.97 ± 0.25, playground equipment (β = −0.67 ± 0.20 and restaurants (β = 0.16 ± 0.08 were related to Sed. In conclusion, Sed and BMI were not correlated. Further, they have different correlates, while children’s traits seem to play more relevant roles in their differences in Sed and BMI than the school milieu. This information should be taken into account when strategies to reduce Sed and BMI are implemented.

  10. Genes implicated in serotonergic and dopaminergic functioning predict BMI categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuemmeler, Bernard F; Agurs-Collins, Tanya D; McClernon, F Joseph; Kollins, Scott H; Kail, Melanie E; Bergen, Andrew W; Ashley-Koch, Allison E

    2008-02-01

    This study addressed the hypothesis that variation in genes associated with dopamine function (SLC6A3, DRD2, DRD4), serotonin function (SLC6A4, and regulation of monoamine levels (MAOA) may be predictive of BMI categories (obese and overweight + obese) in young adulthood and of changes in BMI as adolescents transition into young adulthood. Interactions with gender and race/ethnicity were also examined. Participants were a subsample of individuals from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative sample of adolescents followed from 1995 to 2002. The sample analyzed included a subset of 1,584 unrelated individuals with genotype data. Multiple logistic regressions were conducted to evaluate the associations between genotypes and obesity (BMI > 29.9) or overweight + obese combined (BMI > or = 25) with normal weight (BMI = 18.5-24.9) as a referent. Linear regression models were used to examine change in BMI from adolescence to young adulthood. Significant associations were found between SLC6A4 5HTTLPR and categories of BMI, and between MAOA promoter variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) among men and categories of BMI. Stratified analyses revealed that the association between these two genes and excess BMI was significant for men overall and for white and Hispanic men specifically. Linear regression models indicated a significant effect of SLC6A4 5HTTLPR on change in BMI from adolescence to young adulthood. Our findings lend further support to the involvement of genes implicated in dopamine and serotonin regulation on energy balance.

  11. Quantitative Analysis and Comparison of BMI among Han, Tibetan, and Uygur University Students in Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Jingya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To fully analyze and compare BMI among Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students, to discuss the differences in their physical properties and physical health, and thus to provide some theoretical suggestions for the improvement of students’ physical health. Methods. The cross-sectional random cluster sampling was used to investigate 10103 Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students, aged 20–24 in Northwest China, and their height and weight were measured to calculate BMI. The BMI classification criteria for Chinese established by Work Group on Obesity in China (WGOC were used for screening. Results. Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students show low obesity rates but high overweight rates. Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students present a high rate of underweight, normal weight, and overweight, respectively. Female Han students show higher underweight and normal weight rates, but lower overweight and obesity rates, than male Han students. Female Tibetan students show higher normal weight rate, but lower overweight and obesity rates, than male Tibetan students. BMI increases with age for male students but decreases with age for female students. Male Uygur students show higher obesity rate than female Uygur students. Tibetan and Uygur university students have higher BMI than other minorities in South China.

  12. Quantitative Analysis and Comparison of BMI among Han, Tibetan, and Uygur University Students in Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingya, Bai; Ye, He; Jing, Wang; Xi, Huanjiu; Tao, Hai

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To fully analyze and compare BMI among Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students, to discuss the differences in their physical properties and physical health, and thus to provide some theoretical suggestions for the improvement of students' physical health. Methods. The cross-sectional random cluster sampling was used to investigate 10103 Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students, aged 20–24 in Northwest China, and their height and weight were measured to calculate BMI. The BMI classification criteria for Chinese established by Work Group on Obesity in China (WGOC) were used for screening. Results. Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students show low obesity rates but high overweight rates. Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students present a high rate of underweight, normal weight, and overweight, respectively. Female Han students show higher underweight and normal weight rates, but lower overweight and obesity rates, than male Han students. Female Tibetan students show higher normal weight rate, but lower overweight and obesity rates, than male Tibetan students. BMI increases with age for male students but decreases with age for female students. Male Uygur students show higher obesity rate than female Uygur students. Tibetan and Uygur university students have higher BMI than other minorities in South China. PMID:24453807

  13. Quality of life and BMI changes in youth participating in an integrated pediatric obesity treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Keeley J; Lazorick, Suzanne; Lamson, Angela L; Ivanescu, Andrada; Collier, David N

    2013-07-10

    Changes in Quality of Life (QOL) measures over time with treatment of obesity have not previously been described for youth. We describe the changes from baseline through two follow up visits in youth QOL (assessed by the Pediatric Quality Life Inventory, PedsQL4.0), teen depression (assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ9A), Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMI z-score. We also report caregiver proxy ratings of youth QOL. A sample of 267 pairs of youth and caregiver participants were recruited at their first visit to an outpatient weight-treatment clinic that provides care integrated between a physician, dietician, and mental health provider; of the 267, 113 attended a visit two (V2) follow-up appointment, and 48 attended visit three (V3). We investigated multiple factors longitudinally experienced by youth who are overweight and their caregivers across up to three different integrated care visits. We determined relationships at baseline in QOL, PHQ9A, and BMI z-score, as well as changes in variables over time using linear mixed models with time as a covariate. Overall across three visits the results indicate that youth had slight declines in relative BMI, significant increases in their QOL and improvements in depression. We encourage clinicians and researchers to track youth longitudinally throughout treatment to investigate not only youth's BMI changes, but also psychosocial changes including QOL.

  14. Restaurants in the Neighborhood, Eating Away from Home and BMI in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xu; Zhong, Li; von Cramon-Taubadel, Stephan; Tu, Huakang; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the association between environmental risk factors, eating away from home, and increasing BMI of Chinese adults. Participants were selected from the recent four waves (2004, 2006, 2009, and 2011) of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). 10633 participants, including 5084 men and 5549 women, were used in the analysis. 24-h dietary recall data for three consecutive days with information on the time and place of consumption were collected. Nearby restaurants were measured by the number of fast food outlets, indoor restaurants, and food stands in the neighborhood. Random effects multivariable regression was used to assess associations between these variables. People living in neighborhoods with large numbers of indoor restaurants are more likely to eat away from home (pbreakfast away from home contributes to BMI increase for men (pbreakfast away from home is positively associated with BMI for Chinese men. Labeling energy and portion size for the dishes served in indoor restaurants is recommended in China.

  15. BMI-1 suppression increases the radiosensitivity of oesophageal carcinoma via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xing-Xiao; Ma, Ming; Sang, Mei-Xiang; Zhang, Xue-Yuan; Liu, Zhi-Kun; Song, Heng; Zhu, Shu-Chai

    2018-02-01

    B-cell‑specific Moloney murine leukaemia virus integration site-1 (BMI-1) contributes to the growth of tumour cells post-irradiation (IR). The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of BMI-1 on cell viability, radiosensitivity and its mechanisms of action in oesophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC). Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were employed to evaluate the protein expression of BMI-1 in ESCC cells and specimens, respectively. Additionally, the protein expression levels of BMI-1, H2AK119ub and γH2AX in ESCC cells were detected following different doses of IR and at different times after IR. The protein expression levels of MDC1 and 53BP1 were also measured. Flow cytometry and MTT assays were used to determine cell cycle progression, apoptosis and cell viability. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 and the agonist IGF-1 were employed to suppress or induce the phosphorylation of Akt to determine whether BMI-1 induces radioresistance in ESCC cells via activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. The expression of BMI-1 was higher in ESCC tissues and cells compared with that in normal oesophageal tissues and cells. In addition, BMI-1 was positively related to tumour size and lymph node metastases and negatively to the overall survival of ESCC patients. IR induced the expression of BMI-1, H2AK119ub and γH2AX in a dose- and time-dependent manner. BMI-1 knockdown lowered the expression of γH2AX, MDC1 and 53BP1, suppressed cell viability and increased radiosensitivity. G2/M phase arrest was eliminated; this was followed by an increased proportion of cells entering the G0/G1 phase after IR and BMI-1 knockdown via the upregulation of P16 and downregulation of cyclin D2 and cyclin-dependent kinase-4. Moreover, BMI-1 knockdown increased cell apoptosis, downregulated MCL-1 and p-Akt and upregulated Bax. Additionally, the inhibitory effect of the downregulation of p-Akt by LY294002 on tumour cell viability was identical to that of

  16. BMI and Body Fat Mass Is Inversely Associated with Vitamin D Levels in Older Individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliai Araghi, S.; van Dijk, S. C.; Ham, A. C.; Brouwer-Brolsma, E. M.; Enneman, A. W.; Sohl, E.; Swart, K. M. A.; van der Zwaluw, N. L.; van Wijngaarden, J. P.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R. A. M.; van Schoor, N. M.; Zillikens, M. C.; Lips, P.; de Groot, L.; Uitterlinden, A. G.; van der Velde, N.

    2015-01-01

    To assess the association between obesity (measured by Body Mass Index (BMI) and fat percentage) and serum 25(OH)D levels in older persons. Cross-sectional analysis of data from 'the B-PROOF study' (B-vitamins for the Prevention Of Osteoporotic Fractures). 2842 participants aged 65 years and older.

  17. BMI and body fat mass is inversely associated with vitamin D levels in older individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araghi, S.O.; Dijk, van S.C.; Ham, A.C.; Brouwer, E.M.; Enneman, A.W.; Sohl, E.; Swart, K.M.A.; Zwaluw, van der N.L.; Wijngaarden, van J.P.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the association between obesity (measured by Body Mass Index (BMI) and fat percentage) and serum 25(OH)D levels in older persons. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of data from ‘the B-PROOF study’ (B-vitamins for the Prevention Of Osteoporotic Fractures). Participants: 2842

  18. Triangulation-based edge measurement using polyview optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinan; Kästner, Markus; Reithmeier, Eduard

    2018-04-01

    Laser triangulation sensors as non-contact measurement devices are widely used in industry and research for profile measurements and quantitative inspections. Some technical applications e.g. edge measurements usually require a configuration of a single sensor and a translation stage or a configuration of multiple sensors, so that they can measure a large measurement range that is out of the scope of a single sensor. However, the cost of both configurations is high, due to the additional rotational axis or additional sensor. This paper provides a special measurement system for measurement of great curved surfaces based on a single sensor configuration. Utilizing a self-designed polyview optics and calibration process, the proposed measurement system allows an over 180° FOV (field of view) with a precise measurement accuracy as well as an advantage of low cost. The detailed capability of this measurement system based on experimental data is discussed in this paper.

  19. Augmenting BMI and waist-height ratio for establishing more efficient obesity percentiles among school-going children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panjikkaran Seeja

    2009-01-01

    the accepted range for Indian school-going children. Conclusion: The percentiles for school-going children based on age and sex were derived by comparing all other accepted standards used for measurement of obesity and overweight status. Hence, augmenting BMI and waist to height ratio is considered to be the most reliable method for establishing obesity percentiles among school-going children.

  20. Childhood obesity treatment; Effects on BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenna Ruest Haarmark Nielsen

    Full Text Available The body mass index (BMI standard deviation score (SDS may not adequately reflect changes in fat mass during childhood obesity treatment. This study aimed to investigate associations between BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations at baseline and during childhood obesity treatment.876 children and adolescents (498 girls with overweight/obesity, median age 11.2 years (range 1.6-21.7, and median BMI SDS 2.8 (range 1.3-5.7 were enrolled in a multidisciplinary outpatient treatment program and followed for a median of 1.8 years (range 0.4-7.4. Height and weight, body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations were assessed at baseline and at follow-up. Lipid concentrations (total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, non-HDL, and triglycerides (TG were available in 469 individuals (264 girls. Linear regressions were performed to investigate the associations between BMI SDS, body composition indices, and lipid concentrations.At baseline, BMI SDS was negatively associated with concentrations of HDL (p = 6.7*10-4 and positively with TG (p = 9.7*10-6. Reductions in BMI SDS were associated with reductions in total body fat percentage (p<2*10-16 and percent truncal body fat (p<2*10-16. Furthermore, reductions in BMI SDS were associated with improvements in concentrations of TC, LDL, HDL, non-HDL, LDL/HDL-ratio, and TG (all p <0.0001. Changes in body fat percentage seemed to mediate the changes in plasma concentrations of TC, LDL, and non-HDL, but could not alone explain the changes in HDL, LDL/HDL-ratio or TG. Among 81 individuals with available lipid concentrations, who increased their BMI SDS, 61% improved their body composition, and 80% improved their lipid concentrations.Reductions in the degree of obesity during multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment are accompanied by improvements in body composition and fasting plasma

  1. BMI1 loss delays photoreceptor degeneration in Rd1 mice. Bmi1 loss and neuroprotection in Rd1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zencak, Dusan; Crippa, Sylvain V; Tekaya, Meriem; Tanger, Ellen; Schorderet, Daniel E; Munier, Francis L; van Lohuizen, Maarten; Arsenijevic, Yvan

    2006-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders leading to blindness, which remain untreatable at present. Rd1 mice represent a recognized model of RP, and so far only GDNF treatment provided a slight delay in the retinal degeneration in these mice. Bmi1, a transcriptional repressor, has recently been shown to be essential for neural stem cell (NSC) renewal in the brain, with an increased appearance of glial cells in vivo in Bmi1 knockout (Bmi1-/-) mice. One of the roles of glial cells is to sustain neuronal function and survival. In the view of a role of the retinal Miller glia as a source of neural protection in the retina, the increased astrocytic population in the Bmi1-/- brain led us to investigate the effect of Bmi1 loss in Rd1 mice. We observed an increase of Müller glial cells in Rd1-Bmi1-/- retinas compared to Rd1. Moreover, Rd1-Bmi1-/- mice showed 7-8 rows of photoreceptors at 30 days of age (P30), while in Rd1 littermates there was a complete disruption of the outer nuclear layer (ONL). Preliminary ERG results showed a responsiveness of Rd1-Bmi1-/- mice in scotopic vision at P35. In conclusion, Bmi1 loss prevented, or rescued, photoreceptors from degeneration to an unanticipated extent in Rd1 mice. In this chapter, we will first provide a brief review of our work on the cortical NSCs and introduce the Bmi1 oncogene, thus offering a rational to our observations on the retina.

  2. The validity of self-reported vs. measured body weight and height and the effect of self-perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokler, Mehmet Enes; Bugrul, Necati; Sarı, Ahu Ozturk; Metintas, Selma

    2018-01-01

    The objective was to assess the validity of self-reported body weight and height and the possible influence of self-perception of body mass index (BMI) status on the actual BMI during the adolescent period. This cross sectional study was conducted on 3918 high school students. Accurate BMI perception occurred when the student's self-perception of their BMI status did not differ from their actual BMI based on measured height and weight. Agreement between the measured and self-reported body height and weight and BMI values was determined using the Bland-Altman metod. To determine the effects of "a good level of agreement", hierarchical logistic regression models were used. Among male students who reported their BMI in the normal region, 2.8% were measured as overweight while 0.6% of them were measured as obese. For females in the same group, these percentages were 1.3% and 0.4% respectively. Among male students who perceived their BMI in the normal region, 8.5% were measured as overweight while 0.4% of them were measured as obese. For females these percentages were 25.6% and 1.8% respectively. According to logistic regression analysis, residence and accurate BMI perception were significantly associated with "good agreement" ( p ≤ 0.001). The results of this study demonstrated that in determining obesity and overweight statuses, non-accurate weight perception is a potential risk for students.

  3. Bmi-1: At the crossroads of physiological and pathological biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Resham; Mustafi, Soumyajit Banerjee; Street, Mark; Dey, Anindya; Dwivedi, Shailendra Kumar Dhar

    2015-01-01

    Bmi-1 is a member of the Polycomb Repressor Complex1 that mediates gene silencing by regulating chromatin structure and is indispensable for self-renewal of both normal and cancer stem cells. Despite three decades of research that have elucidated the transcriptional regulation, post-translational modifications and functions of Bmi-1 in regulating the DNA damage response, cellular bioenergetics, and pathologies, the entire potential of a protein with such varied function remains to be realized. This review attempts to synthesize the current knowledge on Bmi-1 with an emphasis on its role in both normal physiology and cancer. Additionally, since cancer stem cells are emerging as a new paradigm for therapy resistance, the role of Bmi-1 in this perspective is also highlighted. The wide spectrum of malignancies that implicate Bmi-1 as a signature for stemness and oncogenesis also make it a suitable candidate for therapy. Nonetheless new approaches are vitally needed to further characterize physiological roles of Bmi-1 with the long-term goal of using Bmi-1 as a prognostic marker and a therapeutic target. PMID:26448339

  4. Prospective associations between sedentary lifestyle and BMI in midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Laust H; Siegler, Ilene C; Barefoot, John C; Grønbaek, Morten; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2006-08-01

    A strong positive cross-sectional relationship between BMI and a sedentary lifestyle has been consistently observed in numerous studies. However, it has been questioned whether high BMI is a determinant or a consequence of a sedentary lifestyle. Using data from four follow-ups of the University of North Carolina Alumni Heart Study, we examined the prospective associations between BMI and sedentary lifestyle in a cohort of 4595 middle-aged men and women who had responded to questionnaires at the ages of 41 (standard deviation 2.3), 44 (2.3), 46 (2.0), and 54 (2.0). BMI was consistently related to increased risk of becoming sedentary in both men and women. The odds ratios of becoming sedentary as predicted by BMI were 1.04 (95% confidence limits, 1.00, 1.07) per 1 kg/m(2) from ages 41 to 44, 1.10 (1.07, 1.14) from ages 44 to 46, and 1.12 (1.08, 1.17) from ages 46 to 54. Controlling for concurrent changes in BMI marginally attenuated the effects. Sedentary lifestyle did not predict changes in BMI, except when concurrent changes in physical activity were taken into account (p sedentary lifestyle but did not provide unambiguous evidence for an effect of sedentary lifestyle on weight gain.

  5. Food and drinking patterns as predictors of 6-year BMI-adjusted changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Jytte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Tjønneland, Anne

    2004-01-01

    for refined bread, but not for potatoes, after adjustment for concurrent BMI changes. Among women, but not men, high intakes of beer and spirits were associated with gain in WC in both models. A high intake of coffee for women and moderate to high intake of tea for men were associated with gain in WC......, but the associations were weakened, especially for women, after adjustment for BMI changes. None of the food factors was associated with WC changes. Based on the present study, we conclude that very few food items and no food patterns seem to predict changes in WC, whereas high intakes of beer and spirits among women...... identified by factor analyses. Multiple linear regression analyses were done before and after adjustment for concurrent changes in BMI. A high intake of potatoes seemed to prevent gain in WC for men, while a high intake of refined bread was associated with gain in WC for women. The association persisted...

  6. Differential effect of birthplace and length of residence on body mass index (BMI) by education, gender and race/ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Emma V; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S V; Sánchez, Brisa N; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores

    2008-10-01

    Although birthplace and length of residence have been found to be associated with Body Mass Index (BMI)/obesity in the USA, their effects may not be the same across groups defined by education, gender and race/ethnicity. Using cross-sectional population based data from the 2001 California Health Interview Survey, we investigated the associations of birthplace and US length of residence with BMI, and whether the influence of birthplace-US length of residence on BMI varied by education, gender and race/ethnicity. Our sample included 37,350 adults aged 25-64 years. Self-reported weight and height were used to calculate BMI. Birthplace and length of residence were combined into a single variable divided into five levels: US-born, foreign-born living in the United States for more than 15, 10-14, 5-9, and less than 5 years. Controlling for age, gender, marital status, race/ethnicity, education, income, fruit and vegetable consumption, current smoking and alcohol use, we found that: (1) foreign-born adults had lower BMI than US-born adults; (2) among foreign-born adults, longer residence in the United States was associated with higher BMI; and (3) the effect of birthplace-length of US residence on BMI differed by education level, gender and race/ethnicity. Specifically, longer residence in the United States was associated with the greatest percent increases in BMI among the lowest educated groups than higher educated groups, among women (vs. men) and among Hispanics (vs. other racial/ethnic groups). These findings suggest that a protective effect of foreign birthplace on BMI appears to attenuate with length of residence in the United States, and also reveal that BMI/obesity trajectories associated with length of US residence vary by education, gender and race/ethnicity. Immigrant status, independently and in combination with education, gender and race/ethnicity should be considered in future obesity prevention and reduction efforts.

  7. Pilates versus resistance exercise on the serum levels of hs-CRP, in the abdominal circumference and body mass index (BMI in elderly individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Adesilda Silva Pestana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that the elderly exhibit a subclinical state of inflammation associated with increased adipose tissue and several comorbidities. To compare the effects of mat Pilates based exercises and resistance exercise on the serum levels of reactive C protein of high sensitivity (hs-CRP, in the abdominal circumference (AC and the body mass index (BMI in the elderly. It is a randomised clinical trial with a sample of 78 elderly individuals (median age 69 years. The active independent variable investigated was nature of treatment intervention (Pilates mat based exercises vs resistance exercise, and the dependent variables were hs-CRP level, AC and BMI. The statistical analysis used Wilcoxon signed rank and Mann-Whitney tests. The correlation between the continuous variables was assessed using Spearman’s coefficient of correlation. The data were analysed using SPSS software version 17.0, and probability values lower than 5% (p< 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Mat Pilates based exercises exhibited reductions in serum hs-CPR level (Wilcoxon signed rank test; z = -2.466, p = 0.01, BMI (Wilcoxon signed rank test; z = -3.295, p = 0.001 and AC (Wilcoxon signed rank test; z = -3.398, p = 0.01. Mat Pilates based exercises promoted a significant reduction of the serum hs-CRP levels and anthropometric measurements in elderly individuals.

  8. Obesity-related behaviours and BMI in five urban regions across Europe: sampling design and results from the SPOTLIGHT cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakerveld, Jeroen; Ben Rebah, Maher; Mackenbach, Joreintje D; Charreire, Hélène; Compernolle, Sofie; Glonti, Ketevan; Bardos, Helga; Rutter, Harry; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brug, Johannes; Oppert, Jean-Michel

    2015-10-27

    To describe the design, methods and first results of a survey on obesity-related behaviours and body mass index (BMI) in adults living in neighbourhoods from five urban regions across Europe. A cross-sectional observational study in the framework of an European Union-funded project on obesogenic environments (SPOTLIGHT). 60 urban neighbourhoods (12 per country) were randomly selected in large urban zones in Belgium, France, Hungary, the Netherlands and the UK, based on high or low values for median household income (socioeconomic status, SES) and residential area density. A total of 6037 adults (mean age 52 years, 56% female) participated in the online survey. Self-reported physical activity, sedentary behaviours, dietary habits and BMI. Other measures included general health; barriers and motivations for a healthy lifestyle, perceived social and physical environmental characteristics; the availability of transport modes and their use to specific destinations; self-defined neighbourhood boundaries and items related to residential selection. Across five countries, residents from low-SES neighbourhoods ate less fruit and vegetables, drank more sugary drinks and had a consistently higher BMI. SES differences in sedentary behaviours were observed in France, with residents from higher SES neighbourhoods reporting to sit more. Residents from low-density neighbourhoods were less physically active than those from high-density neighbourhoods; during leisure time and (most pronounced) for transport (except for Belgium). BMI differences by residential density were inconsistent across all countries. The SPOTLIGHT survey provides an original approach for investigating relations between environmental characteristics, obesity-related behaviours and obesity in Europe. First descriptive results indicate considerable differences in health behaviours and BMI between countries and neighbourhood types. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  9. Chief complaint-based performance measures: a new focus for acute care quality measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffey, Richard T; Pines, Jesse M; Farley, Heather L; Phelan, Michael P; Beach, Christopher; Schuur, Jeremiah D; Venkatesh, Arjun K

    2015-04-01

    Performance measures are increasingly important to guide meaningful quality improvement efforts and value-based reimbursement. Populations included in most current hospital performance measures are defined by recorded diagnoses using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes in administrative claims data. Although the diagnosis-centric approach allows the assessment of disease-specific quality, it fails to measure one of the primary functions of emergency department (ED) care, which involves diagnosing, risk stratifying, and treating patients' potentially life-threatening conditions according to symptoms (ie, chief complaints). In this article, we propose chief complaint-based quality measures as a means to enhance the evaluation of quality and value in emergency care. We discuss the potential benefits of chief complaint-based measures, describe opportunities to mitigate challenges, propose an example measure set, and present several recommendations to advance this paradigm in ED-based performance measurement. Copyright © 2014 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Psychological distress measured by the GHQ-12 and mortality: a prospective population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puustinen, Pekka Johannes; Koponen, Hannu; Kautiainen, Hannu; Mäntyselkä, Pekka; Vanhala, Mauno

    2011-08-01

    To examine whether persons with psychological distress have a greater risk of all-cause mortality in the Scandinavian population; whether this association is gender-specific; and what is the influence of socioeconomic status, body mass index (BMI) and health behaviour in this association. A total of 923 (414 male and 509 female) people, aged 36 to 56 years, participated in a population-based study from 1997-98 in Pieksämäki, Finland. Psychological distress was measured using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). The GHQ-12 points were summed to a global score ranging from 0-12. Mortality data until 31 December 2009 were drawn from the national mortality register. There were 44 death events (27 men, 17 women) during the mean observation time of 11 years. The hazard ratio (HR) increased by 16% for every GHQ-12 point (gender and age adjusted HR 1.16, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.07-1.25, p GHQ-12 score ≥ 4) participants was 84% (95% CI: 73- 91) and for non-distressed (GHQ-12 score 0-3) participants it was 96% (95% CI: 93-97), HR = 3.38 (95% CI: 1.55-7.39, p = 0.002). Among women, no significant association was found. Psychological distress measured by the GHQ-12 is associated with all-cause mortality risk during an 11-year observation time. This is mainly due to excess mortality among distressed men.

  11. The Reliability of Randomly Generated Math Curriculum-Based Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Gerald G.; Smith, Bradley H.; Pender, Carolyn; Malone, Patrick S.; Roberts, Jarod; Hall, John D.

    2015-01-01

    "Curriculum-Based Measurement" (CBM) is a direct method of academic assessment used to screen and evaluate students' skills and monitor their responses to academic instruction and intervention. Interventioncentral.org offers a math worksheet generator at no cost that creates randomly generated "math curriculum-based measures"…

  12. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI downregulates neonatal cord blood LEP methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadakia, R; Zheng, Y; Zhang, Z; Zhang, W; Hou, L; Josefson, J L

    2017-08-01

    Neonatal adiposity has many determinants and may be a risk factor for future obesity. Epigenetic regulation of metabolically important genes is a potential contributor. The objective of the study is to determine whether methylation changes in the LEP gene in cord blood DNA are impacted by the maternal environment or affect neonatal adiposity measures. A cross-sectional study of 114 full-term neonates born to healthy mothers with normal glucose tolerance was performed. Cord blood was assayed for leptin and genome-wide DNA methylation profiles via the Illumina 450K platform. Neonatal body composition was measured by air displacement plethysmography. Multivariate linear regression models and semi-partial correlation coefficients were used to analyze associations. False discovery rate was estimated to account for multiple comparisons. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was associated with decreased methylation at five CpG sites near the LEP transcription start site in an adjusted model (false discovery rate maternal BMI and cord blood leptin approached significance (r = 0.18, p = 0.054). Cord blood leptin was positively correlated with neonatal adiposity measures including birth weight (r = 0.45, p fat mass (r = 0.47, p fat (r = 0.44, p Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI is strongly associated with decreased cord blood LEP gene methylation and may mediate the well-known association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and neonatal adiposity. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  13. BMI-Specific Waist Circumference Thresholds to Discriminate Elevated Cardiometabolic Risk in White and African American Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda E. Staiano

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Waist circumference (WC is a useful anthropometric tool to estimate cardiometabolic risk. However, BMI influences the relationship between WC and health. This study determined BMI-, sex- and race-specific WC thresholds. Methods: The study sample included 6,452 whites and African Americans (AA aged 18-64 years. WC, BMI, and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed in the clinic. An elevated cardiometabolic risk was defined as the presence of ≥2 cardiometabolic risk factors. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves were used to determine BMI-, sex-, and race-specific WC thresholds. Results: Based on logistic regression, elevated WC within each BMI category was associated with higher cardiometabolic risk. The respective optimal BMI-specific WC thresholds for white women, AA women, white men, and AA men were as follows: 72, 76, 82, and 78 cm for normal-weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m2; 87, 85, 95, and 92 cm for overweight (25-29.9 kg/m2; 97, 97, 107, and 104 cm for obese I (30-34.9 kg/m2; and 111, 110, 120, and 119 cm for obese II+ (≥35 kg/m2 participants. Sensitivities ranged from 52.7 to 73.3%, and specificities ranged from 57.1 to 73.5%. Conclusion: The proposed optimal BMI-, sex-, and race-specific WC thresholds are warranted for use in the clinical setting until representative standards become available based on results from longitudinal studies.

  14. Performance-Based Measurement: Action for Organizations and HPT Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larbi-Apau, Josephine A.; Moseley, James L.

    2010-01-01

    Basic measurements and applications of six selected general but critical operational performance-based indicators--effectiveness, efficiency, productivity, profitability, return on investment, and benefit-cost ratio--are presented. With each measurement, goals and potential impact are explored. Errors, risks, limitations to measurements, and a…

  15. Subcopula-based measure of asymmetric association for contingency tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zheng; Kim, Daeyoung

    2017-10-30

    For the analysis of a two-way contingency table, a new asymmetric association measure is developed. The proposed method uses the subcopula-based regression between the discrete variables to measure the asymmetric predictive powers of the variables of interest. Unlike the existing measures of asymmetric association, the subcopula-based measure is insensitive to the number of categories in a variable, and thus, the magnitude of the proposed measure can be interpreted as the degree of asymmetric association in the contingency table. The theoretical properties of the proposed subcopula-based asymmetric association measure are investigated. We illustrate the performance and advantages of the proposed measure using simulation studies and real data examples. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Higher body mass index (BMI) is associated with reduced glucocorticoid inhibition of inflammatory cytokine production following acute psychosocial stress in men

    OpenAIRE

    Wirtz, Petra H.; Ehlert, Ulrike; Emini, Luljeta; Suter, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) and mental stress seem to exert part of their cardiovascular risk by eliciting inflammation. However, the adverse effects of stress on inflammatory activity with BMI are not fully understood. We investigated whether higher BMI is associated with reduced glucocorticoid inhibition of inflammatory cytokine production following stress in men while controlling for age and blood pressure. We measured glucocorticoid inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated ...

  17. Gender expression associated with BMI in a prospective cohort study of US adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryn Austin, S; Ziyadeh, Najat J; Calzo, Jerel P; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Kennedy, Grace A; Roberts, Andrea L; Haines, Jess; Scherer, Emily A

    2016-02-01

    To examine the relationship between gender expression (GE) and BMI in adolescence. Repeated measures of weight-related behaviors and BMI were collected from 1996 to 2011 via annual/biennial self-report surveys from youth aged 10 to 23 years (6,693 females, 2,978 males) in the longitudinal Growing Up Today Study. GE (very conforming [referent], mostly conforming, nonconforming) was assessed in 2010/11. Sex-stratified, multivariable linear models estimated GE group differences in BMI and the contribution of sexual orientation and weight-related exposures to group differences. Models for males included interaction terms for GE with age. In females, mostly conforming youth had 0.53 kg m(-2) and nonconforming had 1.23 kg m(-2) higher BMI; when adding adjustment for sexual orientation and weight-related exposures, GE group estimates were attenuated up to 8% and remained statistically significant. In males, mostly conforming youth had -0.67 kg m(-2) and nonconforming had -1.99 kg m(-2) lower BMI (age [in years]) interactions were between -0.09 and -0.14 kg m(-2) ; when adding adjustment for sexual orientation and weight-related exposures, GE group estimates were attenuated up to 11% and remained statistically significant. GE is a strong independent predictor of BMI in adolescence. Obesity prevention and treatment interventions with youth must address ways that gender norms may reinforce or undermine healthful behaviors. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  18. Bmi-1 promotes the aggressiveness of glioma via activating the NF-kappaB/MMP-9 signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Lili

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prognosis of human glioma is poor, and the highly invasive nature of the disease represents a major impediment to current therapeutic modalities. The oncoprotein B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 protein (Bmi-1 has been linked to the development and progression of glioma; however, the biological role of Bmi-1 in the invasion of glioma remains unclear. Methods A172 and LN229 glioma cells were engineered to overexpress Bmi-1 via stable transfection or to be silenced for Bmi-1 expression using RNA interfering method. Migration and invasiveness of the engineered cells were assessed using wound healing assay, Transwell migration assay, Transwell matrix penetration assay and 3-D spheroid invasion assay. MMP-9 expression and activity were measured using real-time PCR, ELISA and the gelatin zymography methods. Expression of NF-kappaB target genes was quantified using real-time PCR. NF-kappaB transcriptional activity was assessed using an NF-kappaB luciferase reporter system. Expression of Bmi-1 and MMP-9 in clinical specimens was analyzed using immunohistochemical assay. Results Ectopic overexpression of Bmi-1 dramatically increased, whereas knockdown of endogenous Bmi-1 reduced, the invasiveness and migration of glioma cells. NF-kappaB transcriptional activity and MMP-9 expression and activity were significantly increased in Bmi-1-overexpressing but reduced in Bmi-1-silenced cells. The reporter luciferase activity driven by MMP-9 promoter in Bmi-1-overexpressing cells was dependent on the presence of a functional NF-kappaB binding site, and blockade of NF-kappaB signaling inhibited the upregulation of MMP-9 in Bmi-1 overexpressing cells. Furthermore, expression of Bmi-1 correlated with NF-kappaB nuclear translocation as well as MMP-9 expression in clinical glioma samples. Conclusions Bmi-1 may play an important role in the development of aggressive phenotype of glioma via activating the NF

  19. The Impact of Sleep-Disordered Breathing on Body Mass Index (BMI): The Sleep Heart Health Study (SHHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mark A; Goodwin, James L; Silva, Graciela E; Behari, Ajay; Newman, Anne B; Punjabi, Naresh M; Resnick, Helaine E; Robbins, John A; Quan, Stuart F

    2011-12-08

    INTRODUCTION: It is well known that obesity is a risk factor for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). However, whether SDB predicts increase in BMI is not well defined. Data from the Sleep Heart Health Study (SHHS) were analyzed to determine whether SDB predicts longitudinal increase in BMI, adjusted for confounding factors. METHODS: A full-montage unattended home polysomnogram (PSG) and body anthropometric measurements were obtained approximately five years apart in 3001 participants. Apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was categorized using clinical thresholds: sleep apnea), and ≥ 15 (moderate to severe sleep apnea). Linear regression was used to examine the association between the three AHI groups and increased BMI. The model included age, gender, race, baseline BMI, and change in AHI as covariates. RESULTS: Mean (SD) age was 62.2 years (10.14), 55.2% were female and 76.1% were Caucasian. Five-year increase in BMI was modest with a mean (SD) change of 0.53 (2.62) kg/m(2) (p=0.071). A multivariate regression model showed that subjects with a baseline AHI between 5-15 had a mean increase in BMI of 0.22 kg/m(2) (p=0.055) and those with baseline AHI ≥ 15 had a BMI increase of 0.51 kg/m(2) (plosing weight.

  20. MPPT Technique Based on Current and Temperature Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente, Eduardo Moreira; Moreno, Robson Luiz; Ribeiro, Enio Roberto

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method based on the measurement of temperature and short-circuit current, in a simple and efficient approach. These measurements, which can precisely define the maximum power point (MPP), have not been used together in other existing techniques. The temperature is measured with a low cost sensor and the solar irradiance is estimated through the relationship of the measured short-circuit current and its reference. Fast tracking spee...

  1. Orthorexia nervosa: Assessment and correlates with gender, BMI, and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Crystal D; Samaghabadi, Razieh O; Hughes, Elizabeth M

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether orthorexia nervosa (ON; characterized by an obsessive fixation on eating healthy) may be predicted from the demographics variables of gender and BMI, and from the personality variables of self-esteem, narcissism, and perfectionism. Participants were 459 college students, who completed several online questionnaires that assessed these variables. A principal components analysis confirmed that the Eating Habits Questionnaire (Gleaves, Graham, & Ambwani, 2013) assesses three internally-consistent ON components: healthy eating behaviors, problems resulting from those behaviors, and positive feelings associated with those behaviors. A MANOVA and its tests of between subjects effects then revealed significant interactions between gender and BMI, such that for men but not women, a higher BMI was associated with greater symptomatology for all ON components. Partial correlation analyses, after controlling for gender and BMI, revealed that both narcissism and perfectionism were positively correlated with all aspects of ON symptomatology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Observational attachment theory-based parenting measures predict children's attachment narratives independently from social learning theory-based measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Carla; O'Connor, Thomas G; Futh, Annabel; Scott, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Conceptually and methodologically distinct models exist for assessing quality of parent-child relationships, but few studies contrast competing models or assess their overlap in predicting developmental outcomes. Using observational methodology, the current study examined the distinctiveness of attachment theory-based and social learning theory-based measures of parenting in predicting two key measures of child adjustment: security of attachment narratives and social acceptance in peer nominations. A total of 113 5-6-year-old children from ethnically diverse families participated. Parent-child relationships were rated using standard paradigms. Measures derived from attachment theory included sensitive responding and mutuality; measures derived from social learning theory included positive attending, directives, and criticism. Child outcomes were independently-rated attachment narrative representations and peer nominations. Results indicated that Attachment theory-based and Social Learning theory-based measures were modestly correlated; nonetheless, parent-child mutuality predicted secure child attachment narratives independently of social learning theory-based measures; in contrast, criticism predicted peer-nominated fighting independently of attachment theory-based measures. In young children, there is some evidence that attachment theory-based measures may be particularly predictive of attachment narratives; however, no single model of measuring parent-child relationships is likely to best predict multiple developmental outcomes. Assessment in research and applied settings may benefit from integration of different theoretical and methodological paradigms.

  3. Representativeness and optimal use of body mass index (BMI) in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD)

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaskaran, Krishnan; Forbes, Harriet J; Douglas, Ian; Leon, David A; Smeeth, Liam

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the completeness and representativeness of body mass index (BMI) data in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), and determine an optimal strategy for their use. Design: Descriptive study. Setting: Electronic healthcare records from primary care. Participants: A million patient random sample from the UK CPRD primary care database, aged ≥16 years. Primary and secondary outcome measures: BMI completeness in CPRD was evaluated by age, sex and calendar period. CPR...

  4. The association between consumption of breakfast cereals and BMI in schoolchildren aged 12-17 years: The VYRONAS study

    OpenAIRE

    Kosti, Rena I.; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.; Zampelas, Antonis; Mihas, Costas; Alevizos, Alevizos; Leonard, Clare; Tountas, Yannis; Mariolis, Anargiros

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate whether consumption of breakfast cereals is associated with BMI in a sample of Greek adolescents. Design A cross-sectional health and nutrition survey. Setting and subjects During 2004-5, 2008 schoolchildren aged 12-17 years were selected from twelve schools located in Vyronas region (Athens metropolitan area). Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. A semi-quantitative FFQ was applied and multiple logistic regression analysis was used. Results O...

  5. Bmi-1: At the crossroads of physiological and pathological biology

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Resham; Banerjee Mustafi, Soumyajit; Street, Mark; Dey, Anindya; Dwivedi, Shailendra Kumar Dhar

    2015-01-01

    Bmi-1 is a member of the Polycomb Repressor Complex1 that mediates gene silencing by regulating chromatin structure and is indispensable for self-renewal of both normal and cancer stem cells. Despite three decades of research that have elucidated the transcriptional regulation, post-translational modifications and functions of Bmi-1 in regulating the DNA damage response, cellular bioenergetics, and pathologies, the entire potential of a protein with such varied function remains to be realized...

  6. Joint Effects of Physical Activity and BMI on Risk of Hypertension in Women: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Jackson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. There is debate as to whether physical activity counteracts the adverse effect of weight on health outcomes. We investigated how physical activity modifies the effect of body mass index (BMI on hypertension risk. Methods. BMI, physical activity, and hypertension were measured at baseline and at three-year interval for 14 years (from 1996 to 2010, in 10,339 participants in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. Generalised estimating equation models for binary repeated measures were performed to determine the individual and joint effects of BMI and physical activity on incident hypertension. Results. At baseline (mean age 47.6±1.5 SD, 57% were healthy weight, 28% overweight, and 14% obese. Increasing BMI and decreasing physical activity were associated with increased risk of hypertension. Physical activity attenuated the positive association between weight and risk of hypertension, especially for obese women. Compared to healthy weight high active women, risk of hypertension in obese high active women was 3.4 times greater (OR 3.43, 95% CI 2.68, 4.39 and in obese inactive women 4.9 times greater (OR 4.91, 95% CI 3.92, 6.13. Conclusions. Both physical activity and maintenance of a healthy body weight are associated with lower risk of hypertension. Physical activity reduced but did not remove the effect of obesity on hypertension risk.

  7. A comparison of bite size and BMI in a cafeteria setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattfeld, Ryan S; Muth, Eric R; Hoover, Adam

    2017-11-01

    Our study investigated the relationship between BMI and bite size in a cafeteria setting. Two hundred and seventy one participants consumed one meal each. Participants were free to select any food provided by the cafeteria and could return for additional food as desired. Bite weights were measured with a table embedded scale. Data were analyzed with ANOVAs, regressions, Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, and a repeated measures general linear model for quartile analysis. Obese participants were found to take larger bites than both normal (p=0.002) and overweight participants (p=0.017). Average bite size increased by 0.20g per point increase in BMI. Food bites and drink bites were analyzed individually, showing 0.11g/BMI and 0.23g/BMI slopes, respectively. Quartiles of bites were also analyzed, and a significant interaction was found between normal and obese participants (p=0.034) such that the lower two quartiles were similar, but the upper two quartiles showed an increase in bite size for obese participants. The source of these effects could be the result of a combination of several uncontrolled factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Smoking and Socio-demographic correlates of BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peizhi; Abdin, Edimansyah; Sambasivam, Rajeswari; Chong, Siow Ann; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2016-06-10

    The aim of the current study was to examine the associations between Body Mass Index (BMI) and socio-demographic factors and to examine the relationship between BMI, smoking status and ethnicity. The Singapore Mental Health Study (SMHS) surveyed Singapore Residents (Singapore Citizens and Permanent Residents) aged 18 years old and above. BMI was calculated using height and weight which were self-reported by respondents. Socio-demographic characteristics and smoking status were recorded in a standardized data collection form. Six thousand and six hundred sixteen respondents completed the study (response rate of 75.9 %) which constituted a representative sample of the adult resident population in Singapore. Ethnicity, gender and education status were associated with obesity. There was an interaction effect between ethnicity smoking status, and BMI. Indian and Malay smokers were less likely to be obese compared to Chinese smokers. The relationship between ethnicity and BMI was thus reversed when smoking was taken into account. The study identified certain subgroups and risk factors that are associated with obesity. There is a need for further research to explore and identify genetic, metabolic and ethnic differences that underlie the interaction between ethnicity and smoking status which affects BMI.

  9. Smoking and Socio-demographic correlates of BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peizhi Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the current study was to examine the associations between Body Mass Index (BMI and socio-demographic factors and to examine the relationship between BMI, smoking status and ethnicity. Methods The Singapore Mental Health Study (SMHS surveyed Singapore Residents (Singapore Citizens and Permanent Residents aged 18 years old and above. BMI was calculated using height and weight which were self-reported by respondents. Socio-demographic characteristics and smoking status were recorded in a standardized data collection form. Results Six thousand and six hundred sixteen respondents completed the study (response rate of 75.9 % which constituted a representative sample of the adult resident population in Singapore. Ethnicity, gender and education status were associated with obesity. There was an interaction effect between ethnicity smoking status, and BMI. Indian and Malay smokers were less likely to be obese compared to Chinese smokers. The relationship between ethnicity and BMI was thus reversed when smoking was taken into account. Conclusions The study identified certain subgroups and risk factors that are associated with obesity. There is a need for further research to explore and identify genetic, metabolic and ethnic differences that underlie the interaction between ethnicity and smoking status which affects BMI.

  10. Interaction of smoking and obesity susceptibility loci on adolescent BMI: The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kristin L; Graff, Misa; North, Kari E; Richardson, Andrea S; Mohlke, Karen L; Lange, Leslie A; Lange, Ethan M; Harris, Kathleen M; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2015-11-04

    Adolescence is a sensitive period for weight gain and risky health behaviors, such as smoking. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified loci contributing to adult body mass index (BMI). Evidence suggests that many of these loci have a larger influence on adolescent BMI. However, few studies have examined interactions between smoking and obesity susceptibility loci on BMI. This study investigates the interaction of current smoking and established BMI SNPs on adolescent BMI. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, a nationally-representative, prospective cohort of the US school-based population in grades 7 to 12 (12-20 years of age) in 1994-95 who have been followed into adulthood (Wave II 1996; ages 12-21, Wave III; ages 18-27), we assessed (in 2014) interactions of 40 BMI-related SNPs and smoking status with percent of the CDC/NCHS 2000 median BMI (%MBMI) in European Americans (n = 5075), African Americans (n = 1744) and Hispanic Americans (n = 1294). Two SNPs showed nominal significance for interaction (p obesity risk by smoking status in adolescents, with those who may be most likely to initiate smoking (i.e., adolescent females), being at greatest risk for exacerbating genetic obesity susceptibility.

  11. Does high BMI influence hospital charges in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafiu, Olubukola O; Chimbira, Wilson T; Woolford, Susan J; Tremper, Kevin K; Reynolds, Paul I; Green, Glenn E

    2008-07-01

    Obesity is a highly prevalent chronic problem with health and fiscal consequences. Data from adults and nonsurgical pediatric patients suggest that obesity has serious implications for the US economy. Our goal was to describe the impact of BMI on hospital charges in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy (AT). We carried out a retrospective comparative analysis of the electronic anesthesia record and the charges from billing data from a large tertiary institution on children aged 3-18 years who had AT during the year 2005-2007. The main outcome measures were mean total hospital charges, likelihood of admission, and length of hospital stay (LOS). Of 1,643 children, 68.9% were aged overweight children were more likely to be admitted than their normal-weight peers (X(2)=26.3, Poverweight patients had significantly higher total hospital charges than their healthy-weight counterparts (P=0.001). Anesthesia, postanesthesia care unit (PACU), and pharmacy and laboratory charges were also higher for obese than normal-weight children (POverweight and obese children undergoing AT accrued higher hospital charges and had longer postoperative LOS than their healthy-weight peers. If these findings are extendable to other surgical procedures, they could have far-reaching implications for the US economy.

  12. Cyst-based measurements for assessing lymphangioleiomyomatosis in computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, P., E-mail: pechinlo@mednet.edu.ucla; Brown, M. S.; Kim, H.; Kim, H.; Goldin, J. G. [Center for Computer Vision and Imaging Biomarkers, Department of Radiological Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90024 (United States); Argula, R.; Strange, C. [Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: To investigate the efficacy of a new family of measurements made on individual pulmonary cysts extracted from computed tomography (CT) for assessing the severity of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). Methods: CT images were analyzed using thresholding to identify a cystic region of interest from chest CT of LAM patients. Individual cysts were then extracted from the cystic region by the watershed algorithm, which separates individual cysts based on subtle edges within the cystic regions. A family of measurements were then computed, which quantify the amount, distribution, and boundary appearance of the cysts. Sequential floating feature selection was used to select a small subset of features for quantification of the severity of LAM. Adjusted R{sup 2} from multiple linear regression and R{sup 2} from linear regression against measurements from spirometry were used to compare the performance of our proposed measurements with currently used density based CT measurements in the literature, namely, the relative area measure and the D measure. Results: Volumetric CT data, performed at total lung capacity and residual volume, from a total of 49 subjects enrolled in the MILES trial were used in our study. Our proposed measures had adjusted R{sup 2} ranging from 0.42 to 0.59 when regressing against the spirometry measures, with p < 0.05. For previously used density based CT measurements in the literature, the best R{sup 2} was 0.46 (for only one instance), with the majority being lower than 0.3 or p > 0.05. Conclusions: The proposed family of CT-based cyst measurements have better correlation with spirometric measures than previously used density based CT measurements. They show potential as a sensitive tool for quantitatively assessing the severity of LAM.

  13. BMI screening and surveillance: an international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, William Philip Trehearne; Lobstein, Tim

    2009-09-01

    International efforts to screen children have previously focused on the problem of malnutrition in the preschool years. The new World Health Organization-derived but US-based data for "optimum" growth in school-aged children may not be accepted in more than a few countries. Currently, an international perspective suggests that those school-aged children's BMIs that, on a percentile-ranking basis, track to adult BMIs of >or=25 kg/m(2) are likely to be associated with an appreciable increased risk of the comorbidities associated with weight gain. There is limited evidence on the value of individually directed help for children with higher BMIs as a national policy, but national surveillance systems are badly needed to allow a better focus on the development of both public health and individual treatment policies.

  14. Higher BMI is associated with stronger effects of social cues on everyday snacking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüz, Benjamin; Revell, Sarah; Hills, Andrew P; Schüz, Natalie; Ferguson, Stuart G

    2017-07-01

    Discretionary food choices (snacks) contribute up to a third of the daily energy intake and potentially contribute to energy imbalance and weight gain. Individual snack intake behaviour is guided by internal and external cues, with social cues (seeing others eat, being alone) consistently showing large effects. A wide body of (mainly laboratory-based) research suggests marked differences in people's response to eating cues based on BMI. Here, we show that these BMI differences in cue responsiveness also pertain to everyday snacking behaviour. In two combined ecological momentary assessment studies, 122 participants with BMIs ranging from 18.34 to 45.71 kg/m 2 logged their everyday snacking behaviour in real-time over two weeks along with the presence or absence of social cues. Random-effects modelling showed that people with higher BMI were more likely to consume high-energy snacks when alone, and were more likely to consume low-energy snacks in the presence of others eating. This suggests BMI differences in cue responsiveness that are in line with impression management theory and underlines the importance of social cues for snacking behaviour and provides avenues for both theory and intervention development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Simple Radiowave-Based Method for Measuring Peripheral Blood Flow

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Project objective is to design small radio frequency based flow probes for the measurement of blood flow velocity in peripheral arteries such as the femoral artery...

  16. Multivariate Methods Based Soft Measurement for Wine Quality Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Yin

    2014-01-01

    a decision. However, since the physicochemical indexes of wine can to some extent reflect the quality of wine, the multivariate statistical methods based soft measure can help the oenologist in wine evaluation.

  17. A vector-based, multidimensional scanpath similarity measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarodzka, Halszka; Holmqvist, Kenneth; Nyström, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Jarodzka, H., Holmqvist, K., & Nyström, M. (2010, March). A vector-based, multidimensional scanpath similarity measure. Presentation at the Eye Tracking Research & Application Symposium (ETRA), Austin, Texas, USA.

  18. A trajectory observer for camera-based underwater motion measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Tor; Jouffroy, Jerome; Johansen, Vegar

    This work deals with the issue of estimating the trajectory of a vehicle or object moving underwater based on camera measurements. The proposed approach consists of a diffusion-based trajectory observer (Jouffroy and Opderbecke, 2004) processing whole segments of a trajectory at a time. Additiona....... Additionally, the observer contains a Tikhonov regularizer for smoothing the estimates. Then, a method for including the camera measurements in an appropriate manner is proposed....

  19. Trends and association of BMI between sociodemographic and living conditions variables in the Brazilian elderly: 2002/03-2008/09.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Vladimir Schuindt da; Souza, Israel; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to describe BMI's short-term trends and analyze the association between the Body Mass Index (BMI) and the sociodemographic variables and variables of family perception of the sufficiency and type of food consumed by Brazilian elderly of both sexes. The authors used data from the Household Budget Surveys (HBS) collected by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) in 2002/03 and 2008/09. The prevalence of overweight and obesity increased, whereas normal and low weight decreased. Multinomial regression models were used for 2008/09 to analyze the association between BMI and sociodemographic variables and variables of family perception of the sufficiency and type of food intake. Income and age were more associated with BMI. We suggest that health and nutrition prevention and monitoring measures be implemented through public policies, considering multifactorial overweight in the Brazilian elderly.

  20. Model-based cartilage thickness measurement in the submillimeter range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streekstra, G. J.; Strackee, S. D.; Maas, M.; ter Wee, R.; Venema, H. W.

    2007-01-01

    Current methods of image-based thickness measurement in thin sheet structures utilize second derivative zero crossings to locate the layer boundaries. It is generally acknowledged that the nonzero width of the point spread function (PSF) limits the accuracy of this measurement procedure. We propose

  1. Survey-Based Measurement of Public Management and Policy Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Adam Douglas; Lubell, Mark; McCoy, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Networks have become a central concept in the policy and public management literature; however, theoretical development is hindered by a lack of attention to the empirical properties of network measurement methods. This paper compares three survey-based methods for measuring organizational networks: the roster, the free-recall name generator, and…

  2. Patch near field acoustic holography based on particle velocity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yong-Bin; Jacobsen, Finn; Bi, Chuan-Xing

    2009-01-01

    Patch near field acoustic holography (PNAH) based on sound pressure measurements makes it possible to reconstruct the source field near a source by measuring the sound pressure at positions on a surface. that is comparable in size to the source region of concern. Particle velocity is an alternative...

  3. Calibration of Smartphone-Based Weather Measurements Using Pairwise Gossip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Louie Fresco Zamora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and reliable daily global weather reports are necessary for weather forecasting and climate analysis. However, the availability of these reports continues to decline due to the lack of economic support and policies in maintaining ground weather measurement systems from where these reports are obtained. Thus, to mitigate data scarcity, it is required to utilize weather information from existing sensors and built-in smartphone sensors. However, as smartphone usage often varies according to human activity, it is difficult to obtain accurate measurement data. In this paper, we present a heuristic-based pairwise gossip algorithm that will calibrate smartphone-based pressure sensors with respect to fixed weather stations as our referential ground truth. Based on actual measurements, we have verified that smartphone-based readings are unstable when observed during movement. Using our calibration algorithm on actual smartphone-based pressure readings, the updated values were significantly closer to the ground truth values.

  4. Calibration of Smartphone-Based Weather Measurements Using Pairwise Gossip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Jane Louie Fresco; Kashihara, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Suguru

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and reliable daily global weather reports are necessary for weather forecasting and climate analysis. However, the availability of these reports continues to decline due to the lack of economic support and policies in maintaining ground weather measurement systems from where these reports are obtained. Thus, to mitigate data scarcity, it is required to utilize weather information from existing sensors and built-in smartphone sensors. However, as smartphone usage often varies according to human activity, it is difficult to obtain accurate measurement data. In this paper, we present a heuristic-based pairwise gossip algorithm that will calibrate smartphone-based pressure sensors with respect to fixed weather stations as our referential ground truth. Based on actual measurements, we have verified that smartphone-based readings are unstable when observed during movement. Using our calibration algorithm on actual smartphone-based pressure readings, the updated values were significantly closer to the ground truth values.

  5. School gardens and adolescent nutrition and BMI: Results from a national, multilevel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, Jennifer; Denny, Simon; Dyson, Ben

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine the impact of school gardens on student eating behaviors, physical activity and BMI in New Zealand secondary schools. The current study also aimed to determine if school gardens could buffer the association between household poverty and adolescent BMI. Data were drawn from a national study of the health and wellbeing of New Zealand secondary school students (n=8500) conducted in 2012. Multilevel regression models were used to determine the association between school gardens (school-level) and student nutrition behaviors, physical activity and measured BMI (student-level). Approximately half of secondary schools had a fruit/vegetable garden for students to participate in. School gardens were associated with lower student BMI (p=0.01) and lower prevalence of overweight (pSchool gardens appear to have a positive impact on student health. Future research may explore how school gardens are implemented to better understand their impact and to extend the benefits beyond the school community. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Restaurants in the Neighborhood, Eating Away from Home and BMI in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Tian

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between environmental risk factors, eating away from home, and increasing BMI of Chinese adults.Participants were selected from the recent four waves (2004, 2006, 2009, and 2011 of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS. 10633 participants, including 5084 men and 5549 women, were used in the analysis. 24-h dietary recall data for three consecutive days with information on the time and place of consumption were collected. Nearby restaurants were measured by the number of fast food outlets, indoor restaurants, and food stands in the neighborhood. Random effects multivariable regression was used to assess associations between these variables.People living in neighborhoods with large numbers of indoor restaurants are more likely to eat away from home (p<0.05. Higher frequency of eating away from home is positively associated with BMI, but this effect is only significant for men (p<0.05. Moreover, while eating dinner or breakfast away from home contributes to BMI increase for men (p<0.05, no such association is found for lunch.Eating dinner and breakfast away from home is positively associated with BMI for Chinese men. Labeling energy and portion size for the dishes served in indoor restaurants is recommended in China.

  7. Restaurants in the Neighborhood, Eating Away from Home and BMI in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xu; Zhong, Li; von Cramon-Taubadel, Stephan; Tu, Huakang; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Background To investigate the association between environmental risk factors, eating away from home, and increasing BMI of Chinese adults. Methods Participants were selected from the recent four waves (2004, 2006, 2009, and 2011) of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). 10633 participants, including 5084 men and 5549 women, were used in the analysis. 24-h dietary recall data for three consecutive days with information on the time and place of consumption were collected. Nearby restaurants were measured by the number of fast food outlets, indoor restaurants, and food stands in the neighborhood. Random effects multivariable regression was used to assess associations between these variables. Results People living in neighborhoods with large numbers of indoor restaurants are more likely to eat away from home (p<0.05). Higher frequency of eating away from home is positively associated with BMI, but this effect is only significant for men (p<0.05). Moreover, while eating dinner or breakfast away from home contributes to BMI increase for men (p<0.05), no such association is found for lunch. Conclusion Eating dinner and breakfast away from home is positively associated with BMI for Chinese men. Labeling energy and portion size for the dishes served in indoor restaurants is recommended in China. PMID:27959893

  8. PC Based Linear Variable Differential Displacement Measurement Uses Optical Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Kumar MAITI

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available PC based linear variable differential displacement (LVDD measurement with optical approach has been presented. The technique is a good blending of both hardware and software and is basically an alternative method of linear variable differential transformer (LVDT. A visual basic (VB programming is used for this PC based measurement. Here the voltage output and the displacement of the reflector can be studied and stored continuously. Theoretical predictions are supported by experimental results. This technique can be used for the measurement of some non-electrical parameters e.g. force, torque and liquid level etc.

  9. Dental pulp vitality measurement based on multiwavelength photoplethysmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkela, Ville; Kopola, Harri K.; Oikarinen, Kyosti; Herrala, Esko

    1995-01-01

    Observation of the intradental blood supply is important in cases of dental trauma, but difficult. As the methods used by dentists to measure pulp vitality are not very reliable, a dental pulp vitalometer based on fiberoptic reflectance measurement and measurement of the absorption of blood has been designed and built. In addition to the fiber optic probe and reflectance sensor electronics, the vitalometer includes a data acquisition card, a PC and data processing programs. The thick dentin and enamel layers and the small amount of blood in a tooth are major problems for optical measurement of its vitality, and scattered light from the enamel and the dentin surrounding the pulpa also causes a problem in measurements based on reflectance. These problems are assessed here by means of theoretical models and calculations. The advantage of reflectance measurement is that only one probe is used, which is easy to put against the tooth. Thus measurements are simple to make. Three wavelengths (560 nm, 650 nm, 850 nm) are used to measure photoplethysmographic signals, and these should allow the oxygen saturation of the blood in a tooth to be measured as well in the future. Series of measurements have been performed on vital and non-vital teeth by recording photoplethysmographic signals, using the vitalometer and using a commercial laser-Doppler instrument. Verifications of the laser-Doppler and vitalometer results are presented and deduced here.

  10. The Obesity Paradox in Cancer-Moving Beyond BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strulov Shachar, Shlomit; Williams, Grant R

    2017-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) and simple counts of weight are easy and available tools in the clinic and in research. Recent studies have shown that cancer patients with a low normal BMI (or those with weight loss) have worse outcomes than obese patients. These results suggest that obesity has a protective effect and has been termed the "obesity paradox." In this commentary, we discuss hypothetical explanations and take a step beyond BMI or simple weights alone to present other useful and more specific body composition metrics, such as muscle tissue mass, visceral fat mass, and subcutaneous fat mass. Body composition is highly variable between individuals with significant differences seen between various races and ages. Therefore, it is critical to consider that patients with the exact same BMI can have significantly different body compositions and different outcomes. We encourage further studies to examine body composition beyond BMI and to use other body composition metrics to develop individualized treatments and intervention strategies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(1); 13-16. ©2017 AACR SEE ALL THE ARTICLES IN THIS CEBP FOCUS SECTION, "THE OBESITY PARADOX IN CANCER EVIDENCE AND NEW DIRECTIONS". ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Measurement properties of performance-based measures to assess physical function in hip and knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobson, F; Hinman, R S; Hall, M

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the measurement properties of performance-based measures to assess physical function in people with hip and/or knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Electronic searches were performed in MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, and PsycINFO up to the end of June 2012. Two...

  12. Dipole location using SQUID based measurements: Application to magnetocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariyappa, N.; Parasakthi, C.; Sengottuvel, S.; Gireesan, K.; Patel, Rajesh; Janawadkar, M. P.; Sundar, C. S.; Radhakrishnan, T. S.

    2012-07-01

    We report a method of inferring the dipole location using iterative nonlinear least square optimization based on Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, wherein, we use different sets of pseudo-random numbers as initial parameter values. The method has been applied to (i) the simulated data representing the calculated magnetic field distribution produced by a point dipole placed at a known position, (ii) the experimental data from SQUID based measurements of the magnetic field distribution produced by a source coil carrying current, and (iii) the actual experimentally measured magnetocardiograms of human subjects using a SQUID based system.

  13. Association between higher BMI and depressive symptoms in Icelandic adolescents: the mediational function of body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidsdottir, Sigridur T; Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Garber, Carol E; Allegrante, John P

    2014-12-01

    Weight status and depressive affect in adolescents are positively related constructs, but the nature of this relationship is not well understood, especially in European populations. The objective of this study was to examine the interplay between body mass index (BMI) and depressive symptoms, while accounting for the possible mediational role of body image, in a sample of older adolescents in Iceland. We utilized data from a population-based cross-sectional sample of 11 388 junior college students (16-20-year-olds) to conduct structural equation modelling to test the relationship between BMI, body image and depressive symptoms while controlling for socioeconomic status and other background variables. Higher levels of BMI are associated with higher depressive symptoms. However, this association was mediated entirely through perceptions of body image. The association is gender dependent, with the relationship between BMI levels and depressive symptoms being significantly stronger among junior college girls than boys. Body image is a key contributor in the relationship between weight status and depressive symptoms among adolescents. Future interventions with adolescents should take this association into account and focus on such factors as physical confidence and self-esteem. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  14. Vehicle lateral state estimation based on measured tyre forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuononen, Ari J

    2009-01-01

    Future active safety systems need more accurate information about the state of vehicles. This article proposes a method to evaluate the lateral state of a vehicle based on measured tyre forces. The tyre forces of two tyres are estimated from optically measured tyre carcass deflections and transmitted wirelessly to the vehicle body. The two remaining tyres are so-called virtual tyre sensors, the forces of which are calculated from the real tyre sensor estimates. The Kalman filter estimator for lateral vehicle state based on measured tyre forces is presented, together with a simple method to define adaptive measurement error covariance depending on the driving condition of the vehicle. The estimated yaw rate and lateral velocity are compared with the validation sensor measurements.

  15. Vehicle Lateral State Estimation Based on Measured Tyre Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari J. Tuononen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Future active safety systems need more accurate information about the state of vehicles. This article proposes a method to evaluate the lateral state of a vehicle based on measured tyre forces. The tyre forces of two tyres are estimated from optically measured tyre carcass deflections and transmitted wirelessly to the vehicle body. The two remaining tyres are so-called virtual tyre sensors, the forces of which are calculated from the real tyre sensor estimates. The Kalman filter estimator for lateral vehicle state based on measured tyre forces is presented, together with a simple method to define adaptive measurement error covariance depending on the driving condition of the vehicle. The estimated yaw rate and lateral velocity are compared with the validation sensor measurements.

  16. Local high precision 3D measurement based on line laser measuring instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Renwei; Liu, Wei; Lu, Yongkang; Zhang, Yang; Ma, Jianwei; Jia, Zhenyuan

    2018-03-01

    In order to realize the precision machining and assembly of the parts, the geometrical dimensions of the surface of the local assembly surfaces need to be strictly guaranteed. In this paper, a local high-precision three-dimensional measurement method based on line laser measuring instrument is proposed to achieve a high degree of accuracy of the three-dimensional reconstruction of the surface. Aiming at the problem of two-dimensional line laser measuring instrument which lacks one-dimensional high-precision information, a local three-dimensional profile measuring system based on an accurate single-axis controller is proposed. First of all, a three-dimensional data compensation method based on spatial multi-angle line laser measuring instrument is proposed to achieve the high-precision measurement of the default axis. Through the pretreatment of the 3D point cloud information, the measurement points can be restored accurately. Finally, the target spherical surface is needed to make local three-dimensional scanning measurements for accuracy verification. The experimental results show that this scheme can get the local three-dimensional information of the target quickly and accurately, and achieves the purpose of gaining the information and compensating the error for laser scanner information, and improves the local measurement accuracy.

  17. Camera-based measurement of respiratory rates is reliable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Christoph; Achermann, Stefan; Rocque, Mukul; Kirenko, Ihor; Schlack, Andreas; Dreher-Hummel, Thomas; Zumbrunn, Thomas; Bingisser, Roland; Nickel, Christian H

    2017-06-01

    Respiratory rate (RR) is one of the most important vital signs used to detect whether a patient is in critical condition. It is part of many risk scores and its measurement is essential for triage of patients in emergency departments. It is often not recorded as measurement is cumbersome and time-consuming. We intended to evaluate the accuracy of camera-based measurements as an alternative measurement to the current practice of manual counting. We monitored the RR of healthy male volunteers with a camera-based prototype application and simultaneously by manual counting and by capnography, which was considered the gold standard. The four assessors were mutually blinded. We simulated normoventilation, hypoventilation and hyperventilation as well as deep, normal and superficial breathing depths to assess potential clinical settings. The volunteers were assessed while being undressed, wearing a T-shirt or a winter coat. In total, 20 volunteers were included. The results of camera-based measurements of RRs and capnography were in close agreement throughout all clothing styles and respiratory patterns (Pearson's correlation coefficient, r=0.90-1.00, except for one scenario, in which the volunteer breathed slowly dressed in a winter coat r=0.84). In the winter-coat scenarios, the camera-based prototype application was superior to human counters. In our pilot study, we found that camera-based measurements delivered accurate and reliable results. Future studies need to show that camera-based measurements are a secure alternative for measuring RRs in clinical settings as well.

  18. Measuring Software Test Verification for Complex Workpieces based on Virtual Gear Measuring Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Peili; Wang, Jianhua; Lu, Chunxia

    2017-08-01

    Validity and correctness test verification of the measuring software has been a thorny issue hindering the development of Gear Measuring Instrument (GMI). The main reason is that the software itself is difficult to separate from the rest of the measurement system for independent evaluation. This paper presents a Virtual Gear Measuring Instrument (VGMI) to independently validate the measuring software. The triangular patch model with accurately controlled precision was taken as the virtual workpiece and a universal collision detection model was established. The whole process simulation of workpiece measurement is implemented by VGMI replacing GMI and the measuring software is tested in the proposed virtual environment. Taking involute profile measurement procedure as an example, the validity of the software is evaluated based on the simulation results; meanwhile, experiments using the same measuring software are carried out on the involute master in a GMI. The experiment results indicate a consistency of tooth profile deviation and calibration results, thus verifying the accuracy of gear measuring system which includes the measurement procedures. It is shown that the VGMI presented can be applied in the validation of measuring software, providing a new ideal platform for testing of complex workpiece-measuring software without calibrated artifacts.

  19. Measuring Software Test Verification for Complex Workpieces based on Virtual Gear Measuring Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Peili

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Validity and correctness test verification of the measuring software has been a thorny issue hindering the development of Gear Measuring Instrument (GMI. The main reason is that the software itself is difficult to separate from the rest of the measurement system for independent evaluation. This paper presents a Virtual Gear Measuring Instrument (VGMI to independently validate the measuring software. The triangular patch model with accurately controlled precision was taken as the virtual workpiece and a universal collision detection model was established. The whole process simulation of workpiece measurement is implemented by VGMI replacing GMI and the measuring software is tested in the proposed virtual environment. Taking involute profile measurement procedure as an example, the validity of the software is evaluated based on the simulation results; meanwhile, experiments using the same measuring software are carried out on the involute master in a GMI. The experiment results indicate a consistency of tooth profile deviation and calibration results, thus verifying the accuracy of gear measuring system which includes the measurement procedures. It is shown that the VGMI presented can be applied in the validation of measuring software, providing a new ideal platform for testing of complex workpiece-measuring software without calibrated artifacts.

  20. MPPT Technique Based on Current and Temperature Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Moreira Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new maximum power point tracking (MPPT method based on the measurement of temperature and short-circuit current, in a simple and efficient approach. These measurements, which can precisely define the maximum power point (MPP, have not been used together in other existing techniques. The temperature is measured with a low cost sensor and the solar irradiance is estimated through the relationship of the measured short-circuit current and its reference. Fast tracking speed and stable steady-state operation are advantages of this technique, which presents higher performance when compared to other well-known techniques.

  1. Variable screening and ranking using sampling-based sensitivity measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y-T.; Mohanty, Sitakanta

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for screening insignificant random variables and ranking significant important random variables using sensitivity measures including two cumulative distribution function (CDF)-based and two mean-response based measures. The methodology features (1) using random samples to compute sensitivities and (2) using acceptance limits, derived from the test-of-hypothesis, to classify significant and insignificant random variables. Because no approximation is needed in either the form of the performance functions or the type of continuous distribution functions representing input variables, the sampling-based approach can handle highly nonlinear functions with non-normal variables. The main characteristics and effectiveness of the sampling-based sensitivity measures are investigated using both simple and complex examples. Because the number of samples needed does not depend on the number of variables, the methodology appears to be particularly suitable for problems with large, complex models that have large numbers of random variables but relatively few numbers of significant random variables

  2. Challenging the role of social norms regarding body weight as an explanation for weight, height, and BMI misreporting biases: Development and application of a new approach to examining misreporting and misclassification bias in surveys

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brestoff, Jonathan R

    2011-05-18

    Abstract Background Cultural pressures to be thin and tall are postulated to cause people to misreport their body weight and height towards more socially normative (i.e., desirable) values, but a paucity of direct evidence supports this idea. We developed a novel non-linear approach to examining weight, height, and BMI misreporting biases and used this approach to examine the association between socially non-normative weight and misreporting biases in adults. Methods The Survey of Lifestyles, Attitudes, and Nutrition 2007 (SLÁN 2007), a nationally representative survey of the Republic of Ireland (N = 1942 analyzed) was used. Self-reported weight (height) was classified as under-reported by ≥2.0 kg (2.0 cm), over-reported by ≥2.0 kg (2.0 cm), or accurately reported within 2.0 kg (2.0 cm) to account for technical errors of measurement and short-term fluctuations in measured weight (height). A simulation strategy was used to define self-report-based BMI as under-estimated by more than 1.40 kg\\/m2, over-estimated by more than 1.40 kg\\/m2, or accurately estimated within 1.40 kg\\/m2. Patterns of biases in self-reported weight, height, and BMI were explored. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with mis-estimated BMI and to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 99% confidence intervals (99%CI). Results The patterns of bias contributing the most to BMI mis-estimation were consistently, in decreasing order of influence, (1) under-reported weight combined with over-reported height, (2) under-reported weight with accurately reported height, and (3) accurately reported weight with over-reported height. Average bias in self-report-based BMI was -1.34 kg\\/m2 overall and -0.49, -1.33, and -2.66 kg\\/m2 in normal, overweight, and obese categories, respectively. Despite the increasing degree of bias with progressively higher BMI categories, persons describing themselves as too heavy were, within any given BMI category, less likely to have under

  3. Mechanisms linking socioeconomic disadvantage and BMI in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E; Businelle, Michael S; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Castro, Yessenia; Vidrine, Jennifer I; Mazas, Carlos A; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate a conceptual model of the psychosocial pathways linking socioeconomic status and body mass index (BMI) among smokers. A latent variable modeling approach was used to evaluate the interrelationships among socioeconomic status, perceived neighborhood disadvantage, social support, negative affect, and BMI among smokers recruited from the Houston metropolitan area (N = 424). A total of 42.4% of participants were obese, with the highest prevalence of obesity among Latinos followed by African Americans. Across all racial/ethnic groups, perceived neighborhood disadvantage, social support, and negative affect functioned as pathways linking socioeconomic status and BMI. Findings indicate the need for interventions that target obesity among socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers and provide potential intervention targets for the prevention and treatment of obesity.

  4. In a safety net population HPV4 vaccine adherence worsens as BMI increases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane M Harper

    Full Text Available Obesity adversely inhibits antibody response to vaccination. Three doses of HPV4 may or may not provide adequate long term protection against HPV 16/18 in obese females. The aim of this study was to determine whether adherence to HPV4 vaccination in a safety net population was reduced with increasing body mass index (BMI.We designed a historical prospective study evaluating the number and dates of HPV4 dosing that occurred from July 1, 2006 through October 1, 2009 by the demographic characteristics of the 10-26 year old recipient females. The defined dosing intervals were adapted from the literature and obesity categories were defined by the WHO.1240 females with BMI measurements received at least one dose of HPV4; 38% were obese (class I, II and III and 25% were overweight. Females with normal BMI received on-time triplet dosing significantly more often than did the obese class II and III females (30% vs. 18%, p<0.001. Obese class II/III females have a significant 45% less chance of completing the on-time triplet HPV4 series than normal women (OR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.37, 0.83. Pregnancy history has a significant influence on BMI and HPV4 dosing compliance in this safety net population where 71% had been gravid. Hispanic females were less likely to complete HPV4 dosing regardless of BMI (aOR = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.16, 0.95.Obesity, as well as gravidity and Hispanic race, are risk factors for lack of HPV4 vaccine adherence among young females in a safety net population.

  5. Breastfeeding duration, age of starting solids and high BMI risk and adiposity in Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caleyachetty, Amrit; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Veena, Sargoor R; Hill, Jacqui; Karat, Samuel C; Fall, Caroline H D; Wills, Andrew K

    2013-04-01

    This study utilized data from a prospective birth cohort study on 568 Indian children, to determine whether a longer duration of breastfeeding and later introduction of solid feeding were associated with a reduced higher body mass index (BMI) and less adiposity. Main outcomes were high BMI (>90th within-cohort sex-specific BMI percentile) and sum of skinfold thickness (triceps and subscapular) at age 5. Main exposures were breastfeeding (six categories from 1-4 to ≥21 months) and age of starting regular solid feeding (four categories from ≤3 to ≥6 months). Data on infant-feeding practices, socio-economic and maternal factors were collected by questionnaire. Birthweight, maternal and child anthropometry were measured. Multiple regression analysis that accounted for potential confounders demonstrated a small magnitude of effect for breastfeeding duration or introduction of solid feeds on the risk of high BMI but not for lower skinfold thickness. Breastfeeding duration was strongly negatively associated with weight gain (0-2 years) [adjusted β = -0.12 standard deviation, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.19 to -0.05 per category change in breastfeeding duration, P = 0.001], and weight gain (0-2 years) was strongly associated with high BMI at 5 years (adjusted odds ratio = 3.8, 95% CI: 2.53-5.56, P risk and a negligible effect on skinfold thickness. However, accounting for sampling variability, these findings cannot exclude the possibility of no effect at the population level. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Processes underlying Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Diamond Y; Derlan, Chelsea L; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B

    2018-04-01

    To examine potential mediating and moderating factors in the longitudinal association between contextual stressors (economic hardship, ethnic discrimination) and subsequent engagement in risky behaviors and body mass index (BMI) of Mexican-origin adolescent mothers. Participants were Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (N = 204) who were recruited from community agencies and high schools in a Southwestern metropolitan area. Contextual stressors and risky behaviors were assessed 3 and 4 years postpartum. Adolescent mothers' BMI was assessed 5-years postpartum. Path analyses assessed moderated mediation with risky behaviors as a mediator of associations between contextual stressors and BMI, and family and friend support as moderators of the mediated pathways. At low levels of family support, economic hardship at 3-years postpartum positively predicted engagement in risky behaviors at 4-years postpartum, which in turn positively predicted BMI at 5-years postpartum. At high levels of family support, all relations were not significant. At low levels of friend support, ethnic discrimination at 3-years postpartum positively predicted engagement in risky behaviors at 4-years postpartum, which in turn positively predicted BMI at 5-years postpartum. At high levels of friend support, all relations were not significant. Among adolescent mothers who receive low levels of family and friend support, engagement in risky behaviors may function as a mechanism through which contextual stressors are linked to adolescent mothers' BMI. Findings have implications for prevention efforts aimed at attenuating unhealthy weight status among Mexican-origin adolescent mothers by reducing engagement in risky behaviors and bolstering family and friend support. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Three-dimensional hindfoot alignment measurements based on biplanar radiographs: comparison with standard radiographic measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutter, Reto; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Buck, Florian M. [University Hospital Balgrist, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Espinosa, Norman [University Hospital Balgrist, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2013-04-15

    To establish a hindfoot alignment measurement technique based on low-dose biplanar radiographs and compare with hindfoot alignment measurements on long axial view radiographs, which is the current reference standard. Long axial view radiographs and low-dose biplanar radiographs of a phantom consisting of a human foot skeleton embedded in acrylic glass (phantom A) and a plastic model of a human foot in three different hindfoot positions (phantoms B1-B3) were imaged in different foot positions (20 internal to 20 external rotation). Two independent readers measured hindfoot alignment on long axial view radiographs and performed 3D hindfoot alignment measurements based on biplanar radiographs on two different occasions. Time for three-dimensional (3D) measurements was determined. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated. Hindfoot alignment measurements on long axial view radiographs were characterized by a large positional variation, with a range of 14 /13 valgus to 22 /27 varus (reader 1/2 for phantom A), whereas the range of 3D hindfoot alignment measurements was 7.3 /6.0 to 9.0 /10.5 varus (reader 1/2 for phantom A), with a mean and standard deviation of 8.1 {+-} 0.6/8.7 {+-} 1.4 respectively. Interobserver agreement was high (ICC = 0.926 for phantom A, and ICC = 0.886 for phantoms B1-B3), and agreement between different readouts was high (ICC = 0.895-0.995 for reader 1, and ICC = 0.987-0.994 for reader 2) for 3D measurements. Mean duration of 3D measurements was 84 {+-} 15/113 {+-} 15 s for reader 1/2. Three-dimensional hindfoot alignment measurements based on biplanar radiographs were independent of foot positioning during image acquisition and reader independent. In this phantom study, the 3D measurements were substantially more precise than the standard radiographic measurements. (orig.)

  8. A New Laser Based Approach for Measuring Atmospheric Greenhouse Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Dobler

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, we developed a proof-of-concept system for a new open-path laser absorption spectrometer concept for measuring atmospheric CO2. The measurement approach utilizes high-reliability all-fiber-based, continuous-wave laser technology, along with a unique all-digital lock-in amplifier method that, together, enables simultaneous transmission and reception of multiple fixed wavelengths of light. This new technique, which utilizes very little transmitted energy relative to conventional lidar systems, provides high signal-to-noise (SNR measurements, even in the presence of a large background signal. This proof-of-concept system, tested in both a laboratory environment and a limited number of field experiments over path lengths of 680 m and 1,600 m, demonstrated SNR values >1,000 for received signals of ~18 picoWatts averaged over 60 s. A SNR of 1,000 is equivalent to a measurement precision of ±0.001 or ~0.4 ppmv. The measurement method is expected to provide new capability for automated monitoring of greenhouse gas at fixed sites, such as carbon sequestration facilities, volcanoes, the short- and long-term assessment of urban plumes, and other similar applications. In addition, this concept enables active measurements of column amounts from a geosynchronous orbit for a network of ground-based receivers/stations that would complement other current and planned space-based measurement capabilities.

  9. The importance of blood lipids in the association between BMI and blood pressure among Chinese overweight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhi-Yong; Yang, Yi-de; Wang, Shuo; Dong, Bin; Li, Xiao-Hui; Ma, Jun

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to examine the contribution of blood lipids to the association between BMI and blood pressure (BP) in children with overweight and obesity. Data were collected in elementary and high schools of Chaoyang District, Beijing, China in 2012. Participants' weight, height, BP and fasting plasma lipid profile were measured by standard protocols. Mediation analysis was used to examine the mediation role of blood lipids on the relation between BMI and BP, with age included as a covariate. We found that in boys 8·29 % (mediation effect=0·106, P=0·012) of the association between BMI and systolic BP was mediated through TAG. TAG mediated 12·53 % (mediation effect=0·093, P=0·018) and LDL-cholesterol mediated 7·75 % (mediation effect=0·57, P=0·046) of the association between BMI and diastolic BP was mediated by TAG and LDL-cholesterol, respectively. However, blood lipids did not show the mediation effect in girls. Our findings suggested that there was a sex difference in the contribution of blood lipids to the association between BMI and BP. Controlling TAG or LDL-cholesterol may be beneficial for reducing the risk of the BMI-related high BP in overweight boys; however, this outcome is not the case when controlling TAG or LDL-cholesterol in girls. This study may provide clues to explore the underlying mechanism of the association between obesity and hypertension.

  10. The impact of sleep-disordered breathing on body mass index (BMI: the sleep heart health study (SHHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins JA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is well known that obesity is a risk factor for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB. However, whether SDB predicts increase in BMI is not well defined. Data from the Sleep Heart Health Study (SHHS were analyzed to determine whether SDB predicts longitudinal increase in BMI, adjusted for confounding factors.Methods: A full-montage unattended home polysomnogram (PSG and body anthropometric measurements were obtained approximately five years apart in 3001 participants. Apnea-hypopnea index (AHI was categorized using clinical thresholds: < 5 (normal, ≥ 5 to <15 (mild sleep apnea, and ³ 15 (moderate to severe sleep apnea. Linear regression was used to examine the association between the three AHI groups and increased BMI. The model included age, gender, race, baseline BMI, and change in AHI as covariates.Results: Mean (SD age was 62.2 years (10.14, 55.2% were female and 76.1% were Caucasian. Five-year increase in BMI was modest with a mean (SD change of 0.53 (2.62 kg/m2 (p=0.071. A multivariate regression model showed that subjects with a baseline AHI between 5-15 had a mean increase in BMI of 0.22 kg/m2 (p=0.055 and those with baseline AHI ≥ 15 had a BMI increase of 0.51 kg/m2 (p<0.001 compared to those with baseline AHI of <5.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that there is a positive association between severity of SDB and subsequent increased BMI over approximately 5 years. This observation may help explain why persons with SDB have difficulty losing weight.

  11. X-ray microtomography-based measurements of meniscal allografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickiewicz, P; Binkowski, M; Bursig, H; Wróbel, Z

    2015-05-01

    X-ray microcomputed tomography (XMT) is a technique widely used to image hard and soft tissues. Meniscal allografts as collagen structures can be imaged and analyzed using XMT. The aim of this study was to present an XMT scanning protocol that can be used to obtain the 3D geometry of menisci. It was further applied to compare two methods of meniscal allograft measurement: traditional (based on manual measurement) and novel (based on digital measurement of 3D models of menisci obtained with use of XMT scanner). The XMT-based menisci measurement is a reliable method for assessing the geometry of a meniscal allograft by measuring the basic meniscal dimensions known from traditional protocol. Thirteen dissected menisci were measured according the same principles traditionally applied in a tissue bank. Next, the same specimens were scanned by a laboratory scanner in the XMT Lab. The images were processed to obtain a 3D mesh. 3D models of allograft geometry were then measured using a novel protocol enhanced by computer software. Then, both measurements were compared using statistical tests. The results showed significant differences (P<0.05) between the lengths of the medial and lateral menisci measured in the tissue bank and the XMT Lab. Also, medial meniscal widths were significantly different (P<0.05). Differences in meniscal lengths may result from difficulties in dissected meniscus measurements in tissue banks, and may be related to the elastic structure of the dissected meniscus. Errors may also be caused by the lack of highlighted landmarks on the meniscal surface in this study. The XMT may be a good technique for assessing meniscal dimensions without actually touching the specimen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Measures of Competitive Intensity – Analysis Based on Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Kwieciński

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To systematize the existing approaches and tools used for measuring competitive intensity. Methodology: Systematic literature review along with critical literature review. Findings: Identifcation of two main approaches to measuring competition intensity: the frst pertains to research based on experts’ opinions and involves the use of questionnaires (primary sources, while the second is based on structural variables used with a variety of indexes (secondary sources. In addition, variables applied for the purpose of measuring the intensity of competition are divided into structural and behavioural. Research implications: Research implications are two-fold. Firstly, a distinction is made between various types of existing approaches to measuring competitive intensity. Secondly, research is carried out, inter alia, with regard to the actual object of certain measures, as opposed to their object stemming from commonly accepted defnitions. Practical implications: The issue of measuring competition intensity occupies a prominent place in the discussion on the effectiveness of inter-organizational relationships. The fndings outlined in this paper may help managers to develop/adopt the right approach supporting their strategic decisions. Originality: The paper provides a complex review of the existing methods and measures of competitive intensity. It systematizes recent knowledge about competitive intensity measurements.

  13. A cross-sectional study on trans-fatty acids and risk markers of CHD among middle-aged men representing a broad range of BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgit M.; Nielsen, Marie M.; Jakobsen, Marianne U.

    2011-01-01

    of BMI, the association between intake of TFA, I-TFA and ruminant TFA (R-TFA) and obesity-associated risk markers of CHD was assessed. The study comprised 393 Danish men (median age 49 years) with a median BMI of 28·4 kg/m2. Intake of TFA was estimated based on 7 d dietary records, whereas outcomes...

  14. Association of BMI with risk of CVD mortality and all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Chee Cheong; Sumarni, Mohd Ghazali; Lim, Kuang Hock; Selvarajah, Sharmini; Haniff, Jamaiyah; Tee, Guat Hiong Helen; Gurpreet, Kaur; Faudzi, Yusoff Ahmad; Amal, Nasir Mustafa

    2017-05-01

    To determine the relationship between BMI and risk of CVD mortality and all-cause mortality among Malaysian adults. Population-based, retrospective cohort study. Participants were followed up for 5 years from 2006 to 2010. Mortality data were obtained via record linkages with the Malaysian National Registration Department. Multiple Cox regression was applied to compare risk of CVD and all-cause mortality between BMI categories adjusting for age, gender and ethnicity. Models were generated for all participants, all participants the first 2 years of follow-up, healthy participants, healthy never smokers, never smokers, current smokers and former smokers. All fourteen states in Malaysia. Malaysian adults (n 32 839) aged 18 years or above from the third National Health and Morbidity Survey. Total follow-up time was 153 814 person-years with 1035 deaths from all causes and 225 deaths from CVD. Underweight (BMIBMI ≥30·0 kg/m2) was associated with a heightened risk of CVD mortality. Overweight (BMI=25·0-29·9 kg/m2) was inversely associated with risk of all-cause mortality. Underweight was significantly associated with all-cause mortality in all models except for current smokers. Overweight was inversely associated with all-cause mortality in all participants. Although a positive trend was observed between BMI and CVD mortality in all participants, a significant association was observed only for severe obesity (BMI≥35·0 kg/m2). Underweight was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality and obesity with increased risk of CVD mortality. Therefore, maintaining a normal BMI through leading an active lifestyle and healthy dietary habits should continue to be promoted.

  15. The mediating role of dichotomous thinking and emotional eating in the relationship between depression and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Evangelia E; Bongers, Peggy; Jansen, Anita

    2017-08-01

    Obesity and depression have important health implications. Although there is knowledge about the moderators of the depression-obesity association, our understanding of the potential behavioral and cognitive mediators that may explain the relationship between depression and obesity, is scarcely researched. The aim of this study is to investigate the mediating role of emotional eating and dichotomous thinking in the depression-obesity relationship. Data on 205 individuals from a community-based study conducted at Maastricht University, Netherlands were used. Self-reported data on depression, emotional eating and dichotomous thinking were collected and BMI scores were calculated in a cross-sectional research design. Correlations between variables were calculated. The primary analysis tested the hypothesis that depression has an effect on BMI through dichotomous thinking and emotional eating. A two-mediator model was used to predict the direct and indirect effects of emotional eating and dichotomous thinking on the depression-BMI relationship. Depression was positively correlated with BMI (r=0.21, p=0.005), emotional eating (r=0.38, pthinking (r=0.49, pthinking and emotional eating were positively correlated with BMI (r=0.35, pthinking (Z=2.54, p=0.01, 95% confidence intervals=0.01-0.17) and emotional eating (Z=3.92 pthinking might be useful in guiding assessment and treatment protocols for weight management. The present study adds to the existing literature on the role of dysfunctional cognitions and emotions on eating behavior, and particularly to the factors that may impede people's ability to control their eating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Body Mass Index (BMI) of Adults: Findings of the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, M Y; Junidah, R; Siti Mariam, A; Safiah, M Y; Fatimah, S; Norimah, A K; Poh, B K; Kandiah, M; Zalilah, M S; Wan Abdul Manan, Wm; Siti Haslinda, M D; Tahir, A

    2009-09-01

    The Malaysian Adults Nutrition Survey (MANS) was carried out between October 2002 and July 2003, involving 6,775 men and 3,441 women aged 18 - 59 years. Anthropometric assessment showed that the overall mean body weight and BMI were 62.65 kg (CI: 62.20, 63.09) and 24.37 kg/m2 (CI: 24.21, 24.53) respectively. Based on the WHO (1998) classification of BMI, 12.15% (CI: 11.26, 13.10) were obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2), and 26.71% (CI: 25.50, 27.96) overweight (BMI > 25 - 29.9 kg/m2). Significantly, more women were obese [14.66% (CI: 13.37, 16.04)] while significantly more men were overweight [28.55% (CI: 26.77, 30.40)]. Ethnicitywise, prevalence of obesity was highest among the Malays [15.28% (CI: 13.91, 16.77)] while overweight was highest for the Indians [31.01% (CI: 26.64, 35.76)]. Both obesity and overweight were highest among those aged 40 - 49 years. Obesity was highest for those whose household income was between RM1,500 - 3,500 while overweight was more prevalent for those whose household income exceeded RM3,500. The prevalence of overweight was highest for those with primary education [31.90% (CI: 29.21, 34.72)]. There was no significant urban rural differential in both obesity and overweight. The study found 9.02% (CI:8.82, 10.61) with chronic energy deficiency (CED) (BMI household income of Malaysian adults as it poses a grave burden to the country's resources and development.

  17. Modern gas-based temperature and pressure measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Pavese, Franco

    2013-01-01

    This 2nd edition volume of Modern Gas-Based Temperature and Pressure Measurements follows the first publication in 1992. It collects a much larger set of information, reference data, and bibliography in temperature and pressure metrology of gaseous substances, including the physical-chemical issues related to gaseous substances. The book provides solutions to practical applications where gases are used in different thermodynamic conditions. Modern Gas-Based Temperature and Pressure Measurements, 2nd edition is the only comprehensive survey of methods for pressure measurement in gaseous media used in the medium-to-low pressure range closely connected with thermometry. It assembles current information on thermometry and manometry that involve the use of gaseous substances which are likely to be valid methods for the future. As such, it is an important resource for the researcher. This edition is updated through the very latest scientific and technical developments of gas-based temperature and pressure measurem...

  18. Bread Water Content Measurement Based on Hyperspectral Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhi; Møller, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Water content is one of the most important properties of the bread for tasting assesment or store monitoring. Traditional bread water content measurement methods mostly are processed manually, which is destructive and time consuming. This paper proposes an automated water content measurement for bread quality based on near-infrared hyperspectral imaging against the conventional manual loss-in-weight method. For this purpose, the hyperspectral components unmixing technology is used for measuri...

  19. Generalized phase retrieval algorithm based on information measures

    OpenAIRE

    Shioya, Hiroyuki; Gohara, Kazutoshi

    2006-01-01

    An iterative phase retrieval algorithm based on the maximum entropy method (MEM) is presented. Introducing a new generalized information measure, we derive a novel class of algorithms which includes the conventionally used error reduction algorithm and a MEM-type iterative algorithm which is presented for the first time. These different phase retrieval methods are unified on the basis of the framework of information measures used in information theory.

  20. Changes in BMI before and during economic development and subsequent risk of cardiovascular disease and total mortality: a 35-year follow-up study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yao; Lam, Tai Hing; Jiang, Bin; Li, Lan Sun; Sun, Dong Ling; Wu, Lei; Liu, Miao; Yang, Shan Shan; Wang, Yi Yan; Tobias, Deirdre K; Sun, Qi; Hu, Frank B

    2014-09-01

    It is unclear whether changes in BMI during rapid economic development influence subsequent mortality. We analyzed whether BMI in 1976 and 1994 and changes in BMI during 1976-1994 predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in a 35-year follow-up cohort of 1,696 Chinese (1,124 men and 572 women, aged 35-65 years) in Xi'an, China. Participants were categorized as underweight (economic development was associated with elevated risks of all-cause and CVD mortality. Higher BMI measured before economic development was associated with lower mortality risk, whereas BMI measured afterward was associated with increased mortality. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  1. Verifiable fault tolerance in measurement-based quantum computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Keisuke; Hayashi, Masahito

    2017-09-01

    Quantum systems, in general, cannot be simulated efficiently by a classical computer, and hence are useful for solving certain mathematical problems and simulating quantum many-body systems. This also implies, unfortunately, that verification of the output of the quantum systems is not so trivial, since predicting the output is exponentially hard. As another problem, the quantum system is very delicate for noise and thus needs an error correction. Here, we propose a framework for verification of the output of fault-tolerant quantum computation in a measurement-based model. In contrast to existing analyses on fault tolerance, we do not assume any noise model on the resource state, but an arbitrary resource state is tested by using only single-qubit measurements to verify whether or not the output of measurement-based quantum computation on it is correct. Verifiability is equipped by a constant time repetition of the original measurement-based quantum computation in appropriate measurement bases. Since full characterization of quantum noise is exponentially hard for large-scale quantum computing systems, our framework provides an efficient way to practically verify the experimental quantum error correction.

  2. A web-based tool for ranking landslide mitigation measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasse, S.; Vaciago, G.; Choi, Y. J.; Kalsnes, B.

    2012-04-01

    As part of the research done in the European project SafeLand "Living with landslide risk in Europe: Assessment, effects of global change, and risk management strategies", a compendium of structural and non-structural mitigation measures for different landslide types in Europe was prepared, and the measures were assembled into a web-based "toolbox". Emphasis was placed on providing a rational and flexible framework applicable to existing and future mitigation measures. The purpose of web-based toolbox is to assist decision-making and to guide the user in the choice of the most appropriate mitigation measures. The mitigation measures were classified into three categories, describing whether the mitigation measures addressed the landslide hazard, the vulnerability or the elements at risk themselves. The measures considered include structural measures reducing hazard and non-structural mitigation measures, reducing either the hazard or the consequences (or vulnerability and exposure of elements at risk). The structural measures include surface protection and control of surface erosion; measures modifying the slope geometry and/or mass distribution; measures modifying surface water regime - surface drainage; measures mo¬difying groundwater regime - deep drainage; measured modifying the mechanical charac¬teristics of unstable mass; transfer of loads to more competent strata; retaining structures (to modify slope geometry and/or to transfer stress to compe¬tent layer); deviating the path of landslide debris; dissipating the energy of debris flows; and arresting and containing landslide debris or rock fall. The non-structural mitigation measures, reducing either the hazard or the consequences: early warning systems; restricting or discouraging construction activities; increasing resistance or coping capacity of elements at risk; relocation of elements at risk; sharing of risk through insurance. The measures are described in the toolbox with fact sheets providing a

  3. Prevalence of Central Obesity among Adults with Normal BMI and Its Association with Metabolic Diseases in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Rui; Gao, Chunshi; Jiang, Lingling; Lv, Xin; Song, Yuanyuan; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of central obesity among adults with normal BMI and its association with metabolic diseases in Jilin Province, China. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 in Jilin Province of China. Information was collected by face to face interview. Descriptive data analysis and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of prevalence/frequency were conducted. Log-binomial regression analyses were used to find the independent factors associated with central obesity and to explore the adjusted association between central obesity and metabolic diseases among adults with normal BMI. Among the adult residents with normal BMI in Jilin Province, 55.6% of participants with central obesity self-assessed as normal weight and 27.0% thought their body weight were above normal. 12.7% of central obesity people took methods to lose weight, while 85.3% didn't. Female, older people and non-manual worker had higher risk to be central obesity among adults with normal BMI. Hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia were significantly associated with central obesity among adults with normal BMI, the PRs were 1.337 (1.224-1.461), 1.323 (1.193-1.456) and 1.261 (1.152-1.381) separately when adjusted for gender, age and BMI. Hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia were significantly associated with central obesity among adults with normal BMI in Jilin Province, China. The low rates of awareness and control of central obesity among adults with normal BMI should be improved by government and health department.

  4. Ground-Based Lidar for Atmospheric Boundary Layer Ozone Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Shi; Newchurch, Michael J.; Burris, John; Liu, Xiong

    2013-01-01

    Ground-based lidars are suitable for long-term ozone monitoring as a complement to satellite and ozonesonde measurements. However, current ground-based lidars are unable to consistently measure ozone below 500 m above ground level (AGL) due to both engineering issues and high retrieval sensitivity to various measurement errors. In this paper, we present our instrument design, retrieval techniques, and preliminary results that focus on the high-temporal profiling of ozone within the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) achieved by the addition of an inexpensive and compact mini-receiver to the previous system. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest, consistently achievable observation height has been extended down to 125 m AGL for a ground-based ozone lidar system. Both the analysis and preliminary measurements demonstrate that this lidar measures ozone with a precision generally better than 10% at a temporal resolution of 10 min and a vertical resolution from 150 m at the bottom of the ABL to 550 m at the top. A measurement example from summertime shows that inhomogeneous ozone aloft was affected by both surface emissions and the evolution of ABL structures.

  5. Hybrid architecture for encoded measurement-based quantum computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwerger, M; Briegel, H J; Dür, W

    2014-06-20

    We present a hybrid scheme for quantum computation that combines the modular structure of elementary building blocks used in the circuit model with the advantages of a measurement-based approach to quantum computation. We show how to construct optimal resource states of minimal size to implement elementary building blocks for encoded quantum computation in a measurement-based way, including states for error correction and encoded gates. The performance of the scheme is determined by the quality of the resource states, where within the considered error model a threshold of the order of 10% local noise per particle for fault-tolerant quantum computation and quantum communication.

  6. Predictive Software Measures based on Z Specifications - A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bollin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the effort and quality of a system is a critical step at the beginning of every software project. It is necessary to have reliable ways of calculating these measures, and, it is even better when the calculation can be done as early as possible in the development life-cycle. Having this in mind, metrics for formal specifications are examined with a view to correlations to complexity and quality-based code measures. A case study, based on a Z specification and its implementation in ADA, analyzes the practicability of these metrics as predictors.

  7. Portable audio electronics for impedance-based measurements in microfluidics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Paul; Sinton, David

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of audio electronics-based signals to perform on-chip electrochemical measurements. Cell phones and portable music players are examples of consumer electronics that are easily operated and are ubiquitous worldwide. Audio output (play) and input (record) signals are voltage based and contain frequency and amplitude information. A cell phone, laptop soundcard and two compact audio players are compared with respect to frequency response; the laptop soundcard provides the most uniform frequency response, while the cell phone performance is found to be insufficient. The audio signals in the common portable music players and laptop soundcard operate in the range of 20 Hz to 20 kHz and are found to be applicable, as voltage input and output signals, to impedance-based electrochemical measurements in microfluidic systems. Validated impedance-based measurements of concentration (0.1–50 mM), flow rate (2–120 µL min −1 ) and particle detection (32 µm diameter) are demonstrated. The prevailing, lossless, wave audio file format is found to be suitable for data transmission to and from external sources, such as a centralized lab, and the cost of all hardware (in addition to audio devices) is ∼10 USD. The utility demonstrated here, in combination with the ubiquitous nature of portable audio electronics, presents new opportunities for impedance-based measurements in portable microfluidic systems. (technical note)

  8. Association of Pre-pregnancy BMI and Postpartum Weight Retention Before Second Pregnancy, Washington State, 2003-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketterl, Tyler G; Dundas, Nicolas J; Roncaioli, Steven A; Littman, Alyson J; Phipps, Amanda I

    2018-03-06

    Background Maternal overweight and obesity is one of the most common high-risk obstetric conditions associated with adverse birth outcomes. Smaller studies have suggested that pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) is associated with postpartum weight retention. Objective The primary objective of this study was to examine the association between pre-pregnancy BMI status and maternal weight retention. Study design We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study using Washington State birth certificate data from 2003-2013. We included women who had two sequential births during this time period, with the second birth occurring within 18-36 months of the first singleton delivery date. BMI before a women's first pregnancy ("pre-pregnancy BMI") was categorized as normal (18.5-24.9 kg/m 2 ) and overweight/obese (25-40 kg/m 2 ). Women were classified as having returned to first pre-pregnancy BMI if their BMI before their second pregnancy was no more than 1 kg/m 2 more compared to their BMI before their first pregnancy. Analyses were stratified by gestational weight gain during the first pregnancy (below, met, exceeded recommended gestational weight gain). Results A total of 49,132 mothers were included in the study. Among women who met their recommended gestational weight gain, compared to mothers with a normal BMI, obese/overweight mothers were less likely to return to their pre-pregnancy BMI (76.5 vs 72.3%; RR Obese/Overweight  = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.85-0.92). A similar pattern was observed among women who exceeded their recommended gestational weight gain (62.6 vs 53.2%; RR Obese/Overweight  = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.78-0.80). Conclusion Pre-pregnancy BMI in the overweight/obese range is associated with a decreased likelihood of returning to pre-pregnancy BMI. Further research to support women during and after their pregnancy to promote behavior changes that prevent excessive weight gain during pregnancy and weight retention after birth is needed.

  9. Body potassium measurement using Phoswich based lung monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manohari, M.; Deepu, R.; Arun, B.; Mathiyarasu, R.; Jose, M.T.; Venkatraman, B.

    2016-01-01

    Phoswich based lung monitor enabled with the feature of high energy photon measurement is effectively utilised to measure body potassium of radiation workers reported for lung monitoring at RSD, IGCAR. The Phoswich systems, kept inside the low background steel room in an optimum counting geometry, has resulted in a higher efficiency value and lesser MDA for 40 K compared to whole body counters (4 inch x 3 inch NaI(Tl) - scanning geometry) due to increased counting time and reduced background in steel room. This paper discusses about calibration, body potassium measurement, its correlation with parameters like gender and the results obtained

  10. Bread Water Content Measurement Based on Hyperspectral Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhi; Møller, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    for bread quality based on near-infrared hyperspectral imaging against the conventional manual loss-in-weight method. For this purpose, the hyperspectral components unmixing technology is used for measuring the water content quantitatively. And the definition on bread water content index is presented......Water content is one of the most important properties of the bread for tasting assesment or store monitoring. Traditional bread water content measurement methods mostly are processed manually, which is destructive and time consuming. This paper proposes an automated water content measurement...

  11. Micro-vision-based displacement measurement with high accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qinghua; Zhang, Xianmin; Fan, Yanbin

    2011-12-01

    The micro-motion stages are widely used in micro/nano manufacturing technology. In this paper, an integrated approach for measuring micro-displacement of micro-motion stage that incorporates motion estimation algorithm into the computer microvision is proposed. At first, the basic principle of the computer microvision measurement is analyzed. Then, a robust multiscale motion estimation algorithm for micro-motion measurement is proposed. Finally, the microdisplacement of the micro-motion stage based on the piezoelectric ceramic actuators and the compliant mechanisms is measured using the integrated approach. The maximal bias of the proposed approach reached 13 nm. Experimental results show that the new integrated method can measure micro-displacement with nanometer accuracy.

  12. Image based method for aberration measurement of lithographic tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuang; Tao, Bo; Guo, Yongxing; Li, Gongfa

    2018-01-01

    Information of lens aberration of lithographic tools is important as it directly affects the intensity distribution in the image plane. Zernike polynomials are commonly used for a mathematical description of lens aberrations. Due to the advantage of lower cost and easier implementation of tools, image based measurement techniques have been widely used. Lithographic tools are typically partially coherent systems that can be described by a bilinear model, which entails time consuming calculations and does not lend a simple and intuitive relationship between lens aberrations and the resulted images. Previous methods for retrieving lens aberrations in such partially coherent systems involve through-focus image measurements and time-consuming iterative algorithms. In this work, we propose a method for aberration measurement in lithographic tools, which only requires measuring two images of intensity distribution. Two linear formulations are derived in matrix forms that directly relate the measured images to the unknown Zernike coefficients. Consequently, an efficient non-iterative solution is obtained.

  13. Drone based measurement system for radiofrequency exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Wout; Aerts, Sam; Vandenbossche, Matthias; Thielens, Arno; Martens, Luc

    2016-03-10

    For the first time, a method to assess radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure of the general public in real environments with a true free-space antenna system is presented. Using lightweight electronics and multiple antennas placed on a drone, it is possible to perform exposure measurements. This technique will enable researchers to measure three-dimensional RF-EMF exposure patterns accurately in the future and at locations currently difficult to access. A measurement procedure and appropriate measurement settings have been developed. As an application, outdoor measurements are performed as a function of height up to 60 m for Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) 900 MHz base station exposure. Bioelectromagnetics. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A complex network-based importance measure for mechatronics systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhui; Bi, Lifeng; Lin, Shuai; Li, Man; Shi, Hao

    2017-01-01

    In view of the negative impact of functional dependency, this paper attempts to provide an alternative importance measure called Improved-PageRank (IPR) for measuring the importance of components in mechatronics systems. IPR is a meaningful extension of the centrality measures in complex network, which considers usage reliability of components and functional dependency between components to increase importance measures usefulness. Our work makes two important contributions. First, this paper integrates the literature of mechatronic architecture and complex networks theory to define component network. Second, based on the notion of component network, a meaningful IPR is brought into the identifying of important components. In addition, the IPR component importance measures, and an algorithm to perform stochastic ordering of components due to the time-varying nature of usage reliability of components and functional dependency between components, are illustrated with a component network of bogie system that consists of 27 components.

  15. Forecasting method in multilateration accuracy based on laser tracker measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguado, Sergio; Santolaria, Jorge; Samper, David; José Aguilar, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Multilateration based on a laser tracker (LT) requires the measurement of a set of points from three or more positions. Although the LTs’ angular information is not used, multilateration produces a volume of measurement uncertainty. This paper presents two new coefficients from which to determine whether the measurement of a set of points, before performing the necessary measurements, will improve or worsen the accuracy of the multilateration results, avoiding unnecessary measurement, and reducing the time and economic cost required. The first specific coefficient measurement coefficient (MC LT ) is unique for each laser tracker. It determines the relationship between the radial and angular laser tracker measurement noise. Similarly, the second coefficient is related with specific conditions of measurement β . It is related with the spatial angle between the laser tracker positions α and its effect on error reduction. Both parameters MC LT and β are linked in error reduction limits. Beside these, a new methodology to determine the multilateration reduction limit according to the multilateration technique of an ideal laser tracker distribution and a random one are presented. It provides general rules and advice from synthetic tests that are validated through a real test carried out in a coordinate measurement machine. (paper)

  16. Effect of BMI on Knee Joint Torques in Ergometer Rowing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roemer, Karen; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Richter, Chris; Munoz-Maldonado, Yolanda; Hamilton, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Although an authoritative panel recommended the use of ergometer rowing as a non-weight-bearing form of exercise for obese adults, the biomechanical characterization of ergometer rowing is strikingly absent. We examined the interaction between body mass index (BMI) relative to the lower extremity

  17. Differences in the association between childhood trauma and BMI in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However,independent of BMI group, there were significant differences in socioeconomic status (SES) between black and white women (P<0.01). Total CTQ score, as well as the sub-scales, physical and emotional neglect, and physical and sexual abuse were higher in black than white women (all P<0.05), but these scores ...

  18. Trends in BMI of urban Australian adults, 1980-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walls, Helen L; Wolfe, Rory; Haby, Michelle M

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse changes in the distribution of BMI in Australia between 1980 and 2000. DESIGN: Data were from the 1980, 1983 and 1989 National Heart Foundation Risk Factor Prevalence Study, the 1995 National Nutrition Survey and the 1999/2000 Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study...

  19. BMI predicts exercise induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic boys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, Wilma J.; Driessen, Jean M. M.; Kersten, Elin T. G.; van Leeuwen, Janneke C.; Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein G. J.; van Aalderen, Wim M. C.; Thio, Bernard J.

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundExercise induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is a frustrating morbidity of asthma in children. Obesity has been associated with asthma and with more severe EIB in asthmatic children. ObjectivesTo quantify the effect of BMI on the risk of the occurrence of EIB in children with asthma.

  20. BMI and depressive symptoms: the role of media pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Amy J; Cotter, Elizabeth W; Snipes, Daniel J; Benotsch, Eric G

    2013-12-01

    Obese and overweight individuals experience higher risk for depression and emotional distress. One factor that may contribute to depression in obese or overweight individuals is exposure to unrealistic images in the media. Indeed, overall media consumption is associated with body image dissatisfaction in adolescents and young adults. Despite these compelling links, prior work has not examined the mediating effect of media pressures on the link between BMI and depression. In the present study, young adults (N = 743) completed an online survey assessing demographic information, perceived pressure from the media to conform to a certain body standard, and symptoms of depression. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated a direct effect of BMI on media pressure, a direct effect of media pressure on depressive symptoms, and an indirect effect of BMI on depressive symptoms mediated by media pressures. Findings indicate that higher BMI levels are associated with greater depressive symptoms when there is greater perceived media pressure on body image. Results suggest the need for clinicians to assess media consumption and perceived pressure to conform to physical appearance standards in individuals who are obese or overweight as well as individuals at risk for eating disorders. © 2013.

  1. Brain–muscle interface: The next-generation BMI

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-05-16

    muscle interface: The next-generation BMI. Radhika Rajan Neeraj Jain. Volume 36 Issue 2 June 2011 pp 201-203. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/036/02/0201- ...

  2. The Prevalence of Obesity as Indicated by BMI and Waist ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in most developed countries and in urban areas of many less developed countries has been increasing markedly over the past twenty years. This study\\'s aims were to determine the prevalence of obesity using BMI and waist circumference among Nigerian adults ...

  3. BMI predicts exercise induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic boys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, Wilma J.; Driessen, Jean M. M.; Kersten, Elin T. G.; van Leeuwen, Janneke C.; Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein G. J.; van Aalderen, Wim M. C.; Thio, Bernard J.

    Background: Exercise induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is a frustrating morbidity of asthma in children. Obesity has been associated with asthma and with more severe EIB in asthmatic children. Objectives: To quantify the effect of BMI on the risk of the occurrence of EIB in children with asthma.

  4. Pattern of body mass index (BMI) among adult hypertensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent times Asaba – the capital of Delta State, Nigeria – is witnessing a rapid growth in urbanization and fast food eateries. Several studies have shown that Blood Pressure (BP) is directly associated with Body Mass Index (BMI) in populations worldwide. However, some variations exist in the pattern of the association ...

  5. A comparative study on different BMI category and physical fitness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study on different BMI category and physical fitness health related component of sedentary male youth in Terengganu. V Eswaramoorthi, M.R. Abdullah, H Juahir, A.B.H.M. Maliki, R.M. Musa, N.A. Kosni, N Alias, N.B. Raj, S.M.M. Rasid, A Adnan ...

  6. Clipboard: Brain–muscle interface: The next-generation BMI

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-05-16

    muscle interface: The next-generation BMI. Radhika Rajan Neeraj Jain. Volume 36 Issue 2 June 2011 pp 201-203. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/036/02/0201- ...

  7. SemioSem: A Semiotic-Based Similarity Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimé, Xavier; Furst, Frédéric; Kuntz, Pascale; Trichet, Francky

    This paper introduces a new similarity measure called SemioSem. The first originality of this measure, which is defined in the context of a semiotic-based approach, is to consider the three dimensions of the conceptualization underlying a domain ontology: the intension (i.e. the properties used to define the concepts), the extension (i.e. the instances of the concepts) and the expression (i.e. the terms used to denote both the concepts and the instances). Thus, SemioSem aims at aggregating and improving existing extensional-based and intensional-based measures, with an original expressional one. The second originality of this measure is to be context-sensitive, and in particular user-sensitive. Indeed, SemioSem is based on multiple informations sources: (1) a textual corpus, validated by the end-user, which must reflect the domain underlying the ontology which is considered, (2) a set of instances known by the end-user, (3) an ontology enriched with the perception of the end-user on how each property associated to a concept c is important for defining c and (4) the emotional state of the end-user. The importance of each source can be modulated according to the context of use and SemioSem remains valid even if one of the source is missing. This makes our measure more flexible, more robust and more close to the end-user's judgment than the other similarity measures which are usually only based on one aspect of a conceptualization and never take the end-user's perceptions and purposes into account.

  8. Measurement channel of neutron flow based on software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivero G, T.; Benitez R, J. S.

    2008-01-01

    The measurement of the thermal power in nuclear reactors is based mainly on the measurement of the neutron flow. The presence of these in the reactor core is associated to neutrons released by the fission reaction of the uranium-235. Once moderate, these neutrons are precursors of new fissions. This process it is known like chain reaction. Thus, the power to which works a nuclear reactor, he is proportional to the number of produced fissions and as these depend on released neutrons, also the power is proportional to the number of present neutrons. The measurement of the thermal power in a reactor is realized with called instruments nuclear channels. To low power (level source), these channels measure the individual counts of detected neutrons, whereas to a medium and high power, they measure the electrical current or fluctuation of the same one that generate the fission neutrons in ionization chambers especially designed to detect neutrons. For the case of TRIGA reactors, the measurement channels of neutron flow use discreet digital electronic technology makes some decades already. Recently new technological tools have arisen that allow developing new versions of nuclear channels of simple form and compacts. The present work consists of the development of a nuclear channel for TRIGA reactors based on the use of the correlated signal of a fission chamber for ample interval. This new measurement channel uses a data acquisition card of high speed and the data processing by software that to the being installed in a computer is created a virtual instrument, with what spreads in real time, in graphic and understandable form for the operator, the power indication to which it operates the nuclear reactor. This system when being based on software, offers a major versatility to realize changes in the signal processing and power monitoring algorithms. The experimental tests of neutronic power measurement show a reliable performance through seven decades of power, with a

  9. Difficulty buying food, BMI, and eating habits in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Anne; Maguire, Jonathon L; Carsley, Sarah; Chen, Yang; Lebovic, Gerald; Omand, Jessica; Parkin, Patricia; Birken, Catherine S

    2018-01-22

    To determine whether parent report of difficulty buying food was associated with child body mass index (BMI) z-score or with eating habits in young children. This was a cross-sectional study in primary care offices in Toronto, Ontario. Subjects were children aged 1-5 years and their caregivers, recruited through the TARGet Kids! Research Network from July 2008 to August 2011. Regression models were developed to test the association between parent report of difficulty buying food because of cost and the following outcomes: child BMI z-score, parent's report of child's intake of fruit and vegetables, fruit juice and sweetened beverages, and fast food. Confounders included child's age, sex, birth weight, maternal BMI, education, ethnicity, immigration status, and neighbourhood income. The study sample consisted of 3333 children. Data on difficulty buying food were available for 3099 children, and 431 of these (13.9%) were from households reporting difficulty buying food. There was no association with child BMI z-score (p = 0.86). Children from households reporting difficulty buying food (compared with never having difficulty buying food) had increased odds of consuming three or fewer servings of fruits and vegetables per day (odds ratio [OR]: 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.69), more than one serving of fruit juice/sweetened beverage per day (OR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.28-2.00), and, among children 1-2 years old, one or more servings of fast food per week (OR: 2.91, 95% CI: 1.67-5.08). Parental report of difficulty buying food is associated with less optimal eating habits in children but not with BMI z-score.

  10. Impact of physician BMI on obesity care and beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N; Bennett, Wendy L; Gudzune, Kimberly A; Cooper, Lisa A

    2012-05-01

    Using a national cross-sectional survey of 500 primary care physicians conducted between 9 February and 1 March 2011, the objective of this study was to assess the impact of physician BMI on obesity care, physician self-efficacy, perceptions of role-modelpan>ing weight-related health behaviors, and perceptions of patient trust in weight loss advice. We found that physicians with normal BMI were more likely to engage their obese patients in weight loss discussions as compared to overweight/obese physicians (30% vs. 18%, P = 0.010). Physicians with normal BMI had greater confidence in their ability to provide diet (53% vs. 37%, P = 0.002) and exercise counseling (56% vs. 38%, P = 0.001) to their obese patients. A higher percentage of normal BMI physicians believed that overweight/obese patients would be less likely to trust weight loss advice from overweight/obese doctors (80% vs. 69%, P = 0.02). Physicians in the normal BMI category were more likely to believe that physicians should model healthy weight-related behaviors-maintaining a healthy weight (72% vs. 56%, P = 0.002) and exercising regularly (73% vs. 57%, P = 0.001). The probability of a physician recording an obesity diagnosis (93% vs. 7%, P < 0.001) or initiating a weight loss conversation (89% vs. 11%, P ≤ 0.001) with their obese patients was higher when the physicians' perception of the patients' body weight met or exceeded their own personal body weight. These results suggest that more normal weight physicians provided recommended obesity care to their patients and felt confident doing so.

  11. Integrated method for the measurement of trace nitrogenous atmospheric bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Key

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogenous atmospheric bases are thought to play a key role in the global nitrogen cycle, but their sources, transport, and sinks remain poorly understood. Of the many methods available to measure such compounds in ambient air, few meet the current need of being applicable to the complete range of potential analytes and fewer still are convenient to implement using instrumentation that is standard to most laboratories. In this work, an integrated approach to measuring trace, atmospheric, gaseous nitrogenous bases has been developed and validated. The method uses a simple acid scrubbing step to capture and concentrate the bases as their phosphite salts, which then are derivatized and analyzed using GC/MS and/or LC/MS. The advantages of both techniques in the context of the present measurements are discussed. The approach is sensitive, selective, reproducible, as well as convenient to implement and has been validated for different sampling strategies. The limits of detection for the families of tested compounds are suitable for ambient measurement applications (e.g., methylamine, 1 pptv; ethylamine, 2 pptv; morpholine, 1 pptv; aniline, 1 pptv; hydrazine, 0.1 pptv; methylhydrazine, 2 pptv, as supported by field measurements in an urban park and in the exhaust of on-road vehicles.

  12. Comparison of Satellite based Ion Density Measurements with Digisonde electron density measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, G.; Balthazor, R. L.; Reinisch, B. W.; McHarg, M.; Maldonado, C.

    2017-12-01

    The integrated Miniaturized Electrostatic Analyzer (IMESA) flying on the STPSat-3 satellite has collected more than 3 years of ion density data. This instrument is the first in a constellation of up to 6 instruments. We plan on integrating the data from all IMESAs into an approiate ionospheric model. OUr first step is to validate the IMESA data and calibrate the instrument. In this presentation we discuss our process for preparing IMESA data and comparing it to ground based measurements. Lastly, we present a number of comparisons between IMESA ion density measurements and digisonde electron density measurements.

  13. Resource management in Diffserv measurement-based admission control PHR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westberg, L.; Heijenk, Geert; Karagiannis, Georgios; Oosthoek, S.; Partain, D.; Rexhepi, Vlora; Szabo, R.; Wallentin, P.; El Allali, H.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this draft is to present the Resource Management in Diffserv (RMD) Measurement-Based Admission Control (RIMA) Per Hop Reservation (PHR) protocol. The RIMA PHR protocol is used on a per-hop basis in a Differentiated Services (Diffserv) domain and extends the Diffserv Per Hop Behavior

  14. Measurement model equivalence in web- and paper-based surveys

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    N. Martins is in the Department of Industrial and Organisational Psychology, University of South Africa. E-mail: ... settings and, of course, the general survey and survey research industry. The use of ...... Chi-square based fi t indices for invariance tests on measures of 'Operational issues and job satisfaction'. D e gre e s of fre.

  15. A SHARC based ROB Complex : design and measurement results

    CERN Document Server

    Boterenbrood, H; Kieft, G; Scholte, R; Slopsema, R; Vermeulen, J C

    2000-01-01

    ROB hardware, based on and exploiting the properties of the SHARC DSP and of FPGAs, and the associated software are described. Results from performance measurements and an analysis of the results for a single ROBIn as well as for a ROB Complex with up to 4 ROBIns are presented.

  16. Metrology of human-based and other qualitative measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendrill, Leslie; Petersson, Niclas

    2016-09-01

    The metrology of human-based and other qualitative measurements is in its infancy—concepts such as traceability and uncertainty are as yet poorly developed. This paper reviews how a measurement system analysis approach, particularly invoking as performance metric the ability of a probe (such as a human being) acting as a measurement instrument to make a successful decision, can enable a more general metrological treatment of qualitative observations. Measures based on human observations are typically qualitative, not only in sectors, such as health care, services and safety, where the human factor is obvious, but also in customer perception of traditional products of all kinds. A principal challenge is that the usual tools of statistics normally employed for expressing measurement accuracy and uncertainty will probably not work reliably if relations between distances on different portions of scales are not fully known, as is typical of ordinal or other qualitative measurements. A key enabling insight is to connect the treatment of decision risks associated with measurement uncertainty to generalized linear modelling (GLM). Handling qualitative observations in this way unites information theory, the perceptive identification and choice paradigms of psychophysics. The Rasch invariant measure psychometric GLM approach in particular enables a proper treatment of ordinal data; a clear separation of probe and item attribute estimates; simple expressions for instrument sensitivity; etc. Examples include two aspects of the care of breast cancer patients, from diagnosis to rehabilitation. The Rasch approach leads in turn to opportunities of establishing metrological references for quality assurance of qualitative measurements. In psychometrics, one could imagine a certified reference for knowledge challenge, for example, a particular concept in understanding physics or for product quality of a certain health care service. Multivariate methods, such as Principal Component

  17. Metrology of human-based and other qualitative measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendrill, Leslie; Petersson, Niclas

    2016-01-01

    The metrology of human-based and other qualitative measurements is in its infancy—concepts such as traceability and uncertainty are as yet poorly developed. This paper reviews how a measurement system analysis approach, particularly invoking as performance metric the ability of a probe (such as a human being) acting as a measurement instrument to make a successful decision, can enable a more general metrological treatment of qualitative observations. Measures based on human observations are typically qualitative, not only in sectors, such as health care, services and safety, where the human factor is obvious, but also in customer perception of traditional products of all kinds. A principal challenge is that the usual tools of statistics normally employed for expressing measurement accuracy and uncertainty will probably not work reliably if relations between distances on different portions of scales are not fully known, as is typical of ordinal or other qualitative measurements. A key enabling insight is to connect the treatment of decision risks associated with measurement uncertainty to generalized linear modelling (GLM). Handling qualitative observations in this way unites information theory, the perceptive identification and choice paradigms of psychophysics. The Rasch invariant measure psychometric GLM approach in particular enables a proper treatment of ordinal data; a clear separation of probe and item attribute estimates; simple expressions for instrument sensitivity; etc. Examples include two aspects of the care of breast cancer patients, from diagnosis to rehabilitation. The Rasch approach leads in turn to opportunities of establishing metrological references for quality assurance of qualitative measurements. In psychometrics, one could imagine a certified reference for knowledge challenge, for example, a particular concept in understanding physics or for product quality of a certain health care service. Multivariate methods, such as Principal Component

  18. Plastic optical fiber level measurement sensor based on side holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young June; Shin, Jong-Dug; Park, Jaehee

    2014-10-01

    Plastic optical fiber level measurement sensor based on in-line side holes is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The sensor consists of a plastic optical fiber with in-line side holes spaced about 5 cm apart. The 0.9 diameter in-line side holes were fabricated by micro-drilling. An analytical expression of the sensor transmittance was obtained using a simple ray optics approach. The measurements of the sensor transmittance were performed with a 55 cm height Mass cylinder. Both results show that the sensor transmittance increases as the number of side holes filled with water increases. The research results indicate that the plastic optical fiber based on in-line side holes can be used for water level measurement.

  19. Visual Peoplemeter: A Vision-based Television Audience Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SKELIN, A. K.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Visual peoplemeter is a vision-based measurement system that objectively evaluates the attentive behavior for TV audience rating, thus offering solution to some of drawbacks of current manual logging peoplemeters. In this paper, some limitations of current audience measurement system are reviewed and a novel vision-based system aiming at passive metering of viewers is prototyped. The system uses camera mounted on a television as a sensing modality and applies advanced computer vision algorithms to detect and track a person, and to recognize attentional states. Feasibility of the system is evaluated on a secondary dataset. The results show that the proposed system can analyze viewer's attentive behavior, therefore enabling passive estimates of relevant audience measurement categories.

  20. Observer-based Coal Mill Control using Oxygen Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; S., Tom

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach to coal flow estimation in pulverized coal mills, which utilizes measurements of oxygen content in the flue gas. Pulverized coal mills are typically not equipped with sensors that detect the amount of coal injected into the furnace. This makes control...... into the furnace and oxygen concentration in the flue gas is designed to estimate the actual coal flow injected into the furnace. With this estimate, it becomes possible to close an inner loop around the coal mill itself, thus giving a better disturbance rejection capability. The approach is validated against...... of the coal flow difficult, causing stability problems and limits the plant's load following capabilities. To alleviate this problem without having to rely on expensive flow measurement equipment, a novel observer-based approach is investigated. A Kalman filter based on measurements of combustion air flow led...

  1. An electron density measurement using an analyzer based imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bewer, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Using a monochromatic X-ray beam from a synchrotron source the electron density of a homogeneous target was determined by measuring the refraction that occurs at the air-target interface for a known angle of incidence. The angle of deviation that these X-rays undergo at the transition between materials is micro-radian to submicro-radian in scale. Existing analyzer based imaging systems are designed to measure submicro-radian angle changes and commonly use monochromatic hard X-ray beams generated from synchrotron sources. A preliminary experiment using the analyzer based imaging apparatus at the Canadian Light Source Biomedical Imaging and Therapy beamline and a half cylinder shaped plastic target will be presented. By measuring the angle of deviation of the photon beam at several discrete angular positions of the target the electron density of the target material was determined.

  2. Measuring Care Continuity: A Comparison of Claims-based Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Craig E; Hussey, Peter S; Rudin, Robert S; Fox, D Steven; Lai, Julie; Schneider, Eric C

    2016-05-01

    Assessing care continuity is important in evaluating the impact of health care reform and changes to health care delivery. Multiple measures of care continuity have been developed for use with claims data. This study examined whether alternative continuity measures provide distinct assessments of coordination within predefined episodes of care. This was a retrospective cohort study using 2008-2009 claims files for a national 5% sample of beneficiaries with congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and diabetes mellitus. Correlations among 4 measures of care continuity-the Bice-Boxerman Continuity of Care Index, Herfindahl Index, usual provider of care, and Sequential Continuity of Care Index-were derived at the provider- and practice-levels. Across the 3 conditions, results on 4 claims-based care coordination measures were highly correlated at the provider-level (Pearson correlation coefficient r=0.87-0.98) and practice-level (r=0.75-0.98). Correlation of the results was also high for the same measures between the provider- and practice-levels (r=0.65-0.92). Claims-based care continuity measures are all highly correlated with one another within episodes of care.

  3. ICF-based classification and measurement of functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, G; Kostanjsek, N; Ustün, B; Cieza, A

    2008-09-01

    If we aim towards a comprehensive understanding of human functioning and the development of comprehensive programs to optimize functioning of individuals and populations we need to develop suitable measures. The approval of the International Classification, Disability and Health (ICF) in 2001 by the 54th World Health Assembly as the first universally shared model and classification of functioning, disability and health marks, therefore an important step in the development of measurement instruments and ultimately for our understanding of functioning, disability and health. The acceptance and use of the ICF as a reference framework and classification has been facilitated by its development in a worldwide, comprehensive consensus process and the increasing evidence regarding its validity. However, the broad acceptance and use of the ICF as a reference framework and classification will also depend on the resolution of conceptual and methodological challenges relevant for the classification and measurement of functioning. This paper therefore describes first how the ICF categories can serve as building blocks for the measurement of functioning and then the current state of the development of ICF based practical tools and international standards such as the ICF Core Sets. Finally it illustrates how to map the world of measures to the ICF and vice versa and the methodological principles relevant for the transformation of information obtained with a clinical test or a patient-oriented instrument to the ICF as well as the development of ICF-based clinical and self-reported measurement instruments.

  4. Microcontroller Power Consumption Measurement Based on PSoC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Janković

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Microcontrollers are often used as central processing elements in embedded systems. Because of different sleep and performance modes that microcontrollers support, their power consumption may have a high dynamic range, over 100 dB. In this paper, a data acquisition (DAQ system for measuring and analyzing the power consumption of microcontrollers is presented. DAQ system consists of a current measurement circuit using potentiostat technique, a DAQ device based on system on chip PSoC 5LP and Python PC program for the analysis, storage and visualization of measured data. Both Successive Approximation Register (SAR and Delta-Sigma (DS ADCs contained in the PSoC 5LP are used for measuring voltage drop across the shunt resistor. SAR ADC samples data at a 10 times higher rate than DS ADC, so the input range of DS ADC can be adjusted based on data measured by SAR ADC, thus enabling the extension of current measuring range by 28%. Implemented DAQ device is connected with a computer through a USB port and tested with developed Python PC program.

  5. Maternal prepregnancy waist circumference and BMI in relation to gestational weight gain and breastfeeding behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Helene; Nohr, Ellen A; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that gestational weight gain (GWG) and breastfeeding behavior may influence long-term maternal abdominal fat mass. However, this could be confounded by abdominal fat mass before pregnancy because it is unknown whether abdominal fat mass, independently of body size......, affects GWG and breastfeeding behavior. OBJECTIVE: We investigated how maternal prepregnancy fat distribution, described by waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI), is associated with GWG and breastfeeding behavior. DESIGN: We analyzed 1371 live births to 1024 women after enrollment...... in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study (1985-1996). For each birth, maternal prepregnancy BMI and WC were measured at year 0 (baseline), 2, 5, or 7 examinations. Recalled GWG and breastfeeding behavior were collected at years 7 and 10. GWG was analyzed by using linear regression...

  6. Monitoring cure properties of out-of-autoclave BMI composites using IFPI sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amardeep; Anandan, Sudharshan; Yuan, Lei; Watkins, Steve E.; Chandrashekhara, K.; Xiao, Hai; Phan, Nam

    2016-04-01

    A non-destructive technique for inspection of a Bismaleimide (BMI) composite is presented using an optical fiber sensor. High performance BMI composites are used for Aerospace application for their mechanical strength. They are also used as an alternative to toughened epoxy resins. A femtosecond-laser-inscribed Intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer (IFPI) sensor is used to perform real time cure monitoring of a BMI composite. The composite is cured using the out-of-autoclave (OOA) process. The IFPI sensor was used for in-situ monitoring; different curing stages are analyzed throughout the curing process. Temperature-induced-strain was measured to analyze the cure properties. The IFPI structure comprises of two reflecting mirrors inscribed on the core of the fiber using a femtosecond-laser manufacturing process. The manufacturing process makes the sensor thermally stable and robust for embedded applications. The sensor can withstand very high temperatures of up to 850 °C. The temperature and strain sensitivities of embedded IFPI sensor were measured to be 1.4 pm/μepsilon and 0.6 pm/μepsilon respectively.

  7. Maternal BMI, IGF-I Levels, and Birth Weight in African American and White Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana C. Vidal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At birth, elevated IGF-I levels have been linked to birth weight extremes; high birth weight and low birth weight are risk factors for adult-onset chronic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. We examined associations between plasma IGF-I levels and birth weight among infants born to African American and White obese and nonobese women. Prepregnancy weight and height were assessed among 251 pregnant women and anthropometric measurements of full term infants (≥37 weeks of gestation were taken at birth. Circulating IGF-I was measured by ELISA in umbilical cord blood plasma. Linear regression models were utilized to examine associations between birth weight and high IGF-I, using the bottom two tertiles as referents. Compared with infants with lower IGF-I levels (≤3rd tertile, those with higher IGF-I levels (>3rd tertile were 130 g heavier at birth, (β-coefficient=230, se=58.0, P=0.0001, after adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, gestational age, delivery route, maternal BMI and smoking. Stratified analyses suggested that these associations are more pronounced in infants born to African American women and women with BMI ≥30 kg/m2; the cross product term for IGF-I and maternal BMI was statistically significant (P≤0.0004. Our findings suggest that the association between IGF-I levels and birth weight depends more on maternal obesity than African American race/ethnicity.

  8. Exploring the Dietary Patterns of Young New Zealand Women and Associations with BMI and Body Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna K. Schrijvers

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Examining dietary patterns provides an alternative approach to investigating dietary behaviors related to excess adiposity. The study aim was to investigate dietary patterns and body composition profiles of New Zealand European (NZE women, participating in the women’s EXPLORE (Examining the Predictors Linking Obesity Related Elements study. Post-menarche, pre-menopausal NZE women (16–45 years (n = 231 completed a validated 220-item, self-administrated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI was calculated using measured height (cm and weight (kg; body fat percentage (BF% was measured using air displacement plethysmography (BodPod. Dietary patterns were identified using principal component factor analysis. Associations between dietary patterns, age, BMI and BF% were investigated. Four dietary patterns were identified: snacking; energy-dense meat; fruit and vegetable; healthy, which explained 6.9%, 6.8%, 5.6% and 4.8% of food intake variation, respectively. Age (p = 0.012 and BMI (p = 0.016 were positively associated with the “energy-dense meat” pattern. BF% (p = 0.016 was positively associated with the “energy-dense meat” pattern after adjusting for energy intake. The women following the identified dietary patterns had carbohydrate intakes below and saturated fat intakes above recommended guidelines. Dietary patterns in NZE women explain only some variations in body composition. Further research should examine other potential factors including physical activity and socioeconomic status.

  9. Does the sex of one's co-twin affect height and BMI in adulthood?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogl, Leonie H; Jelenkovic, Aline; Vuoksimaa, Eero

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The comparison of traits in twins from opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) dizygotic twin pairs is considered a proxy measure of prenatal hormone exposure. To examine possible prenatal hormonal influences on anthropometric traits, we compared mean height, body mass index (BMI), and th......BACKGROUND: The comparison of traits in twins from opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) dizygotic twin pairs is considered a proxy measure of prenatal hormone exposure. To examine possible prenatal hormonal influences on anthropometric traits, we compared mean height, body mass index (BMI...... the age of 20 years from 31 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. Zygosity was determined by questionnaires or DNA genotyping depending on the study. Multiple regression and logistic regression models adjusted for cohort, age, and birth year with the twin type as a predictor were carried out to compare...... height and BMI in twins from OS pairs with those from SS pairs and to calculate the adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for being overweight or obese. RESULTS: OS females were, on average, 0.31 cm (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.20, 0.41) taller than SS females. OS males were also...

  10. Event- and interval-based measurement of stuttering: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Ana Rita S; Jesus, Luis M T; Hall, Andreia; Leahy, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Event- and interval-based measurements are two different ways of computing frequency of stuttering. Interval-based methodology emerged as an alternative measure to overcome problems associated with reproducibility in the event-based methodology. No review has been made to study the effect of methodological factors in interval-based absolute reliability data or to compute the agreement between the two methodologies in terms of inter-judge, intra-judge and accuracy (i.e., correspondence between raters' scores and an established criterion). To provide a review related to reproducibility of event-based and time-interval measurement, and to verify the effect of methodological factors (training, experience, interval duration, sample presentation order and judgment conditions) on agreement of time-interval measurement; in addition, to determine if it is possible to quantify the agreement between the two methodologies The first two authors searched for articles on ERIC, MEDLINE, PubMed, B-on, CENTRAL and Dissertation Abstracts during January-February 2013 and retrieved 495 articles. Forty-eight articles were selected for review. Content tables were constructed with the main findings. Articles related to event-based measurements revealed values of inter- and intra-judge greater than 0.70 and agreement percentages beyond 80%. The articles related to time-interval measures revealed that, in general, judges with more experience with stuttering presented significantly higher levels of intra- and inter-judge agreement. Inter- and intra-judge values were beyond the references for high reproducibility values for both methodologies. Accuracy (regarding the closeness of raters' judgements with an established criterion), intra- and inter-judge agreement were higher for trained groups when compared with non-trained groups. Sample presentation order and audio/video conditions did not result in differences in inter- or intra-judge results. A duration of 5 s for an interval appears to be

  11. Towards minimal resources of measurement-based quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdrix, Simon

    2007-01-01

    We improve the upper bound on the minimal resources required for measurement-only quantum computation (M A Nielsen 2003 Phys. Rev. A 308 96-100; D W Leung 2004 Int. J. Quantum Inform. 2 33; S Perdrix 2005 Int. J. Quantum Inform. 3 219-23). Minimizing the resources required for this model is a key issue for experimental realization of a quantum computer based on projective measurements. This new upper bound also allows one to reply in the negative to the open question presented by Perdrix (2004 Proc. Quantum Communication Measurement and Computing) about the existence of a trade-off between observable and ancillary qubits in measurement-only QC

  12. Child Abuse as a Predictor of Gendered Sexual Orientation Disparities in BMI Trajectories Among U.S. Youth from the Growing Up Today Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Hee-Jin; Corliss, Heather L.; Jackson, Benita; Haines, Jess; Austin, S. Bryn

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This research aimed to explain sexual orientation disparities in BMI by examining child abuse history, weight-related behaviors, and sociodemographics. Methods We used data from 7960 females and 5992 males from the prospective Growing Up Today Study over nine waves between 1996 (ages 12–14 years) and 2007 (ages 20–25 years). Using repeated measures of BMI (kg/m2) as a continuous outcome, gender-stratified latent quadratic growth models adjusted for child abuse history, weight-related behaviors, and sociodemographics. BMI at age 17 years (intercept) and one-year change in BMI (slope) are reported. Results Bisexual females had higher BMI at age 17 years (β = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.00, 2.18) and displayed greater one-year increases in BMI (β = .09, 95% CI = .03, .14), compared to completely heterosexual females. Gay males displayed smaller one-year increases in BMI (β = − .19, 95% CI = −.25, −.12), compared to completely heterosexual males. No sexual orientation differences in BMI at age 17 years were observed for males, but gay males’ BMI at age 25 was less than completely heterosexual males by 2 units. Among females, sexual orientation differences remained but were slightly attenuated after controlling for child abuse history, weight-related behaviors, and sociodemographics. Among males, the addition of child abuse and weight-related behaviors did not change the estimated difference in one-year BMI increases. Conclusions Sexual orientation differences in BMI were partly explained by child abuse and weight-related behaviors in females. More research is needed to explore additional drivers of these disparities among both females and males. PMID:24388110

  13. Blood Pressure Variation Throughout Pregnancy According to Early Gestational BMI: A Brazilian Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Rebelo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The maternal cardiovascular system undergoes progressive adaptations throughout pregnancy, causing blood pressure fluctuations. However, no consensus has been established on its normal variation in uncomplicated pregnancies. Objective: To describe the variation in systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP levels during pregnancy according to early pregnancy body mass index (BMI. Methods: SBP and DBP were measured during the first, second and third trimesters and at 30-45 days postpartum in a prospective cohort of 189 women aged 20-40 years. BMI (kg/m2 was measured up to the 13th gestational week and classified as normal-weight (<25.0 or excessive weight (≥25.0. Longitudinal linear mixed-effects models were used for statistical analysis. Results: A decrease in SBP and DBP was observed from the first to the second trimester (βSBP=-0.394; 95%CI: -0.600- -0.188 and βDBP=-0.617; 95%CI: -0.780- -0.454, as was an increase in SBP and DBP up to 30-45 postpartum days (βSBP=0.010; 95%CI: 0.006-0.014 and βDBP=0.015; 95%CI: 0.012-0.018. Women with excessive weight at early pregnancy showed higher mean SBP in all gestational trimesters, and higher mean DBP in the first and third trimesters. Excessive early pregnancy BMI was positively associated with prospective changes in SBP (βSBP=7.055; 95%CI: 4.499-9.610 and in DBP (βDBP=3.201; 95%CI: 1.136-5.266. Conclusion: SBP and DBP decreased from the first to the second trimester and then increased up to the postpartum period. Women with excessive early pregnancy BMI had higher SBP and DBP than their normal-weight counterparts throughout pregnancy, but not in the postpartum period.

  14. Long-term BMI and growth profiles in offspring of women with gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoud, Nurah M; Visser, Gerard H A; van Rossem, Lenie; Biesma, Douwe H; Wit, Jan M; de Valk, Harold W

    2018-05-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is reported to be associated with childhood obesity, however the magnitude of this association and relation to intrauterine growth is uncertain. We, therefore, aimed to assess whether the growth trajectories of large for gestational age (LGA) and non-LGA offspring of mothers with GDM (OGDM) are different until early adolescence. We also aimed to explore whether growth trajectories of OGDM differ from those of offspring of mothers with type 1 or 2 diabetes (ODM1, ODM2). We studied height and BMI standard deviation score (SDS) of the OGDM group, up to the age of 14 years, with subgroup analysis comparing LGA with non-LGA at birth as a reflection of the intrauterine environment. All mothers with GDM who delivered at the University Medical Center Utrecht between 1990 and 2006 were contacted to participate; informed consent was received for 104 OGDM of 93 mothers. Offspring data were collected through Dutch infant welfare centres. Recorded height and weight were converted to BMI and age- and sex-specific SDS values for Dutch children. Additionally, we compared the OGDM group with ODM1 and ODM2 groups in order to identify those offspring with the highest risk of becoming overweight. Growth trajectories were compared between non-LGA and LGA OGDM and between OGDM, ODM1 and ODM2, using a random-effects model. In the longitudinal follow-up a mean of 7.4 ± 2 measurements per infant were available. Mothers had a prepregnancy BMI of 25.8 kg/m 2 and 24% of their infants were LGA at birth. Heights of OGDM were no different from those of the Dutch Growth Study. Non-LGA OGDM showed a BMI SDS comparable with that of the reference population, with a slight increase in early adolescence. LGA OGDM had a higher BMI SDS trajectory than non-LGA OGDM and the reference population, which plateaued at around 10 years of age. Comparison of growth trajectories of OGDM, ODM1 and ODM2 showed ODM2 to have the highest trajectory followed by ODM1 and OGDM

  15. Flexible coordinate measurement system based on robot for industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yin; Yang, Xue-you; Liu, Chang-jie; Ye, Sheng-hua

    2010-10-01

    The flexible coordinate measurement system based on robot which is applicable to multi-model vehicle is designed to meet the needs of online measurement for current mainstream mixed body-in-white(BIW) production line. The moderate precision, good flexibility and no blind angle are the benefits of this measurement system. According to the measurement system, a monocular structured light vision sensor has been designed, which can measure not only edges, but also planes, apertures and other features. And a effective way to fast on-site calibration of the whole system using the laser tracker has also been proposed, which achieves the unity of various coordinate systems in industrial fields. The experimental results show satisfactory precision of +/-0.30mm of this measurement system, which is sufficient for the needs of online measurement for body-in-white(BIW) in the auto production line. The system achieves real-time detection and monitoring of the whole process of the car body's manufacture, and provides a complete data support in purpose of overcoming the manufacturing error immediately and accurately and improving the manufacturing precision.

  16. Augment clinical measurement using a constraint-based esophageal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Wenjun; Acharya, Shashank; Kahrilas, Peter; Patankar, Neelesh; Pandolfino, John

    2017-11-01

    Quantifying the mechanical properties of the esophageal wall is crucial to understanding impairments of trans-esophageal flow characteristic of several esophageal diseases. However, these data are unavailable owing to technological limitations of current clinical diagnostic instruments that instead display esophageal luminal cross sectional area based on intraluminal impedance change. In this work, we developed an esophageal model to predict bolus flow and the wall property based on clinical measurements. The model used the constraint-based immersed-boundary method developed previously by our group. Specifically, we first approximate the time-dependent wall geometry based on impedance planimetry data on luminal cross sectional area. We then fed these along with pressure data into the model and computed wall tension based on simulated pressure and flow fields, and the material property based on the strain-stress relationship. As examples, we applied this model to augment FLIP (Functional Luminal Imaging Probe) measurements in three clinical cases: a normal subject, achalasia, and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Our findings suggest that the wall stiffness was greatest in the EoE case, followed by the achalasia case, and then the normal. This is supported by NIH Grant R01 DK56033 and R01 DK079902.

  17. A flexoelectricity effect-based sensor for direct torque measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shuwen; Xu, Minglong; Liu, Kaiyuan; Shen, Shengping

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a direct torque sensor based on the flexoelectricity generated by un-polarized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) via electromechanical coupling is developed as a novel torque measurement mechanism that does not require external electric power excitation. The sensing method is developed based on the shear strain gradient and the shear flexoelectric response of PVDF. A theoretical analysis is primarily presented for the design of the sensing structure. Then the structure of the PVDF sensing module is discussed and designed. The radius ratio of the sensing module is defined and then discussed according to the load, the strain gradient, the electrode area and the general electric charge output. The finite element method is used to analyze the mechanical properties of the designed PVDF sensing module. Then the theoretical sensitivity of the sensor is predicated as 0.9441 pC Nm −1 . The experiment system setup is developed, and the sensing properties of the measurement mechanism are tested at frequencies of 0.5 Hz, 1 Hz, 1.5 Hz and 2 Hz using identical modules. The measurement range of the designed sensor is 0–1.68 Nm and the average sensitivity is measured as 0.8950 pC Nm −1 . The experimental results agree well with the theoretically predicted results. These results prove that the torque sensing method based on un-polarized PVDF is suitable for measurement of dynamic torque loads with a flexoelectricity-based mechanism. When using this method, external electric power excitation of the sensing module is no longer required. (paper)

  18. A flexoelectricity effect-based sensor for direct torque measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuwen; Xu, Minglong; Liu, Kaiyuan; Shen, Shengping

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a direct torque sensor based on the flexoelectricity generated by un-polarized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) via electromechanical coupling is developed as a novel torque measurement mechanism that does not require external electric power excitation. The sensing method is developed based on the shear strain gradient and the shear flexoelectric response of PVDF. A theoretical analysis is primarily presented for the design of the sensing structure. Then the structure of the PVDF sensing module is discussed and designed. The radius ratio of the sensing module is defined and then discussed according to the load, the strain gradient, the electrode area and the general electric charge output. The finite element method is used to analyze the mechanical properties of the designed PVDF sensing module. Then the theoretical sensitivity of the sensor is predicated as 0.9441 pC Nm-1. The experiment system setup is developed, and the sensing properties of the measurement mechanism are tested at frequencies of 0.5 Hz, 1 Hz, 1.5 Hz and 2 Hz using identical modules. The measurement range of the designed sensor is 0-1.68 Nm and the average sensitivity is measured as 0.8950 pC Nm-1. The experimental results agree well with the theoretically predicted results. These results prove that the torque sensing method based on un-polarized PVDF is suitable for measurement of dynamic torque loads with a flexoelectricity-based mechanism. When using this method, external electric power excitation of the sensing module is no longer required.

  19. Measurement of energy efficiency based on economic foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, Massimo; Hunt, Lester C.

    2015-01-01

    Energy efficiency policy is seen as a very important activity by almost all policy makers. In practical energy policy analysis, the typical indicator used as a proxy for energy efficiency is energy intensity. However, this simple indicator is not necessarily an accurate measure given changes in energy intensity are a function of changes in several factors as well as ‘true’ energy efficiency; hence, it is difficult to make conclusions for energy policy based upon simple energy intensity measures. Related to this, some published academic papers over the last few years have attempted to use empirical methods to measure the efficient use of energy based on the economic theory of production. However, these studies do not generally provide a systematic discussion of the theoretical basis nor the possible parametric empirical approaches that are available for estimating the level of energy efficiency. The objective of this paper, therefore, is to sketch out and explain from an economic perspective the theoretical framework as well as the empirical methods for measuring the level of energy efficiency. Additionally, in the second part of the paper, some of the empirical studies that have attempted to measure energy efficiency using such an economics approach are summarized and discussed.

  20. Specific Emitter Identification Based on the Natural Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang Jia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Specific emitter identification (SEI techniques are often used in civilian and military spectrum-management operations, and they are also applied to support the security and authentication of wireless communication. In this letter, a new SEI method based on the natural measure of the one-dimensional component of the chaotic system is proposed. We find that the natural measures of the one-dimensional components of higher dimensional systems exist and that they are quite diverse for different systems. Based on this principle, the natural measure is used as an RF fingerprint in this letter. The natural measure can solve the problems caused by a small amount of data and a low sample rate. The Kullback–Leibler divergence is used to quantify the difference between the natural measures obtained from diverse emitters and classify them. The data obtained from real application are exploited to test the validity of the proposed method. Experimental results show that the proposed method is not only easy to operate, but also quite effective, even though the amount of data is small and the sample rate is low.

  1. Glider based turbulence measurements in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molodtsov, S.; Anis, A.; Amon, R. M. W.; Perez-Brunius, P.

    2017-12-01

    For the first time turbulence was estimated from microstructure velocity and temperature fluctuations measured within an anticyclonic eddy originating from the Loop Current in the Gulf of Mexico during Oct. - Nov., 2016. The microstructure instrument was mounted on a G2 Webb Research ocean glider. Well defined vertical TKE dissipation rate patterns in the eddy and the surface mixed layer were clearly identified from both the velocity and temperature microstructure data. TKE dissipation rates were also estimated using Thorpe's displacement parameterization and measurements from the glider's CTD and compared to those estimated from the microstructure measurements. The directly measured turbulence patterns agreed well with those from temperature based Thorpe displacements calculated using intermediate temperature profiles following Gargett and Garner, 2008. The scaling coefficient for the parametrization was derived by fitting Thorpe scale based dissipation rates to those from the microstructure measurements. Dissipation rates ranged from 10-8 - 10-10 W/ kg at the edges and center of the eddy, respectively. The relatively high dissipation rates coincided with elevated salinity patches on the side and bottom of the eddy as has been shown in previous modeling studies. The surface mixed layer exhibited dissipation rates higher than 10-8 W kg-1 while the deep ocean dissipation rates were O(10-10) W/ kg.

  2. Evaluating airline energy efficiency: An integrated approach with Network Epsilon-based Measure and Network Slacks-based Measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xin; Cui, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on evaluating airline energy efficiency, which is firstly divided into four stages: Operations Stage, Fleet Maintenance Stage, Services Stage and Sales Stage. The new four-stage network structure of airline energy efficiency is a modification of existing models. A new approach, integrated with Network Epsilon-based Measure and Network Slacks-based Measure, is applied to assess the overall energy efficiency and divisional efficiency of 19 international airlines from 2008 to 2014. The influencing factors of airline energy efficiency are analyzed through the regression analysis. The results indicate the followings: 1. The integrated model can identify the benchmarking airlines in the overall system and stages. 2. Most airlines' energy efficiencies keep steady during the period, except for some sharply fluctuations. The efficiency decreases mainly centralized in the year 2008–2011, affected by the financial crisis in the USA. 3. The average age of fleet is positively correlated with the overall energy efficiency, and each divisional efficiency has different significant influencing factors. - Highlights: • An integrated approach with Network Epsilon-based Measure and Network Slacks-based Measure is developed. • 19 airlines' energy efficiencies are evaluated. • Garuda Indonesia has the highest overall energy efficiency.

  3. Link-Based Similarity Measures Using Reachability Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Ho Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel approach for computing link-based similarities among objects accurately by utilizing the link information pertaining to the objects involved. We discuss the problems with previous link-based similarity measures and propose a novel approach for computing link based similarities that does not suffer from these problems. In the proposed approach each target object is represented by a vector. Each element of the vector corresponds to all the objects in the given data, and the value of each element denotes the weight for the corresponding object. As for this weight value, we propose to utilize the probability of reaching from the target object to the specific object, computed using the “Random Walk with Restart” strategy. Then, we define the similarity between two objects as the cosine similarity of the two vectors. In this paper, we provide examples to show that our approach does not suffer from the aforementioned problems. We also evaluate the performance of the proposed methods in comparison with existing link-based measures, qualitatively and quantitatively, with respect to two kinds of data sets, scientific papers and Web documents. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed methods significantly outperform the existing measures.

  4. On-Line Voltage Stability Assessment based on PMU Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; P. Da Silva, Luiz C.; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method for on-line monitoring of risk voltage collapse based on synchronised phasor measurement. As there is no room for intensive computation and analysis in real-time, the method is based on the combination of off-line computation and on-line monitoring, which are correlat...... of critical buses obtained by phasor measurements are monitored in relation to the risk regions. Comprehensive studies demonstrate that the proposed method could assist operators to avoid voltage collapse events, by taking preventive or emergency actions.......This paper presents a method for on-line monitoring of risk voltage collapse based on synchronised phasor measurement. As there is no room for intensive computation and analysis in real-time, the method is based on the combination of off-line computation and on-line monitoring, which are correlated...... through statistic analysis. During the off-line analysis, a memory of high-risk situations following a pre-defined voltage stability criterion is obtained. Thereafter, basic statistics analyses are applied resulting in the definition of voltage regions. During on-line operation, voltage magnitudes...

  5. Assessing Therapist Competence: Development of a Performance-Based Measure and Its Comparison With a Web-Based Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Zafra; Doll, Helen; Bailey-Straebler, Suzanne; Bohn, Kristin; de Vries, Dian; Murphy, Rebecca; O'Connor, Marianne E; Fairburn, Christopher G

    2017-10-31

    Recent research interest in how best to train therapists to deliver psychological treatments has highlighted the need for rigorous, but scalable, means of measuring therapist competence. There are at least two components involved in assessing therapist competence: the assessment of their knowledge of the treatment concerned, including how and when to use its strategies and procedures, and an evaluation of their ability to apply such knowledge skillfully in practice. While the assessment of therapists' knowledge has the potential to be completed efficiently on the Web, the assessment of skill has generally involved a labor-intensive process carried out by clinicians, and as such, may not be suitable for assessing training outcome in certain circumstances. The aims of this study were to develop and evaluate a role-play-based measure of skill suitable for assessing training outcome and to compare its performance with a highly scalable Web-based measure of applied knowledge. Using enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT-E) for eating disorders as an exemplar, clinical scenarios for role-play assessment were developed and piloted together with a rating scheme for assessing trainee therapists' performance. These scenarios were evaluated by examining the performance of 93 therapists from different professional backgrounds and at different levels of training in implementing CBT-E. These therapists also completed a previously developed Web-based measure of applied knowledge, and the ability of the Web-based measure to efficiently predict competence on the role-play measure was investigated. The role-play measure assessed performance at implementing a range of CBT-E procedures. The majority of the therapists rated their performance as moderately or closely resembling their usual clinical performance. Trained raters were able to achieve good-to-excellent reliability for averaged competence, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from .653 to 909. The measure was

  6. Defining and Computing a Valued Based Cyber-Security Measure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aissa, Anis Ben [University of Tunis, Belvedere, Tunisia; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL; Mili, Ali [New Jersey Insitute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    In earlier work, we presented a value based measure of cybersecurity that quantifies the security of a system in concrete terms, specifically, in terms of how much each system stakeholder stands to lose (in dollars per hour of operation) as a result of security threats and system vulnerabilities; our metric varies according to the stakes that each stakeholder has in meeting each security requirement. In this paper, we discuss the specification and design of a system that collects, updates, and maintains all the information that pertains to estimating our cybersecurity measure, and offers stakeholders quantitative means to make security-related decisions.

  7. Measurement Uncertainty Analysis of the Strain Gauge Based Stabilographic Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walendziuk Wojciech

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present article describes constructing a stabilographic platform which records a standing patient’s deflection from their point of balance. The constructed device is composed of a toughen glass slab propped with 4 force sensors. Power transducers are connected to the measurement system based on a 24-bit ADC transducer which acquires slight body movements of a patient. The data is then transferred to the computer in real time and data analysis is conducted. The article explains the principle of operation as well as the algorithm of measurement uncertainty for the COP (Centre of Pressure surface (x, y.

  8. A microprocessor based picture analysis system for automatic track measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, W.; Trakowski, W.; Beer, J.; Schucht, R.

    1982-01-01

    In the last few years picture analysis became a powerful technique for measurements of nuclear tracks in plastic detectors. For this purpose rather expensive commercial systems are available. Two inexpensive microprocessor based systems with different resolution were developed. The video pictures of particles seen through a microscope are digitized in real time and the picture analysis is done by software. The microscopes are equipped with stages driven by stepping motors, which are controlled by separate microprocessors. A PDP 11/03 supervises the operation of all microprocessors and stores the measured data on its mass storage devices. (author)

  9. An ABS control logic based on wheel force measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, D.; Galvagno, E.; Ondrak, V.; van Leeuwen, B.; Vigliani, A.

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents an anti-lock braking system (ABS) control logic based on the measurement of the longitudinal forces at the hub bearings. The availability of force information allows to design a logic that does not rely on the estimation of the tyre-road friction coefficient, since it continuously tries to exploit the maximum longitudinal tyre force. The logic is designed by means of computer simulation and then tested on a specific hardware in the loop test bench: the experimental results confirm that measured wheel force can lead to a significant improvement of the ABS performances in terms of stopping distance also in the presence of road with variable friction coefficient.

  10. The correction of vibration in frequency scanning interferometry based absolute distance measurement system for dynamic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cheng; Liu, Guodong; Liu, Bingguo; Chen, Fengdong; Zhuang, Zhitao; Xu, Xinke; Gan, Yu

    2015-10-01

    Absolute distance measurement systems are of significant interest in the field of metrology, which could improve the manufacturing efficiency and accuracy of large assemblies in fields such as aircraft construction, automotive engineering, and the production of modern windmill blades. Frequency scanning interferometry demonstrates noticeable advantages as an absolute distance measurement system which has a high precision and doesn't depend on a cooperative target. In this paper , the influence of inevitable vibration in the frequency scanning interferometry based absolute distance measurement system is analyzed. The distance spectrum is broadened as the existence of Doppler effect caused by vibration, which will bring in a measurement error more than 103 times bigger than the changes of optical path difference. In order to decrease the influence of vibration, the changes of the optical path difference are monitored by a frequency stabilized laser, which runs parallel to the frequency scanning interferometry. The experiment has verified the effectiveness of this method.

  11. Developing a community-based flood resilience measurement standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Adriana; Szoenyi, Michael; Chaplowe, Scott; McQuistan, Colin; Campbell, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Given the increased attention to resilience-strengthening in international humanitarian and development work, there has been concurrent interest in its measurement and the overall accountability of "resilience strengthening" initiatives. The literature is reaching beyond the polemic of defining resilience to its measurement. Similarly, donors are increasingly expecting organizations to go beyond claiming resilience programing to measuring and showing it. However, key questions must be asked, in particular "Resilience of whom and to what?". There is no one-size-fits-all solution. The approach to measuring resilience is dependent on the audience and the purpose of the measurement exercise. Deriving a resilience measurement system needs to be based on the question it seeks to answer and needs to be specific. This session highlights key lessons from the Zurich Flood Resilience Alliance approach to develop a flood resilience measurement standard to measure and assess the impact of community based flood resilience interventions, and to inform decision-making to enhance the effectiveness of these interventions. We draw on experience in methodology development to-date, together with lessons from application in two case study sites in Latin America. Attention will be given to the use of a consistent measurement methodology for community resilience to floods over time and place; challenges to measuring a complex and dynamic phenomenon such as community resilience; methodological implications of measuring community resilience versus impact on and contribution to this goal; and using measurement and tools such as cost-benefit analysis to prioritize and inform strategic decision making for resilience interventions. The measurement tool follows the five categories of the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework and the 4Rs of complex adaptive systems - robustness, rapidity, redundancy and resourcefulness -5C-4R. A recent white paper by the Zurich Flood Resilience Alliance traces the

  12. The optimal value of BMI for the lowest risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women aged 40-88 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzek, A; Kozieł, S; Ignasiak, Z

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to establish the optimal values of the body mass index (BMI) which would indicate the most favourable preservation of the bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. The material consists of the data of 369 healthy women aged between 40 and 88 years (mean age 67.84, SD=6.70) inhabitants of Wrocław, which were followed up between 2001 and 2006. The absolute measure of bone mineral density (BMD) of the femoral neck was assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), expressed in g/(100mm(2)) and was transformed to T-score values. According to the value of BMI, the women were divided into eight groups, the reference group with value between 18.0 and 21.9kg/m(2) and seven other groups beginning with the value 22.0 with a 2-point interval. Postmenopausal status was defined according to the occurrence of menstruation within the last 360 days. The women with osteopenia and osteoporosis were pooled together and comprised the risk group, whereas the other women comprised the normal group (T-score values above -1.0). The adjusted odds ratio showed the highest value for intervals between 24.0 and 25.9 units of BMI, and the lowest value for interval 26.0-27.9 units of BMI. The Youden index showed the lowest value in the 26.0-27.9BMI kg/m(2) interval. For our sample the optimal value of BMI, with the lowest risk of osteopenia and/or osteoporosis was the value of 26.9kg/m(2). A further increase of BMI does not result in a favourable effect on the bones, it rather intensifies negative phenomena in the body resulting in the onset of many diseases. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  13. Normal values of echocardiographic measurements. A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Schvartzman

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe echocardiographic measurements and left ventricular mass in a population sample of healthy adults inhabitants of the urban region of Porto Alegre. METHODS: An analytical, observational, population-based, cross-sectional study was done. Through a multi-stage probability sample, 114 individuals were selected to be submitted to a M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiogram with color Doppler. The analyses were restricted to healthy participants. Echocardiographic measurements were described by mean, standard deviation, 95 percentile and 95% confidence limits. RESULTS: A total of 100 healthy participants, with several characteristics similar to those from the original population, had a complete and reliable echocardiographic examination. The measurements of aorta, left atrium, interventricular septum, left ventricle in systole and diastole, left posterior wall and left ventricular mass, adjusted or not for body surface area or height, were significantly higher in males. The right ventricle size was similar among the genders. Several echocardiographic measurements were within standard normal limits. Interventricular septum, left posterior wall and left ventricular mass, adjusted or not for anthropometric measurements, and aortic dimensions had lower mean and range than the reference limits. CONCLUSION: The means and estimates of distribution for the measurements of interventricular septum, left posterior wall and left ventricular mass found in this survey were lower than those indicated by the international literature and accepted as normal limits.

  14. Normal values of echocardiographic measurements. A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schvartzman, P R; Fuchs, F D; Mello, A G; Coli, M; Schvartzman, M; Moreira, L B

    2000-08-01

    To describe echocardiographic measurements and left ventricular mass in a population sample of healthy adults inhabitants of the urban region of Porto Alegre. An analytical, observational, population-based, cross-sectional study was done. Through a multi-stage probability sample, 114 individuals were selected to be submitted to a M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiogram with color Doppler. The analyses were restricted to healthy participants. Echocardiographic measurements were described by mean, standard deviation, 95 percentile and 95% confidence limits. A total of 100 healthy participants, with several characteristics similar to those from the original population, had a complete and reliable echocardiographic examination. The measurements of aorta, left atrium, interventricular septum, left ventricle in systole and diastole, left posterior wall and left ventricular mass, adjusted or not for body surface area or height, were significantly higher in males. The right ventricle size was similar among the genders. Several echocardiographic measurements were within standard normal limits. Interventricular septum, left posterior wall and left ventricular mass, adjusted or not for anthropometric measurements, and aortic dimensions had lower mean and range than the reference limits. The means and estimates of distribution for the measurements of interventricular septum, left posterior wall and left ventricular mass found in this survey were lower than those indicated by the international literature and accepted as normal limits.

  15. Observer-Based Fuel Control Using Oxygen Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Mortensen, Jan Henrik

    is constructed and validated against data obtained at the plant. A Kalman filter based on measurements of combustion air flow led into the furnace and oxygen concentration in the flue gas is designed to estimate the actual coal flow. With this estimate, it becomes possible to close an inner loop around the coal......This report describes an attempt to improve the existing control af coal mills used at the Danish power plant Nordjyllandsværket Unit 3. The coal mills are not equipped with coal flow sensors; thus an observer-based approach is investigated. A nonlinear differential equation model of the boiler...

  16. Physical activity and BMI in a nationally representative sample of children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Arlene E; Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Steiner, Michael J; Perrin, Eliana M

    2012-02-01

    To examine objectively measured physical activity levels by age, sex, and BMI for children and adolescents in a nationally representative sample. Data were from the 2003-2004 and 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, which included physical activity assessment by accelerometer and measured height and weight. The authors calculated minutes of moderate and vigorous activity. Boys were more active than girls, and activity levels were lower at older ages. Younger children met daily recommendations for physical activity, whereas older children, especially girls, did not. Typically, weight status was inversely related to activity, though differences were less apparent among boys. Underweight children were not always more active than heavier peers.

  17. A Miniature Graphene-based Biosensor for Intracellular Glucose Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, Kamran ul; Asif, Muhammad H.; Hassan, Muhammad Umair; Sandberg, Mats O.; Nur, O.; Willander, M.; Fagerholm, Siri; Strålfors, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We report on a small and simple graphene-based potentiometric sensor for the measurement of intracellular glucose concentration. A fine borosilicate glass capillary coated with graphene and subsequently immobilized with glucose oxidase (GOD) enzyme is inserted into the intracellular environment of a single human cell. The functional groups on the edge plane of graphene assist the attachment with the free amine terminals of GOD enzyme, resulting in a better immobilization. The sensor exhibits a glucose-dependent electrochemical potential against an Ag/AgCl reference microelectrode which is linear across the whole concentration range of interest (10 – 1000 μM). Glucose concentration in human fat cell measured by our graphene-based sensor is in good agreement with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy

  18. Fault Location Based on Synchronized Measurements: A Comprehensive Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Al-Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive survey on transmission and distribution fault location algorithms that utilize synchronized measurements. Algorithms based on two-end synchronized measurements and fault location algorithms on three-terminal and multiterminal lines are reviewed. Series capacitors equipped with metal oxide varistors (MOVs, when set on a transmission line, create certain problems for line fault locators and, therefore, fault location on series-compensated lines is discussed. The paper reports the work carried out on adaptive fault location algorithms aiming at achieving better fault location accuracy. Work associated with fault location on power system networks, although limited, is also summarized. Additionally, the nonstandard high-frequency-related fault location techniques based on wavelet transform are discussed. Finally, the paper highlights the area for future research.

  19. Fault location based on synchronized measurements: a comprehensive survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mohammed, A H; Abido, M A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive survey on transmission and distribution fault location algorithms that utilize synchronized measurements. Algorithms based on two-end synchronized measurements and fault location algorithms on three-terminal and multiterminal lines are reviewed. Series capacitors equipped with metal oxide varistors (MOVs), when set on a transmission line, create certain problems for line fault locators and, therefore, fault location on series-compensated lines is discussed. The paper reports the work carried out on adaptive fault location algorithms aiming at achieving better fault location accuracy. Work associated with fault location on power system networks, although limited, is also summarized. Additionally, the nonstandard high-frequency-related fault location techniques based on wavelet transform are discussed. Finally, the paper highlights the area for future research.

  20. Web service reputation evaluation based on QoS measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiteng; Shao, Zhiqing; Zheng, Hong; Zhai, Jie

    2014-01-01

    In the early service transactions, quality of service (QoS) information was published by service provider which was not always true and credible. For better verification the trust of the QoS information was provided by the Web service. In this paper, the factual QoS running data are collected by our WS-QoS measurement tool; based on these objectivity data, an algorithm compares the difference of the offered and measured quality data of the service and gives the similarity, and then a reputation evaluation method computes the reputation level of the Web service based on the similarity. The initial implementation and experiment with three Web services' example show that this approach is feasible and these values can act as the references for subsequent consumers to select the service.

  1. Modifying measures based on differential item functioning (DIF) impact analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresi, Jeanne A; Ramirez, Mildred; Jones, Richard N; Choi, Seung; Crane, Paul K

    2012-09-01

    Measure modification can impact comparability of scores across groups and settings. Changes in items can affect the percent admitting to a symptom. Using item response theory (IRT) methods, well-calibrated items can be used interchangeably, and the exact same item does not have to be administered to each respondent, theoretically permitting wider latitude in terms of modification. Recommendations regarding modifications vary, depending on the use of the measure. In the context of research, adjustments can be made at the analytic level by freeing and fixing parameters based on findings of differential item functioning (DIF). The consequences of DIF for clinical decision making depend on whether or not the patient's performance level approaches the scale decision cutpoint. High-stakes testing may require item removal or separate calibrations to ensure accurate assessment. Guidelines for modification based on DIF analyses and illustrations of the impact of adjustments are presented.

  2. Upconversion-based lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgstedt, Lasse; Fix, Andreas; Wirth, Martin

    2016-01-01

    For the first time an upconversion based detection scheme is demonstrated for lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2-concentrations, with a hard target at a range of 3 km and atmospheric backscatter from a range of similar to 450 m. The pulsed signals at 1572 nm are upconverted to 635 nm, and dete......For the first time an upconversion based detection scheme is demonstrated for lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2-concentrations, with a hard target at a range of 3 km and atmospheric backscatter from a range of similar to 450 m. The pulsed signals at 1572 nm are upconverted to 635 nm...... analyzed how the field-of-view of a receiver system, for long range detection, depends critically on the parameters for the nonlinear upconversion process, and how to optimize these parameters in future systems. (C) 2016 Optical Society of America...

  3. Fault Location Based on Synchronized Measurements: A Comprehensive Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mohammed, A. H.; Abido, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive survey on transmission and distribution fault location algorithms that utilize synchronized measurements. Algorithms based on two-end synchronized measurements and fault location algorithms on three-terminal and multiterminal lines are reviewed. Series capacitors equipped with metal oxide varistors (MOVs), when set on a transmission line, create certain problems for line fault locators and, therefore, fault location on series-compensated lines is discussed. The paper reports the work carried out on adaptive fault location algorithms aiming at achieving better fault location accuracy. Work associated with fault location on power system networks, although limited, is also summarized. Additionally, the nonstandard high-frequency-related fault location techniques based on wavelet transform are discussed. Finally, the paper highlights the area for future research. PMID:24701191

  4. Automated pavement horizontal curve measurement methods based on inertial measurement unit and 3D profiling data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenting Luo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pavement horizontal curve is designed to serve as a transition between straight segments, and its presence may cause a series of driving-related safety issues to motorists and drivers. As is recognized that traditional methods for curve geometry investigation are time consuming, labor intensive, and inaccurate, this study attempts to develop a method that can automatically conduct horizontal curve identification and measurement at network level. The digital highway data vehicle (DHDV was utilized for data collection, in which three Euler angles, driving speed, and acceleration of survey vehicle were measured with an inertial measurement unit (IMU. The 3D profiling data used for cross slope calibration was obtained with PaveVision3D Ultra technology at 1 mm resolution. In this study, the curve identification was based on the variation of heading angle, and the curve radius was calculated with kinematic method, geometry method, and lateral acceleration method. In order to verify the accuracy of the three methods, the analysis of variance (ANOVA test was applied by using the control variable of curve radius measured by field test. Based on the measured curve radius, a curve safety analysis model was used to predict the crash rates and safe driving speeds at horizontal curves. Finally, a case study on 4.35 km road segment demonstrated that the proposed method could efficiently conduct network level analysis.

  5. Complexity measurement based on information theory and kolmogorov complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Leong Ting; Terrazas, Germán; Zenil, Hector; Alexander, Cameron; Krasnogor, Natalio

    2015-01-01

    In the past decades many definitions of complexity have been proposed. Most of these definitions are based either on Shannon's information theory or on Kolmogorov complexity; these two are often compared, but very few studies integrate the two ideas. In this article we introduce a new measure of complexity that builds on both of these theories. As a demonstration of the concept, the technique is applied to elementary cellular automata and simulations of the self-organization of porphyrin molecules.

  6. Deformation Measurements of Gabion Walls Using Image Based Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Fraštia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The image based modeling finds use in applications where it is necessary to reconstructthe 3D surface of the observed object with a high level of detail. Previous experiments showrelatively high variability of the results depending on the camera type used, the processingsoftware, or the process evaluation. The authors tested the method of SFM (Structure fromMotion to determine the stability of gabion walls. The results of photogrammetricmeasurements were compared to precise geodetic point measurements.

  7. A Semantics-Based Measure of Emoji Similarity

    OpenAIRE

    Wijeratne, Sanjaya; Balasuriya, Lakshika; Sheth, Amit; Doran, Derek

    2017-01-01

    Emoji have grown to become one of the most important forms of communication on the web. With its widespread use, measuring the similarity of emoji has become an important problem for contemporary text processing since it lies at the heart of sentiment analysis, search, and interface design tasks. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the semantic similarity of emoji through embedding models that are learned over machine-readable emoji meanings in the EmojiNet knowledge base. Using e...

  8. An Improved Dissonance Measure Based on Auditory Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer; Hjortkjær, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Dissonance is an important feature in music audio analysis. We present here a dissonance model that accounts for the temporal integration of dissonant events in auditory short term memory. We compare the memory-based dissonance extracted from musical audio sequences to the response of human...... listeners. In a number of tests, the memory model predicts listener’s response better than traditional dissonance measures....

  9. Availability-based payback method for energy efficiency measures

    OpenAIRE

    Kasprowicz, Robert; Schulz, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    Energy-efficient technologies can lead to high energy and monetary savings in numerous industries. However, a lot of potential identified in industries remains untapped due to comparatively short requested payback periods. Usually, companies base the calculation of their payback period on initial investment costs in conjunction with annual monetary energy savings. Energy efficiency measures, however, often lead to synergy effects which are not taken into account. Against this background, we i...

  10. Measurement of unattached radon progeny based in electrostatic deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canoba, A.C.; Lopez, F.O.

    1999-01-01

    A method for the measurement of unattached radon progeny based on its electrostatic deposition onto wire screens, using only one pump, has been implemented and calibrated. The importance of being able of making use of this method is related with the special radiological significance that has the unattached fraction of the short-lived radon progeny. Because of this, the assessment of exposure could be directly related to dose with far greater accuracy than before. The advantages of this method are its simplicity, even with the tools needed for the sample collection, as well as the measurement instruments used. Also, the suitability of this method is enhanced by the fact that it can effectively be used with a simple measuring procedure such as the Kusnetz method. (author)

  11. Pulsed electric field sensor based on original waveform measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Liang; Wu Wei; Cheng Yinhui; Zhou Hui; Li Baozhong; Li Jinxi; Zhu Meng

    2010-01-01

    The paper introduces the differential and original waveform measurement principles for pulsed E-field, and develops an pulsed E-field sensor based on original waveform measurement along with its theoretical correction model. The sensor consists of antenna, integrator, amplifier and driver, optic-electric/electric-optic conversion module and transmission module. The time-domain calibration in TEM cell indicates that, its risetime response is shorter than 1.0 ns, and the output pulse width at 90% of the maximum amplitude is wider than 10.0 μs. The output amplitude of the sensor is linear to the electric field intensity in a dynamic range of 20 dB. The measurement capability can be extended to 10 V/m or 50 kV/m by changing the system's antenna and other relative modules. (authors)

  12. Beam based measurement of beam position monitor electrode gains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Rubin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Low emittance tuning at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR test accelerator depends on precision measurement of vertical dispersion and transverse coupling. The CESR beam position monitors (BPMs consist of four button electrodes, instrumented with electronics that allow acquisition of turn-by-turn data. The response to the beam will vary among the four electrodes due to differences in electronic gain and/or misalignment. This variation in the response of the BPM electrodes will couple real horizontal offset to apparent vertical position, and introduce spurious measurements of coupling and vertical dispersion. To alleviate this systematic effect, a beam based technique to measure the relative response of the four electrodes has been developed. With typical CESR parameters, simulations show that turn-by-turn BPM data can be used to determine electrode gains to within ∼0.1%.

  13. Neurally based measurement and evaluation of environmental noise

    CERN Document Server

    Soeta, Yoshiharu

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with methods of measurement and evaluation of environmental noise based on an auditory neural and brain-oriented model. The model consists of the autocorrelation function (ACF) and the interaural cross-correlation function (IACF) mechanisms for signals arriving at the two ear entrances. Even when the sound pressure level of a noise is only about 35 dBA, people may feel annoyed due to the aspects of sound quality. These aspects can be formulated by the factors extracted from the ACF and IACF. Several examples of measuring environmental noise—from outdoor noise such as that of aircraft, traffic, and trains, and indoor noise such as caused by floor impact, toilets, and air-conditioning—are demonstrated. According to the noise measurement and evaluation, applications for sound design are discussed. This book provides an excellent resource for students, researchers, and practitioners in a wide range of fields, such as the automotive, railway, and electronics industries, and soundscape, architec...

  14. Arrester Resistive Current Measuring System Based on Heterogeneous Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun Hua; Li, Zai Lin; Yuan, Feng; Hou Pan, Feng; Guo, Zhan Nan; Han, Yue

    2018-03-01

    Metal Oxide Arrester (MOA) suffers from aging and poor insulation due to long-term impulse voltage and environmental impact, and the value and variation tendency of resistive current can reflect the health conditions of MOA. The common wired MOA detection need to use long cables, which is complicated to operate, and that wireless measurement methods are facing the problems of poor data synchronization and instability. Therefore a novel synchronous measurement system of arrester current resistive based on heterogeneous network is proposed, which simplifies the calculation process and improves synchronization, accuracy and stability and of the measuring system. This system combines LoRa wireless network, high speed wireless personal area network and the process layer communication, and realizes the detection of arrester working condition. Field test data shows that the system has the characteristics of high accuracy, strong anti-interference ability and good synchronization, which plays an important role in ensuring the stable operation of the power grid.

  15. [A novel spectral classifier based on coherence measure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-ru; Wu, Fu-chao; Hu, Zhan-yi; Luo, A-li

    2005-11-01

    Classification and discovery of new types of celestial bodies from voluminous celestial spectra are two important issues in astronomy, and these two issues are treated separately in the literature to our knowledge. In the present paper, a novel coherence measure is introduced which can effectively measure the coherence of a new spectrum of unknown type with the training sampleslocated within its neighbourhood, then a novel classifier is designed based on this coherence measure. The proposed classifier is capable of carrying out spectral classification and knowledge discovery simultaneously. In particular, it can effectively deal with the situation where different types of training spectra exist within the neighbourhood of a new spectrum, and the traditional k-nearest neighbour method usually fails to reach a correct classification. The satisfactory performance for classification and knowledge discovery has been obtained by the proposed novel classifier over active galactic nucleus (AGNs) and active galaxies (AGs) data.

  16. Retrospective reports of child feeding practices, current eating behaviors, and BMI in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Amy T; Farrow, Claire V; Martz, Denise M

    2010-07-01

    Research concerning child feeding practices has focused on children and adolescents, and little is known about how feeding practices used in childhood relate to eating behaviors and weight status in early adulthood. We assessed college students' and their parents' retrospective reports of child feeding practices used when the students were in middle childhood. We also assessed the college students' current reports of their eating behaviors using the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) and the Intuitive Eating Scale (IES), and measured their current BMI. Results showed that college students' and their parents' reports about previous parental use of child feeding practices were not correlated. Parent reports of their own use of child feeding practices were more related to students' eating behaviors and BMI than were students' recollections about feeding practices used by their parents. An analysis of gender effects showed that there were positive correlations between parental child feeding practices, BMI, and emotional eating for female students. These relationships did not exist for male students. The results suggest that child feeding practices recollected by parents are linked to the development of emotional eating and weight status of women in early adulthood.

  17. BMI from nutritional surveillance of 8-9 years old children in Tuscany (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, G; Pammolli, A; Simi, R; Pilato, V; Giacchi, M V

    2011-12-01

    The latest increase in childhood obesity focused attention on the important consequences that this phenomenon may have on public health in relationship to the increasing risk that an obese child may become an obese adult. To deal with this problem, there is necessary to assess systematically the distribution of childhood nutritional status at different levels: international, regional and local. In this paper are presented data on underweight, overweight and obesity prevalence in third grade primary school children, aged 8/9 years in Tuscany (2008) and its distribution in relationship to the demographic breadth of their place of residence. Data from statistic sample of 2109 (1.091 males, 1.018 females), 8/9 years school-children were collected; weight and height were measured using standardised personnel and instruments. Exact month age was calculated between the data of measurement and that of birth. Body Mass Index (BMI) classes were calculated using Cole et al.'s epidemiologic cut-off for children and adolescents. Residence areas were divided into four classes based on the number of inhabitants ( 50.000; > 50.000 metropolitan). The prevalence of underweight was 0.88% (0.76% in males and 1.01% in females), the prevalence of overweight was 23.43% (22.33% in males and 24.65% in females), the prevalence of obese was 7.95% (9.08% in males, 6.70% in females). The lowest prevalence of obese (6.46%) was found in towns with over 50.000 residents (metropolitan). The obesity prevalence in Tuscany children is still lower than that of the Italian National Survey, while the overweight prevalence it's the same. Obesity prevalence (10.71%) is higher in municipalities with low residents number (< 10.000).

  18. Waist circumference is a better predictor of risk for frailty than BMI in the community-dwelling elderly in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Qiuju; Zheng, Zheng; Xiu, Shuangling; Chan, Piu

    2018-03-27

    Obesity is found to be associated with frailty. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are the commonly used measures for obesity, the former is more closely related to general obesity and body weight; the latter can more accurately reflect abdominal obesity and is more closely associated with metabolic disorders. In this study, we intend to study the relationship between frailty, BMI and WC among older people. Data were derived from the Beijing Longitudinal Study on Aging II Cohort, which included 6320 people 65 years or older from three urban districts in Beijing. A Frailty Index derived from 33 items was developed according to Rockwood's cumulative deficits method. A Frailty Index ≥ 0.25 was used as the cut-off criteria. BMI was classified as underweight, normal, overweight, or obese (BMI (≥ 28.0 kg/m 2 , 22.6%) or a larger WC (18.5%) were more likely to be frail. People with normal BMI and overweight people do not suffer from higher prevalence for frailty. In comparison with individuals with normal BMI (18.5-BMI and large WC (odds ratio 1.68; 95% CI 1.33-2.12), have overweight and large WC (odds ratio 1.58; 95% CI 1.23-1.96), or have obesity and large WC (odds ratio 2.28; 95% CI 1.79-2.89). In people with normal WC, only those who are underweight have a higher risk for frailty (odds ratio 1.65, 95% CI 1.08-2.52). In comparison with BMI, the relation of WC with the risk for frailty was much closer. Abdominal obesity is more closely associated with incidence of frailty than general obesity in the elderly. Older adults with large waist circumference are more likely to be frail. Frailty in the elderly might be more closely related to metabolic disorders. WC might be a better measurement to detect frailty than BMI, given its relationship with metabolic disorders.

  19. Measurements of Electromagnetic Fields Emitted from Cellular Base Stations in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Ali

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With increasing the usage of mobile communication devices and internet network information, the entry of private telecommunications companies in Iraq has been started since 2003. These companies began to build up cellular towers to accomplish the telecommunication works but they ignore the safety conditions imposed for the health and environment that are considered in random way. These negative health effects which may cause a health risk for life beings and environment pollution. The aim of this work is to determine the safe and unsafe ranges and discuss damage caused by radiation emitted from Asia cell base stations in Shirqat city and discuses the best ways in which can be minimize its exposure level to avoid its negative health effects. Practical measurements of power density around base stations has been accomplished by using a radiation survey meter type (Radio frequency EMF Strength Meter 480846 in two ways. The first way of measurements has been accomplished at a height of 2 meters above ground for different distances from (0-300 meters .The second way is at a distance of 150 meters for different levels from (2-15 meters above ground level. The maximum measured power density is about (3 mW/m2. Results indicate that the levels of power density are far below the RF radiation exposure of USSR safety standards levels. And that means these cellular base station don't cause negative the health effect for life being if the exposure is within the acceptable international standard levels.

  20. Immobilised activated sludge based biosensor for biochemical oxygen demand measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Björnsson, L; Mattiasson, B

    2000-02-01

    A biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) sensor, based on an immobilised mixed culture of microorganisms in combination with a dissolved oxygen electrode, has been developed for the purpose of on-line monitoring of the biological treatment process for waste and wastewater. The sensor was designed for easy replacement of the biomembrane, thereby making it suitable for short-term use. The drawbacks of activated sludge based sensor, such as short sensor lifetime, were thereby circumvented. The sensor BOD measurements were carried out in the kinetic mode using a flow injection system, resulting in 25 s for one measurement followed by 4-8 min recovery time. Based on the results of normalised sensor responses, the OECD synthetic wastewater was considered to be a more suitable calibration solution in comparison with the GGA solution. Good agreement was achieved between the results of the sensor BOD measurement and those obtained from BOD5 analysis of a wastewater sample from a food-processing factory. Reproducibility of responses using one sensor was below +/- 5.6%, standard deviation. Reproducibility of responses using different sensors was within acceptable bias limits, viz. +/- 15% standard deviation.

  1. Computer vision based nacre thickness measurement of Tahitian pearls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loesdau, Martin; Chabrier, Sébastien; Gabillon, Alban

    2017-03-01

    The Tahitian Pearl is the most valuable export product of French Polynesia contributing with over 61 million Euros to more than 50% of the total export income. To maintain its excellent reputation on the international market, an obligatory quality control for every pearl deemed for exportation has been established by the local government. One of the controlled quality parameters is the pearls nacre thickness. The evaluation is currently done manually by experts that are visually analyzing X-ray images of the pearls. In this article, a computer vision based approach to automate this procedure is presented. Even though computer vision based approaches for pearl nacre thickness measurement exist in the literature, the very specific features of the Tahitian pearl, namely the large shape variety and the occurrence of cavities, have so far not been considered. The presented work closes the. Our method consists of segmenting the pearl from X-ray images with a model-based approach, segmenting the pearls nucleus with an own developed heuristic circle detection and segmenting possible cavities with region growing. Out of the obtained boundaries, the 2-dimensional nacre thickness profile can be calculated. A certainty measurement to consider imaging and segmentation imprecisions is included in the procedure. The proposed algorithms are tested on 298 manually evaluated Tahitian pearls, showing that it is generally possible to automatically evaluate the nacre thickness of Tahitian pearls with computer vision. Furthermore the results show that the automatic measurement is more precise and faster than the manual one.

  2. Measurement of oxidatively generated base damage in cellular DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadet, Jean, E-mail: jean.cadet@cea.fr [Laboratoire ' Lesions des Acides Nucleiques' , SCIB-UMR-E no3 (CEA/UJF), FRE CNRS 3200, Departement de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee, CEA/Grenoble, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Douki, Thierry; Ravanat, Jean-Luc [Laboratoire ' Lesions des Acides Nucleiques' , SCIB-UMR-E no3 (CEA/UJF), FRE CNRS 3200, Departement de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee, CEA/Grenoble, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2011-06-03

    This survey focuses on the critical evaluation of the main methods that are currently available for monitoring single and complex oxidatively generated damage to cellular DNA. Among chromatographic methods, HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and to a lesser extent HPLC-ECD which is restricted to a few electroactive nucleobases and nucleosides are appropriate for measuring the formation of single and clustered DNA lesions. Such methods that require optimized protocols for DNA extraction and digestion are sensitive enough for measuring base lesions formed under conditions of severe oxidative stress including exposure to ionizing radiation, UVA light and high intensity UVC laser pulses. In contrast application of GC-MS and HPLC-MS methods that are subject to major drawbacks have been shown to lead to overestimated values of DNA damage. Enzymatic methods that are based on the use of DNA repair glycosylases in order to convert oxidized bases into strand breaks are suitable, even if they are far less specific than HPLC methods, to deal with low levels of single modifications. Several other methods including immunoassays and {sup 32}P-postlabeling methods that are still used suffer from drawbacks and therefore are not recommended. Another difficult topic is the measurement of oxidatively generated clustered DNA lesions that is currently achieved using enzymatic approaches and that would necessitate further investigations.

  3. Body Size Estimation from Early to Middle Childhood: Stability of Underestimation, BMI, and Gender Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silje Steinsbekk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Individuals who are overweight are more likely to underestimate their body size than those who are normal weight, and overweight underestimators are less likely to engage in weight loss efforts. Underestimation of body size might represent a barrier to prevention and treatment of overweight; thus insight in how underestimation of body size develops and tracks through the childhood years is needed. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine stability in children’s underestimation of body size, exploring predictors of underestimation over time. The prospective path from underestimation to BMI was also tested. In a Norwegian cohort of 6 year olds, followed up at ages 8 and 10 (analysis sample: n = 793 body size estimation was captured by the Children’s Body Image Scale, height and weight were measured and BMI calculated. Overall, children were more likely to underestimate than overestimate their body size. Individual stability in underestimation was modest, but significant. Higher BMI predicted future underestimation, even when previous underestimation was adjusted for, but there was no evidence for the opposite direction of influence. Boys were more likely than girls to underestimate their body size at ages 8 and 10 (age 8: 38.0% vs. 24.1%; Age 10: 57.9% vs. 30.8% and showed a steeper increase in underestimation with age compared to girls. In conclusion, the majority of 6, 8, and 10-year olds correctly estimate their body size (prevalence ranging from 40 to 70% depending on age and gender, although a substantial portion perceived themselves to be thinner than they actually were. Higher BMI forecasted future underestimation, but underestimation did not increase the risk for excessive weight gain in middle childhood.

  4. Maternal BMI and migration status as predictors of childhood obesity in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Cruz, A; Wojcicki, J M; Bacardí-Gascón, M; Castellón-Zaragoza, A; García-Gallardo, J L; Schwartz, N; Heyman, M B

    2011-01-01

    To assess the association of maternal migration to Baja California, body mass index (BMI) status, children's perceived food insecurity, and childhood lifestyle behaviors with overweight (BMI > 85% ile), obesity (BMI > 95% ile) and abdominal obesity (Waist Circumference > 90% ile). Convenience sampling methods were used to recruit a cross-sectional sample of 4th, 5th and 6th grade children and their parents at Tijuana and Tecate Public Schools. Children's and parents' weights and heights were measured. Children were con