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Sample records for blue-yellow color opponent

  1. P1-12: Different Double-Pulse Distinguishability Among the Luminance Opponency, the Red-Green Opponency, and the Blue-Yellow Opponency

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    Lin Shi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The inter-stimuli-interval (ISI thresholds of double pulses discrimination were measured to investigate the temporal distinguishability of double pulses of the luminance opponency, the red-green opponency, and the blue-yellow opponency. Double pulses were presented randomly in one of four quadrants, defined by a central fixation cross on a CRT display controlled by the real time sequencer (RTS of the VSG system in 42-bit color mode calibrated with less than 3% display error rate of the 1931 CIE luminance and chromatic coordinate. Each pulse was of duration 6.7 msec and included a Gaussian patch with gradation of tristimulus values from the peak to the background in equal-energy-white (the luminance opponency or isoluminance (the red-green and the blue-yellow opponency configuration. Eleven observers were asked to report the number of pulses (one or two observed while ISI was adjusted by a psi method. Psychometric functions were estimated using the cumulative distribution function of the extreme value distribution. The threshold was the ISI value corresponding with the rate of 63.21% correct answer. Significant differences were found among ISI thresholds of the luminance, blue-yellow, and red-green opponency. Results supported that the temporal distinguishability of double pulses of the luminance opponency, the red-green opponency, and the blue-yellow opponency were significantly different. The difference can be explained by the impulse response functions (IRF with various first peak time among the luminance opponency, the red-green opponency, and the blue-yellow opponency.

  2. Visual comfort evaluated by opponent colors

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    Sagawa, Ken

    2002-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate psychological impression of visual comfort when we see an image of ordinary colored scene presented in a color display. Effects of opponent colors, i.e. red, green, yellow and blue component, on the subjective judgement on visual comfort to the image were investigated. Three kinds of psychological experiment were designed to see the effects and the results indicated that the red/green opponent color component was more affecting than the yellow-blue one, and red color in particular was the most affecting factor on visual comfort.

  3. A Color-Opponency Based Biological Model for Color Constancy

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    Yongjie Li

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Color constancy is the ability of the human visual system to adaptively correct color-biased scenes under different illuminants. Most of the existing color constancy models are nonphysiologically plausible. Among the limited biological models, the great majority is Retinex and its variations, and only two or three models directly simulate the feature of color-opponency, but only of the very earliest stages of visual pathway, i.e., the single-opponent mechanisms involved at the levels of retinal ganglion cells and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN neurons. Considering the extensive physiological evidences supporting that both the single-opponent cells in retina and LGN and the double-opponent neurons in primary visual cortex (V1 are the building blocks for color constancy, in this study we construct a color-opponency based color constancy model by simulating the opponent fashions of both the single-opponent and double-opponent cells in a forward manner. As for the spatial structure of the receptive fields (RF, both the classical RF (CRF center and the nonclassical RF (nCRF surround are taken into account for all the cells. The proposed model was tested on several typical image databases commonly used for performance evaluation of color constancy methods, and exciting results were achieved.

  4. Chromatic aberration and the roles of double-opponent and color-luminance neurons in color vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vladusich, Tony

    2007-01-01

    How does the visual cortex encode color? I summarize a theory in which cortical double-opponent color neurons perform a role in color constancy and a complementary set of color-luminance neurons function to selectively correct for color fringes induced by chromatic aberration in the eye. The theory

  5. Chromatic aberration and the roles of double-opponent and color-luminance neurons in color vision.

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    Vladusich, Tony

    2007-03-01

    How does the visual cortex encode color? I summarize a theory in which cortical double-opponent color neurons perform a role in color constancy and a complementary set of color-luminance neurons function to selectively correct for color fringes induced by chromatic aberration in the eye. The theory may help to resolve an ongoing debate concerning the functional properties of cortical receptive fields involved in color coding.

  6. Luminance and opponent-color contributions to visual detection and adaptation and to temporal and spatial integration.

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    King-Smith, P E; Carden, D

    1976-07-01

    We show how the processes of visual detection and of temporal and spatial summation may be analyzed in terms of parallel luminance (achromatic) and opponent-color systems; a test flash is detected if it exceeds the threshold of either system. The spectral sensitivity of the luminance system may be determined by a flicker method, and has a single broad peak near 555 nm; the spectral sensitivity of the opponent-color system corresponds to the color recognition threshold, and has three peaks at about 440, 530, and 600 nm (on a white background). The temporal and spatial integration of the opponent-color system are generally greater than for the luminance system; further, a white background selectively depresses the sensitivity of the luminance system relative to the opponent-color system. Thus relatively large (1 degree) and long (200 msec) spectral test flashes on a white background are detected by the opponent-color system except near 570 nm; the contribution of the luminance system becomes more prominent if the size or duration of the test flash is reduced, or if the white background is extinguished. The present analysis is discussed in relation to Stiles' model of independent eta mechanisms. PMID:978286

  7. The evolution of concepts of color vision.

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    Lee, Barry B

    2008-07-01

    The evolution of ideas about the way we see color was closely linked to physical theories of light. Proponents of both corpuscular and wave theories viewed light as a continuous spectrum. This was not easily reconciled with the fact that, for the human eye, all colors can be matched by mixture of three primaries. Physicists such as Mayer who described trichromatic color matching often assumed that there were just three types of rays in the spectrum. This argument was finally resolved by Thomas Young, who noted that trichromatic color matching was consistent with a continuous spectrum if there were just three receptors in the eye. This kind of conceptual mistake, in this case the confusion of the properties of the visual system with physical properties of light, has been common in the history of color science. As another example, the idea of trichromacy was disputed by those who viewed color sensations as opponent processes, red-green, blue-yellow and black-white. The discovery of color-opponent neurons in the visual pathway has partly resolved this dilemma. Much of the physiological substrate of the way we detect and distinguish colors is now established, but the link between the signals leaving the retina and the way we name and order colors is still poorly defined.

  8. Color blobs in cortical areas V1 and V2 of the new world monkey Callithrix jacchus, revealed by non-differential optical imaging.

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    Valverde Salzmann, Matthias F; Bartels, Andreas; Logothetis, Nikos K; Schüz, Almut

    2012-06-01

    Color vision is reserved to only few mammals, such as Old World monkeys and humans. Most Old World monkeys are trichromats. Among them, macaques were shown to exhibit functional domains of color-selectivity, in areas V1 and V2 of the visual cortex. Such color domains have not yet been shown in New World monkeys. In marmosets a sex-linked dichotomy results in dichromatic and trichromatic genotypes, rendering most male marmosets color-blind. Here we used trichromatic female marmosets to examine the intrinsic signal response in V1 and V2 to chromatic and achromatic stimuli, using optical imaging. To activate the subsystems individually, we used spatially homogeneous isoluminant color opponent (red/green, blue/yellow) and hue versus achromatic flicker (red/gray, green/gray, blue/gray, yellow/gray), as well as achromatic luminance flicker. In contrast to previous optical imaging studies in marmosets, we find clearly segregated color domains, similar to those seen in macaques. Red/green and red/gray flicker were found to be the appropriate stimulus for revealing color domains in single-condition maps. Blue/gray and blue/yellow flicker stimuli resulted in faint patch-patterns. A recently described multimodal vessel mapping approach allowed for an accurate alignment of the functional and anatomical datasets. Color domains were tightly colocalized with cytochrome oxidase blobs in V1 and with thin stripes in V2. Thus, our findings are in accord with 2-Deoxy-D-glucose studies performed in V1 of macaques and studies on color representation in V2. Our results suggest a similar organization of early cortical color processing in trichromats of both Old World and New World monkeys. PMID:22674264

  9. Gender-related differences in physiologic color space: a functional transcranial Doppler (fTCD study

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    Njemanze Philip C

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Simultaneous color contrast and color constancy are memory processes associated with color vision, however, the gender-related differences of 'physiologic color space' remains unknown. Color processing was studied in 16 (8 men and 8 women right-handed healthy subjects using functional transcranial Doppler (fTCD technique. Mean flow velocity (MFV was recorded in both right (RMCA and left (LMCA middle cerebral arteries in dark and white light conditions, and during color (blue and yellow stimulations. The data was plotted in a 3D quadratic curve fit to derive a 'physiologic color space' showing the effects of luminance and chromatic contrasts. In men, wavelength-differencing of opponent pairs (yellow-blue was adjudged by changes in the RMCA MFV for Yellow plotted on the Y-axis, and the RMCA MFV for Blue plotted on the X-axis. In women, frequency-differencing for opponent pairs (blue-yellow was adjudged by changes in the LMCA MFV for Yellow plotted on the Y-axis, and the LMCA MFV for Blue plotted on the X-axis. The luminance effect on the LMCA MFV in response to white light with the highest luminous flux, was plotted on the (Z - axis, in both men and women. The 3D-color space for women was a mirror-image of that for men, and showed enhanced color constancy. The exponential function model was applied to the data in men, while the logarithmic function model was applied to the data in women. Color space determination may be useful in the study of color memory, adaptive neuroplasticity, cognitive impairment in stroke and neurodegenerative diseases.

  10. "Tilt" in color space: Hue changes induced by chromatic surrounds.

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    Klauke, Susanne; Wachtler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The perceived color of a chromatic stimulus is influenced by the chromaticity of its surround. To investigate these influences along the dimension of hue, we measured hue changes induced in stimuli of different hues by isoluminant chromatic surrounds. Generally, induced hue changes were directed in color space away from the hue of the inducing surround and depended on the magnitude on the hue difference between stimulus and surround. With increasing difference in hue between stimulus and surround, induced hue changes increased up to a maximum and then decreased for larger differences. This qualitative pattern was similar for different inducers, but quantitatively, induction was weaker along some directions in cone-opponent color space than along other directions. The strongest induction effects were found along an oblique, blue-yellow axis that corresponds to the daylight axis. The overall pattern of the induction effect shows similarities to the well-known tilt effect, where shifts in perceived angle of oriented stimuli are induced by oriented surrounds. This suggests analogous neural representations and similar mechanisms of contextual processing for different visual features such as orientation and color.

  11. Color naming deficits and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A retinal dopaminergic hypothesis

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    Tannock Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD have unexplained difficulties on tasks requiring speeded processing of colored stimuli. Color vision mechanisms, particularly short-wavelength (blue-yellow pathways, are highly sensitive to various diseases, toxins and drugs that alter dopaminergic neurotransmission. Thus, slow color processing might reflect subtle impairments in the perceptual encoding stage of stimulus color, which arise from hypodopaminergic functioning. Presentation of hypotheses 1 Color perception of blue-yellow (but not red-green stimuli is impaired in ADHD as a result of deficient retinal dopamine; 2 Impairments in the blue-yellow color mechanism in ADHD contribute to poor performance on speeded color naming tasks that include a substantial proportion of blue-yellow stimuli; and 3 Methylphenidate increases central dopamine and is also believed to increase retinal dopamine, thereby normalizing blue-yellow color perception, which in turn improves performance on the speeded color naming tasks. Testing the hypothesis Requires three approaches, including:1 direct assessment of color perception in individuals with ADHD to determine whether blue-yellow color perception is selectively impaired; 2 determination of relationship between performance on neuropsychological tasks requiring speeded color processing and color perception; and 3 randomized, controlled pharmacological intervention with stimulant medication to examine the effects of enhancing central dopamine on color perception and task performance Implications of hypothesis If substantiated, the findings of color perception problems would necessitate a re-consideration of current neuropsychological models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, guide psycho-education, academic instruction, and require consideration of stimulus color in many of the widely used neuropsychological tests.

  12. Color averaging linked to contours, textures and orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anstis, S.; Vergeer, M.L.T.; Lier, R.J. van

    2008-01-01

    A blurry, multicolored plaid was made by superimposing two crossed colored sinusoidal gratings: a horizontal red/green grating, and a vertical blue/yellow grating. [Disregarding 'monocular rivalry', which may just be an artifact from eye movements], we have found ways to enhance the visibility of e

  13. Circuitry to explain how the relative number of L and M cones shapes color experience.

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    Schmidt, Brian P; Touch, Phanith; Neitz, Maureen; Neitz, Jay

    2016-06-01

    The wavelength of light that appears unique yellow is surprisingly consistent across people even though the ratio of middle (M) to long (L) wavelength sensitive cones is strikingly variable. This observation has been explained by normalization to the mean spectral distribution of our shared environment. Our purpose was to reconcile the nearly perfect alignment of everyone's unique yellow through a normalization process with the striking variability in unique green, which varies by as much as 60 nm between individuals. The spectral location of unique green was measured in a group of volunteers whose cone ratios were estimated with a technique that combined genetics and flicker photometric electroretinograms. In contrast to unique yellow, unique green was highly dependent upon relative cone numerosity. We hypothesized that the difference in neural architecture of the blue-yellow and red-green opponent systems in the presence of a normalization process creates the surprising dependence of unique green on cone ratio. We then compared the predictions of different theories of color vision processing that incorporate L and M cone ratio and a normalization process. The results of this analysis reveal that-contrary to prevailing notions--postretinal contributions may not be required to explain the phenomena of unique hues. PMID:27366885

  14. Color vision: retinal blues.

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    Johnston, Jamie; Esposti, Federico; Lagnado, Leon

    2012-08-21

    Two complementary studies have resolved the circuitry underlying green-blue color discrimination in the retina. A blue-sensitive interneuron provides the inhibitory signal required for computing green-blue color opponency.

  15. Acquired Color Vision Defects and Hexane Exposure: A Study of San Francisco Bay Area Automotive Mechanics.

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    Beckman, Stella; Eisen, Ellen A; Bates, Michael N; Liu, Sa; Haegerstrom-Portnoy, Gunilla; Hammond, S Katharine

    2016-06-01

    Occupational exposure to solvents, including n-hexane, has been associated with acquired color vision defects. Blue-yellow defects are most common and may be due to neurotoxicity or retinal damage. Acetone may potentiate the neurotoxicity of n-hexane. We present results on nonhexane solvent and hexane exposure and color vision from a cross-sectional study of 835 automotive repair workers in the San Francisco Bay Area, California (2007-2013). Cumulative exposure was estimated from self-reported work history, and color vision was assessed using the Lanthony desaturated D-15 panel test. Log-binomial regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios for color vision defects. Acquired color vision defects were present in 29% of participants, of which 70% were blue-yellow. Elevated prevalence ratios were found for nonhexane solvent exposure, with a maximum of 1.31 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86, 2.00) for blue-yellow. Among participants aged ≤50 years, the prevalence ratio for blue-yellow defects was 2.17 (95% CI: 1.03, 4.56) in the highest quartile of nonhexane solvent exposure and 1.62 (95% CI: 0.97, 2.72) in the highest category of exposure to hexane with acetone coexposure. Cumulative exposures to hexane and nonhexane solvents in the highest exposure categories were associated with elevated prevalence ratios for color vision defects in younger participants. PMID:27188942

  16. Decoding color responses in human visual cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Color percept is a subjective experience and, in general, it is impossible for other people to tell someone's color percept. The present study demonstrated that the simple image-classification analysis of brain activity obtained by a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique enables to tell which of four colors the subject is looking at. Our results also imply that color information is coded by the responses of hue-selective neurons in human brain, not by the combinations of red-green and blue-yellow hue components. (author)

  17. A Pyrrhic victory for the opponents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reviews the situation of renewable energies in Switzerland after a popular vote turned down promotional measures in the year 2000. The situation is analysed and the opinions of various leaders of professional associations and political groups are discussed. Comparisons are made between ideas said to evolve from short-term narrow-mindedness and those developed by more visionary corporations and governments. The effect of the negative outcome of the popular vote on research and development and economic development are discussed. The author expresses his opinion that measures will still have to be taken, thus making the opponents' success more of a Pyrrhic sort of victory

  18. PREVALENCE OF COLOR BLINDNESS IN STUDENTS: ISFAHAN – 1999

    OpenAIRE

    A ZANDI; GH.R AZARIAN

    2001-01-01

    Introduction. The light waves stimulates the retinal cell and eventually the brain cortex will interpret it to a color vision. Color vision defects can be congenital or acquired. Congenital types have a lifelong constant state (Severity). These patients almost always have red-green defect. These types are sex-linked, and according to the existing data have a prevalence of 8 percent in males and 0.5 percent in females. Acquired color vision defects are frequently of blue-yellow type and have a...

  19. Theoretical aspects of color vision

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    Wolbarsht, M. L.

    1972-01-01

    The three color receptors of Young-Helmholtz and the opponent colors type of information processing postulated by Hering are both present in the human visual system. This mixture accounts for both the phenomena of color matching or hue discrimination and such perceptual qualities of color as the division of the spectrum into color bands. The functioning of the cells in the visual system, especially within the retina, and the relation of this function to color perception are discussed.

  20. Crayfish recognize the faces of fight opponents.

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    Joanne Van der Velden

    Full Text Available The capacity to associate stimuli underlies many cognitive abilities, including recognition, in humans and other animals. Vertebrates process different categories of information separately and then reassemble the distilled information for unique identification, storage and recall. Invertebrates have fewer neural networks and fewer neural processing options so study of their behavior may reveal underlying mechanisms still not fully understood for any animal. Some invertebrates form complex social colonies and are capable of visual memory-bees and wasps, for example. This ability would not be predicted in species that interact in random pairs without strong social cohesion; for example, crayfish. They have chemical memory but the extent to which they remember visual features is unknown. Here we demonstrate that the crayfish Cherax destructor is capable of visual recognition of individuals. The simplicity of their interactions allowed us to examine the behavior and some characteristics of the visual features involved. We showed that facial features are learned during face-to-face fights, that highly variable cues are used, that the type of variability is important, and that the learning is context-dependent. We also tested whether it is possible to engineer false identifications and for animals to distinguish between twin opponents.

  1. Progress in color night vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    We present an overview of our recent progress and the current state-of-the-art techniques of color image fusion for night vision applications. Inspired by previously developed color opponent fusing schemes, we initially developed a simple pixel-based false color-mapping scheme that yielded fused fal

  2. An Opponent-Process Theory of Motivation: II. Cigarette Addiction

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    Solomon, Richard L.; Corbit, John D.

    1973-01-01

    Methods suggested by opponent-process theory of acquired motivation in helping smokers to quit the habit include use of antagonistic drugs, total cessation from tobacco, and decrease in intensity and frequency of tobacco use. (DS)

  3. Pain relief as an opponent process: a psychophysical investigation.

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    Leknes, Siri; Brooks, Jonathan C W; Wiech, Katja; Tracey, Irene

    2008-08-01

    Relief from pain in humans is frequently measured by computing the reduction on an 11-point pain intensity scale. However, this definition of relief may be insufficient to capture the utility of pain relief for the individual. Based on pain literature and evidence from studies examining relief and reward, it is clear that pain relief is a broad concept comprising several factors, only one of which is pain intensity reduction. According to opponent process theory, all sensations consist of a primary process and a slow 'opponent process' of opposite valence, the purpose of which is to reduce the deviation from homeostatic balance. Here, opponent process theory provided a framework to explore the interaction between pain, relief and reward. We devised three psychophysical studies examining the temporal (Experiment I) and magnitude (Experiments I and II) relationships between pain severity and its subsequent relief. In Experiment III, we further manipulated the magnitude and pleasantness of relief experienced by applying innocuous cooling following noxious heat stimulation of capsaicin-sensitized skin. Results confirmed predictions from opponent process theory and showed that pain intensity reduction was significantly stronger than relief intensity ratings. Furthermore, continuous relief ratings appeared to reflect the speed of pain intensity reduction. Varying pain intensity parametrically confirmed that relief increases with pain intensity. That innocuous cooling following primary hyperalgesia intervention significantly increased the intensity, pleasantness and duration of relief provides further evidence that pain relief encapsulates more than a reduction in pain intensity. Importantly, the high relief pleasantness ratings confirmed the hypothesized link between relief and reward.

  4. Color vision.

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    Gegenfurtner, Karl R; Kiper, Daniel C

    2003-01-01

    Color vision starts with the absorption of light in the retinal cone photoreceptors, which transduce electromagnetic energy into electrical voltages. These voltages are transformed into action potentials by a complicated network of cells in the retina. The information is sent to the visual cortex via the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) in three separate color-opponent channels that have been characterized psychophysically, physiologically, and computationally. The properties of cells in the retina and LGN account for a surprisingly large body of psychophysical literature. This suggests that several fundamental computations involved in color perception occur at early levels of processing. In the cortex, information from the three retino-geniculate channels is combined to enable perception of a large variety of different hues. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that color analysis and coding cannot be separated from the analysis and coding of other visual attributes such as form and motion. Though there are some brain areas that are more sensitive to color than others, color vision emerges through the combined activity of neurons in many different areas.

  5. Opponent process properties of self-administered cocaine.

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    Ettenberg, Aaron

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, data collected in our laboratory have demonstrated that self-administered cocaine produces Opponent-Process-like behavioral effects. Animals running a straight alley once each day for IV cocaine develop over trials an approach-avoidance conflict about re-entering the goal box. This conflict behavior is characterized by a stop in forward locomotion (usually at the very mouth of the goal box) followed by a turn and 'retreat' back toward the goal box. The results of a series of studies conducted over the past decade collectively suggest that the behavioral ambivalence exemplified by rats running the alley for IV cocaine stems from concurrent and opponent positive (rewarding) and negative (anxiogenic) properties of the drug--both of which are associated with the goal box. These opponent properties of cocaine have been shown to result from temporally distinct affective states. Using a conditioned place preference test, we have been able to demonstrate that while the initial immediate effects of IV cocaine are reinforcing, the state present 15 min post-injection is aversive. In our most recent work, the co-administration of IV cocaine with either oral ethanol or IV heroin was found to greatly diminish the development and occurrence of retreat behaviors in the runway. It may therefore be that the high incidence of co-abuse of cocaine with either ethanol or heroin, stems from the users' motivation to alleviate some of the negative side effects of cocaine. It would seem then that the Opponent Process Theory has provided a useful conceptual framework for the study of the behavioral consequences of self-administered cocaine including the notion that both positive and negative reinforcement mechanisms are involved in the development and maintenance of cocaine abuse. PMID:15019422

  6. Opponent process properties of self-administered cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettenberg, Aaron

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, data collected in our laboratory have demonstrated that self-administered cocaine produces Opponent-Process-like behavioral effects. Animals running a straight alley once each day for IV cocaine develop over trials an approach-avoidance conflict about re-entering the goal box. This conflict behavior is characterized by a stop in forward locomotion (usually at the very mouth of the goal box) followed by a turn and 'retreat' back toward the goal box. The results of a series of studies conducted over the past decade collectively suggest that the behavioral ambivalence exemplified by rats running the alley for IV cocaine stems from concurrent and opponent positive (rewarding) and negative (anxiogenic) properties of the drug--both of which are associated with the goal box. These opponent properties of cocaine have been shown to result from temporally distinct affective states. Using a conditioned place preference test, we have been able to demonstrate that while the initial immediate effects of IV cocaine are reinforcing, the state present 15 min post-injection is aversive. In our most recent work, the co-administration of IV cocaine with either oral ethanol or IV heroin was found to greatly diminish the development and occurrence of retreat behaviors in the runway. It may therefore be that the high incidence of co-abuse of cocaine with either ethanol or heroin, stems from the users' motivation to alleviate some of the negative side effects of cocaine. It would seem then that the Opponent Process Theory has provided a useful conceptual framework for the study of the behavioral consequences of self-administered cocaine including the notion that both positive and negative reinforcement mechanisms are involved in the development and maintenance of cocaine abuse.

  7. Review. Neurobiological mechanisms for opponent motivational processes in addiction.

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    Koob, George F; Le Moal, Michel

    2008-10-12

    The conceptualization of drug addiction as a compulsive disorder with excessive drug intake and loss of control over intake requires motivational mechanisms. Opponent process as a motivational theory for the negative reinforcement of drug dependence has long required a neurobiological explanation. Key neurochemical elements involved in reward and stress within basal forebrain structures involving the ventral striatum and extended amygdala are hypothesized to be dysregulated in addiction to convey the opponent motivational processes that drive dependence. Specific neurochemical elements in these structures include not only decreases in reward neurotransmission such as dopamine and opioid peptides in the ventral striatum, but also recruitment of brain stress systems such as corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), noradrenaline and dynorphin in the extended amygdala. Acute withdrawal from all major drugs of abuse produces increases in reward thresholds, anxiety-like responses and extracellular levels of CRF in the central nucleus of the amygdala. CRF receptor antagonists block excessive drug intake produced by dependence. A brain stress response system is hypothesized to be activated by acute excessive drug intake, to be sensitized during repeated withdrawal, to persist into protracted abstinence and to contribute to stress-induced relapse. The combination of loss of reward function and recruitment of brain stress systems provides a powerful neurochemical basis for the long hypothesized opponent motivational processes responsible for the negative reinforcement driving addiction.

  8. Gender-related asymmetric brain vasomotor response to color stimulation: a functional transcranial Doppler spectroscopy study

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    Njemanze Philip C

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Purpose The present study was designed to examine the effects of color stimulation on cerebral blood mean flow velocity (MFV in men and women. Methods The study included 16 (8 men and 8 women right-handed healthy subjects. The MFV was recorded simultaneously in both right and left middle cerebral arteries in Dark and white Light conditions, and during color (Blue, Yellow and Red stimulations, and was analyzed using functional transcranial Doppler spectroscopy (fTCDS technique. Results Color processing occurred within cortico-subcortical circuits. In men, wavelength-differencing of Yellow/Blue pairs occurred within the right hemisphere by processes of cortical long-term depression (CLTD and subcortical long-term potentiation (SLTP. Conversely, in women, frequency-differencing of Blue/Yellow pairs occurred within the left hemisphere by processes of cortical long-term potentiation (CLTP and subcortical long-term depression (SLTD. In both genders, there was luminance effect in the left hemisphere, while in men it was along an axis opposite (orthogonal to that of chromatic effect, in women, it was parallel. Conclusion Gender-related differences in color processing demonstrated a right hemisphere cognitive style for wavelength-differencing in men, and a left hemisphere cognitive style for frequency-differencing in women. There are potential applications of fTCDS technique, for stroke rehabilitation and monitoring of drug effects.

  9. Reduced Discrimination in the Tritanopic Confusion Line for Congenital Color Deficiency Adults

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    Marcelo Fernandes Costa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In congenital color blindness the red-green discrimination is impaired resulting in an increased confusion between those colors with yellow. Our post-receptoral physiological mechanisms are organized in two pathways for color perception, a red-green (protanopic and deuteranopic and a blue-yellow (tritanopic. We argue that the discrimination losses in the yellow area in congenital color vision deficiency subjects could generate a subtle loss of discriminability in the tritanopic channel considering discrepancies with yellow perception. We measured color discrimination thresholds for blue and yellow of tritanopic channel in congenital color deficiency subjects. Chromaticity thresholds were measured around a white background (0.1977 u’, 0.4689 v’ in the CIE 1976 consisting of a blue-white and white-yellow thresholds in a tritanopic color confusion line of 21 congenital colorblindness subjects (mean age = 27.7; SD= 5.6 years; 14 deuteranomalous and 7 protanomalous and of 82 (mean age = 25.1; SD= 3.7 years normal color vision subjects. Significant increase in the whole tritanopic axis was found for both deuteranomalous and protanomalous subjects compared to controls for the blue-white (F2,100= 18.80; p< 0.0001 and white-yellow (F2,100= 22.10; p< 0.0001 thresholds. A Principal Component Analysis found a weighting toward to the yellow thresholds induced by deuteranomalous subjects. In conclusion, the discrimination in the tritanopic color confusion axis is significantly reduced in congenital color vision deficiency compared to normal subjects. Since yellow discrimination was impaired the balance of the blue-yellow channels is impaired justifying the increased thresholds found for blue-white discrimination. The weighting toward the yellow region of the color space with the deuteranomalous contributing to that perceptual distortion is discussed in terms of physiological mechanisms.

  10. Blue-yellow photoluminescence from Ce{sup 3+} {yields} Dy{sup 3+} energy transfer in HfO{sub 2}:Ce{sup 3+}:Dy{sup 3+} films deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Martinez, R. [Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad Tecnologica de la Mixteca, Carretera a Acatlima Km. 2.5, Huajuapan de Leon, Oaxaca 69000 (Mexico); Lira, A.C. [Unidad Academica Profesional Nezahualcoyotl, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Av. Bordo de Xochiaca s/n, Nezahualcoyotl, Estado de Mexico 57000 (Mexico); Speghini, A. [DiSTeMeV, Universita di Verona, and INSTM, UdR Verona, Via Della Pieve 70, I-37029 San Floriano (Verona) (Italy); Falcony, C. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, P.O. Box 55-534, Mexico, D.F. 09340 (Mexico); Caldino, U., E-mail: cald@xanum.uam.mx [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, P.O. Box 55-534, Mexico, D.F. 09340 (Mexico)

    2011-02-10

    Research highlights: > A blue-yellow emission phosphor excited with UV radiation can be manufactured with CeCl{sub 3} and DyCl{sub 3} doped HfO{sub 2} films deposited at 300 deg. C by the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. > The addition of DyCl{sub 3} in the HfO{sub 2}:CeCl{sub 3} film leads to a non-radiative energy transfer from Ce{sup 3+} to Dy{sup 3+} under Ce{sup 3+} excitation at 280 nm. > The efficiency of this transfer increases up to 86 {+-} 3% for the film with the highest Dy{sup 3+} content. > The possibility of achieving the coordinates of ideal white light with increasing the concentration of dysprosium is demonstrated. - Abstract: HfO{sub 2} films codoped with Ce{sup 3+} and several concentrations of Dy{sup 3+} have been processed by the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. Emissions from Dy{sup 3+} ions centred at 480 and 575 nm associated with the {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} {yields} {sup 6}H{sub 15/2} and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} {yields} {sup 6}H{sub 13/2} transitions, respectively, have been observed upon UV excitation via a non-radiative energy transfer from Ce{sup 3+} to Dy{sup 3+} ions. Such energy transfer via an electric dipole-quadrupole interaction appears to be the most probable transfer mechanism. The efficiency of this transfer increases up to 86 {+-} 3% for the film with the highest Dy{sup 3+} content (1.9 {+-} 0.1 at.% as measured from EDS). The possibility of achieving the coordinates of ideal white light with increasing the concentration of dysprosium is demonstrated.

  11. The Land Restitution Law against opponents in good faith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Arturo Cárdenas Mesa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Colombia has made great progress in reparation for the victims of the internal armed conflict; from Law 387 of 1997 to Law 1448 of 2011, there has been a legal paradigm cultural change in which redress through restitution measures have been gaining much importance as economic reparations. The aim of this paper is to show that the Law on Land Restitution, as it is conceived, can result in a new form of dispossession because it ignores opponents in good faith, many of whom are also farmers victims of political violence. This is due to poor regulation in areas such as the evidentiary, to the slowness with which the process advances and to the fact that it was not taken into account that the dynamics of the dispossession and neglect caused by paramilitary groups are different to the originated in guerrilla violence.

  12. To breathe or fight? Siamese fighting fish differ when facing a real opponent or mirror image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, Gareth; Beattie, Emma; Elwood, Robert W

    2016-08-01

    Displays are a feature of animal contest behaviour and have been interpreted as a means of gathering information on opponent fighting ability, as well as signalling aggressive motivation. In fish, contest displays often include frontal and lateral elements, which in the latter involves contestants showing their flanks to an opponent. Previous work in a range of fish species has demonstrated population-level lateralization of these displays, preferentially showing one side to their opponent. Mirrors are commonly used in place of a real opponent to study aggression in fish, yet they may disrupt the normal pattern of display behaviour. Here, using Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, we compare the aggressive behaviour of males to a mirror image and real opponent behind a transparent barrier. As this species is a facultative air-breather, we also quantify surface breathing, providing insights into underlying fight motivation. Consistent with previous work, we found evidence of population-level lateralization, with a bias to present the left side and use the left eye when facing a real opponent. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in the aggressive displays to a mirror and real opponent, with positive correlations between the behaviour in the two scenarios. However, there were important differences in surface breathing, which was more frequent and of longer duration in the mirror treatment. The reasons for these differences are discussed in relation to the repertoire of contest behaviour and motivation when facing a real opponent. PMID:27234172

  13. Challenging the other: exploring the role of opponent gender in digital game competition for female players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Lotte; Núñez Castellar, Elena; Van Looy, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Abstract The present study investigated the effect of opponent gender on the game experience of female players. Concretely, it looked into skill perception and player emotions of women in same gender and cross-gender game competition. We set up a 2×2×2 (male vs. female opponent×low vs. high competitive women×lost vs. won game) experimental design in which women were instructed to play against a proclaimed male and female competitor. Unknowingly, however, participants played against an AI, which was configured to produce a winning and a losing condition for each opponent by manipulating difficulty. Results indicated that opponent gender only had an effect on perceived stress, which was higher with male opponents. Moreover, players evaluated their own gaming skills as lower and the skills of presumed male opponents as higher when they thought they were playing against men. Importantly, our results also showed that the above described pattern for self-perceived skills and perceived opponent skills was modulated by trait competitiveness with a larger effect size for low competitive women. Overall, this study illustrates that gender dynamics affect the play experience of women in cross-gender gaming competition. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:24724802

  14. THE IMPORTANCE OF COLOR IN THE MAJOR ROMANIAN BRANDS MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radiana Maria TAMBA BEREHOIU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The approach of our study is to identify the most important elements which characterize the use of color in the successful Romanian brands marketing, starting from the main media of the marketing messages, such as: website, advertising posters used in campaigns in the past three years and package of the main product. In the background of Romanian brands’ sites, the predominant color is white, followed at a great distance by various shades of green, blue and red. The best positions in the top 50 are associated to the websites that use blue background in construction, followed by the red and yellow. The most common background colors for posters were blue, white, red and green, and the color associated with the best positions in the top 50 for the studied brands was red. The most colors used for the background of the main product package were white, green, blue, yellow and red. The color red was associated with the best top positions. For alcoholic beverages brands, the most common color was yellow, which is mainly used in the design of the main product package (beer and wine brands.

  15. Does sadness impair color perception? Flawed evidence and faulty methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Alex O; Brown, Nicholas J L; Goodbourn, Patrick T; Etz, Alexander; Geukes, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    In their 2015 paper, Thorstenson, Pazda, and Elliot offered evidence from two experiments that perception of colors on the blue-yellow axis was impaired if the participants had watched a sad movie clip, compared to participants who watched clips designed to induce a happy or neutral mood. Subsequently, these authors retracted their article, citing a mistake in their statistical analyses and a problem with the data in one of their experiments. Here, we discuss a number of other methodological problems with Thorstenson et al.'s experimental design, and also demonstrate that the problems with the data go beyond what these authors reported. We conclude that repeating one of the two experiments, with the minor revisions proposed by Thorstenson et al., will not be sufficient to address the problems with this work. PMID:27606051

  16. PREVALENCE OF COLOR BLINDNESS IN STUDENTS: ISFAHAN – 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A ZANDI

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The light waves stimulates the retinal cell and eventually the brain cortex will interpret it to a color vision. Color vision defects can be congenital or acquired. Congenital types have a lifelong constant state (Severity. These patients almost always have red-green defect. These types are sex-linked, and according to the existing data have a prevalence of 8 percent in males and 0.5 percent in females. Acquired color vision defects are frequently of blue-yellow type and have an equal prevalence in males and females. Methods. This is a descriptive study and includes 1500 male and 1500 female students of 34 Isfahan high schools, in 1378. We used the "lshihara test" for the evaluation of color vision in these cases. Results. Prevalence of color blindness was 4.2 percent in males and 0.33 percent in female cases. Discussion. These findings are very different from what are registered in our references; so we recommend to perform the "Ishihara test" (which has a low cost and job consultation for all males before entering their occupational field. This can help them to have a better selection, more suitable job and less problems because of their probable color vision defects.

  17. Challenging the other: exploring the role of opponent gender in digital game competition for female players

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeulen, Lotte; Nunez Castellar, Elena Patricia; Van Looy, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of opponent gender on the game experience of female players. Concretely, it looked into skill perception and player emotions of women in same-gender and cross-gender game competition. We set up a 2 (male vs. female opponent) x 2 (low vs. high competitive women) x 2 (lost vs. won game) experimental design in which women were instructed to play against a proclaimed male and female competitor. Unknowingly, participants played against an AI, however, whic...

  18. Opponent recognition and social status differentiate rapid neuroendocrine responses to social challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, Travis J.; Summers, Cliff H.; Renner, Kenneth J.; Watt, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Individual social status discriminates rapid neuroendocrine responses to non-social stress in male Anolis carolinensis, but whether such status-influenced reactions are retained in response to subsequent social stress is unknown. Dominant and subordinate males modify their behavioral responses to social challenge according to familiarity of the opponent, suggesting that accompanying neuroendocrine responses may differ according to opponent recognition despite social rank. We examined endocrin...

  19. WHO ARE PROPONENTS AND OPPONENTS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS IN THE UNITED STATES?

    OpenAIRE

    Ganiere, Pierre; Chern, Wen S.; Hahn, David E.

    2004-01-01

    A national telephone survey was conducted in the U.S. in April 2002 to assess the consumer acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods. Attitudes towards GM foods were studied through the use of a multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) method, analyzing the interrelationships among many variables. This method was combined with a cluster analysis to construct a typology of consumers' attitudes. Four distinct behaviors were finally extracted - proponents, non-opponents, moderate opponents and...

  20. Adaptive color contrast enhancement for digital images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanfang; Luo, Yupin

    2011-11-01

    Noncanonical illumination that is too dim or with color cast induces degenerated images. To cope with this, we propose a method for color-contrast enhancement. First, intensity, chrominance, and contrast characteristics are explored and integrated in the Naka-Rushton equation to remove underexposure and color cast simultaneously. Motivated by the comparison mechanism in Retinex, the ratio of each pixel to its surroundings is utilized to improve image contrast. Finally, inspired by the two color-opponent dimensions in CIELAB space, a color-enhancement strategy is devised based on the transformation from CIEXYZ to CIELAB color space. For images that suffer from underexposure, color cast, or both problems, our algorithm produces promising results without halo artifacts and corruption of uniform areas.

  1. The voice of the other : A dialogico-rhetorical understanding of opponent and of Toulmin's rebuttal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slob, Wouter H.; Hitchcock, D; Verheij, B

    2006-01-01

    Although contemporary dialectical logic recognizes an important role for the opponent in argumentation, it remains loyal to the idea that arguments are supportive. In this paper, it is argued that because of this dialectical logic does not take seriously its own dialogical perspective. Without ackno

  2. A Rough - Neuro Model for Classifying Opponent Behavior in Real Time Strategy Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Z. Rashad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Real Time strategy games offer an environment where game AI is known to conduct actuality. One featureof realistic behavior in game AI is the ability to recognize the strategy of the opponent player. This isknown as opponent modeling. In this paper, a classification Rough-Neuro hybrid model of the RTSopponent player behavior process is proposed. As a mean to achieve better game performance, reductionof the agent decision space and better high-level winning of real-time strategy games. The Rough-Neuromethodology allows the classification model to some extent simulate opponent behavior in playing RTSgames. The methodology incorporates a two-stage hybrid mechanism. Rough sets for reduction of relevantattributes and artificial neural networks for classification opponent behavior during game playing. Theproposed hybrid approach has been tested on an open source 3D RTS game called Glest. From our resultswe can deduce that the tactic may be successfully used for foretelling the demeanor of contender in theGlest game.

  3. Color Shift Investigations for LED Secondary Optical Designs: Comparison between BPA-PC and PMMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guangjun; Yazdan Mehr, M.; van Driel, W. D.; Fan, Xuejun; Fan, Jiajie; Jansen, K. M. B.; Zhang, G. Q.

    2015-07-01

    Recently, color shift of LED-based lighting products has attracted much attention due to its increasing impact on the field application. However, significant research investigations on the color shift mechanisms are not publically available especially for important transmission materials used for secondary optical design. In this paper, broadly used such commercial materials (BPA-PC and PMMA) are experimentally investigated on the color shift effects during aging. Besides this, color shift mechanisms of degradation of transmittance are also studied. Results revealed: (1) Inconsistent degradation of wavelength-dependent transmittance induces the decrease of the blue/yellow light intensity ratio and thus gives rise to the color shift toward the yellow field, which is the color shift mechanism of BPA-PC; (2) Even for the non-aged BPA-PC, the transmittance varies with wavelength in the visible light field due to the chemistry of the material, which caused the change of intensify ratio of blue light to yellow light in the SPD, leading to color change in perception; (3) Oxidation plays a key role in the degradation of transmittance at around the peak wavelength of the blue light field, which is in correlation with the discoloration of thermally-aged BPA-PC materials. By contrast, for the PMMA specimen aged up to 3000 h, oxidation was neither occurred at 85 °C, nor with additional exposure to blue light, nor even with additional humidity of 85%RH.

  4. Video Game Violence and the Female Game Player: Self- and Opponent Gender Effects on Presence and Aggressive Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastin, Matthew S.

    2006-01-01

    Adding depth and breadth to the general aggression model, this paper presents three experiments that test the relationships among user and opponent gender representation, opponent type, presence, and aggressive thoughts from violent video game play. Studies 1 and 2 suggest that females experience greater presence and more aggressive thoughts from…

  5. Memory of opponents is more potent than visual sign stimuli after social hierarchy has been established

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzan, W.J.; Höglund, Erik; Watt, M.J.;

    2007-01-01

    information conveyed by this visual signal. Eyespots on the previously dominant male were masked with green paint to indicate low aggression and social status. Previously subordinate males had their eyespots permanently marked with black paint to convey high aggression and status. Opponents were then re......During agonistic interactions between male Anolis carolinensis, perception of a visual sign stimulus (darkened eyespots) not only inhibits aggression and promotes initial attainment of dominant social status, but also evokes distinct neuroendocrine responses in each opponent. This study......-paired for a second 10 min interaction following either 1 or 3 days of separation. Aggression was generally decreased and social status between pairs remained reasonably consistent. Unlike rapidly activated monoaminergic activity that occurs following the initial pairing, most brain areas sampled were not affected...

  6. Hydroelectricity and ecological considerations. Falsification of the environmental reality by the opponents of hydropower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Giziński

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Opponents of hydroelectricity claim falsely that hydrotechnical development of the Lower Vistula River constitutes implementation of Edward Gierek’s concept of bringing only environmental damage1. Statements on the negative environmental impact of constructing small hydroelectric power stations (SHPS are equally groundless. Permanent protests against the construction of dams and river damming, regardless of the motivations and will of protesters, increase energy dependence on Russia, and preserves the poor, post-Bierut hydrological situation2. The main fallacy made by hydropower opponents is the alternative treatment of power and environmental purposes. Environmental errors consist in continuous omission of even the most obvious positive ecological effects of constructing river dams and – what is especially reprehensible – inventing non-existent threats, e.g. lethal concentration of toxic heavy metals in deposits of the Włocławek Reservoir or the detrimental impact of warming up water in stage of falls on the fish population below the dam.

  7. The eschatological opponent of Daniel and the Antichrist of the Syriac Apocalypse of Daniel

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Daiane Silva José

    2014-01-01

    The Syriac Apocalypse of Daniel (Syr Apoc Dan), a Christian apocalypse from the seventh century of Common Era, is clearly tributary to the canonical book of Daniel (Dn). In its turn, Dn provided the figure of an eschatological opponent who was re-signified in Christianity: the Antichrist. The cosmic dimensions of the malevolent character of oppressive tyrant of Dn – his arrogance against the gods, the abomination of desolation, military conquests and persecutions of the saints, the change of ...

  8. Gender in Jeopardy!: The Role of Opponent Gender in High-Stakes Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Jetter, Michael; Walker, Jay K.

    2016-01-01

    Using 4,279 episodes of the popular US game show Jeopardy!, we analyze whether the opponents' gender is able to explain the gender gap in competitive behavior. Our findings indicate that gender differences disappear when women compete against men. This result is surprising, but emerges with remarkable consistency for the probability to (i) respond, (ii) respond correctly, and (iii) respond correctly in high-stakes situations. Even risk preferences in wagering decisions, where gender differenc...

  9. Color-induced graph colorings

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive treatment of color-induced graph colorings is presented in this book, emphasizing vertex colorings induced by edge colorings. The coloring concepts described in this book depend not only on the property required of the initial edge coloring and the kind of objects serving as colors, but also on the property demanded of the vertex coloring produced. For each edge coloring introduced, background for the concept is provided, followed by a presentation of results and open questions dealing with this topic. While the edge colorings discussed can be either proper or unrestricted, the resulting vertex colorings are either proper colorings or rainbow colorings. This gives rise to a discussion of irregular colorings, strong colorings, modular colorings, edge-graceful colorings, twin edge colorings and binomial colorings. Since many of the concepts described in this book are relatively recent, the audience for this book is primarily mathematicians interested in learning some new areas of graph colorings...

  10. Dealing with opponents of industry: Let the allies work for you

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The opponents of industry, and most Green campaigning groups, thrive on controversy. Opponents of industry, and of the nuclear industry in particular, can expect to find a more receptive public audience than do the companies they attack. Therefore, there is little to be gained by industry entering into direct conflict, or even high-profile debate, with opponents. Industry spokesmen do not rate as being trustworthy in the eyes of the public. And it does not pay to directly attack the credibility, however justified such criticisms are, of the likes of Greenpeace. In a polarised debate, if your company is seen to be partisan and the opponents to be neutral, the public will gravitate towards the opponents. The way forward is to influence the forces which ran help industry establish the middle ground to dissipate the tension. The problem for industry is not so much that it has opponents, but that it does not have enough third party advocates to mediate in disputes. Therefore, the first step is to identify the key issues facing a company or industry. The second, is to work with credible people and organisations to establish independent mechanisms which can prevent an unfavourable climate building up around those issues. The art of dealing with opponents, is the art of identifying such mechanisms (people, organisations and professions) to influence an increasingly cynical and distrusting public. These opinion-formers should be the main focus of a communications strategy designed to counter opponents. They are the conduit through which to influence public opinion in general. For instance, the debate surrounding the incidence of leukaemia around nuclear sites cannot be answered by the industry using the facts, scientific evidence, or by entering into a noisy dialogue with opponents. However, the medical profession, along with scientists working outside the nuclear industry, is in a position to shift public concern away from nuclear sites. BNFL has promoted

  11. Perceiving an opponent's loss: gender-related differences in the medial-frontal negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Hirokata; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2006-09-01

    Along with expanding the understanding of the human 'social brain', a new challenge for neuroscience is to elucidate the nature of individual differences in social competence. Here we report a neural index of gender difference in empathy-related processing in a complex social situation. Using electroencephalography, we measured the neural activity of perceptions to one's own and another's monetary gain or loss, while individuals played a 'competitive' two-person gambling game, in which one's monetary gain resulted in the other's loss. The medial-frontal negativity (MFN), a component within 300 ms latency reflecting an emotional categorization of the event, showed a significant gender difference in perceiving an opponent's, but not a self-performed outcome. When females perceive the opponent's outcomes, the MFN was elicited, indicating that another's loss was categorized as negative, even though it resulted in a benefit to them. On the contrary, the males did not elicit discernable MFN to the opponent's outcomes. Together with the fact that the affect score has a negative linear correlation with the MFN, this indicated that the MFN was sensitive to socio-emotional processing. These results suggest that individual differences in complex social behavior result from rapid neural activity in response to external stimuli. PMID:18985125

  12. Flexibility of theory of mind in a matrix game when the opponent's level changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Liu, Xi-Ping; Tang, Wei-Hai

    2014-01-01

    This study used a matrix game to explore adolescents' and young adults' flexibility of theory of mind (ToM) and to examine whether prediction could promote a person's ToM reasoning when the opponent's level of ToM changed during the course of the game. A total of 202 participants of different ages (13, 16, 19, and 24 years) were presented with the task. Results showed that the ToM flexibility in prediction and decision making was not significantly different across the age groups. A person's flexibility of ToM was better when the opponent's level was stable than when the level changed. It was even more difficult for a person to adapt when the opponent changed from a higher-order to lower-order level. The results showed prediction to be a kind of information clue that would prompt people to think further. It is both feasible and discriminative to explore even higher levels of ToM with matrix games.

  13. Contribution of a luminance-dependent S-cone mechanism to non-assimilative color spreading in the watercolor configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji eKimura

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the watercolor configuration composed of wavy double contours, both assimilative and non-assimilative color spreading have been demonstrated depending on the luminance conditions of the inner and outer contours (IC and OC, respectively. This study investigated how the induced color in the watercolor configuration was modulated by combinations of the IC and the OC color, particularly addressing non-assimilative color spreading. In two experiments, the IC color was fixed to a certain color and combined with various colors selected from a hue circle centered at the background white color. Color spreading was quantified with a chromatic cancellation technique. Results showed that both the magnitude and the apparent hue of the color spreading were largely changed with the luminance condition. When the IC contrast (Weber contrast of the IC to the background luminance was smaller in size than the OC contrast (higher IC luminance condition, the color spreading was assimilative. When the luminance condition was reversed and the IC contrast was greater than the OC contrast (lower IC luminance condition, the color spreading was non-assimilative and yellowish. When the color spreading was analyzed in terms of cone-opponent excitations, the results were consistent with the interpretation that the color spreading is explainable by a combination of chromatic diffusion from the IC and chromatically opponent induction from the OC. The color spreading in the higher IC luminance condition mainly reflected the chromatic diffusion by both (L–M and S cone-opponent mechanisms. The non-assimilative color spreading in the lower IC luminance condition mostly reflected S-cone mediated opponent induction and the contribution of -S inducing mechanisms was differentially large. These findings provided several constraints on possible visual mechanisms underlying the watercolor effect.

  14. Color Homography

    OpenAIRE

    Finlayson, Graham; Gong, Han; Fisher, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We show the surprising result that colors across a change in viewing condition (changing light color, shading and camera) are related by a homography. Our homography color correction application delivers improved color fidelity compared with the linear least-square.

  15. Color Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rose in full bloom. If you have a color vision defect, you may see these colors differently than most people. There are three main kinds of color vision defects. Red-green color vision defects are the ...

  16. Offshore wind power in Sweden—A qualitative analysis of attitudes with particular focus on opponents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish Parliament has voted for massive expansion of wind power within the next decade. As in many other countries, the establishment of new wind farms has aroused local opposition. This paper contributes to the literature using a qualitative methodology to analyse attitudes towards wind power. In 2007, we carried out in-depth interviews with 40 stakeholders concerned with two planned near-shore farms in Sweden; despite their location, the wind farms' visual impact provoked strong negative attitudes. However, we found no evidence of the NIMBY-syndrome; rather, those opposing the wind farms question wind power more generally, especially vis-à-vis nuclear power. The analysis of attitudes is based on three components: cognition, feeling and action tendency. The results show high consistency between the feeling and cognitive components of attitudes: a negative feeling regarding landscape impact, for example, is accompanied by a belief that wind power is inefficient and unprofitable. However, in many cases the action tendency component is in dissonance with the other two: opponents remain passive despite being against the establishment of new wind farms. These passive opponents represent elements of uncertainty as they may suddenly, at a late stage, turn into active opponents exerting an effect on the decision process. - Highlights: ► Opposition to near-shore wind farms expressed in in-depth interviews is analysed. ► Wind power is viewed as a threat to landscape qualities regardless of proximity. ► Inefficiency and unprofitability are reasons to question wind power establishments. ► Passive opposition is an element of uncertainty that may turn into active opposition. ► Understanding of local response must rest on level of support as well as activity.

  17. Color vision deficiency in a middle-aged population: the Shahroud Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Hashemi, Hassan; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Mehravaran, Shiva; Shariati, Mohammad; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of color vision defects in the middle-age population of Shahroud, Iran. We selected 6,311 people from the 40- to 64-year-old population through random cluster sampling. Color vision testing was performed with the Farnsworth D-15. Cases with similar and symmetric results in both eyes were classified as hereditary, and those with asymmetric results were considered acquired. Cases that did not conform to standard patterns were classified as unknown category. Of 5,190 respondents (response rate 82.2 %), 5,102 participants underwent the color vision test. Of these, 14.7 % (95 % confidence interval 13.7-15.6) had some type of color vision deficiency. Of the 2,157 male participants, 6.2 % were hereditary and 10.2 % were acquired and of the 2,945 female participants, 3.1 % were hereditary and 10 % were acquired. Hereditary color deficiencies were mostly of the deutan form (63.8 %), and acquired deficiencies were mostly tritan (66.1 %). The prevalence of hereditary and acquired color vision deficiency, as well as different types of red-green and blue-yellow color vision defects significantly increased with age (p color vision defects among the middle-aged population of Shahroud was significantly different from that seen in the younger population. This could be due to changes associated with age, gender, medical and ocular conditions, and differences in race and environment. Thus, results of previous examinations and the overall health status should be considered before making any judgment about the status of color vision in middle-aged people.

  18. A different form of color vision in mantis shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoen, Hanne H; How, Martin J; Chiou, Tsyr-Huei; Marshall, Justin

    2014-01-24

    One of the most complex eyes in the animal kingdom can be found in species of stomatopod crustaceans (mantis shrimp), some of which have 12 different photoreceptor types, each sampling a narrow set of wavelengths ranging from deep ultraviolet to far red (300 to 720 nanometers). Functionally, this chromatic complexity has presented a mystery. Why use 12 color channels when three or four are sufficient for fine color discrimination? Behavioral wavelength discrimination tests (Δλ functions) in stomatopods revealed a surprisingly poor performance, ruling out color vision that makes use of the conventional color-opponent coding system. Instead, our experiments suggest that stomatopods use a previously unknown color vision system based on temporal signaling combined with scanning eye movements, enabling a type of color recognition rather than discrimination.

  19. Communication, opponents, and clan performance in online games: a social network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong Joo; Choi, Jaewon; Kim, Jong Woo; Park, Sung Joo; Gloor, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Online gamers form clans voluntarily to play together and to discuss their real and virtual lives. Although these clans have diverse goals, they seek to increase their rank in the game community by winning more battles. Communications among clan members and battles with other clans may influence the performance of a clan. In this study, we compared the effects of communication structure inside a clan, and battle networks among clans, with the performance of the clans. We collected battle histories, posts, and comments on clan pages from a Korean online game, and measured social network indices for communication and battle networks. Communication structures in terms of density and group degree centralization index had no significant association with clan performance. However, the centrality of clans in the battle network was positively related to the performance of the clan. If a clan had many battle opponents, the performance of the clan improved.

  20. Distinguishing the opponents in the prisoner dilemma in well-mixed populations

    CERN Document Server

    Wardil, Lucas

    2010-01-01

    Here we study the effects of adopting different strategies against different opponent instead of adopting the same strategy against all of them in the prisoner dilemma structured in well-mixed populations. We consider an evolutionary process in which strategies that provide reproductive success are imitated and players replace one of their worst interactions by the new one. We set individuals in a well-mixed population so that network reciprocity effect is excluded and we analyze both synchronous and asynchronous updates. As a consequence of the replacement rule, we show that mutual cooperation is never destroyed and the initial fraction of mutual cooperation is a lower bound for the level of cooperation. We show by simulation and mean-field analysis that for synchronous update cooperation dominates while for asynchronous update only cooperations associated to the initial mutual cooperations are maintained. As a side effect of the replacement rule, an "implicit punishment" mechanism comes up in a way that exp...

  1. Color blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... color blindness often have problems seeing reds and greens, too. The most severe form of color blindness is achromatopsia. This is a rare condition in which a person cannot see any color, only shades of gray. Most color blindness is due to ...

  2. Color Blindness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严双红

    2007-01-01

    About one in 12 boys is color-blind, and one in every 400 girls, so in each school class there are likely to be at least one or two people who are color-blind. Because they are color- blind from birth, most people do not know that they are color-

  3. Reinforcement Learning in the Game of Othello: Learning Against a Fixed Opponent and Learning from Self-Play

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ree, Michiel; Wiering, Marco

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares three strategies in using reinforcement learning algorithms to let an artificial agent learnto play the game of Othello. The three strategies that are compared are: Learning by self-play, learning from playing against a fixed opponent, and learning from playing against a fixed op

  4. Automated processes in tennis: do left-handed players benefit from the tactical preferences of their opponents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffing, Florian; Hagemann, Norbert; Strauss, Bernd

    2010-02-01

    Previous research on laterality in sport suggests an over-representation of left-handers in interactive sports such as tennis and cricket. These findings potentially reflect left-handers' advantage over their right-handed competitors in those sports. Although considered crucial for successful performance, the tactical component of their superiority has yet to be analysed. Two studies were conducted to test for a side bias in tennis players' tactical preferences. In the first study, 108 right- and left-handed players of varying skill watched rallies on a computer screen and had to indicate where they would place the ball in the opposing half. The results showed the tactical preference of players to place more balls on a left-handed opponent's mostly stronger forehand side compared with when faced with a right-hander. In the second study, 54 professional tennis matches involving right- and left-handers were analysed with respect to ball placement frequencies on the opponent's backhand side. Significantly fewer balls were hit to the backhand side of a left-handed opponent, thus replicating the findings of Study 1 in on-court situations. Both studies indicate players' preference to place shots to their right irrespective of their opponent's handedness. Findings support the assumption that left-handers might enjoy a strategic advantage in tennis.

  5. Uncalibrated color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroney, Nathan

    2006-01-01

    Color calibration or the use of color measurement processes to characterize the color properties of a device or workflow is often expected or assumed for many color reproduction applications. However it is interesting to consider applications or situations in which color calibration is not as critical. In the first case it is possible to imagine an implicit color calibration resulting from a standardization or convergence of the colorant and substrate spectrum. In the second case it is possible to imagine cases where the device color variability is significantly less than the user color thresholds or expectations for color consistency. There are still general requirements for this form of pragmatic color but they are generally lower than for the higher end of digital color reproduction. Finally it is possible to imagine an implicit calibration that leverages in some way the highly accurate memory color for the hue of common objects. This scenario culminates with a challenge to create a natural capture calibration standard that does not require individual calibration, is spectrally diverse, is inexpensive and is environmentally friendly.

  6. Ocean Color

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Satellite-derived Ocean Color Data sets from historical and currently operational NASA and International Satellite missions including the NASA Coastal Zone Color...

  7. Opponent and bidirectional control of movement velocity in the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yttri, Eric A; Dudman, Joshua T

    2016-05-19

    For goal-directed behaviour it is critical that we can both select the appropriate action and learn to modify the underlying movements (for example, the pitch of a note or velocity of a reach) to improve outcomes. The basal ganglia are a critical nexus where circuits necessary for the production of behaviour, such as the neocortex and thalamus, are integrated with reward signalling to reinforce successful, purposive actions. The dorsal striatum, a major input structure of basal ganglia, is composed of two opponent pathways, direct and indirect, thought to select actions that elicit positive outcomes and suppress actions that do not, respectively. Activity-dependent plasticity modulated by reward is thought to be sufficient for selecting actions in the striatum. Although perturbations of basal ganglia function produce profound changes in movement, it remains unknown whether activity-dependent plasticity is sufficient to produce learned changes in movement kinematics, such as velocity. Here we use cell-type-specific stimulation in mice delivered in closed loop during movement to demonstrate that activity in either the direct or indirect pathway is sufficient to produce specific and sustained increases or decreases in velocity, without affecting action selection or motivation. These behavioural changes were a form of learning that accumulated over trials, persisted after the cessation of stimulation, and were abolished in the presence of dopamine antagonists. Our results reveal that the direct and indirect pathways can each bidirectionally control movement velocity, demonstrating unprecedented specificity and flexibility in the control of volition by the basal ganglia.

  8. Dopaminergic signaling mediates the motivational response underlying the opponent process to chronic but not acute nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieder, Taryn E; Sellings, Laurie H; Vargas-Perez, Hector; Ting-A-Kee, Ryan; Siu, Eric C; Tyndale, Rachel F; van der Kooy, Derek

    2010-03-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system is implicated in the processing of the positive reinforcing effect of all drugs of abuse, including nicotine. It has been suggested that the dopaminergic system is also involved in the aversive motivational response to drug withdrawal, particularly for opiates, however, the role for dopaminergic signaling in the processing of the negative motivational properties of nicotine withdrawal is largely unknown. We hypothesized that signaling at dopaminergic receptors mediates chronic nicotine withdrawal aversions and that dopaminergic signaling would differentially mediate acute vs dependent nicotine motivation. We report that nicotine-dependent rats and mice showed conditioned place aversions to an environment paired with abstinence from chronic nicotine that were blocked by the DA receptor antagonist alpha-flupenthixol (alpha-flu) and in DA D(2) receptor knockout mice. Conversely, alpha-flu pretreatment had no effect on preferences for an environment paired with abstinence from acute nicotine. Taken together, these results suggest that dopaminergic signaling is necessary for the opponent motivational response to nicotine in dependent, but not non-dependent, rodents. Further, signaling at the DA D(2) receptor is critical in mediating withdrawal aversions in nicotine-dependent animals. We suggest that the alleviation of nicotine withdrawal primarily may be driving nicotine motivation in dependent animals. PMID:20032966

  9. Eggs and Abortion: "Women-Protective" Language Used by Opponents in Legislative Debates over Reproductive Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesudason, Sujatha; Weitz, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we undertake an examination of the presence of similar "women-protective" discourses in policy debates occurring over two bills on reproductive-related topics considered during the 2013 California legislature session. The first bill (AB154), now signed into law, allows nurse practitioners, certified nurse midwives, and physician assistants to perform first-trimester aspiration abortions. The second bill (AB926), had it passed, would remove the prohibition on paying women for providing eggs to be used for research purposes. Using frame analysis we find evidence of similar protective arguments by opponents of both bills, although these advocates do not share ideological positions on abortion rights or women's autonomy. In the case of AB154, anti-abortion advocates use language and frames that call for protecting the health of women against the imputed interests of the "abortion industry." In the case of AB926, feminists and pro-choice advocates evoke similar frameworks for the protection of women against the interests of the "medical research industry." Both sides argue for the "protection of women," from opposing positions on the rights and autonomy of women in relationship to reproductive freedom. PMID:26242947

  10. Opponent and bidirectional control of movement velocity in the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yttri, Eric A; Dudman, Joshua T

    2016-05-02

    For goal-directed behaviour it is critical that we can both select the appropriate action and learn to modify the underlying movements (for example, the pitch of a note or velocity of a reach) to improve outcomes. The basal ganglia are a critical nexus where circuits necessary for the production of behaviour, such as the neocortex and thalamus, are integrated with reward signalling to reinforce successful, purposive actions. The dorsal striatum, a major input structure of basal ganglia, is composed of two opponent pathways, direct and indirect, thought to select actions that elicit positive outcomes and suppress actions that do not, respectively. Activity-dependent plasticity modulated by reward is thought to be sufficient for selecting actions in the striatum. Although perturbations of basal ganglia function produce profound changes in movement, it remains unknown whether activity-dependent plasticity is sufficient to produce learned changes in movement kinematics, such as velocity. Here we use cell-type-specific stimulation in mice delivered in closed loop during movement to demonstrate that activity in either the direct or indirect pathway is sufficient to produce specific and sustained increases or decreases in velocity, without affecting action selection or motivation. These behavioural changes were a form of learning that accumulated over trials, persisted after the cessation of stimulation, and were abolished in the presence of dopamine antagonists. Our results reveal that the direct and indirect pathways can each bidirectionally control movement velocity, demonstrating unprecedented specificity and flexibility in the control of volition by the basal ganglia.

  11. Dopaminergic signaling mediates the motivational response underlying the opponent process to chronic but not acute nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieder, Taryn E; Sellings, Laurie H; Vargas-Perez, Hector; Ting-A-Kee, Ryan; Siu, Eric C; Tyndale, Rachel F; van der Kooy, Derek

    2010-03-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system is implicated in the processing of the positive reinforcing effect of all drugs of abuse, including nicotine. It has been suggested that the dopaminergic system is also involved in the aversive motivational response to drug withdrawal, particularly for opiates, however, the role for dopaminergic signaling in the processing of the negative motivational properties of nicotine withdrawal is largely unknown. We hypothesized that signaling at dopaminergic receptors mediates chronic nicotine withdrawal aversions and that dopaminergic signaling would differentially mediate acute vs dependent nicotine motivation. We report that nicotine-dependent rats and mice showed conditioned place aversions to an environment paired with abstinence from chronic nicotine that were blocked by the DA receptor antagonist alpha-flupenthixol (alpha-flu) and in DA D(2) receptor knockout mice. Conversely, alpha-flu pretreatment had no effect on preferences for an environment paired with abstinence from acute nicotine. Taken together, these results suggest that dopaminergic signaling is necessary for the opponent motivational response to nicotine in dependent, but not non-dependent, rodents. Further, signaling at the DA D(2) receptor is critical in mediating withdrawal aversions in nicotine-dependent animals. We suggest that the alleviation of nicotine withdrawal primarily may be driving nicotine motivation in dependent animals.

  12. Color Names

    OpenAIRE

    Benavente, Robert; Van De Weijer, Joost; Vanrell, Maria; Schmid, Cordelia; Baldrich, Ramon; Verbeek, Jakob; Larlus, Diane

    2012-01-01

    International audience Within a computer vision context color naming is the action of assigning linguistic color labels to pixels, regions or objects in images. Humans use color names routinely and seemingly without effort to describe the world around us. They have been primarily studied in the fields of visual psychology, anthropology and linguistics [17]. Color names are for example used in the context of image retrieval. A user might query an image search engine for "red cars". The syste...

  13. Color invariance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Geusebroek; R. van den Boomgaard; A.W.M. Smeulders; H. Geerts

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the measurement of colored object reflectance, under different, general assumptions regarding the imaging conditions. We exploit the Gaussian scale-space paradigm for color images to define a framework for the robust measurement of object reflectance from color images. Object ref

  14. Bio-inspired color image enhancement model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yufeng

    2009-05-01

    Human being can perceive natural scenes very well under various illumination conditions. Partial reasons are due to the contrast enhancement of center/surround networks and opponent analysis on the human retina. In this paper, we propose an image enhancement model to simulate the color processes in the human retina. Specifically, there are two center/surround layers, bipolar/horizontal and ganglion/amacrine; and four color opponents, red (R), green (G), blue (B), and yellow (Y). The central cell (bipolar or ganglion) takes the surrounding information from one or several horizontal or amacrine cells; and bipolar and ganglion both have ON and OFF sub-types. For example, a +R/-G bipolar (red-center- ON/green-surround-OFF) will be excited if only the center is illuminated, or inhibited if only the surroundings (bipolars) are illuminated, or stay neutral if both center and surroundings are illuminated. Likewise, other two color opponents with ON-center/OFF-surround, +G/-R and +B/-Y, follow the same rules. The yellow (Y) channel can be obtained by averaging red and green channels. On the other hand, OFF-center/ON-surround bipolars (i.e., -R/+G and -G/+R, but no - B/+Y) are inhibited when the center is illuminated. An ON-bipolar (or OFF-bipolar) only transfers signals to an ONganglion (or OFF-ganglion), where amacrines provide surrounding information. Ganglion cells have strong spatiotemporal responses to moving objects. In our proposed enhancement model, the surrounding information is obtained using weighted average of neighborhood; excited or inhibited can be implemented with pixel intensity increase or decrease according to a linear or nonlinear response; and center/surround excitations are decided by comparing their intensities. A difference of Gaussian (DOG) model is used to simulate the ganglion differential response. Experimental results using natural scenery pictures proved that, the proposed image enhancement model by simulating the two-layer center

  15. Color Categories and Color Appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

  16. Color Terms and Color Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, Jules

    2006-01-01

    In their lead articles, both Kowalski and Zimiles (2006) and O'Hanlon and Roberson (2006) declare a general relation between color term knowledge and the ability to conceptually represent color. Kowalski and Zimiles, in particular, argue for a priority for the conceptual representation in color term acquisition. The complexities of the interaction…

  17. Cooperation, leadership and numerical assessment of opponents in conflicts between groups of feral dogs (Canis lupus familiaris)

    OpenAIRE

    Bonanni, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    This thesis attempted to assess the adaptive value of the behaviour of feral dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) by using such species as a model for testing predictions based on evolutionary theories. In particular, the following topics concerning dogs’ behaviour were examined: intergroup agonistic behaviour in relation to numerical assessment of opponents, cooperative behaviour during intergroup conflicts and decision making processes during collective activity changes. The research focuse...

  18. Color Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrolstad, Ronald E.; Smith, Daniel E.

    Color, flavor, and texture are the three principal quality attributes that determine food acceptance, and color has a far greater influence on our judgment than most of us appreciate. We use color to determine if a banana is at our preferred ripeness level, and a discolored meat product can warn us that the product may be spoiled. The marketing departments of our food corporations know that, for their customers, the color must be "right." The University of California Davis scorecard for wine quality designates four points out of 20, or 20% of the total score, for color and appearance (1). Food scientists who establish quality control specifications for their product are very aware of the importance of color and appearance. While subjective visual assessment and use of visual color standards are still used in the food industry, instrumental color measurements are extensively employed. Objective measurement of color is desirable for both research and industrial applications, and the ruggedness, stability, and ease of use of today's color measurement instruments have resulted in their widespread adoption.

  19. Color Portraits: From Color Picking to Interacting with Color

    OpenAIRE

    Jalal, Ghita; Maudet, Nolwenn; Mackay, Wendy E.

    2015-01-01

    Although ubiquitous, color pickers have remained largely unchanged for 25 years. Based on contextual interviews with artists and designers, we created the Color Portraits design space to characterize five key color manipulation activities: sampling and tweaking individual colors, manipulating color relationships, combining colors with other elements, revisiting previous color choices, and revealing a design process through color. We found similar color manipulation requirements with scientist...

  20. Modeling human color categorization: color discrimination and color memory

    OpenAIRE

    Broek, van den, M.M.P.; Hendriks, M.A.; Puts, M.J.H.; Heskes, T.; Lucas, P.; Vuurpijl, L.G.; W. Wiegerinck

    2003-01-01

    Color matching in Content-Based Image Retrieval is done using a color space and measuring distances between colors. Such an approach yields non-intuitive results for the user. We introduce color categories (or focal colors), determine that they are valid, and use them in two experiments. The experiments conducted prove the difference between color categorization by the cognitive processes color discrimination and color memory. In addition, they yield a Color Look-Up Table, which can improve c...

  1. COLOR IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Lafon

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to present specific capabilities and limitations of the use of color digital images in a characterization process. The whole process is investigated, from the acquisition of digital color images to the analysis of the information relevant to various applications in the field of material characterization. A digital color image can be considered as a matrix of pixels with values expressed in a vector-space (commonly 3 dimensional space whose specificity, compared to grey-scale images, is to ensure a coding and a representation of the output image (visualisation printing that fits the human visual reality. In a characterization process, it is interesting to regard color image attnbutes as a set of visual aspect measurements on a material surface. Color measurement systems (spectrocolorimeters, colorimeters and radiometers and cameras use the same type of light detectors: most of them use Charge Coupled Devices sensors. The difference between the two types of color data acquisition systems is that color measurement systems provide a global information of the observed surface (average aspect of the surface: the color texture is not taken into account. Thus, it seems interesting to use imaging systems as measuring instruments for the quantitative characterization of the color texture.

  2. Cue combination and color edge detection in natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunhong; Mel, Bartlett W

    2008-01-01

    Biological vision systems are adept at combining cues to maximize the reliability of object boundary detection, but given a set of co-localized edge detectors operating on different sensory channels, how should their responses be combined to compute overall edge probability? To approach this question, we collected joint responses of red-green and blue-yellow edge detectors both ON- and OFF-edges using a human-labeled image database as ground truth (D. Martin, C. Fowlkes, D. Tal, & J. Malik, 2001). From a Bayesian perspective, the rule for combining edge cues is linear in the individual cue strengths when the ON-edge and OFF-edge joint distributions are (1) statistically independent and (2) lie in an exponential ratio to each other. Neither condition held in the color edge data we collected, and the function P(ON cues)-dubbed the "combination rule"-was correspondingly complex and nonlinear. To characterize the statistical dependencies between edge cues, we developed a generative model ("saturated common factor," SCF) that provided good fits to the measured ON-edge and OFF-edge joint distributions. We also found that a divisive normalization scheme derived from the SCF model transformed raw edge detector responses into values with simpler distributions that satisfied both preconditions for a linear combination rule. A comparison to another normalization scheme (O. Schwartz & E. Simoncelli, 2001) suggests that apparently minor details of the normalization process can strongly influence its performance. Implications of the SCF normalization scheme for cue combination in biological sensory systems are discussed. PMID:18484843

  3. Color matrix display simulation based upon luminance and chromatic contrast sensitivity of early vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Russel A.; Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.; Larimer, James O.

    This paper describes the design and operation of a new simulation model for color matrix display development. It models the physical structure, the signal processing, and the visual perception of static displays, to allow optimization of display design parameters through image quality measures. The model is simple, implemented in the Mathematica computer language, and highly modular. Signal processing modules operate on the original image. The hardware modules describe backlights and filters, the pixel shape, and the tiling of the pixels over the display. Small regions of the displayed image can be visualized on a CRT. Visual perception modules assume static foveal images. The image is converted into cone catches and then into luminance, red-green, and blue-yellow images. A Haar transform pyramid separates the three images into spatial frequency and direction-specific channels. The channels are scaled by weights taken from human contrast sensitivity measurements of chromatic and luminance mechanisms at similar frequencies and orientations. Each channel provides a detectability measure. These measures allow the comparison of images displayed on prospective devices and, by that, the optimization of display designs.

  4. Color matrix display simulation based upon luminance and chromatic contrast sensitivity of early vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Russel A.; Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.; Larimer, James O.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the design and operation of a new simulation model for color matrix display development. It models the physical structure, the signal processing, and the visual perception of static displays, to allow optimization of display design parameters through image quality measures. The model is simple, implemented in the Mathematica computer language, and highly modular. Signal processing modules operate on the original image. The hardware modules describe backlights and filters, the pixel shape, and the tiling of the pixels over the display. Small regions of the displayed image can be visualized on a CRT. Visual perception modules assume static foveal images. The image is converted into cone catches and then into luminance, red-green, and blue-yellow images. A Haar transform pyramid separates the three images into spatial frequency and direction-specific channels. The channels are scaled by weights taken from human contrast sensitivity measurements of chromatic and luminance mechanisms at similar frequencies and orientations. Each channel provides a detectability measure. These measures allow the comparison of images displayed on prospective devices and, by that, the optimization of display designs.

  5. Color contrast and stability as key elements for effectivewarning signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina María Arenas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vivid warning signals (aposematism have evolved repeatedly throughout the animal kingdom. However, relatively few studies consider what makes an effective signal, such as in terms of preventing attack and promoting avoidance learning by predators. Signal form varies substantially among and sometimes within species, but there has also been apparent convergence on relatively few main color types. We aimed to determine why warning signals often combine red, orange, yellow and black colors, and specifically to determine whether these colors provide highly salient and reliable visual signals under a range of environmental conditions. Using digital image analysis, we modeled ladybird (ladybug coloration to an avian visual system. We calculated the contrast of several different ladybird species against an average green background, based on predicted opponent color channel responses in bird vision. Our results suggest that longwave colors (i.e. red, orange are more contrasting than colors such as blue, against green natural backgrounds. Moreover, these colors yield relatively unchanging (stable signals throughout the day and under different weather conditions. These analyses show how aposematic signals have evolved under selection to be more effective by being more conspicuous and reliable to the visual system of their potential avian predators.

  6. Optokinetic technique for measuring infants' responses to color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstis, S; Cavanagh, P; Maurer, D; Lewis, T

    1987-04-15

    Two motion tests will measure normal and defective responses to color in non-verbal infants. Moving gratings displayed on a computer-controlled TV monitor elicited optokinetic eye movements. The first test established three results. First, non-verbal infants can be successfully screened, the one baby known to be colorblind was readily identified. Second, the equiluminance point for red and green was shifted for protans, who needed more red light than normals to make an equiluminance match. Third, the relative contribution of R- and G-cones to the luminance pathways is already in place at the adult level within the first three months of life. The second test, run only on adults, correctly diagnosed deutans who were missed by the first test, and showed that opponent-color mechanisms contribute directly to motion for normal but not for color-deficient observers. PMID:20454352

  7. Put your Hands up in the Air? The Interpersonal Effects of Pride and Shame Expressions on Opponents and Teammates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip eFurley

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research was to investigate the interpersonal effects of pride and shame expressions amongst opponents and teammates in a soccer penalty scenario. Across a series of experiments using the point-light method, pride and shame expressions exerted strong effects upon observers’ anticipated emotions, associated cognitions, and performance expectations. Using the Implicit Association Test (IAT in two pilot studies we demonstrated that the created pride and shame point-light stimuli were implicitly associated with status and performance related attributes. In Experiment 1, observing pride expressions caused opponents to anticipate more negative emotions, cognitions, and lower performance expectancies towards their next performance in comparison with neutral expressions. In contrast, pride expressions led teammates to anticipate more positive emotions (i.e., pride and happiness, cognitions, and performance expectations towards their next performance than neutral expressions (Experiments 2-4. The results are discussed within the emotions as social information (EASI, van Kleef, 2009 framework by arguing that the social context has to be taken into account when investigating the interpersonal effects of emotion expressions. In conclusion, the present research highlights the potential interpersonal influence of the nonverbal expressions of pride and shame in soccer penalty shootouts.

  8. Modeling human color categorization: color discrimination and color memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den E.L.; Hendriks, M.A.; Puts, M.J.H.; Vuurpijl, L.G.; Heskes, T.; Lucas, P.; Vuurpijl, L.G.; Wiegerinck, W.

    2003-01-01

    Color matching in Content-Based Image Retrieval is done using a color space and measuring distances between colors. Such an approach yields non-intuitive results for the user. We introduce color categories (or focal colors), determine that they are valid, and use them in two experiments. The experim

  9. A Vision Chip for Color Segmentation and Pattern Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Etienne-Cummings

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A 128(H × 64(V × RGB CMOS imager is integrated with region-of-interest selection, RGB-to-HSI transformation, HSI-based pixel segmentation, (36bins × 12bits-HSI histogramming, and sum-of-absolute-difference (SAD template matching. Thirty-two learned color templates are stored and compared to each image. The chip captures the R, G, and B images using in-pixel storage before passing the pixel content to a multiplying digital-to-analog converter (DAC for white balancing. The DAC can also be used to pipe in images for a PC. The color processing uses a biologically inspired color opponent representation and an analog lookup table to determine the Hue (H of each pixel. Saturation (S is computed using a loser-take-all circuit. Intensity (I is given by the sum of the color components. A histogram of the segments of the image, constructed by counting the number of pixels falling into 36 Hue intervals of 10 degrees, is stored on a chip and compared against the histograms of new segments using SAD comparisons. We demonstrate color-based image segmentation and object recognition with this chip. Running at 30 fps, it uses 1 mW. To our knowledge, this is the first chip that integrates imaging, color segmentation, and color-based object recognition at the focal plane.

  10. Colored Preons

    CERN Document Server

    Finkelstein, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested complementary models of the elementary particles as (a) quantum knots and (b) preonic nuclei that are field and particle descriptions, respectively, of the same particles. This earlier work, carried out in the context of standard electroweak (SU(2) x U(1)) physics, is here extended to the strong interactions by the introduction of color (SU(3)) charges.

  11. Color tejido

    OpenAIRE

    Rius Tormo, Palmira

    2010-01-01

    La exposición que se propone tiene como núcleo principal el color y muestra las posibilidades expresivas que aporta a los diferentes materiales. Las 7 obras presentadas buscan la armonía estética y la fuerza simbólica.

  12. Opponent actor learning (OpAL): modeling interactive effects of striatal dopamine on reinforcement learning and choice incentive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Anne G E; Frank, Michael J

    2014-07-01

    The striatal dopaminergic system has been implicated in reinforcement learning (RL), motor performance, and incentive motivation. Various computational models have been proposed to account for each of these effects individually, but a formal analysis of their interactions is lacking. Here we present a novel algorithmic model expanding the classical actor-critic architecture to include fundamental interactive properties of neural circuit models, incorporating both incentive and learning effects into a single theoretical framework. The standard actor is replaced by a dual opponent actor system representing distinct striatal populations, which come to differentially specialize in discriminating positive and negative action values. Dopamine modulates the degree to which each actor component contributes to both learning and choice discriminations. In contrast to standard frameworks, this model simultaneously captures documented effects of dopamine on both learning and choice incentive-and their interactions-across a variety of studies, including probabilistic RL, effort-based choice, and motor skill learning. PMID:25090423

  13. Opponent actor learning (OpAL): modeling interactive effects of striatal dopamine on reinforcement learning and choice incentive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Anne G E; Frank, Michael J

    2014-07-01

    The striatal dopaminergic system has been implicated in reinforcement learning (RL), motor performance, and incentive motivation. Various computational models have been proposed to account for each of these effects individually, but a formal analysis of their interactions is lacking. Here we present a novel algorithmic model expanding the classical actor-critic architecture to include fundamental interactive properties of neural circuit models, incorporating both incentive and learning effects into a single theoretical framework. The standard actor is replaced by a dual opponent actor system representing distinct striatal populations, which come to differentially specialize in discriminating positive and negative action values. Dopamine modulates the degree to which each actor component contributes to both learning and choice discriminations. In contrast to standard frameworks, this model simultaneously captures documented effects of dopamine on both learning and choice incentive-and their interactions-across a variety of studies, including probabilistic RL, effort-based choice, and motor skill learning.

  14. Physiological outperformance at the morphologically-transformed edge of the cyanobacteriosponge Terpios hoshinota (Suberitidae: Hadromerida when confronting opponent corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Terng Wang

    Full Text Available Terpios hoshinota, an encrusting cyanosponge, is known as a strong substrate competitor of reef-building corals that kills encountered coral by overgrowth. Terpios outbreaks cause significant declines in living coral cover in Indo-Pacific coral reefs, with the damage usually lasting for decades. Recent studies show that there are morphological transformations at a sponge's growth front when confronting corals. Whether these morphological transformations at coral contacts are involved with physiological outperformance (e.g., higher metabolic activity or nutritional status over other portions of Terpios remains equivocal. In this study, we compared the indicators of photosynthetic capability and nitrogen status of a sponge-cyanobacteria association at proximal, middle, and distal portions of opponent corals. Terpios tissues in contact with corals displayed significant increases in photosynthetic oxygen production (ca. 61%, the δ13C value (ca. 4%, free proteinogenic amino acid content (ca. 85%, and Gln/Glu ratio (ca. 115% compared to middle and distal parts of the sponge. In contrast, the maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm, which is the indicator usually used to represent the integrity of photosystem II, of cyanobacteria photosynthesis was low (0.256~0.319 and showed an inverse trend of higher values in the distal portion of the sponge that might be due to high and variable levels of cyanobacterial phycocyanin. The inconsistent results between photosynthetic oxygen production and Fv/Fm values indicated that maximum quantum yields might not be a suitable indicator to represent the photosynthetic function of the Terpios-cyanobacteria association. Our data conclusively suggest that Terpios hoshinota competes with opponent corals not only by the morphological transformation of the sponge-cyanobacteria association but also by physiological outperformance in accumulating resources for the battle.

  15. Computational color technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Henry R

    2006-01-01

    Henry Kang provides the fundamental color principles and mathematical tools to prepare the reader for a new era of color reproduction, and for subsequent applications in multispectral imaging, medical imaging, remote sensing, and machine vision. This book is intended to bridge the gap between color science and computational color technology, putting color adaptation, color constancy, color transforms, color display, and color rendition in the domain of vector-matrix representations and theories. Computational Color Technology deals with color digital images on the spectral level using vector-m

  16. 47 CFR 15.122 - Closed caption decoder requirements for digital television receivers and converter boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... only if the characters for the corresponding language are supported. The decoders must be able to... following character foreground colors: white, black, red, green, blue, yellow, magenta and cyan. (3) Caption... following background colors: white, black, red, green, blue, yellow, magenta and cyan. It is...

  17. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase dependent inhibition as a broad basis for opponent coding in Mammalian olfactory receptor neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill Ukhanov

    Full Text Available Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K signaling has been implicated in mediating inhibitory odorant input to mammalian olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs. To better understand the breadth of such inhibition in odor coding, we screened a panel of odorants representing different chemical classes, as well as odorants known to occur in a natural odor object (tomato, for their ability to rapidly activate PI3K-dependent inhibitory signaling. Odorants were screened on dissociated native rat ORNs before and after pre-incubation with the PI3K-isoform specific blockers AS252424 and TGX221. Many different odorants increased their excitatory strength for particular ORNs following PI3K blockade in a manner consistent with activating PI3K-dependent inhibitory signaling in those cells. The PI3K-dependent inhibitory odorants overlapped with conventional excitatory odorants, but did not share the same bias, indicating partial partitioning of the odor space. Finding that PI3K-dependent inhibition can be activated by a wide range of otherwise conventional excitatory odorants strongly implies PI3K-dependent inhibition provides a broad basis for opponent coding in mammalian ORNs.

  18. The Disunity of Color

    OpenAIRE

    Matthen, Mohan

    1999-01-01

    What is color? What is color vision? Most philosophers answer by reference to humans: to human color qualia, or to the environmental properties or "quality spaces" perceived by humans. It is argued, with reference to empirical findings concerning comparative color vision and the evolution of color vision, that all such attempts are mistaken. An adequate definition of color vision must eschew reference to its outputs in the human cognition and refer only to inputs: color vision consists in...

  19. Using color management in color document processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehab, Smadar

    1995-04-01

    Color Management Systems have been used for several years in Desktop Publishing (DTP) environments. While this development hasn't matured yet, we are already experiencing the next generation of the color imaging revolution-Device Independent Color for the small office/home office (SOHO) environment. Though there are still open technical issues with device independent color matching, they are not the focal point of this paper. This paper discusses two new and crucial aspects in using color management in color document processing: the management of color objects and their associated color rendering methods; a proposal for a precedence order and handshaking protocol among the various software components involved in color document processing. As color peripherals become affordable to the SOHO market, color management also becomes a prerequisite for common document authoring applications such as word processors. The first color management solutions were oriented towards DTP environments whose requirements were largely different. For example, DTP documents are image-centric, as opposed to SOHO documents that are text and charts centric. To achieve optimal reproduction on low-cost SOHO peripherals, it is critical that different color rendering methods are used for the different document object types. The first challenge in using color management of color document processing is the association of rendering methods with object types. As a result of an evolutionary process, color matching solutions are now available as application software, as driver embedded software and as operating system extensions. Consequently, document processing faces a new challenge, the correct selection of the color matching solution while avoiding duplicate color corrections.

  20. Color features for dating historical color images

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando, Basura; Muselet, Damien; Khan, Rahat; Tuytelaars, Tinne

    2014-01-01

    Fernando B., Muselet D., Khan R., Tuytelaars T., ''Color features for dating historical color image'', IEEE international conference on image processing - ICIP 2014, 5 pp., October 27-30, 2014, Paris, France.

  1. Embedding Color Watermarks in Color Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Tung-Lin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Robust watermarking with oblivious detection is essential to practical copyright protection of digital images. Effective exploitation of the characteristics of human visual perception to color stimuli helps to develop the watermarking scheme that fills the requirement. In this paper, an oblivious watermarking scheme that embeds color watermarks in color images is proposed. Through color gamut analysis and quantizer design, color watermarks are embedded by modifying quantization indices of color pixels without resulting in perceivable distortion. Only a small amount of information including the specification of color gamut, quantizer stepsize, and color tables is required to extract the watermark. Experimental results show that the proposed watermarking scheme is computationally simple and quite robust in face of various attacks such as cropping, low-pass filtering, white-noise addition, scaling, and JPEG compression with high compression ratios.

  2. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  3. Unit 50 - Color

    OpenAIRE

    Unit 57, CC in GIS; Kimerling, Jon

    1990-01-01

    This unit presents an overview of topics related to color, including its physical basis, human visual perception, how color is generated by a CRT and created on paper and how color is measured and specified.

  4. LED Color Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-01

    Color quality is an important consideration when evaluating LED-based products for general illumination. This fact sheet reviews the basics regarding light and color and summarizes the most important color issues related to white-light LED systems.

  5. The relationship of psychophysiological characteristics karate qualifications in light weight category with the effective implementation of kick leg techniques in upper level of the opponent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Saienko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: set the density of the relationship of psycho-physiological characteristics of karate qualifications in light weight category with the efficiency of the implementation of kick leg techniques in the upper level of the opponent. Material and Methods: The study involved thirty highly skilled karatekas in light weight category. Conducted pedagogical and psychophysiological testing, carried out an analysis of competitive actions, carried out a special analysis of scientific and methodical literature, applied the methods of mathematical statistics. Results: The degree of correlation between the obtained numerical results of psycho-physiological characteristics and indicators of the effectiveness different types of gradient kicking karate qualifications in light weight category in upper level of the opponent. Conclusions: karatekas high qualifications in light weight category, the higher the strength of neural processes in the processing of information in the imposed rhythm, the more reliable in a competitive match under implementation methods kick leg them with maximum power and speed-up in upper level of the opponent, and at the higher they characteristic of functional mobility of nervous processes in the processing of information in the imposed rhythm, the greater the likelihood of fighters attacking moves fast.

  6. Exploring Opponent Formats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Møller; Rasmussen, Majken; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2013-01-01

    The recent growth in development and research in computer-supported physical games has sprouted a wide variety of games merging qualities from both computer games and sports. Despite the increasing interest in this type of games, exploration of their specific game mechanics and the understanding...

  7. Exploring Opponent Formats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Møller; Rasmussen, Majken; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2013-01-01

    The recent growth in development and research in computer-supported physical games has sprouted a wide variety of games merging qualities from both computer games and sports. Despite the increasing interest in this type of games, exploration of their specific game mechanics and the understanding ...

  8. Digital color imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Maloigne, Christine; Macaire, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    This collective work identifies the latest developments in the field of the automatic processing and analysis of digital color images.For researchers and students, it represents a critical state of the art on the scientific issues raised by the various steps constituting the chain of color image processing.It covers a wide range of topics related to computational color imaging, including color filtering and segmentation, color texture characterization, color invariant for object recognition, color and motion analysis, as well as color image and video indexing and retrieval. <

  9. Color grading and colors in film

    OpenAIRE

    Výbora, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focuses on use of colors in film industry and the possibilities of color grading. It examines manipulation with colors in film history, and examines color theory, which in- cludes their use, meanings and ways of combining them. Next, it maps common visuals styles used in film industry and compares how frequently they are used. With the help of all gathered knowledge, it presents few ways how to color grade in DaVinci Resolve software to achieve desired look. The outcome of the col...

  10. A Bio-Inspired AER Temporal Tri-Color Differentiator Pixel Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farian, Łukasz; Leñero-Bardallo, Juan Antonio; Häfliger, Philipp

    2015-10-01

    This article investigates the potential of a bio-inspired vision sensor with pixels that detect transients between three primary colors. The in-pixel color processing is inspired by the retinal color opponency that are found in mammalian retinas. Color transitions in a pixel are represented by voltage spikes, which are akin to a neuron's action potential. These spikes are conveyed off-chip by the Address Event Representation (AER) protocol. To achieve sensitivity to three different color spectra within the visual spectrum, each pixel has three stacked photodiodes at different depths in the silicon substrate. The sensor has been fabricated in the standard TSMC 90 nm CMOS technology. A post-processing method to decode events into color transitions has been proposed and implemented as a custom interface to display real-time color changes in the visual scene. Experimental results are provided. Color transitions can be detected at high speed (up to 2.7 kHz). The sensor has a dynamic range of 58 dB and a power consumption of 22.5 mW. This type of sensor can be of use in industrial, robotics, automotive and other applications where essential information is contained in transient emissions shifts within the visual spectrum. PMID:26540694

  11. a New Color Correction Method for Underwater Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, G.; Muzzupappa, M.; Bruno, F.; Garcia, R.; Neumann, L.

    2015-04-01

    Recovering correct or at least realistic colors of underwater scenes is a very challenging issue for imaging techniques, since illumination conditions in a refractive and turbid medium as the sea are seriously altered. The need to correct colors of underwater images or videos is an important task required in all image-based applications like 3D imaging, navigation, documentation, etc. Many imaging enhancement methods have been proposed in literature for these purposes. The advantage of these methods is that they do not require the knowledge of the medium physical parameters while some image adjustments can be performed manually (as histogram stretching) or automatically by algorithms based on some criteria as suggested from computational color constancy methods. One of the most popular criterion is based on gray-world hypothesis, which assumes that the average of the captured image should be gray. An interesting application of this assumption is performed in the Ruderman opponent color space lαβ, used in a previous work for hue correction of images captured under colored light sources, which allows to separate the luminance component of the scene from its chromatic components. In this work, we present the first proposal for color correction of underwater images by using lαβ color space. In particular, the chromatic components are changed moving their distributions around the white point (white balancing) and histogram cutoff and stretching of the luminance component is performed to improve image contrast. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of this method under gray-world assumption and supposing uniform illumination of the scene. Moreover, due to its low computational cost it is suitable for real-time implementation.

  12. Unsupervised color normalisation for H and E stained histopathology image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis, Raúl; Romero, Eduardo

    2015-12-01

    In histology, each dye component attempts to specifically characterise different microscopic structures. In the case of the Hematoxylin-Eosin (H&E) stain, universally used for routine examination, quantitative analysis may often require the inspection of different morphological signatures related mainly to nuclei patterns, but also to stroma distribution. Nevertheless, computer systems for automatic diagnosis are often fraught by color variations ranging from the capturing device to the laboratory specific staining protocol and stains. This paper presents a novel colour normalisation method for H&E stained histopathology images. This method is based upon the opponent process theory and blindly estimates the best color basis for the Hematoxylin and Eosin stains without relying on prior knowledge. Stain Normalisation and Color Separation are transversal to any Framework of Histopathology Image Analysis.

  13. Facts About Color Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quickly diagnose specific types of color blindness. The Ishihara Color Test is the most common test for red-green ... red-green color blindness. The newer Cambridge Color Test uses a visual array similar to the Ishihara plates, except displayed on a computer monitor. The ...

  14. Texture affects color emotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Lucassen; T. Gevers; A. Gijsenij

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have recorded color emotions in subjects viewing uniform color (UC) samples. We conduct an experiment to measure and model how these color emotions change when texture is added to the color samples. Using a computer monitor, our subjects arrange samples along four scales: warm-cool,

  15. Color Me Understood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Judy J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the "color system" as a way of grouping children into different personality types based on a certain color: orange, blue, green, and gold. Lists stress producers for specific color people. Asserts that, through making groups of different colors, children begin to see the various specialties others can bring to the group and learn to…

  16. Preparatory Body State before Reacting to an Opponent: Short-Term Joint Torque Fluctuation in Real-Time Competitive Sports.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Fujii

    Full Text Available In a competitive sport, the outcome of a game is determined by an athlete's relationship with an unpredictable and uncontrolled opponent. We have previously analyzed the preparatory state of ground reaction forces (GRFs dividing non-weighted and weighted states (i.e., vertical GRFs below and above 120% of body weight, respectively in a competitive ballgame task and demonstrated that the non-weighted state prevented delay of the defensive step and promoted successful guarding. However, the associated kinetics of lower extremity joints during a competitive sports task remains unknown. The present study aims to investigate the kinetic characteristics of a real-time competitive sport before movement initiation. As a first kinetic study on a competitive sport, we initially compared the successful defensive kinetics with a relatively stable preparatory state and the choice-reaction sidestep as a control movement. Then, we investigated the kinetic cause of the outcome in a 1-on-1 dribble in terms of the preparatory states according to our previous study. The results demonstrated that in successful defensive motions in the non-weighted state guarding trial, the times required for the generation of hip abduction and three extension torques for the hip, knee, and ankle joints were significantly shortened compared with the choice-reaction sidestep, and hip abduction and hip extension torques were produced almost simultaneously. The sport-specific movement kinetics emerges only in a more-realistic interactive experimental setting. A comparison of the outcomes in the 1-on-1 dribble and preparatory GRF states showed that, in the non-weighted state, the defenders guarded successfully in 68.0% of the trials, and the defender's initiation time was earlier than that in the weighted state (39.1%. In terms of kinetics, the root mean squares of the derivative of hip abduction and three extension torques in the non-weighted state were smaller than those in the

  17. Industrial Color Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Georg A

    2010-01-01

    This unique book starts with a short historical overview of the development of the theories of color vision and applications of industrial color physics. The three dominant factors producing color - light source, color sample, and observer - are described in detail. The standardized color spaces are shown and related color values are applied to characteristic color qualities of absorption as well as of effect colorants. The fundamentals of spectrometric and colorimetric measuring techniques together with specific applications are described. Theoretical models for radiative transfer in transparent, translucent, and opaque layers are detailed; the two, three, and multi-flux approximations are presented for the first time in a coherent formalism. These methods constitute the fundamentals not only for the important classical methods, but also modern methods of recipe prediction applicable to all known colorants. The text is supplied with 52 tables, more than 200 partially colored illustrations, an appendix, and a...

  18. The road coloring problem

    OpenAIRE

    Trahtman, A. N.

    2007-01-01

    The synchronizing word of deterministic automaton is a word in the alphabet of colors (considered as letters) of its edges that maps the automaton to a single state. A coloring of edges of a directed graph is synchronizing if the coloring turns the graph into deterministic finite automaton possessing a synchronizing word. The road coloring problem is a problem of synchronizing coloring of directed finite strongly connected graph with constant outdegree of all its vertices if the greatest comm...

  19. Representation of Perceptual Color Space in Macaque Posterior Inferior Temporal Cortex (the V4 Complex)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohon, Kaitlin S.; Hermann, Katherine L.; Hansen, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The lateral geniculate nucleus is thought to represent color using two populations of cone-opponent neurons [L vs M; S vs (L + M)], which establish the cardinal directions in color space (reddish vs cyan; lavender vs lime). How is this representation transformed to bring about color perception? Prior work implicates populations of glob cells in posterior inferior temporal cortex (PIT; the V4 complex), but the correspondence between the neural representation of color in PIT/V4 complex and the organization of perceptual color space is unclear. We compared color-tuning data for populations of glob cells and interglob cells to predictions obtained using models that varied in the color-tuning narrowness of the cells, and the color preference distribution across the populations. Glob cells were best accounted for by simulated neurons that have nonlinear (narrow) tuning and, as a population, represent a color space designed to be perceptually uniform (CIELUV). Multidimensional scaling and representational similarity analyses showed that the color space representations in both glob and interglob populations were correlated with the organization of CIELUV space, but glob cells showed a stronger correlation. Hue could be classified invariant to luminance with high accuracy given glob responses and above-chance accuracy given interglob responses. Luminance could be read out invariant to changes in hue in both populations, but interglob cells tended to prefer stimuli having luminance contrast, regardless of hue, whereas glob cells typically retained hue tuning as luminance contrast was modulated. The combined luminance/hue sensitivity of glob cells is predicted for neurons that can distinguish two colors of the same hue at different luminance levels (orange/brown). PMID:27595132

  20. Representation of Perceptual Color Space in Macaque Posterior Inferior Temporal Cortex (the V4 Complex).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohon, Kaitlin S; Hermann, Katherine L; Hansen, Thorsten; Conway, Bevil R

    2016-01-01

    The lateral geniculate nucleus is thought to represent color using two populations of cone-opponent neurons [L vs M; S vs (L + M)], which establish the cardinal directions in color space (reddish vs cyan; lavender vs lime). How is this representation transformed to bring about color perception? Prior work implicates populations of glob cells in posterior inferior temporal cortex (PIT; the V4 complex), but the correspondence between the neural representation of color in PIT/V4 complex and the organization of perceptual color space is unclear. We compared color-tuning data for populations of glob cells and interglob cells to predictions obtained using models that varied in the color-tuning narrowness of the cells, and the color preference distribution across the populations. Glob cells were best accounted for by simulated neurons that have nonlinear (narrow) tuning and, as a population, represent a color space designed to be perceptually uniform (CIELUV). Multidimensional scaling and representational similarity analyses showed that the color space representations in both glob and interglob populations were correlated with the organization of CIELUV space, but glob cells showed a stronger correlation. Hue could be classified invariant to luminance with high accuracy given glob responses and above-chance accuracy given interglob responses. Luminance could be read out invariant to changes in hue in both populations, but interglob cells tended to prefer stimuli having luminance contrast, regardless of hue, whereas glob cells typically retained hue tuning as luminance contrast was modulated. The combined luminance/hue sensitivity of glob cells is predicted for neurons that can distinguish two colors of the same hue at different luminance levels (orange/brown). PMID:27595132

  1. Color chiral solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Novozhilov, V Yu; Novozhilov, Victor; Novozhilov, Yuri

    2002-01-01

    We discuss specific features of color chiral solitons (asymptotics, possibility of confainment, quantization) at example of isolated SU(2) color skyrmions, i.e. skyrmions in a background field which is the vacuum field forming the gluon condensate.

  2. Colors Can Affect Us!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊斌

    2006-01-01

    Different colors affect us differently.The following will show us how they work. Experiment proves that math problems worked on yellow paper have fewer mistakes than problems written on other colors of paper.

  3. White polymer light-emitting diodes co-doped with three phosphorescent iridium(III) complexes aimed at improvement of color rendering properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikawa, Shigeru [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Yagi, Shigeyuki, E-mail: yagi@chem.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Maeda, Takeshi; Nakazumi, Hiroyuki [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Sakurai, Yoshiaki [Textile and Polymer Section, Technology Research Institute of Osaka Prefecture, 2-7-1 Ayumino, Izumi, Osaka 594-1157 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    To obtain white electroluminescence (EL) with a high color rendering index (CRI), we fabricated polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) co-doped with high-efficiency blue-, yellow- and red-phosphorescent bis-cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes (Ir-1, Ir-2, and Ir-3, respectively) in a single emitting layer based on a PVCz-OXD-7 blended film (PVCz, poly(9-vinylcarbazole); OXD-7, 1,3-bis[5-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]benzene). When the constituent ratio of the emitting layer (PVCz:OXD-7:Ir-1:Ir-2:Ir-3) was adjusted to 10:3.0:1.2:0.060:0.036 in weight ratio, an approximately white PLED (WPLED) was obtained showing a Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinate of (0.38, 0.44) and a CRI of 83 at 1000 cd m{sup −2}. To elucidate the energy transfer among the phosphorescent emitters, we also investigated the photophysical properties of the PVCz-based thin film whose constituent ratio is the same as the emitting layer of the WPLED, and it was found that a cascade of the energy transfer from the blue to the red via the yellow emitter considerably contributes to the emission process along with the direct energy transfer from the blue to the red and yellow emitters. - Highlights: • PLEDs co-doped with three phosphorescent emitters were fabricated. • Approximately white EL with a color rendering index of 83 was obtained. • The energy transfer mechanism among the phosphorescent emitters was elucidated.

  4. Color rendition engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukauskas, Artūras; Vaicekauskas, Rimantas; Vitta, Pranciškus; Tuzikas, Arūnas; Petrulis, Andrius; Shur, Michael

    2012-02-27

    A source of white light with continuously tuned color rendition properties, such as color fidelity, as well as color saturating and color dulling ability has been developed. The source, which is composed of red (R), amber (A), green (G), and blue (B) light-emitting diodes, has a spectral power distribution varied as a weighted sum of "white" RGB and AGB blends. At the RGB and AGB end-points, the source has a highest color saturating and color dulling ability, respectively, as follows from the statistical analysis of the color-shift vectors for 1269 Munsell samples. The variation of the weight parameter allows for continuously traversing all possible metameric RAGB blends, including that with the highest color fidelity. The source was used in a psychophysical experiment on the estimation of the color appearance of familiar objects, such as vegetables, fruits, and soft-drink cans of common brands, at correlated color temperatures of 3000 K, 4500 K, and 6500 K. By continuously tuning the weight parameter, each of 100 subjects selected RAGB blends that, to their opinion, matched lighting characterized as "most saturating," "most dulling," "most natural," and "preferential". The end-point RGB and AGB blends have been almost unambiguously attributed to "most saturating" and "most dulling" lighting, respectively. RAGB blends that render a highest number of colors with high fidelity have, on average, been attributed to "most natural" lighting. The "preferential" color quality of lighting has, on average, been matched to RAGB blends that provide color rendition with fidelity somewhat reduced in favor of a higher saturation. Our results infer that tunable "color rendition engines" can validate color rendition metrics and provide lighting meeting specific needs and preferences to color quality. PMID:22418343

  5. Reimagining the Color Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Color wheels are a traditional project for many teachers. The author has used them in art appreciation classes for many years, but one problem she found when her pre-service art education students created colored wheels was that they were boring: simple circles, with pie-shaped pieces, which students either painted or colored in. This article…

  6. Tanslation of Color Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丹

    2009-01-01

    Being a minor part in the translation field,the translation of color words is far more complex than people may have imagined.Apart from the literal meaning of color words in the target language,there are other factors that affect the understanding.This paper mainly focuses on three main characteristics of color words that make the translation work difficult-color words'variations and combinations,rich symbolic meanings and culture differences.It also provides possible ways to deal with the prickly problem of finding equivalents,the complexity of transferring symbolic meanings and the subtle problem of crossing culture boundaries in translation of color words.

  7. Acquired color vision deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simunovic, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Acquired color vision deficiency occurs as the result of ocular, neurologic, or systemic disease. A wide array of conditions may affect color vision, ranging from diseases of the ocular media through to pathology of the visual cortex. Traditionally, acquired color vision deficiency is considered a separate entity from congenital color vision deficiency, although emerging clinical and molecular genetic data would suggest a degree of overlap. We review the pathophysiology of acquired color vision deficiency, the data on its prevalence, theories for the preponderance of acquired S-mechanism (or tritan) deficiency, and discuss tests of color vision. We also briefly review the types of color vision deficiencies encountered in ocular disease, with an emphasis placed on larger or more detailed clinical investigations.

  8. S-cone excitation ratios for reaction times to blue-yellow suprathreshold changes at isoluminance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, José M; Díaz, José A

    2010-09-01

    We examined different contrast metrics to scale visual latencies for suprathreshold stimuli modulated along tritan confusion lines. S-cone increments ('blue') and decrements ('yellow') were isolated along two different tritan confusion lines, each one having a different luminance value. Reaction times (RT) were evaluated as a function of the Weber contrast and the S-cone excitation ratio between the test stimulus and the background. RTs were described using a model that generalizes Piéron's law and incorporates the notion of threshold units and power law scaling. Our results show that RTs for S-cone increments and decrements equate better when using the S-cone excitation ratio. However, a single function did not describe all RT data. S-cone RTs are better described by separate functions. We conclude that S-cone increments and decrements do not scale in the same manner. Both Weber contrast and the S-cone excitation ratio are plausible metrics at isoluminance. The implications for the S-cone pathways are discussed. PMID:20883334

  9. [Colors and their meaning in culture and psychology--a historical outline and contemporary status of color vision theories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Lewicka, Romana; Torlińska, Teresa; Stelcer, Bogusław

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism of color perception has intrigued scholars from antiquity. However, the understanding of this phenomena only came with the recognition of the nature of light and visual perception. Ancient concepts, present in science until the Renaissance, were based more on philosophical considerations and theoretical speculations than on anatomical studies and a matter-of-fact assessment of physiological functions of the visual system. From antiquity to 17th century scientific approach to the concept of vision was dominated by two theories: intromission and extramission (emanation). Intromission theory, propagated by Alhazen (lbn al.-Haythama), Vitello, John Peckham, Roger Bacon and Leonardo da Vinci, assumed that the light was transmitted from the observed object perpendicularly to the transparent eye structures. Johannes Kepler was the first scholar to propose that the retina was the receptive part of the eye. In the first half of the 17th century, Kepler's groundbreaking optical achievements and anatomical discoveries of many other scientists cast new light on the understanding of the role of different eye structures, finally wiping out the intromission theory. A further major achievement contributing to the recognition of the true nature of colors was a theory presented by Newton in 1688. He argued that they were colored rays, and not white light, that were composed of homogenous and pure light. It was, however, not until the 19th century when two modern theories of color appeared, i.e. a trichromatic theory mostly associated with the names of Young and Hemlholtz, and an opponent colors theory of Hering. In the 20th century, the two theories--previously assumed as contradictory--were joined into the zone theories of color vision. Colors have their cultural and social meanings, as far as a very individual and personal interpretation. In the former function they are used to illustrate some cultural and sociological phenomena; in the latter, they are helpful in

  10. Colors, colored overlays, and reading skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcangelo eUccula

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts. It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e. who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions – e.g. color, shape or movement illusions – while reading. This condition would interest the 12-14% of the general population and up to the 46% of the dyslexic population. Thus, colored overlays have been largely employed as a remedy for some aspects of the difficulties in reading experienced by dyslexic individuals, as fluency and speed. Despite the wide use of colored overlays, how they exert their effects has not been made clear yet. Also, according to some researchers, the results supporting the efficacy of colored overlays as a tool for helping readers are at least controversial. Furthermore, the very nature of the Meares-Irlen syndrome has been questioned. Here we provide a concise, critical review of the literature.

  11. Color Reproduction with a Smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Lars-Jochen; Colicchia, Giuseppe; Girwidz, Raimund

    2013-01-01

    The world is full of colors. Most of the colors we see around us can be created on common digital displays simply by superposing light with three different wavelengths. However, no mixture of colors can produce a fully pure color identical to a spectral color. Using a smartphone, students can investigate the main features of primary color addition…

  12. Affective Image Colorization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hui Wang; Jia Jia; Han-Yu Liao; Lian-Hong Cai

    2012-01-01

    Colorization of gray-scale images has attracted many attentions for a long time.An important role of image color is the conveyer of emotions (through color themes).The colorization with an undesired color theme is less useful,even it is semantically correct.However this has been rarely considered.Automatic colorization respecting both the semantics and the emotions is undoubtedly a challenge.In this paper,we propose a complete system for affective image colorization.We only need the user to assist object segmentation along with text labels and an affective word.First,the text labels along with other object characters are jointly used to filter the internet images to give each object a set of semantically correct reference images.Second,we select a set of color themes according to the affective word based on art theories.With these themes,a generic algorithm is used to select the best reference for each object,balancing various requirements.Finally,we propose a hybrid texture synthesis approach for colorization.To the best of our knowledge,it is the first system which is able to efficiently colorize a gray-scale image semantically by an emotionally controllable fashion.Our experiments show the effectiveness of our system,especially the benefit compared with the previous Markov random field (MRF) based method.

  13. Enhancing Color Representation for the Color Vision Impaired

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jia-Bin; Wu, Sih-Ying; Chen, Chu-Song

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a fast re-coloring algorithm to improve the accessibility for the color vision impaired. Compared to people with normal color vision, people with color vision impairment have difficulty in distinguishing between certain combinations of colors. This may hinder visual communication owing to the increasing use of colors in recent years. To address this problem, we re-map the hue components in the HSV color space based on the statistics of local characteristics of the or...

  14. Color image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Kimberley A.; Ruck, Dennis W.; Rogers, Steven K.; Oxley, Mark E.

    1994-03-01

    The most difficult stage of automated target recognition is segmentation. Current segmentation problems include faces and tactical targets; previous efforts to segment these objects have used intensity and motion cues. This paper develops a color preprocessing scheme to be used with the other segmentation techniques. A neural network is trained to identify the color of a desired object, eliminating all but that color from the scene. Gabor correlations and 2D wavelet transformations will be performed on stationary images; and 3D wavelet transforms on multispectral data will incorporate color and motion detection into the machine visual system. The paper will demonstrate that color and motion cues can enhance a computer segmentation system. Results from segmenting faces both from the AFIT data base and from video taped television are presented; results from tactical targets such as tanks and airplanes are also given. Color preprocessing is shown to greatly improve the segmentation in most cases.

  15. The road coloring problem

    CERN Document Server

    Trahtman, A N

    2007-01-01

    The synchronizing word of deterministic automaton is a word in the alphabet of colors (considered as letters) of its edges that maps the automaton to a single state. A coloring of edges of a directed graph is synchronizing if the coloring turns the graph into deterministic finite automaton possessing a synchronizing word. The road coloring problem is a problem of synchronizing coloring of directed finite strongly connected graph with constant outdegree of all its vertices if the greatest common divisor of lengths of all its cycles is one. The problem was posed by Adler, Goodwyn and Weiss over 30 years ago and evoked a noticeable interest among the specialists in theory of graphs, deterministic automata and symbolic dynamics. The problem is described even in "Vikipedia" - the popular Internet Encyclopedia. The positive solution of the road coloring problem is presented.

  16. Masters Colors -meikkisarjan lanseeraus

    OpenAIRE

    Muhonen, Veera; Renlund, Siri

    2013-01-01

    Toiminnallisen opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli suunnitella ja toteuttaa Masters Colors –meikkisarjan lanseeraustoimenpiteet. Opinnäytetyö toteutettiin yhteistyössä hoitolakosmetiikan maahantuontiyritys Benecom Oy:n kanssa. Yrityksen päätoimisena maahantuontisarjana toimii Guinot-hoitolakosmetiikkasarja, jonka lisäksi Benecom Oy tuo maahan Guinot-konsernin Masters Colors –meikkisarjaa sekä Cosmecology –kosmetiikkaa. Masters Colors on kehitetty laajentamaan Guinot-kauneushoitoloiden palveluvali...

  17. The Translation Of Colors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冰

    2012-01-01

    Different nations have different or even opposite perception of color, which results in non-equivalence of color words in mutual translation between Chinese and English. This paper is to discuss non-equivalence of color words between Chinese and English on the two aspects and emphasizes the importance of transmitting cultural message accurately in the mutual translation between Chinese and English. Studying the cultural connotations of the words is of great importance for successful communication.

  18. Color mixing models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Steven J.

    1992-05-01

    In black-and-white printing the page image can be represented within a computer as an array of binary values indicating whether or not pixels should be inked. The Boolean operators of AND, OR, and EXCLUSIVE-OR are often used when adding new objects to the image array. For color printing the page may be represented as an array of continuous tone color values, and the generalization of these logic functions to gray-scale or full-color images is, in general, not defined or understood. When incrementally composing a page image new colors can replace old in an image buffer, or new colors and old can be combined according to some mixing function to form a composite color which is stored. This paper examines the properties of the Boolean operations and suggests full-color mixing functions which preserve the desired properties. These functions can be used to combine colored images, giving various transparency effects. The relationships between the mixing functions and physical models of color mixing are also discussed.

  19. How color effekts communication

    OpenAIRE

    Sachilovich, K. P.

    2013-01-01

    When speaking about communication, there are, in fact two aspects that come into mind, namely, verbal and non-verbal communication. By nonverbal means of communication people usually mean mimics, gestures, posture, voice, intonation, etc. But very few of them are aware of the fact that color is also a means of non-verbal communication, and a very powerful one. When talking about color I mean color in every meaning of the word. For instance, let’s take the color of walls in classrooms or a...

  20. Polarization encoded color camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonbrun, Ethan; Möller, Guðfríður; Di Caprio, Giuseppe

    2014-03-15

    Digital cameras would be colorblind if they did not have pixelated color filters integrated into their image sensors. Integration of conventional fixed filters, however, comes at the expense of an inability to modify the camera's spectral properties. Instead, we demonstrate a micropolarizer-based camera that can reconfigure its spectral response. Color is encoded into a linear polarization state by a chiral dispersive element and then read out in a single exposure. The polarization encoded color camera is capable of capturing three-color images at wavelengths spanning the visible to the near infrared. PMID:24690806

  1. Omni-Lie Color Algebras and Lie Color 2-Algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Omni-Lie color algebras over an abelian group with a bicharacter are studied. The notions of 2-term color $L_{\\infty}$-algebras and Lie color 2-algebras are introduced. It is proved that there is a one-to-one correspondence between Lie color 2-algebras and 2-term color $L_{\\infty}$-algebras.

  2. Encyclopedia of color science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Color Science and Technology provides an authoritative single source for understanding and applying the concepts of color to all fields of science and technology, including artistic and historical aspects of color. Many topics are discussed in this timely reference, including an introduction to the science of color, and entries on the physics, chemistry and perception of color. Color is described as it relates to optical phenomena of color and continues on through colorants and materials used to modulate color and also to human vision of color. The measurement of color is provided as is colorimetry, color spaces, color difference metrics, color appearance models, color order systems and cognitive color. Other topics discussed include industrial color, color imaging, capturing color, displaying color and printing color. Descriptions of color encodings, color management, processing color and applications relating to color synthesis for computer graphics are included in this work. The Encyclo...

  3. Navigation lights color study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Jose G.; Alberg, Matthew T.

    2015-05-01

    The chromaticity of navigation lights are defined by areas on the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) 1931 chromaticity diagram. The corner coordinates for these areas are specified in the International Regulations for Prevention of Collisions at Sea, 1972 (72 COLREGS). The navigation light's color of white, red, green, and yellow are bounded by these areas. The chromaticity values specified by the COLREGS for navigation lights were intended for the human visual system (HVS). The HVS can determine the colors of these lights easily under various conditions. For digital color camera imaging systems the colors of these lights are dependent on the camera's color spectral sensitivity, settings, and color correction. At night the color of these lights are used to quickly determine the relative course of vessels. If these lights are incorrectly identified or there is a delay in identifying them this could be a potential safety of ship concern. Vessels that use camera imaging systems exclusively for sight, at night, need to detect, identify, and discriminate navigation lights for navigation and collision avoidance. The introduction of light emitting diode (LED) lights and lights with different spectral signatures have the potential to be imaged very differently with an RGB color filter array (CFA) color camera than with the human eye. It has been found that some green navigation lights' images appear blue verse green. This has an impact on vessels that use camera imaging systems exclusively for navigation. This paper will characterize color cameras ability to properly reproducing navigation lights' color and survey a set of navigation light to determine if they conform to the COLREGS.

  4. 3-D Color Wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, Ann

    2010-01-01

    The blending of information from an academic class with projects from art class can do nothing but strengthen the learning power of the student. Creating three-dimensional color wheels provides the perfect opportunity to combine basic geometry knowledge with color theory. In this article, the author describes how her seventh-grade painting…

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ... keratoconus have a new treatment option. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved corneal collagen ...

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ... Cheryl terHorst On one of his regular mid-day swims, 78-year old Leroy Muffler noticed a ...

  7. Dynamic egg color mimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Daniel; Šulc, Michal; Brennan, Patricia L R; Hauber, Mark E; Grim, Tomáš; Honza, Marcel

    2016-06-01

    Evolutionary hypotheses regarding the function of eggshell phenotypes, from solar protection through mimicry, have implicitly assumed that eggshell appearance remains static throughout the laying and incubation periods. However, recent research demonstrates that egg coloration changes over relatively short, biologically relevant timescales. Here, we provide the first evidence that such changes impact brood parasite-host eggshell color mimicry during the incubation stage. First, we use long-term data to establish how rapidly the Acrocephalus arundinaceus Linnaeus (great reed warbler) responded to natural parasitic eggs laid by the Cuculus canorus Linnaeus (common cuckoo). Most hosts rejected parasitic eggs just prior to clutch completion, but the host response period extended well into incubation (~10 days after clutch completion). Using reflectance spectrometry and visual modeling, we demonstrate that eggshell coloration in the great reed warbler and its brood parasite, the common cuckoo, changes rapidly, and the extent of eggshell color mimicry shifts dynamically over the host response period. Specifically, 4 days after being laid, the host should notice achromatic color changes to both cuckoo and warbler eggs, while chromatic color changes would be noticeable after 8 days. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the perceived match between host and cuckoo eggshell color worsened over the incubation period. These findings have important implications for parasite-host coevolution dynamics, because host egg discrimination may be aided by disparate temporal color changes in host and parasite eggs. PMID:27516874

  8. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are ... a new treatment option. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved corneal collagen cross-linking ( ...

  9. The Color of Lobsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, Arjan van

    2005-01-01

    Synthesis of 13C-enriched carotenoids. Carotenoids are natural colorants, ranging in color from pale yellow to deep purple, with important biological functions. Carotenoids in the human diet have a beneficial health effect, playing a role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. To ge

  10. Gauge color codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bombin Palomo, Hector

    2015-01-01

    Color codes are topological stabilizer codes with unusual transversality properties. Here I show that their group of transversal gates is optimal and only depends on the spatial dimension, not the local geometry. I also introduce a generalized, subsystem version of color codes. In 3D they allow the...

  11. Color Constancy by Deep Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Lou; T. Gevers; N. Hu; M.P. Lucassen

    2015-01-01

    Computational color constancy aims to estimate the color of the light source. The performance of many vision tasks, such as object detection and scene understanding, may benefit from color constancy by estimating the correct object colors. Since traditional color constancy methods are based on speci

  12. "Focal" Color Areas and the Development of Color Names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heider, Eleanor Rosch

    1971-01-01

    Three experiments using 3- and 4-year-olds as subjects tested the hypothesis that focal colors are more salient than nonfocal colors for young children and are the areas to which color names initially become attached. (NH)

  13. Functional diversity in the color vision of cichlid fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Suzanne M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Color vision plays a critical role in visual behavior. An animal's capacity for color vision rests on the presence of differentially sensitive cone photoreceptors. Spectral sensitivity is a measure of the visual responsiveness of these cones at different light wavelengths. Four classes of cone pigments have been identified in vertebrates, but in teleost fishes, opsin genes have undergone gene duplication events and thus can produce a larger number of spectrally distinct cone pigments. In this study, we examine the question of large-scale variation in color vision with respect to individual, sex and species that may result from differential expression of cone pigments. Cichlid fishes are an excellent model system for examining variation in spectral sensitivity because they have seven distinct cone opsin genes that are differentially expressed. Results To examine the variation in the number of cones that participate in cichlid spectral sensitivity, we used whole organism electrophysiology, opsin gene expression and empirical modeling. Examination of over 100 spectral sensitivity curves from 34 individuals of three species revealed that (1 spectral sensitivity of individual cichlids was based on different subsets of four or five cone pigments, (2 spectral sensitivity was shaped by multiple cone interactions and (3 spectral sensitivity differed between species and correlated with foraging mode and the spectral reflectance of conspecifics. Our data also suggest that there may be significant differences in opsin gene expression between the sexes. Conclusions Our study describes complex opponent and nonopponent cone interactions that represent the requisite neural processing for color vision. We present the first comprehensive evidence for pentachromatic color vision in vertebrates, which offers the potential for extraordinary spectral discrimination capabilities. We show that opsin gene expression in cichlids, and possibly also

  14. Color vision test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vision problems: Achromatopsia -- complete color blindness , seeing only shades of gray Deuteranopia -- difficulty telling the difference between red/purple and green/purple Protanopia -- difficulty telling the difference between blue/ ...

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to ... wear costume contact lenses for Halloween or any time of year, follow these guidelines: Get an eye ...

  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... popping touch. But colored contact lenses are popular year-round, not just at Halloween. But few know ... contact lenses for Halloween or any time of year, follow these guidelines: Get an eye exam from ...

  17. Phoenix Color Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    These images of three Phoenix color targets were taken on sols 1 and 2 by the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) on board the Phoenix lander. The bottom target was imaged in approximate color (SSI's red, green, and blue filters: 600, 530, and 480 nanometers), while the others were imaged with an infrared filter (750 nanometers). All of them will be imaged many times over the mission to monitor the color calibration of the camera. The two at the top show grains 2 to 3 millimeters in size that were likely lifted to the Phoenix deck during landing. Each of the large color chips on each target contains a strong magnet to protect the interior material from Mars' magnetic dust. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. The color of money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Kristjánsson, Árni; Einarsdóttir, Kristin Vala;

    2014-01-01

    of attention are affected by reward, and whether the effect involves general enhancement or is specific to discrete components of attention. Observers viewed brief displays of differentially colored letters and reported their identity. Each color signified a consistent monetary value and we measured...... the accuracy of identification under different color-pairing conditions. At the end of the session, observers were paid the balance earned during the experiment. By fitting a model based on the Theory of Visual Attention (Bundesen, 1990) to the data, we estimated processing speed, selectivity, visual short......, by including conditions with color-contingent negative values. This gave an opportunity to compare high-gain with high-loss conditions. We found clear effects of value on selectivity when comparing high- and low-value conditions. When comparing equally valuable high-loss and high-gain conditions there were...

  19. Neutron color image intensifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron radiography is expanding from the conventional reactor based imaging to the imaging by accelerator based pulsed neutron source. Among them, an expectation for image intensifier technology is increasing especially for video rate dynamic image detection or time dependent imaging in a pulsed neutron source. Based on the X-ray color image intensifier technology, Toshiba has developed neutron color image intensifiers as a powerful imaging tool for dynamic and time dependent neutron radiographics. In this paper, the construction and the feature of the developed neutron color image intensifier and some examples of neutron images are presented. I would be grateful if this paper helps for wide application of neutron color image intensifiers. (author)

  20. A Colorful Equatorial Wonderland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Papua New Guinea (PNG) is one of the least visited countries in the world... a last frontier for international travelers. PNG is a colorful equatorial wonderland as well as a living example of human's culture 1000 years ago.

  1. THE COLOR GLASS CONDENSATE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCLERRAN,L.

    2001-08-26

    The Color Glass Condensate is a state of high density gluonic matter which controls the high energy limit of hadronic interactions. Its properties are important for the initial conditions for matter produced at RHIC.

  2. Skin color - patchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as from the sun) Exposure to heavy metals Changes in hormone levels Exposure to sun or ultraviolet (UV) light, especially after taking a medicine called psoralens, may increase skin color (pigmentation). Increased ...

  3. Relighting multiple color textures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DIAO Chang-yu; LU Dong-ming; LIU Gang

    2005-01-01

    With the development of digital library technology, library books made of paper can be digital released and read, and Endangered Cultural Heritages can be preserved. Traditional library's contents and functions can be greatly enhanced by digital technologies. For these new library objects, the primary key problem is precisely reconstructing their 3D models. When constructing complete 3D models, multiple color texture maps are often necessary. A commonly encountered problem uncounted during fusing of textures from multiple color images is color distortion. Each texture of a single 3D model may be obtained under possibly different lighting conditions and color response of the camera. To remove any visible seam and improve color consistency between the textures while avoiding color distortion, we propose a new efficient algorithm to relight all the texture images globally,spread residual light difference, and recolor each image by homogeneous transformation. A relative illumination model was adopted to obtain the relighting function. We choose lαβ color space with minimal correlation between channels for many natural scenes, for calculating the relighting result. Looking into two overlapped images A and B, we can pairwise relight B into A's luminosity condition in two steps. We first scale B's l channel by the lA/lB ratio of the overlapped region. We can assume A and B are in a same color plane now. Then a homogeneous transformation is applied to B's α and β channels which moves B into A's hue and saturation condition. For multiple overlapped color textures, a patch based weighted global relighting method was proposed to minimize the total color difference. The pairwise relighting method was used between each two overlapped images, and the difference in every overlapped region after relighting was weighted and summed up to construct an energy value. We used Nelder-Mead method to find a minimal energy value and the relighting parameters for every image. After

  4. Color names, color categories, and color-cued visual search: Sometimes, color perception is not categorical

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Angela M.; Lindsey, Delwin T.; Guckes, Kevin M

    2011-01-01

    The relation between colors and their names is a classic case-study for investigating the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis that categorical perception is imposed on perception by language. Here, we investigate the Sapir-Whorf prediction that visual search for a green target presented among blue distractors (or vice versa) should be faster than search for a green target presented among distractors of a different color of green (or for a blue target among different blue distractors). Gilbert, Regier, Kay...

  5. Unfolding the color code

    OpenAIRE

    Kubica, Aleksander; Yoshida, Beni; Pastawski, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The topological color code and the toric code are two leading candidates for realizing fault-tolerant quantum computation. Here we show that the color code on a $d$-dimensional closed manifold is equivalent to multiple decoupled copies of the $d$-dimensional toric code up to local unitary transformations and adding or removing ancilla qubits. Our result not only generalizes the proven equivalence for $d=2$, but also provides an explicit recipe of how to decouple independent components of the ...

  6. Static Filtered Sky Color Constancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alkhalifah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In Computer Vision, the sky color is used for lighting correction, image color enhancement, horizon alignment, image indexing, and outdoor image classification and in many other applications. In this article, for robust color based sky segmentation and detection, usage of lighting correction for sky color detection is investigated. As such, the impact of color constancy on sky color detection algorithms is evaluated and investigated. The color correction (constancy algorithms used includes Gray-Edge (GE, Gray-World (GW, Max-RGB (MRGB and Shades-of-Gray (SG. The algorithms GE, GW, MRGB, and SG, are tested on the static filtered sky modeling. The static filter is developed in the LAB color space. This evaluation and analysis is essential for detection scenarios, especially, color based object detection in outdoor scenes. From the results, it is concluded that the color constancy before sky color detection using LAB static filters has the potential of improving sky color detection performance. However, the application of the color constancy can impart adverse effects on the detection results. For images, the color constancy algorithms depict a compact and stable representative of the sky chroma loci, however, the sky color locus might have a shifting and deviation in a particular color representation. Since the sky static filters are using the static chromatic values, different results can be obtained by applying color constancy algorithms on various datasets.

  7. Novikov Color Algebra and Tortken Color Algebra%Novikov Color 代数与 Tortken Color 代数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高秀娟; 徐丽媛

    2016-01-01

    Three concepts of Novikov color algebra,Tortken color algebra and Jordan color algebra were defined,then the relations among three algebras were discussed.We gave the basic properties of Novikov color algebra and Tortken color algebra.Then we proved a Tortken color algebra with an identity element is both associative and color commutative.We also showed how to use Novikov color algebra to construct a Tortken color algebra.%给出 Novikov color 代数、Tortken color 和 Jordan color 代数的定义,并讨论它们之间的关系,证明了有单位元的 Tortken color 代数是结合的,也是 color 交换的。给出 Novikov color 代数和 Tortken color 代数的基本性质以及利用 Novikov color 代数构造 Tortken color代数的方法。

  8. Color planner for designers based on color emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ka-Man; Xin, John H.; Taylor, Gail

    2002-06-01

    During the color perception process, an associated feeling or emotion is induced in our brains, and this kind of emotion is termed as 'color emotion.' The researchers in the field of color emotions have put many efforts in quantifying color emotions with the standard color specifications and evaluating the influence of hue, lightness and chroma to the color emotions of human beings. In this study, a color planner was derived according to these findings so that the correlation of color emotions and standard color specifications was clearly indicated. Since people of different nationalities usually have different color emotions as different cultural and traditional backgrounds, the subjects in this study were all native Hong Kong Chinese and the color emotion words were all written in Chinese language in the visual assessments. Through the color planner, the designers from different areas, no matter fashion, graphic, interior or web site etc., can select suitable colors for inducing target color emotions to the customers or product-users since different colors convey different meanings to them. In addition, the designers can enhance the functionality and increase the attractiveness of their designed products by selecting suitable colors.

  9. Luminance contours can gate afterimage colors and 'real' colors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anstis, S.; Vergeer, M.L.T.; Lier, R.J. van

    2012-01-01

    It has long been known that colored images may elicit afterimages in complementary colors. We have already shown (Van Lier, Vergeer, & Anstis, 2009) that one and the same adapting image may result in different afterimage colors, depending on the test contours presented after the colored image. The c

  10. The functions of nonsuicidal self-injury: support for cognitive-affective regulation and opponent processes from a novel psychophysiological paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Joseph C; Hessel, Elenda T; Aaron, Rachel V; Arthur, Michael S; Heilbron, Nicole; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2010-11-01

    Although research on the reasons for engaging in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has increased dramatically in the last few years, there are still many aspects of this pernicious behavior that are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to address these gaps in the literature, with a particular focus on investigating whether NSSI (a) regulates affective valence in addition to affective arousal and (b) serves a cognitive regulation function in addition to an affect regulation function. To elucidate these issues, the present study utilized a sample of 112 participants (33 controls, 39 no pain controls, 16 NSSI individuals, and 24 controls matching the affect dysregulation levels of the NSSI group), employed psychophysiological measures of affective valence (startle-alone reactivity) and quality of information processing (prepulse inhibition), and used experimental methods involving an NSSI-proxy to model the NSSI process. Results largely were consistent with predictions, supporting the hypotheses that NSSI serves to regulate cognitive processing and affective valence. On this latter point, however, the control groups also showed a decrease in negative affective valence after the NSSI-proxy. This unexpected finding is consistent with the hypothesis that opponent processes may contribute to the development of self-injurious behaviors (Joiner, 2005). Overall, the present study represents an important extension of previous laboratory NSSI studies and provides a fertile foundation for future studies aimed at understanding why people engage in NSSI. PMID:20939652

  11. Randomized $\\Delta$-Edge-Coloring via Quaternion of Complex Colors

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Tony T.; Wan, Yujie; Guan, Hao

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the application of a new algebraic method of color exchanges to the edge coloring of simple graphs. Vizing's theorem states that the edge coloring of a simple graph $G$ requires either $\\Delta$ or $\\Delta+1$ colors, where $\\Delta$ is the maximum vertex degree of $G$. Holyer proved that it is {\\bf NP}-complete to decide whether $G$ is $\\Delta$-edge-colorable even for cubic graphs. By introducing the concept of complex colors, we show that the color-exchange operation follow...

  12. Backbone colorings along perfect matchings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, H.J.; Fujisawa, J.; Yoshimoto, K.

    2003-01-01

    Given a graph $G=(V,E)$ and a spanning subgraph $H$ of $G$ (the backbone of $G$), a backbone coloring for $G$ and $H$ is a proper vertex coloring $V\\rightarrow \\{1,2,\\ldots\\}$ of $G$ in which the colors assigned to adjacent vertices in $H$ differ by at least two. In a recent paper, backbone coloring

  13. Harmonious coloring of uniform hypergraphs

    OpenAIRE

    Bartłomiej Bosek; Sebastian Czerwiński; Jarosław Grytczuk; Paweł Rzążewski

    2016-01-01

    A \\emph{harmonious coloring} of a $k$-uniform hypergraph $H$ is a vertex coloring such that no two vertices in the same edge share the same color, and each $k$-element subset of colors appears on at most one edge. The \\emph{% harmonious number} $h(H)$ is the least number of colors needed for such a coloring. %These notions arose as a natural extension of a widely studied %topic of harmonious coloring of simple graphs. We prove that $k$-uniform hypergraphs of bounded maxim...

  14. Artificial color perception using microwaves

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhury, Debesh

    2013-01-01

    We report the feasibility of artificial color perception under microwave illumination using a standard microwave source and an antenna. We have sensed transmitted microwave power through color objects and have distinguished the colors by analyzing the sensed transmitted power. Experiments are carried out using a Gunn diode as the microwave source, some colored liquids as the objects and a microwave diode as the detector. Results are presented which open up an unusual but new way of perceiving colors using microwaves.

  15. Precision of Synesthetic Color Matching Resembles That for Recollected Colors Rather than Physical Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Derek H.; Wegener, Signy V.; Brown, Francesca; Mattingley, Jason B.

    2012-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is an atypical condition in which individuals experience sensations of color when reading printed graphemes such as letters and digits. For some grapheme-color synesthetes, seeing a printed grapheme triggers a sensation of color, but "hearing" the name of a grapheme does not. This dissociation allowed us to compare the…

  16. Color Memory of University Students: Influence of Color Experience and Color Characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, Carlisle; Epps, Helen H.; Kaya, Naz

    2006-01-01

    The ability to select a previously viewed color specimen from an array of specimens that differ in hue, value, or chroma varies among individuals, and may be related to one's basic color discrimination ability or to prior experience with color. This study investigated short-term color memory of 40 college students, 20 of whom were interior design…

  17. The color "fruit": object memories defined by color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, David E; Pearson, Joel; Khuu, Sieu K

    2013-01-01

    Most fruits and other highly color-diagnostic objects have color as a central aspect of their identity, which can facilitate detection and visual recognition. It has been theorized that there may be a large amount of overlap between the neural representations of these objects and processing involved in color perception. In accordance with this theory we sought to determine if the recognition of highly color diagnostic fruit objects could be facilitated by the visual presentation of their known color associates. In two experiments we show that color associate priming is possible, but contingent upon multiple factors. Color priming was found to be maximally effective for the most highly color diagnostic fruits, when low spatial-frequency information was present in the image, and when determination of the object's specific identity, not merely its category, was required. These data illustrate the importance of color for determining the identity of certain objects, and support the theory that object knowledge involves sensory specific systems.

  18. Color control of the multi-color printing device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-hua; XIU Xiao-jie; ZHU Wen-hua; TANG Hong-jun

    2006-01-01

    Conventional color-printing systems often use inks of three hues, such as CMY, CMYK and CMYKLcLm, but in order to obtain more realistic color reproductions, the ink set of more than three hues has been adopted by some color-printing systems. It is difficult, however, to model the composed color with the multiple inks when the number of the output ink hues exceeds three due to the none-unique mapping between the color spaces of the CIE Lab and the multi-color printing device. In this paper, we propose a fine color-printing method for multi-color printing device with the ink set of more than three hues. The proposed approach has good color expression ability and provides fine control of the printed color. By dividing the output color space into several subspaces, our method allows one-to-one mapping between the standard color space and the multi-color output color space. It has been proved effective when applied to the digital inkjet printer-Mutoh8000.

  19. Future of color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladson, Jack A.; Turner, Laraine B.; Green-Armytage, Paul; Hunt, Robert W. G.

    2002-06-01

    We live in a world in which styles and technologies are nearly the same from place to place, but change daily. This changing global culture is unprecedented, and reinforced by emerging new technologies that affect us all. The Future of Color, examines new technologies, how they will affect the selection and promulgation of color in the near future, and their impact upon us. We examine this topic from many perspectives - technological, business and commercial. Most importantly, as we understand how our world is emerging, we can position ourselves strategically for tomorrow.

  20. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  1. The Colors of Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVogel, Kayla; Chanover, Nancy; Thelen, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Very little is known about the coloring agents, or chromophores, that color the clouds of Saturn’s belts and zones. Although the clouds of Saturn are more muted in their coloration and do not exhibit the more striking variations seen among Jupiter’s belts, zones, and cyclonic storm features, the physical processes that render Saturn’s clouds a yellowish hue are likely similar to those at work on Jupiter. Thus, a comprehensive color study that includes both Jupiter and Saturn is warranted to advance our understanding of chromophores in the giant planet atmospheres. Here we report on our efforts to characterize the colors of Saturn’s clouds.This study involves the analysis of two imaging data sets: those from Cassini’s Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS), and Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST data were acquired in 1994, 1998, 2002 and 2004 using eleven different filters spanning 255-973 nm. After the images were photometrically and geometrically calibrated, we used them to create low resolution spectra for six different latitude regions: the Equatorial Zone, the Equatorial Belt, the South Equatorial Belt, the South Temperate Zone, the South Temperate Belt and the South South Temperate Belt. The Cassini ISS images were acquired in 2004 and 2011 using twelve different filters spanning 258-938 nm, and corresponding low resolution spectra of the same latitude regions were generated using the ISS images. We compare these low resolution spectra to Saturn’s full-disk spectrum (Karkoschka, E., 1994, Icarus 111, 174) to examine colors of discrete latitudes versus the full-disk spectrum of Saturn. The extensive temporal coverage afforded by the combination of the HST and ISS images will enable us to explore possible seasonal variations in Saturn’s cloud colors. Finally, we examine the color evolution of the major 2011 storm on Saturn using the ISS data.This work was supported by the Discovery Scholars Program in

  2. QCD: color or glow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The some of motivations for color and the numerous qualitative successes of QCD are presented. Non-leading higher order contributions to the (x, Q2)-dependence of scaling violations of non-singlet and singlet structure functions are discussed, especially non-perturbative correction to deep inelastic processes such as higher twist contributions. Finally the topic of how to account theoretically for the existence of free fractionally charged particles by concentrating mainly on spontaneously breaking SU(3) color is presented. (M.F.W.)

  3. RELATION OF EFFECTIVENESS IN PICK N’ ROLL APPLICATION BETWEEN THE NATIONAL GREEK TEAM OF AND ITS OPPONENTS DURING THE MEN’S WORLD BASKETBALL CHAMPIONSHIP OF 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POLYKRATIS MATTHEOS

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to register and analyse the alterations of Pick n’ Roll effectiveness between the national team of Greece and its opponents during the Mundobasket 2006 in Japan. The sampleconsisted of the 9 games that took place between them during the Mundobasket 2006. In the 1528 cases which were registered, we analyzed all the Pick n’ Rolls according to 26 pre-estimated factors (form, court area, players combination, way of attack, attack player, shot area, way of defending Pick n’ Roll, to reveal all the comparingdifferences in the Pick n’ Roll application and the relation of Pick n’ Roll effectiveness and productivity. The statistical analysis package SPSS was used for the statistical analysis of the data, correlation analysis, classification (cluster and Crosstabs command with χ2 (Chi-square test. The results of the Crosstab analysis,revealed that there are statistically significant differences between the Greek and the other National Teams according to the use of Pick n’ Roll move in the offensive set plays and also according the offence efficacy and offence productivity. The Correlation analysis revealed extremely high interrelation between offence efficacyand shot area (p= -0,209(** , α=0,01, and as far as offence productivity is concerned extremely high interrelation revealed first of all with the final shot player and secondly with the shot area ( p= -0,2877(**α=0,01. According to the Cluster analysis the results revealed that as far as both offence efficacy and offence roductivity are concerned the maximum similarity is modulating in relation with the Pick n’ Roll form.

  4. Shareholder voice and its opponents

    OpenAIRE

    Donald, David C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper has shown that some of the principal arguments against shareholder voice are unfounded. It has shown that shareholders do own corporations, and that the nature of their property interest is structured to meet the needs of the relationships found in stock corporations. The paper has explained that fiduciary and other duties restrain the actions of shareholders just as they do those of management, and that critics cannot reasonably expect court-imposed fiduciary duties to extend beyo...

  5. Color constancy in Japanese animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Yasuyo G.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we measure the colors used in a Japanese Animations. The result can be seen on CIE-xy color spaces. It clearly shows that the color system is not a natural appearance system but an imagined and artistic appearance system. Color constancy of human vision can tell the difference in skin and hair colors between under moonlight and day light. Human brain generates a match to the memorized color of an object from daylight viewing conditions to the color of the object in different viewing conditions. For example, Japanese people always perceive the color of the Rising Sun in the Japanese flag as red even in a different viewing condition such as under moonlight. Color images captured by a camera cannot present those human perceptions. However, Japanese colorists in Animation succeeded in painting the effects of color constancy not only under moonlight but also added the memory matching colors. They aim to create a greater impact on viewer's perceptions by using the effect of the memory matching colors. In this paper, we propose the Imagined Japanese Animation Color System. This system in art is currently a subject of research in Japan. Its importance is that it could also provide an explanation on how human brain perceives the same color under different viewing conditions.

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering ... new treatment option. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) ...

  7. Transparency and imaginary colors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, W.; Koenderink, J.J.; Van Doorn, A.

    2009-01-01

    Unlike the Metelli monochrome transparencies, when overlays and their backgrounds have chromatic content, the inferred surface colors may not always be physically realizable, and are in some sense “imaginary.” In these cases, the inferred chromatic transmittance or reflectance of the overlay lies ou

  8. Dinosaurs' True Colors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG YUANKAI

    2010-01-01

    @@ On March 10,the Beijing Museum of Natural History(BMNH)announced scientists from China and abroad had decoded the full-body color patterns of a dinosaur,a small theropod named as anchiomis huxleyi,for the first time.

  9. Color appearance in stereoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadia, Davide; Rizzi, Alessandro; Bonanomi, Cristian; Marini, Daniele; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between color and lightness appearance and the perception of depth has been studied since a while in the field of perceptual psychology and psycho-physiology. It has been found that depth perception affects the final object color and lightness appearance. In the stereoscopy research field, many studies have been proposed on human physiological effects, considering e.g. geometry, motion sickness, etc., but few has been done considering lightness and color information. Goal of this paper is to realize some preliminar experiments in Virtual Reality in order to determine the effects of depth perception on object color and lightness appearance. We have created a virtual test scene with a simple 3D simultaneous contrast configuration. We have created three different versions of this scene, each with different choices of relative positions and apparent size of the objects. We have collected the perceptual responses of several users after the observation of the test scene in the Virtual Theater of the University of Milan, a VR immersive installation characterized by a semi-cylindrical screen that covers 120° of horizontal field of view from an observation distance of 3.5 m. We present a description of the experiments setup and procedure, and we discuss the obtained results.

  10. Comprehension of COLOR Metaphors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昱君

    2012-01-01

      本文试图通过对英汉颜色隐喻的比较研究,探讨隐喻的相似性及差异。%  In this thesis,I have attempted to discuss the similarities and differences of metaphor by making a comparative study of color metaphors in English and Chinese.

  11. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy T. Woods

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been demonstrated that people associate each of the basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty with specific colors (e.g., red, green, black, and white. In the present study, we investigated whether pairs of colors (both associated with a particular taste or taste word would give rise to stronger associations relative to pairs of colors that were associated with different tastes. We replicate the findings of previous studies highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. However, while there was evidence that pairs of colors could indeed communicate taste information more consistently than single colors, our participants took more than twice as long to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors. Possible reasons for these results are discussed.

  12. Social Property of Colors and Translation of Color Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾慧彬

    2013-01-01

    The paper is about the social property of colors andtranslationofcolorwords.Colorsareveryimportantinour sociallife,accordingtothispaperwecanknowsomerelations aboutsocialandcolor.EspeciallyaboutthedifferencesofChinese and English color words. Through the differences, three basic translatingmethodsaregeneralized.

  13. How bees distinguish colors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horridge A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Adrian Horridge Biological Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia Abstract: Behind each facet of the compound eye, bees have photoreceptors for ultraviolet, green, and blue wavelengths that are excited by sunlight reflected from the surrounding panorama. In experiments that excluded ultraviolet, bees learned to distinguish between black, gray, white, and various colors. To distinguish two targets of differing color, bees detected, learned, and later recognized the strongest preferred inputs, irrespective of which target displayed them. First preference was the position and measure of blue reflected from white or colored areas. They also learned the positions and a measure of the green receptor modulation at vertical edges that displayed the strongest green contrast. Modulation is the receptor response to contrast and was summed over the length of a contrasting vertical edge. This also gave them a measure of angular width between outer vertical edges. Third preference was position and a measure of blue modulation. When they returned for more reward, bees recognized the familiar coincidence of these inputs at that place. They cared nothing for colors, layout of patterns, or direction of contrast, even at black/white edges. The mechanism is a new kind of color vision in which a large-field tonic blue input must coincide in time with small-field phasic modulations caused by scanning vertical edges displaying green or blue contrast. This is the kind of system to expect in medium-lowly vision, as found in insects; the next steps are fresh looks at old observations and quantitative models. Keywords: vision, honey bee, visual processing, optimum system, picture sorting

  14. Human preference for individual colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stephen E.; Schloss, Karen B.

    2010-02-01

    Color preference is an important aspect of human behavior, but little is known about why people like some colors more than others. Recent results from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP) provide detailed measurements of preferences among 32 chromatic colors as well as other relevant aspects of color perception. We describe the fit of several color preference models, including ones based on cone outputs, color-emotion associations, and Palmer and Schloss's ecological valence theory. The ecological valence theory postulates that color serves an adaptive "steering' function, analogous to taste preferences, biasing organisms to approach advantageous objects and avoid disadvantageous ones. It predicts that people will tend to like colors to the extent that they like the objects that are characteristically that color, averaged over all such objects. The ecological valence theory predicts 80% of the variance in average color preference ratings from the Weighted Affective Valence Estimates (WAVEs) of correspondingly colored objects, much more variance than any of the other models. We also describe how hue preferences for single colors differ as a function of gender, expertise, culture, social institutions, and perceptual experience.

  15. A color management system for multi-colored LED lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarti, Maumita; Thorseth, Anders; Jepsen, Jørgen;

    2015-01-01

    A new color control system is described and implemented for a five–color LED light engine, covering a wide white gamut. The system combines a new way of using pre-calibrated look-up tables and a rule-based optimization of chromaticity distance from the Planckian locus with a calibrated color sens...

  16. Randomized $\\Delta$-Edge-Coloring via Quaternion of Complex Colors

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Tony T; Guan, Hao

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the application of a new algebraic method of color exchanges to the edge coloring of simple graphs. Vizing's theorem states that the edge coloring of a simple graph $G$ requires either $\\Delta$ or $\\Delta+1$ colors, where $\\Delta$ is the maximum vertex degree of $G$. Holyer proved that it is {\\bf NP}-complete to decide whether $G$ is $\\Delta$-edge-colorable even for cubic graphs. By introducing the concept of complex colors, we show that the color-exchange operation follows the same multiplication rules as quaternion. An initially $\\Delta$-edge-colored graph $G$ allows variable-colored edges, which can be eliminated by color exchanges in a manner similar to variable eliminations in solving systems of linear equations. The problem is solved if all variables are eliminated and a properly $\\Delta$-edge-colored graph is reached. For a randomly generated graph $G$, we prove that our algorithm returns a proper $\\Delta$-edge-coloring with a probability of at least 1/2 in $O(\\Delta|V||E|^5)$ time ...

  17. Testing Children for Color Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / News Testing Children for Color Blindness Written by: Shirley Dang Apr. 03, 2014 New ... shows that kids can be tested for color blindness as soon as age 4, finds Caucasian boys ...

  18. Color Changes Mark Polymer Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, James H.

    1980-01-01

    Describes how polydiacetylenes can be used as educational aids. These polymers have conjugated backbones, which cause changes in color when the polydiacetylenes undergo various chemical and physical processes. Diagrams summarize all chemical reactions and their associated color changes. (CS)

  19. Personalized 2D color maps

    KAUST Repository

    Waldin, Nicholas

    2016-06-24

    2D color maps are often used to visually encode complex data characteristics such as heat or height. The comprehension of color maps in visualization is affected by the display (e.g., a monitor) and the perceptual abilities of the viewer. In this paper we present a novel method to measure a user\\'s ability to distinguish colors of a two-dimensional color map on a given monitor. We show how to adapt the color map to the user and display to optimally compensate for the measured deficiencies. Furthermore, we improve user acceptance of the calibration procedure by transforming the calibration into a game. The user has to sort colors along a line in a 3D color space in a competitive fashion. The errors the user makes in sorting these lines are used to adapt the color map to his perceptual capabilities.

  20. PENGARUH PENGERINGAN DENGAN FAR INFRARED DRYER, OVEN VAKUM DAN FREEZE DRYER TERHADAP WARNA, KADAR TOTAL KAROTEN, BETA KAROTEN DAN VITAMIN C PADA DAUM BAYAM (Amaranthus Tricolor L. [Effect of Drying with Far Infrared Dryer, Oven Vacuum, and Freeze Dryer on the Color, Total Carotene, Beta-Carotene, and Vitamin C of Spinach Leaves (Amaranthus Tricolor L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Thahir2

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Spinach is a well known vegetable as a source of nutrition especially for is carotene. Soinach leaves need to be dried for application in product development of food like biscuit, extruded products and analysis. One the drying method that became popular is drying using infrared wave. The aim of this research was to compare the effect of blanching and drying (far infrared dryer, oven vacuum, and freeze dryer on the color, total carotene, beta-carotene, and vitamin C of spinach leaves. Blanching and drying of increased brightness, a value, and b value. The a value is shows spinach brightness in mix red-green color while b value shows mix blue-yellow. Total carotene of fresh spinach decreased by 10.47% after blanching. Drying with vacuum decreased the total carotene by 39.31% (with blanching and 31.66 (with blanching. Drying with freeze dryer decreased the beta carotene by 4.99% (with blanching and 18.60% (with blanching. Drying with FIR dryer decreased spinach total carotene by 34.90% (with blanching and 24.86% (with blanching. The beta-carotene of fresh spinach with balancing treatment decreased of by 16.53%.drying oven vacuum decreased the beta carotene by 42.80% (wiyh blanching and 18.91% (with blanching. Drying with freeze dyer decreased the beta carotene by 29.03% (with blanching the beta carotene. The decreased of beta-carotene is bigger than total carotene. Vitamin C of fresh spinach decreased by 20.35% after blanching. Drying with oven vacuum decreased of 55.77% (without blanching and 65.42% (with blanching f the vitamin C. drying with freeze dryer decreased the vitamin C by 13.21% (without blanching and 30.67% (with blanching. Meanwhile, the vitamin C of spinach after drying with FIR dyer decreased of 60.53% (without blanching and 70.29% (with blanching.

  1. Identity Based Color Image Cryptography

    OpenAIRE

    Gopi Krishnan S; Loganathan D

    2011-01-01

    An Identity based cryptography based on visual cryptography scheme was proposed for protecting color image. A color image to be protected and authentic entities such as account number, password, signature image are given as input. The binary key image is obtained by distributing the digital signature of obtained authentic entities. A secret color image which needs to be communicated is decomposed into three grayscale tones of Y-Cb-Cr color component. Then these grayscale images are half-toned...

  2. Color correction using color-flow eigenspace model in color face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, JaeYoung; Ro, Yong Man

    2009-02-01

    We propose a new color correction approach which, as opposed to existing methods, take advantages of a given pair of two color face images (probe and gallery) in the color face recognition (FR) framework. In the proposed color correction method, the color-flow vector and color-flow eigenspace model are developed to generate color corrected probe images. The main contribution of this paper is threefold: 1) the proposed method can reliably compensate the non-linear photic variations imposed on probe face images comparing to traditional color correction techniques; 2) to the best of our knowledge, for the first time, we conduct extensive experiment studies to compare the effectiveness of various color correction methods to deal with photometrical distortions in probe images; 3) the proposed method can significantly enhance the recognition performance degraded by severely illuminant probe face images. Two standard face databases CMU PIE and XM2VTSDB were used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed color correction method. The usefulness of the proposed method in the color FR is shown in terms of both absolute and comparative recognition performances against four traditional color correction solutions of White balance, Gray-world, Retinex, and Color-by-correlation.

  3. Astronomy with the Color Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald A.; Melrose, Justyn

    2014-01-01

    The standard method to create dramatic color images in astrophotography is to record multiple black and white images, each with a different color filter in the optical path, and then tint each frame with a color appropriate to the corresponding filter. When combined, the resulting image conveys information about the sources of emission in the…

  4. Edge classification for color constancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Gijsenij; T. Gevers; J. van de Weijer

    2008-01-01

    The goal of color constancy is to measure image colors despite differences in the color of the light source. Traditionally, the computational method of obtaining this ability is by using pixel values only. Recently, methods using edges instead of pixel values have been proposed. However, different e

  5. Can Coloring Mandalas Reduce Anxiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Nancy A.; Kasser, Tim

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of different types of art activities in the reduction of anxiety. After undergoing a brief anxiety-induction, 84 undergraduate students were randomly assigned to color a mandala, to color a plaid form, or to color on a blank piece of paper. Results demonstrated that anxiety levels declined approximately the…

  6. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  7. Violating expectations of color order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burling, Bil; Bender, Walter R.

    1996-04-01

    An exploration of emotion in color communication is presented in this paper. It begins with an outline of a proposed theory of emotion and a hypothesis of how color may induce emotion. A discussion follows that details what is essential in a color message to predict emotional responses. Experiments are described that might assist in validating the theory put forth in this paper.

  8. Image composition with color harmonization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Congde Wang; Rong Zhang; Fan Deng

    2009-01-01

    Image matting and color transfer are combined to achieve image composition.Firstly,digital matting is used to pull out the region of interest.Secondly,taking color harmonization into account,color transfer techniques are introduced in pasting the region onto the target image.Experimental results show that the proposed approach generates visually plea.sing composite images.

  9. 'Fram' in Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for 'Fram' in Color (QTVR) This view in approximately true color reveals details in an impact crater informally named 'Fram' in the Meridian Planum region of Mars. The picture is a mosaic of frames taken by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during the rover's 88th martian day on Mars, on April 23, 2004. The crater spans about 8 meters (26 feet) in diameter. Opportunity paused beside it while traveling from the rover's landing site toward a larger crater farther east. This view combines images taken using three of the camera's filters for different wavelengths of light: 750 nanometers, 530 nanometers and 430 nanometers.

  10. RGBW color separation for field sequential color LCDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pei-Li

    2008-01-01

    Field sequential color (FSC) LCD is one of the preferred display technologies to achieve wide color gamut and high luminous efficiency. But this technology suffers from an unpleasing color breakup effect. This phenomenon can be reduced by adding a white primary. As RGBW primaries are recommended for FSC-LCD, the next question is how to convert standard RGB signals to RGBW without large color variations. The present study first optimal the spectra of RGB primaries using the 3D gamut boundaries of standard object color spectra (SOCS) database and Adobe RGB in CIECAM02 space with observer metamerism constraint. The optimal RGB primaries then were used to derive six modes for RGB to RGBW conversion. The final step is to further optimize color correction matrix based on CIE170-1:2006 'age and size dependent cone fundamentals' to compensate the visual color shift of elders.

  11. Sexual selection on color and behavior within and between cichlid populations: Implications for speciation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael J.PAUERS; Jeffrey S.MCKINNON

    2012-01-01

    Sexual selection is widely viewed as playing a central role in hapiochromine cichlid speciation.Hypothetically,once divergent mate preferences evolve among populations of these fishes,reproductive isolation follows and the populations begin to behave as different species.Various studies have examined patterns of assortative mating among species and sometimes populations,but few have examined variation in directional preferences,especially among populations of the same species.We investigated mate choice behavior in two populations of Labeotropheus fuelleborni,a Lake Malawi endemic.We test whether mating.preferences between populations are based on the same traits and in the same direction as preferences within populations.We examine the potential contributions of two classes of trait,color patterns and behaviors,to reproductive isolation.When females chose between either two males of their own population,or two from another,female preferences were generally similar (for the female population) across the two contexts.Mate choice patterns differed between (female) populations for a measure of color,but only modestly for male behavior.In a separate experiment we simultaneously offered females a male of their own population and a male from a different population.In these trials,females consistently preferred males from their own population,which were also the males that displayed more frequently than their opponents,but not necessarily those with color traits suggested to be most attractive in the previous experiment.Thus directional preferences for chroma and related aspects of color may be important when females are presented with males of otherwise similar phenotypes,but may play little role in mediating assortative mating among populations with substantially different color patterns.A preference for male behavior could play some role in speciation if males preferentially court same-population females,as we have observed for the populations studied herein.

  12. Sexual selection on color and behavior within and between cichlid populations: Implications for speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. PAUERS, Jeffrey S. MCKINNON

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sexual selection is widely viewed as playing a central role in haplochromine cichlid speciation. Hypothetically, once divergent mate preferences evolve among populations of these fishes, reproductive isolation follows and the populations begin to behave as different species. Various studies have examined patterns of assortative mating among species and sometimes populations, but few have examined variation in directional preferences, especially among populations of the same species. We investigated mate choice behavior in two populations of Labeotropheus fuelleborni, a Lake Malawi endemic. We test whether mating preferences between populations are based on the same traits and in the same direction as preferences within populations. We examine the potential contributions of two classes of trait, color patterns and behaviors, to reproductive isolation. When females chose between either two males of their own population, or two from another, female preferences were generally similar (for the female population across the two contexts. Mate choice patterns differed between (female populations for a measure of color, but only modestly for male behavior. In a separate experiment we simultaneously offered females a male of their own population and a male from a different population. In these trials, females consistently preferred males from their own population, which were also the males that displayed more frequently than their opponents, but not necessarily those with color traits suggested to be most attractive in the previous experiment. Thus directional preferences for chroma and related aspects of color may be important when females are presented with males of otherwise similar phenotypes, but may play little role in mediating assortative mating among populations with substantially different color patterns. A preference for male behavior could play some role in speciation if males preferentially court same-population females, as we have observed

  13. Watermarking on Colored Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The great success of internet and the ease of copying anddistributing the electronic data has presented a new challenge of how to protect the digital data. Digital watermarks have been proposed as a means for copyright protection of multimedia. Unlike the traditional visible watermark, the challenge here is to introduce a digital watermark that does not alter the quality of electronic content, while being extremely robust to attack. From the angle of signal processing, the two basic requirements for an effective watermarking scheme, robustness and transparency conflict with each other. So the digital watermark is information that is imperceptibly and robustly embedded in the host data such that it can not be removed without important degradation of images quality. This paper consists of two parts. In the first part, an authentication technique by embedding digital “watermarks” into colored images is proposed. In our approach, we embed the “watermarks” with visually recognizable patterns into the images by selectively modifying the middle-frequency coefficients of the image. In the second part, the technique of hiding a colored image into another colored one is proposed. The experimental results show that the proposed techniques successfully survive image processing operations, image cropping and the JPEG lossy compression.

  14. Coloring geographical threshold graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Percus, Allon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Muller, Tobias [EINDHOVEN UNIV. OF TECH

    2008-01-01

    We propose a coloring algorithm for sparse random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). Here, we analyze the GTG coloring algorithm together with the graph's clique number, showing formally that in spite of the differences in structure between GTG and RGG, the asymptotic behavior of the chromatic number is identical: {chi}1n 1n n / 1n n (1 + {omicron}(1)). Finally, we consider the leading corrections to this expression, again using the coloring algorithm and clique number to provide bounds on the chromatic number. We show that the gap between the lower and upper bound is within C 1n n / (1n 1n n){sup 2}, and specify the constant C.

  15. Coloring and Guarding Arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Bose, Prosenjit; Collette, Sébastien; Hurtado, Ferran; Korman, Matias; Langerman, Stefan; Taslakian, Perouz

    2012-01-01

    Given an arrangement of lines in the plane, what is the minimum number $c$ of colors required to color the lines so that no cell of the arrangement is monochromatic? In this paper we give bounds on the number c both for the above question, as well as some of its variations. We redefine these problems as geometric hypergraph coloring problems. If we define $\\Hlinecell$ as the hypergraph where vertices are lines and edges represent cells of the arrangement, the answer to the above question is equal to the chromatic number of this hypergraph. We prove that this chromatic number is between $\\Omega (\\log n / \\log\\log n)$. and $O(\\sqrt{n})$. Similarly, we give bounds on the minimum size of a subset $S$ of the intersections of the lines in $\\mathcal{A}$ such that every cell is bounded by at least one of the vertices in $S$. This may be seen as a problem on guarding cells with vertices when the lines act as obstacles. The problem can also be defined as the minimum vertex cover problem in the hypergraph $\\Hvertexcell$...

  16. Colored Traveling Salesman Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zhou, MengChu; Sun, Qirui; Dai, Xianzhong; Yu, Xiaolong

    2015-11-01

    The multiple traveling salesman problem (MTSP) is an important combinatorial optimization problem. It has been widely and successfully applied to the practical cases in which multiple traveling individuals (salesmen) share the common workspace (city set). However, it cannot represent some application problems where multiple traveling individuals not only have their own exclusive tasks but also share a group of tasks with each other. This work proposes a new MTSP called colored traveling salesman problem (CTSP) for handling such cases. Two types of city groups are defined, i.e., each group of exclusive cities of a single color for a salesman to visit and a group of shared cities of multiple colors allowing all salesmen to visit. Evidences show that CTSP is NP-hard and a multidepot MTSP and multiple single traveling salesman problems are its special cases. We present a genetic algorithm (GA) with dual-chromosome coding for CTSP and analyze the corresponding solution space. Then, GA is improved by incorporating greedy, hill-climbing (HC), and simulated annealing (SA) operations to achieve better performance. By experiments, the limitation of the exact solution method is revealed and the performance of the presented GAs is compared. The results suggest that SAGA can achieve the best quality of solutions and HCGA should be the choice making good tradeoff between the solution quality and computing time.

  17. Color on emergency mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lili; Qi, Qingwen; Zhang, An

    2007-06-01

    There are so many emergency issues in our daily life. Such as typhoons, tsunamis, earthquake, fires, floods, epidemics, etc. These emergencies made people lose their lives and their belongings. Every day, every hour, even every minute people probably face the emergency, so how to handle it and how to decrease its hurt are the matters people care most. If we can map it exactly before or after the emergencies; it will be helpful to the emergency researchers and people who live in the emergency place. So , through the emergency map, before emergency is occurring we can predict the situation, such as when and where the emergency will be happen; where people can refuge, etc. After disaster, we can also easily assess the lost, discuss the cause and make the lost less. The primary effect of mapping is offering information to the people who care about the emergency and the researcher who want to study it. Mapping allows the viewers to get a spatial sense of hazard. It can also provide the clues to study the relationship of the phenomenon in emergency. Color, as the basic element of the map, it can simplify and clarify the phenomenon. Color can also affects the general perceptibility of the map, and elicits subjective reactions to the map. It is to say, structure, readability, and the reader's psychological reactions can be affected by the use of color.

  18. Color imaging fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhard, Erik; Oguz Akyuz, Ahmet; Johnson, Garrett

    2008-01-01

    This book provides the reader with an understanding of what color is, where color comes from, and how color can be used correctly in many different applications. The authors first treat the physics of light and its interaction with matter at the atomic level, so that the origins of color can be appreciated. The intimate relationship between energy levels, orbital states, and electromagnetic waves helps to explain why diamonds shimmer, rubies are red, and the feathers of the Blue Jay are blue. Then, color theory is explained from its origin to the current state of the art, including image captu

  19. On Dominator Colorings in Graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Arumugam; Jay Bagga; K Raja Chandrasekar

    2012-11-01

    A dominator coloring of a graph is a proper coloring of in which every vertex dominates every vertex of at least one color class. The minimum number of colors required for a dominator coloring of is called the dominator chromatic number of and is denoted by $ d(G)$. In this paper we present several results on graphs with $ d(G)=(G)$ and $ d(G)=(G)$ where $(G)$ and $(G)$ denote respectively the chromatic number and the domination number of a graph . We also prove that if $(G)$ is the Mycielskian of , then $ d(G)+1≤ d((G))≤ d(G)+2$.

  20. Structural Colors from Fano Resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Yichen; Wang, Imbert; Stelmakh, Veronika; Joannopoulos, John D; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-01-01

    Structural coloration is an interference phenomenon where colors emerge when visible light interacts with nanoscopically structured material, and has recently become a most interesting scientific and engineering topic. However, current structural color generation mechanisms either require thick (compared to the wavelength) structures or lack dynamic tunability. This report proposes a new structural color generation mechanism, that produces colors by the Fano resonance effect on thin photonic crystal slab. We experimentally realize the proposed idea by fabricating the samples that show resonance-induced colors with weak dependence on the viewing angle. Finally, we show that the resonance-induced colors can be dynamically tuned by stretching the photonic crystal slab fabricated on an elastic substrate.

  1. Color image and video enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Lecca, Michela; Smolka, Bogdan

    2015-01-01

    This text covers state-of-the-art color image and video enhancement techniques. The book examines the multivariate nature of color image/video data as it pertains to contrast enhancement, color correction (equalization, harmonization, normalization, balancing, constancy, etc.), noise removal and smoothing. This book also discusses color and contrast enhancement in vision sensors and applications of image and video enhancement.   ·         Focuses on enhancement of color images/video ·         Addresses algorithms for enhancing color images and video ·         Presents coverage on super resolution, restoration, in painting, and colorization.

  2. Reasoning about color in Prolog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Bruce G.; Whelan, Paul F.

    1994-10-01

    The use of color as a basis for segmenting images is attractive for a wide variety of industrial inspection applications, especially in the manufacturing of domestic goods, food, pharmaceuticals, toiletries and electronics. Human beings define colors, not formulae, or computer programs. Moreover, no two people have an identical view of what a color set, such as 'canary yellow' is. The article argues that teaching by showing is more relevant than the accepted methods of Color Science, in the design of factory-floor vision systems. Fast hardware for color recognition has been available for several years but has not yet received universal acceptance. This article explains how this equipment can be used in conjunction with symbolic processing software, based on the Artificial Intelligence language Prolog. Using this hardware-software system, a programmer is able to express ideas about colors in a natural way. The concepts of color set union, intersection, generalization and interpolation are all discussed.

  3. Color metasurfaces in industrial perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Kristensen, Anders

    This doctoral thesis describes the utilization of color metasurfaces in an industrial perspective, where nano-scale textures and contingent post processing replace inks, dyes and pigments in plastic production. The concept of colors by structure arguably reduces the number of raw materials......, exemplified in silicon. However, only corresponding faint colors appear in polymeric materials. The concept of all-polymer pigment-free coloration seems somewhat restricted in relation to widespread industrial employment. Finally, a novel plasmon color technology for structural coloration in plastics......, and it is shown that the dependence on polarization can be controlled. In collaboration with industry, polymer-based colored metasurfaces of square-centimeter size are demonstrated by embossing, injection molding, roll-to-roll printing, and film insert molding with full compatibility. Furthermore, post production...

  4. Color standardization in whole slide imaging using a color calibration slide

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista, Pinky A.; Noriaki Hashimoto; Yukako Yagi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Color consistency in histology images is still an issue in digital pathology. Different imaging systems reproduced the colors of a histological slide differently. Materials and Methods: Color correction was implemented using the color information of the nine color patches of a color calibration slide. The inherent spectral colors of these patches along with their scanned colors were used to derive a color correction matrix whose coefficients were used to convert the pixels’ colors...

  5. A field guide to digital color

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Maureen Stone's field guide to digital color presents a survey of digital color with special emphasis on those fields important for computer graphics. The book provides the foundation for understanding color and its applications, discusses color media and color management and the use of color in computer graphics, including color design and selection. The book provides a guide for anyone who wants to understand and apply digital color. An annotated bibliography provides in-depth references for further study on each topic.

  6. Determination of CRT color gamut boundaries in perceptual color space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Xu, Haisong

    2005-02-01

    CRT color gamut boundaries can be determined by two steps workflow. Firstly, the display should be calibrated with the method recommended by CIE to characterize the relationship between CIE tristimulus values and DAC values. The nonlinear relationship of each electronic channel between the color of the radiant output of CRT displays and the digital DAC values can be characterized accurately with GOG model using parameters of gain, offset, and gamma. Secondly, color gamut boundary can be determined using a fast and accurate algorithm. Generally, in a color space, any chosen degree of lightness will reduce that space to a plane. The color gamut on this equal-lightness plane can be transformed into RGB DAC value space. Since locations on the edges and surfaces of RGB DAC value space will correspond colors with relatively high saturation, the boundary of the curved surface in RGB DAC value space can be quickly computed for certain lightness. The accurate color gamut is obtained by mapping this boundary over to such a perceptual color space as CIELAB or CIELUV uniform color space. The key issue of this algorithm is to compute the equal-lightness curved surface in RGB DAC value space. The resolution of device gamut description depends on the number of segments that the lightness axis is separated into in the perceptual color space.

  7. Prevalent Color Extraction and Indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.K.Thyagharajan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Colors in an image provides tremendous amount of information. Using this color information images can be segmented, analyzed, labeled and indexed. In content based image retrieval system, color is one of the basic primitive features used. In Prevalent Color Extraction and indexing, the most extensive color on an image is identified and it is used for indexing. For implementation, Asteroideae flower family image dataset is used. It consist of more than 16,000 species, among them nearly 100 species are considered and indexed by dominating colors. To extract the most appealable color from the user defined images, the overall color of an image has to be quantized. Spatially, quantizing the color of an image to extract the prevalent color is the major objective of this paper. A combination of K-Mean and Expectation Minimization clustering algorithm called hidden-value learned K-mean clustering quantization algorithm is used to avoid the over clustering behavior of K-Mean algorithm. The experimental result shows the marginal differences between these algorithms.

  8. Spatial processing in color reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Yang, Yongyi; Stark, Henry

    2005-08-01

    We consider the reproduction of color subject to material and neighborhood constraints. By 'material constraints,' we mean any constraints that are applied to the amount of ink, lights, voltages, and currents that are used in the generation of color. In the first instance we consider the problem of reproducing a target color constrained by maximum additive color signals, such as in the phosphorescence process in a cathode ray tube. In the second instance we consider the more difficult problem of reproducing color subject to constraints on the maximum primary color variations in a (spatial) neighborhood. We introduce the idea of adjacent color variance (ACV) and then attempt to reproduce colors subject to an upper bound on the ACV. An algorithm that is suitable for this task is the method of vector space projections (VSP). In order to use VSP for constrained color reproduction, we use a novel approach to linearize nonlinear CIE-Lab space constraints. Experimental results are furnished that demonstrate that using the ACV as a bound helps to reduce reproduction artifacts in a color image.

  9. 'Snow White' in Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This color image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows the trench dubbed 'Snow White,' after further digging on the 25th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (June 19, 2008). The lander's solar panel is casting a shadow over a portion of the trench. The trench is about 5 centimeters (2 inches) deep and 30 centimeters (12 inches) long. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Pseudogap of Color Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Kitazawa, M; Kunihiro, T; Nemoto, Y; Kitazawa, Masakiyo; Koide, Tomoi; Kunihiro, Teiji; Nemoto, Yukio

    2004-01-01

    We show that the pseudogap of the quark density of states is formed in hot quark matter as a precursory phenomenon of the color superconductivity on the basis of a low-energy effective theory. We clarify that the soft mode of the di-quark pair field gives rise to a peculiar behavior of the quark dispersion relation and a short life-time of the quasiparticles near the Fermi surface, both of which make a depression of the density of states of quarks. Our result suggests that the appearance of the pseudogap is a universal phenomenon of strong coupling superconductors, irrespective of the dimensionality.

  11. "Color Revolutions" and Beyond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Zhiye; Xu Tao; Jiang Li; Da Wei; Chen Xiangyang; Ding Xiaoxing

    2005-01-01

    @@ Astring of media-coined "color revolutions" broke out in Georgia, Ukraine and Kirgyzstan one after another inside the Commonwealth of Independent States since October 2003,reminiscent of the drama of collapse of the former Soviet bloc at the turn of the 1990s. Why those upheavals came hot on the heels of the Soviet disintegration merely a dozen or so years ago? Are we expecting more Domino effects down the road? What geographical repercussions will they spark? We have invited some experts over from the China Institutes of Contemporary International Relations to air their views on these interesting issues.

  12. Edge detection of color images using the HSL color space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Arthur R.; Felix, Carlos E.; Myler, Harley R.

    1995-03-01

    Various edge detectors have been proposed as well as several different types of adaptive edge detectors, but the performance of many of these edge detectors depends on the features and the noise present in the grayscale image. Attempts have been made to extend edge detection to color images by applying grayscale edge detection methods to each of the individual red, blue, and green color components as well as to the hue, saturation, and intensity color components of the color image. The modulus 2(pi) nature of the hue color component makes its detection difficult. For example, a hue of 0 and 2(pi) yields the same color tint. Normal edge detection of a color image containing adjacent pixels with hue of 0 and 2(pi) could yield the presence of an edge when an edge is really not present. This paper presents a method of mapping the 2(pi) modulus hue space to a linear space enabling the edge detection of the hue color component using the Sobel edge detector. The results of this algorithm are compared against the edge detection methods using the red, blue, and green color components. By combining the hue edge image with the intensity and saturation edge images, more edge information is observed.

  13. Estimating the colors of paintings

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Sérgio M. C.; Linhares, João M. M.; João, Catarina A. R.; Amano, Kinjiro; Montagner, Cristina; Melo, Maria J.; Vilarigues, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    Observers can adjust the spectrum of illumination on paintings for optimal viewing experience. But can they adjust the colors of paintings for the best visual impression? In an experiment carried out on a calibrated color moni- tor images of four abstract paintings obtained from hyperspectral data were shown to observers that were unfamiliar with the paintings. The color volume of the images could be manipulated by rotating the volume around the axis through the average (a*, b*) point for eac...

  14. Bosonic colored group field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Geloun, Joseph [Universite Paris XI, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Orsay Cedex (France); University of Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou (BJ). International Chair in Mathematical Physics and Applications (ICMPA-UNESCO Chair); Universite Cheikh Anta Diop, Departement de Mathematiques et Informatique, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Dakar (Senegal); Magnen, Jacques [Ecole Polytechnique, Centre de Physique Theorique, Palaiseau Cedex (France); Rivasseau, Vincent [Universite Paris XI, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Orsay Cedex (France)

    2010-12-15

    Bosonic colored group field theory is considered. Focusing first on dimension four, namely the colored Ooguri group field model, the main properties of Feynman graphs are studied. This leads to a theorem on optimal perturbative bounds of Feynman amplitudes in the ''ultraspin'' (large spin) limit. The results are generalized in any dimension. Finally, integrating out two colors we write a new representation, which could be useful for the constructive analysis of this type of models. (orig.)

  15. Color Strategies for Image Databases

    OpenAIRE

    Süsstrunk, Sabine

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, color encoding strategies for different image database applications are discussed. The color image workflow is examined in detail, and master and derivative file encoding strategies are outlined in relation to capture, maintenance, and deployment of image files. For the most common image database purposes, recommendations are given as to which type of color encoding is most suitable. Advantages and disadvantages of sensor, input-referred, output-referred, and output device spec...

  16. Color tunable LED spot lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelen, C.; Ansems, J.; Deurenberg, P.; van Duijneveldt, W.; Peeters, M.; Steenbruggen, G.; Treurniet, T.; Valster, A.; ter Weeme, J. W.

    2006-08-01

    A new trend in illumination is to use dynamic light to set or dynamically vary the ambience of a room or office. For this we need color tunable spots that can reliably vary over at least a wide range of color temperatures, and preferably also more saturated colors. LEDs are in principle ideally suited for this application thanks to their nature of emitting light in a relatively narrow band. For color tunable spot lighting based on the concept of mixing RGB LED colors, the key results have been presented before. Limitations of these 3-intrinsic-color mixing systems with high color rendering properties are found in a limited operating temperature range due to wavelength shifts, a limited color temperature range, and a low maximum operating temperature due to a strong flux decrease with increasing temperature. To overcome these limitations, a 3-color R pcGB system with phosphor-converted red (R pc) and a 4-color RAGB system have been investigated. With both systems, a CRI of at least 80 can be maintained over the relevant color temperature range of approximately 2700 K to 6500 K. In this paper we compare these concepts on overall system aspects and report on the performance of prototype spot lamps. The main features of the RAGB and R pcGB spot lamp concepts can be summarized as: 1) The RAGB spot overcomes CRI and gamut shortcomings of RGB light sources and gives much freedom in wavelength selection, but suffers from temperature sensitivity and complex controls; 2) The R pcGB spot overcomes shortcomings concerning CRI and thermal dependence of RGB sources and enables relatively simple controls, but needs an improved overall red efficacy. With both color concepts, prototype spot lamps have been built. The amber to red emitting nitridosilicate-based phosphors can be wavelength-tuned for optimal performance, which is found at a peak emission around 610 nm for high color quality systems. This results in a simple and very robust system with good color consistency. For the

  17. Fiber-optic color synthesizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Y; Lee, D; Lee, Jhang W; Oh, K

    2006-07-15

    Full-color synthesis was achieved, for what we believe is the first time, utilizing a novel 3x1 hard polymer-clad fiber coupler along with red, green, and blue (RGB) LED primaries. By using RGB LEDs that are coupled to three input ports, the device rendered full color from the output port with a circular emitting pixel of 135 microm in diameter with an extended color gamut. The proposed fiber-optic color synthesizer can provide a compact waveguide solution for the beam scanning display and the tunable pure white source for LED backlighting.

  18. Color 3D Reverse Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a principle and a method of col or 3D laser scanning measurement. Based on the fundamental monochrome 3D measureme nt study, color information capture, color texture mapping, coordinate computati on and other techniques are performed to achieve color 3D measurement. The syste m is designed and composed of a line laser light emitter, one color CCD camera, a motor-driven rotary filter, a circuit card and a computer. Two steps in captu ring object's images in the measurement process: Firs...

  19. Color and the worldwide web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinlock, Raymond S.

    2002-06-01

    Guidelines to publishing and transmitting color via the Internet. An introduction to how individuals can cope with color issues using off the shelf package solutions and a glimpse to what there is on the development frontier. Topics to be discussed include: (1) Optimizing your files for transfer via the net with an off the shelf software package. (2) Embedded color management packages in some off the shelf packages. (3) Mac and Window differences. (4) A look at compression pros and cons. (5) An introduction to some of the high end color calibration systems and equipment.

  20. Toward a No-Reference Image Quality Assessment Using Statistics of Perceptual Color Descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dohyoung; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N

    2016-08-01

    Analysis of the statistical properties of natural images has played a vital role in the design of no-reference (NR) image quality assessment (IQA) techniques. In this paper, we propose parametric models describing the general characteristics of chromatic data in natural images. They provide informative cues for quantifying visual discomfort caused by the presence of chromatic image distortions. The established models capture the correlation of chromatic data between spatially adjacent pixels by means of color invariance descriptors. The use of color invariance descriptors is inspired by their relevance to visual perception, since they provide less sensitive descriptions of image scenes against viewing geometry and illumination variations than luminances. In order to approximate the visual quality perception of chromatic distortions, we devise four parametric models derived from invariance descriptors representing independent aspects of color perception: 1) hue; 2) saturation; 3) opponent angle; and 4) spherical angle. The practical utility of the proposed models is examined by deploying them in our new general-purpose NR IQA metric. The metric initially estimates the parameters of the proposed chromatic models from an input image to constitute a collection of quality-aware features (QAF). Thereafter, a machine learning technique is applied to predict visual quality given a set of extracted QAFs. Experimentation performed on large-scale image databases demonstrates that the proposed metric correlates well with the provided subjective ratings of image quality over commonly encountered achromatic and chromatic distortions, indicating that it can be deployed on a wide variety of color image processing problems as a generalized IQA solution. PMID:27305678

  1. 接边腿摔技术教学中对手失去平衡的核心理念分析%Analysis of the Core Concept of the Opponents Lose Balance in Edge Leg Wrestling Technology Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱玉想; 刘展

    2016-01-01

    运用教学实践经验及运动生物力学理论,分析了接边腿后选用直接有效的动作方法,改变支撑面、重心、稳定角、稳定系数等人体平衡稳定度的相关因素,目的是迫使对手失去支撑面,或重心移出支撑面边缘而摔倒。接边腿摔属于散打中的防守反击技术,强调“对手失去平衡”是接边腿摔技术教学的核心理念。%The teaching practical experience and theory of sports biomechanics were used ,and the direct and effective action method was selected to analyze the edge leg wrestling through changing the supporting surface,the center of gravity,stability angle and stability coefficient ,etc,the relevant factors of body bal-ance stability,so as to force the opponent to lose the support surface or center of gravity ,and thus move out of the edge of the support surface and fall .The edge leg wrestling is defensive back technique in free combat ,"the opponent is out of balance"which was emphasized for the core concept of the edge leg wres-tling technology teaching .

  2. The elementary representation of spatial and color vision in the human retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabesan, Ramkumar; Schmidt, Brian P.; Tuten, William S.; Roorda, Austin

    2016-01-01

    The retina is the most accessible element of the central nervous system for linking behavior to the activity of isolated neurons. We unraveled behavior at the elementary level of single input units—the visual sensation generated by stimulating individual long (L), middle (M), and short (S) wavelength–sensitive cones with light. Spectrally identified cones near the fovea of human observers were targeted with small spots of light, and the type, proportion, and repeatability of the elicited sensations were recorded. Two distinct populations of cones were observed: a smaller group predominantly associated with signaling chromatic sensations and a second, more numerous population linked to achromatic percepts. Red and green sensations were mainly driven by L- and M-cones, respectively, although both cone types elicited achromatic percepts. Sensations generated by cones were rarely stochastic; rather, they were consistent over many months and were dominated by one specific perceptual category. Cones lying in the midst of a pure spectrally opponent neighborhood, an arrangement purported to be most efficient in producing chromatic signals in downstream neurons, were no more likely to signal chromatic percepts. Overall, the results are consistent with the idea that the nervous system encodes high-resolution achromatic information and lower-resolution color signals in separate pathways that emerge as early as the first synapse. The lower proportion of cones eliciting color sensations may reflect a lack of evolutionary pressure for the chromatic system to be as fine-grained as the high-acuity achromatic system. PMID:27652339

  3. The elementary representation of spatial and color vision in the human retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabesan, Ramkumar; Schmidt, Brian P; Tuten, William S; Roorda, Austin

    2016-09-01

    The retina is the most accessible element of the central nervous system for linking behavior to the activity of isolated neurons. We unraveled behavior at the elementary level of single input units-the visual sensation generated by stimulating individual long (L), middle (M), and short (S) wavelength-sensitive cones with light. Spectrally identified cones near the fovea of human observers were targeted with small spots of light, and the type, proportion, and repeatability of the elicited sensations were recorded. Two distinct populations of cones were observed: a smaller group predominantly associated with signaling chromatic sensations and a second, more numerous population linked to achromatic percepts. Red and green sensations were mainly driven by L- and M-cones, respectively, although both cone types elicited achromatic percepts. Sensations generated by cones were rarely stochastic; rather, they were consistent over many months and were dominated by one specific perceptual category. Cones lying in the midst of a pure spectrally opponent neighborhood, an arrangement purported to be most efficient in producing chromatic signals in downstream neurons, were no more likely to signal chromatic percepts. Overall, the results are consistent with the idea that the nervous system encodes high-resolution achromatic information and lower-resolution color signals in separate pathways that emerge as early as the first synapse. The lower proportion of cones eliciting color sensations may reflect a lack of evolutionary pressure for the chromatic system to be as fine-grained as the high-acuity achromatic system. PMID:27652339

  4. Resource Letter CCV-1: Color and Color Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuewer, Roger H., Ed.; Pease, Paul L.

    1980-01-01

    Listed are selected resource materials on color vision and the measurement and specification of the stimulus for vision, photometry, and colorimetry. The author's purpose is to equip teachers and students with an understanding of normal and abnormal color vision. References are categorized relative to content level. (Author/DS)

  5. Color the night : applying daytime colors to nighttime imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.

    2003-01-01

    We present a method to give (fused) multiband night-time imagery a natural day-time color appearance. For input, the method requires a false color RGB image that is produced by mapping 3 individual bands (or the first 3 principal components) of a multiband nightvision system to the respective channe

  6. Adding Texture to Color: Quantitative Analysis of Color Emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Lucassen; T. Gevers; A. Gijsenij

    2010-01-01

    What happens to color emotion responses when texture is added to color samples? To quantify this we performed an experiment in which subjects ordered samples (displayed on a computer monitor) along four scales: Warm-Cool, Masculine-Feminine, Hard-Soft and Heavy-Light. Three sample types were used: u

  7. Colorful solar selective absorber integrated with different colored units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feiliang; Wang, Shao-Wei; Liu, Xingxing; Ji, Ruonan; Li, Zhifeng; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Chen, Yuwei; Lu, Wei

    2016-01-25

    Solar selective absorbers are the core part for solar thermal technologies such as solar water heaters, concentrated solar power, solar thermoelectric generators and solar thermophotovoltaics. Colorful solar selective absorber can provide new freedom and flexibility beyond energy performance, which will lead to wider utilization of solar technologies. In this work, we present a monolithic integration of colored solar absorber array with different colors on a single substrate based on a multilayered structure of Cu/TiN(x)O(y)/TiO(2)/Si(3)N(4)/SiO(2). A colored solar absorber array with 16 color units is demonstrated experimentally by using combinatorial deposition technique via changing the thickness of SiO(2) layer. The solar absorptivity and thermal emissivity of all the color units is higher than 92% and lower than 5.5%, respectively. The colored solar selective absorber array can have colorful appearance and designable patterns while keeping high energy performance at the same time. It is a new candidate for a number of solar applications, especially for architecture integration and military camouflage. PMID:26832602

  8. Alice Walker's Womanism Colored in The Color Purple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋慧慧

    2009-01-01

    In her famous novel The Color Purple,Alice Walker's womanism is colored by four kinds of conseiousness-female consciousness,racial consciousness,root-seeking consciousness,and universal consciousness.It is owing to the womanism that the heroine celie grown from an abused woman to an independent selfhood.

  9. COLORING PROPERTIES OF WOOL FABRIC COLORED BY NEW DYESTUFFS - AZOMETHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJORDJEVIC Dragan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The azomethines have broad applications in food and dyestuff industries, and in analytical chemistry, catalysis and also in the field of agrochemical. These have played an influential part in the improvement of modern coordination chemistry, but also they can also be found at key points in the development of inorganic biochemistry, catalysis and also in optical materials. The present paper describes coloring properties of wool fabric colored by new dyestuffs - azomethines, derivate of isatin. Synthesizing of dyestuffs can often have one to six chromogen, which can be defined as the photoactive components that contain colored or uncolored absorbent components. In addition of monoazo, diazo, poly-azo, anthraquinone, xanthan and similar systems, the azomethines or imines, also includes to the chromogen groups. Azomethines, such as, isatin-3-hydrazone, isatin-3-thiosemicarbazone and isatin-3-phenylhydrazone, were synthesized and their coloring performance on wool fabric assessed. The synthesized azomethines showed very good substantively for wool fibers with good coloring performance according to CIEL*a*b* system which characterized quantitative and qualitative coloring property. Dyestuff 3 or isatin-3-phenylhydrazone bound to woolen textiles to a greater extent and greater intensity (minimum value of L. Dyestuff 2 or isatin-3-thiosemicarbazone linked to the minimum amount for textiles (the largest value of L. Although it must be noted that it is a lighter shade (yellow color as opposed to the dyestuff 3 (red color.

  10. Talk on the Application of Colors in Graphic Design%谈色彩在平面设计中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁丽; 闫娜

    2012-01-01

      Colors,images,text,constitute the three major elements of graphic design. These three elements in graphic design plays a different important role,Role of color in graphic design of this element is particularly important,As the grasp of Visual key to the first,most attractive to people of color,have the charm of forestall one ' s opponent by a show of strength. This article focuses on color Visual psychological use of color and graphic design principles.%  色彩、图像、文字是构成平面设计的三大要素,这三大要素在平面设计中起着不同的重要作用,而色彩这一要素在平面设计中的作用尤为重要,它作为把握人的视觉第一关键所在,色彩对人最有吸引力,具有先声夺人的艺术魅力。本文主要阐述了色彩的视觉心理和平面设计中色彩的运用原则。

  11. 局部颜色映射的彩色夜视算法%Color night vision algorithm based on local color mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱小燕; 张天慈; 王帮峰; 黄圣国

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we put forward a simple and efficient color mapping method to improve the sufficiency of nearly color night vision schemes based on global statistics. First, multi-band images are fused into the three components of an RGB image in terms of a simple linear fusion strategy based on the opponent property of ON-center OFF-surround reception in biological vision. Then a color clustering method is applied to produce color fields in the fused image. The corresponding fields in the reference image are obtained by locating the pixels in the fused image and finding the corresponding pixels in the reference image. Finally, the local mapping in the simplified Lab color space optimizes the match between the night vision and the reference images. Experiments have shown that the proposed scheme can yield a night vision image with a natural daytime color appearance while also improving the speed.%针对现有基于全局统计信息的彩色夜视算法不能较好保持图像目标色彩恒常性的不足,提出一种简单有效的局部自然彩色夜视算法.首先依据人类视觉系统的中心-环绕对抗结构生成伪彩色融合图像;按照不同颜色特征对伪彩色融合图像进行聚类,分割成不同颜色域,参考自然彩色图像中对应域为与融合图像对应位置像素集合;最后在简化Lab空间实现对应域间的局部颜色映射,将参考图像颜色特征传输至融合图像.实验结果表明,本文方法使得夜视图像获得如白天参考图像般自然、真实的效果,有利于提高场景辨识能力;方法执行速度快,便于实时处理.

  12. Color-color Relations for Red Giants in Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Von Braun, K; Minske, J K; Salgado, J F J; Worthey, G; Braun, Kaspar von; Chiboucas, Kristin; Minske, Jocelyn Kelly; Salgado, Jose Francisco; Worthey, Guy

    1998-01-01

    New Johnson-Cousins UBVRI photometry of giants in globular clusters is combined with JHK photometry on the CIT system to produce color sequences for giants from the globular clusters M3, M5, M13, and M92. UBVRI data are also presented for giants in the metal-rich open cluster NGC 6791. These data fill a gap in the literature, especially for the R & I bands. We provide the empirical relations between broad band colors for various [Fe/H] values for metal-poor giants. The color sequences for U-B and B-V show clear separations for different [Fe/H] values. We also find weak, though unexpected, metallicity dependences of V-R, V-I, and J-K colors. H-K is metal-insensitive. The above colors are plotted as a function of V-K, and a literature (V-K) - T_{eff} relation is given.

  13. Color of turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Zare, Armin; Georgiou, Tryphon T

    2016-01-01

    Second-order statistics of turbulent flows can be obtained either experimentally or via direct numerical simulations. Statistics reflect fundamentals of flow physics and can be used to develop low-complexity turbulence models. Due to experimental or numerical limitations it is often the case that only partial flow statistics can be reliably known, i.e., only certain correlations between a limited number of flow field components are available. Thus, it is of interest to complete the statistical signature of the flow field in a way that is consistent with the known dynamics. This is an inverse problem and our approach utilizes stochastically-forced linearization around turbulent mean velocity profile. In general, white-in-time stochastic forcing is not sufficient to explain turbulent flow statistics. In contrast, colored-in-time forcing of the linearized equations allows for exact matching of available correlations. To accomplish this, we develop dynamical models that generate the required stochastic excitation...

  14. False color viewing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage. 7 figs

  15. Light Vision Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valberg, Arne

    2005-04-01

    Light Vision Color takes a well-balanced, interdisciplinary approach to our most important sensory system. The book successfully combines basics in vision sciences with recent developments from different areas such as neuroscience, biophysics, sensory psychology and philosophy. Originally published in 1998 this edition has been extensively revised and updated to include new chapters on clinical problems and eye diseases, low vision rehabilitation and the basic molecular biology and genetics of colour vision. Takes a broad interdisciplinary approach combining basics in vision sciences with the most recent developments in the area Includes an extensive list of technical terms and explanations to encourage student understanding Successfully brings together the most important areas of the subject in to one volume

  16. False color viewing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-10-20

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage. 7 figs.

  17. Colored Group Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gurau, Razvan

    2009-01-01

    Group field theories are higher dimensional generalizations of matrix models. Their Feynman graphs are fat and in addition to vertices, edges and faces, they also contain higher dimensional cells, called bubbles. In this paper, we propose a new, fermionic Group Field Theory, posessing a color symmetry, and take the first steps in a systematic study of the topological properties of its graphs. Unlike its bosonic counterpart, the bubbles of the Feynman graphs of this theory are well defined and readily identified. We prove that this graphs are combinatorial cellular complexes. We define and study the cellular homology of this graphs. Furthermore we define a homotopy transformation appropriate to this graphs. Finally, the amplitude of the Feynman graphs is shown to be related to the fundamental group of the cellular complex.

  18. Modelling, Measuring and Compensating Color Weak Vision

    OpenAIRE

    Oshima, Satoshi; Mochizuki, Rica; Lenz, Reiner; Chao, Jinhui

    2015-01-01

    We use methods from Riemann geometry to investigate transformations between the color spaces of color-normal and color weak observers. The two main applications are the simulation of the perception of a color weak observer for a color normal observer and the compensation of color images in a way that a color weak observer has approximately the same perception as a color normal observer. The metrics in the color spaces of interest are characterized with the help of ellipsoids defined by the ju...

  19. Color in machine vision and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Color is the phenomenon of human visual perception and the module of machine vision. Color information is widely used in the areas of virtual reality and humancomputer interaction. Color is the product of a visual environment, illumination and the human brain. Research on color information representation and its processing is typically interdisciplinary. Based on our research work on human color perception and machine color vision and its application, we summarized the hotspots of color studies in recent developments and new approaches to color vision,including basic theories and the application of color information in virtual reality, content-based image retrieval, and face recognition.

  20. Gold color in dental alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, T

    1997-01-01

    This article will help the dental laboratory with alloy selection by exploring how the relationship among color, ductility and strength applies to gold and how color can be quantified. Because higher quality materials translate into higher profits, upselling to the dentist and patient is also discussed.

  1. The Chemistry of Color Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Wayne C.; Raber, Douglas J.

    1975-01-01

    Presents several topics in color photography which can serve as an introduction of scientific concepts into the classroom, such as: photochemistry (energy transport), organic chemistry (dye formation), physics (nature of light), psychology (color perception), and engineering (isolation of different chemical processes within layers of the film).…

  2. 7 CFR 28.403 - Middling Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Color. 28.403 Section 28.403 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.403 Middling Color. Middling Color is color which is within the...

  3. Portable real-time color night vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    We developed a simple and fast lookup-table based method to derive and apply natural daylight colors to multi-band night-time images. The method deploys an optimal color transformation derived from a set of samples taken from a daytime color reference image. The colors in the resulting colorized mul

  4. The Psychological Four-Color Mapping Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gregory; Bias, Keri; Shive, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Mathematicians have proven that four colors are sufficient to color 2-D maps so that no neighboring regions share the same color. Here we consider the psychological 4-color problem: Identifying which 4 colors should be used to make a map easy to use. We build a model of visual search for this design task and demonstrate how to apply it to the task…

  5. Inheritance of goat coat colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adalsteinsson, S; Sponenberg, D P; Alexieva, S; Russel, A J

    1994-01-01

    Goat color inheritance was evaluated based on color description of 218 kids and their parents (10 sires, 178 dams) from mixed crosses between several goat populations in an experiment on cashmere fiber production. Altogether 10 color patterns were observed. They were postulated to be caused by 10 alleles at the Agouti locus, with the allele for white or tan color being the top dominant allele, and the nine others codominant. The bottom recessive allele, for nonagouti color, was the 11th allele at this locus. The postulated alleles are white or tan (A(wt)), black mask (A(blm)), bezoar (A(bz)), badgerface (A(b)), grey (A(g)), lightbelly (A(lb)), swiss markings (A(sm)), lateral stripes (A(ls)), mahogany (A(mh)), red cheek (A(rc)), and nonagouti (Aa). Two types of eumelanin pigment were observed, black and light brown, the latter being dominant. Recessive brown was not observed.

  6. Color response and color transport in a quark-gluon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using color kinetic theory, we discuss color conduction and color response in a quark-gluon plasma. Collective color oscillations and their damping rates are investigated. An instability of the thermal equilibrium state in high T QCD is discovered

  7. Color response and color transport in a quark-gluon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinz, U.

    1986-01-01

    Using color kinetic theory, we discuss color conduction and color response in a quark-gluon plasma. Collective color oscillations and their damping rates are investigated. An instability of the thermal equilibrium state in high T QCD is discovered.

  8. Color Naming Experiment in Mongolian Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandin-Erdene Osorjamaa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous researches on color terms and names in many languages. In Mongolian language there are few doctoral theses on color naming. Cross cultural studies of color naming have demonstrated Semantic relevance in French and Mongolian color name Gerlee Sh. (2000; Comparisons of color naming across English and Mongolian Uranchimeg B. (2004; Semantic comparison between Russian and Mongolian idioms Enhdelger O. (1996; across symbolism Dulam S. (2007 and few others. Also a few articles on color naming by some Mongolian scholars are Tsevel, Ya. (1947, Baldan, L. (1979, Bazarragchaa, M. (1997 and others. Color naming studies are not sufficiently studied in Modern Mongolian. Our research is considered to be the first intended research on color naming in Modern Mongolian, because it is one part of Ph.D dissertation on color naming. There are two color naming categories in Mongolian, basic color terms and non- basic color terms. There are seven basic color terms in Mongolian. This paper aims to consider how Mongolian color names are derived from basic colors by using psycholinguistics associative experiment. It maintains the students and researchers to acquire the specific understanding of the differences and similarities of color naming in Mongolian and  English languages from the psycho-linguistic aspect.Keywords: modern Mongolian, basic color terms, non-basic color terms, associative experiment, signal word, response word, color naming 

  9. Strong color fields and heavy flavor production

    OpenAIRE

    Pajares, C.; Bautista, I.

    2010-01-01

    The clustering of color sources provides a natural framework for soft partonic interactions producing strong color fields. We study the consequences of these color fields in the production of heavy flavor and the behavior of the nuclear modification factor.

  10. LOVE IS COLOR BLIND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈梦扬

    2013-01-01

    <正>看完这部电影,突然想起小时候看完《辛德勒的名单》后,问过母亲一个问题:"为什么有些人要嘲笑和歧视那些与众不同的人?"母亲告诉我:"我们都是一样的,没有人应当受到责备,每个人都应当为自己而活,要始终坚信‘Love is color blind(爱无定界)’。"爱究竟有无定界?有太多故事让我们相信这句话并非纸上谈兵。《汤姆叔叔的小屋》、《美国往事》、《为黛西小姐开车》……是的,"Love"是"Listen(倾听)",是无条件无偏见地倾听对方的需求,并予以协助;是"Obligate(感恩)",需要不断地感恩,付出爱来灌

  11. METAPHOR OF COLORS IN INDONESIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Dewa Putu Wijana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This brief article deals with the use of Indonesian words referring to colors for creating metaphorical expressions. All data presented are collected from various sources, such as Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesian Standard Dictionary, and added with data obtained from Oxford Advanced Leaner’s Dictionary, Indonesian proverb book, encyclopedia, terminology collection book, poetry anthology, song lyrics, and data of the author’s own creation as an Indonesian native speaker. Set aside from their literal meanings, the metaphorically used color words are collected and classified into two categories, i.e. achromatic and chromatic colors. Then, their universalities are determined by comparing them with English color metaphors. Finally the existence of specific Indonesian color metaphors are identified by correlating them with extra linguistic factors, such as environment, history, religion, politic and other socio cultural activities. A careful analysis on the data shows that there is nearly no significant difference in metaphorical uses of achromatic colors in English and Indonesian. However, despite universal nuances of chromatic color metaphors, some specific ones emerge due to various external factors, such as environment, education, history, politic, law, religion, literature, and other socio cultural facts that are specifically found and practiced in Indonesia.

  12. Color contrast processing in human striate cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Kentridge, R. W.; Heywood, C. A.; Weiskrantz, L.

    2007-01-01

    Color constancy refers to the unchanging nature of the perceived color of an object despite considerable variation in the wavelength composition of the light illuminating it. The color contrasts between objects and their backgrounds play a crucial role in color constancy. We tested a patient whose right striate cortex had been removed and demonstrated that he made no use of color contrast in judging color appearance but instead made judgments based simply on wavelength comparison. This was sh...

  13. Symbolism of Colors in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蔚

    2013-01-01

    There are so many words to convey different colors in English. We should pay attention to not only their basic mean-ing, but also their deeply symbolized meaning. They express different meaning owing to different cultures. In western society, col-ors have their exotic symbolized meaning. This is a permanent cultural phenomenon. In the thesis, the author discusses the sym-bolic meaning of five basic colors:red, white, black, yellow and green, and the background of the symbolic meaning of each col-or.Color is very close to people’s life. It is important for people to understand the world. Colors not only have physical character, but also have rich intension and stretchy meanings. People of different nations often have different feeling about the same color as a result of their different cultural and historical background. So colors show differences between different cultures. The author dis-cusses seven main reasons that lead to the differences of colors’symbolic meaning between Chinese and western culture, such as different political systems, different historic vicissitudes, different cultural tradition and custom, different habits of thinking and way of expressing, different natural environments and living standards, different mentality, different emotion. These words are used frequently and have plenty of sentiment. What should pay more attention to is that because of the differences between differ-ent nationalities and cultural background, or different social classes, each color has its special meaning. It is active in terms of lin-guistics. That endows color words with associative meaning.

  14. Symbolic Significance of Colors in the Novel The Color Purple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卓珏

    2007-01-01

    This paper mainly explains the symbolic significance of colors in the novel The Color Purple by using theory of Alice Walker's Womaism. Black,in The Color Purple stands for humbleness,blue for a life of impulse,red for liberty and hope ,purple for women's consummate happiness. And the choice of "purple" as its title ,conceives a purple centered symbolic color system,which reveals the black women's expectation for living an ideal happy life. Walker gives an expression of black women's political condition ,state of life under the racial and sexual oppression. Her intentions are to arouse women's consciousness of self and to call on them to be self-respected ,self-supported and eventually be self-liberated.

  15. Modules Over Color Hom-Poisson Algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Bakayoko, Ibrahima

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we introduce color Hom-Poisson algebras and show that every color Hom-associative algebra has a non-commutative Hom-Poisson algebra structure in which the Hom-Poisson bracket is the commutator bracket. Then we show that color Poisson algebras (respectively morphism of color Poisson algebras) turn to color Hom-Poisson algebras (respectively morphism of Color Hom-Poisson algebras) by twisting the color Poisson structure. Next we prove that modules over color Hom–associative algebr...

  16. Improved bound on facial parity edge coloring

    OpenAIRE

    Lužar, Borut; Škrekovski, Riste

    2013-01-01

    A facial parity edge coloring of a 2-edge connected plane graph is an edge coloring where no two consecutive edges of a facial walk of any face receive the same color. Additionally, for every face f and every color c either no edge or an odd number of edges incident to f are colored by c. Czap, Jendrol', Kardo\\v{s} and Sotak showed that every 2-edge connected plane graph admits a facial parity edge coloring with at most 20 colors. We improve this bound to 16 colors.

  17. Color Energy Of A Unitary Cayley Graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiga Chandrashekar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Let G be a vertex colored graph. The minimum number χ(G of colors needed for coloring of a graph G is called the chromatic number. Recently, Adiga et al. [1] have introduced the concept of color energy of a graph Ec(G and computed the color energy of few families of graphs with χ(G colors. In this paper we derive explicit formulas for the color energies of the unitary Cayley graph Xn, the complement of the colored unitary Cayley graph (Xnc and some gcd-graphs.

  18. Autophagy supports color vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhenqing; Vinberg, Frans; Schottler, Frank; Doggett, Teresa A; Kefalov, Vladimir J; Ferguson, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    Cones comprise only a small portion of the photoreceptors in mammalian retinas. However, cones are vital for color vision and visual perception, and their loss severely diminishes the quality of life for patients with retinal degenerative diseases. Cones function in bright light and have higher demand for energy than rods; yet, the mechanisms that support the energy requirements of cones are poorly understood. One such pathway that potentially could sustain cones under basal and stress conditions is macroautophagy. We addressed the role of macroautophagy in cones by examining how the genetic block of this pathway affects the structural integrity, survival, and function of these neurons. We found that macroautophagy was not detectable in cones under normal conditions but was readily observed following 24 h of fasting. Consistent with this, starvation induced phosphorylation of AMPK specifically in cones indicating cellular starvation. Inhibiting macroautophagy in cones by deleting the essential macroautophagy gene Atg5 led to reduced cone function following starvation suggesting that cones are sensitive to systemic changes in nutrients and activate macroautophagy to maintain their function. ATG5-deficiency rendered cones susceptible to light-induced damage and caused accumulation of damaged mitochondria in the inner segments, shortening of the outer segments, and degeneration of all cone types, revealing the importance of mitophagy in supporting cone metabolic needs. Our results demonstrate that macroautophagy supports the function and long-term survival of cones providing for their unique metabolic requirements and resistance to stress. Targeting macroautophagy has the potential to preserve cone-mediated vision during retinal degenerative diseases.

  19. A Study on the Relationship Between Personality Color and Physical and Mental Health of College Students%大学生性格色彩与身心健康关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧敏; 张启哲; 李广路; 管秀菊; 王清栋; 于岩瀑

    2016-01-01

    Objective According to the FPA character color , personality of college students is divided into red, green, blue, yellow, and a variety of color combinations, then we summarized the diseases that colors of the character of people are prone to have . After analyzing the color of the character of college students ,we put forward some reasonable suggestions for them, making them according to their own character to take measures to prevent diseases. Methods Some students in changqing college station were Selected to be given questionnaire which are related to the research on the relationship between College Students' personality color and physical and mental health, 300 questionnaires were distributed, the effective questionnaire were 289 and were taken to statistical analysis. Results According to statistics, the red character susceptible to stomach;blue character are predisposed to mental illness; yellow character predispose to cardiovascular disease; green character is a relatively healthy personality, prevalence rate is low; character: red and blue character, character of red and green, blue and green character, character of blue and yellow are apt to suffer from cardiovascular disease; red and yellow character are more susceptible to cancer, yellow and red, blue and green character susceptible to endocrine disease, red, yellow, green, and blue are predisposed to mental illness. Conclusion Personality color is closely related to health , different colors of peopleˊs personality will lead to people facing different risks of the disease.%目的:根据FPA性格色彩学将大学生性格分为红黄蓝绿以及各种组合色彩,并归纳出各种色彩的性格人群所易发的疾病,对大学生的性格色彩分析后提出合理化建议,使他们根据自己的性格特点来防治疾病。方法选择济南市长清大学城的在校大学生进行关于大学生性格色彩与身心健康关系的相关研究的问卷调查,共发放问卷300

  20. Semantics of color in chromatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serov, Nikolai V.

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this investigation is to describe the semantics of color in chromatism (from the ancient Greek triune notion of >: (1) color as ideal (Id- plan), psychic; (2) tint as physical, verbal; material (M- plan), physiological, syntonic (S-plan), and (3) emotion as their informative-energetic correlation). Being a new field of science, chromatism links humanitarian and natural subjects by means of interdiscipline investigation of a real (f-m) man living in a real (color) surrounding environment. According to the definition for >, color may be considered to be the most universal notion, permitting to assume the unity of both a man and an environment. Due to this assumption, we may give models of human intellect.

  1. Crystalline color superconductors: A review

    CERN Document Server

    Anglani, Roberto; Ciminale, Marco; Gatto, Raoul; Ippolito, Nicola; Mannarelli, Massimo; Ruggieri, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Non-homogenous superconductors and non-homogenous superfluids appear in a variety of contexts which include quark matter at extreme densities, fermionic systems of cold atoms, type-II cuprates and organic superconductors. In the present review we shall focus on the properties of quark matter at high baryonic density which can exist in the interior of compact stars. The conditions that are realized in this stellar objects tend to disfavor standard symmetric BCS pairing and may be in favor of a non-homogenous color superconducting phase. We discuss in details the properties of non-homogenous color superconductors and in particular of crystalline color superconductors. We also review the possible astrophysical signatures associated with the presence of non-homogenous color superconducting phases within the core of compact stars.

  2. Retrieval for color artistry concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Jose A; Guan, Ling

    2004-03-01

    This paper presents a work on the retrieval of artworks for color artistry concepts. First we affirm the view that the Query-by-Example paradigm fundamental to the current content-based retrieval systems is able to extend only limited usefulness. We then propose a concept-based retrieval engine based on the generative grammar of elemental concepts methodology. In the latter, the language by which color artistry concepts are communicated in artworks is used to operate semantic searches. The color artistry language is explicated into elemental concepts and the associated generative grammar. The elemental concepts are used to index the artworks, while the generative grammar is used to facilitate post-coordinate expression of color artistry concept queries by using the elemental concepts. PMID:15376925

  3. Riemann Geometric Color-Weak Compensationfor Individual Observers

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Takanori; Mochizuki, Rika; Lenz, Reiner; Chao, Jinhui

    2014-01-01

    We extend a method for color weak compensation based on the criterion of preservation of subjective color differences between color normal and color weak observers presented in [2]. We introduce a new algorithm for color weak compensation using local affine maps between color spaces of color normal and color weak observers. We show howto estimate the local affine map and how to determine correspondences between the origins of local coordinates in color spaces of color normal and color weak ob...

  4. Structural color from colloidal glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magkiriadou, Sofia

    When a material has inhomogeneities at a lengthscale comparable to the wavelength of light, interference can give rise to structural colors: colors that originate from the interaction of the material's microstructure with light and do not require absorbing dyes. In this thesis we study a class of these materials, called photonic glasses, where the inhomogeneities form a dense and random arrangement. Photonic glasses have angle-independent structural colors that look like those of conventional dyes. However, when this work started, there was only a handful of colors accessible with photonic glasses, mostly hues of blue. We use various types of colloidal particles to make photonic glasses, and we study, both theoretically and experimentally, how the optical properties of these glasses relate to their structure and constituent particles. Based on our observations from glasses of conventional particles, we construct a theoretical model that explains the scarcity of yellow, orange, and red photonic glasses. Guided by this model, we develop novel colloidal systems that allow a higher degree of control over structural color. We assemble glasses of soft, core-shell particles with scattering cores and transparent shells, where the resonant wavelength can be tuned independently of the reflectivity. We then encapsulate glasses of these core-shell particles into emulsion droplets of tunable size; in this system, we observe, for the first time, angle-independent structural colors that cover the entire visible spectrum. To enhance color saturation, we begin experimenting with inverse glasses, where the refractive index of the particles is lower than the refractive index of the medium, with promising results. Finally, based on our theoretical model for scattering from colloidal glasses, we begin an exploration of the color gamut that could be achieved with this technique, and we find that photonic glasses are a promising approach to a new type of long-lasting, non-toxic, and

  5. Color-flavor locked strangelets

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Jes

    2001-01-01

    Finite lumps of color-flavor locked strange quark matter (CFL-strangelets) are significantly more stable than strangelets without color-flavor locking for wide ranges of parameters, increasing the likelihood of strangelet metastability, or even absolute stability beyond some minimum baryon number $A_{min}$. Whereas bulk CFL strange quark matter is electrically neutral, CFL-strangelets are positively charged, with $Z\\approx 0.3 A^{2/3}$. This is quite different from ``ordinary'' strangelets an...

  6. A color sensor wavelength meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durfee, Dallin; Jackson, Jarom; Otterstrom, Nils; Jones, Tyler; Archibald, James

    2016-05-01

    We will discuss a laser wavelength meter based on a commercial color sensor chip consisting of an array of photodiodes with different absorptive color filters. By comparing the relative amplitudes of light on the photodiodes, the wavelength of light can be determined with picometer-level precision and with picometer-scale calibration drift over a period longer than a month. This work was supported by NSF Grant Number PHY-1205736.

  7. The color lexicon of the Somali language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Angela M; Isse, Abdirizak; Lindsey, Delwin T

    2016-01-01

    This empirical study had three goals: (a) to describe Somali color naming and its motifs, (b) to relate color naming by Somali informants to their color vision, and (c) to search for historical and demographic clues about the diversity of Somali color naming. Somali-speaking informants from Columbus, Ohio provided monolexemic color terms for 83 or 145 World Color Survey (WCS) color samples. Proximity analysis reduced the 103 color terms to the eight chromatic color meanings from the WCS plus black, white, and gray. Informants' data sets were grouped by spectral clustering analysis into four WCS color naming motifs named after the terms for the cool colors: (a) Green-Blue, (b) Grue (a single term meaning "green or blue"), (c) Gray, and (d) Dark. The results show that, first, the Somali language has about four motifs among its speakers. Second, individuals' color vision test results and their motifs were not correlated, suggesting that multiple motifs do not arise from individual variation in color vision. Last, the Somali color lexicon has changed over the past century. New color terms often came from the names of familiar colored objects, and informants' motifs were closely related to their ages and genders, suggesting that the diversity of color naming across speakers of Somali probably results from ongoing language change. PMID:26982527

  8. Identity Based Color Image Cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopi Krishnan S

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available An Identity based cryptography based on visual cryptography scheme was proposed for protecting color image. A color image to be protected and authentic entities such as account number, password, signature image are given as input. The binary key image is obtained by distributing the digital signature of obtained authentic entities. A secret color image which needs to be communicated is decomposed into three grayscale tones of Y-Cb-Cr color component. Then these grayscale images are half-toned to binary image, and finally the obtained binary images are encrypted using binary key image to obtain binary cipher images. To encrypt Exclusive-OR operation is done on binary key image and three half-tones of secret color image separately. These binary images are combined to obtain cipher. In decryption the shares are decrypted by applying Exclusive-OR operation on cipher and key, then the recovered binary images are inverse half-toned and combined to get secret color image. This scheme is more efficient for communicating natural images across diffident channel.

  9. Color Hom-Akivis algebras, Color Hom-Leibniz algebras and Modules over Color Hom-Leibniz algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Bakayoko, Ibrahima; Bangoura, Momo; Manga, Bakary

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we introduce color Hom-Akivis algebras and prove that the commutator of any color non-associative Hom-algebra structure map leads to a color Hom-akivis algebra. We give various constructions of color Hom-Akivis algebras. Next we study flexible and alternative color Hom-Akivis algebras. Likewise color Hom-Akivis algebras, we introduce non-commutative color Hom-Leibniz-Poisson algebras and presente several constructions. Moreover we give the relationship between Hom-dialgebras and...

  10. Perceptual Representation of Color in Abstract Non-Color Word Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Aitao Lu; Ling Yang; John X Zhang; Yue Wu

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments showed that naming latencies were significantly shorter when the patch color was consistent with the object’s typical color relative to when they were inconsistent. Such color simulation was also found for verbs involving an object with color and words psychologically-related to color, indicating that color simulation is not limited to situations where there is a concrete, direct connection between the concept and the color information. Results from SOA manipulation indicate...

  11. Dominant color extraction based color correction for multi-view images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Shao; Mei Yu; Gangyi Jiang

    2007-01-01

    Color information is very important in setting the style of images. In this paper, a color correction method based on dominant color extraction is proposed to eliminate the color inconsistence between multi-view images. With the theory of basic color categories, dominant colors from the categories are extracted for reference image and input image, and then the corresponding color mapping relationships are built.Experimental results show that the proposed method is quite effective.

  12. SRF Coloring: Stream Register File Allocation via Graph Coloring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Jun Yang; Yu Deng; Li Wang; Xiao-Bo Yan; Jing Du; Ying Zhang; Gui-Bin Wang; Tao Tang

    2009-01-01

    Stream Register File (SRF) is a large on-chip memory of the stream processor and its efficient management is essential for good performance. Current stream programming languages expose the management of SRF to the programmer, incurring heavy burden on the programmer and bringing difficulties to inheriting the legacy codes. SF95 is the language developed for FT64 which is the first 64-bit stream processor designed for scientific applications. SF95 conceals SRF from the programmer and leaves the management of SRF to its compiler. In this paper, we present a compiler approach named SRF Coloring to manage SRF automatically. The novelties of this paper are: first, it is the first time to use the graph coloring-based algorithm for the SRF management; second, an algorithm framework for SRF Coloring that is well suited to the FT64 architecture is proposed -- this framework is based on a well-understood graph coloring algorithm for register allocation, together with some modifications to deal with the unusual aspects of SRF problem; third, the SRF Coloring algorithm is implemented in SF95Compiler, a compiler designed for FT64 and SF95. The experimental results show that our approach represents a practical and promising solution to SRF allocation.

  13. 7 CFR 51.2283 - Off color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Off color. 51.2283 Section 51.2283 Agriculture... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Color Requirements § 51.2283 Off color. The term “off color” is not a color classification, but shall be applied to any lot which fails to meet...

  14. 7 CFR 29.3025 - General color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General color. 29.3025 Section 29.3025 Agriculture... General color. The color of tobacco considered in relation to the type as a whole. General color is distinguished from the restricted use of the term “color” within a group. It is basically related to body...

  15. 7 CFR 51.1860 - Color classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color classification. 51.1860 Section 51.1860... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Color Classification § 51.1860 Color classification... illustrating the color classification requirements, as set forth in this section. This visual aid may...

  16. Basic Color Terms in Estonian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollman, Liivi; Sutrop, Urmas

    2011-01-01

    The article is written in the tradition of Brent Berlin and Paul Kay's theory of basic color terms. According to this theory there is a universal inventory of eleven basic color categories from which the basic color terms of any given language are always drawn. The number of basic color terms varies from 2 to 11 and in a language having a fully…

  17. 7 CFR 58.329 - Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....329 Color. Coloring, when used shall be Annatto or any color which is approved by the U.S. Food and... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color. 58.329 Section 58.329 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards,...

  18. 7 CFR 58.435 - Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color. 58.435 Section 58.435 Agriculture Regulations....435 Color. Coloring when used, shall be Annatto or any cheese or butter color which meet the requirements of the Food and Drug Administration....

  19. Color Perception of the Textile and Clothing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雁; 李栋高; 陈之戈

    2004-01-01

    The color perception is related to color objects, vision system and central nervous system. The methods of evaluation, classification and prediction of the color perception are investigated and analyzed in this paper. The artificial neural networks are used for color perception, clustering and predicting based on the given data obtained from both objective measurement and subjective evaluation.

  20. Infants' Recognition of Objects Using Canonical Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Yang, Jiale; Otsuka, Yumiko; Dan, Ippeita; Masuda, Tomohiro; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.

    2010-01-01

    We explored infants' ability to recognize the canonical colors of daily objects, including two color-specific objects (human face and fruit) and a non-color-specific object (flower), by using a preferential looking technique. A total of 58 infants between 5 and 8 months of age were tested with a stimulus composed of two color pictures of an object…

  1. Plasmonic Structural Colors for Plastic Consumer Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Mortensen, N. Asger; Kristensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    can be avoided in the recycling state. Plasmon color technology based on aluminum has recently been firmly established as a route towards structural coloring of polymeric materials. We report on the fabrication of colors by localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) using roll-to-roll printing...... and demonstrate a route for scalable production and commercial uptake of plasmonic colors....

  2. Color correction optimization with hue regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Liu, Huaping; Quan, Shuxue

    2011-01-01

    Previous work has suggested that observers are capable of judging the quality of an image without any knowledge of the original scene. When no reference is available, observers can extract the apparent objects in an image and compare them with the typical colors of similar objects recalled from their memories. Some generally agreed upon research results indicate that although perfect colorimetric rendering is not conspicuous and color errors can be well tolerated, the appropriate rendition of certain memory colors such as skin, grass, and sky is an important factor in the overall perceived image quality. These colors are appreciated in a fairly consistent manner and are memorized with slightly different hues and higher color saturation. The aim of color correction for a digital color pipeline is to transform the image data from a device dependent color space to a target color space, usually through a color correction matrix which in its most basic form is optimized through linear regressions between the two sets of data in two color spaces in the sense of minimized Euclidean color error. Unfortunately, this method could result in objectionable distortions if the color error biased certain colors undesirably. In this paper, we propose a color correction optimization method with preferred color reproduction in mind through hue regularization and present some experimental results.

  3. 7 CFR 51.778 - Slightly colored.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Slightly colored. 51.778 Section 51.778 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Florida Grapefruit Definitions § 51.778 Slightly colored. Slightly colored means that except for an aggregate area of green color which does not exceed the area of a circle 2...

  4. Colorizer: Smart Glasses Aid for the Colorblind

    OpenAIRE

    Popleteev, Andrei; Louveton, Nicolas; McCall, Roderick

    2015-01-01

    We present a smart glasses application for helping colorblind people to distinguish problematic colors in daily life. The prototype processes a live video stream from the mobile camera, remaps colors according to the user needs, and displays the augmented result. Color transformation ensures high contrast between colors which are otherwise indistinguishable for the user.

  5. Three-Rainbow Coloring of Split Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡玉梅; 刘婷婷

    2015-01-01

    After a necessary condition is given, 3-rainbow coloring of split graphs with time complexity O(m) is obtained by constructive method. The number of corresponding colors is at most 2 or 3 more than the minimum num-ber of colors needed in a 3-rainbow coloring.

  6. A universal color image quality metric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Lucassen, M.P.

    2003-01-01

    We extend a recently introduced universal grayscale image quality index to a newly developed perceptually decorrelated color space. The resulting color image quality index quantifies the distortion of a processed color image relative to its original version. We evaluated the new color image quality

  7. Inheritance of seed color in Capsicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zewdie, Y; Bosland, P W

    2003-01-01

    The mode of seed color inheritance in Capsicum was studied via an interspecific hybridization between C. pubescens Ruiz and Pav. (black seed color) and C. eximium Hunz. (yellow seed color). Black seed color was dominant over yellow seed color. The F(2) segregation pattern showed continuous variation. The generation means analysis indicated the presence of a significant effect of additive [d], dominance [h], and additive x additive [i] interaction for seed color inheritance. The estimate for a minimum number of effective factors (genes) involved in seed color inheritance was approximately 3. PMID:12920108

  8. A kaleidoscopic view of graph colorings

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    This book describes kaleidoscopic topics that have developed in the area of graph colorings. Unifying current material on graph coloring, this book describes current information on vertex and edge colorings in graph theory, including harmonious colorings, majestic colorings, kaleidoscopic colorings and binomial colorings. Recently there have been a number of breakthroughs in vertex colorings that give rise to other colorings in a graph, such as graceful labelings of graphs that have been reconsidered under the language of colorings. The topics presented in this book include sample detailed proofs and illustrations, which depicts elements that are often overlooked. This book is ideal for graduate students and researchers in graph theory, as it covers a broad range of topics and makes connections between recent developments and well-known areas in graph theory.

  9. Olympus Mons in Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Sections of MOC images P024_01 and P024_02, shown here in color composite form, were acquired with the low resolution red and blue wide angle cameras over a 5 minute period starting when Mars Global Surveyor was at its closest point to the planet at the beginning of its 24th orbit (around 4:00 AM PDT on October 20, 1997). To make this image, a third component (green) was synthesized from the red and blue images. During the imaging period, the camera was pointed straight down towards the martian surface, 176 km (109 miles) below the spacecraft. During the time it took to acquire the image, the spacecraft rose to an altitude of 310 km (193 miles). Owing to data camera scanning rate and data volume constraints, the image was acquired at a resolution of roughly 1 km (0.609 mile) per pixel. The image shown here covers an area from 12o to 26o N latitude and 126o N to 138o W longitude. The image is oriented with north to the top.As has been noted in other MOC releases, Olympus Mons is the largest of the major Tharsis volcanoes, rising 25 km (15.5 miles) and stretching over nearly 550 km (340 miles) east-west. The summit caldera, a composite of as many as seven roughly circular collapse depressions, is 66 by 83 km (41 by 52 miles) across. Also seen in this image are water-ice clouds that accumulate around and above the volcano during the late afternoon (at the time the image was acquired, the summit was at 5:30 PM local solar time). To understand the value of orbital observations, compare this image with the two taken during approach (PIA00929 and PIA00936), that are representative of the best resolution from Earth.Through Monday, October 28, the MOC had acquired a total of 132 images, most of which were at low sun elevation angles. Of these images, 74 were taken with the high resolution narrow angle camera and 58 with the low resolution wide angle cameras. Twenty-eight narrow angle and 24 wide angle images were taken after the suspension of aerobraking. These images

  10. A subjective evaluation of high-chroma color with wide color-gamut display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Junko; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Ohyama, Nagaaki

    2009-01-01

    Displays tends to expand its color gamut, such as multi-primary color display, Adobe RGB and so on. Therefore displays got possible to display high chroma colors. However sometimes, we feel unnatural some for the image which only expanded chroma. Appropriate gamut mapping method to expand color gamut is not proposed very much. We are attempting preferred expanded color reproduction on wide color gamut display utilizing high chroma colors effectively. As a first step, we have conducted an experiment to investigate the psychological effect of color schemes including highly saturated colors. We used the six-primary-color projector that we have developed for the presentation of test colors. The six-primary-color projector's gamut volume in CIELAB space is about 1.8 times larger than the normal RGB projector. We conducted a subjective evaluation experiment using the SD (Semantic Differential) technique to find the quantitative psychological effect of high chroma colors.

  11. A new Color Feature Extraction method Based on Dynamic Color Distribution Entropy of Neighbourhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Alamdar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the important requirements in image retrieval, indexing, classification, clustering and etc. is extracting efficient features from images. The color feature is one of the most widely used visual features. Use of color histogram is the most common way for representing color feature. One of disadvantage of the color histogram is that it does not take the color spatial distribution into consideration. In this paper dynamic color distribution entropy of neighborhoods method based on color distribution entropy is presented, which effectively describes the spatial information of colors. The image retrieval results in compare to improved color distribution entropy show the acceptable efficiency of this approach.

  12. Node Coloring and Color Conflict Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saoucene Mahfoudh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks, energy efficiency is mainly achieved by making nodes sleep. In this paper, we present the combination of SERENA, a new node activity scheduling algorithm based on node coloring, with TDMA/CA, a collision avoidance MAC protocol. We show that the  combination of these two protocols enables substantial bandwidth and energy benefits for both general and data gathering applications. As a first contribution, we prove that the three-hop node coloring problem is NP-complete. As a second contribution, the overhead induced by SERENA during network coloring is reduced, making possible the use of these protocols even in dense networks with limited bandwidth. The third contribution of this paper is to show that applying any slot assignment algorithmwith spatial reuse based on node neighborhood without taking into account link quality can lead to poor performances because of collisions. The use of good quality links will prevent this phenomenon. The fourth contribution consists of optimizing end-to-end delays for data gathering applications, by means of cross-layering with the application. However, color conflicts resulting from topology changes, mobility and late node arrivals can give rise to collisions. As a fifth contribution, we show how the MAC layer can detect color conflicts, and cope with them at the cost of a slightly reduced throughput. Then, we discuss the tradeoffbetween requesting SERENA to solve the color conflicts and dealing with them at the MAC layer, our third contribution. The combination of SERENA and TDMA/CA is evaluated through simulations on realistic topologies.

  13. Color in home furnishings (Abstract Only)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Catherine

    2002-06-01

    Ms. Stein, President and Creative Director of The Color Council took us through a fast paced international tour via slide presentations of the latest furnishings, fabrics, lighting, gifts and accessories for the home. She explained that color events and predictions occur simultaneously with no time lag in spreading color news throughout industries, perhaps due to technology and the Internet. She noted a global network for distinctive pockets of color wherein little difference of color exists between Europe and New York.

  14. Predicting transmittance spectra of electrophotographic color prints

    OpenAIRE

    Mourad, S.; Emmel, P.; R. D. Hersch

    2001-01-01

    For dry toner electrophotographic color printers, we present a numerical simulation model describing the color printer response based on a physical characterization of the different electrophotographic process steps. The proposed model introduces a Cross Transfer Efficiency designed to predict the color transmittance spectra of multi-color prints by taking into account the transfer influence of each deposited color toner layer upon the other layers. The simulation model leads to a better unde...

  15. A Discrete Model for Color Naming

    OpenAIRE

    Le Troter A; Sequeira J; Boi JM; Menegaz G.

    2007-01-01

    The ability to associate labels to colors is very natural for human beings. Though, this apparently simple task hides very complex and still unsolved problems, spreading over many different disciplines ranging from neurophysiology to psychology and imaging. In this paper, we propose a discrete model for computational color categorization and naming. Starting from the 424 color specimens of the OSA-UCS set, we propose a fuzzy partitioning of the color space. Each of the 11 basic color categor...

  16. Color-Blind Racism, Color-Blind Theology, and Church Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Color-blind racism develops when persons ignore color in people and see them simply as individuals. As persons of color in racialized societies such as the United States are unequally treated on account of their color, the issue becomes a matter of faith and religious experience as religious leaders and educators, who disregard color, overlook…

  17. Natural Enhancement of Color Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shaohua

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new algorithm of Natural Enhancement of Color Image (NECI is proposed. It is inspired by multiscale Retinex model. There are four steps to realize this enhancement. At first, the image appearance is rendered by content-dependent global mapping for light cast correction, and then a modified Retinex filter is applied to enhance the local contrast. Histogram rescaling is used afterwards for normalization purpose. At last, the texture details of image are enhanced by emphasizing the high-frequency components of image using multichannel decomposition of Cortex Transform. In the contrast enhancement step, luminance channel is firstly enhanced, and then a weighing map is calculated by collecting luminance enhancement information and applied to chrominance channel in color space CIELCh which enables a proportional enhancement of chrominance. It avoids the problem of unbalanced enhancement in classical RGB independent channel operation. In this work, it is believed that image enhancement should avoid dramatic modifications to image such as light condition changes, color temperature alteration, or additional artifacts introduced or amplified. Disregarding light conditions of the scene usually leads to unnaturally sharpened images or dramatic white balance changes. In the proposed method, the ambience of image (warm or cold color impression is maintained after enhancement, and no additional light sources are added to the scene, and no halo effect and blocking effect are amplified due to overenhancement. It realizes a Natural Enhancement of Color Image. Different types of natural scene images have been tested and an encouraging performance is obtained for the proposed method.

  18. Creating experimental color harmony map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamaret, Christel; Urban, Fabrice; Lepinel, Josselin

    2014-02-01

    Starting in the 17th century with Newton, color harmony is a topic that did not reach a consensus on definition, representation or modeling so far. Previous work highlighted specific characteristics for color harmony on com- bination of color doublets or triplets by means of a human rating on a harmony scale. However, there were no investigation involving complex stimuli or pointing out how harmony is spatially located within a picture. The modeling of such concept as well as a reliable ground-truth would be of high value for the community, since the applications are wide and concern several communities: from psychology to computer graphics. We propose a protocol for creating color harmony maps from a controlled experiment. Through an eye-tracking protocol, we focus on the identification of disharmonious colors in pictures. The experiment was composed of a free viewing pass in order to let the observer be familiar with the content before a second pass where we asked "to search for the most disharmonious areas in the picture". Twenty-seven observers participated to the experiments that was composed of a total of 30 different stimuli. The high inter-observer agreement as well as a cross-validation confirm the validity of the proposed ground-truth.

  19. Development of colored alumilite dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obara, Kenjiro; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Yagi, Toshiaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Yokoo, Noriko [Radiation Application Development Association, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    In the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), in-vessel components such as blanket and divertor, which are installed in the vacuum vessel of the ITER, are maintained by remote handling equipment (RH equipment). The RH equipment for maintenance is operated under sever environmental conditions, such as high temperature (50{approx}100 degC), high gamma-ray radiation ({approx}1 kGy/h) in an atmosphere of inert gas or vacuum; therefore many components of the RH equipment must have a suitable radiation resistance efficiency for long time operation (10{approx}100 MGy). Typical components of the RH equipment have been extensively tested under an intensive gamma-ray radiation. Monitoring of the radiation dose of the components of the RH equipment is essential to control the operation period of the RH equipment considering radiation resistance. However, the maximum measurable radiation dose of the conventional dosimeters, such as ionization chamber, liquid, glass and plastic dosimeters are limited to be approximately 1MGy which is too low to monitor the RH equipment for the ITER. In addition, these conventional dosimeters do not involve sufficient radiation resistance against the high gamma-ray radiation as well as are not easy handling and low cost. Based on the above backgrounds, a new dosimeter with bleaching of an azo group dye to be applied to a radiation monitor has been developed for high gamma-ray radiation use. The colored alumilite dosimeter is composed of the azo group dye (-N=N-) in an anodic oxidation layer of aluminum alloy (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). It can monitor the radiation dose by measuring the change of the bleaching of azo dye in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer due to gamma-ray irradiation. The degree of bleaching is measured as the change of hue (color) and brightness based on the Munsell's colors with a three dimensional universe using spectrophotometer. In the tests, the dependencies such as colors, anodized layer thickness, type of azo

  20. Colored Tensor Models - a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan Gurau

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Colored tensor models have recently burst onto the scene as a promising conceptual and computational tool in the investigation of problems of random geometry in dimension three and higher. We present a snapshot of the cutting edge in this rapidly expanding research field. Colored tensor models have been shown to share many of the properties of their direct ancestor, matrix models, which encode a theory of fluctuating two-dimensional surfaces. These features include the possession of Feynman graphs encoding topological spaces, a 1/N expansion of graph amplitudes, embedded matrix models inside the tensor structure, a resumable leading order with critical behavior and a continuum large volume limit, Schwinger-Dyson equations satisfying a Lie algebra (akin to the Virasoro algebra in two dimensions, non-trivial classical solutions and so on. In this review, we give a detailed introduction of colored tensor models and pointers to current and future research directions.

  1. Rate calculation with colored noise

    CERN Document Server

    Bartsch, Thomas; Benito, R M; Borondo, F

    2016-01-01

    The usual identification of reactive trajectories for the calculation of reaction rates requires very time-consuming simulations, particularly if the environment presents memory effects. In this paper, we develop a new method that permits the identification of reactive trajectories in a system under the action of a stochastic colored driving. This method is based on the perturbative computation of the invariant structures that act as separatrices for reactivity. Furthermore, using this perturbative scheme, we have obtained a formally exact expression for the reaction rate in multidimensional systems coupled to colored noisy environments.

  2. Color Video Laser Display Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yue; LIU Wei-qi; HAO Li; LIU Hua; WEI Zhong-lun

    2006-01-01

    The principle and technologies employed in laser color video display are introduced. The characteristics of techniologies and bottlenecks of restricting the development are analyzed .A novel technical approach to eliminating the laser interference, improving the uniformity of optical field, transforming the chromaticity and extending the virtual color is proposed. The principle device of laser display system has been developed on the basis of the blue,green and red diode-pumped solid state lasers .The wavelengths of the blue, green and red are 473nm, 532nm and 671nm, and the output powers of the lasers are 1.3W, 0.32W and 3.5W, respectively.

  3. Color matters: color as trustworthiness cue in web sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alberts, Wouter A.; Geest, van der Thea

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In today's increasingly technological world, the first impression of an orgnization is often based on a user's judgment of the corporate Web site's trustworthiness. This study investigates whether color as a Web site element can serve as a trustworthiness cue. In addition, the context of th

  4. Transfer color to night vision images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaoyuan Sun; Zhongliang Jing; Gang Liu; Zhenhua Li

    2005-01-01

    @@ Natural color appearance is the key problem of color night vision field. In this paper, the color mood of daytime color image is transferred to the monochromic night vision image. This method gives the night image a natural color appearance. For each pixel in the night vision image, the best matching pixel in the color image is found based on texture similarity measure. Entropy, energy, contrast, homogeneity, and correlation features based on co-occurrence matrix are combined as texture similarity measure to find the corresponding pixels between the two images. We use a genetic algorithm (GA) to find the optimistic weighting factors assigned to the five different features. GA is also employed in searching the matching pixels to make the color transfer algorithm faster. When the best matching pixel in the color image is found, the chromaticity values are transferred to the corresponding pixel of the night vision image. The experiment results demonstrate the efficiency of this natural color transfer technique.

  5. Color extended visual cryptography using error diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, InKoo; Arce, Gonzalo R; Lee, Heung-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    Color visual cryptography (VC) encrypts a color secret message into n color halftone image shares. Previous methods in the literature show good results for black and white or gray scale VC schemes, however, they are not sufficient to be applied directly to color shares due to different color structures. Some methods for color visual cryptography are not satisfactory in terms of producing either meaningless shares or meaningful shares with low visual quality, leading to suspicion of encryption. This paper introduces the concept of visual information pixel (VIP) synchronization and error diffusion to attain a color visual cryptography encryption method that produces meaningful color shares with high visual quality. VIP synchronization retains the positions of pixels carrying visual information of original images throughout the color channels and error diffusion generates shares pleasant to human eyes. Comparisons with previous approaches show the superior performance of the new method.

  6. Scanner-based macroscopic color variation estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chunghui; Lai, Di; Zeise, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Flatbed scanners have been adopted successfully in the measurement of microscopic image artifacts, such as granularity and mottle, in print samples because of their capability of providing full color, high resolution images. Accurate macroscopic color measurement relies on the use of colorimeters or spectrophotometers to provide a surrogate for human vision. The very different color response characteristics of flatbed scanners from any standard colorimetric response limits the utility of a flatbed scanner as a macroscopic color measuring device. This metamerism constraint can be significantly relaxed if our objective is mainly to quantify the color variations within a printed page or between pages where a small bias in measured colors can be tolerated as long as the color distributions relative to the individual mean values is similar. Two scenarios when converting color from the device RGB color space to a standardized color space such as CIELab are studied in this paper, blind and semi-blind color transformation, depending on the availability of the black channel information. We will show that both approaches offer satisfactory results in quantifying macroscopic color variation across pages while the semi-blind color transformation further provides fairly accurate color prediction capability.

  7. Modeling, Measuring, and Compensating Color Weak Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Satoshi; Mochizuki, Rika; Lenz, Reiner; Chao, Jinhui

    2016-06-01

    We use methods from Riemann geometry to investigate transformations between the color spaces of color-normal and color weak observers. The two main applications are the simulation of the perception of a color weak observer for a color normal observer and the compensation of color images in a way that a color weak observer has approximately the same perception as a color normal observer. The metrics in the color spaces of interest are characterized with the help of ellipsoids defined by the just-noticable-differences between color which are measured with the help of color-matching experiments. The constructed mappings are isometries of Riemann spaces that preserve the perceived color-differences for both observers. Among the two approaches to build such an isometry, we introduce normal coordinates in Riemann spaces as a tool to construct a global color-weak compensation map. Compared to previously used methods this method is free from approximation errors due to local linearizations and it avoids the problem of shifting locations of the origin of the local coordinate system. We analyse the variations of the Riemann metrics for different observers obtained from new color matching experiments and describe three variations of the basic method. The performance of the methods is evaluated with the help of semantic differential (SD) tests.

  8. Image color transfer to evoke different emotions based on color combinations

    OpenAIRE

    He, Li; Qi, Hairong; Zaretzki, Russell

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a color transfer framework to evoke different emotions for images based on color combinations is proposed. The purpose of this color transfer is to change the "look and feel" of images, i.e., evoking different emotions. Colors are confirmed as the most attractive factor in images. In addition, various studies in both art and science areas have concluded that other than single color, color combinations are necessary to evoke specific emotions. Therefore, we propose a novel frame...

  9. ColorMath - A package for color summed calculations in SU(Nc)

    CERN Document Server

    Sjödahl, Malin

    2012-01-01

    A Mathematica package for color summed calculations in QCD (SU(Nc)) is presented. Color contractions of any color amplitude appearing in QCD may be performed, and the package uses a syntax which is very similar to how color structure is written on paper. It also supports the definition of color vectors and bases, and special functions such as scalar products are defined for such color tensors.

  10. Digital color acquisition, perception, coding and rendering

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Maloigne, Christine; Macaire, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    In this book the authors identify the basic concepts and recent advances in the acquisition, perception, coding and rendering of color. The fundamental aspects related to the science of colorimetry in relation to physiology (the human visual system) are addressed, as are constancy and color appearance. It also addresses the more technical aspects related to sensors and the color management screen. Particular attention is paid to the notion of color rendering in computer graphics. Beyond color, the authors also look at coding, compression, protection and quality of color images and videos.

  11. Color management in textile application

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lucia, Maurizio; Vannucci, Massimiliano; Buonopane, Massimo; Fabroni, Cosimo; Fabrini, Francesco

    2002-03-01

    The aim of this research was to study a system of acquisition and processing of images capable of confronting colored wool with a reference specimen, in order to define the conformity using objective parameters. The first step of the research was to comprise and to analyze in depth the problem: there has been numerous implications of technical, physical, cultural, biological and also psychological character, that come down from the attempt of giving a quantitative appraisal to the color. In the scene of the national and international scientific and technological research, little has been made as regards measurement of color through digital processing of the images through linear CCD. The reason is fundamentally of technological nature: only during the last years we found the presence on the market of low cost equipment capable of acquiring and processing images with adequate performances and qualities. The job described has permitted to create a first prototype of system for the color measuring with use of CCD linear devices. -Hardware identification to carry out a series of tests and experiments in laboratory. -Verification of such device in a textile facility. -Statistics analysis of the collected data and of the employed models.

  12. Camouflage, Color Schemes, and Cubism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhin, Paula

    2002-01-01

    Presents an art activity where students learn about Cubism and color mixing. Explains that the students create camouflaged animals after learning about the work, "Female Torso" (Pablo Picasso). Includes directions for how to create the pictures and states that the assignment can be used with students of all ages. (CMK)

  13. Illustrating Chromatography with Colorful Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Brian G.; Farrell, Stephanie; Dominiak, Richard S.

    2007-01-01

    Advances in biology are prompting new discoveries in the biotechnology, pharmaceutical, medical technology, and chemical industries. This paper presents a detailed description of an anion exchange chromatography experiment using a pair of colorful proteins and summarizes the effect of operating parameters on protein separation. This experiment…

  14. On colorings of variable words

    OpenAIRE

    Tyros, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    In this note, we prove that the base case of the Graham--Rothschild Theorem, i.e., the one that considers colorings of the ($1$-dimensional) variable words, admits bounds in the class $\\mathcal{E}^5$ of Grzegorczyk's hierarchy.

  15. Nylon Fashion to Be Colorful

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    By Flora Zhao

    2012-01-01

    The thematic exhibition named "colorful life, fashionable nylon" will strike a pose on the stage of China International Trade Fair for Fibers and Yarns from March 29th to March 31st this year, delivering the fashion pulse of Chinese nylon development. Since 2007, the productivity

  16. College Students Cope With Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciara, Frank J.

    College students who were preparing for service-oriented careers as teachers, social workers, nurses, and probation officers, were studied to determine whether the students held prejudicial attitudes based on skin color. Photographs of blacks and Caucasians, matched so that paired persons were of the same racial group, sex, and age level, and…

  17. At the Speed of Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Meghan A

    2016-01-01

    Tied up with a (rain)bow: Looking ahead to 2016, important changes are underway at ChemBioChem. The elimination of color charges and accelerated publication times keep ChemBioChem at the forefront of chemical biology. We also enjoy a look back at the highlights of 2015 and upcoming changes to the editorial office and board.

  18. 7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Middling Color and Strict Middling Spotted Color....

  19. 7 CFR 28.413 - Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.413 Section 28.413... Spotted Color. Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Middling Color and Middling Spotted Color....

  20. 7 CFR 28.415 - Low Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Low Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.415 Section 28... Spotted Color. Low Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Low Middling Color and Low Middling Spotted Color....

  1. 7 CFR 28.411 - Good Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.411 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Good Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Good Middling Color and Good Middling Spotted Color....

  2. Allelic variation in the squirrel monkey x-linked color vision gene: biogeographical and behavioral correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropp, Susan; Boinski, Sue; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2002-06-01

    Most Neotropical primate species possess a polymorphic X-linked and a monomorphic autosomal color vision gene. Consequently, populations are composed of both dichromatics and trichromatics. Most theories on the maintenance of this genetic system revolve around possible advantages for foraging ecology. To examine the issue from a different angle, we compared the numbers and relative frequencies of alleles at the X-linked locus among three species of Saimiri representing a wide range of geographical and behavioral variation in the genus. Exons 3, 4, and 5 of the X-linked opsin gene were sequenced for a large number of X chromosomes for all three species. Several synonymous mutations were detected in exons 4 and 5 for the originally reported alleles but only a single nonsynonymous change was detected. Two alleles were found that appeared to be the result of recombination events. The low occurrence of recombinant alleles and absence of mutations in the amino acids critical for spectral tuning indicates that stabilizing selection acts to maintain the combinations of critical sites specific to each allele. Allele frequencies were approximately the same for all Saimiri species, with a slight but significant difference between S. boliviensis and S. oerstedii. No apparent correlation exists between allele frequencies and behavioral or biogeographical differences between species, casting doubt on the speculation that the spectral sensitivities of the alleles have been maintained because they are specifically well-tuned to Saimiri visual ecology. Rather, the spectral tuning peaks might have been maintained because they are as widely spaced as possible within the limited range of middlewave to longwave spectra useful to all primates. This arrangement creates a balance between maximizing the distance between spectral tuning peaks (allowing the color opponency of the visual system to distinguish between peaks) and maximizing the number of alleles within a limited range (yielding

  3. Color (RGB) imaging laser radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri De Collibus, M.; Bartolini, L.; Fornetti, G.; Francucci, M.; Guarneri, M.; Nuvoli, M.; Paglia, E.; Ricci, R.

    2008-03-01

    We present a new color (RGB) imaging 3D laser scanner prototype recently developed in ENEA, Italy). The sensor is based on AM range finding technique and uses three distinct beams (650nm, 532nm and 450nm respectively) in monostatic configuration. During a scan the laser beams are simultaneously swept over the target, yielding range and three separated channels (R, G and B) of reflectance information for each sampled point. This information, organized in range and reflectance images, is then elaborated to produce very high definition color pictures and faithful, natively colored 3D models. Notable characteristics of the system are the absence of shadows in the acquired reflectance images - due to the system's monostatic setup and intrinsic self-illumination capability - and high noise rejection, achieved by using a narrow field of view and interferential filters. The system is also very accurate in range determination (accuracy better than 10 -4) at distances up to several meters. These unprecedented features make the system particularly suited to applications in the domain of cultural heritage preservation, where it could be used by conservators for examining in detail the status of degradation of frescoed walls, monuments and paintings, even at several meters of distance and in hardly accessible locations. After providing some theoretical background, we describe the general architecture and operation modes of the color 3D laser scanner, by reporting and discussing first experimental results and comparing high-definition color images produced by the instrument with photographs of the same subjects taken with a Nikon D70 digital camera.

  4. Preferred color correction for digital LCD TVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Tae; Kim, Choon-Woo; Ahn, Ji-Young; Kang, Dong-Woo; Shin, Hyun-Ho

    2009-01-01

    Instead of colorimetirc color reproduction, preferred color correction is applied for digital TVs to improve subjective image quality. First step of the preferred color correction is to survey the preferred color coordinates of memory colors. This can be achieved by the off-line human visual tests. Next step is to extract pixels of memory colors representing skin, grass and sky. For the detected pixels, colors are shifted towards the desired coordinates identified in advance. This correction process may result in undesirable contours on the boundaries between the corrected and un-corrected areas. For digital TV applications, the process of extraction and correction should be applied in every frame of the moving images. This paper presents a preferred color correction method in LCH color space. Values of chroma and hue are corrected independently. Undesirable contours on the boundaries of correction are minimized. The proposed method change the coordinates of memory color pixels towards the target color coordinates. Amount of correction is determined based on the averaged coordinate of the extracted pixels. The proposed method maintains the relative color difference within memory color areas. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated using the paired comparison. Results of experiments indicate that the proposed method can reproduce perceptually pleasing images to viewers.

  5. Characterization of Angle Dependent Color Travel of Printed Multi-Color Effect Pigment on Different Color Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Mirica Karlovits

    2014-01-01

    Color-travel pigments, which exhibit much more extensive color change as well provide angle-dependent optical effect can be used in many industrial products. In present paper the multi-color effect pigment printed on three different foils with different background color (black, silver and transparent) was investigated. The pigment was based on synthetically produced transparent silicon dioxide platelets coated with titanium dioxide. CIEL*a*b* values and reflection of prints were measured by m...

  6. Color Calibration for Colorized Vision System with Digital Sensor and LED Array Illuminator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenmin Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Color measurement by the colorized vision system is a superior method to achieve the evaluation of color objectively and continuously. However, the accuracy of color measurement is influenced by the spectral responses of digital sensor and the spectral mismatch of illumination. In this paper, two-color vision system illuminated by digital sensor and LED array, respectively, is presented. The Polynomial-Based Regression method is applied to solve the problem of color calibration in the sRGB and CIE  L⁎a⁎b⁎ color spaces. By mapping the tristimulus values from RGB to sRGB color space, color difference between the estimated values and the reference values is less than 3ΔE. Additionally, the mapping matrix ΦRGB→sRGB has proved a better performance in reducing the color difference, and it is introduced subsequently into the colorized vision system proposed for a better color measurement. Necessarily, the printed matter of clothes and the colored ceramic tile are chosen as the application experiment samples of our colorized vision system. As shown in the experimental data, the average color difference of images is less than 6ΔE. It indicates that a better performance of color measurement is obtained via the colorized vision system proposed.

  7. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Scientist Video Series Why can’t you see colors well in the dark? Do fish have eyelids? ... video series. Dr. Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how ...

  8. Color Vision Defects: What Teachers Should Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Barbara A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the nature of color vision defects as they relate to reading instruction. Suggests ways that teachers can adapt instruction to help provide maximal learning opportunities for the color deficient child. (RS)

  9. Spectral Test Instrument for Color Vision Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Balázs Vince Nagy; Gy(o)rgy (A)brahám

    2005-01-01

    Common displays such as CRT or LCD screens have limited capabilities in displaying most color spectra correctly. The main disadvantage of these devices is that they work with three primaries and the colors displayed are the mixture of these three colours. Consequently these devices can be confusing in testing human color identification, because the spectral distribution of the colors displayed is the combined spectrum of the three primaries. We have developed a new instrument for spectrally correct color vision measurement. This instrument uses light emitting diodes (LEDs) and is capable of producing all spectra of perceivable colors, thus with appropriate test methods this instrument can be a reliable and useful tool in testing human color vision and in verifying color vision correction.

  10. Skin Cancer in Skin of Color

    OpenAIRE

    Bradford, Porcia T.

    2009-01-01

    Skin cancers in skin of color often present atypically or with advanced stage in comparison to Caucasian patients. Health care providers must maintain a high index of suspicion when examining skin lesions in skin of color.

  11. Prevalence of Color Vision Deficiency in Qazvin

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad khalaj; Ameneh Barikani; Mozhgan Mohammadi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Color vision deficiency (CVD) is an X chromosome-linked recessive autosomal dominant. Determine the prevalence of color blindness in Qazvin population. Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study color vision deficiency examined in 1853 individuals with age 10-25 years old who participated in private clinics and eye clinic of Bu-Ali hospital in Qazvin in 2010. The screening of color vision deficiency was performed using Ishihara test. Data were analyzed by SPSS-16 with χP...

  12. DERIVATIONS AND EXTENSIONS OF LIE COLOR ALGEBRA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qingcheng; Zhang Yongzheng

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors obtain some results concerning derivations of fi-nitely generated Lie color algebras and discuss the relation between skew derivation space SkDer(L) and central extension H2(L, F) on some Lie color algebras. Meanwhile, they generalize the notion of double extension to quadratic Lie color algebras, a sufficient con-dition for a quadratic Lie color algebra to be a double extension and further properties are given.

  13. Spatiochromatic Context Modeling for Color Saliency Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Shengping; Li, Xuelong; Wu, Xindong

    2016-06-01

    Visual saliency is one of the most noteworthy perceptual abilities of human vision. Recent progress in cognitive psychology suggests that: 1) visual saliency analysis is mainly completed by the bottom-up mechanism consisting of feedforward low-level processing in primary visual cortex (area V1) and 2) color interacts with spatial cues and is influenced by the neighborhood context, and thus it plays an important role in a visual saliency analysis. From a computational perspective, the most existing saliency modeling approaches exploit multiple independent visual cues, irrespective of their interactions (or are not computed explicitly), and ignore contextual influences induced by neighboring colors. In addition, the use of color is often underestimated in the visual saliency analysis. In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective color saliency model that considers color as the only visual cue and mimics the color processing in V1. Our approach uses region-/boundary-defined color features with spatiochromatic filtering by considering local color-orientation interactions, therefore captures homogeneous color elements, subtle textures within the object and the overall salient object from the color image. To account for color contextual influences, we present a divisive normalization method for chromatic stimuli through the pooling of contrary/complementary color units. We further define a color perceptual metric over the entire scene to produce saliency maps for color regions and color boundaries individually. These maps are finally globally integrated into a one single saliency map. The final saliency map is produced by Gaussian blurring for robustness. We evaluate the proposed method on both synthetic stimuli and several benchmark saliency data sets from the visual saliency analysis to salient object detection. The experimental results demonstrate that the use of color as a unique visual cue achieves competitive results on par with or better than 12 state

  14. Color indirect effects on melatonin regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Tian; Liu, Timon C.; Li, Yan

    2002-04-01

    Color indirect effect (CIE) is referred to as the physiological and psychological effects of color resulting from color vision. In previous papers, we have studied CIE from the viewpoints of the integrated western and Chinese traditional medicine, put forward the color-autonomic- nervous-subsystem model (CAM), and provided its time-theory foundation. In this paper, we applied it to study light effects on melatonin regulation in humans, and suggested that it is CIE that mediates light effects on melatonin suppression.

  15. Color Superconducting Quark Matter in Neutron Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Heiselberg, H.

    1999-01-01

    Color superconductivity in quark matter is studied for electrically charge neutral neutron star matter in $\\beta$-equilibrium. Both bulk quark matter and mixed phases of quark and nuclear matter are treated. The electron chemical potential and strange quark mass affect the various quark chemical potentials and therefore also the color superconductivity due to dicolor pairing or color-flavor locking.

  16. The Additive Coloration of Alkali Halides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirgal, G. H.; and others

    1969-01-01

    Describes the construction and use of an inexpensive, vacuum furnace designed to produce F-centers in alkali halide crystals by additive coloration. The method described avoids corrosion or contamination during the coloration process. Examination of the resultant crystals is discussed and several experiments using additively colored crystals are…

  17. 7 CFR 29.3508 - Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color. 29.3508 Section 29.3508 Agriculture Regulations... Type 95) § 29.3508 Color. The third factor of a grade based on the relative hues, saturations or chromas, and color values common to the type....

  18. 7 CFR 52.778 - Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color. 52.778 Section 52.778 Agriculture Regulations... United States Standards for Grades of Canned Red Tart Pitted Cherries 1 Factors of Quality § 52.778 Color. (a) (A) classification. Canned red tart pitted cherries that have a good color may be given a...

  19. 7 CFR 52.1006 - Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color. 52.1006 Section 52.1006 Agriculture Regulations... United States Standards for Grades of Dates Factors of Quality § 52.1006 Color. (a) (A) classification. Whole or pitted dates that possess a good color may be given a score of 18 to 20 points. “Good...

  20. 7 CFR 29.2507 - Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color. 29.2507 Section 29.2507 Agriculture Regulations...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2507 Color. The third factor of a grade based on the relative hues, saturation or chroma, and color values common to the type....

  1. 7 CFR 29.3010 - Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color. 29.3010 Section 29.3010 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Color. The third factor of a grade, based on the relative hues, saturations or chroma, and color...

  2. 7 CFR 29.1005 - Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color. 29.1005 Section 29.1005 Agriculture Regulations... Type 92) § 29.1005 Color. The third factor of a grade based on the relative hues, saturations or chromas, and color values common to the type....

  3. 7 CFR 29.2257 - Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color. 29.2257 Section 29.2257 Agriculture Regulations... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2257 Color. The third factor of a grade based on the relative hues, saturation or chroma, and color values...

  4. 7 CFR 52.806 - Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color. 52.806 Section 52.806 Agriculture Regulations... United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Factors of Quality § 52.806 Color. (a) (A) Classification. Frozen red tart pitted cherries that possess a good red color may be given...

  5. 7 CFR 58.633 - Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color. 58.633 Section 58.633 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....633 Color. Coloring used for ice cream and related products shall be those certified by the U.S....

  6. Color Vision Deficiencies in Children. United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    Presented are prevalence data on color vision deficiencies (color blindness) in noninstitutionalized children, aged 6-11, in the United States, as estimated from the Health Examination Survey findings on a representative sample of over 7,400 children. Described are the two color vision tests used in the survey, the Ishihara Test for Color…

  7. Color Vision Deficits and Literacy Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Sandra Rollins

    1994-01-01

    Shows that color blindness, whether partial or total, inhibits literacy acquisition. Offers a case study of a third grader with impaired color vision. Presents a review of literature on the topic. Notes that people with color vision deficits are often unaware of the handicap. (RS)

  8. Color Charts, Esthetics, and Subjective Randomness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Yasmine B.

    2012-01-01

    Color charts, or grids of evenly spaced multicolored dots or squares, appear in the work of modern artists and designers. Often the artist/designer distributes the many colors in a way that could be described as "random," that is, without an obvious pattern. We conduct a statistical analysis of 125 "random-looking" art and design color charts and…

  9. What It's Like to Be Color Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes What It's Like to Be Color Blind KidsHealth > For Kids > What It's Like to Be Color Blind Print A A ... blind. But some people really are color blind. It doesn't mean they can't see any ...

  10. In Tokyo:Asia Color Feast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The fifth Asia Color Forum (Japan), organized by Asia Color Committee and Japan fashion Association, will be held in the city of Roppongi Hills of Tokyo during Sep. 1st-3rd. Top-class professional color design experts from Asian and paci c areas

  11. Color Perception in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Anna; Sowden, Paul; Burley, Rachel; Notman, Leslie; Alder, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether color perception is atypical in children with autism. In experiment 1, accuracy of color memory and search was compared for children with autism and typically developing children matched on age and non-verbal cognitive ability. Children with autism were significantly less accurate at color memory and search than…

  12. Designing for Color in Additive Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiríksson, Eyþór Rúnar; Luongo, Andrea; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall;

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a color design pipeline for 3D printed or additively manufactured parts. We demonstrate how to characterize and calibrate a commercial printer and how to obtain its forward and backward color transformation models. We present results from our assistive color design tool...

  13. A color hierarchy for automatic target selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchernikov, Illia; Fallah, Mazyar

    2010-01-01

    Visual processing of color starts at the cones in the retina and continues through ventral stream visual areas, called the parvocellular pathway. Motion processing also starts in the retina but continues through dorsal stream visual areas, called the magnocellular system. Color and motion processing are functionally and anatomically discrete. Previously, motion processing areas MT and MST have been shown to have no color selectivity to a moving stimulus; the neurons were colorblind whenever color was presented along with motion. This occurs when the stimuli are luminance-defined versus the background and is considered achromatic motion processing. Is motion processing independent of color processing? We find that motion processing is intrinsically modulated by color. Color modulated smooth pursuit eye movements produced upon saccading to an aperture containing a surface of coherently moving dots upon a black background. Furthermore, when two surfaces that differed in color were present, one surface was automatically selected based upon a color hierarchy. The strength of that selection depended upon the distance between the two colors in color space. A quantifiable color hierarchy for automatic target selection has wide-ranging implications from sports to advertising to human-computer interfaces. PMID:20195361

  14. A color hierarchy for automatic target selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Illia Tchernikov

    Full Text Available Visual processing of color starts at the cones in the retina and continues through ventral stream visual areas, called the parvocellular pathway. Motion processing also starts in the retina but continues through dorsal stream visual areas, called the magnocellular system. Color and motion processing are functionally and anatomically discrete. Previously, motion processing areas MT and MST have been shown to have no color selectivity to a moving stimulus; the neurons were colorblind whenever color was presented along with motion. This occurs when the stimuli are luminance-defined versus the background and is considered achromatic motion processing. Is motion processing independent of color processing? We find that motion processing is intrinsically modulated by color. Color modulated smooth pursuit eye movements produced upon saccading to an aperture containing a surface of coherently moving dots upon a black background. Furthermore, when two surfaces that differed in color were present, one surface was automatically selected based upon a color hierarchy. The strength of that selection depended upon the distance between the two colors in color space. A quantifiable color hierarchy for automatic target selection has wide-ranging implications from sports to advertising to human-computer interfaces.

  15. Colorizing single band intensified nightvision images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.

    2005-01-01

    We present a method to give single band intensified nightvision imagery a natural day-time color appearance. For input, the method requires a true color RGB source image and a grayscale nightvision target image. The source and target image are both transformed into a perceptually decorrelated color

  16. Adaptive Color Mapping for NAO Robot Using Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Rahmani

    Full Text Available While playing soccer, the main task of the robot vision system is identifying and tracking objects such as ball, goals, teammate robots and opponent robots. The basis of many object identification methods, particularly those in soccer robots and RoboCup e ...

  17. Dynamic simulation of color blindness for studying color vision requirements in practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, M.P.; Alferdinck, J.W.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    We report on a dynamic simulation of defective color vision. Using an RGB video camera connected to a PC or laptop, the captured and displayed RGB colors are translated by our software into modified RGB values that simulate the color appearance of a person with a color deficiency. Usually, the simul

  18. Priming Letters by Colors: Evidence for the Bidirectionality of Grapheme-Color Synesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Peter H.; Kalckert, Andreas; Fink, Gereon R.

    2009-01-01

    In synesthesia, stimulation of one sensory modality leads to a percept in another nonstimulated modality, for example, graphemes trigger an additional color percept in grapheme-color synesthesia, which encompasses the variants letter-color and digit-color synesthesia. Until recently, it was assumed that synesthesia occurs strictly unidirectional:…

  19. The Relation between Children's Conceptual Functioning with Color and Color Term Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Kurt; Zimiles, Herbert

    2006-01-01

    Young children experience considerable difficulty in learning their first few color terms. One explanation for this difficulty is that initially they lack a conceptual representation of color sufficiently abstract to support word meaning. This hypothesis, that prior to learning color terms children do not represent color as an abstraction, was…

  20. The Colors of the Alphabet: Naturally-Biased Associations between Shape and Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Ferrinne; Maurer, Daphne

    2011-01-01

    Many letters of the alphabet are consistently mapped to specific colors in English-speaking adults, both in the general population and in individuals with grapheme-color synaesthesia who perceive letters in color. Here, across six experiments, we tested the ubiquity of the color/letter associations with typically developing toddlers, literate…

  1. Monochromatic Progressions in Random Colorings

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay, Sujith

    2011-01-01

    Let N^{+}(k)= 2^{k/2} k^{3/2} f(k) and N^{-}(k)= 2^{k/2} k^{1/2} g(k) where 1=o(f(k)) and g(k)=o(1). We show that the probability of a random 2-coloring of {1,2,...,N^{+}(k)} containing a monochromatic k-term arithmetic progression approaches 1, and the probability of a random 2-coloring of {1,2,...,N^{-}(k)} containing a monochromatic k-term arithmetic progression approaches 0, for large k. This improves an upper bound due to Brown, who had established an analogous result for N^{+}(k)= 2^k l...

  2. Vision Screening by Color Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayroe, R.; Richardson, J. R.; Kerr, J.; Hay, S.; Mcbride, R.

    1985-01-01

    Screening test developed for detecting a range of vision defects in eye, including common precursors to amblyopia. Test noninvasive, safe, and administered easily in field by operator with no medical training. Only minimal momentary cooperation of subject required: Thus, test shows promise for use with very young children. Test produces color-slide images of retinas of eyes under specially-controlled lighting conditions. Trained observer screens five children per minute.

  3. Color Reproduction with Juxtaposed Halftoning

    OpenAIRE

    Babaei, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Recently, non-standard inks have begun to make their way into the world of printing. Non-standard inks are printing materials which exhibit unusual effects such as angular color dependence, texture, or fluorescence. They are made of special-effect pigments that play an increasingly important role in the paint, plastic, and cosmetic industries. In the printing industry, due to the challenges they pose, they have restricted applications. A long-held assumption in classic printing is the transp...

  4. Overview of Crystalline Color Superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Mannarelli, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Inhomogeneous phases may appear when a stress is applied to a system and the system can minimize the free energy breaking the rotational invariance. Various examples are known in Nature of this sort, as the paramagnetic to ferromagnetic phase transition, or the fluid/solid phase transition. If the rotational symmetry is broken down to a discrete symmetry, the system is typically named a crystal. We breifly review crystalline color superconductors, which arise in cold quark matter with mismatched Fermi spheres.

  5. Natural Enhancement of Color Image

    OpenAIRE

    Shaohua Chen; Azeddine Beghdadi

    2010-01-01

    A new algorithm of Natural Enhancement of Color Image (NECI) is proposed. It is inspired by multiscale Retinex model. There are four steps to realize this enhancement. At first, the image appearance is rendered by content-dependent global mapping for light cast correction, and then a modified Retinex filter is applied to enhance the local contrast. Histogram rescaling is used afterwards for normalization purpose. At last, the texture details of image are enhanced by emphasizing the high-freq...

  6. Calculation reduction method for color computer-generated hologram using color space conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Kakue, Takashi; Oikawa, Minoru; Takada, Naoki; Okada, Naohisa; Endo, Yutaka; Hirayama, Ryuji; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2013-01-01

    We report a calculation reduction method for color computer-generated holograms (CGHs) using color space conversion. Color CGHs are generally calculated on RGB space. In this paper, we calculate color CGHs in other color spaces: for example, YCbCr color space. In YCbCr color space, a RGB image is converted to the luminance component (Y), blue-difference chroma (Cb) and red-difference chroma (Cr) components. In terms of the human eye, although the negligible difference of the luminance compone...

  7. Skin Color Segmentation in YCBCR Color Space with Adaptive Fuzzy Neural Network (Anfis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saber Iraji

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an efficient and accurate method for human color skin recognition in color images with different light intensity will proposed .first we transform inputted color image from RGB color space to YCBCR color space and then accurate and appropriate decision on that if it is in human color skin or not will be adopted according to YCBCR color space using fuzzy, adaptive fuzzy neural network(anfis methods for each pixel of that image. In our proposed system adaptive fuzzy neural network(anfis has less error and system worked more accurate and appropriative than prior methods.

  8. [Cosmetic colorants. Toxicology and regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzek, T; Krätke, R; Klein, G; Schulz, C

    2005-01-01

    Some recent publications raised concern over a possible link between hair dye use and the incidence of bladder tumours in a Californian population. The Scientific Committee for Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products intended for Consumers (SCCNFP) demanded the toxicological testing of all hair dyes used in Europe to exclude any risk. The EU commission initiated corresponding measures. Only safe hair dyes will be included on a positive list while all other hair dyes will be banned. The hair dye lawsone--the dyeing ingredient of henna--was evaluated by the SCCNFP as genotoxic but the BfR came to another conclusion. The regulation of both lawsone and henna remains an open question. Furthermore, some cosmetic colorants were critically discussed. The azo dyes CI 12150, CI 26100, CI 27290 and CI 20170 are allowed for use in cosmetics. On cleavage they form the carcinogenic aromatic amines o-anisidine, 4-aminoazobenzene and 2,4-xylidine, respectively. For three of these dyes the cleavage by human skin bacteria in vitro to the respective arylamine was shown experimentally. Further problems may arise from colorants used for tattoos and permanent makeup. These products up to now are not subject to legislation and there are no regulatory stipulations with respect to health safety and purity for colorants used for these purposes.

  9. Towards a new urbarchitectonic coloration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cekić Nikola

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The crisis in ecorurbarchitecture of modern times is reflected in the large number of superficially conceived villages and towns, houses, streets and plazas, lacking the artistic contents, as well as the coloration synchronized with the natural structures in the environment. Creators of the architecture failed to see the color as the fourth dimension, even though it was at hand. The failed to understand its role as a primarily multidisciplinary issue of awareness, culture, tradition, human customs, their ethnic and historical understanding of the artifact-nature relation, and its role as a corrective procedure to improve the living conditions in the habitations and its role in unifying of ecorurbarchitectonic values in the vision of art. The creators also failed to convince the future users to comprehend that village and city, different as they are, have noticeably drawn closer in terms of art. The aim of this paper is to pose the crucial questions concerning the new ecorurbarchitectonic coloration, which may improve the state of physical structures in space.

  10. Anthocyanins as Functional Food Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Noboru; Sakagami, Hiroshi

    Anthocyanins, a proanthocyanidin-type of flavonoid, contain an abundance of functional phytochemicals and occur in fruits such as cranberry, blueberry, orange, apple and in vegetables such as tomato, sweet pepper, spinach, and radishes. Functional and essential diets have been ingested in daily life since the primitive era of history. When anthocyanins are coupled with some water-soluble sugar molecules, their color becomes red, yellow, violet, or blue. It is very intriguing that anthocyanins provide the colorful variety of pigments for pansies, petunias, plums, and other diverse flowers. Chlorophyll in various fruits and vegetables is the main green phyto-component, while anthocyanins are probably the most important visible plant pigments in the natural kingdom having specific colors. Anthocyanins have been clinically used in many folklore medicines worldwide. Anthocyanins could provide health benefits for age-related diseases as well as other diseases. Anthocyanins have higher antioxidant capacity against oxidative stress induced by excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide, and thus the human body might be protected from oxidative injury by anthocyanins. On the basis of these facts, we review the synthesis of plant flavonoids and their ability to scavenge oxidants, inhibit or activate enzymes, and the safety of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanidins present in common foods.

  11. Interactive bibliographical database on color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caivano, Jose L.

    2002-06-01

    The paper describes the methodology and results of a project under development, aimed at the elaboration of an interactive bibliographical database on color in all fields of application: philosophy, psychology, semiotics, education, anthropology, physical and natural sciences, biology, medicine, technology, industry, architecture and design, arts, linguistics, geography, history. The project is initially based upon an already developed bibliography, published in different journals, updated in various opportunities, and now available at the Internet, with more than 2,000 entries. The interactive database will amplify that bibliography, incorporating hyperlinks and contents (indexes, abstracts, keywords, introductions, or eventually the complete document), and devising mechanisms for information retrieval. The sources to be included are: books, doctoral dissertations, multimedia publications, reference works. The main arrangement will be chronological, but the design of the database will allow rearrangements or selections by different fields: subject, Decimal Classification System, author, language, country, publisher, etc. A further project is to develop another database, including color-specialized journals or newsletters, and articles on color published in international journals, arranged in this case by journal name and date of publication, but allowing also rearrangements or selections by author, subject and keywords.

  12. Three-flavor color superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malekzadeh, H.

    2007-12-15

    I investigate some of the inert phases in three-flavor, spin-zero color-superconducting quark matter: the CFL phase (the analogue of the B phase in superfluid {sup 3}He), the A and A{sup *} phases, and the 2SC and sSC phases. I compute the pressure of these phases with and without the neutrality condition. Without the neutrality condition, after the CFL phase the sSC phase is the dominant phase. However, including the neutrality condition, the CFL phase is again the energetically favored phase except for a small region of intermediate densities where the 2SC/A{sup *} phase is favored. It is shown that the 2SC phase is identical to the A{sup *} phase up to a color rotation. In addition, I calculate the self-energies and the spectral densities of longitudinal and transverse gluons at zero temperature in color-superconducting quark matter in the CFL phase. I find a collective excitation, a plasmon, at energies smaller than two times the gap parameter and momenta smaller than about eight times the gap. The dispersion relation of this mode exhibits a minimum at some nonzero value of momentum, indicating a van Hove singularity. (orig.)

  13. Calculation reduction method for color computer-generated hologram using color space conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Oikawa, Minoru; Takada, Naoki; Okada, Naohisa; Endo, Yutaka; Hirayama, Ryuji; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2013-01-01

    We report a calculation reduction method for color computer-generated holograms (CGHs) using color space conversion. Color CGHs are generally calculated on RGB space. In this paper, we calculate color CGHs in other color spaces: for example, YCbCr color space. In YCbCr color space, a RGB image is converted to the luminance component (Y), blue-difference chroma (Cb) and red-difference chroma (Cr) components. In terms of the human eye, although the negligible difference of the luminance component is well-recognized, the difference of the other components is not. In this method, the luminance component is normal sampled and the chroma components are down-sampled. The down-sampling allows us to accelerate the calculation of the color CGHs. We compute diffraction calculations from the components, and then we convert the diffracted results in YCbCr color space to RGB color space.

  14. Harmonious colors: from alchemy to science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, Giordano B.; Moroney, Nathan M.

    2012-01-01

    There is a very long tradition in designing color palettes for various applications, going back to at least the Upanishad. Although color palettes have been influenced by the available colorants, starting with the advent of aniline dyes in the late 1850s there have been few physical limits on the choice of individual colors. This abundance of choices exacerbates the problem of limiting the number of colors in a palette, i.e., in keeping them into a manageable quantity. For example, it is not practical for a car company to offer each model in hundreds of colors. Instead, for each model year a small number of color palettes is offered, each containing the colors for the body, trim, interior, etc. Another example is the fashion industry, where in addition to solid colors there are also patterns, leading to a huge variety of combinations that would be impossible to stock. The traditional solution is that of "color forecasting." Color consultants assess the sentiment or affective state of a target customer class and compare it with new colorants offered by the industry. They assemble a limited color palette, name the colors according to the sentiment, and publish their result. Textile manufacturers will produce fabrics in these colors and fashion designers will design clothes, accessories, and furniture based on these fabrics. Eventually, the media will communicate these forecasts to the consumers, who will be admired by their cohorts when they choose colors from the forecast palette, which by then is widely diffused. The color forecasting business is very labor intensive and difficult, thus for years computer engineers have tried to come up with algorithms to design harmonious color palettes, alas with little commercial success. For example, Johannes Itten's color theory has been implemented many times, but despite Itten's success in the Bauhaus artifacts, the computer tools have been of little utility. Indeed, contrary to the auditory sense, there is no known

  15. Aluminum plasmonic metamaterials for structural color printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fei; Gao, Jie; Stan, Liliana; Rosenmann, Daniel; Czaplewski, David; Yang, Xiaodong

    2015-06-01

    We report a structural color printing platform based on aluminum plasmonic metamaterials supporting near perfect light absorption and narrow-band spectral response tunable across the visible spectrum to realize high-resolution, angle-insensitive color printing with high color purity and saturation. Additionally, the fabricated metamaterials can be protected by a transparent polymer thin layer for ambient use with further improved color performance. The demonstrated structural color printing with aluminum plasmonic metamaterials offers great potential for relevant applications such as security marking and information storage.

  16. Art of color holography: pioneers in change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Martin J.; Bjelkhagen, Hans I.

    2000-10-01

    The possibility to easily record full color holograms, (simply color holograms) has opened new possibilities for art holographers. This paper includes details concerning preparation of subject matter and its practical suitability for color holographic recordings from practical working sessions at ARTCAPI Atelier de Recherche Technique et de Creation Artistique en Physique et en Informatique in France. Martin Richardson as invited artist and Hans Bjelkhagen as scientist holographer describe color holography to a wider public audience through artistic display. Both directly recorded true color images and computer-generated images based on the ZEBRA printing technique are to be presented.

  17. The interaction between surface color and color knowledge: Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Bramão, I.; Faísca, L.; Forkstam, C.; Inácio, F.; S. Araújo; Petersson, K.; Reis, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to evaluate the contribution of surface color and color knowledge information in object identification. We constructed two color-object verification tasks – a surface and a knowledge verification task – using high color diagnostic objects; both typical and atypical color versions of the same object were presented. Continuous electroencephalogram was recorded from 26 subjects. A cluster randomization procedure was used to explore the diffe...

  18. Computer-Aided Color Aesthetic Evaluation Method Based on the Combination of Form and Color

    OpenAIRE

    Wenke Kang; Shengfeng Qin; Quan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new method of color aesthetic evaluation based on the combination of form and color. According to the human visual physiological and psychological characteristics, this paper first proposes a new form-color field theory for the coupled form-color aesthetic evaluation based on the psychophysical field theory and the Moon and Spencer model. Second, it builds a coupled form-color topological graph for describing their interaction and develops a strength calculation algorith...

  19. Extraction of Geometric Features of Wear Particles in Color Ferrograph Images Based on RGB Color Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Gui-ming; WANG Han-gong; ZHANG Bao-jun; PAN Wei

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes the potential color formats of ferrograph images, and presents the algorithms of converting the formats to RGB(Red, Green, Blue) color space. Through statistical analysis of wear par-ticles' geometric features of color ferrograph images in the RGB color space, we give the differences of ferro-graph wear panicles' geometric features among RGB color spaces and gray scale space, and calculate their respective distributions.

  20. Preferred Skin Color Enhancement of Digital Photographic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanzhao Zeng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Reproducing skin colors pleasingly is essential for photographic color reproduction. Moving skin colors toward their preferred skin color center improves the skin color preference. Two main factors to successfully enhance skin colors are: a method to detect skin colors effectively and a method to morph skin colors toward a preferred skin color region properly. This paper starts with introducing a method to enhance skin colors using a static skin color detection model. It significantly improves the color preference for skin colors that are not far off from regular skin tones. To enhance a greater range of skin tones effectively, another method that automatically adapts the skin color detection model to the skin tone of each individual image is proposed. It not only enhances skin colors effectively, but also adjusts the overall image colors to produce more accurate white balance on the image.

  1. Colors of Ellipticals from GALEX to Spitzer

    CERN Document Server

    Schombert, J

    2016-01-01

    Multi-color photometry is presented for a large sample of local ellipticals selected by morphology and isolation. The sample uses data from GALEX, SDSS, 2MASS and Spitzer to cover the filters NUV, ugri, JHK and 3.6mum. Various two-color diagrams, using the half-light aperture defined in the 2MASS J filter, are very coherent from color to color, meaning that galaxies defined to be red in one color are always red in other colors. Comparison to globular cluster colors demonstrates that ellipticals are *not* composed of a single age, single metallicity (e.g., [Fe/H]) stellar population, but require a multi-metallicity model using a chemical enrichment scenario. Such a model is sufficient to explain two-color diagrams and the color-magnitude relations for all colors using only metallicity as a variable on a solely 12 Gyrs stellar population with no evidence of stars younger than 10 Gyrs. The [Fe/H] values that match galaxy colors range from -0.5 to +0.4, much higher (and older) than population characteristics dedu...

  2. Fault-Tolerant Conflict-Free Coloring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abam, Mohammad; de Berg, Mark; Poon, Sheung-Hung

    2008-01-01

    , a conict-free coloring always exists: just assign a different color to each object. However, one would like to nd a coloring with only few colors. This is the conict-free coloring problem. Note that if we take S to be a set of disks|namely, the regions within reach of each base station|and we take R......] introduced conict-free colorings, as de ned next, to model this problem. Let S be a set of n objects, and let R be a, possibly in nite, family of ranges. In this paper, we only consider objects and ranges that are subsets of R2, or sometimes of R1. For a range r 2 R, let S(r) be the subset of objects from S...... intersecting the range r. A conict-free coloring (CF-coloring) of S with respect to R is a coloring of S with the following property [5]: for any range r 2 R for which S(r) 6= ; there is an object o 2 S(r) with a unique color in S(r), that is, with a color not used by any other object in S(r). Trivially...

  3. k-fold coloring of planar graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A k-fold n-coloring of G is a mapping φ: V (G) → Zk(n) where Zk(n) is the collection of all ksubsets of {1,2,...,n} such that φ(u) ∩φ(v) = φ if uv ∈ E(G).If G has a k-fold n-coloring,i.e.,G is k-fold n-colorable.Let the smallest integer n such that G is k-fold n-colorable be the k-th chromatic number,denoted by χk(G).In this paper,we show that any outerplanar graph is k-fold 2k-colorable or k-fold χk(C*)-colorable,where C* is a shortest odd cycle of G.Moreover,we investigate that every planar graph with odd girth at least 10k-9(k 3) can be k-fold (2k + 1)-colorable.

  4. Color defects in a gauge condensate

    CERN Document Server

    Dzhunushaliev, V

    2006-01-01

    The model of an approximate non-perturbative calculations in the SU(3) gauge theory is offered. This approach is based on the separation of initial degrees of freedom on ordered and disordered phases. The ordered phase is almost classical degrees of freedom, the disordered phase is completely quantum degrees of freedom. Using some approximations and simplifications for 2 and 4-points Green's functions an effective Lagrangian describing both phases from the SU(3) Lagrangian is obtained. The calculations show that ordered phase is squeezed by disordered phase into defects. These defects are: an infinite flux tube filled with longitudinal color electric and magnetic fields; a color electric hedgehog; a defect having either two color electric dipoles + two color magnetic dipoles or two color electric dipoles or two color magnetic dipoles. It assumed that the color defects are quantum excitations in a gauge condensate.

  5. Color space selection for JPEG image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroney, Nathan; Fairchild, Mark D.

    1995-10-01

    The Joint Photographic Experts Group's image compression algorithm has been shown to provide a very efficient and powerful method of compressing images. However, there is little substantive information about which color space should be utilized when implementing the JPEG algorithm. Currently, the JPEG algorithm is set up for use with any three-component color space. The objective of this research is to determine whether or not the color space selected will significantly improve the image compression. The RGB, XYZ, YIQ, CIELAB, CIELUV, and CIELAB LCh color spaces were examined and compared. Both numerical measures and psychophysical techniques were used to assess the results. The final results indicate that the device space, RGB, is the worst color space to compress images. In comparison, the nonlinear transforms of the device space, CIELAB and CIELUV, are the best color spaces to compress images. The XYZ, YIQ, and CIELAB LCh color spaces resulted in intermediate levels of compression.

  6. Number of discernible colors for color-deficient observers estimated from the MacAdam limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Esther; Martínez-Verdú, Francisco Miguel; Linhares, João Manuel Maciel; Nascimento, Sérgio Miguel Cardoso

    2010-10-01

    We estimated the number of colors perceived by color normal and color-deficient observers when looking at the theoretic limits of object-color stimuli. These limits, the optimal color stimuli, were computed for a color normal observer and CIE standard illuminant D65, and the resultant colors were expressed in the CIELAB and DIN99d color spaces. The corresponding color volumes for abnormal color vision were computed using models simulating for normal trichromatic observers the appearance for dichromats and anomalous trichomats. The number of colors perceived in each case was then computed from the color volumes enclosed by the optimal colors also known as MacAdam limits. It was estimated that dichromats perceive less than 1% of the colors perceived by normal trichromats and that anomalous trichromats perceive 50%-60% for anomalies in the medium-wavelength-sensitive and 60%-70% for anomalies in the long-wavelength-sensitive cones. Complementary estimates obtained similarly for the spectral locus of monochromatic stimuli suggest less impairment for color-deficient observers, a fact that is explained by the two-dimensional nature of the locus.

  7. Color stability of thermochromic pigment in maxillofacial silicone

    OpenAIRE

    Kantola, Rosita; Lassila, Lippo V. J.; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Valittu, Pekka K.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Maxillofacial silicone elastomer is usually colored intrinsically with color pigments to match skin colors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the color stability of a maxillofacial silicone elastomer, colored with a thermochromic, color changing pigment. MATERIALS AND METHODS Disc-shaped maxillofacial silicone specimens were prepared and divided into 3 groups: a conventionally colored control group, one group additionally colored with 0.2 wt% thermochromic pigment , and one...

  8. Perceptual uniformity of commonly used color spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanaki, Ali; Espig, Kathryn; Kimpe, Tom; Xthona, Albert; Marchessoux, Cedric; Rostang, Johan; Piepers, Bastian

    2014-03-01

    Use of color images in medical imaging has increased significantly the last few years. Color information is essential for applications such as ophthalmology, dermatology and clinical photography. Use of color at least brings benefits for other applications such as endoscopy, laparoscopy and digital pathology. Remarkably, as of today, there is no agreed standard on how color information needs to be visualized for medical applications. This lack of standardization results in large variability of how color images are visualized and it makes quality assurance a challenge. For this reason FDA and ICC recently organized a joint summit on color in medical imaging (CMI). At this summit, one of the suggestions was that modalities such as digital pathology could benefit from using a perceptually uniform color space (T. Kimpe, "Color Behavior of Medical Displays," CMI presentation, May 2013). Perceptually uniform spaces have already been used for many years in the radiology community where the DICOM GSDF standard provides linearity in luminance but not in color behavior. In this paper we quantify perceptual uniformity, using CIE's ΔE2000 as a color distance metric, of several color spaces that are typically used for medical applications. We applied our method to theoretical color spaces Gamma 1.8, 2.0, & 2.2, standard sRGB, and DICOM (correction LUT for gray applied to all primaries). In addition, we also measured color spaces (i.e., native behavior) of a high-end medical display (Barco Coronis Fusion 6MP DL, MDCC-6130), and a consumer display (Dell 1907FP). Our results indicate that sRGB & the native color space on the Barco Coronis Fusion exhibit the least non-uniformity within their group. However, the remaining degree of perceptual non-uniformity is still significant and there is room for improvement.

  9. Color Space and Its Divisions: Color Order from Antiquity to the Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehni, Rolf G.

    2003-03-01

    It has been postulated that humans can differentiate between millions of gradations in color. Not surprisingly, no completely adequate, detailed catalog of colors has yet been devised, however the quest to understand, record, and depict color is as old as the quest to understand the fundamentals of the physical world and the nature of human consciousness. Rolf Kuehni's Color Space and Its Divisions: Color Order from Antiquity to the Present represents an ambitious and unprecedented history of man's inquiry into color order, focusing on the practical applications of the most contemporary developments in the field. Kuehni devotes much of his study to geometric, three-dimensional arrangements of color experiences, a type of system developed only in the mid-nineteenth century. Color spaces are of particular interest for color quality-control purposes in the manufacturing and graphics industries. The author analyzes three major color order systems in detail: Munsell, OSA-UCS, and NCS. He presents historical and current information on color space developments in color vision, psychology, psychophysics, and color technology. Chapter topics include: A historical account of color order systems Fundamentals of psychophysics and the relationship between stimuli and experience Results of perceptual scaling of colors according to attributes History of the development of mathematical color space and difference formulas Analysis of the agreements and discrepancies in psychophysical data describing color differences An experimental plan for the reliable, replicated perceptual data necessary to make progress in the field Experts in academia and industry, neuroscientists, designers, art historians, and anyone interested in the nature of color will find Color Space and Its Divisions to be the authoritative reference in its field.

  10. Analysis of Fast Break and Rebounds of China Men,Women's Basketball Team and Opponents in 16th Asian Games%16届亚运会中国男、女篮与对手在后场篮板和快攻方面的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑义

    2011-01-01

    运用文献法,视频法和数理统计法对广州亚运会中国男女篮与对手在后场篮板和快攻方面进行分析得出:中国男篮在后场篮板与对手差距不大,在快攻得分方面发挥不稳定,中国女篮在后场篮板方面远远超过对手,但在快攻方面明显落后于对手。%This paper uses literature method,video method and mathematical statistics method and the Guangzhou Asian Games,Chinese men and women's basketball team rebounds after opponents drawn from the analysis and fast-break aspects: There is little difference between opponents of the Chinese team in rebounds,in fast-break points play unstable,Chinese women's basketball in the area far more than rivals in rebounds,but are obviously behind the opponent in fast break.

  11. Study on the Pigments of the Colored Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Zhao-wen; SHI Song-cun

    2004-01-01

    The ecological characteristics and fiber structure of the colored cotton were introduced briefly. The color changing mechanisms of the pigments extracted from colored cottons and some plants were discussed with the results of different experiments, which could offer an academic reference for the color fixations of the colored cotton textile produces and promote the development of the natural colored cotton industry.

  12. On Einstein's opponents, and other crackpots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dongen, J.A.E.F.

    2010-01-01

    Einsteins Gegner: Die öffentliche Kontroverse um die Relativitätstheorie in den 1920er Jahren, Milena Wazeck. Campus Verlag, pp. 429, EUR 39.90. ISBN: 978-3593389141 “This world is a strange madhouse. Currently, every coachman and every waiter is debating whether relativity theory is correct. Belief

  13. Development of an XYZ Digital Camera with Embedded Color Calibration System for Accurate Color Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretkowski, Maciej; Jablonski, Ryszard; Shimodaira, Yoshifumi

    Acquisition of accurate colors is important in the modern era of widespread exchange of electronic multimedia. The variety of device-dependent color spaces causes troubles with accurate color reproduction. In this paper we present the outlines of accomplished digital camera system with device-independent output formed from tristimulus XYZ values. The outstanding accuracy and fidelity of acquired color is achieved in our system by employing an embedded color calibration system based on emissive device generating reference calibration colors with user-defined spectral distribution and chromaticity coordinates. The system was tested by calibrating the camera using 24 reference colors spectrally reproduced from 24 color patches of the Macbeth Chart. The average color difference (CIEDE2000) has been found to be ΔE =0.83, which is an outstanding result compared to commercially available digital cameras.

  14. Watermarking spot colors in packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Alastair; Filler, TomáÅ.¡; Falkenstern, Kristyn; Bai, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In January 2014, Digimarc announced Digimarc® Barcode for the packaging industry to improve the check-out efficiency and customer experience for retailers. Digimarc Barcode is a machine readable code that carries the same information as a traditional Universal Product Code (UPC) and is introduced by adding a robust digital watermark to the package design. It is imperceptible to the human eye but can be read by a modern barcode scanner at the Point of Sale (POS) station. Compared to a traditional linear barcode, Digimarc Barcode covers the whole package with minimal impact on the graphic design. This significantly improves the Items per Minute (IPM) metric, which retailers use to track the checkout efficiency since it closely relates to their profitability. Increasing IPM by a few percent could lead to potential savings of millions of dollars for retailers, giving them a strong incentive to add the Digimarc Barcode to their packages. Testing performed by Digimarc showed increases in IPM of at least 33% using the Digimarc Barcode, compared to using a traditional barcode. A method of watermarking print ready image data used in the commercial packaging industry is described. A significant proportion of packages are printed using spot colors, therefore spot colors needs to be supported by an embedder for Digimarc Barcode. Digimarc Barcode supports the PANTONE spot color system, which is commonly used in the packaging industry. The Digimarc Barcode embedder allows a user to insert the UPC code in an image while minimizing perceptibility to the Human Visual System (HVS). The Digimarc Barcode is inserted in the printing ink domain, using an Adobe Photoshop plug-in as the last step before printing. Since Photoshop is an industry standard widely used by pre-press shops in the packaging industry, a Digimarc Barcode can be easily inserted and proofed.

  15. 3D histogram visualization in different color spaces with application in color clustering classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Gabriel G.; Abe, Satoshi

    1995-04-01

    The paper presents a dynamically visualization procedure for 3D histogram of color images. The procedure runs for RGB, YMC, HSV, HSL device dependent color spaces and for Lab, Luv device independent color spaces and it is easily extendable to other color spaces if the analytical form of color transformations is available. Each histogram value is represented in the color space as a colored ball, in a position corresponding to the place of color in the color space. The paper presents the procedures for nonlinear ball normalization, ordering of drawing, space edges drawing, translation, scaling and rotation of the histogram. The 3D histogram visualization procedure can be used in different applications described in the second part of the paper. It enables to get a clear representation of the range of colors of one image, to derive and compare the efficiency of different clusterization procedures for color classification, to display comparatively the gamut of different color devices, to select the color space for an optimal mapping procedure of the outside gamut colors for minimizing the hue error, to detect bad-alignment in RGB planes for a sequential process.

  16. Simple perceptual color space for color specification and real-time processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsarenko, Yuriy; Ramos, Fernando

    2011-08-01

    In this work an alternative color space is described that defines the color elements in terms of approximated brightness, hue and saturation, similar to other color spaces commonly used in computer applications. The classical color spaces such as HSL and HSV in the form that is widely used are made for convenience, and do not model colors based on human perception. Other classical color spaces such as CIELAB, DIN99 and even more recent CIECAM-based color spaces are too cumbersome and difficult to work with. The proposed alternative, on the other hand, is simple to work with and has its "lightness" component tuned up to represent the perceived brightness closer to the reality. It is based on how luma is calculated in color spaces such as YUV and YIQ among others, but instead of using constant coefficients, it uses Euclidean distance formula with weighting coefficients. Several experiments are described that illustrate the proposed color space visualized in 3D and compared to other color spaces in perceptual terms and performance benchmarks. This is aided by a novel technique that allows normalizing the chroma of existing color spaces within a fixed interval. The experiments show that the proposed color space is a viable alternative for applications that already use HSV and HSL. A practical application is described, where the color space is used for 3D illumination with specular reflections running on dedicated graphics processor unit using shaders. This resolves visual defects present in the classical approaches that use RGB color space.

  17. How redundant are redundant color adjectives? An efficiency-based analysis of color overspecification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula eRubio-Fernández

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Color adjectives tend to be used redundantly in referential communication. I propose that redundant color adjectives are often intended to exploit a color contrast in the visual context and hence facilitate object identification, despite not being necessary to establish unique reference. Two language-production experiments investigated two types of factors that may affect the use of redundant color adjectives: factors related to the efficiency of color in the visual context and factors related to the semantic category of the noun. The results of Experiment 1 confirmed that people produce redundant color adjectives when color may facilitate object recognition; e.g., they do so more often in polychrome displays than in monochrome displays, and more often in English (pre-nominal position than in Spanish (post-nominal position. Redundant color adjectives are also used when color is a central property of the object category; e.g., people referred to the color of clothes more often than to the color of geometrical figures (Experiment 1, and they overspecified atypical colors more often than variable and stereotypical colors (Experiment 2. These results are relevant for pragmatic models of referential communication based on Gricean pragmatics and informativeness. An alternative analysis is proposed, which focuses on the efficiency and pertinence of color in a given referential situation.

  18. Primate photopigments and primate color vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, G H

    1996-01-23

    The past 15 years have brought much progress in our understanding of several basic features of primate color vision. There has been particular success in cataloging the spectral properties of the cone photopigments found in retinas of a number of primate species and in elucidating the relationship between cone opsin genes and their photopigment products. Direct studies of color vision show that there are several modal patterns of color vision among groupings of primates: (i) Old World monkeys, apes, and humans all enjoy trichromatic color vision, although the former two groups do not seem prone to the polymorphic variations in color vision that are characteristic of people; (ii) most species of New World monkeys are highly polymorphic, with individual animals having any of several types of dichromatic or trichromatic color vision; (iii) less is known about color vision in prosimians, but evidence suggests that at least some diurnal species have dichromatic color vision; and (iv) some nocturnal primates may lack color vision completely. In many cases the photopigments and photopigment gene arrangements underlying these patterns have been revealed and, as a result, hints are emerging about the evolution of color vision among the primates. PMID:8570598

  19. Characterization of color scanners based on SVR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Zhang, Yi-xin

    2012-01-01

    By researching the principle of colorimetric characterization method and Support Vector Regression (SVR), we analyze the feasibility of nonlinear transformation from scanner RGB color space to CIELAB color space based on SVR and built a new characterization model. Then we use the MATLABR2009a software to make a data simulation experiment to verify the accuracy of this model and figure out the color differences by CIEDE2000 color difference formula. Based on CIEDE2000 color difference formula, the average, the maximum and the minimum color differences of the training set are 1.2376, 2.5593 and 0.2182, the average, the maximum and the minimum color differences of the text set are 1.9318, 4.1421 and 0.4228. From the experimental results, we can make a conclusion that SVR can realize the nonlinear transformation from scanner RGB color space to CIELAB color space and the model satisfies the accuracy of scanner characterization. Therefore, SVR can be used into the color scanner characterization management.

  20. Three-flavor color superconductivity

    OpenAIRE

    Malekzadeh, Hossein

    2008-01-01

    I investigate some of the inert phases in three-flavor, spin-zero color-superconducting quark matter: the CFL phase (the analogue of the B phase in superfluid 3He), the A and A* phases, and the 2SC and sSC phases. I compute the pressure of these phases with and without the neutrality condition. Without the neutrality condition, after the CFL phase the sSC phase is the dominant phase. However, including the neutrality condition, the CFL phase is again the energetically favored phase except for...

  1. Color confinement from fluctuating topology

    CERN Document Server

    Kharzeev, Dmitri E

    2015-01-01

    QCD possesses a compact gauge group, and this implies a non-trivial topological structure of the vacuum. In this contribution to the Gribov-85 Memorial volume, we first discuss the origin of Gribov copies and their interpretation in terms of fluctuating topology in the QCD vacuum. We then describe the recent work with E. Levin that links the confinement of gluons and color screening to the fluctuating topology, and discuss implications for spin physics, high energy scattering, and the physics of quark-gluon plasma.

  2. [True color accuracy in digital forensic photography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsthaler, Frank; Birngruber, Christoph G; Kröll, Ann-Katrin; Kettner, Mattias; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2016-01-01

    Forensic photographs not only need to be unaltered and authentic and capture context-relevant images, along with certain minimum requirements for image sharpness and information density, but color accuracy also plays an important role, for instance, in the assessment of injuries or taphonomic stages, or in the identification and evaluation of traces from photos. The perception of color not only varies subjectively from person to person, but as a discrete property of an image, color in digital photos is also to a considerable extent influenced by technical factors such as lighting, acquisition settings, camera, and output medium (print, monitor). For these reasons, consistent color accuracy has so far been limited in digital photography. Because images usually contain a wealth of color information, especially for complex or composite colors or shades of color, and the wavelength-dependent sensitivity to factors such as light and shadow may vary between cameras, the usefulness of issuing general recommendations for camera capture settings is limited. Our results indicate that true image colors can best and most realistically be captured with the SpyderCheckr technical calibration tool for digital cameras tested in this study. Apart from aspects such as the simplicity and quickness of the calibration procedure, a further advantage of the tool is that the results are independent of the camera used and can also be used for the color management of output devices such as monitors and printers. The SpyderCheckr color-code patches allow true colors to be captured more realistically than with a manual white balance tool or an automatic flash. We therefore recommend that the use of a color management tool should be considered for the acquisition of all images that demand high true color accuracy (in particular in the setting of injury documentation). PMID:27386623

  3. [True color accuracy in digital forensic photography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsthaler, Frank; Birngruber, Christoph G; Kröll, Ann-Katrin; Kettner, Mattias; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2016-01-01

    Forensic photographs not only need to be unaltered and authentic and capture context-relevant images, along with certain minimum requirements for image sharpness and information density, but color accuracy also plays an important role, for instance, in the assessment of injuries or taphonomic stages, or in the identification and evaluation of traces from photos. The perception of color not only varies subjectively from person to person, but as a discrete property of an image, color in digital photos is also to a considerable extent influenced by technical factors such as lighting, acquisition settings, camera, and output medium (print, monitor). For these reasons, consistent color accuracy has so far been limited in digital photography. Because images usually contain a wealth of color information, especially for complex or composite colors or shades of color, and the wavelength-dependent sensitivity to factors such as light and shadow may vary between cameras, the usefulness of issuing general recommendations for camera capture settings is limited. Our results indicate that true image colors can best and most realistically be captured with the SpyderCheckr technical calibration tool for digital cameras tested in this study. Apart from aspects such as the simplicity and quickness of the calibration procedure, a further advantage of the tool is that the results are independent of the camera used and can also be used for the color management of output devices such as monitors and printers. The SpyderCheckr color-code patches allow true colors to be captured more realistically than with a manual white balance tool or an automatic flash. We therefore recommend that the use of a color management tool should be considered for the acquisition of all images that demand high true color accuracy (in particular in the setting of injury documentation).

  4. P1-15: Categorical Color Perception of LED Illuminant Color for Deuteranomals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeko Oishi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Color information has great value in our everyday lives, but it is not mindful of people with color vision deficiency (CVD. We can choose several color names to categorize a lot of colors around us. Eleven color names (white, black, red, green, yellow, blue, brown, orange, pink, and gray are known as basic color categories, but people with CVD cannot necessarily describe colors as people who are color vision normal (CVN do. Previous studies showed that it was hard for people with CVD to discriminate illuminant color from object color, and their color perception changed largely depending on experimental conditions. In this study we investigated categorical color perception of illuminant color for deuteranomals, using a mixture of light which consists of a red, a green, and a blue LED as a test stimulus. We tested those stimuli with three luminance levels (180 cd/m2, 18 cd/m2, 1.8 cd/m2 and two visual angles (10 deg, 0.5 deg. Subjects were three deuteranomals and three people who are CVN. Our result showed that the categorical color of mild deuteranomals was similar to that of those who were CVN, but that of severe deuteranomals was not. Severe deuteranomals judged more low chromatic colors as achromatic colors than those who were CVN. The smaller visual angle or lower luminance level the test stimulus had, the more deuteranomals confused color. The results suggest that the effect of the Bezold-Brucke phenomenon is greater to deuteranomals than to those who are CVN. Furthermore, deuteranomals use not only chromatic information but also luminance information when they describe color.

  5. On the complexity of the colorful directed paths in vertex coloring of digraphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saqaeeyan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The colorful paths and rainbow paths have been considered by severalauthors.A colorful directed path in a digraph $G$ is a directed path with $chi(G$ vertices whose colors are different. A $v$-colorful directed path is such a directed path, starting from $v$. We prove that for a given $3$-regular triangle-free digraph $G$ determining whether there is a proper $chi(G$-coloring of $G$such that for every $v in V (G$, there exists a $v$-colorful directed path is $ mathbf{NP} $-complete.

  6. Processing Color in Astronomical Imagery

    CERN Document Server

    Arcand, Kimberly K; Rector, Travis; Levay, Zoltan G; DePasquale, Joseph; Smarr, Olivia

    2013-01-01

    Every year, hundreds of images from telescopes on the ground and in space are released to the public, making their way into popular culture through everything from computer screens to postage stamps. These images span the entire electromagnetic spectrum from radio waves to infrared light to X-rays and gamma rays, a majority of which is undetectable to the human eye without technology. Once these data are collected, one or more specialists must process the data to create an image. Therefore, the creation of astronomical imagery involves a series of choices. How do these choices affect the comprehension of the science behind the images? What is the best way to represent data to a non-expert? Should these choices be based on aesthetics, scientific veracity, or is it possible to satisfy both? This paper reviews just one choice out of the many made by astronomical image processors: color. The choice of color is one of the most fundamental when creating an image taken with modern telescopes. We briefly explore the ...

  7. Functional silk: colored and luminescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansil, Natalia C; Koh, Leng Duei; Han, Ming-Yong

    2012-03-15

    Silkworm silk is among the most widely used natural fibers for textile and biomedical applications due to its extraordinary mechanical properties and superior biocompatibility. A number of physical and chemical processes have also been developed to reconstruct silk into various forms or to artificially produce silk-like materials. In addition to the direct use and the delicate replication of silk's natural structure and properties, there is a growing interest to introduce more new functionalities into silk while maintaining its advantageous intrinsic properties. In this review we assess various methods and their merits to produce functional silk, specifically those with color and luminescence, through post-processing steps as well as biological approaches. There is a highlight on intrinsically colored and luminescent silk produced directly from silkworms for a wide range of applications, and a discussion on the suitable molecular properties for being incorporated effectively into silk while it is being produced in the silk gland. With these understanding, a new generation of silk containing various functional materials (e.g., drugs, antibiotics and stimuli-sensitive dyes) would be produced for novel applications such as cancer therapy with controlled release feature, wound dressing with monitoring/sensing feature, tissue engineering scaffolds with antibacterial, anticoagulant or anti-inflammatory feature, and many others.

  8. RGB color sensor implemented with LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filoteo-Razo, J. D.; Estudillo-Ayala, J. M.; Hernández-Garcia, J. C.; Trejo-Durán, M.; Muñoz-Lopez, A.; Jauregui-Vázquez, D.; Rojas-Laguna, R.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of an optical sensor to detect color changes in fruit by means of white light reflection to measure fruit ripeness in industrial and agricultural applications. The system consists of a LED RGB array including photodetectors, a power source and plastic optic fiber (POF). By means of Labview ® graphic interface we can control the power emission of the diodes digitally mixing the colors at different intensities until we achieve white light to be used as a source for the color sensor. We used an ATmega2560 microcontroller as a data collection device to monitor the colors obtained and to show them as color models using Matlab ®. We show results from tests conducted using two guava samples, observing the evolution of the color change on the fruit skin until they became overripe.

  9. Hepatitis Diagnosis Using Facial Color Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingjia; Guo, Zhenhua

    Facial color diagnosis is an important diagnostic method in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, due to its qualitative, subjective and experi-ence-based nature, traditional facial color diagnosis has a very limited application in clinical medicine. To circumvent the subjective and qualitative problems of facial color diagnosis of Traditional Chinese Medicine, in this paper, we present a novel computer aided facial color diagnosis method (CAFCDM). The method has three parts: face Image Database, Image Preprocessing Module and Diagnosis Engine. Face Image Database is carried out on a group of 116 patients affected by 2 kinds of liver diseases and 29 healthy volunteers. The quantitative color feature is extracted from facial images by using popular digital image processing techni-ques. Then, KNN classifier is employed to model the relationship between the quantitative color feature and diseases. The results show that the method can properly identify three groups: healthy, severe hepatitis with jaundice and severe hepatitis without jaundice with accuracy higher than 73%.

  10. Prevalence of Color Vision Deficiency in Qazvin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad khalaj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Color vision deficiency (CVD is an X chromosome-linked recessive autosomal dominant. Determine the prevalence of color blindness in Qazvin population. Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study color vision deficiency examined in 1853 individuals with age 10-25 years old who participated in private clinics and eye clinic of Bu-Ali hospital in Qazvin in 2010. The screening of color vision deficiency was performed using Ishihara test. Data were analyzed by SPSS-16 with χP2P test with p<0.05. Results: Mean age of participant was 17.86±4.48 years. 59.5% of them were female. 3.49% of the total population had color vision deficiency that 0.93% and 2.56% were female and male respectively. Conclusion: color vision deficiency must be noticed by decision makers in health field for screen planning.

  11. Conditional and Unique Coloring of Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, P Venkata Subba

    2011-01-01

    For integers $k, r > 0$, a conditional $(k,r)$-coloring of a graph $G$ is a proper $k$-coloring of the vertices of $G$ such that every vertex $v$ of degree $d(v)$ in $G$ is adjacent to at least $\\min\\{r, d(v)\\}$ differently colored vertices. Given $r$, the smallest integer $k$ for which $G$ has a conditional $(k,r)$-coloring is called the $r$th order conditional chromatic number $\\chi_r(G)$ of $G$. We give results (exact values or bounds for $\\chi_r(G)$, depending on $r$) related to the conditional coloring of some graphs. We introduce \\emph{unique conditional colorability} and give some related results. (Keywords. cartesian product of graphs; conditional chromatic number; gear graph; join of graphs.)

  12. To understand the radiation dose in color

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation is particles or electromagnetic waves having high energy, causing health damage to the human body, but cannot be perceived by the five senses of human. For enabling the visual sensing of radiation, the research and development of the functional dye material that changes from colorless body to colored body through irradiation is being promoted. This paper introduces the phenoxazine-based color former of solution type using the color former that changes color to blue through irradiation. The authors examined two types of phenoxazine-based color formers protected with alkyl oxycarbonyl group (-COOR), and mono-alkyl carbamoyl group (CONHR). Phenoxazine-based color former in acetonitrile solvent was revealed to be able to visually confirm the gamma irradiation dose of 10 Gy, but there is a problem of low temporal stability of the solution. (A.O.)

  13. Quaternion Diffusion for Color Image Filtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Xuan Liu; Shi-Guo Lian; Zhen Ren

    2006-01-01

    How to combine color and multiscale information is a fundamental question for computer vision, and quite a few color diffusion techniques have been presented. Most of these proposed techniques do not consider the direct interactions between color channel pairs. In this paper, a new method of color diffusion considering these effects is presented, which is based on quaternion diffusion (QD) equation. In addition to showing the solution to linear QD and its analysis, one form of nonlinear QD is discussed. Compared with other color diffusion techniques, considering the interactions between channel pairs, QD has the following advantages: 1) staircasing effect is avoided; 2) as diffusion tensor, the image derivative is regu larized without requiring additional convolution; 3) less time is needed. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of linear and nonlinear QD applied to natural color images for denoising by both visual and quantitative evaluations.

  14. An adaptively spatial color gamut mapping algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiandou Zhang; Haisong Xu

    2009-01-01

    To improve the accuracy of color image reproduction from displays to printers,an adaptively spatial color gamut mapping algorithm(ASCGMA)is proposed.In this algorithm,the compression degree of outof-reproduction-gamut color is not only related to the position of the color in CIELCH color space,but also depending on the neighborhood of the color to be mapped.The psychophysical experiment of pair comparison ks carried out to evaluate and compare this new algorithm with the HPMINDE and SGCK gamut mapping algorithms recommended by the International Commission on Illumination(CIE).The experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the algorithms of HPMINDE and SGCK except for the very dark images.

  15. Application of Graph Coloring to Biological Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Khor, Susan

    2009-01-01

    We explore the application of graph coloring to biological networks, specifically protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. First, we find that given similar conditions (i.e. number of nodes, number of links, degree distribution and clustering), fewer colors are needed to color disassortative (high degree nodes tend to connect to low degree nodes and vice versa) than assortative networks. Fewer colors create fewer independent sets which in turn imply higher concurrency potential for a network. Since PPI networks tend to be disassortative, we suggest that in addition to functional specificity and stability proposed previously by Maslov and Sneppen (Science 296, 2002), the disassortative nature of PPI networks may promote the ability of cells to perform multiple, crucial and functionally diverse tasks concurrently. Second, since graph coloring is closely related to the presence of cliques in a graph, the significance of node coloring information to the problem of identifying protein complexes, i.e. dense subg...

  16. Application of Gold Nanoparticles to Paint Colorants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Hideo

    Metal nanoparticles possess unique properties that they do not exhibit in their bulk states. One of these properties is the color due to surface plasmon resonance. Gold nanoparticles appear red. This color has been utilized in glass for a long long time. In recent years, highly concentrated pastes of gold and silver nanoparticles have been successfully produced by using a special type of protective polymer and a mild reductant. The paste of gold nanoparticles can be used for paint and other materials as red colorants. In this article,application examples of gold nanoparticles as colorant are introduced. Recently, methods for producing bimetal nanoparticles such as gold/silver and gold/copper have been developed. These nanoparticles allow colors from yellow to green to be created. These methods and colors they produce are also described in this article.

  17. Tongue Color Analysis for Medical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An in-depth systematic tongue color analysis system for medical applications is proposed. Using the tongue color gamut, tongue foreground pixels are first extracted and assigned to one of 12 colors representing this gamut. The ratio of each color for the entire image is calculated and forms a tongue color feature vector. Experimenting on a large dataset consisting of 143 Healthy and 902 Disease (13 groups of more than 10 samples and one miscellaneous group, a given tongue sample can be classified into one of these two classes with an average accuracy of 91.99%. Further testing showed that Disease samples can be split into three clusters, and within each cluster most if not all the illnesses are distinguished from one another. In total 11 illnesses have a classification rate greater than 70%. This demonstrates a relationship between the state of the human body and its tongue color.

  18. Electromagnetic currents induced by color fields

    CERN Document Server

    Tanji, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    The quark production in classical color fields is investigated with a focus on the induction of an electromagnetic current by produced quarks. We show that the SU(2) and the SU(3) theories lead significantly different results for the electromagnetic current. In uniform SU(2) color fields, the net electromagnetic current is not generated, while for SU(3) the net current is induced depending on the color direction of background fields. Also the numerical study of the quark production in inhomogeneous color fields is done. Motivated by gauge field configurations provided by the color glass condensate framework, we introduce an ensemble of randomly distributed color electric fluxtubes. The spectrum of photons emitted from the quarks by a classical process is shown.

  19. Tools for calculations in color space

    CERN Document Server

    Sjodahl, Malin

    2013-01-01

    Both the higher energy and the initial state colored partons contribute to making exact calculations in QCD color space more important at the LHC than at its predecessors. This is applicable whether the method of assessing QCD is fixed order calculation, resummation, or parton showers. In this talk we discuss tools for tackling the problem of performing exact color summed calculations. We start with theoretical tools in the form of the (standard) trace bases and the orthogonal multiplet bases (for which a general method of construction was recently presented). Following this, we focus on two new packages for performing color structure calculations: one easy to use Mathematica package, ColorMath, and one C++ package, ColorFull, which is suitable for more demanding calculations, and for interfacing with event generators.

  20. Color Data Compensation for Illumination Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pranchalee Rattanasakornchai; Yasushi Hoshino; Chun Weilin

    2004-01-01

    Compensation method for illumination change, which has big influences on the characteristics of imaging system, is studied. On the condition that color chart is placed in the view of camera, the imaging system recognizes the color chart and the signals from the camera are processed by using the color chart data. Concerning the light from the window, and fluorescent light, it is confirmed that color chart is possible to be recognized and the color system is corrected to the expected chart signal within the error 10 % by considering quadratic terms of RGB. This method is considered to improve the accuracy of motion detection and also to better video communication by realizing preferalle color reproduction.

  1. EVALUATION OF FOOD COLOR CONSUMPTION AND DETERMINING COLOR TYPE BY THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Farzianpour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the role of the social demographic parameters of the people in charge of the facilities producing pastry, poolak (a type of coin-shaped candy and rock candy in the consumption of food colors and to determine color type by thin layer chromatography in Shahr-e-kord city in 2011. This research was an interventional-analytical study and its target population is the people in charge of the facilities producing pastry, poolak and rock candy in Shahr-e-kord city. Social demographic data of the participants were collected using checklists and 720 samples of pastry, poolak and rock candy weighing at least 250 gr were randomly taken over a period of 10 months. With respect to color additives, the samples were analyzed by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC in four groups: natural colors permitted artificial colors, forbidden artificial colors and without colors. 48.47% contained food color and 6.52% contained forbidden artificial food color. Sunset Yellow was the color the most consumed among the colors used. Regarding the results obtained, there is a high rate of consumption of artificial colors (41.22%, sunset Yellow being the most consumed. Therefore, it is of great importance to raise the awareness and change the attitude of the people in charge in these jobs as well as the consumers with regard to the side effects of artificial colors, which can be done through the mass media and NGOs.

  2. Color calibration of an RGB camera mounted in front of a microscope with strong color distortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrière, Renée; Hébert, Mathieu; Trémeau, Alain; Destouches, Nathalie

    2013-07-20

    This paper aims at showing that performing color calibration of an RGB camera can be achieved even in the case where the optical system before the camera introduces strong color distortion. In the present case, the optical system is a microscope containing a halogen lamp, with a nonuniform irradiance on the viewed surface. The calibration method proposed in this work is based on an existing method, but it is preceded by a three-step preprocessing of the RGB images aiming at extracting relevant color information from the strongly distorted images, taking especially into account the nonuniform irradiance map and the perturbing texture due to the surface topology of the standard color calibration charts when observed at micrometric scale. The proposed color calibration process consists first in computing the average color of the color-chart patches viewed under the microscope; then computing white balance, gamma correction, and saturation enhancement; and finally applying a third-order polynomial regression color calibration transform. Despite the nonusual conditions for color calibration, fairly good performance is achieved from a 48 patch Lambertian color chart, since an average CIE-94 color difference on the color-chart colors lower than 2.5 units is obtained. PMID:23872775

  3. Inhibition of Return after Color Singletons

    OpenAIRE

    Priess, Heinz-Werner; Born, Sabine; Ansorge, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Inhibition of return (IOR) is the faster selection of hitherto unattended than previously attended positions. Some previous studies failed to find evidence for IOR after attention capture by color singletons. Others, however, did report IOR effects after color singletons. The current study examines the role of cue relevance for obtaining IOR effects. By using a potentially more sensitive method – saccadic IOR – we tested and found IOR after relevant color singleton cues that required an atten...

  4. Primate photopigments and primate color vision.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, G H

    1996-01-01

    The past 15 years have brought much progress in our understanding of several basic features of primate color vision. There has been particular success in cataloging the spectral properties of the cone photopigments found in retinas of a number of primate species and in elucidating the relationship between cone opsin genes and their photopigment products. Direct studies of color vision show that there are several modal patterns of color vision among groupings of primates: (i) Old World monkeys...

  5. Factors influencing the color laser marking

    OpenAIRE

    Lazov, Lyubomir; Deneva, Hristina; Narica, Pavels

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, conventional techniques of marking on some parts of different work pieces, as well as on packages with color printing are increasingly being displaced by laser color marking. Colored marking of stainless steel could be realized by the process annealing. The advantages offered by the new technology are in greater accuracy, speed, flexibility and high amount of recorded information per unit area (bar and matrix codes).In the report are discussed and analyzed the factors influen...

  6. Multispectral Analysis of Color Vision Deficiency Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Sergejs FOMINS; Ozolinsh, Maris

    2011-01-01

    Color deficiency tests are usually produced by means of polygraphy technologies and help to diagnose the type and severity of the color deficiencies. Due to different factors, as lighting conditions or age of the test, standard characteristics of these tests fail, thus not allowing diagnosing unambiguously the degree of different color deficiency. Multispectral camera was used to acquire the spectral images of the Ishihara and Rabkin pseudoisochromatic plates in the visible spectrum. Spectral...

  7. Nowhere-Harmonic Colorings of Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Matthias; Braun, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    Proper vertex colorings of a graph are related to its boundary map, also called its signed vertex-edge incidence matrix. The vertex Laplacian of a graph, a natural extension of the boundary map, leads us to introduce nowhere-harmonic colorings and analogues of the chromatic polynomial and Stanley's theorem relating negative evaluations of the chromatic polynomial to acyclic orientations. Further, we discuss some examples demonstrating that nowhere-harmonic colorings are more complicated from ...

  8. Color Constancy For Improving Skin Detection

    OpenAIRE

    A. Nadian-Ghomsheh

    2014-01-01

    Skin detection is a preliminary step in many human related recognition systems. Most skin detection systems suffer from high false detection rate, resulting from low variance between the skin and non-skin color distributions. This paper proposes the use of simple color correction algorithms with low computation complexity to obtain a corrected version of the skin color distribution, which could lead to more accurate skin detection. White patch retinex, Grey world assumption and several improv...

  9. Skin-color Based Videos Categorization

    OpenAIRE

    Rehanullah Khan; Asad Maqsood; Zeeshan Khan; Muhammad Ishaq; Arsalan Arif

    2012-01-01

    On dedicated websites, people can upload videos and share it with the rest of the world. Currently these videos are cat- egorized manually by the help of the user community. In this paper, we propose a combination of color spaces with the Bayesian network approach for robust detection of skin color followed by an automated video categorization. Exper- imental results show that our method can achieve satisfactory performance for categorizing videos based on skin color.

  10. Quantization of color histograms using GLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Christopher C.; Yip, Milo K.

    2002-09-01

    Color histogram has been used as one of the most important image descriptor in a wide range of content-based image retrieval (CBIR) projects for color image indexing. It captures the global chromatic distribution of an image. Traditionally, there are two major approaches to quantize the color space: (1) quantize each dimension of a color coordinate system uniformly to generate a fixed number of bins; and (2) quantize a color coordinate system arbitrarily. The first approach works best on cubical color coordinate systems, such as RGB. For other non-cubical color coordinate system, such as CIELAB and CIELUV, some bins may fall out of the gamut (transformed from the RGB cube) of the color space. As a result, it reduces the effectiveness of the color histogram and hence reduces the retrieval performance. The second approach uses arbitrarily quantization. The volume of the bins is not necessary uniform. As a result, it affects the effectiveness of the histogram significantly. In this paper, we propose to develop the color histogram by tessellating the non-cubical color gamut transformed from RGB cube using a vector quantization (VQ) method, the General Loyld Algorithm (GLA) [6]. Using such approach, the problem of empty bins due to the gamut of the color coordinate system can be avoided. Besides, all bins quantized by GLA will occupy the same volume. It guarantees that uniformity of each quantized bins in the histogram. An experiment has been conducted to evaluate the quantitative performance of our approach. The image collection from UC Berkeley's digital library project is used as the test bed. The indexing effectiveness of a histogram space [3] is used as the measurement of the performance. The experimental result shows that using the GLA quantization approach significantly increase the indexing effectiveness.

  11. A laboratory evaluation of color video monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories has considerable experience with monochrome video monitors used in alarm assessment video systems. Most of these systems, used for perimeter protection, were designed to classify rather than to identify intruders. There is a growing interest in the identification function of security video systems for both access control and insider protection. Because color video technology is rapidly changing and because color information is useful for identification purposes, Sandia National Laboratories established a program to evaluate the newest relevant color video equipment. This report documents the evaluation of an integral component, color monitors. It briefly discusses a critical parameter, dynamic range, details test procedures, and evaluates the results

  12. Laser-evoked coloration in polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, H. Y.; Rosseinsky, David; Lim, G. C.

    2005-05-01

    Laser-evoked coloration in polymers has long been a major aim of polymer technology for potential applications in product surface decoration, marking personalised images and logos. However, the coloration results reported so far were mostly attributed to laser-induced thermal-chemical reactions. The laser-irradiated areas are characterized with grooves due to material removal. Furthermore, only single color was laser-induced in any given polymer matrix. To induce multiple colors in a given polymer matrix with no apparent surface material removal is most desirable and challenging and may be achieved through laser-induced photo-chemical reactions. However, little public information is available at present. We report that two colors of red and green have been produced on an initially transparent CPV/PVA samples through UV laser-induced photo-chemical reactions. This is believed the first observation of laser-induced multiple-colors in the given polymer matrix. It is believed that the colorants underwent photo-effected electron transfer with suitable electron donors from the polymers to change from colorless bipyridilium Bipm 2+ to the colored Bipm + species. The discovery may lead to new approaches to the development of laser-evoked multiple coloration in polymers.

  13. Charged black holes in colored Lifshitz spacetimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Ying Fan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider Einstein gravities coupled to a cosmological constant and SU(2 Yang–Mills fields in four and five dimensions. We find that the theories admit colored Lifshitz solutions with dynamic exponents z>1. We study the wave equations of the SU(2 scalar triplet in the bulk, and find that the vacuum color modifies the scaling dimensions of the dual operators. We also introduce a Maxwell field and construct exact solutions of electrically-charged black holes that approach the D=4, z=3 and D=5, z=4 colored Lifshitz spacetimes. We derive the thermodynamical first law for general colored and charged Lifshitz black holes.

  14. Color in Computer Vision Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gevers, Theo; van de Weijer, Joost; Geusebroek, Jan-Mark

    2012-01-01

    While the field of computer vision drives many of today’s digital technologies and communication networks, the topic of color has emerged only recently in most computer vision applications. One of the most extensive works to date on color in computer vision, this book provides a complete set of tools for working with color in the field of image understanding. Based on the authors’ intense collaboration for more than a decade and drawing on the latest thinking in the field of computer science, the book integrates topics from color science and computer vision, clearly linking theor

  15. Color and polarization vision in foraging Papilio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Michiyo; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2014-06-01

    This paper gives an overview of behavioral studies on the color and polarization vision of the Japanese yellow swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus. We focus on indoor experiments on foraging individuals. Butterflies trained to visit a disk of certain color correctly select that color among various other colors and/or shades of gray. Correct selection persists under colored illumination, but is systematically shifted by background colors, indicating color constancy and simultaneous color contrast. While their eyes contain six classes of spectral receptors, their wavelength discrimination performance indicates that their color vision is tetrachromatic. P. xuthus innately prefers brighter targets, but can be trained to select dimmer ones under certain conditions. Butterflies trained to a dark red stimulus select an orange disk presented on a bright gray background over one on dark gray. The former probably appears darker to them, indicating brightness contrast. P. xuthus has a strong innate preference for vertically polarized light, but the selection of polarized light changes depending on the intensity of simultaneously presented unpolarized light. Discrimination of polarization also depends on background intensity. Similarities between brightness and polarization vision suggest that P. xuthus perceive polarization angle as brightness, such that vertical polarization appears brighter than horizontal polarization.

  16. Escaping RGBland: Selecting Colors for Statistical Graphics

    OpenAIRE

    Zeileis, Achim; Hornik, Kurt; Murrell, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Statistical graphics are often augmented by the use of color coding information contained in some variable. When this involves the shading of areas (and not only points or lines) - e.g., as in bar plots, pie charts, mosaic displays or heatmaps - it is important that the colors are perceptually based and do not introduce optical illusions or systematic bias. Here, we discuss how the perceptually-based Hue-Chroma-Luminance (HCL) color space can be used for deriving suitable color palettes for c...

  17. Choosing Color Palettes for Statistical Graphics

    OpenAIRE

    Zeileis, Achim; Hornik, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    Statistical graphics are often augmented by the use of color coding information contained in some variable. When this involves the shading of areas (and not only points or lines) - e.g., as in bar plots, pie charts, mosaic displays or heatmaps - it is important that the colors are perceptually based and do not introduce optical illusions or systematic bias. Here, we discuss how the perceptually-based Hue-Chroma-Luminance (HCL) color space can be used for deriving suitable color palettes for c...

  18. Cross-cultural color-odor associations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmel A Levitan

    Full Text Available Colors and odors are associated; for instance, people typically match the smell of strawberries to the color pink or red. These associations are forms of crossmodal correspondences. Recently, there has been discussion about the extent to which these correspondences arise for structural reasons (i.e., an inherent mapping between color and odor, statistical reasons (i.e., covariance in experience, and/or semantically-mediated reasons (i.e., stemming from language. The present study probed this question by testing color-odor correspondences in 6 different cultural groups (Dutch, Netherlands-residing-Chinese, German, Malay, Malaysian-Chinese, and US residents, using the same set of 14 odors and asking participants to make congruent and incongruent color choices for each odor. We found consistent patterns in color choices for each odor within each culture, showing that participants were making non-random color-odor matches. We used representational dissimilarity analysis to probe for variations in the patterns of color-odor associations across cultures; we found that US and German participants had the most similar patterns of associations, followed by German and Malay participants. The largest group differences were between Malay and Netherlands-resident Chinese participants and between Dutch and Malaysian-Chinese participants. We conclude that culture plays a role in color-odor crossmodal associations, which likely arise, at least in part, through experience.

  19. A laboratory evaluation of color video monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry, P.L.

    1993-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has considerable experience with monochrome video monitors used in alarm assessment video systems. Most of these systems, used for perimeter protection, were designed to classify rather than to identify intruders. There is a growing interest in the identification function of security video systems for both access control and insider protection. Because color video technology is rapidly changing and because color information is useful for identification purposes, Sandia National Laboratories established a program to evaluate the newest relevant color video equipment. This report documents the evaluation of an integral component, color monitors. It briefly discusses a critical parameter, dynamic range, details test procedures, and evaluates the results.

  20. Colorization by classifying the prior knowledge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Weiwei

    2011-01-01

    When a one-dimensional luminance scalar is replaced by a vector of a colorful multi-dimension for every pixel of a monochrome image,the process is called colorization.However,colorization is under-constrained.Therefore,the prior knowledge is considered and given to the monochrome image.Colorization using optimization algorithm is an effective algorithm for the above problem.However,it cannot effectively do with some images well without repeating experiments for confirming the place of scribbles.In this paper,a colorization algorithm is proposed,which can automatically generate the prior knowledge.The idea is that firstly,the prior knowledge crystallizes into some points of the prior knowledge which is automatically extracted by downsampling and upsampling method.And then some points of the prior knowledge are classified and given with corresponding colors.Lastly,the color image can be obtained by the color points of the prior knowledge.It is demonstrated that the proposal can not only effectively generate the prior knowledge but also colorize the monochrome image according to requirements of user with some experiments.

  1. Anatomy of Vitis Berries During Their Coloring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Yi-zhen; HE Pu-chao

    2002-01-01

    During 1998-1999, the course of the berry coloring and the development of the pigment cells from veraison to ripeness were studied by freeze sectioning 43 accessions of 12 Vitis species (including 10 Chinese wild species). External observation showed that the berries of most species began coloring on the fruit top surface or on the sun-lit surface, and the berry surface color was evenly distributed when the berry was ripe.Internal observation revealed that the pigment cells in a few layers between cuticle and sub-cuticle colored first, the cuticle colored from inner layers to outer layers while the sub-cuticle from outer to inner, and the cuticle cells began coloring a little earlier than the sub-cuticle ones in most species. The pigment cells developed unevenly during the berry ripening. In the beginning of berry coloring, the cell pigment density among the layers or among the cells in the same layer was different. Both the numbers of the pigmented cells and the cell pigment density increased during the berry coloring, while the former lasted a short time; however, the latter kept increasing from veraison to ripeness, and they reached the deepest color when the berry was ripe.

  2. Unsupervised Color-texture Image Segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Sheng-yang; ZHANG Fan; WANG Yong-gang; YANG Jie

    2008-01-01

    The measure J in J value segmentation (JSEG) falls to represent the discontinuity of color, which degrades the robustness and discrimination of JSEG. An improved approach for JSEG algorithm was proposed for unsupervised color-texture image segmentation. The texture and photometric invariant edge information were combined, which results in a discriminative measure for color-texture homogeneity. Based on the image whose pixel values are values of the new measure, region growing-merging algorithm used in JSEG was then employed to segment the image. Finally, experiments on a variety of real color images demonstrate performance improvement due to the proposed method.

  3. Predicting Color Output of Additive Manufactured Parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiríksson, Eyþór Rúnar; Pedersen, David Bue; Aanæs, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we address the colorimetric performance of a multicolor additive manufacturing process. A method on how to measure and characterize color performance of said process is presented. Furthermore, a method on predicting the color output is demonstrated, allowing for previsualization of ...... of parts prior to print. Results show that color prediction can be achieved with an average color difference error of ΔE*00 = 1.5 andstd.dev σ= 0.75, with similar order of magnitude as the literature defined threshold for „Just NoticeableDifference” (JND)....

  4. A quadratic algorithm for road coloring

    CERN Document Server

    Béal, Marie-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The road coloring theorem states that every aperiodic directed graph with constant out-degree has a synchronized coloring. This theorem had been conjectured during many years as the road coloring problem before being settled by A. Trahtman. Trahtman's proof leads to an algorithm that finds a synchronized labeling with a cubic worst-case time complexity. We show a variant of his construction with a worst-case complexity which is quadratic in time and linear in space. We also extend the road coloring theorem to the periodic case.

  5. The chromatic polynomial and list colorings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    We prove that, if a graph has a list of k available colors at every vertex, then the number of list-colorings is at least the chromatic polynomial evaluated at k when k is sufficiently large compared to the number of vertices of the graph.......We prove that, if a graph has a list of k available colors at every vertex, then the number of list-colorings is at least the chromatic polynomial evaluated at k when k is sufficiently large compared to the number of vertices of the graph....

  6. Data Security With Colors Using Rsa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sankara Rao,

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Data Security with Colors using RSA technique that integrates the RGB Color model with the well-known public key cryptographic algorithm RSA (Rivest, Shamir and Adleman. This model provides both confidentiality and authentication to the data sent across the network. RSA algorithm uses public key and private key to encrypt and decrypt the data and thus provides confidentiality. But the public key is known to everyone and so anyone can encrypt the data and send the message. Hence authentication of users is needed. In this technique we use RGB color model to provide authentication. Every user will have a unique color assigned to him. A sender must know the receiver’s color to send a message. The color value is encrypted using a key which is used as a password while decrypting the message. To decrypt the message, the receiver must provide his color values. If the decrypted color values and his color values are equal then the sender and receiver are send to be authentic. The data encryption and decryption follows RSA procedure. Thus both authentication and confidentiality are provided for the data.

  7. Dihyperons in chiral color dielectric model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S C Phatak

    2003-11-01

    The mass of the dibaryon having spin, parity =0+, isospin = 0 and strangeness -2 is computed using chiral color dielectric model. The bare wave function is constructed as a product of two color-singlet three-quark clusters and then it is properly antisymmetrized by considering appropriate exchange operators for spin, flavor and color. Color magnetic energy due to gluon exchange, meson self energy and energy correction due to center of mass motion are computed. The calculation shows that the mass of the particle is 80 to 160 MeV less than twice mass.

  8. Evaluating the smoothness of color transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristova, Anna; Wang, Zhaohui; Hardeberg, Jon Y.

    2011-01-01

    Multi-dimensional look up tables (LUTs) are widely employed for color transformations due to its high accuracy and general applicability. Using the LUT model generally involves the color measurement of a large number of samples. The precision and uncertainty of the color measurement will be mainly represented in the LUTs, and will affect the smoothness of the color transformation. This, in turn, strongly influences the quality of the reproduced color images. To achieve high quality color image reproduction, the color transformation is required to be relatively smooth. In this study, we have investigated the inherent characteristics of LUTs' transformation from color measurement and their effects on the quality of reproduced images. We propose an algorithm to evaluate the smoothness of 3D LUT based color transformations quantitatively, which is based on the analysis of 3D LUTs transformation from RGB to CIELAB and the second derivative of the differences between adjacent points in vertical and horizontal ramps of each LUT entry. The performance of the proposed algorithm was compared with a those proposed in two recent studies on smoothness, and a better performance is reached by the proposed method.

  9. Colored Noise Prediction Based on Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Fei; Zhang Xiaohui

    2003-01-01

    A method for predicting colored noise by introducing prediction of nonhnear time series is presented By adopting three kinds of neural networks prediction models, the colored noise prediction is studied through changing the filter bandwidth for stochastic noise and the sampling rate for colored noise The results show that colored noise can be predicted The prediction error decreases with the increasing of the sampling rate or the narrowing of the filter bandwidth. If the parameters are selected properly, the prediction precision can meet the requirement of engineering implementation. The results offer a new reference way for increasing the ability for detecting weak signal in signal processing system

  10. Do instantons like a colorful background?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gies, H.; Pawlowski, J.M.; Wetterich, C. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Jaeckel, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    We investigate chiral symmetry breaking and color symmetry breaking in QCD. The effective potential of the corresponding scalar condensates is discussed in the presence of non-perturbative contributions from the semiclassical one-instanton sector. We concentrate on a color singlet scalar background which can describe chiral condensation, as well as a color cotet scalar background which can generate mass for the gluons. Whereas a non-vanishing singlet chiral field is favored by the instantons, we have found no indication for a preference of color octet backgrounds. (orig.)

  11. The color space of a graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T.R.; Thomassen, Carsten

    2000-01-01

    If k is a prime power, and G is a graph with n vertices, then a k-coloring of G may be considered as a vector in GF(k)(n). We prove that the subspace of GF(3)(n) spanned by all 3-colorings of a planar triangle-free graph with n vertices has dimension n. In particular, any such graph has at least n...... - 1 nonequivalent 3-colorings, and the addition of any edge or any vertex of degree 3 results in a 3-colorable graph. (C) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc....

  12. Extraction of memory colors for preferred color correction in digital TVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Byong Tae; Yeom, Jee Young; Kim, Choon-Woo; Ahn, Ji-Young; Kang, Dong-Woo; Shin, Hyun-Ho

    2009-01-01

    Subjective image quality is one of the most important performance indicators for digital TVs. In order to improve subjective image quality, preferred color correction is often employed. More specifically, areas of memory colors such as skin, grass, and sky are modified to generate pleasing impression to viewers. Before applying the preferred color correction, tendency of preference for memory colors should be identified. It is often accomplished by off-line human visual tests. Areas containing the memory colors should be extracted then color correction is applied to the extracted areas. These processes should be performed on-line. This paper presents a new method for area extraction of three types of memory colors. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated by calculating the correct and false detection ratios. Experimental results indicate that proposed method outperform previous methods proposed for the memory color extraction.

  13. Synesthesia induced colors do not bias attention in the same manner as physical colors do

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia affects visual cognition in significant ways. The congruence or incongruence of physical stimuli with synesthetic color affects how quickly and accurately synesthetes respond to stimuli, and the induced color experience may help them memorize achromatic material...... and performance in visual search, much like physical stimulus features. It has been demonstrated that the content of visual memory can guide attention (e.g. Carlisle & Woodman, 2011). This effect can be measured in the response time costs or benefits related to the presence of memorized color in a visual search...... display. Retaining color information in memory biases attention towards that specific color in visual search, apparent by response time costs when a matching distractor is present, but a benefit when the target matches the retained color. We investigated whether a synesthetic color is automatically...

  14. Color reproductivity improvement with additional virtual color filters for WRGB image sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Shun; Kuroda, Rihito; Sugawa, Shigetoshi

    2013-02-01

    We have developed a high accuracy color reproduction method based on an estimated spectral reflectance of objects using additional virtual color filters for a wide dynamic range WRGB color filter CMOS image sensor. The four virtual color filters are created by multiplying the spectral sensitivity of White pixel by gauss functions which have different central wave length and standard deviation, and the virtual sensor outputs of those virtual filters are estimated from the four real output signals of the WRGB image sensor. The accuracy of color reproduction was evaluated with a Macbeth Color Checker (MCC), and the averaged value of the color difference ΔEab of 24 colors was 1.88 with our approach.

  15. Characterization of Angle Dependent Color Travel of Printed Multi-Color Effect Pigment on Different Color Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirica Karlovits

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Color-travel pigments, which exhibit much more extensive color change as well provide angle-dependent optical effect can be used in many industrial products. In present paper the multi-color effect pigment printed on three different foils with different background color (black, silver and transparent was investigated. The pigment was based on synthetically produced transparent silicon dioxide platelets coated with titanium dioxide. CIEL*a*b* values and reflection of prints were measured by multi-angle spectrophotometer at constant illumination at an angle of 45º and different viewing angles (-15º, 15°, 25º, 45º, 75º and 110º were used. The measurements of printed multi-color pigment showed that CIEL*a*b* color coordinates varied to great extents, depending on detection angles as well on color of the printing substrate. The study revealed that pigmnet printed on black background obtained significant change in color. The study has also shown that when viewing angle increases, the reflection curves decreases.

  16. Harmony between groups : nuancing traditional views of color-blindness and color-consciousness/

    OpenAIRE

    Maquil, Annemie

    2007-01-01

    Color-blindness and color-consciousness are two ideologies aiming at prejudice and negative intergroup behavior reduction. Whereas color-blindness emphasizes the importance of breaking down group differences and considering everybody as an individal similar and equal to each other, color-consciousness emphasizes the recognition and appreciation of group differences. This dissertation is about the positive and negative aspects of both ideologies, as well as about their differential effects on ...

  17. Cape Verde in False Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    A promontory nicknamed 'Cape Verde' can be seen jutting out from the walls of Victoria Crater in this false-color picture taken by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The rover took this picture on martian day, or sol, 1329 (Oct. 20, 2007), more than a month after it began descending down the crater walls -- and just 9 sols shy of its second Martian birthday on sol 1338 (Oct. 29, 2007). Opportunity landed on the Red Planet on Jan. 25, 2004. That's nearly four years ago on Earth, but only two on Mars because Mars takes longer to travel around the sun than Earth. One Martian year equals 687 Earth days. This view was taken using three panoramic-camera filters, admitting light with wavelengths centered at 750 nanometers (near infrared), 530 nanometers (green) and 430 nanometers (violet).

  18. Color formation in irradiated polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, R. L.; Gillen, K. T.; Malone, G. M.; Wallace, J. S.

    1996-11-01

    Discoloration is a problem in the radiation processing of polymers (such as radiation sterilization), and also in emerging applications in which optical-property materials are used in radiation environments (such as scintillation detectors). We have completed a survey of 17 different types of optical polymers, in which it is found that these materials form both permanent and annealable color centers, but in very different magnitudes and ratios. Optical absorption spectra of irradiated polymers both immediately after irradiation and following different time periods of annealing are provided. Also provided are tables showing rank ordering of the relative resistance of different polymer types to induced discoloration. It is found that the extent of radiation-induced discoloration of polymers has little or no dependence on whether the macromolecule is aromatic or aliphatic, and shows no correlation with the relative extent of radiation-induced mechanical property change. Examples of the influence of stabilizer additives on the extent of discoloration are discussed.

  19. Two-color infrared detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klem, John F; Kim, Jin K

    2014-05-13

    A two-color detector includes a first absorber layer. The first absorber layer exhibits a first valence band energy characterized by a first valence band energy function. A barrier layer adjoins the first absorber layer at a first interface. The barrier layer exhibits a second valence band energy characterized by a second valence band energy function. The barrier layer also adjoins a second absorber layer at a second interface. The second absorber layer exhibits a third valence band energy characterized by a third valence band energy function. The first and second valence band energy functions are substantially functionally or physically continuous at the first interface and the second and third valence band energy functions are substantially functionally or physically continuous at the second interface.

  20. COLOR FEATURE EXTRACTION FOR CBIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. H.B.KEKRE

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Content Based Image Retrieval is the application of computer vision techniques to the image retrieval problem of searching for digital images in large databases. The method of CBIR discussed in this paper can filter images based their content and would provide a better indexing and return more accurate results. In this paper we wouldbe discussing: Feature vector generation using color averaging technique, Similarity measures and Performance evaluation using randomly selected 5 query images per class out of which result of one class is discussed. Precision –Recall cross over plot is used as the performance evaluation measure to check the algorithm. As thesystem developed is generic, database consists of images from different classes. The effect due to the size of database and number of different classes is seen on the number of relevancy of the retrievals.

  1. Color speckle in laser displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Kazuo

    2015-07-01

    At the beginning of this century, lighting technology has been shifted from discharge lamps, fluorescent lamps and electric bulbs to solid-state lighting. Current solid-state lighting is based on the light emitting diodes (LED) technology, but the laser lighting technology is developing rapidly, such as, laser cinema projectors, laser TVs, laser head-up displays, laser head mounted displays, and laser headlamps for motor vehicles. One of the main issues of laser displays is the reduction of speckle noise1). For the monochromatic laser light, speckle is random interference pattern on the image plane (retina for human observer). For laser displays, RGB (red-green-blue) lasers form speckle patterns independently, which results in random distribution of chromaticity, called color speckle2).

  2. Color management: printing processes - opportunities and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Samuel T.

    2002-06-01

    Digital tools have impacted traditional methods employed to reproduce color images during the past decade. The shift from a purely photomechanical process in color reproduction to colorimetric reproduction offers tremendous opportunity in the graphic arts industry. But good things do not necessarily come to all in the same package. Printing processes possess different reproduction attributes: tone reproduction, gray balance and color correction requirements are as different as the ingredient sets selected for color reproduction. This paper will provide insight toward understanding advantages and limitations offered by the new digital technologies in printing, publishing and packaging. For the past five years the Clemson University Graphic Communications Department has conducted numerous color projects using the new digital colorimetric tools during the previous decade. Several approaches have been used including experimental research and typical production workflows. The use of colorimetric data in color reproduction has given an opportunity to realize real gains in color use, predictability and consistency. Meeting an image's separation and reproduction requirements for a specified printing process can involve disruption of the anticipated workflow. Understanding the printing process requirements and the fit within the specifications of a colorimetric workflow are critical to the successful adoption of a color managed workflow. The paper will also provide an insight into the issues and challenges experienced with a color managed workflow. The printing processes used include offset litho, narrow and wide-web flexography (paper, liner board, corrugated and film), screen printing (paper board and polycarbonates), and digital imaging with toner, ink and inkjet systems. A proposal for technology integration will be the focus of the presentation drawn from documented experiences in over 300 applications of color management tools. Discussion will include the structure of

  3. Color doppler sonography in thickened gallbladder wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thickening of the gallbladder wall is a valuable finding for the diagnosis of cholecystitis, but may be seen in non-cholecystic disease as well as in acute or chronic cholecystitis. The purpose of this study is to determine the value of color Doppler sonography in differentiating the causes of thickened gallbladder wall. Ninety eight patients with thickened gallbladder wall(more than 3mm) which was not due to gallbladder cancer were prospectively evaluated with color Doppler sonography. Sixty-six cases, confirmed by pathologic reports and clinical records, were analyzed for correlation between thickened gallbladder wall and color flow signal according to the underlying causes. Of the 66 patients, 28 cases were cholecystitis and 38 cases had non-cholecystic causes such as liver cirrhosis, ascites, hepatitis, pancreatitis, renal failure, and hypoalbuminemia. Of the 28 patients with cholecystitis(12 acute, 16 chronic), 23(82%) had color Doppler flow signals in the thickened gallbladder wall. Of the 38 patients with non-cholecystic causes, eight(21%) had color Doppler flow signals. There was a statistically significant difference of color Doppler flow signals between the cholecystitis and non-cholecystic groups(p=0.0001). No significant difference of color Doppler flow signals was found between cases of acute and chronic cholecystitis. Of the 23 patients with color Doppler flow signals in 28 cases of cholecystitis, 18(78.3%) showed a linear pattern and five(21.7%) showed a spotty pattern. Of the eight patients with color Doppler flow signals in the 38 non-cholecystic cases, four(50%) showed a linear pattern and four(50%) showed a spotty pattern. In cholecystitis, a linear color Doppler flow signal pattern is a much more frequent finding than a spotty pattern. Color Doppler sonography is a useful and adequate method for determining whether a thickened gallbladder wall is the result of cholecystitis or has non-cholecystic causes

  4. ColorFull: a C++ library for calculations in SU(Nc) color space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoedahl, Malin [Lund University, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund (Sweden)

    2015-05-15

    ColorFull, a C++ package for treating QCD color structure, is presented. ColorFull, which utilizes the trace basis approach, is intended for interfacing with event generators, but can also be used as a stand-alone package for squaring QCD amplitudes, calculating interferences, and describing the effect of gluon emission and gluon exchange. (orig.)

  5. Derivation of Color Confusion Lines for Pseudo-Dichromat Observers from Color Discrimination Thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahiro Matsudaira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to develop a method of defining color confusion lines in the display RGB color space through color discrimination tasks. In the experiment, reference and test square patches were presented side by side on a CRT display. The subject's task is to set the test color where the color difference from the reference is just noticeable to him/her. In a single trial, the test color was only adjustable along one of 26 directions around the reference. Thus 26 colors with just noticeable difference (JND were obtained and made up a tube-like or an ellipsoidal shape around each reference. With color-anomalous subjects, the major axes of these shapes should be parallel to color confusion lines that have a common orientation vector corresponding to one of the cone excitation axes L, M, or S. In our method, the orientation vector was determined by minimizing the sum of the squares of the distances from JND colors to each confusion line. To assess the performance the method, the orientation vectors obtained by pseudo-dichromats (color normal observers with a dichromat simulator were compared to those theoretically calculated from the color vision model used in the simulator.

  6. ColorFull -- a C++ library for calculations in SU(Nc) color space

    CERN Document Server

    Sjodahl, Malin

    2014-01-01

    ColorFull, a C++ package for treating QCD color structure, is presented. ColorFull, which utilizes the trace basis approach, is intended for interfacing with event generators, but can also be used as a stand-alone package for squaring QCD amplitudes, calculating interferences, and describing the effect of gluon emission and gluon exchange.

  7. Using Color and Grayscale Images to Teach Histology to Color-Deficient Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Lindsay R.; Lackey, Wendy L.; Kennedy, Frances A.; Stephenson, Robert B.

    2009-01-01

    Examination of histologic and histopathologic microscopic sections relies upon differential colors provided by staining techniques, such as hematoxylin and eosin, to delineate normal tissue components and to identify pathologic alterations in these components. Given the prevalence of color deficiency (commonly called "color blindness") in the…

  8. A SEVEN-COLOR THEOREM ON EDGE-FACE COLORING OF PLANE GRAPHS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王维凡; 张克民

    2001-01-01

    Melnikov(1975) conjectured that the edges and faces of a plane graph G can be colored with △(G) + 3 colors so that any two adjacent or incident elements receive distinct colors, where △(G) denotes the maximum degree of G. This paper proves theconjecture for the case △(G) 4.

  9. An Investigation of the Effects of Practice on Color Memory as a Function of Condition, Dimension and Color

    OpenAIRE

    Remus, Britten Grace

    2001-01-01

    Forty-two college aged participants took part in a mixed repeated measures factorial design experiment that assessed color memory as a function of condition (practice with feedback, practice without feedback and no practice), dimension (hue, saturation and lightness) and color (red, yellow, green and blue). Attention was focused on the distinction between memory color and color memory, color experience and preference, mechanisms of color perception and theories of color vision (see below). ...

  10. New approach to color calibration of high fidelity color digital camera by using unique wide gamut color generator based on LED diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretkowski, M.; Shimodaira, Y.; Jabłoński, R.

    2008-11-01

    Development of a high accuracy color reproduction system requires certain instrumentation and reference for color calibration. Our research led to development of a high fidelity color digital camera with implemented filters that realize the color matching functions. The output signal returns XYZ values which provide absolute description of color. In order to produce XYZ output a mathematical conversion must be applied to CCD output values introducing a conversion matrix. The conversion matrix coefficients are calculated by using a color reference with known XYZ values and corresponding output signals from the CCD sensor under each filter acquisition from a certain amount of color samples. The most important feature of the camera is its ability to acquire colors from the complete theoretically visible color gamut due to implemented filters. However market available color references such as various color checkers are enclosed within HDTV gamut, which is insufficient for calibration in the whole operating color range. This led to development of a unique color reference based on LED diodes called the LED Color Generator (LED CG). It is capable of displaying colors in a wide color gamut estimated by chromaticity coordinates of 12 primary colors. The total amount of colors possible to produce is 25512. The biggest advantage is a possibility of displaying colors with desired spectral distribution (with certain approximations) due to multiple primary colors it consists. The average color difference obtained for test colors was found to be ▵E~0.78 for calibration with LED CG. The result is much better and repetitive in comparison with the Macbeth ColorCheckerTM which typically gives ▵E~1.2 and in the best case ▵E~0.83 with specially developed techniques.

  11. Color-Weakness Compensation using Riemann Normal Coordinates

    OpenAIRE

    Oshima, Satoshi; Mochizuki, Rika; Lenz, Reiner; Chao, Jinhui

    2012-01-01

    We introduce normal coordinates in Riemannspaces as a tool to construct color-weak compensation methods.We use them to compute color stimuli for a color weakobservers that result in the same color perception as theoriginal image presented to a color normal observer in the sensethat perceived color-differences are identical for both. Thecompensation is obtained through a color-difference-preservingmap, i.e. an isometry between the 3D color spaces of a colornormaland any given color-weak observ...

  12. 7 CFR 51.305 - Color requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... predominate over stripes of lighter red, green, or yellow. However, an apple having color of a lighter shade... a good shade of solid red characteristic of the variety: Provided, That an apple having color of a lighter shade of solid red or striped red than that considered as a good shade of red characteristic...

  13. 7 CFR 29.3066 - Tan color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tan color. 29.3066 Section 29.3066 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Tan color. A light red-yellow....

  14. An interactive app for color deficient viewers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Cheryl; Perdu, Nicolas; Rodríguez-Pardo, Carlos E.; Süsstrunk, Sabine; Sharma, Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    Color deficient individuals have trouble seeing color contrasts that could be very apparent to individuals with normal color vision. For example, for some color deficient individuals, red and green apples do not have the striking contrast they have for those with normal color vision, or the abundance of red cherries in a tree is not immediately clear due to a lack of perceived contrast. We present a smartphone app that enables color deficient users to visualize such problematic color contrasts in order to help them with daily tasks. The user interacts with the app through the touchscreen. As the user traces a path around the touchscreen, the colors in the image change continuously via a transform that enhances contrasts that are weak or imperceptible for the user under native viewing conditions. Specifically, we propose a transform that shears the data along lines parallel to the dimension corresponding to the affected cone sensitivity of the user. The amount and direction of shear are controlled by the user's finger movement over the touchscreen allowing them to visualize these contrasts. Using the GPU, this simple transformation, consisting of a linear shear and translation, is performed efficiently on each pixel and in real-time with the changing position of the user's finger. The user can use the app to aid daily tasks such as distinguishing between red and green apples or picking out ripe bananas.

  15. Colorful ESL Test Papers And Spatial Intelligence:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Moradkhan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to find out whether introducing color as an element which may appeal to spatially-intelligent candidates affects their performance on ESL grammar tests. 52 participants were given two parallel grammar tests, one in black and white and the other bearing the full spectrum of colors in the natural daylight. In order to identify the candidates with visual-spatial learning style, the participants and their teachers were asked to respond to Visual-Spatial Identifier rating scale. Based on the results, no significant relationship was found between the performance of candidates on the colorful and black and white grammar tests and their visual-spatial intelligence. It was concluded that other variables including the method of applying colors, the type and combination of colors as well as the differential impact of different colors on candidates with different cultural backgrounds needed to be addressed before any conclusions can be drawn about the application of color in language assessment.Keywords: assessment, colorful exam papers, multiple intelligences, spatial intelligence

  16. A Software Application to Detect Dental Color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan SÎMPĂLEAN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Choosing dental color for missing teeth or tooth reconstruction is an important step and it usually raises difficulties for dentists due to a significant amount of subjective factors that can influence the color selection. Dental reconstruction presumes the combination between dentistry and chromatics, thus implying important challenges. Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop and implement a software application for detecting dental color to come to the aid of dentists and largely to remove the inherent subjectiveness of the human vision. Basic Methods: The implemented application was named Color Detection and the application’s source code is written using the C++ language. During application development, for creating the GUI (graphical user interface the wxWidgets 2.8 library it was used. Results: The application displays the average color of the selected area of interest, the reference color from the key collection existent in the program and also the degree of similarity between the original (the selected area of interest and the nearest reference key. This degree of similarity is expressed as a percentage. Conclusions: The Color Detection Program, by eliminating the subjectivity inherent to human sight, can help the dentist to select an appropriate dental color with precision.

  17. Scouring Process of Natural Color Cotton Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wei

    2002-01-01

    In order to improve the absorbency of color cotton products, alkali and pectase scouring processes under different conditions were tested, by comparing the actual results of two different scouring processes. It was considered that the pectase scouring process more suits color cotton products.

  18. Color vision: mice see hue too.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Bevil R

    2007-06-19

    A transgenic mouse has been generated with three cone types, instead of the normal murine two. Remarkably, some of these mice use the extra cone to make trichromatic color discriminations similar to those that are the basis of human color vision.

  19. Applying daytime colors to multiband nightvision imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.

    2003-01-01

    We present a method to give (fused) multiband night-time imagery a natural day-time color appearance. For input, the method requires a false color RGB image that is produced by mapping 3 individual bands (or the first 3 principal components) of a multiband nightvision system to the respective channe

  20. The prior statistics of object colors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    The prior statistics of object colors is of much interest because extensive statistical investigations of reflectance spectra reveal highly non-uniform structure in color space common to several very different databases. This common structure is due to the visual system rather than to the statistics