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Sample records for blunted maya crude

  1. The use of blunted Maya crude as alternating fuel to fuel oil; Uso de crudo Maya despuntado como combustiononble alterno al combustoleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salinas Bravo, Victor M.; Diego Marin, Antonio; Porcayo C; Jesus [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The Mexican fuel oil is characterized by its high viscosity and elevated contents of sulfur and vanadium. This particularity determines a problematic characteristic in the steam generators that use this fuel. Our country produces three types of crude petroleum: Olmeca, Istmo and Maya. The difference between these crudes remains in its density and the sulfur content. The Olmeca crude and the Istmo are classified as super-light and light, respectively; whereas the Maya crude is classified as a heavy crude, with a density of 1.0 to 0.92 g/cm and a minimum sulfur content of 3.3 %. For this reason the processing of the Maya crude is seen as an alternative. A table with the physicochemical analysis and properties of a fuel oil and the blunted Maya crude is given, and another one with the quantitative chemical analysis of some metals in fuel oil and in the blunted Maya crude. The stability tests of the fuel are studied giving a comparison of the effect of the aging time on the viscosity of a fuel oil and of the blunted Maya crude at 60 Celsius degrees. As well as a graph of thermograms obtained of a blunted Maya crude sample and of a typical fuel oil. Finally the corrosion tests are described that allow to know in real time the degradation process by corrosion of the materials. [Spanish] El combustoleo mexicano se caracteriza por su alta viscosidad y elevados contenidos de azufre y vanadio. Esta particularidad determina una problematica caracteristica en los generadores de vapor que utilizan este combustible. Nuestro pais produce tres tipos de petroleo crudo: Olmeca, Istmo y Maya. La diferencia entre estos crudos estriba en su densidad y el contenido de azufre. El crudo Olmeca y el Istmo estan clasificados como superligero y ligero, respectivamente; mientras que el crudo Maya esta clasificado como un crudo pesado, con una densidad de 1.0 a 0.92 g/cm y un contenido minimo de azufre de 3.3 %.Con el proposito se busca la alternativa de procesar el crudo Maya. Se da una tabla

  2. Dehydration and desalting of heavy crude Maya into the TMDB by means of tanks of storage of 500 TB converted to type gun-barrel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cisneros, L.F.L.; Abundes, A.A.; Aguinaga, C.A.L.; Monroy, J.D.A.; Jimenez, R.M.; Sanchez, M.R.; Medina, J.L.H.; Vazquez, J.V.; Montano, A.E.G.; Villanueva, A.G.; Moreno, W.N.C.; Maria, G.B.; Mendez, J.L.J.; Cordero, E.D.; Ponce, F.C.; Estrada, C.D.; Azuara, V.H.C. [Petroleos Mexicanos, PEMEX, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    When crude oil emerges from the production well, it is polluted with congenital waters and in some cases with sea water. These waters can be present as free water or emulsified. When the water reaches the surface, the free water is eliminated by sedimentation. However, the reduction of emulsified water is not directly due to the stability presented by the drops of emulsified water in the crude, therefore chemical injection for the separation of both phases is required. This paper discussed the design of a system for dehydration and desalting of 750 TBD Maya heavy crude, by means of tanks type gun-barrel. The design was performed using the simulation packages HYSYS and computational fluid dynamics of ANSYS, considering the parameters that were studied in bottle tests and profiled in tanks storage of 500 TB. The design was based on the settling speed that affects the dehydration and desalting of crude. The paper discussed the production facilities used in the crude dehydration, with particular reference to the gun barrel tank; washer tank; heat treater tanks; free water separator; and electrostatic separator. The development of the system was described in terms of data compilation using Stokes' Law and interpretation of the field data using bottle tests. It was concluded that the gun barrel train was the best option to dehydrate and desalt Mayan oil in the TMDB, since this processing system takes advantage of the existing facilities, specifically the storage tanks of 500 TB capacity. 16 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs.

  3. Autodesk Maya 2014 essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Naas, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The premiere book on getting started with Maya 2014 Whether you're just beginning, or migrating from another 3D application, this step-by-step guide is what you need to get a good working knowledge of Autodesk Maya 2014. Beautifully illustrated with full-color examples and screenshots, Autodesk Maya 2014 Essentials explains the basics of Maya as well as modeling, texturing, animating, setting a scene, and creating visual effects. You'll absorb important concepts and techniques, and learn how to confidently use Maya tools the way professionals do. Each chapter includes fun and cha

  4. Mastering Autodesk Maya 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Palamar, Todd

    2012-01-01

    Provides hands-on intermediate-to-advanced coverage of the leading 3D software Maya is the industry-leading 3D animation and effects software used in movies, visual effects, games, and other genres. For intermediate and advanced users who already know Maya basics, this official Maya guide provides the detailed coverage you need to unlock the software's more complex features. Elevate your skills in modeling, texturing, animation, and visual effects, and gain proficiency in high-level techniques for film, television, game development, and more. Artists who are already proficient in Maya basics

  5. Mastering Autodesk Maya 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Eric

    2010-01-01

    A beautifully-packaged, advanced reference on the very latest version of Maya. If you already know the basics of Maya, the latest version of this authoritative book takes you to the next level. From modeling, texturing, animation, and visual effects to high-level techniques for film, television, games, and more, this book provides professional-level Maya instruction. With pages of scenarios and examples from some of the leading professionals in the industry, this book will help you master the entire CG production pipeline.: Provides professional-level instruction on Maya, the industry-leading

  6. Mastering Autodesk Maya 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Palamar, Todd

    2011-01-01

    The exclusive, official guide to the very latest version of Maya Get extensive, hands-on, intermediate to advanced coverage of Autodesk Maya 2012, the top-selling 3D software on the market. If you already know Maya basics, this authoritative book takes you to the next level. From modeling, texturing, animation, and visual effects to high-level techniques for film, television, games, and more, this book provides professional-level Maya instruction. With pages of scenarios and examples from some of the leading professionals in the industry, author Todd Palamar will help you master the entire CG

  7. Introducing Maya 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Derakhshani, Dariush

    2010-01-01

    A practical, step-by-step guide to Maya 2011. Four previous editions can't be wrong: this book is the perfect introduction to 3D and Maya. Learn to build and animate your own digital models and scenes with step-by-step instruction and fun and practical examples, while you draw inspiration from the striking examples included from talented Maya users. You'll create a simple animation of the planets in the solar system, learn to model a human hand and a decorative box?among other projects?and master all essential tools.: Provides a thorough, step-by-step introduction to Maya 2011; Explains the co

  8. The Maya of Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Allan F.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the Maya people who fled Guatemala due to a civil war and illegally entered the U.S. and settled in Florida. Presents a picture of their living conditions, employment opportunities, cultural traditions, community development, and family organization. Discusses a Kanjobal Association and the CORN-MAYA program, and explains immigration…

  9. Maya Studio Projects Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Palamar, Todd

    2009-01-01

    The only hands-on book devoted to mastering Maya's dynamics tools for water, wind, and fire. In the world of animation, the ability to create realistic water, wind, and fire effects is key. Autodesk Maya software includes powerful dynamics tools that have been used to design breathtaking effects for movies, games, commercials, and short films. This professional guide teaches you the primary techniques you need to make the most of Maya's toolkit, so you'll soon be creating water that ripples, gusting winds and gentle breezes, and flickering fires the way Hollywood pros do. The one-of-a-kind boo

  10. Mastering Autodesk Maya 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Palamar, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Hands-on intermediate-to-advanced coverage of the leading 3D software Autodesk Maya is the industry-leading 3D animation and effects software used in movies, visual effects, games, and other genres. If you already know the basics of Maya and are ready to elevate your skills, then this book is for you. Nearly 1,000 pages are packed with organized, professional, and valuable insight on the leading 3D application on the market, enabling you to unlock the software's more complex features. Ideal as both a tutorial and study guide for the Autodesk Maya exam, this Autodesk Official Press

  11. Introducing Autodesk Maya 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Derakhshani, Dariush

    2011-01-01

    A practical, step-by-step guide to Maya 2012 This book is the ideal primer to getting started with Maya, the premier 3D animation and effects software used in movies, visual effects, games, cartoons, short films, and commercials. You'll learn the Maya interface and the basics of modeling, texturing, animating, and visual effects. Professional visual effects artist and instructor Dariush Derakhshani explains the nuances of the complex software, while creative tutorials offer realistic, professional challenges for those new to 3D. You'll be up and running in no time with the world's most popular

  12. Maya Education and Pan Maya Ideology in the Yucatan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Allan

    1998-01-01

    A University of Yucatan (Mexico) professor who taught a Mayan linguistics course to indigenous teachers in Mayan discusses three issues that are central to understanding how indigenous education interacts with pan-Maya identity: the importance of locally developed Maya literature, the symbols used to define Maya culture, and a conflict over Maya…

  13. Practical Maya programming with Python

    CERN Document Server

    Galanakis, Robert

    2014-01-01

    ""Practical Maya Programming with Python"" is a practical tutorial packed with plenty of examples and sample projects which guides you through building reusable, independent modules and handling unexpected errors. If you are a developer looking to build a powerful system using Python and Maya's capabilities, then this book is for you. Practical Maya Programming with Python is perfect for intermediate users with basic experience in Python and Maya who want to better their knowledge and skills.

  14. Autodesk Maya 2013 Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Naas, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Recommnded text for those preparing for the Maya Associate exam Maya, the industry-leading 3D animation and effects software used in movies, games, cartoons, and commercials, is challenging to learn. This full-color guide features approachable, hands-on exercises and additional task-based tutorials that allow new users to quickly become productive with the program and familiar with its workflow in a professional environment. You'll learn the basics of modeling, texturing, animating, and lighting; explore different parts of the production pipeline; and practice on some real-world projects. Ma

  15. Transdiciplina y sustentabilidad maya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Bello

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A través de un enfoque transdiciplinario se realizó una investigación acerca de la sustentabilidad como opción a la conservación de la biodiversidad y a la creciente necesidad regional por aumentar la producción de alimentos. Este estudio se realizó específicamente en las comunidades mayas de Xhazil, Chancah Veracruz y Uh May, pertenecientes al ejido Xhazil y anexos en el centro de Quintana Roo.

  16. Advanced Maya texturing and lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Lanier, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Level up your skills with powerful texturing and lighting techniques Advanced Maya Texturing and Lighting, Third Edition leads you through the latest advanced techniques for adding realistic detail to your models. This new edition is up-to-date with the latest Maya texturing, lighting, and rendering features, including an exploration of the Node Editor, new Maya utility nodes and expanded coverage of mental ray shaders, and render settings. The proven tutorials are culled from real-world experience and refined to give you the ultimate in practical skills. You'll learn workflow t

  17. Maya Studio Projects Photorealistic Characters

    CERN Document Server

    Palamar, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Create realistic characters with Maya tools and this project-based book Maya character generation tools are extremely sophisticated, and there's no better way to learn all their capabilities than by working through the projects in this hands-on book. This official guide focuses on understanding and implementing Maya's powerful tools for creating realistic characters for film, games, and TV. Use a variety of tools to create characters from skeleton to clothing, including hairstyles and facial hair, and learn how to use Performance Capture. A DVD includes supplementary videos, project support fi

  18. Layout of Ancient Maya Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylesworth, Grant R.

    Although there is little doubt that the ancient Maya of Mesoamerica laid their cities out based, in part, on astronomical considerations, the proliferation of "cosmograms" in contemporary scholarly discourse has complicated matters for the acceptance of rigorous archaeoastronomical research.

  19. Entre velos: Maya para contrabajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Rodríguez Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maya para contrabajo se materializa a partir de una imagen de Pepe Romero, cuyo texto interpreta a La decadencia de la mentira de Oscar Wilde. La estructura de Maya es binaria, especular y asimétrica; su poética obedece al juego verdad/mentira que subyace en la obra artística y en la vivencia del artista. Maya trae a la memoria las voces de los Upanishad, Schopenhauer, Shakespeare y Beethoven, influencias éstas en la obra de Wagner y, todas ellas, en la de Eliot. Los aspectos gestuales y visuales de Maya entrelazan con la danza de Pina Bausch y con la retórica (hypotiposis.

  20. Becoming Maya? Appropriation of the White Shaman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montejo, Victor D.

    1999-01-01

    The history of anthropology among the Maya consists of both the literal exploitation of archaeological finds and the appropriation of Maya culture and history by the Western academic world to construct distorted theories of the Maya past. In the ultimate disgrace, some Mayan priests are training White anthropologists to become shamans themselves…

  1. Study of the Maya concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The materials with which were constructed the buildings of the archaeological zone at the Maya culture were studied. Studies about the chemical composition of cement samples used in the construction of the Maya buildings were realized. The cement used was the same in all archaeological zones studied. The cement constituted the cementing matrix to obtain its derivatives: stuccos, mortars and, concretes. It was found that the Maya cement although has a variable chemical composition in its constitutive elements percentages, it is composed basically of calcite with fortuitous combinations of dolomite and clay materials, this last was founded in variable quantities from 0 % up to 10 % weight. The Maya cement was characterized as a variety of natural cement. The analysis and elemental chemical characterization was realized through the Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffraction and spectroscopic techniques. Therefore the microstructural characterization and the elemental chemical analysis were realized with a Scanning Electron microscope Phillips model XL30. The X-ray diffraction analysis was realized with a dust diffractometer Siemens D5000 operating at 30 KeV. The study of spectrograph was realized with an Emission spectrograph at 3 m focal distance model GX-1 Baird Atomic. (Author)

  2. Maya Calendars in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cynthia E.; Rehm, Megan A.; Catepillán, Ximena

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a lesson in which least common multiples helps students not only develop a perspective on an ancient culture but also draw on the cultural background of classmates. The Maya calendar received a lot of attention in the years leading up to December 21, 2012, because of the mythological end of "creation." Co-author…

  3. Maya-American Children: A Biocultural View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogin, Barry

    2002-01-01

    Discusses social, economic, and political conditions that influence the growth and health of children of Guatemalan Maya immigrants to the United States. As of 2000, Maya-American children age 6-12 years were, on average, 11 centimeters taller, and also heavier, than their Guatemalan peers. The heaviness is probably due to sedentary lifestyles.…

  4. Amazing Maya Inventions You Can Build Yourself: New Book Designed to Help Kids Learn History of the Ancient Maya Civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell-Rehwoldt, Sheri

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes her book, "Amazing Maya Inventions You Can Build Yourself," a new book designed to help kids learn the history of the ancient Maya civilization. "Amazing Maya Inventions You Can Build Yourself" offers the reader an engaging exploration of the history and culture of the Maya through building and crafts projects…

  5. Blunt traumatic diaphragmatic rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Nogueira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic injury of the diaphragm ranges from 0.6 to 1.2% and rise up to 5%among patients who were victims of blunt trauma and underwent laparotomy.Clinical suspicion associated with radiological assessment contributes to earlydiagnosis. Isolated diaphragmatic injury has a good prognosis. Generallyworse outcomes are associated with other trauma injuries. Bilateral andright diaphragmatic lesions have worse prognosis. Multi detector computed tomography (MDCT scan of the chest and abdomen provides better diagnosticaccuracy using the possibility of image multiplanar reconstruction. Surgicalrepair via laparotomy and/ or thoracotomy in the acute phase of the injury hasa better outcome and avoids chronic complications of diaphragmatic hernia.The authors present the case of a young male patient, victim of blunt abdominaltrauma due to motor vehicle accident with rupture of the diaphragm, spleenand kidney injuries. The diagnosis was made by computed tomography of thethorax and abdomen and was confirmed during laparotomy.

  6. Getting started in 3D with Maya

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Deliver professional-level 3D content in no time with this comprehensive guide to 3D animation with Maya. With over 12 years of training experience, plus several award winning students under his belt, author Adam Watkins is the ideal mentor to get you up to speed with 3D in Maya. Using a structured and pragmatic approach Getting Started in 3D with Maya begins with basic theory of fundamental techniques, then builds on this knowledge using practical examples and projects to put your new skills to the test. Prepared so that you can learn in an organic fashion, each chapter builds on the know

  7. Maya Studio Projects Game Environments and Props

    CERN Document Server

    McKinley, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Use Maya to create realistic environments and props for digital games. Weapons, vehicles, tools, buildings, trees, plants, walls, ceilings, and floors-these items may seem secondary to the game environment, but they are integral parts of the game and they all need to be created. Maya Studio Projects: Game Environments and Props is a step-by-step project guide to creating some of the most popular game art. Author Michael McKinley shares techniques for getting the most out of Maya to create realistic, vivid, and compelling worlds and otherworldly props. Along the way, he provides notes and FYIs

  8. Directional layouts in central lowland Maya settlement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bevan, Andrew; Jobbová, Eva; Helmke, Christophe;

    2013-01-01

    This paper suggests the existence of non-random, directional patterns in the location of housemounds across the Late Classic Maya settlement landscape at Baking Pot, Belize, and then explores the wider implications of this patterning in the central Maya lowlands. It introduces an anisotropic method......, by implication, also a set of routes running throughout the housemound landscape and local Maya neighbourhoods during the site’s Late and Terminal Classic history. Furthermore, different possible alignments in different parts of the site are tentatively regarded as an indication of shifting orientations...... to localised grids, following the shift in alignment of monumental architecture, as the settlement landscape expanded over time. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings with respect to the broader interpretation of Maya settlement patterns....

  9. MDCT in blunt intestinal trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Stefania [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, ' A.Cardarelli' Hospital, 80131 Naples (Italy)]. E-mail: stefromano@libero.it; Scaglione, Mariano [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, ' A.Cardarelli' Hospital, 80131 Naples (Italy); Tortora, Giovanni [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, ' A.Cardarelli' Hospital, 80131 Naples (Italy); Martino, Antonio [Trauma Center, ' A.Cardarelli' Hospital, 80131 Naples (Italy); Di Pietto, Francesco [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, ' A.Cardarelli' Hospital, 80131 Naples (Italy); Romano, Luigia [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, ' A.Cardarelli' Hospital, 80131 Naples (Italy); Grassi, Roberto [Department ' Magrassi-Lanzara' , Section of Radiology, Second University of Naples, 80138 Naples (Italy)

    2006-09-15

    Injuries to the small and large intestine from blunt trauma represent a defined clinical entity, often not easy to correctly diagnose in emergency but extremely important for the therapeutic assessment of patients. This article summarizes the MDCT spectrum of findings in intestinal blunt lesions, from functional disorders to hemorrhage and perforation.

  10. Mapping the Ancient Maya Landscape from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Tom

    2003-01-01

    This project uses new satellite and airborne imagery in combination with remote sensing, GIS, and GPS technology to understand the dynamics of how the Maya successfully interacted with their karst topographic landscape for several centuries in the northern Peten region of Guatemala. The ancient Maya attained one of the greatest population densities in human history in the tropical forest of the Peten, Guatemala, and it was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared for unknown reasons around AD 800. How the Maya were able to successfully manage water and feed this dense population is not known at this time. However, a recent NASA-funded project was the first to investigate large seasonal swamps (bajos) that make up 40 percent of the landscape. Through the use of remote sensing, ancient Maya features such as cities, roadways, canals and water reservoirs have been detected and verified through ground reconnaissance. The results of this research cast new light on the adaptation of the ancient Maya to their environment. Micro-environmental variation within the wetlands was elucidated and the different vegetational associations identified in the satellite imagery. More than 70 new archeological sites within and at the edges of the bajo were mapped and tested. Modification of the landscape by the Maya in the form of dams and reservoirs in the Holmul River and its tributaries and possible drainage canals in bajos was demonstrated. The recent acquisition of one-meter IKONOS imagery and high resolution STAR-3i radar imagery (2.5m backscatter/ 10m DEM), opens new possibilities for understanding how a civilization was able to survive for centuries upon a karst topographic landscape and their human-induced effects upon the local climate. This understanding is critical for the current population that is presently experiencing rapid population growth and destroying the landscape through non-traditional farming and grazing techniques

  11. Ownership of Language in Yucatec Maya Revitalization Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrettaz, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    This classroom-based study examined a Yucatec Maya language course for teachers and the pedagogical implementation of national language policy in Mexico. Analysis of this teacher education program focused on various dimensions of teachers' Maya-language expertise, the teaching of the emergent standard Maya, and hegemonic constructions of…

  12. Soil and Human Interactions in Maya Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Timothy; Luzzadder-Beach, Sheryl

    2013-04-01

    Since the early 1990s, we have studied Maya interaction with soils in Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, and elsewhere. We studied upland and lowland soils, but here we focus on seasonal or 'Bajo' wetlands and perennial wetlands for different reasons. Around the bajos, the ancient Maya focused on intensive agriculture and habitation despite the difficulties their Vertisol soils posed. For the perennial wetlands, small populations spread diffusely through Mollisol and Histisol landscapes with large scale, intensive agro-ecosystems. These wetlands also represent important repositories for both environmental change and how humans responded in situ to environmental changes. Work analyzing bajo soils has recorded significant diversity but the soil and sediment record shows two main eras of soil instability: the Pleistocene-Holocene transition as rainfall fluctuated and increased and tropical forest pulsed through the region, and the Maya Preclassic to Classic 3000 to 1000 BP as deforestation, land use intensity, and drying waxed and waned. The ancient Maya adapted their bajo soil ecosystems successfully through agro-engineering but they also withdrew in many important places in the Late Preclassic about 2000 BP and Terminal Classic about 1200 BP. We continue to study and debate the importance of perennial wetland agro-ecosystems, but it is now clear that Maya interaction with these soil landscapes was significant and multifaceted. Based on soil excavation and coring with a broad toolkit of soil stratigraphy, chemistry, and paleoecology from 2001 to 2013, our results show the ancient Maya interacted with their wetland soils to maintain cropland for maize, tree crops, arrow root, and cassava against relative sea level rise, increased flooding, and aggradation by gypsum precipitation and sedimentation. We have studied these interactions across an area of 2000 km2 in Northern Belize to understand how Maya response varied and how these soil environments varied over time and distance

  13. Does the Maya Forest Need More Roads?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Dalia Amor; Ramos, Victor Hugo; Burgués, Irene;

    An assortment of road projects has been proposed in the border region of Mexico, Guatemala and Belize, which is part of the Maya Forest, the largest contiguous tropical forest in the Americas north of the Amazon. The proposals are apparently aimed at spurring economic growth and reducing the high...... levels of poverty found in this area. But more and better roads usually bring more people and expand farms. Decision-makers are therefore confronted with a seeming conflict between conservation and development goals. Would new roads be bad or good for the Maya Forest region? To help answer that question...... , we analyzed the economic and environmental impacts of proposed road construction and improvement investments. Economic returns to Guatemala and Mexico were calculated for two projects that would join the two countries through currently roadless forest of the Maya Biosphere Reserve. Deforestation...

  14. Mapping The Ancient Maya Landscape From Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Tom; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Peten region of northern Guatemala is one of the last places on earth where major archeological sites remain to be discovered. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper and IKONOS satellite and airborne Star3-I radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as cities, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. The use of bajos for farming has been a source of debate within the professional community for many years. But the recent detection and verification of cultural features within the bajo system by our research team are providing conclusive evidence that the ancient Maya had adapted well to wetland environments from the earliest times and utilized them until the time of the Maya collapse. The use of the bajos for farming is also an important resource for the future of the current inhabitants who are experiencing rapid population growth. Remote sensing imagery is also demonstrating that in the Preclassic period (600 BC- AD 250), the Maya had already achieved a high organizational level as evidenced by the construction of massive temples and an elaborate inter-connecting roadway system. Although they experienced several setbacks such as droughts and hurricanes, the Maya nevertheless managed the delicate forest ecosystem successfully for several centuries. However, around AD 800, something happened to the Maya to cause their rapid decline and eventual disappearance from the region. The evidence indicates that at this time there was increased climatic dryness, extensive deforestation, overpopulation, and widespread warfare. This raises a question that

  15. Mythological Emblem Glyphs of Ancient Maya Kings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helmke, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Heinrich Berlin’s identification of Emblem Glyphs in 1958 has rightly been hailed as one of the major breakthroughs in the decipherment of ancient Maya writing. Although their exact function and meaning was unclear at the time, these are now recognized to serve as exalted regal titles that incorp......Heinrich Berlin’s identification of Emblem Glyphs in 1958 has rightly been hailed as one of the major breakthroughs in the decipherment of ancient Maya writing. Although their exact function and meaning was unclear at the time, these are now recognized to serve as exalted regal titles...

  16. The Ancient Maya Landscape from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, T.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The Peten, once inhabited by a population of several million before the collapse of the ancient Maya in the 10th and 11th centuries, is being repopulated toward its former demographic peak. Environmental dynamics, however, impose severe constraints to further development. Current practices in subsistence, commercial agriculture, and cattle raising are causing rapid deforestation resulting in the destruction of environmental and archeological resources. The use of remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology is a cost-effective methodology for addressing issues in Maya archeology as well as monitoring the environmental impacts being experienced by the current population.

  17. Maya Studio Projects Texturing and Lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Lanier, Lee

    2011-01-01

    Learn to create realistic digital assets for film and games with this project-based guide Focused entirely on practical projects, this hands-on guide shows you how to use Maya's texturing and lighting tools in real-world situations. Whether you need to sharpen your skills or you're looking to break into the field for the first time, you'll learn top industry techniques for this important skill as you follow the instructions for several specific projects. You can even create your own version, using final Maya scene files to validate results. The companion DVD includes supplemental videos, proje

  18. Marijuana May Blunt Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161575.html Marijuana May Blunt Bone Health Study finds heavy users ... 19, 2016 WEDNESDAY, Oct. 19, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Marijuana may be bad to the bone, a new ...

  19. James Blunt matuselaulude edetabeli tipus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Bereavement Registeri andmetel Suurbritannias matustel tellitavate laulude edetabelis: James Blunt "Goodbye My Lover", Robbie Williams "Angels", Jennifer Warnes ja Bill Medley "I've Had the Time Of My Life", Elton John "Candle in the Wind", Righteous Brothers "Unchained Melody"

  20. Tectonic development of the Maya plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charleston, S.; Concit, S.C.; Sanchez, R.

    1985-01-01

    The Maya Plate is located at the southern margin of the North American Plate, it comprises from north to south, the following tectonic provinces: The Yucatan Platform, (including the lowlands of Peten and the oil-rich offshore platform of the Campeche Bank), the Macuspana basin, the Salt Basin, the NW-SE trending Sierra de Chiapas Folded Belt, the Chiapas depression and the Ciapas Massif. During the past, the deformation of the Maya Plate, have been attributed to the Laramide Orogeny. The present study develops a model based on the interaction between the Maya, Caribbean and the oceanic Cocos-plates, assuming that during the Middle Miocene, the development of the left-lateral Motagua Fault between the Maya and Caribbean plates, displaced the Yucatan Platform in a southwestward direction. It is consider that the combine action of two opposite forces, was responsible for the development of most of the Sierra de Chiapas major anticlines and synclines. Finally the model suggests that these structures, were later affected by trans-compressive forces, originated as a secondary response, due to the development of several left-lateral transcurrent faults, associated with the Polochic Fault System.

  1. Maya Angelou's "Letter to My Daughter"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Marilyn L.

    2008-01-01

    This article highlights the works of two prolific authors: James Bryant Conant and Maya Angelou. Among the books Conant wrote were: "The American High School Today" (1959), "Slums and Suburbs" (1961), "The Education of American Teachers" (1963), and "The Comprehensive High School" (1967). On the other hand, Angelou's series of autobiographical…

  2. Discovering the Ancient Maya from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, T. L.

    2008-01-01

    The Pet6n region of northern Guatemala contains some of the most significant Mayan archeological sites in Latin America. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper, IKONOS, and QuickBird satellite, and airborne STAR-3i and AIRSAR radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as sites, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. Through the use of various airborne and satellite sensor systems we have been able to detect and map ancient causeways, temples, reservoirs, and land forms, and locate these features on the ground through GPS technology. Recently, we have discovered that there is a strong relationship between a tropical forest vegetation signature in satellite imagery and the location of archeological sites. We believe that the use of limestone and lime plasters in ancient Maya construction affects the moisture, nutrition, and plant species of the surface vegetation. We have mapped these vegetation signatures in the imagery and verified through field survey that they are indicative of archeological sites. Through the use of remote sensing and GIS technology it is possible to identify unrecorded archeological features in a dense tropical forest environment and monitor these cultural features for their protection.

  3. Maya Divination: Ritual Techniques of Distributed Cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGraw, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Based on more than 24 months of ethnographic research among Maya ritualists in the western highlands of Guatemala, this article examines how pajooneem, or tz’ite’ seed divination, facilitates decision-making and distributes cognition between client, diviner, and ritual techniques. Tz’ite’ seed di...

  4. Personhood in Maya Art : a theoretical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osorio, Laura Ann

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to a traditional ethno-archaeological approach, in which contemporary communities are mined for information that can be applied to the past, this study considers that the interpretation of Maya material culture belongs to the people whose identity has been formed within the natural and m

  5. Algunas consideraciones sobre los numerales mayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Fernández Sánchez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Para los mayas, a diferencia de Occidente, la matemática tiene un significado que sobrepasa los numerales y las operaciones entre ellos. Según su cosmovisión, la Deidad, la creadora del universo, es soberana en cuanto al cálculo matemático (Cabrera, 1992. La matemática maya ofrece la posibilidad de realizar las operaciones aritméticas de suma, resta, multiplicación, división y cálculo de raíces de forma sencilla, dado que la cultura maya logró sintetizar la cantidad mediante tres símbolos y logró sintetizar el valor con el sistema posicional en base veinte (Calderón, 1966. Se pretende en este artículo hacer un reconocimiento de los numerales mayas, su concepción metafórica y algunas operaciones aritméticas.

  6. Egyptians, Maya, Minoans. Learning Works Enrichment Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthies, Susanna

    The activities in this instructional resource book are designed to be used by gifted 4-8th grade students as independent research guides or in guided or cooperative learning environments. The activities are organized in three sections which focus the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Maya, and Minoa. The activities presented encourage development of…

  7. Cell scientist to watch--Maya Schuldiner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldiner, Maya; Bobrowska, Anna

    2015-11-15

    Maya Schuldiner pursued her PhD degree under the guidance of Prof. Nissim Benvenisty at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. She carried out her postdoctoral training in the laboratory of Prof. Jonathan Weissman at the University of California, San Francisco, with support from the Human Frontiers Science Program and the Sandler Fellows Program. Since 2008, Maya has been running her own laboratory at the Weizmann Institute of Sciences in Rehovot, Israel. She received the Human Frontiers Science Program Career Development Award and the NIH Pathway to Independence Award, and she is a member of the EMBO Young Investigator programme and Faculty of 1000. Her current research interests are focused on unravelling novel functions of yeast proteins that are involved in organelle biology.

  8. Stars Influence on the Earth in Maya Culture: Stars and Planets in Maya Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel George Oprea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Mesoamerican Culture of Maya’s was one of the ancient and advanced cultures of the American continent and they influenced other Amerindian peoples. The life of Maya people, of the Earth itself and of the Universe is set and constructed around Maya Calendar and has a cyclic character as a direct influence of the stars. Many centuries the Western civilization with the its linear Calendar had not accepted the ideas of the possible influence of the stars and planets to peoples lives. The end of the last century and the beginning of XXI’s had started to demonstrate the opposite. The present work tries to show the process of meeting and intersection of the ancient ideas of Maya civilization and some of new ideas from the modern sciences.

  9. Blunt Head Trauma and Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B Chelse

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from New York Presbyterian Morgan Stanley Children’s Hospital examined whether having an isolated headache following minor blunt head trauma was suggestive of traumatic brain injury (TBI among a large cohort of children 2-18 years of age.

  10. The Construction of Orthography by Maya-Speaking Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer, Alejandra

    A discussion of the language skills of Maya-speaking children in Mexico describes the relationship of Maya and Spanish languages in this population's education and reports on a study of the construction of orthography by these children. The study first examines how language is used in literacy education and the difficulties of literacy in a…

  11. Deciphering Maya Hieroglyphic Writing: The State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Virginia M.

    1990-01-01

    Describes the historical approaches to the decipherment of ancient Maya writing. Asserts that Mayan hieroglyphics are recognized as true writing because they represent the sounds and structure of spoken language. Discusses the history of Maya hieroglyphic writing and how it was used in that civilization. (PRA)

  12. The Mayas of Yucatan, Mexico: Their Fight against School Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijangos-Noh, Juan Carlos; Cardos-Dzul, Maria Paula

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the strategies that a sample of Maya men and women of Yucatan, Mexico used to avoid dropping out of school. Data from in-depth interviews, focus groups and life stories were analyzed using grounded theory techniques through a non-essentialist gender approach. Among the Maya, statistics show that women drop out of school…

  13. Handle with Care: A Conversation with Maya Angelou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Amy M.

    2013-01-01

    The author opens this conversation with noted educator and authoress, Maya Angelou, by asking: "How does resilience develop, and how can we instill it in others?" Azzam notes that if there is anyone who knows something about "resilience" (the theme of this issue of "Educational Leadership") it is Maya Angelou. Dr.…

  14. Stones of Light: The Use of Crystals in Maya Divination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGraw, John J.

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, I aim to bridge the rewarding archaeological contributions from the earlier part of this volume to ethnographic work performed among contemporary Mayas, particularly as informed by ritual specialists. In considering the ritual use of quartz crystals by living Mayas we may gain in...

  15. A dearth of hurricanes cannot explain Maya collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2014-12-01

    A thousand years ago the great Maya culture of Central America collapsed. Climate change was one factor that stressed the civilization until it fractured: A prolonged period of intense and persistent drought left the Maya's descendants to carry on without a robust elite urban class.

  16. Territorial organization of the lowland classic maya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, J

    1973-06-01

    Thus far I have discussed ancient Maya sociopolitical structure from the upper levels of the hierarchy downward. Let me now summarize their territorial organization from the bottom upward, starting at the hamlet level (Fig. 8). The smallest unit of settlement-one usually overlooked by archeological surveys in the lowland rain forest-was probably a cluster of thatched huts occupied by a group of related families; larger clusters may have been divided into four quadrants along the lines suggested by Coe (26). Because of the long fallow period (6 to 8 years) characteristic of slash-and-burn agriculture in the Petén, these small hamlets are presumed to have changed location over the years, although they probably shifted in a somewhat circular fashion around a tertiary ceremonial-civic center for whose maintenance they were partly responsible. These tertiary centers were spaced at fairly regular intervals around secondary ceremonial-civic centers with pyramids, carved monuments, and palace-like residences. In turn, the secondary centers occurred at such regular intervals as to form hexagonal patterns around primary centers, which were still larger, with acropolises, multiple ceremonial plazas, and greater numbers of monuments. In some cases, the distance between secondary centers was roughly twice the distance between secondary and tertiary centers, creating a lattice of nested hexagonal cells. This pattern, which conforms to a Western theoretical construct, was presumably caused by factors of service function, travel, and transport. The pattern was not recognized by the Maya at all. They simply recognized that a whole series of smaller centers were dependent on a primary center and therefore mentioned its emblem glyph. Linking the centers of the various hexagons were marriage alliances between members of royal dynasties, who had no kinship ties with the farmers in the hamlets. Out of the large number of primary centers available to them, the Maya selected four as

  17. The ‘End’ of the Maya Long Count? 2012 and the Classic Maya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Boot

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The second meeting of the AISI (Associazione Italiana Studi Iberoamericani was dedicated to “Apocalypse” in Latin American literature. In the year of 2012 this particular subject was chosen as various non- and pseudo-scientific and New Age publications hold that the Maya Long Count ends in 2012, more specifically on December 21. In this essay I present a short overview on how the idea of an ‘end’ of the Maya Long Count emerged, which ancient Maya hieroglyphic texts (from the Late Classic Maya period, ca. A.D. 550-900 refer to this particular date, and what the only text (from the site of Tortuguero, Tabasco, Mexico that may tell us something on 2012 reveals. I also present a short historic overview of the quality of the drawing of the Tortuguero text and how these influenced earlier decipherments, translations, and interpretations of this text. Ultimately, the hieroglyphic text itself is analyzed and one detail is discusses in more detail, the verb root tzutz- and which different, but not necessarily mutually exclusive, meanings it has in Mayan languages.

  18. Prominence in Yucatec Maya: The Role of Stress in Yucatec Maya Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidder, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Yucatec Maya (YM) is an indigenous language of Mexico that features both phonemic tonal distinctions and phonemic vowel length. These features are primarily associated with the phonetic cues of pitch and duration, which are also considered the primary correlates of stress in language. Though scholars have noted the existence of stress or accent…

  19. Imaging of blunt chest trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicky, S.; Wintermark, M.; Schnyder, P.; Capasso, P.; Denys, A. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland). Dept. of Radiology

    2000-10-01

    In western European countries most blunt chest traumas are associated with motor vehicle and sport-related accidents. In Switzerland, 39 of 10,000 inhabitants were involved and severely injured in road accidents in 1998. Fifty two percent of them suffered from blunt chest trauma. According to the Swiss Federal Office of Statistics, traumas represented in men the fourth major cause of death (4 %) after cardiovascular disease (38 %), cancer (28 %), and respiratory disease (7 %) in 1998. The outcome of chest trauma patients is determined mainly by the severity of the lesions, the prompt appropriate treatment delivered on the scene of the accident, the time needed to transport the patient to a trauma center, and the immediate recognition of the lesions by a trained emergency team. Other determining factors include age as well as coexisting cardiac, pulmonary, and renal diseases. Our purpose was to review the wide spectrum of pathologies related to blunt chest trauma involving the chest wall, pleura, lungs, trachea and bronchi, aorta, aortic arch vessels, and diaphragm. A particular focus on the diagnostic impact of CT is demonstrated. (orig.)

  20. The University of Texas Maya Muon Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwitters, Roy (University of Texas at Austin)

    2007-05-09

    Plans to explore the ruin of a Maya Pyramid in Belize using cosmic ray muon tomography will be described. Muon tomography was pioneered by Luis Alvarez in the 1960's to explore the Second Pyramid of Chephren in Egypt. Improvements in detector technology since the Alvarez experiment suggest that muon tomography may be a practical method for exploring and monitoring relatively large underground volumes when exposure times of order months are acceptable. A prototype detector based on Fermilab/MINOS scintillator strip/WLS fiber technology has been built and is being tested at UT Austin. Initial results using the detector will be discussed.

  1. [Cleft lip and palate in Campeche Mayas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, K M; Georges, E; Levy, B; Aguirre, A; Portilla, R J; Gaitán, C L; Leyva, E; Rodríguez, T

    1988-07-01

    It has been suggested that among American Indians, as in some genetically-related Asiatic ethnic groups, incidence of cleft lip and/or cleft palate is higher than among people of Caucasian extraction. Such hypothesis, plus growing demand for services observed at a center for the surgery of cleft lip and cleft palate in Campeche state, led the authors to undertake research among the Maya residents of that region. However, neither careful review of case histories nor field research performed in several Indian communities could confirm the hypothesis of a higher incidence among this ethnic community.

  2. Ideas nahuas y mayas sobre la muerte

    OpenAIRE

    de la Garza, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    A diferencia del pensamiento cristiano, en el cual la verdadera vida del hombre viene tras la muerte del cuerpo, para los antiguos nahuas y mayas, la verdadera vida estaba aquí en la tierra, y consistía en cumplir con la misión para la que aquél fue creado por los dioses: venerarlos y alimentarlos. Para poder realizar tal tarea, los seres humanos debían propiciar la vida, combatiendo todo lo que atentara contra ella, y mantener un orden social que permitiera el cumplimiento del ritual. Así, p...

  3. Autodesk推出Maya 8

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    7月31日,Autodesk发布了Autodesk 3ds Maya 8软件,该软件实现了64位支持、多线程和算法最优化的组合,使用者可加载并以更高的效率处理大量数据集,软件在包括皮肤功能,铺嵌绘制和多边形代理图像功能(proxy)网络细分等关键领域都已经过多线程处理,

  4. Nutritive value of four by-product meals as potential protein sources in diets for Octopus maya

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Daniel Méndez Aguilar; Miguel Ángel Olvera Novoa; Sergio Rodríguez Morales; Carlos Rosas Vázquez

    2014-01-01

    The nutritional value of four meals made from animal by-products of squid (SBM), tuna (TBM), poultry (PBM) and pork (POBM), and their potential use in diets for Octopus maya were evaluated. Lyophilized crab-meat meal (CRM) (Callinectes sapidus) was used as a reference for the nutritional requirements of the octopus. CRM had the highest crude protein (CP) content (847.2 g kg1) and the lowest lipid content (27.5 g kg1). SBM and PBM had more than 700 g kg1 CP content, while TBM and POBM had less...

  5. Methods and future directions for paleoclimatology in the Maya Lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Peter M. J.; Brenner, Mark; Curtis, Jason H.

    2016-03-01

    A growing body of paleoclimate data indicates that periods of severe drought affected the Maya Lowlands of southeastern Mexico and northern Central America, especially during the Terminal Classic period (ca. 800-950 CE), raising the possibility that climate change contributed to the widespread collapse of many Maya polities at that time. A broad range of paleoclimate proxy methods have been applied in the Maya Lowlands and the data derived from these methods are sometimes challenging for archeologists and other non-specialists to interpret. This paper reviews the principal methods used for paleoclimate inference in the region and the rationale for climate proxy interpretation to help researchers working in the Maya Lowlands make sense of paleoclimate datasets. In particular, we focus on analyses of speleothems and lake sediment cores. These two paleoclimate archives have been most widely applied in the Maya Lowlands and have the greatest potential to provide insights into climate change impacts on the ancient Maya. We discuss the development of chronologies for these climate archives, the proxies for past climate change found within them, and how these proxy variables are interpreted. Finally, we present strategies for improving our understanding of proxy paleoclimate data from the Maya Lowlands, including multi-proxy analyses, assessment of spatial variability in past climate change, combined analysis of climate models and proxy data, and the integration of paleoclimatology and archeology.

  6. Toz Maya Ekstraktı Üretimi

    OpenAIRE

    Başoğlu, Fikri; Halkman, Kadir; Ertaş, Hamdi; Çakmakçı, Lütfü

    1985-01-01

    Bira fabrikası artığı yaş mayadan toz maya ekstraktı elde edilmiş ve 2 yabancı ticari firma tarafından üretilen maya ekstraktı ile kimyasal ve mikrobiyolojik açıdan kıyaslanmıştır. Elde edilen sonuçlar bu maya ekstraktının mikrobiyolojik çalışmalarda kullanılabileceğini göstermiştir.   

  7. Autodesk Maya 8.5试用体验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Maya8.5是alias被Autodesk收购不长的时间内出的第二个版本了。距Maya8.0发布仅半年后的Maya8.5版本又会有什么样的改进呢?会不会象前一个版本一样只是加强了Autodesk的风格呢?怀着这些疑问我打开了《Computer Arts数码艺术》杂志社送来的Maya8.5的媒体测试软件安装盘。

  8. Maya Index and Larva Density Aedes Aegypti Toward Dengue Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Sang G. Purnama; Tri Baskoro

    2012-01-01

    South Denpasar District was of there as with the highest dengue cases in Bali province. The number of mosquito breeding places and larvae density become risk factor that influenced the spreading of mosquitoes. Maya index was an indicator to measure the amount of waterreservoirs can be breeding places for mosquitoes. Knowing the relationship between maya index and density of larvae and pupae of Ae.aegypti toward dengue infection in South Denpasar District. The study was observational analytic ...

  9. Recent Advances in Maya Studies Using Remotely Sensed Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Tom; Irwin, Daniel; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Peten region of northern Guatemala is one of the last places on earth where major archeological sites remain to be discovered. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper and IKONOS satellite and airborne Star3i radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as cities, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the baJos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. The use of bajos for farming has been a source of debate within the professional community for many years. But the recent detection and verification of cultural features within the bajo system by our research team are providing conclusive evidence that the ancient Maya had adapted well to wetland environments from the earliest times and utilized them until the time of the Maya collapse. The combination of water management and bajo farming is an important resource for the future of the current inhabitants who are experiencing rapid population growth. Remote sensing imagery is also demonstrating that in the Preclassic period (600 BC- AD 250), the Maya had already achieved a high organizational level as evidenced by the construction of massive temples and an elaborate inter-connecting roadway system. Although they experienced several setbacks such as droughts and hurricanes, the Maya nevertheless managed the delicate forest ecosystem successfully for several centuries. However, around AD 800, something happened to the Maya to cause their rapid decline and eventual disappearance from the region. The evidence indicates that at this time there was increased climatic dryness, extensive deforestation, overpopulation, and widespread warfare. This raises a

  10. Maya 6新功能全扫描

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑涛; 张嘉亮

    2004-01-01

    自从去年Maya 5.0获得奥斯卡科技奖之后.Alias可谓新闻多多,这次Maya 6的出台更是令人又惊又喜。下面就让我们直接进入正题。看看这次出人意料的升级到底带来了哪些新功能?

  11. No metaphorical timeline in gesture and cognition among yucatec mayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guen, Olivier; Balam, Lorena Ildefonsa Pool

    2012-01-01

    In numerous languages, space provides a productive domain for the expression of time. This paper examines how time-to-space mapping is realized in Yucatec Maya. At the linguistic level, Yucatec Maya has numerous resources to express deictic time, whereas expression of sequential time is highly constrained. Specifically, in gesture, we do not find any metaphorical oriented timeline, but only an opposition between "current time" (mapped on the "here" space) and "remote time" (mapped on the "remote/distant space"). Additionally, past and future are not contrasted. Sequential or deictic time in language and gesture are not conceived as unfolding along a metaphorical oriented line (e.g., left-right or front-back) but as a succession of completed events not spatially organized. Interestingly, although Yucatec Maya speakers preferentially use a geocentric spatial frame of reference (FoR), especially visible in their use of gesture, time is not mapped onto a geocentric axis (e.g., east-west). We argue that, instead of providing a source for time mapping, the use of a spatial geocentric FoR in Yucatec Maya seems to inhibit it. The Yucatec Maya expression of time in language and gesture fits the more general cultural conception of time as cyclic. Experimental results confirmed, to some extent, this non-linear, non-directional conception of time in Yucatec Maya.

  12. Wetland fields as mirrors of drought and the Maya abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzzadder-Beach, Sheryl; Beach, Timothy P; Dunning, Nicholas P

    2012-03-01

    Getting at the Maya Collapse has both temporal and geographic dimensions, because it occurred over centuries and great distances. This requires a wide range of research sites and proxy records, ranging from lake cores to geomorphic evidence, such as stratigraphy and speleothems. This article synthesizes these lines of evidence, together with previously undescribed findings on Maya wetland formation and use in a key region near the heart of the central Maya Lowlands. Growing lines of evidence point to dryer periods in Maya history, which correlate to major periods of transition. The main line of evidence in this paper comes from wetland use and formation studies, which show evidence for both large-scale environmental change and human adaptation or response. Based on multiproxy studies, Maya wetland fields had a long and varied history, but most evidence indicates the start of disuse during or shortly after the Maya Terminal Classic. Hence, the pervasiveness of collapse extended into a range of wetlands, including perennial wetlands, which should have been less responsive to drought as a driver of disuse. A synthesis of the lines of evidence for canal infilling shows no attempts to reclaim them after the Classic Period.

  13. Management of blunt hepatic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letoublon, C; Amariutei, A; Taton, N; Lacaze, L; Abba, J; Risse, O; Arvieux, C

    2016-08-01

    For the last 20 years, nonoperative management (NOM) of blunt hepatic trauma (BHT) has been the initial policy whenever this is possible (80% of cases), i.e., in all cases where the hemodynamic status does not demand emergency laparotomy. NOM relies upon the coexistence of three highly effective treatment modalities: radiology with contrast-enhanced computerized tomography (CT) and hepatic arterial embolization, intensive care surveillance, and finally delayed surgery (DS). DS is not a failure of NOM management but rather an integral part of the surgical strategy. When imposed by hemodynamic instability, the immediate surgical option has seen its effectiveness transformed by development of the concept of abbreviated (damage control) laparotomy and wide application of the method of perihepatic packing (PHP). The effectiveness of these two conservative and cautious strategies for initial management is evidenced by current experience, but the management of secondary events that may arise with the most severe grades of injury must be both rapid and effective. PMID:27519150

  14. 78 FR 17744 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Maya: Hidden Worlds...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Maya: Hidden Worlds Revealed... determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Maya: Hidden Worlds Revealed,'' imported...

  15. Diagonal Slices of 3D Young Diagrams in the Approach of Maya Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Li-Qiang; Wang, Li-Fang; Wu, Ke; Yang, Jie

    2014-09-01

    According to the correspondence between 2D Young diagrams and Maya diagrams and the relation between 2D and 3D Young diagrams, we construct 3D Young diagrams in the approach of Maya diagrams. Moreover, we formulate the generating function of 3D Young diagrams, which is the MacMahon function in terms of Maya diagrams.

  16. Drought, agricultural adaptation, and sociopolitical collapse in the Maya Lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Peter M. J.; Pagani, Mark; Canuto, Marcello A.; Brenner, Mark; Hodell, David A.; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Curtis, Jason H.

    2015-05-01

    Paleoclimate records indicate a series of severe droughts was associated with societal collapse of the Classic Maya during the Terminal Classic period (∼800-950 C.E.). Evidence for drought largely derives from the drier, less populated northern Maya Lowlands but does not explain more pronounced and earlier societal disruption in the relatively humid southern Maya Lowlands. Here we apply hydrogen and carbon isotope compositions of plant wax lipids in two lake sediment cores to assess changes in water availability and land use in both the northern and southern Maya lowlands. We show that relatively more intense drying occurred in the southern lowlands than in the northern lowlands during the Terminal Classic period, consistent with earlier and more persistent societal decline in the south. Our results also indicate a period of substantial drying in the southern Maya Lowlands from ∼200 C.E. to 500 C.E., during the Terminal Preclassic and Early Classic periods. Plant wax carbon isotope records indicate a decline in C4 plants in both lake catchments during the Early Classic period, interpreted to reflect a shift from extensive agriculture to intensive, water-conservative maize cultivation that was motivated by a drying climate. Our results imply that agricultural adaptations developed in response to earlier droughts were initially successful, but failed under the more severe droughts of the Terminal Classic period.

  17. Meteor Showers in the Ancient Maya Hieroglyphic Codices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsman, J. H.

    2014-07-01

    Researchers of the ancient Maya culture have long been fascinated with the Maya obsession concerning cyclical calendars and precise visual observations of astronomical bodies and phenomena, in particular the Sun, Moon, visible planets, and solar and lunar eclipses. Although considered possible, heretofore no record of specific sightings of comets or meteor showers in the Maya inscriptions has been firmly established by scholars. Besides difficulties with decipherment of the hieroglyphic script, investigators have had to grapple with an ancient Maya calendar that has not been accurately correlated to the European calendar. Recent examination by this researcher has found that it may be possible to recognize written accounts of meteor showers embedded in the hieroglyphic corpus, especially the codices, the screen-fold books that were the tools of the astronomer-priests of that day. By proposing an alternative decipherment of an astronomical sign and using the accompanying hieroglyphic texts and illustrations with appropriate dates, this researcher believes it is possible to demonstrate that the Maya may have recorded meteor showers occurring in the seventh through the tenth centuries AD.

  18. Aging May Blunt Some of Exercise's Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159438.html Aging May Blunt Some of Exercise's Benefits But, that's ... 17, 2016 FRIDAY, June 17, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Aging may dampen some beneficial effects of exercise, a ...

  19. How to Cheat in Maya 2012 Tools and Techniques for Character Animation

    CERN Document Server

    Luhta, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The Maya guide for animators, How to Cheat in Maya 2012 presents everything you need to know about character animation in Maya. Fully updated for the latest revision of Maya, this book provides you with complete, step-by-step walkthroughs of essential animation techniques to increase your efficiency and speed. This is an animator's workflow in book form, written by professional animators-not a software book with a few animation pointers thrown in. In addition to all the gold-mine coverage and interviews with expert animators from the previous edition, How to Cheat in Maya 2012 also features a

  20. Narrative Structures of Maya Mental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatala, Andrew R; Waldram, James B; Caal, Tomas

    2015-09-01

    Several Indigenous communities around the globe maintain unique conceptions of mental illness and disorder. The Q'eqchi' Maya of southern Belize represent one Indigenous community that has maintained, due to highly "traditional" ways of life and the strong presence of many active localized healers or bush doctors, distinct conceptions of mental disorders as compared to Western psychiatric nosology. The purpose of this ethnographic study was to understand and interpret Q'eqchi' nosological systems of mental disorders involving the factors--spiritual, cultural, social, historical, cosmological, or otherwise--implicated in their articulation and construction. Over a period of 9 months, and with the help of cultural advisors from several Q'eqchi' communities, 94 interviews with five different traditional Q'eqchi' healers were conducted. This paper demonstrates that the mental illnesses recognized by the Q'eqchi' healers involved narrative structures with recognizable variations unfolding over time. What we present in this paper are 17 recognizable illnesses of the mind grouped within one of four broad "narrative genres." Each genre involves a discernible plot structure, casts of characters, themes, motifs, and a recognizable teleology or "directedness." In narrative terms, the healer's diagnostic and therapeutic work can be understood as an ability to discern plot, to understand and interpret a specific case within the board, empirically based structure of Q'eqchi' medical epistemology.

  1. Narrative Structures of Maya Mental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatala, Andrew R; Waldram, James B; Caal, Tomas

    2015-09-01

    Several Indigenous communities around the globe maintain unique conceptions of mental illness and disorder. The Q'eqchi' Maya of southern Belize represent one Indigenous community that has maintained, due to highly "traditional" ways of life and the strong presence of many active localized healers or bush doctors, distinct conceptions of mental disorders as compared to Western psychiatric nosology. The purpose of this ethnographic study was to understand and interpret Q'eqchi' nosological systems of mental disorders involving the factors--spiritual, cultural, social, historical, cosmological, or otherwise--implicated in their articulation and construction. Over a period of 9 months, and with the help of cultural advisors from several Q'eqchi' communities, 94 interviews with five different traditional Q'eqchi' healers were conducted. This paper demonstrates that the mental illnesses recognized by the Q'eqchi' healers involved narrative structures with recognizable variations unfolding over time. What we present in this paper are 17 recognizable illnesses of the mind grouped within one of four broad "narrative genres." Each genre involves a discernible plot structure, casts of characters, themes, motifs, and a recognizable teleology or "directedness." In narrative terms, the healer's diagnostic and therapeutic work can be understood as an ability to discern plot, to understand and interpret a specific case within the board, empirically based structure of Q'eqchi' medical epistemology. PMID:25676172

  2. Folkecology and commons management in the Maya Lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atran, Scott; Medin, Douglas; Ross, Norbert; Lynch, Elizabeth; Coley, John; Ek’, Edilberto Ucan; Vapnarsky, Valentina

    1999-01-01

    Three groups living off the same rainforest habitat manifest strikingly distinct behaviors, cognitions, and social relationships relative to the forest. Only the area’s last native Maya reveal systematic awareness of ecological complexity involving animals, plants, and people and practices clearly favoring forest regeneration. Spanish-speaking immigrants prove closer to native Maya in thought, action, and social networking than do immigrant Maya. There is no overriding “local,” “Indian,” or “immigrant” relationship to the environment. Results indicate that exclusive concern with rational self-interest and institutional constraints do not sufficiently account for commons behavior and that cultural patterning of cognition and access to relevant information are significant predictors. Unlike traditional accounts of relations between culture, cognition, and behavior, the models offered are not synthetic interpretations of people’s thoughts and behaviors but are emergent cultural patterns derived statistically from measurements of individual cognitions and behaviors. PMID:10377461

  3. Compositional attribution of non-provenienced Maya polychrome vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, R.L.; Harbottle, G.; Reents, D.J.; Sayre, E.V.; van Zelst, L.

    1983-01-01

    Procedures and a few of the results of the Maya ceramic project are discussed from the perspective of non-provenienced vessel attribution ranging from site specific through a more inferential level to the rather hypothetical. The examples presented serve to illustrate the manner in which compositional and stylistic covariation are viewed in an investigation of Maya Ceramic art. The large data base from neutron activation analysis including archaeologically recovered pottery as well as the stylistically and iconographically elaborate vessels requires continued refinement in our methods of statistical analysis along with gaining a greater understanding of the sources of ceramic compositional variation in the Maya area. The mutually beneficial collaboration between science, art, and archaeology are emphasized.

  4. Maya Index and Larva Density Aedes Aegypti Toward Dengue Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang G. Purnama

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available South Denpasar District was of there as with the highest dengue cases in Bali province. The number of mosquito breeding places and larvae density become risk factor that influenced the spreading of mosquitoes. Maya index was an indicator to measure the amount of waterreservoirs can be breeding places for mosquitoes. Knowing the relationship between maya index and density of larvae and pupae of Ae.aegypti toward dengue infection in South Denpasar District. The study was observational analytic with case-control design. Data was collected through interviews and field observations to 150 respondents. The survey entomologist with indicators maya index, house index (HI, container index (CI, breteau index (BI and pupa index (PI to see the density of larvae and pupae in survey area. Dengue transmission risk was categorized mild, moderate and severe based on density figure. Water storage containers inspected in 1215 containers that as many as 675 containers in the case and 540 containers in control. Water reservoirs (TPA that the most larvae was tub (29.27%, dispenser (18.29%, container tirta (10.98%, wells (10.98%. Maya index status was lower in the case (24% smaller thancontrols (37.33%. Value of HI = 23.33; CI=10.69; BI=55; PI=15.33. Based on HI and CI indicator South Denpasar District means have moderate the risk of transmission spread of dengue disease. Based on the BI, have a high risk of transmission to the spread of dengue disease. Based on the maya index showed house cases have highest risk as breeding place compare than control house. House index, Breteau index, container index, pupa index and maya index have correlation with dengue infection. Kind of breeding place have the high risk is bath tub

  5. Mechanical design and development aspects of a small AUV - Maya

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhan, R.; Desa, E.S.; Prabhudesai, S.; Sebastiao, L.; Pascoal, A.; Desa, E.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Maurya, P.; Navelkar, G.S.; Afzulpurkar, S.; Khalap, S.

    , and the pressure sensor mounted on the end cap all in one go. A drop of ~ 55 mbar (from atmospheric) in internal pressure caused by colder waters at 178m in contact with the bare hull was monitored with a miniature data logger. 3.2 Internal components... for several hours at various pressures. 7. DRAG TESTS ON THE MAYA HULL The fully assembled Maya AUV was attached to a calibrated speed trolley at the Central Water and Power Resources Tow Tank facility in Pune, India, and the drag force measured...

  6. Ancient Maya documents concerning the movements of Mars

    OpenAIRE

    Bricker, Harvey M.; Aveni, Anthony F.; Bricker, Victoria R.

    2001-01-01

    A large part of the pre-Columbian Maya book known as the Dresden Codex is concerned with an exploration of commensurate relationships among celestial cycles and their relationship to other, nonastronomical cycles of cultural interest. As has long been known, pages 43b–45b of the Codex are concerned with the synodic cycle of Mars. New work reported here with another part of the Codex, a complex table on pages 69–74, reveals a concern on the part of the ancient Maya astr...

  7. Autodesk降低Maya Unlimited价格并推出Maya2008扩展包2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    近日,Autodesk宣布降低Autodesk Maya Unlimited3D建模、动画和渲染软件的价格。同时,Autodesk还推出了Maya2008扩展包2软件,该软件为多边形建模和UV纹理提供更强的创造性控制,也为MayaMuscle工具包带来了重大改进。Maya最近因其对游戏开发行业的杰出贡献而入选GameDeveloper FrontLine Award Hall of Fame奖项。

  8. Politics in the Western Maya Region (II: Emblem Glyphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Bíró

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a series of articles I reflect on the use of various expressions which are connected to what we call the political in the inscriptions of the Classic Maya Western Region. These words express ideas and concepts which help to understand the intricate details of the interactions between the political entities and their internal organisations in the Classic Maya Lowlands. In this article I investigate the meaning of emblem glyphs. I suggest that originally they were toponyms but later on they became titles of origin which indicated descendance from a common origin place.En una serie de artículos investigo el uso de varias palabras en las inscripciones mayas de la época Clásica de la Región Occidental que se conectan con lo que nosotros llamamos "política". Estas palabras expresan ideas y conceptos que ayudan a entender los matices de las relaciones entre las entidades políticas de las Tierras Bajas Mayas y su organización interna. En este artículo investigo el significado de los glifos emblema. Propongo que originalmente fueron topónimos y después llegaron a ser títulos de origen que indicaron descendencia común de un lugar original.

  9. Deciding To Be Legal: A Maya Community in Houston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Jacqueline Maria

    This book examines the settlement process of undocumented migrant workers through an ethnographic study of a Houston (Texas) community of Mayas from a township in Totonicapan, Guatemala. The community is traced from its genesis in 1978, when a few men left the township in search of economic opportunity, to the complex effects of the 1986…

  10. Core and Periphery Relations: A Case Study of the Maya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Teixeira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available How do indigenous peoples relate to the core over the longue duree? In this paper, we explore the implications of colonialism from a world-systems perspective, examining interactions in the economic and political structures in addition to the effects of landlessness for indigenous peoples in one case: the Maya. After reviewing world-systems theory and applying it to indigenousness, we discuss Ragin’s (1992 conceptualization of cases and the comparative historical method. Then we introduce the relational concept, a tool that allows us to employ both the comparative historical method and world-systems theory in our analysis of the Maya and their relationship to the state of Mexico. We then present our data, which consist of the economic and political conditions, along with the cultural implications of landholding across time among the Maya and in Mexico. We analyze these data using the relational concept to understand the consequences of colonialism and globalization for the Maya people.

  11. Imaginando a los mayas de hoy: autorrepresentación y política

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rosa Duarte Duarte

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza el proceso de representación y autorrepresentación de los mayas de Yucatán en Sáastal: Los hijos de la Santa Gracia, una video-ficción de cincuenta y cinco minutos. En Sáastal se pone en escena el drama de la vida cotidiana de una familia maya de acuerdo con la imaginación, tanto de los mayas que participamos en la producción como de los no mayas. Se analiza cómo la convivencia de la cultura maya con las diversas políticas civilizatorias, entre éstas, las de desarrollo, modernización y globalización, han influido en el imaginario de los mayas contemporáneos. Esta convivencia entre dos culturas ha llevado a los mayas a adoptar "identidades suaves", que les permiten actuar de acuerdo con las circunstancias. En Sáastal, los mayas "performamos", recreamos e instrumentalizamos la cultura y convertimos en ficticias nuestras propias identidades.In this article I analyze the processes of representation and self-representation of the Yucatec Maya in Sáastal: The Children of the Sacred Grace, a 55-minute video-fiction. Sáastal presents a dramatic account of the everyday life of a Yucatec Maya family as imagined both by the Maya and non-Maya participating in the production. I examine how this imaginary is influenced by the coexistence of the Mayan culture with the diverse civilizatory politics, such as the politics of development, modernization, and globalization. it is argued that this coexistence has led us, the Yucatec Maya, to adopt "soft identities" which allow us to act according to the circumstances. In Sáastal we therefore perform, recreate and instrumentalize our culture and, in this way, convert our own identities into fictions.

  12. Study of airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2010-01-01

    -Stokes equations. It provides us possibilities to study details about noise generation mechanism. The formulation of the semi-empirical model is based on acoustic analogy and then curve-fitted with experimental data. Due to its high efficiency, such empirical relation is used for purpose of low noise airfoil......This paper deals with airfoil trailing edge noise with special focus on airfoils with blunt trailing edges. Two methods are employed to calculate airfoil noise: The flow/acoustic splitting method and the semi-empirical method. The flow/acoustic splitting method is derived from compressible Navier...... design or optimization. Calculations from both methods are compared with exist experiments. The airfoil blunt noise is found as a function of trailing edge bluntness, Reynolds number, angle of attack, etc....

  13. Cardiogenic shock following blunt chest trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-González Fayna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac contusion, usually caused by blunt chest trauma, has been recognized with increased frequency over the past decades. Traffic accidents are the most frequent cause of cardiac contusions resulting from a direct blow to the chest. Other causes of blunt cardiac injury are numerous and include violent fall impacts, interpersonal aggression, explosions, and various types of high-risk sports. Myocardial contusion is difficult to diagnose; clinical presentation varies greatly, ranging from lack of symptoms to cardiogenic shock and arrhythmia. Although death is rare, cardiac contusion can be fatal. We present a case of cardiac contusion due to blunt chest trauma secondary to a fall impact, which manifested as cardiogenic shock.

  14. Fe K-edge XANES of Maya blue pigment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio, M. Sanchez del [ESRF, Experiments Division, B.P. 220, F-38043, Grenoble Cedex (France)]. E-mail: srio@esrf.fr; Sodo, A. [ESRF, Experiments Division, B.P. 220, F-38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Eeckhout, S.G. [ESRF, Experiments Division, B.P. 220, F-38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Neisius, T. [ESRF, Experiments Division, B.P. 220, F-38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Martinetto, P. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, Grenoble B.P. 166, F-38042, Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Dooryhee, E. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, Grenoble B.P. 166, F-38042, Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Reyes-Valerio, C. [INAH, Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    The utilization of techniques used in Materials Science for the characterization of artefacts of interest for cultural heritage is getting more and more attention nowadays. One of the products of the ancient Maya chemistry is the 'Maya blue' pigment, made with natural indigo and palygorskite. This pigment is different from any other pigment used in other parts of the world. It is durable and acid-resistant, and still keeps many secrets to scientists even though it has been studied for more than 50 years. Although the pigment is basically made of palygorskite Si{sub 8}(Mg{sub 2}Al{sub 2})O{sub 20}(OH){sub 2}(OH{sub 2}){sub 4}.4H{sub 2}O and an organic colourant (indigo: C{sub 16}H{sub 10}N{sub 2}O{sub 2}), a number of other compounds have been found in previous studies on archaeological samples, like other clays and minerals, iron nanoparticles, iron oxides, impurities of transition metals (Cr, Mn, Ti, V), etc. We measured at the ESRF ID26 beamline the Fe K-edge XANES spectra of the blue pigment in ancient samples. They are compared to XANES spectra of Maya blue samples synthesized under controlled conditions, and iron oxides usually employed as pigments (hematite and goethite). Our results show that the iron found in ancient Maya blue pigment is related to the Fe exchanged in the palygorskite clay. We did not find iron in metallic form or goethite in archaeological Maya blue.

  15. Contemporary management of blunt aortic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubose, J J; Azizzadeh, A; Estrera, A L; Safi, H J

    2015-10-01

    Blunt thoracic aortic injury (BTAI) remains a common cause of death following blunt mechanisms of trauma. Among patients who survive to reach hospital care, significant advances in diagnosis and treatment afford previously unattainable survival. The Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) guidelines provide current best-evidence suggestions for treatment of BTAI. However, several key areas of controversy regarding optimal BTAI care remain. These include the refinement of selection criteria, timing for treatment and the need for long-term follow-up data. In addition, the advent of the Aortic Trauma Foundation (ATF) represents an important development in collaborative research in this field. PMID:25868973

  16. Isolated renal pelvis rupture secondary to blunt trauma: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerem Taken

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Renal pelvic injury must be considered in the differential diagnosis of blunt trauma. Surgical intervention may be necessary in some cases. We present a case who underwent surgery due to isolated renal pelvis rupture caused by blunt abdominal trauma.

  17. Survey, Settlement, and Population History at the Ancient Maya Site of Pacbitun, Belize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Healy, Paul F.; Helmke, Christophe G.B.; Awe, Jaime J.;

    2007-01-01

    Survey and excavations of mounds on the outskirts of the site of Pacbitun in western Belize provide insights to the ancient Maya settlement pattern at this medium-sized regional center. This research employed two methods: analysis of structural remains from four separate 1000 m transect surveys...... to have been about 5000-6000 persons. This population estimate is compared with several coeval lowland Maya centers, and found to be reasonable for a medium-sized, Late Classic Maya center....

  18. Cardiac injuries in blunt chest trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobon-Gomez Catalina

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Blunt chest traumas are a clinical challenge, both for diagnosis and treatment. The use of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance can play a major role in this setting. We present two cases: a 12-year-old boy and 45-year-old man. Late gadolinium enhancement imaging enabled visualization of myocardial damage resulting from the trauma.

  19. Tetanus after blunt lawn mower trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Normand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient presented with tetanus ten days after blunt trauma with a lawn mower. Our case describes the diagnosis and treatment of this patient with an infectious disease commonly seen in the developing world but rarely seen in the developed world.

  20. Cardiac injuries in blunt chest trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Tobon-Gomez Catalina; Huguet Marina; Bijnens Bart H; Frangi Alejandro F; Petit Marius

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Blunt chest traumas are a clinical challenge, both for diagnosis and treatment. The use of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance can play a major role in this setting. We present two cases: a 12-year-old boy and 45-year-old man. Late gadolinium enhancement imaging enabled visualization of myocardial damage resulting from the trauma.

  1. U/Pb Geochronology of the Maya Block, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, U.; Ratschbacher, L.; McWilliams, M.

    2005-12-01

    The Maya Block can be defined as Guatemala north of the Motagua transform fault, Belize, and part of southern Mexico. The absence of radiometric ages has hindered an understanding of the geologic evolution of the Maya Block and its connections with adjacent blocks in North America, South America and the Caribbean. We present an exploratory study of SHRIMP U/Pb ages from zircons collected in central and western Guatemala that shows ubiquitous Grenvillian inheritance, magmatism at ~ 1020 Ma, ~ 975 Ma and ~ 175 Ma, Devonian-Silurian and Triassic tectonomagmatic events, and Cretaceous metamorphism. Grenvillian orthogneisses were identified in the northern flank of the Sierra de Chuac'{u}s whose magmatic ages are 1020 ± 35 Ma and 975 ± 15 Ma with possible Pb-loss at ~ 420 Ma. Zircons of the Rabinal Granite show an important ~ 975 Ma inheritance and concordant ages in the 400-500 Ma range. We interpret the Devonian-Silurian ages as magmatic and correlate the peraluminous Rabinal Granite with similar intrusions in the Maya Mountains of Belize. Coeval events recorded in Chuac'{u}s orthogneisses and the Rabinal Granite suggest connections since Early Paleozoic time between the Chuac'{u}s complex and the Maya Block north of the Baja Verapaz shear zone that separates rocks of contrasting metamorphic grade. The magmatic age for deformed granites south of Sacapulas in central-western Guatemala is 174 ± 3 Ma. Migmatitic paragneisses collected south of Huehuetenango yield Triassic metamorphic ages at 223 ± 4 Ma, coeval with anatexis in the basement of Chiapas, Mexico. Medium to high-grade metasedimentary rocks on the southern flank of the Sierra de Chuac'{u}s do not record a Silurian-Devonian provenance. Instead, they yield clear Grenvillian and Triassic (240-210 Ma) components. Dating of zircon rims at 74 ± 1 Ma yields a precise age for the peak Cretaceous epidote-amphibolite metamorphic event in the Chuac'{u}s complex. Ductile structures exhibiting at least 4 tectonic

  2. Antifungal Saponins from the Maya Medicinal Plant Cestrum schlechtendahlii G. Don (Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Chieu Anh Kim; Guerrero-Analco, J Antonio; Roberts, Elizabeth; Liu, Rui; Mogg, Christopher D; Saleem, Ammar; Otárola-Rojas, Marco; Poveda, Luis; Sanchez-Vindas, Pablo; Cal, Victor; Caal, Federico; Subramaniam, Rajagopal; Smith, Myron L; Arnason, John T

    2016-03-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude extract (80% EtOH) of the leaves of Cestrum schlechtendahlii, a plant used by Q'eqchi' Maya healers for treatment of athlete's foot, resulted in the isolation and identification of two spirostanol saponins (1 and 2). Structure elucidation by MS, 1D-NMR, and 2D-NMR spectroscopic methods identified them to be the known saponin (25R)-1β,2α-dihydroxy-5α-spirostan-3-β-yl-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-galactopyranoside (1) and new saponin (25R)-1β,2α-dihydroxy-5α-spirostan-3-β-yl-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (2). While 2 showed little or no antifungal activity at the highest concentration tested, 1 inhibited growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 15-25 μM), Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Fusarium graminearum (MIC of 132-198 μM).

  3. Antifungal Saponins from the Maya Medicinal Plant Cestrum schlechtendahlii G. Don (Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Chieu Anh Kim; Guerrero-Analco, J Antonio; Roberts, Elizabeth; Liu, Rui; Mogg, Christopher D; Saleem, Ammar; Otárola-Rojas, Marco; Poveda, Luis; Sanchez-Vindas, Pablo; Cal, Victor; Caal, Federico; Subramaniam, Rajagopal; Smith, Myron L; Arnason, John T

    2016-03-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude extract (80% EtOH) of the leaves of Cestrum schlechtendahlii, a plant used by Q'eqchi' Maya healers for treatment of athlete's foot, resulted in the isolation and identification of two spirostanol saponins (1 and 2). Structure elucidation by MS, 1D-NMR, and 2D-NMR spectroscopic methods identified them to be the known saponin (25R)-1β,2α-dihydroxy-5α-spirostan-3-β-yl-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-galactopyranoside (1) and new saponin (25R)-1β,2α-dihydroxy-5α-spirostan-3-β-yl-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (2). While 2 showed little or no antifungal activity at the highest concentration tested, 1 inhibited growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 15-25 μM), Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Fusarium graminearum (MIC of 132-198 μM). PMID:26666462

  4. EDGE REMOVAL OF 3D POLYGONAL MODEL USING MAYA API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMEER ARORA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In various applications of computer graphics, 3D polygonal modeling is used, which consists millions of triangular polygon. In this polygon attributes – vertices, edges and faces’ details are to be stored. In order to control the processing time, storing space, and transfer speed, it is often required to reduce the information ofthese polygonal 3D models. In this paper an effort is made to reduce the number of edges. There are various methods to reduce faces and edges of these 3D models. A C++ dynamic link library as Maya Plugin has been created to remove number of edges of 3D triangular polygon model using the Quadric Error Metrics (QEM in MAYA v2010 x64 API. QEM allows fast and accurate geometric simplification of 3D models.

  5. Autodesk Maya 2009试用报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙浩

    2009-01-01

    Autodesk Maya一直是领先的3D建模、动画、效果和渲染解决方案.目标用户包括影视美术工程师、游戏开发人员、绘图设计师.数字出版专业人员、教师和学员等。Autodesk Maya 2009提供了众多旨在提升多边形和纹理处理效率的增强特性(包括真正的软选择.更新的对称建模、扭曲模式).以及使复杂的大型场景更易于管理的新工具(新的Maya Assets和Render Proxy特性)。

  6. Astronomical and Cosmological Aspects of Maya Architecture and Urbanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šprajc, I.

    2009-08-01

    Archaeoastronomical studies carried out so far have shown that the orientations in the ancient Maya architecture were, like elsewhere in Mesoamerica, largely astronomical, mostly referring to sunrises and sunsets on particular dates and allowing the use of observational calendars that facilitated a proper scheduling of agricultural activities. However, the astronomical alignments cannot be understood in purely utilitarian terms. Since the repeatedly occurring directions are most consistently incorporated in monumental architecture of civic and ceremonial urban cores, they must have had an important place in religion and worldview. The characteristics of urban layouts, as well as architectural and other elements associated with important buildings, reveal that the Maya architectural and urban planning was dictated by a complex set of rules, in which astronomical considerations related to practical needs were embedded in a broader framework of cosmological concepts substantiated by political ideology.

  7. Microanalysis study of archaeological mural samples containing Maya blue pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence and particle induced X-ray emission is applied to the study of several Mesoamerican mural samples containing blue pigments. The most characteristic blue pigment is Maya blue, a very stable organo-clay complex original from Maya culture and widely used in murals, pottery and sculptures in a vast region of Mesoamerica during the pre-hispanic time (from VIII century) and during the colonization until 1580. The mural samples come from six different archaeological sites (four pre-hispanic and two from XVI century colonial convents). The correlation between the presence of some elements and the pigment colour is discussed. From the comparative study of the elemental concentration, some conclusions are drawn on the nature of the pigments and the technology used

  8. Microanalysis study of archaeological mural samples containing Maya blue pigment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, M. [ESRF, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble (France)]. E-mail: srio@esrf.fr; Martinetto, P. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP166 F-30842 Grenoble (France); Somogyi, A. [ESRF, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Reyes-Valerio, C. [INAH, Mexico DF (Mexico); Dooryhee, E. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP166 F-30842 Grenoble (France); Peltier, N. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP166 F-30842 Grenoble (France); Alianelli, L. [INFM-OGG c/o ESRF, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Moignard, B. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Pichon, L. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Calligaro, T. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Dran, J.-C. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France)

    2004-10-08

    Elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence and particle induced X-ray emission is applied to the study of several Mesoamerican mural samples containing blue pigments. The most characteristic blue pigment is Maya blue, a very stable organo-clay complex original from Maya culture and widely used in murals, pottery and sculptures in a vast region of Mesoamerica during the pre-hispanic time (from VIII century) and during the colonization until 1580. The mural samples come from six different archaeological sites (four pre-hispanic and two from XVI century colonial convents). The correlation between the presence of some elements and the pigment colour is discussed. From the comparative study of the elemental concentration, some conclusions are drawn on the nature of the pigments and the technology used.

  9. What We Think We Know About Maya Mathematics and Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stone, M.

    2016-01-01

    In most cultures, mathematics and astronomy are obscure and arcane. Not so to the ancient Maya. Despite what we consider technological “deficiencies”—they lacked both metal tools and the wheel—their public inscriptions paid uniquely sophisticated attention to these sciences. At any given monument, fully half the text is devoted to situating events in time, particularly specifying the precise number of days between events, whether historical or mythological. Often these intervals have numerological significance, and many are precise multiples of the periodicities of heavenly bodies. The Maya apparently were fully aware of the exact length of the tropical year, the sidereal year, the cycles of Venus, and eclipses; and there is evidence that they even celebrated events reflecting the 26,000-year precession cycle. However, Maya illuminati had an agenda quite alien to our way of thinking. Clues to their knowledge are arcane, rare, and often difficult for us to recognize with eyes clouded by our modern worldview. The body of work left to us consists of just a few tantalizing sherds of a once-rich and diverse astromythological tradition. Moreover, there was no single pan-Mayan mythos. An astronomical alignment seen repeatedly in one city will be completely absent in others. Each city-state emphasized specific and often unique features, and they often contradict one another. But we soldier on. The diversity we find so frustrating is simply the fine structure of their worldview. Intellectual historians have for too long been, like Procrustes, trying to force all Maya science and religion into a single universal straitjacket.

  10. Instruments measuring blunted affect in schizophrenia: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Kilian

    Full Text Available Blunted affect, also referred to as emotional blunting, is a prominent symptom of schizophrenia. Patients with blunted affect have difficulty in expressing their emotions. The work of Abrams and Taylor and their development of the Rating Scale for Emotional Blunting in the late 1970's was an early indicator that blunted affect could indeed be assessed reliably. Since then, several new instruments assessing negative symptoms with subscales measuring blunted affect have been developed. In light of this, we aim to provide researchers and clinicians with a systematic review of the different instruments used to assess blunted affect by providing a comparison of the type, characteristics, administration and psychometric properties of these instruments. Studies reporting on the psychometric properties of instruments assessing blunted affect in patients with schizophrenia were included. Reviews and case studies were excluded. We reviewed 30 full-text articles and included 15 articles and 10 instruments in this systematic review. On average the instruments take 15-30 minutes to administer. We found that blunted affect items common across all instruments assess: gestures, facial expressions and vocal expressions. The CAINS Self-report Expression Subscale, had a low internal consistency score. This suggests that this sub-scale does not reliably assess patients' self-reported blunted affect symptoms and is likely due to the nature of blunted affect. Instruments correlated minimally with instruments measuring positive symptoms and more importantly with depression suggesting that the instruments distinguish between seemingly similar symptoms.

  11. Is the onset of the 6th century 'dark age' in Maya history related to explosive volcanism?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooren, Kees; Hoek, Wim Z.; Van der Plicht, Hans; Sigl, Michael; Galop, Didier; Torrescano-Valle, Nuria; Islebe, Gerald; Huizinga, Annika; Winkels, Tim; Middelkoop, Hans; Van Bergen, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Maya societies in Southern Mexico, Guatemala and Belize experienced a 'dark age' during the second half of the 6th century. This period, also known as the 'Maya Hiatus', is characterized by cultural downturn, political instability and abandonment of many sites in the Central Maya Lowlands. Many theo

  12. Complimentary imaging technologies in blunt ocular trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M Kolomeyer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe complimentary imaging technologies in traumatic chorioretinal injury. Color and fundus autofluorescence (FAF images were obtained with a non-mydriatic retinal camera. Optical coherence tomography (OCT helped obtain detailed images of retinal structure. Microperimetry was used to evaluate the visual function. A 40-year-old man sustained blunt ocular trauma with a stone. Color fundus image showed a large chorioretinal scar in the macula. Software filters allowed detailed illustration of extensive macular fibrosis. A 58-year-old man presented with blunt force trauma with a tennis ball. Color fundus imaging showed a crescentric area of macular choroidal rupture with fibrosis. FAF imaging delineated an area of hypofluorescence greater on fundus imaging. OCT showed chorioretinal atrophy in the macula. Microperimetry delineated an absolute scotoma with no response to maximal stimuli. Fundus imaging with digital filters and FAF illustrated the full extent of chorioretinal injury, while OCT and microperimetry corroborated the structure and function correlations.

  13. Blunted Reward Responsiveness in Remitted Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Pechtel, Pia; Dutra, Sunny J; Elena L. Goetz; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2013-01-01

    Major Depressive Disorder has been associated with blunted responsiveness to rewards, but inconsistencies exist whether such abnormalities persist after complete remission. To address this issue, across two independent studies, 47 adults with remitted Major Depressive Disorder (rMDD) and 37 healthy controls completed a Probabilistic Reward Task, which used a differential reinforcement schedule of social or monetary feedback to examine reward responsiveness (i.e., ability to modulate behavior ...

  14. Major gastroenteric injuries from blunt trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talton, D S; Craig, M H; Hauser, C J; Poole, G V

    1995-01-01

    Hollow visceral injuries are far less common in blunt abdominal trauma than in penetrating abdominal trauma. From 1982 through 1993 we treated 50 patients with 57 major blunt injuries to the gut, defined as perforation, transection, or devascularization. Thirty-two patients (64%) were injured in motor vehicle collisions. Of these, 29 wore no restraints; three were wearing lap belts (none wore lap-shoulder restraints). Mean injury Severity Score (ISS) in patients wearing lap belts was 13.3, compared with 28.6 in the 29 patients who were not using restraint devices (P injuries, followed by devascularization of the small bowel, colorectal injuries, duodenal, and gastric perforations. ISS and mortality rates were lowest in small bowel injuries and higher in the less common colonic and gastroduodenal injuries. Except for those patients with perforations of the small bowel, most patients had associated injuries to the head, chest, or abdominal solid organs that were largely responsible for morbidity and mortality. Injuries to the abdominal hollow viscera are unusual following blunt trauma, but are the result of very high energy truncal trauma, and are associated with multiple additional injuries. Most alert patients had physical findings suggestive of peritoneal irritation, but when diagnostic testing was necessary, peritoneal lavage was superior to computed tomography scanning (false negatives = 6.7% versus 36%, respectively; P < 0.05). A high index of suspicion is necessary to avoid diagnostic delays that can lead to severe complications and death.

  15. Representing Mayas : Indigenous Authorities and the Local Politics of Identity in Guatemala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasch, E.D.

    2008-01-01

    Against the backdrop of emerging indigenous movements in Latin America, the Maya Movement appeared as a political actor in the 1980s, bringing “the Indian Question” to the fore in Guatemalan politics. Rejecting racism and assimilationalist State policies, the Maya Movement seeks to recapture indigen

  16. Print Knowledge in Yucatec Maya-Spanish Bilingual Children: An Initial Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengochea, Alain; Justice, Laura M.; Hijlkema, Maria J.

    2015-01-01

    This study serves as an initial inquiry regarding the early print knowledge of emergent bilingual preschool-age children living in an Indigenous community in Mexico. In this research, we examine various dimensions of print knowledge with Yucatec Maya-Spanish bilingual children for whom one of their languages (Yucatec Maya) is seldom seen in print…

  17. Language Revitalisation from the Ground Up: Promoting Yucatec Maya on Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cru, Josep

    2015-01-01

    This paper looks at current grassroots efforts to revitalise Yucatec Maya, an indigenous language of Mexico, in social media and more specifically on Facebook. In contrast to the limitations of institutional language promotion, the inclusion of Maya on Facebook shows the possibilities that social networks offer not only for actual use of…

  18. Economic Stratification Differentiates Home Gardens in the Maya Village of Pomuch, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poot-Pool, W.S.; Wal, van der J.C.; Flores-Guido, S.; Pat-Fernández, J.M.; Esparza-Olguín, L.

    2012-01-01

    Economic Stratification Differentiates Home Gardens in the Maya Village of Pomuch, Mexico. In this paper, we analyze if economic stratification of peasant families in a Maya village in the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico influences species composition and structure of home gardens. Our general hypothesi

  19. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, Linus Mattias Valdemar; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame he...

  20. Early ceremonial constructions at Ceibal, Guatemala, and the origins of lowland Maya civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Takeshi; Triadan, Daniela; Aoyama, Kazuo; Castillo, Victor; Yonenobu, Hitoshi

    2013-04-26

    The spread of plaza-pyramid complexes across southern Mesoamerica during the early Middle Preclassic period (1000 to 700 BCE) provides critical information regarding the origins of lowland Maya civilization and the role of the Gulf Coast Olmec. Recent excavations at the Maya site of Ceibal, Guatemala, documented the growth of a formal ceremonial space into a plaza-pyramid complex that predated comparable buildings at other lowland Maya sites and major occupations at the Olmec center of La Venta. The development of lowland Maya civilization did not result from one-directional influence from La Venta, but from interregional interactions, involving groups in the southwestern Maya lowlands, Chiapas, the Pacific Coast, and the southern Gulf Coast.

  1. MaritimeMaya2011: The Costa Escondida Project: Exploring the Hidden World of the Maritime Maya on the Yucatan Peninsula between 20110509 and 20110531

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The northeast tip of the Yucatan Peninsula is a largely unexplored coastline where ancient Maya traders traveled in massive dugout canoes filled with goods from...

  2. Discussion on the New Functions of the Cartoon Software Autodesk Maya2008%动画软件Autodesk Maya2008新增功能探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晔; 季勇; 高飞; 李小丹

    2008-01-01

    Maya是Alise/Wavefront公司在1998年推出的三维制作软件,是目前世界上最优秀的三维动画制作软件之一.短短的几年时间,Maya由最初的1.0版本发展到现在的Maya2008版.本文从Maya2008的突出特点入手,通过Maya的角色动画、粒子和动力学、高级模块、开创性制作工具以及Maya2008的工作流程和个性化操作等方面详细阐述了Maya2008的新增强大功能.

  3. Los hacendados y rancheros mayas de Yucatán en el siglo XIX Maya hacendados and rancheros from Yucatán in the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Machuca Gallegos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available No sólo los grupos "blancos" y pudientes de la sociedad tuvieron haciendas, sino también los mayas. Al ser la hacienda una de las pocas actividades económicas productivas que se podían llevar a cabo en la península, algunos mayas (si bien son minoría se volvieron propietarios, incluso tuvieron trabajadores adeudados; por tanto, no permanecieron al margen del desarrollo económico y participaron activamente de éste. Así, en este trabajo nos ocupamos de los amos mayas, seguimos algunas de sus estrategias y reconstruimos sus lazos y sus relaciones. La principal fuente utilizada han sido documentos de carácter notarial, en particular los testamentos, de los cuales se han estudiado algunas variables como la de cónyuge, albacea testamentario y testigo.Haciendas were not exclusive for "white" powerful groups, since they were available for the Maya. Hacienda was one of the only productive economic activities in the peninsula, so the Maya (in spite of being a minority became the owners. They even had debtor workers. They were not marginalized from economic development but rather participated actively in it. This paper studies Maya masters by following some of their strategies and reconstructing both their binds and relations. Our main source are notarial documents, particularly testaments, where some variables like spouse, testamentary executor and witness are studied.

  4. Isolated duodenal rupture due to blunt abdominal trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celik Atilla

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Duodenal rupture following blunt abdominal trauma is rare and it usually seen with other abdominal organ injuries. It represents approximately 2% to 20% of patients with blunt abdominal injury and often occurs after blows to the upper abdomen, or abdominal compression from high-riding seat belts. Two cases of blunt duodenal rupture successfully treated surgically, are presented with their preoperative diagnosis and final out comes.

  5. Segmental Renal Infarction due to Blunt Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alevizopoulos, Aristeidis; Hamilton, Lauren; Stratu, Natalia; Rix, Gerald

    2016-05-01

    Segmental renal infarction is a rare situation which has been reported so far in the form of case reports. It's caused usually by cardiac conditions, such as atrial fibrillation, and systemic diseases (e.g. systemic lupus erythematous). We are presenting a case of a 31 year old healthy male, who sustained a left segmental renal infarction, following a motorbike accident. We report his presentation, management and outcome. We also review the literature in search of the optimal diagnostic and treatment pathway. To our knowledge, this is the first report of segmental renal infarction due to blunt trauma.

  6. CT of blunt hepatic trauma in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT findings of blunt hepatic trauma were studied in 27 children. Liver injury was classified into 3 types from mild to severe. Liver contusion was observed in 1, liver laceration in 21, and liver rupture in 5. Only 2 patients (7.4%) required surgery, and the others could be managed by conservative therapy. CT, which accurately reveals not only the severity of liver injury but also injuries of other abdominal organs and intraperitoneal bleeding, is important for the diagnosis of liver injury and determination of its treatment. (author)

  7. Kuula. Kellele ei meeldiks James Blunt? / Mart Juur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juur, Mart, 1964-

    2007-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: James Blunt "Back To Bedlam", Enrique Iglesias "Insomniac", Prince "Planet Earth", Garbage "Absolut Garbage", Justice "Cross", Interpol "Our Love To Admire", Rufus Wainwright "Release The Stars"

  8. Número embera-número maya, una experiencia de aula

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    En este trabajo se muestra el desarrollo de una propuesta de enseñanza sobre pensamiento numérico con estudiantes indígenas Embera-Chamí de Risaralda, Colombia. Esta cultura es ancestralmente oral, por lo que se dificulta trabajar con la grafía del sistema decimal usado por la cultura de Occidente, que es una cultura con escritura. Se hizo un acercamiento a través de elementos del sistema numérico de la cultura Maya- K’iché de Guatemala, el cual tiene una base metafórica sobre su mitología sa...

  9. Multi-indexed Jacobi polynomials and Maya diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Kouichi

    2014-11-01

    Multi-indexed Jacobi polynomials are defined by the Wronskian of four types of eigenfunctions of the Pöschl-Teller Hamiltonian. We give a correspondence between multi-indexed Jacobi polynomials and pairs of Maya diagrams, and we show that any multi-indexed Jacobi polynomial is essentially equal to some multi-indexed Jacobi polynomial of two types of eigenfunction. As an application, we show a Wronskian-type formula of some special eigenstates of the deformed Pöschl-Teller Hamiltonian.

  10. Medicina tradicional Maya-Yucateca: un estudio sobre esterilidad femenina

    OpenAIRE

    Azalia Pintado González

    2013-01-01

    En esta investigación se analiza la atención que se da a la esterilidad femenina, vista como un problema de salud pública, con la medicina tradicional en cuatro comunidades de la región Maya-Yucateca de Quintana Roo, en México. Durante ocho meses se realizó un estudio con 16 terapeutas tradicionales de esta zona, con quienes se estudió el proceso de atención (valoración, diagnóstico y tratamiento) de la esterilidad femenina, considerada, entre otras causas, como un problema de desequilibrio d...

  11. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... on the highest achievable oil slick temperature. Based on this mechanism, predictions can then be made depending on the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and the measured surface temperature....

  12. Classic Period collapse of the Central Maya Lowlands: insights about human-environment relationships for sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, B L; Sabloff, Jeremy A

    2012-08-28

    The ninth century collapse and abandonment of the Central Maya Lowlands in the Yucatán peninsular region were the result of complex human-environment interactions. Large-scale Maya landscape alterations and demands placed on resources and ecosystem services generated high-stress environmental conditions that were amplified by increasing climatic aridity. Coincident with this stress, the flow of commerce shifted from land transit across the peninsula to sea-borne transit around it. These changing socioeconomic and environmental conditions generated increasing societal conflicts, diminished control by the Maya elite, and led to decisions to move elsewhere in the peninsular region rather than incur the high costs of maintaining the human-environment systems in place. After abandonment, the environment of the Central Maya Lowlands largely recovered, although altered from its state before Maya occupation; the population never recovered. This history and the spatial and temporal variability in the pattern of collapse and abandonment throughout the Maya lowlands support the case for different conditions, opportunities, and constraints in the prevailing human-environment systems and the decisions to confront them. The Maya case lends insights for the use of paleo- and historical analogs to inform contemporary global environmental change and sustainability.

  13. Impacts of Climate Change on the Collapse of Lowland Maya Civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Peter M. J.; Demarest, Arthur A.; Brenner, Mark; Canuto, Marcello A.

    2016-06-01

    Paleoclimatologists have discovered abundant evidence that droughts coincided with collapse of the Lowland Classic Maya civilization, and some argue that climate change contributed to societal disintegration. Many archaeologists, however, maintain that drought cannot explain the timing or complex nature of societal changes at the end of the Classic Period, between the eighth and eleventh centuries ce. This review presents a compilation of climate proxy data indicating that droughts in the ninth to eleventh century were the most severe and frequent in Maya prehistory. Comparison with recent archaeological evidence, however, indicates an earlier beginning for complex economic and political processes that led to the disintegration of states in the southern region of the Maya lowlands that precedes major droughts. Nonetheless, drought clearly contributed to the unusual severity of the Classic Maya collapse, and helped to inhibit the type of recovery seen in earlier periods of Maya prehistory. In the drier northern Maya Lowlands, a later political collapse at ca. 1000 ce appears to be related to ongoing extreme drought. Future interdisciplinary research should use more refined climatological and archaeological data to examine the relationship between climate and social processes throughout the entirety of Maya prehistory.

  14. Multidetector CT of blunt abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Jorge A; Anderson, Stephan W

    2012-12-01

    The morbidity, mortality, and economic costs resulting from trauma in general, and blunt abdominal trauma in particular, are substantial. The "panscan" (computed tomographic [CT] examination of the head, neck, chest, abdomen, and pelvis) has become an essential element in the early evaluation and decision-making algorithm for hemodynamically stable patients who sustained abdominal trauma. CT has virtually replaced diagnostic peritoneal lavage for the detection of important injuries. Over the past decade, substantial hardware and software developments in CT technology, especially the introduction and refinement of multidetector scanners, have expanded the versatility of CT for examination of the polytrauma patient in multiple facets: higher spatial resolution, faster image acquisition and reconstruction, and improved patient safety (optimization of radiation delivery methods). In this article, the authors review the elements of multidetector CT technique that are currently relevant for evaluating blunt abdominal trauma and describe the most important CT signs of trauma in the various organs. Because conservative nonsurgical therapy is preferred for all but the most severe injuries affecting the solid viscera, the authors emphasize the CT findings that are indications for direct therapeutic intervention. PMID:23175542

  15. CT of blunt chest trauma in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While trauma is still the leading cause of death in the pediatric age range, it is surprising how little the CT appearances of pediatric chest injury have been investigated in the literature. We have reviewed the CT findings of blunt chest trauma in 44 children for whom chest CT examinations were requested to investigate the extent of intrathoracic injury. We noted a propensity for pulmonary contusions to be located posteriorly or posteromedially, and for them to be anatomically nonsegmental and crescentic in shape. This is possibly attributable to the relatively compliant anterior chest wall in children. The CT appearances of other major thoracic injuries are described, including pulmonary lacerations, pneumothoraces, malpositioned chest tubes, mediastinal hematomas, aortic injury, tracheobronchial injury, hemopericardium, and spinal injuries with paraspinal fluid collections. Children demonstrating findings incidental to the actual injury yet important to the subsequent therapy are also presented. We conclude that, in the event of clinically significant blunt chest trauma, the single supine chest examination in the trauma room is insufficient to adequately identify the extent of intrathoracic injury. With the exception of concern for aortic injury for which aortography is indicated, a dynamically enhanced CT scan of the thorax should be performed as clinically significant findings may result in altered therapy. (orig.)

  16. Potent anti-inflammatory activity of sesquiterpene lactones from Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br. ex Cass., a Q'eqchi' Maya traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshe-Roussel, Brendan; Choueiri, Christine; Saleem, Ammar; Asim, Muhammd; Caal, Federico; Cal, Victor; Rojas, Marco Otarola; Pesek, Todd; Durst, Tony; Arnason, John Thor

    2013-08-01

    The widespread use of Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br. ex Cass. by Q'eqchi' Maya and indigenous healers throughout the Caribbean for inflammatory conditions prompted the study of the anti-inflammatory activity of this traditional medicine. The objectives of this study were to conduct a detailed ethnobotanical investigation of the uses of N. lobata by the Q'eqchi' Maya of Belize for a variety of inflammatory symptoms and to evaluate the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extract and isolated sesquiterpene lactones. The crude 80% EtOH extract of N. lobata leaves administered at 100 μg/mL reduced LPS-stimulated TNF-α production in THP-1 monocytes by 72% relative to the stimulated vehicle control. Isolated sesquiterpene lactones, neurolenins B, C+D, lobatin B and 9α-hydroxy-8β-isovalerianyloxy-calyculatolide were more active (IC50=0.17-2.32 μM) than the positive control parthenolide (IC50=4.79 μM). The results provide a pharmacological and phytochemical basis for the traditional use of this leaf for inflammatory conditions. PMID:23747054

  17. Potent anti-inflammatory activity of sesquiterpene lactones from Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br. ex Cass., a Q'eqchi' Maya traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshe-Roussel, Brendan; Choueiri, Christine; Saleem, Ammar; Asim, Muhammd; Caal, Federico; Cal, Victor; Rojas, Marco Otarola; Pesek, Todd; Durst, Tony; Arnason, John Thor

    2013-08-01

    The widespread use of Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br. ex Cass. by Q'eqchi' Maya and indigenous healers throughout the Caribbean for inflammatory conditions prompted the study of the anti-inflammatory activity of this traditional medicine. The objectives of this study were to conduct a detailed ethnobotanical investigation of the uses of N. lobata by the Q'eqchi' Maya of Belize for a variety of inflammatory symptoms and to evaluate the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extract and isolated sesquiterpene lactones. The crude 80% EtOH extract of N. lobata leaves administered at 100 μg/mL reduced LPS-stimulated TNF-α production in THP-1 monocytes by 72% relative to the stimulated vehicle control. Isolated sesquiterpene lactones, neurolenins B, C+D, lobatin B and 9α-hydroxy-8β-isovalerianyloxy-calyculatolide were more active (IC50=0.17-2.32 μM) than the positive control parthenolide (IC50=4.79 μM). The results provide a pharmacological and phytochemical basis for the traditional use of this leaf for inflammatory conditions.

  18. Bir isim çok bitki Mayasıl Otu

    OpenAIRE

    Sevgi, Ece; Kızılarslan, Çağla

    2013-01-01

    People have been used plants over the years by trial and error and moved these knowledge to present as oral culture. This oral culture is transformed to written culture by many studies. The name “mayasıl” has been used for two illnesses. First one is “eczema” and the second one is “haemorrhoids”. The usage of the plant “mayasıl otu” which is stated by our people using for the treatment of “mayasıl” is very difficult to understand, for “eczema” or for “haemorrhoids”. This is because of our peo...

  19. Les reconstructions de la vie de Jésus-Christ en aire maya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Geslin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Les histoires mayas de Jésus-Christ Les recueils de tradition orale maya enregistrent au fil des terrains l’occurrence de l’histoire de Jésus-Christ dans plusieurs ethnies mayas, à différents moments du xxe siècle, et sous des formes stylistiques distinctes. L’aspect le plus frappant de ces versions est la pluralité des noms concurrents que porte Jésus-Christ selon le lieu de recueil : si Jesukristo est employé chez les Yucatèques, les Tzeltal, les Tzotzil, les K’iche’, les Mam ou encore les ...

  20. Finish your film! tips and tricks for making an animated short in Maya

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Kenny

    2014-01-01

    Finish Your Film! Tips and Tricks for Making an Animated Short in Maya is a first-of-its-kind book that walks the reader step-by-step through the actual production processes of creating a 3D Short film with Maya. Other books focus solely on the creative decisions of 3D Animation and broadly cover the multiple phases of animation production with no real applicable methods for readers to employ. This book shows you how to successfully manage the entire Maya animation pipeline. This book blends together valuable technical tips on film production and real-world shortcuts in a step-by-step approach

  1. Les reconstructions de la vie de Jésus-Christ en aire maya

    OpenAIRE

    Stéphanie Geslin; Antonia Colazo-Simon; Olivier Le Guen; Éric Reyes

    2011-01-01

    Les histoires mayas de Jésus-Christ Les recueils de tradition orale maya enregistrent au fil des terrains l’occurrence de l’histoire de Jésus-Christ dans plusieurs ethnies mayas, à différents moments du xxe siècle, et sous des formes stylistiques distinctes. L’aspect le plus frappant de ces versions est la pluralité des noms concurrents que porte Jésus-Christ selon le lieu de recueil : si Jesukristo est employé chez les Yucatèques, les Tzeltal, les Tzotzil, les K’iche’, les Mam ou encore les ...

  2. Sobre el ciclo maya de 819 días

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huberto Quiñones Garza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Algunos autores consideran que los mayas manejaban un ciclo de 819 días, que habría tenido un carácter mágico o ritual, sin descartar alguna manifestación astrológica o astronómica. Un enfoque que no ha sido tomado en cuenta hasta hoy, es el puramente aritmético, el posible interés del sacerdocio maya en este número como tal. Se especula aquí que el número 819 está relacionado con el valor de TT, además de la probable vinculación que esta cifra podría guardar con sus sistemas numérico y calendárico. Dos situaciones se vislumbran como importantes contribuciones, el planteamiento epistemológico implícito y los resultados obtenidos como información básica para futuras investigaciones dentro de la etnomatemática y la antropología.

  3. Unrecognized blunt tracheal trauma with massive pneumomediastinum and tension pneumothorax

    OpenAIRE

    Nanda Shetty; H M Krishna; Elsa Varghese; Subhashree, J; Arushi Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Blunt neck trauma with an associated laryngotracheal injury is rare. We report a patient with blunt neck trauma who came to the emergency room and was sent to ward without realizing the seriousness of the situation. He presented later with respiratory distress and an anesthesiologist was called in for emergency airway management. Airway management in such a situation is described in this report.

  4. Aortic bifurcation tear following blunt trauma in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Shlomo Yellinek; Dimitri Gimelrich; Ofer Merin; Petachia Reissman; Marc Arkovitz

    2015-01-01

    Rupture of the abdominal aorta from blunt trauma is rare and aortic biforcation tear is extremely rare. We will present the management of a 2 year old boy who suffered blunt abdominal trauma and was operated in urgent fashion in our institution.

  5. Deep data science to prevent and treat growth faltering in Maya children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Silva, M I; Bogin, B; Sobral, J A G; Dickinson, F; Monserrat-Revillo, S

    2016-01-01

    The Maya people are descended from the indigenous inhabitants of southern Mexico, Guatemala and adjacent regions of Central America. In Guatemala, 50% of infants and children are stunted (very low height-for-age), and some rural Maya regions have >70% children stunted. A large, longitudinal, intergenerational database was created to (1) provide deep data to prevent and treat somatic growth faltering and impaired neurocognitive development, (2) detect key dependencies and predictive relations between highly complex, time-varying, and interacting biological and cultural variables and (3) identify targeted multifactorial intervention strategies for field testing and validation. Contributions to this database included data from the Universidad del Valle de Guatemala Longitudinal Study of Child and Adolescent Development, child growth and intergenerational studies among the Maya in Mexico and studies about Maya migrants in the United States. PMID:27094624

  6. Deep data science to prevent and treat growth faltering in Maya children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Silva, M I; Bogin, B; Sobral, J A G; Dickinson, F; Monserrat-Revillo, S

    2016-06-01

    The Maya people are descended from the indigenous inhabitants of southern Mexico, Guatemala and adjacent regions of Central America. In Guatemala, 50% of infants and children are stunted (very low height-for-age), and some rural Maya regions have >70% children stunted. A large, longitudinal, intergenerational database was created to (1) provide deep data to prevent and treat somatic growth faltering and impaired neurocognitive development, (2) detect key dependencies and predictive relations between highly complex, time-varying, and interacting biological and cultural variables and (3) identify targeted multifactorial intervention strategies for field testing and validation. Contributions to this database included data from the Universidad del Valle de Guatemala Longitudinal Study of Child and Adolescent Development, child growth and intergenerational studies among the Maya in Mexico and studies about Maya migrants in the United States.

  7. Ancient Maya impacts on the Earth's surface: An Early Anthropocene analog?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Tim; Luzzadder-Beach, Sheryl; Cook, Duncan; Dunning, Nicholas; Kennett, Douglas J.; Krause, Samantha; Terry, Richard; Trein, Debora; Valdez, Fred

    2015-09-01

    The measure of the "Mayacene," a microcosm of the Early Anthropocene that occurred from c. 3000 to 1000 BP, comes from multiple Late Quaternary paleoenvironmental records. We synthesized the evidence for Maya impacts on climate, vegetation, hydrology and the lithosphere, from studies of soils, lakes, floodplains, wetlands and other ecosystems. Maya civilization had likely altered local to regional ecosystems and hydrology by the Preclassic Period (3000-1700 BP), but these impacts waned by 1000 BP. They altered ecosystems with vast urban and rural infrastructure that included thousands of reservoirs, wetland fields and canals, terraces, field ridges, and temples. Although there is abundant evidence that indicates the Maya altered their forests, even at the large urban complex of Tikal as much as 40% of the forest remained intact through the Classic period. Existing forests are still influenced by ancient Maya forest gardening, particularly by the large expanses of ancient stone structures, terraces, and wetland fields that form their substrates. A few studies suggest deforestation and other land uses probably also warmed and dried regional climate by the Classic Period (1700-1100 BP). A much larger body of research documents the Maya impacts on hydrology, in the form of dams, reservoirs, canals, eroded soils and urban design for runoff. Another metric of the "Mayacene" are paleosols, which contain chemical evidence for human occupation, revealed by high phosphorus concentrations and carbon isotope ratios of C4 species like maize in the C3-dominated tropical forest ecosystem. Paleosol sequences exhibit "Maya Clays," a facies that reflects a glut of rapidly eroded sediments that overlie pre-Maya paleosols. This stratigraphy is conspicuous in many dated soil profiles and marks the large-scale Maya transformation of the landscape in the Preclassic and Classic periods. Some of these also have increased phosphorous and carbon isotope evidence of C4 species. We synthesize

  8. El dios solar en la religión y mitologías mayas

    OpenAIRE

    Montolíu Villar, María

    2011-01-01

    A través de la iconografía maya y los textos hitóricos se reconstruyen las características del Dios solar. El objetivo principal de este trabajo es el de subrayar el rol que desempeño este dios en la religión de la mitología maya, su relación con Itzamana y su función en el culto. 

  9. Use of marine robot`MAYA` for monitoring the Zuari and Mandovi esturine systems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Afzulpurkar, S.; Navelkar, G.S.; Maurya, P.K.; Fernandes, L.; Desa, E.S.; Madhan, R.; Shenoy, D.; Kurian, S.; Naik, H.; Nagvekar, S.; Vimalakumari, D.; Dalvi, H.S.; Manoharan, V.; deAraujo, B.A.; Lamani, V.; Naik, N.; Mohan, N.; Dias, Albertina; Dias, A.

    kinematic control generates reference commands and the inner loop heading autopilot accepts and executes the commands using a simple strategy without resorting to explicit current estimation [Maurya, P et al., 2008]. III. In Situ Calibration of Sensors... MAYA sensor suit consisting of DO, Chlorophyll, Turbidity and CTD was validated using conventional laboratory methods (Autosal for salinity, Winkler titration for DO, and fluorometry for chlorophyll a). MAYA was programmed to execute a continuous...

  10. Phylogenetic relationships of Octopus maya revealed by mtDNA sequences

    OpenAIRE

    OE. Juárez; Rosas, C.; ML. Arena-Ortiz

    2012-01-01

    The phylogenic relationships among the Octopus species have not been fully established. We compared sequences for three mitochondrial genes (16S ribosomal RNA, cytochrome oxydase I, and cytochrome oxydase III) from Octopus maya, an endemic taxon of the Yucatan Peninsula, with homologous sequences from other taxa within the Octopus genus, with the aim of elucidating the phylogenetic relationships of this species. Maximum likelihood trees grouped O. maya with octopuses that inhabit the East Pac...

  11. Speech and gesture in spatial language and cognition among the Yucatec Mayas

    OpenAIRE

    Le Guen, O.

    2011-01-01

    In previous analyses of the influence of language on cognition, speech has been the main channel examined. In studies conducted among Yucatec Mayas, efforts to determine the preferred frame of reference in use in this community have failed to reach an agreement (Bohnemeyer & Stolz, 2006; Levinson, 2003 vs. Le Guen, 2006, 2009). This paper argues for a multimodal analysis of language that encompasses gesture as well as speech, and shows that the preferred frame of reference in Yucatec Maya is ...

  12. Correlating the Ancient Maya and Modern European Calendars with High-Precision AMS 14C Dating

    OpenAIRE

    Kennett, Douglas J.; Irka Hajdas; Culleton, Brendan J.; Soumaya Belmecheri; Simon Martin; Hector Neff; Jaime Awe; Graham, Heather V.; Freeman, Katherine H.; Lee Newsom; Lentz, David L.; Anselmetti, Flavio S; Mark Robinson; Norbert Marwan; John Southon

    2013-01-01

    The reasons for the development and collapse of Maya civilization remain controversial and historical events carved on stone monuments throughout this region provide a remarkable source of data about the rise and fall of these complex polities. Use of these records depends on correlating the Maya and European calendars so that they can be compared with climate and environmental datasets. Correlation constants can vary up to 1000 years and remain controversial. We report a series of high-resol...

  13. Terapéutica tradicional y medicina moderna entre los mayas de Yuacatán

    OpenAIRE

    Villa Rojas, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    En este artículo, el autor analiza la medicina tradicional y prácticas terapéuticas de los mayas de Yucatán comprendido dentro de la cosmovisión prehispánica maya. Por último hace una breve revisión de la transición a la medicina moderna que se observa en Chan Kom, Yucatan. 

  14. Colonial K'iche' in Comparison with Yucatec Maya: Language, Adaptation, and Intercultural Contact

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Owen H.

    2009-01-01

    In "Colonial K'iche' in Comparison with Yucatec Maya: Language, Adaptation, and Interethnic Contact," I examine K'iche' and Yucatec Maya language and literacy and its relationship to the development of indigenous social, religious, and political structures in the period from the 1540's, when indigenous literacy using Latin letters began, to 1825, the end of Spanish colonialism. It focuses on how native peoples in Guatemala and southern Mexico were able to adapt Spanish imposed institutions a...

  15. Land, Water and Society in the Maya Lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtha, T.; French, K.; Duffy, C.; Webster, D.

    2013-12-01

    This paper reports the results of our project investigating the long-term spatial and temporal dynamics of land use management, agricultural decision-making and patterns of resource availability in the tropical lowlands of Central America. Overall, our project combines diachronic environmental simulation with historic settlement pattern survey to address a series of long-standing questions about the coupled natural and human (CNH) landscape history in the Central Maya lowlands (at the UNESCO world heritage site of Tikal in the Maya Biosphere Reserve). The paper describes the preliminary results of our project, including changing patterns of land, water, settlement and political history using climate, soil and hydrologic modeling and time series spatial analysis of population and settlement patterns. The critical period of the study, 1000 BC until the present, begins with dispersed settlements accompanied by widespread deforestation and soil erosion. Population size and density grows rapidly for 800 years, while deforestation and erosion rates decline; however, there is striking evidence of political evolution during this period, including the construction of monumental architecture, hieroglyphic monuments detailing wars and alliances, and the construction of a defensive earthwork feature, signaling political territories and possibly delineating natural resource boundaries. Population decline and steady reforestation followed until more recent migration into the region, which has impacted the biosphere ecology. Building on our previous research regionally and comparative research completed in Belize and Mexico, we are modeling sample periods the 3,000-year landscape history of the region, comparing land and water availability to population distributions and what we know about political history. Simulations are generated using historic climate and land use data, primarily relying on the Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator (EPIC) and the Penn State Integrated

  16. [Anita: a Maya peasant woman on the rise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmendorf, M

    1980-01-01

    Chan Kom, a village of 623 inhabitants in the Yucatan peninsula whose population lives primarily by slash-and-burn maize agriculture, has been well studied by social scientists for over 50 years. The roles of women during that time have been interpreted by men, and it is the object of this article to examine the needs and desires of women and the ways in which they seek to improve life for themselves and their families. Anita at 38 has 7 living children from 10 pregnancies. Her husband is a subsistence farmer who works part time at a variety of jobs. The oldest daughter married at 17. A 16-year-old son Emiliano attended an agricultural vocational school to which his family sent him after great sacrifice. After completing school Emiliano became a promoter for the National Indigenist Institute. A daughter finishiing primary school wished to continue studying but her father objected that she would probably get married and her mother worried about her safety if she left home to study. She and a sister were sent to live with the daughter of her mother's comadre in a nearby city in the hope that she would learn office work. A 12-year-old son at home, who is not such a good student, helps the father in farming. 2 little girls are the only other children still at home. Anita's last 2 deliveries were difficult and dangerous, and for 3 years she and her husband have been attempting to avoid another pregnancy, using a combination of withdrawal and rhythm. She and her husband discussed vasectomy with a Maya-speaking North American doctor, but came to no decision. Anita states that many Maya women do not menstruate between pregnancies, or do so only once or twice. Anita has had 2 miscarriages and 2 daughters since deciding that she wanted no more children. She accepted a prescription for pills but was afraid to take them. Fear of disturbing the "tipte," a regulating organ believed by Maya women to lie behind the navel, prevented her from choosing sterilization. PMID:12264283

  17. Construction of an Yucatec Maya soil classification and comparison with the WRB framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinck J Alfred

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mayas living in southeast Mexico have used soils for millennia and provide thus a good example for understanding soil-culture relationships and for exploring the ways indigenous people name and classify the soils of their territory. This paper shows an attempt to organize the Maya soil knowledge into a soil classification scheme and compares the latter with the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB. Methods Several participative soil surveys were carried out in the period 2000-2009 with the help of bilingual Maya-Spanish-speaking farmers. A multilingual soil database was built with 315 soil profile descriptions. Results On the basis of the diagnostic soil properties and the soil nomenclature used by Maya farmers, a soil classification scheme with a hierarchic, dichotomous and open structure was constructed, organized in groups and qualifiers in a fashion similar to that of the WRB system. Maya soil properties were used at the same categorical levels as similar diagnostic properties are used in the WRB system. Conclusions The Maya soil classification (MSC is a natural system based on key properties, such as relief position, rock types, size and quantity of stones, color of topsoil and subsoil, depth, water dynamics, and plant-supporting processes. The MSC addresses the soil properties of surficial and subsurficial horizons, and uses plant communities as qualifier in some cases. The MSC is more accurate than the WRB for classifying Leptosols.

  18. The first direct evidence of pre-columbian sources of palygorskite for Maya Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Dean E.; Bohor, Bruce F.; Neff, Hector; Feinman, Gary M.; Williams, Patrick Ryan; Dussubieux, Laure; Bishop, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Maya Blue, a nano-structured clay–organic complex of palygorskite and indigo, was used predominantly before the Spanish Conquest. It has fascinated chemists, material scientists, archaeologists and art historians for decades because it is resistant to the effect of acids, alkalis, and other reagents, and its rich color has persisted for centuries in the harsh tropical climate of southern Mesoamerica. One of its components, palygorskite, is part of modern Maya indigenous knowledge, and ethnohistoric and archaeological data suggest that its modern sources were probably utilized in Prehispanic times. Yet no direct evidence verifies that palygorskite was actually mined from these sources to make Maya Blue. Here we characterize these sources compositionally, and compare our analyses to those of Maya Blue from Chichén Itzá and Palenque. We demonstrate that the palygorskite in most of these samples came from modern mines, providing the first direct evidence for the use of these sources for making Maya Blue. These findings reveal that modern Maya indigenous knowledge about palygorskite, its mining, and its source locations, is at least seven centuries old.

  19. Plasticity, political economy, and physical growth status of Guatemala Maya children living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogin, B; Loucky, J

    1997-01-01

    Migration of Maya refugees to the United States since the late 1970s affords the opportunity to study the consequences of life in a new environment on the growth of Maya children. The children of this study live in Indiantown, Florida, and Los Angeles, California. Maya children between 4 and 14 years old (n = 240) were measured for height, weight, fatness, and muscularity. Overall, compared with reference data for the United States, the Maya children are, on average, healthy and well nourished. They are taller and heavier and carry more fat and muscle mass than Maya children living in a village in Guatemala. However, they are shorter, on average, than children of black, Mexican-American, and white ethnicity living in Indiantown. Children of Maya immigrants born in the United States tend to be taller than immigrant children born in Guatemala or Mexico. Families that invest economic and social resources in their children have taller children. More economic successful families have taller children. Migration theory and political economy theory from the social sciences are combined with plasticity theory and life history theory (parental investment) from biology to interpret these data.

  20. Bioarchaeological investigation of ancient Maya violence and warfare in inland Northwest Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Stanley; Lope, Carlos Peraza; Uc González, Eunice

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates evidence of changes and continuities in ancient Maya violence and warfare in inland northwest Yucatan, Mexico from the Middle Preclassic (600-300 BC) to the Postclassic (AD 1050-1542) through bioarchaeological analysis of cranial and projectile trauma. It is hypothesized that the frequency of violence increases before the Classic Maya collapse and remains high during the Postclassic period. It is also hypothesized that the flat, open terrain was conducive to warfare and resulted in higher trauma frequencies than in other parts of the Maya area. Results show that the frequency of cranial trauma decreases before the Classic collapse and increases in the Postclassic, partially matching the expected chronological trends. The frequency of cranial trauma does not differ significantly from other Maya regions but the pattern does: for all periods, males have more healed injuries than females and they are concentrated on the left side of the anterior of the skull. Some injuries appear to be from small points hafted in wooden clubs. In addition, projectile trauma is evident in a scapula with an embedded arrowhead tip, the first such case reported in a Maya skeleton. Overall, these results suggest greater reliance on open combat and less on raids in this region compared with other parts of the Maya area, possibly due to the flat, open terrain, though the identification of perimortem trauma in both women and men indicates surprise raids on settlements were also practiced.

  1. Classic Maya civilization collapse associated with reduction in tropical cyclone activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, M. A.; Polanco-Martinez, J. M.; Lases-Hernández, F.; Bradley, R. S.; Burns, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    In light of the increased destructiveness of tropical cyclones observed over recent decades one might assume that an increase and not a decrease in tropical cyclone activity would lead to societal stress and perhaps collapse of ancient cultures. In this study we present evidence that a reduction in the frequency and intensity of tropical Atlantic cyclones could have contributed to the collapse of the Maya civilization during the Terminal Classic Period (TCP, AD. 800-950). Statistical comparisons of a quantitative precipitation record from the Yucatan Peninsula (YP) Maya lowlands, based on the stalagmite known as Chaac (after the Mayan God of rain and agriculture), relative to environmental proxy records of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs), and tropical Atlantic cyclone counts, suggest that these records share significant coherent variability during the TCP and that summer rainfall reductions between 30 and 50% in the Maya lowlands occurred in association with decreased Atlantic tropical cyclones. Analysis of modern instrumental hydrological data suggests cyclone rainfall contributions to the YP equivalent to the range of rainfall deficits associated with decreased tropical cyclone activity during the collapse of the Maya civilization. Cyclone driven precipitation variability during the TCP, implies that climate change may have triggered Maya civilization collapse via freshwater scarcity for domestic use without significant detriment to agriculture. Pyramid in Tikal, the most prominent Maya Kingdom that collapsed during the Terminal Classic Period (circa C.E. 800-950) Rainfall feeding stalagmites inside Rio Secreto cave system, Yucatan, Mexico.

  2. La noción de persona para los mayas

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Zavala Olalde

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se expone la noción de persona que los mayas de Yucatán suelen tener. La investigación exploró la noción de persona a partir de los elementos fundamentales de la noción, la oposición o no persona y la utilidad de la noción de persona para dar una respuesta a la pregunta ¿Quién soy yo? En primer lugar se desarrolló una noción de persona que fue contrastada con los informantes que ayudaron a desarrollarla y nuevos informantes, la noción final que se expone corresponde a cómo sue...

  3. Diagnosis and treatment of 34 cases of blunt duodenal injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Shi-ting; WANG San-ming

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the experience on diagnosis and treatment of blunt duodenal injuries, and thus to improve the therapeutic skills. Methods: Clinical data of 34 cases of blunt duodenal injuries admitted to our hospital from 1990 to 2006 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Among them, 28 cases were cured, 20 cases presented with complications, and 6 cases died. The causes of death were: duodenal or pancreatic fistula in 2 cases, intra- and retroperitoneal infection complicating septicopyemia in 2, disseminated intravascular coagulation in 1 and multiple organ failure in 1. Conclusions: Misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis predispose to happen for blunt duodenal injuries. Early recognition and surgical intervention are critical to a successful rescue.

  4. Maya Astronomy and the End of the World%玛雅天文学和2012世界末日

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael H.SOFFEL

    2012-01-01

    With humanity coming up on 2012, should we worry about end of the world 2012 predictions? After a general introduction to Maya astronomy. Maya calendar is introduced in detail for the origin of the prediction that the world will end in 2012. In the author's eyes, nothing bad will happen to the Earth in 2012 and December 21, 2012 is the end of the Maya long-count period but then another long-count period begins for the Maya calendar.

  5. A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF BLUNT TRAUMA ABDOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumawat

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Blunt abdominal trauma is one of the important components of poly - trauma. It requires suspicion, investigation and proper management in time, to avoid morbidity & mortality. AIM: The aim of this retrospective study spanning 5 years w.e.f. Jan, 2010 to December, 2014 in this tertiary care institute of Geetanjali Medical College & Hospital, Udaipur was to find out BTA patients in RTA, fall from height, and assault like injuries. We studied type of injuries, male - female ratio, age group, urban & rural population involvement & their operative & non - operative management. MATERIAL & METHOD S : The study is based on 273 cases of BTA; managed in this institute from admission, investigation, management & possible follow up. Observations are depicted in different tables. RESULT: Liver is most commonly involved organ followed by spleen, kidney & pancreas respectively. Initially solid organ injuries cases where treated by surgery, but than non - operative management are tried in haemostatically stable patients. Hollow visceral injuries were always managed by laparotomy & repair or resection as and when needed . Mortality occurred in 35 patients out 273 patients because of delay to reach hospital or septicemia, renal failure and shock due to multi organ failure. CONCLUSION: Close supervision with sophisticated infrastructure and quick action significantly reduces mortality.

  6. Blunt pancreatic trauma. Role of CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Procacci, C. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Verona (Italy); Graziani, R. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Verona (Italy); Bicego, E. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Verona (Italy); Mainardi, P. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Verona (Italy); Bassi, C. [Dept. of Surgery, Univ. Hospital, Verona (Italy); Bergamo Andreis, I.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Verona (Italy); Valdo, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Verona (Italy); Guarise, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Verona (Italy); Girelli, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Verona (Italy)

    1997-07-01

    Purpose: To define the evolution patterns of blunt pancreatic trauma, and to point out the CT features most significant for the diagnosis. Material and Methods: Ten cases of pancreatic trauma, observed over a period of about 10 years, were analyzed in retrospect. The cases were divided into 3 groups according to the time that had elapsed between trauma and first CT: Early phase (within 72 h: n=3/10); late phase (after 10 days: n=3/10); and following pancreatic drainage (n=4/10). Results: In the early phase, one case showed a blood collection surrounding the pancreatic head and duodenum, and displacing the mesenteric vessels to the left. In the 2 other cases it was possible to demonstrate a tear in the pancreas at the neck, perpendicular to the main pancreatic axis. In the late phase in all 3 cases, one cystic lesion was present at the site of the tear, either surrounding the gland or embedded - more or less deeply - within the parenchyma. One of the lesions subsided spontaneously; the 2 others required surgery. In the postoperative phase, an external fistula was demonstrated in 2 cases following percutaneous drainage of pancreatic cysts; the fistula was fed by a cystic lesion in the pancreatic neck. In the 2 other cases a pseudocyst developed. (orig.).

  7. Pediatric blunt splenic trauma: a comprehensive review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn, Karen N.; Werder, Gabriel M.; Callaghan, Rachel M.; Jafri, Zafar H. [William Beaumont Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Sullivan, Ashley N. [St. George' s University School of Medicine, Grenada, West Indies (Grenada); Bloom, David A. [William Beaumont Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Royal Oak, MI (United States); William Beaumont Hospital, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2009-09-15

    Abdominal trauma is a leading cause of death in children older than 1 year of age. The spleen is the most common organ injured following blunt abdominal trauma. Pediatric trauma patients present unique clinical challenges as compared to adults, including different mechanisms of injury, physiologic responses, and indications for operative versus nonoperative management. Splenic salvage techniques and nonoperative approaches are preferred to splenectomy in order to decrease perioperative risks, transfusion needs, duration/cost of hospitalization, and risk of overwhelming postsplenectomy infection. Early and accurate detection of splenic injury is critical in both adults and children; however, while imaging findings guide management in adults, hemodynamic stability is the primary determinant in pediatric patients. After initial diagnosis, the primary role of imaging in pediatric patients is to determine the level and duration of care. We present a comprehensive literature review regarding the mechanism of injury, imaging, management, and complications of traumatic splenic injury in pediatric patients. Multiple patients are presented with an emphasis on the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma organ injury grading system. Clinical practice guidelines from the American Pediatric Surgical Association are discussed and compared with our experience at a large community hospital, with recommendations for future practice guidelines. (orig.)

  8. Simplified pancreatoduodenectomy for complex blunt pancreaticoduodenal injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Xin-fu; FAN Wei; SHI Cheng-xian; LI Jun-hua; LIU Jun; LIU Zhen-hua

    2013-01-01

    A 34-year-old man admitted to our department with complex blunt pancreaticoduodenal injury after a car accident.The wall of the first,second,and third portions of the duodenum was extensively lacerated,and the pancreas was longitudinally transected along the superior mesenteric vein-portal vein trunk.The pancreatic head and the uncinate process were devitalized and the distal common bile duct and the proximal main pancreatic duct were completely detached from the Vater ampulla.The length of the stump of distal common bile located at the cut surface of remnant pancreas was approximately 0.6 cm.A simplified Kausch-Whipple's procedure was performed after debridement of the devitalized pancreatic head and resection of the damaged duodenum in which the stump of distal common bile duct and the pancreatic remnant were embedded into the jejunal loop.Postoperative wound abscess appeared that eventually recovered by conservative treatment.During 16 months follow-up the patient has been stable and healthy.A simplified pancreaticoduodenectomy is a safe alternative for the Whipple procedure in managing complex pancreaticoduodenal injury in a hemodynamically stable patient.

  9. Improvement of airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær;

    2016-01-01

    , Pope, and Marcolini airfoil noise prediction model developed by Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini (NASA Reference Publication 1218, 1989). It was found in previous study that the Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini model tends to over-predict noise at high frequencies. Furthermore, it was observed...... that this was caused by a lack in the model to predict accurately noise from blunt trailing edges. For more physical understanding of bluntness noise generation, in this study, we also use an advanced in-house developed high-order computational aero-acoustic technique to investigate the details associated...... with trailing edge bluntness noise. The results from the numerical model form the basis for an improved Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini trailing edge bluntness noise model....

  10. Pectus excavatum in blunt chest trauma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liodakis Emmanouil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Blunt cardiac rupture is an exceedingly rare injury. Case presentation We report a case of blunt cardiac trauma in a 43-year-old Caucasian German mother with pectus excavatum who presented after a car accident in which she had been sitting in the front seat holding her two-year-old boy in her arms. The mother was awake and alert during the initial two hours after the accident but then proceeded to hemodynamically collapse. The child did not sustain any severe injuries. Intraoperatively, a combined one-cm laceration of the left atrium and right ventricle was found. Conclusion Patients with pectus excavatum have an increased risk for cardiac rupture after blunt chest trauma because of compression between the sternum and spine. Therefore, patients with pectus excavatum and blunt chest trauma should be admitted to a Level I Trauma Center with a high degree of suspicion.

  11. Low velocity blunt impacts on composite aircraft structures

    OpenAIRE

    Whisler, Daniel A.

    2009-01-01

    As composites are increasingly used for primary structures in commercial aircrafts, it is necessary to understand damage initiation for composites subject to low velocity impacts from service conditions, maintenance, and other ground equipment mishaps. In particular, collisions with ground vehicles can present a wide area, blunt impact. Therefore, the effects of bluntness of an impactor are of interest as this is related to both the external visual detectability of an impact event, as well as...

  12. An Animal Model of Emotional Blunting in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Pietersen, Charmaine Y.; Fokko J Bosker; Janine Doorduin; Jongsma, Minke E.; Folkert Postema; Joseph V Haas; Johnson, Michael P; Tineke Koch; Tony Vladusich; den Boer, Johan A.

    2007-01-01

    Schizophrenia is often associated with emotional blunting--the diminished ability to respond to emotionally salient stimuli--particularly those stimuli representative of negative emotional states, such as fear. This disturbance may stem from dysfunction of the amygdala, a brain region involved in fear processing. The present article describes a novel animal model of emotional blunting in schizophrenia. This model involves interfering with normal fear processing (classical conditioning) in rat...

  13. Unrecognized blunt tracheal trauma with massive pneumomediastinum and tension pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanda Shetty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Blunt neck trauma with an associated laryngotracheal injury is rare. We report a patient with blunt neck trauma who came to the emergency room and was sent to ward without realizing the seriousness of the situation. He presented later with respiratory distress and an anesthesiologist was called in for emergency airway management. Airway management in such a situation is described in this report.

  14. The molecular fingerprint of lung inflammation after blunt chest trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrnthaller, Christian; Flierl, Michael; Perl, Mario; Denk, Stephanie; Unnewehr, Heike; Ward, Peter A.; Radermacher, Peter; Ignatius, Anita; Gebhard, Florian; Chinnaiyan, Arul; Huber-Lang, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Background After severe blunt chest trauma, the development of an acute lung injury (ALI) is often associated with severe or even lethal complications. Especially in multiple injured patients after blunt chest trauma ALI/ARDS [acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)] is frequent. However, in the initial posttraumatic phase, inflammatory clinical signs are often not apparent and underlying changes in gene-expression profile are unknown. Methods Therefore, inflammation in lung tissue followi...

  15. Bongs and blunts: notes from a suburban marijuana subculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brian C

    2005-01-01

    Bongs and blunts constitute significant elements of marijuana consumption in the United States, especially among youth. The author draws upon ethnographic methods to provide rich descriptions of these practices amongst a network of suburban marijuana users. The author first provides a description of bong use in a suburban home prior to detailing the same youth network engaging in the process of rolling and smoking a blunt in a public environment. Ultimately, the author examines and contrasts these two features of American marijuana consumption.

  16. [Blunt abdominal trauma.--analysis of 201 cases (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannenborg, G; Wolf, O; Voigtsberger, P

    1978-01-01

    201 blunt abdominal traumata treated clinically at the surgical department of the Medical Academy in Erfurt from 1967 to 1976 are reported: No increase of blunt abdominal traumata within the period of the report in spite of considerable growth of trafficdensity and industrialization could be observed.--The percentage of severe secundary injuries remained approximately constant, too.--Intestinal lesions, combined hepatolienal ruptures caused the highest mortality especially in combination with severe craniocerebral lesions. PMID:685552

  17. Sharp compared with blunt fascial incision at cesarean delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabakke, Anna J M; Hare, Kristine J; Krebs, Lone;

    2014-01-01

    To compare patient preference for either sharp incision with scissors or blunt manual cleavage of the fascia at cesarean delivery in a randomized controlled trial in which each woman was her own control.......To compare patient preference for either sharp incision with scissors or blunt manual cleavage of the fascia at cesarean delivery in a randomized controlled trial in which each woman was her own control....

  18. The New Emerging Adult in Chiapas, Mexico: Perceptions of Traditional Values and Value Change among First-Generation Maya University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manago, Adriana M.

    2012-01-01

    Social changes in indigenous Maya communities in Chiapas, Mexico toward increasing levels of formal education, commercialization, and urbanization are transforming traditional Maya developmental pathways toward adulthood. This mixed-methods study is based on interviews with a sample of 14 first-generation Maya university students who have also…

  19. Blunt force trauma to skull with various instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Nur Amirah; Osman, Khairul; Hamzah, Noor Hazfalinda; Amir, Sri Pawita Albakri

    2014-04-01

    Deaths due to blunt force trauma to the head as a result of assault are some of the most common cases encountered by the practicing forensic pathologist. Previous studies have shown inflicting injury to the head region is one of the most effective methods of murder. The important factors that determine severity of trauma include the type of weapon used, type and site of skull fracture, intracranial haemorrhage and severity of brain injury. The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics of blunt force trauma to the skull produced by different instruments. Nine adult monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) skulls were used as models. Commonly found blunt objects comprising of Warrington hammer, hockey stick and open face helmet were used in this study. A machine calibrated force generator was used to hold the blunt object in place and to hit the skulls at forces of 12.5N and 25N. Resultant traumatic effects and fractures (linear, depressed, basilar, comminuted, and distastic) were analyzed according to type of blunt object used; surface area of contact and absolute force (N/cm(2)) delivered. Results showed that all investigated instruments were capable of producing similar injuries. The severity of trauma was not related to the surface area of contact with the blunt objects. However, only high absolute forces produced comminuted fractures. These findings were observational, as the samples were too small for statistical conclusions. PMID:24763233

  20. Effects of Nose Bluntness on Stability of Hypersonic Boundary Layers over Blunt Cone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, K.; Balakumar, P.; Kandil, O. A.

    2007-01-01

    Receptivity and stability of hypersonic boundary layers are numerically investigated for boundary layer flows over a 5-degree straight cone at a free-stream Mach number of 6.0. To compute the shock and the interaction of shock with the instability waves, we solve the Navier-Stokes equations in axisymmetric coordinates. The governing equations are solved using the 5th-order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme for space discretization and using third-order total-variation-diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta scheme for time integration. After the mean flow field is computed, disturbances are introduced at the upstream end of the computational domain. Generation of instability waves from leading edge region and receptivity of boundary layer to slow acoustic waves are investigated. Computations are performed for a cone with nose radii of 0.001, 0.05 and 0.10 inches that give Reynolds numbers based on the nose radii ranging from 650 to 130,000. The linear stability results showed that the bluntness has a strong stabilizing effect on the stability of axisymmetric boundary layers. The transition Reynolds number for a cone with the nose Reynolds number of 65,000 is increased by a factor of 1.82 compared to that for a sharp cone. The receptivity coefficient for a sharp cone is about 4.23 and it is very small, approx.10(exp -3), for large bluntness.

  1. 75 FR 6249 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Fiery Pool: The Maya and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Fiery Pool: The Maya and the Mythic... hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Fiery Pool: The Maya and the...

  2. Los mayas del altiplano: supervivencia indígena en Chiapas y Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovell, W. George

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available En el contexto americano, pocos grupos indígenas han demostrado la capacidad de sobrevivir a lo largo de la historia como los mayas del altiplano. Hoy día en Chiapas existen más de un millón de indígenas mayas, un número que asciende a cinco o seis millones en el caso de Guatemala. Los pueblos mayas han respondido a la invasión y a la dominación para conservar elementos importantes de su cultura. Este artículo discute las formas en que los mayas del altiplano se han adaptado para sobrevivir a casi cinco siglos de conquista, identificando tres fases claves en su trayectoria histórica: (1 la experiencia colonial, que abarca los años entre 1524 y 1821; (2 una época de reforma y revolución, que corre de 1821 a 1954; y (3 un período de marginalización y descuido desde 1954 en adelante. Pese al desfío, los mayas del altiplano están equipados culturalmente para perdurar.

  3. Economic and anthropological assessments of the health of children in Maya immigrant families in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patricia K; Bogin, Barry; Varela-Silva, Maria Inês; Loucky, James

    2003-06-01

    Immigration from developing countries to the US generally increases access to health care and clean water, but it also introduces some unhealthy lifestyle patterns, such as diets dense in energy and little regular physical activity. We present a transdisciplinary model of child health and examine the impact of immigration on the physical growth and health of Maya children in Guatemala and the US. Maya-American children are much taller and have longer legs, on average, than their counterparts in Guatemala. This suggests that immigration to the US improves their health. However, the Maya-American children also are much heavier than both Guatemalan Maya and White American children, and have high rates of overweight and obesity. Quantile regression analysis indicates that Maya are shorter except in the upper tail of the stature distribution, and have higher Body Mass Index (BMI) in the tails, but not in the middle of the BMI distribution. Leisure time spent in front of a television or computer monitor tends to raise BMI in the middle and lower tail of the distribution, but not in the upper tail.

  4. Chemical Tools of Octopus maya during Crab Predation Are Also Active on Conspecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pech-Puch, Dawrin; Cruz-López, Honorio; Canche-Ek, Cindy; Campos-Espinosa, Gabriela; García, Elpidio; Mascaro, Maite; Rosas, Carlos; Chávez-Velasco, Daniel; Rodríguez-Morales, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Octopus maya is a major socio-economic resource from the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico. In this study we report for the first time the chemical composition of the saliva of O. maya and its effect on natural prey, i.e. the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), the crown conch snail (Melongena corona bispinosa), as well as conspecifics. Salivary posterior glands were collected from octopus caught by local fishers and extracted with water; this extract paralyzed and predigested crabs when it was injected into the third pereiopod. The water extract was fractionated by membrane ultrafiltration with a molecular weight cut-off of 3 kDa leading to a metabolic phase (>3 kDa) and a neurotoxic fraction (maya conspecifics, partly paralyzing and sedating them; this suggests that octopus saliva might be used among conspecifics for defense and for reduction of competition. Bioguided separation of the neurotoxic fraction by chromatography led to a paralysis fraction and a relaxing fraction. The paralyzing activity of the saliva was exerted by amino acids, while the relaxing activity was due to the presence of serotonin. Prey-handling studies revealed that O. maya punctures the eye or arthrodial membrane when predating blue crabs and uses the radula to bore through crown conch shells; these differing strategies may help O. maya to reduce the time needed to handle its prey. PMID:26895025

  5. Facile preparation of stable palygorskite/methyl violet@SiO2 "Maya Violet" pigment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujie; Zhang, Junping; Wang, Aiqin

    2015-11-01

    Maya Blue pigment has attracted considerable attention owing to their extraordinary stability. The growing interest in this field has largely expanded the study of Maya Blue-like pigments. Inspired by Maya Blue, a stable palygorskite/methyl violet@SiO2 (PAL/MV@SiO2) "Maya Violet" pigment was fabricated via adsorption of MV by PAL, and then deposition of a layer of SiO2 on the surface by polycondensation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The weight ratio of MV to PAL is as high as 10%. The pigments were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and a variety of analytical techniques, e.g., Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy and zeta potential. The results indicate that MV molecules are fixed onto the exterior surface, the grooves and at the entrances of the channels of PAL. The PAL/MV@SiO2 pigment shows excellent stability against chemical attacks, e.g., 0.1 M HCl, 0.1 M NaOH and various organic solvents. Different from Maya Blue, grinding and heating treatment are virtually ineffective in improving stability of the PAL/MV pigment. CTAB and the SiO2 layer formed on the surface of PAL/MV contribute greatly to the improved stability of the pigment due to shielding effect. The optimal CTAB/TEOS/ammonia/H2O molar ratio for the surface modification of PAL/MV is 0.24/1/2.89/495.

  6. Materiales Maria Maya: community-based materials development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, B C

    1982-01-01

    Materials Maria Maya (MMM) is a Guatemalan organization which has dedicated itself to making health education more relevant to the rural Mayans who constitute the majority of Guatemala's population. The administration and direction of the project is in the hands of a team of qualified Mayan men and women. Funding is primarily through various charitable international organizations. The content of preexisting health education programs, strongly influenced by the dominant "ladino" Spanish speaking culture was found to be inappropriate to the goal of this program. MMM set about to formulate a new teaching format which would draw upon, rather than trample over, established cultural practices and life styles. By a process of trial and error, involving small scale field tests, a new program format was developed. By questioning local women about perceived priority areas, through the study of morbidity and mortality data, decisions were made as to topics to be covered. Investigators, authors, and artists worked together to form a "materials package" which was then subject to pretesting. Out of this effort, MMM has been able to come up with a method to encourage more effective participative teaching through the use of education materials.

  7. Cuando alguien habla la maya, se nota que son pobres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Bellon Cárdenas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se examinan las narrativas de identidad de los receptores culturalesde la radiodifusora indigenista “La Voz de los Mayas, Xepet”, respecto de su relacióncon la oferta radiofónica de esta emisora ubicada en la cabecera municipal de Peto,al sur de Yucatán, México. El propósito es, por un lado, sistematizar, desde el análisisargumentativo, el uso, estructura y estrategias argumentativas de los maya hablantesradioescuchas de Xepet (bilingües o monolingües en torno a la oferta cultural de lamisma, así como a la presencia cotidiana de esta emisora en su mundo de vida; y, porotro, reflexionar acerca de la radio indigenista en México como un recurso que podríacontribuir a la “cultura de paz”.“U chíikul u t’aan maayao’ob” o “La voz de los mayas”, salió al aire el 29 de noviembrede 1982, en la frecuencia de los 740 khz de AM y fue reubicada al 730 en enero de2001. Su área de cobertura abarca unos 100 km a la redonda, alcanzando cerca de milcomunidades de la península y parte de Quintana Roo, con una audiencia potencial de500 mil personas. Su programación incluye géneros musicales y no musicales, compuestosestos últimos por programas informativos, de difusión cultural, servicio e infantiles.Xepet ha sido una de las radiodifusoras pioneras del sistema indigenista promovido porel Estado mexicano desde 1979, modelo que habría de extenderse en las más de veinteemisoras que aparecieron después. Hoy en día, la crítica respecto de la función, contenidosy operación de estas emisoras “oficiales” o “voceras del Gobierno” permanence,debido a que tanto la práctica indigenista como su experiencia radiofónica parecieranestar rebasadas por las demandas de los pueblos indios que reivindican su derecho a lalibre determinación y a la autonomía, así como a la propiedad y gestión de sus propiosmedios de comunicación. Lo anterior reitera la necesidad de una propuesta radiofónicaque se constituya en

  8. An 8700 year paleoclimate reconstruction from the southern Maya lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, David; Byrne, Roger; Anderson, Lysanna

    2014-11-01

    Analysis of a sediment core from Lago Puerto Arturo, a closed basin lake in northern Peten, Guatemala, has provided an ˜8700 cal year record of climate change and human activity in the southern Maya lowlands. Stable isotope, magnetic susceptibility, and pollen analyses were used to reconstruct environmental change in the region. Results indicate a relatively wet early to middle Holocene followed by a drier late Holocene, which we interpret as reflecting long-term changes in insolation (precession). Higher frequency variability is more likely attributable to changes in ocean/atmosphere circulation in both the North Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans. Pollen and isotope data show that most of the period of prehispanic agricultural settlement, i.e. ˜5000-1000 cal yr BP, was characterized by drier conditions than previous or subsequent periods. The presence of Zea (corn) pollen through peak aridity during the Terminal Classic period (˜1250-1130 cal yr BP) suggests that drought may not have had as negative an impact as previously proposed. A dramatic negative shift in isotope values indicates an increase in precipitation after ˜950 cal yr BP (hereafter BP).

  9. Deforestation Along the Maya Mountain Massif Belize-Guatemala Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicas, S. D.; Omine, K.; Arevalo, B.; Ford, J. B.; Sugimura, K.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years trans-boundary incursions from Petén, Guatemala into Belize's Maya Mountain Massif (MMM) have increased. The incursions are rapidly degrading cultural and natural resources in Belize's protected areas. Given the local, regional and global importance of the MMM and the scarcity of deforestation data, our research team conducted a time series analysis 81 km by 12 km along the Belize-Guatemalan border adjacent to the protected areas of the MMM. Analysis drew on Landsat imagery from 1991 to 2014 to determine historic deforestation rates. The results indicate that the highest deforestation rates in the study area were -1.04% and -6.78% loss of forested area per year in 2012-2014 and 1995-1999 respectively. From 1991 to 2014, forested area decreased from 96.9 % to 85.72 % in Belize and 83.15 % to 31.52 % in Guatemala. During the study period, it was clear that deforestation rates fluctuated in Belize's MMM from one time-period to the next. This seems linked to either a decline in deforestation rates in Guatemala, the vertical expansion of deforestation in Guatemalan forested areas and monitoring. The results of this study urge action to reduce incursions and secure protected areas and remaining forest along the Belize-Guatemalan border.

  10. Maya Children. Helpers at the Farm (Karen L. Kramer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Campos Hernando

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Los habitantes de Xculoc, una aldea maya en la península de Yucatán, viven de sus cultivos de maíz y mantienen una agricultura de subsistencia sin haber entrado a formar parte del mercado laboral ni de la economía regional. La aldea, en la que viven 316 habitantes distribuidos en 55 casas familiares, está a cinco horas de camino de cualquier vía asfaltada, sin electricidad ni agua corriente. Los habitantes de Xculoc tienen de particular una tasa de natalidad muy alta y una mortalidad infantil muy baja, en parte por la ausencia de aguas contaminadas en los alrededores del poblado, llegando a conformarse el núcleo familiar por la madre, el padre y hasta ocho hijos. Esta estructura familiar no se podría mantener con el exclusivo trabajo de los padres , las necesidades de consumo son cubiertas por todos los miembros de la familia, dependiendo sus aportaciones no sólo del tamaño de la familia sino también de la estructura de la misma según edades.

  11. An 8700 year paleoclimate reconstruction from the southern Maya lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, David B.; Byrne, Roger; Anderson, Lysanna

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of a sediment core from Lago Puerto Arturo, a closed basin lake in northern Peten, Guatemala, has provided an ∼8700 cal year record of climate change and human activity in the southern Maya lowlands. Stable isotope, magnetic susceptibility, and pollen analyses were used to reconstruct environmental change in the region. Results indicate a relatively wet early to middle Holocene followed by a drier late Holocene, which we interpret as reflecting long-term changes in insolation (precession). Higher frequency variability is more likely attributable to changes in ocean/atmosphere circulation in both the North Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans. Pollen and isotope data show that most of the period of prehispanic agricultural settlement, i.e. ∼5000–1000 cal yr BP, was characterized by drier conditions than previous or subsequent periods. The presence ofZea (corn) pollen through peak aridity during the Terminal Classic period (∼1250–1130 cal yr BP) suggests that drought may not have had as negative an impact as previously proposed. A dramatic negative shift in isotope values indicates an increase in precipitation after ∼950 cal yr BP (hereafter BP).

  12. Cyanobacteria blooms: Maya peoples between the politics of risk and the threat of disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, T S

    2012-01-01

    In October of 2009 an outbreak of cyanobacteria in Lake Atitlán, Guatemala gained international attention and global news coverage with interests coming from environmentalists, microbiologists, and local health agencies. A significantly less well-known aspect of the crisis was the perceptions and predicaments of Maya (indigenous) peoples for whom the lake is the primary source of life and livelihood. This research examines the communication of the public health risk of cyanobacteria to Maya peoples. Using an "ethnography of risk communication" approach, this work traces the circulation of the science of cyanobacteria and the construction of risk from government and public health translations through media transmissions to local Maya interpretations. The findings demonstrate how government and institutional translations (and media transmissions) of the science of cyanobacteria not only unwittingly produced misunderstandings about the health dangers but indirectly associated blame for the outbreak with indigenous peoples, calling into question their way of life. PMID:22985108

  13. Paleoenvironmental and Paleoecological Reconstruction of the Ancient Maya Port Site of Vista Alegre, Quintana Roo, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissolo, D.; Jaijel, R.; Glover, J. B.; Goodman, B.; Beddows, P. A.; Carter, A.; Smith, D.

    2013-12-01

    Ancient Maya ports along the largely unstudied northeast coast of the Yucatan Peninsula once supported a network of trade routes linking people, goods, and ideas from across Mesoamerica. The Costa Escondida Project has focused on the interrelationships between the ancient Maya and their dynamic coastal environment along the shores of the Laguna Holbox. Central to our interdisciplinary efforts is a paleoenvironmental and paleoecological reconstruction of the key port of Vista Alegre - a low-lying island surrounded by a complex mosaic of costal ecosystems, sedimentological facies, and hydrological conditions. Geoarchaeological field methods, such as sediment coring, have made possible multiproxy analyses that enable us to better understand sea level fluctuations and the morphology of the shoreline and harboring locations over time, as well as changes in ecosystem biodiversity, which would have presented the maritime Maya with unique challenges and opportunities.

  14. Redox tuning and species distribution in Maya Blue-type materials: a reassessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doménech-Carbó, Antonio; Valle-Algarra, Francisco Manuel; Doménech-Carbó, María Teresa; Domine, Marcelo E; Osete-Cortina, Laura; Gimeno-Adelantado, José Vicente

    2013-08-28

    Maya Blue-type specimens prepared from indigo (1 wt %) plus kaolinite, montmorillonite, palygorskite, sepiolite, and silicalite are studied. Liquid chromatography with diode array detection, ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, and pyrolysis-silylation gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of the extracts from these specimens combined with spectral and solid-state voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and scanning electrochemical microscopy techniques provide evidence for the presence of a significant amount of dehydroindigo and isatin accompanying indigo and other minority organic compounds in all samples. Solid-state electrochemistry data permits the estimatation of indigo loading in archeological Maya Blue, which is in the range of 0.2 to 1.5 wt %. These results support a view of 'genuine' Maya Blue-type materials as complex polyfunctional organic-inorganic hybrids.

  15. Correlating the ancient Maya and modern European calendars with high-precision AMS 14C dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennett, Douglas J; Hajdas, Irka; Culleton, Brendan J; Belmecheri, Soumaya; Martin, Simon; Neff, Hector; Awe, Jaime; Graham, Heather V; Freeman, Katherine H; Newsom, Lee; Lentz, David L; Anselmetti, Flavio S; Robinson, Mark; Marwan, Norbert; Southon, John; Hodell, David A; Haug, Gerald H

    2013-01-01

    The reasons for the development and collapse of Maya civilization remain controversial and historical events carved on stone monuments throughout this region provide a remarkable source of data about the rise and fall of these complex polities. Use of these records depends on correlating the Maya and European calendars so that they can be compared with climate and environmental datasets. Correlation constants can vary up to 1000 years and remain controversial. We report a series of high-resolution AMS (14)C dates on a wooden lintel collected from the Classic Period city of Tikal bearing Maya calendar dates. The radiocarbon dates were calibrated using a Bayesian statistical model and indicate that the dates were carved on the lintel between AD 658-696. This strongly supports the Goodman-Martínez-Thompson (GMT) correlation and the hypothesis that climate change played an important role in the development and demise of this complex civilization.

  16. Improvement of airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jun Zhu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise is investigated using both computational aero-acoustic and semi-empirical approach. For engineering purposes, one of the most commonly used prediction tools for trailing edge noise are based on semi-empirical approaches, for example, the Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini airfoil noise prediction model developed by Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini (NASA Reference Publication 1218, 1989. It was found in previous study that the Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini model tends to over-predict noise at high frequencies. Furthermore, it was observed that this was caused by a lack in the model to predict accurately noise from blunt trailing edges. For more physical understanding of bluntness noise generation, in this study, we also use an advanced in-house developed high-order computational aero-acoustic technique to investigate the details associated with trailing edge bluntness noise. The results from the numerical model form the basis for an improved Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini trailing edge bluntness noise model.

  17. Landscape Archeology: Remote Sensing Investigation of the Ancient Maya in the Peten Rainforest of Northern Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Thomas L.; Irwin, Daniel E.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Through the use of airborne and satellite imagery we are improving our ability to investigate ancient Maya settlement, subsistence, and landscape modification in this dense forest region. Today the area is threatened by encroaching settlement and deforestation. However, it was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared for unknown reasons in the 9th century AD. At the time of their collapse they had attained one of the highest population densities in human history. How the Maya were able to successfully manage water and feed this dense population is not well understood at this time. A NASA-funded project used remote sensing technology to investigate large seasonal swamps (bajos) that make up 40 percent of the landscape. Through the use of remote sensing, ancient Maya features such as sites, roadways, canals and water reservoirs have been detected and verified through ground reconnaissance. The results of this preliminary research cast new light on the adaptation of the ancient Maya to their environment. Microenvironmental variation within the wetlands was elucidated and the different vegetation associations identified in the satellite imagery. More than 70 new archeological sites within and at the edges of the bajo were mapped and tested. Modification of the landscape by the Maya in the form of dams and reservoirs in the Holmul River and its tributaries and possible drainage canals in bajos was demonstrated. The use of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM), one-meter IKONOS satellite imagery, as well as high resolution airborne STAR-3i radar imagery--2.5 meter backscatter/10 meter Digital Elevation Model (DEM)--are opening new possibilities for understanding how a civilization was able to survive for centuries upon a karat topographic landscape. This understanding is critical for the current population that is currently experiencing rapid population growth and destroying the landscape through

  18. Radar mapping, archaeology, and ancient land use in the Maya lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, R. E. W.; Brown, W. E., Jr.; Culbert, T. P.

    1981-01-01

    Data from the use of synthetic aperture radar in aerial survey of the southern Maya lowlands suggest the presence of very large areas drained by ancient canals for the purpose of intensive cultivation. Preliminary ground checks in several very limited areas confirm the existence of canals and raised fields. Excavations and ground surveys by several scholars provide valuable comparative information. Taken together, the new data suggest that Late Classic period Maya civilization was firmly grounded in large-scale and intensive cultivation of swampy zones.

  19. Rituales de la x-táabentun (Turbina corymbosa) y de los mayas yucatecos

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra García Quintanilla; Amarella Eastmond Spencer

    2012-01-01

    La Turbina corymbosa se distribuye por toda Mesoamérica, es ampliamente conocida en Yucatán y no tiene nombre en español. Se le conoce por su nombre maya como xtabentun o, con su correcta ortografía: x-táabentun. Se han propuesto muchas hipótesis sobre su uso ritual, pero los mayas yucatecos han sido especialmente reservados al respecto. Basándonos en la tradición oral contemporánea, podemos ahora distinguir dos tipos de manejo ritual: uno tiene que ver con rituales realizados por la propia x...

  20. Holocene Biomass Burning, Environmental Change, and Human Land Use in the Southern Maya Lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L.; Wahl, D.

    2013-12-01

    For several decades scholars have studied the dynamic relationship between the prehispanic Maya and their environment in order to test hypotheses that environmental change played a role in the abandonment of the Maya lowlands. Fire was inherent in Maya land use practices, arguably the primary tool used to alter the landscape and extract resources. Opening of forest for agriculture, building, and extraction/production of construction material necessitated burning. The extensive production of lime plaster for architectural and domestic use demanded harvesting and burning of vast quantities of green wood. While we understand the fundamental role of fire in Maya land use, there are very few records of prehispanic biomass burning from the Maya lowlands. Consequently, only a limited understanding exists of both natural fire regimes and patterns of anthropogenic burning in the tropical dry forests of Central America. Here we report two new well-dated, high-resolution records of biomass burning based on analysis of fossil charcoal recovered from lacustrine sediment cores, extending from the early Holocene to the present. The study sites, Lagos Paixban and Puerto Arturo are located in the southern Maya lowlands in modern northern Peten, Guatemala. Macroscopic charcoal data are presented along with previously published proxy data from the sites, and interpreted in the context of existing regional and local paleoenvironmental and archeological records. Results show that frequent fires occurred in the closed canopy forests of the region since at least the early mid-Holocene (~9000 BP), prior to occupation by sedentary agriculturalists. Following the arrival of sedentary agriculture at around 4600 BP, the system transitioned from climate controlled to anthropogenic control. During the Maya period, changes in fire regime are muted and do not appear to be driven by changes in climate conditions. Low charcoal influx and fire frequency in the Preclassic period suggest that land use

  1. Aritmética maya: un aporte al currículo

    OpenAIRE

    Lara, Claudia María

    2006-01-01

    La Aritmética Maya forma parte desde hace pocos años del Currículo Nacional Base de Guatemala como una respuesta a las demandas sociales para la construcción de un país incluyente donde la variedad de culturas se conciba y viva como una riqueza y no como una dificultad. El presente artículo facilita que el adulto inicie su conocimiento de Aritmética Maya tal como se inician los niños y las niñas actualmente en Guatemala utilizando semillas y palitos (pequeñas ramas) para leer, escribir y real...

  2. Transcultural use of narcotic water lilies in ancient Egyptian and Maya drug ritual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emboden, W A

    1981-01-01

    Comparisons are made between ancient ritual uses of the flowers of Nymphaea (Nymphaeaceae) in Maya and Egyptian civilizations. Recurrent motifs encountered in the art of both of these ancient civilizations suggests that the role fo the water lily was that of a narcotic (psychodysleptic) used to mediate ecstasis among a priestly caste. Relevant literature is reviewed as are chemical data. Elements in the complex belief systems of these two civilizations need to be reinterpreted in view of the use of two water lilies as ritual narcotics. The species implicated are Nymphaea caerulea Sav., in Egypt, and N. ampla DC., among the Maya. PMID:7007741

  3. The Costa Maya:  Evolution of a Touristic Landscape La Costa Maya : évolution d'un paysage touristique La Costa Maya : evolución de un paisaje turístico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus J. Meyer-Arendt

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La Costa Maya est une région côtière du sud du Quintana Roo (Mexique, proche de l'îlet Ambergris au Bélize. Contrairement à la côte caribéenne du Mexique qui a souffert du développement du tourisme de masse à Cancun et le long de la Riviera Maya, la Costa Maya s'est orientée vers un développement durable avec notamment une faible densité de construction et le développement de l'écotourisme.Le développement s'est concentré autour de Puerto Costa Maya où un terminal de croisière a été construit en 2001. La station balnéaire (balneario de Majahual est devenue dépendante des 10-12 bateaux de touristes qui débarquaient chaque semaine. En dépit d'importants plans de développement, les plages reculées de la Costa Maya accueillaient tout au plus des écotouristes aisés et du tourisme lié à la plongée sous-marine.Le cyclone Dean, de catégorie 5, a dévasté le paysage en août 2007 et le rétablissement économique n'a pu être entamé que fin 2008, après la réouverture du terminal de croisière et la reconstruction de Majahual. Fin 2009, le trafic de croisière n'a pas retrouvé son niveau d'avant Dean et la récession mondiale couplée avec la grippe porcine et les violences liées à la drogue ont fait diminuer le tourisme en provenance des Etats-Unis. On ignore à quel niveau les nouvelles infrastructures tels l'aéroport international de Tulum qui propose un itinéraire de Chetumal à la plage et le nouveau complexe hôtelier à Xahuayxel, stimuleront la Costa Maya mexicaine créant peut-être une autoroute côtière reliée à San Pedro au Bélize.The Costa Maya is a vernacular coastal region of southeastern Quintana Roo (Mexico and adjacent Ambergris Cay, Belize.  As Mexico’s Caribbean coast suffered many growth pains associated with mass tourism development in Cancun and along the Riviera Maya, the Costa Maya by contrast was projected for more sustainable development including low-density housing and

  4. The role of benchmark crudes in crude oil pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the world's oil, whether sold on a spot basis or as part of a term contract, will be priced on a relationship with one or other of a small number of marker crude oils. Generally, the markers used are West Texas Intermediate (WTI) and Alaskan North Slope (ANS) for crude oil coming into North and South America; Dubai or Oman for crudes being delivered into the Far Eastern markets; and Brent for any crude being delivered into Europe. For a variety of reasons, over the laster two years, Brent blend has become more predominant in the pricing process for crude oils throughout the world. This has resulted in the fact that, directly or indirectly, Brent is now used to price approximately 65% of the world's crude oil. So why is it that a crude oil with a comparatively small production base of around 700,000 barrels per day has now come to dominate the pricing of the lion's share of the world's crude oil? The answer to this question is discussed

  5. Pancreatic laceration and portal vein thrombosis in blunt trauma abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastogi Rajul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Injuries to the pancreas by blunt trauma are uncommon. The association of pancreatic injury with acute portal vein thrombosis secondary to blunt trauma abdomen is furthermore rare. The early diagnosis of the pancreas with injury to the portal vein is challenging and difficult. These injuries are associated with high morbidity and mortality, particularly if the diagnosis is delayed. Accurate and early diagnosis is therefore imperative and computed tomography plays a key role in detection. We present a case of child with a rare combination of pancreatic laceration and acute portal vein thrombosis following a blunt trauma to the abdomen. With extensive literature search we found no such cases has been described previously.

  6. Precipitation, fractionation and characterization of asphaltenes from heavy and light crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Trejo; G. Centeno; J. Ancheyta [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico (Mexico). Programa de Tratamiento de Crudo Maya

    2004-11-01

    Asphaltenes of Maya and Isthmus crude oils were precipitated, fractionated and characterized in this work. Isolation of asphaltenes was performed by following the ASTM D3279 method, which uses n-heptane for solvent precipitation. Asphaltenes were separated into three fractions by Soxhlet extraction with a binary solvent system of toluene and n-heptane. C, H, O, N, S, and Ni and V contents were determined in asphaltenes and in their fractions by elemental analysis and atomic absorption, respectively. VPO aggregate weight and NMR measurements were also performed in all samples. Important differences in properties of unfractionated asphaltenes and asphaltenes fractions were observed. Some of these differences were attributed to impurities in the unfractionated asphaltenes. 26 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Multidetector Computer Tomography: Evaluation of Blunt Chest Trauma in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Palas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging plays an essential part of chest trauma care. By definition, the employed imaging technique in the emergency setting should reach the correct diagnosis as fast as possible. In severe chest blunt trauma, multidetector computer tomography (MDCT has become part of the initial workup, mainly due to its high sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of the technique for the detection and characterization of thoracic injuries and also due to its wide availability in tertiary care centers. The aim of this paper is to review and illustrate a spectrum of characteristic MDCT findings of blunt traumatic injuries of the chest including the lungs, mediastinum, pleural space, and chest wall.

  8. Multidetector Computer Tomography: Evaluation of Blunt Chest Trauma in Adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging plays an essential part of chest trauma care. By definition, the employed imaging technique in the emergency setting should reach the correct diagnosis as fast as possible. In severe chest blunt trauma, multidetector computer tomography (MDCT) has become part of the initial workup, mainly due to its high sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of the technique for the detection and characterization of thoracic injuries and also due to its wide availability in tertiary care centers. The aim of this paper is to review and illustrate a spectrum of characteristic MDCT findings of blunt traumatic injuries of the chest including the lungs, mediastinum, pleural space, and chest wall.

  9. Mathematical Model of Combustion in Blunt Annular Ceramic Burner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The computer simulation of the combustion process in blast furnace (BF) stove has been studied by using the k-ε-g turbulent diffusion flame model. The combustion process in blunt annular ceramic burner was calculated by using the software. The profiles of gas and air velocity, temperature of the combustion products, concentration of the components, and the shape and length of the flame during combustion have been researched . Compared with the original annular ceramic burner, the new design of the blunt one improves the mixing of the gas and the air significantly, and shortened the length of the flame.

  10. CT of blunt trauma to the bowel and mesentery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, H V; Jeffrey, R B; Mindelzun, R E

    1993-01-01

    The high mortality and morbidity rates associated with traumatic rupture of the hollow viscera have been attributed to the clinical difficulty in establishing an early diagnosis. CT has been shown to be accurate for detecting bowel and mesenteric injuries caused by blunt trauma and may be useful in predicting the need for either surgical repair or conservative management. However, many major gastrointestinal injuries have subtle CT findings. In this pictorial essay, we illustrate the broad spectrum of gastrointestinal abnormalities that can be shown by CT in patients with blunt abdominal trauma.

  11. Maglev crude oil pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knolle, Ernst G.

    1994-05-01

    This maglev crude oil pipeline consists of two conduits guiding an endless stream of long containers. One conduit carries loaded containers and the other empty returns. The containers are levitated by permanent magnets in repulsion and propelled by stationary linear induction motors. The containers are linked to each other in a manner that allows them, while in continuous motion, to be folded into side by side position at loading and unloading points. This folding causes a speed reduction in proportion to the ratio of container diameter to container length. While in side by side position, containers are opened at their ends to be filled or emptied. Container size and speed are elected to produce a desired carrying capacity.

  12. Maglev crude oil pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knolle, Ernst G.

    1994-01-01

    This maglev crude oil pipeline consists of two conduits guiding an endless stream of long containers. One conduit carries loaded containers and the other empty returns. The containers are levitated by permanent magnets in repulsion and propelled by stationary linear induction motors. The containers are linked to each other in a manner that allows them, while in continuous motion, to be folded into side by side position at loading and unloading points. This folding causes a speed reduction in proportion to the ratio of container diameter to container length. While in side by side position, containers are opened at their ends to be filled or emptied. Container size and speed are elected to produce a desired carrying capacity.

  13. Naturaleza, cultura e identidad. Reflexiones desde la tradición oral maya contemporánea Nature, culture, identity. Some thoughts from contemporary Maya oral tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana C. Estrada Ochoa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta algunas reflexiones en torno a la problemática derivada de la construcción y el uso de los conceptos de naturaleza y cultura para el análisis antropológico, así como sus posibilidades de aplicación al estudio de las culturas mayas. Plantea que los pueblos mayas establecen distintas relaciones entre estos dominios, así como entre la humanidad y la animalidad. Frente a la perspectiva occidental, que establece rígidas fronteras y diferencias insalvables, la visión maya propone continuidades, reversibilidades e interconexiones, en un universo en el que la materialidad y el espacio ofrecen múltiples posibilidades de tránsito para la vida y el ser.This article presents some reflections about problems that may rise around the construction and use of nature and culture as concepts for anthropological analysis, and their possibilites for studying mayan cultures. It suggests that mayan communities establish different kind of relationships between this two domains, as well as between humanity and animality. In contrast with the western point of view, which establishes rigid borders and insoluble differences, the mayan vision presents continuities, reversibilities and interconnections, in a universe where materiality and space seem to offer multiple possiblities of passing through for life and being.

  14. Canada's crude oil resources : crude oil in our daily lives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Created in 1975, the Petroleum Communication Foundation is a not-for-profit organization. The objective of the Foundation is to inform Canadians about the petroleum industry in Canada. It produces educational, fact-based publications and programs, employing a multi-stakeholder review process. The first section of this publication is devoted to crude oil and the benefits that are derived from it. It begins by providing a brief definition of crude oil, then moves to the many uses in our daily lives and the environmental impacts like air pollution, spills, and footprint on the land from exploration and production activities. Section 2 details the many uses of crude oil and identifies the major oil producing regions of Canada. A quick mention is made of non-conventional sources of crude oil. The search for crude oil is the topic of section 3 of the document, providing an overview of the exploration activities, the access rights that must be obtained before gaining access to the resource. The drilling of oil is discussed in section 4. Section 5 deals with issues pertaining to reservoirs within rocks, while section 6 covers the feeding of the refineries, discussing topics from the movement of oil to market to the refining of the crude oil, and the pricing issues. In section 7, the uncertain future is examined with a view of balancing the supply and demand, as crude oil is a non-renewable resource. Supplementary information is provided concerning additional publications published by various organizations and agencies. figs

  15. Chemical Tools of Octopus maya during Crab Predation Are Also Active on Conspecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pech-Puch, Dawrin; Cruz-López, Honorio; Canche-Ek, Cindy; Campos-Espinosa, Gabriela; García, Elpidio; Mascaro, Maite; Rosas, Carlos; Chávez-Velasco, Daniel; Rodríguez-Morales, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Octopus maya is a major socio-economic resource from the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico. In this study we report for the first time the chemical composition of the saliva of O. maya and its effect on natural prey, i.e. the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), the crown conch snail (Melongena corona bispinosa), as well as conspecifics. Salivary posterior glands were collected from octopus caught by local fishers and extracted with water; this extract paralyzed and predigested crabs when it was injected into the third pereiopod. The water extract was fractionated by membrane ultrafiltration with a molecular weight cut-off of 3 kDa leading to a metabolic phase (>3 kDa) and a neurotoxic fraction (octopus saliva might be used among conspecifics for defense and for reduction of competition. Bioguided separation of the neurotoxic fraction by chromatography led to a paralysis fraction and a relaxing fraction. The paralyzing activity of the saliva was exerted by amino acids, while the relaxing activity was due to the presence of serotonin. Prey-handling studies revealed that O. maya punctures the eye or arthrodial membrane when predating blue crabs and uses the radula to bore through crown conch shells; these differing strategies may help O. maya to reduce the time needed to handle its prey.

  16. The maya behind moyamoya--the two extremes of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakanthi, Nandini; Natarajan, Thillothammal

    2013-07-01

    Two children with moyamoya disease at the extremes of the disease- one with minimal clinical involvement and the other one with profound clinical features are reported with an interesting finding of the collaterals being the reason (maya) behind such varied presentations. To the best of authors' knowledge this is the first Indian report describing the reason behind the varied presentations of moyamoya disease.

  17. Cultural Teaching: The Development of Teaching Skills in Maya Sibling Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Ashley E.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the development of teaching skills in older siblings responsible for teaching their younger siblings to become competent members of their culture among children from a Zinacantec Maya village in Chiapas, Mexico. Found that by age 4, children took responsibility for initiating teaching situations with their younger siblings, and by 8,…

  18. 77 FR 53959 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Dancing Into Dreams, Maya...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Dancing Into Dreams, Maya Vases From..., 2003), I hereby determine that the object to be included in the exhibition ``Dancing Into Dreams,...

  19. An analysis of modern pollen rain from the Maya lowlands of northern Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, T.; Beach, T.; Wahl, D.

    2011-01-01

    In the lowland Maya area, pollen records provide important insights into the impact of past human populations and climate change on tropical ecosystems. Despite a long history of regional paleoecological research, few studies have characterized the palynological signatures of lowland ecosystems, a fact which lowers confidence in ecological inferences made from palynological data. We sought to verify whether we could use pollen spectra to reliably distinguish modern ecosystem types in the Maya lowlands of Central America. We collected 23 soil and sediment samples from eight ecosystem types, including upland, riparian, secondary, and swamp (bajo) forests; pine savanna; and three distinct wetland communities. We analyzed pollen spectra with non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS), and found significant compositional differences in ecosystem types' pollen spectra. Forested sites had spectra dominated by Moraceae/Urticaceae pollen, while non-forested sites had significant portions of Poaceae, Asteraceae, and Amaranthaceae pollen. Upland, bajo, and riparian forest differed in representation of Cyperaceae, Bactris-type, and Combretaceae/Melastomataceae pollen. High percentages of pine (Pinus), oak (Quercus), and the presence of Byrsonima characterized pine savanna. Despite its limited sample size, this study provides one of the first statistical analyses of modern pollen rain in the Maya lowlands. Our results show that pollen assemblages can accurately reflect differences between ecosystem types, which may help refine interpretations of pollen records from the Maya area. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Maya Angelou's Children's Books: Inspiration for Turning Poetry into Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    This column presents books for children penned by Maya Angelou. These poems and stories, based on her experiences as an African American woman living in the United States, Egypt, Ghana, and South Africa, include extraordinary photography and artwork. Suggestions for inclusion in the general music classroom are provided.

  1. Issues of Language Use among the Guatemalan-Maya of Southeast Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladwin, R. F.

    2004-01-01

    Using oral survey methods, this study examined potential language maintenance or loss of Mayan languages among the Guatemalan-Maya communities of Southeast Florida. Among dislocated immigrants and their children, the language of the dominant socio-economic forces often displaces other languages (Fishman, 1967). A Guatemalan community in Los…

  2. Critical Pedagogy in HIV-AIDS Education for a Maya Immigrant Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoorman, Dilys; Acosta, Maria Cristina; Sena, Rachel; Baxley, Traci

    2012-01-01

    In this article the authors discuss how the perspectives of Paulo Freire were instructive in addressing the challenges of HIV-AIDS education in Guatemalan Maya immigrant communities with minimal formal education and literacy. The forging of a community-based, collaborative, educational program offers several implications for effective teaching and…

  3. Leveraging Social Networks to Support Reproductive Health and Economic Wellbeing among Guatemalan Maya Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Alexandra S.; Luippold-Roge, Genevieve P.; Gurman, Tilly A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Maya women in Guatemala are disproportionately affected by poverty and negative reproductive health outcomes. Although social networks are valued in many Indigenous cultures, few studies have explored whether health education programmes can leverage these networks to improve reproductive health and economic wellbeing. Design: This…

  4. Women's Schooling and Other Ecocultural Shifts: A Longitudinal Study of Historical Change among the Zinacantec Maya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Ashley E.; Greenfield, Patricia M.

    2008-01-01

    Women's schooling has been lauded as having a large, important impact on child socialization. Although there may be positive effects of schooling, there may also be effects from concomitant cultural changes that come with modernization. In this article we examine the findings that changes in textile production among the Zinacantec Maya over the…

  5. Study of $^{13}$Be through isobaric analog resonances in the Maya active target

    CERN Multimedia

    Riisager, K; Orr, N A; Jonson, B N G; Raabe, R; Fynbo, H O U; Nilsson, T

    We propose to perform an experiment with a $^{12}$Be beam and the Maya active target. We intend to study the ground state of $^{13}$Be through the population of its isobaric analog resonance in $^{13}$B. The resonance will be identified detecting its proton- and neutron-decay channels.

  6. An autonomous underwater vehicle "Maya", for monitoring coastal waters, estuaries, rivers and dams

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Navelkar, G.S.; Madhan, R.; Dabholkar, N.A.; Prabhudesai, S.P.; Maurya, P.K.; Desa, E.; Afzulpurkar, S.; Suresh, T.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Mahalunkar, A.

    -a & backscatter was studied. A 3.3km path following, waypoint guided yoyo mission at 1m depth was executed at noon in the east to west direction. Maya was programmed to pop up for a GPS fix every 500m. A similar mission was executed at 2m depth in quick succession...

  7. Story Starters on the Aztecs, Incas, and Mayas. A Creative Writing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Steve; Henrich, Jean

    Designed to supplement an established language arts and social studies program, this books deals with the Aztecs, Incas, and Mayas of Latin America. All of the "Story Starter" books are intended to give a variety of vocabulary and story ideas to help with the writing process. Each of the books is divided into four main sections: (1) an…

  8. Incorporation, integration and irrigation at the ancient Maya site of Baking Pot, Belize

    OpenAIRE

    James M. Conlon

    1995-01-01

    This paper provides an example of the use of corporate group analysis at the major ceremonial centre of Baking Pot, and uses comparative data from the site core of Baking Pot, other major centres in the upper Belize Valley, and various other sources throughout the Maya lowlands.

  9. Incorporation, integration and irrigation at the ancient Maya site of Baking Pot, Belize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Conlon

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an example of the use of corporate group analysis at the major ceremonial centre of Baking Pot, and uses comparative data from the site core of Baking Pot, other major centres in the upper Belize Valley, and various other sources throughout the Maya lowlands.

  10. Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Haplotypes Are Associated with Preeclampsia in Maya Mestizo Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizbeth Díaz-Olguín

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a specific disease of pregnancy and believed to have a genetic component. The aim of this study was to investigate if three polymorphisms in eNOS or their haplotypes are associated with preeclampsia in Maya mestizo women.

  11. An Animal Model of Emotional Blunting in Schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pietersen, Charmaine Y.; Bosker, Fokko J.; Doorduin, Janine; Jongsma, Minke E.; Postema, Folkert; Haas, Joseph V.; Johnson, Michael P.; Koch, Tineke; Vladusich, Tony; den Boer, Johan A.

    2007-01-01

    Schizophrenia is often associated with emotional blunting-the diminished ability to respond to emotionally salient stimuli-particularly those stimuli representative of negative emotional states, such as fear. This disturbance may stem from dysfunction of the amygdala, a brain region involved in fear

  12. Homicide by blunt force in 2 Scandinavian capitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogde, Sidsel; Hougen, Hans P; Poulsen, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    In the Oslo and Copenhagen areas, 77 instances of blunt force homicides were committed from 1985-1994, accounting for 18% of all homicides in that 10-year period. Fifty-four (70%) of the victims were male, often killed by an acquaintance during a fight. Almost 70% of the female victims were kille...

  13. Bedside Ultrasound in a Case of Blunt Scrotal Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Cannis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This case study describes a patient who suffered blunt force trauma to the scrotum. Use of bedsideemergency ultrasound facilitated early diagnosis of a ruptured testicle and allowed for prompturological consultation and timely surgical repair. The utility of bedside emergency ultrasound inthe evaluation of testicular trauma, as well as the outcome of our case, is discussed here.

  14. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Investigation of 3-D Separated Flow Field around a Blunt Body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    @@Motivated by re-designing a fuselage in engineering application, the numerical and experimental investigation of the separated flow field around a special blunt body is described in this thesis. The aerodynamic response of the blunt body is successively studied. The thesis consists of four parts: the numerical simulation of the flow field around a two-dimensional blunt body; the numerical simulation of the flow field around a three-dimensional blunt body; the flow

  15. Chemical Tools of Octopus maya during Crab Predation Are Also Active on Conspecifics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawrin Pech-Puch

    Full Text Available Octopus maya is a major socio-economic resource from the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico. In this study we report for the first time the chemical composition of the saliva of O. maya and its effect on natural prey, i.e. the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus, the crown conch snail (Melongena corona bispinosa, as well as conspecifics. Salivary posterior glands were collected from octopus caught by local fishers and extracted with water; this extract paralyzed and predigested crabs when it was injected into the third pereiopod. The water extract was fractionated by membrane ultrafiltration with a molecular weight cut-off of 3 kDa leading to a metabolic phase (>3 kDa and a neurotoxic fraction (<3 kDa. The neurotoxic fraction injected in the crabs caused paralysis and postural changes. Crabs recovered to their initial condition within two hours, which suggests that the effects of the neurotoxic fraction were reversible. The neurotoxic fraction was also active on O. maya conspecifics, partly paralyzing and sedating them; this suggests that octopus saliva might be used among conspecifics for defense and for reduction of competition. Bioguided separation of the neurotoxic fraction by chromatography led to a paralysis fraction and a relaxing fraction. The paralyzing activity of the saliva was exerted by amino acids, while the relaxing activity was due to the presence of serotonin. Prey-handling studies revealed that O. maya punctures the eye or arthrodial membrane when predating blue crabs and uses the radula to bore through crown conch shells; these differing strategies may help O. maya to reduce the time needed to handle its prey.

  16. Using a Geographic Information System to Assess the Risk of Hurricane Hazards on the Maya Civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, A. M.; Griffin, R.; Sever, T.

    2014-12-01

    The extent of the Maya civilization spanned across portions of modern day Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras. Paleoclimatic studies suggest this region has been affected by strong hurricanes for the past six thousand years, reinforced by archeological evidence from Mayan records indicating they experienced strong storms. It is theorized hurricanes aided in the collapse of the Maya, damaging building structures, agriculture, and ceasing industry activities. Today, this region is known for its active tropical climatology, being hit by numerous strong storms including Hurricane Dean, Iris, Keith, and Mitch. This research uses a geographic information system (GIS) to model hurricane hazards, and assess the risk posed on the Maya civilization. GIS has the ability to handle various layer components making it optimal for combining parameters necessary for assessing the risk of experiencing hurricane related hazards. For this analysis, high winds, storm surge flooding, non-storm surge related flooding, and rainfall triggered landslides were selected as the primary hurricane hazards. Data sets used in this analysis include the National Climatic Data Center International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardships (IBTrACS) hurricane tracks, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission Digital Elevation Model, WorldClim monthly accumulated precipitation, USGS HydroSHEDS river locations, Harmonized World Soil Database soil types, and known Maya site locations from the Electronic Atlas of Ancient Maya Sites. ArcGIS and ENVI software were utilized to process data and model hurricane hazards. To assess locations at risk of experiencing high winds, a model was created using ArcGIS Model Builder to map each storm's temporal wind profile, and adapted to simulate forward storm velocity, and storm frequency. Modeled results were then combined with physical land characteristics, meteorological, and hydrologic data to identify areas likely affected. Certain areas along the eastern

  17. La legitimación de la realeza entre mayas del Preclásico Tardío. Los mascarones de El Tigre, Campeche Legitimizing royalty among Late Preclassic Maya. The masks from El Tigre-Campeche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Vargas Pacheco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En el arte monumental del periodo Clásico maya la imagen del señor ocupaba el sitio principal y todas las demás imágenes un lugar secundario. Con este trabajo se quiere demostrar que los soberanos mayas ya en el Preclásico Tardío, o desde antes, usaron la arquitectura para reproducir la topografía del universo y se sirvieron de los mascarones para transmitir la condición divina de sus antepasados, de sus dioses y la suya propia. En El Tigre, Campeche, se han explorado varios mascarones de estuco del Preclásico Tardío, que representan rostros humanos, los cuales bien podrían identificarse como ancestros: antepasados de gobernantes que pretenden divinizarlos para así legitimizar la realeza maya.The images of Maya dignitaries take the most important places in monumental art during Classic period, and all other representations occupy a secondary position in that context. This paper pretends to demonstrate that Maya kings tried to duplicate their conception of the Universe on civic architecture since Preclassic period, or even before; they used huge mask representations to transmit the sacred condition of their ancestors, their gods and their selves. At El Tigre site, in Campeche, have been explored several stucco masks of Late Preclassic date, showing human faces that may represent ancestors of the kings who tried to deify them in order to legitimate Maya royalty.

  18. ``Yo soy indígena'': identifying and using traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) to make the teaching of science culturally responsive for Maya girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Maria L.

    2013-12-01

    This study examines how traditional ecological knowledge—TEK—can be identified and utilized to create culturally responsive science learning opportunities for Maya girls from a community in the Guatemalan highlands. Maya girls are situated in a complex socio-historical and political context rooted in racism and sexism. This study contextualizes the current situation of Maya women and girls in Guatemala and emphasizes the important need for educators to create science-learning opportunities that are culturally congruent. The author posits that when considering how to make the teaching and learning of science culturally responsive for Maya girls, educators must begin with the scientific knowledge inherent within Maya communities. Indigenous communities have a wealth of TEK that can be used to contextualize science curricula that can be purposely designed to meet the nuanced cultural needs of traditional Maya girls within and outside Guatemala.

  19. Genomic insights on the ethno-history of the Maya and the ‘Ladinos’ from Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Söchtig, Jens; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Mosquera-Miguel, Ana; Gelabert-Besada, Miguel; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Salas, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background Guatemala is a multiethnic and multilingual country located in Central America. The main population groups separate ‘Ladinos’ (mixed Native American-African-Spanish), and Native indigenous people of Maya descent. Among the present-day Guatemalan Maya, there are more than 20 different ethnic groups separated by different languages and cultures. Genetic variation of these communities still remains largely unexplored. The principal aim of this study is to explore the genetic variabili...

  20. CRUDE OIL CONTAMINATION AND PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Terek, Olga; Laphyna, Olga; Velychko, Oksana; Bunyo, Lyubov; Dovgaiuk-Semeniuk, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the physiological mechanisms of plant adaptation under crude oil contamination of soil. Different plant species used in the study sedge (Carex hirta L.), bean (Faba bona Medic.), alfalfa (Medicago lupulina L.) and clover (Trifolium pratense L.) showed various biochemical and morphological reactions under oil pollution. The effect of crude oil on root elongation, shoot growth and dry matter accumulation of the four species was evaluated. All invest...

  1. a Review of Late Holocene Fluvial Systems in the Karst Maya Lowlands with Focus on the Rio Bravo, Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, T.; Luzzadder-Beach, S.; Krause, S.; Doyle, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Maya Lowlands is mostly an internally draining karst region with about 400 m of regional relief. Fluvial and fluviokarst systems drain the edges of this landscape either from low limestone uplands or igneous and metamorphic complexes. Thus far most fluvial research has focused around archaeology projects, and here we review the extant research conducted across the region and new research on the transboundary Rio Bravo watershed of Belize and Guatemala. The Rio Bravo drains a largely old growth tropical forest today, but was partly deforested around ancient Maya cities and farms from 3,000 to 1000 BP. Several studies estimate that 30 to 40 percent of forest survived through the Maya period. Work here has focused on soils and sediment movement along slope catenas, in floodplain sites, and on contributions from groundwater with high dissolved loads of sulfate and calcium. We review radiocarbon dates and present new dates and soil stratigraphy from these sequences to date slope and floodplain movement, and we estimate ancient land use from carbon isotopic and pollen evidence. Aggradation in this watershed occurred by flooding, gypsum precipitation, upland erosion, and ancient Maya canal building and filling for wetland farming. Soil erosion and aggradation started at least by 3,000 BP and continued through the ancient Maya period, though reduced locally by soil conservation, post urban construction, and source reduction, especially in Maya Classic period from 1700 to 1000 BP.

  2. CT findings in children with blunt trauma in the spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated CT findings in 19 children with blunt injuries in the spleen. CT demonstrated laceration of the spleen in 7 children, rupture of the spleen in 7, and splenic hematoma in 5. Leakage of the contrast medium was observed in 3 children, of whom 1 was treated by arterial embolization. Laparotomy was performed in 3 children (15.8%) other than the 3 showing contrast medium leakage; hemostasis by compression was performed in 1 with laceration, and splenectomy in 2 with rupture. Late splenic rupture or abscess did not occur in any child. One child (5.3%) died of complicating injuries. Many of children with blunt splenic injuries can be successfully treated with conservative treatment, and CT scanning is useful for evaluating the degree of splenic injuries and complicating injuries. (author)

  3. Analysis of 133 patients with severe blunt liver injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the treatment and causes of death aboutsevere blunt liver injury.Methods: The data of 133 patients with severe blunt liver injury (Grade Ⅲ to Grade Ⅴ) were analyzed retrospectively. All the patients except 2 underwent operations. Different types of surgical procedures were adopted according to the severity of liver injury.Results: Operations were the major method to treat hepatic injury. The total mortality rate was 21.0% in this study. The mortality rates of Grade Ⅲ, Grade Ⅳ and Grade Ⅴ of liver injuries were 11.3%, 24.4% and 69.2%, respectively.Conclusions: Packing treatment plays an important role in the treatment of hepatic injury. The mortality rate is related closely to the severity of hepatic injury, multiple trauma, shock and disturbance of blood coagulation.

  4. Mechanism for Influence of Nose Bluntness on Asymmetric Vortices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gang; LIANG Xin-Gang

    2004-01-01

    @@ Pressure distributions on slender bodies are measured at various roll angles; it is found that the side loads on the blunted-nose slender body are as small as one-third of that on a pointed-nose one, or even zero at some roll angles. Numerical simulation shows that different flow structures are generated on the leeside of the bodies with different noses. The results confirm that a structure of U-shaped horseshoe vortex develops on the top of the blunted nose due to the closed type of surface flow separation. The shear layer separated from the nose is entrapped into the horseshoe vortex core and forms two main vortices on the two sides of the body. The function of this structure is to hold in the two main nose vortices and to restrict the emergence of asymmetry.

  5. Distal thoracic oesophageal perforation secondary to blunt trauma: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tandon Ruchi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic perforation of the distal oesophagus due to blunt trauma is a very rare condition and is still associated with a significant morbidity and mortality. This is further exacerbated by delayed diagnosis and management as symptoms and signs are often masked by or ascribed to more common blunt thoracic injuries. Case report We present a case of a distal oesophageal perforation, secondary to a fall from a third storey window, which was masked by concomitant thoracic injuries and missed on both computed tomography imaging and laparotomy. The delay in his diagnosis significantly worsened the patient's recovery by allowing the development of an overwhelming chest sepsis that contributed to his death. Conclusion Early identification of an intrathoracic oesophageal perforation requires deliberate consideration and is essential to ensure a favorable outcome. Treatment should be individualised taking into account the nature of the oesophageal defect, time elapsed from injury and the patient's general condition.

  6. Renal Pelvis Injury in Case of Blunt Trauma Abdomen

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    Rajendra B. Nerli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Isolated renal pelvis/upper ureteric injuries are uncommon in a case of blunt abdominal trauma. These injuries are associated with fractures of transverse process of the adjoining vertebrae. We report a case of such a case in a 35 year old male involved in road traffic accident. He underwent exploration and repair of the right UPJ/Upper ureteric injury. This case presented with injury to the transverse processes on the left side, which is unusual.

  7. Pneumoperitoneum in a patient with pneumothorax and blunt neck trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail Yaqoob Hakim

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Free air in the abdomen after blunt traumatic neck injury is very rare. If pneumoperitoneum is suspected in the presence of pneumothorax, exploratory laparotomy should be performed to rule out intraabdominal injury. As, there is no consensus for this plan yet, further prospective studies are warrant. Conservative management for pneumoperitoneum in the absence of viscus perforation is still a safe option in carefully selected cases.

  8. Severe Pulmonary Valve Regurgitation 40 Years After Blunt Chest Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuglsang, Simon; Heiberg, Johan; Hjortdal, Vibeke Elisabeth

    2015-10-01

    Severe pulmonary valve regurgitation caused by a pulmonary valve tear is a rare complication to a blunt chest trauma. In this case report, we present a patient with pulmonary regurgitation originating from a chest trauma 40 years ago. Possible mechanisms are osseous pinch of the pulmonary valve between the anterior chest wall and the vertebral column, and retrograde blowout from severe compression of the lungs. PMID:26434447

  9. Blunt Facial Trauma Causing Isolated Optic Nerve Hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Parab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic optic neuropathy is an uncommon, yet serious, result of facial trauma. The authors present a novel case of a 59-year-old gentleman who presented with an isolated blunt traumatic left optic nerve hematoma causing vision loss. There were no other injuries or fractures to report. This case highlights the importance of early recognition of this rare injury and reviews the current literature and management of traumatic optic neuropathy.

  10. Acute aortic and mitral valve regurgitation following blunt chest trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabeu, Eduardo; Mestres, Carlos A; Loma-Osorio, Pablo; Josa, Miguel

    2004-03-01

    Traumatic rupture of intracardiac structures is an uncommon phenomenon although there are a number of reports with regards to rupture of the tricuspid, mitral and aortic valves. We report the case of a 25-year-old patient who presented with acute aortic and mitral valve regurgitation of traumatic origin. Both lesions were seen separated by 2 weeks. Pathophysiology is reviewed. The combination of both aortic and mitral lesions following blunt chest trauma is almost exceptional.

  11. CT scanning for diagnosing blunt ureteral and ureteropelvic junction injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Peter

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blunt ureteral and ureteropelvic (UPJ injuries are extremely rare and very difficult to diagnose. Many of these injuries are missed by the initial trauma evaluation. Methods Trauma registry data was used to identify all blunt trauma patients with ureteral or UPJ injuries, from 1 April 2001 to 30 November 2006. Demographics, injury information and outcomes were determined. Chart review was then performed to record initial clinical and all CT findings. Results Eight patients had ureteral or UPJ injuries. Subtle findings such as perinephric stranding and hematomas, and low density retroperitoneal fluid were evident on all initial scans, and prompted delayed excretory scans in 7/8 cases. As a result, ureteral and UPJ injuries were diagnosed immediately for these seven patients. These findings were initially missed in the eighth patient because significant associated visceral findings mandated emergency laparotomy. All ureteral and UPJ injuries have completely healed except for the case with the delay in diagnosis. Conclusion Most blunt ureteral and UPJ injuries can be identified if delayed excretory CT scans are performed based on initial CT findings of perinephric stranding and hematomas, or the finding of low density retroperitoneal fluid.

  12. An animal model of emotional blunting in schizophrenia.

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    Charmaine Y Pietersen

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is often associated with emotional blunting--the diminished ability to respond to emotionally salient stimuli--particularly those stimuli representative of negative emotional states, such as fear. This disturbance may stem from dysfunction of the amygdala, a brain region involved in fear processing. The present article describes a novel animal model of emotional blunting in schizophrenia. This model involves interfering with normal fear processing (classical conditioning in rats by means of acute ketamine administration. We confirm, in a series of experiments comprised of cFos staining, behavioral analysis and neurochemical determinations, that ketamine interferes with the behavioral expression of fear and with normal fear processing in the amygdala and related brain regions. We further show that the atypical antipsychotic drug clozapine, but not the typical antipsychotic haloperidol nor an experimental glutamate receptor 2/3 agonist, inhibits ketamine's effects and retains normal fear processing in the amygdala at a neurochemical level, despite the observation that fear-related behavior is still inhibited due to ketamine administration. Our results suggest that the relative resistance of emotional blunting to drug treatment may be partially due to an inability of conventional therapies to target the multiple anatomical and functional brain systems involved in emotional processing. A conceptual model reconciling our findings in terms of neurochemistry and behavior is postulated and discussed.

  13. Non-operative management of adult blunt splenic injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jun; GAO Jin-mou; Jean-Claude Baste

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the indication of nonoperative management of adult blunt splenic injuries.Methods: A retrospective review was performed on all adult patients (age > 15 years ) with blunt splenic injuries admitted to the department of vascular surgery of Pellegrin hospital in France from 1999 to 2003. We managed splenic injuries non-operatively in all appropriate patients without regard to age.Results: During the 4 years, 54 consecutive adult patients with blunt splenic injuries were treated in the hospital. A total of 27 patients with stable hemodynamic status were treated non-operatively at first, of which 2 patients were failed to non-operative treatment. The successful percentage of non-operative management was 92.6 %. In the 54 patients, 7 of 8 patients older than 55 years were treated with non-operative management. Two cases developing postoperatively subphrenic infection were healed by proper treatment. In the series, there was no death.Conclusions: Non-operative management of low-grade splenic injuries can be accomplished with an acceptable low-failure rate. If the clinical and laboratory parameters difficult for surgeons to make decisions, they can depend on Resciniti' s CT (computed tomography)scoring system to select a subset of adults with splenic trauma who are excellent candidates for a trial of nonoperative management. The patients older than 55 years are not absolutely inhibited to receive non-operative management.

  14. Early Middle Formative Occupation in the Central Maya Lowlands: Recent Evidence from Cahal Pech, Belize

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    Jaime Awe

    1990-11-01

    Full Text Available After more than half a century of intensive archaeological research the early Middle Formative (or Middle Preclassic period (1000-600 B.C. continues to be one of the most enigmatic eras in the study of Lowland Maya prehistory. While several factors contribte to this situation, the primary cause for this obscurity lies in the fact that few sites have produced either contextual or stratigraphic evidence of occupation during this phase (Rice 1976; Andrews 1988. Concsequently, any new site with evidence of Middle Formative occupation can contribute substantially to our limited knowledge of this pioneering stage of the lowland Maya. This paper introduces one such site, Cahal Pech, where recent investigations have uncovered a stratigraphic sequence that tentatively spans the early Middle Formative to the Late Classic period. It provides a preliminary description, of the site's early Middle Formative configuration and briefly discusses its possible regional affiliation.

  15. Justicia indígena maya en el sureste de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana Luisa Ríos Zamudio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A más de diez años de haberse implementado en Quintana Roo, México, un sistema de justicia propio para las comunidades mayas de la entidad, y pese a lo acelerado de su crecimiento y arraigo, su estructura, funcionamiento y principios éticos que lo rigen han sido poco estudiados. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar su funcionamiento desde la sociología jurídica, tomando como base las constancias de actuación de los jueces tradicionales. Se podrá ver que gracias a su polivalente actuación, los jueces tradicionales son hoy una figura socialmente legitimada al interior de las comunidades mayas, aun habiendo sido creada e implementada "desde fuera" por las autoridades estatales hace apenas poco más de una década.

  16. Maya 6.0发布会特别报道

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    每一个春季的到来都意味着一个Maya新版本的发布。本年度Maya 6.0发布会于2004年5月19日在北京好苑建国酒店如期举行。今年是Alias更名后Maya的第一次产品发布会,Alias公司的大中华地区销售总监马千里先生以及技术工程师Ken Taki先生参加了此次发布会,并在会上发言,Ken Taki先生对Maya 6.0的新功能做了详尽的介绍。

  17. Epilithic and endolithic bacterial communities in limestone from a Maya archaeological site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Christopher J; Perry, Thomas D; Bearce, Kristen A; Hernandez-Duque, Guillermo; Mitchell, Ralph

    2006-01-01

    Biodeterioration of archaeological sites and historic buildings is a major concern for conservators, archaeologists, and scientists involved in preservation of the world's cultural heritage. The Maya archaeological sites in southern Mexico, some of the most important cultural artifacts in the Western Hemisphere, are constructed of limestone. High temperature and humidity have resulted in substantial microbial growth on stone surfaces at many of the sites. Despite the porous nature of limestone and the common occurrence of endolithic microorganisms in many habitats, little is known about the microbial flora living inside the stone. We found a large endolithic bacterial community in limestone from the interior of the Maya archaeological site Ek' Balam. Analysis of 16S rDNA clones demonstrated disparate communities (endolithic: >80% Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Low GC Firmicutes; epilithic: >50% Proteobacteria). The presence of differing epilithic and endolithic bacterial communities may be a significant factor for conservation of stone cultural heritage materials and quantitative prediction of carbonate weathering. PMID:16391878

  18. Thermopreference, tolerance and metabolic rate of early stages juvenile Octopus maya acclimated to different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyola, Javier; Caamal-Monsreal, Claudia; Díaz, Fernando; Re, Denisse; Sánchez, Adolfo; Rosas, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Thermopreference, tolerance and oxygen consumption rates of early juveniles Octopus maya (O. maya; weight range 0.38-0.78g) were determined after acclimating the octopuses to temperatures (18, 22, 26, and 30°C) for 20 days. The results indicated a direct relationship between preferred temperature (PT) and acclimated temperature, the PT was 23.4°C. Critical Thermal Maxima, (CTMax; 31.8±1.2, 32.7±0.9, 34.8±1.4 and 36.5±1.0) and Critical Thermal Minima, (CTMin; 11.6±0.2, 12.8±0.6, 13.7±1.0, 19.00±0.9) increased significantly (Pmaya has an increased capability for adapting to moderate temperatures, and suggest increased culture potential in subtropical regions southeast of México. PMID:24229799

  19. La langosta, los mayas y el colonialismo en Yucatán, México, 1883

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra García Quintanilla

    2012-01-01

    En 1883 se produjo una gran plaga de langosta que afectó a diversos estados de la República Mexicana. Tuvo su origen en Yucatán. Aquí se analizan las respuestas sociales de la sociedad civil integrada mayoritariamente por personas mayas, la de los hacendados henequeneros y también la del gobierno de Yucatán en lo que fue el inicio del llamado Auge Henequenero.

  20. Paleomagnetic evidence for Post-Jurassic stability of southeastern Mexico: Maya Terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Jose C.; Herrero-Bervera, Emilio; Helsley, Charles E.

    1990-05-01

    The tectonic evolution of southeastern Mexico has been a subject of major controversy, not only in regard to past geometry but also in the timing of proposed geological events as well. For the past 10 years, most, if not all, investigators agree that the Gulf of Mexico Basin was formed by Late Jurassic time and that the Maya Terrane was in its current location prior to the Cretaceous. In order to gain further insight into the drift history of the Maya Terrane we have undertaken a paleomagnetic study of the uppermost Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous (Tithonian-lower Neocomian?) San Ricardo Formation in southeastern Mexico, at 93.7°W, 16.8°N. The sampling site is located east of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, on the southwest side of the Maya block, at the base of the Yucatan Peninsula. A suite of 133 samples was collected in stratigraphic succession from a 114-m-thick sequence of red shales and sandstones near Cintalapa, Chiapas, Mexico. After progressive thermal demagnetization of all samples at six steps from 350°C to 630°C, 89 samples were selected for final paleopole analysis on the basis of their magnetic stability. Four different polarity intervals were observed, the sequence being from bottom to top: N, R, N, R which assists in the assessment of the reliability of the observations. The mean pole position obtained, 160.0°E, 69.8°N, agrees with the mean pole position of the upper part of the Morrison Formation of Colorado, a unit of virtually identical age. These results indicate that no discernible rotation or displacement of the Maya block has occurred since at least early Neocomian times.

  1. Putting Us on the Map: Remote Sensing Investigation of the Ancient Maya Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Thomas L.; Saturno, William

    2004-01-01

    A common problem for archaeologists studying ancient settlement in the Maya Lowlands is overcoming the dense vegetation in order to obtain an accurate regional perspective of the presence of archaeological sites, their exact locations and their overall extents. Most often this is done by extensive ground surveys in which many individuals chop parallel paths through the vegetation in search of sites. Once a site is found an effort is made to mark its location on a regional map and to explore its perimeter. Obtaining locational information has been made dramatically easier in recent years with the advent of improved Global Positioning Systems (GPS), however the process of initial identification of sites and the determination of their borders is exceedingly labor intensive and has remained relatively unchanged since the beginning of settlement surveys in the region in the 1950 s. Currently, we are revolutionizing settlement survey in the Maya Lowlands by using remotely sensed data from IKONOS, Quickbird, and Eo 1, satellites as well as airborne AIRSAR radar data. The Ancient Maya built their cities, towns and even their smallest hamlets using excavated limestone and lime plasters. We propose that the decay of these structures provides a unique microenvironment for the growth of vegetation as the levels of moisture and nutrition within the ruins vary substantially from those in the surrounding forest. These microenvironmental differences on the ground are likewise represented by compositional differences in the forest canopy both in the species present and in leaf color (representing moisture/nutritional stress) visible through the analysis of high-resolution satellite data. In this way the detailed analysis of forest composition can reveal a detailed picture of the ancient settlements that lie beneath it. Preliminary examinations using this technique have been very successful and we are refining these techniques in order to efficiently comprehend the details of

  2. Politics in the Western Maya Region (I: Ajawil/Ajawlel and Ch'e'n

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Bíró

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a series of articles I reflect on the use of various expressions which are connected to what we call the political in the inscriptions of the Classic Maya Western Region. These words express concepts which help to understand the intricate details of the interactions between the political entities and their internal organisations in the Classic Maya Lowlands. Words such as 7ajawil, 7ajawlel, the kennings built on the base of ch'e7n (cave, pond, the emblem glyphs and titles will be examined in light of what they tell us about the functioning of the political organisation of the Classic Period in a constrained region.En una serie de artículos como éste investigo el uso de varias palabras en las inscripciones mayas de la época Clásica de la Región Occidental vinculadas con lo que nosotros llamamos "política". Estas palabras expresan conceptos que ayudan a entender los matices de las relaciones entre las entidades políticas de las Tierras Bajas Mayas y su organización interna. Términos como ajaw'ü I ajawlel, los difrasismos con base ch'e'n (cueva, pozo, los glifos emblemas y los títulos serán examinados tomando en cuenta la información que nos proporcionan sobre el funcionamiento de la organización política de la época Clásica en una región restringida.

  3. Adaptations of a Yucatec Maya multiple-use ecological management strategy to ecotourism

    OpenAIRE

    Joan Martinez-Alier; Víctor M. Toledo; Eduardo García-Frapolli

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 40 years, the Yucatan Peninsula has experienced the implementation and promotion of development programs that have economically and ecologically shaped this region of Mexico. Nowadays, tourist development has become the principal catalyst of social, economic, and ecological changes in the region. All these programs, which are based on a specialization rationale, have historically clashed with traditional Yucatec Maya management of natural resources. Using participant observation...

  4. Beyond Nature Appropriation: Towards Post-development Conservation in the Maya Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Jose E Martinez-Reyes

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of biosphere reserves in Mexico was followed by alternative livelihood conservation/development projects to integrate indigenous groups into Western style conservation under the idea of sustainable development and participation. In this paper, I discuss the outcomes of two forest wildlife management projects in one Maya community along the Sian Ka′an Biosphere Reserve in the state of Quintana Roo. Both projects ultimately failed and the community mobilised and expelled the N...

  5. Forests, fields, and the edge of sustainability at the ancient Maya city of Tikal

    OpenAIRE

    Lentz, David L.; Dunning, Nicholas P.; Scarborough, Vernon L.; Magee, Kevin S.; Thompson, Kim M.; Weaver, Eric; Carr, Christopher; Terry, Richard E.; Islebe, Gerald; Tankersley, Kenneth B.; Grazioso Sierra, Liwy; Jones, John G.; Buttles, Palma; Valdez, Fred; Ramos Hernandez, Carmen E.

    2014-01-01

    The rise of complex societies and sustainable land use associated with urban centers has been a major focus for anthropologists, geographers, and ecologists. Here we present a quantitative assessment of the agricultural, agroforestry, and water management strategies of the inhabitants of the prominent ancient Maya city of Tikal, and how their land use practices effectively sustained a low-density urban population for many centuries. Our findings also reveal, however, that the productive lands...

  6. Growth and seasonal recruitment of Octopus maya on Campeche Bank, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Arreguin-Sanchez, F.

    1992-01-01

    A study of growth and seasonal recruitment of the cephalopod Octopus maya on Campeche Bank, Mexico, was conducted, based on catch at size data sampled from 1983 to 1988. The parameters of a seasonally oscillating version of the von Bertalanffy growth function and total mortality estimates were obtained via the ELEFAN software. It was found that when recruitment occurs early in the year, the growth curve of the next year does not display seasonal oscillations, and conversely. Total mortality e...

  7. Pathoecology and paleodiet in Postclassic: Historic Maya from northern coastal Belize

    OpenAIRE

    Christine White; Jay Maxwell; Alexis Dolphin; Jocelyn Williams; Fred Longstaffe

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the synergism among diet, disease, and ecology at two related coastal Maya sites in Belize (Marco Gonzalez and San Pedro) for the Postclassic and Historic periods (1350-1650 AD), which immediately follow the Classic period collapse. Stable carbon- and nitrogen-isotope ratios in collagen and stable carbon-isotope ratios in structural carbonate were analysed for bones from 65 humans and a wide variety of faunal species. There are no apparent differences in whole diets or deg...

  8. From Maya Blue to 21st century materials -- a spectroscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manciu, Felicia; Reza, Layra; Torres, Brenda; Polette, Lori; Chianelli, Russell

    2006-10-01

    Maya Blue is a famous indigo-based pigment produced by the ancient Mayas. Samples for the present work are made by a synthetic route, and demonstrate similar chemical stability as the ancient Maya Blue samples. Since no direct proof exists that the indigo chemically binds to the inorganic palygorskite lattice, there is still controversy on the resting place of the indigo molecules; i.e. are they in the channels of palygorskite, on the surface, or both. Our analysis by FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy proves the partial elimination of the selection rules for the centrosymmetric indigo, and shows the disappearance of the indigo N-H bonding, as the organic molecules incorporate into palygorskite material. Infrared data confirm the loss of zeolitic water and a partial removal of structural water after the heating process. Evidence of bonding between cationic aluminum and indigo through nitrogen is revealed by FT-Raman measurements. X-Ray photoemission spectroscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure studies performed at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory support the aluminium bonding to the organic molecules. The oxygen carbonyl is also believed to interact with the metal.

  9. Forests, fields, and the edge of sustainability at the ancient Maya city of Tikal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, David L; Dunning, Nicholas P; Scarborough, Vernon L; Magee, Kevin S; Thompson, Kim M; Weaver, Eric; Carr, Christopher; Terry, Richard E; Islebe, Gerald; Tankersley, Kenneth B; Grazioso Sierra, Liwy; Jones, John G; Buttles, Palma; Valdez, Fred; Ramos Hernandez, Carmen E

    2014-12-30

    Tikal has long been viewed as one of the leading polities of the ancient Maya realm, yet how the city was able to maintain its substantial population in the midst of a tropical forest environment has been a topic of unresolved debate among researchers for decades. We present ecological, paleoethnobotanical, hydraulic, remote sensing, edaphic, and isotopic evidence that reveals how the Late Classic Maya at Tikal practiced intensive forms of agriculture (including irrigation, terrace construction, arboriculture, household gardens, and short fallow swidden) coupled with carefully controlled agroforestry and a complex system of water retention and redistribution. Empirical evidence is presented to demonstrate that this assiduously managed anthropogenic ecosystem of the Classic period Maya was a landscape optimized in a way that provided sustenance to a relatively large population in a preindustrial, low-density urban community. This landscape productivity optimization, however, came with a heavy cost of reduced environmental resiliency and a complete reliance on consistent annual rainfall. Recent speleothem data collected from regional caves showed that persistent episodes of unusually low rainfall were prevalent in the mid-9th century A.D., a time period that coincides strikingly with the abandonment of Tikal and the erection of its last dated monument in A.D. 869. The intensified resource management strategy used at Tikal-already operating at the landscape's carrying capacity-ceased to provide adequate food, fuel, and drinking water for the Late Classic populace in the face of extended periods of drought. As a result, social disorder and abandonment ensued.

  10. Electron-microscopic observations of the gravity receptor epithelia of normal and spinner juvenile Octopus maya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermin, C D; Colmers, W F; Igarashi, M

    1985-01-01

    Light and electron microscopy of the gravity receptor epithelia (maculae) of statocysts of normal and "spinner" juvenile Octopus maya showed differences between the structures of the hair cells, supporting cells, and afferent neurons of these cephalopods. The maculae of spinner animals were approximately 30% smaller in their surface area and had 40% fewer hair cells. Moreover, the average distance between randomly-chosen hair bundles in scanning electron micrographs of maculae of normal animals was significantly greater (4.33 +/- 6.47 microns) than those of maculae of spinner animals (3.38 +/- 4.90 microns; P less than 0.0001). The sectional area of the supporting cell's microvilli in spinner maculae was larger (0.16 +/- 0.18 microns) than those of normal (0.10 +/- 0.10 micron; P less than 0.0001) O. maya. The morphological differences observed between certain structural components of the maculae of normal and spinner O. maya may be related to the absence and/or malformation of the neuroepithelial suprastructures in spinners. This may have direct or indirect effects to their inability to orient to gravity with these organs. PMID:2861903

  11. Mobility and Navigation among the Yucatec Maya: Sex Differences Reflect Parental Investment, Not Mating Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashdan, Elizabeth; Kramer, Karen L; Davis, Helen E; Padilla, Lace; Greaves, Russell D

    2016-03-01

    Sex differences in range size and navigation are widely reported, with males traveling farther than females, being less spatially anxious, and in many studies navigating more effectively. One explanation holds that these differences are the result of sexual selection, with larger ranges conferring mating benefits on males, while another explanation focuses on greater parenting costs that large ranges impose on reproductive-aged females. We evaluated these arguments with data from a community of highly monogamous Maya farmers. Maya men and women do not differ in distance traveled over the region during the mate-seeking years, suggesting that mating competition does not affect range size in this monogamous population. However, men's regional and daily travel increases after marriage, apparently in pursuit of resources that benefit families, whereas women reduce their daily travel after marriage. This suggests that parental effort is more important than mating effort in this population. Despite the relatively modest overall sex difference in mobility, Maya men were less spatially anxious than women, thought themselves to be better navigators, and pointed more accurately to distant locations. A structural equation model showed that the sex by marital status interaction had a direct effect on mobility, with a weaker indirect effect of sex on mobility mediated by navigational ability.

  12. Listening in the Pakal controversy: a matter of care in Ancient Maya studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Matthew C

    2014-12-01

    This article explores the fraught historical politics of a 20th-century controversy over a Classic Maya king. The controversy ostensibly concerned the age at death of a ruler discovered in 1952 in an elaborate sarcophagus at the Mexican site of Palenque. Combining osteological and epigraphic techniques, Mexican scholars estimated that the ruler died at about 40 or 50years of age. Two decades later, an emerging collective of US hieroglyph experts claimed to have determined the grammatical structure of Maya glyphs for the first time and reevaluated the sarcophagus inscriptions. They concluded that the king, given the name 'Pakal', lived a remarkably long life of 80years (603-683 CE). This reading sparked a controversy that would persist until 1999. At stake was not just how to tell the story of an ancient Maya lord, but who could tell it, with what evidence, and with what degree of certainty. The inclination of some Mexican archaeologists to adopt nationalist and Marxist orientations came into palpable tension with foreign scholars' liberal, universalist knowledge practices. To address this problem, I rethink Pakal's material mediation through bones and inscriptions as a 'matter of concern' (Bruno Latour) and 'matter of care' (Maria Puig de la Bellacasa). I show how these concepts facilitate the reconsideration of contradictory historical propositions as potential sites of coexistence among actors temporarily ill equipped to listen to each other's claims. Ultimately, I present 'listening' as a technique of cosmopolitical care that complements the extensive emphasis on speech and spokespersonship in Latourian cosmopolitics.

  13. Mobility and Navigation among the Yucatec Maya: Sex Differences Reflect Parental Investment, Not Mating Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashdan, Elizabeth; Kramer, Karen L; Davis, Helen E; Padilla, Lace; Greaves, Russell D

    2016-03-01

    Sex differences in range size and navigation are widely reported, with males traveling farther than females, being less spatially anxious, and in many studies navigating more effectively. One explanation holds that these differences are the result of sexual selection, with larger ranges conferring mating benefits on males, while another explanation focuses on greater parenting costs that large ranges impose on reproductive-aged females. We evaluated these arguments with data from a community of highly monogamous Maya farmers. Maya men and women do not differ in distance traveled over the region during the mate-seeking years, suggesting that mating competition does not affect range size in this monogamous population. However, men's regional and daily travel increases after marriage, apparently in pursuit of resources that benefit families, whereas women reduce their daily travel after marriage. This suggests that parental effort is more important than mating effort in this population. Despite the relatively modest overall sex difference in mobility, Maya men were less spatially anxious than women, thought themselves to be better navigators, and pointed more accurately to distant locations. A structural equation model showed that the sex by marital status interaction had a direct effect on mobility, with a weaker indirect effect of sex on mobility mediated by navigational ability. PMID:26650606

  14. THE ASSISMENT OF MAYA VERNACULAR HERITAGE FROM UNIVERSE CONCEPT TO POVERTY CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelio Sánchez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The traditional technique maya housing construction is the representation of the Mayan worldview, it is expressed through the name of each construction element meanings of the creation of the universe and man, is also referred to the body and the concept of a living. For many centuries it was the oral tradition and construction practices that kept this knowledge and knowing, until the process of deterioration with colonialism, the arrival of the Spanish was a watershed in its decline to the undervaluation and contempt. The international designations like vernacular architecture of little have served before the governmental programs that continue it cataloguing like noncompatible an inhabitable space with their criteria of “quality of life”, nor with the schemes of tie financing to industrialized materials. Recent proposals for housing support maya not provide its being as its spatial bioclimatic architecture and a way of life, encouraging new construction beyond its dynamic and undervalued the maya solar microhabitat. Urges a reassessment based on its original conception, in its sustainable architectural feature in your living space according to the social dynamics of its inhabitants and its recognition as a cultural heritage.

  15. The Maya Tropical Forest: Cascading Human impacts from Hillslopes to Floodplains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Timothy; Luzzadder-Beach, Sheryl; Doyle, Colin; Krause, Samantha; Brokaw, Nicholas; Yaeger, Jason

    2016-04-01

    We review the long-term human impact on fluvial systems in the Maya tropical forest region. Although most of this karstic region is drained by groundwater, the southern and coastal margins have several river systems that drain volcanic and metamorphic as well as sedimentary terrains. Some positive environmental impacts of Maya Civilization were the long-term impacts of both landesque capital, like wetland field systems, and other land uses that have enriched many soils. Some negative impacts included stripped soils and eutrophic rivers, both playing out again today with recent deforestation and intensive agriculture. We review trends in the region's fluvial systems, present new evidence on beneficial and detrimental impacts of Maya civilization, and present a new study using LiDAR mapping of fluvial geomorphology of the Belize River. Our new field research comes from the transboundary Rio Bravo watershed of Belize and Guatemala near the border with Mexico. This watershed today is mainly a well preserved tropical forest but from 3,000 to 1000 years ago was partly deforested by Maya cities, farms, roads, fires, and fields. We present studies of soils and sediment movement along slopes, floodplains, and water quality impacts of high dissolved loads of sulfate and calcium. We use AMS dates and soil stratigraphy to date slope and floodplain flux, and we use multiple proxies like pollen and carbon isotopes to reconstruct ancient land use. Aggradation in the floodplain and colluvial deposits began by at least 3,000 years ago and continued until 1100 years ago in several study sites. Some Classic period sites with peak human population and land use intensity experienced less soil erosion, perhaps due to soil conservation, post urban construction, and source reduction. Additional evidence suggests that ancient terraced sites and colluvial slopes that gained upslope sediment and soil nutrients from ancient Maya erosion had greater biodiversity. Lastly, we map fluvial

  16. Crude value management through pipeline systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segato, R. [Suncor Energy Marketing Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation reviewed Suncor's integrated oil flow operations with particular focus on the best practices in crude oil quality management from source rocks to refineries. Suncor produces synthetic crude at its operations in Fort McMurray, Alberta. The crude reaches destinations across North America. The quality of injected and delivered crude varies because of pipeline and terminal logistics, which implies changes in valuation. Refinery planners, engineers and crude traders are faced with the challenge of maximizing profitability while minimizing risk. Refiners face a continuously changing landscape in terms of crude classifications, new commodity developments, batch interferences, shared tank bottoms and sampling limitations. tabs., figs.

  17. "Yo Soy Indígena": Identifying and Using Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) to Make the Teaching of Science Culturally Responsive for Maya Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Maria L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines how traditional ecological knowledge--TEK--can be identified and utilized to create culturally responsive science learning opportunities for Maya girls from a community in the Guatemalan highlands. Maya girls are situated in a complex socio-historical and political context rooted in racism and sexism. This study contextualizes…

  18. Two Holocene paleofire records from Peten, Guatemala: Implications for natural fire regime and prehispanic Maya land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lysanna; Wahl, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Although fire was arguably the primary tool used by the Maya to alter the landscape and extract resources, little attention has been paid to biomass burning in paleoenvironmental reconstructions from the Maya lowlands. Here we report two new well-dated, high-resolution records of biomass burning based on analysis of macroscopic fossil charcoal recovered from lacustrine sediment cores. The records extend from the early Holocene, through the full arc of Maya prehistory, the Colonial, and post-Colonial periods (~ 9000 cal yr BP to the present). (Hereafter BP) The study sites, Lago Paixban and Lago Puerto Arturo, are located in northern Peten, Guatemala. Results provide the first quantitative analysis from the region demonstrating that frequent fires have occurred in the closed canopy forests since at least the early Holocene (~ 9000 BP), prior to occupation by sedentary agriculturalists. Following the arrival of agriculture around 4600 BP, the system transitioned from climate controlled to anthropogenic control. During the Maya period, changes in fire regime are muted and do not appear to be driven by changes in climate conditions. Low charcoal influx and fire frequency in the Earliest Preclassic period suggest that land use strategies may have included intensive agriculture much earlier than previously thought. Preliminary results showing concentrations of soot/black-carbon during the middle and late Preclassic periods are lower than modern background values, providing intriguing implications regarding the efficiency of Maya fuel consumption.

  19. Is the onset of the 6th century 'dark age' in Maya history related to explosive volcanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooren, Kees; Hoek, Wim Z.; Van der Plicht, Hans; Sigl, Michael; Galop, Didier; Torrescano-Valle, Nuria; Islebe, Gerald; Huizinga, Annika; Winkels, Tim; Middelkoop, Hans; Van Bergen, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    Maya societies in Southern Mexico, Guatemala and Belize experienced a 'dark age' during the second half of the 6th century. This period, also known as the 'Maya Hiatus', is characterized by cultural downturn, political instability and abandonment of many sites in the Central Maya Lowlands. Many theories have been postulated to explain the occurrence of this 'dark age' in Maya history. A possible key role of a large volcanic eruption in the onset of this 'dark age' will be discussed. Volcanic deposits recovered from the sedimentary archive of lake Tuspán and the Usumacinta-Grijalva delta were studied in detail and the combination of multiple dating techniques allowed the reconstruction of the timing of a large 6th century eruption. Volcanic glass shards were fingerprinted to indicate the source volcano and high resolution pollen records were constructed to indicate the environmental impact of the eruption. Results are compared with available archaeological data and causality with the disruption of Maya civilization will be evaluated.

  20. Two Holocene paleofire records from Peten, Guatemala: Implications for natural fire regime and prehispanic Maya land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lysanna; Wahl, David

    2016-03-01

    Although fire was arguably the primary tool used by the Maya to alter the landscape and extract resources, little attention has been paid to biomass burning in paleoenvironmental reconstructions from the Maya lowlands. Here we report two new well-dated, high-resolution records of biomass burning based on analysis of macroscopic fossil charcoal recovered from lacustrine sediment cores. The records extend from the early Holocene, through the full arc of Maya prehistory, the Colonial, and post-Colonial periods (~ 9000 cal yr BP to the present). (Hereafter BP) The study sites, Lago Paixban and Lago Puerto Arturo, are located in northern Peten, Guatemala. Results provide the first quantitative analysis from the region demonstrating that frequent fires have occurred in the closed canopy forests since at least the early Holocene (~ 9000 BP), prior to occupation by sedentary agriculturalists. Following the arrival of agriculture around 4600 BP, the system transitioned from climate controlled to anthropogenic control. During the Maya period, changes in fire regime are muted and do not appear to be driven by changes in climate conditions. Low charcoal influx and fire frequency in the Earliest Preclassic period suggest that land use strategies may have included intensive agriculture much earlier than previously thought. Preliminary results showing concentrations of soot/black-carbon during the middle and late Preclassic periods are lower than modern background values, providing intriguing implications regarding the efficiency of Maya fuel consumption.

  1. Isolated Multiple Fragmented Cricoid Fracture Associated with External Blunt Neck Trauma: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Hoon; Hwang, Yoon Joon; Kim, Yong Hoon; Seo, Jung Wook; Cho, Hyeon Je; Kim, Yeon Soo [Inje University School of Medicine, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    Blunt laryngeal trauma is a relatively uncommon but possibly life-threatening injury. An isolated cricoid fracture associated with blunt trauma is rare. We report a case of an isolated multiple fragmented cricoid cartilage fracture that developed in a 20-year-old man after a blunt neck trauma that occurred during a baseball game and was diagnosed by 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT)

  2. Comparison of subjective, pharmacokinetic, and physiologic effects of marijuana smoked as joints and blunts

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Ziva D; Haney, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Recent increases in marijuana smoking among the young adult population have been accompanied by the popularization of smoking marijuana as blunts instead of as joints. Blunts consist of marijuana wrapped in tobacco leaves, whereas joints consist of marijuana wrapped in cigarette paper. To date, the effects of marijuana smoked as joints and blunts have not been systematically compared. The current within-subject, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study sought to directly compare the...

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of CT scan in abdominal blunt trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javad Salimi; Khadyjeh Bakhtavar; Mehdi Solimani; Patrcia Khashayar; Ali Pasha Meysamie; Moosa Zargar

    2009-01-01

    Obiective: To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of CT scan findings in Patients ith blunt abdominal trauma admitted to the university hospital.Methods: All the atients ith blunt abdominal trauma admitted at a tertiary teaching trauma center in Iran between 2005 and 2007 were enrolled in this study.In the absence of any clinical anifestations,he patients underwent a diagnostic CT scan.Laparatomy was performed in those with positive CT results.Others were observed for 48 hours and discharged in case no problem as reported;otherwise they underwent laparatomy.Information on patients'demographic ata,mechanism of trauma,indication for CT scan,CT scan findings,results of laparotomy ere gathered.The sensitivity,specificity and accuracy of the CT-scan images in regard ith the organ injured were calculated.The sensitivity,specificity and accuracy of the T scan were calculated in each case.Results: CT Scan had the highest sensitivity for etecting the injuries to liver (100%) and spleen (86.6%).The specificity of the method or detecting retroperitoneal hematoma (100%) and injuries to kidney (93.5%) was higher han other organs.The accuracy of CT images to detect the injuries to spleen,liver,idney and retroperitoneal hematoma was reported to be 96.1%,94.4%,91.6% and 91.6% espectively.Conclusion: The findings of the present study reveal that CT scan could econsidered as a good choice,especially for patients with blunt abdominal trauma in eaching hospitals where the radiologic academic staff is not present in the hospital in the night shifts.

  4. Behind armour blunt trauma--an emerging problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, L

    2001-02-01

    Behind Armour Blunt Trauma (BABT) is the non-penetrating injury resulting from the rapid deformation of armours covering the body. The deformation of the surface of an armour in contact with the body wall arises from the impact of a bullet or other projectile on its front face. The deformation is part of the retardation and energy absorbing process that captures the projectile. In extreme circumstances, the BABT may result in death, even though the projectile has not perforated the armour. An escalation of the available energy of bullets and the desire of armour designers to minimise the weight and bulk of personal armour systems will increase the risk of BABT in military and security forces personnel. In order to develop materials that can be interposed between the armour and the body wall to attenuate the transfer of energy into the body, it is essential that the mechanism of BABT is known. There is a great deal of activity within UK and NATO to unravel the interactions; the mechanism is likely to be a combination of stress (pressure) waves generated by the rapid initial motion of the rear of the armour, and shear deformation to viscera produced by gross deflection of the body wall. Physical and computer model systems are under development to characterise the biophysical processes and provide performance targets for materials to be placed between armours and the body wall in order to attenuate the injuries (trauma attenuating backings-TABs). The patho-physiological consequences of BABT are being clarified by research, but the injuries will have some of the features of blunt chest trauma observed in road traffic accidents and other forms of civilian blunt impact injury. The injuries also have characteristics of primary blast injury. An overview diagnosis and treatment is described. PMID:11307682

  5. Blunt pancreatic trauma: experience at a rural referral center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timberlake, G A

    1997-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare mechanism of injury, treatment methods, and outcome of blunt pancreas trauma patients transferred from another hospital to those of patients brought directly from the scene. A retrospective review was conducted of 6078 patients treated at a Level I trauma center from 1/1/90 to 12/31/94. Blunt pancreas injury was found in 39 (0.64%) patients (mean age, 33.2 years). Mechanism of injury included 34 (87%) motor vehicle crashes, 3 (8%) motorcycle crashes, and 2 (5%) other injuries. There were 11 transfer patients (28%), and 28 (72%) admitted directly from the scene. Eighty-two per cent of the motor vehicle crash patients were unrestrained, and 35 per cent had ethanol intoxication. Exploratory laparotomy was performed on 32 (82%); eight (25%) required repair or resection; 22 (69%) had trivial injuries, at most requiring drainage; and two (6.3%) exsanguinated. No patients required Whipple resection or pancreatiocojejunostomy. At operation, an average of 2.5 associated intra-abdominal injuries were found. Overall survival was 35 of 39 (90%). Among the patients brought directly to the trauma center, 93 per cent survived, whereas survival among transferred patients was 82 per cent (chi2 = 0.19; P = 0.66). Blunt pancreatic injuries vary in severity, but radical resection is rarely required. Lack of safety restraint and ethanol use are major risk factors. Despite the high likelihood of associated injuries, survivability is high. No difference in outcome was seen between directly admitted and transferred patients. PMID:9036900

  6. Imaging of blunt chest trauma; Bildgebung des stumpfen Thoraxtraumas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prosch, H. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Allgemeines Krankenhaus, Univ.-Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Wien (Austria); Negrin, L. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Allgemeines Krankenhaus, Univ.-Klinik fuer Unfallchirurgie, Wien (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    Blunt chest trauma is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Consequently, all patients should be evaluated radiologically after blunt chest trauma to allow timely and appropriate treatment. Conventional chest radiographs and computed tomography (CT) are proven modalities with which to evaluate patients after blunt chest trauma. Over the last several years extended focused assessment with sonography for trauma (eFAST) has gained increasing importance for the initial assessment of seriously injured patients. In the acute phase of severely injured patients eFAST examinations are helpful to exclude pneumothorax, hemothorax and hemopericardium. Chest radiographs may also be used to diagnose a pneumothorax or hemothorax; however, the sensitivity is limited and CT is the diagnostic modality of choice to evaluate severely injured patients. (orig.) [German] Stumpfe Thoraxtraumen gehen mit einer hohen Morbiditaet und Mortalitaet einher. Daher sollten Patienten mit Verdacht auf ein stumpfes Thoraxtrauma rasch radiologisch untersucht werden, damit die entsprechenden therapeutischen Schritte zeitgerecht eingeleitet werden koennen. Zur Abklaerung von Patienten nach einem stumpfen Thoraxtrauma sind seit Jahren das konventionelle Lungenroentgen und die Computertomographie bewaehrte Verfahren. In den letzten Jahren hat die fokussierte Ultraschalluntersuchung (eFAST, Extended Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma) von schwerverletzten Patienten vermehrt an Bedeutung gewonnen. Durch eine eFAST-Untersuchung kann in der Akutphase rasch geklaert werden, ob bei dem Patienten ein therapiebeduerftiger Pneumothorax, Haematoperikard oder Haematothorax vorliegen. Auch das Lungenroentgen wird zur Diagnose eines Pneumothorax oder Haematothorax eingesetzt, wenngleich seine Sensitivitaet deutlich eingeschraenkt ist. Die CT ist das diagnostische Verfahren der Wahl, um v. a. Patienten mit einem schweren Thoraxtrauma abzuklaeren. (orig.)

  7. Diagnosis and management of colonic injuries following blunt trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Xiong Zheng; Li Chen; Si-Feng Tao; Ping Song; Shao-Ming Xu

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To retrospectively evaluate the preoperative diagnostic approaches and management of colonic injuries following blunt abdominal trauma.METHODS: A total of 82 patients with colonic injuries caused by blunt trauma between January 1992 and December 2005 were enrolled. Data were collected on clinical presentation, investigations, diagnostic methods,associated injuries, and operative management. Colonic injury-related mortality and abdominal complications were analyzed.RESULTS: Colonic injuries were caused mainly by motor vehicle accidents. Of the 82 patients, 58 (70.3%) had other associated injuries. Laparotomy was performed within 6 h after injury in 69 cases (84.1%), laparoscopy in 3 because of haemodynamic instability. The most commonly injured site was located in the transverse colon. The mean colon injury scale score was 2.8. The degree of faecal contamination was classified as mild in 18 (22.0%), moderate in 42 (51.2%), severe in 14 (17.1%), and unknown in 8 (9.8%) cases. Sixty-seven patients (81.7%) were treated with primary repair or resection and anastomosis. Faecal stream diversion was performed in 15 cases (18.3%). The overall mortality rate was 6.1%. The incidence of colonic injuryrelated abdominal complications was 20.7%. The only independent predictor of complications was the degree of peritoneal faecal contamination (P = 0.02).CONCLUSION: Colonic injuries following blunt trauma are especially important because of the severity and complexity of associated injuries. A thorough physical examination and a combination of tests can be used to evaluate the indications for laparotomy. One stage management at the time of initial exploration is most often used for colonic injuries.

  8. Crack tip blunting and cleavage under dynamic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, V. P.; Curtin, W. A.

    2016-05-01

    In structural materials with both brittle and ductile phases, cracks often initiate within the brittle phase and propagate dynamically towards the ductile phase. The macroscale, quasistatic toughness of the material thus depends on the outcome of this microscale, dynamic process. Indeed, dynamics has been hypothesized to suppress dislocation emission, which may explain the occurrence of brittle transgranular fracture in mild steels at low temperatures (Lin et al., 1987). Here, crack tip blunting and cleavage under dynamic conditions are explored using continuum mechanics and molecular dynamics simulations. The focus is on two questions: (1) whether dynamics can affect the energy barriers for dislocation emission and cleavage, and (2) what happens in the dynamic "overloaded" situation, in which both processes are energetically possible. In either case, dynamics may shift the balance between brittle cleavage and ductile blunting, thereby affecting the intrinsic ductility of the material. To explore these effects in simulation, a novel interatomic potential is used for which the intrinsic ductility is tunable, and a novel simulation technique is employed, termed as a "dynamic cleavage test", in which cracks can be run dynamically at a prescribed energy release rate into a material. Both theory and simulation reveal, however, that the intrinsic ductility of a material is unaffected by dynamics. The energy barrier to dislocation emission appears to be identical in quasi-static and dynamic conditions, and, in the overloaded situation, ductile crack tip behavior ultimately prevails since a single emission event can blunt and arrest the crack, preventing further cleavage. Thus, dynamics cannot embrittle a ductile material, and the origin of brittle failure in certain alloys (e.g., mild steels) appears unrelated to dynamic effects at the crack tip.

  9. CT diagnosis of unsuspected pneumothorax after blunt abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Review of abdominal CT scans for evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma yielded 35 cases of pneumothorax, 10 of which had not been diagnosed before CT by clinical examination of plain radiographs. Of the 10 cases initially diagnosed on CT, seven required tube thoracostomy for treatment of the pneumothorax. CT detection of pneumothorax is especially important if mechanical assisted ventilation or general anesthesia is used. Demonstration of pneumothorax requires viewing CT scans of the upper abdomen (lower thorax) at lung windows in addition to the usual soft-tissue windows

  10. Traumatic pseudocyst due to blunt trauma: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becel, Sinan; Oztok, Beliz; Kurtoglu Celik, Gulhan; Icme, Ferhat; Sener, Alp; Pamukcu Gunaydin, Gul

    2015-09-01

    Damage to lung parenchyma due to blunt thoracic trauma often appears as contusion or hematoma. Cavitary lung lesions or pseudocyst formation due to trauma is a rare phenomenon. In the literature traumatic pseudocysts are also known as pseudocystic hematomas, traumatic lung cavity and traumatic pneumotocel. Traumatic pseudocysts usually have good clinical prognosis, recover spontaneously with supportive treatment and do not require surgery. In this article, we present the case of 52 year old male who was brought to the emergency department after a fall from height and was diagnosed with lung contusions and traumatic cyst. PMID:27239612

  11. Las corridas de toros en los pueblos mayas orientales. Una aproximación etnográfica Bullfights at Eastern Maya Towns. An Etnographic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Medina Hernández

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este ensayo realizamos una descripción de las corridas de toros en los pueblos mayas del oriente de Yucatán; la intención principal es situar esta expresión festiva en el contexto de los rituales que configuran las fiestas patronales, de tal manera que se destaque un hecho central: la profunda transformación de una fiesta de claros orígenes ibéricos en una manifestación profundamente entramada con una visión del mundo de raíz mesoamericana. Un eje de análisis es el que corresponde a las nociones de sacrificio que articulan los acontecimientos en el coso taurino con los más discretos que suceden en el interior de las casas de los dirigentes de los gremios, donde el sacrificio de puercos y pavos constituye la base de una gastronomía ritual. Otro más es el reconocimiento de referentes simbólicos espaciales y temporales de raíz mesoamericana que subyacen en todo el conjunto ritual que compone estas celebraciones de los mayas peninsulares.In this essay we describe bullfighting among the Maya peoples in eastern Yucatan. The fundamental aim is to situate this festive expression in the context of the rituals that shape the patron feasts, so as to stress a central fact: the transformation of a feast of clear Iberian origin into a manifestation that is deeply intertwined with a world vision of Mesoamerican ancestry. An analytical axis corresponds to the notions of sacrifice that articulate the events inside the bullring with those more discrete, that take place within the homes of the leaders of the guilds. Here, sacrifice of turkeys and pigs constitute the basis of a ritual gastronomy. Another axis is the acknowledgement of symbolic space and time referents of Mesoamerican origin underlying, as a whole, the ritual compound in these peninsular Mayan celebrations.

  12. 7 CFR 29.1010 - Crude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crude. 29.1010 Section 29.1010 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1010 Crude. A subdegree of maturity. Crude leaves are usually hard and slick as a...

  13. The role of computed tomography in blunt hepatic injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) images and medical records of 283 patients with blunt abdominal trauma were reviewed. There were 67 patients with hepatic injury. Liver was the most frequently injured organ in blunt abdominal trauma. Most hepatic injuries occurred in the right lobe of the liver. Of the 67 patients with hepatic injury, 60 patients had associated other injuries. There was a high incidence of associated lung injuries (35.8 %). Of importance is the high incidence of associated head injuries (22.4 %), because, in some patients such as those with concomitant head trauma, abdominal symptom is not obvious. The associated hemoperitoneum were correlated with the mode of therapy used in each case (operative vs. nonoperative). 32 patients with hepatic injury but no hemoperitoneum were managed nonoperatively. 9 patients with hepatic injury and little hemoperitoneum were also managed conservatively. 22 patients with high density hemoperitoneum were surgically treated. By combining information on the clinical state of the patient and CT finding, therapy of hepatic injury can be individualized and the incidence of nontherapeutic laparotomies decreased. (author)

  14. The artificially blunted leading edge concept for aerothermodynamic performance enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anurag

    An innovative aerothermodynamic performance enhancement concept for blunted geometries in hypervelocity flight is described. An Artificially Blunted Leading Edge (ABLE) is sought to be created by the use of a flow-through channel sized to choke at supersonic (in the normal direction) conditions. As a result, a normal shock stands off the channel but the high post-shock pressures have no wall to act on, leading to a reduction in wave drag. The effective blunt body flow structure can be effective at preventing the rise in heat transfer rates at channel entrance lips. In lifting flight, the flow in the channel creates suction at the lip, significantly enhancing lift for non-slender shapes. CFD studies using Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations provide proof-of- concept for drag reduction for blunted slender geometries and L/D enhancements for sphere-cones. The ABLE flow mechanism's robustness and its effectiveness at off- design conditions is demonstrated. The computed sphere- cone L/D enhancements are also validated with experimental results from Aeroballistic Range tests. As opposed to straight channels, ABLE variants with curved channels that provide for better volumetric efficiency, reduced viscous drag penalties and better performance were designed and investigated. The channels curve outward and exhaust the flow close to the leading edge. Even while exhausting tangentially, the exhaust-mean flow interactions were shown to enhance or create lift. The force amplification due to such interactions can also be leveraged with the channel flow exhausting nearly normal to the surface. The potential of such thrust vectoring to reduce trim drag and augment directional control in the high-speed regime was demonstrated numerically. To evaluate the concept's effectiveness at improving cd or L/D values without paying any penalties in lift, enclosed volume and peak heating rates, Multidisciplinary Design Optimization techniques are used to characterize the design space

  15. Game Art Complete All-in-One; Learn Maya, 3ds Max, ZBrush, and Photoshop Winning Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Gahan, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    A compilation of key chapters from the top Focal game art books available today - in the areas of Max, Maya, Photoshop, and ZBrush. The chapters provide the CG Artist with an excellent sampling of essential techniques that every 3D artist needs to create stunning game art. Game artists will be able to master the modeling, rendering, rigging, and texturing techniques they need - with advice from Focal's best and brightest authors. Artists can learn hundreds of tips, tricks and shortcuts in Max, Maya, Photoshop, ZBrush - all within the covers of one complete, inspiring reference

  16. Facial Expression Design Based on Maya%基于Maya的人物面部表情设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖传可

    2014-01-01

    Maya是现在最为流行的顶级3D动画软件。本文通过对卡通人物脸部模型的构建和面部表情的制作原理研究,然后运用Maya建立人物卡通模型,并制作出卡通的表情。%Maya is one of the most widely used 3D animation design software. With the help of Maya, this pa-per, by researching corresponding principles, establishes face models, as well as facial expressions of cartoon fig-ures.

  17. The detection of annual hypoxia in a low latitude freshwater reservoir in Kerala, India, using the small AUV Maya

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E.S.; Madhan, R.; Maurya, P.K.; Navelkar, G.S.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Prabhudesai, S.; Afzulpurkar, S.; Desa, E.; Pascoal, A.M.; Nambiar, M.

    dives of the Maya AUV at the Idukki Reservoir. The AUV was first commanded to execute a series of successive staircase dives to progressively larger depths starting with a dive to 2m, and ending at 21m (see Figure 7). The descent staircase... also be made to execute corkscrew maneuvers in the 3D volume of any water body that would enable it to do vertical and horizontal sampling simultaneously. The Maya AUV was programmed to execute several long missions fitted with DO , Chlorophyll...

  18. Latent and manifest empiricism in Q'eqchi' Maya healing: a case study of HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldram, James B; Hatala, Andrew R

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a case study of the traditional treatment of a Q'eqchi' Maya man in southern Belize in 2011 who is suffering from AIDS-related sickness. The purpose is to detail the empirical nature of Q'eqchi' Maya medicine, distinguishing between manifest and latent empiricism, as evidenced in the healers evolving attempts to treat the patient in the absence of knowledge of his biomedical diagnosis. The paper argues for a more complete understanding of the empirical nature of much Indigenous healing, which parallels aspects of scientific medicine, and for better collaboration among traditional healers and biomedical practitioners in strongly Indigenous areas.

  19. Las corridas de toros en los pueblos mayas orientales. Una aproximación etnográfica Bullfights at Eastern Maya Towns. An Etnographic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Medina Hernández; Francisco Javier Rivas Cetina

    2010-01-01

    En este ensayo realizamos una descripción de las corridas de toros en los pueblos mayas del oriente de Yucatán; la intención principal es situar esta expresión festiva en el contexto de los rituales que configuran las fiestas patronales, de tal manera que se destaque un hecho central: la profunda transformación de una fiesta de claros orígenes ibéricos en una manifestación profundamente entramada con una visión del mundo de raíz mesoamericana. Un eje de análisis es el que corresponde a las no...

  20. Environmental and safe optimization of crude oil washing on crude oil tankers

    OpenAIRE

    Altun, Murat Hasan Ali; Özcan ARSLAN

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Crude oil is one of the most harmful substances for the environment because of its components. Pollution can be divided in two categories: sea pollution and air pollution. For that reason, discharging of crude oil and its products into the sea should be minimized by means of crude oil washing operation optimization not to destroy the environment. During the transportation of crude oil, the most difficult problem encountered is discharging of crude oil. There are some threats, advanta...

  1. Los dos cuerpos mayas: Esbozo de una antropología elemental indígena The two Maya bodies: An outline for an indigenous elemental Anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Pitarch

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es llamar la atención sobre la distinción indígena maya de dos clases de cuerpos humanos: uno carnal compartido con los animales y uno fenoménico específico de los seres humanos. Esta distinción resulta a su vez análoga a las dos clases de almas indígenas: una con la forma del cuerpo y otra con figura no humana, generalmente de algún animal. Semejante paralelismo entre cuerpos y almas me lleva a proponer una reorganización del concepto de persona en términos de un modelo cuaternario. Éste, sin dejar de ser fundamentalmente binario (cuerpo/alma, debe permitir integrar elementos que, como los dos cuerpos por una parte, y las dos almas por otra, se distinguen tanto como se requieren mutuamente para llegar a constituir la persona.The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to the indigenous Maya distinction between two types of human bodies: a carnal body, shared with animals, and a specifically human phenomenic body. This distinction, in turn, is equivalent to the indigenous distinction between two souls: a soul in a human shape and a soul in a non-human shape, generally of an animal species. The parallelism between bodies and souls leads me to propose a reorganization of the Mesoamerican concept of person in terms of a quaternary model which remains essentially binary (body/soul, yet permits the integration of elements which are different to each other, like the two bodies and the two souls, and yet mutually necessary to make up the person.

  2. Apicultura y organizaciones de apicultores entre los mayas de Yucatán Beekeeping and Apicultural Organizations Among the Mayas of Yucatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Rosales González

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En las comunidades mayas la apicultura continúa siendo una actividad relevante pero complementaria, cuya lógica y condiciones de producción se contraponen a las nuevas normas del mercado internacional. La integración de organizaciones apícolas se considera una estrategia para la "modernización" de la apicultura y la comercialización de la miel en mejores condiciones. Este trabajo se refiere al sentido que tanto la apicultura como estas organizaciones tienen para sus integrantes, a sus expectativas, intereses, aprendizajes y a la forma en que se relacionan con instituciones y agentes externos. El escrito se basa en entrevistas y observaciones realizadas en 12 organizaciones apícolas durante 2005 y 2006 en el marco del proyecto de investigación del centro INAH Yucatán "Organizaciones indígenas y procesos de desarrollo en comunidades mayas del sur de Yucatán".In Mayan communities, beekeeping continues to be an important but complementary activity, whose logic and conditions of production are opposed to the new norms of the international market. The integration of apicultural organizations is considered as a strategy for the "modernization" of beekeeping and the commercialization of the honey in better quality. The present research deals with the meaning that beekeeping has for the members of such organizations, and it explores the expectations, interests and training processes of the members, analyzing finally how are the relationships between these organizations and external agents and institutions. The research is based on interviews and observations made in 12 apicultural organizations between 2005 and 2006, as part of the research project of the INAH Regional Center Yucatan, entitled "Indigenous Organizations and Processes of Development in Mayan Communities in Southern Yucatan".

  3. SOBRE LA EDAD DE LOS HORNOS DE CAL EN EL ÁREA MAYA (About the age of the lime kilns in the Maya area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Ortiz Ruiz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La investigación que presentamos es sobre el hallazgo y la datación arqueomagnética de hornos de cal en el área maya, México. La relevancia de la datación arqueomagnética consiste en localizar las construcciones arquitectónicas y dilucidar el periodo de utilización por las sociedades que habitaron la zona de ubicación de dichas construcciones. Asumimos que se trataba de hornos prehispánicos por su asociación con el contexto de la excavación. Sin embargo, los resultados de la combinación de dataciones y métodos arqueométricos permitieron ubicar estas estructuras en distintos periodos de utilización y, por tanto, asumir la continuidad de esta tecnología productiva más allá del periodo prehispánico. Asimismo los trabajos de datación nos permiten clarificar la utilización de esta tecnología y práctica productiva en dicha zona cultural. ENGLISH: The investigation presented here is related to the discovery and archaeomagnetic dating of lime kilns in the Maya area, Mexico. The relevance of such dating is to locate architectural constructions and elucidate the period of use by societies that are responsible for their construction. We assume a prehispanic period for the kilns because of their context within the excavation. The combination of dating methods and archaeometric experiments allowed the identification of different periods of use and, therefore, suggests the persistence of this production technology beyond the prehispanic period. Dating work also allows us to clarify the use of this technology and productive practices in this cultural area.

  4. El léxico cromático y la ideología maya Chromatic lexic and Maya ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Savkic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Para acercarse al campo semántico de los colores, de primera importancia son diversos diccionarios de las lenguas mayances. El objetivo es hacer una descripción preliminar del vocabulario cromático, compuesto de cinco términos referidos a colores básicos que en el maya yucateco se llaman sak, ek', chak, k'an y ya'ax y significan "blanco", "negro", "rojo", "amarillo" y "verde-azul", respectivamente. El mismo vocabulario remite a determinadas categorías extralingüísticas que la lengua es capaz de acumular, reflejar y comunicar. Éstas dependen de una cultura particular, por lo que el estudio se amplía con las informaciones de diferentes fuentes escritas redactadas durante la época colonial. La intención es detectar los múltiples usos que se hacían en todos los ámbitos de la vida de los colores, lo cual a su vez permite considerar estos últimos como conceptualizaciones articuladas en pares de oposición o agrupamientos tripartitos.To gain greater insight into the color semantic field, it is important to consult various Mayance language dictionaries, in order to assemble a preliminary chromatic vocabulary, composed of five basic color terms which in Yucatec Maya are sak, ek', chak, k'an and ya'ax, or "white", "black", "red", "yellow" and "green-blue", respectively. The very vocabulary addresses certain extra-linguistic categories that language is capable of accumulating, reflecting, and communicating. These categories depend on a particular culture; consequently this study is amplified with greater information from different sources written during the colonial period in order to shed light on the many uses that the colors had in the aspects of human life which, at the same time, can be seen in conceptualizations articulated in pairs of opposition or tripartite groupings.

  5. Thermopreference, tolerance and metabolic rate of early stages juvenile Octopus maya acclimated to different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyola, Javier; Caamal-Monsreal, Claudia; Díaz, Fernando; Re, Denisse; Sánchez, Adolfo; Rosas, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Thermopreference, tolerance and oxygen consumption rates of early juveniles Octopus maya (O. maya; weight range 0.38-0.78g) were determined after acclimating the octopuses to temperatures (18, 22, 26, and 30°C) for 20 days. The results indicated a direct relationship between preferred temperature (PT) and acclimated temperature, the PT was 23.4°C. Critical Thermal Maxima, (CTMax; 31.8±1.2, 32.7±0.9, 34.8±1.4 and 36.5±1.0) and Critical Thermal Minima, (CTMin; 11.6±0.2, 12.8±0.6, 13.7±1.0, 19.00±0.9) increased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing acclimation temperatures. The endpoint for CTMax was ink release and for CTMin was tentacles curled, respectively. A thermal tolerance polygon over the range of 18-30°C resulted in a calculated area of 210.0°C(2). The oxygen consumption rate increased significantly α=0.05 with increasing acclimation temperatures between 18 and 30°C. Maximum and minimum temperature quotients (Q10) were observed between 26-30°C and 22-26°C as 3.03 and 1.71, respectively. These results suggest that O. maya has an increased capability for adapting to moderate temperatures, and suggest increased culture potential in subtropical regions southeast of México.

  6. Adaptations of a Yucatec Maya Multiple-Use Ecological Management Strategy to Ecotourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Martinez-Alier

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 40 years, the Yucatan Peninsula has experienced the implementation and promotion of development programs that have economically and ecologically shaped this region of Mexico. Nowadays, tourist development has become the principal catalyst of social, economic, and ecological changes in the region. All these programs, which are based on a specialization rationale, have historically clashed with traditional Yucatec Maya management of natural resources. Using participant observation, informal and semi-structured interviews, and life-history interviews, we carried out an assessment of a Yucatec Maya natural resources management system implemented by three indigenous communities located within a natural protected area. The assessment, intended as an examination of the land-use practices and productive strategies currently implemented by households, was framed within an ecological–economic approach to ecosystems appropriation. To examine the influence of tourism on the multiple-use strategy, we contrasted productive activities among households engaged primarily in ecotourism with those more oriented toward traditional agriculture. Results show that households from these communities allocated an annual average of 586 work days to implement a total of 15 activities in five different land-use units, and that those figures vary significantly in accordance with households’ productive strategy (agriculture oriented or service oriented. As the region is quickly becoming an important tourist destination and ecotourism is replacing many traditional activities, we discuss the need for a balance between traditional and alternative economic activities that will allow Yucatec Maya communities to diversify their economic options without compromising existing local management practices.

  7. Environmental and morphological changes around the Maritime Maya site Vista Alegre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaijel, Roy; Goodman, Beverly; Glover, Jeffrey; Beddows, Patricia; Carter, Alice; Smith, Derek; Rissolo, Dominique; Ben Avraham, Zvi

    2016-04-01

    The untold story of the Maritime Maya from the ancient port site Vista Alegre, is being written for the first time using a multidisciplinary effort that aims to reconstruct the environmental and morphological history of the site. Vista Alegre is located on the north-eastern tip of the Yucatan peninsula, on the ancient Maritime Maya trade routes. This strategic point between the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, offers an ideal setting for this kind of research, which will add to the general Maritime Maya history. The multidisciplinary effort is part of a larger project called "Costa Escodida". The project's main goals are to learn how the ancient inhabitants adapted to the environment, and to understand how this coastal site was integrated into broader maritime trade routes. The portion of the research presented here concentrates on the sites geomorphology and climate during the past 2-3000 years through the multiproxy analysis of marine sediment core and surface samples combined with archaeological data. This study aids our understanding of the site's possible functions, the environmental challenges the local inhabits contended with, and the identification of ancient harboring locations. The site was inhabited from the 9th century B.C until the mid 16th century A.D., with an apparent two century abandonment phase from the mid 7th to 9th century A.D. According to the results, five depositional phases can be recognized, and the related shoreline reconstruction shows a general trend of a flooded terrestrial landscape. This 'flooding' relates well to relative sea-level curves published in the region. Continued analysis of results from the research, and future research activities, may make it possible to recognize hurricane proxies in the sediment, locate underwater manmade seafaring artifacts and facilities, determine the range of economic opportunities for past inhabitants and quantify the availability of potable water sources.

  8. Forests, fields, and the edge of sustainability at the ancient Maya city of Tikal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, David L.; Dunning, Nicholas P.; Scarborough, Vernon L.; Magee, Kevin S.; Thompson, Kim M.; Weaver, Eric; Terry, Richard E.; Islebe, Gerald; Tankersley, Kenneth B.; Grazioso Sierra, Liwy; Jones, John G.; Buttles, Palma; Valdez, Fred; Ramos Hernandez, Carmen E.

    2014-01-01

    Tikal has long been viewed as one of the leading polities of the ancient Maya realm, yet how the city was able to maintain its substantial population in the midst of a tropical forest environment has been a topic of unresolved debate among researchers for decades. We present ecological, paleoethnobotanical, hydraulic, remote sensing, edaphic, and isotopic evidence that reveals how the Late Classic Maya at Tikal practiced intensive forms of agriculture (including irrigation, terrace construction, arboriculture, household gardens, and short fallow swidden) coupled with carefully controlled agroforestry and a complex system of water retention and redistribution. Empirical evidence is presented to demonstrate that this assiduously managed anthropogenic ecosystem of the Classic period Maya was a landscape optimized in a way that provided sustenance to a relatively large population in a preindustrial, low-density urban community. This landscape productivity optimization, however, came with a heavy cost of reduced environmental resiliency and a complete reliance on consistent annual rainfall. Recent speleothem data collected from regional caves showed that persistent episodes of unusually low rainfall were prevalent in the mid-9th century A.D., a time period that coincides strikingly with the abandonment of Tikal and the erection of its last dated monument in A.D. 869. The intensified resource management strategy used at Tikal—already operating at the landscape’s carrying capacity—ceased to provide adequate food, fuel, and drinking water for the Late Classic populace in the face of extended periods of drought. As a result, social disorder and abandonment ensued. PMID:25512500

  9. A reassessment of the impact of drought cycles on the Classic Maya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, W. Christopher; Campbell, David; Collard, Mark

    2014-12-01

    The study reported here challenges the widely discussed hypothesis that cyclical droughts had a major impact on the Classic Maya. This hypothesis was developed by Hodell et al. (2001, 2005) on the basis of the results of time series analyses of cores from Lake Chichancanab in the Yucatán peninsula. Hodell et al.'s analyses indicated that the Maya region was affected by two drought cycles during the 1st millennium CE, one with a periodicity of 208 years and another with a periodicity of 50 years. The timing of the droughts was such, Hodell et al. argued, that they were likely responsible for several important sociopolitical events, including the collapse of Classic Maya society. In our study, we investigated two potentially important problems with Hodell et al.'s analyses: their use of interpolation to make their data regularly spaced, and their reliance on radiocarbon point estimates to generate age-depth models. We found that interpolation biased Hodell et al.'s results and that when it is avoided there is no evidence for a 208-year drought cycle in the Lake Chichancanab dataset. We also found that when the errors associated with the relevant radiocarbon dates are taken into account, there is no evidence for any drought cycles in the Lake Chichancanab dataset. Together, our analyses indicate that both the 208-year drought cycle and the 50-year drought cycle identified by Hodell et al. are methodological artifacts. The corollary of this is that the drought cycle hypothesis lacks an empirical basis and needs to be treated with skepticism.

  10. Use of Marijuana and Blunts among Adolescents: 2005. The NSDUH Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report focuses on past month marijuana and blunt use among youths aged 12 to 17.7 Data are presented by demographic and academic characteristics. All findings are based on data from the 2005 NSDUH. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) includes questions on the use of marijuana and blunts. Respondents who reported lifetime use of…

  11. Computed tomography of the chest in blunt thoracic trauma: results of a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blunt thoracic injuries detected by computed tomography of the chest infrequently require immediate therapy. If immediate therapy is needed, findings will be visible on plain roentgenograms or on clinical exam. Routine Computed Tomography of the chest in blunt trauma is not recommended but may be helpful in selected cases. (N.C.)

  12. Characteristic Temperatures of Waxy Crude Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Yingru; Zhang Jinjun; Li Hongying; Chen Jun

    2007-01-01

    Gel point or pour point is widely used to evaluate the low temperature flowability of crude oil. However, it is not adequate to describe the gelling properties of waxy crude oils under flow conditions with gel point or pour point,since the rheological behavior of crude oils is dependent on shear history. Waxy crude oils tend to gel at a low temperature. Based on gelation theory, the characteristic temperature of waxy crude oil was determined by analyzing viscosity-temperature data. Two mathematical models were developed for calculating characteristic temperatures of virgin crude oils and pour point depressants (PPD) beneficiated crude oils, respectively. By using these two models, the characteristic temperatures of crude oils that have experienced shearing and thermal histories can be predicted. The model for predicting the characteristic temperature of virgin crude oils has an average relative deviation of 4.5%, and all predicted values have a deviation within 2 ℃. Tested by 42 sets of data, the prediction model for crude oil treated with PPD has a high accuracy, with an average relative deviation of 4.2%, and 95.2 percent of predicted values have a deviation within 2 ℃. These two models provide useful ways for predicting the flowability of crude oils in pipelines when only wax content, wax appearance point and gel point are available.

  13. Processing of Liaohe Highly Sour Crude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shijie

    2006-01-01

    In order to solve the problems related with processing low-quality Liaohe highly sour crude, the Liaohe Petrochemical Company has explored the possibility in optimizing the processing of highly sour crude by adopting different process schemes depending upon the properties of the highly sour crude. The Liaohe naphthenic-base crude oil with low freezing point is earmarked for manufacture of naphthenic lube oils and heavy traffic paving asphalt, while the extra-heavy Liaohe crude with high acid number is routed directly to delayed coking unit coupled with corresponding corrosion preventing measures, resulting in tackling the problem of equipment corrosion arising from refining of Liaohe highly sour crude to obtain light distillates from Liaohe heavy crude through a short process scheme.

  14. Patricia Marks Greenfield, Weaving Generations Together : Evolving Creativity in the Maya of Chiapas

    OpenAIRE

    Lévi-Strauss, Monique

    2006-01-01

    Nabenchauk, un hameau maya zinacantec, se niche dans une petite vallée des hauts plateaux mexicains du Chiapas, au nord-ouest du Guatemala. Ethnologue et psychologue de formation, Patricia Greenfield fit un premier séjour dans ce village en 1969, accompagnée de ses deux enfants ; second séjour l’année suivante, chaque fois pour deux mois. Elle s’intéressa particulièrement au tissage des femmes et au mode de transmission de ce savoir-faire. Les femmes tissaient des fils de coton ou de laine, p...

  15. Devonian-Ordovician Magmatism in Chiapas Massif, Southern Maya Block, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompa-Mera, V.; Schaaf, P.; Weber, B.; Solis-Pichardo, G.; Hernandez-Trevino, T.; Ortega-Gutierrez, F.

    2008-12-01

    The Chiapas Massif (CM) is located in SE Mexico and extends over an area of more than 20,000 Km2 parallel to the Pacific coast between the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and the Guatemalan border. It constitutes the largest batholitic complex in Mexico and belongs to the Maya Block. The CM is predominantly formed by igneous, metaigneous and metasedimentary rocks. In the central CM several magmatic and metamorphic events have been identified in igneous rocks between Late Permian and Triassic times (220-240 Ma), together with a Jurassic tectonothermal event. Recent geochronological studies have been focused on granitic rocks from the central-southeastern CM and from this area, single grain zircon ages were also obtained from metasedimentary rocks. The results suggest that the basement rocks of the eastern CM and the Maya Block underwent several tectonothermal events since Ordovician and Devonian times. In this work, we present new data of magmatic and metamorphic rocks from the easternmost part of CM which confirms this hypothesis. Additionally, we present a semi-detailed geological map of this area showing some field relationship between the different units. We identified a new basal sequence significantly older than the Santa Rosa Formation, which has been considered up to now as forming the major underlying sequence of the CM, as well as the occurrence of several magmatic events in the Maya Block and in rocks from surrounding areas. The petrological, geochemical and geochronological features of these rocks show continuous crust recycling, the occurrence of within-plate magmatism in some parts with inherited Greenvillian and Archaean zircon grains as well as the occurrence of arc magmatism previous to accretion, deformation and terrane separation of the crustal blocks. Our new geochronological results obtained from the south easternmost part of the CM include a Rb-Sr biotite-muscovite age of 392+/-9 Ma and an Ar-Ar muscovite age of 406+/- 4 Ma from a tectonized granitic

  16. Maya C++API开发自定义节点的简易方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锋; 余颖; 张文俊; 张目

    2006-01-01

    Maya是目前最流行的三维设计软件之一,与其强大的三维制作功能一样,它的编程接口的性能也越来越完善。本文在深入剖析Maya C++API的基础上,结合实际应用,介绍一种简单而实用的Maya自定义节点的开发方法。

  17. High-resolution speleothem record of precipitation from the Yucatan Peninsula spanning the Maya Preclassic Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Elizalde, Martín; Burns, Stephen J.; Polanco-Martínez, Josué M.; Beach, Timothy; Lases-Hernández, Fernanda; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Wang, Hao-Cheng

    2016-03-01

    We produced a new high-resolution absolute U-Th dated stalagmite oxygen isotope record (δ18O) from Río Secreto, Playa del Carmen, Yucatan Peninsula (YP). This new 1434-year stalagmite record (named Itzamna after the Maya god of creation) spans the time interval between BCE 1037 and CE 397 with an average resolution of 8 ± 2 years. It provides a novel view of climate evolution over the Preclassic and early Classic periods in Maya history. To understand the controls of regional precipitation δ18O on seasonal time scales, we characterized the amount effect between precipitation amount (P) and precipitation δ18O (δP). We found that precipitation δ18O in the Yucatan Peninsula is controlled by the amount effect on seasonal scales (δP/ΔP = - 0.0137 ± 0.0031‰ per mm, r = 0.9), as suspected but never before demonstrated. Cave drip δ18O is consistent with the annual amount-weighted δ18O composition of precipitation. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that stalagmite δ18O reflects isotopic equilibrium conditions and thus stalagmite δ18O changes are interpreted to reflect precipitation amount. We determined quantitative precipitation changes from the stalagmite δ18O record following previous methods (Medina-Elizalde and Rohling, 2012). The stalagmite precipitation record suggests twelve periods of anomalous precipitation reductions ranging between about 30 and 70% below mean conditions at the time and with durations from 6 years to 31 years. Between BCE 520 and 166, the speleothem precipitation record suggests that the YP experienced an interval of high precipitation labeled the Late Preclassic Humid Period (LPHP) with precipitation maxima of up to + 86 ± 20%. Preclassic Maya cultural expansion in El Mirador Basin, located in northern Guatemala, took place while the peninsula transitioned from the LPHP to an interval with below average precipitation. We find that the Preclassic abandonment of major centers in the Mirador Basin and others around the Maya

  18. Maya2012在教学中的几点思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王美迎

    2012-01-01

    Maya是美国Autodesk公司出品的世界顶级的三维动画软件,应用对象是专业的影视广告,角色动画,电影特技等.Maya功能完善,工作灵活,易学易用,制作效率极高,渲染真实感极强,是电影级别的高端制作软件.本文就Maya2012学习过程中一些注意事项做了简单介绍.

  19. Dehydroindigo, the forgotten indigo and its contribution to the color of Maya Blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondão, Raquel; Seixas de Melo, J Sérgio; Bonifácio, Vasco D B; Melo, Maria J

    2010-02-01

    ), S(1), T(1). An additional study on the blue pigment Maya Blue was made, and the comparison between the solid-state spectra of indigo, DHI, and Maya Blue suggests that, in line with recent investigations, DHI is present together with indigo in Maya Blue. These results are relevant to the discussion of the involvement of dehydroindigo in the palette of colors of the ancient Maya Blue pigment.

  20. PIXE analysis on Maya blue in Prehispanic and colonial mural paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Iztapalapa, DF 09340 (Mexico); Martinetto, P. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP 166, F-30842 Grenoble (France); Solis, C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, DF 04510 (Mexico)]. E-mail: corina@fisica.unam.mx; Reyes-Valerio, C. [Instituto Nacional de Antropologi' a e Historia, Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2006-08-15

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) experiments have been carried out at the AGLAE facility (Paris) on several mural samples containing Maya blue from different Prehispanic archaeological sites (Cacaxtla, El Tajin, Tamuin, Santa Cecilia Acatitlan) and from several colonial convents in the Mexican plateau (Jiutepec, Totimehuacan, Tezontepec and Cuauhtinchan). The analysis of the concentration of several elements permitted to extract some information on the technique used for painting the mural, usually fresco. Principal component analysis permitted to classify the samples into groups. This grouping is discussed in relation to geographic and historic data.

  1. THE ASSISMENT OF MAYA VERNACULAR HERITAGE FROM UNIVERSE CONCEPT TO POVERTY CONCEPT

    OpenAIRE

    Aurelio Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    The traditional technique maya housing construction is the representation of the Mayan worldview, it is expressed through the name of each construction element meanings of the creation of the universe and man, is also referred to the body and the concept of a living. For many centuries it was the oral tradition and construction practices that kept this knowledge and knowing, until the process of deterioration with colonialism, the arrival of the Spanish was a watershed in its decline to the u...

  2. Blunt Cardiac Injury in the Severely Injured - A Retrospective Multicentre Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Hanschen

    Full Text Available Blunt cardiac injury is a rare trauma entity. Here, we sought to evaluate the relevance and prognostic significance of blunt cardiac injury in severely injured patients.In a retrospective multicentre study, using data collected from 47,580 patients enrolled to TraumaRegister DGU (1993-2009, characteristics of trauma, prehospital / hospital trauma management, and outcome analysis were correlated to the severity of blunt cardiac injury. The severity of cardiac injury was assessed according to the abbreviated injury score (AIS score 1-6, the revised injury severity score (RISC allowed comparison of expected outcome with injury severity-dependent outcome. N = 1.090 had blunt cardiac trauma (AIS 1-6 (2.3% of patients.Predictors of blunt cardiac injury could be identified. Sternal fractures indicate a high risk of the presence of blunt cardiac injury (AIS 0 [control]: 3.0%; AIS 1: 19.3%; AIS 2-6: 19.1%. The overall mortality rate was 13.9%, minor cardiac injury (AIS 1 and severe cardiac injury (AIS 2-6 are associated with higher rates. Severe blunt cardiac injury (AIS 4 and AIS 5-6 is associated with a higher mortality (OR 2.79 and 4.89, respectively as compared to the predicted average mortality (OR 2.49 of the study collective.Multiple injured patients with blunt cardiac trauma are at high risk to be underestimated. Careful evaluation of trauma patients is able to predict the presence of blunt cardiac injury. The severity of blunt cardiac injury needs to be stratified according to the AIS score, as the patients' outcome is dependent on the severity of cardiac injury.

  3. Sustaining Rainforest Plants, People and Global Health: A Model for Learning from Traditions in Holistic Health Promotion and Community Based Conservation as Implemented by Q’eqchi’ Maya Healers, Maya Mountains, Belize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Sanchez-Vindas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work showcases a model for holistic, sustainable healthcare in indigenous communities worldwide through the implementation of traditional healing practices. The implementation of this model promotes public health and community wellness while addressing crucially important themes such as in situ and ex situ conservation of medicinal plant resources and associated biodiversity, generational transmission of knowledge, and the preservation of biological and cultural diversity for future generations. Being envisaged and implemented by Q’eqchi’ Maya traditional healers of the southern Maya Mountains, Belize, this model can be replicated in other communities worldwide. A ethnobotany study in collaboration with these healers led to collection of 102 medicinal species from Itzama, their traditional healing cultural center and medicinal garden. Of these 102 species, 40 of prior reported 106 consensus study plants were present in the garden. There were 62 plants not previously reported growing in the garden as well. A general comparison of these plants was also made in relation to species reported in TRAMIL network, Caribbean Herbal Pharmacopoeia (CHP, the largest regional medicinal pharmacopoeia. A relative few species reported here were found in the CHP. However, the majority of the CHP plants are common in Belize and many are used by the nearby Mopan and Yucatec Maya. Since these 102 species are relied upon heavily in local primary healthcare, this Q’eqchi’ Maya medicinal garden represents possibilities toward novel sustainable, culturally relative holistic health promotion and community based conservation practices.

  4. Isolated pancreatic injury following blunt abdominal trauma in a child

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    Jain Sandeep

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic injury following blunt abdominal trauma is rare as compared to other visceral organs. Isolated injury to the pancreas is even more rare. The clinical presentation is subtle resulting in delayed treatment with high morbidity and mortality. A three-year-old female child presented with vomiting 18h following a motor vehicle accident. She was hemodynamically stable with no external signs of injury. Investigations revealed hyperamylasemia and isolated grade III pancreatic injury. Laparotomy with distal pancreatic resection and splenectomy was done. A high degree of clinical suspicion with due consideration to the mechanism of injury is the key to good outcome in these patients. Major ductal injury is the critical issue in the management and a number of therapeutic choices are available specific to the location of the insult.

  5. An inviscid model of flow separation around blunt bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khristov, C. I.; Todorov, M. D.

    The theoretical model developed by Christov and Todorov (1984) to describe separation in inviscid flows around blunt bodies is extended and refined, with an emphasis on the numerical implementation of the model. The two-dimensional steady flow around an infinite cylinder of starlike cross section is analyzed in polar coordinates, assuming the flow to be symmetric with respect to a plane containing the central axis of the cylinder, and the stagnation zones are treated using parabolic coordinates. Consideration is given to the coordinate transformation and the difference schemes for the Laplace equation and the equation for stagnation-zone shape. Numerical results are presented graphically and briefly characterized. It is found that separation is essentially an inviscid phenomenon, but triggered by viscosity; except for the skin friction, the resistance can be accurately assessed using the inviscid model.

  6. Nonoperative management for patients with grade IV blunt hepatic trauma

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    Zago Thiago

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The treatment of complex liver injuries remains a challenge. Nonoperative treatment for such injuries is increasingly being adopted as the initial management strategy. We reviewed our experience, at a University teaching hospital, in the nonoperative management of grade IV liver injuries with the intent to evaluate failure rates; need for angioembolization and blood transfusions; and in-hospital mortality and complications. Methods This is a retrospective analysis conducted at a single large trauma centre in Brazil. All consecutive, hemodynamically stable, blunt trauma patients with grade IV hepatic injury, between 1996 and 2011, were analyzed. Demographics and baseline characteristics were recorded. Failure of nonoperative management was defined by the need for surgical intervention. Need for angioembolization and transfusions, in-hospital death, and complications were also assessed Results Eighteen patients with grade IV hepatic injury treated nonoperatively during the study period were included. The nonoperative treatment failed in only one patient (5.5% who had refractory abdominal pain. However, no missed injuries and/or worsening of bleeding were observed during the operation. None of the patients died nor need angioembolization. No complications directly related to the liver were observed. Unrelated complications to the liver occurred in three patients (16.7%; one patient developed a tracheal stenosis (secondary to tracheal intubation; one had pleural effusion; and one developed an abscess in the pleural cavity. The hospital length of stay was on average 11.56 days. Conclusions In our experience, nonoperative management of grade IV liver injury for stable blunt trauma patients is associated with high success rates without significant complications.

  7. Blunt trauma induced splenic blushes are not created equal

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    Burlew Clay

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, evidence of contrast extravasation on computed tomography (CT scan is regarded as an indication for intervention in splenic injuries. In our experience, patients transferred from other institutions for angioembolization have often resolved the blush upon repeat imaging at our hospital. We hypothesized that not all splenic blushes require intervention. Methods During a 10-year period, we reviewed all patients transferred with blunt splenic injuries and contrast extravasation on initial postinjury CT scan. Results During the study period, 241 patients were referred for splenic injuries, of whom 16 had a contrast blush on initial CT imaging (88% men, mean age 35 ± 5, mean ISS 26 ± 3. Eight (50% patients were managed without angioembolization or operation. Comparing patients with and without intervention, there was a significant difference in admission heart rate (106 ± 9 vs 83 ± 6 and decline in hematocrit following transfer (5.3 ± 2.0 vs 1.0 ± 0.3, but not in injury grade (3.9 ± 0.2 vs 3.5 ± 0.3, systolic blood pressure (125 ± 10 vs 115 ± 6, or age (38.5 ± 8.2 vs 30.9 ± 4.7. Of the 8 observed patients, 3 underwent repeat imaging immediately upon arrival with resolution of the blush. In the intervention group, 4 patients had ongoing extravasation on repeat imaging, 2 patients underwent empiric embolization, and 2 patients underwent splenectomy for physiologic indications. Conclusions For blunt splenic trauma, evidence of contrast extravasation on initial CT imaging is not an absolute indication for intervention. A period of observation with repeat imaging could avoid costly, invasive interventions and their associated sequelae.

  8. Drug-Intake Methods and Social Identity: The Use of Marijuana in Blunts among Southeast Asian Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, Brian; Lee, Juliet P.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines why Southeast Asian American adolescents and emerging adults in two urban settings prefer to use "blunts," or hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana, over other methods of drug intake. Rationales for preferring blunts were both instrumental and social. Blunts allowed users to more easily share marijuana, the preferred drug…

  9. Mathematical Contributions of the Mayas, Aztecs & Incas: A Native American Curriculum Unit for Middle and High School. NATAM XIX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodola, Janet

    Written to fulfill the requirements for a University of Minnesota College of Education off-campus Indian education course for public school teachers, this Native American curriculum unit for middle and high school reflects the mathematical achievements of the Maya, Aztec, and Inca Indians. The number systems, notation, and calendar techniques of…

  10. Speech and gesture in spatial language and cognition among the Yucatec Mayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guen, Olivier

    2011-07-01

    In previous analyses of the influence of language on cognition, speech has been the main channel examined. In studies conducted among Yucatec Mayas, efforts to determine the preferred frame of reference in use in this community have failed to reach an agreement (Bohnemeyer & Stolz, 2006; Levinson, 2003 vs. Le Guen, 2006, 2009). This paper argues for a multimodal analysis of language that encompasses gesture as well as speech, and shows that the preferred frame of reference in Yucatec Maya is only detectable through the analysis of co-speech gesture and not through speech alone. A series of experiments compares knowledge of the semantics of spatial terms, performance on nonlinguistic tasks and gestures produced by men and women. The results show a striking gender difference in the knowledge of the semantics of spatial terms, but an equal preference for a geocentric frame of reference in nonverbal tasks. In a localization task, participants used a variety of strategies in their speech, but they all exhibited a systematic preference for a geocentric frame of reference in their gestures.

  11. Role of water on formation and structural features of Maya blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondelli, C.; Sánchez del Río, M.; González, M. A.; Magazzú, A.; Cavallari, C.; Suárez, M.; García-Romero, E.; Romano, P.

    2012-02-01

    The Maya blue (MB) is an artificial pigment created between 500-800 A.D. and used in murals, pottery and sculptures by Mayas and other people in Mesoamerica. MB is resistant to age, acid, weathering, biodegradation and even modern chemical solvents, but the chemical reasons behind the resistance to chemical aggressions are still under debate. Water plays a fundamental role in the interactions between indigo and clay. The dynamics of the clay's zeolitic and structural water molecules during the formation of MB, usually stabilized by moderate heating, has been monitored by means of neutron inelastic scattering. Neutron incoherent scattering in these samples is only due to the hydrogen atoms, so the signal is very sensitive to the amount of released water, providing detailed information on the dehydration process. A simultaneous analysis of the coherent elastic scattering and the incoherent scattering allows observing and quantifying how the structure of the clay is affected by dehydration. Here we show that a quite resistant pigment can be obtained at room temperature simply by dehydrating a palygorskite-indigo mixture employing only vacuum, without any thermal treatment.

  12. Tratamiento del cuerpo y control social entre los mayas itzaes, siglos XVII-XVIII

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    Caso Barrera, Laura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In many societies the human body is considered as a cosmological model and therefore of society. In the case of the Maya Itza we know that the human body is a reference to their territorial, social and religious organization. In this paper we analyze the importance of the human body as a symbolic model, focusing on aspects of Itza religion and rituals, related to the transformation and modification of the human body. We will analyze how Itza society controlled a population with the ability of transfiguration.En diversas sociedades el cuerpo humano se ha concebido como un modelo cosmológico y por lo tanto de la sociedad. En el caso de los mayas itzaes sabemos que el cuerpo humano es un referente para la organización territorial, social y religiosa. En este trabajo se analiza la importancia del cuerpo humano como modelo simbólico, centrándonos en aspectos de la religión y rituales itzaes relacionados con la transformación y modificación del cuerpo humano en el período colonial. Se examina el control que ejerció la sociedad itzá con respecto a una población con la capacidad de transfiguración.

  13. Crafting connections: maya linkages between Guatemala’s Altiplano and El Norte

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    Michelle J. Moran-Taylor

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available International migration constitutes one of the most significant phenomena impacting Guatemala today. About a million and a half Guatemalans live and work in rural and urban cities and towns across the United States and Canada. Like many other migrant groups, most Guatemalans sustain strong transnational linkages between their homeland and el norte (the United States. In the Guatemalan example highlighted in this article, such bonds owe much to the long-standing Guatemalan-U.S. historical connections, to the geographic proximity of the country to the United States. Drawing on ethnographic material, this article examines the divergent kinds of transnational connections that Maya indigenous (K´iche´ migrants craft and keep alive between their home community and their two primary destination localities in the United States—Houston, Texas and Los Angeles, California. The article shows the different means of communication and technology, as well as the varying types of transnational organizing —particularly grass-roots efforts— that help shape current linkages between those who go and those who stay. Keyword: Transnational migration, social ties, Guatemalan Maya migration, communications, grass-roots organizing.

  14. An Iterative Approach to Ground Penetrating Radar at the Maya Site of Pacbitun, Belize

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    Sheldon Skaggs

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ground penetrating radar (GPR surveys provide distinct advantages for archaeological prospection in ancient, complex, urban Maya sites, particularly where dense foliage or modern debris may preclude other remote sensing or geophysical techniques. Unidirectional GPR surveys using a 500 MHz shielded antenna were performed at the Middle Preclassic Maya site of Pacbitun, Belize. The survey in 2012 identified numerous linear and circular anomalies between 1 m and 2 m deep. Based on these anomalies, one 1 m × 4 m unit and three smaller units were excavated in 2013. These test units revealed a curved plaster surface not previously found at Pacbitun. Post-excavation, GPR data were reprocessed to best match the true nature of excavated features. Additional GPR surveys oriented perpendicular to the original survey confirmed previously detected anomalies and identified new anomalies. The excavations provided information on the sediment layers in the survey area, which allowed better identification of weak radar reflections of the surfaces of a burnt, Middle Preclassic temple in the northern end of the survey area. Additional excavations of the area in 2014 and 2015 revealed it to be a large square structure, which was named El Quemado.

  15. Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Haplotypes Are Associated with Preeclampsia in Maya Mestizo Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Olguín, Lizbeth; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Ramírez Regalado, Belem; Fernández, Genny; Canto, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a specific disease of pregnancy and believed to have a genetic component. The aim of this study was to investigate if three polymorphisms in eNOS or their haplotypes are associated with preeclampsia in Maya mestizo women. A case-control study was performed where 127 preeclamptic patients and 263 controls were included. Genotyped and haplotypes for the -768T→C, intron 4 variants, Glu298Asp of eNOS were determined by PCR and real-time PCR allelic discrimination. Logistic regression analysis with adjustment for age and body mass index (BMI) was used to test for associations between genotype and preeclampsia under recessive, codominant and dominant models. Pairwise linkage disequilibrium between single nucleotide polymorphisms was calculated by direct correlation r2, and haplotype analysis was conducted. Women homozygous for the Asp298 allele showed an association of preeclampsia. In addition, analysis of the haplotype frequencies revealed that the -786C-4b-Asp298 haplotype was significantly more frequent in preeclamptic patients than in controls (0.143 vs. 0.041, respectively; OR = 3.01; 95% CI = 1.74–5.23; P = 2.9 × 10−4). Despite the Asp298 genotype in a recessive model associated with the presence of preeclampsia in Maya mestizo women, we believe that in this population the -786C-4b-Asp298 haplotype is a better genetic marker. PMID:21897002

  16. [Growth of Octopus maya (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) of the Yucatan coast, Mexico: a long-term analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepita Villanueva, M R; Defeo, O

    2001-03-01

    Growth of the octopus (Octopus maya) off Yucatan (Mexico) was estimated from a long-term study (seven years) by the length-based methods ELEFAN, PROJMAT and SLCA. Some 19,251 octopuses with a range of mantle length between 50 and 240 mm were sampled from commercial landings in 1983-1987, 1989 and 1992. The jackknife technique was applied to deal with uncertainty in growth estimates resulting from chance variations in sampling design. The growth index phi' was used for comparative purposes. Results differed markedly among methods: ELEFAN produced parameter estimates within the range reported in the literature, whereas PROJMAT and SLCA showed problems to converge in an optimum combination of parameters, and tended to underestimate them. Jackknife analysis revealed very low intraannual variability in phi' but high variability among years, especially when applying PROJMAT. No significant differences were found in precision parameters--percent error and coefficient of variation--among methods. Estimates of phi' derived by ELEFAN varied between 4.19 and 5.23 and agreed with those reported in the literature (between 4.25 and 4.91), whereas PROJMAT and SLCA estimates were significantly lower. We suggest the use of ELEFAN, together with jackknife, to estimate growth parameters of Octopus maya. PMID:11795175

  17. Laboratory maintenance, breeding, rearing, and biomedical research potential of the Yucatan octopus (Octopus maya).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Heukelem, W F

    1977-10-01

    Eggs of the Yucatan octopus, Octopus maya, were collected at Campeche, Mexico, transported to Hawaii, and incubated in glass funnels. Benthic juveniles hatched from the large (17-mm) eggs and were reared on a variety of live and frozen foods. As many as 200 animals were reared for the first month in a 20-liter aquarium. No disease or parasite problems were encountered and nearly all well-fed juveniles survived to sexual maturity. The species was reared through four generations in the laboratory. Animals weighed 0.1 g at hatching and within 8.5 months attained an average weight of 3231 g. Mating was promiscuous and sperm were stored in the oviducts until spawning. Spawning occurred at 8-9 months of age. Up to 5,000 eggs were laid by large females and nearly 100% of fertilized eggs developed to hatching. Females brooded eggs during the 45-day period of development but artificial was as successful as natural incubation by the mother. Pos-reproductive senescent decline of both males and females was rapid and average life span was 300 days from hatching. Areas of biomedical research in which O maya could be a useful model were suggested and included neurobiology, comparative psychology, ontogeny of behavior, immunology, endocrinology, and studies of aging. PMID:592733

  18. Testing the ``tropical storm'' hypothesis of Yucatan Peninsula climate variability during the Maya Terminal Classic Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Elizalde, Martín; Polanco-Martínez, Josué Moises; Lases-Hernández, Fernanda; Bradley, Raymond; Burns, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    We examine the "tropical storm" hypothesis that precipitation variability in the Yucatan Peninsula (YP) was linked to the frequency of tropical cyclones during the demise of the Classic Maya civilization, in the Terminal Classic Period (TCP, AD 750-950). Evidence that supports the hypothesis includes: (1) a positive relationship between tropical storm frequency and precipitation amount over the YP today (proof of feasibility), (2) a statistically significant correlation between a stalagmite (Chaac) quantitative precipitation record from the YP and the number of named tropical cyclones affecting this region today (1852-2004) (calibration sensu lato), and, (3) correlations between the stalagmite Chaac precipitation record and an Atlantic basin tropical cyclone count record and two proxy records of shifts in macro-scale climate and ocean states that influence Atlantic tropical cyclongenesis. At face value, regional paleotempestology proxy records suggest that tropical storm activity in the YP was either similar or significantly lower than today during the TCP. The "tropical storm" hypothesis has implications for our understanding of the role the hydrological cycle played in the collapse of Classic Maya polities and the role of tropical storms in possibly ameliorating future drought in the YP and other tropical regions.

  19. Conceptualizing socio-hydrological drought processes: the rise and fall of the Ancient Maya civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuil, Linda; Carr, Gemma; Viglione, Alberto; Prskawetz, Alexia; Bloeschl, Guenter

    2016-04-01

    Different communities have followed different paths to arrive at their present situation as a consequence of the continuous, specific interactions between the hydrological and social system. The need to understand the current and future pathways to water security becomes more and more pressing, considering the increasingly delicate balance between water demand and water supply. To contribute to addressing this challenge, we examine the link between water stress and society through socio-hydrological modeling. Within the spirit of the Easter Island model by Brander and Taylor and drawing from the vulnerability literature, we conceptualize the interactions of an agricultural society with its environment. We apply the model to the case of the ancient Maya, a civilization who occupied the Maya Lowlands (parts of present day Mexico, Guatemala, Belize) from around 2000 BC to after AD 830. The hypothesis that modest drought periods played a major role in the fall of the society is explored. We are able to simulate plausible feedbacks and find that a modest reduction in rainfall is a necessary, but not a sufficient condition in order to observe a collapse of 80 percent of the population. Equally important are actual population density and the impact of drought on crop growth. The model shows that reservoirs allow the society to grow larger, but also that the vulnerability to drought increases.

  20. Pathoecology and paleodiet in Postclassic: Historic Maya from northern coastal Belize

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    Christine White

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the synergism among diet, disease, and ecology at two related coastal Maya sites in Belize (Marco Gonzalez and San Pedro for the Postclassic and Historic periods (1350-1650 AD, which immediately follow the Classic period collapse. Stable carbon- and nitrogen-isotope ratios in collagen and stable carbon-isotope ratios in structural carbonate were analysed for bones from 65 humans and a wide variety of faunal species. There are no apparent differences in whole diets or degree of carnivory between individuals with lesions indicative of anemia and those without, but those with lesions appear to have consumed significantly more C4 foods and protein from lower trophic levels. Non-specific infection (periostitis and vitamin C deficiency (scurvy are also present in high frequencies and appear to co-occur with lesions indicative of anemia, particularly in childhood. Individuals with scurvy also appear to have consumed significantly more C4 foods than normal individuals. Spondyloarthropathy is common in adults. These findings are discussed in light of: (1 the debate on how anemia versus scurvy are manifest and diagnosed, (2 Spanish ethnohistoric descriptions of the poor state of Maya health at the time of contact, and (3 the Osteological Paradox. We suggest that although this coastal environment exacerbated morbidity because of possible parasitic infection, the inhabitants were probably able to survive physiological stresses better than either their inland contemporaries or their modern counterparts.

  1. Comparison of subjective, pharmacokinetic, and physiological effects of marijuana smoked as joints and blunts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Ziva D; Haney, Margaret

    2009-08-01

    Recent increases in marijuana smoking among the young adult population have been accompanied by the popularization of smoking marijuana as blunts instead of as joints. Blunts consist of marijuana wrapped in tobacco leaves, whereas joints consist of marijuana wrapped in cigarette paper. To date, the effects of marijuana smoked as joints and blunts have not been systematically compared. The current within-subject, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study sought to directly compare the subjective, physiological, and pharmacokinetic effects of marijuana smoked by these two methods. Marijuana blunt smokers (12 women and 12 men) were recruited and participated in a 6-session outpatient study. Participants were blindfolded and smoked three puffs from either a blunt or a joint containing marijuana with varying Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations (0.0, 1.8, and 3.6%). Subjective, physiological (heart rate, blood pressure, and carbon monoxide levels) and pharmacokinetic effects (plasma THC concentration) were monitored before and at specified time points for 3h after smoking. Joints produced greater increases in plasma THC and subjective ratings of marijuana intoxication, strength, and quality compared to blunts, and these effects were more pronounced in women compared to men. However, blunts produced equivalent increases in heart rate and higher carbon monoxide levels than joints, despite producing lower levels of plasma THC. These findings demonstrate that smoking marijuana in a tobacco leaf may increase the risks of marijuana use by enhancing carbon monoxide exposure and increasing heart rate compared to joints. PMID:19443132

  2. Two important Saudi crude assays updated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on updating two important Saudi Arabian crude oils-Arabian Heavy (Safaniya) and Arabian Light-which is part of a continuing series on world export crudes. Arabian Heavy (Safaniya) was reassayed in early 1990; Arabian Light in May 1990. These assays, therefore, replace those that appeared previously. However, as is frequently the case with crudes from major, single reservoirs, there is little, if any, change in their characteristics

  3. CLINICAL STUDY AND MANAGEMENT OF BLUNT INJURY ABDOMEN PERTAINING TO SOLID ORGANS

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    Katta Srinivasa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Blunt Abdominal trauma is one of the most common causes among injuries caused mainly due to road traffic accidents. 1 The rapid increase in number of motor vehicles and its aftermath has caused rapid increase in number of victims to blunt abdominal trauma. Motor vehicle accidents account for 75 to 80% of blunt abdominal trauma. 2 Blunt injury of abdomen is also a result of fall from height, assault with blunt objects, industrial mishaps, sport injuries, bomb blast and fall from riding bicycle. 2 In view of increasing number of vehicles and consequently road traffic accidents, this topic is chosen to study the cases of blunt abdominal trauma with reference to the patients presenting at Govt. General Hospital, attached to Guntur Medical College, Guntur. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study are: 1. To evaluate the impact of blunt abdominal trauma on solid viscera. 2. To evaluate etiology and various modes of presentation. 3. To evaluate various available investigations for the detection of solid organ injuries. 4. To evaluate various modalities of treatment available with aim to reduce the mortality and morbidity. 5. To evaluate common complications of solid organ injury in blunt trauma abdomen. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients admitted in Government General Hospital, Guntur, from November 2012 to October 2014 and studied 50 cases. This is a prospective study conducted over 2 years. RESULTS: Male patients were commonly affected (80%, Peak age group being 21 – 30 years (48%. The commonest mode of injury was road traffic accident (58%. The common organ injured was spleen (54% followed by liver. 70% of the patients were treated by surgery, 30% conservatively. The mortality in this study was 14%. CONCLUSIONS : Blunt injury abdomen forms considerable load and health care system, most common age group is youngsters in road traffic accidents , so efforts should be made to formulate and execute road traffic regulations. Well established trauma care

  4. Surgical Management of Undiagnosed Laceration of Superior Vena Cava Caused by Blunt Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouabdallaoui, Nadia; Debbagh, Hassan; Schoell, Thibaut; Lebreton, Guillaume

    2016-05-01

    Intrapericardial rupture of the superior vena cava resulting from blunt thoracic trauma is a rare and life-threatening condition that has to be ruled out in the presence of signs of cardiac tamponade and a history of blunt thoracic trauma. We report the case of undiagnosed superior vena cava laceration caused by a high-speed road traffic accident in a 25 year-old patient revealed by cardiac tamponade. We highlight the need of urgent surgical exploration in all patients whose condition is unstable in the setting of blunt thoracic trauma regardless of imaging conclusions. PMID:27106431

  5. Maya角色动画中IK-FK无缝切换的技术探讨%Discussion on IK-FK Seamless Switching Technology in Maya Character Animation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢景峰

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a theory of the transformation between Ik and FK in the Maya character animation, introducing seamless switching between IK and FK, which focuses on using the method of three sets of bones together with Maya Mel lan-guages to achieve seamless transition of skeletal between IK and FK. The author hopes to inspire and help those who like three di-mensional character animation of Maya design.%该文阐述maya角色动画中IK-FK相互转换的原理,介绍几种IK-FK无缝切换的几种思路,重点探讨利用三套骨骼配合Maya mel语言实现骨骼IK-FK之间无缝转换的实现方法,希望能给喜欢maya三维角色动画设计的朋友有所启发和帮助。

  6. Gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya (Mollusca: Cephalopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Poveda, Omar Hernando; Colin-Flores, Rafael Francisco; Rosas, Carlos

    2009-02-01

    Gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya is described in terms of histological, morphometric, oocytes growth, and somatic-oocyte relationship data obtained from octopus cultured at the UMDI-UNAM, in Sisal, Yucatan, Mexico. This study is the first publication on gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya. A total of 83 O. maya specimens were used; their sizes ranged from 6.5 to 76 mm of total length (TL), 4 to 28 mm of dorsal mantle length (DML), 2.5 to 20 mm of ventral mantle length (VML), and 0.0180 to 7.2940 g of fixed body weight (fBW). Animals were weighed and measured only after preservation. A loss of 10% of living weight was estimated for juvenile octopuses after formalin preservation. The relation of length to weight (VML, DML, TL/fBW) pooled for both sexes had a strong positive correlation (r), as shown by a potential power function that was quite close to 1. Compound images were produced from numerous microscopic fields. The histological examination revealed that, 4 months after hatching, male octopus (24.5 mm DML and 7.2940 g fBW) were in gonad stages 2 (maturing) to 3 (mature), with spermatogonia and spermatocytes in the tubule wall and abundant spermatids and spermatozoa in the central lumen of the seminiferous tubules, suggesting the occurrence of different phases of gonad development at different maturity stages. In contrast, females (22.5 mm DML and 4.8210 g fBW) at the same time since hatching were immature (stage 1), with many oogonia, few oocytes, and germinal epithelium. This suggests that males reach maturity earlier than females, indicating a probable onset of maturity for males at around 4 months of culture or 8 g of wet body weight. Our results indicate the possibility that the size-at-weight can be recognized early with a degree of certainty that allows the sexes to be separated for culture purposes; but more detailed studies on reproduction in relation to endocrinology and nutrition are needed.

  7. Identification of Postclassic Maya Constellations from the Venus Pages of the Dresden Codex

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    Changbom Park

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ancient Mayan civilization, flourished from 1200 B.C. to 1500 A.D., has left numerous hieroglyphic texts on astronomical observations and calendar. In particular, the Dresden Codex contains the most details of such ancient Mayan heritage. Page 24 and those from 46 to 50 of the Dresden Codex describe the Mayan Venus calendar along with the augural descriptions. We note that the calendar in Dresden Codex is Venus-solar calendar. Our work focuses on the possibility that the calendar was made to work in conjunction with the periodic appearance of constellations on the sky. By analyzing the descriptions in the Venus pages, we propose that the columns in each page describe the motion of Venus with respect to major constellations at dates corresponding to special events while the calendar dates increase horizontally in the synodic period of Venus. We present twenty Mayan constellations identified from the Venus pages assuming that the first date of page 46 is February 6, 1228. We also report our understanding of verb expressions about the relative movement of constellations and Venus.La civilización maya, que floreció del 1200 a.C. a 1500 d.C., dejó numerosos textos jeroglíficos sobre el calendario y observaciones astronómicos. El Códice de Dresde, en particular, contiene el más detallado de dichos antiguos legados mayas. Las páginas 24 y 46 a 50 de dicho códice describen el calendario de Venus con los augurios correspondientes. Nosotros hemos notado que éste es un calendario Venus-Solar, y nuestro trabajo se enfoca sobre la posibilidad de que estuviera hecho para trabajar en conjunción con la aparición de determinadas constelaciones en el cielo. Es a través del análisis y descripción de las páginas de Venus que proponemos que las columnas en cada página describen el movimiento de Venus respecto de constelaciones mayores, en fechas que corresponden a eventos especiales, mientras que las fechas calendáricas se incrementan

  8. The Movement, the Mine and the Lake: New Forms of Maya Activism in Neoliberal Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. T. Way

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the social, economic, cultural and political issues bound up in two matters relating to the environment in the Sololá and Lake Atitlán region of the Guatemalan Mayan highlands in 2004–2005: the violent breakup of an anti-mine protest and the various reactions to a tropical storm that threatened the lake ecosystem. It views these events as part of a historical conjuncture and centers them in a larger discussion of Maya political activism, environmentalism and neoliberal development in Guatemala from the 1990s–mid-2010s. It begins with the transition from war to peace in the 1990s, charting how Maya participation in municipal politics soared even as the official Mayan movement waned as the state turned to neoliberalism. Zooming in on municipal development and politics in Sololá in the early 2000s, it then traces at the ground level how a decentralizing, “multicultural” state promoted political participation while at the same time undermining the possibility for that participation to bring about substantive change. The center of the article delves deeper into the conjuncture of the first decade of the new millennium. By mapping events in Sololá against development, agrarian transformation and rural urbanization, it argues that resilient Maya community structures, although unable to stop the exploitative tide, continued to provide local cohesion and advocacy. Activists and everyday citizens became more globally attuned in the 2000s. The article’s final section analyzes municipal plans made between 2007 and 2012, arguing that creating and controlling community structures became increasingly important to the state in a time when Guatemala’s “outward” global turn was accompanied by an “inward” turn as people confronted spiraling violence in their communities. Critics called young people apolitical, but in 2015, massive demonstrations led to the imprisonment of the nation’s president and vice

  9. Gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya (Mollusca: Cephalopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Poveda, Omar Hernando; Colin-Flores, Rafael Francisco; Rosas, Carlos

    2009-02-01

    Gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya is described in terms of histological, morphometric, oocytes growth, and somatic-oocyte relationship data obtained from octopus cultured at the UMDI-UNAM, in Sisal, Yucatan, Mexico. This study is the first publication on gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya. A total of 83 O. maya specimens were used; their sizes ranged from 6.5 to 76 mm of total length (TL), 4 to 28 mm of dorsal mantle length (DML), 2.5 to 20 mm of ventral mantle length (VML), and 0.0180 to 7.2940 g of fixed body weight (fBW). Animals were weighed and measured only after preservation. A loss of 10% of living weight was estimated for juvenile octopuses after formalin preservation. The relation of length to weight (VML, DML, TL/fBW) pooled for both sexes had a strong positive correlation (r), as shown by a potential power function that was quite close to 1. Compound images were produced from numerous microscopic fields. The histological examination revealed that, 4 months after hatching, male octopus (24.5 mm DML and 7.2940 g fBW) were in gonad stages 2 (maturing) to 3 (mature), with spermatogonia and spermatocytes in the tubule wall and abundant spermatids and spermatozoa in the central lumen of the seminiferous tubules, suggesting the occurrence of different phases of gonad development at different maturity stages. In contrast, females (22.5 mm DML and 4.8210 g fBW) at the same time since hatching were immature (stage 1), with many oogonia, few oocytes, and germinal epithelium. This suggests that males reach maturity earlier than females, indicating a probable onset of maturity for males at around 4 months of culture or 8 g of wet body weight. Our results indicate the possibility that the size-at-weight can be recognized early with a degree of certainty that allows the sexes to be separated for culture purposes; but more detailed studies on reproduction in relation to endocrinology and nutrition are needed. PMID:19218496

  10. MAYA 中实现非真实性渲染的方法探讨%Methods of Realizing Non-photorealistic Rendering in MAYA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏

    2014-01-01

    Traditional hand painted 2D animation often required the creators′larger workload.Three non photorealistic rendering ( NPR) methods such as Toon material ,Shading Map material and Vector Rende rer in 3D animation software MAYA were discussed .These three methods were believed to improve 2D an imation creation efficiency,and achieve more extensive 2D animation effect.Furthermore,compared these three methods,they had own advantages and should be chosen in according to actual needs .%传统的手绘二维动画往往需要创作者承担较大的工作量。讨论了三维动画软件MAYA中三种非真实性渲染技术:Toon材质、Shading Map材质、Vector渲染器。运用这三种技术可提高二维动画的创作效率,且能实现更丰富的二维动画效果;这三种技术各有优势,应结合实际需要来选用。

  11. 女性主义视域下的《摩诃摩耶》%Maha -maya From the Feminist Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶婷

    2015-01-01

    Maya-maya is an India writer Tagore 's short story, one of the world literature stories. We interpret the works of with the feminist criticism thinking that the cause of the tragedy of Maya-maya is the oppression of Indian patriarchal society 's ingrained caste system, marriage system, outdated customs and bad habits. Maya -maya is a moving image of the awakening of female consciousness and the special nature of this classic text cannot do without the creation of Tagore 's cultural personality.%《摩诃摩耶》是印度作家泰戈尔的短篇小说,是世界文学史上短篇小说的精品. 我们运用女权主义批评的方法解读该作品,认为摩诃摩耶的悲剧因由是印度男权社会根深蒂固的种姓制度、婚姻制度、陈规陋习的压迫. 摩诃摩耶是一个女性意识觉醒的动人的女性形象,这个经典文本的创作离不开泰戈尔文化人格的特殊性.

  12. Blunt Cardiac Injury in Trauma Patients with Thoracic Aortic Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathachai Kaewlai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Trauma patients with thoracic aortic injury (TAI suffer blunt cardiac injury (BCI at variable frequencies. This investigation aimed to determine the frequency of BCI in trauma patients with TAI and compare with those without TAI. All trauma patients with TAI who had admission electrocardiography (ECG and serum creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB from January 1999 to May 2009 were included as a study group at a level I trauma center. BCI was diagnosed if there was a positive ECG with either an elevated CK-MB or abnormal echocardiography. There were 26 patients (19 men, mean age 45.1 years, mean ISS 34.4 in the study group; 20 had evidence of BCI. Of 52 patients in the control group (38 men, mean age 46.9 years, mean ISS 38.7, eighteen had evidence of BCI. There was a significantly higher rate of BCI in trauma patients with TAI versus those without TAI (77% versus 35%, P<0.001.

  13. Perioperative management of tracheobronchial injury following blunt trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh M Juvekar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe tracheobronchial injury (TBI in a 17-year-old teenager following blunt trauma resulting from a road traffic accident. The patient presented to a peripheral hospital with swelling over the neck and face associated with bilateral pneumothorax for which bilateral intercostal drains were inserted and the patient was transferred to our institute. Fiber-optic videobronchoscopy (FOB was performed, the trachea and bronchi were visualized, and the site and extent of injury was assessed. Spontaneous respiration was maintained till assessment of the airway. Then the patient was anesthetized with propofol and paralyzed using succinylcholine and a double-lumen endobronchial tube was inserted; thereafter, the adequacy of controlled manual ventilation and air-leak through intercostal drains was assessed and the patient was transferred to operating room (OR for repair of the airway injury. The OR was kept ready during FOB to manage any catastrophe. This case describes the need for proper preparation and communication between health care team members to manage all possible scenarios of traumatic TBI.

  14. Blunted cardiovascular reactivity in dysphoria during reward and punishment anticipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, Jessica; Brinkmann, Kerstin

    2015-03-01

    Hyposensitivity to reward in depression and dysphoria has been found in behavioral and neuroimaging studies. For punishment responsiveness, some studies showed hyposensitivity to punishment while other studies demonstrated hypersensitivity. Only few studies have addressed the motivational question as to whether depressed individuals mobilize less effort in anticipation of a positive or a negative consequence. The present study aimed at investigating reward and punishment responsiveness in subclinical depression from an effort mobilization perspective. Working on a recognition memory task, one third of the participants could earn small amounts of money, one third could lose small amounts of money, and one third could neither earn nor lose money. Effort mobilization was operationalized as participants' cardiovascular reactivity during task performance. As expected, reactivity of cardiac pre-ejection period and heart rate was higher in both incentive conditions compared to the neutral condition for nondysphorics, while it was blunted across conditions for dysphorics. Moreover, the present study found that dysphorics show an altered behavioral response to punishment. These findings thus show that dysphorics present a reduced motivation to obtain a reward or to avoid a punishment in terms of reduced effort-related cardiac reactivity. PMID:25462217

  15. Blunted cardiovascular reactivity in dysphoria during reward and punishment anticipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, Jessica; Brinkmann, Kerstin

    2015-03-01

    Hyposensitivity to reward in depression and dysphoria has been found in behavioral and neuroimaging studies. For punishment responsiveness, some studies showed hyposensitivity to punishment while other studies demonstrated hypersensitivity. Only few studies have addressed the motivational question as to whether depressed individuals mobilize less effort in anticipation of a positive or a negative consequence. The present study aimed at investigating reward and punishment responsiveness in subclinical depression from an effort mobilization perspective. Working on a recognition memory task, one third of the participants could earn small amounts of money, one third could lose small amounts of money, and one third could neither earn nor lose money. Effort mobilization was operationalized as participants' cardiovascular reactivity during task performance. As expected, reactivity of cardiac pre-ejection period and heart rate was higher in both incentive conditions compared to the neutral condition for nondysphorics, while it was blunted across conditions for dysphorics. Moreover, the present study found that dysphorics show an altered behavioral response to punishment. These findings thus show that dysphorics present a reduced motivation to obtain a reward or to avoid a punishment in terms of reduced effort-related cardiac reactivity.

  16. High Energy Wide Area Blunt Impact on Composite Aircraft Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFrancisci, Gabriela K.

    The largest source of damage to commercial aircraft is caused by accidental contact with ground service equipment (GSE). The cylindrical bumper typically found on GSE distributes the impact load over a large contact area, possibly spanning multiple internal structural elements (frame bays) of a stiffened-skin fuselage. This type of impact can lead to damage that is widespread and difficult to detect visually. To address this problem, monolithic composite panels of various size and complexity have been modeled and tested quasi-statically and dynamically. The experimental observations have established that detectability is dependent on the impact location and immediately-adjacent internal structure of the panel, as well as the impactor geometry and total deformation of the panel. A methodology to model and predict damage caused by wide area blunt impact events was established, which was then applied to more general cases that were not tested in order to better understand the nature of this type of impact event and how it relates to the final damage state and visual detectability.

  17. Blunting post-meal glucose surges in people with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Elsamma

    2016-06-10

    Worldwide, the morbidity and mortality associated with non-communicable diseases have been climbing steadily - with costs aggressively keeping pace. This letter highlights a decidedly low-cost way to address the challenges posed by diabetes. High levels of postprandial blood glucose are disproportionately linked to much of the microvascular damage which, in the end, leads to macrovascular complications and organ failures. Systematically controlling post-meal glucose surges is a critical element of overall glycemic management in diabetes. Diet, exercise and medications form a triad of variables that individuals engaged in diabetes self-management may manipulate to achieve their targeted glucose levels. As a rule, diabetes patients in developing countries as well as those living in the pockets of poverty in the western world cannot afford special diets, medications, glucometers and supplies, lab tests and office visits. Exercise is the one option that is readily accessible to all. Decades of research in laboratory settings, viewed holistically, have established that light to moderate aerobic exercise for up to 60 min starting 30 min after the first bite into a meal can blunt the ensuing glucose surge effectively. Moderate resistance exercise, moderate endurance exercise or a combination of the two, practiced post-meal has also been found to improve many cardio-metabolic markers: Glucose, high density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and markers of oxidative stress. On the other hand, pre-breakfast exercise and high-intensity exercise in general have been decidedly counterproductive. PMID:27326346

  18. Study of Duodenal Rupture Followed by Abdominal Blunt Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Abdoulhosseini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Duodenal rupture followed by blunt trauma is usually very rare and happens by hit to epigastrium region caused by trauma, accident or sport injuries. Because of unclear signs or no specific signs of rupture, usually diagnosis of rupture is delayed and associated with dangerous or occasionally deathful complications. The patient was a 29-year-old male who three days after accident referred to emergency unit of Shahroud Imam Hossein hospital with severe pain of abdomen, nausea, decrease in level of consciousness and unstable vital signs. After resuscitation, the patient with diagnosis of peritonitis underwent laparotomy. He had transverse and severs rupture that after duodenal reconstruction, a jejunostomy was performed, then a drain was placed at the site of duodenum and pancreas and the patient was sent to ICU. After two days followed by leakage from abdominal drain, the patient underwent laparotomy again. Then after one week, followed by leakage from abdominal drain, the patient underwent laparotomy. One week after last operation, due to general condition improvement, the patient was transferred to surgical ward and jejunostomy feeding was started for him and duodenostomy and jejunostomy were excluded. Then with enough speed, and paying attention to clinical signs & symptoms and with patient's exact examination, it is possible to prevent the waste of time and expense and gain desired results of treatment.

  19. Hepatic arterial pseudoaneurysm: a rare complication of blunt abdominal trauma in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a child who developed a hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm following blunt hepatic injury. This is a rare complication of hepatic trauma in children. The imaging evaluation and clinical management of hepatic artery pseudoaneurysms are presented. (orig.)

  20. External air compression: A rare cause of blunt esophageal injury, managed by a stent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Muneer

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: High index of suspicion is needed for early diagnosis of esophageal perforation after blunt trauma. Appropriate drainage, antibiotic and temporary endoscopic esophageal stenting may be an optimal approach in selected patients, especially with delayed diagnosis.

  1. 15 CFR 754.2 - Crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... as set forth in appendix C to 15 CFR part 30. (j) License Exception for exports of TAPS Crude Oil. (1... code “SS-SPR” or the equivalent code as set forth in appendix C to 15 CFR part 30. (i) License... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crude oil. 754.2 Section...

  2. Testicular Infarction and Rupture After Blunt Trauma — Use of Diagnostic Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair Pace

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 23-year-old male who suffered localised testicular infarction and rupture following blunt trauma. This pathology is rare after blunt trauma and has not been previously described in literature. The appearance on ultrasound resembled malignancy, necessitating orchidectomy. An overview of the pathology of testicular trauma as well as its management is given with particular emphasis on the use diagnostic ultrasound in testicular trauma.

  3. Pseudopancreatitis on computed tomography in a patient with isolated blunt head trauma: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Ah-Ling; Lang, Eddy S

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Computed tomography is commonly used to exclude occult injuries in patients with trauma, but imaging can reveal findings that are of uncertain etiology or clinical significance. We present a case of unsuspected pancreatic abnormality in a female patient with trauma who sustained an isolated blunt head injury. Case presentation A 25-year-old female Caucasian patient sustained massive blunt and penetrating head trauma, secondary to a large object penetrating through the vehicle win...

  4. Open Surgical Bypass for Superficial Femoral Artery Occlusion Caused by Blunt Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Akihiko; Kudo, Yohei; Maeda, Michihiro; Tochiki, Aito; Ichimura, Haruto; Uesugi, Masafumi; Jikuya, Tomoaki

    2015-01-01

    Blunt vascular trauma of the lower extremities brings about a high amputation rate, because other organ injuries disturb revascularization. We experienced a case of a superficial femoral artery occlusion caused by blunt trauma. The patient also had a femoral bone fracture and a large skin defect with deep muscular injuries of the thigh. We performed a femoropopliteal (FP) bypass using a saphenous vein which was routed through the contaminated wound. Postoperative vacuum-assisted closure thera...

  5. The Houdini effect--an unusual case of blunt abdominal trauma resulting in perforative appendicitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Kelly, F

    2012-03-01

    We present a unique case of perforative appendicitis that occurred in an adult following blunt abdominal trauma. This case represents the first such reported case from Ireland. It also represents a modern practical example of Laplace\\'s theory of the effect of increased pressure on colonic wall tension leading to localized perforation, and serves to highlight not only the importance in preoperative imaging for blunt abdominal trauma, but also the importance of considering appendiceal perforation.

  6. Computed Tomography in the Evaluation of Diaphragmatic Hernia following Blunt Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Magu, Sarita; Agarwal, Shalini; Singla, Sham

    2012-01-01

    Diagnosis of traumatic diaphragmatic hernia due to blunt abdominal trauma requires a high index of suspicion. This study was conducted to assess the accuracy of multidetector computed tomogram (MDCT) in the diagnosis of traumatic diaphragmatic hernia. All patients with thoracoabdominal blunt trauma with diaphragmatic hernia diagnosed on radiologic evaluation during a 3-year period (i.e., from June 2004 to June 2007) were analyzed. Nineteen patients with diaphragmatic injuries in 117 patients ...

  7. Stimulant-induced dopamine increases are markedly blunted in active cocaine abusers

    OpenAIRE

    Volkow, ND; Tomasi, D.; Wang, G-J; J. Logan; Alexoff, DL; Jayne, M; Fowler, JS; C Wong; P. Yin; Du, C.

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine signaling in nucleus accumbens is essential for cocaine reward. Interestingly, imaging studies have reported blunted dopamine increases in striatum (assessed as reduced binding of [11C]raclopride to D2/D3 receptors) in detoxified cocaine abusers. Here, we evaluate whether the blunted dopamine response reflected the effects of detoxification and the lack of cocaine-cues during stimulant exposure. For this purpose we studied 62 participants (43 non-detoxified cocaine abusers and 19 con...

  8. Ocular blunt trauma: loss of sight from an ice hockey injury

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Daniel S.

    2009-01-01

    A case of ocular blunt trauma is described in which a 17 year old male ice hockey player collided with an opponent during a game. The opponent's stick travelled under the patient's half face visor and struck his left eye causing hyphema, angle recession, lens subluxation, and choroidal rupture over the macula, permanently reducing his vision to counting fingers. Sequelae of ocular blunt trauma are discussed along with methods of injury prevention by addressing players' behaviour and safety eq...

  9. HLA-class II genes in Mexican Amerindian Mayas: relatedness with Guatemalan Mayans and other populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Granados, Julio; Pérez-Hernández, Nonanzit; Rodríguez-Pérez, José Manuel; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; Areces, Cristina; Gómez-Prieto, Pablo; Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed the HLA class II allele frequencies in 50 healthy unrelated Mayan individuals. The relationship with other worldwide populations was studied by using HLA data from 71 different populations. The most frequent alleles were HLA-DRB1*04, HLA-DRB1*01, HLA-DQB1*0302 and HLA-DQB1*0501. When comparisons with other Mexican Amerindian groups were made, some differences were observed. Mayans showed an increased frequency of HLA-DRB1*01 when compared to Nahuas, Mayos, Teenek and Mazatecans (p Mayas showing that languages do not correlate with genes, particularly in Amerindians. The data corroborate the restricted polymorphism of HLA-DRB1 and DQB1 alleles and the high frequency of HLA-DRB1*04 and HLA-DQB1*0302 in Mayans from Mexico.

  10. ¡Si acatamos la onstitución, resistiremos!: Mayas Yucatecos durante la Independencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izaskun ALVAREZ CUARTERO

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza la etapa independentista desde la óptica de los actores silenciados, el grupo indígena mayoritario en la península, los mayas yucatecos, que observan el paso de ser súbditos a ciudadanos acatando la Constitución, solicitando que se cumplan las prerrogativas que se les concedieron y participando cívicamente en la creación de los ayuntamientos. Este cambio de actitud, posibilitado por la legitimidad que les otorgaban las Cortes de Cádiz, dio a los grupos subalternos la misma capacidad de representación que a los sectores dominantes. Estudiaremos hasta qué punto acatar el nuevo orden constitucional fue un acto de resistencia, una etapa más de sometimiento que terminaría estallando en 1847 en la Guerra de Castas.

  11. El discurso de los mayas yucatecos frente a los colonizadores: limosnas y secularización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Bracamonte y Sosa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo recoge un aspecto de la intrincada relación entre franciscanos y mayas en la época colonial. Está sustentado en documentos y en la experiencia del autor en el estudio del Yucatán de los siglos XVI-XVIII. Si en esta provincia los frailes franciscanos lograron defenderse durante largo tiempo de la secularización de sus conventos y doctrinas fue precisamente porque lograron mantener a su favor la buena voluntad de las élites indígenas, a pesar de los conflictos locales que sucedían en forma intermitente. Para los caciques y chuntanes o principales, era evidente que sin su decidida participación la orden de San Francisco poco podía hacer para enfrentar la creciente fuerza del obispado de donde emanaban las líneas generales de la vida religiosa de toda la provincia.

  12. Aspectos de educación desde la perspectiva maya-tojolabal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Lenkersdorf

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo enfoca aspectos educativos de los tojolabales, uno de los pueblos mayas de Chiapas, es decir, uno de los pueblos originarios del país que nos acercan al México pluricultural. Al destacar la particularidad de la educación tojolabal nos encontramos con el nosotros, concepto clave de su cosmovisión, que modifica la educación y la contrasta con la educación occidental de la sociedad dominante. Por el lado tojolabal encontramos, pues, lo comunitario y complementario del nosotros y, por el occidental, lo competitivo del yo: dos tipos opuestos de educación y de principios organizativos de la sociedad

  13. Human Migration and Agricultural Expansion: An Impending Threat to the Maya Biosphere Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sader, Steven; Reining, Conard; Sever, Thomas L.; Soza, Carlos

    1997-01-01

    Evidence is presented of the current threats to the Maya Biosphere Reserve in northern Guatemala as derived through time-series Landsat Thematic Mapper observations and analysis. Estimates of deforestation rates and trends are examined for different management units within the reserve and buffer zones. The satellite imagery was used to quantify and monitor rates, patterns, and trends of forest clearing during a time period corresponding to new road construction and significant human migration into the newly accessible forest region. Satellite imagery is appropriate technology in a vast and remote tropical region where aerial photography and extensive field-based methods are not cost-effective and current, timely data is essential for establishing conservation priorities.

  14. Apocalipsis maya: una creencia posmoderna en la era de la información

    OpenAIRE

    Renée de la Torre; Lizette Campechano

    2014-01-01

    Este artículo analiza el papel de las industrias culturales, los medios de comunicación y el internet en la gestación de una creencia contemporánea que clasificamos como “milenarismo posmoderno”, por ser transmediático, instantáneo, global, mercantilizado, efímero, hibrido y virtual. Se realizó un estudio comunicacional sobrela producción mediática de la creencia en la profecía 2012 maya que se difundió en distintos medios de comunicación y que en la víspera de la fecha anunciada capturó la a...

  15. Les classificateurs mayas : un terrain expérimental entre langue et cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Grinevald, Colette

    2005-01-01

    Ce texte est un rapport de fin de recherche issu de l'ACI cognitique.; Ce projet entend tester les hypothèses sur le rôle des structures linguistiques - ici des systèmes de classificateurs – dans la construction des catégories cognitives - dans le cas présent des objets du monde manipulables. Les langues à classificateurs considérées sont des langues mayas d'Amérique Centrale qui ont déjà fait l'objet de nombreuses études par le groupe de chercheurs du projet, comparées à l'espagnol régional....

  16. {sup 12}C+p resonant elastic scattering in the Maya active target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sambi, S.; Raabe, R.; Flavigny, F.; Khodery, M. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Physics Department, Leuven (Belgium); Borge, M.J.G. [CERN, PH Department, Geneva (Switzerland); Caamano, M.; Fernandez-Dominguez, B. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Department of Particle Physics, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Damoy, S.; Grinyer, G.F.; Pancin, J.; Perez-Loureiro, D.; Roger, T. [CEA/DSM - CNRS/IN2P3, Grand Accelerateur National d' Ion Lourds (GANIL), Caen (France); Fynbo, H. [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus (Denmark); Gibelin, J. [Universite de Caen, CNRS/IN2P3, LPC Caen, ENSICAEN, Caen Cedex (France); Heinz, A.; Jonson, B.; Nilsson, T.; Thies, R. [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Physics, Goteborg (Sweden); Orlandi, R. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Physics Department, Leuven (Belgium); Instituto de Estructura de la Materia CSIC, Madrid (Spain); JAEA, ASRC, Tokai-mura (Japan); Randisi, G. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Physics Department, Leuven (Belgium); CEA/DSM - CNRS/IN2P3, Grand Accelerateur National d' Ion Lourds (GANIL), Caen (France); Ribeiro, G.; Tengblad, O. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Suzuki, D. [Universite Paris-Sud, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Datta, U. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata (India)

    2015-03-01

    In a proof-of-principle measurement, the Maya active target detector was employed for a {sup 12}C(p, p) resonant elastic scattering experiment in inverse kinematics. The excitation energy region from 0 to 3MeV above the proton breakup threshold in {sup 13}N was investigated in a single measurement. By using the capability of the detector to localize the reaction vertex and record the tracks of the recoiling protons, data covering a large solid angle could be utilized, at the same time keeping an energy resolution comparable with that of direct-kinematics measurements. The excitation spectrum in {sup 13}N was fitted using the R-matrix formalism. The level parameters extracted are in good agreement with previous studies. The active target proved its potential for the study of resonant elastic scattering in inverse kinematics with radioactive beams, when detection efficiency is of primary importance. (orig.)

  17. A mask for high-intensity heavy-ion beams in the MAYA active target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Tajes, C.; Pancin, J.; Damoy, S.; Roger, T.; Babo, M.; Caamaño, M.; Farget, F.; Grinyer, G. F.; Jacquot, B.; Pérez-Loureiro, D.; Ramos, D.; Suzuki, D.

    2014-12-01

    The use of high-intensity and/or heavy-ion beams in active targets and time-projection chambers is often limited by the strong ionization produced by the beam. Besides the difficulties associated with the saturation of the detector and electronics, beam-related signals may hide the physical events of interest or reduce the detector performance. In addition, space-charge effects may deteriorate the homogeneity of the electric drift field and distort the subsequent reconstruction of particle trajectories. In anticipation of future projects involving such conditions, a dedicated beam mask has been developed and tested in the MAYA active target. Experimental results with a 136Xe beam are presented.

  18. A mask for high-intensity heavy-ion beams in the MAYA active target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Tajes, C., E-mail: rodriguez@ganil.fr [Grand Accélérateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd Henri Becquerel, 14076 Caen (France); Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pancin, J.; Damoy, S.; Roger, T.; Babo, M. [Grand Accélérateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd Henri Becquerel, 14076 Caen (France); Caamaño, M. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Farget, F.; Grinyer, G.F.; Jacquot, B.; Pérez-Loureiro, D. [Grand Accélérateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd Henri Becquerel, 14076 Caen (France); Ramos, D. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Suzuki, D. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Université Paris-Sud 11, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91406 Orsay (France)

    2014-12-21

    The use of high-intensity and/or heavy-ion beams in active targets and time-projection chambers is often limited by the strong ionization produced by the beam. Besides the difficulties associated with the saturation of the detector and electronics, beam-related signals may hide the physical events of interest or reduce the detector performance. In addition, space-charge effects may deteriorate the homogeneity of the electric drift field and distort the subsequent reconstruction of particle trajectories. In anticipation of future projects involving such conditions, a dedicated beam mask has been developed and tested in the MAYA active target. Experimental results with a {sup 136}Xe beam are presented.

  19. 12C+p resonant elastic scattering in the Maya active target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambi, S.; Raabe, R.; Borge, M. J. G.; Caamano, M.; Damoy, S.; Fernández-Domínguez, B.; Flavigny, F.; Fynbo, H.; Gibelin, J.; Grinyer, G. F.; Heinz, A.; Jonson, B.; Khodery, M.; Nilsson, T.; Orlandi, R.; Pancin, J.; Perez-Loureiro, D.; Randisi, G.; Ribeiro, G.; Roger, T.; Suzuki, D.; Tengblad, O.; Thies, R.; Datta, U.

    2015-03-01

    In a proof-of-principle measurement, the Maya active target detector was employed for a 12C( p, p) resonant elastic scattering experiment in inverse kinematics. The excitation energy region from 0 to 3MeV above the proton breakup threshold in 13N was investigated in a single measurement. By using the capability of the detector to localize the reaction vertex and record the tracks of the recoiling protons, data covering a large solid angle could be utilized, at the same time keeping an energy resolution comparable with that of direct-kinematics measurements. The excitation spectrum in 13N was fitted using the R-matrix formalism. The level parameters extracted are in good agreement with previous studies. The active target proved its potential for the study of resonant elastic scattering in inverse kinematics with radioactive beams, when detection efficiency is of primary importance.

  20. The Poetics of the Ancestor Songs of the Tz’utujil Maya of Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda O’Brien-Rothe

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay attempts to define the relationship between a song tradition that survives in the Mayan highlands of Guatemala, and 16th century poetic Mayan literature. This song tradition of Santiago Atitlán, Guatemala is slowly disappearing as the socio-cultural context in which it flourished changes. By comparing the poetics of the song texts (including their rhythmic structure, versification, and use of poetic devices such as assonance, alliteration and onomatopoeia to the poetics of the Popol Vuh, a K’iché Maya text probably copied from a manuscript that predates the Spanish invasion, a continuity is discovered that places the song texts squarely within the tradition of Mayan literature and suggests common origins.

  1. Robert et Maya Kandel, La Catastrophe climatique, Hachette, 2009, 237 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Semal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Robert Kandel, astrophysicien et directeur de recherche émérite au CNRS, n’en est pas à son premier ouvrage sur le réchauffement climatique. Dans ce nouvel essai (co-rédigé avec sa fille Maya Kandel, il est intéressant de constater un changement de ton assez représentatif de l’inquiétude croissante des scientifiques à l’égard du bouleversement climatique en cours. Tout en rappelant qu’il a longtemps fait preuve de méfiance à l’égard des discours catastrophistes, Robert Kandel annonce dès l’i...

  2. A mask for high-intensity heavy-ion beams in the MAYA active target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of high-intensity and/or heavy-ion beams in active targets and time-projection chambers is often limited by the strong ionization produced by the beam. Besides the difficulties associated with the saturation of the detector and electronics, beam-related signals may hide the physical events of interest or reduce the detector performance. In addition, space-charge effects may deteriorate the homogeneity of the electric drift field and distort the subsequent reconstruction of particle trajectories. In anticipation of future projects involving such conditions, a dedicated beam mask has been developed and tested in the MAYA active target. Experimental results with a 136Xe beam are presented

  3. Qualche considerazione sulla costante di correlazione tra il lungo computo Maya ed il calendario occidentale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Gaspani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The remains of the Mayan civilization describe (among other things many observations of various astronomical phenomena observed by the Maya. The modern Celestial Mechanics allows us to calculate with great accuracy when astronomical phenomena occurred and were visible in the sky for a given location on Earth too far back in time. The Maya developed the very accurate calendar known as the Long Count, but when we want to synchronize it with the western one, the correlation between the two is surprisingly very uncertain. The two calendars can be connected each other by analyzing historical data and various astronomical phenomena of which we have a paper trail in the ancient texts that is sufficient to establish an appropriate chronology. The correlation between the Long Count and the Gregorian calendar has been studied by many authors who have obtained correlation values very different from each other (almost 50 different values, which differ from one another by hundreds of years, producing considerable uncertainty in Mayan history in relation to other civilizations. Astronomy can potentially solve the problem of the correct identification of the relationship, provided that the records are available from the observations performed and documented chronologically according to the Mayan Long Count. In the present work has been performed the statistical analysis of the 52 correlations at present known and used pointing out that at the present state of knowledge it is not possible to get the exact determination of the coefficient of synchronization (correlation between the Long Count and the Western calendar, but only an assessment of its probability distribution function, thus allowing you to assign a probability value to each value of the correlation that has been published. The statistical analysis of the 52 values at present known leads to an optimal value of the correlation constant of JDN 588159 with an uncertainty of about ±35 years.

  4. Paleomagnetism of the Todos Santos Formation in the Maya Block, Chiapas, Mexico: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinez-Urban, A.; Molina-Garza, R. S.; Iriondo, A.; Geissman, J. W.

    2008-12-01

    Preliminary results of a paleomagnetic study on jurassic volcanic rocks (U-Pb 188.8 +/- 3.2Ma) locally interbedded with red beds assigned to the Todos Santos Formation, sampled in the Homoclinal Tectonic Province of the Neogene Fold Belt, Chiapas-Mexico, reveal multi component magnetizations acquired during pre- and post- folding of these rocks. The samples responded well to thermal demagnetization, but not so to AF demagnetization, suggesting that a high coercivity mineral phase like hematite is the main remanence carrier. The post-folding B-component direction of Dec=174.3 Inc=-30.6 (k=46; alpha95=13.6; N=4) represents a recent Tertiary? overprint; while the pre-folding C-component direction of Dec=329.9 Inc=7.8 (k=12.5; alpha95=16.3; N=8) is in agreement with a previously reported small data set for the Todos Santos Formation. When compared to the North American reference direction (Jurassic Kayenta Formation) the observed direction indicates a counterclockwise rotation of 35.9 +/- 16.6 degrees, and moderate north to south latitudinal displacement. If a reference pole from NE North America is used, the amount of counterclockwise rotation and latitudinal displacement are both slightly reduced. If the assumption that Jurassic strata in Chiapas reflect displacement of the Maya Block, then these data are consistent with reconstructions of the Maya Block in the Gulf of Mexico region. Other sites sampled in Jurassic strata suggest that in addition to the interpreted regional rotation, local (vertical-axis) rotations may have affected the region in more recent times.

  5. Near-surface Imaging of a Maya Plaza Complex using Ground-Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, J. A.; Stewart, R. R.

    2005-05-01

    The University of Calgary has conducted a number of ground-penetrating radar surveys at a Maya archaeological site. The purpose of the study is to discern the near-surface structure and stratigraphy of the plaza, and to assist the archaeologists in focusing their excavation efforts. The area of study is located in Belize, Central America at the ancient Maya site of Maax Na. Flanked by structures believed to be temples to the north and west, the archaeologists were interested in determining how many levels of plaza were built and if there was any discernable slope to the plaza. Over the last three years, both 2-D lines and 3-D grids were acquired at the plaza using a Sensors and Software Inc. Noggin Plus system at an antenna frequency of 250 MHz. The processing flow consisted of the application of gain, various filtering techniques and a diffraction stack migration using Reflexw. Interpolation of the gridded data was investigated using simple averaging, F-K migration, pre-stack migration and inversion techniques. As this study has evolved over different field seasons, measured velocities appear to change with the saturation level of the shallow section. Velocity measurements ranged from 0.058 - .106 m/ns during the wet conditions encountered in 2002 and 2004, while velocities of 1.22 - 1.40 m/ns were measured in the drought of 2003. The GPR images to date indicate continuous and interpretable images of the subsurface, showing evidence of structure, discontinuities and amplitude variations. A number of interesting anomalies have been identified, and prioritized for excavation.

  6. José Martí, Viajes y Apreciación del Pueblo Maya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Bojórquez Urzaiz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo expone y examina los cambios de percepción que experimentó José Martí sobre el papel de los pueblos originarios de América, entre 1875 y 1878, años en los que vivió en México y Guatemala, con intensa escala en Yucatán, lugares donde conoció directamente la cultura y el pueblo maya. Martí resume una visión inicial de nuestra América en la figura lítica de Chacmool cuando después de ser expropiada por el gobierno yucateco, el Apóstol cubano la admira en la ciudad de Mérida y expresa que es la síntesis de las culturas americanas. Aspecto poco estudiado en la obra de Martí es este acercamiento etnográfico a la realidad maya de Yucatán y Guatemala.   This paper aims at presenting and examining the change of perception José Martí underwent in relation to the role of the native peoples of America between 1875 and 1878, the years he lived in Mexico and Guatemala, during which he spent a large amount of time in Yucatan, where he was able to get to know the Mayan culture and its people first hand. Martí summarized his initial vision of our America in the lithic figure of Chacmool, which he was able to admire in the city of Merida, after it had been expropriated by the government of Yucatan. The Cuban apostle described this as a synthesis of American cultures. This ethnographic insight into the Mayan reality in Yucatan and Guatemala represents a scarcely explored aspect of Martí's work.

  7. Characterization of archaeological ceramics from the north western lowland Maya Area, using the technique of neutron activation analysis; Caracterizacion de ceramicas arqueologicas de las tierras bajas noroccidentales del Area Maya, empleando la tecnica de activacion neutronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez R, M. C.; Tenorio, D.; Jimenez R, M. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Terreros, E. [Museo del Templo Mayor, INAH, Seminario No. 8, Col. Centro, Mexico 06060, D. F. (Mexico); Ochoa, L. [UNAM, Instituto de Investigaciones Antropologicas, Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico 04510, D. F. (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    It is a study on 50 samples of ceramics from various archaeological sites of the north western lowland Maya Area. This study was performed by neutron activation analysis of 19 chemical elements and the treatments relevant statistical data. Significant differences were found among the pieces that led to group them into five major groups, the difference is the site of their manufacture and therefore in the raw materials used for this. (Author)

  8. Blunt traumatic cardiac rupture. A 5-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brathwaite, C E; Rodriguez, A; Turney, S Z; Dunham, C M; Cowley, R

    1990-12-01

    Blunt traumatic cardiac rupture is associated with a high rate of mortality. A review of the computerized trauma registry (1983 to 1988) identified 32 patients with this injury (ages 19 to 65 years; mean age, 39.5 years; 21 men and 11 women). Twenty-one patients (65.6%) were injured in vehicular crashes, 3 (9.4%) in pedestrian accidents, 3 (9.4%) in motorcycle accidents; 3 (9.4%) sustained crush injury; 1 (3.1%) was injured by a fall; and 1 (3.1%) was kicked in the chest by a horse. Anatomic injuries included right atrial rupture (13[40.6%]), left atrial rupture (8 [25%]), right ventricular rupture (10[31.3%]), left ventricular rupture (4[12.5%]), and rupture of two cardiac chambers (3 [9.4%]). Diagnosis was made by thoracotomy in all 20 patients presenting in cardiac arrest. In the remaining 12 patients, the diagnosis was established in seven by emergency left anterolateral thoracotomy and in five by subxyphoid pericardial window. Seven of these 12 patients (58.3%) had clinical cardiac tamponade and significant upper torso cyanosis. The mean Injury Severity Score (ISS), Trauma Score (TS), and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score were 33.8, 13.2, and 14.3, respectively, among survivors and 51.5, 8.3, and 7.0 for nonsurvivors. The overall mortality rate was 81.3% (26 of 32 patients), the only survivors being those presenting with vital signs (6 of 12 patients [50%]). All patients with rupture of two cardiac chambers or with ventricular rupture died. The mortality rate from myocardial rupture is very high. Rapid prehospital transportation, a high index of suspicion, and prompt surgical intervention contribute to survival in these patients. PMID:2256761

  9. Low Velocity Blunt Impact on Lightweight Composite Sandwich Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Monica Kar

    There is an increased desire to incorporate more composite sandwich structures into modern aircrafts. Because in-service aircrafts routinely experience impact damage during maintenance due to ground vehicle collision, dropped equipment, or foreign object damage (FOD) impact, it is necessary to understand their impact characteristics, particularly when blunt impact sources create internal damage with little or no external visibility. The objective of this investigation is to explore damage formation in lightweight composite sandwich panels due to low-velocity impacts of variable tip radius and energy level. The correlation between barely visible external dent formation and internal core damage was explored as a function of impact tip radius. A pendulum impactor was used to impact composite sandwich panels having honeycomb core while held in a 165 mm square window fixture. The panels were impacted by hardened steel tips with radii of 12.7, 25.4, 50.8, and 76.2 mm at energy levels ranging from 2 to 14 J. Experimental data showed little dependence of external dent depth on tip radius at very low energies of 2 to 6 J, and thus, there was also little variation in visibility due to tip radius. Four modes of internal core damage were identified. Internal damage span and depth were dependent on impact tip radius. Damage depth was also radius-dependent, but stabilized at constant depth independent of kinetic energy. Internal damage span increased with increasing impact energy, but not with increasing tip radius, suggesting a relationship between maximum damage tip radius with core density/size.

  10. Analysis of 16 autosomal STRs and 17 Y-STRs in an indigenous Maya population from Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Sergio; Sevillano, Rubén; Illescas, María J; de Pancorbo, Marian Martínez

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to contribute new data on autosomal STR and Y-STR markers of the Mayas from Guatemala in order to improve available databases of forensic interest. We analyzed 16 autosomal STR markers in a population sample of 155 indigenous Maya and 17 Y-chromosomal STR markers in the 100 males of the sample. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and linkage disequilibrium between autosomal STR markers were not observed at any loci. The combined power of exclusion was estimated as 99.9991% and the combined power of discrimination was >99.999999999999%. Haplotype diversity of Y-STRs was calculated as 0.9984 ± 0.0018 and analysis of pairwise genetic distances (Rst) supported the Native American background of the population.

  11. Valoración no monetaria de unidades de paisaje en la zona maya de Quintana Roo, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Diana Infante-Ramírez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación es conocer el valor local del paisaje en ejidos de la zona maya de Quintana Roo. Se utilizó un método de valoración no-monetaria, el cual se basa tanto en la opinión de grupos comunitarios como de expertos académicos. Además, se apoyó en la observación participante, entrevistas a fondo y talleres comunitarios. Los resultados muestran que, en opinión de los entrevistados, el monte alto fue la unidad de paisaje más valorada y la sabana la menos valorada. Lo anterior coincide con el potencial que tienen las unidades para satisfacer las necesidades de subsistencia de las comunidades mayas estudiadas.

  12. Inferring Ancient Technology and Practices of the Elite Maya Kingship Through the Application of Materials Engineering Characterization Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Kristina Alyssa

    This project focuses on the characterization of materials from burial offerings and painted decoration in a royal Maya tomb at El Zotz, Guatemala, and their association with mortuary rituals. Archaeological findings included vessels, jade masks, organic materials (wood, cord, and textiles), specular hematite cubes, shells with powdered cinnabar, green (malachite) painted stucco assumed to have decorated the wooden bier where the king was resting, and caches of lip-to-lip Aguila Orange bowls containing human phalanges. This paper describes findings from non-invasive and non-destructive analytical techniques including XRF, VPSEM-EDS, and XRD, emphasizing the potential of these combined technologies in the identification of organic and inorganic markers to infer burial customs. The nature and location of the findings, the evidence of pigment coloration on the bones employing hematite and cinnabar, and the indication of exposure of the bones to high temperatures suggest highly complex, even protracted mortuary practices of Maya elite.

  13. Population dynamics and stock assessment for Octopus maya (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae) fishery in the Campeche Bank, Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreguín-Sánchez, F; Solís-Ramírez, M J; González de la Rosa, M E

    2000-01-01

    The octopus (Octopus maya) is one of the most important fish resources in the Mexican Gulf of Mexico with a mean annual yield of 9000 ton, and a reasonable number of jobs created; O. maya represents 80% of the total octopus catch, followed by Octopus vulgaris. There are two artisanal fleets based on Octopus maya and a middle-size fleet that covers both species. Catch-at-length structured data from the artisanal fleets, for the 1994 season (August 1st to December 15th) were used to analyze the O. maya population dynamics and stock and to estimate the current level of exploitation. Von Bertalanffy growth parameters were: L infinity = 252 mm, mantle length; K = 1.4 year-1; oscillation parameters C = 1.0, WP = 0.6; and tz = 0.842 years. A rough estimate of natural mortality was M = 2.2, total mortality from catch curve Z = 8.77, and exploitation rate F/Z = 0.75. This last value suggests an intensive exploitation, even when yield per recruit analysis indicates both fleets may increase the minimum legal size on about 10% to increase yields. The length-based VPA also shows that the stock is being exploited under its maximum acceptable biological limit. These apparently contradictory results are explained by biological and behavioral characteristics of this species. Because most females die after reproduction, a new gross estimation of natural mortality was computed as M = 3.3. The new estimate of exploitation rate was F/Z = 0.57. This new value coincides with results from the length-VPA and the Thompson and Bell methods, the former suggesting that a reduction of 20% in fishing mortality may provide larger yields. This fishery resource is fully exploited and current management measures must be revised to sustain and probably optimize yields. PMID:11354940

  14. Regionalization in the world crude oil market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guelen, S.G. [Univ. of Houston-Downtown, TX (United States)

    1997-05-01

    The author examines the efficiency implications of the regionalization hypothesis of Weiner (1991). Cointegration analysis is used to test this hypothesis. Both spot and contract prices for fifteen crude oils are used and separated into three groups of similar quality. Each group is intended to include crude oils that buyers can substitute for each other. Bivariate and multivariate versions of cointegration tests were used. The results suggest that the world oil market is unified and that prices for same quality crude oils from different regions of the world do not deviate from each other. 8 refs., 6 tabs.

  15. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MULTIDETECTOR COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY AND ULTRASONOGRAPHY FINDINGS IN BLUNT ABDOMINAL TRAUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okram Pusparani Devi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Blunt abdominal trauma usually has low sensitivity on physical examination and also subtle clinical manifestations. Improved resolution of the ultrasound machines and availability of multiple frequency probes has improved the specificity of ultrasound evaluation in blunt abdominal trauma. Despite this about 50% of the solid organ injuries are missed. Computed tomography has been used with better specificity to evaluate patients with blunt abdominal trauma who are FAST (Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma positive as well as indeterminate and clinically suspicious cases of solid organ, hollow viscera, spine and pelvic injury. AIM AND OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to determine sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of USG and MDCT and compare the efficacy of the two imaging modalities in blunt abdominal trauma. METHOD A prospective observational study of 100 patients was conducted in the Department of Radiodiagnosis, Bharati Hospital, Pune. All patients with blunt abdominal trauma were included. FAST screening was done with ANTARES ACUSON SIEMENS followed by MDCT on 16-Slice Philips Brilliance. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of USG and CT were determined by comparing with laparotomy findings. RESULTS Although USG was sensitive, specific and accurate in detecting free fluid in abdomen, CT was found better and also superior in detecting solid organ injury in patients with blunt abdominal trauma. CONCLUSION Ultrasound is an efficient modality in the initial evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma. But CT is the superior diagnostic modality and must be performed in symptomatic patient with ultrasound negative report and suboptimal ultrasound examination. CT scan thoroughly scrutinizes entire abdomen including retroperitoneum with additional assessment of thoracic trauma and bony pelvic trauma. Hence, CT increases diagnostic confidence and influences management decision.

  16. Application and Production Process of Maya Animation%Maya动画的应用领域和制作流程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟文彬

    2013-01-01

    Maya作为最为常用的三维动画制作软件,应用领域包括影视动画、广告设计、机械设计、建筑行业等.Maya软件界面简洁,操作简单,涉及范围广,是三维动画制作的首选工具.Maya动画的制作流程则大致分为:实物建模、贴图制作、材质模拟、灯光和摄像机、动画制作.%@@@@Maya is the most commonly used 3D animation software, application areas including film and television animation, ad?vertising design, mechanical design, such as the construction industry. Maya software interface is simple, the operation is simple, involving a wide range, is the preferred tool of three-dimensional animation. The process to manufacture the Maya animation is di?vided into: physical modeling, texturing, texture simulation, lighting and camera, animation.

  17. Raman and infrared study of synthetic Maya pigments as a function of heating time and dye concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, Layra; Manciu, Felicia; Polette, Lori; Torres, Brenda; Chianelli, Russell

    2007-03-01

    Maya Blue is a famous indigo-based pigment produced by the ancient Mayas. Samples for the present work are made by a synthetic route, and demonstrate similar chemical stability as the ancient Maya Blue samples. Since no direct proof exists that the indigo chemically binds to the inorganic palygorskite lattice, there is still controversy on the resting place of the indigo molecules; i.e. are they in the channels of palygorskite, on the surface, or both. Our analysis by FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy proves the partial elimination of the selection rules for the centrosymmetric indigo, and shows the disappearance of the indigo N-H bonding, as the organic molecules incorporate into palygorskite material. Infrared data confirm the loss of zeolitic water and a partial removal of structural water after the heating process. Evidence of bonding between cationic aluminum and indigo through nitrogen is revealed by FT-Raman measurements. The oxygen carbonyl is also believed to interact with the metal.

  18. Three-dimensional visualization of nanostructured surfaces and bacterial attachment using Autodesk® Maya®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshkovikj, Veselin; Fluke, Christopher J.; Crawford, Russell J.; Ivanova, Elena P.

    2014-02-01

    There has been a growing interest in understanding the ways in which bacteria interact with nano-structured surfaces. As a result, there is a need for innovative approaches to enable researchers to visualize the biological processes taking place, despite the fact that it is not possible to directly observe these processes. We present a novel approach for the three-dimensional visualization of bacterial interactions with nano-structured surfaces using the software package Autodesk Maya. Our approach comprises a semi-automated stage, where actual surface topographic parameters, obtained using an atomic force microscope, are imported into Maya via a custom Python script, followed by a `creative stage', where the bacterial cells and their interactions with the surfaces are visualized using available experimental data. The `Dynamics' and `nDynamics' capabilities of the Maya software allowed the construction and visualization of plausible interaction scenarios. This capability provides a practical aid to knowledge discovery, assists in the dissemination of research results, and provides an opportunity for an improved public understanding. We validated our approach by graphically depicting the interactions between the two bacteria being used for modeling purposes, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with different titanium substrate surfaces that are routinely used in the production of biomedical devices.

  19. When a girl's decision involves the community: the realities of adolescent Maya girls' lives in rural indigenous Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehr, Heather; Tum, Silvia Ester

    2013-05-01

    Adolescent Maya girls are among the most vulnerable, marginalized sub-populations in Guatemala, a country that is largely young, indigenous and poor. Adolescent Maya girls have limited access to secondary schooling, opportunities to work or earn an income, and sexual and reproductive health information and services. This article explores the extent to which adolescent Maya girls are able to adopt what they have learned in a community-based skills-building and sex education programme in isolated rural, indigenous Guatemalan communities. This is presented through an interview between the authors, who met and worked together in the Population Council's programme Abriendo Oportunidades (Opening Opportunities) for girls aged 8-19 years. The interview discusses what can be done so that indigenous adolescents not only obtain the sexual health information they need, but develop the skills to make decisions, communicate with their peers and parents, and exercise their rights. Much culturally and linguistically sensitive work must be done, using a community-based participatory approach, so that young people who do want to use condoms for protection or contraceptive methods not only have access to the methods, but the support of their families and communities, and government-sponsored sex education programmes, to use them.

  20. Development of sedentary communities in the Maya lowlands: coexisting mobile groups and public ceremonies at Ceibal, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Takeshi; MacLellan, Jessica; Triadan, Daniela; Munson, Jessica; Burham, Melissa; Aoyama, Kazuo; Nasu, Hiroo; Pinzón, Flory; Yonenobu, Hitoshi

    2015-04-01

    Our archaeological investigations at Ceibal, a lowland Maya site located in the Pasión region, documented that a formal ceremonial complex was built around 950 B.C. at the onset of the Middle Preclassic period, when ceramics began to be used in the Maya lowlands. Our refined chronology allowed us to trace the subsequent social changes in a resolution that had not been possible before. Many residents of Ceibal appear to have remained relatively mobile during the following centuries, living in ephemeral post-in-ground structures and frequently changing their residential localities. In other parts of the Pasión region, there may have existed more mobile populations who maintained the traditional lifestyle of the preceramic period. Although the emerging elite of Ceibal began to live in a substantial residential complex by 700 B.C., advanced sedentism with durable residences rebuilt in the same locations and burials placed under house floors was not adopted in most residential areas until 500 B.C., and did not become common until 300 B.C. or the Late Preclassic period. During the Middle Preclassic period, substantial formal ceremonial complexes appear to have been built only at a small number of important communities in the Maya lowlands, and groups with different levels of sedentism probably gathered for their constructions and for public rituals held in them. These collaborative activities likely played a central role in socially integrating diverse groups with different lifestyles and, eventually, in developing fully established sedentary communities.

  1. A likely case of scurvy in a rural Early Classic Maya burial from Actun Uayazba Kab, Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, Gabriel

    2014-11-01

    A Maya burial of a late adolescent (Burial 98-3) found in the rockshelter entrance of Actun Uayazba Kab (AUK), Belize, displays a combination of lesions that is consistent with scurvy. Signs include large, active lesions on the posterior surfaces of maxilla; relatively mild porotic hyperostosis along the midline of the skull on the parietals and occipital; cribra orbitalia; potential pinprick lesions on the greater wings of sphenoid and temporal; reactive lesions on the palate, temporal lines of frontal and parietals, and external and internal surfaces of zygomatics; small lesions on the popliteal surfaces of both femora; and periodontal disease. Identification of scurvy at AUK potentially informs the analysis of other primary burials and scattered bone found there and at other nearby sites, which often reveal evidence of nonspecific lesions that are usually attributed to anemia and infection, but that are also consistent with scurvy. The social and ecological context of this Protoclassic (0-AD 300) individual, who lived in a rural agricultural community with no evidence of complex social hierarchy, contrasts with typical discussions of disease among the Maya, which tend to focus on the degrading effects of overcrowding and resource deficiencies. While scurvy has been largely overlooked in the Maya area, this study supports earlier arguments for its presence that were based largely on clinical and ethnographic analogies and suggests the need to incorporate scurvy into broader synergistic models of ancient health.

  2. Classic Maya bloodletting and the cultural evolution of religious rituals: quantifying patterns of variation in hieroglyphic texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Jessica; Amati, Viviana; Collard, Mark; Macri, Martha J

    2014-01-01

    Religious rituals that are painful or highly stressful are hypothesized to be costly signs of commitment essential for the evolution of complex society. Yet few studies have investigated how such extreme ritual practices were culturally transmitted in past societies. Here, we report the first study to analyze temporal and spatial variation in bloodletting rituals recorded in Classic Maya (ca. 250-900 CE) hieroglyphic texts. We also identify the sociopolitical contexts most closely associated with these ancient recorded rituals. Sampling an extensive record of 2,480 hieroglyphic texts, this study identifies every recorded instance of the logographic sign for the word ch'ahb' that is associated with ritual bloodletting. We show that documented rituals exhibit low frequency whose occurrence cannot be predicted by spatial location. Conversely, network ties better capture the distribution of bloodletting rituals across the southern Maya region. Our results indicate that bloodletting rituals by Maya nobles were not uniformly recorded, but were typically documented in association with antagonistic statements and may have signaled royal commitments among connected polities.

  3. A likely case of scurvy in a rural Early Classic Maya burial from Actun Uayazba Kab, Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, Gabriel

    2014-11-01

    A Maya burial of a late adolescent (Burial 98-3) found in the rockshelter entrance of Actun Uayazba Kab (AUK), Belize, displays a combination of lesions that is consistent with scurvy. Signs include large, active lesions on the posterior surfaces of maxilla; relatively mild porotic hyperostosis along the midline of the skull on the parietals and occipital; cribra orbitalia; potential pinprick lesions on the greater wings of sphenoid and temporal; reactive lesions on the palate, temporal lines of frontal and parietals, and external and internal surfaces of zygomatics; small lesions on the popliteal surfaces of both femora; and periodontal disease. Identification of scurvy at AUK potentially informs the analysis of other primary burials and scattered bone found there and at other nearby sites, which often reveal evidence of nonspecific lesions that are usually attributed to anemia and infection, but that are also consistent with scurvy. The social and ecological context of this Protoclassic (0-AD 300) individual, who lived in a rural agricultural community with no evidence of complex social hierarchy, contrasts with typical discussions of disease among the Maya, which tend to focus on the degrading effects of overcrowding and resource deficiencies. While scurvy has been largely overlooked in the Maya area, this study supports earlier arguments for its presence that were based largely on clinical and ethnographic analogies and suggests the need to incorporate scurvy into broader synergistic models of ancient health. PMID:25105478

  4. Extra heavy crude oil into transportable upgraded crude: new technology overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, J.D.; Sardella, R.; Rivas, A.; Lopez, E. [Infrastructure and Upgrading Department PDVSA-Intevep (Venezuela); Zacarias, L [Refining Department. PDVSA-Intevep (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    Venezuela has reserves of heavy and extra heavy crude oil in the eastern part of the country. There is a need for lower capital cost extraction technologies. At the moment, heavy oil is diluted with light or medium crude oil before it is sold on the market. In order to remove this requirement, PDVSA Research Institute has been working on developing a new technology to convert heavy crude oil into upgraded crude oil. This paper presents the technology, named Aquaconversion, and its applications. The technology consists of a catalytic steam conversion process which converts heavy oil into transportable upgraded crude oil with a higher density and lower viscosity than can be achieved using other technologies. This technology can be used onsite to obtain transportable upgraded crude or to replace visbreaking units in refineries. This paper presents a new technology that makes the extraction of heavy oil in Venezuela economically feasible.

  5. Export crudes for the '90s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper supplies statistical data on the characteristics of Tapais blend (Malaysia), Cold Lake blend (Alta), and Arabian Light (Saudi Arabia) crude oils. Temperature range, API gravity, sulfur percentage, viscosity, nitrogen content, and other data are provided

  6. Spectral signature of Egyptian crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crude petroleum oils are complex mixtures of diverse hydrocarbons, in widely varying compositions, that originate from a variety of geological sources. Fluorescence emission spectra have been measured for two types of Egyptian crude petroleum oil, its light and heavy products over a broad range of excitation and emission wavelengths. Both types of crude oil products are characterized by spectral signatures with a differing topography: the number of fluorescent peaks, their coordinates (λex, λem) on the plane of the three dimensions spectrum, and the shape of the bands formed by the contour line density, changeable in either direction. The refined light oil shows emission spectra at λmax between 350 and 500 nm according to the excitation wavelength. The refined heavy oil shows very broad unstructured emission spectra with λmax > 400 nm. As a group, they could certainly be distinguished from the light oil samples and most of the crude oil

  7. Optimization of crude oil desalting facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Amri, Fahad A.; Al-Hemel, Saleh M. [Saudi Arabian Oil Company, Exploration and Producing (Saudi Arabia), email: fahad.amri.1@aramco.com

    2010-07-01

    Before crude oil can be shipped it must be desalted. The shipped crude cannot contain more than 0.2% basic sediment and water and 10 pounds of salt per thousand barrels. The desalting procedure is completed in two stages by first going through dehydrator and then desalter vessels. Both these stages apply an electrostatic field to coalesce. Before the crude enters the desalting stage, high pressure production traps (HPPTs) perform a three phase separation. In the desalting train electrical grids are installed. As the oil and water separation lowers, more water droplets pass through the oil phase. This ends up increasing the conductivity of the oil and reduces the voltage with a constant power supply, as per Ohms law. This paper presents 3 parameters that must be optimized to determine the optimal levels of crude oil production. By adjusting these parameters, the chemical demulsifier consumption can be lowered by 60%.

  8. Bacterial consortia for crude oil spill remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil spills generate enormous public concern and highlight the need for cost effective ad environmentally acceptable mitigation technologies. Physico-chemical methods are not completely effective after a spill. Hence, there is a need for improved and alternative technologies. Bioremediation is the most environmentally sound technology for clean up. This report intends to determine the potential of a bacterial consortium for degradation of Gulf and Bombay High crude oil. A four membered consortium was designed that could degrade 70% of the crude oil. A member of consortium produced a biosurfactant, rhamnolipid, that emulsified crude oil efficiently for effective degradation by the other members of consortium. The wide range of hydrocarbonoclastic capabilities of the selected members of bacterial consortium leads to the degradation of both aromatic and aliphatic fractions of crude oil in 72 hours. (Author)

  9. Processing experience of Bombay High crude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azad, S.A.; Lande, W.D.

    1985-12-01

    The Visakh Refinery started processing BH crude in 1976, in the beginning in admixture with M.E. crudes and then progressively increased its capacity of processing 100% BH in all its units by the year 1983-84. The facilities provided to enable processing of BH, qualitative/quantitative analysis of the crude and its products as obtained while processing, the problems encountered during the processing, and the efforts made by the refinery in overcoming them are described. The areas where the solutions are yet to be discovered, are indicated. Finally, some suggestions as to how to go about solving some of the nagging problems and make full use of BH crude in the national interest, are made.

  10. Grading system modification and management of blunt aortic injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaavya N Reddy; Tim Matatov; Linda D Doucet; Maureen Heldmann; Cynthia X Zhao; Wayne W Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Background The traditional approach to blunt aortic injury (BAI) has been emergent intervention.This study aimed to utilize a modified imaging grading system that may allow us to categorize these injuries as needing emergent,urgent,or non-operative management.Methods From January 2003 to December 2011,28 patients with BAI were managed at our institution.Imaging and medical records were reviewed retrospectively.BAI was classified into 4 grades based on imaging studies.Grade la:intimal tear,Grade Ⅰb:intramural hematoma; Grade Ⅱ:intimal injury with periaotic hematoma; Grade lia:aortic transection with pseudoaneurysm,Grade Ⅲb:multiple aortic injuries; and Grade Ⅳ:free rupture.Progression and clinical outcomes of ABI were analyzed.Results Of the 28 patients,22 were males and 6 were females with mean age of 38 (range,7--69) years.Twenty-five (89.3%) had descending thoracic aortic injury,two (7.1%) had abdominal aortic injury and one (3.6%) presented with multiple aortic injuries.Three patients (10.7%) with Grade Ⅰ,1 (3.6%) Grade Ⅱ,22 (78.6%) Grade Ⅲ,and 2 (7.1%) Grade Ⅳ injuries.Twenty-five patients underwent thoracic endovascular aortic repair and 3 were managed medically.Median time between injury and surgical intervention was (2±1) days.One (3.6%) patient developed paraplegia after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR).One Type 2 endoleak spontaneously sealed within 1 month,and another patient died from ruptured Type 1 endoleak 3 years later.Median follow-up time was 16 (range,1-96) months.Perioperative 30-day mortality rate was 3.6%.Conclusions This study based on our modified BAI grading system indicated that Grade Ⅰ BAI can be managed conservatively.Grade Ⅱ injury requires close observation and repeated computerized tomography angiogram (CTA)within 48-72 hours.If injury appears worse on follow up imaging,surgery should be performed.Delayed repair of Grade Ⅲ BAI is acceptable if associated life threatening traumatic

  11. Bilateral ureteropelvic disruption following blunt abdominal trauma: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikuchi Hiroko

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ureteral injury occurs in less than 1% of blunt abdominal trauma cases, partly because the ureters are relatively well protected in the retroperitoneum. Bilateral ureteral injury is extremely rare, with only 10 previously reported cases. Diagnosis may be delayed if ureteric injury is not suspected, and delay of 36 hours or longer has been observed in more than 50% of patients with ureteric injury following abdominal trauma, leading to increased morbidity. Case presentation A 29-year-old man was involved in a highway motor vehicle collision and was ejected from the front passenger seat even though wearing a seatbelt. He was in a preshock state at the scene of the accident. An intravenous line and left thoracic drain were inserted, and he was transported to our hospital by helicopter. Whole-body, contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT scan showed left diaphragmatic disruption, splenic injury, and a grade I injury to the left kidney with a retroperitoneal haematoma. He underwent emergency laparotomy. The left diaphragmatic and splenic injuries were repaired. Although a retroperitoneal haematoma was observed, his renal injury was treated conservatively because the haematoma was not expanding. In the intensive care unit, the patient's haemodynamic state was stable, but there was no urinary output for 9 hours after surgery. Anuresis prompted a review of the abdominal x-ray which had been performed after the contrast-enhanced CT. Leakage of contrast material from the ureteropelvic junctions was detected, and review of the repeat CT scan revealed contrast retention in the perirenal retroperitoneum bilaterally. He underwent cystoscopy and bilateral retrograde pyelography, which showed bilateral complete ureteral disruption, preventing placement of ureteral stents. Diagnostic laparotomy revealed complete disruption of the ureteropelvic junctions bilaterally. Double-J ureteral stents were placed bilaterally and ureteropelvic

  12. The dynamics of crude oil price differentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fattouh, Bassam [The Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, 57 Woodstock Road, Oxford OX2 6FA (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    Crude oil price differentials are modelled as a two-regime threshold autoregressive (TAR) process using the method proposed by Caner and Hansen [Caner, M., Hansen, B.E. Threshold autoregression with a unit root. Econometrica 2001; 69; 1555-1596.]. While standard unit root tests suggest that the prices of crude oil of different varieties move closely together such that their price differential is stationary, the TAR results indicate strong evidence of threshold effects in the adjustment process to the long-run equilibrium. These findings suggest that crude oil prices are linked and thus at the very general level, the oil market is 'one great pool' (Adelman, M.A. International oil agreements. The Energy Journal 1984; 5; 1-9.). However, differences in the dynamics of adjustment suggest that within this one pool, oil markets are not necessarily integrated in every time period and hence the dynamics of crude oil price differentials may not follow a stationary process at all times. Although the development of a liquid futures market around the crude oil benchmarks has helped make some distant markets more unified, arbitrage is not costless or risk-free and temporary breakdowns in the benchmarks can lead to decoupling of crude oil prices. (author)

  13. Shielding effect and emission criterion of a screw dislocation near an interfacial blunt crack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Hao-Peng; Fang Qi-Hong; Liu You-Wen

    2009-01-01

    Shielding effect and emission criterion of a screw dislocation near an interfacial blunt crack are dealt with in this paper.Utilizing the conformal mapping technique,the closed-form solutions are derived for complex potentials and stress fields due to a screw dislocation located near the interfacial blunt crack.The stress intensity factor on the crack tips and the critical stress intensity factor for dislocation emission axe also calculated.The influence of the orientation of the dislocation and the morphology of the blunt crack as well as the material elastic dissimilarity on the shielding effect and the emission criterion is discussed in detail.The results show that positive screw dislocations can reduce the stress intensity factor of the interfacial blunt crack tip(shielding effect).The shielding effect increases with the increase of the shear modulus of the lower half-plane,but it decreases with the increase of the dislocation azimuth angle.The critical loads at infinity for dislocation emission increases with the increase of emission angle and curvature radius of blunt crack tip,and the most probable angle for screw dislocation emission is zero.The present solutions contain previous results as special cases.

  14. Accuracy of chest radiography versus chest computed tomography in hemodynamically stable patients with blunt chest trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mojtaba Chardoli; Toktam Hasan-Ghaliaee; Hesam Akbari; Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar

    2013-01-01

    Objective:Thoracic injuries are responsible for 25% of deaths of blunt traumas.Chest X-ray (CXR) is the first diagnostic method in patients with blunt trauma.The aim of this study was to detect the accuracy of CXR versus chest computed tomograpgy (CT) in hemodynamically stable patients with blunt chest trauma.Methods:Study was conducted at the emergency department of S ina Hospital from March 2011 to March 2012.Hemodynamically stable patients with at least 16 years of age who had blunt chest trauma were included.All patients underwent the same diagnostic protocol which consisted of physical examination,CXR and CT scan respectively.Results:Two hundreds patients (84% male and 16% female) were included with a mean age of(37.9±13.7) years.Rib fracture was the most common finding of CXR (12.5%) and CT scan (25.5%).The sensitivity of CXR for hemothorax,thoracolumbar vertebra fractures and rib fractures were 20%,49% and 49%,respectively.Pneumothorax,foreign body,emphysema,pulmonary contusion,liver hematoma and sternum fracture were not diagnosed with CXR alone.Conclusion:Applying CT scan as the first-line diagnostic modality in hemodynamically stable patients with blunt chest trauma can detect pathologies which may change management and outcome.

  15. Ancient Maya Regional Settlement and Inter-Site Analysis: The 2013 West-Central Belize LiDAR Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlen F. Chase

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available During April and May 2013, a total of 1057 km2 of LiDAR was flown by NCALM for a consortium of archaeologists working in West-central Belize, making this the largest surveyed area within the Mayan lowlands. Encompassing the Belize Valley and the Vaca Plateau, West-central Belize is one of the most actively researched parts of the Maya lowlands; however, until this effort, no comprehensive survey connecting all settlement had been conducted. Archaeological projects have investigated at least 18 different sites within this region. Thus, a large body of archaeological research provides both the temporal and spatial parameters for the varied ancient Maya centers that once occupied this area; importantly, these data can be used to help interpret the collected LiDAR data. The goal of the 2013 LiDAR campaign was to gain information on the distribution of ancient Maya settlement and sites on the landscape and, particularly, to determine how the landscape was used between known centers. The data that were acquired through the 2013 LiDAR campaign have significance for interpreting both the composition and limits of ancient Maya political units. This paper presents the initial results of these new data and suggests a developmental model for ancient Maya polities.

  16. Adjustment of electrical equipment in the Akal-J oil platform of PEP for the implementation of the dehydration and desalting system of crude; Adecuacion de equipo electrico en la plataforma Akal-J de PEP para la implementacion del sistema de deshidratacion y desalado de crudo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huesca Amador, Victor Hugo; Rosales Sedano, Inocente [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Coutino Gonzalez, Marina [PEMEX, Region Marina Noreste (Mexico)

    2010-10-09

    The Integral Asset Cantarell (AIC), of PEMEX Exploration and Production (PEP), developed a project to carry out the dehydration and desalting process of Maya (DDCM) crude of 300 MBD (thousands of daily barrels) of the Process Center (PC) of Akal-J through two integral systems of DDCM, with a capacity of 150 MBD each. The Process Center of Akal-J is conformed by eight marine platforms and the selected ones, by space availability to install these systems, were Akal-J2 and Akal-J3. In this paper the electrical analyses realized to determine the feasibility of the provision of energy to the required electrical equipment is presented, to implement the dehydration and desalting process of 300 MBD of Mayan crude, as well as the recommendations for a reliable and safe operation of the electrical system of the PC Akal-J. [Spanish] El Activo Integral Cantarell (AIC), de PEMEX Exploracion y Produccion (PEP), desarrollo un proyecto para efectuar el proceso de deshidratacion y desalado de crudo Maya (DDCM) de 300 MBD (miles de barriles diarios) de el Centro de Proceso (CP) Akal-J a traves de dos sistemas integrales de DDCM, con una capacidad de 150 MBD cada uno. El Centro de Proceso Akal-J se encuentra conformado por ocho plataformas marinas y las seleccionadas, por disponibilidad de espacio para instalar dichos sistemas, fueron Akal-J2 y Akal-J3. En este trabajo se presentan los analisis electricos realizados para determinar la factibilidad del suministro de energia a los equipos electricos requeridos, para implementar el proceso de deshidratacion y desalado de 300 MBD de crudo Maya, asi como las recomendaciones para una operacion confiable y segura del sistema electrico del CP Akal-J.

  17. Iliac Artery and Vein Injury Without Pelvic Fracture Due To Blunt Trauma: A Rare Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Cuneyt Cicek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Iliac vascular injuries have high morbidity and mortality rates. Penetrant abdominal and pelvic vascular injuries are more common compared to blunt traumas. Pelvic vascular injuries associated with blunt trauma are quite likely to occur in accompaniment with pelvic fracture. A 23 year old male patient was admitted to the emergency room due to a motorcycle accident. Shock picture was prevalent in the patient. Shaft fracture was present in left femur and flow was not detected in arterial and venous colour Doppler ultrasonography. Patient underwent emergency surgery. Left main iliac artery and vein were normal, however, external iliac vein was lacerated in two spots, and blood vessel wall integrity was damaged in one part of left external iliac artery. Clinical presentation and traumatic retroperitoneal hematoma management of iliac artery and venous injuries due to blunt trauma without pelvic fracture are discussed in the presented case.

  18. Traumatic Abdominal Wall Hernia After a Blunt Trauma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Dumlu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic abdominal wall hernia is a rare result of blunt abdominal traumas in adults. Altough the detection of the injuries of the abdominal organs is the priority in blunt traumas, abdominal wall defect may also occur in these patients. These hernias can go undetected due to preservation of the skin overlying the hernia defect. Traumatic abdominal wall hernias can have high morbidity and mortality rates due to incarceration and perforation of tubular hollow organs, especially if there is any delay. The possibility of traumatic hernia should always be considered in cases with serious blunt trauma. Computed Tomography (CT scan examinations should be performed routinely due to their high diagnostic value if trumatic hernia is suspected. In this report, a traumatic abdominal wall hernia patient who was treated by surgery has been presented with the review of the current literature.

  19. Boundary Layer Transition over Blunt Hypersonic Vehicles Including Effects of Ablation-Induced Out-Gassing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Choudhari, Meelan; Chang, Chau-Lyan; White, Jeffery

    2011-01-01

    Computations are performed to study the boundary layer instability mechanisms pertaining to hypersonic flow over blunt capsules. For capsules with ablative heat shields, transition may be influenced both by out-gassing associated with surface pyrolysis and the resulting modification of surface geometry including the formation of micro-roughness. To isolate the effects of out-gassing, this paper examines the stability of canonical boundary layer flows over a smooth surface in the presence of gas injection into the boundary layer. For a slender cone, the effects of out-gassing on the predominantly second mode instability are found to be stabilizing. In contrast, for a blunt capsule flow dominated by first mode instability, out-gassing is shown to be destabilizing. Analogous destabilizing effects of outgassing are also noted for both stationary and traveling modes of crossflow instability over a blunt sphere-cone configuration at angle of attack.

  20. Experiments on hypersonic boundary layer transition on blunt cones with acoustic-absorption coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiplyuk, A.; Lukashevich, S.; Bountin, D.; Maslov, A.; Knaus, H.

    2012-01-01

    The laminar-turbulent transition is studied experimentally on a cone with an acoustic-absorption coating and with different nose bluntness in a high-speed flow. The acoustic-absorption coating is a felt metal sheet with a random microstructure. Experiments were carried out on a 1-meter length 7 degree cone at free-stream Mach number M = 8 and zero angle of attack. Locations of the laminar-turbulent transition are detected using heat flux distributions registered by calorimeter sensors. In addition, boundary layer pulsations are measured by means of ultrafast heat flux sensors. It is shown that the laminar-turbulent transition is caused by the second-mode instability, and the laminar run extends as the bluntness is increased. The porous coating effectively suppresses this instability for all tested bluntness values and 1.3-1.85 times extends the laminar run.

  1. Research on the drag reduction performance induced by the counterflowing jet for waverider with variable blunt radii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-bin; Wang, Zhen-guo; Barakos, George N.; Huang, Wei; Steijl, Rene

    2016-10-01

    Waverider will endure the huge aero-heating in the hypersonic flow, thus, it need be blunt for the leading edge. However, the aerodynamic performance will decrease for the blunt waverider because of the drag hoik. How to improve the aerodynamic performance and reduce the drag and aero-heating is very important. The variable blunt radii method will improve the aerodynamic performance, however, the huge aero-heating and bow shock wave at the head is still serious. In the current study, opposing jet is used in the waverider with variable blunt radii to improve its performance. The three-dimensional coupled implicit Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes(RANS) equation and the two equation SST k-ω turbulence model have been utilized to obtain the flow field properties. The numerical method has been validated against the available experimental data in the open literature. The obtained results show that the L/D will drop 7-8% when R changes from 2 to 8. The lift coefficient will increase, and the drag coefficient almost keeps the same when the variable blunt radii method is adopted, and the L/D will increase. The variable blunt radii method is very useful to improve the whole characteristics of blunt waverider and the L/D can improve 3%. The combination of the variable blunt radii method and opposing jet is a novel way to improve the whole performance of blunt waverider, and L/D can improve 4-5%. The aperture as a novel way of opposing jet is suitable for blunt waverider and also useful to improve the aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic characteristics of waverider in the hypersonic flow. There is the optimal P0in/P0 that can make the detached shock wave reattach the lower surface again so that the blunt waverider can get the better aerodynamic performance.

  2. Traumatic diaphragmatic rupture with combined thoracoabdominal injuries: Difference between penetrating and blunt injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Jinmou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Traumatic diaphragmatic rupture (TDR needs early diagnosis and operation. However, the early diagnosis is usually difficult, especially in the patients without diaphragmatic hernia. The objective of this study was to explore the early diagnosis and treatment of TDR. Methods: Data of 256 patients with TDR treated in our department between 1994 and 2013 were analyzed retrospectively regarding to the diagnostic methods, percentage of preoperative judgment, incidence of diaphragmatic hernia, surgical procedures and outcome, etc. Two groups were set up according to the mechanism of injury (blunt or penetrating. Results: Of 256 patients with a mean age of 32.4 years (9e84, 218 were male. The average ISS was 26.9 (13e66; and shock rate was 62.9%. There were 104 blunt injuries and 152 penetrating injuries. Preoperatively diagnostic rate was 90.4% in blunt injuries and 80.3% in penetrating, respectively, P < 0.05. The incidence of diaphragmatic hernia was 94.2% in blunt and 15.1% in penetrating respectively, P < 0.005. Thoracotomy was performed in 62 cases, laparotomy in 153, thoracotomy plus laparotomy in 29, and combined thoraco-laparotomy in 12. Overall mortality rate was 12.5% with the average ISS of 41.8; and it was 21.2% in blunt injuries and 6.6% in penetrating, respectively, P < 0.005. The main causes of death were hemorrhage and sepsis. Conclusions: Diagnosis of blunt TDR can be easily obtained by radiograph or helical CT scan signs of diaphragmatic hernia. For penetrating TDR without hernia, “offside sign” is helpful as initial assessment. CT scan with coronal/sagittal reconstruction is an accurate technique for diagnosis. All TDR require operation. Penetrating injury has a relatively better prognosis.

  3. Predicting outcomes after blunt chest wall trauma: development and external validation of a new prognostic model

    OpenAIRE

    Battle, Ceri Elisabeth; Hutchings, Hayley; Lovett, Simon; Bouamra, Omar; Jones, Sally; Sen, Aruni; Gagg, James; Robinson, David; Hartford-Beynon, Jake; Williams, Jeremy; Evans, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Blunt chest wall trauma accounts for over 15% of all trauma admissions to Emergency Departments worldwide. Reported mortality rates vary between 4 and 60%. Management of this patient group is challenging as a result of the delayed on-set of complications. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a prognostic model that can be used to assist in the management of blunt chest wall trauma. Methods There were two distinct phases to the overall study; the development and the v...

  4. Cardiac injuries caused by blunt trauma: an autopsy based assessment of the injury pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Arzu Akcay; Karayel, Ferah Anik; Akyildiz, Elif; Pakis, Isil; Uzun, Ibrahim; Gurpinar, Kagan; Atilmis, Umit; Kir, Ziya

    2010-01-01

    Nonpenetrating chest trauma with injury to the heart and aorta has become increasingly common, particularly as a result of rapid deceleration in high-speed vehicular accidents, over the past 2-3 decades. The high mortality rate of cardiac injuries and possible late onset complications make blunt cardiac injuries an important challenging point for legal medicine. One hundred and ninety cases with blunt cardiac injuries in a period of 3 years were analyzed retrospectively in terms of patterns of cardiac injury, survival times, and demographic profiles of the cases in this study.

  5. Non-operative versus operative treatment for blunt pancreatic trauma in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Michael V; Wettergren, André; Hillingsø, Jens Georg;

    2014-01-01

    . Currently, the optimal treatment, of whether to perform operative or non-operative treatment of severe, grade III to V, blunt pancreatic injury in children is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of operative versus non-operative treatment of blunt pancreatic trauma in children. SEARCH...... or language of publication. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used relevant search strategies to obtain the titles and abstracts of studies that were relevant for the review. Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility. MAIN RESULTS: The search found 83 relevant references. We excluded all...

  6. Liver injury following blunt abdominal trauma: a new mechanism-driven classification

    OpenAIRE

    Slotta, J. E.; Justinger, C.; Kollmar, O; Kollmar, C.; Schäfer, T.; Schilling, M. K.

    2013-01-01

    Purposes The current classifications for blunt liver trauma focus only on the extent of liver injury. However, these scores are independent from the localization of liver injury and mechanism of trauma. Methods The type of liver injury after blunt abdominal trauma was newly classified as type A when it was along the falciform ligament with involvement of segments IVa/b, III, or II, and type B when there was involvement of segments V–VIII. With the use of a prospectively established database, ...

  7. Airway management in laryngotracheal injuries from blunt neck trauma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Debnath; Agarwal, Rita; Bajaj, Lalit; Teng, Sarena N; Prager, Jeremy D

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric laryngotracheal injuries from blunt neck trauma are extremely rare, but can be potentially catastrophic. Early diagnosis and skillful airway management is critical in avoiding significant morbidity and mortality associated with these cases. We present a case of a patient who suffered a complete tracheal transection and cervical spine fracture following a clothesline injury to the anterior neck. A review of the mechanisms of injury, clinical presentation, initial airway management, and anesthetic considerations in laryngotracheal injuries from blunt neck trauma in children are presented.

  8. Surgical Management of Undiagnosed Laceration of Superior Vena Cava Caused by Blunt Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Bouabdallaoui, Nadia; Debbagh, Hassan; Schoell, Thibaut; Lebreton, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    International audience Intrapericardial rupture of the superior vena cava resulting from blunt thoracic trauma is a rare and life-threatening condition that has to be ruled out in the presence of signs of cardiac tamponade and a history of blunt thoracic trauma. We report the case of undiagnosed superior vena cava laceration caused by a high-speed road traffic accident in a 25 year-old patient revealed by cardiac tamponade. We highlight the need of urgent surgical exploration in all patien...

  9. Blunt renal trauma in children with pre-existing renal abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlstrom, Kelly; Dunoski, Brian; Zerin, Jeffrey Michael

    2015-01-01

    The kidneys are the most commonly injured genitourinary organ in children following blunt abdominal trauma. Though the retroperitoneal location affords the kidneys some protection from the forces experienced in blunt abdominal trauma, the kidneys are at greater risk of injury when a disease process exposes them from their normal shielded location. In such cases, the injuries may appear to be disproportionate in relation to the severity of the trauma history, confusing the imaging findings. Recognition of both the underlying disease process as well as the manifestations of acute trauma is important; therefore, we present a pictorial essay of traumatized kidneys in children with pre-existing renal abnormalities. PMID:25552392

  10. Thyroid gland rupture: a rare finding after a blunt neck trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawawi, Faisal; Varshney, Rickul; Payne, Richard J; Manoukian, John J

    2013-05-01

    This is a case report of a 13 years old boy with a thyroid rupture secondary to a hockey stick blunt trauma to his neck and a literature review focused on diagnosis and management. There are 14 other cases in the literature, 7 of which required surgical intervention mainly to evacuate a hematoma. The case in this review did not develop any complications. This is the first reported case in the literature of thyroid gland rupture due to a blunt trauma in a child. Patients with thyroid gland rupture should be monitored closely for developing a hematoma or thyroid storm. PMID:23522054

  11. Double ischemic ileal stenosis secondary to mesenteric injury after blunt abdominal trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valérie Bougard; Claude Avisse; Martine Patey; Denis Germain; Nathalie Levy-Chazal; Jean-Francois Delattre

    2008-01-01

    The authors describe a rare case in which blunt abdominal trauma resulted in mesenteric injury with delayed double ischemic ileal stenosis. Abdominal computed tomography demonstrated stenotic ileal loop with mural thickening. At surgery, a double stenotic bowel loop was found adjacent to a healed defect in the mesentery. Histological examination of the two resected segments showed fibrotic and ischemic lesions within the mesentery. Ischemic intestinal stenosis from mesenteric injury should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients suffering from intestinal occlusion with a history of blunt abdominal trauma.

  12. Induced biochemical conversions of heavy crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Products formed during multiple interactions of microorganisms with oils fall into two major categories: those formed due to the action of indigenous microorganisms under reservoir conditions over geological periods of time and those products which are generated by the action of introduced organisms. The extreme end product of the first category is the production of heavy 'biodegraded' crudes. The extreme end product of the second category is the production of reduced sulfates due to the introduction of sulfate-reducing bacteria which may lead to the souring of a field. There is, however, a select group of microorganisms whose action on the crudes is beneficial. The interactions between such microorganisms and different crude oils occur through complex biochemical and chemical reactions. These reactions depend on multiple variables within and at the interface of a multicomponent system consisting of organic, aqueous, and inorganic components. Studies, carried out in this laboratory (BNL) of biochemical and chemical reactions in crude oils which involve extremophilic organisms (organisms which thrive in extreme environments), have shown that the reactions are not random and follow distinct trends. These trends can be categorized. The use of a group of characteristic chemical markers, such as mass spectrometric fragmentation patterns of light and heavy hydrocarbons, heterocyclic and organometallic compounds, as well as total trace metal and heteroatom contents of crude oils before and after the biochemical treatment allows to follow the type and the extent of chemical changes which occur during the biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils by microorganisms. The bioconversion involves multiple, simultaneous, and/or concurrent chemical reactions in which the microorganisms serve as biocatalysts. In this sense, the biocatalysts are active in a reaction medium which depends on the chemical composition of the crude and the selectivity of the biocatalyst. Thus, the

  13. Quality indicators and shelf life of red octopus (Octopus maya in chilling storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariel GULLIAN-KLANIAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are no precedents concerning the quality of Octopus maya during chilled storage. This study evaluated the shelf life of the red octopus in chilling storage (4oC and the correlation of the sensory quality index with microbiological counting and the biochemical indicators (hypoxanthine, histamine and volatile amines. A total of 112 whole raw octopi (average weight of 896 g were randomly selected from seven batches and exposed to 4°C for 18, 24, 48, 72, 84, 96, and 100 h. The histamine concentration (91.7%, followed by the counts of psychrotrophic bacteria (5.5% and hypoxanthine (2.2%, were the predictors from the redundancy analysis that better explained the changes taking place during the chilling hours. After 72 h of chilling, the microbial count was determined to be log 4.7 CFU/g, and the octopus samples were classified as B quality (minor sensory quality defects based on the sensory quality scale. Although the samples were not classified as unacceptable at 100 h of refrigeration by the sensory index, the level of histamine reached the defect action level (5 mg/100 g as ruled by the International Food Safety Authorities. The shelf life of the red octopus in chilling storage was predicted to be 119 h.

  14. Architecture as animate landscape: circular shrines in the ancient Maya lowlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison-Buck, Eleanor

    2012-01-01

    In this study, I develop a theory of landscape archaeology that incorporates the concept of “animism” as a cognitive approach. Current trends in anthropology are placing greater emphasis on indigenous perspectives, and in recent decades animism has seen a resurgence in anthropological theory. As a means of relating in (not to) one's world, animism is a mode of thought that has direct bearing on landscape archaeology. Yet, Americanist archaeologists have been slow to incorporate this concept as a component of landscape theory. I consider animism and Nurit Bird-David's (1999) theory of “relatedness” and how such perspectives might be expressed archaeologically in Mesoamerica. I examine the distribution of marine shells and cave formations that appear incorporated as architectural elements on ancient Maya circular shrine architecture. More than just “symbols” of sacred geography, I suggest these materials represent living entities that animate shrines through their ongoing relationships with human and other-than-human agents in the world.

  15. Cacao domestication I: the origin of the cacao cultivated by the Mayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamayor, J C; Risterucci, A M; Lopez, P A; Ortiz, C F; Moreno, A; Lanaud, C

    2002-11-01

    Criollo cacao (Theobroma cacao ssp. cacao) was cultivated by the Mayas over 1500 years ago. It has been suggested that Criollo cacao originated in Central America and that it evolved independently from the cacao populations in the Amazon basin. Cacao populations from the Amazon basin are included in the second morphogeographic group: Forastero, and assigned to T. cacao ssp. sphaerocarpum. To gain further insight into the origin and genetic basis of Criollo cacao from Central America, RFLP and microsatellite analyses were performed on a sample that avoided mixing pure Criollo individuals with individuals classified as Criollo but which might have been introgressed with Forastero genes. We distinguished these two types of individuals as Ancient and Modern Criollo. In contrast to previous studies, Ancient Criollo individuals formerly classified as 'wild', were found to form a closely related group together with Ancient Criollo individuals from South America. The Ancient Criollo trees were also closer to Colombian-Ecuadorian Forastero individuals than these Colombian-Ecuadorian trees were to other South American Forastero individuals. RFLP and microsatellite analyses revealed a high level of homozygosity and significantly low genetic diversity within the Ancient Criollo group. The results suggest that the Ancient Criollo individuals represent the original Criollo group. The results also implies that this group does not represent a separate subspecies and that it probably originated from a few individuals in South America that may have been spread by man within Central America.

  16. The Maya ball game. Comparison of the physical load with modern ball games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blümchen, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    The Maya ball game (MBG) originated more than 3,000 years ago. As best as is now known from archaeological and iconographical sources as well as the structure of the sport courts, this was a very physically taxing and important part of Mayan culture. The objective of this paper was to determine the physical load on those who participated in MBG as best as could be done from present perspectives. The load appears to be similar to that observed in soccer-tennis, in which heart rate rises to 140-160 beats/min and systolic blood pressure to 150-170 mm Hg. This is considered a light-to-moderate workload (4.5-5.5 metabolic equivalents) comparable to intensities reached in baseball, cycling (10 km/h), cross-country skiing (7 km/h), tournament dancing, swimming (2 km/h), doubles tennis and hiking (7 km/h). Thus, the cardiovascular demands of popular sports seem to have remained relatively similar through several millennia. PMID:19246899

  17. Purification and partial characterization of an agglutinin from Octopus maya serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpuche, Juan; Pereyra, Ali; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Agundis, Concepción; Rosas, Carlos; Zenteno, Edgar

    2010-05-01

    A 66-kDa lectin (OmA) was purified from the serum of the Yucatan peninsula endemic octopus (Octopus maya) by a single step affinity chromatography on glutaraldehyde-fixed stroma from rat erythrocytes. OmA corresponds to 0.8% of the total circulating protein in the hemolymph; it is composed of three equal subunits of 22kDa each, and 7.4% of linked carbohydrates. The amino acids' composition indicated that agglutinin contained mainly aspartic and glutamic acids, and cysteine and methionine were identified in minor proportion. OmA agglutinates mainly rat, guinea pig, and rabbit erythrocytes, and this activity is partially inhibited by galactosamine, melobiose, galacturonic acid, mannose, and methyl alpha and beta galactosides. Hemagglutinating activity is not dependent on divalent cations, such as Ca(2+), Mg(2+), or Mn(2+). The OmA subunits showed no identity for any lectin in databases but partial identity with the type A hemocyanin from Octopus dolfleini hemolymph; the main similarities are related to tyrosinase domains and copper A and B sites that conform to the oxygen-binding site of hemocyanin. PMID:20105460

  18. Assessing Sparse Coding Methods for Contextual Shape Indexing of Maya Hieroglyphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Roman-Rangel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Bag-of-visual-words or bag-of-visterms (bov is a common technique used to index Multimedia information with the purposes of retrieval and classification. In this work we address the problem of constructing efficient bov representations of complex shapes as are the Maya syllabic hieroglyphs. Based on retrieval experiments, we assess and evaluate the performance of several variants of the recent sparse coding method KSVD, and compare it with the traditional k-means clustering algorithm. We investigate the effects of a thresholding procedure used to facilitate the sparse decomposition of signals that are potentially sparse, and we also assess the performance of different pooling techniques to construct bov representations. Although the bov's computed via Sparse Coding do not outperform the retrieval precision of those computed by k-means, they achieve competitive results after an adequate enforcement of the sparsity, which leads to more discriminative bag representations with respect to using the original non-sparse descriptors. Also, we propose a simplified formulation of the HOOSC descriptor that improves the retrieval performance.

  19. Apocalipsis maya: una creencia posmoderna en la era de la información

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée de la Torre

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza el papel de las industrias culturales, los medios de comunicación y el internet en la gestación de una creencia contemporánea que clasificamos como “milenarismo posmoderno”, por ser transmediático, instantáneo, global, mercantilizado, efímero, hibrido y virtual. Se realizó un estudio comunicacional sobrela producción mediática de la creencia en la profecía 2012 maya que se difundió en distintos medios de comunicación y que en la víspera de la fecha anunciada capturó la atención de millones de personas en el mundo, para entender el papel que las tecnologías y la mercadotecnia está teniendo en la producción masiva y global de creencias contemporáneas.Con este estudio se busca dar respuesta a: ¿Qué impacto y alcances tiene el fenómeno transmediático en la conformación de nuevas maneras de creer? ¿Qué tipo de narrativas genera? ¿Qué efectos de sentido produce? ¿De qué manera da respuesta a las incertidumbres propias de esta época? ¿Qué consistencia tienen estas creencias? ¿Dónde se ritualizan?

  20. Beyond Nature Appropriation: Towards Post-development Conservation in the Maya Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose E Martinez-Reyes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of biosphere reserves in Mexico was followed by alternative livelihood conservation/development projects to integrate indigenous groups into Western style conservation under the idea of sustainable development and participation. In this paper, I discuss the outcomes of two forest wildlife management projects in one Maya community along the Sian Ka′an Biosphere Reserve in the state of Quintana Roo. Both projects ultimately failed and the community mobilised and expelled the NGO from the community. I argue that the failure of these projects involved two dynamics: 1 lack of coherence between the objectives of state agencies, conservation NGOs, and the local community; and 2 unequal ethnic relations, reproducing relations of colonial inequality and dictating how indigenous groups can participate in managing a territory for conservation. If collaboration and local participation are key in conservation management programs, these case studies suggest that greater institutional accountability and community autonomy are needed to make the practice of conservation more democratic and participatory. The expulsion of the NGO as a conservation and development broker also opened the space for, and possibilities of, post-development conservation practice that challenges the normalising expectations of Western biodiversity conservation.

  1. Radiation for crude drugs contaminated with microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satake, Motoyoshi; Sekita, Setsuko; Kamakura, Hiroyuki [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Recently, it became urgent to develop an effective method for repressing the microbials in a crude drug and its preparation. In some countries in Asia and Western countries, radiosterilization for natural drugs has been approved and the dose was within a range. 10-30 kGy. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and the safety of such radiosterilization for crude drugs. Concerning bacterial contamination in the original materials for crude drugs, the proportion rates of materials containing less than 10{sup 3}, 10{sup 3}-10{sup 4} and more than 10{sup 5} cells were 54, 27 and 19%, respectively. Since the previous study revealed that those microbials were almost diminished by exposure to 10 kGy, various crude drugs were exposed to 5 kGy and the amounts of remaining microbials were determined. The number of microbials remained after radiation at 5 kGy was 1 x 10{sup 3} for plantago seed, rhubarb and cyperus rhizome and less than 10{sup 2} for other samples tested. The effects of radiation on the respective active ingredients of each crude drug underwent using HPLC. (M.N.)

  2. Comprehensive Evaluation of Tahe Medium Gravity Crude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Li; Zou Ying; Weng Huixin

    2008-01-01

    The comprehensive evaluation of Tahe medium gravity crude has demonstrated that this type of crude belongs to a intermediate base sour crude, featuring high vanadium content (103ppm), high carbon residue content, low pour point, and low acid value. Based on the crude processing conditions at SINOPEC Luoyang Petrochemical Branch Company, a proposal on the appropriate process flow scheme for processing Tahe crude oil has been raised with the main ideas presented as follows. The IBP-175 ℃ fraction is not an ideal feedstock for catalytic reforming; the 75-250℃ fraction is a qualified feedstock for zeolite de-waxing; the 140-230℃ fraction can be used to manufacture the No. 3 jet fuel through appropriate distillation range adjustment and product refining; the 175-350℃ fraction can be directly used to manufacture No.-10 diesel through proper refining; the atmospheric resid boiling over 350℃ is not suited to be used as the RFCC feedstock; the 350-520℃ vacuum distillate oil can be used as the FCC feedstock; and the vacuum residuum boiling over 520℃ is a good feedstock for manufacture of asphalt.

  3. Forecasting volatility of crude oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sang Hoon [Department of Business Administration, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, 660-701 (Korea); Kang, Sang-Mok; Yoon, Seong-Min [Department of Economics, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735 (Korea)

    2009-01-15

    This article investigates the efficacy of a volatility model for three crude oil markets - Brent, Dubai, and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) - with regard to its ability to forecast and identify volatility stylized facts, in particular volatility persistence or long memory. In this context, we assess persistence in the volatility of the three crude oil prices using conditional volatility models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models are better equipped to capture persistence than are the GARCH and IGARCH models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models also provide superior performance in out-of-sample volatility forecasts. We conclude that the CGARCH and FIGARCH models are useful for modeling and forecasting persistence in the volatility of crude oil prices. (author)

  4. Economía y política, factores de cambio en la sociedad clásica maya. Un acercamiento desde la perspectiva de Calakmul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Alberto Mumary Farto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A comienzos del siglo XX cuando los estudios mayas no habían hecho nada más que comenzar, se desconocían las cuestiones políticas, económicas y militares que imperaban en la realidad del periodo Clásico. Hoy en día gracias a la arqueología y epigrafía podemos vislumbrar los cambios que se produjeron en la sociedad maya clásica así como la influencia y el papel que jugaron estos factores en su desarrollo

  5. 基于Maya脚本语言的双面渲染方法%The Method of Double Rendering Based on Maya Embedding Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马红旭

    2014-01-01

    渲染是三维动画M aya软件最终色彩和光影效果的整体表现形式。介绍了使用M aya软件中的脚本语言对已经建立的一个三维碗状模型进行色彩双面渲染的方法。%Rendering is the Maya software in 3D’s overall form with final color and lighting .The article mainly introduces the method of double rendering of 3D models which have been established on Maya embedding language in computer .

  6. Crude oil hedging: benchmarking price protection strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a review of hedging (protection against a loss) strategies in the crude oil futures and options markets. The introductory section of the report gives details of hedging instruments, and the purposes of hedging crude oil. Hedging strategies including pure futures strategies, pure options strategies, options combination strategies, exotic (Asian) options strategies, and insurance instruments are described. The West Texas intermediate (WTI) market depth, liquidity and hedging effectiveness are examined, and winners and losers, and energy consumers are considered. The appendix gives tables and charts summarising the outcomes of futures and options strategies under different market conditions and expectations. (UK)

  7. CNPC's Crude Production Maintained Steady Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Mature oilfields report steady output rises despite reserves decline Ghina's largest oil base Daqing Oilfield has fulfilled its production target by stabilizing its crude oil output above 40 million tons in the past year,although its reserves have been on the decline.Its 2008 crude oil production stood at 40.2 million tons,which was the smallest in three years if compared to the 41.7 million tons in 2007 and 43.41 million tons in 2006.But its 2008 natural gas output hit 2.76 billion cubic meters,up 8.241 percent from the 2.55 billion cubic meters in 2007.

  8. GLAUCOMA FOLLOWING BLUNT TRAUMA : AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND CLINICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purvi R

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: To study the demographic profile, clinical picture, treatment modalities and long term follow up of patients suffering from glaucoma developing after blunt trauma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study over one year in which 75 eyes, newly diagnosed or referred with post traumatic glaucoma to M & J Institute of Ophthalmology were studied. All cases underwent thorough eye examination. Treatment was individualized and instituted. RESULTS: Patients ranged from 1 - 70 years with 32 patients (42.66% below 30 years of age. 61 patients (81.33% were males. 66.65% were students, laborers or housewives, with laborers topping the charts in vulnerability. In 46 cases (61.33%, left eye was affected, while in 29 pts. (38.66% right eye was affected. In 54.66% of cases, trauma was caused by stone, wooden stick or ball. Others included fist, firecracker, iron rod, handle, belt.16% patients presented with IOP in the normal range, 38 (50.66% patients had IOP in the range of 21-30 mm Hg, whereas 16 (21.33% patients had IOP more than 40 mm Hg. Within 1 week of instituting treatment, 41 (54.66% had IOP ≤ 20 mm Hg and only 3 patients had IOP more than 30 mm Hg. However, 70 (93.33% patients had IOP ≤ 20 mm Hg by the end of 6 months and all the patients were in this range after 6 months. On slit lamp examination, corneal edema, traumatic mydriasis and sphincter tears were seen in 32 patients each. 12 patients had hyphema and 19 patients had lens dislocated either into vitreous or into the anterior chamber. Iridodialysis was seen in 5 patients. Other findings included cataract, posterior synechiae, subluxation of lens and tobacco dusting. 57 (76% patients had vision less than 6/60, however after an interval of more than 6 months, 28 (37% patients had vision less than 3/60. The number of patients having vision ≥ 6/12 rose from 5 at initial presentation to 15 in follow-up more than 6 months. Disc changes could be assessed by ophthalmoscopy in 37

  9. Mechanisms and Clinical Management of Ventricular Arrhythmias following Blunt Chest Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. Wolbrom

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonpenetrating, blunt chest trauma is a serious medical condition with varied clinical presentations and implications. This can be the result of a dense projectile during competitive and recreational sports but may also include other etiologies such as motor vehicle accidents or traumatic falls. In this setting, the manifestation of ventricular arrhythmias has been observed both acutely and chronically. This is based on two entirely separate mechanisms and etiologies requiring different treatments. Ventricular fibrillation can occur immediately after chest wall injury (commotio cordis and requires rapid defibrillation. Monomorphic ventricular tachycardia can develop in the chronic stage due to underlying structural heart disease long after blunt chest injury. The associated arrhythmogenic tissue may be complex and provides the necessary substrate to form a reentrant VT circuit. Ventricular tachycardia in the absence of overt structural heart disease appears to be focal in nature with rapid termination during ablation. Regardless of the VT mechanism, patients with recurrent episodes, despite antiarrhythmic medication in the chronic stage following blunt chest injury, are likely to require ablation to achieve VT control. This review article will describe the mechanisms, pathophysiology, and treatment of ventricular arrhythmias that occur in both the acute and chronic stages following blunt chest trauma.

  10. "Smoking": Use of Cigarettes, Cigars and Blunts among Southeast Asian American Youth and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. P.; Battle, R. S.; Lipton, R.; Soller, B.

    2010-01-01

    Increased use of cigars has been noted among youth, as well as use of blunts (hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana). Three types of relationships have been previously hypothesized between use of tobacco and marijuana in substance use progression. We aimed to assess these relationships for Southeast Asian American youth and adults in an urban…

  11. Diuretic response to acute hypertension is blunted during angiotensin II clamp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leong, Patrick K K; Zhang, Yibin; Yang, Li E;

    2002-01-01

    and endogenous lithium clearance increased two- and threefold, respectively. We conclude that HOE-140, an inhibitor of the B(2) receptor, potentiates the sensitivity of arterial pressure to ANG II and that clamping systemic ANG II levels during acute hypertension blunts the magnitude of the pressure diuretic...

  12. Duration of antibiotic treatment in surgical infections of the abdomen. Blunt abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, G A; Rüedi, T P

    1996-01-01

    Blunt abdominal trauma is associated with a low risk of injury to the microorganism-containing hollow viscera. Therefore, routine pre-operative administration of antibiotics is not necessary. Antibiotics are given intraoperatively, if laparotomy discloses transmural injury of a hollow organ and peritoneal contamination. If intervention is early (injuries should be treated with antibiotics for a maximum of 5 days.

  13. Predictors of successful non-operative management of grade III & IV blunt pancreatic trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman B Koganti

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: Non-operative measures should be attempted in a select group of grade III&IV blunt pancreatic trauma. In hemodynamically stable patients with a controlled leak walled off as a pseudocyst without associated organ injuries and pancreatic necrosis, NOM has a higher success rate.

  14. Delayed Presentation of Renocolic Fistula at 4 Months after Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Don Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Causes of previously reported reno-colic fistulas included primary renal and colonic pathologic states involving infectious, malignant or other inflammatory processes. However, reno-colic fistula after renal injury is extremely uncommon. We report an unusual delayed presentation of reno-colic fistula that occurred at 4 months later after blunt abdominal trauma.

  15. Delayed Presentation of Renocolic Fistula at 4 Months after Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Sang Don Lee; Tae Nam Kim; Hong Koo Ha

    2011-01-01

    Causes of previously reported reno-colic fistulas included primary renal and colonic pathologic states involving infectious, malignant or other inflammatory processes. However, reno-colic fistula after renal injury is extremely uncommon. We report an unusual delayed presentation of reno-colic fistula that occurred at 4 months later after blunt abdominal trauma.

  16. Penile injury due to blunt trauma after circumcision in a male child: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulya Ozturk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Injury in the case presented here is different from the cause of penile trauma. Our case has been exposed to blunt trauma after circumcision. Type developments of the penile trauma, treatment, and precautions have been discussed with the literature.

  17. Diagnostic and therapeutic lumbar puncture performed safely and efficiently with a thin blunt needle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders; Afshari, Arash; Bjerrum, Ole Weis

    2013-01-01

    The risk of postdural puncture headache following lumbar puncture can be reduced by choosing a blunt spinal needle or by using a smaller needle diameter. Reports indicate that lumbar puncture practiced outside of the anaesthetic discipline does not adhere to the current level of evidence. To exam...

  18. [Isolated left ventricular--right atrial shunt after blunt chest trauma (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzer, E; Beyer, J

    1978-12-01

    A case of left-ventricular-right-atrial septal defect secundary to blunt chest trauma is described. The etiology of this type of septal defect, e. g. congenital, following aortic and mitral valve replacement, endocarditis and trauma, is discussed. Early defect closure is recommended in the presence of significant shunt volume. PMID:751280

  19. Dynamic Stability Analysis of Blunt Body Entry Vehicles Using Time-Lagged Aftbody Pitching Moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemba, Cole D.; Braun, Robert D.; Schoenenberger, Mark; Clark, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    This analysis defines an analytic model for the pitching motion of blunt bodies during atmospheric entry. The proposed model is independent of the pitch damping sum coefficient present in the standard formulation of the equations of motion describing pitch oscillations of a decelerating blunt body, instead using the principle of a time-lagged aftbody moment as the forcing function for oscillation divergence. Four parameters, all with intuitive physical relevance, are introduced to fully define the aftbody moment and the associated time delay. It is shown that the dynamic oscillation responses typical to blunt bodies can be produced using hysteresis of the aftbody moment in place of the pitch damping coefficient. The approach used in this investigation is shown to be useful in understanding the governing physical mechanisms for blunt body dynamic stability and in guiding vehicle and mission design requirements. A validation case study using simulated ballistic range test data is conducted. From this, parameter identification is carried out through the use of a least squares optimizing routine. Results show good agreement with the limited existing literature for the parameters identified, suggesting that the model proposed could be validated by an experimental ballistic range test series. The trajectories produced by the identified parameters were found to match closely those from the MER ballistic range tests for a wide array of initial conditions and can be identified with a reasonable number of ballistic range shots and computational effort.

  20. Post-traumatic pulmonary pseudocyst with hemopneumothorax following blunt chest trauma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fagkrezos Dimitris

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Post-traumatic pulmonary pseudocyst is an uncommon cavitary lesion of the lung and develops after blunt chest trauma and even more rarely following penetrating injuries. It is generally seen in young adults presenting with cough, chest pain, hemoptysis, and dyspnea. Post-traumatic pulmonary pseudocyst should be included in the differential diagnosis of cavitary pulmonary lesions. We describe the case of a 60-year-old Caucasian Greek woman who sustained traumatic pulmonary pseudocyst with hemopneumothorax due to a blunt chest trauma after a traffic accident. Case presentation After a traffic accident, a 60-year-old Caucasian Greek woman sustained a hemopneumothorax due to a blunt chest trauma. There was evidence of an extensive contusion in the posterior and lateral segments of the right lower lobe, a finding that was attributed to an early sign of a cavitation, and the presence of a thin-walled air cavity was detected on the anterior segment of the right lower lobe in the control computed tomography taken 24 hours after admission. Our patient was treated by catheter aspiration, and the findings of computed tomography evaluation about one month later showed complete resolution of one of the two air-filled cavitary lesions. The second pseudocyst also disappeared completely, as shown by the control computed tomography scan performed six months later. Conclusions Traumatic pulmonary pseudocyst is a rare complication of blunt chest trauma, and computed tomography is a more valuable imaging technique than chest radiograph for early diagnosis.

  1. Randomized clinical trial comparing blunt tapered and standard needles in closing abdominal fascia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordkam, R.A.; Bluyssen, S.J.; Goor, H. van

    2005-01-01

    Glove perforation frequently occurs during the course of surgical procedures, introducing risks for both surgeons and patients. The aim of this study was to compare the use of blunt tapered and "sharp" needles during abdominal wall closure with respect to the incidence of glove perforation and the c

  2. Thyroid gland rupture after blunt neck trauma: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Arana-Garza

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the rarity of this condition, physicians should take in mind the possibility of thyroid injury after blunt neck trauma. Early detection and prompt treatment, can reduce life threatening complications. Management should be individualized to patient’s characteristics and surgeon’s experience.

  3. Ischemic jejunal stenosis and blind loop syndrome after blunt abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, P; Rendall, M; Hoskins, E O; Missen, G A; Sladen, G E

    1987-02-01

    One month after suffering blunt abdominal trauma a patient developed severe steatorrhea and profound weight loss in association with an ischemic distal jejunal stricture and blind loop syndrome. Evidence for a partial mesenteric tear was found at resection of the stricture, which resulted in complete cure.

  4. Simulation of pipelining pours point depressant beneficiated waxy crude oil through China West Crude Oil Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鸿英; 张劲军; 凌霄; 黄启玉; 林小飞; 贾邦龙; 李宇光

    2008-01-01

    Flow properties of waxy crude oils,particularly the beneficiated waxy crude oils,are sensitive to shear history that the crude oil experienced,called the shear history effect.To simulate this shear history effect accurately is vital to pipeline design and operation.It has been demonstrated by our previous that the energy dissipation or entropy generation due to viscous flow in the shear process is a suitable parameter for simulating the shear history effect.In order to further verify the reliability of this approach,experimental simulations were conducted for three PPD-beneficiated waxy crude oils transported through the China West Crude Oil Pipeline,a most complicated long-distance-crude-oil-pipeline technically and operationally so far in China.The simulations were made by using a stirred vessel and with the energy dissipation of viscous flow as the shear simulation parameter.Comparison between the flow properties of crude oils obtained from field test and experimental simulations,it is found that the gel points and viscosities from experimental simulations are in good agreement with the field data.

  5. Dal mondo dell’arte al regno delle ombre (e ritorno. Arthur Danto, Maya Lin e la bellezza interna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Fimiani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Arthur Danto asserts that Maya Lin’s Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington embodies the rhetoric paradigm of internal beauty’s meaning. However, the relationship to the Kant’s pulchritudo adhaerens is not an easy one: Danto’s recalls against the self-referent formalism of Greenberg’s Modernism and his tacit issues about the environmental non-monumentality of Richard Serra’s Minimalism, are, most importantly, haunted by the unquestioned spectral logic of the image embodiment. The beholders’ reflecting shape on the funeral Wall is, finally, both a pathetic index and a medial incarnation (Verkörperung of the underworld.

  6. Resistencia indígena y discursos racistas: una lectura biopolítica de los mayas yucatecos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izaskun Álvarez Cuartero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article I propose to analyse the history of Yucatec Maya people from a biopolitical perspective. I study two periods of great importance in Mayan history: first, during the colonial period, the politics of population control and the peculiar geography of Yucatan guide us to explain how the colony was settled there; while the second part discusses the lack of instability of Mayan Indians during Independence, the indigenous resistance that will eventually lead to the 1847 Caste War and its consequence: the sale of Mayan Indians as slaves to Cuba as an alternative to eliminate Indian rebels and to create an imagined nation of Yucatan.

  7. Buenos Aires y salta en rito cívico: la revolución y las fiestas mayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Garavaglia

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El articulo es una relectura de los acontecimientos de los primeros años postrevolucionarios en el Plata. Centrado en las fiestas mayas, las analiza como uno de los elementos claves en la constitución de nuevas formas de imaginar la experiencia política iniciada en 1810. La comparación entre Buenos Aires y Salta, permite mostrar algunas de diferencias en las maneras de vivir estas fiestas "revolucionarias"; esas diferencias reflejan por supuesto realidades sociales y culturales bastante contrastadas.

  8. INADEQUACY IN DIAGNOSIS OF BLUNT TRAUMA ABDOMEN - CAN ANAESTHESIOLOGIST BE BAFFLED BY CATASTROPHIC INTRAOPERATIVE FINDINGS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyanta Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The magnitude of injury inflicted by Blunt trauma abdomen has varied manifestations ranging from minor single - system injury to devastating, multi - system injury .Blunt trauma abdomen alone or in association with polytrauma is a frequent presentation in the emergency department. High index of suspicion and clinical acumen is required during evaluation of blunt abdominal injuries because physical signs and symptoms indicating presence of visceral lesions may poorly correlate with clinical presentation. Diagnostic peritoneal tapping is considered safe initial option with high accuracy but carries possibility of significant false positive and false negative result. Ultrasonography (FAST ha s its own limitations; although CT findings can be conclusive it involves time for analysis and the patient should be cooperative. Blunt trauma abdomen may present with life threatening internal haemorrhage due to visceral or vascular injuries prompting em ergency surgical intervention at odd hours with limited investigations and resources, Pre anaesthetic optimization by maintenance of adequate tissue oxygenation with optimal blood volume replacement and judicious use of inotropes, determine outcome of such emergency procedures. Careful selection of anaesthetic techniques and drugs particularly the inducing agents can be life - saving. Agility of the attending anesthesiologist to handle unforeseen intra operative critical events plays a pivotal role in overall outcome. We are discussing Anaesthetic management of a 23 year old victim of road traffic accident, who sustained blunt trauma abdomen about 24 hrs. Back, was conscious, oriented and ambulatory till the time of shifting to the operating theatre but on exp loration sudden gush of blood from a preoperatively undetected 7 cms long tear of the sub diaphragmatic part of IVC, and lacerated liver almost exsanguinated the patient.

  9. China's Crude Oil Imports Rises Steadily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Chinese imports of crude oil rose 10.8 percent year-on-year over the first four months of this year, due to the country's growing need for resources to fuel its rapidly developing economy, the General Administration of Customs (GAC) announced in mid-May.

  10. Waxy crude oil flow restart ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, Andre Gaona; Varges, Priscilla Ribeiro; Mendes, Paulo Roberto de Souza [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: prvarges@puc-rio.br, pmendes@puc-rio.br; Ziglio, Claudio [PETROBRAS S.A, R.J., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: ziglio@petrobras.com.br

    2010-07-01

    Under the hot reservoir conditions, waxy crudes behave like Newtonian fluids but once they experience very cold temperatures on the sea floor, the heavy paraffin's begin to precipitate from the solution impacting non- Newtonian flow behavior to the crude (Chang 2000, Lee 2009, Davidson 2004) and begin to deposit on the pipe wall leave blocked of pipeline. This gel cannot be broken with the original steady state flow operating pressure applied before gelation (Chang 1998). Restarting waxy crude oil flows in pipelines is a difficult issue because of the complex rheological behavior of the gelled oil. Indeed, below the WAT, the gelled oil exhibits viscoplastic, thixotropic, temperature-dependent, and compressible properties due to the interlocking gel-like structure formed by the crystallized paraffin compounds and the thermal shrinkage of the oil. The main objective of this work is to determine the minimal pressure to restart the flow, and the relationship between the fluid rheology , pipe geometry and the restart pressure of the flow. Experiments will be performed to investigate the displacement of carbopol aqueous solutions (viscoplastic fluid without thixotropic effects) by Newtonian oil flowing through a strait pipe to validate the experimental apparatus. Therefore, tests will be made with different fluids, like Laponite and waxy crude oils. (author)

  11. Heavy oils processing materials requirements crude processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloley, Andrew W. [CH2M Hill, Englewood, CO (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Over time, recommended best practices for crude unit materials selection have evolved to accommodate new operating requirements, feed qualities, and product qualities. The shift to heavier oil processing is one of the major changes in crude feed quality occurring over the last 20 years. The three major types of crude unit corrosion include sulfidation attack, naphthenic acid attack, and corrosion resulting from hydrolyzable chlorides. Heavy oils processing makes all three areas worse. Heavy oils have higher sulfur content; higher naphthenic acid content; and are more difficult to desalt, leading to higher chloride corrosion rates. Materials selection involves two major criteria, meeting required safety standards, and optimizing economics of the overall plant. Proper materials selection is only one component of a plant integrity approach. Materials selection cannot eliminate all corrosion. Proper materials selection requires appropriate support from other elements of an integrity protection program. The elements of integrity preservation include: materials selection (type and corrosion allowance); management limits on operating conditions allowed; feed quality control; chemical additives for corrosion reduction; and preventive maintenance and inspection (PMI). The following discussion must be taken in the context of the application of required supporting work in all the other areas. Within that context, specific materials recommendations are made to minimize corrosion due to the most common causes in the crude unit. (author)

  12. Degradation of crude oil by marine cyanobacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Vipparty, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    was measured by gravimetric and gas chromatographic methods. Around 45-55% of the total fractions of crude oil (containing 50% aliphatics, 31% waxes and bitumin, 14% aromatics and 5% polar compounds) were removed in the presence of these cultures within 10 days...

  13. CRUDE OIL BIOREMEDIATION: THE AMERICAN EXPERIENCE (PRESENTATION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a state-of-the-art extended abstract presentation summary of the outputs from the oil spill program over the last 11 years. It summarizes the results of 3 field studies involving intentional releases of crude oil: the Delaware study in 1994 (sandy beach), the St. Lawrence...

  14. The Linguistic Interdependence Hypothesis and the language development of Yucatec Maya-Spanish bilingual children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrooman, Michael D.

    2000-11-01

    The Linguistic Interdependence Hypothesis as developed by Cummins (1978) argues that certain first language (L1) knowledge can be positively transferred during the process of second language (L2) acquisition. The L1 linguistic knowledge and skills that a child possesses can be extremely instrumental to the development of corresponding abilities in the L2. An integral component of these facilitative aspects of language influence is that the L1 be sufficiently developed prior to the extensive exposure to the L2 as would be found, for example, in an educational environment. An additional theoretical framework that has motivated this study incorporates principles of Universal Grammar, namely, that there are innate properties of language shared by the human species, and that language acquisition is the result of the interaction between these biologically determined aspects of language with the learner's linguistic environment. The principal goal of this dissertation is to examine children's knowledge of one area of Yucatec Maya L1 syntax, specifically, the word order of simple transitive sentences. By means of an experiment conducted with 28 Mayan children of 4 and 5 years of age, data were gathered and analyzed. Overall, the findings suggest that the subjects of the study are still in the process of acquiring the syntactic structure under investigation, that their L1 is still developing. Very few of the subjects demonstrated mastery of the structure under investigation. With regards to pedagogical concerns within the context of minority language education, the potentiality for these findings to enhance or inhibit the subsequent acquisition of Spanish as an L2 is examined.

  15. Lacandon Maya ecosystem management: sustainable design for subsistence and environmental restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemont, Stewart A W; Martin, Jay F

    2009-01-01

    Indigenous groups have designed and managed their ecosystems for generations, resulting in biodiversity protection while producing for their family's needs. Here we describe the agroecosystem of the Lacandon Maya, an indigenous group who live in Chiapas, Mexico. The Lacandon practice a form of swidden agriculture that conserves the surrounding rain forest ecosystem while cycling the majority of their land through five successional stages. These stages include an herbaceous stage, two shrub stages, and two forest stages. A portion of their land is kept in primary forest. This study presents the Lacandon traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) for agroforestry and quantitatively describes the plant community and the associated soil ecology of each successional stage. Also documented is the knowledge of the Lacandon regarding the immediate use of plant species and plant species useful for soil fertility enhancement. Woody plant diversity increases during the successional stages of the Lacandon system, and by the beginning of the first forest stage, the diversity is similar to that of the primary forest. In all stages, Lacandon use 60% of the available plant species for food, medicine, and raw materials. Approximately 45% of the woody plant species present in each fallow stage were thought by the Lacandon to enhance soil fertility. Total soil nitrogen and soil organic matter increased with successional stage and with time from intentional burn. Nutrient and soil nematode dynamics in shrub stages related to the presence of introduced and managed plants, indicating engineered soil enhancement by the Lacandon. The effects on biodiversity and soil ecology coupled with productivity for agricultural subsistence indicate that Lacandon TEK may offer tools for environmental conservation that would provide for a family's basic needs while maintaining a biodiverse rain forest ecosystem. Tools such as these may offer options for regional restoration and conservation efforts such as

  16. Volatility persistence in crude oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Financial market participants and policy-makers can benefit from a better understanding of how shocks can affect volatility over time. This study assesses the impact of structural changes and outliers on volatility persistence of three crude oil markets – Brent, West Texas Intermediate (WTI) and Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) – between January 2, 1985 and June 17, 2011. We identify outliers using a new semi-parametric test based on conditional heteroscedasticity models. These large shocks can be associated with particular event patterns, such as the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq, the Operation Desert Storm, the Operation Desert Fox, and the Global Financial Crisis as well as OPEC announcements on production reduction or US announcements on crude inventories. We show that outliers can bias (i) the estimates of the parameters of the equation governing volatility dynamics; (ii) the regularity and non-negativity conditions of GARCH-type models (GARCH, IGARCH, FIGARCH and HYGARCH); and (iii) the detection of structural breaks in volatility, and thus the estimation of the persistence of the volatility. Therefore, taking into account the outliers on the volatility modelling process may improve the understanding of volatility in crude oil markets. - Highlights: • We study the impact of outliers on volatility persistence of crude oil markets. • We identify outliers and patches of outliers due to specific events. • We show that outliers can bias (i) the estimates of the parameters of GARCH models, (ii) the regularity and non-negativity conditions of GARCH-type models, (iii) the detection of structural breaks in volatility of crude oil markets

  17. Performance of Crude Palm Oil and Crude Palm Kernel Oil Futures in Malaysian Derivatives Market

    OpenAIRE

    Noriza Binti Mohd Saad; Noraini Binti Ismail; Nor Edi Azhar Binti Mohamad; Normaisarah Binti Abdul Manaf

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the performance of two contracts traded that is Futures Crude Palm Oil (hereafter refers as FCPO) and Crude Palm Kernel Oil futures (hereafter refers as FPKO) in Malaysian derivatives market. The effects of contract’s settlement, volume and open interest was analyzed towards open price (hereafter refers as price) for both contract traded. Secondary data is used, which are gathered from Bloomberg, Bursa Malaysia for N=1,296 over the period between 2006 and 2010. Overall...

  18. NON - OPERATIVE MANAGEMENT OF BLUNT HEPATIC AND/OR SPLENIC TRAUMA : A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The incidence of blunt splenic and hepatic injuries are on a rise not only because of an increase in the overall incidence of Road Traffic Accidents but also due to more liberal use of radiological tests in the work - up of these patients. Spleen and liver are respectively the first and the second most common intra - abdominal organs to be injured in blunt abdominal injury. However, most of these patients can be treated without a formal laparotomy and its associated complications, as long as they remain hemody namically stable. Although few studies have proven the efficacy of conservative management, most of them are retrospective. This prospective study aims to evaluate the efficacy of conservative management of blunt liver and/or splenic injuries. MATERIALS AN D METHODS: Over a 12 - month period, a total of 56 patients with blunt hepatic and/or splenic injury were evaluated prospectively. Fourteen [25%] patients underwent immediate exploration for hemodynamic instability and the rest 42 patients constituted the st udy group. Injury Severity Score [ISS] was used to assess the extent of overall injury. Unstable patients underwent emergent laparotomies, and stable patients had abdominal computed tomography (CT scans to grade the source and severity of their injury. He patic and splenic injuries were graded using AAST grading for solid organ injuries. Those with nonhepatic, nonsplenic operative indications underwent exploration, and the remaining patients were intentionally managed nonoperatively in the trauma intensive care unit. Frequent measurement of vitals and estimation of hemoglobin and hematocrit was done. The outcome was measured in terms of total blood transfused, total duration of hospital stay and complications due to conservative management. RESULTS: A total of 56 patients presented to our ED with blunt abdominal trauma. Fourteen patients had to undergo emergent surgery for hemodynamic stability. The rest 42 were

  19. Earliest Mexican Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo in the Maya Region: implications for pre-Hispanic animal trade and the timing of turkey domestication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Kennedy Thornton

    Full Text Available Late Preclassic (300 BC-AD 100 turkey remains identified at the archaeological site of El Mirador (Petén, Guatemala represent the earliest evidence of the Mexican turkey (Meleagris gallopavo in the ancient Maya world. Archaeological, zooarchaeological, and ancient DNA evidence combine to confirm the identification and context. The natural pre-Hispanic range of the Mexican turkey does not extend south of central Mexico, making the species non-local to the Maya area where another species, the ocellated turkey (Meleagris ocellata, is indigenous. Prior to this discovery, the earliest evidence of M. gallopavo in the Maya area dated to approximately one thousand years later. The El Mirador specimens therefore represent previously unrecorded Preclassic exchange of animals from northern Mesoamerica to the Maya cultural region. As the earliest evidence of M. gallopavo found outside its natural geographic range, the El Mirador turkeys also represent the earliest indirect evidence for Mesoamerican turkey rearing or domestication. The presence of male, female and sub-adult turkeys, and reduced flight morphology further suggests that the El Mirador turkeys were raised in captivity. This supports an argument for the origins of turkey husbandry or at least captive rearing in the Preclassic.

  20. Earliest Mexican Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in the Maya Region: implications for pre-Hispanic animal trade and the timing of turkey domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Erin Kennedy; Emery, Kitty F; Steadman, David W; Speller, Camilla; Matheny, Ray; Yang, Dongya

    2012-01-01

    Late Preclassic (300 BC-AD 100) turkey remains identified at the archaeological site of El Mirador (Petén, Guatemala) represent the earliest evidence of the Mexican turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) in the ancient Maya world. Archaeological, zooarchaeological, and ancient DNA evidence combine to confirm the identification and context. The natural pre-Hispanic range of the Mexican turkey does not extend south of central Mexico, making the species non-local to the Maya area where another species, the ocellated turkey (Meleagris ocellata), is indigenous. Prior to this discovery, the earliest evidence of M. gallopavo in the Maya area dated to approximately one thousand years later. The El Mirador specimens therefore represent previously unrecorded Preclassic exchange of animals from northern Mesoamerica to the Maya cultural region. As the earliest evidence of M. gallopavo found outside its natural geographic range, the El Mirador turkeys also represent the earliest indirect evidence for Mesoamerican turkey rearing or domestication. The presence of male, female and sub-adult turkeys, and reduced flight morphology further suggests that the El Mirador turkeys were raised in captivity. This supports an argument for the origins of turkey husbandry or at least captive rearing in the Preclassic.

  1. Análisis ambiental y económico de proyectos carreteros en la Selva Maya, un estudio a escala regional

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Dalia Amor; Burgués, Irene; Fleck, Leonardo;

    Various road projects have been proposed in the border region of Mexico, Guatemala and Belize, which is part of the Maya Forest, the largest continuous forest in the Americas north of the Amazon. It is also part of the Mesoamerican biodiversity “hotspot,” one of the planet’s biologically richest ...

  2. Agrodiversidad y nutrición en Yucatán: una mirada al mundo maya rural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Becerril

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El uso y aprovechamiento de la agrodiversidad dan continuidad de facto a la conservación de la diversidad genética in situ y a su conocimiento, y generan externalidades positivas en términos de bienestar nutricional. En las áreas rurales de Yucatán, siete de cada diez hombres y mujeres adultos presentan sobrepeso, y veinte de cada cien infantes tienen talla baja, lo que se traduce en un problema dual de salud pública, que aminora el desarrollo rural. En el artículo se analiza la paradoja entre la disponibilidad de diversidad agrícola amplia y el sobrepeso en 390 hogares, en 20 localidades rurales, en las siete regiones de Yucatán. Los hallazgos revelan que las mujeres adultas son las más propensas a la obesidad, pero la condición maya (hablar lengua maya e identificarse como tal, además de mantener usos y costumbres de la cultura sugiere una reducción en el índice de sobrepeso y obesidad, lo que se puede argumentar se debe a los usos y costumbres en el consumo y gestión de la agrodiversidad.

  3. LA CATEGORÍA DE INCOMPLETIVO EN LAS LENGUAS MAYAS: UN ESTUDIO COMPARATIVO DE VARIACIÓN SEMÁNTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Vinogradov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En las lenguas mayas, el incompletivo forma parte del paradigma de las marcas aspectuales y/o temporales. Aunque el mismo término “incompletivo” se usa regularmente en relación a las lenguas de toda la familia, los rasgos semánticos de esta categoría varian mucho según las lenguas particulares. El significado general del incompletivo puede ser analizado como un conjunto de tres significados más elementales: progresivo, habitual y futuro. Dentro de la familia maya hay lenguas en que el incompletivo abarca los tres significados, pero también hay lenguas en que el ámbito de los usos del incompletivo se limita a sólo uno o dos significados de la lista. El incompletivo semánticamente reducido ocurre cuando el paradigma de tiempo/aspecto incluye otras categorías que asumen algunos de los tres significados ya mencionados. El significado de habitual se encuentra en todas las lenguas examinadas y por lo tanto parece ser el significado básico del incompletivo.

  4. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis shows high genetic diversity and ecological niche specificity among haplotypes in the Maya Mountains of Belize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Kaiser

    Full Text Available The amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd has been implicated in amphibian declines around the globe. Although it has been found in most countries in Central America, its presence has never been assessed in Belize. We set out to determine the range, prevalence, and diversity of Bd using quantitative PCR (qPCR and sequencing of a portion of the 5.8 s and ITS1-2 regions. Swabs were collected from 524 amphibians of at least 26 species in the protected areas of the Maya Mountains of Belize. We sequenced a subset of 72 samples that had tested positive for Bd by qPCR at least once; 30 samples were verified as Bd. Eight unique Bd haplotypes were identified in the Maya Mountains, five of which were previously undescribed. We identified unique ecological niches for the two most broadly distributed haplotypes. Combined with data showing differing virulence shown in different strains in other studies, the 5.8 s - ITS1-2 region diversity found in this study suggests that there may be substantial differences among populations or haplotypes. Future work should focus on whether specific haplotypes for other genomic regions and possibly pathogenicity can be associated with haplotypes at this locus, as well as the integration of molecular tools with other ecological tools to elucidate the ecology and pathogenicity of Bd.

  5. Two new species of dicyemid mesozoans (Dicyemida: Dicyemidae) from Octopus maya Voss & Solis-Ramirez (Octopodidae) off Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos-Martinez, Sheila; Aguirre-Macedo, M Leopoldina; Furuya, Hidetaka

    2016-07-01

    Two new dicyemid species are described from the endemic cephalopod Octopus maya Voss & Solis-Ramirez collected off Yucatan, Mexico. The renal sacs of 40 juvenile and adult octopuses from four localities were examined. Dicyema hochbergi n. sp. is a medium-sized species that reaches 2,245 µm in length. The vermiform stages consist of 18-24 peripheral cells, a conical calotte and the extension of the axial cell between the base and middle of the metapolar cells. Infusoriform embryos consist of 39 cells with urn cell containing one germinal cell, two nuclei and solid refringent bodies. Dicyema mexcayae n. sp. is a relatively small species that reaches 1,114 µm in length. The vermiform stages are constituted by 14-16 peripheral cells, an elongate calotte and the axial cell extending forward to the middle of the metapolar cells. The infusoriform embryos consist of 37 cells, two solid refringent bodies and urn cells with two nuclei each. The present study represents the first description of a dicyemid species from O. maya and increases the number of described species from Mexican waters to 11. PMID:27307168

  6. Two new species of dicyemid mesozoans (Dicyemida: Dicyemidae) from Octopus maya Voss & Solis-Ramirez (Octopodidae) off Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos-Martinez, Sheila; Aguirre-Macedo, M Leopoldina; Furuya, Hidetaka

    2016-07-01

    Two new dicyemid species are described from the endemic cephalopod Octopus maya Voss & Solis-Ramirez collected off Yucatan, Mexico. The renal sacs of 40 juvenile and adult octopuses from four localities were examined. Dicyema hochbergi n. sp. is a medium-sized species that reaches 2,245 µm in length. The vermiform stages consist of 18-24 peripheral cells, a conical calotte and the extension of the axial cell between the base and middle of the metapolar cells. Infusoriform embryos consist of 39 cells with urn cell containing one germinal cell, two nuclei and solid refringent bodies. Dicyema mexcayae n. sp. is a relatively small species that reaches 1,114 µm in length. The vermiform stages are constituted by 14-16 peripheral cells, an elongate calotte and the axial cell extending forward to the middle of the metapolar cells. The infusoriform embryos consist of 37 cells, two solid refringent bodies and urn cells with two nuclei each. The present study represents the first description of a dicyemid species from O. maya and increases the number of described species from Mexican waters to 11.

  7. Variability in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lipopolysaccharide Expression during Crude Oil Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Norman, R. Sean; Frontera-Suau, Roberto; Morris, Pamela J.

    2002-01-01

    Bacterial utilization of crude oil components, such as the n-alkanes, requires complex cell surface adaptation to allow adherence to oil. To better understand microbial cell surface adaptation to growth on crude oil, the cell surface characteristics of two Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, U1 and U3, both isolated from the same crude oil-degrading microbial community enriched on Bonny Light crude oil (BLC), were compared. Analysis of growth rates demonstrated an increased lag time for U1 cells ...

  8. Isolated hepatic artery injury in blunt abdominal trauma presenting as upper gastrointestinal bleeding: treatment with transcatheter embolisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taslakian, Bedros; Ghaith, Ola; Al-Kutoubi, Aghiad

    2012-11-15

    Liver injury in blunt abdominal trauma is common. However, not often does blunt trauma cause injury to the anatomical structures of the porta hepatis. Isolated injury of the hepatic artery has been rarely reported in the literature. Such injury may be lethal and requires immediate diagnosis and management. This report describes an unusual case of blunt abdominal trauma resulting in hepatic and gastroduodenal artery dissection, with pseudoaneurysm formation complicated by active upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The injury was managed by transcatheter embolisation. Awareness of this diagnosis should facilitate management of similar trauma cases.

  9. The Role of Deforestation in the Collapse of Classic Maya Civilization: Lessons for the Current Land Use Management in Northern Mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, D. K.; Nair, U. S.; Welch, R. M.; Lawton, R. O.; Oglesby, R. J.; Pielke, R. A.; Sever, T. A.; Irwin, D.

    2005-12-01

    The classic Maya civilization produced thriving cities that attained population densities comparable to modern day cities during the zenith of its growth approximately around 750 A.D. The Mayan civilization then experienced a catastrophic collapse between 750-950 A.D. Among the various hypothesis forwarded to explain the sudden collapse, one that has recently attracted attention, is the role of deforestation and decreases of regional rainfall that could have affected the day-to-day lives of the ancient Mayas. Deep-rooted rainforest vegetation has access to water stored in deep soil layers, and this deep water is made available to the hydrological cycle through transpiration. Removal of rainforests for agricultural purposes, which is accompanied by soil compaction and reduction in the organic material at the surface, leads to increased runoff and decreased soil water storage. Shallow-rooted vegetation that replaces the deep-rooted rainforests cannot efficiently access the moisture in the deep soil layers, reducing flux of water vapor to the atmosphere. In this study the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (CSU RAMS) is utilized to examine differences in precipitation between current and forested conditions and between current and deforested conditions similar to those that archaeologists believe were prevalent prior to the collapse. Moreover, current deforestation rates in this region is converting the landscape into one that is similar to those prior to the Maya collapse. The simulated rainfall is compared against climatological rain gauge rainfall values. The statistical scores such as probability of detection, false alarm ratio, and the threat scores all compare favorably with those reported in the literature. Our results suggest that with the removal of forests the rainfall can be expected to decrease by 10 to 100mm in the Maya lowlands. Averaged over the entire Maya lowlands region, dry season rainfall for the forested conditions is

  10. Prospects of Viscous Crude Development in Liaohe Oilfields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiuwen; Rong Jiashu

    1997-01-01

    @@ Liaohe oil area has developed viscous crude for 20 years. The annual output reached 8.46 million tons in 1995, of which 6.77 million tons were produced by steam injection, accounting for 56% of crude output by the method in the country. As a result, Liaohe oil area is the largest crude production base in China.

  11. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the...

  12. How much crude oil can zooplankton ingest? Estimating the quantity of dispersed crude oil defecated by planktonic copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Connelly, Tara L.; Buskey, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated and quantified defecation rates of crude oil by 3 species of marine planktonic copepods (Temora turbinata, Acartia tonsa, and Parvocalanus crassirostris) and a natural copepod assemblage after exposure to mechanically or chemically dispersed crude oil. Between 88 and 100......% of the analyzed fecal pellets from three species of copepods and a natural copepod assemblage exposed for 48 h to physically or chemically dispersed light crude oil contained crude oil droplets. Crude oil droplets inside fecal pellets were smaller (median diameter: 2.4-3.5 mu m) than droplets in the physically...... and chemically dispersed oil emulsions (median diameter: 6.6 and 8.0 mu m, respectively). This suggests that copepods can reject large crude oil droplets or that crude oil droplets are broken into smaller oil droplets before or during ingestion. Depending on the species and experimental treatments, crude oil...

  13. Lactic acid fermentation of crude sorghum extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, W.A.; Lee, Y.Y.; Anthony, W.B.

    1980-04-01

    Crude extract from sweet sorghum supplemented with vetch juice was utilized as the carbohydrate source for fermentative production of lactic acid. Fermentation of media containing 7% (w/v) total sugar was completed in 60-80 hours by Lactobacillus plantarum, product yield averaging 85%. Maximum acid production rates were dependent on pH, initial substrate distribution, and concentration, the rates varying from 2 to 5 g/liter per hour. Under limited medium supplementation the lactic acid yield was lowered to 67%. The fermented ammoniated product contained over eight times as much equivalent crude protein (N x 6.25) as the original medium. Unstructured kinetic models were developed for cell growth, lactic acid formation, and substrate consumption in batch fermentation. With the provision of experimentally determined kinetic parameters, the proposed models accurately described the fermentation process. 15 references.

  14. Isolated Avulsion of the Common Hepatic Duct from Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor W. Wong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated extrahepatic biliary tract injury following blunt abdominal trauma is rare. The underlying pathogenic mechanisms remain obscure, but include shear and/or compression forces on the biliary system. Associated morbidity rates are high and largely the result of delays in diagnosis. Imaging modalities commonly employed for diagnosis include ultrasonography, computed tomography, nuclear medicine, and magnetic resonance imaging. Percutaneous and endoscopic techniques have been used both for diagnosis and treatment. Treatment options are dictated by the stability of the patient and the extent of bile duct and concomitant injuries. In this paper, we discuss a case of isolated avulsion of the hepatic duct confluence following blunt trauma that was successfully managed with Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy. To our knowledge, this specific injury pattern has not been previously reported.

  15. Blunt cardiac injury: case report of salvaged traumatic right atrial rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ayyan, Muna; Aziz, Tanim; El Sherif, Amgad; Bekdache, Omar

    2016-11-01

    The incidence of cardiac rupture following blunt trauma is rare, occurring in 0.3%-0.5% of all blunt trauma patients. It can be fatal at the trauma scene, and is frequently missed in the emergency room setting. The severity of a cardiac trauma is based on the mechanism and degree of the force applied. The objective of this study was to report the case of a 32-year-old male patient who was involved in a motor vehicle collision and presented to the emergency room with signs of hypovolemic shock. The patient was found to have severe chest trauma associated with massive hemothorax requiring immediate intervention. The patient had an emergent thoracotomy revealing a right atrial injury. Repair of the atrial injury reversed the state of shock. The patient was discharged after 35 days of hospitalization in good condition. PMID:27054650

  16. Pericardio-diaphragmatic rupture following blunt abdominal trauma: Case report and review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Hussein, Bassem; Khammas, Ali; Kaiyasah, Hadiel; Swaleh, Abeer; Al Rifai, Nazim; Al-Mazrouei, Alya; Badri, Faisal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Traumatic diaphragmatic rupture (TDR) occurs in 0–5% of patients with major blunt thoraco-abdominal trauma, in most of them on the left side, and an early correct diagnosis is made in less than half of the cases (Meyers and McCabe, 1993; Ball et al., 1982). Presentation of the case We report a case of a forty-eight years old man who had a pericardio-diaphragmatic rupture after a high-velocity blunt abdominal trauma that was diagnosed and treated successfully. Discussion Pericardio-diaphragmatic rupture (PDR) is an uncommon problem that poses a diagnostic challenge to surgeons. The incidence of PDR is between 0.2% and 3.3% of cases with TDR (Sharma, 1999 [3]). Conclusion PDR should be suspected in any patient with high velocity thoraco-abdominal trauma. Early diagnosis is essential and needs a high index of suspicion. Early Management is important in decreasing morbidity and mortality. PMID:26773877

  17. Stress distribution and effective stress intensity factor of a blunt crack after dislocation emission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱才富; 乔利杰; 褚武扬

    2000-01-01

    The stress fields induced by a dislocation and its image dislocations around a narrow elliptic void are formulated. Based on the solution, the stress distribution and effective stress intensity factor of a blunt (elliptic) crack were calculated under mode I constant loading. The results show that a dislocation-free zone (DFZ) is formed after dislocation emission. There exists a second stress peak in the DFZ except a stress peak at the blunt crack tip. With an increase in the applied stress intensity factor Kla or the friction stress T, of the material, the DFZ size and the peak stress at the crack tip decrease, but the peak stress in the DFZ and the effective stress intensity factor Klf presiding at the crack tip increase. Because of dislocation shielding effects, shielding ratio Kla/Klf increases with increasing Kla, but it decreases with increasing Tf.

  18. Stress distribution and effective stress intensity factor of a blunt crack after dislocation emission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The stress fields induced by a dislocation and its image dislocations around a narrow elliptic void are formulated. Based on the solution, the stress distribution and effective stress intensity factor of a blunt (elliptic) crack were calculated under mode I constant loading. The results show that a dislocation-free zone (DFZ) is formed after dislocation emission. There exists a second stress peak in the DFZ except a stress peak at the blunt crack tip. With an increase in the applied stress intensity factor KIa or the friction stress τf of the material, the DFZ size and the peak stress at the crack tip decrease, but the peak stress in the DFZ and the effective stress intensity factor KIf presiding at the crack tip increase. Because of dislocation shielding effects, shielding ratio KIa/KIf increases with increasing KIa}, but it decreases with increasing τf.

  19. A rare case of blunt thoracoabdominal trauma with small bowel perforation from air bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liverani, A; Pezzatini, M; Conte, S; Mari, F; Milillo, A; Gasparrini, M; Marino, G; Catracchia, V; -Favi, F

    2009-05-01

    Vehicle collisions represent more than 75% of mechanism of blunt abdominal trauma. In spite of the incomparable improvement of car safety devices, recent studies pointed out that the air bags might cause injuries, specially when it is not associated with seatbelt. In fact, some studies pointed out that crash victims using air bags alone have increased injury severity, hospitalisations, thoracoabdominal procedure, and rehabilitation. Some of the most frequently injured organs reported from air bag deployment are the liver (38%), the spleen (23%) and digestive system (17%). Injury of the hollow viscera are far less common. In particular, blunt abdominal trauma resulting in small bowel perforation is an infrequent lesion. These injuries are difficult to diagnose because specific signs are poor and a delay in treatment increases mortality and morbidity of the patients. We describe a case of thoracoabdominal trauma that occurred during a head-on collision after an air bag deployment without seatbelt use.

  20. Simulation of aerodynamic performance affected by vortex generators on blunt trailing-edge airfoils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    An investigation was carried out by numerical simulation on a wind turbine airfoil and a blunt trailing-edge airfoil with and without vortex generators (VGs), and the performance of the airfoils was analyzed. By the simulation of airfoil DU 91-W2-250 it was verified that the numerical method and model were credible. Based on this airfoil, a new one with a blunt trailing edge of 6% chord was blended by symmetrically adding thickness, and its characteristics curves were obtained through computing at key angles of attack. Additionally, the pressure distribution on blended airfoil was analyzed by comparing to the airfoil without blend. The interaction of streamwise vortices induced by VGs with trailing vortex or separation vortex was considered, followed by the uncovery of how VGs can suppress the boundary layer separation.