WorldWideScience

Sample records for blue

  1. Blue lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Caterina; Scope, Alon; Lallas, Aimilios; Zalaudek, Iris; Moscarella, Elvira; Gardini, Stefano; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Pellacani, Giovanni

    2013-10-01

    Blue color is found in a wide range of malignant and benign melanocytic and nonmelanocytic lesions and in lesions that result from penetration of exogenous materials, such as radiation or amalgam tattoo or traumatic penetration of particles. Discriminating between different diagnostic entities that display blue color relies on careful patient examination and lesion assessment. Dermoscopically, the extent, distribution, and patterns created by blue color can help diagnose lesions with specificity and differentiate between benign and malignant entities. This article provides an overview of the main diagnoses whereby blue color can be found, providing simple management rules for these lesions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Blue gods, blue oil, and blue people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, V F

    1994-09-01

    Studies of the composition of coal tar, which began in Prussia in 1834, profoundly affected the economies of Germany, Great Britain, India, and the rest of the world, as well as medicine and surgery. Such effects include the collapse of the profits of the British indigo monopoly, the growth in economic power of Germany based on coal tar chemistry, and an economic crisis in India that led to more humane tax laws and, ultimately, the independence of India and the end of the British Empire. Additional consequences were the development of antiseptic surgery and the synthesis of a wide variety of useful drugs that have eradicated infections and alleviated pain. Many of these drugs, particularly the commonly used analgesics, sulfonamides, sulfones, and local anesthetics, are derivatives of aniline, originally called "blue oil" or "kyanol." Some of these aniline derivatives, however, have also caused aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, and methemoglobinemia (that is, "blue people"). Exposure to aniline drugs, particularly when two or three aniline drugs are taken concurrently, seems to be the commonest cause of methemoglobinemia today.

  3. Posthuman blues

    CERN Document Server

    Tonnies, Mac

    2013-01-01

    Posthuman Blues, Vol. I is first volume of the edited version of the popular weblog maintained by author Mac Tonnies from 2003 until his tragic death in 2009. Tonnies' blog was a pastiche of his original fiction, reflections on his day-to-day life, trenchant observations of current events, and thoughts on an eclectic range of material he culled from the Internet. What resulted was a remarkably broad portrait of a thoughtful man and the complex times in which he lived, rendered with intellige...

  4. [Anaphylaxis to blue dyes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner-Viviani, F; Chappuis, S; Bergmann, M M; Ribi, C

    2014-04-16

    In medicine, vital blue dyes are mainly used for the evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes in oncologic surgery. Perioperative anaphylaxis to blue dyes is a rare but significant complication. Allergic reactions to blue dyes are supposedly IgE-mediated and mainly caused by triarylmethanes (patent blue and isosulfane blue) and less frequently by methylene blue. These substances usually do not feature on the anesthesia record and should not be omitted from the list of suspects having caused the perioperative reaction, in the same manner as latex and chlorhexidine. The diagnosis of hypersensitivity to vital blue dyes can be established by skin test. We illustrate this topic with three clinical cases.

  5. Blue cures blue but be cautious

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranav Sikka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Methemoglobinemia is a disorder characterized by the presence of >1% methemoglobin (metHb in the blood. Spontaneous formation of methemoglobin is normally counteracted by protective enzyme systems, for example, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH methemoglobin reductase. Methemoglobinemia is treated with supplemental oxygen and methylene blue (1-2 mg/kg administered slow intravenously, which acts by providing an artificial electron acceptor for NADPH methemoglobin reductase. But known or suspected glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is a relative contraindication to the use of methylene blue because G6PD is the key enzyme in the formation of NADPH through pentose phosphate pathway and G6PD-deficient individuals generate insufficient NADPH to efficiently reduce methylene blue to leukomethylene blue, which is necessary for the activation of the NADPH-dependent methemoglobin reductase system. So, we should be careful using methylene blue in methemoglobinemia patient before G6PD levels.

  6. Blue-Green Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people with hepatitis C or hepatitis B. HIV/AIDS. Research on the effects of blue-green algae in people with HIV/AIDS has been inconsistent. Some early research shows that taking 5 grams of blue-green ...

  7. Blue Ocean Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, Donna

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a concept called the "blue ocean thinking strategy," developed by W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne, professors at INSEAD, an international graduate school of business in France. The "blue ocean" thinking strategy considers opportunities to create new markets for services, rather than focusing solely on…

  8. Blue ocean strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades.

  9. Thermodynamically stable blue phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castles, F; Morris, S M; Terentjev, E M; Coles, H J

    2010-04-16

    We show theoretically that flexoelectricity stabilizes blue phases in chiral liquid crystals. Induced internal polarization reduces the elastic energy cost of splay and bend deformations surrounding singular lines in the director field. The energy of regions of double twist is unchanged. This in turn reduces the free energy of the blue phase with respect to that of the chiral nematic phase, leading to stability over a wider temperature range. The theory explains the discovery of large temperature range blue phases in highly flexoelectric "bimesogenic" and "bent-core" materials, and predicts how this range may be increased further.

  10. Blue Ribbon Panel Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog by the NCI acting director thanking the cancer community for contributing to the Cancer Moonshot Blue Ribbon Panel report, which was presented to the National Cancer Advisory Board on September 7.

  11. New York Blue

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — New York Blue is used cooperatively by the Laboratory and Stony Brook University as part of the New York Center for Computation Sciences. Ranked as the 28th fastest...

  12. Natural Blue Food Colour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roda-Serrat, Maria Cinta

    In recent years, there has been a growing tendency to avoid the use of artificial colorants and additives in food products, especially after some studies linked their consumption with behavioural changes in children. However, the incorporation of colorants from natural origin remains a challenge...... for food technologists, as these are typically less vivid and less stable than their synthetic alternatives. Regarding blue colorants, phycocyanins from cyanobacteria are currently in the spotlight as promising new natural blue colorants. Phycocyanins are proteins which blue colour results from...... the presence of the chromophore phycocyanobilin (PCB), a covalently attached linear tetrapyrrole. The applications of phycocyanins as food colorants are however limited, as they show poor stability in certain conditions of pH, light and temperature. Cleavage of PCB from the protein followed by careful product...

  13. A Blue Lagoon Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    2007-01-01

    We consider a specific function of two variables whose graph surface resembles a blue lagoon. The function has a saddle point $p$, but when the function is restricted to any given straight line through $p$ it has a {\\em{strict local minimum}} along that line at $p$.......We consider a specific function of two variables whose graph surface resembles a blue lagoon. The function has a saddle point $p$, but when the function is restricted to any given straight line through $p$ it has a {\\em{strict local minimum}} along that line at $p$....

  14. The "Blue Banana" Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faludi, A.K.F.

    2015-01-01

    This essay is about the “Blue Banana”. Banana is the name given subsequently by others to a Dorsale européenne (European backbone) identified empirically by Roger Brunet. In a background study to the Communication of the European Commission ‘Europe 2000’, Klaus Kunzmann and Michael Wegener put

  15. The Blue Baby Syndrome

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 10. The Blue Baby Syndrome - Nitrate Poisoning in Humans. Deepanjan Majumdar. General Article Volume 8 Issue 10 October 2003 pp 20-30. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  16. [Blue light and eye health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Leilei; Dai, Jinhui

    2015-01-01

    Blue light, with the wavelength between 400 nm and 500 nm, has caused public concern because of the injury to the retinal cells. Meanwhile, it is important in circadian rhythm regulation, scotopic vision and ocular growth. Is the blue light safe? Should it be eliminated from the daily life? Here we review the effect and safety of the blue light.

  17. Blue ocean leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2014-05-01

    Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets.

  18. Instant BlueStacks

    CERN Document Server

    Judge, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A fast-paced, example-based approach guide for learning BlueStacks.This book is for anyone with a Mac or PC who wants to run Android apps on their computer. Whether you want to play games that are freely available for Android but not your computer, or you want to try apps before you install them on a physical device or use it as a development tool, this book will show you how. No previous experience is needed as this is written in plain English

  19. Blue phases as photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohley, Christian; Scharf, Toralf

    2003-12-01

    The Liquid Crystalline Blue Phases (LC BPs) and their diffraction patterns were investigated experimentally and theoretically. We stabilized Blue Phases and measured their diffraction pattern for different wavelengths of monochromatic light with the help of a conoscopic setup of a polarization microscope. Moreover, the diffraction patterns were calculated with the help of a 4x4 matrix method which allows amplitude and phase investigations.

  20. Blue moons and Martian sunsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Kurt; Chakrabarty, Rajan; Moosmüller, Hans

    2014-03-20

    The familiar yellow or orange disks of the moon and sun, especially when they are low in the sky, and brilliant red sunsets are a result of the selective extinction (scattering plus absorption) of blue light by atmospheric gas molecules and small aerosols, a phenomenon explainable using the Rayleigh scattering approximation. On rare occasions, dust or smoke aerosols can cause the extinction of red light to exceed that for blue, resulting in the disks of the sun and moon to appear as blue. Unlike Earth, the atmosphere of Mars is dominated by micron-size dust aerosols, and the sky during sunset takes on a bluish glow. Here we investigate the role of dust aerosols in the blue Martian sunsets and the occasional blue moons and suns on Earth. We use the Mie theory and the Debye series to calculate the wavelength-dependent optical properties of dust aerosols most commonly found on Mars. Our findings show that while wavelength selective extinction can cause the sun's disk to appear blue, the color of the glow surrounding the sun as observed from Mars is due to the dominance of near-forward scattering of blue light by dust particles and cannot be explained by a simple, Rayleigh-like selective extinction explanation.

  1. Photometry of faint blue stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilkenny, D.; Hill, P.W.; Brown, A.

    1977-01-01

    Photometry on the uvby system is given for 61 faint blue stars. The stars are classified by means of the Stromgren indices, using criteria described in a previous paper (Kilkenny and Hill (1975)). (author)

  2. Ecology of blue straggler stars

    CERN Document Server

    Carraro, Giovanni; Beccari, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    The existence of blue straggler stars, which appear younger, hotter, and more massive than their siblings, is at odds with a simple picture of stellar evolution. Such stars should have exhausted their nuclear fuel and evolved long ago to become cooling white dwarfs. They are found to exist in globular clusters, open clusters, dwarf spheroidal galaxies of the Local Group, OB associations and as field stars. This book summarises the many advances in observational and theoretical work dedicated to blue straggler stars. Carefully edited extended contributions by well-known experts in the field cover all the relevant aspects of blue straggler stars research: Observations of blue straggler stars in their various environments; Binary stars and formation channels; Dynamics of globular clusters; Interpretation of observational data and comparison with models. The book also offers an introductory chapter on stellar evolution written by the editors of the book.

  3. [Acute blue urticaria following subcutaneous injection of patent blue dye].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, A; Vial-Dupuy, A; Lebrun-Vignes, B; Francès, C; Soria, A; Barete, S

    2015-11-01

    Patent blue (PB) is a lymphatic vessel dye commonly used in France for sentinel lymph node detection in breast cancer, and less frequently in melanoma, and which may induce hypersensitivity reactions. We report a case of acute blue urticaria occurring within minutes of PB injection. Ten minutes after PB injection for sentinel lymph node detection during breast cancer surgery, a 49-year-old woman developed generalised acute blue urticaria and eyelid angioedema without bronchospasm or haemodynamic disturbance, but requiring discontinuation of surgery. Skin testing using PB and the anaesthetics given were run 6 weeks after the episode and confirmed PB allergy. PB was formally contra-indicated. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to PB have been reported for between 0.24 and 2.2% of procedures. Such reactions are on occasion severe, chiefly involving anaphylactic shock. Two mechanisms are probably associated: non-specific histamine release and/or an IgE-mediated mechanism. Skin tests are helpful in confirming the diagnosis of PB allergy. Blue acute urticaria is one of the clinical manifestations of immediate hypersensitivity reactions to patent blue dye. Skin tests must be performed 6 weeks after the reaction in order to confirm the diagnosis and formally contra-indicate this substance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Blue-emitting laser diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, K.; Ishibashi, A.

    This paper reviews the recent results of blue-emitting laser diodes. These devices are based on ZnMgSSe alloy II-VI semiconductors. Recently we have achieved room temperature continuous-wave operation of ZnMgSSe blue lasers for the first time. ZnMgSSe alloys offer a wide range of band-gap energy from 2.8 to 4.5 eV, while maintaining lattice matching to GaAs substrates. These characteristics make ZnMgSSe suitable for cladding layers of blue lasers. In this article, the feasibilities of ZnMgSSe will be reviewed. The laser structures and characteristics will be also mentioned.

  5. Blue light emitting thiogallate phosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Robert C.; Smith, David C.; King, Christopher N.; Tuenge, Richard T.

    1998-01-01

    A crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor of the formula RGa.sub.2 S.sub.4 :Ce.sub.x where R is selected from the group consisting of calcium, strontium, barium and zinc, and x is from about 1 to 10 atomic percent, the phosphor characterized as having a crystalline microstructure on the size order of from about 100 .ANG. to about 10,000 .ANG. is provided together with a process of preparing a crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor by depositing on a substrate by CVD and resultant thin film electroluminescent devices including a layer of such deposited phosphor on an ordinary glass substrate.

  6. The Blue Revolution in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano; Kelling, Ingrid; Jespersen, Karen Sau

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we examine the upgrading trajectories of selected aquaculture value chains in four Asian countries and the links between upgrading and three factors of value chain governance: coordination mechanisms; types of drivers; and domestic regulation. We find instances of improving produ...... of upgrading the "blue revolution" in Asia...

  7. Blue Ocean vs. Five Forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Burke (Andrew); A.J. van Stel (André); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe article reports on the authors' research in the Netherlands which focused on a profit model in Dutch retail stores and a so-called blue-ocean approach which requires a new market that attracts consumers and increases profits. Topics include the competitive strategy approach to

  8. Mobilizing investors for blue growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, van den Sander W.K.; Stuiver, Marian; Bolman, Bas C.; Wijnen, Roland; Selnes, Trond; Dalton, Gordon

    2017-01-01

    The European Union's Blue Growth Strategy is a long term strategy to support sustainable growth in the marine and maritime sectors, aiming to contribute to innovation and economic growth (European Commission, 2012). The EU sees the financial sector as a key partner to bring about transition to

  9. Nobel Prize for blue LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2015-01-01

    A brief review of lighting technologies is presented. Unavoidable restrictions for incandescent light bulbs caused by the Planck distribution and properties of the human eye are illustrated. The efficiency and luminous efficacy of thermal radiation are calculated for various temperatures; the results clearly show the limitations for thermal radiators. The only way to overcome these limitations is using non-thermal radiators, such as fluorescent lamps and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Unique advantages of LEDs undoubtedly made a revolution in this field. A crucial element of this progress is the blue LEDs (Nobel Prize 2014). Some experiments with a blue and a green LED are described: (i) the luminescence triggered in a green-yellow phosphor inside a white LED by the blue LED; (ii) radiant spectra and ‘efficiency droop’ in the LEDs; (iii) modulation of the blue LED up to 4 MHz; and (iv) the h/e ratio from the turn-on voltage of the green LED. The experiments are suitable for undergraduate laboratories and usable as classroom demonstrations. (paper)

  10. Nobel Prize for blue LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2015-05-01

    A brief review of lighting technologies is presented. Unavoidable restrictions for incandescent light bulbs caused by the Planck distribution and properties of the human eye are illustrated. The efficiency and luminous efficacy of thermal radiation are calculated for various temperatures; the results clearly show the limitations for thermal radiators. The only way to overcome these limitations is using non-thermal radiators, such as fluorescent lamps and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Unique advantages of LEDs undoubtedly made a revolution in this field. A crucial element of this progress is the blue LEDs (Nobel Prize 2014). Some experiments with a blue and a green LED are described: (i) the luminescence triggered in a green-yellow phosphor inside a white LED by the blue LED; (ii) radiant spectra and ‘efficiency droop’ in the LEDs; (iii) modulation of the blue LED up to 4 MHz; and (iv) the h/e ratio from the turn-on voltage of the green LED. The experiments are suitable for undergraduate laboratories and usable as classroom demonstrations.

  11. 21 CFR 133.106 - Blue cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blue cheese. 133.106 Section 133.106 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.106 Blue cheese. (a) Description. (1) Blue cheese is the food prepared by the procedure set...

  12. 75 FR 65525 - Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,327] Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of Wellpoint, Inc., Green Bay, WI; Notice... former workers of Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division...

  13. The Physics of the Blues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J. Murray

    2009-03-01

    In looking at the commonalities between music and science, one sees that the musician's palette is based on the principles of physics. The pitch of a musical note is determined by the frequency of the sound wave. The scales that musicians use to create and play music can be viewed as a set of rules. What makes music interesting is how musicians develop those rules and create ambiguity with them. I will discuss the evolution of western musical scales in this context. As a particular example, ``Blue'' notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale. The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting. Live keyboard demonstrations will be used. Beyond any redeeming entertainment value the talk will emphasize the serious connections between science and art in music. Nevertheless tips will be accepted.

  14. Thermoluminescence (TL) of Egyptian Blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schvoerer, M.; Delavergne, M.-C.; Chapoulie, R.

    1988-01-01

    Egyptian Blue is a synthesized crystalline pictorial pigment with formula CaCuSi/sub 4/O/sub 10/. It has been used in Egypt and Mesopotamia from the 3rd millenium B.C. A preliminary experiment on a recently synthesized sample showed that this pigment is thermoluminescent after ..beta.. irradiation (/sup 90/Sr). As the signal intensity grows linearly with the administered dose within the temperature range commonly used in TL dating, we have been looking for this phenomenon from archaeological pigments. It was encountered with two samples found in excavation. From its intensity and stability we concluded that Egyptian Blue can be dated using TL. This first and positive result encouraged us to extend the method to other types of mineral pigments synthesized by early man, and to suggest that it may be used for direct dating of ancient murals.

  15. Blue breath holding is benign.

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenson, J B

    1991-01-01

    In their recent publication in this journal, Southall et al described typical cyanotic breath holding spells, both in otherwise healthy children and in those with brainstem lesions and other malformations. Their suggestions regarding possible autonomic disturbances may require further study, but they have adduced no scientific evidence to contradict the accepted view that in the intact child blue breath holding spells are benign. Those families in which an infant suffers an 'apparently life t...

  16. Galaxies on the Blue Edge

    OpenAIRE

    Cabanela, J. E.; Dickey, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    We have successfully constructed a catalog of HI-rich galaxies selected from the Minnesota Automated Plate Scanner Catalog of the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (POSS I) based solely on optical criteria. We identify HI-rich candidates by selecting the bluest galaxies at a given apparent magnitude, those galaxies on the "blue edge" of POSS I color-magnitude parameter space. Subsequent 21-cm observations on the upgraded Arecibo 305m dish detected over 50% of the observed candidates. The detecte...

  17. Blue light regulated shade avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuskamp, Diederik H; Keller, Mercedes M; Ballaré, Carlos L; Pierik, Ronald

    2012-04-01

    Most plants grow in dense vegetation with the risk of being out-competed by neighboring plants. These neighbors can be detected not only through the depletion in light quantity that they cause, but also through the change in light quality, which plants perceive using specific photoreceptors. Both the reduction of the red:far-red ratio and the depletion of blue light are signals that induce a set of phenotypic traits, such as shoot elongation and leaf hyponasty, which increase the likelihood of light capture in dense plant stands. This set of phenotypic responses are part of the so called shade avoidance syndrome (SAS). This addendum discusses recent findings on the regulation of the SAS of Arabidopsis thaliana upon blue light depletion. Keller et al. and Keuskamp et al. show that the low blue light attenuation induced shade avoidance response of seedling and rosette-stage A. thaliana plants differ in their hormonal regulation. These studies also show there is a regulatory overlap with the R:FR-regulated SAS.

  18. Adsorption of Methylene Blue, Bromophenol Blue, and Coomassie Brilliant Blue by α-chitin nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solairaj Dhananasekaran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Expelling of dyestuff into water resource system causes major thread to the environment. Adsorption is the cost effective and potential method to remove the dyes from the effluents. Therefore, an attempt was made to study the adsorption of dyestuff (Methylene Blue (MB, Bromophenol Blue (BPB and Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB by α-chitin nanoparticles (CNP prepared from Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798 shell waste. On contrary to the most recognizable adsorption studies using chitin, this is the first study using unique nanoparticles of ⩽50 nm used for the dye adsorption process. The results showed that the adsorption process increased with increase in the concentration of CNP, contact time and temperature with the dyestuff, whereas the adsorption process decreased with increase in the initial dye concentration and strong acidic pH. The results from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy confirmed that the interaction between dyestuff and CNP involved physical adsorption. The adsorption process obeys Langmuir isotherm (R2 values were 0.992, 0.999 and 0.992 for MB, BPB and CBB, and RL value lies between 0 and 1 for all the three dyes and pseudo second order kinetics (R2 values were 0.996, 0.999 and 0.996 for MB, BPB and CBB more effectively. The isotherm and kinetic models confirmed that CNP can be used as a suitable adsorbent material for the removal of dyestuff from effluents.

  19. Blue breath holding is benign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, J B

    1991-01-01

    In their recent publication in this journal, Southall et al described typical cyanotic breath holding spells, both in otherwise healthy children and in those with brainstem lesions and other malformations. Their suggestions regarding possible autonomic disturbances may require further study, but they have adduced no scientific evidence to contradict the accepted view that in the intact child blue breath holding spells are benign. Those families in which an infant suffers an 'apparently life threatening event' deserve immense understanding and help, and it behoves investigators to exercise extreme care and self criticism in the presentation of new knowledge which may bear upon their management and their morale. PMID:2001115

  20. Electronic properties of blue phosphorene/graphene and blue phosphorene/graphene-like gallium nitride heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Minglei; Chou, Jyh-Pin; Yu, Jin; Tang, Wencheng

    2017-07-05

    Blue phosphorene (BlueP) is a graphene-like phosphorus nanosheet which was synthesized very recently for the first time [Nano Lett., 2016, 16, 4903-4908]. The combination of electronic properties of two different two-dimensional materials in an ultrathin van der Waals (vdW) vertical heterostructure has been proved to be an effective approach to the design of novel electronic and optoelectronic devices. Therefore, we used density functional theory to investigate the structural and electronic properties of two BlueP-based heterostructures - BlueP/graphene (BlueP/G) and BlueP/graphene-like gallium nitride (BlueP/g-GaN). Our results showed that the semiconducting nature of BlueP and the Dirac cone of G are well preserved in the BlueP/G vdW heterostructure. Moreover, by applying a perpendicular electric field, it is possible to tune the position of the Dirac cone of G with respect to the band edge of BlueP, resulting in the ability to control the Schottky barrier height. For the BlueP/g-GaN vdW heterostructure, BlueP forms an interface with g-GaN with a type-II band alignment, which is a promising feature for unipolar electronic device applications. Furthermore, we discovered that both G and g-GaN can be used as an active layer for BlueP to facilitate charge injection and enhance the device performance.

  1. EARLY DOWNHOME BLUES IN AMERICAN CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Muhni, Djuhertati Imam

    2012-01-01

    People's traditional music and the way people behave when performing it are symbolic expressions of broad cultural pattern and social organization . In other words music is a part of men's learned heritage . Hence this study is about music in a given culture, specifically blues in American culture . Allen Trachtenberg stated that blues songs are inheritance from the American past for negotiating black people's lives as Americans . In the experience of blues the African-Americans find themselv...

  2. The Red-Blue Transportation Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Vancroonenburg, Wim; Della Croce, Federico; Goossens, Dries; Spieksma, Frits

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the Red-Blue Transportation Problem (Red-Blue TP), a generalization of the transportation problem where supply nodes are partitioned into two sets and so-called exclusionary constraints are imposed. We encountered a special case of this problem in a hospital context, where patients need to be assigned to rooms. We establish the problem's complexity, and we compare two integer programming formulations. Furthermore, a maximization variant of Red-Blue TP is presented, for...

  3. Variable blue straggler stars in NGC 5466

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, H.C.; Mateo, M.; Olszewski, E.W.; Nemec, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Nine variable blue stragglers have been found in the globular cluster NGC 5466. The six dwarf Cepheids in this cluster coexist in the instability strip with other nonvariable stars. The three eclipsing binaries are among the hottest of the blue stragglers. The hypothesis is discussed that all blue stragglers in this cluster have undergone mass transfer in close binaries. Under this hypothesis, rotation and spin-down play important roles in controlling the evolution of blue stragglers in old clusters and in affecting some of their observational properties. 14 refs

  4. Morphological responses of wheat to blue light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, C.; Bugbee, B.

    1992-01-01

    Blue light significantly increased tillering in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants grown at the same photosynthetic photon flux (PPF). Plants were grown under two levels of blue light (400-500 nm) in a controlled environment with continuous irradiation. Plants received either 50 micromoles m-2 s-1 of blue light or 2 micromoles m-2 s-1 blue light from filtered metal halide lamps at a total irradiance of 200 micromoles m-2 s-1 PPF (400-700 nm). Plants tillered an average of 25% more under the higher level of blue light. Blue light also caused a small, but consistent, increase in main culm development, measured as Haun stage. Leaf length was reduced by higher levels of blue light, while plant dry-mass was not significantly affected by blue light. Applying the principle of equivalent light action, the results suggest that tillering and leaf elongation are mediated by the blue-UV light receptor(s) because phytochrome photoequilibrium for each treatment were nearly identical.

  5. Why Blue-Collar Blacks Help Less

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Sandra Susan; Young, Kara Alexis

    2013-01-01

    Why are blue-collar blacks less likely to help jobseekers than jobholders from other ethnoracial groups or even than more affluent blacks? Drawing from in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 97 black and Latino workers at one large, public sector employer, we find that blue-collar black workers both helped less proactively and rejected more requests for assistance than did blue-collar Latino and white-collar black workers. We attribute blue-collar blacks’ more passive engagement to their...

  6. Prehistory of the Little Blue River Valley, Western Missouri: Archaeological Investigations at Blue Springs Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Lake project. The report discusses the geomorphology and vegetation of the Little Blue River valley, Late Quaternary bioclimatic change in Western...54 Aquatic Communities ............................... 58 IV. LATE QUATERNARY BIOCLIMATIC CHANGE IN WESTERN MISSOURI by Rolfe D...City District is presently constructing Blue Springs Lake on the East Fork of the Little Blue River in Jackson County, Missouri. The location of the

  7. Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Daleth

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The blue rubber nevus syndrome consists of multiple venous malformations in the skin and gastrointestinal tract associated with intestinal hemorrhage and iron deficiency anemia. Other organs may be involved. The causes of this syndrome are unknown. Its most common presentation is in the form of sporadic cases, but dominant autosomal inheritance has been described. It is a condition that affects both sexes equally, and its occurrence is rare in the black race. We present a case of this syndrome diagnosed in a 11-year-old patient. He had severe anemia and a venous swelling on the trunk. Similar lesions were found in the stomach, bowel, and on his foot. We emphasize the main clinical aspects: intestine, eyes, nasopharynx, parotids, lungs, liver, spleen, heart, brain, pleura, peritoneum, pericardium, skeletal muscles, bladder, and penis lesions, systemic complications that may occur to these patients which are thrombosis and calcification, as well as consumptive coagulopathy and thrombocytopenia that may occur within the nevi.

  8. Blue enhanced light sources: opportunities and risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Dieter

    2012-03-01

    Natural daylight is characterized by high proportions of blue light. By proof of a third type of photoreceptor in the human eye which is only sensitive in this spectral region and by subsequent studies it has become obvious that these blue proportions are essential for human health and well being. In various studies beneficial effects of indoor lighting with higher blue spectral proportions have been proven. On the other hand with increasing use of light sources having enhanced blue light for indoor illumination questions are arising about potential health risks attributed to blue light. Especially LED are showing distinct emission characteristics in the blue. Recently the French agency for food, environmental and occupational health & safety ANSES have raised the question on health issues related to LED light sources and have claimed to avoid use of LED for lighting in schools. In this paper parameters which are relevant for potential health risks will be shown and their contribution to risk factors will quantitatively be discussed. It will be shown how to differentiate between photometric parameters for assessment of beneficial as well as hazardous effects. Guidelines will be discussed how blue enhanced light sources can be used in applications to optimally support human health and well being and simultaneously avoid any risks attributed to blue light by a proper design of lighting parameters. In the conclusion it will be shown that no inherent health risks are related to LED lighting with a proper lighting design.

  9. Blue Skies, Coffee Creamer, and Rayleigh Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The first physical explanation of Earths blue sky was fashioned in 1871 by Lord Rayleigh. Many discussions of Rayleigh scattering and approaches to studying it both in and out of the classroom are available. Rayleigh scattering accounts for the blue color of the sky and the orange/red color of the Sun near sunset and sunrise, and a number of…

  10. Blue jay attacks and consumes cedar waxwing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Saenz; Joshua B. Pierce

    2009-01-01

    Blue Jays (Cyanocitta cristata) are known to be common predators on bird nests (Wilcove 1985, Picman and Schriml 1994). In addition to predation on eggs and nestlings, Blue Jays occasionally prey on fledgling and adult birds (Johnson and Johnson 1976, Dubowy 1985). A majority of reports involve predation on House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) and other small birds (...

  11. Tapered photonic crystal fibers for blue-enhanced supercontinuum generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe; Sørensen, Simon Toft; Larsen, Casper

    2012-01-01

    Tapering of photonic crystal fibers is an effective way of shifting the blue edge of a supercontinuum spectrum down in the deep-blue. We discuss the optimum taper profile for enhancing the power in the blue edge....

  12. Phytotoxicity of methylene blue to rice seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.Z. Yu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Methylene blue is widely used in various industrial branches. Due to insufficient treatment, its occurrence in wastewater is frequently detected, which may result in serious environment problems to aquatic organisms. Hydroponic experiments were conducted with rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L. cv. XZX 45 exposed to methylene blue to determine the effective concentration using relative growth rate and water use efficiency as response endpoints. Results showed that acute toxicity of methylene blue to rice seedlings was evident. Although a linear decrease in relative growth rate and water use efficiency was observed in rice seedlings with increasing methylene blue concentrations, relative growth rate of rice seedlings was more sensitive to change of methylene blue than water use efficiency. Using non-linear regression, EC-48 h values for 10%, 20% and 50% inhibition of the relative growth rate were estimated to be 1.54, 3.22 and 10.13 mg MB/L for rice seedlings exposed to methylene blue, respectively, while smaller EC were obtained for 96 h exposure. In conclusion, the toxic response of young rice seedlings to methylene blue is obvious and inhibitory effects are highly dependent on response endpoints and the duration of exposure period.

  13. Can greening of aquaculture sequester blue carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nesar; Bunting, Stuart W; Glaser, Marion; Flaherty, Mark S; Diana, James S

    2017-05-01

    Globally, blue carbon (i.e., carbon in coastal and marine ecosystems) emissions have been seriously augmented due to the devastating effects of anthropogenic pressures on coastal ecosystems including mangrove swamps, salt marshes, and seagrass meadows. The greening of aquaculture, however, including an ecosystem approach to Integrated Aquaculture-Agriculture (IAA) and Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) could play a significant role in reversing this trend, enhancing coastal ecosystems, and sequestering blue carbon. Ponds within IAA farming systems sequester more carbon per unit area than conventional fish ponds, natural lakes, and inland seas. The translocation of shrimp culture from mangrove swamps to offshore IMTA could reduce mangrove loss, reverse blue carbon emissions, and in turn increase storage of blue carbon through restoration of mangroves. Moreover, offshore IMTA may create a barrier to trawl fishing which in turn could help restore seagrasses and further enhance blue carbon sequestration. Seaweed and shellfish culture within IMTA could also help to sequester more blue carbon. The greening of aquaculture could face several challenges that need to be addressed in order to realize substantial benefits from enhanced blue carbon sequestration and eventually contribute to global climate change mitigation.

  14. Infiltrating giant cellular blue naevus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, A L; Monteiro, D A; De Pretto, O J

    2007-01-01

    Cellular blue naevi (CBN) measure 1-2 cm in diameter and affect the dermis, occasionally extending into the subcutaneous fat. The case of a 14-year-old boy with a giant CBN (GCBN) involving the right half of the face, the jugal mucosa and the lower eyelid with a tumour that had infiltrated the bone and the maxillary and ethmoidal sinuses is reported. Biopsies were taken from the skin, jugal mucosa and maxillary sinus. The following markers were used in the immunohistochemical evaluation: CD34, CD56, HMB-45, anti-S100, A-103, Melan A and MIB-1. The biopsy specimens showed a biphasic pattern affecting the lower dermis, subcutaneous fat, skeletal muscle, bone, jugal mucosa and maxillary sinus, but there was no histological evidence of malignancy. The tumour cells were CD34-, CD56-, HMB45+, anti-S100+ and A-103+. Melan A was focally expressed. No positive MIB-1 cells were identified. The present case shows that GCBN may infiltrate deeply, with no evidence of malignancy.

  15. The Biology of blue-green algae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carr, Nicholas G; Whitton, B. A

    1973-01-01

    .... Their important environmental roles, their part in nitrogen fixation and the biochemistry of phototrophic metabolism are some of the attractions of blue-geen algae to an increasing number of biologists...

  16. Random lasing in blue phase liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Wei; Jau, Hung-Chang; Wang, Chun-Ta; Lee, Chun-Hong; Khoo, I C; Lin, Tsung-Hsien

    2012-10-08

    Random lasing actions have been observed in optically isotropic pure blue-phase and polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals containing laser dyes. Scattering, interferences and recurrent multiple scatterings arising from disordered platelet texture as well as index mismatch between polymer and mesogen in these materials provide the optical feedbacks for lasing action. In polymer stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals, coherent random lasing could occur in the ordered blue phase with an extended temperature interval as well as in the isotropic liquid state. The dependence of lasing wavelength range, mode characteristics, excitation threshold and other pertinent properties on temperature and detailed make-up of the crystals platelets were obtained. Specifically, lasing wavelengths and mode-stability were found to be determined by platelet size, which can be set by controlling the cooling rate; lasing thresholds and emission spectrum are highly dependent on, and therefore can be tuned by temperature.

  17. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION Protonation of Patented Blue V ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    XTreme.ws

    SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION. Protonation of Patented Blue V in aqueous solutions: Theoretical and experimental studies. KATERYNA BEVZIUKa, ALEXANDER CHEBOTAREVa, MAKSYM FIZERb,. ANASTASIIA KLOCHKOVAa, KONSTANTIN PLIUTAa and DENYS SNIGURa*. aDepartment of Analytical Chemistry, ...

  18. Substantial Research Secures the Blue Future for our Blue Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Abdel Maksoud

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Earth, the blue planet, is our home, and seas and oceans cover more than 70% of its surface. As the earth’s population rapidly increases and available resources decrease, seas and oceans can play a key role in assuring the long-term survival of humankind. Renewable maritime energy has huge potential to provide a considerable part of the earth’s population with decarbonised electricity generation systems. Renewable maritime energy is very flexible and can be harvested above the water’s free surface by using offshore wind turbines, on the water’s surface by using wave energy converters or below the water’s surface by using current or tidal turbines. The supposed conflict between environmental protection measures and economic interests is neither viable nor reasonable. Renewable maritime energy can be the motor for considerable substantial economic growth for many maritime regions and therefore for society at large. The fastest growing sector of renewable maritime energy is offshore wind. The annual report of the European Wind Energy Association from the year 2015 confirms the growing relevance of the offshore wind industry. In 2015, the total installed and grid-connected capacity of wind power was 12,800 MW in the EU and 6,013.4 MW in Germany. 38% of the 2015 annual installation in Germany was offshore, accounting for a capacity of 2,282.4 MW. However, there are a limited number of available installation sites in shallow water, meaning that there is an urgent need to develop new offshore structures for water depths greater than 50m. The persistent trend towards deeper waters has encouraged the offshore wind industry to look for floating wind turbine structures and larger turbines. Floating wind turbine technologies are at an early stage of development and many technical and economic challenges will still need to be faced. Nonetheless, intensive research activities and the employment of advanced technologies are the key factors in

  19. Blue emitting organic semiconductors under high pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knaapila, Matti; Guha, Suchismita

    2016-01-01

    This review describes essential optical and emerging structural experiments that use high GPa range hydrostatic pressure to probe physical phenomena in blue-emitting organic semiconductors including π-conjugated polyfluorene and related compounds. The work emphasizes molecular structure and inter......This review describes essential optical and emerging structural experiments that use high GPa range hydrostatic pressure to probe physical phenomena in blue-emitting organic semiconductors including π-conjugated polyfluorene and related compounds. The work emphasizes molecular structure...

  20. Blue Flag: a Symbol of Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Petroman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Blue Flag is a high standard symbol of environmental protection and it is awarded to the beaches and agreement ports by the Foundation of Education for the Environment. The beaches having been awarded this distinction warrant particular protection for their visitors, which is a particular point of tourism attractiveness: the result, they are preferred by tourists and, therefore, by tour operators selling tourism packages for the littoral. In 2009, Romanian beaches were not awarded any Blue Flags.

  1. Comparison of Alcian Blue, Trypan Blue, and Toluidine Blue for Visualization of the Primo Vascular System Floating in Lymph Ducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Un Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The primo vascular system (PVS, floating in lymph ducts, was too transparent to be observed by using a stereomicroscope. It was only detectable with the aid of staining dyes, for instance, Alcian blue, which was injected into the lymph nodes. Some dyes were absorbed preferentially by the PVS than the lymph wall. It remains a standing problem to know what dyes are absorbed better by the PVS than the lymph walls. Such information would be useful to unravel the biochemical properties of the PVS that are badly in need for obtaining large amount of PVS specimens. In the current work we tried two other familiar dyes which were used in PVS research before. We found that Trypan blue and toluidine blue did not visualize the PVS. Trypan blue was cleared by the natural washing. Toluidine blue did not stain the PVS, but it did leave stained spots in the lymph wall and its surrounding tissues, and it leaked out of the lymph wall to stain surrounding connective tissues. These completely different behaviors of the three dyes were found for the first time in the current work and provide valuable information to elucidate the mechanism through which some special dyes stained the PVS preferentially compared to the lymphatic wall.

  2. Variations on the "Blue-Bottle" Demonstration Using Food Items That Contain FD&C Blue #1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiger, Felicia A.; Peterson, Joshua P.; Campbell, Dean J.

    2015-01-01

    Erioglaucine dye (FD&C Blue #1) can be used instead of methylene blue in the classic "blue-bottle" demonstration. Food items containing FD&C Blue #1 and reducing species such as sugars can therefore be used at the heart of this demonstration, which simply requires the addition of strong base such as sodium hydroxide lye.

  3. 21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section 133.184 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION..., sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. (a) Description. (1) Roquefort cheese...

  4. "Blue-Collar Blues" uurib töösuhteid uutes oludes / Janar Ala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ala, Janar, 1979-

    2009-01-01

    Tööproblemaatikat käsitlev näitus "Blue-Collar Blues" Tallinna Kunstihoones ja Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis 31. jaanuarini 2010, kuraator Anders Härm. Lähemalt belgia-mehhiko kunstniku Francis Alys'e videost, austria kunstniku Oliver Ressleri ning venetsueela-saksa politoloogi Dario Azzelini videost "Viis tehast. Tööliste kontroll Venezuelas"

  5. Dyes adsorption blue vegetable and blue watercolor by natural zeolites modified with surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardon S, C. C.; Olguin G, M. T.; Diaz N, M. C.

    2009-01-01

    In this work was carried out the dyes removal blue vegetable and blue watercolor of aqueous solutions, to 20 C, at different times and using a zeolite mineral of Parral (Chihuahua, Mexico) modified with hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide or dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide. The zeolite was characterized before and after of its adaptation with NaCl and later with HDTMABr and DTMABr. For the materials characterization were used the scanning electron microscopy of high vacuum; elementary microanalysis by X-ray spectroscopy of dispersed energy and X-ray diffraction techniques. It was found that the surfactant type absorbed in the zeolite material influences on the adsorption process of the blue dye. Likewise, the chemical structure between the vegetable blue dye and the blue watercolor, determines the efficiency of the color removal of the water, by the zeolites modified with the surfactants. (Author)

  6. Teknologi penyamakan kulit wet blue buaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Oetojo

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available For this study it was used 12 pieces of grain salted crocodile skin of 11 up to 14 inch width. All of the crocodile skin were process up to pickling with the same way. Furthermore pickled crocodile skins were process up to pickling with the same way. Furthermore pickled crocodile skins and was done twice. The wet blue output from the research was visual investigated for the coulor using staning scale method. For comparition it was used pickled crocodile skins. Statistical analysis pints out that there is unsignify difference (P<0.05 the influence of the used of basic chrome sulphate to the colour of wet blue crocodile skins. Practical meaning of the research is, for tanning of crocodile skins to the wet blue, it is used 1.5% basic chromium sulphate.

  7. Intraoral blue (Jadassohn-Tieche) nevus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasse, C D; Zoutendam, G L; Gombas, O F

    1978-05-01

    Blue nevus of the oral mucosa is a distinctly uncommon clincial entity. Careful review of the literature yielded thirty-one previously reported cases. The present article reports the occurrence of a blue nevus of the hard palate in a 58-year-old man. It is of interest since it is the smallest (1 by 1 mm.) intraoral blue nevus to be reported. A clinicopathologic study of the previous thirty-one cases and of our case suggests that this lesion has no age or sex predilection. The most common site of occurrence was the hard palate. There appears to be no tendency toward recurrence. A brief review of the historical background, clinical features, theories of possible origin, and differential diagnosis is presented. Excisional biopsy of localized areas of oral pibmentation, together with histopathologic study, is indicated to rule out melanoma.

  8. Blue light inhibits proliferation of melanoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Anja; Distler, Elisabeth; Klapczynski, Anna; Arpino, Fabiola; Kuch, Natalia; Simon-Keller, Katja; Sticht, Carsten; van Abeelen, Frank A.; Gretz, Norbert; Oversluizen, Gerrit

    2016-03-01

    Photobiomodulation with blue light is used for several treatment paradigms such as neonatal jaundice, psoriasis and back pain. However, little is known about possible side effects concerning melanoma cells in the skin. The aim of this study was to assess the safety of blue LED irradiation with respect to proliferation of melanoma cells. For that purpose we used the human malignant melanoma cell line SK-MEL28. Cell proliferation was decreased in blue light irradiated cells where the effect size depended on light irradiation dosage. Furthermore, with a repeated irradiation of the melanoma cells on two consecutive days the effect could be intensified. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting with Annexin V and Propidium iodide labeling did not show a higher number of dead cells after blue light irradiation compared to non-irradiated cells. Gene expression analysis revealed down-regulated genes in pathways connected to anti-inflammatory response, like B cell signaling and phagosome. Most prominent pathways with up-regulation of genes were cytochrome P450, steroid hormone biosynthesis. Furthermore, even though cells showed a decrease in proliferation, genes connected to the cell cycle were up-regulated after 24h. This result is concordant with XTT test 48h after irradiation, where irradiated cells showed the same proliferation as the no light negative control. In summary, proliferation of melanoma cells can be decreased using blue light irradiation. Nevertheless, the gene expression analysis has to be further evaluated and more studies, such as in-vivo experiments, are warranted to further assess the safety of blue light treatment.

  9. Biodecolorization and biodegradation of Reactive Blue by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspergillus sp. effectively decolorized Reactive Blue and other structurally different synthetic dyes. Agitation was found to be an important parameter, while glucose (99%), sucrose (97%) and mannitol (98%) were the best carbon sources for the decolorization. Decolorization was effective in an acidic environment (pH 3).

  10. Geographical Study of American Blues Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, John B.

    2010-01-01

    Music is not often utilized in teaching geography, despite the fact that many scholars orient their research around analyzing both the historical and spatial dimensions of musical expression. This article reports on the use of a teaching module that utilizes blues culture as a lens to understand the geographical history of the United States. The…

  11. Nanotubes based on monolayer blue phosphorus

    KAUST Repository

    Montes Muñoz, Enrique

    2016-07-08

    We demonstrate structural stability of monolayer zigzag and armchair blue phosphorus nanotubes by means of molecular dynamics simulations. The vibrational spectrum and electronic band structure are determined and analyzed as functions of the tube diameter and axial strain. The nanotubes are found to be semiconductors with a sensitive indirect band gap that allows flexible tuning.

  12. Blue whales respond to anthropogenic noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana L Melcón

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood.

  13. Prussian Blue Analogues of Reduced Dimensionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gengler, Regis Y. N.; Toma, Luminita M.; Pardo, Emilio; Lloret, Francesc; Ke, Xiaoxing; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Gournis, Dimitrios; Rudolf, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Mixed-valence polycyanides (Prussian Blue analogues) possess a rich palette of properties spanning from room-temperature ferromagnetism to zero thermal expansion, which can be tuned by chemical modifications or the application of external stimuli (temperature, pressure, light irradiation). While

  14. African Retentions in Blues and Jazz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Eddie S.

    1979-01-01

    The perseverance of African musical characteristics among American Blacks is an historic reality. African retentions have been recorded in Black music of the antebellum period. Various African scales and rhythms permeate Black American music today as evidenced in the retentions found in blues and jazz. (RLV)

  15. A Discography of the Real Blues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Dean

    1972-01-01

    A short account of the rise and decline of the Blues and a discussion of the artists who performed it is followed by an annotated bibliography of periodicals, books, records and tapes related to this form of Black" music. (184 references) (NH)

  16. Blue laser phase change recording system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Holger; Dambach, S.Soeren; Richter, Hartmut

    2002-01-01

    The migration paths from DVD phase change recording with red laser to the next generation optical disk formats with blue laser and high NA optics are discussed with respect to optical aberration margins and disc capacities. A test system for the evaluation of phase change disks with more than 20 GB capacity is presented and first results of the recording performance are shown

  17. The Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxy IZw18

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musella, I.; Marconi, M.; Fiorentino, G.; Clementini, G.; Aloisi, A.; Annibali, F.; Contreras, R.; Saha, A.; Tosi, M.; van der Marel, R. P.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results obtained for the Blue compact galaxy IZw18 on the basis of ACS HST data obtained from our group. In particular, we discuss the stellar population and the variable stars content of this galaxy to get information about its star formation history and distance.

  18. [The dangers of blue light: True story!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, G; Leid, J

    2016-05-01

    The dangers of the blue light are the object of numerous publications, for both the scientific community and the general public. The new prolific development of light sources emitting potentially toxic blue light (415-455nm) ranges from LED (Light Emitting Diodes) lamps for interior lighting to television screens, computers, digital tablets and smartphones using OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode) or AMOLED (Active-Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode) technology. First we will review some technical terms and the main characteristics of light perceived by the human eye. Then we will discuss scientific proof of the toxicity of blue light to the eye, which may cause cataract or macular degeneration. Analysis of the light spectra of several light sources, from natural light to LED lamps, will allow us to specify even better the dangers related to each light source. LED lamps, whether used as components for interior lighting or screens, are of concern if they are used for extended viewing times and at short distance. While we can protect ourselves from natural blue light by wearing colored glasses which filter out, on both front and back surfaces, the toxic wavelengths, it is more difficult to protect oneself from LED lamps in internal lighting, the use of which should be restricted to "white warmth" lamps (2700K). As far as OLED or AMOLED screens are concerned, the only effective protection consists of using them occasionally and only for a short period of time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Biodecolorization and biodegradation of Reactive Blue by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-18

    Jun 18, 2007 ... Aspergillus sp. effectively decolorized Reactive Blue and other structurally different synthetic dyes. Agitation was found to be an important ... Few chemically different dyes such as Reactive Black (75%), Reactive Yellow (70%),. Reactive Red (33%) and ..... Degradation of azo dyes by the lignin degrading ...

  20. Pulse electrodeposition of Prussian Blue thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najafisayar, P.; Bahrololoom, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of pulse electrodeposition parameters like peak current density and frequency on the electrochemical properties of Prussian Blue thin films were investigated. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy, Cyclic Voltammetry and Chronoamperometry tests were carried out on Prussian Blue thin films which were pulse electrodeposited on Indium Tin Oxide coated glass substrates. The results showed that increase in the peak current densities and using higher pulsating frequencies during electrodeposition decreases the charge transfer resistance of the thin films while the diffusion coefficient of electroactive species in the films is increased as a consequence of using the same pulsating parameters. In addition, pulse electrodeposition technique does not alter deposition mechanism and morphology of the Prussian Blue thin films. - Highlights: • Prussian Blue thin films were pulse electrodeposited onto the ITO coated glass. • Pulse current condition affected thin films' electrochemical properties. • High pulsating current and frequency lower thin films' charge transfer resistance. • High pulsating current and frequency increase diffusion coefficient in thin films

  1. Characterization of dough baked via blue laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blutinger, Jonathan David; Meijers, Yorán; Chen, Peter Yichen; Zheng, Changxi; Grinspun, Eitan; Lipson, Hod

    2018-01-01

    Depth of heat penetration and temperature must be precisely controlled to optimize nutritional value, appearance, and taste of food products. These objectives can be achieved with the use of a high-resolution blue diode laser—which operates at 445 nm—by adjusting the water content of the dough and

  2. Blue LED irradiation to hydration of skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Priscila F. C.; Requena, Michelle B.; Lizarelli, Rosane F., Z.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2015-06-01

    Blue LED system irradiation shows many important properties on skin as: bacterial decontamination, degradation of endogenous skin chromophores and biostimulation. In this clinical study we prove that the blue light improves the skin hydration. In the literature none authors reports this biological property on skin. Then this study aims to discuss the role of blue light in the skin hydration. Twenty patients were selected to this study with age between 25-35 years old and phototype I, II and III. A defined area from forearm was pre determined (A = 4.0 cm2). The study was randomized in two treatment groups using one blue light device (power of 5.3mW and irradiance of 10.8mW/cm2). The first treatment group was irradiated with 3J/cm2 (277seconds) and the second with 6J/cm2 (555 seconds). The skin hydration evaluations were done using a corneometer. The measurements were collected in 7, 14, 21 and 30 days, during the treatment. Statistical test of ANOVA, Tukey and T-Student were applied considering 5% of significance. In conclusion, both doses were able to improve the skin hydration; however, 6J/cm2 has kept this hydration for 30 days.

  3. KINETICS AND MECHANISM OF PRUSSIAN BLUE FORMATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    This intense blue colored pigment is used in the preparation of paints, printing inks, laundry dye, etc. [1]. The micro-porous character of PB and its analogues find ... industrial applications such as in removal of heavy metal ions in wine production [4], electrochemical application as battery building [5], electronic switching and ...

  4. Statistical thermodynamics of supercapacitors and blue engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roij, R.H.H.G.

    2013-01-01

    We study the thermodynamics of electrode-electrolyte systems, for instance supercapacitors filled with an ionic liquid or blue-energy devices filled with river- or sea water. By a suitable mapping of thermodynamic variables, we identify a strong analogy with classical heat engines. We introduce

  5. The Biology of blue-green algae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carr, Nicholas G; Whitton, B. A

    1973-01-01

    .... This book, extensively illustrated and thoroughly referenced, will provide the source material for students, and experienced as well as new research workers should find it of great value. A series of short appendices summarize details of culture collections, media and some specialized aspects of growing blue-green algae.

  6. METHYLENE BLUE ADSORPTION FROM GLYCEROL SOLUTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT. The mechanism of methylene blue adsorption onto the surface of synthetic acicular habit of α- goethite from glycerol solution has been studied through batch experiment at 25, 30 and 35 0C in a glass cell of minimal dead volume. To describe the adsorption results, an attempt was made to fit the data to the ...

  7. The 1993-1994 Blue Ribbon Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Christine M.

    1994-01-01

    This year's 276 Blue Ribbon schools, including 220 public and 56 private schools, are in 45 states and the District of Columbia, with a Department of Defense school in Honshu, Japan. About 70% are headed by women principals. In 89 schools, students from low-income families comprise at least a quarter of the enrollment. Schools are listed by state.…

  8. Approaches to blue light emitting polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    Blue-light emitting polymers are important for full colour displays. Blue- light emitting polymers, such as poly(fluorene)s have been reported, but tend to be soluble in the conjugated form. The aim of the project was to produce insoluble polymers, prepared via processible soluble precursor polymers, so that multilayer devices could be easily fabricated. Multilayer devices are often required for more efficient light emission. The target materials were derivatives of poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV), a green-yellow emitting polymer. To blue shift the emission of PPV, bulky substituents, namely chloro, phenyl and alkyl, were attached to the vinylic linkage. These bulky substituents were incorporated to introduce steric interactions between the side group and the backbone phenyl protons, to shorten the effective conjugation length and increase the HOMO-LUMO energy gap. Chloro substituents quenched the fluorescence. Phenyl substituents resulted in highly conjugated precursor polymers with low molecular weights, showing blue- green to green emission in the conjugated form. Alkyl substituted PPV derivatives, prepared via chloro or xanthate precursors, were blue-light emitting conjugated polymers, which were electroluminescent in ITO/polymer/AI devices. The PL quantum yields were found to be up to 38%. The incorporation of electron withdrawing groups into the polymers was attempted, to lower the barrier to electron injection. Chloro groups quenched fluorescence and methylsulfone substituents resulted in insoluble polymers, probably due to cross-linking. However a copolymer containing methylsulfone electron withdrawing groups could be prepared. Phenylsulfone substituents were found to give fluorescent polymers which were soluble in the precursor form. (author)

  9. Pianure Blues: From the Dialect of the Plains to the English of the Blues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Nadiani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors describe a joint performance project called Pianure Blues, in which poems in Romagnolo dialect are transposed into English and performed as blues songs, and in which songs from the Anglo-American blues/roots/folk tradition are transposed and performed as poems in Romagnolo dialect – a process they have called ‘trans-staging’. A process in which they are writers and performers and, especially, translators; translators of each other’s voices, stories, landscapes, rhythms and sounds as they look for the bond between places, languages and traditions that seem very distant from each other but which find a common mood and poetic language, a common aesthetic, in their performances. The authors reflect on the creative process involved and on the significance of establishing an intersemiotic dialogue between a ‘minority’ dialect such as Romagnolo and a ‘global’ language such as English, and the blues, have become.

  10. Hubble's View of Little Blue Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-02-01

    The recent discovery of a new type of tiny, star-forming galaxy is the latest in a zoo of detections shedding light on our early universe. What can we learn from the unique little blue dots found in archival Hubble data?Peas, Berries, and DotsGreen pea galaxies identified by citizen scientists with Galaxy Zoo. [Richard Nowell Carolin Cardamone]As telescope capabilities improve and we develop increasingly deeper large-scale surveys of our universe, we continue to learn more about small, faraway galaxies. In recent years, increasing sensitivity first enabled the detection of green peas luminous, compact, low-mass (10 billion solar masses; compare this to the Milky Ways 1 trillion solar masses!) galaxies with high rates of star formation.Not long thereafter, we discovered galaxies that form stars similarly rapidly, but are even smaller only 330 million solar masses, spanning less than 3,000 light-years in size. These tiny powerhouses were termed blueberries for their distinctive color.Now, scientists Debra and Bruce Elmegreen (of Vassar College and IBM Research Division, respectively) report the discovery of galaxies that have even higher star formation rates and even lower masses: little blue dots.Exploring Tiny Star FactoriesThe Elmegreens discovered these unique galaxies by exploring archival Hubble data. The Hubble Frontier Fields data consist of deep images of six distant galaxy clusters and the parallel fields next to them. It was in the archival data for two Frontier Field Parallels, those for clusters Abell 2744 and MAS J0416.1-2403, that the authors noticed several galaxies that stand out as tiny, bright, blue objects that are nearly point sources.Top: a few examples of the little blue dots recently identified in two Hubble Frontier Field Parallels. Bottom: stacked images for three different groups of little blue dots. [Elmegreen Elmegreen 2017]The authors performed a search through the two Frontier Field Parallels, discovering a total of 55 little blue dots

  11. The Blue Coma: The Role of Methylene Blue in Unexplained Coma After Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Enrico Antonio; Winterton, Dario; Nardelli, Pasquale; Pasin, Laura; Calabrò, Maria Grazia; Bove, Tiziana; Fanelli, Giovanna; Zangrillo, Alberto; Landoni, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Methylene blue commonly is used as a dye or an antidote, but also can be used off label as a vasopressor. Serotonin toxicity is a potentially lethal and often misdiagnosed condition that can result from drug interaction. Mild serotonin toxicity previously was reported in settings in which methylene blue was used as a dye. The authors report 3 cases of life-threatening serotonin toxicity in patients undergoing chronic selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) therapy who also underwent cardiac surgery and received methylene blue to treat vasoplegic syndrome. An observational study. A cardiothoracic intensive care unit (ICU) in a teaching hospital. Three patients who received methylene blue after cardiac surgery, later discovered to be undergoing chronic SSRI therapy. None. All 3 patients received high doses of fentanyl during general anesthesia. They all developed vasoplegic syndrome and consequently were given methylene blue in the ICU. All 3 patients developed serotonin toxicity, including coma, after this administration and diagnostic tests were negative for acute intracranial pathology. Coma lasted between 1 and 5 days. Two patients were discharged from the ICU shortly after awakening, whereas the third patient experienced a complicated postoperative course for concomitant refractory low-cardiac-output syndrome. Patients undergoing chronic SSRI therapy should not be administered methylene blue to treat vasoplegic syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Unraveling the Mystery of the Blue Fog: Structure, Properties, and Applications of Amorphous Blue Phase III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Sahil Sandesh; Chien, Liang-Chy

    2017-12-01

    The amorphous blue phase III of cholesteric liquid crystals, also known as the "blue fog," are among the rising stars in materials science that can potentially be used to develop next-generation displays with the ability to compete toe-to-toe with disruptive technologies like organic light-emitting diodes. The structure and properties of the practically unobservable blue phase III have eluded scientists for more than a century since it was discovered. This progress report reviews the developments in this field from both fundamental and applied research perspectives. The first part of this progress report gives an overview of the 130-years-long scientific tour-de-force that very recently resulted in the revelation of the mysterious structure of blue phase III. The second part reviews progress made in the past decade in developing electrooptical, optical, and photonic devices based on blue phase III. The strong and weak aspects of the development of these devices are underlined and criticized, respectively. The third- and-final part proposes ideas for further improvement in blue phase III technology to make it feasible for commercialization and widespread use. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. 77 FR 55895 - Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of permanent closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport (ISZ). SUMMARY: The... Cincinnati advising that on August 29, 2012, it was permanently closing Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport (ISZ...

  14. Aspen biology, community classification, and management in the Blue Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    David K. Swanson; Craig L. Schmitt; Diane M. Shirley; Vicky Erickson; Kenneth J. Schuetz; Michael L. Tatum; David C. Powell

    2010-01-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) is a valuable species that is declining in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon. This publication is a compilation of over 20 years of aspen management experience by USDA Forest Service workers in the Blue Mountains. It includes a summary of aspen biology and occurrence in the Blue Mountains, and a...

  15. Alcian blue-stained particles in a eutrophic lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, J.; Søndergaard, Morten

    1998-01-01

    We used a neutral solution of Alcian Blue to stain transparent particles in eutrophic Lake Frederiksborg Slotss0, Denmark. Alcian Blue-stained particles (ABSP) appeared to be similar to the so-called transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) identified with an acidic solution of Alcian Blue. Our...

  16. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following hydrated mineral silicates: chrysolite, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite asbestos...

  17. Poporodní blues – česká adaptace dotazníku „Maternity blues questionnaire“

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Takács, L.; Smolík, Filip; Mlíková Seidlerová, J.; Čepický, P.; Hoskovcová, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 5 (2016), s. 355-368 ISSN 1210-7832 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : EPDS postpartum mood * Maternity Blues Questionnaire * postnatal depression * postpartum blues * postpartum depression Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  18. Blue-Detuned Magneto-Optical Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, K. N.; Devlin, J. A.; Wall, T. E.; Sauer, B. E.; Tarbutt, M. R.

    2018-02-01

    We present the properties and advantages of a new magneto-optical trap (MOT) where blue-detuned light drives "type-II" transitions that have dark ground states. Using 87Rb, we reach a radiation-pressure-limited density exceeding 1 011 cm-3 and a temperature below 30 μ K . The phase-space density is higher than in normal atomic MOTs and a million times higher than comparable red-detuned type-II MOTs, making the blue-detuned MOT particularly attractive for molecular MOTs, which rely on type-II transitions. The loss of atoms from the trap is dominated by ultracold collisions between Rb atoms. For typical trapping conditions, we measure a loss rate of 1.8 (4 )×10-10 cm3 s-1 .

  19. Blue green component and integrated urban design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Srđan M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to demonstrate the hidden potential of blue green components, in a synergetic network, not as separate systems, like used in past. The innovative methodology of the project Blue Green Dream is presented through examples of good practice. A new approach in the project initiate thoughtful planning and remodeling of the settlement for the modern man. Professional and scientific public is looking for way to create more healthy and stimulating place for living. However, offered integrative solutions still remain out of urban and architectural practice. Tested technologies in current projects confirmed measurability of innovative approaches and lessons learned. Scientific and professional contributions are summarized in master's and doctoral theses that have been completed or are in process of writing.

  20. 76 FR 22923 - Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield Enterprise Provider Data Management Team...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    .../B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield Enterprise Provider Data Management Team Including On-Site... & Blue Shield, Enterprise Provider Data Management Team, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Kelly... Of Kentucky, Enterprise Provider Data Management Team, Louisville, Kentucky TA-W-74,895B Wellpoint...

  1. Measuring Blue Space Visibility and ‘Blue Recreation’ in the Everyday Lives of Children in a Capital City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Amber L.; Bottomley, Ross; Chambers, Tim; Thornton, Lukar; Stanley, James; Smith, Moira; Barr, Michelle; Signal, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Blue spaces (water bodies) may promote positive mental and physical health through opportunities for relaxation, recreation, and social connections. However, we know little about the nature and extent of everyday exposure to blue spaces, particularly in settings outside the home or among children, nor whether exposure varies by individual or household characteristics. Wearable cameras offer a novel, reliable method for blue space exposure measurement. In this study, we used images from cameras worn over two days by 166 children in Wellington, New Zealand, and conducted content and blue space quantification analysis on each image (n = 749,389). Blue space was identified in 24,721 images (3.6%), with a total of 23 blue recreation events. Visual exposure and participation in blue recreation did not differ by ethnicity, weight status, household deprivation, or residential proximity to the coastline. Significant differences in both visual exposure to blue space and participation in blue recreation were observed, whereby children from the most deprived schools had significantly higher rates of blue space exposure than children from low deprivation schools. Schools may be important settings to promote equitable blue space exposures. Childhood exposures to blue space may not follow the expected income inequality trends observed among adults. PMID:28587134

  2. Measuring Blue Space Visibility and 'Blue Recreation' in the Everyday Lives of Children in a Capital City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Amber L; Bottomley, Ross; Chambers, Tim; Thornton, Lukar; Stanley, James; Smith, Moira; Barr, Michelle; Signal, Louise

    2017-05-26

    Blue spaces (water bodies) may promote positive mental and physical health through opportunities for relaxation, recreation, and social connections. However, we know little about the nature and extent of everyday exposure to blue spaces, particularly in settings outside the home or among children, nor whether exposure varies by individual or household characteristics. Wearable cameras offer a novel, reliable method for blue space exposure measurement. In this study, we used images from cameras worn over two days by 166 children in Wellington, New Zealand, and conducted content and blue space quantification analysis on each image ( n = 749,389). Blue space was identified in 24,721 images (3.6%), with a total of 23 blue recreation events. Visual exposure and participation in blue recreation did not differ by ethnicity, weight status, household deprivation, or residential proximity to the coastline. Significant differences in both visual exposure to blue space and participation in blue recreation were observed, whereby children from the most deprived schools had significantly higher rates of blue space exposure than children from low deprivation schools. Schools may be important settings to promote equitable blue space exposures. Childhood exposures to blue space may not follow the expected income inequality trends observed among adults.

  3. Nature's palette: the search for natural blue colorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Andrew G; Culver, Catherine A; van Breemen, Richard B

    2014-07-16

    The food and beverage industry is seeking to broaden the palette of naturally derived colorants. Although considerable effort has been devoted to the search for new blue colorants in fruits and vegetables, less attention has been directed toward blue compounds from other sources such as bacteria and fungi. The current work reviews known organic blue compounds from natural plant, animal, fungal, and microbial sources. The scarcity of blue-colored metabolites in the natural world relative to metabolites of other colors is discussed, and structural trends common among natural blue compounds are identified. These compounds are grouped into seven structural classes and evaluated for their potential as new color additives.

  4. Blue light does not inhibit nodulation in Sesbania rostrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Aya; Arima, Susumu; Hayashi, Makoto; Maymon, Maskit; Hirsch, Ann M; Suzuki, Akihiro

    2017-01-02

    Earlier, we reported that root nodulation was inhibited by blue light irradiation of Lotus japonicus. Because some legumes do not establish nodules exclusively on underground roots, we investigated whether nodule formation in Sesbania rostrata, which forms both root and "stem" nodules following inoculation with Azorhizobium caulinodans, is inhibited by blue light as are L. japonicus nodules. We found that neither S. rostrata nodulation nor nitrogen fixation was inhibited by blue light exposure. Moreover, although A. caulinodans proliferation was not affected by blue light irradiation, bacterial survival was decreased. Therefore, blue light appears to impose different responses depending on the legume-rhizobial symbiosis.

  5. FROM CIRCULAR ECONOMY TO BLUE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iustin-Emanuel, ALEXANDRU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the subject of this essay is based on the background ideas generated by a new branch of science - Biomimicry. According to European Commissioner for the Environment, "Nature is the perfect model of circular economy". Therefore, by imitating nature, we are witnessing a process of cycle redesign: production-consumption-recycling. The authors present some reflections on the European Commission's decision to adopt after July 1, 2014 new measures concerning the development of more circular economies. Starting from the principles of Ecolonomy, which is based on the whole living paradigm, this paper argues for the development within each economy of entrepreneurial policies related to the Blue economy. In its turn, Blue economy is based on scientific analyses that identify the best solutions in a business. Thus, formation of social capital will lead to healthier and cheaper products, which will stimulate entrepreneurship. Blue economy is another way of thinking economic practice and is a new model of business design. It is a healthy, sustainable business, designed for people. In fact, it is the core of the whole living paradigm through which, towards 2020, circular economy will grow more and more.

  6. 'Blue Whale Challenge': A Game or Crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhra, Richa; Baryah, Neha; Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj

    2017-11-11

    A bewildering range of games are emerging every other day with newer elements of fun and entertainment to woo youngsters. Games are meant to reduce stress and enhance the cognitive development of children as well as adults. Teenagers are always curious to indulge in newer games; and e-gaming is one such platform providing an easy access and quicker means of entertainment. The particular game challenge which has taken the world by storm is the dangerous "Blue Whale Challenge" often involving vulnerable teenagers. The Blue Whale Challenge is neither an application nor internet based game but the users get a link through social media chat groups to enter this "deadly" challenge game. This probably is the only game where the participant has to end his/her life to complete the game. The innocent teenagers are being targeted based on their depressed psychology and are coercively isolated from their social milieux on the pretext of keeping the challenges confidential. To add to the woes, no option is offered to quit the challenge even if the contender is unable to complete the challenge. Blue Whale Challenge in its sheer form could be seen as an illegal, unethical and inhumane endeavor in our present society. The present communication discusses the severe effects of the game on teenagers, the ethical concerns involved and the preventive measures necessary to curb it.

  7. Synchrotron powder diffraction on Aztec blue pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez del Rio, M.; Gutierrez-Leon, A.; Castro, G.R.; Rubio-Zuazo, J.; Solis, C.; Sanchez-Hernandez, R.; Robles-Camacho, J.; Rojas-Gaytan, J.

    2008-01-01

    Some samples of raw blue pigments coming from an archaeological rescue mission in downtown Mexico City have been characterized using different techniques. The samples, some recovered as a part of a ritual offering, could be assigned to the late Aztec period (XVth century). The striking characteristic of these samples is that they seem to be raw pigments prior to any use in artworks, and it was possible to collect a few μg of pigment after manual grain selection under a microscopy monitoring. All pigments are made of indigo, an organic colorant locally known as anil or xiuhquilitl. The colorant is always found in combination with an inorganic matrix, studied by powder diffraction. In one case the mineral base is palygorskite, a rare clay mineral featuring micro-channels in its structure, well known as the main ingredient of the Maya blue pigment. However, other samples present the minerals sepiolite (a clay mineral of the palygorskite family) and calcite. Another sample contains barite, a mineral never reported in prehispanic paints. We present the results of characterization using high resolution powder diffraction recorded at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BM25A, SpLine beamline) complemented with other techniques. All of them gave consistent results on the composition. A chemical test on resistance to acids was done, showing a high resistance for the palygorskite and eventually sepiolite compounds, in good agreement with the excellent resistance of the Maya blue. (orig.)

  8. Blue Light Protects Against Temporal Frequency Sensitive Refractive Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Frances; Britton, Stephanie; Spatcher, Molly; Hanowsky, Stephan

    2015-09-01

    Time spent outdoors is protective against myopia. The outdoors allows exposure to short-wavelength (blue light) rich sunlight, while indoor illuminants can be deficient at short-wavelengths. In the current experiment, we investigate the role of blue light, and temporal sensitivity, in the emmetropization response. Five-day-old chicks were exposed to sinusoidal luminance modulation of white light (with blue; N = 82) or yellow light (without blue; N = 83) at 80% contrast, at one of six temporal frequencies: 0, 0.2, 1, 2, 5, 10 Hz daily for 3 days. Mean illumination was 680 lux. Changes in ocular components and corneal curvature were measured. Refraction, eye length, and choroidal changes were dependent on the presence of blue light (P blue light, refraction did not change across frequencies (mean change -0.24 [diopters] D), while in the absence of blue light, we observed a hyperopic shift (>1 D) at high frequencies, and a myopic shift (>-0.6 D) at low frequencies. With blue light there was little difference in eye growth across frequencies (77 μm), while in the absence of blue light, eyes grew more at low temporal frequencies and less at high temporal frequencies (10 vs. 0.2 Hz: 145 μm; P blue light. Illuminants rich in blue light can protect against myopic eye growth when the eye is exposed to slow changes in luminance contrast as might occur with near work.

  9. Blue Light Protects Against Temporal Frequency Sensitive Refractive Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Frances; Britton, Stephanie; Spatcher, Molly; Hanowsky, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Time spent outdoors is protective against myopia. The outdoors allows exposure to short-wavelength (blue light) rich sunlight, while indoor illuminants can be deficient at short-wavelengths. In the current experiment, we investigate the role of blue light, and temporal sensitivity, in the emmetropization response. Methods Five-day-old chicks were exposed to sinusoidal luminance modulation of white light (with blue; N = 82) or yellow light (without blue; N = 83) at 80% contrast, at one of six temporal frequencies: 0, 0.2, 1, 2, 5, 10 Hz daily for 3 days. Mean illumination was 680 lux. Changes in ocular components and corneal curvature were measured. Results Refraction, eye length, and choroidal changes were dependent on the presence of blue light (P blue light, refraction did not change across frequencies (mean change −0.24 [diopters] D), while in the absence of blue light, we observed a hyperopic shift (>1 D) at high frequencies, and a myopic shift (>−0.6 D) at low frequencies. With blue light there was little difference in eye growth across frequencies (77 μm), while in the absence of blue light, eyes grew more at low temporal frequencies and less at high temporal frequencies (10 vs. 0.2 Hz: 145 μm; P blue light. Conclusions Illuminants rich in blue light can protect against myopic eye growth when the eye is exposed to slow changes in luminance contrast as might occur with near work. PMID:26393671

  10. Blue-Green Solutions in Urban Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Caroline; Kalantari, Zahra

    2017-04-01

    With the ongoing urbanisation and increasing pressure for new housing and infrastructure, the nexus of developing compact, energy-efficient and yet liveable and sustainable cities is urgent to address. In this context, blue-green spaces and related ecosystem services (ES) are critical resources that need to be integrated in policy and planning of urban. Among the ES provided by blue-green spaces, regulating ES such as water retention and purification are particularly important in urban areas, affecting water supply and quality, related cultural ES and biodiversity, as well as cities potential to adapt to climate change. Blue-green infrastructure management is considered a sustainable way to reducing negative effects of urbanisation, such as decreasing flood risks, as well as adapting to climate change for example by controlling increasing flood and drought risks. Blue-green infrastructure management can for example create multifunctional surfaces with valuable environmental and social functions and generally handle greenways and ecological networks as important ecosystem service components, for example for stormwater regulation in a sustainable urban drainage system. The Norrström drainage basin (22,000 km2) is a large demonstrator for Blue-green infrastructure management. Both urbanisation and agriculture are extensive within this basin, which includes the Swedish capital Stockholm and is part of the fertile Swedish belt. Together, the relatively high population density combined with agricultural and industrial activities in this region imply large eutrophication and pollution pressures, not least transferred through storm runoff to both inland surface waters and the coastal waters of the Baltic Sea. The ecosystems of this basin provide highly valued but also threatened services. For example, Lake Mälaren is the single main freshwater supply for the Swedish capital Stockholm, as well as a key nutrient retention system that strongly mitigates waterborne nutrient

  11. Raman analysis of cobalt blue pigment in blue and white porcelain: A reassessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaochenyang; Ma, Yanying; Chen, Yue; Li, Yuanqiu; Ma, Qinglin; Zhang, Zhaoxia; Wang, Changsui; Yang, Yimin

    2018-02-01

    Cobalt blue is a famous pigment in human history. In the past decade it is widely reported that the cobalt aluminate has been detected in ancient ceramics as blue colorant in glaze, yet the acquired Raman spectra are incredibly different from that of synthesised references, necessitating a reassessment of such contradictory scenario with more accurate analytic strategies. In this study, micro-Raman spectroscopy (MRS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in association with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) were performed on under-glaze cobalt pigments from one submerged blue and white porcelain shard dated from Wanli reign (1573-1620 CE) of Ming dynasty (1365-1644 CE) excavated at Nan'ao I shipwreck off the southern coast of China. The micro-structural inspection reveals that the pigment particles have characteristics of small account, tiny size, heterogeneously distribution, and more importantly, been completely enwrapped by well-developed anorthite crystals in the glaze, indicating that the signals recorded in previous publications are probably not from cobalt pigments themselves but from outside thickset anorthite shell. The further spectromicroscopic analyses confirm this presumption when the accurate spectra of cobalt aluminate pigment and surrounding anorthite were obtained separately with precise optical positioning. Accordingly, we reassess and clarify the previous Raman studies dedicated to cobalt blue pigment in ancient ceramics, e.g. cobalt blue in celadon glaze, and in turn demonstrate the superiority and necessity of coupling spectroscopic analysis with corresponding structure observation, especially in the characterization of pigments from complicated physico-chemical environment like antiquities. Thus, this study promotes a better understanding of Raman spectroscopy study of cobalt blue pigments in art and archaeology field.

  12. Anomalous Cepheids and population II blue stragglers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, James M.

    Recent studies of anomalous Cepheids (ACs) and population II blue stragglers (BSs), including photometrically variable BSs (VBSs), are reviewed. The VBSs represent about 25 percent of the BSs, the majority of which are SX Phe short-period variables in the Cepheid instability strip. Mass estimates derived using various techniques suggest that both ACs and BSs are relatively massive (about 1.0-1.6 solar mass). The recent discovery that two BSs in the globular cluster NGC 5466 are contact binaries, and the earlier discovery that one of the BSs in Omega Cen is an eclipsing binary, provide direct evidence that at least some BSs are binary systems.

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: blue whale [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available blue whale Balaenoptera musculus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Cetacea Balaenoptera..._musculus_L.png Balaenoptera_musculus_NL.png Balaenoptera_musculus_S.png Balaenoptera_musculu...s_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Balaenoptera+musculus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/...taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Balaenoptera+musculus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxon...omy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Balaenoptera+musculus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Balaenoptera+musculus&t=NS ...

  14. An anion channel in Arabidopsis hypocotyls activated by blue light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, M. H.; Spalding, E. P.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    A rapid, transient depolarization of the plasma membrane in seedling stems is one of the earliest effects of blue light detected in plants. It appears to play a role in transducing blue light into inhibition of hypocotyl (stem) elongation, and perhaps other responses. The possibility that activation of a Cl- conductance is part of the depolarization mechanism was raised previously and addressed here. By patch clamping hypocotyl cells isolated from dark-grown (etiolated) Arabidopsis seedlings, blue light was found to activate an anion channel residing at the plasma membrane. An anion-channel blocker commonly known as NPPB 15-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid] potently and reversibly blocked this anion channel. NPPB also blocked the blue-light-induced depolarization in vivo and decreased the inhibitory effect of blue light on hypocotyl elongation. These results indicate that activation of this anion channel plays a role in transducing blue light into growth inhibition.

  15. Fuzzy logic color detection: Blue areas in melanoma dermoscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingala, Mounika; Stanley, R Joe; Rader, Ryan K; Hagerty, Jason; Rabinovitz, Harold S; Oliviero, Margaret; Choudhry, Iqra; Stoecker, William V

    2014-07-01

    Fuzzy logic image analysis techniques were used to analyze three shades of blue (lavender blue, light blue, and dark blue) in dermoscopic images for melanoma detection. A logistic regression model provided up to 82.7% accuracy for melanoma discrimination for 866 images. With a support vector machines (SVM) classifier, lower accuracy was obtained for individual shades (79.9-80.1%) compared with up to 81.4% accuracy with multiple shades. All fuzzy blue logic alpha cuts scored higher than the crisp case. Fuzzy logic techniques applied to multiple shades of blue can assist in melanoma detection. These vector-based fuzzy logic techniques can be extended to other image analysis problems involving multiple colors or color shades. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Strategic blue-green communication filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, W. J.

    1984-04-01

    The project began as an effort to construct narrowband, wide-field-of-view, large-aperture, plastic, birefringent filters suitable for blue-green communications. During the course of the study we investigated the use of crystalline materials in addition to plastic films, and we studied filter design theory in order to find designs more suitable to the blue-green system requirements. In addition, we constructed a quartz, 2A filter for the 1981 SLCAIR experiment. In this report we have included an introduction to the principles of narrowband, wide-field-of-view, birefringent filters. This section is included since the subject matter is not readily available except piecemeal in technical journals. Section 3 is a discussion of the materials which were considered during this study. It contains subsections devoted to crystals, plastics and analog element, respectively. A class of new lossless filter designs is described in Section 4. These designs are expected to provide a basis for high-transmission filters in the future. The operational SLCAIR-81 filter is described in Section 5. It was part of the successful experiment which demonstrated communication to the USN Dolphin, a research submarine. Finally, in Section 6 we describe the non-vignetting filter design which was discovered during this study. It represents a significant throughput advantage for crystal filters used in non-imaging applications.

  17. Grassy Silica Nanoribbons and Strong Blue Luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengping; Xie, Shuang; Huang, Guowei; Guo, Hongxuan; Cho, Yujin; Chen, Jun; Fujita, Daisuke; Xu, Mingsheng

    2016-09-01

    Silicon dioxide (SiO2) is one of the key materials in many modern technological applications such as in metal oxide semiconductor transistors, photovoltaic solar cells, pollution removal, and biomedicine. We report the accidental discovery of free-standing grassy silica nanoribbons directly grown on SiO2/Si platform which is commonly used for field-effect transistors fabrication without other precursor. We investigate the formation mechanism of this novel silica nanostructure that has not been previously documented. The silica nanoribbons are flexible and can be manipulated by electron-beam. The silica nanoribbons exhibit strong blue emission at about 467 nm, together with UV and red emissions as investigated by cathodoluminescence technique. The origins of the luminescence are attributed to various defects in the silica nanoribbons; and the intensity change of the blue emission and green emission at about 550 nm is discussed in the frame of the defect density. Our study may lead to rational design of the new silica-based materials for a wide range of applications.

  18. Manajemen Strategi Pengembangan Pariwisata dengan Pendekatan Blue Ocean Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Muzha, Vianda Kushardianti

    2015-01-01

    Persaingan industri pariwisata di Indonesia saat ini sangatlah ketat, setiap daerah berlomba untuk menonjolkan keunikannya tersendiri. Dengan adanya persaingan yang sangat ketat tersebut, Kota Batu berusaha keluar dari persaingan (red ocean) dengan menciptkan inovasi baru melalui konsep Blue Ocean Strategy. Blue Ocean Strategy adalah istilah dalam ilmu manajemen strategi yang merujuk pada siasat untuk menciptakan pasar baru yang belum dipenuhi persaingan yang ketat. Blue Ocean Strategy pada d...

  19. A Survey of Blue-Noise Sampling and Its Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming

    2015-05-05

    In this paper, we survey recent approaches to blue-noise sampling and discuss their beneficial applications. We discuss the sampling algorithms that use points as sampling primitives and classify the sampling algorithms based on various aspects, e.g., the sampling domain and the type of algorithm. We demonstrate several well-known applications that can be improved by recent blue-noise sampling techniques, as well as some new applications such as dynamic sampling and blue-noise remeshing.

  20. Large Scale Density Estimation of Blue and Fin Whales (LSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Large Scale Density Estimation of Blue and Fin Whales ...sensors, or both. The goal of this research is to develop and implement a new method for estimating blue and fin whale density that is effective over...develop and implement a density estimation methodology for quantifying blue and fin whale abundance from passive acoustic data recorded on sparse

  1. The Return of the Blue Butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Anabela

    2014-05-01

    The Return of the Blue Butterfly The English writer Charles Dickens once wrote: "I only ask to be free. The butterflies are free". But are they really? The work that I performed with a group of students from 8th grade, had a starting point of climate change and the implications it has on ecosystems. Joining the passion I have for butterflies, I realized that they are also in danger of extinction due to these climatic effects. Thus, it was easy to seduce my students wanting to know more. Luckily I found Dr. Paula Seixas Arnaldo, a researcher at the University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, who has worked on butterflies and precisely investigated this issue. Portugal is the southern limit of butterfly-blue (Phengaris alcon), and has been many years in the red book of endangered species. Butterfly-blue is very demanding of their habitat, and disappears very easily if ideal conditions are not satisfied. Increased fragmentation of landscapes and degradation of suitable habitats, are considered the greatest challenges of the conservation of Phengaris butterfly in Portugal. In recent decades, climate change has also changed butterfly-blue spatial distribution with a movement of the species northward to colder locations, and dispersion in latitude. Butterflies of Europe must escape to the North because of the heat. Dr. Paula Seixas Arnaldo and her research team began a project, completed in December 2013, wanted to preserve and restore priority habitats recognized by the European Union to help species in danger of disappearing with increasing temperature. The blue butterfly is extremely important because it is a key indicator of the quality of these habitats. In the field, the butterflies are monitored to collect all possible data in order to identify the key species. Butterflies start flying in early July and cease in late August. Mating takes about an hour and occurs in the first days of life. The gentian-peat (Gentiana pneumonanthe) serves as the host plant for

  2. Phototherapy with blue and green mixed-light is as effective against unconjugated jaundice as blue light and reduces oxidative stress in the Gunn rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Yumiko; Morimoto, Yukihiro; Uchiike, Takao; Kamamoto, Tomoyuki; Hayashi, Tamaki; Arai, Ikuyo; Nishikubo, Toshiya; Takahashi, Yukihiro

    2015-07-01

    Phototherapy using blue light-emitting diodes (LED) is effective against neonatal jaundice. However, green light phototherapy also reduces unconjugated jaundice. We aimed to determine whether mixed blue and green light can relieve jaundice with minimal oxidative stress as effectively as either blue or green light alone in a rat model. Gunn rats were exposed to phototherapy with blue (420-520 nm), filtered blue (FB; 440-520 nm without 1.00), respectively. Blue plus green phototherapy is as effective as blue phototherapy and it attenuates irradiation-induced oxidative stress. Combined blue and green spectra might be effective against neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Primary orbital melanoma in association with cellular blue nevus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sawy, Tarek; Bakhoum, Mathieu F; Tetzlaff, Michael; Nasser, Qasiem J; Prieto, Victor G; Ivan, Doina; Sniegowski, Matthew C; Yin, Vivian T; Pan, Caroline; Durairaj, Vikram; Esmaeli, Bita

    2014-01-01

    To describe 3 cases of primary orbital melanoma associated with either known or subsequently discovered cellular blue nevus. The clinical records and surgical specimens of 3 patients who underwent orbital exenteration for primary orbital melanoma and who had a cellular blue nevus diagnosed before or after detection of the melanoma were retrospectively reviewed. All 3 patients presented with signs and symptoms of an orbital mass. Subsequent biopsy revealed invasive melanoma. One patient had a known history of congenital cellular blue nevus of the eyelid from which the orbital melanoma originated. The other 2 patients had no known history of cutaneous pigmentation or blue nevus. In these 2 patients, the cellular blue nevus was detected on pathologic review of the orbital exenteration specimen (1 patient) or surgical biopsy specimen (1 patient). All 3 patients underwent total body positron emission tomography/computed tomography, and in all 3 results were negative for other sites of disease involvement. In the 2 patients without a previously known nevus a total body skin check was negative for other primary melanoma lesions. All 3 patients underwent orbital exenteration followed by postoperative radiation therapy. Thorough evaluation of biopsy specimens of "primary" orbital melanoma is warranted to ensure identification of any associated blue nevus because blue nevi are precursor lesions for orbital melanoma, and the presence of a blue nevus would support a primary orbital melanoma rather than a metastatic lesion. Patients with a known blue nevus of the periocular skin and ocular adnexa should be monitored closely for signs of malignant transformation.

  4. Tooth whitening evaluation of blue covarine containing toothpastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Danying; Smith, Richard N; Zhang, Qiong; Sun, Jianing N; Philpotts, Carole J; Ricketts, Stephen R; Naeeni, Mojgan; Joiner, Andrew

    2017-12-01

    To measure the tooth whitening effects delivered immediately after brushing with silica-based toothpastes containing blue covarine in vitro and in vivo. Salivary pellicle coated human extracted teeth were brushed with either a slurry of a toothpaste containing blue covarine (BC), a formulation containing an increased level of blue covarine (BC+) or a negative control toothpaste containing no blue covarine. The colour of the specimens were measured in vitro using either a Minolta chromameter or a VITA Easyshade spectrophotometer, before and after brushing and changes in CIELAB values and tooth Whiteness Index (WIO) values calculated. In a double-blind cross-over clinical study, subjects brushed with either BC or BC+ toothpaste and tooth colour changes were measured with a digital image analysis system. The in vitro studies demonstrated that toothpastes containing blue covarine gave a significantly (pbrushing with the BC+ toothpaste than with the BC toothpaste (WIO p=0.006; b* p=0.013). Toothpastes containing blue covarine gave a statistically significant reduction in tooth yellowness and improvement in tooth whiteness immediately after brushing in both in vitro and clinical studies. In addition, the higher concentration blue covarine toothpaste gave statistically significant greater tooth whitening benefits than the lower concentration blue covarine toothpaste. The silica-based toothpastes containing blue covarine evaluated in the current study gave tooth whitening benefits immediately after one brush. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A clock reaction based on molybdenum blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, Ulrich; Negron, Arnaldo; Jensen, Klavs F

    2013-05-30

    Clock reactions are rare kinetic phenomena, so far limited mostly to systems with ionic oxoacids and oxoanions in water. We report a new clock reaction in cyclohexanol that forms molybdenum blue from a noncharged, yellow molybdenum complex as precursor, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Interestingly, the concomitant color change is reversible, enabling multiple clock cycles to be executed consecutively. The kinetics of the clock reaction were experimentally characterized, and by adding insights from quantum chemical calculations, a plausible reaction mechanism was postulated. Key elementary reaction steps comprise sigmatropic rearrangements with five-membered or bicyclo[3.1.0] transition states. Importantly, numerical kinetic modeling demonstrated the mechanism's ability to reproduce the experimental findings. It also revealed that clock behavior is intimately connected to the sudden exhaustion of hydrogen peroxide. Due to the stoichiometric coproduction of ketone, the reaction bears potential for application in alcohol oxidation catalysis.

  6. Blue Marble: Remote Characterization of Habitable Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Neville; Lewis, Brian; Chartres, James; Genova, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The study of the nature and distribution of habitable environments beyond the Solar System is a key area for Astrobiology research. At the present time, our Earth is the only habitable planet that can be characterized in the same way that we might characterize planets beyond the Solar System. Due to limitations in our current and near-future technology, it is likely that extra-solar planets will be observed as single-pixel objects. To understand this data, we must develop skills in analyzing and interpreting the radiation obtained from a single pixel. These skills must include the study of the time variation of the radiation, and the range of its photometric, spectroscopic and polarimetric properties. In addition, to understand whether we are properly analyzing the single pixel data, we need to compare it with a ground truth of modest resolution images in key spectral bands. This paper discusses the concept for a mission called Blue Marble that would obtain data of the Earth using a combination of spectropolarimetry, spectrophotometry, and selected band imaging. To obtain imagery of the proper resolution, it is desirable to place the Blue Marble spacecraft no closer than the outer region of cis-lunar space. This paper explores a conceptual mission design that takes advantage of low-cost launchers, bus designs and mission elements to provide a cost effective observing platform located at one of the stable Earth-moon Lagrangian points (L4, L5). The mission design allows for the development and use of novel technologies, such as a spinning moon sensor for attitude control, and leverages lessons-learned from previous low-cost spacecraft such as Lunar Prospector to yield a low-risk mission concept.

  7. French contribution to develop Prussian blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besse Bardot, Isabelle; Bardot, Sebastien; Menetrier, Florence; Leiterer, Alexandra; Pech, Annick

    2014-11-01

    Prussian blue is an antidote indicated for the treatment of internal cesium radioisotope contamination. The French armed forces develop and manufacture some antidotal drugs meeting regulatory, analytical and pharmaceutical requirements in order to submit marketing authorization documentation. Prior to an initial meeting with the French National Agency for Medicines and Health Products Safety (ANSM) in 2011, the authors were following regulatory developments in free cyanide release, active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) synthesis, API specifications, ability of cesium/Prussian blue binding products and collection of pre-clinical data. Free cyanide release was assessed by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrometry at 615 nm. The kinetics of cesium were evaluated in vitro by flame atomic absorption. Good laboratory practice (GLP) and mutagenic assays were examined in rat studies to assess 'no absorption'. A validated method makes it possible to assess the free cyanide in API according to the published tolerability in humans. The French synthesizer meets good manufacturing practice (GMP) to give a drug that is compliant with all specifications, ensuring its high quality. Two standard mutagenic assays showed mutagenic potential, leading to further tests to obtain more information on any induced chromosomal aberrations. Absorption could be an important factor in determining the risk posed by the drug. The French health service provides the country with several antidotal drugs reducing Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) risks. Using their GMP manufacturing facilities and pharmaceutical expertise, the French armed forces have contributed to developing drugs with marketing authorization, such as pentetate calcium trisodium (Ca-DTPA) for infusion, or under development with the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), such as Ca-DTPA by inhalation.

  8. Yellow taxis have fewer accidents than blue taxis because yellow is more visible than blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Teck-Hua; Chong, Juin Kuan; Xia, Xiaoyu

    2017-03-21

    Is there a link between the color of a taxi and how many accidents it has? An analysis of 36 mo of detailed taxi, driver, and accident data (comprising millions of data points) from the largest taxi company in Singapore suggests that there is an explicit link. Yellow taxis had 6.1 fewer accidents per 1,000 taxis per month than blue taxis, a 9% reduction in accident probability. We rule out driver difference as an explanatory variable and empirically show that because yellow taxis are more noticeable than blue taxis-especially when in front of another vehicle, and in street lighting-other drivers can better avoid hitting them, directly reducing the accident rate. This finding can play a significant role when choosing colors for public transportation and may save lives as well as millions of dollars.

  9. No effect of blue on winning contests in judo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Peter D.; Preenen, Paul T. Y.

    2008-01-01

    A study by Rowe et al. reported a winning bias for judo athletes wearing a blue outfit relative to those wearing a white one during the 2004 Olympics. It was suggested that blue is associated with a higher likelihood of winning through differential effects of colour on opponent visibility and/or an

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Blue Green Algae from Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    meldemellawy

    2014-02-20

    Feb 20, 2014 ... aminotransferase (AMT) domains of the mycE and ndaF genes (Jungblut et al., 2006) allowing detection of microcystin and nodularin-producing cyanobacteria. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Isolation and cultivation of blue green algae. Blue green algae had been isolated from soil of Rice field in river.

  11. Designing green and blue infrastructure to support healthy urban living

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gehrels, H.; Meulen, van der Suzanne; Schasfoort, F.; Bosch, Peter; Brolsma, R.; Dinther, van D.; Geerling, G.J.; Goossens, M.; Jacobs, C.M.J.; jong, de Merijn; Kok, Sien; Massop, H.T.L.

    2016-01-01

    This report focuses on developing concepts and design principles for blue and green infrastructure that not only support climate resilience but also contribute to a healthy and liveable urban environment. We will first assess the effectiveness of blue and green infrastructure on the basis of

  12. Effects of fire and browsing on regeneration of blue oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Bartolome; Mitchel P. McClaran; Barbara H. Allen-Diaz; Jim Dunne; Lawrence D. Ford; Richard B. Standiford; Neil K. McDougald; Larry C. Forero

    2002-01-01

    Blue oaks (Quercus douglasii) are not regenerating well over much of California. The roles of fire and browsing in regeneration are probably significant, but poorly understood. We burned two foothill blue oak woodland sites which contained significant numbers of small trees between 40 and 70 cm tall, then compared height growth over 14 years among 48...

  13. QCD on the BlueGene/L Supercomputer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanot, G.; Chen, D.; Gara, A.; Sexton, J.; Vranas, P.

    2005-03-01

    In June 2004 QCD was simulated for the first time at sustained speed exceeding 1 TeraFlops in the BlueGene/L supercomputer at the IBM T.J. Watson Research Lab. The implementation and performance of QCD in the BlueGene/L is presented.

  14. QCD on the BlueGene/L Supercomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhanot, G.; Chen, D.; Gara, A.; Sexton, J.; Vranas, P.

    2005-01-01

    In June 2004 QCD was simulated for the first time at sustained speed exceeding 1 TeraFlops in the BlueGene/L supercomputer at the IBM T.J. Watson Research Lab. The implementation and performance of QCD in the BlueGene/L is presented

  15. Blue superradiance from neat semiconducting alternating copolymer films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, H.J; Krasnikov, V.V.; Hilberer, A; Hadziioannou, G

    1996-01-01

    Blue superradiant emission in thin polymer films with a low energy threshold, as reported here, offers hope for the possible development of solid-state electrically pumped polymer lasers The absorbance, emission, and fluorescence spectra of the blue-light emitting copolymer

  16. Trypan Blue Dye In Extra-Capsular Cataract Surgery: Initial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The two groups had incidence of striate keratitis, anterior capsule remnants, unplanned anterior chamber (A/C) lens implants and average increase in surgery time compared. The trypan blue group had better results than the non-trypan group. The trypan blue group had an incidence of 40.7% striate keratitis as against ...

  17. POSTPARTUM BLUES PADA PERSALINAN DIBAWAH USIA DUA PULUH TAHUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniasari Pratiwi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Postpartum blues or baby blues is a feeling of sadness experienced by mothers after childbirth related to the baby. Postpartum blues is like an iceberg that is difficult to detect because there are still many people who do not understand about the event. Nevertheless, postpartum blues not being handled properly is one of the factors precipitating the occurrence of postpartum depression,  can be fatal for mother and baby. Postpartum blues more common in women who marry in their early age. Indonesia has high percentage of early age marriage in the world (ranked 37 and is the second highest in ASEAN after Cambodia. Based on data, there was increasing number of woman cases delivering labor and having children in the village Panggungharjo Sewon Bantul from year 2013 to 2015. Research objectives are to determine the postpartum blues in labor under the age of 20 years. This study is a descriptive study with retrospective design. The study population consists of women who gave birth  under the age of 20 years in the village of Panggungharjo, Sewon, Bantul using total sampling (33 subjects. The result showed that 45.5% of respondents who experienced postpartum blues and 54.5% did not experience postpartum blues.

  18. nonlinear kinetics and mechanism of nile blue reaction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. S.B. Jonnalagadda

    A 11-step mechanism, consistent with the overall reaction dynamics and supported by simulations, is ... been designed based on the chemistry of BZ reactions, the role of bromide ion under various concentration ... dynamics of nile blue - acidic bromate reaction arises from the extremely slow depletion rate of nile blue in the ...

  19. Clinical and histological effects of blue light on normal skin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinpenning, M.M.; Smits, T.; Frunt, M.H.A.; Erp, P.E.J. van; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Gerritsen, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Phototherapy with visible light is gaining interest in dermatological practice. Theoretically, blue light could induce biological effects comparable to ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation. OBJECTIVES: To study the effects of blue light on normal skin in terms of photodamage, skin ageing and

  20. Blue Genes : Sharing and Conserving the World's Aquatic Biodiversity

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Blue Genes : Sharing and Conserving the World's Aquatic Biodiversity. Couverture du livre Blue Genes: Sharing and Conserving the World's Aquatic Biodiversity. Auteur(s) : David Greer et Brian Harvey. Maison(s) d'édition : Earthscan, CRDI. 31 août 2004. ISBN : 1844071065. 246 pages. e-ISBN : 1552501574.

  1. Soluble or insoluble prussian blue for radiocesium and thallium poisoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dennis F; Callen, Erin D

    2004-09-01

    To review the available English-language literature concerning the efficacy of soluble and insoluble Prussian blue used as a therapeutic agent in radiocesium and thallium poisoning. A thorough search of MEDLINE, Toxline, and EMBASE databases (1960s-August 2003) was performed. Search terms included Prussian blue, thallium, and radiocesium poisoning. Bibliographies of relevant papers were reviewed for additional citations. study selection AND DATA EXTRACTION: Reports and studies of human trials and cases, along with animal and relevant in vitro data, were sought. Data were categorized as insoluble and soluble Prussian blue and by thallium and radiocesium poisoning. The majority of evidence describing the efficacy of Prussian blue for radiocesium poisoning is based on the use of the insoluble form. In contrast, the majority of data supporting the efficacy of Prussian blue in thallium poisoning involves the use of the soluble form. Insoluble Prussian blue has recently been approved in the US for treatment of both thallium and radiocesium poisoning. While there is sufficient evidence that the insoluble form of Prussian blue is effective in radiocesium poisoning, there is a paucity of analogous data supporting its use in thallium poisoning. Whether the physicochemical differences between soluble and insoluble Prussian blue have any effect on outcomes in human poisoning is not known.

  2. Fluctuating and Directional Asymmetry of the Blue Mussel (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lajus, D.; Katolikova, M.; Strelkov, P.; Hummel, H.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we examined morphological variation at different levels to study performance and population structuring of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis. Our objectives were: (i) to develop an integrated technique for analyzing morphological variation in blue mussels and, based on this technique; (ii)

  3. Blue whales Balaenoptera musculus off Angola: recent sightings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The population of blue whales Balaenoptera musculus inhabiting the South-East Atlantic (Gabon to South Africa) was heavily depleted by commercial whaling. We report four photographically-verified sightings, and one probable sighting, of blue whales in deep waters (>1 000 m) off central Angola (11° S to 12°30′S) ...

  4. Protonation of Patented Blue V in aqueous solutions: theoretical and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The acid-base properties of the Patented Blue V dye were studied by spectrophotometry and tristimulus colourimetry. The mechanism of protonation of Patented Blue V has been investigated with semiempirical and DFT methods.The quantum chemical calculations of total energy defined the most stable isomer foreach ...

  5. Current distribution and population size of the Blue Swallow Hirundo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two surveys of Blue Swallows were conducted in the southern Tanzanian highland grasslands in order to determine the habitat preferences and estimate the size of this subpopulation. During the 2008/09 and 2012 surveys, a total distance of 3 635 km was travelled in search of Blue Swallows (at an altitude of above 1 400 ...

  6. OBSTACLES TO BLUE-COLLAR PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LONDON, JACK; WENKERT, ROBERT

    WITH THE INCREASING LEISURE TIME OF BLUE-COLLAR WORKERS, CONCERN IS GROWING OVER THEIR LOW PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAMS. MYTHS ABOUT BLUE-COLLAR WORKERS WHICH STAND IN THEIR WAY INCLUDE--LOWER CLASS APATHY, INCAPABILITY OF SUSTAINED INTELLECTUAL EFFORT, AND LACK OF APPRECIATION OF THE VALUE OF EDUCATION. OBSTACLES INHERING IN SOCIAL…

  7. Conservation priorities for the Blue Crane (Anthropoides paradiseus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Detailed knowledge on population numbers, habitat preferences and threats is lacking for the Blue Crane (Anthropoides paradiseus), which is endemic to southern Africa and is South Africa's national bird. Using the South African Bird Atlas Project Blue Crane distribution as the accepted distribution of the species, this ...

  8. Blue whales Balaenoptera musculus in offshore waters of Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Observations of blue whales were made in Kenyan offshore waters during a seismic survey from September 2014 to January 2015. These represent the first live at-sea sightings of blue whales reported from Kenyan waters. All 30 sightings occurred between September and October in waters ranging from 2 990 to 4 705 m ...

  9. Blue Oak Canopy Effect on Seasonal Forage Production and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    William E. Frost; Neil K. McDougald; Montague W. Demment

    1991-01-01

    Forage production and forage quality were measured seasonally beneath the canopy of blue oak (Quercus douglasii) and in open grassland at the San Joaquin Experimental Range. At the March and peak standing crop sampling dates forage production was significantly greater (p=.05) beneath blue oak compared to open grassland. At most sampling dates, the...

  10. BLUE OCEAN STRATEGY (BOS SEBAGAI PARADIGMA BARU MANAJEMEN PENDIDIKAN ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhwan Fuad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is to describe the Blue Ocean Strategy as a new paradigm of Islamic education management. the author seeks to elaborate on how the adoption of the Blue Ocean strategy of the business world to the world of education and answered the principles of what is accepted and rejected away from the theory. Adoption of blue ocean strategy is done by applying the universal principles are : among others reconstruct market boundaries, focus on the big picture rather than numbers, reach beyond existing demand, perform a series of strategies with appropriate, efforts to overcome organizational constraints and integrate execution into strategy. The principles of Blue Ocean Strategy Indicators that can be absorbed is an indicator that focuses gave excellent service and were not absorbed is a strong indicator of economic motivation. Generally, Blue Ocean Strategy quite well applied as a management paradigm of Islamic education.

  11. A Rare Case of Multifocal Prostatic Blue Nevus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias J. Farran

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostatic blue nevus is a rare benign pathologic diagnosis most commonly diagnosed incidentally on many different types of prostate specimens. Blue nevus is the deposition of stromal melanin characterized by spindle cells within the fibromuscular stroma which stains positive for melanin-specific stains Fontana-Masson and S100 and stains negative for CD68, HMB45, and iron stains. We report the case of a multifocal and bilateral blue nevus in a 52-year-old Hispanic male who presented with an elevated prostate-specific antigen of 4.3 and mild obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms, found by transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate needle biopsy. The biopsy also revealed benign prostatic tissue with postatrophic hyperplasia and chronic inflammation. This is the 35th reported case of prostatic blue nevus and the third to show multifocal blue nevus.

  12. Methylene blue promotes quiescence of rat neural progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUOKUN eXIE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cell-based treatment holds a new therapeutic opportunity for neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we investigated the effect of methylene blue on proliferation and differentiation of rat neural progenitor cells (NPCs both in vitro and in vivo. We found that methylene blue inhibited proliferation and promoted quiescence of NPCs in vitro without affecting committed neuronal differentiation. Consistently, intracerebroventricular infusion of methylene blue significantly inhibited neural progenitor cell proliferation at the subventricular zone (SVZ. Methylene blue inhibited mTOR signaling along with down-regulation of cyclins in NPCs in vitro and in vivo. In summary, our study indicates that methylene blue may delay NPC senescence through enhancing NPCs quiescence.

  13. Growth stimulation produced by methylene blue treatment in sweet potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lage, C.L.S.; Esquibel, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Methylene blue as an alternative treatment to gamma rays to stimulate growth in sweet potato tissue cultures, was applied in two different ways: – pre-incubation of nodal explants with methylene blue for 1 h using urea as a permeabilizer; – methylene blue directly incorporated into the culture medium. Both treatments stimulated growth, but the better performance being obtained with the second treatment, which had no toxic effect. The activity and electrophoresis pattern of peroxidase after treatment of Ipomoea batatas plantlets with methylene blue or gamma rays did not show similar results for the two treatments. Peroxidase activity was greater in leaves of gamma ray treated plants compared to the non-treated control. The results obtained with the Methylene blue treatment did not significantly change the peroxidase activity relative to the control. (author)

  14. "Blue-Collar Blues" : kõigi maade töötud, ühinege! / Ants Juske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juske, Ants, 1956-2016

    2009-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline näitus "Blue-Collar Blues" Tallinna Kunstihoones ja Kunstihoone galeriis 31. jaanuarini 2010. Kuraator Anders Härm. Näituse ajendiks on 1. juulist 2009 Eestis kehtima hakanud töölepinguseadus, näituse fookus on töösuhetel

  15. 76 FR 19466 - Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield, et al.; Amended Certification Regarding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... Employment and Training Administration Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield, et al.; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance TA-W-74,895 Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A... from Kelly Services and Jacobsen Group Indianapolis, Indiana TA-W-74,895A Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem...

  16. Tunable photonic crystals with partial bandgaps from blue phase colloidal crystals and dielectric-doped blue phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimulak, Mitja; Ravnik, Miha

    2014-09-07

    Blue phase colloidal crystals and dielectric nanoparticle/polymer doped blue phases are demonstrated to combine multiple components with different symmetries in one photonic material, creating a photonic crystal with variable and micro-controllable photonic band structure. In this composite photonic material, one contribution to the band structure is determined by the 3D periodic birefringent orientational profile of the blue phases, whereas the second contribution emerges from the regular array of the colloidal particles or from the dielectric/nanoparticle-doped defect network. Using the planewave expansion method, optical photonic bands of the blue phase I and II colloidal crystals and related nanoparticle/polymer doped blue phases are calculated, and then compared to blue phases with no particles and to face-centred-cubic and body-centred-cubic colloidal crystals in isotropic background. We find opening of local band gaps at particular points of Brillouin zone for blue phase colloidal crystals, where there were none in blue phases without particles or dopants. Particle size and filling fraction of the blue phase defect network are demonstrated as parameters that can directly tune the optical bands and local band gaps. In the blue phase I colloidal crystal with an additionally doped defect network, interestingly, we find an indirect total band gap (with the exception of one point) at the entire edge of SC irreducible zone. Finally, this work demonstrates the role of combining multiple - by symmetry - differently organised components in one photonic crystal material, which offers a novel approach towards tunable soft matter photonic materials.

  17. Phototherapy with blue and green mixed-light is as effective against unconjugated jaundice as blue light and reduces oxidative stress in the Gunn rat model.

    OpenAIRE

    Uchida, Yumiko; Morimoto, Yukihiro; Uchiike, Takao; Kamamoto, Tomoyuki :4/0000339; Hayashi, Tamaki; Arai, Ikuyo; Nishikubo, Toshiya; Takahashi, Yukihiro

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Phototherapy using blue light-emitting diodes (LED) is effective against neonatal jaundice. However, green light phototherapy also reduces unconjugated jaundice. We aimed to determine whether mixed blue and green light can relieve jaundice with minimal oxidative stress as effectively as either blue or green light alone in a rat model.METHODS:Gunn rats were exposed to phototherapy with blue (420-520 nm), filtered blue (FB; 440-520 nm without

  18. Serotonin syndrome following methylene blue administration during cardiothoracic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christina J; Wang, Dorothy; Sgambelluri, Anna; Kramer, Robert S; Gagnon, David J

    2015-04-01

    Despite its favorable safety profile, there have been reports of methylene blue-induced encephalopathy and serotonin syndrome in patients undergoing parathyroidectomy. We report a case of serotonin syndrome following methylene blue administration in a cardiothoracic surgery patient. A 59-year-old woman taking preoperative venlafaxine and trazodone was given a single dose of 2 mg/kg methylene blue (167 mg) during a planned coronary artery bypass and mitral valve repair. Postoperatively, she was febrile to 38.7°C and developed full-body tremors, rhythmic twitching of the perioral muscles, slow conjugate roving eye movements, and spontaneous movements of the upper extremities. Electroencephalography revealed generalized diffuse slowing consistent with toxic encephalopathy, and a computed tomography scan showed no acute process. The patient's symptoms were most consistent with a methylene blue-induced serotonin syndrome. Her motor symptoms resolved within 48 hours and she was eventually discharged home. Only 2 cases of methylene blue-induced serotonin syndrome during cardiothoracic surgery have been described in the literature, with this report representing the third case. Methylene blue and its metabolite, azure B, are potent, reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase A which is responsible for serotonin metabolism. Concomitant administration of methylene blue with serotonin-modulating agents may precipitate serotonin syndrome. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Methylene Blue Inhibits Caspases by Oxidation of the Catalytic Cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakavathkumar, Prateep; Sharma, Gyanesh; Kaushal, Vikas; Foveau, Bénédicte; LeBlanc, Andrea C

    2015-09-24

    Methylene blue, currently in phase 3 clinical trials against Alzheimer Disease, disaggregates the Tau protein of neurofibrillary tangles by oxidizing specific cysteine residues. Here, we investigated if methylene blue can inhibit caspases via the oxidation of their active site cysteine. Methylene blue, and derivatives, azure A and azure B competitively inhibited recombinant Caspase-6 (Casp6), and inhibited Casp6 activity in transfected human colon carcinoma cells and in serum-deprived primary human neuron cultures. Methylene blue also inhibited recombinant Casp1 and Casp3. Furthermore, methylene blue inhibited Casp3 activity in an acute mouse model of liver toxicity. Mass spectrometry confirmed methylene blue and azure B oxidation of the catalytic Cys163 cysteine of Casp6. Together, these results show a novel inhibitory mechanism of caspases via sulfenation of the active site cysteine. These results indicate that methylene blue or its derivatives could (1) have an additional effect against Alzheimer Disease by inhibiting brain caspase activity, (2) be used as a drug to prevent caspase activation in other conditions, and (3) predispose chronically treated individuals to cancer via the inhibition of caspases.

  20. Blue light-induced oxidative stress in live skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Yuya; Ohta, Shigeo; Wolf, Alexander M

    2017-07-01

    Skin damage from exposure to sunlight induces aging-like changes in appearance and is attributed to the ultraviolet (UV) component of light. Photosensitized production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by UVA light is widely accepted to contribute to skin damage and carcinogenesis, but visible light is thought not to do so. Using mice expressing redox-sensitive GFP to detect ROS, blue light could produce oxidative stress in live skin. Blue light induced oxidative stress preferentially in mitochondria, but green, red, far red or infrared light did not. Blue light-induced oxidative stress was also detected in cultured human keratinocytes, but the per photon efficacy was only 25% of UVA in human keratinocyte mitochondria, compared to 68% of UVA in mouse skin. Skin autofluorescence was reduced by blue light, suggesting flavins are the photosensitizer. Exposing human skin to the blue light contained in sunlight depressed flavin autofluorescence, demonstrating that the visible component of sunlight has a physiologically significant effect on human skin. The ROS produced by blue light is probably superoxide, but not singlet oxygen. These results suggest that blue light contributes to skin aging similar to UVA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of blue light and caffeine on mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, Johan G; Beaven, C Martyn

    2014-09-01

    Both short wavelength (blue) light and caffeine have been studied for their mood enhancing effects on humans. The ability of blue light to increase alertness, mood and cognitive function via non-image forming neuropathways has been suggested as a non-pharmacological countermeasure for depression across a range of occupational settings. This experimental study compared blue light and caffeine and aimed to test the effects of blue light/placebo (BLU), white light/240-mg caffeine (CAF), blue light/240-mg caffeine (BCAF) and white light/placebo (PLA), on mood. A randomised, controlled, crossover design study was used, in a convenience population of 20 healthy volunteers. The participants rated their mood on the Swedish Core Affect Scales (SCAS) prior to and after each experimental condition to assess the dimensions of valence and activation. There was a significant main effect of light (p = 0.009), and the combination of blue light and caffeine had clear positive effects on core effects (ES, ranging from 0.41 to 1.20) and global mood (ES, 0.61 ± 0.53). The benefits of the combination of blue light and caffeine should be further investigated across a range of applications due to the observed effects on the dimensions of arousal, valence and pleasant activation.

  2. DisBlue+: A distributed annotation-based C# compiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir E. AbdelRahman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Many programming languages utilize annotations to add useful information to the program but they still result in more tokens to be compiled and hence slower compilation time. Any current distributed compiler breaks the program into scattered disjoint pieces to speed up the compilation. However, these pieces cooperate synchronously and depend highly on each other. This causes massive overhead since messages, symbols, or codes must be roamed throughout the network. This paper presents two promising compilers named annotation-based C# (Blue+ and distributed annotation-based C# (DisBlue+. The proposed Blue+ annotation is based on axiomatic semantics to replace the if/loop constructs. As the developer tends to use many (complex conditions and repeat them in the program, such annotations reduce the compilation scanning time and increases the whole code readability. Built on the top of Blue+, DisBlue+ presents its proposed distributed concept which is to divide each program class to its prototype and definition, as disjoint distributed pieces, such that each class definition is compiled with only its related compiled prototypes (interfaces. Such concept reduces the amount of code transferred over the network, minimizes the dependencies among the disjoint pieces, and removes any possible synchronization between them. To test their efficiencies, Blue+ and DisBlue+ were verified with large-size codes against some existing compilers namely Javac, DJavac, and CDjava.

  3. The discrimination of (non-denim) blue cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Ray; Hutchinson, William; Fryer, Verity

    2009-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the degree of discrimination obtained between non-denim blue cotton fibres using visible-UV range microspectrophotometry alone. To this end, samples of fibres were taken from 100, nondenim, blue cotton, outer garments, including t-shirts, trousers and jumpers and subjected to analysis by both visible and UV range microspectrophotometry. The results obtained from the samples of each garment were compared to determine if they 'matched' or not. From an initial visual comparison of the garments it was possible to subdivide the samples into two populations consisting of 73 'dark blue' garments and 27 'mid-blue' garments. It was found that of the 73 'dark blue' garments, 22 distinct sub-populations could be distinguished using visible range MSP, this figure being increased to 43 when the analysis was extended into the UVW range. In the case of the 27 'mid-blue' garments, 9 distinct sub-populations were discriminated using visible range MSP, this figure being increased to 17 when the analysis was extended into the UV range. The discriminating power (i.e., the number of discriminated pairs divided by the number of possible pairs) of visible range microspectrophotometry was calculated as 0.89 for 'mid-blue' garments and 0.87 for 'dark blue' garments. Extending microspectrophotometry into the UV range increased discrimination by 7%, giving a discriminating power of 0.96 for both mid and dark blue cotton fibres which was similar to that reported by a previous study where this method was combined with light and fluorescence microscopy. Intra-garment variation was found to be negligible. The implications of this study for casework are discussed and a revised analytical pathway for the comparison of this fibre type/colour combination using microspectrophotometry as a primary screening tool, is proposed.

  4. Screening of oral premalignant lesions in smokers using toluidine blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanti Leosari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A smoker is associated with the risk of developing oral premalignant lesions due to the cacinogenic contents in cigarette. Toluidine blue is a basic chromatic dye used in screening the presence of premalignant lesions due to its ability to detect acidic components in cells and tissues. Purpose: This study was purposed to observe the outcomes of toluidine blue staining on oral mucosa of smokers and non smokers and to find out whether quantity and duration of smoking affect the final results of toluidine blue staining. Methods: Forty male subjects, aged 20-60 years old were involved in this study, consisted of 10 heavy smokers, 10 moderate smokers, 10 light smokers and 10 non smokers. Subjects were instructed to rinse their mouths with mineral water for 20 seconds followed by acetic acid 1% for another 20 seconds. Toluidine blue stain was applied in excess and left on site for 1 minute. Subjects were instructed to rinse with acetic acid 1% and sufficient water consecutively for 20 seconds each. The areas of oral mucosa that stained blue were captured with intraoral camera and transferred to the computer unit. The staining procedure was repeated after 14 days. Results: Chi-square test showed that toluidine blue positive staining dominates the smokers group. Regression and correlation test indicate that Toluidine blue staining is more obvious in subjects who consume more cigarettes. Conclusion: It was concluded that oral mucosa of smokers absorbed more toluidine blue than that of non smokers and retention of toluidine blue is affected by quantity and duration of smoking.

  5. Prussian Blue Mg-Li Hybrid Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoqi; Duffort, Victor; Nazar, Linda F

    2016-08-01

    The major advantage of Mg batteries relies on their promise of employing an Mg metal negative electrode, which offers much higher energy density compared to graphitic carbon. However, the strong coulombic interaction of Mg 2+ ions with anions leads to their sluggish diffusion in the solid state, which along with a high desolvation energy, hinders the development of positive electrode materials. To circumvent this limitation, Mg metal negative electrodes can be used in hybrid systems by coupling an Li + insertion cathode through a dual salt electrolyte. Two "high voltage" Prussian blue analogues (average 2.3 V vs Mg/Mg 2+ ; 3.0 V vs Li/Li + ) are investigated as cathode materials and the influence of structural water is shown. Their electrochemical profiles, presenting two voltage plateaus, are explained based on the two unique Fe bonding environments. Structural water has a beneficial impact on the cell voltage. Capacities of 125 mAh g -1 are obtained at a current density of 10 mA g -1 (≈C/10), while stable performance up to 300 cycles is demonstrated at 200 mA g -1 (≈2C). The hybrid cell design is a step toward building a safe and high density energy storage system.

  6. Blue Sky Birds Come to the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bura Sabiha Kelek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The New Supply System comes to all fields for logistics.Drone is an unmanned vehicle for loading and unloading packages.Perhaps we can imagine it as a ‘’blue sky bird’’. This new trend has three important impacts that are determined by technoligical capabilities, ,regularity pressure, and public acceptance so that it will be dealed within current powers and circumstances. This kind of vehicles are used in different capacities, such as multicopter,drone or robot.Logistics’ issues are interested in short-term delivery systems for customer satisfaction but all developments go through GPS so it is based on 21st century technological developments, which have been tested on a short-term basis and will be expected to be of use in 2 years. The purpose of this research is to give lead to researchers information about risk and the advantages of using the technology in this manner.Some advantages and disadvantages ,schedules’ problems in the system will be identifed.

  7. Peculiar Type II supernovae from blue supergiants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiser, Io K. W.; Poznanski, Dovi; Kasen, Daniel; Young, Timothy R.; Chornock, Ryan; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Challis, Peter; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Kirshner, Robert P.; Li, Weidong; Matheson, Thomas; Nugent, Peter E.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.

    2011-07-01

    The vast majority of Type II supernovae (SNeII) are produced by red supergiants, but SN 1987A revealed that blue supergiants (BSGs) can produce members of this class as well, albeit with some peculiar properties. This best-studied event revolutionized our understanding of SNe and linking it to the bulk of Type II events is essential. We present here the optical photometry and spectroscopy gathered for SN 2000cb, which is clearly not a standard SNII and yet is not a SN 1987A analogue. The light curve of SN 2000cb is reminiscent of that of SN 1987A in shape, with a slow rise to a late optical peak, but on substantially different time-scales. Spectroscopically, SN 2000cb resembles a normal SNII, but with ejecta velocities that far exceed those measured for SN 1987A or normal SNeII, above 18 000 km s-1 for Hα at early times. The red colours, high velocities, late photometric peak and our modelling of this object all point towards a scenario involving the high-energy explosion of a small-radius star, most likely a BSG, producing 0.1 M⊙ of 56Ni. Adding a similar object to the sample, SN 2005ci, we derive a rate of ˜2 per cent of the core-collapse rate for this loosely defined class of BSG explosions.

  8. Quantum mechanical model for Maya Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, María E.; Peña, Brisa; Contreras, César; Montero, Ana L.; Chianelli, Russell; Alvarado, Manuel; Olivas, Ramón; Rodríguez, Luz M.; Camacho, Héctor; Montero-Cabrera, Luis A.

    This work is about Maya Blue (MB), a pigment developed by Mesoamerican civilizations between the 5th and 16th centuries from an aluminosilicate mineral (palygorskite) and an organic dye (indigo). Two different supramolecular quantum-mechanical models afford explanations for the unusual stability of MB based on the oxidation of the indigo molecule during the heating process and its interaction with palygorskite. A model considering indigo derivatives attached to several aluminates shows the principal features of the experimental visible spectrum of MB within the TD-DFT methodology. Another model of an indigo oxidized species confined within an inorganic supramolecular cavity system, that involves about 170 atoms, was calculated after a large configuration interaction of single excited determinants within the NDOL approximation (Montero-Cabrera et al., J Chem Phys, 2007, 127, 145102). It allows a correct reproduction and interpretation of the corresponding spectrum. This second methodology provides the most satisfactory results, being able to manage very big molecular systems at a QM level. Structural explanation for the unusual stability of MB is also provided.

  9. Methylene blue-related corneal edema and iris discoloration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timucin, Ozgur Bulent; Karadag, Mehmet Fatih; Aslanci, Mehmet Emin; Baykara, Mehmet

    2016-04-01

    We report the case of a 70-year-old female patient who developed corneal edema and iris discoloration following the inadvertent use of 1% methylene blue instead of 0.025% trypan blue to stain the anterior capsule during cataract phacoemulsification surgery. Copious irrigation was performed upon realization of incorrect dye use. Corneal edema and iris discoloration developed during the early postoperative period and persisted at 24-months follow-up. However, keratoplasty was not required. The intracameral use of 1% methylene blue has a cytotoxic effect on the corneal endothelium and iris epithelium. Copious irrigation for at least 30 min using an anterior chamber maintainer may improve outcomes.

  10. Blue-light emitting triazolopyridinium and triazoloquinolinium salts

    KAUST Repository

    Carboni, Valentina

    2017-01-27

    Compounds that emit blue light are of interest for applications that include optoelectronic devices and chemo/biosensing and imaging. The design and synthesis of small organic molecules that can act as high-efficiency deep-blue-light emitters in the solid state and can be easily processed from solutions represents a significant challenge. Herein we present the preparation and photophysical, photochemical and electrochemical properties of a series of triazolopyridinium and triazoloquinolinium compounds. The compounds are soluble in water or polar organic solvents and exhibit photoluminescence in the blue region of the spectrum in fluid solution, in the solid state and in a frozen matrix.

  11. The biotechnological ways of blue-green algae complex processing

    OpenAIRE

    Nykyforov, Volodymyr; Malovanyy, Myroslav; Kozlovskaya, Tatyana; Novokhatko, Olha; Digtiar, Sergii

    2016-01-01

    The results of long­term research of various ways and methods of collection and processing of blue­green algae that cause “bloom” of the Dnieper reservoirs were presented. The possibility and feasibility of the blue­green algae biomass processing to biogas by methanogenesis were substantiated. It was found experimentally that preliminary mechanical cavitation of the blue­green algae biomass increases the biogas yield by 21.5 %. It was determined that the biogas produced contains up to 72 % of...

  12. Yellow taxis have fewer accidents than blue taxis because yellow is more visible than blue

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Teck-Hua; Chong, Juin Kuan; Xia, Xiaoyu

    2017-01-01

    Is there a link between the color of a taxi and how many accidents it has? An analysis of 36 mo of detailed taxi, driver, and accident data (comprising millions of data points) from the largest taxi company in Singapore suggests that there is an explicit link. Yellow taxis had 6.1 fewer accidents per 1,000 taxis per month than blue taxis, a 9% reduction in accident probability. We rule out driver difference as an explanatory variable and empirically show that because yellow taxis are more not...

  13. [Seven cases of parathyroidectomy for secondary hyperparathyroidism using methylene blue: suggestion for the method of methylene blue infusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadoya, Tatsuo; Kinoshita, Yuki; Shiraishi, Munehiro; Uehara, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Toshinori; Suetsugu, Keiko

    2014-08-01

    Intraoperative staining of the parathyroid glands with intravenously administered methylene blue is well described and has been demonstrated as an effective and safe method to facilitate parathyroidectomy. However, there have been several literatures of the development of postoperative neurological toxicity in patients who received methylene blue infusion during parathyroidectomy. We report the method of methylene blue infusion during parathyroidectomy at our institution. Seven adult patients who had undergone parathyroidectomy for secondary hyperparathyroidism associated with chronic renal failure were included in this study. Methylene blue was administered at a constant rate of 4 mg x kg(-1) x hr(-1) with a 1% solution just before the start of operation. The infusion was stopped after the first parathyroid gland was identified. The mean dose of methylene blue used was 2.2 +/- 0.8 mg x kg(-1). Consequently, the dose of methylene blue by this method could be decreased to less than half of the previously administered dose (6 mg x kg(-1)) at our institution. The dose of methylene blue used should be kept to the minimum required to identify the parathyroid glands in each case.

  14. Understanding Motherhood and Mood - Baby Blues and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Low thyroid levels can cause depressed or irritated moods, problems with sleep and concentration, and weight gain. ... you have the baby blues, you may: Have mood swings Feel sad, anxious, or overwhelmed Have crying ...

  15. THE PITFALLS OF THE BLUE OCEAN STRATEGY CANVAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter; Saghaug, Kristin Margrethe; Clemmensen, Suberia

    2009-01-01

    Numerous authors have developed a list of tactics and analyticaltechniques to discover new business or new business models (Markides2008)(Johnson 2008). The Blue Ocean strategy (Kim & Mauborgne 2005)have been one of these - probably one of the most important analyticaltechniques related to the area...... of innovation and new business model (BM)innovation since 2005. Today many consultancies and managersresponsible for innovation use the Blue Ocean framework as one of theirtop 5 innovation tools.Wanting to accentuate the importance of analyzing the strategy canvascarefully, when generating new business models...... - it is important tounderstand the very foundation and construction of the strategy canvas -namely value.This paper addresses the question on How is value defined, measured andfrom which viewed in the Blue Ocean theory and framework. How is valuedefined and used by companies using the Blue Ocean strategy...

  16. Blue nevus with a starburst pattern on dermoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga, Takeo; Nakajima, Kimiko; Tarutani, Masahito; Izumi, Miki; Tanaka, Masaru; Sano, Shigetoshi

    2012-10-01

    An 11-year-old girl presented to our department with a blue-gray papule approximately 4 mm in diameter. We suspected that it was a blue nevus or a pigmented Reed/Spitz nevus. On dermoscopic observation, the lesion showed homogeneous black-bluish pigmentation. This dermoscopic feature was suggestive of a blue nevus. However, near-circumferential streaks and a global feature of a "starburst pattern" were also observed, as is often found in a Reed/Spitz nevus. The lesion was excised and histological examination revealed spindle cells with melanin pigments diffusely present in the upper dermis and around hair follicles in the mid-dermis, but not in the epidermis. The melanocytic cells were arranged in a symmetrical wedge-shaped configuration. In addition, there was a diffuse fibrosis. Finally, we made a diagnosis of a blue nevus based on these findings.

  17. Blue-green and green phosphors for lighting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlur, Anant Achyut; Chandran, Ramachandran Gopi; Henderson, Claire Susan; Nammalwar, Pransanth Kumar; Radkov, Emil

    2012-12-11

    Embodiments of the present techniques provide a related family of phosphors that may be used in lighting systems to generate blue or blue-green light. The phosphors include systems having a general formula of: ((Sr.sub.1-zM.sub.z).sub.1-(x+w)A.sub.wCe.sub.x).sub.3(Al.sub.1-ySi.s- ub.y)O.sub.4+y+3(x-w)F.sub.1-y-3(x-w) (I), wherein 0lighting systems, such as LEDs and fluorescent tubes, among others, to produce blue and blue/green light. Further, the phosphors may be used in blends with other phosphors, or in combined lighting systems, to produce white light suitable for illumination.

  18. Tudo Pela Patria: The Brazilian Navy's Drive to Blue Water

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Conners, Michael E

    2005-01-01

    The Brazilian Navy is unique among most world navies today. Since the end of the Cold War, most nations have reduced their naval power, yet Brazil has maintained a determination to possess a blue-water fleet...

  19. Blue Light for Enhancing Alertness in Space Missions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the final year of a directed research project that had reduced aims due to an unexpected funding reduction. The goal is to study the efficacy of blue or...

  20. Valuing the European 'coastal blue carbon' storage benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luisetti, T; Jackson, E L; Turner, R K

    2013-06-15

    'Blue' carbon ecosystems are important carbon storage providers that are currently not protected by any international mechanism, such as REDD. This study aims to contribute to raising awareness in the political domain about the 'blue' carbon issue. This analysis also provides guidance in terms of how to value stock and flows of ecosystem services adding to the debate begun by the Costanza et al. (1997) paper in Nature. Through scenario analysis we assess how human welfare benefits will be affected by changes in the European coastal blue carbon stock provision. The current extent of European coastal blue carbon has an accounting stock value of about US$180 million. If EU Environmental Protection Directives continue to be implemented and effectively enforced, society will gain an appreciating asset over time. However, a future policy reversal resulting in extensive ecosystem loss could mean economic value losses as high as US$1 billion by 2060. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Unconventional Laser Guide Stars and Wavefront Correction of Blue Starlight

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hellwarth, Robert

    2002-01-01

    ...) a return signal to the transmitting telescope that would appear, for 20 ns, to have a brightness temperature of millions of degrees, and thus serve as a guide star for high-order corrections of blue starlight, (2...

  2. SPECIATION AND STABILITY OF METHYLENE BLUE-METAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    SCN)4] and turns methylene blue to violet. The stoichiometry and stability constants of the ion-association complexes were determined using Benesi-. Hildebrand method and the stoichiometry was confirmed by Job's continuous variation method.

  3. Photodynamic action of the methylene blue: mutagenesis and sinergism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capella, M.A.M.

    1988-01-01

    Two aspects of photodynamic therapy were studied: the associated mutagenesis and the interactions with physical agents, in order to increase its biological effects. The photodynamic action with methylene blue in the mutagenesis and sinergism is studied. (L.M.J.)

  4. White Arctic vs. Blue Arctic: Making Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Newton, R.; Schlosser, P.; Pomerance, R.; Tremblay, B.; Murray, M. S.; Gerrard, M.

    2015-12-01

    As the Arctic warms and shifts from icy white to watery blue and resource-rich, tension is arising between the desire to restore and sustain an ice-covered Arctic and stakeholder communities that hope to benefit from an open Arctic Ocean. If emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere continue on their present trend, most of the summer sea ice cover is projected to be gone by mid-century, i.e., by the time that few if any interventions could be in place to restore it. There are many local as well as global reasons for ice restoration, including for example, preserving the Arctic's reflectivity, sustaining critical habitat, and maintaining cultural traditions. However, due to challenges in implementing interventions, it may take decades before summer sea ice would begin to return. This means that future generations would be faced with bringing sea ice back into regions where they have not experienced it before. While there is likely to be interest in taking action to restore ice for the local, regional, and global services it provides, there is also interest in the economic advancement that open access brings. Dealing with these emerging issues and new combinations of stakeholders needs new approaches - yet environmental change in the Arctic is proceeding quickly and will force the issues sooner rather than later. In this contribution we examine challenges, opportunities, and responsibilities related to exploring options for restoring Arctic sea ice and potential pathways for their implementation. Negotiating responses involves international strategic considerations including security and governance, meaning that along with local communities, state decision-makers, and commercial interests, national governments will have to play central roles. While these issues are currently playing out in the Arctic, similar tensions are also emerging in other regions.

  5. How bees distinguish patterns by green and blue modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horridge A

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Adrian Horridge Biological Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia Abstract: In the 1920s, Mathilde Hertz found that trained bees discriminated between shapes or patterns of similar size by something related to total length of contrasting contours. This input is now interpreted as modulation in green and blue receptor channels as flying bees scan in the horizontal plane. Modulation is defined as total contrast irrespective of sign multiplied by length of edge displaying that contrast, projected to vertical, therefore, combining structure and contrast in a single input. Contrast is outside the eye; modulation is a phasic response in receptor pathways inside. In recent experiments, bees trained to distinguish color detected, located, and measured three independent inputs and the angles between them. They are the tonic response of the blue receptor pathway and modulation of small-field green or (less preferred blue receptor pathways. Green and blue channels interacted intimately at a peripheral level. This study explores in more detail how various patterns are discriminated by these cues. The direction of contrast at a boundary was not detected. Instead, bees located and measured total modulation generated by horizontal scanning of contrasts, irrespective of pattern. They also located the positions of isolated vertical edges relative to other landmarks and distinguished the angular widths between vertical edges by green or blue modulation alone. The preferred inputs were the strongest green modulation signal and angular width between outside edges, irrespective of color. In the absence of green modulation, the remaining cue was a measure and location of blue modulation at edges. In the presence of green modulation, blue modulation was inhibited. Black/white patterns were distinguished by the same inputs in blue and green receptor channels. Left–right polarity and mirror images could be discriminated by retinotopic green

  6. How bees distinguish patterns by green and blue modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horridge, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    In the 1920s, Mathilde Hertz found that trained bees discriminated between shapes or patterns of similar size by something related to total length of contrasting contours. This input is now interpreted as modulation in green and blue receptor channels as flying bees scan in the horizontal plane. Modulation is defined as total contrast irrespective of sign multiplied by length of edge displaying that contrast, projected to vertical, therefore, combining structure and contrast in a single input. Contrast is outside the eye; modulation is a phasic response in receptor pathways inside. In recent experiments, bees trained to distinguish color detected, located, and measured three independent inputs and the angles between them. They are the tonic response of the blue receptor pathway and modulation of small-field green or (less preferred) blue receptor pathways. Green and blue channels interacted intimately at a peripheral level. This study explores in more detail how various patterns are discriminated by these cues. The direction of contrast at a boundary was not detected. Instead, bees located and measured total modulation generated by horizontal scanning of contrasts, irrespective of pattern. They also located the positions of isolated vertical edges relative to other landmarks and distinguished the angular widths between vertical edges by green or blue modulation alone. The preferred inputs were the strongest green modulation signal and angular width between outside edges, irrespective of color. In the absence of green modulation, the remaining cue was a measure and location of blue modulation at edges. In the presence of green modulation, blue modulation was inhibited. Black/white patterns were distinguished by the same inputs in blue and green receptor channels. Left-right polarity and mirror images could be discriminated by retinotopic green modulation alone. Colors in areas bounded by strong green contrast were distinguished as more or less blue than the

  7. Prussian Blue Modified Graphene Enable Multifunctional Electrochemical Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Minwei; Halder, Arnab; Hou, Chengyi

    to energytechnologies. In this presentation, we have explored the combination of redox active Prussian Blue (PB)nanostructures (e.g., core-shell Gold@Prussian Blue (Au@PB) nanoparticles (NPs) and interlocked PBnanocubes) with chemically exfoliated graphene to prepare multifunctional composites......Graphene based nanomaterials have been a hot topic since 2004. These materials have shownsome notable advantages, including large surface areas, high flexibility and reasonably good conductivityand mechanical strength, suitable for a wide range of electrochemical applications from sensors...

  8. Nonlinear Kinetics and Mechanism of Nile Blue Reaction with Acidic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After an induction period, a swift reaction occurs. The overall reaction is NB+ + BrO3- react to P + CH3COOH + H+ + Br-, where P is the de-ethylated N-oxide derivative of nile blue. The rapid kinetics of the reaction of bromine direct with nile blue were also reported. A 11-step mechanism, consistent with the overall reaction ...

  9. Methylene blue inhibits lumefantrine-resistant Plasmodium berghei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, Victor Irungu; Mumo, Ruth Mwende; Kiboi, Daniel Muthui; Omar, Sabah Ahmed; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah Waithera; Ozwara, Hastings Suba

    2016-06-30

    Chemotherapy still is the most effective way to control malaria, a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. The large-scale use of the combination therapy artemether-lumefantrine for malaria treatment in Africa predisposes lumefantrine to emergence of resistance. There is need to identify drugs that can be used as substitutes to lumefantrine for use in combination therapy. Methylene blue, a synthetic anti-methemoglobinemia drug, has been shown to contain antimalarial properties, making it a candidate for drug repurposing. The present study sought to determine antiplasmodial effects of methylene blue against lumefantrine- and pyrimethamine-resistant strains of P. berghei. Activity of methylene blue was assessed using the classical four-day test on mice infected with lumefantrine-resistant and pyrimethamine-resistant P. berghei. A dose of 45 mg/kg/day was effective for testing ED90. Parasitemia and mice survival was determined. At 45 mg/kg/day, methylene blue sustained significant parasite inhibition, over 99%, for at least 6 days post-treatment against lumefantrine-resistant and pyrimethamine-resistant P. berghei (p = 0.0086 and p = 0.0191, respectively). No serious adverse effects were observed. Our results indicate that methylene blue at a concentration of 45 mg/kg/day confers over 99% inhibition against lumefantrine- and pyrimethamine-resistant P. berghei for six days. This shows the potential use methylene blue in the development of antimalarials against lumefantrine- and pyrimethamine-resistant parasites.

  10. International, prospective haemovigilance study on methylene blue-treated plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noens, L; Vilariño, Ma D; Megalou, A; Qureshi, H

    2017-05-01

    Methylene blue is a phenothiazine dye, which in combination with visible light has virucidal and bactericidal properties, disrupting the replication of a broad range of enveloped viruses and some non-enveloped viruses. The study objective was to collect data on adverse reactions occurring with methylene blue plasma administered in a routine clinical practice environment and document their characteristics and severity. This was an open label, multicentre, non-controlled, non-randomized, non-interventional study. Patients who receive a methylene blue plasma transfusion were observed for any signs and symptoms (adverse reactions) within 24 h safter the start of the transfusion, in different hospitals for a study duration of at least 1 year. A total of 19 315 methylene blue plasma units were transfused. There were eight patients with adverse reactions recorded during the study, one of them serious. Two had more than one reaction (two and four, respectively). Three patients had previous transfusions with methylene blue plasma only. Methylene blue plasma has a very acceptable safety profile with a rate of serious adverse reactions of 0·5/10 000 units. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  11. Blue light-mediated inactivation of Enterococcus faecalis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pileggi, Giorgio; Wataha, John C; Girard, Myriam; Grad, Iwona; Schrenzel, Jacques; Lange, Norbert; Bouillaguet, Serge

    2013-05-01

    In dentistry, residual infection remains a major cause of failure after endodontic treatment; many of these infections involve Enterococcus faecalis. In the current study, we explored the possibility that blue light activated photosensitizers could be used, in principle, to inactivate this microbe as an adjunct disinfection strategy for endodontic therapy. Three blue light absorbing photosensitizers, eosin-Y, rose bengal, and curcumin, were tested on E. faecalis grown in planktonic suspensions or biofilms. Photosensitizers were incubated for 30 min with bacteria then exposed to blue light (450-500 nm) for 240 s. Sodium hypochlorite (3%) was used as a control. After 48 h, the viability of E. faecalis was estimated by measuring colony-forming units post-exposure vs. untreated controls (CFU/mL). Blue light irradiation alone did not alter E. faecalis viability. For planktonic cultures, blue light activated eosin-Y (5 μM), rose bengal (1 μM), or curcumin (5 μM) significantly (pcurcumin of 100, 10, and 10 μM respectively, completely suppressed E. faecalis viability (p<0.05). Although the current results are limited to an in vitro model, they support further exploration of blue light activated antimicrobials as an adjunct therapy in endodontic treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hypnosis-associated blue-tinted vision: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savedoff Aaron D

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-hypnosis has been taught routinely at the SUNY Upstate Medical University for treatment of pulmonary symptoms thought to be amenable to psychological therapy. While using hypnosis for relaxation, four individuals, including a patient with cystic fibrosis, reported development of blue-tinted vision. Based on a search of the literature, we believe this is the first published report of hypnosis-associated blue-tinted vision. Case presentation The patient reported blue-tinted vision when he used hypnosis on an almost daily basis for seven years. The visual change typically occurred when he was relaxed. Moreover, a concurrent erection in the absence of sexual thoughts usually was present. The other three individuals reported blue-tinted vision after learning how to use hypnosis for relaxation as part of a group hypnosis instruction. Conclusion The blue-tinted vision experienced by the individuals in this report may be the result of an hypnosis-induced primary change in cognitive processing. Additionally, as the relaxing effect of hypnosis can be associated with a reduction in blood pressure and increased blood flow, hypnosis-associated blue-tinted vision also may be related to retinal vasodilation.

  13. Determinants of Colour Constancy and the Blue Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegenfurtner, Karl

    2017-01-01

    We investigated several sensory and cognitive determinants of colour constancy across 40 illumination hues. In the first experiment, we measured colour naming for the illumination and for the colour induced by the illumination on the colorimetric grey. Results confirmed that the induced colours are approximately complementary to the colour of the illumination. In the second experiment, we measured colour constancy using achromatic adjustments. Average colour constancy was perfect under the blue daylight illumination and decreased in colour directions away from the blue daylight illumination due to undershooting and a strong blue bias. Apart from this blue bias, colour constancy was not related to illumination discrimination and to chromatic detection measured previously with the same setup and stimuli. We also observed a strong negative relationship between the degree of colour constancy and the consensus of naming the illumination colour. Constancy coincided with a low naming consensus, in particular because bluish illumination colours were sometimes seen as achromatic. Blue bias and category consensus alone explained >68%, and all determinants together explained >94% of the variance of achromatic adjustments. These findings suggest that colour constancy is optimised for blue daylight. PMID:29348910

  14. The fading of irradiated blue-colored pearls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Shinichi

    1982-01-01

    The fading of irradiated and natural blue-colored pearls was investigated in this experiment. Thirty natural blue-colored pearls and sixty irradiated blue-colored pearls were used. Some of them were placed at a light position of RT. Another pearls were placed at a dark position of 50 0 C. The irradiated pearls placed at a light position of RT didn't show remarkable fading in their color in 294 days. But the natural blue-colored pearls showed a little recovery from 4% to 8% in reflection factors in 223 days at RT. The irradiated pearls placed at a dark position of 50 0 C showed the recovery from 9% to 14% in 264 days independently of irradiation times. The natural blue-colored pearls also showed the bleaching from 5% to 10% in reflection factor in 86 days at 50 0 C. Both irradiated and natural blue-colored pearls hardly showed their remarkable changes in their chromaticities independently of temperatures. (author)

  15. EVOLUTION {sup registered} BLUE. Designed for the needs of tomorrow; EVOLUTION {sup registered} BLUE. Entwickelt fuer die Anforderungen von morgen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blessing, Carsten [ThyssenKrupp Aufzugswerke GmbH, Neuhausen (Germany). Product Service; Dangerfield, Nicola [ThyssenKrupp Aufzuege GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany). Sales Support/Marketing Communication

    2013-11-01

    The future needs innovation. The new elevator design concept EVOLUTION {sup registered} BLUE sets new standards for flexibility, shaft efficiency, energy saving and design. It uses materials of the highest quality. (orig.)

  16. Fast Blue RR—Siloxane Derivatized Materials Indicate Wound Infection Due to a Deep Blue Color Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Schiffer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a strong need for simple and fast methods for wound infection determination. Myeloperoxidase, an immune system-derived enzyme was found to be a suitable biomarker for wound infection. Hence, alkoxysilane-derivatized Fast Blue RR was immobilized via simple hydrolytic polymerization. The resulting enzyme-responsive siloxane layers were incubated with myeloperoxidase, wound fluid or hemoglobin. The reaction was monitored via HPLC measurements and the color development quantified spectrophotometrically. Myeloperoxidase was indeed able to oxidize immobilized Fast Blue RR leading to a blue colored product. No conversion was detected in non-infected wound fluids. The visible color changes of these novel materials towards blue enable an easy distinction between infected and non-infected wound fluids.

  17. Red, White, and the Blues Part 3 of 4: The New Beat of the Blues: R&B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassinos-Carr, Cathy

    2004-01-01

    When rhythm & blues--or, as it is more commonly called, R&B, was first born, it did not even have a name. Prior to 1949, all black popular music, including jazz, blues, and gospel, was known as "race music." But by the end of the 1940s, the music had become so successful that it gained a new-found respect--and Billboard magazine, realizing that…

  18. kinetics and mechanism of reaction of acidic chlorite with phenoxazine dyes, Nile blue and Meldola’s blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Q. Qwabe

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of two phenoxazine dyes namely Nile blue (7-amino-3-diethylamino-8,9-benzo phenoxazine chloride, NB+ and Meldola’s blue (3- dimethylamino-8,9-benzo phenoxazine chloride, MB+ with acidic chlorite and hypochlorous acid have been investigated using a UV-visible and a stopped flow equipment. For both Nile blue and Meldola’s blue reactions the rates have first-order dependence on each substrate, chlorite and acid. Both reactions showed negative salt effect indicating the reaction is between the oppositely charged species, likely the substrate cation and chlorite anion. The acidic chlorite reaction with MB+ was very slow compared with NB+ and was studied at higher temperature of 40 oC. The overall third order rate constants for the reaction of acidic chlorite with Nile blue and Meldola’s blue were (0.363 plus or minus 0.005 M-2 s-1 at 25 oC and (3.09 plus or minus 0.08 x 10-3 M-2 s-1 at 40 oC, respectively. The energy parameters for NB+ reaction were Ea = 47.8 kJ mol-1, H = 40.4 kJ mol-1 and S = -233 J K-1 mol-1, while the corresponding values for MB+ reaction were 62.4 kJ mol-1, 54.6 kJ mol-1 and -248 J K-1 mol-1, respectively. The second-order rate coefficients for HOCl reaction with Nile blue and Meldola’s blue at 25 oC were (5.14 plus or minus 0.01 x 103 M-1 s-1 and (1.25 plus or minus 0.03 x 102 M-1 s-1, respectively.

  19. Magnetic Properties of selected Prussian Blue Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Manjita

    Prussian Blue Analogs (PBAs) of composition M[M(C,N)6 ] 2.xH2O are bimetallic cyanide complexes, where M and M are bivalent or trivalent transition metals and x is number of water molecule per unit cell. The PBAs form cubic framework structures, which consist mostly of alternating MIIIN6 and MIIC 6 octahedrals. However, occupancies of the octrahedrals are not perfect: they may be empty and the charges are balanced by the guest water molecules at the lattice site (C or N site) or the interstitial site (between the octahedrals) of the unit cell. Most (but not all) PBAs exhibit negative thermal expansion behavior, i.e. volume decrease with increasing temperature. Another area of interest in PBA research is the occurrence of unusual magnetic properties. Similar to other molecular magnets, large crystal-field splitting due to the octrahedral environment may result in a combination of low- or high-spin configurations of the localized magnetic moments, i.e. spin crossover effects may be found. My dissertation focuses on the magnetic properties of the selected 3d transition-metal PBAs, namely metal hexacyanochromates M3[Cr(C,N)6 ]2.xH2O, metal hexcyanoferrates M3[Fe(C,N)6]2.xH2O and metal hexcyanocobaltates M3[Co(C,N)6]2 .xH2O where M = Mn, Co, Ni and Cu. In particular, I analyzed the temperature and field dependencies of the bulk magnetic response of those PBAs. My results show that the magnetic susceptibility of all studied PBAs follows the Curie-Weiss behavior in the paramagnetic region up to room temperature; however, some of the compounds exhibit long-range magnetic order at lower temperatures (ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic). In particular, the data provide evidence for magnetic ground states for most of the metal hexacyanochromates and all of the metal hexacyanoferrates but none of the hexacyanocobaltates that were studied. For each of the compounds, my analysis provides a measure of the effective magnetic moment, which is then compared with the predicted

  20. Study of Methylene Blue Ototoxicity in the Guinea Pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhassen, Sarah; Alzahrani, Musaed; Nader, Marc-Elie; Gaboury, Louis; Saliba, Issam

    2017-11-01

    Methylene blue is widely used in the medical field, especially as a blue dye for staining. It is also used as a photosensitizing agent in antimicrobial photodynamic therapy, which once photoactivated is effective for the eradication of several multi-resistant bacteria. The objective of this study was to investigate the ototoxic potential of methylene blue and precise its use in otology. It was a prospective animal study performed on guinea pigs in our tertiary medical center. We divided the animals into two groups: an experimental group and a control group, who underwent a series of three intratympanic (IT) injections. In the control group (n = 10), they received injections of gentamicin in one ear (positive control) and normal saline in the contralateral ear (negative control). The experimental group (n = 10) received injections of methylene blue in one ear, compared to injections of normal saline in the contralateral ear. We conducted auditory-evoked brainstem response (ABR) before and 1 week after the injection series. Once this is completed, the cochlea was dissected and caspase-3 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The mean difference of hearing loss in the methylene blue group compared to normal saline was 1.50 dB, and it was not shown to be statistically significant (P = 0.688). For the positive control group, which received IT injections of gentamicin, the mean threshold of hearing loss difference for all the frequencies combined was 66.25 dB (P methylene blue. In light of our results, IT injections of methylene blue did not demonstrate an ototoxic potential. We recommend further studies to precise its use in the otologic field.

  1. Neurometabolic mechanisms for memory enhancement and neuroprotection of methylene blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Julio C.; Bruchey, Aleksandra K.; Gonzalez-Lima, F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides the first review of the memory-enhancing and neuroprotective metabolic mechanisms of action of methylene blue in vivo. These mechanisms have important implications as a new neurobiological approach to improve normal memory and to treat memory impairment and neurodegeneration associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Methylene blue’s action is unique because its neurobiological effects are not determined by regular drug-receptor interactions or drug-response paradigms. Methylene blue shows a hormetic dose-response, with opposite effects at low and high doses. At low doses, methylene blue is an electron cycler in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, with unparalleled antioxidant and cell respiration-enhancing properties that affect the function of the nervous system in a versatile manner. A major role of the respiratory enzyme cytochrome oxidase on the memory-enhancing effects of methylene blue is supported by available data. The memory-enhancing effects have been associated with improvement of memory consolidation in a network-specific and use-dependent fashion. In addition, low doses of methylene blue have also been used for neuroprotection against mitochondrial dysfunction in humans and experimental models of disease. The unique auto-oxidizing property of methylene blue and its pleiotropic effects on a number of tissue oxidases explain its potent neuroprotective effects at low doses. The evidence reviewed supports a mechanistic role of low-dose methylene blue as a promising and safe intervention for improving memory and for the treatment of acute and chronic conditions characterized by increased oxidative stress, neurodegeneration and memory impairment. PMID:22067440

  2. Methylene blue is associated with poor outcomes in vasoplegic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Menachem M; Lin, Hung-Mo; Danforth, Dennis; Rao, Srikar; Hosseinian, Leila; Fischer, Gregory W

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether patients who received methylene blue as treatment for vasoplegia during cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass had decreased morbidity and mortality. Retrospective analysis. Single tertiary care university hospital. Adult patients who suffered from vasoplegia and underwent all types of cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass at this institution between 2007 and 2008. With IRB approval, the authors reviewed the charts of the identified patients and divided them into 2 groups based on whether they had received methylene blue. Two hundred twenty-six patients were identified who met the inclusion criteria for the study. Fifty-seven of these patients had received methylene blue for vasoplegia. The authors collected data on preoperative and intraoperative variables as well as outcomes. The patients who received methylene blue had higher rates of in-hospital mortality, a compilation of morbidities, as well as renal failure and hyperbilirubinemia. A multiple logistic regression model demonstrated that receiving methylene blue was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (p value: 0.007, OR 4.26, 95% CI: 1.49-12.12), compilation of morbidities (p value: 0.001, OR 4.80, 95% CI: 1.85-12.43), and hyperbilirubinemia (p value:methylene blue as treatment for vasoplegia to be independently associated with poor outcomes. While further studies are required, a thorough risk-benefit analysis should be applied before using methylene blue and, perhaps, it should be relegated to rescue use and not as first-line therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Blue and grey water footprint of textile industry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Laili; Ding, Xuemei; Wu, Xiongying

    2013-01-01

    Water footprint (WF) is a newly developed idea that indicates impacts of freshwater appropriation and wastewater discharge. The textile industry is one of the oldest, longest and most complicated industrial chains in the world's manufacturing industries. However, the textile industry is also water intensive. In this paper, we applied a bottom-up approach to estimate the direct blue water footprint (WFdir,blue) and direct grey water footprint (WFdir,grey) of China's textile industry at sector level based on WF methodology. The results showed that WFdir,blue of China's textile industry had an increasing trend from 2001 to 2010. The annual WFdir,blue surpassed 0.92 Gm(3)/yr (giga cubic meter a year) since 2004 and rose to peak value of 1.09 Gm(3)/yr in 2007. The original and residuary WFdir,grey (both were calculated based on the concentration of chemical oxygen demand (CODCr)) of China's textile industry had a similar variation trend with that of WFdir,blue. Among the three sub-sectors of China's textile industry, the manufacture of textiles sector's annual WFdir,blue and WFdir,grey were much larger than those of the manufacture of textile wearing apparel, footware and caps sector and the manufacture of chemical fibers sector. The intensities of WFdir,blue and WF(res)dir,grey of China's textile industry were year by year decreasing through the efforts of issuing restriction policies on freshwater use and wastewater generation and discharge, and popularization of water saving and wastewater treatment technologies.

  4. Blue Guardian: open architecture intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirey, Russell G.; Borntrager, Luke A.; Soine, Andrew T.; Green, David M.

    2017-04-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) - Sensors Directorate has developed the Blue Guardian program to demonstrate advanced sensing technology utilizing open architectures in operationally relevant environments. Blue Guardian has adopted the core concepts and principles of the Air Force Rapid Capabilities Office (AFRCO) Open Mission Systems (OMS) initiative to implement an open Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) platform architecture. Using this new OMS standard provides a business case to reduce cost and program schedules for industry and the Department of Defense (DoD). Blue Guardian is an early adopting program of OMS and provides much needed science and technology improvements, development, testing, and implementation of OMS for ISR purposes. This paper presents results and lessons learned under the Blue Guardian Project Shepherd program which conducted Multi-INT operational demonstrations in the Joint Interagency Task Force - South (JIATF-S) and USSOUTHCOM area of operations in early 2016. Further, on-going research is discussed to enhance Blue Guardian Multi-INT ISR capabilities to support additional mission sets and platforms, including unmanned operations over line of sight (LOS) and beyond line of sight (BLOS) datalinks. An implementation of additional OMS message sets and services to support off-platform sensor command and control using OMS/UCI data structures and dissemination of sensor product data/metadata is explored. Lastly, the Blue Guardian team is working with the AgilePod program to use OMS in a full Government Data Rights Pod to rapidly swap these sensors to different aircraft. The union of the AgilePod (which uses SOSA compliant standards) and OMS technologies under Blue Guardian programs is discussed.

  5. Global Monthly Water Scarcity: Blue Water Footprints versus Blue Water Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Y.; Mekonnen, Mesfin M.; Chapagain, Ashok K.; Mathews, Ruth E.; Richter, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater scarcity is a growing concern, placing considerable importance on the accuracy of indicators used to characterize and map water scarcity worldwide. We improve upon past efforts by using estimates of blue water footprints (consumptive use of ground- and surface water flows) rather than water withdrawals, accounting for the flows needed to sustain critical ecological functions and by considering monthly rather than annual values. We analyzed 405 river basins for the period 1996–2005. In 201 basins with 2.67 billion inhabitants there was severe water scarcity during at least one month of the year. The ecological and economic consequences of increasing degrees of water scarcity – as evidenced by the Rio Grande (Rio Bravo), Indus, and Murray-Darling River Basins – can include complete desiccation during dry seasons, decimation of aquatic biodiversity, and substantial economic disruption. PMID:22393438

  6. Blue-Light Filtering Spectacle Lenses: Optical and Clinical Performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Tsz Wing; Li, Roger Wing-Hong; Kee, Chea-Su

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the optical performance of blue-light filtering spectacle lenses and investigate whether a reduction in blue light transmission affects visual performance and sleep quality. Experiment 1: The relative changes in phototoxicity, scotopic sensitivity, and melatonin suppression of five blue-light filtering plano spectacle lenses were calculated based on their spectral transmittances measured by a spectrophotometer. Experiment 2: A pseudo-randomized controlled study was conducted to evaluate the clinical performance of two blue-light filtering spectacle lenses (BF: blue-filtering anti-reflection coating; BT: brown-tinted) with a regular clear lens (AR) serving as a control. A total of eighty computer users were recruited from two age cohorts (young adults: 18-30 yrs, middle-aged adults: 40-55 yrs). Contrast sensitivity under standard and glare conditions, and colour discrimination were measured using standard clinical tests. After one month of lens wear, subjective ratings of lens performance were collected by questionnaire. All tested blue-light filtering spectacle lenses theoretically reduced the calculated phototoxicity by 10.6% to 23.6%. Although use of the blue-light filters also decreased scotopic sensitivity by 2.4% to 9.6%, and melatonin suppression by 5.8% to 15.0%, over 70% of the participants could not detect these optical changes. Our clinical tests revealed no significant decrease in contrast sensitivity either with (95% confidence intervals [CI]: AR-BT [-0.05, 0.05]; AR-BF [-0.05, 0.06]; BT-BF [-0.06, 0.06]) or without glare (95% CI: AR-BT [-0.01, 0.03]; AR-BF [-0.01, 0.03]; BT-BF [-0.02, 0.02]) and colour discrimination (95% CI: AR-BT [-9.07, 1.02]; AR-BF [-7.06, 4.46]; BT-BF [-3.12, 8.57]). Blue-light filtering spectacle lenses can partially filter high-energy short-wavelength light without substantially degrading visual performance and sleep quality. These lenses may serve as a supplementary option for protecting the retina from potential

  7. Blue-Light Filtering Spectacle Lenses: Optical and Clinical Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Purposes To evaluate the optical performance of blue-light filtering spectacle lenses and investigate whether a reduction in blue light transmission affects visual performance and sleep quality. Methods Experiment 1: The relative changes in phototoxicity, scotopic sensitivity, and melatonin suppression of five blue-light filtering plano spectacle lenses were calculated based on their spectral transmittances measured by a spectrophotometer. Experiment 2: A pseudo-randomized controlled study was conducted to evaluate the clinical performance of two blue-light filtering spectacle lenses (BF: blue-filtering anti-reflection coating; BT: brown-tinted) with a regular clear lens (AR) serving as a control. A total of eighty computer users were recruited from two age cohorts (young adults: 18–30 yrs, middle-aged adults: 40–55 yrs). Contrast sensitivity under standard and glare conditions, and colour discrimination were measured using standard clinical tests. After one month of lens wear, subjective ratings of lens performance were collected by questionnaire. Results All tested blue-light filtering spectacle lenses theoretically reduced the calculated phototoxicity by 10.6% to 23.6%. Although use of the blue-light filters also decreased scotopic sensitivity by 2.4% to 9.6%, and melatonin suppression by 5.8% to 15.0%, over 70% of the participants could not detect these optical changes. Our clinical tests revealed no significant decrease in contrast sensitivity either with (95% confidence intervals [CI]: AR–BT [–0.05, 0.05]; AR–BF [–0.05, 0.06]; BT–BF [–0.06, 0.06]) or without glare (95% CI: AR–BT [–0.01, 0.03]; AR–BF [–0.01, 0.03]; BT–BF [–0.02, 0.02]) and colour discrimination (95% CI: AR–BT [–9.07, 1.02]; AR–BF [–7.06, 4.46]; BT–BF [–3.12, 8.57]). Conclusion Blue-light filtering spectacle lenses can partially filter high-energy short-wavelength light without substantially degrading visual performance and sleep quality. These lenses may

  8. Sustainable Life on the Blue Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helvarg, D.

    2002-05-01

    the 1950s suggest we now have the technological capacity for a new energy transition to non-carbon systems including photovoltaics, wind-turbines, biofuels and hydrogen fuel-cells. A (largely) hydrogen based economy could also lead to a decentralized power grid less vulnerable to terrorism and the increased natural disasters we can expect in the coming greenhouse century. Sustainable development of limited resources and the shift to renewable forms of agriculture, water-planning, energy and other technologies will ultimately depend not simply on earth science, but on a highly political process which will (hopefully) combine the best-available science, and society's values to determine public policy that benefits the long-term interests of our blue planet's varied residents, recognizing that our economy is a fully owned subsidiary of our environment.

  9. Proteomics meets blue biotechnology: a wealth of novelties and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Erica M; Durighello, Emie; Pible, Olivier; Nogales, Balbina; Beltrametti, Fabrizio; Bosch, Rafael; Christie-Oleza, Joseph A; Armengaud, Jean

    2014-10-01

    Blue biotechnology, in which aquatic environments provide the inspiration for various products such as food additives, aquaculture, biosensors, green chemistry, bioenergy, and pharmaceuticals, holds enormous promise. Large-scale efforts to sequence aquatic genomes and metagenomes, as well as campaigns to isolate new organisms and culture-based screenings, are helping to push the boundaries of known organisms. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics can complement 16S gene sequencing in the effort to discover new organisms of potential relevance to blue biotechnology by facilitating the rapid screening of microbial isolates and by providing in depth profiles of the proteomes and metaproteomes of marine organisms, both model cultivable isolates and, more recently, exotic non-cultivable species and communities. Proteomics has already contributed to blue biotechnology by identifying aquatic proteins with potential applications to food fermentation, the textile industry, and biomedical drug development. In this review, we discuss historical developments in blue biotechnology, the current limitations to the known marine biosphere, and the ways in which mass spectrometry can expand that knowledge. We further speculate about directions that research in blue biotechnology will take given current and near-future technological advancements in mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Compete or Leapfrog: Creating Blue Ocean through Entrepreneurial Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arslan Ayub

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the role of entrepreneurial orientation with mediating effect of knowledge creation process to creating Blue Ocean in corporate sector in Pakistan There is an increasing competition among companies due to globalization and technological advancements. Thus, it requires a study to measure the multifaceted influence of entrepreneurial orientation on knowledge creation process and Blue Ocean besides the actual paradigm of this terminology. This concept has been well discussed in this research arena since its inception in 2005. Numerous such initiatives have already been taken, however this concept invites a lot more addition, related companies are still in pursuit to materialize the research concepts. We highlight the contingencies in the shift from a red ocean to Blue Ocean. The study uses exploratory approach; primary data is collected from 391 professionals working in different sectors of Pakistan. The study uses structural equation model (SEM technique to test the hypotheses. The study found a positive relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and Blue Ocean, entrepreneurial orientation, knowledge creation process, and Blue Ocean. The study throws light on the importance of entrepreneurial orientation and knowledge creation process to head on this fast-paced competition.

  11. CENSUS OF BLUE STARS IN SDSS DR8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scibelli, Samantha; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Yanny, Brian

    2014-01-01

    We present a census of the 12,060 spectra of blue objects ((g – r) 0 < –0.25) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 (DR8). As part of the data release, all of the spectra were cross-correlated with 48 template spectra of stars, galaxies, and QSOs to determine the best match. We compared the blue spectra by eye to the templates assigned in SDSS DR8. 10,856 of the objects matched their assigned template, 170 could not be classified due to low signal-to-noise ratio, and 1034 were given new classifications. We identify 7458 DA white dwarfs, 1145 DB white dwarfs, 273 rarer white dwarfs (including carbon, DZ, DQ, and magnetic), 294 subdwarf O stars, 648 subdwarf B stars, 679 blue horizontal branch stars, 1026 blue stragglers, 13 cataclysmic variables, 129 white dwarf-M dwarf binaries, 36 objects with spectra similar to DO white dwarfs, 179, quasi-stellar objects (QSOs), and 10 galaxies. We provide two tables of these objects, sample spectra that match the templates, figures showing all of the spectra that were grouped by eye, and diagnostic plots that show the positions, colors, apparent magnitudes, proper motions, etc., for each classification. Future surveys will be able to use templates similar to stars in each of the classes we identify to automatically classify blue stars, including rare types

  12. Borax methylene blue: a spectroscopic and staining study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, P T; Russo, A; Reynolds, C; Lillie, R D

    1978-07-01

    Borax methylene blue is quite stable at room temperatures of 22-25 C. At 30 C polychroming is slow; during 50 days in a water bath at this temperature the absorption peak moves from 665 to 656 nm. At 35 C, the absorption peak reaches 660 nm in 7 days, 654 nm in 14. At 60 C polychroming is rapid, the absorption peak reaching 640-620 nm in 3 days. When the pH of the borax methylene blue solutions, normally about 9.0, is adjusted to pH 6.5, the absorption peak remains at 665 nm even when incubated at 60 C for extended periods. When used as a blood stain 0.4 ml borax methylene blue (1% methylene blue in 1% borax), 4 ml acetone, 2 ml borax-acid phosphate buffer to bring the solution to pH 6.5, and distilled water to make 40 ml, with 0.2 ml 1% eosin added just before using, an excellent Nocht-Giemsa type stain is achieved after 30 minutes staining. The material plasmodia P. falciparum, P. vivax, and P. berghei stain moderate blue with dark red chromatin and green to black pigment granules. The study confirms Malachowski's 1891 results and explains Gautier's 1896-98 failure to duplicate it.

  13. Blue light dosage affects carotenoids and tocopherols in microgreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuolienė, Giedrė; Viršilė, Akvilė; Brazaitytė, Aušra; Jankauskienė, Julė; Sakalauskienė, Sandra; Vaštakaitė, Viktorija; Novičkovas, Algirdas; Viškelienė, Alina; Sasnauskas, Audrius; Duchovskis, Pavelas

    2017-08-01

    Mustard, beet and parsley were grown to harvest time under selected LEDs: 638+660+731+0% 445nm; 638+660+731+8% 445nm; 638+660+731+16% 445nm; 638+660+731+25% 445nm; 638+660+731+33% 445nm. From 1.2 to 4.3 times higher concentrations of chlorophylls a and b, carotenoids, α- and β-carotenes, lutein, violaxanthin and zeaxanthin was found under blue 33% treatment in comparison to lower blue light dosages. Meanwhile, the accumulation of metabolites, which were not directly connected with light reactions, such as tocopherols, was more influenced by lower (16%) blue light dosage, increasing about 1.3 times. Thus, microgreen enrichment of carotenoid and xanthophyll pigments may be achieved using higher (16-33%) blue light intensities. Changes in metabolite quantities were not the result of changes of other carotenoid concentration, but were more influenced by light treatment and depended on the species. Significant quantitative changes in response to blue light percentage were obtained for both directly and not directly light-dependent metabolite groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of blue light on pigment biosynthesis of Monascus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Di; Xue, Chunmao; Chen, Mianhua; Wu, Shufen; Li, Zhenjing; Wang, Changlu

    2016-04-01

    The influence of different illumination levels of blue light on the growth and intracellular pigment yields of Monascus strain M9 was investigated. Compared with darkness, constant exposure to blue light of 100 lux reduced the yields of six pigments, namely, rubropunctatamine (RUM), monascorubramine (MOM), rubropunctatin (RUN), monascorubrin (MON), monascin (MS), and ankaflavin (AK). However, exposure to varying levels of blue light had different effects on pigment production. Exposure to 100 lux of blue light once for 30 min/day and to 100 lux of blue light once and twice for 15 min/day could enhance RUM, MOM, MS, and AK production and reduce RUN and MON compared with non-exposure. Exposure to 100 lux twice for 30 min/day and to 200 lux once for 45 min/day decreased the RUM, MOM, MS, and AK yields and increased the RUN and MON. Meanwhile, the expression levels of pigment biosynthetic genes were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR. Results indicated that gene MpPKS5, mppR1, mppA, mppB, mmpC, mppD, MpFasA, MpFasB, and mppF were positively correlated with the yields of RUN and MON, whereas mppE and mppR2 were associated with RUM, MOM, MS, and AK production.

  15. Fe K-edge XANES of Maya blue pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, M. Sanchez del; Sodo, A.; Eeckhout, S.G.; Neisius, T.; Martinetto, P.; Dooryhee, E.; Reyes-Valerio, C.

    2005-01-01

    The utilization of techniques used in Materials Science for the characterization of artefacts of interest for cultural heritage is getting more and more attention nowadays. One of the products of the ancient Maya chemistry is the 'Maya blue' pigment, made with natural indigo and palygorskite. This pigment is different from any other pigment used in other parts of the world. It is durable and acid-resistant, and still keeps many secrets to scientists even though it has been studied for more than 50 years. Although the pigment is basically made of palygorskite Si 8 (Mg 2 Al 2 )O 20 (OH) 2 (OH 2 ) 4 .4H 2 O and an organic colourant (indigo: C 16 H 10 N 2 O 2 ), a number of other compounds have been found in previous studies on archaeological samples, like other clays and minerals, iron nanoparticles, iron oxides, impurities of transition metals (Cr, Mn, Ti, V), etc. We measured at the ESRF ID26 beamline the Fe K-edge XANES spectra of the blue pigment in ancient samples. They are compared to XANES spectra of Maya blue samples synthesized under controlled conditions, and iron oxides usually employed as pigments (hematite and goethite). Our results show that the iron found in ancient Maya blue pigment is related to the Fe exchanged in the palygorskite clay. We did not find iron in metallic form or goethite in archaeological Maya blue

  16. Development of a Blue Emitting Calcium-Aluminate Phosphor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doory Kim

    Full Text Available We report methodological advances that enhance the phosphorescence efficiency of a blue-emitting calcium aluminate phosphor (CaAl2O4: Eu2+, Nd3+. The investigation of long-persistence blue-emitting phosphors is highly desirable due to their promising applications, such as white LEDs; however, the development of highly efficient blue-emitting phosphors is still challenging. Here, we have quantitatively characterized the phosphorescence properties of the blue-emitting phosphor CaAl2O4:Eu2+, Nd3+ with various compositions and directly related these properties to the quality of its luminescence. We optimized the composition of the activator Eu2+ and the co-activator Nd3+, the doping conditions with alkaline earth metals, alkali metals, and Si to create crystallographic distortions and, finally, the flux conditions to find the best parameters for bright and persistent blue-emitting phosphors. Our research has identified several doping compositions with good to excellent performance, with which we have demonstrated bright and persistent phosphors with afterglow characteristics superior to those of conventional phosphors.

  17. Blue light emitting diesel soot for photonic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swapna, M. S.; Sankararaman, S.

    2018-01-01

    The present work is the first report of producing blue light emission from phosphor free and low-cost material—the diesel soot from the internal combustion engines (ICEs). The structural morphology is analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The optical characterization is done by recording UV–visible spectrum and photoluminescent Spectrum. The CIE plot and the power spectrum for the sample show blue emission. This is further verified by collecting diesel soot from the ICE of different year of make. A visual confirmation of blue emission is obtained by exciting the sample with UV laser. The presence of various allotropic forms of carbon in the sample is identified by x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopic analysis.

  18. Microanalysis study of archaeological mural samples containing Maya blue pigment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, M. [ESRF, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble (France)]. E-mail: srio@esrf.fr; Martinetto, P. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP166 F-30842 Grenoble (France); Somogyi, A. [ESRF, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Reyes-Valerio, C. [INAH, Mexico DF (Mexico); Dooryhee, E. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP166 F-30842 Grenoble (France); Peltier, N. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP166 F-30842 Grenoble (France); Alianelli, L. [INFM-OGG c/o ESRF, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Moignard, B. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Pichon, L. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Calligaro, T. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Dran, J.-C. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France)

    2004-10-08

    Elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence and particle induced X-ray emission is applied to the study of several Mesoamerican mural samples containing blue pigments. The most characteristic blue pigment is Maya blue, a very stable organo-clay complex original from Maya culture and widely used in murals, pottery and sculptures in a vast region of Mesoamerica during the pre-hispanic time (from VIII century) and during the colonization until 1580. The mural samples come from six different archaeological sites (four pre-hispanic and two from XVI century colonial convents). The correlation between the presence of some elements and the pigment colour is discussed. From the comparative study of the elemental concentration, some conclusions are drawn on the nature of the pigments and the technology used.

  19. Microanalysis study of archaeological mural samples containing Maya blue pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez del Rio, M.; Martinetto, P.; Somogyi, A.; Reyes-Valerio, C.; Dooryhee, E.; Peltier, N.; Alianelli, L.; Moignard, B.; Pichon, L.; Calligaro, T.; Dran, J.-C.

    2004-01-01

    Elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence and particle induced X-ray emission is applied to the study of several Mesoamerican mural samples containing blue pigments. The most characteristic blue pigment is Maya blue, a very stable organo-clay complex original from Maya culture and widely used in murals, pottery and sculptures in a vast region of Mesoamerica during the pre-hispanic time (from VIII century) and during the colonization until 1580. The mural samples come from six different archaeological sites (four pre-hispanic and two from XVI century colonial convents). The correlation between the presence of some elements and the pigment colour is discussed. From the comparative study of the elemental concentration, some conclusions are drawn on the nature of the pigments and the technology used

  20. Blue-green photoluminescence in MCM-41 mesoporous nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, J L; Lee, Y C; Lui, Y L; Cheng, P W; Cheng, C F

    2003-01-01

    Different photoluminescence (PL) techniques have been used to study the blue-green emission from siliceous MCM-41 nanotubes. It was found that the intensity of the blue-green PL is enhanced by rapid thermal annealing (RTA). This enhancement is explained by the generation of twofold-coordinated Si centres and non-bridging oxygen hole centres, in line with the surface properties of MCM-41. On the basis of the analysis of the PL following RTA, polarized PL, and PL excitation, we suggest that the triplet-to-singlet transition of twofold-coordinated silicon centres is responsible for the blue-green PL in MCM-41 nanotubes. (letter to the editor)

  1. Are blue supergiants descendants of magnetic main sequence stars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petermann, Ilka; Langer, Norbert

    2013-06-01

    Red and blue supergiants are, together with luminous blue variables and Wolf-Rayet stars, evolved phases of massive (OB) stars. The position of blue supergiants (BSG) near the main sequence band cannot be reproduced by standard stellar evolution calculations. However, the assumption of a reduced convective core mass during the main sequence (MS) due to strong internal magnetic fields, established in roughly 10% of all stars on the upper MS, can recover this BSG population. For our calculations of the (non-rotating) massive stars at solar metallicity we used the 1D stellar evolution code MESA and compare their evolutionary tracks with positions from stars obtained from the VLT Flames survey of massive stars.

  2. A resolution to the blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) population paradox?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pointin, Fabien; Payne, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    We provide the strongest evidence to date supporting the existence of two independent blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou (Risso, 1827)) populations in the North Atlantic. In spite of extensive data collected in conjunction with the fishery, the population structure of blue whiting is poorly...... understood. On one hand, genetic, morphometric, otolith and drift modelling studies point towards the existence of two populations, but, on the other hand, observations of adult distributions point towards a single population. A paradox therefore arises in attempting to reconcile these two sets...... of information. Here we analyse 1100 observations of blue whiting larvae from the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) from 1948-2005 using modern statistical techniques. We show a clear spatial separation between a northern spawning area, in the Rockall Trough, and a southern one, off the Porcupine Seabight. We...

  3. Early pre-Hispanic use of indigo blue in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splitstoser, Jeffrey C; Dillehay, Tom D; Wouters, Jan; Claro, Ana

    2016-09-01

    Archaeological research has identified the use of cultivated cotton (Gossypium barbadense) in the ancient Andes dating back to at least 7800 years ago. Because of unusual circumstances of preservation, 6000-year-old cotton fabrics from the Preceramic site of Huaca Prieta on the north coast of Peru retained traces of a blue pigment that was analyzed and positively identified as an indigoid dye (indigotin), making it the earliest known use of indigo in the world, derived most likely from Indigofera spp. native to South America. This predates by ~1500 years the earliest reported use of indigo in the Old World, from Fifth Dynasty Egypt [ca. 4400 BP (before present)]. Indigo is one of the most valued and most globally widespread dyes of antiquity and of the present era (it being the blue of blue jeans).

  4. Better to be red than blue in virtual competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilie, Andrei; Ioan, Silvia; Zagrean, Leon

    2008-01-01

    In the 2004 Olympic Games, opponents wearing red athletic uniforms were more likely to win against opponents wearing blue uniforms. To investigate whether this color bias extends to the world of virtual competition, we compared the performance of red and blue teams in a popular multiplayer first-person......-shooter (FPS) computer game. For 3 consecutive months, we collected data from a publicly available global statistics server. Outcomes from 1,347 matches played by the top 10 players on the same virtual arena were included. Red teams won 54.9% of matches, and this effect was highly significant. Our data suggest...... that joining the red team may offer a slight advantage over the blue team in virtual competition, and this should be accounted for when designing FPS games. It is likely that "seeing red" may trigger a powerful psychological distractor signal in human aggressive competition that can affect the outcome...

  5. Blue-noise remeshing with farthest point optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we present a novel method for surface sampling and remeshing with good blue-noise properties. Our approach is based on the farthest point optimization (FPO), a relaxation technique that generates high quality blue-noise point sets in 2D. We propose two important generalizations of the original FPO framework: adaptive sampling and sampling on surfaces. A simple and efficient algorithm for accelerating the FPO framework is also proposed. Experimental results show that the generalized FPO generates point sets with excellent blue-noise properties for adaptive and surface sampling. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our remeshing quality is superior to the current state-of-the art approaches. © 2014 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. pH influences the biocompatibility of methylene blue solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusman, David Jonathan Rodrigues; Cintra, Luciano Tavares Angelo; Novaes, Vivian Cristina Noronha; Matheus, Henrique Rinaldi; de Araujo, Nathália Januario; de Almeida, Juliano Milanezi

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the biocompatibility of methylene blue at different pH levels through the method of implantation in subcutaneous tissue. Eighty-four sterilized polyethylene tubes were allocated in the subcutaneous tissue of 28 rats, each one receiving four tubes, set into four groups: group tube (G-T)-empty tube, fibrin group (G-F)-tube filled with fibrin sponge, group methylene blue pH 7 (G-MB/pH 7)-tube filled with fibrin sponge soaked by methylene blue (100 μg/ml) at pH 7.0, and group methylene blue pH 1 (G-MB/pH 1)-tube filled with fibrin sponge and soaked by methylene blue (100 μg/ml) at pH 1.0. After 7, 15, and 30 days, seven animals from each group were euthanized, and the tubes involved by the surrounding tissue were removed and fixed with 4% buffered formaldehyde solution. The collected pieces were processed and histological sections (4 μm) were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and analyzed by light microscopy. Scores were assigned to analysis of histopathologic parameters. The results were statistically analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test (p ≤ 0.05). At 7 and 30 days, the G-MB/pH 1 group showed no significant difference in the G-T control group, while G-MB/pH 7 had a significant increase on tissue reaction, also when compared to G-T. At 15 days, there was no statistical difference between the groups. Within the limits of this study, it is concluded that methylene blue at pH 1.0 provides better biocompatibility than at pH 7.0.

  7. Code Blue Emergencies: A Team Task Analysis and Educational Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Price

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this study was to identify factors that have a positive or negative influence on resuscitation team performance during emergencies in the operating room (OR and post-operative recovery unit (PAR at a major Canadian teaching hospital. This information was then used to implement a team training program for code blue emergencies. Methods: In 2009/10, all OR and PAR nurses and 19 anesthesiologists at Vancouver General Hospital (VGH were invited to complete an anonymous, 10 minute written questionnaire regarding their code blue experience. Survey questions were devised by 10 recovery room and operation room nurses as well as 5 anesthesiologists representing 4 different hospitals in British Columbia. Three iterations of the survey were reviewed by a pilot group of nurses and anesthesiologists and their feedback was integrated into the final version of the survey. Results: Both nursing staff (n = 49 and anesthesiologists (n = 19 supported code blue training and believed that team training would improve patient outcome. Nurses noted that it was often difficult to identify the leader of the resuscitation team. Both nursing staff and anesthesiologists strongly agreed that too many people attending the code blue with no assigned role hindered team performance. Conclusion: Identifiable leadership and clear communication of roles were identified as keys to resuscitation team functioning. Decreasing the number of people attending code blue emergencies with no specific role, increased access to mock code blue training, and debriefing after crises were all identified as areas requiring improvement. Initial team training exercises have been well received by staff.

  8. Biological behaviour of buccal cells exposed to blue light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gritsch, Kerstin; Ponsonnet, Laurence; Schembri, Catherine; Farge, Pierre; Pourreyron, Laurence; Grosgogeat, Brigitte

    2008-01-01

    Blue light is used in dental practise to cure resin-based materials, but the path of the light often includes oral tissues such as gingival tissues. While adverse effects of blue light exposure on cells - such as retina cells - are well known, few studies have investigated the impact of blue light exposure on oral cells. The aim of the present in vitro study was to assess the biological effects of blue light emitted by two dental curing devices (a plasma-arc and a light-emitting diode curing unit) on human gingival fibroblasts. Light intensities and light-induced temperature rise were respectively measured with a radiometer and a thermocouple. Cellular response to blue light exposure was assessed by the observation of cell morphology (scanning electron microscopy) and the estimation of cell mitochondrial activity (MTT assay). Light intensities measured at the clinical distance were 488 ± 42 mW/cm 2 for the plasma-arc unit and ranged from 61 ± 5 to 140 ± 16 mW/cm 2 for the light-emitting diodes unit, according to the curing program used. The highest temperature rise was 0.5 and 3.5 deg. C for exposure to the plasma-arc light and to the light-emitting diodes light, respectively. Results showed no differences between exposed- and non-exposed cells in regards to cell morphology. However, cells exposed to blue light presented an increased mitochondrial activity compared to control cells (non-exposed), and mostly those exposed to plasma-arc light

  9. Temporal dynamics of blue and green virtual water trade networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konar, M.; Dalin, C.; Hanasaki, N.; Rinaldo, A.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    2012-12-01

    Global food security increasingly relies on the trade of food commodities. Freshwater resources are essential to agricultural production and are thus embodied in the trade of food commodities, referred to as "virtual water trade." Agricultural production predominantly relies on rainwater (i.e., "green water"), though irrigation (i.e., "blue water") does play an important role. These different sources of water have distinctly different opportunity costs, which may be reflected in the way these resources are traded. Thus, the temporal dynamics of the virtual water trade networks from these distinct water sources require characterization. We find that 42 × 109 m3 blue and 310 × 109 m3 green water was traded in 1986, growing to 78 × 109 m3 blue and 594 × 109 m3 green water traded in 2008. Three nations dominate the export of green water resources: the USA, Argentina, and Brazil. As a country increases its export trade partners it tends to export relatively more blue water. However, as a country increases its import trade partners it does not preferentially import water from a specific source. The amount of virtual water that a country imports by increasing its import trade partners has been decreasing over time, with the exception of the soy trade. Both blue and green virtual water networks are efficient: 119 × 109 m3 blue and 105 × 109 m3 green water were saved in 2008. Importantly, trade has been increasingly saving water over time, due to the intensification of crop trade on more water-efficient links.

  10. Spectrophotometric Determination of Lamotrigine in Pharmaceutical Preparations and Urine Samples Using Bromothymol Blue and Bromophenol Blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najib, F.M.; Aziz, K.H.H.

    2013-01-01

    Two simple and sensitive spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the determination of the antiepileptic drug lamotrigine (LMT) in pharmaceutical preparations and urine samples. The methods are based on the interaction of LMT with two sulphonphthalein dyes, namely, bromothymol blue (BTB) and bromophenol blue (BPB) in dichloromethane (DCM) medium to form stable and yellow-colored ion-pairs with λ max 410 and 413 nm respectively. The ion-pair LMT-BPB has been extracted from aqueous solutions at pH 3.25±0.25 using DCM; while LMT-BTB ion-pair was directly prepared in DCM. Interferences from the compounds of the urine samples, in case of LMT-BPB were removed using a suppressing solution (S.S.) prepared from the salts of the interfering ions. In LMT-BTB method, the urine of normal person not taking LMT, was used as a blank to remove the effect of interferences. Under optimum conditions, the calibration curve of LMT-BTB was linear over the range of 1-12 μg.ml -1 , ε=1.97x10 4 L.mole -1 .cm -1 , r 2 = 0.9983, and D.L of 0.13 μg.ml -1 . The corresponding values for (LMT-BPB) ion-pair were 0.5-12 μg.ml -1 linear range, ε=1.92x10 4 , r 2 = 0.9980, and D.L= 0.24 μg.ml -1 . The stoichiometry of the ion-pairs were found to be 1:1, based on Jobs, mole ratio and slope ratio methods. The recoveries (%R) for both methods were in the range of 97-101.8 % and 95-97.1 % with RSD≤1.68 and 3.1 % respectively. For LMT- spiked urine samples, the recoveries were 98.5-106.6 % with RSD≤1.66 %. Interferences from phenobarbital and carbamazepine were in the range of 25-40 folds. Statistical comparison of the results with a published method using F and t-tests showed no significant differences between each of the two methods and the reported one at 95 % confidence level. A standard addition method, gave high accuracy with LMT-BPB method. The proposed methods were successfully applied for the determination of LMT in pharmaceutical preparation and urine samples. (author)

  11. The Blue Hook Populations of Massive Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    Blue hook stars are a class of hot { 35,000 K} subluminous horizontal branch stars that have been recently discovered using HST ultraviolet images of the globular clusters omega Cen and NGC 2808. These stars occupy a region of the HR diagram that is unexplained by canonical stellar evolution theory. Using new theoretical evolutionary and atmospheric models, we have shown that the blue hook stars are very likely the progeny of stars that undergo extensive internal mixing during a late helium core flash on the white dwarf cooling curve. This "flash mixing" produces an enormous enhancement of the surface helium and carbon abundances, which suppresses the flux in the far ultraviolet. Although flash mixing is more likely to occur in stars that are born with high helium abundances, a high helium abundance, by itself, does not explain the presence of a blue hook population - flash mixing of the envelope is required. We propose ACS ultraviolet {SBC/F150LP and HRC/F250W} observations of the five additional globular clusters for which the presence of blue hook stars is suspected from longer wavelength observations. Like omega Cen and NGC 2808, these five targets are also among the most massive globular clusters, because less massive clusters show no evidence for blue hook stars. Because our targets span 1.5 dex in metallicity, we will be able to test our prediction that flash-mixing should be less drastic in metal-rich blue hook stars. In addition, our observations will test the hypothesis that blue hook stars only form in globular clusters massive enough to retain the helium-enriched ejecta from the first stellar generation. If this hypothesis is correct, then our observations will yield important constraints on the chemical evolution and early formation history in globular clusters, as well as the role of helium self-enrichment in producing blue horizontal branch morphologies and multiple main sequence turnoffs. Finally, our observations will provide new insight into the

  12. Dinitrogen fixation by blue-green algae from paddy fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Joseph

    1977-01-01

    Recent work using radioactive nitrogen on the blue-green algae of paddy fields has been reviewed. These algae fix dinitrogen and photoassimilate carbon evolving oxygen, thereby augmenting nitrogen and carbon status of the soil and also providing oxygen to the water-logged rice paddies. Further studies using radioactive isotopes 13 N, 24 Na and 22 Na on their nitrogen fixation, nitrogen assimilation pathways; regulation of nitrogenase, heterocysts production and sporulation and sodium transport and metabolism have been carried out and reported. The field application of blue green algae for N 2 fixation was found to increase the status of soil nitrogen and yield of paddy. (M.G.B.)

  13. The role of a blue ocean strategy on performance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Tabari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a balanced scorecard (BSC in order to prepare a comprehensive tool for performance evaluation. In this way, an experimental test is conducted in the Resorts of Ramsar Green City located in the north of Iran, in which the factors of a blue ocean strategy influence on the dimensions of the BSC. The sample number of this study consists of 90 managers and experts of the employees who work for Resorts of Ramsar Green City. The acquired data are analyzed with using the t-test. The obtained results show that the blue ocean strategy changes in the objects and the scales of the BSC.

  14. Quirks of dye nomenclature. 8. Methylene blue, azure and violet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksey, C J

    2017-01-01

    Methylene blue was synthesized in 1877 and soon found application in medicine, staining for microscopy and as an industrial dye and pigment. An enormous literature has accumulated since its introduction. Early on, it was known that methylene blue could be degraded easily by demethylation; consequently, the purity of commercial samples often was low. Therefore, demethylation products, such as azures and methylene violet, also are considered here. The names and identity of the components, their varying modes of manufacture, analytical methods and their contribution to biological staining are discussed.

  15. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): blue spheroids within 87 Mpc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Smriti; Drinkwater, Michael J.; Driver, S.; Hopkins, A. M.; Graham, Alister W.; Brough, S.; Brown, Michael J. I.; Holwerda, B. W.; Owers, Matt S.; Pimbblet, Kevin A.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we test if nearby blue spheroid (BSph) galaxies may become the progenitors of star-forming spiral galaxies or passively evolving elliptical galaxies. Our sample comprises 428 galaxies of various morphologies in the redshift range 0.002 well as spirals in the multidimensional space mapped by luminosity-weighted age, metallicity, dust mass, and specific star formation rate. We use H I data to reveal that some of the BSphs are (further) developing their discs, hence their blue colours. They may eventually become spiral galaxies - if sufficient gas accretion occurs - or more likely fade into low-mass red galaxies.

  16. How the ``Blues'' reveals the intimacy of music and physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J. Murray

    2013-03-01

    Little do most people know when they hear blues piano - and you'll hear some live in this talk - that physics permeates the style, as it does all of music. Why should you care? By deconstructing blues piano the intimacy of physics, mathematics and music will be revealed in its glory.[1] The exercise says something about how the brains of the music composer and of the listener must be intimately linked to the physical principles of acoustics. And it provides a great vehicle to explain physical phenomena to non-scientists - everything from quantum mechanics to protein structure.

  17. Osteoma in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, João Felipe Rito; Levy, Marcelo Guilherme Bezerra; Liparisi, Flavia; Romão, Mario Antonio Pinto

    2013-09-01

    Osteoma is an uncommon bone formation documented in avian species and other animals. A blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva) with clinical respiratory symptoms was examined because of a hard mass present on the left nostril. Radiographs suggested a bone tumor, and the mass was surgically excised. Histopathologic examination revealed features of an osteoma. To our knowledge, this is the first description of an osteoma in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot. Osteoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in birds with respiratory distress and swelling of the nostril.

  18. Occupational contact dermatitis in blue-collar workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, Jakob F; Menné, Torkil; Veien, Niels K

    2014-01-01

    observed among blue-collar workers (19.6%) than among controls (23.9%) (p = 0.005). Allergens with a statistically significant association with the occupational group of blue-collar workers were epoxy resins, methyldibromo glutaronitrile, 2-bromo-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol, potassium dichromate......, and methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI)/methylisothiazolinone (MI). The following occupations were additionally identified as risk factors for contact sensitization to MCI/MI and MI, epoxy resins, and potassium dichromate, respectively: painting, construction work, and tile setting/terrazzo work. CONCLUSION: Contact allergy...

  19. How Long Will I Be Blue? Prolonged Skin Staining Following Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy Using Intradermal Patent Blue Dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, Metehan; Gumus, Hatice; Jones, Sue E; Jones, Peter A; Sever, Ali R; Weeks, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Blue dye used for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in breast cancer patients may cause prolonged skin discoloration at the site of injection. The aim of this study was to assess the duration of such skin discoloration. Patients and Methods 236 consecutive patients who had undergone breast conserving surgery and SLNB for breast cancer were reviewed prospectively from January 2007 to December 2009. Results Of the 236 patients, 2 had undergone bilateral surgery, and 41 had been examined in consecutive yearly reviews. Blue discoloration remained visible at the injection site after 12, 24, and > 36 months in 36.5, 23.6, and 8.6% of the patients, respectively. Conclusion The use of patent blue for identification of the sentinel lymph node in patients undergoing breast cancer surgery may result in prolonged discoloration of the skin at the injection site. PMID:24415970

  20. Isolation, identification and determination of a magenta subsidiary colour in food blue no. 1 (brilliant blue FCF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaka, T; Matsufuji, H; Chino, M; Kato, Y; Nakamura, M; Goda, Y; Toyoda, M; Takeda, M

    1999-12-01

    A magenta subsidiary colour was isolated from commercial Food Blue No. 1 (B-1; Brilliant Blue FCF). The absorption maximum for this subsidiary colour at 580 nm is outside of the range of 614-628 nm found for other subsidiary colours and m,m-B-1. On the basis of MS and NMR analyses, the structure of the subsidiary colour was elucidated as the disodium salt of 2-[[4-[N-ethyl-N-(3-sulphophenylmethyl)amino]phenyl][4-oxo- 2,5-cyclohexadienylidene]methyl]benzenesulphonic acid. HPLC analyses revealed that 24 batches of commercial Food Blue No. 1 (three manufacturers) contain 0.1-0.8% (average: 0.5%) of the magenta subsidiary colour.

  1. Blue Mountain, Humboldt County, Nevada, U.S.A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ted Fitzpatrick, Brian D. Fairbank

    2005-04-01

    The report documents the drilling of well Deep Blue No.2, the second deep geothermal test hole at the Blue Mountain Geothermal Area, Humboldt County, Nevada. The well was drilled by Noramex Corp, a Nevada company, with funding support from the US Department of Energy, under the DOE’s GRED II Program. Deep Blue No.2 was drilled as a ‘step-out’ hole from Deep Blue No.1, to further evaluate the commercial potential of the geothermal resource. Deep Blue No.2 was designed as a vertical, slim observation test hole to a nominal target depth of 1000 meters (nominal 3400 feet). The well tests an area of projected high temperatures at depth, from temperature gradients measured in a group of shallow drill holes located approximately one kilometer to the northeast of observation hole Deep Blue No.1. The well is not intended for, or designed as, a commercial well or a production well. Deep Blue No.2 was spudded on March 25, 2004 and completed to a total depth of 1127.76m (3700 ft) on April 28, 2004. The well was drilled using conventional rotary drilling techniques to a depth of 201.17 m (660 ft), and continuously cored from 201.17m (660 ft) to 1127.76m (3700 ft). A brief rig-on flow-test was conducted at completion to determine basic reservoir parameters and obtain fluid samples. A permeable fracture zone with measured temperatures of 150 to 167°C (302 to 333°F) occurs between 500 to 750m (1640 to 2461ft). The well was left un-lined in anticipation of the Phase III - Flow and Injection Testing. A further Kuster temperature survey was attempted after the well had been shut in for almost 3 weeks. The well appears to have bridged off at 439m (1440ft) as the Kuster tool was unable to descend past this point. Several attempts to dislodge the obstruction using tube jars were unsuccessful. Deep Blue No.2 encountered variably fractured and veined, fine-grained rocks of the Singas Formation, and intruded by minor strongly altered fine-grained felsic dikes, and less altered

  2. Beyond blue pico laser: development of high power blue and low power direct green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierheilig, Clemens; Eichler, Christoph; Tautz, Sönke; Lell, Alfred; Müller, Jens; Kopp, Fabian; Stojetz, Bernhard; Hager, Thomas; Brüderl, Georg; Avramescu, Adrian; Lermer, Teresa; Ristic, Jelena; Strauss, Uwe

    2012-03-01

    There is a big need on R&D concerning visible lasers for projection applications. The pico-size mobile projection on the one hand awaits the direct green lasers with sufficiently long lifetimes at optical powers above 50mW. In this paper we demonstrate R&D-samples emitting at 519nm with lifetimes up to 10.000 hours. The business projection on the other hand requires high power operation and already uses blue lasers and phosphor conversion, but there is a strong demand for higher power levels. We investigate the power limits of R&D laser structures. In continuous wave operation, the power is limited by thermal roll-over. With an excellent power conversion efficiency of up to 29% the thermal roll-over is as high as 2.5W for a single emitter in TO56 can. We do not observe significant leakage at high currents. Driven in short pulse operation to prevent the laser from self heating, linear laser characteristics of optical power versus electrical current are observed up to almost 8W of optical power.

  3. X-ray structure of a blue complex pigment from the blue flowers of Centaurea cyanus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiono, M.; Matsugaki, N.; Takeda, K.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The blue pigment of the cornflower, named protocyanin, has long been investigated, but its precise structure has remained unclear. Our recent research demonstrated the components of protocyanin to be anthocyanin (AN), flavone glycoside (FL), Fe 3+ , Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ ions and we succeeded in the reconstruction of protocyanin. In this study, we revealed the X-ray structure of protocyanin. The crystal structure of the reconstructed protocyanin was determined at a resolution of 1.05 A. The refined molecule has pseudo threefold symmetry and four metal ions, Fe 3+ , Mg 2+ and two Ca 2+ , align along the pseudo three-fold axis. The four metals are coordinated to six AN molecules and six FL molecules. The inner Fe 3+ and Mg 2+ ions are each coordinated to three AN molecules respectively, while the outer two Ca 2+ ions are each coordinated to three FL molecules . Both AN and FL molecules are self-associated with each other as AN-AN and FL-FL in pair and this hydrophobic association also exists between AN and FL molecules. Protocyanin is a tetra-metal (Fe 3+ , Mg 2+ , 2Ca 2+ ) nuclear complex of twelve molecules of anthocyanin and flavone glycoside, a new type of supramolecular pigment. (author)

  4. Spinning like a blue straggler: the population of fast rotating blue straggler stars in ω Centauri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mucciarelli, A.; Lovisi, L.; Ferraro, F. R.; Dalessandro, E.; Lanzoni, B. [Dipartimento di Fisica and Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Monaco, L. [European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-12-10

    By using high-resolution spectra acquired with FLAMES-GIRAFFE at the ESO/VLT, we measured the radial and rotational velocities for 110 blue straggler stars (BSSs) in ω Centauri, the globular cluster-like stellar system harboring the largest known BSS population. According to their radial velocities, 109 BSSs are members of the system. The rotational velocity distribution is very broad, with the bulk of BSSs spinning at less than ∼40 km s{sup –1} (in agreement with the majority of such stars observed in other globular clusters) and a long tail reaching ∼200 km s{sup –1}. About 40% of the sample has v{sub e} sin i > 40 km s{sup –1} and about 20% has v{sub e} sin i > 70 km s{sup –1}. Such a large fraction is very similar to the percentage of fast rotating BSSs observed in M4. Thus, ω Centauri is the second stellar cluster, beyond M4, with a surprisingly high population of fast spinning BSSs. We found a hint of radial behavior for a fraction of fast rotating BSSs, with a mild peak within one core radius, and a possible rise in the external regions (beyond four core radii). This may suggest that recent formation episodes of mass transfer BSSs occurred preferentially in the outskirts of ω Centauri, or that braking mechanisms able to slow down these stars are least efficient in the lowest density environments.

  5. High efficiency blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes without electron transport layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Soon Ok [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Dankook University, Jukjeon-dong, Suji-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 448-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jun Yeob, E-mail: leej17@dankook.ac.kr [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Dankook University, Jukjeon-dong, Suji-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 448-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    High efficiency blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes were fabricated without an electron transport layer using a spirobifluorene based blue triplet host material. The simple blue PHOLEDs without the electron transport layer showed a high external quantum efficiency and current efficiency of 16.1% and 30.2 cd/A, respectively. The high device performances of the electron transport layer free blue PHOLEDs were comparable to those of blue PHOLEDs with the electron transport layer. - Highlights: > Simple device structure without electron transport layer. > High efficiency blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode. > Spirobifluorene based high triplet energy host material.

  6. Immigration and emigration in the Sinai Baton Blue butterfly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, many estimates of rates of movement are indirect and incomplete, and there is little empirical knowledge of the factors affecting immigration and emigration. I studied intensively a local population of Sinai Baton Blue butterflies in a discrete habitat patch. The study lasted the entire adult flight period, and involved almost ...

  7. Monitoring of the endemic Sinai Baton Blue butterfly Pseudophilotes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results of the monitoring of the Sinai Baton Blue butterfly in its stronghold of Farsh Shoeib on Gebel Safsafa in the St Katherine Protectorate between 2004-9 is analysed to compare them with the detailed study of Mike James in 2002-3. The butterfly appears to have a three-year population cycle, with its population crashing ...

  8. Greater food availability reduces tarsus assymmetry in nestling Blue Tits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grieco, F.

    2003-01-01

    Previous work has shown that the quantity or quality of food affects the degree of asymmetry in bilateral body traits in adult birds, but so far there is no evidence that this is the case in early phases of growth too. I studied asymmetry of tarsus length of nestling Blue Tits (Parus caeruleus) in

  9. Chromophore Deprotonation State Alters the Optical Properties of Blue Chromoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yi Chiang

    Full Text Available Chromoproteins (CPs have unique colors and can be used in biological applications. In this work, a novel blue CP with a maximum absorption peak (λmax at 608 nm was identified from the carpet anemone Stichodactyla gigantea (sgBP. In vivo expression of sgBP in zebrafish would change the appearance of the fishes to have a blue color, indicating the potential biomarker function. To enhance the color properties, the crystal structure of sgBP at 2.25 Å resolution was determined to allow structure-based protein engineering. Among the mutations conducted in the Gln-Tyr-Gly chromophore and chromophore environment, a S157C mutation shifted the λmax to 604 nm with an extinction coefficient (ε of 58,029 M-1·cm-1 and darkened the blue color expression. The S157C mutation in the sgBP chromophore environment could affect the color expression by altering the deprotonation state of the phenolic group in the chromophore. Our results provide a structural basis for the blue color enhancement of the biomarker development.

  10. Viability of the Fricke dosemeter doped with methylene blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, V.L.B.; Santos, C.D.A.; Rodrigues, K.R.G.; Cunha, M.S.; Figueiredo, M.D.C.; Melo, R.T.

    2009-01-01

    This work aims to find the possible utilization of the Fricke dosemeter doped with methylene blue (FMB) for the dosimetry of photodynamic therapy. The FMB was irradiated wit X rays and light emitted diodes demonstrating positive answers to the stimulus, being probably to be used for dosimetric objectives

  11. Blue Bottle Experiment: Learning Chemistry without Knowing the Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpanuparb, Taweetham; Areekul, Cherprang; Montriwat, Punchalee; Rajchakit, Urawadee

    2017-01-01

    The blue bottle experiment is a popular chemical demonstration because of its simplicity and visual appeal. Most papers on the topic focus on a new formulation or a new presentation, but only a few discuss pedagogical application for a full lab session. This article describes the use of this experiment in the first session of undergraduate…

  12. Designing green and blue infrastructure to support healthy urban living

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gehrels, H.; Meulen, S. vsn der; Schasfoort, F.; Bosch, P.R.; Brolsma, R.; Dinter, D. van; Geerling, G.J.; Goossen, M.; Jacobs, C.; Jong, M. de; Kok, S.; Massop, H.; Oste, L.; Perez-Soba, M.; Rovers, V.; Smit, A.; Verweij, P.; Vries, B. de; Weijers, E.

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing awareness in cities throughout the world that green and blue infrastructure can offer a wide range of ecosystem services to support a healthy urban environment. For example, landscape architects explore possibilities in their design of the urban landscape to use the potential of

  13. Decolourization of Direct Blue 2 by peroxidases obtained from an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, an increase in toxicity, determined by Vibrio fisheri, was observed after the enzymatic oxidation of the dye. Results suggest that the oxidation of DB2 with peroxidases can be recommended as a pretreatment step before a conventional treatment process. Keywords: decolourization, Direct Blue 2, industrial waste, ...

  14. The Effects of Blue Light on Ocular Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchel, Elaine

    2000-01-01

    This review of the literature examines the effects of blue light (or near UV - ultraviolet), especially that given off by black-light tubes, often used with children with visual impairments. It finds a long-term danger of retinal and lens damage and offers six practical suggestions which emphasize using proper filters and limiting exposure to…

  15. Spatial interaction of methylene blue stained soil pores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, A.; Lieshout, van M.N.M.; Booltink, H.W.G.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we compare different types of patterns that emerge when applying methylene blue dye as a tracer on soils to detect preferential flow paths as a result of large cracks. Patterns on channels, vughs and cracks are analyzed with the J-function and with indicator variograms. By means of a

  16. Methylene Blue-Ascorbic Acid: An Undergraduate Experiment in Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snehalatha, K. C.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes a laboratory exercise involving methylene blue and L-ascorbic acid in a simple clock reaction technique to illustrate the basic concepts of chemical kinetics. If stock solutions are supplied and each type of experiment takes no more than half an hour, the entire investigation can be completed in three practical sessions of three hours…

  17. The interaction between methylene blue and the cholinergic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfaffendorf, M.; Bruning, T. A.; Batnik, H. D.; van Zwieten, P. A.

    1997-01-01

    1. The inhibitory effects of methylene blue (MB) on different types of cholinesterases and [3H]-N-methylscopolamine ([3H]-NMS) binding to muscarinic receptors were studied. 2. Human plasma from young healthy male volunteers, purified human pseudocholinesterase and purified bovine true

  18. Intraoperatively Testing the Anastomotic Integrity of Esophagojejunostomy Using Methylene Blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, S; Almalı, N; Aras, A; Yılmaz, Ö; Kızıltan, R

    2017-03-01

    Intraoperative testing of gastrointestinal anastomosis effectively ensures anastomotic integrity. This study investigated whether the routine use of methylene blue intraoperatively identified leaks to reduce the postoperative proportion of clinical leaks. This study retrospectively analyzed consecutive total gastrectomies performed from January 2007 to December 2014 in a university hospital setting by a general surgical group that exclusively used the methylene blue test. All surgeries were performed for gastric or junctional cancers (n = 198). All reconstructions (Roux-en Y esophagojejunostomy) were performed using a stapler. The methylene blue test was used in 108 cases (group 1) via a nasojejunal tube. No test was performed for the other 90 cases (group 2). Intraoperative leakage rate, postoperative clinical leakage rate, length of hospitalization, and mortality rate were the outcome measures. The intraoperative leakage rate was 7.4% in group 1. The postoperative clinical leakage rate was 8.6%. The postoperative clinical leakage rate was 3.7% in group 1 and 14.4% in group 2 (p = 0.007). There were no postoperative clinical leaks when an intraoperative leak led to concomitant intraoperative repair. The median length of hospital stay was 6 days in group 1 and 8 days in group 2 (p methylene blue test for esophagojejunostomy is a safe and reliable method for the assessment of anastomosis integrity, especially in cases with difficult esophagojejunostomic construction.

  19. Detection of tissue expander leakage by methylene blue instillation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tissue expansion is an important and widely used technique of soft tissue reconstruction. Leakage of the expanders is one of the complications and it might at times be difficult to detect. Method and Conclusion: We used methylene blue stained saline for inflation of tissue expanders in 42 cases and found it to ...

  20. Extinction Memory Improvement by the Metabolic Enhancer Methylene Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Lima, F.; Bruchey, Aleksandra K.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated whether postextinction administration of methylene blue (MB) could enhance retention of an extinguished conditioned response. MB is a redox compound that at low doses elevates cytochrome oxidase activity, thereby improving brain energy production. Saline or MB (4 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were administered to rats for 5 d following…

  1. (SSR) markers for screening blue disease resistance in cotton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blue disease of cotton is an economically important disease of the crop first described from the Central African Republic and spread to other countries. Brazil and other South American countries record crop losses of up to 80% from infection but no cases of the disease have been reported in Tanzania. Resistance to the ...

  2. Wild edible mushrooms in the Blue Mountains: resource and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine G. Parks; Craig L. Schmitt

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews the wild mushroom resource of the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon and southeastern Washington and summarizes issues and concerns for regulation, monitoring, and management. Existing biological information on the major available commercial mushrooms in the area, with emphasis on morels, is presented. Brief descriptions of the most commonly...

  3. Removal of basic dye methylene blue by using bioabsorbents Ulva ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... dye was obtained by using biosorbents. Key words: Methylene blue, adsorption, Ulva, Sargassum, alumina, biosorbents. INTRODUCTION. Dyes are widely use in textile, paper, plastic, food and cosmetic industries. The wastes coming from these in- dustries can effect on our atmosphere causing pollution.

  4. Development of blue rose; Aoi bara wa sakuka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, T. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Yoshida, K.

    1998-06-01

    Precise crystalline structures of pigments in petals have been elucidated by structural analysis of the blue pigment in Commelinaceae petals using X-ray analysis. It is found that the Mg ion is coordinated with the oxygen atom on the B-nucleus in the base nucleus of delphinidin (belonging to anthocyanidine, a pigment obtained by separating sugar from anthocyanin by hydrolysis) to develop a blue color, and that the complex is a stable supermolecule in which 6 pigment molecules are associated regularly with 6 flavone molecules. The similar mechanisms are responsible for development of blue color for flowers, and widely occurring in nature. Biosynthesis of anthocyanin, beginning with phenylalanine, undergoes virtually common processes; cyclization of the flavonoide skeleton, reduction to the anthocyanidine nucleus, hydroxylation of the B-nucleus in the base nucleus and glycoside formation at the 3-site. It will be possible to shift rose color to blue, if anthocyanin belonging to anthocyanidine could be bio-synthesized by introducing the gene of enzyme for 3`, 5`-hydroxylation on the base nucleus, which the rose lacks. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Vegetation Change in Blue Oak Woodlands in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara A. Holzman; Barbara H. Allen-Diaz

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary report of a statewide project investigating vegetation change in blue oak (Quercus douglasii) woodlands in California is presented. Vegetation plots taken in the 1930s, as part of a statewide vegetation mapping project, were relocated and surveyed. Species composition, cover and tree stand structure data from the earlier study were...

  6. Compact collimators for high brightness blue LEDs using dielectric multilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, H.J.; Ma, H.; Ho, C.; Li, M.; Mu, C.

    2011-01-01

    A novel method is presented to inject the light of millimeter-sized high-brightness blue LEDs into light guides of submillimeter thickness. Use is made of an interference filter that is designed to pass only those modes that will propagate in the light guide by total internal reflection. Other modes

  7. Blue Ice Tephra II - Brimstone Peak, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is the result of a study of volcanic ash and rock fragment (tephra) layers in exposed blue ice areas on Brimstone Peak (75.888S 158.55E) in East...

  8. Blue Light Delays Commitment to Cell Division in Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oldenhof, H.; Zachleder, Vilém; van den Ende, H.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 6, - (2004), s. 689-695 ISSN 1435-8603 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : Blue light * Cell cycle * Cell volume Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.582, year: 2004

  9. Decolourisation and degradation of reactive blue 2 by sulphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work was performed to determine the influence of heat treatment on sewage sludge and addition of zero valent iron (ZVI) on the degradation and decolourisation of an anthraquinone dye, reactive blue 2 (RB 2). A consortium of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) in a biosulphidogenic batch reactor with biodigester ...

  10. Organic/Inorganic Complex Pigments: Ancient Colors Maya Blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polette-Niewold, L.A.; Manciu, F.S.; Torres, B.; Alvarado, M.; Jr.; Chianelli, R.R.

    2009-06-04

    Maya Blue is an ancient blue pigment composed of palygorskite clay and indigo. It was used by the ancient Maya and provides a dramatic background for some of the most impressive murals throughout Mesoamerica. Despite exposure to acids, alkalis, and chemical solvents, the color of the Maya Blue pigment remains unaltered. The chemical interaction between palygorskite and indigo form an organic/inorganic complex with the carbonyl oxygen of the indigo bound to a surface Al{sup 3+} in the Si-O lattice. In addition indigo will undergo an oxidation to dehydroindigo during preparation. The dehydro-indigo molecule forms a similar but stronger complex with the Al{sup 3+}. Thus, Maya Blue varies in color due to the mixed indigo/dehydroindigo complex. The above conclusions are the result of application of multiple techniques (X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis/thermal gravimetric analysis, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, infrared and Raman spectroscopy) to the characterization of the organic/inorganic complex. A picture of the bonding of the organic molecule to the palygorskite surface forming a surface complex is developed and supported by the results of density functional theory calculations. We also report that other organic molecules such as thioindigo form similar organic/inorganic complexes thus, opening an entirely new class of complex materials for future applications.

  11. INTERACTION MODE BETWEEN METHYLENE BLUE-Sm(III ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT. Spectroscopic and viscosity methods were applied to investigate the interaction between methylene blue (MB)-Sm(III) complex and herring sperm DNA by using acridine orange as a spectral probe in Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.40). By means of molar ratio method, the binding ratios between MB-Sm(III) and DNA ...

  12. Age, growth and reproductive biology of the blue shark Prionace ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The age, growth and reproductive biology of the blue shark Prionace glauca from South African waters were assessed using 205 specimens, ranging in total length (TL) from 72 to 313 cm. Greater number of males (120) than females (85) were examined as they were more frequently caught. Age and growth parameters ...

  13. Current conservation status of the Blue Swallow Hirundo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overall probability of extinction of the species in the wild is 3%. Minimum viable population size analysis suggests that a goal for the long-term conservation of the Blue Swallow should be to mitigate current threats that are driving declines such that the population increases to a minimum of 3 600 individuals. This should ...

  14. The adsorption of methylene blue on montmorillonite from acid solutions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klika, Z.; Pustková, P.; Dudová, M.; Čapková, P.; Kliková, Ch.; Matys Grygar, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 3 (2011), s. 461-471 ISSN 0009-8558 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : montmorillonite * dissolution * acid solutions * methylene blue * adsorption Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 1.053, year: 2011

  15. Kinetics and Mechanism of the Oxidation of Coomassie Brilliant Blue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICOLAAS

    Kinetics and Mechanism of the Oxidation of Coomassie Brilliant Blue-R dye by Hypochlorite and Role of Acid there in. Srinivasu Nadupalli, Venkata D.B.C. Dasireddy, Neil A. Koorbanally and Sreekantha B. Jonnalagadda*. School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Private.

  16. Is this Red Spot the Blue Spot (locus ceruleum)?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Won Sick; Lee, Yu Kyung; Lee, Min Kyung; Hwang, Kyung Hoon [Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The authors report brain images of 18F-FDG-PET in a case of schizophrenia. The images showed strikingly increased bilateral uptake in the locus ceruleum. The locus ceruleum is called the blue spot and known to be a center of the norepinephrinergic system.

  17. Frustration and curvature - Glasses and the cholesteric blue phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethna, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    An analogy is drawn between continuum elastic theories of the blue phase of cholesteric liquid crystals and recent theories of frustration in configurational glasses. Both involve the introduction of a lattice of disclination lines to relieve frustration; the frustration is due to an intrinsic curvature in the natural form of parallel transport. A continuum theory of configurational glasses is proposed.

  18. Integrated mangrove-shrimp cultivation: Potential for blue carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nesar; Thompson, Shirley; Glaser, Marion

    2018-05-01

    Globally, shrimp farming has had devastating effects on mangrove forests. However, mangroves are the most carbon-rich forests, with blue carbon (i.e., carbon in coastal and marine ecosystems) emissions seriously augmented due to devastating effects on mangrove forests. Nevertheless, integrated mangrove-shrimp cultivation has emerged as a part of the potential solution to blue carbon emissions. Integrated mangrove-shrimp farming is also known as organic aquaculture if deforested mangrove area does not exceed 50% of the total farm area. Mangrove destruction is not permitted in organic aquaculture and the former mangrove area in parts of the shrimp farm shall be reforested to at least 50% during a period of maximum 5 years according to Naturland organic aquaculture standards. This article reviews integrated mangrove-shrimp cultivation that can help to sequester blue carbon through mangrove restoration, which can be an option for climate change mitigation. However, the adoption of integrated mangrove-shrimp cultivation could face several challenges that need to be addressed in order to realize substantial benefits from blue carbon sequestration.

  19. Removal of indigo blue using clinoptilolite-Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez S, E. E.; Colin C, A.; Solache R, M. J.

    2008-01-01

    The removal of indigo blue from aqueous solutions was evaluated using modified clinoptilolite with Fe (Z-Fe) which was characterized by SEM, EDS analysis and specific area (BET). The process followed the kinetics of pseudo-second order and Langmuir isotherm. Sorption capacity obtained was 18 mg g -1 and a solid-liquid ratio 10 g L -1 . (Author)

  20. Blue Ocean versus Competitive Strategy: Theory and Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Burke (Andrew); A.J. van Stel (André); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBlue ocean strategy seeks to turn strategic management on its head by replacing ‘competitive advantage’ with ‘value innovation’ as the primary goal where firms must create consumer demand and exploit untapped markets. Empirical analysis has been focused on case study evidence and so

  1. MANAJEMEN PENDIDIKAN TINGGI ISLAM DALAM SPEKTRUM BLUE OCEAN STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardia Mardia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The Islamic higher educations are undergoing important changes involving the development of missions and reorganization of management, with implications for their quality education in the midst of complexity. The main study of this article highlights the importance of governance quality in Islamic higher education in the face of complexity from the perspective of Blue Ocean Strategy. It can be concluded that to win in the future, Islamic higher educations must stop competing each other. The only way to beat the competition is to stop trying to beat the competition. Blue Ocean Strategy to be one of the alternatives in the management of educational institutions to create distinctive adavantage and competitiveness based graduates. Abstrak:  Pendidikan tinggi Islam mengalami perubahan signifikan pada pengembangan misi dan reorganisasi manajemen yang mempengaruhi kualitas pendidikan di era kompleksitas. Kompleksitas tersebut tidak dapat diprediksi dan mempengaruhi munculnya gejala disorientasi nilai, disharmoni sosial, dan peran disfungsional. Pokok kajian tulisan ini menyorot pentingnya tatakelola pendidikan tinggi Islam bermutu dalam perspektif Blue Ocean Strategy dalam menghadapi kompleksitas. Pendekatan yang digunakan adalah analisis deskriptif teoritis dan praktis. Temuan penelitian adalah untuk berdaya saing di masa depan, pendidikan tinggi Islam harus berhenti bersaing satu sama lain. Satu-satunya cara untuk mengalahkan kompetisi adalah berhenti berusaha memenangi kompetisi. Blue Ocean Strategy menjadi salah satu alternatif dalam pengelolaan lembaga pendidikan dalam mencetak lulusan yang kompetitif dan unggul.

  2. Cloning and expression analysis of a blue copper- binding protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-20

    Jul 20, 2011 ... Full Length Research Paper. Cloning and expression analysis of a blue copper- binding protein gene from Dasypyrum Villosum. Huagang He1*, Shanying Zhu1, Wenbing Wang1, Tongde Bie2 and Peidu Chen3. 1Jiangsu University. Zhenjiang 212013, P. R. China. 2Yangzhou Academy of Agricultural ...

  3. A House Divided? The Psychology of Red and Blue America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyle, D. Conor; Newman, Matthew L.

    2006-01-01

    Recently it has become commonplace in America for commentators and the public to use the terms "red" and "blue" to refer to perceived cultural differences in America and American politics. Although a political divide may exist in America today, these particular terms are inaccurate and reductive. This article presents research from social…

  4. Interaction mode between methylene blue-Sm(III) complex and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spectroscopic and viscosity methods were applied to investigate the interaction between methylene blue (MB)-Sm(III) complex and herring sperm DNA by using acridine orange as a spectral probe in Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.40). By means of molar ratio method, the binding ratios between MB-Sm(III)and DNA were determined ...

  5. Blue Light Emitting Polyphenylene Dendrimers with Bipolar Charge Transport Moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Two light-emitting polyphenylene dendrimers with both hole and electron transporting moieties were synthesized and characterized. Both molecules exhibited pure blue emission solely from the pyrene core and efficient surface-to-core energy transfers when characterized in a nonpolar environment. In particular, the carbazole- and oxadiazole-functionalized dendrimer (D1 manifested a pure blue emission from the pyrene core without showing intramolecular charge transfer (ICT in environments with increasing polarity. On the other hand, the triphenylamine- and oxadiazole-functionalized one (D2 displayed notable ICT with dual emission from both the core and an ICT state in highly polar solvents. D1, in a three-layer organic light emitting diode (OLED by solution processing gave a pure blue emission with Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage 1931 CIE xy = (0.16, 0.12, a peak current efficiency of 0.21 cd/A and a peak luminance of 2700 cd/m2. This represents the first reported pure blue dendrimer emitter with bipolar charge transport and surface-to-core energy transfer in OLEDs.

  6. Growth comparison of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Blue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-26

    Sep 26, 2011 ... This study was conducted to compare and evaluate the productive performance characteristics of the base generation (F0) of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus and Blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus under the effect of interspecific hybridization and genetically modified breeding by introducing a fragmented.

  7. Attempted kleptoparasitism of osprey by great blue herons

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Squires

    1998-01-01

    Two attempts of kleptoparisitism of Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) by Great Blue Herons (Ardea herodias) were observed in Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming. Two herons vocalized and bill thrusted at Ospreys as they emerged from the water following dives for fish. Although both attempts were unsuccessful (the Ospreys failed to capture a fish), the intensity of...

  8. Does Blue Uniform Color Enhance Winning Probability in Judo Contests?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, P.D.; Preenen, P.T.Y.; Essen, H. van

    2018-01-01

    The color of an athlete's uniform may have an effect on psychological functioning and consequently bias the chances of winning contests in sport competition. Several studies reported a winning bias for judo athletes wearing a blue outfit relative to those wearing a white outfit. However, we argue

  9. Blue laser diode (LD) and light emitting diode (LED) applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergh, Arpad A.

    2004-01-01

    The family of blue LEDs, edge emitting and surface emitting lasers, enable a number of applications. Blue lasers are used in digital applications such as optical storage in high density DVDs. The resolution of the spot size and hence the storage density is diffraction limited and is inversely proportional to the square of the wavelength of the laser. Other applications include printing, optical scanners, and high-resolution photo-lithography. As light emitters, blue LEDs are used for signaling and in direct view large area emissive displays. They are also making inroads into signage and LCD back-lighting, mobile platforms, and decorative accent lighting in curtains, furniture, etc. Blue LEDs produce white light either with phosphor wavelength converters or in combination with red and green LEDs. The full potential of LED light sources will require three devices to enable complete control over color and intensity. Sensing and medical/bio applications have a major impact on home security, on monitoring the environment, and on health care. New emerging diagnostic and therapeutic applications will improve the quality and reduce the cost of health care. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Sorption characteristics of methylene blue onto Nypa fruiticans lignin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sorption characteristics of soda lignin extracted from Nypa fruiticans for the removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution was investigated in this study, as an ethically sound way of utilizing this unexploited abundant natural resource. Equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm ...

  11. Symbiotic Blue Green Algae (Azolla): A Potential Bio fertilizer for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Symbiotic Blue Green Algae (Azolla): A Potential Bio fertilizer for Paddy Rice Production in Fogera Plain, Northwestern Ethiopia. ... They were maintained and multiplied in plastic containers at Adet in a greenhouse and then inoculated into concrete tanks for testing their adaptability. Both strains were well adapted to Adet ...

  12. Underwater Wireless Optical Communication System Using Blue LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Aobo; Tong, Zheng; Song, Yuhang; Kong, Meiwei; Xu, Jing

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate a self-designed underwater wireless optical communication system using blue LEDs. The performance of the transmitter and receiver was experimentally investigated. Four different square wave signals (10 KHz, 100 KHz, 500 KHz and 1 MHz) were successfully transmitted via a short water channel at the first phase.

  13. Use of Aspergillus wentii for biosorption of methylene blue from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, Aspergillus wentii was used as a biosorbent for the adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution. The effects of contact time, initial dye concentration, solution pH and temperature on biosorption were investigated. The contact time required (that is, the equilibrium time) for maximum dye biosorption was ...

  14. Blue light (470 nm) effectively inhibits bacterial and fungal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    The activity of blue light (470nm) alone on (1) bacterial viability, and (2) with a food grade photosensitizer on filamentous fungal viability, was studied. Suspensions of the bacteria Leuconostoc mesenteroides (LM), Bacillus atrophaeus (BA), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) were prepared and aliquo...

  15. Blue light does not impair wound healing in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson-Meyers, Daniela Santos; Bumah, Violet Vakunseh; Enwemeka, Chukuka Samuel

    2016-07-01

    Irradiation with red or near infrared light promotes tissue repair, while treatment with blue light is known to be antimicrobial. Consequently, it is thought that infected wounds could benefit more from combined blue and red/infrared light therapy; but there is a concern that blue light may slow healing. We investigated the effect of blue 470nm light on wound healing, in terms of wound closure, total protein and collagen synthesis, growth factor and cytokines expression, in an in vitro scratch wound model. Human dermal fibroblasts were cultured for 48h until confluent. Then a linear scratch wound was created and irradiated with 3, 5, 10 or 55J/cm(2). Control plates were not irradiated. Following 24h of incubation, cells were fixed and stained for migration and fluorescence analyses and the supernatant collected for quantification of total protein, hydroxyproline, bFGF, IL-6 and IL-10. The results showed that wound closure was similar for groups treated with 3, 5 and 10J/cm(2), with a slight improvement with the 5J/cm(2) dose, and slower closure with 55J/cm(2) pblue light at low fluence does not impair in vitro wound healing. The significant decrease in IL-6 suggests that 470nm light is anti-inflammatory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Blue Ice Tephra II - Mt. DeWitt, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is the result of a study of volcanic ash and rock fragment (tephra) layers in exposed blue ice areas on Mt. DeWitt, Antarctica (77.12 deg S, 159.51 deg...

  17. Power-Scalable Blue-Green Bessel Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-23

    building system to achieve emission at the desired blue colours , was, however, abandoned due to lack of funds relative to the original anticipated award...Chen, P. Steinvurzel, K. Rottwitt, S. Ramachandran, “High-energy Fiber Lasers at Non-traditional Colours , via Intermodal Nonlinearities,” CTu3M.6

  18. Sequential serotonin and noradrenalin associated processes involved in postpartum blues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornbos, B.; Fekkes, D.; Tanke, M.A.; de Jonge, P.; Korf, J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: We investigated whether postpartum blues was related to changes in parameters of noradrenergic and serotonergic functioning. Methods: From 26 healthy pregnant women blood was collected at the End of pregnancy and 5 days and 6 weeks postpartum. Serotonergic parameters were: platelet

  19. Using methylene blue for perioperative localization of the hydrocele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Postoperatively, the child was observed for any bluish discoloration of the buccal and oral mucosa. Results. All the patients were boys with a median age of 5. Figure 1: Methylene blue is visible within the hydrocele sac. Figure 2: Easy identification and dissection of the hydrocele track. Figure 3: Almost complete dissection of ...

  20. ASPECTS OF THE BREEDING BIOLOGY OF BLUE BILLED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blue-billed Weaver dis- played a seven~month breeding season from March to September with a peak lying between April and July. The long breeding period showed the efficiency with which the species may have utilized different food resources and hence occupy broad feeding niches. The clutch size was between 1 to.

  1. Experiencing Cultural Geography in the Birthplace of the Blues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, John

    2014-01-01

    Over time, fewer and fewer geography scholars have the opportunity to actually engage in fieldwork. This article summarizes a field experience shared by a group of geography faculty and students who traveled through the Mississippi Delta endeavoring to study the dynamic nature of the region's blues music and culture. This endeavor entailed the…

  2. Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome coexisted with intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome (BRBNS) is an uncommon congenital disorder characterized by sporadic venous malformation which mainly occurs in skin and alimentary canal. Here, we report a BRBNS patient with concomitant intestinal intussusception who diagnosed by intraoperative endoscopy and ultimately ...

  3. Blue reflectance in tarantulas is evolutionarily conserved despite nanostructural diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, Bor-Kai; Deheyn, Dimitri D.; Shawkey, Matthew D.; Blackledge, Todd A.

    2015-01-01

    Slight shifts in arrangement within biological photonic nanostructures can produce large color differences, and sexual selection often leads to high color diversity in clades with structural colors. We use phylogenetic reconstruction, electron microscopy, spectrophotometry, and optical modeling to show an opposing pattern of nanostructural diversification accompanied by unusual conservation of blue color in tarantulas (Araneae: Theraphosidae). In contrast to other clades, blue coloration in phylogenetically distant tarantulas peaks within a narrow 20-nm region around 450 nm. Both quasi-ordered and multilayer nanostructures found in different tarantulas produce this blue color. Thus, even within monophyletic lineages, tarantulas have evolved strikingly similar blue coloration through divergent mechanisms. The poor color perception and lack of conspicuous display during courtship of tarantulas argue that these colors are not sexually selected. Therefore, our data contrast with sexual selection that typically produces a diverse array of colors with a single structural mechanism by showing that natural selection on structural color in tarantulas resulted in convergence on similar color through diverse structural mechanisms. PMID:26702433

  4. Movement patterns and survival estimates of Blue Cranes in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Western Cape population of Blue Cranes Anthropoides paradiseus is the species' largest and most stable population. How this population utilises the agricultural landscape of the Western Cape, how far individuals disperse and the connectivity between subpopulations is unknown. Basic demographic parameters such ...

  5. Live weight and reproduction performance of Zimbabwean Blue and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data obtained from a pair-mated ostrich flock located at Oudtshoorn in South Africa were used to derive line differences for live weight and reproduction performance in sexually mature ostriches of the Zimbabwean Blue (ZB) and South African Black (SAB) strains during 2003 to 2006. At the commencement of breeding ZB ...

  6. A resolution to the blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou population paradox?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Pointin

    Full Text Available We provide the strongest evidence to date supporting the existence of two independent blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou (Risso, 1827 populations in the North Atlantic. In spite of extensive data collected in conjunction with the fishery, the population structure of blue whiting is poorly understood. On one hand, genetic, morphometric, otolith and drift modelling studies point towards the existence of two populations, but, on the other hand, observations of adult distributions point towards a single population. A paradox therefore arises in attempting to reconcile these two sets of information. Here we analyse 1100 observations of blue whiting larvae from the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR from 1948-2005 using modern statistical techniques. We show a clear spatial separation between a northern spawning area, in the Rockall Trough, and a southern one, off the Porcupine Seabight. We further show a difference in the timing of spawning between these sites of at least a month, and meaningful differences in interannual variability. The results therefore support the two-population hypothesis. Furthermore, we resolve the paradox by showing that the acoustic observations cited in support of the single-population model are not capable of resolving both populations, as they occur too late in the year and do not extend sufficiently far south to cover the southern population: the confusion is the result of a simple observational artefact. We conclude that blue whiting in the North Atlantic comprises two populations.

  7. 75 FR 67958 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future AGENCY: Office of Nuclear...-4243 or facsimile (202) 586- 0544; e-mail [email protected]nuclear.energy.gov . Additional information... including alternatives for the storage, processing, and disposal of civilian and defense spent nuclear fuel...

  8. 76 FR 71334 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future AGENCY: Office of Nuclear...: [email protected]nuclear.energy.gov . Additional information will be available at: http://www.brc.gov... disposal of civilian and defense spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. The Commission submitted its draft...

  9. 75 FR 36647 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future AGENCY: Office of Nuclear...; telephone (202) 586-4243 or facsimile (202) 586- 0544; e-mail [email protected]nuclear.energy.gov . Additional..., processing, and disposal of civilian and defense spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. The Commission held...

  10. 76 FR 4646 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy. ACTION: Notice of Closed Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a... all alternatives for the storage, processing, and disposal of civilian and defense used nuclear fuel...

  11. Color dilution alopecia in a blue Doberman pinscher crossbreed

    OpenAIRE

    Perego, Roberta; Proverbio, Daniela; Roccabianca, Paola; Spada, Eva

    2009-01-01

    A 6-year-old male, blue Doberman pinscher crossbreed was presented with coat abnormalities; in particular, flank alopecia and pruritus. Based on medical the history, clinical evidence, and histopathological examination, color dilution alopecia was diagnosed. The dog was with oral melatonin treated for 3 months without success.

  12. Color dilution alopecia in a blue Doberman pinscher crossbreed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perego, Roberta; Proverbio, Daniela; Roccabianca, Paola; Spada, Eva

    2009-05-01

    A 6-year-old male, blue Doberman pinscher crossbreed was presented with coat abnormalities; in particular, flank alopecia and pruritus. Based on medical the history, clinical evidence, and histopathological examination, color dilution alopecia was diagnosed. The dog was with oral melatonin treated for 3 months without success.

  13. Reflection mode holographic recording in methylene blue-sensitized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-13

    Feb 13, 2014 ... Abstract. Photopolymer systems can produce good image quality holograms that does not require any post-processing and are environmentally stable with good diffraction efficiency. The present work reports the development of a methylene blue-sensitized polyvinyl alcohol acrylamide. (MBPVA/AA) ...

  14. Supporting Information Blue and White light electroluminescence in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Blue and White light electroluminescence in a multilayer OLED using a new Aluminium complex. Pabitra K. Nayak a. , Neeraj Agarwal a. , Farman Ali a. , Meghan P. Patankar b. , K. L.. Narasimhan b. *, N. Periasamy a. *. 1. Department of Chemical Sciences,. 2. Department of Condensed Matter Physics and. Materials ...

  15. Blue band photometry of Cygnus X-1. [and Fourier analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, E. N.

    1976-01-01

    Results of blue band photometry of HDE 226868 in the years 1972-3-4 and provisional results for 1975 are presented. A mean light curve is obtained from the first three years observations which is based on 192 nights observations. Intercomparison of the results from the different years shows that the light curve is not constant.

  16. Biotreatment of anthraquinone dye Drimarene Blue K 2 RL | Siddiqui ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drimarene Blue (Db) K2RL is a reactive anthraquinone dye, used extensively in textile industry, due to poor adsorbability to textile fiber; it has a higher exhaustion rate in wastewater. The dye is toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic and resistant to degradation. Decolorization of this dye was studied in two different systems.

  17. Stimuli-Responsive Cubosomes Formed from Blue Phase Liquid Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukusoglu, Emre; Wang, Xiaoguang; Martinez-Gonzalez, Jose A; de Pablo, Juan J; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2015-11-18

    Cubosomes formed from blue phase liquid crystals (BPs) dispersed in aqueous media exhibit optical responses to biological amphiphiles. In this study, the formation of aqueous dispersions of BPs is reported, and the effects of confinement and lipids on the phase behavior, optical appearance, and morphology of BP droplets are characterized. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Growth comparison of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Blue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to compare and evaluate the productive performance characteristics of the base generation (F0) of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus and Blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus under the effect of interspecific hybridization and genetically modified breeding by introducing a fragmented purified DNA ...

  19. Column removal of methylene blue using activated carbon derived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated column and batch sorption of methylene blue from solution using activated carbon produced from water spinach. The equilibrium data of the batch sorption process was analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and the monolayer sorption capacity (441 mg/g) obtained from the ...

  20. The Missing Luminous Blue Variables and the Bistability Jump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, N.; Vink, J.S.; de Koter, A.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss an interesting feature of the distribution of luminous blue variables (LBVs) on the H-R diagram, and we propose a connection with the bistability jump seen in the winds of early-type supergiants. There appears to be a deficiency of quiescent LBVs on the S Doradus instability strip at

  1. Lodgepole pine in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Trappe; Robert W. Harris

    1958-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) is a major species in northeastern Oregon. The lodgepole type covers nearly 400,000 acres in the Blue and Wallowa Mountains, and individual trees are scattered over many of the remaining six million forested acres in this area (2). The type blankets large areas in watersheds in a region where spring floods and summer...

  2. Methylene blue (cationic dye) adsorption into Salvadora persica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methylene blue (MB) is the most commonly used substance for dyeing cotton, wood and silk. On inhalation, it can cause difficulty in breathing, while on direct contact, it may cause permanent injury of the eyes of human and animals, burning sensations, nausea, worming, profuse sweating, mental confusion and ...

  3. Methylene blue adsorption from glycerol solution onto the acicular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mechanism of methylene blue adsorption onto the surface of synthetic acicular habit of α-goethite from glycerol solution has been studied through batch experiment at 25, 30 and 35 0C in a glass cell of minimal dead volume. To describe the adsorption results, an attempt was made to fit the data to the Langmuir, ...

  4. Adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution on the surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adsorption of dye methylene blue from aqueous solution on the surface of sheep wool and cotton fibers was accomplished under the optimize conditions of temperature, concentration, pH, stay time duration and quantity of adsorbent. Spectrometric technique was used for the measurements of concentration of dye before ...

  5. BLUES from Music: BLind Underdetermined Extraction of Sources from Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Lehn-Schiøler, Tue; Larsen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we propose to use an instantaneous ICA method (BLUES) to separate the instruments in a real music stereo recording. We combine two strong separation techniques to segregate instruments from a mixture: ICA and binary time-frequency masking. By combining the methods, we are able to make...

  6. Adorno’s Grey, Taussig’s Blue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyes, Timon; De Cock, Christian

    2017-01-01

    theory and organization studies, we discuss colour as a primary phenomenon for the study of ‘critical affect’. We then trace colour’s affect in conditioning the unfolding of organization in two particular ‘colour/spaces’ – Adorno’s grey and Taussig’s blue of our title – and discuss both its ambiguity...

  7. There's More to Color than Red, Yellow, and Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goobich, Joel

    2009-01-01

    From an early age, so much emphasis goes into teaching children the fundamentals of color theory, in particular the primary colors of red, yellow, and blue. Toys, building blocks, furniture, and so many other items used in a preschool environment are manufactured in these three colors. Yet, recent research has uncovered that babies as young as…

  8. Blue Hills Regional Grad Fulfills Dream, Becomes Astronaut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Judy

    2012-01-01

    This article features Scott D. Tingle, a former career and technical education (CTE) student who always aimed high. November 4, 2011 marked the official culmination of a cherished, virtually lifelong dream of his--becoming an astronaut. It was a goal he had in mind even when he was a high school student in the 1980s at Blue Hills Regional…

  9. Forest health in the Blue Mountains: social and economic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.M. Quigley

    1992-01-01

    The Blue Mountains of northeast Oregon and southeast Washington are among the most insect- and disease-infested forests of North America. The communities, industries, rural residents, and economies that are highly dependent on the flow of natural resources are being stressed as uncertainty increases over future resource availability. This paper examines, from social...

  10. Models for circumstellar nebulae around red and blue supergiants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chita, S.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304832146

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, we model the circumstellar medium of stars with initial masses of 8, 12, 18 and 20 solar masses, over their entire life from the main sequence until their supernova explosion. During the post-main-sequence stages, stars can evolve through several blue and red supergiant stages

  11. Cloning and expression analysis of a blue copperbinding protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adifferentially expressed fragment EST145 was isolated by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method. Using EST145 as the probe, a blue copper-binding protein gene designated as DvBCB was screened from Dasypyrum villosum cDNA Library. The DvBCB gene was 845 bp in length with an open reading frame ...

  12. 76 FR 35909 - Temporary Concession Contract for Blue Ridge Parkway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... accommodations, food and beverage, retail sales, boat rentals, and other services at Crabtree Falls, Price Lake... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-WASO-CONC-0511-7182; 2410-OYC] Temporary Concession Contract for Blue Ridge Parkway AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of...

  13. Removal of basic dye methylene blue by using bioabsorbents Ulva ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, the removal of textile dye methylene blue was studied by adsorption technique using adsorbents such as, alumina, Ulva lactuca and Sargassum (Maine algae). The batch technique was adopted under the optimize condition of amount of adsorbent, stay time, concentration, temperature and pH. By using ...

  14. Oxidation states of Fe and Ti in blue sapphire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wongrawang, P; Wongkokua, W; Monarumit, N; Thammajak, N; Wathanakul, P

    2016-01-01

    X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) can be used to study the oxidation state of a dilute system such as transition metal defects in solid-state samples. In blue sapphire, Fe and Ti are defects that cause the blue color. Inter-valence charge transfer (IVCT) between Fe 2+ and Ti 4+ has been proposed to describe the optical color’s origin. However, the existence of divalent iron cations has not been thoroughly investigated. Fluorescent XANES is therefore employed to study K-edge absorptions of Fe and Ti cations in various blue sapphire samples including natural, synthetic, diffused and heat-treated sapphires. All the samples showed an Fe absorption edge at 7124 eV, corresponding to the Fe 3+ state; and Ti at 4984 eV, corresponding to Ti 4+ . From these results, we propose Fe 3+ -Ti 4+ mixed acceptor states located at 1.75 eV and 2.14 eV above the valence band of corundum, that correspond to 710 nm and 580 nm bands of UV–vis absorption spectra, to describe the cause of the color of blue sapphire. (paper)

  15. Optimum PCF tapers for blue-enhanced supercontinuum sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe Visbech; Sørensen, Simon Toft; Larsen, Casper

    2012-01-01

    Tapering of photonic crystal fibers has proven to be an effective way of blueshifting the dispersive wavelength edge of a supercontinuum spectrum down in the deep-blue. In this article we will review the state-of-the-art in fiber tapers, and discuss the underlying mechanisms of supercontinuum gen...

  16. Sharing the Arts of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Apple Dolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Martha; Gailey, Lamar

    This module on apple dolls is one of eight modules designed to provide instruction on authentic Blue Ridge Mountain crafts to adult basic education students at a low cost. Contents include notes on the apple doll making; process used, including equipment and materials, as well as method described narratively and graphically; and the followup,…

  17. Cation substitution induced blue-shift of optical band gap

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cation substitution induced blue-shift of optical band gap in nanocrystalline Zn ( 1 − x ) Ca x O thin films deposited by sol–gel dip coating technique ... thin films giving 13.03% enhancement in theenergy gap value due to the electronic perturbation caused by cation substitution as well as deterioration in crystallinity.

  18. seasonal dynamics of the Sinai Baton Blue butterfly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BioMAP

    The Sinai Baton Blue butterfly (Pseudophilotes sinaicus Nakamura) has been described as one of the smallest butterflies in the world (Larsen 1990). It occurs only in the high mountain region of the St. Katherine's Protectorate in Sinai, one of Egypt's most recently designated. Protected Areas, and its newest UNESCO World ...

  19. Blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome: A rare cause of gastrointestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome (BRBNS) is characterised by vascular malformations of the skin and gastrointestinal tract. We present the rare case of BRBNS in an African child. She presented with large-volume gastrointestinal bleeding and was managed by on-table colonoscopic identification and surgical excision, ...

  20. 'No blue' LED solution for photolithography room illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Haiyan; Corell, Dennis Dan; Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    This paper explored the feasibility of using a LED-based bulb as the illumination light source for photolithography room. A no-blue LED was designed, and the prototype was fabricated. The spectral power distribution of both the LED bulb and the yellow fluorescent tube was measured. Based on that,...

  1. blue gums fortress observation post simon's bay fire command 1942 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a letter dated 21 July 1942 the General Staff. Officer I at the Castle requested that accommo- dation for one White NCO and 20 members of 1. Battalion, Native Military Corps be provided at. Blue Gums. Ten days later the Fortress Com- mander submitted the request to the Quarter- master-General and advised him that the ...

  2. Intradiskal methylene blue treatment for diskogenic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, David S; Horn, Scott; Walko, Edward

    2014-11-01

    Low back pain is a leading cause of pain and disability. The intervertebral disk has been identified as the most common source of chronic low back pain. Although prior treatments directed at intervertebral disks have been disappointing, recent studies show promising improvement of pain and function after a single intradiskal injection of methylene blue. To assess changes in pain and function in patients with diskogenic low back pain, diagnosed by diskography, after an intradiskal injection of methylene blue. Prospective trial. Patients diagnosed with diskogenic pain by diskography underwent a single treatment of intradiskal injection of methylene blue, determined by prior provocation diskography. Pain and function measurements were completed at baseline and 1, 2, and 6 months after treatment. Treatment was considered a categorical success based on a 30% improvement in pain according to a visual analog scale (VAS) and function on the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Treatment was considered a categorical failure if less than 30% improvement in pain and function was achieved or if the patient pursued other invasive treatment options during the trial period. Sixteen patients received the intradiskal methylene blue injection. Eleven patients received a single-level injection, 4 patients received a 2-level injection, and one patient received injections at 3 levels. For the VAS, at 1, 2, and 6 months after the injection, the categorical success rates were 25%, 21%, and 25%, respectively. For the ODI, at 1, 2 and 6 months after the injection, the categorical success rates were 25%, 21%, and 33%, respectively. The overall categorical success rates at 1, 2, and 6 months after the injection were 19%, 21%, and 25%, respectively. This small trial did not demonstrate overall clinical success of intradiskal methylene blue injection for patients diagnosed with diskogenic pain by diskography. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by

  3. Anti-cytomegalovirus activity of the anthraquinone atanyl blue PRL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Zohaib; Al-Mahdi, Zainab; Zhu, Yali; McKee, Zachary; Parris, Deborah S; Parikh, Hardik I; Kellogg, Glen E; Kuchta, Alison; McVoy, Michael A

    2015-02-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) causes significant disease in immunocompromised patients and serious birth defects if acquired in utero. Available CMV antivirals target the viral DNA polymerase, have significant toxicities, and suffer from resistance. New drugs targeting different pathways would be beneficial. The anthraquinone emodin is proposed to inhibit herpes simplex virus by blocking the viral nuclease. Emodin and related anthraquinones are also reported to inhibit CMV. In the present study, emodin reduced CMV infectious yield with an EC50 of 4.9μM but was cytotoxic at concentrations only twofold higher. Related anthraquinones acid blue 40 and alizarin violet R inhibited CMV at only high concentrations (238-265μM) that were also cytotoxic. However, atanyl blue PRL inhibited infectious yield of CMV with an EC50 of 6.3μM, significantly below its 50% cytotoxic concentration of 216μM. Atanyl blue PRL reduced CMV infectivity and inhibited spread. When added up to 1h after infection, it dramatically reduced CMV immediate early protein expression and blocked viral DNA synthesis. However, it had no antiviral activity when added 24h after infection. Interestingly, atanyl blue PRL inhibited nuclease activities of purified CMV UL98 protein with IC50 of 4.5 and 9.3μM. These results indicate that atanyl blue PRL targets very early post-entry events in CMV replication and suggest it may act through inhibition of UL98, making it a novel CMV inhibitor. This compound may provide valuable insights into molecular events that occur at the earliest times post-infection and serve as a lead structure for antiviral development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Spinning Like a Blue Straggler: The Population of Fast Rotating Blue Straggler Stars in ω Centauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucciarelli, A.; Lovisi, L.; Ferraro, F. R.; Dalessandro, E.; Lanzoni, B.; Monaco, L.

    2014-12-01

    By using high-resolution spectra acquired with FLAMES-GIRAFFE at the ESO/VLT, we measured the radial and rotational velocities for 110 blue straggler stars (BSSs) in ω Centauri, the globular cluster-like stellar system harboring the largest known BSS population. According to their radial velocities, 109 BSSs are members of the system. The rotational velocity distribution is very broad, with the bulk of BSSs spinning at less than ~40 km s-1 (in agreement with the majority of such stars observed in other globular clusters) and a long tail reaching ~200 km s-1. About 40% of the sample has ve sin i > 40 km s-1 and about 20% has ve sin i > 70 km s-1. Such a large fraction is very similar to the percentage of fast rotating BSSs observed in M4. Thus, ω Centauri is the second stellar cluster, beyond M4, with a surprisingly high population of fast spinning BSSs. We found a hint of radial behavior for a fraction of fast rotating BSSs, with a mild peak within one core radius, and a possible rise in the external regions (beyond four core radii). This may suggest that recent formation episodes of mass transfer BSSs occurred preferentially in the outskirts of ω Centauri, or that braking mechanisms able to slow down these stars are least efficient in the lowest density environments. Based on observations collected at the ESO-VLT under the programs 077.D-0696(A), 081.D-0356(A), and 089.D-0298(A).

  5. What Is Happening when the Blue Bottle Bleaches: An Investigation of the Methylene Blue-Catalyzed Air Oxidation of Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Laurens; Wittkopp, Stacy M.; Painter, Christopher J.; Liegel, Jessica J.; Schreiner, Rodney; Bell, Jerry A.; Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the Blue Bottle Experiment, a well-known lecture demonstration reaction involving the dye-catalyzed air oxidation of a reducing sugar in alkaline solution, has delineated the sequence of reactions leading to the bleaching of the dye, the regeneration of color, and so forth. Enolization of the sugar is proposed as a key step in…

  6. Global water scarcity: the monthly blue water footprint compared to blue water availability for the world's major river basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Mekonnen, Mesfin

    Conventional blue water scarcity indicators suffer from four weaknesses: they measure water withdrawal instead of consumptive water use, they compare water use with actual runoff rather than natural (undepleted) runoff, they ignore environmental flow requirements and they evaluate scarcity on an

  7. 78 FR 19413 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Reactive Blue 246 and Reactive Blue 247...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... the dockets to read background documents or objections received, go to http://www.regulations.gov and insert the docket numbers, found in brackets in the heading of this document, into the ``Search'' box and... petitioner. This study demonstrated that there was no detectable migration of C.I. Reactive Blue 246 at the...

  8. 76 FR 71355 - United States et al. v. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Montana, Inc. et al.; Proposed Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... West to exit the markets for commercial health insurance, eliminating an important competitor to Blue... that New West will lose the support of its owners and likely exit the market. 10. As alleged below, by... Complaint alleges that the Agreement will likely cause New West to exit the markets for commercial health...

  9. Blue light emitting diodes for optical stimulation of quartz in retrospective dosimetry and dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Duller, G.A.T.; Murray, A.S.

    1999-01-01

    Recently developed blue light emitting diodes (LEDs) for the optical stimulation of quartz for use in routine optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating and retrospective dosimetry have been tested. For similar power densities, it was found that the higher energy light provided by the blue LEDs...... (470 nm) gives order of magnitude greater rate of stimulation in quartz than that from conventional blue-green light filtered from a halogen lamp. A practical blue LED OSL configuration is described. From comparisons of OSL decay curves produced by green and blue light sources, and by examination...... of the dependence of the blue LED OSL on preheat temperature, it is deduced that there is no evidence that the blue LEDs stimulate deep traps in a different manner from broadband filtered light. It is concluded that blue LEDs offer a practical alternative to existing stimulation sources. They have the significant...

  10. 16 CFR 23.14 - Misuse of the term “blue white.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... deceptive to use the term “blue white” or any representation of similar meaning to describe any diamond that under normal, north daylight or its equivalent shows any color or any trace of any color other than blue...

  11. NAMMA MODIS/AQUA AND MODIS/TERRA DEEP BLUE PRODUCTS V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NAMMA MODIS/AQUA and MODIS/TERRA Deep Blue Products dataset is a collection of images depicting the aerosol optical depth derived from the MODIS deep blue...

  12. Optimization of Tapered Photonic Crystal Fibers for Blue-Enhanced Supercontinuum Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe; Sørensen, Simon Toft; Larsen, Casper

    2012-01-01

    Tapering of photonic crystal fibers is an effective way of shifting the dispersive wavelength edge of a supercontinuum spectrum down in the deep-blue. We discuss the optimum taper profile for blue-enhanced supercontinuum generation....

  13. Preventing blue ocean from turning into red ocean: A case study of a room escape game

    OpenAIRE

    Gündüz, Şafak

    2018-01-01

    The weariness of competitive business environment has made it one of the hot topics of recent business management literature to find ways to escape from the intense Red Ocean by creating a Blue Ocean where there is no competition. Rene and Mauborgne’s Blue Ocean Strategy (2004) provides a reasonable solution for this issue. Blue Ocean Strategy studies demonstrate that every blue ocean will eventually turn red due to fast entries into the market and the literature leaves a gap in understanding...

  14. ''Blue clearing'' on Mars in connection with dust clouds in August and September 1971

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokof'eva, V.V.; Chuprakova, T.A.; Dzyamko, S.S.; Bryzgalova, T.V.

    1975-01-01

    Photometric processing of Mars TV pictures obtained in ultraviolet, blue, green and red spectrum regions reveals the connection of the ''blue clearing'' effect with the appearance of dust clouds above the light regions of the planet. The obtained data confirm the hypothesis about the dust nature of blue clearings: the illusion of blue clearings is produced as a result of increasing brightness of thse Mars light regions, when dust clouds apr above them

  15. Nitroreductase-triggered activation of a novel caged fluorescent probe obtained from methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jungeun; McNamara, Louis E; Nael, Manal A; Mahdi, Fakhri; Doerksen, Robert J; Bidwell, Gene L; Hammer, Nathan I; Jo, Seongbong

    2015-08-18

    A near-infrared fluorescent probe based on methylene blue (p-NBMB) was developed for the detection of nitroreductase. Conjugating methylene blue with a p-nitrobenzyl moiety enables it to be activated by nitroreductase-catalyzed 1,6-elimination, resulting in the release of an active methylene blue fluorophore.

  16. Why Blue stragglers formed via collisions may not be rapid rotators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, P.J.T.; Clement, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    We propose that the blue stragglers formed via collisions may not be rapid rotators due to magnetic braking during a Hayashi phase as they approach the main sequence. It is conceivable that just the envelopes of the blue stragglers are spun down, while their cores remain rapidly rotating. This would greatly extend the main-sequence lifetimes of the blue stragglers produced by collisions

  17. Blue Chitin columns for the extraction of heterocyclic amines from urine samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, J.; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Skog, K.

    2004-01-01

    . Blue Chitin columns were used for the extraction and purification of heterocyclic amines from urine samples spiked with 14 different heterocyclic amines. The samples were analysed using LC-MS. The results show that Blue Chitin columns provide a straightforward and rapid means of extracting heterocyclic...... amines from urine samples, and that Blue Chitin column are also useful in the purification of urinary metabolites....

  18. 76 FR 81004 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Woman in Blue, Against...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7739] Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Woman in Blue, Against Blue Water'' by Edvard Munch SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the..., Delegation of Authority No. 257 of April 15, 2003), I hereby determine that the object ``Woman in Blue...

  19. The Value Of Trypan Blue Dye In The Training Of Ophthalmology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to evaluate the value of trypan blue dye in the training of resident doctors in ophthalmology to perform capsulotomy, on important step in cataract extraction. Eight resident were randomized into 2 groups of 4 each. One group used trypan blue while the other group did not. In the trypan blue group, ...

  20. 76 FR 25545 - Safety Zone; Blue Crab Festival Fireworks Display, Little River, Little River, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Blue Crab Festival Fireworks Display, Little River, Little River, SC AGENCY: Coast... zone on the waters of Little River in Little River, South Carolina during the Blue Crab Festival... this rule because the Coast Guard did not receive notice of the Blue Crab Festival Fireworks Display...

  1. Microwave-assisted synthesis of graphene-Prussian Blue networked nanocomposites for electrocatalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Minwei; Ulstrup, Jens; Chi, Qijin

    There has been a great deal of interest recently in Prussian blue functional graphene. Due to they displayed advantage of both Prussian blue and graphene, we presented a one-pot and green method to synthesize interlocked graphene-Prussian Blue nanocomposites. Considering that graphene oxide (GO...

  2. A NEW SPECIES OF INVASIVE GALL WASP (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE: TETRASTICHINAE) ON BLUE GUM (EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS) IN CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The blue gum gall wasp, Selitrichodes globulus La Salle & Gates (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), is described as an invasive gall inducer on blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), in California....

  3. Why is the tongue of blue-tongued skinks blue? Reflectance of lingual surface and its consequences for visual perception by conspecifics and predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramjan, Andran; Bauerová, Anna; Somerová, Barbora; Frynta, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Blue-tongued skinks of the genus Tiliqua (Scincidae) are characterized by their large blue melanin-pigmented tongues, often displayed during open-mouth threats, when the animal feels endangered. It is not clear whether this unusual coloration is a direct anti-predation adaptation or it may rather serve intraspecific communication, as ultraviolet-blue color is a frequent visual signal in a number of lizard species. We used spectrophotometry and visual modeling to compare blue tongues of Tiliqua gigas with tongues and skin coloration of other lizard species, and to examine their appearance through the eyes of both the conspecifics and avian predators. Our results show that (1) the tongue coloration is probably not substantially influenced by the amount of melanin in the skin, (2) lingual and oral tissues are UV-reflective in general, with blue colored tongues having chromatic qualities similar to UV-blue skin patches of other lizard species, (3) UV-blue tongues are more conspicuous than pink tongues, especially in the visual model of conspecifics. We hypothesize that blue tongues may possibly serve as a semantic (honest) signal analogous to UV-blue skin patches of other lizard species due to greater UV-bias in the vision of diurnal lizards. Regarding the social behavior and high aggressiveness in Tiliqua and their relatives, such signal might serve, e.g., in intraspecific long-distance communication between conspecifics in order to avoid aggression, and its anti-predation effect may only be a secondary function (exaptation).

  4. Blue light effect on retinal pigment epithelial cells by display devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jiyoung; Yun, Jieun; Yoon, Yeo Dae; Park, Sang-Il; Seo, Young-Jun; Park, Won-Sang; Chu, Hye Yong; Park, Keun Hong; Lee, Myung Yeol; Lee, Chang Woo; Oh, Soo Jin; Kwak, Young-Shin; Jang, Young Pyo; Kang, Jong Soon

    2017-05-22

    Blue light has high photochemical energy and induces cell apoptosis in retinal pigment epithelial cells. Due to its phototoxicity, retinal hazard by blue light stimulation has been well demonstrated using high intensity light sources. However, it has not been studied whether blue light in the displays, emitting low intensity light, such as those used in today's smartphones, monitors, and TVs, also causes apoptosis in retinal pigment epithelial cells. We attempted to examine the blue light effect on human adult retinal epithelial cells using display devices with different blue light wavelength ranges, the peaks of which specifically appear at 449 nm, 458 nm, and 470 nm. When blue light was illuminated on A2E-loaded ARPE-19 cells using these displays, the display with a blue light peak at a shorter wavelength resulted in an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Moreover, the reduction of cell viability and induction of caspase-3/7 activity were more evident in A2E-loaded ARPE-19 cells after illumination by the display with a blue light peak at a shorter wavelength, especially at 449 nm. Additionally, white light was tested to examine the effect of blue light in a mixed color illumination with red and green lights. Consistent with the results obtained using only blue light, white light illuminated by display devices with a blue light peak at a shorter wavelength also triggered increased cell death and apoptosis compared to that illuminated by display devices with a blue light peak at longer wavelength. These results show that even at the low intensity utilized in the display devices, blue light can induce ROS production and apoptosis in retinal cells. Our results also suggest that the blue light hazard of display devices might be highly reduced if the display devices contain less short wavelength blue light.

  5. Development of Blue Laser Direct-Write Lithography System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Wen Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The optical lithography system researched in this study adopted the laser direct-write lithography technology with nano-positioning stage by using retailing blue ray optical pickup head contained 405nm wavelength and 0.85 numerical aperture of focus lens as the system lighting source. The system employed a photodiode received the focusing error signal reflected by the glass substrate to identify specimen position and automatic focused control with voice coil motor. The pattern substrate was loaded on a nano-positioning stage; input pattern path automatically and collocate with inner program at the same time. This research has successfully developed a blue laser lithography process system. The single spot size can be narrowed down to 3.07 μm and the linewidth is 3.3μm, time of laser control can reach to 450 ns and the exposure pattern can be controlled by program as well.

  6. Enhanced Deep Blue Aerosol Retrieval Algorithm: The Second Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, N. C.; Jeong, M.-J.; Bettenhausen, C.; Sayer, A. M.; Hansell, R.; Seftor, C. S.; Huang, J.; Tsay, S.-C.

    2013-01-01

    The aerosol products retrieved using the MODIS collection 5.1 Deep Blue algorithm have provided useful information about aerosol properties over bright-reflecting land surfaces, such as desert, semi-arid, and urban regions. However, many components of the C5.1 retrieval algorithm needed to be improved; for example, the use of a static surface database to estimate surface reflectances. This is particularly important over regions of mixed vegetated and non- vegetated surfaces, which may undergo strong seasonal changes in land cover. In order to address this issue, we develop a hybrid approach, which takes advantage of the combination of pre-calculated surface reflectance database and normalized difference vegetation index in determining the surface reflectance for aerosol retrievals. As a result, the spatial coverage of aerosol data generated by the enhanced Deep Blue algorithm has been extended from the arid and semi-arid regions to the entire land areas.

  7. GPAW optimized for Blue Gene/P using hybrid programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mads Ruben Burgdorff; Happe, Hans Henrik; Vinter, Brian

    2009-01-01

    In this work we present optimizations of a Grid-based projector-augmented wave method software, GPAW for the Blue Gene/P architecture. The improvements are achieved by exploring the advantage of shared and distributed memory programming also known as hybrid programming. The work focuses on optimi......In this work we present optimizations of a Grid-based projector-augmented wave method software, GPAW for the Blue Gene/P architecture. The improvements are achieved by exploring the advantage of shared and distributed memory programming also known as hybrid programming. The work focuses...... on optimizing a very time consuming operation in GPAW, the finite-different stencil operation, and different hybrid programming approaches are evaluated. The work succeeds in demonstrating a hybrid programming model which is clearly beneficial compared to the original flat programming model. In total...

  8. Deep blue Maxixe-type color center in beryl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassau, K.; Prescott, B.E.; Wood, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    A deep-blue color center can be introduced into some beryl by gamma ray, x-ray, or neutron irradiation. If the original color is yellow or green, then a green or blue-green color can result from introduction of the same color center. This color center is characterized by: (1) strong dichroism with the intense optical absorption in the ordinary ray; (2) narrow band absorptions in the 5000 to 7000 A region in the ordinary ray only; and (3) fading of this center on exposure to light or on heating to above 100 0 C. Very similar material, showing an absorption spectrum differing only in minor details, was found in Brazil at the Maxixe Mine about 1917, and the modern material has been named ''Maxixe-type'' beryl

  9. Blue and ultraviolet-B light photoreceptors in parsley cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, P.A.; Schaefer, E. (Albert-Ludwigs-Univ., Freiburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Biologie II)

    1992-03-01

    The authors studied UV-B photoreception in parsley cell cultures with physiological experiments involving temperature shifts and examined the possible role of flavin in blue and UV-B light photo-reception. Cells irradiated with UV-B light (0.5-15 min) at 2{sup o}C have the same fluence requirement for chalcone synthase and flavonoid induction as controls irradiated at 25{sup o}C. This is indicative of a purely photochemical reaction. Cells fed with riboflavin and irradiated with 6 h of UV-containing white light synthesize higher levels of chalcone synthase and flavonoid than unfed controls. This effect did not occur with blue light. These results indicate that flavin-sensitization requires excitation of flavin and the UV-B light photoreceptor. (author).

  10. Capacity constrained blue-noise sampling on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Sen

    2015-11-27

    We present a novel method for high-quality blue-noise sampling on mesh surfaces with prescribed cell-sizes for the underlying tessellation (capacity constraint). Unlike the previous surface sampling approach that only uses capacity constraints as a regularizer of the Centroidal Voronoi Tessellation (CVT) energy, our approach enforces an exact capacity constraint using the restricted power tessellation on surfaces. Our approach is a generalization of the previous 2D blue noise sampling technique using an interleaving optimization framework. We further extend this framework to handle multi-capacity constraints. We compare our approach with several state-of-the-art methods and demonstrate that our results are superior to previous work in terms of preserving the capacity constraints.

  11. Movements of Blue Sharks (Prionace glauca) across Their Life History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeperre, Frederic; Aires-da-Silva, Alexandre; Fontes, Jorge; Santos, Marco; Serrão Santos, Ricardo; Afonso, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Spatial structuring and segregation by sex and size is considered to be an intrinsic attribute of shark populations. These spatial patterns remain poorly understood, particularly for oceanic species such as blue shark (Prionace glauca), despite its importance for the management and conservation of this highly migratory species. This study presents the results of a long-term electronic tagging experiment to investigate the migratory patterns of blue shark, to elucidate how these patterns change across its life history and to assess the existence of a nursery area in the central North Atlantic. Blue sharks belonging to different life stages (n = 34) were tracked for periods up to 952 days during which they moved extensively (up to an estimated 28.139 km), occupying large parts of the oceanic basin. Notwithstanding a large individual variability, there were pronounced differences in movements and space use across the species' life history. The study provides strong evidence for the existence of a discrete central North Atlantic nursery, where juveniles can reside for up to at least 2 years. In contrast with previously described nurseries of coastal and semi-pelagic sharks, this oceanic nursery is comparatively vast and open suggesting that shelter from predators is not its main function. Subsequently, male and female blue sharks spatially segregate. Females engage in seasonal latitudinal migrations until approaching maturity, when they undergo an ontogenic habitat shift towards tropical latitudes. In contrast, juvenile males generally expanded their range southward and apparently displayed a higher degree of behavioural polymorphism. These results provide important insights into the spatial ecology of pelagic sharks, with implications for the sustainable management of this heavily exploited shark, especially in the central North Atlantic where the presence of a nursery and the seasonal overlap and alternation of different life stages coincides with a high fishing

  12. Intravenous methylene blue venography during laparoscopic paediatric varicocelectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, David J B; Cervellione, Raimondo M

    2014-02-01

    One of the challenges of varicocele surgery is to prevent hydrocele formation while still ensuring success. Methylene blue has been used to identify and preserve lymphatic vessels, and venography has been a standard component of sclerotherapy and percutaneous retrograde techniques. The authors have combined both approaches during laparoscopic varicocelectomy and report their experience. A prospective study was performed of adolescents with idiopathic varicocele and spontaneous venous reflux on Doppler ultrasound. A pampiniform plexus vein was cannulated via scrotal incision before creating the pneumoperitoneum. A mixture of methylene blue and Omnipaque™ was injected into the pampiniform plexus with fluoroscopic screening. Laparoscopic selective vein ligation was then performed using 5mm endoscopic clips or a bipolar vessel sealing device such as Plasmakinetic™ or Ligasure™. Venography was repeated to confirm complete ligation of the internal testicular veins. Patients were followed-up at 3, 6, and 9 months post-surgery with clinical examination and Doppler ultrasound. Data are presented as median (interquartile range). Twenty-four patients underwent laparoscopic selective vein ligation with venography and methylene blue injection. The median age was 14.7 (14.6-15.7) years. The recurrence rate was 12%. No patients developed a hydrocele. The length of surgery was 120 (100-126) minutes. Intra-operative intra-venous methylene blue injection and venography helps to identify venous duplications of the internal testicular veins and enhances the success rate of laparoscopic selective vein ligation. This approach prevents hydrocele formation but has a 12% recurrence rate, which appears to be higher than some techniques described in the literature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The astronomical observatory of the Land of Blue Skies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolenberg, K; Batmunkh, D; Batsukh, G; Tsolmon, R; Tuguldur, S

    2008-01-01

    The Astronomical Observatory of Mongolia is presented. Besides a heritage steeped in rich culture and tradition, Mongolia offers endless steppes and blue skies of such intensity that they gave the country its name. This astronomically advantageous feature, the high level of education and motivation among its young inhabitants, plus the fact that there are few observatories in Central Asia, make Mongolia a very suitable place for astronomical observations.

  14. Quantum dot blueing and blinking enables fluorescence nanoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, Patrick; Staudt, Thorsten; Engelhardt, Johann; Hell, Stefan W

    2011-01-12

    We demonstrate superresolution fluorescence imaging of cells using bioconjugated CdSe/ZnS quantum dot markers. Fluorescence blueing of quantum dot cores facilitates separation of blinking markers residing closer than the diffraction barrier. The high number of successively emitted photons enables ground state depletion microscopy followed by individual marker return with a resolving power of the size of a single dot (∼12 nm). Nanoscale imaging is feasible with a simple webcam.

  15. Magnetic-field-induced suppression of the amorphous blue phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challa, P K; Sprunt, S N; Jákli, A; Gleeson, J T

    2014-01-01

    We present magneto-optical measurements on two liquid crystals that exhibit a wide temperature-range amorphous blue phase (BPIII). Magnetic fields up to 25 T are found to suppress the onset of BPIII in both materials by almost 1 °C. This effect appears to increase nonlinearly with the field strength. The effect of high fields on established BPIIIs is also reported, in which we find significant hysteresis and very slow dynamics. Possible explanations of these results are discussed.

  16. Acute toxicity of ammonia to blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acute toxicity of blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus (3.28 ± 0.36 g in body weight, 61.84 ± 2.08 mm in body length) exposed to environmental un-ionized ammonia at different salinities (1, 8, 12, 16 and 20 ppt) was assessed via a series of static exposure trials. Median lethal concentrations of 24 h of exposure were ...

  17. Implementasi Strategi Blue Ocean Untuk Mencapai Kinerja Perusahaan Yang Kompetitif

    OpenAIRE

    Chadhiq, Umar

    2009-01-01

    Since the dawn of the industrial age, companies have engaged in head-to-head competition. They are using red ocean strategy and have fought for competitive advantage, battled over market share, and struggled for differentiation. Now imagine instead the prospects for growth if companies could operate with no competitors at all. Because they operate blue ocean strategy, and they are will create uncontested performance.

  18. BlueSeis3A - performance, laboratory tests and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernauer, F.; Wassermann, J. M.; de Toldi, E.; Guattari, F.; Ponceau, D.; Ripepe, M.; Igel, H.

    2017-12-01

    One of the most emerging developments in seismic instrumentation is the application of fiber optic gyroscopes as portable rotational ground motion sensors. In the framework of the European Research Council Project, ROMY (ROtational Motions in seismologY), BlueSeis3A was developed in a collaboration between researchers from Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich, Germany, and the fiber optic sensors manufacturer iXblue, France. With its high sensitivity (20 nrads-1Hz-1/2) in a broad frequency range (0.001 Hz to 50 Hz) BlueSeis3A opens a variety of applications which were up to now hampered by the lack of such an instrument. In this contribution, we will first present performance characteristics of BlueSeis3A with a focus on timing stability and scale factor linearity. In a second part we demonstrate the benefit of directly measured rotational motion for dynamic tilt correction of measurements made with a classical seismometer. A well known tilt signal was produced with a shake table and recorded simultaneously with a classical seismometer and BlueSeis3A. The seismometer measurement could be improved significantly by subtracting the coherent tilt signal which was measured directly with the rotational motion sensor. As a last part we show the advantage of directly measured rotational motion for applications in civil engineering. Results from a measurement campaign in the Giotto bell tower in the city of Florence, Italy, show the possibility of direct observation of torsional modes by deploying a rotational motion sensor inside the structure.

  19. Size independent blue luminescence in nitrogen passivated silicon nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasog, Mita; Veinot, Jonathan G.C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2012-10-15

    The photoluminescent properties of allylamine terminated silicon nanocrystals (Si-NCs) are investigated. Chloride surface terminated Si-NCs of different sizes react with allylamine yielding NCs that exhibit size independent blue luminescent NCs. NCs were characterized using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering. Reaction scheme summarizing surface modification approach used for the present study. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. The blue water footprint of electricity from hydropower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Mekonnen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydropower accounts for about 16% of the world's electricity supply. It has been debated whether hydroelectric generation is merely an in-stream water user or whether it also consumes water. In this paper we provide scientific support for the argument that hydroelectric generation is in most cases a significant water consumer. The study assesses the blue water footprint of hydroelectricity – the water evaporated from manmade reservoirs to produce electric energy – for 35 selected sites. The aggregated blue water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 90 Gm3 yr−1, which is equivalent to 10% of the blue water footprint of global crop production in the year 2000. The total blue water footprint of hydroelectric generation in the world must be considerably larger if one considers the fact that this study covers only 8% of the global installed hydroelectric capacity. Hydroelectric generation is thus a significant water consumer. The average water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 68 m3 GJ−1. Great differences in water footprint among hydropower plants exist, due to differences in climate in the places where the plants are situated, but more importantly as a result of large differences in the area flooded per unit of installed hydroelectric capacity. We recommend that water footprint assessment is added as a component in evaluations of newly proposed hydropower plants as well as in the evaluation of existing hydroelectric dams, so that the consequences of the water footprint of hydroelectric generation on downstream environmental flows and other water users can be evaluated.

  1. Crab Hole Mosquito Blues—The Story

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-12

    This podcast reports on a humorous song that takes a look at a very serious human and equine disease. Written and performed by the MARU Health Angels Band, Bill Dietz, director of the Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity at CDC, talks about the song, "Crab Hole Mosquito Blues", and the history behind it.  Created: 5/12/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/23/2011.

  2. Photodynamic action of methylene blue: mutagenesis and synergism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capella, M.A.M.

    1988-01-01

    The associated mutagenesis and the interactions with physical agents in order to potencialize its biological effects are studied. The induction of mutation in bacterias due to photodynamic action of methylene blue is presented as well as the induction of single breaks in bacterial DNA and the relationship between the repair systems, especially the SOS one. The interaction of the photodynamic therapy with low intensity electric current is discussed. (M.A.C.) [pt

  3. Vertebral chondrosarcoma in a blue-fronted parrot (Amazona aestiva)

    OpenAIRE

    Blume, Guilherme Reis; Oliveira, Ayisa Rodrigues de; Mattioli, Mariana Portugal; Oliveira, Letícia Batelli de; Reis Junior, Janildo Ludolf; Sant'Ana, Fabiano José Ferreira de

    2015-01-01

    Chondrosarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal tumor in which the neoplastic cells produce cartilaginous matrix and is uncommonly described in birds. This report describes the clinical and pathological findings of one case of chondrosarcoma in a blue-fronted parrot (Amazona aestiva). Macroscopically a 3.6x3.5x1.8cm, nodular, ulcerated, and firm mass was identified in the dorsal synsacrum. Microscopically, the mass was composed of a monomorphic proliferation of pleomorphic spindle chondrocytes with...

  4. Adverse drug reaction, patent blue V dye and anaesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathy, Swagata; Nair, Priya V

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aim: Patent blue vital (PBV) dye is used for varied perioperative indications, and has a potential for causing life-threatening allergic reactions. In this retrospective case series study, at a tertiary level neurosciences centre, we analysed the nature, management and outcome of adverse drug reaction to the preoperative use of PBV for marking vertebral level prior to back surgeries. Methods: Patients were identified from the theatre and radiology database. Data were collected ...

  5. Studies on the blue-staining fungi of pine wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Strzelczyk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this was were to examine associations of bule-staining fungi which occur on pine wood to determine the interactions between fungi and to check the suscebility of these fungi to commonly used fungieides. The stron antagonism of members of the Trichoderma genus against the blue-staining fungi was demonstrated, Members of genera Pullularia, Hormiscium and Hormodendrum were strongy inhibited by stains of Trichoderma Ophiostoma strains were less susceptible to inhibition by this antagonist.

  6. Blue light for infectious diseases: Propionibacterium acnes, Helicobacter pylori, and beyond?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Tianhong; Gupta, Asheesh; Murray, Clinton K.; Vrahas, Mark S.; Tegos, George P.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Blue light, particularly in the wavelength range of 405–470 nm, has attracted increasing attention due to its intrinsic antimicrobial effect without the addition of exogenous photosensitizers. In addition, it is commonly accepted that blue light is much less detrimental to mammalian cells than ultraviolet irradiation, which is another light-based antimicrobial approach being investigated. In this review, we discussed the blue light sensing systems in microbial cells, antimicrobial efficacy of blue light, the mechanism of antimicrobial effect of blue light, the effects of blue light on mammalian cells, and the effects of blue light on wound healing. It has been reported that blue light can regulate multi-cellular behavior involving cell-to-cell communication via blue light receptors in bacteria, and inhibit biofilm formation and subsequently potentiate light inactivation. At higher radiant exposures, blue light exhibits a broad-spectrum antimicrobial effect against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Blue light therapy is a clinically accepted approach for Propionibacterium acnes infections. Clinical trials have also been conducted to investigate the use of blue light for Helicobacter pylori stomach infections and have shown promising results. Studies on blue light inactivation of important wound pathogenic bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa have also been reported. The mechanism of blue light inactivation of P. acnes, H. pylori, and some oral bacteria is the photo-excitation of intracellular porphyrins and the subsequent production of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species. Although it may be the case that the mechanism of blue light inactivation of wound pathogens (e.g., S. aureus, P. aeruginosa) is the same as that of P. acnes, this hypothesis has not been rigorously tested. Limited and discordant results have been reported regarding the effects of blue light on mammalian cells and wound healing. Under certain wavelengths

  7. Russian blues reveal effects of language on color discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winawer, Jonathan; Witthoft, Nathan; Frank, Michael C; Wu, Lisa; Wade, Alex R; Boroditsky, Lera

    2007-05-08

    English and Russian color terms divide the color spectrum differently. Unlike English, Russian makes an obligatory distinction between lighter blues ("goluboy") and darker blues ("siniy"). We investigated whether this linguistic difference leads to differences in color discrimination. We tested English and Russian speakers in a speeded color discrimination task using blue stimuli that spanned the siniy/goluboy border. We found that Russian speakers were faster to discriminate two colors when they fell into different linguistic categories in Russian (one siniy and the other goluboy) than when they were from the same linguistic category (both siniy or both goluboy). Moreover, this category advantage was eliminated by a verbal, but not a spatial, dual task. These effects were stronger for difficult discriminations (i.e., when the colors were perceptually close) than for easy discriminations (i.e., when the colors were further apart). English speakers tested on the identical stimuli did not show a category advantage in any of the conditions. These results demonstrate that (i) categories in language affect performance on simple perceptual color tasks and (ii) the effect of language is online (and can be disrupted by verbal interference).

  8. Characterization of Thymol blue Radiochromic dosimeters for high dose applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feras M. Aldweri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Thymol blue (TB solutions and Thymol blue Polyvinyl Alcohol (TB-PVA films have been introduced as Radiochromic dosimeter for high dose applications. The dosimeters were irradiated with gamma ray (60Co source from 5 to 30 kGy for film, and from 0.150 kGy to 4 kGy for solution. The optical density of unirradiated and irradiated TB solution as well as TB-PVA film dosimeters were studied in terms of absorbance at 434 nm using UV/VIS spectrophotometer. The effects of scan temperature, light pre-gamma irradiation, dose rate, relative humidity and stability of the absorbance of solutions and films after irradiation were investigated. We found the dose sensitivity of TB solution and TB-PVA film dosimeters increases significantly with increases of the absorbed dose as well as with the increases of TB dye concentrations. The useful dose range of developed TB solutions and TB-PVA films dosimeters is in the range 0.125–1 kGy and of 5–20 kGy, respectively. Keywords: Dose sensitivity, Radio-chromic dosimeter, Thymol blue, Absorbance, Concentrations

  9. The birth of the blues: how physics underlies music

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, J M

    2009-01-01

    Art and science have intimate connections, although these are often underappreciated. Western music provides compelling examples. The sensation of harmony and related melodic development are rooted in physical principles that can be understood with simple mathematics. The focus of this review is not the better known acoustics of instruments, but the structure of music itself. The physical basis of the evolution of Western music in the last half millennium is discussed, culminating with the development of the 'blues'. The paper refers to a number of works which expand the connections, and introduces material specific to the development of the 'blues'. Several conclusions are made: (1) that music is axiomatic like mathematics and that to appreciate music fully listeners must learn the axioms; (2) that this learning does not require specific conscious study but relies on a linkage between the creative and quantitative brain and (3) that a key element of the musical 'blues' comes from recreating missing notes on the modern equal temperament scale. The latter is an example of 'art built on artifacts'. Finally, brief reference is made to the value of music as a tool for teaching physics, mathematics and engineering to non-scientists.

  10. Blue light reduces organ injury from ischemia and reperfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Du; Collage, Richard D.; Huang, Hai; Zhang, Xianghong; Kautza, Benjamin C.; Lewis, Anthony J.; Zuckerbraun, Brian S.; Tsung, Allan; Angus, Derek C.; Rosengart, Matthew R.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that light and circadian rhythms profoundly influence the physiologic capacity with which an organism responds to stress. However, the ramifications of light spectrum on the course of critical illness remain to be determined. Here, we show that acute exposure to bright blue spectrum light reduces organ injury by comparison with bright red spectrum or ambient white fluorescent light in two murine models of sterile insult: warm liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and unilateral renal I/R. Exposure to bright blue light before I/R reduced hepatocellular injury and necrosis and reduced acute kidney injury and necrosis. In both models, blue light reduced neutrophil influx, as evidenced by reduced myeloperoxidase (MPO) within each organ, and reduced the release of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a neutrophil chemotactant and key mediator in the pathogenesis of I/R injury. The protective mechanism appeared to involve an optic pathway and was mediated, in part, by a sympathetic (β3 adrenergic) pathway that functioned independent of significant alterations in melatonin or corticosterone concentrations to regulate neutrophil recruitment. These data suggest that modifying the spectrum of light may offer therapeutic utility in sterile forms of cellular injury. PMID:27114521

  11. Synthesis and magnetic properties of prussian blue modified Fe nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arun, T.; Prakash, K.; Justin Joseyphus, R.

    2013-01-01

    Fe nanoparticles are prepared using a unique polyol process and modified with prussian blue (PB) at various concentrations. The presence of PB in the Fe nanoparticles are confirmed from thermal, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and electron microscopic analyses. The prussian blue existed on ;the surface of the nanoparticles when the concentration is 200 μM and in excess with 1000 μM. ;Fe nanoparticles are reduced in size using Pt as nucleating agent and modified with the optimum concentration of PB. The saturation magnetization decreases with the concentration of PB whereas the coercivity is influenced by the size of the Fe nanoparticles. The presence of oxide layer in Fe nanoparticles helps in the surface modification with PB. The Fe nanoparticles of particle size 53 nm modified with 200 μM of PB showed a saturation magnetization of 110 emu/g. The magnetic properties suggest that the PB modified Fe nanoparticles are better candidates for detoxification applications. - Highlights: • Fe nanoparticles surface modified with prussian blue (PB) were synthesized. • Optimum PB concentration on size reduced Fe showed better magnetic properties. • Coercivity decreased with increasing concentration of PB. • Fe-PB nanoparticles could be used for detoxification applications

  12. Methylene blue doped polymers: efficient media for optical recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushamani, M.; Sreekumar, K.; Sudha Kartha, C.; Joseph, R.

    2004-05-01

    Polymer materials find application in optical storage technology, namely in the development of high information density and fast access type memories. A new polymer blend of methylene blue sensitized polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyacrylic acid (PAA) in methanol is prepared and characterized and its comparison with methylene blue sensitized PVA in methanol and complexed methylene blue sensitized polyvinyl chloride (CMBPVC) is presented. The optical absorption spectra of the thin films of these polymers showed a strong and broad absorption region at 670-650 nm, matching the wavelength of the laser used. A very slow recovery of the dye on irradiation was observed when a 7:3 blend of polyvinyl alcohol/polyacrylic acid at a pH of 3.8 and a sensitizer concentration of 4.67 · 10-5 g/ml were used. A diffraction efficiency of up to 20% was observed for the MBPVA/alcohol system and an energetic sensitivity of 2000 mJ/cm2 was obtained in the photosensitive films with a spatial frequency of 588 lines/mm.

  13. Melanocytes Sense Blue Light and Regulate Pigmentation through Opsin-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regazzetti, Claire; Sormani, Laura; Debayle, Delphine; Bernerd, Françoise; Tulic, Meri K; De Donatis, Gian Marco; Chignon-Sicard, Bérengère; Rocchi, Stéphane; Passeron, Thierry

    2018-01-01

    The shorter wavelengths of the visible light spectrum have been recently reported to induce a long-lasting hyperpigmentation but only in melano-competent individuals. Here, we provide evidence showing that OPN3 is the key sensor in melanocytes responsible for hyperpigmentation induced by the shorter wavelengths of visible light. The melanogenesis induced through OPN3 is calcium dependent and further activates CAMKII followed by CREB, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and p38, leading to the phosphorylation of MITF and ultimately to the increase of the melanogenesis enzymes: tyrosinase and dopachrome tautomerase. Furthermore, blue light induces the formation of a protein complex that we showed to be formed by tyrosinase and dopachrome tautomerase. This multimeric tyrosinase/tyrosinase-related protein complex is mainly formed in dark-skinned melanocytes and induces a sustained tyrosinase activity, thus explaining the long-lasting hyperpigmentation that is observed only in skin type III and higher after blue light irradiation. OPN3 thus functions as the sensor for visible light pigmentation. OPN3 and the multimeric tyrosinase/tyrosinase-related protein complex induced after its activation appear as new potential targets for regulating melanogenesis but also to protect dark skins against blue light in physiological conditions and in pigmentary disorders. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The assesment of flex blue implementation in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahala Maruli Lumbanraja

    2014-01-01

    Flex blue is a small power modular and light water cooled reactor. The reactor site is located at the bottom of the sea surface (off shore) and main control room on the ground. Hull that contains of the main reactor components is placed at a depth of 60-100 m in the bottom of the sea surface so that the safety and security system is quite high. NPP was developed by the DCNS-France to meet the electrical energy needs of the world. The purpose of this study was to study the pre-feasibility of Flex blue implementation in Indonesia based on technological factors, sea geographical conditions and regulatory. The methodology used is to study a variety of literature study on NPP Flex blue technology, geographic conditions, and regulatory systems in Indonesia. In this study, location of potential sites are on the east coast of the island of Sumatra, Java's northern coast, the coast of the Borneo island and surrounding coastal islands between the east of the Sumatra island, northern Java and Borneo, however in terms of regulation, this technology could not be implemented. (author)

  15. Intradermal Alcian-Blue Injection Method to Trace Acupuncture Meridians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baeckkyoung Sung

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective : In this article, we report on the intradermal Alcian blue staining method for tracing the meridians of acupuncture. Methods : 1% Alcian blue solution was injected into acupoints by using a 0.5mL insulin syringe with a 31-gauge needle, then the skin was incised and was observed under a stereoscopic microscope. The specimens were examined by using immunohistochemical methods and were observed under a confocal laser scanning microscope. Results : A threadlike structure, which was visualized with Alcian blue, existed in dermis layer and proceeded to hypodermis. In this structure, characteristic alignments of rod- shaped nuclei and 1-2μm sized DNA granules were observed. Furthermore, abundant blood capillary plexuses, peripheral nerve endings, and a corpusclelike structure(about 300μm in diameter were visualized in the skin tissues of acupoints. Conclusion : It was concluded that the specific threadlike and corpuscle-like structures corresponded to superficial Bonghan duct and corpuscle, respectively.

  16. [Study on the safety of blue light leak of LED].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chong-Yu; Xu, Zheng; Zhao, Su-Ling; Huang, Qing-Yu

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, the blue light properties of LED illumination devices have been investigated. Against the status quo of China's LED lighting, we measured the spectrum component of LED lamps and analyzed the photobiological safety under the current domestic and international standards GB/T 20145-2006/CIE S009/E: 2002 and IEC62471: 2006 standards as well as CTL-0744_2009-laser resolution, which provides the reference to the manufacture of LED lighting lamps as well as related safety standards and laws. If the radiance intensity of blue light in LED is lower than 100 W x m(-2) x Sr(-1), there is no harm to human eyes. LEDs will not cause harm to human eyes under normal use, but we should pay attention to the protection of special populations (children), and make sure that they avoid looking at a light source for a long time. The research has found that the blue-rich lamps can affect the human rule of work and rest, and therefore, the LED lamps with color temperature below 4 000 K and color rendering index of 80 are suitable for indoor use. At the same time, the lamps with different parameters should be selected according to the different distances.

  17. The birth of the blues: how physics underlies music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    Art and science have intimate connections, although these are often underappreciated. Western music provides compelling examples. The sensation of harmony and related melodic development are rooted in physical principles that can be understood with simple mathematics. The focus of this review is not the better known acoustics of instruments, but the structure of music itself. The physical basis of the evolution of Western music in the last half millennium is discussed, culminating with the development of the 'blues'. The paper refers to a number of works which expand the connections, and introduces material specific to the development of the 'blues'. Several conclusions are made: (1) that music is axiomatic like mathematics and that to appreciate music fully listeners must learn the axioms; (2) that this learning does not require specific conscious study but relies on a linkage between the creative and quantitative brain and (3) that a key element of the musical 'blues' comes from recreating missing notes on the modern equal temperament scale. The latter is an example of 'art built on artifacts'. Finally, brief reference is made to the value of music as a tool for teaching physics, mathematics and engineering to non-scientists.

  18. The birth of the blues: how physics underlies music

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, J M [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 Cass Avenue, Argonne IL 60439 (United States)], E-mail: jmgibson@aps.anl.gov

    2009-07-15

    Art and science have intimate connections, although these are often underappreciated. Western music provides compelling examples. The sensation of harmony and related melodic development are rooted in physical principles that can be understood with simple mathematics. The focus of this review is not the better known acoustics of instruments, but the structure of music itself. The physical basis of the evolution of Western music in the last half millennium is discussed, culminating with the development of the 'blues'. The paper refers to a number of works which expand the connections, and introduces material specific to the development of the 'blues'. Several conclusions are made: (1) that music is axiomatic like mathematics and that to appreciate music fully listeners must learn the axioms; (2) that this learning does not require specific conscious study but relies on a linkage between the creative and quantitative brain and (3) that a key element of the musical 'blues' comes from recreating missing notes on the modern equal temperament scale. The latter is an example of 'art built on artifacts'. Finally, brief reference is made to the value of music as a tool for teaching physics, mathematics and engineering to non-scientists.

  19. The birth of the blues : how physics underlies music.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    Art and science have intimate connections, although these are often underappreciated. Western music provides compelling examples. The sensation of harmony and related melodic development are rooted in physical principles that can be understood with simple mathematics. The focus of this review is not the better known acoustics of instruments, but the structure of music itself. The physical basis of the evolution of Western music in the last half millennium is discussed, culminating with the development of the 'blues'. The paper refers to a number of works which expand the connections, and introduces material specific to the development of the 'blues'. Several conclusions are made: (1) that music is axiomatic like mathematics and that to appreciate music fully listeners must learn the axioms; (2) that this learning does not require specific conscious study but relies on a linkage between the creative and quantitative brain and (3) that a key element of the musical 'blues' comes from recreating missing notes on the modern equal temperament scale. The latter is an example of 'art built on artifacts'. Finally, brief reference is made to the value of music as a tool for teaching physics, mathematics and engineering to non-scientists.

  20. Adverse drug reaction, patent blue V dye and anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Swagata; Nair, Priya V

    2012-11-01

    Patent blue vital (PBV) dye is used for varied perioperative indications, and has a potential for causing life-threatening allergic reactions. In this retrospective case series study, at a tertiary level neurosciences centre, we analysed the nature, management and outcome of adverse drug reaction to the preoperative use of PBV for marking vertebral level prior to back surgeries. Patients were identified from the theatre and radiology database. Data were collected from the patients' notes retrieved from the medical records division. Eleven of 1247 (0.88%) patients experienced adverse reactions: 6 (0.48%) patients had minor grade I reactions (urticaria, blue hives, pruritis or generalised rash), 4 (0.32%) had grade II reactions (transient hypotension/bronchospasm/laryngospasm) and grade III reaction (hypotension requiring prolonged vasopressor support) was noted in 1 (0.08%) patient. No mortality was seen. The time of onset (range 10-45 min) frequently coincided with induction of anaesthesia or prone positioning of patient. Seven (63.6%) cases were cancelled or postponed (range 2-63 days). Treatment varied independent of the grade of reaction. Allergy workup (often incomplete) was done for 6 (54%) patients. An awareness of the time of onset and infrequency of life-threatening reactions to patent blue dye may result in better management, less postponement, more complete workup and referral of these events.

  1. Adverse drug reaction, patent blue V dye and anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swagata Tripathy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Patent blue vital (PBV dye is used for varied perioperative indications, and has a potential for causing life-threatening allergic reactions. In this retrospective case series study, at a tertiary level neurosciences centre, we analysed the nature, management and outcome of adverse drug reaction to the preoperative use of PBV for marking vertebral level prior to back surgeries. Methods: Patients were identified from the theatre and radiology database. Data were collected from the patients′ notes retrieved from the medical records division. Results: Eleven of 1247 (0.88% patients experienced adverse reactions: 6 (0.48% patients had minor grade I reactions (urticaria, blue hives, pruritis or generalised rash, 4 (0.32% had grade II reactions (transient hypotension/bronchospasm/laryngospasm and grade III reaction (hypotension requiring prolonged vasopressor support was noted in 1 (0.08% patient. No mortality was seen. The time of onset (range 10-45 min frequently coincided with induction of anaesthesia or prone positioning of patient. Seven (63.6% cases were cancelled or postponed (range 2-63 days. Treatment varied independent of the grade of reaction. Allergy workup (often incomplete was done for 6 (54% patients. Conclusion: An awareness of the time of onset and infrequency of life-threatening reactions to patent blue dye may result in better management, less postponement, more complete workup and referral of these events.

  2. DECOLORIZATION OF BLUE 13 WITH ASPERGILLUS NIVEUS AND FUSARIUM MONILIFORME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya KARACA

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the changing world trends has been increasing interest in colored products. In the textile industry, to give the blue color to the textiles the heavily used Ambifiks Blue H5R (Blue 13 dye. This dye has been given from plants in the environment of the receiving water to results from the toxic effects. For reduction of this toxic effect has been isolated Aspergillus niveus and Fusarium moniliforme from porsuk Stream were invastigated because of decolorizasyon capabilities with different physiological conditions (pH, temprature, agitate condition. For A. niveus results have been obtained up to nearly %95 at pH 3, 35°C and 120-150 rpm. For F. moniliforme results have been obtained up to nearly %95 at pH 7, 20°C ve 120 rpm. For A. niveus decolorisation results were close to dead cells and live cells.Dead cells decolorisation were about %90 for F. moniliforme and live cells decolorisation were about %75.

  3. Plant responses to UV and blue light: biochemical and genetic approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, G.I.; Christie, J.M.; Fuglevand, G.; Long, J.C.; Jackson, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    UV and blue light control many aspects of plant growth and development. It is evident that several different photoreceptors mediate responses to UV and blue light, and there are reports of the functional and biochemical characterisation of a putative photoreceptor for phototropism and of the functional and molecular characterisation of the CRY1 photoreceptor, encoded by the Arabidopsis HY4 gene. The CRY1 photoreceptor mediates extension growth and gene expression responses to UV-A/blue light presumably through different or branching signal transduction pathways. Progress has been made in cell physiological and biochemical studies of UV/blue light signal transduction, but much remains to be done to relate candidate UV/blue signal transduction events to particular photoreceptors and responses. The application of a genetic approach in Arabidopsis has been responsible for many advances in understanding UV/blue responses, but further UV-B, UV-A and blue light response mutants need to be isolated. (author)

  4. Microspectrophotometric studies of Romanowsky stained blood cells. III. The action of methylene blue and azure B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, P N; Galbraith, W

    1984-01-01

    The performances of two standardized Romanowsky stains (azure B/eosin and azure B/methylene blue/eosin) have been compared with each other and with a methylene blue/eosin stain. Visible-light absorbance spectra of various hematological substrates have been measured. These have been analyzed in terms of the quantities of bound azure B, methylene blue and eosin dimers and monomers, and in terms of the CIE color coordinates. It has been found that the addition of methylene blue to azure B/eosin produces little change in performance, at least using these two analytical methods. Methylene blue/eosin does not produce the purplish colorations typical of the Romanowsky effect. This is due not to differences between the spectra of methylene blue and azure B, but to the fact that methylene blue does not facilitate the binding of eosin to cellular substrates to the same extent as azure B.

  5. Antimicrobial blue light inactivation of pathogenic microbes: State of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yucheng; Wang, Ying; Wang, Yuguang; Murray, Clinton K; Hamblin, Michael R; Hooper, David C; Dai, Tianhong

    2017-11-01

    As an innovative non-antibiotic approach, antimicrobial blue light in the spectrum of 400-470nm has demonstrated its intrinsic antimicrobial properties resulting from the presence of endogenous photosensitizing chromophores in pathogenic microbes and, subsequently, its promise as a counteracter of antibiotic resistance. Since we published our last review of antimicrobial blue light in 2012, there have been a substantial number of new studies reported in this area. Here we provide an updated overview of the findings from the new studies over the past 5 years, including the efficacy of antimicrobial blue light inactivation of different microbes, its mechanism of action, synergism of antimicrobial blue light with other angents, its effect on host cells and tissues, the potential development of resistance to antimicrobial blue light by microbes, and a novel interstitial delivery approach of antimicrobial blue light. The potential new applications of antimicrobial blue light are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cellular effects of halogen blue light from dental curing unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trosic, I.; Pavicic, I.; Jukic, S.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Halogen curing lights are the most frequently used polymerization source in dental offices. Light-cured bonding systems have become increasingly popular among clinicians because they offer a number of advantages over self-cured adhesives. The effort to increase polymerization quality releases the commercially available high power light density dental curing units. Emitted visible blue light belongs to the range of nonionizing radiation. Common concern in both, patients and dentist grows with regard to the unfavorable effects on the pulp tissue. The aim of study was to evaluate the time and dose dependence effect of halogen light curing unit (Elipar TriLight, ESPE Dental AG, Germany) at the disposed condition modes in vitro. A quartz-tungsten-halogen light source emits radiation of the wavelengths between 400 and 515 nm. This halogen blue light source operates in the three illumination modes, medium (M), exponential (E) and standard (S), and five illumination times. The total irradiance or the light intensity was measured by the light intensity control area on the control panel of device and mean light intensity given by manufacturer was 800 m W/cm 2 . Continuous culture of V79 cells was illuminated in triplicate. The influence of medium mode (M), exponential (E) and standard (S) illumination during 20, 40 and 80 sec on the cell viability, colony forming ability and proliferation of V79 cell culture was investigated. Trypan blue exclusion test was used to determine cell viability, both, in the treated and control cell samples. Colony forming ability was assessed for each exposure time and mode by colony count on post-exposure day 7. Cell proliferation was determined by cell counts for each time and mode of exposure during five post-exposure days. Statistical difference were determined at p<0.05 (Statistica 7.0, StatSoft Inc., USA). Viability of cells was not affected by blue light in view of exposure time and modes. Regardless to exposure or illumination

  7. Age-class separation of blue-winged ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohman, W.L.; Moore, J.L.; Twedt, D.J.; Mensik, John G.; Logerwell, E.

    1995-01-01

    Accurate determination of age is of fundamental importance to population and life history studies of waterfowl and their management. Therefore, we developed quantitative methods that separate adult and immature blue-winged teal (Anas discors), cinnamon teal (A. cyanoptera), and northern shovelers (A. clypeata) during spring and summer. To assess suitability of discriminant models using 9 remigial measurements, we compared model performance (% agreement between predicted age and age assigned to birds on the basis of definitive cloacal or rectral feather characteristics) in different flyways (Mississippi and Pacific) and between years (1990-91 and 1991-92). We also applied age-classification models to wings obtained from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service harvest surveys in the Mississippi and Central-Pacific flyways (wing-bees) for which age had been determined using qualitative characteristics (i.e., remigial markings, shape, or wear). Except for male northern shovelers, models correctly aged lt 90% (range 70-86%) of blue-winged ducks. Model performance varied among species and differed between sexes and years. Proportions of individuals that were correctly aged were greater for males (range 63-86%) than females (range 39-69%). Models for northern shovelers performed better in flyway comparisons within year (1991-92, La. model applied to Calif. birds, and Calif. model applied to La. birds: 90 and 94% for M, and 89 and 76% for F, respectively) than in annual comparisons within the Mississippi Flyway (1991-92 model applied to 1990-91 data: 79% for M, 50% for F). Exclusion of measurements that varied by flyway or year did not improve model performance. Quantitative methods appear to be of limited value for age separation of female blue-winged ducks. Close agreement between predicted age and age assigned to wings from the wing-bees suggests that qualitative and quantitative methods may be equally accurate for age separation of male blue-winged ducks. We interpret annual

  8. Characteristics of Alcian-blue Dye Adsorption of Natural Biofilm Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, A.; Yamamoto, T.; Sukandar; Guntur

    2018-01-01

    In this study, natural biofilm matrices formed on stones have been used for the adsorption of Alcian blue dye. Alcian blue is a member of polyvalent basic dyes that largely used from laboratory until industrial dying purposes. The adsorption of the dye onto the biofilm matrix has been carried out at different experimental conditions such as adsorption isotherm and kinetic of adsorption. The electric charge properties of biofilm matrix and its changes related to the adsorption of Alcian blue have been also investigated. Moreover, the results of Alcian blue adsorption to the biofilm were compared to those onto the acidic and neutral resin. The kinetics of adsorption result showed that the adsorption of the Alcian blue dye reached to a maximum adsorption amount within 60 minutes. The adsorption amount of Alcian blue to biofilm increased monotonously, and the maximum adsorption amount was greater compared to the resins. On the contrary, Alcian blue did not attach to the neutral resin having no electric charge. It seems that Alcian blue attached to the acidic resins due to electrostatic attractive force, and the same seems to be the case for adsorption of Alcian blue to biofilm. The adsorption of Alcian blue to the biofilm and acidic resins fitted to Langmuir type indicates that the binding of Alcian blue to the biofilm and acidic resins occurred in a monolayer like form. The maximum adsorption amount of Alcian blue on the biofilm (0.24 mmol/dry-g) was greater than those of acidic resin (0.025 mmol/dry-g). This indicates that the biofilm has many more sites for Alcian blue attachment than acidic resins. According to the result of this study, the biofilm matrix can be a good adsorbent for dye such as Alcian blue or other dyes that causing hazards in nature.

  9. Blue light dose–responses of leaf photosynthesis, morphology, and chemical composition of Cucumis sativus grown under different combinations of red and blue light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogewoning, S.W.; Trouwborst, G.; Maljaars, H.; Poorter, H.; Ieperen, van W.; Harbinson, J.

    2010-01-01

    The blue part of the light spectrum has been associated with leaf characteristics which also develop under high irradiances. In this study blue light dose–response curves were made for the photosynthetic properties and related developmental characteristics of cucumber leaves that were grown at an

  10. Suppressed speckle contrast of blue light emission out of white lamp with phosphors excited by blue laser diodes for high-brightness lighting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Junichi; Ikeda, Yoshihisa; Takeda, Yuji; Ueno, Misaki; Kawasaki, Yoji; Matsuba, Yoshiaki; Heike, Atsushi

    2012-11-01

    The speckle contrast of blue light emission out of high-brightness white lamps using phosphors excited by InGaN/GaN blue laser diodes is evaluated as a measure of coherence. As a result, speckle contrast of as low as 1.7%, the same level as a blue light emitting diode, is obtained. This implies that the original blue laser light can be converted into incoherent light through lamp structures without any dynamic mechanisms. This unique speckle-free performance is considered to be realized by multiple scattering inside the lamp structure, the multi-longitudinal mode operation of the blue laser diodes, and the use of multiple laser diodes. Such almost-incoherent white lamps can be applied for general lighting without any nuisance of speckle noise and should be categorized as lamps rather than lasers in terms of laser safety regulation.

  11. Dyes adsorption blue vegetable and blue watercolor by natural zeolites modified with surfactants;Adsorcion de colorantes azul vegetal y azul acuarela por zeolitas naturales modificadas con surfactantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardon S, C. C.; Olguin G, M. T. [ININ, Departamento de Quimica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Diaz N, M. C., E-mail: teresa.olguin@inin.gob.m [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Av. Instituto Tecnologico s/n, Ex-Rancho la Virgen, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In this work was carried out the dyes removal blue vegetable and blue watercolor of aqueous solutions, to 20 C, at different times and using a zeolite mineral of Parral (Chihuahua, Mexico) modified with hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide or dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide. The zeolite was characterized before and after of its adaptation with NaCl and later with HDTMABr and DTMABr. For the materials characterization were used the scanning electron microscopy of high vacuum; elementary microanalysis by X-ray spectroscopy of dispersed energy and X-ray diffraction techniques. It was found that the surfactant type absorbed in the zeolite material influences on the adsorption process of the blue dye. Likewise, the chemical structure between the vegetable blue dye and the blue watercolor, determines the efficiency of the color removal of the water, by the zeolites modified with the surfactants. (Author)

  12. Effects and Mechanism of Blue Light on Monascus in Liquid Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of light on Monascus and the underlying mechanism have received a great deal of interest for the industrial application of Monascus pigments. In this study, we have examined the effects of blue light on the culture morphology, mycelium growth, pigments, and citrinin yield of Monascus in liquid-state and oscillation fermentation, and explored the mechanism at a physiological level. It was found that blue light affected the colony morphology, the composition (chitin content, and permeability of the Monascus mycelium cell wall in static liquid culture, which indicates blue light benefits pigments secreting from aerial mycelium to culture medium. In liquid oscillation fermentation, the yields of Monascus pigments in fermentation broth (darkness 1741 U/g, blue light 2206 U/g and mycelium (darkness 2442 U/g, blue light 1900 U/g cultured under blue light and darkness are different. The total pigments produced per gram of Monascus mycelium under blue light was also higher (4663 U/g than that in darkness (4352 U/g. However, the production of citrinin (88 μg/g under blue light was evidently lower than that in darkness (150 μg/g. According to the degradation of citrinin caused by blue light and hydrogen peroxide, it can be concluded that blue light could degrade citrinin and inhibit the catalase activity of Monascus mycelium, subsequently suppressing the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, which is the active species that degrades citrinin.

  13. Phototropin 1 and dim-blue light modulate the red light de-etiolation response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yihai; M Folta, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Light signals regulate seedling morphological changes during de-etiolation through the coordinated actions of multiple light-sensing pathways. Previously we have shown that red-light-induced hypocotyl growth inhibition can be reversed by addition of dim blue light through the action of phototropin 1 (phot1). Here we further examine the fluence-rate relationships of this blue light effect in short-term (hours) and long-term (days) hypocotyl growth assays. The red stem-growth inhibition and blue promotion is a low-fluence rate response, and blue light delays or attenuates both the red light and far-red light responses. These de-etiolation responses include blue light reversal of red or far-red induced apical hook opening. This response also requires phot1. Cryptochromes (cry1 and cry2) are activated by higher blue light fluence-rates and override phot1's influence on hypocotyl growth promotion. Exogenous application of auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid abolished the blue light stem growth promotion in both hypocotyl growth and hook opening. Results from the genetic tests of this blue light effect in auxin transporter mutants, as well as phytochrome kinase substrate mutants indicated that aux1 may play a role in blue light reversal of red light response. Together, the phot1-mediated adjustment of phytochrome-regulated photomorphogenic events is most robust in dim blue light conditions and is likely modulated by auxin transport through its transporters.

  14. Effects and Mechanism of Blue Light on Monascus in Liquid Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Liu, Wenqing; Chen, Xiying; Cai, Junhui; Wang, Changlu; He, Weiwei

    2017-03-01

    The effect of light on Monascus and the underlying mechanism have received a great deal of interest for the industrial application of Monascus pigments. In this study, we have examined the effects of blue light on the culture morphology, mycelium growth, pigments, and citrinin yield of Monascus in liquid-state and oscillation fermentation, and explored the mechanism at a physiological level. It was found that blue light affected the colony morphology, the composition (chitin content), and permeability of the Monascus mycelium cell wall in static liquid culture, which indicates blue light benefits pigments secreting from aerial mycelium to culture medium. In liquid oscillation fermentation, the yields of Monascus pigments in fermentation broth (darkness 1741 U/g, blue light 2206 U/g) and mycelium (darkness 2442 U/g, blue light 1900 U/g) cultured under blue light and darkness are different. The total pigments produced per gram of Monascus mycelium under blue light was also higher (4663 U/g) than that in darkness (4352 U/g). However, the production of citrinin (88 μg/g) under blue light was evidently lower than that in darkness (150 μg/g). According to the degradation of citrinin caused by blue light and hydrogen peroxide, it can be concluded that blue light could degrade citrinin and inhibit the catalase activity of Monascus mycelium, subsequently suppressing the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, which is the active species that degrades citrinin.

  15. Blue light-induced immunosuppression in Bactrocera dorsalis adults, as a carryover effect of larval exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, K; Noor, M; Hori, M; Ali, A; Hussain, A; Peng, W; Chang, C-J; Zhang, H

    2017-12-01

    Detrimental effects of ultraviolet (UV) light on living organisms are well understood, little is known about the effects of blue light irradiation. Although a recent study revealed that blue light caused more harmful effects on insects than UV light and blue light irradiation killed insect pests of various orders including Diptera, the effects of blue light on physiology of insects are still largely unknown. Here we studied the effects of blue light irradiation on cuticular melanin in larval and the immune response in adult stage of Bactrocera dorsalis. We also evaluated the effects of blue light exposure in larval stage on various age and mass at metamorphosis and the mediatory role of cuticular melanin in carryover effects of larval stressors across metamorphosis. We found that larvae exposed to blue light decreased melanin contents in their exoskeleton with smaller mass and delayed metamorphosis than insects reared without blue light exposure. Across metamorphosis, lower melanotic encapsulation response and higher susceptibility to Beauveria bassiana was detected in adults that had been exposed to blue light at their larval stage, thereby constituting the first evidence that blue light impaired adult immune function in B. dorsalis as a carryover effect of larval exposure.

  16. The ancient blue oak woodlands of California: longevity and hydroclimatic history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahle, D.W.; Griffin, R.D.; Meko, D.M.; Therrell, M.D.; Edmondson, J.R.; Cleaveland, M.K.; Burnette, D.J.; Abatzoglou, J.T.; Redmond, K.T.; Dettinger, M.D.; Cayan, D.R.

    2013-01-01

    Ancient blue oak trees are still widespread across the foothills of the Coast Ranges, Cascades, and Sierra Nevada in California. The most extensive tracts of intact old-growth blue oak woodland appear to survive on rugged and remote terrain in the south Coast Ranges and on the foothills west and southwest of Mt. Lassen. In our sampling of old-growth stands, most blue oak appear to have recruited to the canopy in the mid- to late-19th century. The oldest living blue oak tree sampled was over 459-years old and several dead blue oak logs had over 500 annual rings. Precipitation sensitive tree-ring chronologies up to 700-years long have been developed from old blue oak trees and logs. Annual ring-width chronologies of blue oak are strongly correlated with cool season precipitation totals, streamflow in the major rivers of California, and the estuarine water quality of San Francisco Bay. A new network of 36 blue oak chronologies records spatial anomalies in growth that arise from latitudinal changes in the mean storm track and location of landfalling atmospheric rivers. These long, climate-sensitive blue oak chronologies have been used to reconstruct hydroclimatic history in California and will help to better understand and manage water resources. The environmental history embedded in blue oak growth chronologies may help justify efforts to conserve these authentic old-growth native woodlands.

  17. Models for circumstellar nebulae around red and blue supergiants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chita, S. M.

    2011-10-01

    In this thesis, we model the circumstellar medium of stars with initial masses of 8, 12, 18 and 20 solar masses, over their entire life from the main sequence until their supernova explosion. During the post-main-sequence stages, stars can evolve through several blue and red supergiant stages depending on their initial mass, composition and rotation rate. The models considered in the second Chapter have long-lasting RSG stages starting after the MS. In this phase, they develop shells of RSG wind material at the location where the free streaming RSG wind is stalled by the thermal pressure of the hot MS bubble, close to the central star. The RSG shells develop violent Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. Once these start to grow non-linear, the RSG shell becomes highly structured as clumps form, and shell material mixes with material in the hot bubble. Later, the stars evolve to the BSG stage, during which the RSG shells are completely destroyed. These models return to the RSG stage, and build new RSG shells, which are more massive than those formed earlier. RSG shells are essential for our understanding of bipolar emission nebulae around BSGs. In the third Chapter are shown the results of the wind-wind interaction model of single star with 12 solar masses. On a time scale of a few 10000 yr, a BSG hour-glas shaped nebula expands into the sphere defined by the RSG shell. The faster polar parts of the hour glass hit the inner edge of the RSG shell first. The collision creates a pair of hot and dense polar caps. As time passes, the collision zone moves to lower latitudes of the RSG shell and becomes more confined in latitude. At the same time, the interaction of the BSG wind with the equatorial disk defines a second, ring shaped collision zone in the equatorial plane. These structures are reminiscent of the observed nebulae around the blue supergiant Sher 25. In the Chapter 3 we present calculations that predict the properties of the circumstellar medium for rapidly rotating

  18. [Blue light hazards associated with crystal glassware production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Tsutomu; Ueno, Satoru; Kobayashi, Yuuichi; Kozu, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    In factories for glassware production, workers are exposed to intense visible light emitted from hot objects such as furnaces and molten glass. High exposure to short-wavelength visible light, called blue light, can cause photoretinopathy. The objective of this study was to quantify the blue-light hazards associated with glassware production. Spectral radiances of walls and heating elements inside furnaces were measured, as well as those of molten glass placed inside furnaces in a factory producing crystal glass crafts. The factory had two reheating furnaces, three melting furnaces, and a furnace for preheating blowpipes. The effective radiances of the inner furnace walls, the heating elements, and the molten glass were calculated from the measured spectral radiances and compared with the threshold limit value (TLV) in accordance with ACGIH guidelines. The temperature of each light source was determined by comparing the measured spectral radiance with that of a black body. The measured effective radiances were in the range of 0.00498-0.708 mW/cm(2)sr and increased steeply with increasing light source temperatures in the range of 1,075-1,516 °C. The effective radiance of each light source was nearly equal to the effective radiance of the black body at the same temperature. The effective radiances of walls, heating elements, and molten glass inside the furnaces are lower than one tenth of the TLV for exposure durations longer than 10(4) s per day. Thus, it is not hazardous to view these light sources. However, the effective radiance at a higher light source temperature of approximately 1,800 °C will exceed the TLV. In this case, hot objects in a workplace for glassware production may present blue light hazards.

  19. The international regulation of herring, blue whiting and mackerel fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krysov A. I.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the fisheries management is to provide the conditions for long-term, high and sustainable fishing. Most of the fish stocks in the North-East Atlantic's are transboundary and straddling, and some international agreements in the field of regulation of their fishing are required for effective management. Achieving multilateral international agreements in the field of fisheries is very difficult and long-term process, because it affects the economic and political interests of the contracting parties. The paper considers results of the analysis of stock dynamics of the most important fishery resources in the North-East Atlantic – herring, blue whiting and mackerel – in different historical periods. As in the past few decades, we have seen periods of both managed and unmanaged fisheries and in relation to the value of stocks of pelagic fish there have been significant fluctuations, in this paper the authors have attempted to estimate the value of concerted international fisheries management to maintain a stable state of stocks of pelagic fish. Implementation of scientific recommendations agreed by the participating countries of ICES and the joint management of the herring stock management contribute to the preservation of stock stable and optimal levels of withdrawal of the object. The historical experience of the international fishing of blue whiting has shown that compliance by states involved in the fishery advice of ICES and its reserve management activities and promotes the good stock condition. To save the mackerel stock within safe biological boundaries it is necessary to achieve the agreed long-term plan for managing its fisheries between all participants in the fishery. In the long term for the conservation of stocks of herring, blue whiting and North East mackerel in the safe biological boundaries, the international regulation of their fisheries based on the scientific recommendations of ICES in the framework of NEAFC and

  20. Can video playback provide social information for foraging blue tits?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liisa Hämäläinen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Video playback is becoming a common method for manipulating social stimuli in experiments. Parid tits are one of the most commonly studied groups of wild birds. However, it is not yet clear if tits respond to video playback or how their behavioural responses should be measured. Behaviours may also differ depending on what they observe demonstrators encountering. Here we present blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus videos of demonstrators discovering palatable or aversive prey (injected with bitter-tasting Bitrex from coloured feeding cups. First we quantify variation in demonstrators’ responses to the prey items: aversive prey provoked high rates of beak wiping and head shaking. We then show that focal blue tits respond differently to the presence of a demonstrator on a video screen, depending on whether demonstrators discover palatable or aversive prey. Focal birds faced the video screen more during aversive prey presentations, and made more head turns. Regardless of prey type, focal birds also hopped more frequently during the presence of a demonstrator (compared to a control video of a different coloured feeding cup in an empty cage. Finally, we tested if demonstrators’ behaviour affected focal birds’ food preferences by giving individuals a choice to forage from the same cup as a demonstrator, or from the cup in the control video. We found that only half of the individuals made their choice in accordance to social information in the videos, i.e., their foraging choices were not different from random. Individuals that chose in accordance with a demonstrator, however, made their choice faster than individuals that chose an alternative cup. Together, our results suggest that video playback can provide social cues to blue tits, but individuals vary greatly in how they use this information in their foraging decisions.

  1. Blue guardian: an open architecture for rapid ISR demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Donald A.; Borntrager, Luke A.; Green, David M.

    2016-05-01

    Throughout the Department of Defense (DoD), acquisition, platform integration, and life cycle costs for weapons systems have continued to rise. Although Open Architecture (OA) interface standards are one of the primary methods being used to reduce these costs, the Air Force Rapid Capabilities Office (AFRCO) has extended the OA concept and chartered the Open Mission System (OMS) initiative with industry to develop and demonstrate a consensus-based, non-proprietary, OA standard for integrating subsystems and services into airborne platforms. The new OMS standard provides the capability to decouple vendor-specific sensors, payloads, and service implementations from platform-specific architectures and is still in the early stages of maturation and demonstration. The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) - Sensors Directorate has developed the Blue Guardian program to demonstrate advanced sensing technology utilizing open architectures in operationally relevant environments. Over the past year, Blue Guardian has developed a platform architecture using the Air Force's OMS reference architecture and conducted a ground and flight test program of multiple payload combinations. Systems tested included a vendor-unique variety of Full Motion Video (FMV) systems, a Wide Area Motion Imagery (WAMI) system, a multi-mode radar system, processing and database functions, multiple decompression algorithms, multiple communications systems, and a suite of software tools. Initial results of the Blue Guardian program show the promise of OA to DoD acquisitions, especially for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) payload applications. Specifically, the OMS reference architecture was extremely useful in reducing the cost and time required for integrating new systems.

  2. Magnetic graphene sponge for the removal of methylene blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Baowei; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Xie, Jingru; Wu, Ruihan; Liu, Xiaoyang; Li, Hongliang; Chen, Fang; Yang, Hua; Ming, Zhu; Yang, Sheng-Tao, E-mail: yangst@pku.edu.cn

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Magnetic graphene sponge is prepared for dye removal in aqueous solution. • Magnetic graphene sponge has an adsorption capacity of 526 mg/g for methylene blue. • Adsorption behaviors of methylene blue on magnetic graphene sponge are investigated. • Magnetic graphene sponge could be partially regenerated by washing with acidic ethanol. - Abstract: Magnetic carbon nanomaterials have been widely adopted as adsorbents in water treatment, but the low adsorption capacities largely limit their practical applications. In this study, magnetic graphene sponge (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-GS) was prepared by lyophilization for the adsorption of dye pollutant. The incorporation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} enabled the magnetic separation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-GS after the adsorption of methylene blue (MB). The adsorption capacity of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-GS for MB was 526 mg/g, much higher than those of the magnetic carbon nanoadsorbents in the literature. The adsorption kinetics of MB on Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-GS was moderately fast, which could be analyzed by the pseudo-second-order model and intraparticle diffusion model. The thermodynamics study revealed that the adsorption was driven by the increased randomness on the interface. The pH and ionic strength had meaningful influences on the adsorption capacity of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-GS. The facile regeneration of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-GS would definitely reduce its operating cost. The implications to the environmental applications of magnetic carbon nanoadsorbents are discussed.

  3. Blue and white light emission from zinc oxide nanoforests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafisa Noor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Blue and white light emission is observed when high voltage stress is applied using micrometer-separated tungsten probes across a nanoforest formed of ZnO nanorods. The optical spectrum of the emitted light consistently shows three fine peaks with very high amplitude in the 465–485 nm (blue range, corresponding to atomic transitions of zinc. Additional peaks with smaller amplitudes in the 330–650 nm range and broad spectrum white light is observed depending on the excitation conditions. The spatial and spectral distribution of the emitted light, with pink–orange regions identifying percolation paths in some cases and high intensity blue and white light with center to edge variations in others, indicate that multiple mechanisms lead to light emission. Under certain conditions, the tungsten probe tips used to make electrical contact with the ZnO structures melt during the excitation, indicating that the local temperature can exceed 3422 °C, which is the melting temperature of tungsten. The distinct and narrow peaks in the optical spectra and the abrupt increase in current at high electric fields suggest that a plasma is formed by application of the electrical bias, giving rise to light emission via atomic transitions in gaseous zinc and oxygen. The broad spectrum, white light emission is possibly due to the free electron transitions in the plasma and blackbody radiation from molten silicon. The white light may also arise from the recombination through multiple defect levels in ZnO or due to the optical excitation from solid ZnO. The electrical measurements performed at different ambient pressures result in light emission with distinguishable differences in the emission properties and I–V curves, which also indicate that the dielectric breakdown of ZnO, sublimation, and plasma formation processes are the underlying mechanisms.

  4. Aging of porous silicon and the origin of blue shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karacali, T.; Efeoglu, H.

    2002-01-01

    In spite of the efforts on understanding the mechanism of visible luminescence from porous silicon (PS), detailed understanding of that has not been achieved. Proposed most spectacular model for optical activity of PS is Quantum Confinement (QC) and the blue shift of luminescence commonly attributed to the shrink in size of silicon pillars during the anodization and/or aging. Present study showed that this shift is not fully related to the QC. N-type epitaxy silicon samples were anodized in HF:EtOH(1:1) solution under the illumination of 15 mW He-Ne laser. Measurements showed that during the aging up to 1.5 months there was a blue shift. Unfortunately deconvolution of spectrums showed that, 210 MeV shift is not fully related to the QC. The peaks found at 1.51 eV, 1.56 eV and 1.70 eV were weakening by the aging. The peak at 1.7 eV reported to be related to Si-SiO 2 interface state but the origin of other peaks is not known. Peak located at 1.81 eV shifted to 1.90 eV after 1.5 months and that showed us; effective blue shift was about 90 MeV. The existence of these three peaks affects the optical stability of PS. For a stable PS formation HF-EtOH-H 2 O 2 solution used and an extra stabilisation in H 2 O 2 carried out for 45 min after the anodization and rinsing in EtOH. Three peaks given above disappeared and a stable luminescence at 2.01 eV with a Gaussian distribution obtained

  5. PROJECT BLUE: An Operational Oceanography program in the Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves dos Santos, Francisco; da Rocha Fragoso, Maurício; Maturo Marques da Cruz, Leonardo; de Castro Pellegrini, Julio Augusto; de Freitas Assad, Luiz Paulo; Landau, Luiz; Adissi, Flávia

    2013-04-01

    The beginning of 2013 will mark the start for the Project BLUE, one of the greatest efforts in operational oceanography ever proposed in Brazil. The region of interest is located in the continental shelf break between Cabo Frio (23°S) and Floriananópolis Island (28°S). The region is dominated by the Brazil Current system, formed by the Brazil Current, carrying Tropical Water southward from surface down to 400-500 meters and the Intermediate Counter Current, flowing northward in the interface of the South Atlantic Central Water and the Antarctic Intermediate Water. In situ data and operational forecasts efforts in this oil rich region are still few and disperse. Nevertheless, the constant increase of offshore operations is followed by the necessity of both a baseline study and a systematic data collection. All project structure is aimed at optimizing real-time data collection and displaying. Project BLUE is formed by 4 modules: (1) In situ data collection will be performed by 5 gliders, 108 surface drifters and 36 subsurface profiling floats. (2) Remote Sensing module count on a local receiving antenna to provide operational information of Sea Surface Temperature, Height and Ocean Color. (3) Numerical Modelling module aims, initially, to implement a regional grid for long climatological runs, followed by an operational run, with assimilation of the data generated by the first module. One of the great concerns of the Project BLUE is to turn public all collected data, allowing for a greater number of researchers to access the data and, consequently, improving the knowledge on the region. For that purpose, there is an specific module (4) Data displaying focused on easing the access to the data via web services. It is expected, by the end of the first three years, to have a systematic data collection system, a well adapted assimilation scheme and an operational forecast model for the Santos Basin, providing reliable information for offshore operations and emergency

  6. Plastic debris straps on threatened blue shark Prionace glauca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenero, Ana I; Barría, Claudio; Broglio, Elisabetta; García-Barcelona, Salvador

    2017-02-15

    Juveniles of blue shark Prionace glauca caught in pelagic longlines targeting tuna and swordfish in the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea were found entangled with plastic straps around their gill region. The plastic debris were identified as strapping bands and caused several degrees of injuries on the dorsal musculature and pectoral fins. They were also obstructing the gill slits probably causing breathing issues. These records were uploaded in the web site seawatchers.org, and highlight the potential of citizen science in revealing the occurrence of such problems which could help to measure the effects of plastic debris on marine life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Severe Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome in a Neonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L; Wewer, V; Pedersen, S

    2008-01-01

    We report on a child with blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS) presenting during the first days of life with severe bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract. Medical treatment with methylprednisolone, cyklokapron, interferon 1 alpha and numerous blood transfusions were given to control...... bleeding during the first 3 years of life. Afterwards repeated endoscopic electrocoagulations were performed over a period of one year resulting in a termination of bleeding episodes. At ten years of age the patient developed spastic diplegia with slight walking disabilities, coordination and fine motor...

  8. Do blue-light filtering intraocular lenses affect visual function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavric, Alenka; Pompe, Manca Tekavcic

    2014-11-01

    To study different aspects of visual function, macular changes, and subjective differences between the eye with an ultraviolet (UV) and blue-light filtering intraocular lens (IOL) and the fellow eye with a UV-light filtering IOL. Thirty patients (60 eyes) with senile cataract had both cataracts extracted, and an IOL was implanted at least 2 years before clinical evaluation. In one eye, AcrySof SA60AT (a UV-light filtering IOL) was implanted, whereas in the contralateral eye, AcrySof IQ SN60WF (a blue-light filtering IOL) was implanted. Each patient underwent visual acuity testing, color vision testing (Ishihara and Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue tests), and contrast sensitivity (CS) testing. The macula was evaluated with optical coherence tomography and with clinical examination. Patients were asked if they noted any difference between the implanted IOLs concerning visual impression. Subjective visual quality was evaluated using the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire. There was a borderline statistically significant difference in the mean best-corrected visual acuity (p = 0.05). As regards color vision, no significant changes in Ishihara and Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue error scores were detected between both eyes (p = 0.48 and p = 0.59, respectively). Analysis of CS showed no significant difference between the groups at any spatial frequency. There were also no statistically significant differences in central macular thickness and total macular volume between the two IOL groups (p = 0.72 and p = 0.61, respectively). In both IOL groups, three eyes developed an epiretinal membrane, and six eyes developed early signs of age-related macular degeneration. This study showed no significant effects of a blue-light filtering IOL on visual acuity and no influence on color perception and CS. After more than 2 years, there were no significant differences in macular changes between the IOL groups. Clinical evidence of the effect of a blue-light filtering IOL on

  9. The blue complexes of U in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musikas, C.

    1976-01-01

    Mixed-valence uranium complexes were synthesized. Hydrolysis of hexavalent U leads to anionic species soluble in aqueous solutions when the UO 2 ++ ions are neutralized by tetraalkylammonium hydroxides. These complexes are polynuclear and the size and interatomic distances found for the polyanions are those of macromolecules. By hydrazine of these complexes, solutions were obtained and their absorption spectra studied. The spectra of U(VI) and U(V) ions are observed, together with new bands attributable to a charge transfer. It may be concluded that the blue complexes of uranium are type II composite-valence complexes for which the delocalization coefficient α can be calculated [fr

  10. Dermocystidium sp. infection in Blue Ridge Sculpin captured in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Vicki; Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Snyder, Craig D.; Snook, Erin; Adams, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Raised pale cysts were observed on Blue Ridge Sculpin Cottus caeruleomentum during stream fish community surveys in Catoctin Mountain Park, Maryland. When examined histologically, preserved sculpin exhibited multiple cysts containing spherical endospores with a refractile central body characteristic of Dermocystidiumspp. Cysts were not observed on the gills or internally. The portion of the watershed in which affected sculpin were observed contained lower than expected numbers of sculpin, raising concerns about the population effects of this infection. A nearby stream lacked sculpin even though they are common in this region, further suggesting the possibility of regional effects. This is the first report of a Dermocystidium infecting any fish species in the eastern United States.

  11. Cache-Oblivious Red-Blue Line Segment Intersection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Mølhave, Thomas; Zeh, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    We present an optimal cache-oblivious algorithm for finding all intersections between a set of non-intersecting red segments and a set of non-intersecting blue segments in the plane. Our algorithm uses $O(\\frac{N}{B}\\log_{M/B}\\frac{N}{B}+T/B)$ memory transfers, where N is the total number...... of segments, M and B are the memory and block transfer sizes of any two consecutive levels of any multilevel memory hierarchy, and T is the number of intersections....

  12. Blue-green phosphor for fluorescent lighting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Alok; Comanzo, Holly; Manivannan, Venkatesan; Setlur, Anant Achyut

    2005-03-15

    A fluorescent lamp including a phosphor layer including Sr.sub.4 Al.sub.14 O.sub.25 :Eu.sup.2+ (SAE) and at least one of each of a red, green and blue emitting phosphor. The phosphor layer can optionally include an additional, deep red phosphor and a yellow emitting phosphor. The resulting lamp will exhibit a white light having a color rendering index of 90 or higher with a correlated color temperature of from 2500 to 10000 Kelvin. The use of SAE in phosphor blends of lamps results in high CRI light sources with increased stability and acceptable lumen maintenance over, the course of the lamp life.

  13. Combustion synthesis of cobalt pigments: Blue and pink

    OpenAIRE

    Mimani, T; Ghosh, Samrat

    2000-01-01

    Idiochromatic blue cobalt aluminate (CoAl2O4) and purple pyroborate Co2B2O5 were prepared by solution combustion method using corresponding metal nitrates, boric acid and carbohydrazide mixtures. Allochromatic Co2+ doped in Al2O3/ZnAl2O4 and Mg2B2O5 pigments having the same colour intensity as idiochromatic pigments were obtained similarly. All the pigments are voluminous, homogeneously coloured with a large surface area. The products are characterized by their characteristic colours, XRD, IR...

  14. Limits on carbon sequestration in arid blue carbon ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schile, Lisa M; Kauffman, J Boone; Crooks, Stephen; Fourqurean, James W; Glavan, Jane; Megonigal, J Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Coastal ecosystems produce and sequester significant amounts of carbon ("blue carbon"), which has been well documented in humid and semi-humid regions of temperate and tropical climates but less so in arid regions where mangroves, marshes, and seagrasses exist near the limit of their tolerance for extreme temperature and salinity. To better understand these unique systems, we measured whole-ecosystem carbon stocks in 58 sites across the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in natural and planted mangroves, salt marshes, seagrass beds, microbial mats, and coastal sabkha (inter- and supratidal unvegetated salt flats). Natural mangroves held significantly more carbon in above- and belowground biomass than other vegetated ecosystems. Planted mangrove carbon stocks increased with age, but there were large differences for sites of similar age. Soil carbon varied widely across sites (2-367 Mg C/ha), with ecosystem averages that ranged from 49 to 156 Mg C/ha. For the first time, microbial mats were documented to contain soil carbon pools comparable to vascular plant-dominated ecosystems, and could arguably be recognized as a unique blue carbon ecosystem. Total ecosystem carbon stocks ranged widely from 2 to 515 Mg C/ha (seagrass bed and mangrove, respectively). Seagrass beds had the lowest carbon stock per unit area, but the largest stock per total area due to their large spatial coverage. Compared to similar ecosystems globally, mangroves and marshes in the UAE have lower plant and soil carbon stocks; however, the difference in soil stocks is far larger than with plant stocks. This incongruent difference between stocks is likely due to poor carbon preservation under conditions of weakly reduced soils (200-350 mV), coarse-grained sediments, and active shoreline migration. This work represents the first attempt to produce a country-wide coastal ecosystem carbon accounting using a uniform sampling protocol, and was motivated by specific policy goals identified by the Abu Dhabi Global

  15. Pseudo-cryptanalysis of the Original Blue Midnight Wish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Søren Steffen

    2010-01-01

    The hash function Blue Midnight Wish (BMW) is a candidate in the SHA-3 competition organized by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). BMW was selected for the second round of the competition, but the algorithm was tweaked in a number of ways. In this paper we describe...... cryptanalysis on the original version of BMW, as submitted to the SHA-3 competition in October 2008. The attacks described are (near-)collision, preimage and second preimage attacks on the BMW compression function. These attacks can also be described as pseudo-attacks on the full hash function, i.e., as attacks...

  16. Cloacolith in a blue-fronted amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Nevarez, Javier; Tully, Thomas N

    2010-06-01

    A 4-year-old blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva) was admitted for vocalization secondary to constipation. Saline infusion cloacoscopy revealed the presence of a 2-cm-diameter cloacolith within the coprodeum that was obstructing the rectal opening. The cloacolith was fragmented with a pair of biopsy forceps and the pieces removed. The cloacolith was subsequently analyzed and was composed of 100% uric acid salts. The bird improved completely and was able to defecate normally after the procedure. Cloacoliths are relative uncommon cloacal conditions, and this case documents cloacoscopic findings, rectal obstruction, and confirmation of its uric acid composition by urolith analysis.

  17. Vertebral chondrosarcoma in a blue-fronted parrot (Amazona aestiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Reis Blume

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chondrosarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal tumor in which the neoplastic cells produce cartilaginous matrix and is uncommonly described in birds. This report describes the clinical and pathological findings of one case of chondrosarcoma in a blue-fronted parrot (Amazona aestiva. Macroscopically a 3.6x3.5x1.8cm, nodular, ulcerated, and firm mass was identified in the dorsal synsacrum. Microscopically, the mass was composed of a monomorphic proliferation of pleomorphic spindle chondrocytes with abundant cartilaginous matrix, consistent with chondrosarcoma

  18. Transient electroluminescence on pristine and degraded phosphorescent blue OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Quan; Blom, Paul W. M.; May, Falk; Heimel, Paul; Zhang, Minlu; Eickhoff, Christian; Heinemeyer, Ute; Lennartz, Christian; Crǎciun, N. Irina

    2017-11-01

    In state-of-the-art blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode (PHOLED) device architectures, electrons and holes are injected into the emissive layer, where they are carried by the emitting and hole transporting units, respectively. Using transient electroluminescence measurements, we disentangle the contribution of the electrons and holes on the transport and efficiency of both pristine and degraded PHOLEDs. By varying the concentration of hole transporting units, we show that for pristine PHOLEDs, the transport is electron dominated. Furthermore, degradation of the PHOLEDs upon electrical aging is not related to the hole transport but is governed by a decrease in the electron transport due to the formation of electron traps.

  19. Decolorisation of disperse dark blue 148 with ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, S.; Yetisir, I.; Eren, H. A.

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is decolorisation of CI Disperse Dark Blue 148 dye by ozone treatment which is one of the most attractive alternatives for solving the problem of color in textile dyeing effluents. A venturi injection system added dyeing chamber for getting ozone from the ozone generator. And additive (acetic acid and dispersing agent) put in the dyeing. After the coloration, the experimental color, chemical oxygen demand (COD), pH, temperature (°C) and conductivity (μS/cm) were measured. The results encourage the use of the system for decolorisation trials as well as dyebath effluent recycling.

  20. The Beef Jerky Blues: Methemoglobinemia From Home Cured Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Jillian L; Spoelhof, Rachel; Pallasch, Erin M; Mycyk, Mark B

    2016-09-30

    Methemoglobinemia can result from ingestion of nitrite- or nitrate-containing foods. Here, we report a case where an adolescent girl and her father developed clinically significant methemoglobinemia after ingestion of "homemade" beef jerky prepared with sodium nitrate salt purchased at a local grocery store. Both had palpitations, dyspnea, and visible mucosal cyanosis. The daughter had a methemoglobin level of 44.2% and the father's methemoglobin level was 34.2%. Prompt recognition of methemoglobinemia is important for initiating antidotal therapy with methylene blue.

  1. Quantification of polysaccharides fixed to Gram stained slides using lactophenol cotton blue and digital image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericksen, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Dark blue rings and circles emerged when the non-specific polysaccharide stain lactophenol cotton blue was added to Gram stained slides. The dark blue staining is attributable to the presence of capsular polysaccharides and bacterial slime associated with clumps of Gram-negative bacteria.  Since all bacterial cells are glycosylated and concentrate polysaccharides from the media, the majority of cells stain light blue. The contrast between dark and light staining is sufficient to enable a digital image processing thresholding technique to be quantitative with little background noise. Prior to the addition of lactophenol cotton blue, the Gram-stained slides appeared unremarkable, lacking ubiquitous clumps or stained polysaccharides.  Adding lactophenol cotton blue to Gram stained slides is a quick and inexpensive way to screen cell cultures for bacterial slime, clumps and biofilms that are invisible using the Gram stain alone.

  2. Effects of blue light on the circadian system and eye physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosini, Gianluca; Ferguson, Ian; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been used to provide illumination in industrial and commercial environments. LEDs are also used in TVs, computers, smart phones, and tablets. Although the light emitted by most LEDs appears white, LEDs have peak emission in the blue light range (400-490 nm). The accumulating experimental evidence has indicated that exposure to blue light can affect many physiologic functions, and it can be used to treat circadian and sleep dysfunctions. However, blue light can also induce photoreceptor damage. Thus, it is important to consider the spectral output of LED-based light sources to minimize the danger that may be associated with blue light exposure. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the effects of blue light on the regulation of physiologic functions and the possible effects of blue light exposure on ocular health.

  3. Blue stragglers as the source of the high-velocity A stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shields, J.C.; Twarog, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    A quantitative estimate of the contribution of blue stragglers to the stellar population in the solar neighborhood is made, with particular attention to the spatial distribution of early-type stragglers at large distance from the Galactic plane. Blue stragglers are assumed to be created in the disk at a rate consistent with the empirical data from open clusters, while nine plausible combinations of star formation and scale height histories are modeled. It is concluded that normal evolution without the inclusion of blue stragglers is incapable of producing early-type stars at large distances from the plane, while the addition of blue stragglers adequately fulfills the rather weak observational constraints. In addition, it is shown that if blue stragglers are produced at the rate implied by the models, roughly 30 percent of the A stars in the solar neighborhood could be blue stragglers. 48 references.

  4. Blue Light Modulates Murine Microglial Gene Expression in the Absence of Optogenetic Protein Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kevin P; Kiernan, Elizabeth A; Eliceiri, Kevin W; Williams, Justin C; Watters, Jyoti J

    2016-02-17

    Neural optogenetic applications over the past decade have steadily increased; however the effects of commonly used blue light paradigms on surrounding, non-optogenetic protein-expressing CNS cells are rarely considered, despite their simultaneous exposure. Here we report that blue light (450 nm) repetitively delivered in both long-duration boluses and rapid optogenetic bursts gene-specifically altered basal expression of inflammatory and neurotrophic genes in immortalized and primary murine wild type microglial cultures. In addition, blue light reduced pro-inflammatory gene expression in microglia activated with lipopolysaccharide. These results demonstrate previously unreported, off-target effects of blue light in cells not expressing optogenetic constructs. The unexpected gene modulatory effects of blue light on wild type CNS resident immune cells have novel and important implications for the neuro-optogenetic field. Further studies are needed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms and potential therapeutic utility of blue light modulation of the wild type CNS.

  5. Blue Light Modulates Murine Microglial Gene Expression in the Absence of Optogenetic Protein Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kevin P.; Kiernan, Elizabeth A.; Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Williams, Justin C.; Watters, Jyoti J.

    2016-01-01

    Neural optogenetic applications over the past decade have steadily increased; however the effects of commonly used blue light paradigms on surrounding, non-optogenetic protein-expressing CNS cells are rarely considered, despite their simultaneous exposure. Here we report that blue light (450 nm) repetitively delivered in both long-duration boluses and rapid optogenetic bursts gene-specifically altered basal expression of inflammatory and neurotrophic genes in immortalized and primary murine wild type microglial cultures. In addition, blue light reduced pro-inflammatory gene expression in microglia activated with lipopolysaccharide. These results demonstrate previously unreported, off-target effects of blue light in cells not expressing optogenetic constructs. The unexpected gene modulatory effects of blue light on wild type CNS resident immune cells have novel and important implications for the neuro-optogenetic field. Further studies are needed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms and potential therapeutic utility of blue light modulation of the wild type CNS. PMID:26883795

  6. Effects of blue light on the circadian system and eye physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Ian; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been used to provide illumination in industrial and commercial environments. LEDs are also used in TVs, computers, smart phones, and tablets. Although the light emitted by most LEDs appears white, LEDs have peak emission in the blue light range (400–490 nm). The accumulating experimental evidence has indicated that exposure to blue light can affect many physiologic functions, and it can be used to treat circadian and sleep dysfunctions. However, blue light can also induce photoreceptor damage. Thus, it is important to consider the spectral output of LED-based light sources to minimize the danger that may be associated with blue light exposure. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the effects of blue light on the regulation of physiologic functions and the possible effects of blue light exposure on ocular health. PMID:26900325

  7. Area-intensive bottom culture of blue mussels Mytilus edulis in a micro-tidal estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per; Christensen, Helle Torp; Hansen, Benni Winding

    2012-01-01

    Dredge fishery for blue mussels Mytilus edulis (L.) impacts the benthic ecosystem, and substitution by area-intensive bottom culture production may reduce adverse effects on the ecosystem. Two different field studies in 2007 and 2009 tested the productivity of bottom culture of blue mussels......, and whether a shift from dredging of full-grown blue mussels to production of blue mussels in bottom culture could reduce the area of impacted sea bottom. In the first study, the macrostructure of a commercial bottom culture was analysed by side scan mapping, and the growth of blue mussels was recorded...... on a transect from the edge to the central part of the bottom culture. In the second study, we analysed the effect of seeding density (1.5 and 3.5 kg m−2) on mussel production. The measured production was used to model the affected area when producing blue mussels in bottom culture. The macrostructure...

  8. The efficacy of methylene blue encapsulated in silica nanoparticles compared to naked methylene blue for photodynamic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhadmeh, Ghaseb Naser; Abdul Aziz, Azlan; Abdul Razak, Khairunisak

    2016-05-01

    This study analyzed the physical effects of methylene blue (MB) encapsulated within silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) in photodynamic therapy. The optimum concentration of MB needed to destroy red blood cells (RBCs) was determined, and the efficacy of encapsulated MB-SiNPs compared to that of naked MB was verified. The results confirmed the applicability of MB encapsulated in SiNPs on RBCs, and established a relationship between the concentration of the SiNP-encapsulated MB and the time required to rupture 50% of the RBCs (t50). The MB encapsulated in SiNPs exhibited higher efficacy compared to that of naked MB.

  9. Iris color and intraocular pressure: the Blue Mountains Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Robert; Rochtchina, Elena; Lee, Anne; Wang, Jie Jin; Mitchell, Paul

    2003-03-01

    To assess the relationship between iris color and intraocular pressure (IOP). Population-based, cross-sectional study. The Blue Mountains Eye Study examined 3,654 largely Caucasian participants, aged 49 to 97 years, from 1992 to 1994. Information was collected about glaucoma risk factors, and Goldmann applanation IOP measurements were taken. Iris color was assessed by comparing the undilated appearance of each eye with three standard photographs. Participants who had previous cataract or glaucoma surgery and those using glaucoma medications were excluded. Mean IOP measurements increased with increasing grades of iris pigmentation. After simultaneous adjustment for variables associated with IOP, mean measurements were 15.92 mm Hg for blue iris color, 16.04 mm Hg for hazel or green, 16.11 mm Hg for tan-brown, and 16.49 mm Hg for dark brown (P for trend = .001). This study demonstrates a modest but statistically significant association between increasing iris color and IOP. Copyright 2003 by Elsevier Science Inc.

  10. Mate preference of female blue tits varies with experimental photoperiod.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura B Reparaz

    Full Text Available Organisms use environmental cues to time their life-cycles and among these cues, photoperiod is the main trigger of reproductive behaviours such as territory defence or song activity. Whether photoperiod is also important for another behaviour closely associated with reproduction, mate choice, is unknown. In many bird species, mate choice occurs at two different times during the annual cycle that strongly differ in daylength: in late winter when photoperiod is short and social mates are chosen, and again around egg-laying when photoperiod is longer and extra-pair mates are chosen. This duality makes the role that photoperiod plays on mate choice behaviours intriguing. We investigated the effect of photoperiod on mate choice using three experimental photoperiodic treatments (9 L:15 D, 14 L:10 D, 18 L:6 D, using blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus as a biological model. We show that female choice was stronger under long photoperiods. In addition, female blue tits spent significantly more time near males with long tarsi and long wings. This latter preference was only expressed under long photoperiods, suggesting that some indices of male quality only become significant to females when they are strongly photostimulated, and therefore that females could select their social and extra-pair mates based on different phenotypic traits. These results shed light on the roles that photoperiod may play in stimulating pair-bonding and in refining female selectivity for male traits.

  11. Power blue and green laser diodes and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Thomas; Strauß, Uwe; Eichler, Christoph; Vierheilig, Clemens; Tautz, Sönke; Brüderl, Georg; Stojetz, Bernhard; Wurm, Teresa; Avramescu, Adrian; Somers, André; Ristic, Jelena; Gerhard, Sven; Lell, Alfred; Morgott, Stefan; Mehl, Oliver

    2013-03-01

    InGaN based green laser diodes with output powers up to 50mW are now well established for variety of applications ranging from leveling to special lighting effects and mobile projection of 12lm brightness. In future the highest market potential for visible single mode profile lasers might be laser projection of 20lm. Therefore direct green single-mode laser diodes with higher power are required. We found that self heating was the limiting factor for higher current operation. We present power-current characteristics of improved R and D samples with up to 200mW in cw-operation. An optical output power of 100mW is reached at 215mA, a current level which is suitable for long term operation. Blue InGaN laser diodes are also the ideal source for phosphor based generation of green light sources of high luminance. We present a light engine based on LARP (Laser Activated Remote Phosphor) which can be used in business projectors of several thousand lumens on screen. We discuss the advantages of a laser based systems in comparison with LED light engines. LARP requires highly efficient blue power laser diodes with output power above 1W. Future market penetration of LARP will require lower costs. Therefore we studied new designs for higher powers levels. R and D chips with power-current characteristics up to 4W in continuous wave operation on C-mount at 25°C are presented.

  12. Blue Light Phototherapy Kills Methycillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enwemeka, Chukuka S.; Williams, Debora; Enwemeka, Sombiri K.; Hollosi, Steve; Yens, David

    2010-05-01

    Background: Methycillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria continue to defy most available antibiotics. As a result infections with MRSA remain a growing public health concern. As a paradigm shift and a significant departure from the on-going trend to develop stronger drug-based therapies, we studied the effect of 405 nm and 470 nm wavelengths of blue light on two strains of MRSA—US-300 strain of CA-MRSA and the IS853 strain of HA-MRSA—in vitro. Methods: We cultured and plated each strain, following which bacteria colonies were irradiated with 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, or 60 Jcm-2 energy densities—just once. Specimens were incubated at 35° C for 24 h. Then, digital images obtained were quantified to obtain colony counts and the aggregate area occupied by bacteria colonies. Results: Each wavelength produced a statistically significant dose-dependent reduction in both the number and the aggregate area of colonies formed by each bacteria strain (Peffect was non-linear as increases of energy densities between 1.0 and 15 J cm-2 resulted in more bacteria death than similar increases between 15 J cm-2 and 60 J cm-2. Conclusion: At low doses, blue light photo-destroys HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA in vitro; raising the prospect that phototherapy may be an effective clinical tool in the on-going effort to stem MRSA infections.

  13. Ratiometric Alcohol Sensor based on a Polymeric Nile Blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif Ibrahim

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a sterilizable ratiometric fluorescent ethanol sensor with sensitivity over a wide range (0-100% of ethanol concentration v/v. The sensor is composed of a near infra red fluorescent solvatochromic dye, nile blue methacrylamide polymerized into a polyethylene (glycol dimethacrylate matrix. The dye can typically exhibit two or more wavelength dependent shifts in the fluorescence intensities based on its different micropolar environments. Two different concentrations of the nile blue methacrylamide dye were prepared and polymerized into homogenous films. The fluorescence properties of the two different films were investigated with a view to determining their ethanol sensing capabilities. The sensor was immersed in a water-ethanol solvent mixture. Excitation of the dye was performed at 470 nm. The range of emission wavelengths was 480-800 nm. The ratio of the fluorescence intensities at 620 nm and 554 nm was obtained for ethanol concentrations varying from 0-100% and the calibration curve of the ratiometric fluorescence intensities over the entire concentration range of ethanol was plotted. A ratiometric intensity change of over 33% has been obtained for pure ethanol compared to that obtained for pure water. The sensor response was rapid (≤10 minutes. The sterilizable ethanol sensor exhibits good potential for on-line monitoring of the ethanol generated in an LB fermentation chamber.

  14. FTIR Spectroscopy Applied in Remazol Blue Dye Oxidation by Laccases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Hernández, J.; Zavala-Soto, M. E.; Bibbins-Martínez, M.; Delgado-Macuil, R.; Díaz-Godinez, G.; Rojas-López, M.

    2008-04-01

    We have used FTIR with attenuated total reflectance (ATR) technique to analyze the decolourization process of Remazol Blue dye (RB19) caused by the oxidative activity of laccase enzyme. It is known that laccases catalyze the oxidation of a large range of phenolic compounds and aromatic amines carrying out one-electron oxidations, although also radicals could be formed which undergo subsequent nonenzymatic reactions. The enzyme laccase is a copper-containing polyphenol oxidase (EC 1.10.3.2) which has been tested as a potential alternative in detoxification of environmental pollutants such as dyes present in wastewaters generated for the textile industry. In order to ensure degradation or avoid formation of toxic compounds it is important to establish the mechanism by which laccase oxidizes dyes. In this research individual ATR-FTIR spectra have been recorded for several reaction times between 0 to 236 hours, and the temporal dependence of the reaction was analyzed through the relative diminution of the intensity of the infrared band at 1127 cm-1 (associated to C-N vibration), with respect to the intensity of the band at 1104 cm-1 (associated to S = O) from sulphoxide group. Decolourization process of this dye by laccase could be attributed to its accessibility on the secondary amino group, which is a potential point of attack of laccases, abstracting the hydrogen atom. This decolourization process of remazol blue dye by laccase enzyme might in a future replace the traditionally high chemical, energy and water consuming textile operations.

  15. ELECTROCHEMICAL BEHAVIOUR OF METHYLENE BLUE IN NON-AQUEOUS SOLVENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caram, J.A.; Suárez, J.F. Martínez; Gennaro, A.M.; Mirífico, M.V.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The dye is electro-reduced in two separated monoelectronic charge transfers. • Solvent/supporting electrolyte/acid/base modifies the electrochemical parameters. • A dissociation equilibrium of the dye in non-aqueous solvent is proposed. • The electro-generated and stable dye-radical is also chemically produced in EDA or KOH/DMF. • A new species is reversibly formed in KOH/EtOH or ACN. - Abstract: The electrochemical behaviour of methylene blue in solution of non-aqueous solvents with different supporting electrolytes was studied by cyclic voltammetry. Dye electro-reduction presents two well-defined processes of monoelectronic charge transfer yielding a free radical in the first process and an anion in the second electron transfer. Free radical and anion are long living species in some of the studied media. Effects of supporting electrolyte and solvent on the peak potentials, the peak current functions and the reversibility of the charge transfer processes are reported. A dissociation equilibrium of the dye in solution of non-aqueous solvents and the acid or base added determine markedly the electrochemical responses. In the particular cases of KOH/DMF or EDA basic media the chemical formation of the stable methylene blue radical was detected and it was characterized by EPR spectroscopy. A general reaction scheme is proposed

  16. Blue toe syndrome Síndrome do dedo azul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Ocke Reis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors report the case of a man with blue toe syndrome, who developed bilateral foot ischemia and underwent successful repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm and associated renal artery stenosis. Blue toe syndrome is characterized by tissue ischemia secondary to embolization of cholesterol crystals or atherothrombotic debris. Microembolization most often occurs in elderly men who undergo an invasive vascular procedure or have an aneurysm.Os autores relatam o caso de síndrome do dedo azul em um homem que apresentou um quadro de isquemia bilateral dos pés e foi submetido ao reparo bem sucedido de um aneurisma da aorta abdominal e de estenose da artéria renal associada. A síndrome do dedo azul é caracterizada pela isquemia tecidual, secundária à embolização de cristais de colesterol ou aterotrombose. A microembolização ocorre mais freqüentemente em homens idosos que têm um aneurisma ou são submetidos a um procedimento vascular invasivo.

  17. Porting Ordinary Applications to Blue Gene/Q Supercomputers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheshwari, Ketan C.; Wozniak, Justin M.; Armstrong, Timothy; Katz, Daniel S.; Binkowski, T. Andrew; Zhong, Xiaoliang; Heinonen, Olle; Karpeyev, Dmitry; Wilde, Michael

    2015-08-31

    Efficiently porting ordinary applications to Blue Gene/Q supercomputers is a significant challenge. Codes are often originally developed without considering advanced architectures and related tool chains. Science needs frequently lead users to want to run large numbers of relatively small jobs (often called many-task computing, an ensemble, or a workflow), which can conflict with supercomputer configurations. In this paper, we discuss techniques developed to execute ordinary applications over leadership class supercomputers. We use the high-performance Swift parallel scripting framework and build two workflow execution techniques-sub-jobs and main-wrap. The sub-jobs technique, built on top of the IBM Blue Gene/Q resource manager Cobalt's sub-block jobs, lets users submit multiple, independent, repeated smaller jobs within a single larger resource block. The main-wrap technique is a scheme that enables C/C++ programs to be defined as functions that are wrapped by a high-performance Swift wrapper and that are invoked as a Swift script. We discuss the needs, benefits, technicalities, and current limitations of these techniques. We further discuss the real-world science enabled by these techniques and the results obtained.

  18. Blue whales respond to simulated mid-frequency military sonar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbogen, Jeremy A; Southall, Brandon L; DeRuiter, Stacy L; Calambokidis, John; Friedlaender, Ari S; Hazen, Elliott L; Falcone, Erin A; Schorr, Gregory S; Douglas, Annie; Moretti, David J; Kyburg, Chris; McKenna, Megan F; Tyack, Peter L

    2013-08-22

    Mid-frequency military (1-10 kHz) sonars have been associated with lethal mass strandings of deep-diving toothed whales, but the effects on endangered baleen whale species are virtually unknown. Here, we used controlled exposure experiments with simulated military sonar and other mid-frequency sounds to measure behavioural responses of tagged blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) in feeding areas within the Southern California Bight. Despite using source levels orders of magnitude below some operational military systems, our results demonstrate that mid-frequency sound can significantly affect blue whale behaviour, especially during deep feeding modes. When a response occurred, behavioural changes varied widely from cessation of deep feeding to increased swimming speed and directed travel away from the sound source. The variability of these behavioural responses was largely influenced by a complex interaction of behavioural state, the type of mid-frequency sound and received sound level. Sonar-induced disruption of feeding and displacement from high-quality prey patches could have significant and previously undocumented impacts on baleen whale foraging ecology, individual fitness and population health.

  19. Blue emitting organic semiconductors under high pressure: status and outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaapila, Matti; Guha, Suchismita

    2016-06-01

    This review describes essential optical and emerging structural experiments that use high GPa range hydrostatic pressure to probe physical phenomena in blue-emitting organic semiconductors including π-conjugated polyfluorene and related compounds. The work emphasizes molecular structure and intermolecular self-organization that typically determine transport and optical emission in π-conjugated oligomers and polymers. In this context, hydrostatic pressure through diamond anvil cells has proven to be an elegant tool to control structure and interactions without chemical intervention. This has been highlighted by high pressure optical spectroscopy whilst analogous x-ray diffraction experiments remain less frequent. By focusing on a class of blue-emitting π-conjugated polymers, polyfluorenes, this article reviews optical spectroscopic studies under hydrostatic pressure, addressing the impact of molecular and intermolecular interactions on optical excitations, electron-phonon interaction, and changes in backbone conformations. This picture is connected to the optical high pressure studies of other π-conjugated systems and emerging x-ray scattering experiments from polyfluorenes which provides a structure-property map of pressure-driven intra- and interchain interactions. Key obstacles to obtain further advances are identified and experimental methods to resolve them are suggested.

  20. Characterization of Thymol blue Radiochromic dosimeters for high dose applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldweri, Feras M.; Abuzayed, Manar H.; Al-Ajaleen, Musab S.; Rabaeh, Khalid A.

    2018-03-01

    Thymol blue (TB) solutions and Thymol blue Polyvinyl Alcohol (TB-PVA) films have been introduced as Radiochromic dosimeter for high dose applications. The dosimeters were irradiated with gamma ray (60Co source) from 5 to 30 kGy for film, and from 0.150 kGy to 4 kGy for solution. The optical density of unirradiated and irradiated TB solution as well as TB-PVA film dosimeters were studied in terms of absorbance at 434 nm using UV/VIS spectrophotometer. The effects of scan temperature, light pre-gamma irradiation, dose rate, relative humidity and stability of the absorbance of solutions and films after irradiation were investigated. We found the dose sensitivity of TB solution and TB-PVA film dosimeters increases significantly with increases of the absorbed dose as well as with the increases of TB dye concentrations. The useful dose range of developed TB solutions and TB-PVA films dosimeters is in the range 0.125-1 kGy and of 5-20 kGy, respectively.

  1. Antimicrobial effect of blue light using Porphyromonas gingivalis pigment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ayaka; Sasaki, Haruka; Toyama, Toshizo; Araki, Mitsunori; Fujioka, Jun; Tsukiyama, Koichi; Hamada, Nobushiro; Yoshino, Fumihiko

    2017-07-12

    The development of antibiotics cannot keep up with the speed of resistance acquired by microorganisms. Recently, the development of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has been a necessary antimicrobial strategy against antibiotic resistance. Among the wide variety of bacteria found in the oral flora, Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) is one of the etiological agents of periodontal disease. aPDT has been studied for periodontal disease, but has risks of cytotoxicity to normal stained tissue. In this study, we performed aPDT using protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), an intracellular pigment of P. gingivalis, without an external photosensitizer. We confirmed singlet oxygen generation by PpIX in a blue-light irradiation intensity-dependent manner. We discovered that blue-light irradiation on P. gingivalis is potentially bactericidal. The sterilization mechanism seems to be oxidative DNA damage in bacterial cells. Although it is said that no resistant bacteria will emerge using aPDT, the conventional method relies on an added photosensitizer dye. PpIX in P. gingivalis is used in energy production, so aPDT applied to PpIX of P. gingivalis should limit the appearance of resistant bacteria. This approach not only has potential as an effective treatment for new periodontal diseases, but also offers potential antibacterial treatment for multiple drug resistant bacteria.

  2. Pulp and paper from blue agave waste from tequila production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idarraga, G; Ramos, J; Zuñiga, V; Sahin, T; Young, R A

    1999-10-01

    Pulping of blue agave waste, from the production of tequila, was evaluated by both chemical and biomechanical pulping processes. Two conventional and two organosolv systems were used to pulp the agave waste under a standard set of conditions. The soda-ethanol process was superior in terms of delignification and pulp properties in comparison to the soda and ethanol organosolv processes for pulping of agave waste; however, the kraft process gave the best strength properties. In general, the strength of the agave waste pulps was rather poor in comparison to wood and other agro-based pulps; however, the tear strength was relatively high. This result is typical of poorly bonded sheets and may be due to the coarseness of the agave fibers and/or loss of hemicelluloses in the steaming process for the tequila production. Fungal treatment of the agave waste with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora reduced the energy consumption for mechanical refining but gave biomechanical pulps with inferior strength properties. The blue agave chemical pulps should be suitable for blending with softwood kraft pulps for publication grade paper.

  3. Extractive separation and spectrophotometric determination of tungsten as phosphotungsten blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatirajam, V.; Dhamija, S.

    1977-01-01

    Phosphotungsten blue is produced by tin(II) reduction of tungstate solution complexed with phosphate at a w/w ratio of W/P = 5, in 4M hydrochloric acid medium, and extracted with isoamyl alcohol; thus tungsten is separated from Fe(III), Ni, Co, Cr(III), V(V), As(V), Sb(III), Bi, Si, U(VI), Ca and Cu(II). In presence of bismuth (0.5 mg/ml), >= 99.7% W is separated in a single extraction. After alkaline back-extraction, tungsten is determined spectrophotometrically as phosphotungsten blue; it is measured at 930 nm in aqueous solution or at 900 to 960 nm after isoamyl alcohol extraction, the Beer's law ranges being 0.08 to 0.6 and 0.16 to 0.72 mg/ml respectively. The methods are shown to give satisfactory results in the analysis of practical samples containing some milligrams of tungsten. (author)

  4. A blue electroluminescence organic material with liquid crystal property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zhuo [Department of Chemistry and Key Lab of Organic Optical Electronics and Molecular Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Tang Hong [Department of Chemistry and Key Lab of Organic Optical Electronics and Molecular Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang Haifeng [Department of Chemistry and Key Lab of Organic Optical Electronics and Molecular Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liang Xiao [Department of Chemistry and Key Lab of Organic Optical Electronics and Molecular Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu Jia [Department of Chemistry and Key Lab of Organic Optical Electronics and Molecular Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Qiu Yong [Department of Chemistry and Key Lab of Organic Optical Electronics and Molecular Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shi Gaoquan [Department of Chemistry and Key Lab of Organic Optical Electronics and Molecular Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)]. E-mail: gshi@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2007-02-26

    9,10-Bis-[4-(4-pentyl-cyclohexyl)-phenyl]-anthracene (BPCPA) was synthesized and characterized. Spectral results indicated that this compound is a strong blue light emitter with quantum yield of 1.0. BPCPA has also been applied as the light-emitting layer for fabrication of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) by using a 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline film as the hole blocking/electron transporting layer and N, N'-biphenyl-N,N'-bis-(1-naphenyl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-diamine film as the hole transporting layer. The peak emission of electroluminescence of this OLED device is at about 440 nm and its Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage color coordinates are (0.15, 0.07) at potentials of 7 to 9 V. These values are very close to the standard of National Television Standards Committee for blue light (0.14, 0.08). Furthermore, BPCPA has high thermal stability with decomposition temperatures over 375 deg. C and melting point of 276.4 deg. C. BPCPA also shows a liquid crystal mesophase at 277 deg. C which indicates its potential applications in liquid crystal display.

  5. Electronic structure and magnetic properties of zigzag blue phosphorene nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Tao; Hong, Jisang, E-mail: hongj@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-07

    We investigated the electronic structure and magnetism of zigzag blue phosphorene nanoribbons (ZBPNRs) using first principles density functional theory calculations by changing the widths of ZBPNRs from 1.5 to 5 nm. In addition, the effect of H and O passivation was explored as well. The ZBPNRs displayed intra-edge antiferromagnetic ground state with a semiconducting band gap of ∼0.35 eV; and this was insensitive to the edge structure relaxation effect. However, the edge magnetism of ZBPNRs disappeared with H-passivation. Moreover, the band gap of H-passivated ZBPNRs was greatly enhanced because the calculated band gap was ∼1.77 eV, and this was almost the same as that of two-dimensional blue phosphorene layer. For O-passivated ZBPNRs, we also found an intra-edge antiferromagnetic state. Besides, both unpassivated and O-passivated ZBPNRs preserved almost the same band gap. We predict that the electronic band structure and magnetic properties can be controlled by means of passivation. Moreover, the edge magnetism can be also modulated by the strain. Nonetheless, the intrinsic physical properties are size independent. This feature can be an advantage for device applications because it may not be necessary to precisely control the width of the nanoribbon.

  6. Blue-Green Colour Categorisation in Mandarin-English Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Joanne Hird

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Observers are faster to detect a target among a set of distracters if the targets and distracters come from different colour categories. This cross-boundary advantage seems to be limited to the right visual field, which is consistent with the dominance of the left hemisphere for language processing. Here we study whether a similiar visual field advantage is found in Mandarin, a language which uses a logographic system. Forty late Mandarin-English bilinguals performed a blue-green colour categorisation task, in a blocked design, in their first language (L1: Mandarin or second language (L2: English. Eleven colour singletons ranging from blue to green were presented for 160ms, randomly in the left visual field (LVF or in the right visual field (RVF. We find that reaction times at the colour boundary were on average about 100 ms shorter in the LVF compared to the RVF, but only when the task was preformed in Mandarin as opposed to English. The apparent discrepancy with previous findings is conceivably due to the script nature of two languages: Mandarin logographic characters are analysed visuo-orthographically in the right fusiform gyrus [Guo and Burgund 2010, Brain Lang 115].

  7. Blue emitting organic semiconductors under high pressure: status and outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaapila, Matti; Guha, Suchismita

    2016-06-01

    This review describes essential optical and emerging structural experiments that use high GPa range hydrostatic pressure to probe physical phenomena in blue-emitting organic semiconductors including π-conjugated polyfluorene and related compounds. The work emphasizes molecular structure and intermolecular self-organization that typically determine transport and optical emission in π-conjugated oligomers and polymers. In this context, hydrostatic pressure through diamond anvil cells has proven to be an elegant tool to control structure and interactions without chemical intervention. This has been highlighted by high pressure optical spectroscopy whilst analogous x-ray diffraction experiments remain less frequent. By focusing on a class of blue-emitting π-conjugated polymers, polyfluorenes, this article reviews optical spectroscopic studies under hydrostatic pressure, addressing the impact of molecular and intermolecular interactions on optical excitations, electron-phonon interaction, and changes in backbone conformations. This picture is connected to the optical high pressure studies of other π-conjugated systems and emerging x-ray scattering experiments from polyfluorenes which provides a structure-property map of pressure-driven intra- and interchain interactions. Key obstacles to obtain further advances are identified and experimental methods to resolve them are suggested.

  8. Pectoral sound generation in the blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajer, Yasha; Ghahramani, Zachary; Fine, Michael L

    2015-03-01

    Catfishes produce pectoral stridulatory sounds by "jerk" movements that rub ridges on the dorsal process against the cleithrum. We recorded sound synchronized with high-speed video to investigate the hypothesis that blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus produce sounds by a slip-stick mechanism, previously described only in invertebrates. Blue catfish produce a variably paced series of sound pulses during abduction sweeps (pulsers) although some individuals (sliders) form longer duration sound units (slides) interspersed with pulses. Typical pulser sounds are evoked by short 1-2 ms movements with a rotation of 2°-3°. Jerks excite sounds that increase in amplitude after motion stops, suggesting constructive interference, which decays before the next jerk. Longer contact of the ridges produces a more steady-state sound in slides. Pulse pattern during stridulation is determined by pauses without movement: the spine moves during about 14 % of the abduction sweep in pulsers (~45 % in sliders) although movement appears continuous to the human eye. Spine rotation parameters do not predict pulse amplitude, but amplitude correlates with pause duration suggesting that force between the dorsal process and cleithrum increases with longer pauses. Sound production, stimulated by a series of rapid movements that set the pectoral girdle into resonance, is caused by a slip-stick mechanism.

  9. Seleksi Kemampuan Pematangan Oosit Domba Menggunakan Teknik Brilliant Cressyl Blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Agus Setiadi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In present study the developmental competence of sheep oocytes to reach maturation at secondmetaphase (M II was observed following selection of oocytes using brilliant cressyl blue (BCB.Immature oocytes were harvested from ovaries collected at abattoir; the selected according to theircolour appearence (cytoplasm colour after being exposed to BCB and incubated for 90 minutes at5% CO2 incubator at 39oC. The selected oocytes were grouped into two based on their cytoplsmcolour i.e. group of oocytes (BCB+ with blue cytoplasm and growing oocytes (BCB- the unstainedcytoplasm. The control group including freshly collected oocytes which were then selected usingroutine method by observing morphological character under microscope. Each treated group ofoocytes (BCB+ and BCB- and the control were processed for maturation into culture media (TissueCulture Medium199+10 IU/ml Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadothropine+10 IU Human ChorionicGonadothropine+1?g/ml estradiol benzoat +10% fetal bovine serum then incubated for 24 hours at5% CO2 incubator at 39oC. Finally oocytes from each treated group and the control were stainedwith arceto orcein 2% to observe the number of oocytes which reach maturatuion at M II. Theresult showed that the percentage of oocytes reaching M II were significantly higher in BCB+ group(54% compared to BCB- group (8%. It is concluded that BCB is a potential method for selectionofcompetent oocytes

  10. Risk aversion affects economic values of blue fox breeding scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peura, J; Kempe, R; Strandén, I; Rydhmer, L

    2016-12-01

    The profit and production of an average Finnish blue fox farm was simulated using a deterministic bio-economic farm model. Risk was included using Arrow-Prat absolute risk aversion coefficient and profit variance. Risk-rated economic values were calculated for pregnancy rate, litter loss, litter size, pelt size, pelt quality, pelt colour clarity, feed efficiency and eye infection. With high absolute risk aversion, economic values were lower than with low absolute risk aversion. Economic values were highest for litter loss (18.16 and 26.42 EUR), litter size (13.27 and 19.40 EUR), pregnancy (11.99 and 18.39 EUR) and eye infection (12.39 and 13.81 EUR). Sensitivity analysis showed that selection pressure for improved eye health depended strongly on proportion of culled animals among infected animals and much less on the proportion of infected animals. The economic value of feed efficiency was lower than expected (6.06 and 8.03 EUR). However, it was almost the same magnitude as pelt quality (7.30 and 7.30 EUR) and higher than the economic value of pelt size (3.37 and 5.26 EUR). Risk factors should be considered in blue fox breeding scheme because they change the relative importance of traits. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Methylene blue adsorption in clay mineral dealt with organic cation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, T.L.; Lemos, V.P.

    2011-01-01

    The interaction among organic cations, as the methylene blue (AM) and benzyltrimethylammonium (BTMA), and clay minerals of the group of the smectite they result in the formation of applied materials in the adsorption of organic pollutant presents in waters, soils and you cultivate. In this work they were prepared the adsorbents (organic-clays) smectite - AM and smectite-BTMA. The precursory sample of smectite was collected in Rio Branco-Acre. We were also used an smectite sample collected in Sena Madureira (SM)-Acre already characterized in previous work and a sample of standard smectite Swy-2-Na-Montmorillonite (SWy-2) of Wymong - USA. The organic agents selected for this study they were: Blue of Methylene, denominated AM and Benzyltrimethylammonium, denominated BTMA. They were appraised the capacities adsorptive of the treated samples with BTMA being used AM as adsorbate. The results of these evaluations detected that ran total adsorption of AM (concentrations varying from 1 to 10 ppm) for the treated samples with BTMA. The organic cation, BTMA, interacting with the surfaces of the natural clay was more efficient in the adsorption of AM than the clay without the previous treatment with this salt. (author)

  12. Blue semiconductor laser research at the University of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zory, P. S.

    1991-12-01

    In October 1988, a research program was initiated at the University of Florida (UF) with rhe goal of developing epitaxial diode structures capable of efficient light emission in the blue-green region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Devices such as semiconductor lasers fabricated from such material would be of considerable value in areas such as high density optical storage and high definition color displays. Although diode lasers have not yet been demonstrated, considerable progress has been made in showing that ZnSe is a very good candidate for room temperature diode laser action at 470 nm. For example, room temperature photo pumped lasing was demonstrated for the first time in epitaxial thin films of ZnSe grown by MBE and MOCVD on GaAs substrates. Although GaAs is very absorbing at 470 nm, the actual waveguide losses were small leading to the possibility of developing efficient, antiguide diode light emitters. Also demonstrated were ZnSe:N/ZnSe:Cl p-n homojunction light emitting diodes fabricated using a novel nitrogen atom beam doping procedure during MBE growth. These and other results achieved in the UF blue diode laser program will be reviewed.

  13. Effects of blue light on the circadian system and eye physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Tosini, Gianluca; Ferguson, Ian; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been used to provide illumination in industrial and commercial environments. LEDs are also used in TVs, computers, smart phones, and tablets. Although the light emitted by most LEDs appears white, LEDs have peak emission in the blue light range (400?490 nm). The accumulating experimental evidence has indicated that exposure to blue light can affect many physiologic functions, and it can be used to treat circadian and sleep dysfunctions. However, blue light ca...

  14. 21 CFR 74.101 - FD&C Blue No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false FD&C Blue No. 1. 74.101 Section 74.101 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.101 FD&C Blue No. 1. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive FD&C... dietary supplements) made with FD&C Blue No. 1 may contain only those diluents that are suitable and that...

  15. 21 CFR 74.102 - FD&C Blue No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false FD&C Blue No. 2. 74.102 Section 74.102 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.102 FD&C Blue No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive FD&C...-1H-indole-5-sulfonic acid (CAS Reg. No. 605-18-5). Additionally, FD&C Blue No. 2 is obtained by...

  16. 21 CFR 74.3102 - FD&C Blue No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false FD&C Blue No. 2. 74.3102 Section 74.3102 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 74.3102 FD&C Blue No. 2. (a) Identity. The color additive FD&C Blue No. 2 shall conform in identity to the requirements of § 74.102(a)(1). (b...

  17. 21 CFR 74.1102 - FD&C Blue No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false FD&C Blue No. 2. 74.1102 Section 74.1102 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1102 FD&C Blue No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive FD... mixtures for use in ingested drugs made with FD&C Blue No. 2 may contain only those diluents that are...

  18. 21 CFR 82.101 - FD&C Blue No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false FD&C Blue No. 1. 82.101 Section 82.101 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Foods, Drugs, and Cosmetics § 82.101 FD&C Blue No. 1. The color additive FD&C Blue No. 1 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.101(a)(1...

  19. 21 CFR 74.2101 - FD&C Blue No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false FD&C Blue No. 1. 74.2101 Section 74.2101 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2101 FD&C Blue No. 1. (a) Identity. The color additive FD... inner salt. Additionally, FD&C Blue No. 1 is manufactured by the acid catalyzed condensation of one mole...

  20. 21 CFR 74.1101 - FD&C Blue No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false FD&C Blue No. 1 74.1101 Section 74.1101 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1101 FD&C Blue No. 1 (a) Identity. (1) For ingested drugs, the color additive FD&C Blue No. 1 shall conform in identity to the requirements of § 74.101(a)(1). (2) For...

  1. 21 CFR 82.102 - FD&C Blue No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false FD&C Blue No. 2. 82.102 Section 82.102 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Foods, Drugs, and Cosmetics § 82.102 FD&C Blue No. 2. The color additive FD&C Blue No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.102(a)(1...

  2. Detection and identification of dyes in blue writing inks by LC-DAD-orbitrap MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiran; Luo, Yiwen; Yang, Xu; Xiang, Ping; Shen, Min

    2016-04-01

    In the field of forensic questioned document examination, to identify dyes detected in inks not only provides a solid foundation for ink discrimination in forged contents identification, but also facilitates the investigation of ink origin or the study regarding ink dating. To detect and identify potential acid and basic dyes in blue writing inks, a liquid chromatography-diode array detection-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-Orbitrap MS) method was established. Three sulfonic acid dyes (Acid blue 1, Acid blue 9 and Acid red 52) and six triphenylmethane basic dyes (Ethyl violet, Crystal violet, Methyl violet 2B, Basic blue 7, Victoria blue B and Victoria blue R) were employed as reference dyes for method development. Determination of the nine dyes was validated to evaluate the instrument performance, and it turned out to be sensitive and stable enough for quantification. The method was then applied in the screening analysis of ten blue roller ball pen inks and twenty blue ballpoint pen inks. As a result, including TPR (a de-methylated product of Crystal violet), ten known dyes and four unknown dyes were detected in the inks. The latter were further identified as a de-methylated product of Victoria blue B, Acid blue 104, Acid violet 49 and Acid blue 90, through analyzing their characteristic precursor and product ions acquired by Orbitrap MS with good mass accuracy. The results showed that the established method is capable of detecting and identifying potential dyes in blue writing inks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Blue light for infectious diseases: Propionibacterium acnes, Helicobacter pylori, and beyond?

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Tianhong; Gupta, Asheesh; Murray, Clinton K.; Vrahas, Mark S.; Tegos, George P.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Blue light, particularly in the wavelength range of 405–470 nm, has attracted increasing attention due to its intrinsic antimicrobial effect without the addition of exogenous photosensitizers. In addition, it is commonly accepted that blue light is much less detrimental to mammalian cells than ultraviolet irradiation, which is another light-based antimicrobial approach being investigated. In this review, we discussed the blue light sensing systems in microbial cells, antimicrobial efficacy of...

  4. Modeling of the Melting Process in an AdBlue Tank

    OpenAIRE

    Klinga, Emil

    2015-01-01

    This master thesis is covering the modeling of the melting process in a tank filled with AdBlue. Due to AdBlue freezing at temperatures below -11 degree there is a need to add heat to be able to secure dosing in all situations. A rig for simulating freezing conditions is created with the possibility to store AdBlue in temperatures down to -40 degree. Temperatures are measured in and around the tank containing AdBlue and in the equipment used for adding heat. Two models are created from physic...

  5. Unequal allocation of excitation energy between photosystem II and I reduces cyanolichen photosynthesis in blue light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solhaug, Knut Asbjørn; Xie, Li; Gauslaa, Yngvar

    2014-08-01

    Photosynthesis was compared in two cyanobacterial lichens (Lobaria hallii and Peltigera praetextata) and two green algal lichens (Lobaria pulmonaria and Peltigera leucophlebia) exposed to red, green or blue light. Cyanolichens had substantially lower photosynthetic CO(2) uptake and O(2) evolution than the green algal lichens in blue light, but slightly higher photosynthesis in red and green light. The effective quantum yield of photosystem (PS) II (Φ(PSII)) decreased with increasing red and green light for all species, but in blue light this response occurred in green algal lichens only. Cyanolichen Φ(PSII) increased with increasing blue light at low irradiances, but decreased at stronger exposures. However, after adding red light the efficiency of blue light for photosynthetic O(2) evolution increased by 2.4 times. Because phycobilisomes associated with PSII have a low blue light absorption, our results are consistent with blue light absorption mainly by Chl in PSI. Thereby, unequal allocation of excitation energy between PSII and PSI results in low cyanolichen photosynthesis under blue light. This is new knowledge in the science of lichenology with important implications for e.g. the reliability of using Chl fluorometers with blue light for cyanolichens. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Need your love so bad: Los poemas amorosos de Catulo en las letras de blues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Villalba Álvarez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En el 32, Ellington grabó Baby when you ain't there, uno de sus temas menos alabados y al que el fiel Barry Ulanov no dedica mención especial. Con voz curiosamente seca canta Cootie Williams los versos: I get the blues down North, The blues down South, Blues anywhere, I get the blues down East, Blues down West, Blues anywhere. I get the blues very well O my baby when you ain't there ain't there, ain't there ¿Por qué, a ciertas horas, es tan necesario decir: "Amé esto?" Amé unos blues, una imagen en la calle, un pobre río seco del norte. Dar testimonio, luchar contra la nada que nos barrerá. Así quedan todavía en el aire del alma esas pequeñas cosas, un gorrioncito que fue de Lesbia, unos blues que ocupan en el recuerdo el sitio menudo de los perfumes, las estampas y los pisapapeles (Julio Cortázar, Rayuela, 87.

  7. Blue light irradiation-induced oxidative stress in vivo via ROS generation in rat gingival tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ayaka; Shiotsu-Ogura, Yukako; Wada-Takahashi, Satoko; Takahashi, Shun-suke; Toyama, Toshizo; Yoshino, Fumihiko

    2015-10-01

    It has been reported that oxidative stress with reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is induced by blue light irradiation to a living body. Only limited research has been reported in dental field on the dangers of blue light, mostly focusing on cytotoxicity associated with heat injury of dental pulp. We thus performed an in vivo study on oral tissue exposed to blue light. ROS generated upon blue light irradiation of flavin adenine dinucleotide were measured by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. After blue light irradiation, the palatal gingiva of Wistar rats were isolated. Collected samples were subjected to biochemical analysis of lipid peroxidation and glutathione. Singlet oxygen was generated by blue light irradiation, but was significantly quenched in an N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) concentration-dependent manner. Blue light significantly accelerated oxidative stress and increased the oxidized glutathione levels in gingival tissue. These effects were also inhibited by NAC pre-administration. The results suggest that blue light irradiation at clinical levels of tooth bleaching treatment may enhance lipid peroxidation by the induction of oxidative stress and the consumption of a significant amount of intracellular glutathione. In addition, NAC might be an effective supplement for the protection of oral tissues against blue light irradiation-induced oxidative damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Data in support of effect of blue LED irradiation in human lymphoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil-Sun Oh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As a new and preferred light source for phototherapy, blue light emitting diodes (LEDs with wavelengths of 400–500 nm have been used to treat hyperbilirubinaemia in infantile jaundice [1]. Recent studies report that blue LED irradiation induces apoptosis by stimulating a mitochondrial pathway and reduces the early growth rate of melanoma cells in mice [2]. Here, we detected the induction of apoptotic cell death and formation of autophagosome in human B lymphoma cells after irradiation with blue LED. This paper provides data in support of the research article entitled “Blue light emitting diode induces apoptosis in lymphoid cells by stimulating autophagy” [3].

  9. Generation of blue chrysanthemums by anthocyanin B-ring hydroxylation and glucosylation and its coloration mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Naonobu; Yoshioka, Satoshi; Kishimoto, Sanae; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Douzono, Mitsuru; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Aida, Ryutaro

    2017-07-01

    Various colored cultivars of ornamental flowers have been bred by hybridization and mutation breeding; however, the generation of blue flowers for major cut flower plants, such as roses, chrysanthemums, and carnations, has not been achieved by conventional breeding or genetic engineering. Most blue-hued flowers contain delphinidin-based anthocyanins; therefore, delphinidin-producing carnation, rose, and chrysanthemum flowers have been generated by overexpression of the gene encoding flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H), the key enzyme for delphinidin biosynthesis. Even so, the flowers are purple/violet rather than blue. To generate true blue flowers, blue pigments, such as polyacylated anthocyanins and metal complexes, must be introduced by metabolic engineering; however, introducing and controlling multiple transgenes in plants are complicated processes. We succeeded in generating blue chrysanthemum flowers by introduction of butterfly pea UDP (uridine diphosphate)-glucose:anthocyanin 3',5'- O -glucosyltransferase gene, in addition to the expression of the Canterbury bells F3'5'H . Newly synthesized 3',5'-diglucosylated delphinidin-based anthocyanins exhibited a violet color under the weakly acidic pH conditions of flower petal juice and showed a blue color only through intermolecular association, termed "copigmentation," with flavone glucosides in planta. Thus, we achieved the development of blue color by a two-step modification of the anthocyanin structure. This simple method is a promising approach to generate blue flowers in various ornamental plants by metabolic engineering.

  10. Biosorption of Acid Blue 290 (AB 290) and Acid Blue 324 (AB 324) dyes on Spirogyra rhizopus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozer, Ayla; Akkaya, Goenuel; Turabik, Meral

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the biosorption of Acid Blue 290 and Acid Blue 324 on Spirogyra rhizopus, a green algae growing on fresh water, was studied with respect to initial pH, temperature, initial dye concentration and biosorbent concentration. The optimum initial pH and temperature values for AB 290 and AB 324 biosorption were found to be 2.0, 30 deg. C and 3.0, 25 deg. C, respectively. It was observed that the adsorbed AB 290 and AB 324 amounts increased with increasing the initial dye concentration up to 1500 and 750 mg/L, respectively. The Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Koble-Corrigan isotherm models were applied to the experimental equilibrium data and the isotherm constants were determined by using Polymath 4.1 software. The monolayer coverage capacities of S. rhizopus for AB 290 and AB 324 dyes were found as 1356.6 mg/g and 367.0 mg/g, respectively. The intraparticle diffusion model and the pseudo-second order kinetic model were applied to the experimental data in order to describe the removal mechanism of these acidic dyes by S. rhizopus. The pseudo-second order kinetic model described very well the biosorption kinetics of AB 290 and AB 324 dyes. Thermodynamic studies showed that the biosorption of AB 290 and AB 324 on S. rhizopus was exothermic in nature

  11. Identification of Genes for Synthesis of the Blue Pigment, Biliverdin IXα, in the Blue Coral Heliopora coerulea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, Yuki; Yasuda, Nina; NagaI, Satoshi

    2017-04-01

    Heliopora coerulea is the only species in the subclass Octocorallia that has a crystalline aragonite skeleton. The skeleton has been reported to contain the blue pigment, biliverdin IXα, which is formed by heme oxygenase (HO) during heme decomposition. There is little information regarding gene expression in H. coerulea; therefore, the biosynthesis pathway for biliverdin IXα is poorly understood. To identify the genes related to heme synthesis and degradation, metatranscripts of H. coerulea and its symbiont Symbiodinium spp. were sequenced and separated from the host- and symbiont-derived sequences. From the metatranscriptome analyses, all genes for heme synthesis and three HOs were isolated from the host and symbiont. From our phylogenetic and amino acid analysis, we noted that one of the HO isoforms in the host coral was predicted to possess HO activity. However, biliverdin reductase, which reduces biliverdin to bilirubin, was not identified in the present study. Similarly, biliverdin reductase was not identified in the transcripts of the red coral Corallium rubrum, a species that also belongs to Octocorallia. However, genes related to heme synthesis and HO were found in C. rubrum. We speculate that Heliopora coerulea can produce biliverdin and accumulate it in the skeleton, while red corals and other Octocorallia species cannot. Further information from molecular studies of H. coerulea will provide insights into the synthesis of biliverdin IXα, the blue pigment in the hard crystalline aragonite skeleton, and will be fundamental to future ecological and physiological studies.

  12. Biosorption of Acid Blue 290 (AB 290) and Acid Blue 324 (AB 324) dyes on Spirogyra rhizopus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozer, Ayla [University of Mersin, Department of Chemical Engineering, 33343 Ciftlikkoey-Mersin (Turkey)]. E-mail: ayozer@mersin.edu.tr; Akkaya, Goenuel [University of Mersin, Department of Chemical Engineering, 33343 Ciftlikkoey-Mersin (Turkey); Turabik, Meral [University of Mersin, Higher Vocational School of Mersin, Chemical Prog., Ciftlikkoey-Mersin (Turkey)

    2006-07-31

    In this study, the biosorption of Acid Blue 290 and Acid Blue 324 on Spirogyra rhizopus, a green algae growing on fresh water, was studied with respect to initial pH, temperature, initial dye concentration and biosorbent concentration. The optimum initial pH and temperature values for AB 290 and AB 324 biosorption were found to be 2.0, 30 deg. C and 3.0, 25 deg. C, respectively. It was observed that the adsorbed AB 290 and AB 324 amounts increased with increasing the initial dye concentration up to 1500 and 750 mg/L, respectively. The Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Koble-Corrigan isotherm models were applied to the experimental equilibrium data and the isotherm constants were determined by using Polymath 4.1 software. The monolayer coverage capacities of S. rhizopus for AB 290 and AB 324 dyes were found as 1356.6 mg/g and 367.0 mg/g, respectively. The intraparticle diffusion model and the pseudo-second order kinetic model were applied to the experimental data in order to describe the removal mechanism of these acidic dyes by S. rhizopus. The pseudo-second order kinetic model described very well the biosorption kinetics of AB 290 and AB 324 dyes. Thermodynamic studies showed that the biosorption of AB 290 and AB 324 on S. rhizopus was exothermic in nature.

  13. Biosorption of Acid Blue 290 (AB 290) and Acid Blue 324 (AB 324) dyes on Spirogyra rhizopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Ayla; Akkaya, Gönül; Turabik, Meral

    2006-07-31

    In this study, the biosorption of Acid Blue 290 and Acid Blue 324 on Spirogyra rhizopus, a green algae growing on fresh water, was studied with respect to initial pH, temperature, initial dye concentration and biosorbent concentration. The optimum initial pH and temperature values for AB 290 and AB 324 biosorption were found to be 2.0, 30 degrees C and 3.0, 25 degrees C, respectively. It was observed that the adsorbed AB 290 and AB 324 amounts increased with increasing the initial dye concentration up to 1500 and 750 mg/L, respectively. The Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Koble-Corrigan isotherm models were applied to the experimental equilibrium data and the isotherm constants were determined by using Polymath 4.1 software. The monolayer coverage capacities of S. rhizopus for AB 290 and AB 324 dyes were found as 1356.6 mg/g and 367.0 mg/g, respectively. The intraparticle diffusion model and the pseudo-second order kinetic model were applied to the experimental data in order to describe the removal mechanism of these acidic dyes by S. rhizopus. The pseudo-second order kinetic model described very well the biosorption kinetics of AB 290 and AB 324 dyes. Thermodynamic studies showed that the biosorption of AB 290 and AB 324 on S. rhizopus was exothermic in nature.

  14. Something borrowed, something blue: The nature of blue metal-poor stars inferred from their colours and chemical abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, C. J.; Jofré, P.; Koch, A.; McWilliam, A.; Sneden, C. S.

    2017-02-01

    Blue metal-poor (BMP) stars are main sequence stars that appear bluer and more luminous than normal turnoff stars. They were originally singled out by using B-V and U-B colour cuts.Early studies found that a larger fraction of field BMP stars were binaries compared to normal halo stars. Thus, BMP stars are ideal field blue straggler candidates for investigating internal stellar evolution processes and binary interaction. In particular, the presence or depletion in lithium in their spectra is a powerful indicator of their origin. They are either old, halo blue stragglers experiencing internal mixing processes or mass transfer (Li-depletion), or intermediate-age, single stars of possibly extragalactic origin (2.2 dex halo plateau Li). However, we note that internal mixing processes can lead to an increased level of Li. Hence, this study combines photometry and spectroscopy to unveil the origin of various BMP stars. We first show how to separate binaries from young blue stars using photometry, metallicity and lithium. Using a sample of 80 BMP stars (T > 6300 K), we find that 97% of the BMP binaries have V-Ks0 chemical analysis using new high-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra. Based on their radial velocities, Li, α and s- and r-process abundances we show that BPS CS22874-042 is a single star (A(Li) = 2.38 ± 0.10 dex) while with A(Li)= 2.23 ± 0.07 dex CD-48 2445 is a binary, contrary to earlier findings. Our analysis emphasises that field blue stragglers can be segregated from single metal-poor stars, using (V-Ks) colours with a fraction of single stars polluting the binary sample, but not vice versa. These two groups can only be properly separated by using information from stellar spectra, illustrating the need for accurate and precise stellar parameters and high-resolution, high-S/N spectra in order to fully understand and classify this intriguing class of stars. Our high-resolution spectrum analysis confirms the findings from the colour cuts and shows

  15. Temporal variability of green and blue water footprint worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamea, Stefania; Lomurno, Marianna; Tuninetti, Marta; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Water footprint assessment is becoming widely used in the scientific literature and it is proving useful in a number of multidisciplinary contexts. Given this increasing popularity, measures of green and blue water footprint (or virtual water content, VWC) require evaluations of uncertainty and variability to quantify the reliability of proposed analyses. As of today, no studies are known to assess the temporal variability of crop VWC at the global scale; the present contribution aims at filling this gap. We use a global high-resolution distributed model to compute the VWC of staple crops (wheat and maize), basing on the soil water balance, forced by hydroclimatic imputs, and on the total crop evapotranspiration in multiple growing seasons. Crop actual yield is estimated using country-based yield data, adjusted to account for spatial variability, allowing for the analysis of the different role played by climatic and management factors in the definition of crop yield. The model is then run using hydroclimatic data, i.e., precipitation and potential evapotranspiration, for the period 1961-2013 as taken from the CRU database (CRU TS v. 3.23) and using the corresponding country-based yield data from FAOSTAT. Results provide the time series of total evapotranspiration, actual yield and VWC, with separation between green and blue VWC, and the overall volume of water used for crop production, both at the cell scale (5x5 arc-min) and aggregated at the country scale. Preliminary results indicate that total (green+blue) VWC is, in general, weekly dependent on hydroclimatic forcings if water for irrigation is unlimited, because irrigated agriculture allows to compensate temporary water shortage. Conversely, most part of the VWC variability is found to be determined by the temporal evolution of crop yield. At the country scale, the total water used by countries for agricultural production has seen a limited change in time, but the marked increase in the water-use efficiency

  16. Thallium toxicity and the role of Prussian blue in therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert S

    2003-01-01

    -dose activated charcoal is supported by in vitro binding experiments and some animal data, and charcoal haemoperfusion may be a useful adjunct. Multiple animal studies give evidence for enhanced elimination and improved survival with Prussian blue. Unfortunately, despite the fact that many humans have been treated with Prussian blue, the data presented are insufficient to comment definitively on its efficacy. However, Prussian blue's safety profile is superior to that of other proposed therapies and it should be considered the drug of choice in acute thallium poisoning. Public health efforts should focus on greater restrictions on access to, and use of, thallium salts.

  17. Effects of blue pulsed light on human physiological functions and subjective evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuura Tetsuo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been assumed that light with a higher irradiance of pulsed blue light has a much greater influence than that of light with a lower irradiance of steady blue light, although they have the same multiplication value of irradiance and duration. We examined the non-visual physiological effects of blue pulsed light, and determined whether it is sensed visually as being blue. Findings Seven young male volunteers participated in the study. We placed a circular screen (diameter 500 mm in front of the participants and irradiated it using blue and/or white light-emitting diodes (LEDs, and we used halogen lamps as a standard illuminant. We applied three steady light conditions of white LED (F0, blue LED + white LED (F10, and blue LED (F100, and a blue pulsed light condition of a 100-μs pulse width with a 10% duty ratio (P10. The irradiance of all four conditions at the participant's eye level was almost the same, at around 12 μW/cm2. We measured their pupil diameter, recorded electroencephalogram readings and Kwansei Gakuin Sleepiness Scale score, and collected subjective evaluations. The subjective bluish score under the F100 condition was significantly higher than those under other conditions. Even under the P10 condition with a 10% duty ratio of blue pulsed light and the F10 condition, the participant did not perceive the light as bluish. Pupillary light response under the P10 pulsed light condition was significantly greater than under the F10 condition, even though the two conditions had equal blue light components. Conclusions The pupil constricted under the blue pulsed light condition, indicating a non-visual effect of the lighting, even though the participants did not perceive the light as bluish.

  18. A Comparison of Blue Light and Caffeine Effects on Cognitive Function and Alertness in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaven, C. Martyn; Ekström, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The alerting effects of both caffeine and short wavelength (blue) light have been consistently reported. The ability of blue light to enhance alertness and cognitive function via non-image forming neuropathways have been suggested as a non-pharmacological countermeasure for drowsiness across a range of occupational settings. Here we compare and contrast the alerting and psychomotor effects of 240 mg of caffeine and a 1-h dose of ~40 lx blue light in a non-athletic population. Twenty-one healthy subjects performed a computer-based psychomotor vigilance test before and after each of four randomly assigned trial conditions performed on different days: white light/placebo; white light/240 mg caffeine; blue light/placebo; blue light/240 mg caffeine. The Karolinska Sleepiness Scale was used to assess subjective measures of alertness. Both the caffeine only and blue light only conditions enhanced accuracy in a visual reaction test requiring a decision and an additive effect was observed with respect to the fastest reaction times. However, in a test of executive function, where a distraction was included, caffeine exerted a negative effect on accuracy. Furthermore, the blue light only condition consistently outperformed caffeine when both congruent and incongruent distractions were presented. The visual reactions in the absence of a decision or distraction were also enhanced in the blue light only condition and this effect was most prominent in the blue-eyed participants. Overall, blue light and caffeine demonstrated distinct effects on aspects of psychomotor function and have the potential to positively influence a range of settings where cognitive function and alertness are important. Specifically, despite the widespread use of caffeine in competitive sporting environments, the possible impact of blue light has received no research attention. PMID:24282477

  19. Seasonal and geographic variation of southern blue whale subspecies in the Indian Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flore Samaran

    Full Text Available Understanding the seasonal movements and distribution patterns of migratory species over ocean basin scales is vital for appropriate conservation and management measures. However, assessing populations over remote regions is challenging, particularly if they are rare. Blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus spp are an endangered species found in the Southern and Indian Oceans. Here two recognized subspecies of blue whales and, based on passive acoustic monitoring, four "acoustic populations" occur. Three of these are pygmy blue whale (B.m. brevicauda populations while the fourth is the Antarctic blue whale (B.m. intermedia. Past whaling catches have dramatically reduced their numbers but recent acoustic recordings show that these oceans are still important habitat for blue whales. Presently little is known about the seasonal movements and degree of overlap of these four populations, particularly in the central Indian Ocean. We examined the geographic and seasonal occurrence of different blue whale acoustic populations using one year of passive acoustic recording from three sites located at different latitudes in the Indian Ocean. The vocalizations of the different blue whale subspecies and acoustic populations were recorded seasonally in different regions. For some call types and locations, there was spatial and temporal overlap, particularly between Antarctic and different pygmy blue whale acoustic populations. Except on the southernmost hydrophone, all three pygmy blue whale acoustic populations were found at different sites or during different seasons, which further suggests that these populations are generally geographically distinct. This unusual blue whale diversity in sub-Antarctic and sub-tropical waters indicates the importance of the area for blue whales in these former whaling grounds.

  20. A comparison of blue light and caffeine effects on cognitive function and alertness in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaven, C Martyn; Ekström, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The alerting effects of both caffeine and short wavelength (blue) light have been consistently reported. The ability of blue light to enhance alertness and cognitive function via non-image forming neuropathways have been suggested as a non-pharmacological countermeasure for drowsiness across a range of occupational settings. Here we compare and contrast the alerting and psychomotor effects of 240 mg of caffeine and a 1-h dose of ~40 lx blue light in a non-athletic population. Twenty-one healthy subjects performed a computer-based psychomotor vigilance test before and after each of four randomly assigned trial conditions performed on different days: white light/placebo; white light/240 mg caffeine; blue light/placebo; blue light/240 mg caffeine. The Karolinska Sleepiness Scale was used to assess subjective measures of alertness. Both the caffeine only and blue light only conditions enhanced accuracy in a visual reaction test requiring a decision and an additive effect was observed with respect to the fastest reaction times. However, in a test of executive function, where a distraction was included, caffeine exerted a negative effect on accuracy. Furthermore, the blue light only condition consistently outperformed caffeine when both congruent and incongruent distractions were presented. The visual reactions in the absence of a decision or distraction were also enhanced in the blue light only condition and this effect was most prominent in the blue-eyed participants. Overall, blue light and caffeine demonstrated distinct effects on aspects of psychomotor function and have the potential to positively influence a range of settings where cognitive function and alertness are important. Specifically, despite the widespread use of caffeine in competitive sporting environments, the possible impact of blue light has received no research attention.