WorldWideScience

Sample records for blue-yellow color opponent

  1. Asymmetries in blue-yellow color perception and in the color of 'the dress'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Alissa D; Spillmann, Lothar; Werner, John S; Webster, Michael A

    2015-06-29

    The perception of color poses daunting challenges, because the light spectrum reaching the eye depends on both the reflectance of objects and the spectrum of the illuminating light source. Solving this problem requires sophisticated inferences about the properties of lighting and surfaces, and many striking examples of 'color constancy' illustrate how our vision compensates for variations in illumination to estimate the color of objects (for example [1-3]). We discovered a novel property of color perception and constancy, involving how we experience shades of blue versus yellow. We found that surfaces are much more likely to be perceived as white or gray when their color is varied along bluish directions, compared with equivalent variations along yellowish (or reddish or greenish) directions. This selective bias may reflect a tendency to attribute bluish tints to the illuminant rather than the object, consistent with an inference that indirect lighting from the sky and in shadows tends to be bluish. The blue-yellow asymmetry has striking effects on the appearance of images when their colors are reversed, turning white to yellow and silver to gold, and helps account for the variation among observers in the colors experienced in 'the dress' image that recently consumed the internet. Observers variously describe the dress as blue-black or white-gold, and this has been explained by whether the dress appears to be in direct lighting or shade (for example [5]). We show that these individual differences and potential lighting interpretations also depend on the special ambiguity of blue, for simply reversing the image colors causes almost all observers to report the lighter stripes as yellowish. PMID:25981792

  2. Visual comfort evaluated by opponent colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagawa, Ken

    2002-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate psychological impression of visual comfort when we see an image of ordinary colored scene presented in a color display. Effects of opponent colors, i.e. red, green, yellow and blue component, on the subjective judgement on visual comfort to the image were investigated. Three kinds of psychological experiment were designed to see the effects and the results indicated that the red/green opponent color component was more affecting than the yellow-blue one, and red color in particular was the most affecting factor on visual comfort.

  3. Color Constancy Using Double-Opponency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shao-Bing; Yang, Kai-Fu; Li, Chao-Yi; Li, Yong-Jie

    2015-10-01

    The double-opponent (DO) color-sensitive cells in the primary visual cortex (V1) of the human visual system (HVS) have long been recognized as the physiological basis of color constancy. In this work we propose a new color constancy model by imitating the functional properties of the HVS from the single-opponent (SO) cells in the retina to the DO cells in V1 and the possible neurons in the higher visual cortexes. The idea behind the proposed double-opponency based color constancy (DOCC) model originates from the substantial observation that the color distribution of the responses of DO cells to the color-biased images coincides well with the vector denoting the light source color. Then the illuminant color is easily estimated by pooling the responses of DO cells in separate channels in LMS space with the pooling mechanism of sum or max. Extensive evaluations on three commonly used datasets, including the test with the dataset dependent optimal parameters, as well as the intra- and inter-dataset cross validation, show that our physiologically inspired DOCC model can produce quite competitive results in comparison to the state-of-the-art approaches, but with a relative simple implementation and without requiring fine-tuning of the method for each different dataset. PMID:26353182

  4. Chromatic aberration and the roles of double-opponent and color-luminance neurons in color vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vladusich, Tony

    2007-01-01

    How does the visual cortex encode color? I summarize a theory in which cortical double-opponent color neurons perform a role in color constancy and a complementary set of color-luminance neurons function to selectively correct for color fringes induced by chromatic aberration in the eye. The theory

  5. Luminance and opponent-color contributions to visual detection and adaptation and to temporal and spatial integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King-Smith, P E; Carden, D

    1976-07-01

    We show how the processes of visual detection and of temporal and spatial summation may be analyzed in terms of parallel luminance (achromatic) and opponent-color systems; a test flash is detected if it exceeds the threshold of either system. The spectral sensitivity of the luminance system may be determined by a flicker method, and has a single broad peak near 555 nm; the spectral sensitivity of the opponent-color system corresponds to the color recognition threshold, and has three peaks at about 440, 530, and 600 nm (on a white background). The temporal and spatial integration of the opponent-color system are generally greater than for the luminance system; further, a white background selectively depresses the sensitivity of the luminance system relative to the opponent-color system. Thus relatively large (1 degree) and long (200 msec) spectral test flashes on a white background are detected by the opponent-color system except near 570 nm; the contribution of the luminance system becomes more prominent if the size or duration of the test flash is reduced, or if the white background is extinguished. The present analysis is discussed in relation to Stiles' model of independent eta mechanisms. PMID:978286

  6. Genetics Home Reference: color vision deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... back-and-forth eye movements (nystagmus), and nearsightedness ( myopia ). Blue cone monochromacy is sometimes considered to be ... Red-green color vision defects have a lower incidence in almost all other populations studied. Blue-yellow ...

  7. Exploring Opponent Formats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Møller; Rasmussen, Majken; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2013-01-01

    The recent growth in development and research in computer-supported physical games has sprouted a wide variety of games merging qualities from both computer games and sports. Despite the increasing interest in this type of games, exploration of their specific game mechanics and the understanding ...... football-training platform, as well as games designed to explore the different opponent formats. The games are qualitatively evaluated to illuminate the qualities of and distinctions between different types of opponent formats, proposed by the framework terminology....

  8. Gender-related differences in physiologic color space: a functional transcranial Doppler (fTCD study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njemanze Philip C

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Simultaneous color contrast and color constancy are memory processes associated with color vision, however, the gender-related differences of 'physiologic color space' remains unknown. Color processing was studied in 16 (8 men and 8 women right-handed healthy subjects using functional transcranial Doppler (fTCD technique. Mean flow velocity (MFV was recorded in both right (RMCA and left (LMCA middle cerebral arteries in dark and white light conditions, and during color (blue and yellow stimulations. The data was plotted in a 3D quadratic curve fit to derive a 'physiologic color space' showing the effects of luminance and chromatic contrasts. In men, wavelength-differencing of opponent pairs (yellow-blue was adjudged by changes in the RMCA MFV for Yellow plotted on the Y-axis, and the RMCA MFV for Blue plotted on the X-axis. In women, frequency-differencing for opponent pairs (blue-yellow was adjudged by changes in the LMCA MFV for Yellow plotted on the Y-axis, and the LMCA MFV for Blue plotted on the X-axis. The luminance effect on the LMCA MFV in response to white light with the highest luminous flux, was plotted on the (Z - axis, in both men and women. The 3D-color space for women was a mirror-image of that for men, and showed enhanced color constancy. The exponential function model was applied to the data in men, while the logarithmic function model was applied to the data in women. Color space determination may be useful in the study of color memory, adaptive neuroplasticity, cognitive impairment in stroke and neurodegenerative diseases.

  9. Incorporating opponent models into adversary search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmel, D.; Markovitch, S. [Technion, Haifa (Israel)

    1996-12-31

    This work presents a generalized theoretical framework that allows incorporation of opponent models into adversary search. We present the M* algorithm, a generalization of minimax that uses an arbitrary opponent model to simulate the opponent`s search. The opponent model is a recursive structure consisting of the opponent`s evaluation function and its model of the player. We demonstrate experimentally the potential benefit of using an opponent model. Pruning in M* is impossible in the general case. We prove a sufficient condition for pruning and present the {alpha}{beta}* algorithm which returns the M* value of a tree while searching only necessary branches.

  10. Color naming deficits and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A retinal dopaminergic hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tannock Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD have unexplained difficulties on tasks requiring speeded processing of colored stimuli. Color vision mechanisms, particularly short-wavelength (blue-yellow pathways, are highly sensitive to various diseases, toxins and drugs that alter dopaminergic neurotransmission. Thus, slow color processing might reflect subtle impairments in the perceptual encoding stage of stimulus color, which arise from hypodopaminergic functioning. Presentation of hypotheses 1 Color perception of blue-yellow (but not red-green stimuli is impaired in ADHD as a result of deficient retinal dopamine; 2 Impairments in the blue-yellow color mechanism in ADHD contribute to poor performance on speeded color naming tasks that include a substantial proportion of blue-yellow stimuli; and 3 Methylphenidate increases central dopamine and is also believed to increase retinal dopamine, thereby normalizing blue-yellow color perception, which in turn improves performance on the speeded color naming tasks. Testing the hypothesis Requires three approaches, including:1 direct assessment of color perception in individuals with ADHD to determine whether blue-yellow color perception is selectively impaired; 2 determination of relationship between performance on neuropsychological tasks requiring speeded color processing and color perception; and 3 randomized, controlled pharmacological intervention with stimulant medication to examine the effects of enhancing central dopamine on color perception and task performance Implications of hypothesis If substantiated, the findings of color perception problems would necessitate a re-consideration of current neuropsychological models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, guide psycho-education, academic instruction, and require consideration of stimulus color in many of the widely used neuropsychological tests.

  11. Color averaging linked to contours, textures and orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anstis, S.; Vergeer, M.L.T.; Lier, R.J. van

    2008-01-01

    A blurry, multicolored plaid was made by superimposing two crossed colored sinusoidal gratings: a horizontal red/green grating, and a vertical blue/yellow grating. [Disregarding 'monocular rivalry', which may just be an artifact from eye movements], we have found ways to enhance the visibility of e

  12. Acquired Color Vision Defects and Hexane Exposure: A Study of San Francisco Bay Area Automotive Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Stella; Eisen, Ellen A; Bates, Michael N; Liu, Sa; Haegerstrom-Portnoy, Gunilla; Hammond, S Katharine

    2016-06-01

    Occupational exposure to solvents, including n-hexane, has been associated with acquired color vision defects. Blue-yellow defects are most common and may be due to neurotoxicity or retinal damage. Acetone may potentiate the neurotoxicity of n-hexane. We present results on nonhexane solvent and hexane exposure and color vision from a cross-sectional study of 835 automotive repair workers in the San Francisco Bay Area, California (2007-2013). Cumulative exposure was estimated from self-reported work history, and color vision was assessed using the Lanthony desaturated D-15 panel test. Log-binomial regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios for color vision defects. Acquired color vision defects were present in 29% of participants, of which 70% were blue-yellow. Elevated prevalence ratios were found for nonhexane solvent exposure, with a maximum of 1.31 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86, 2.00) for blue-yellow. Among participants aged ≤50 years, the prevalence ratio for blue-yellow defects was 2.17 (95% CI: 1.03, 4.56) in the highest quartile of nonhexane solvent exposure and 1.62 (95% CI: 0.97, 2.72) in the highest category of exposure to hexane with acetone coexposure. Cumulative exposures to hexane and nonhexane solvents in the highest exposure categories were associated with elevated prevalence ratios for color vision defects in younger participants. PMID:27188942

  13. Color naming deficits and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A retinal dopaminergic hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Tannock Rosemary; Banaschewski Tobias; Gold David

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) have unexplained difficulties on tasks requiring speeded processing of colored stimuli. Color vision mechanisms, particularly short-wavelength (blue-yellow) pathways, are highly sensitive to various diseases, toxins and drugs that alter dopaminergic neurotransmission. Thus, slow color processing might reflect subtle impairments in the perceptual encoding stage of stimulus color, which arise from hypodopaminergi...

  14. Decoding color responses in human visual cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Color percept is a subjective experience and, in general, it is impossible for other people to tell someone's color percept. The present study demonstrated that the simple image-classification analysis of brain activity obtained by a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique enables to tell which of four colors the subject is looking at. Our results also imply that color information is coded by the responses of hue-selective neurons in human brain, not by the combinations of red-green and blue-yellow hue components. (author)

  15. A Pyrrhic victory for the opponents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reviews the situation of renewable energies in Switzerland after a popular vote turned down promotional measures in the year 2000. The situation is analysed and the opinions of various leaders of professional associations and political groups are discussed. Comparisons are made between ideas said to evolve from short-term narrow-mindedness and those developed by more visionary corporations and governments. The effect of the negative outcome of the popular vote on research and development and economic development are discussed. The author expresses his opinion that measures will still have to be taken, thus making the opponents' success more of a Pyrrhic sort of victory

  16. Crayfish recognize the faces of fight opponents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Van der Velden

    Full Text Available The capacity to associate stimuli underlies many cognitive abilities, including recognition, in humans and other animals. Vertebrates process different categories of information separately and then reassemble the distilled information for unique identification, storage and recall. Invertebrates have fewer neural networks and fewer neural processing options so study of their behavior may reveal underlying mechanisms still not fully understood for any animal. Some invertebrates form complex social colonies and are capable of visual memory-bees and wasps, for example. This ability would not be predicted in species that interact in random pairs without strong social cohesion; for example, crayfish. They have chemical memory but the extent to which they remember visual features is unknown. Here we demonstrate that the crayfish Cherax destructor is capable of visual recognition of individuals. The simplicity of their interactions allowed us to examine the behavior and some characteristics of the visual features involved. We showed that facial features are learned during face-to-face fights, that highly variable cues are used, that the type of variability is important, and that the learning is context-dependent. We also tested whether it is possible to engineer false identifications and for animals to distinguish between twin opponents.

  17. PREVALENCE OF COLOR BLINDNESS IN STUDENTS: ISFAHAN – 1999

    OpenAIRE

    A ZANDI; GH.R AZARIAN

    2001-01-01

    Introduction. The light waves stimulates the retinal cell and eventually the brain cortex will interpret it to a color vision. Color vision defects can be congenital or acquired. Congenital types have a lifelong constant state (Severity). These patients almost always have red-green defect. These types are sex-linked, and according to the existing data have a prevalence of 8 percent in males and 0.5 percent in females. Acquired color vision defects are frequently of blue-yellow type and have a...

  18. Theoretical aspects of color vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolbarsht, M. L.

    1972-01-01

    The three color receptors of Young-Helmholtz and the opponent colors type of information processing postulated by Hering are both present in the human visual system. This mixture accounts for both the phenomena of color matching or hue discrimination and such perceptual qualities of color as the division of the spectrum into color bands. The functioning of the cells in the visual system, especially within the retina, and the relation of this function to color perception are discussed.

  19. Food irradiation: Countering the tactics and claims of opponents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many professionals feel that food irradiation is safe and has many benefits. Opponents of food irradiation have used misinformation and other tactics considered by some to be similar to those of terrorists. This controversy is discussed in this article

  20. An Opponent-Process Theory of Motivation: II. Cigarette Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Richard L.; Corbit, John D.

    1973-01-01

    Methods suggested by opponent-process theory of acquired motivation in helping smokers to quit the habit include use of antagonistic drugs, total cessation from tobacco, and decrease in intensity and frequency of tobacco use. (DS)

  1. Progress in color night vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    We present an overview of our recent progress and the current state-of-the-art techniques of color image fusion for night vision applications. Inspired by previously developed color opponent fusing schemes, we initially developed a simple pixel-based false color-mapping scheme that yielded fused fal

  2. Nuclear opponents condemned to pay their electricity bills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this court decision, nuclear opponents who had withheld payment of 10 percent of their electricity bills were condemned to payment of the full amounts of their invoices. The decision thus differs from opposed decisions by the Stuttgart District Court dated July 20, 1979 (ET 1979, p. 495), which had been regarded as 'faulty' by the Federal Constitutional Court (decision of December 20, 1979, ET 1980, p. 135). According to the new decision, the actions brought for performance and for declaratory judgment are admissible and well-founded. In particular, the nuclear opponents have no credible legal reason to withhold or deny performance. (HSCH)

  3. Schopenhauer on vision and the colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crone, R A

    1997-01-01

    Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) published his book, On Vision and the Colors in 1816. He started from Aristotle's linear color system and Goethe's three pairs of contrast colors. His work preceded Hering's theory of opponent colors but his path to insight was blocked by his anti-Newtonianism and his neo-Hellenistic attitude toward science. Because of his theory of the subjectivity of colors he was a forerunner of the psycho-physiological variant of neo-Kantianism. PMID:9476605

  4. Gender-related asymmetric brain vasomotor response to color stimulation: a functional transcranial Doppler spectroscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njemanze Philip C

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Purpose The present study was designed to examine the effects of color stimulation on cerebral blood mean flow velocity (MFV in men and women. Methods The study included 16 (8 men and 8 women right-handed healthy subjects. The MFV was recorded simultaneously in both right and left middle cerebral arteries in Dark and white Light conditions, and during color (Blue, Yellow and Red stimulations, and was analyzed using functional transcranial Doppler spectroscopy (fTCDS technique. Results Color processing occurred within cortico-subcortical circuits. In men, wavelength-differencing of Yellow/Blue pairs occurred within the right hemisphere by processes of cortical long-term depression (CLTD and subcortical long-term potentiation (SLTP. Conversely, in women, frequency-differencing of Blue/Yellow pairs occurred within the left hemisphere by processes of cortical long-term potentiation (CLTP and subcortical long-term depression (SLTD. In both genders, there was luminance effect in the left hemisphere, while in men it was along an axis opposite (orthogonal to that of chromatic effect, in women, it was parallel. Conclusion Gender-related differences in color processing demonstrated a right hemisphere cognitive style for wavelength-differencing in men, and a left hemisphere cognitive style for frequency-differencing in women. There are potential applications of fTCDS technique, for stroke rehabilitation and monitoring of drug effects.

  5. To breathe or fight? Siamese fighting fish differ when facing a real opponent or mirror image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, Gareth; Beattie, Emma; Elwood, Robert W

    2016-08-01

    Displays are a feature of animal contest behaviour and have been interpreted as a means of gathering information on opponent fighting ability, as well as signalling aggressive motivation. In fish, contest displays often include frontal and lateral elements, which in the latter involves contestants showing their flanks to an opponent. Previous work in a range of fish species has demonstrated population-level lateralization of these displays, preferentially showing one side to their opponent. Mirrors are commonly used in place of a real opponent to study aggression in fish, yet they may disrupt the normal pattern of display behaviour. Here, using Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, we compare the aggressive behaviour of males to a mirror image and real opponent behind a transparent barrier. As this species is a facultative air-breather, we also quantify surface breathing, providing insights into underlying fight motivation. Consistent with previous work, we found evidence of population-level lateralization, with a bias to present the left side and use the left eye when facing a real opponent. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in the aggressive displays to a mirror and real opponent, with positive correlations between the behaviour in the two scenarios. However, there were important differences in surface breathing, which was more frequent and of longer duration in the mirror treatment. The reasons for these differences are discussed in relation to the repertoire of contest behaviour and motivation when facing a real opponent. PMID:27234172

  6. Illustrating Color Evolution and Color Blindness by the Decoding Model of Color Vision

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Chenguang

    2011-01-01

    A symmetrical model of color vision, the decoding model as a new version of zone model, was introduced. The model adopts new continuous-valued logic and works in a way very similar to the way a 3-8 decoder in a numerical circuit works. By the decoding model, Young and Helmholtz's tri-pigment theory and Hering's opponent theory are unified more naturally; opponent process, color evolution, and color blindness are illustrated more concisely. According to the decoding model, we can obtain a transform from RGB system to HSV system, which is formally identical to the popular transform for computer graphics provided by Smith (1978). Advantages, problems, and physiological tests of the decoding model are also discussed.

  7. Challenging the other: exploring the role of opponent gender in digital game competition for female players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Lotte; Núñez Castellar, Elena; Van Looy, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Abstract The present study investigated the effect of opponent gender on the game experience of female players. Concretely, it looked into skill perception and player emotions of women in same gender and cross-gender game competition. We set up a 2×2×2 (male vs. female opponent×low vs. high competitive women×lost vs. won game) experimental design in which women were instructed to play against a proclaimed male and female competitor. Unknowingly, however, participants played against an AI, which was configured to produce a winning and a losing condition for each opponent by manipulating difficulty. Results indicated that opponent gender only had an effect on perceived stress, which was higher with male opponents. Moreover, players evaluated their own gaming skills as lower and the skills of presumed male opponents as higher when they thought they were playing against men. Importantly, our results also showed that the above described pattern for self-perceived skills and perceived opponent skills was modulated by trait competitiveness with a larger effect size for low competitive women. Overall, this study illustrates that gender dynamics affect the play experience of women in cross-gender gaming competition. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:24724802

  8. Regret testing: learning to play Nash equilibrium without knowing you have an opponent

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Dean P.; Young, H. Peyton

    2006-01-01

    A learning rule is uncoupled if a player does not condition his strategy on the opponent's payoffs. It is radically uncoupled if a player does not condition his strategy on the opponent's actions or payoffs. We demonstrate a family of simple, radically uncoupled learning rules whose period-by-period behavior comes arbitrarily close to Nash equilibrium behavior in any finite two-person game.

  9. Challenging the other: exploring the role of opponent gender in digital game competition for female players

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeulen, Lotte; Nunez Castellar, Elena Patricia; Van Looy, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of opponent gender on the game experience of female players. Concretely, it looked into skill perception and player emotions of women in same-gender and cross-gender game competition. We set up a 2 (male vs. female opponent) x 2 (low vs. high competitive women) x 2 (lost vs. won game) experimental design in which women were instructed to play against a proclaimed male and female competitor. Unknowingly, participants played against an AI, however, whic...

  10. WHO ARE PROPONENTS AND OPPONENTS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS IN THE UNITED STATES?

    OpenAIRE

    Ganiere, Pierre; Chern, Wen S.; Hahn, David E.

    2004-01-01

    A national telephone survey was conducted in the U.S. in April 2002 to assess the consumer acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods. Attitudes towards GM foods were studied through the use of a multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) method, analyzing the interrelationships among many variables. This method was combined with a cluster analysis to construct a typology of consumers' attitudes. Four distinct behaviors were finally extracted - proponents, non-opponents, moderate opponents and...

  11. Opponent recognition and social status differentiate rapid neuroendocrine responses to social challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, Travis J.; Summers, Cliff H.; Renner, Kenneth J.; Watt, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Individual social status discriminates rapid neuroendocrine responses to non-social stress in male Anolis carolinensis, but whether such status-influenced reactions are retained in response to subsequent social stress is unknown. Dominant and subordinate males modify their behavioral responses to social challenge according to familiarity of the opponent, suggesting that accompanying neuroendocrine responses may differ according to opponent recognition despite social rank. We examined endocrin...

  12. Progress in color night vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toet, Alexander; Hogervorst, Maarten A.

    2012-01-01

    We present an overview of our recent progress and the current state-of-the-art techniques of color image fusion for night vision applications. Inspired by previously developed color opponent fusing schemes, we initially developed a simple pixel-based false color-mapping scheme that yielded fused false color images with large color contrast and preserved the identity of the input signals. This method has been successfully deployed in different areas of research. However, since this color mapping did not produce realistic colors, we continued to develop a statistical color-mapping procedure that would transfer the color distribution of a given example image to a multiband nighttime image. This procedure yields a realistic color rendering. However, it is computationally expensive and achieves no color constancy since the mapping depends on the relative amounts of the different materials in the scene. By applying the statistical mapping approach in a color look-up-table framework, we finally achieved both color constancy and computational simplicity. This sample-based color transfer method is specific for different types of materials in a scene and can be easily adapted for the intended operating theatre and the task at hand. The method can be implemented as a look-up-table transform and is highly suitable for real-time implementations.

  13. Latency of Chromatic Information in Area V4

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Mindy; Xian, Sherry; Rubin, Jonathan; Moore, Tirin

    2013-01-01

    In the primate visual system, information about color is known to be carried in separate divisions of the retino-geniculo-cortical pathway. From the retina, responses of photoreceptors to short (S), medium (M), and long (L) wavelengths of light are processed in two different opponent pathways. Signals in the S-opponent pathway, or blue/yellow channel, have been found to lag behind signals in the L/M-opponent pathway, or red/green channel in primary visual area V1, and psychophysical studies h...

  14. THE IMPORTANCE OF COLOR IN THE MAJOR ROMANIAN BRANDS MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radiana Maria TAMBA BEREHOIU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The approach of our study is to identify the most important elements which characterize the use of color in the successful Romanian brands marketing, starting from the main media of the marketing messages, such as: website, advertising posters used in campaigns in the past three years and package of the main product. In the background of Romanian brands’ sites, the predominant color is white, followed at a great distance by various shades of green, blue and red. The best positions in the top 50 are associated to the websites that use blue background in construction, followed by the red and yellow. The most common background colors for posters were blue, white, red and green, and the color associated with the best positions in the top 50 for the studied brands was red. The most colors used for the background of the main product package were white, green, blue, yellow and red. The color red was associated with the best top positions. For alcoholic beverages brands, the most common color was yellow, which is mainly used in the design of the main product package (beer and wine brands.

  15. Does sadness impair color perception? Flawed evidence and faulty methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Alex O; Brown, Nicholas J L; Goodbourn, Patrick T; Etz, Alexander; Geukes, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    In their 2015 paper, Thorstenson, Pazda, and Elliot offered evidence from two experiments that perception of colors on the blue-yellow axis was impaired if the participants had watched a sad movie clip, compared to participants who watched clips designed to induce a happy or neutral mood. Subsequently, these authors retracted their article, citing a mistake in their statistical analyses and a problem with the data in one of their experiments. Here, we discuss a number of other methodological problems with Thorstenson et al.'s experimental design, and also demonstrate that the problems with the data go beyond what these authors reported. We conclude that repeating one of the two experiments, with the minor revisions proposed by Thorstenson et al., will not be sufficient to address the problems with this work. PMID:27606051

  16. PREVALENCE OF COLOR BLINDNESS IN STUDENTS: ISFAHAN – 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A ZANDI

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The light waves stimulates the retinal cell and eventually the brain cortex will interpret it to a color vision. Color vision defects can be congenital or acquired. Congenital types have a lifelong constant state (Severity. These patients almost always have red-green defect. These types are sex-linked, and according to the existing data have a prevalence of 8 percent in males and 0.5 percent in females. Acquired color vision defects are frequently of blue-yellow type and have an equal prevalence in males and females. Methods. This is a descriptive study and includes 1500 male and 1500 female students of 34 Isfahan high schools, in 1378. We used the "lshihara test" for the evaluation of color vision in these cases. Results. Prevalence of color blindness was 4.2 percent in males and 0.33 percent in female cases. Discussion. These findings are very different from what are registered in our references; so we recommend to perform the "Ishihara test" (which has a low cost and job consultation for all males before entering their occupational field. This can help them to have a better selection, more suitable job and less problems because of their probable color vision defects.

  17. Receiving post-conflict affiliation from the enemy's friend reconciles former opponents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman M Wittig

    Full Text Available The adaptive function of bystander initiated post-conflict affiliation (also: consolation & appeasement has been debated for 30 years. Three influential hypotheses compete for the most likely explanation but have not previously been tested with a single data set. The consolation hypothesis argues that bystander affiliation calms the victim and reduces their stress levels. The self-protection hypothesis proposes that a bystander offers affiliation to either opponent to protect himself from redirected aggression by this individual. The relationship-repair hypothesis suggests a bystander can substitute for a friend to reconcile the friend with the friend's former opponent. Here, we contrast all three hypotheses and tested their predictions with data on wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus of the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. We examined the first and second post-conflict interactions with respect to both the dyadic and triadic relationships between the bystander and the two opponents. Results showed that female bystanders offered affiliation to their aggressor friends and the victims of their friends, while male bystanders offered affiliation to their victim friends and the aggressors of their friends. For both sexes, bystander affiliation resulted in a subsequent interaction pattern that is expected for direct reconciliation. Bystander affiliation offered to the opponent's friend was more likely to lead to affiliation among opponents in their subsequent interaction. Also, tolerance levels among former opponents were reset to normal levels. In conclusion, this study provides strong evidence for the relationship-repair hypothesis, moderate evidence for the consolation hypothesis and no evidence for the self-protection hypothesis. Furthermore, that bystanders can repair a relationship on behalf of their friend indicates that recipient chimpanzees are aware of the relationships between others, even when they are not kin. This presents a

  18. The voice of the other : A dialogico-rhetorical understanding of opponent and of Toulmin's rebuttal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slob, Wouter H.; Hitchcock, D; Verheij, B

    2006-01-01

    Although contemporary dialectical logic recognizes an important role for the opponent in argumentation, it remains loyal to the idea that arguments are supportive. In this paper, it is argued that because of this dialectical logic does not take seriously its own dialogical perspective. Without ackno

  19. A Rough - Neuro Model for Classifying Opponent Behavior in Real Time Strategy Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Z. Rashad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Real Time strategy games offer an environment where game AI is known to conduct actuality. One featureof realistic behavior in game AI is the ability to recognize the strategy of the opponent player. This isknown as opponent modeling. In this paper, a classification Rough-Neuro hybrid model of the RTSopponent player behavior process is proposed. As a mean to achieve better game performance, reductionof the agent decision space and better high-level winning of real-time strategy games. The Rough-Neuromethodology allows the classification model to some extent simulate opponent behavior in playing RTSgames. The methodology incorporates a two-stage hybrid mechanism. Rough sets for reduction of relevantattributes and artificial neural networks for classification opponent behavior during game playing. Theproposed hybrid approach has been tested on an open source 3D RTS game called Glest. From our resultswe can deduce that the tactic may be successfully used for foretelling the demeanor of contender in theGlest game.

  20. Video Game Violence and the Female Game Player: Self- and Opponent Gender Effects on Presence and Aggressive Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastin, Matthew S.

    2006-01-01

    Adding depth and breadth to the general aggression model, this paper presents three experiments that test the relationships among user and opponent gender representation, opponent type, presence, and aggressive thoughts from violent video game play. Studies 1 and 2 suggest that females experience greater presence and more aggressive thoughts from…

  1. A Focal Plane Array To Model The Color Processing of the Retina

    OpenAIRE

    Farian, Lukasz

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents a bio-inspired color camera chip. It is the first focal plane array of photo-pixels that react to temporal color contrast of three different color spectra and thus this vision sensor emulates the color opponencies in the human retina. The array has been designed, implemented and thoroughly characterised in TSMC 90nm CMOS technology. The three different spectra are transduced into photocurrents by stacked photodiodes and temporal changes of the contrast of these three spec...

  2. Hydroelectricity and ecological considerations. Falsification of the environmental reality by the opponents of hydropower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Giziński

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Opponents of hydroelectricity claim falsely that hydrotechnical development of the Lower Vistula River constitutes implementation of Edward Gierek’s concept of bringing only environmental damage1. Statements on the negative environmental impact of constructing small hydroelectric power stations (SHPS are equally groundless. Permanent protests against the construction of dams and river damming, regardless of the motivations and will of protesters, increase energy dependence on Russia, and preserves the poor, post-Bierut hydrological situation2. The main fallacy made by hydropower opponents is the alternative treatment of power and environmental purposes. Environmental errors consist in continuous omission of even the most obvious positive ecological effects of constructing river dams and – what is especially reprehensible – inventing non-existent threats, e.g. lethal concentration of toxic heavy metals in deposits of the Włocławek Reservoir or the detrimental impact of warming up water in stage of falls on the fish population below the dam.

  3. Color Shift Investigations for LED Secondary Optical Designs: Comparison between BPA-PC and PMMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guangjun; Yazdan Mehr, M.; van Driel, W. D.; Fan, Xuejun; Fan, Jiajie; Jansen, K. M. B.; Zhang, G. Q.

    2015-07-01

    Recently, color shift of LED-based lighting products has attracted much attention due to its increasing impact on the field application. However, significant research investigations on the color shift mechanisms are not publically available especially for important transmission materials used for secondary optical design. In this paper, broadly used such commercial materials (BPA-PC and PMMA) are experimentally investigated on the color shift effects during aging. Besides this, color shift mechanisms of degradation of transmittance are also studied. Results revealed: (1) Inconsistent degradation of wavelength-dependent transmittance induces the decrease of the blue/yellow light intensity ratio and thus gives rise to the color shift toward the yellow field, which is the color shift mechanism of BPA-PC; (2) Even for the non-aged BPA-PC, the transmittance varies with wavelength in the visible light field due to the chemistry of the material, which caused the change of intensify ratio of blue light to yellow light in the SPD, leading to color change in perception; (3) Oxidation plays a key role in the degradation of transmittance at around the peak wavelength of the blue light field, which is in correlation with the discoloration of thermally-aged BPA-PC materials. By contrast, for the PMMA specimen aged up to 3000 h, oxidation was neither occurred at 85 °C, nor with additional exposure to blue light, nor even with additional humidity of 85%RH.

  4. Color vision deficiencies in youths 12-17 years of age, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaby, D; Roberts, J

    1974-01-01

    Presented in this report are data on the prevalence of color vision deficiencies in American youths 12-17 years of age as estimated from the Health Examination Survey of 1966-70. The data are stratified by age, sex, race, geographic region, size of place of residence, and annual family income. Comparisons are also made with the findings from the 1963-65 Health Examination Survey among children 6-11 years of age. Color vision deficiency, commonly called color blindness, manifests itself in everyday life in the confusion of, or blindness to, one or more primary colors, and its origins may be congenital or acquired. Congenital defects occur in two chief forms, total and partial. The former is very rare and is generally associated with nystagmus and a central scotoma. All colors appear as grays of differing brightness. The partial form is the most common type of color vision defect and is primarily an inherited condition transmitted through the mother, who is usually unaffected. It is probably due to the absence of one of the photopigments normally found in the foveal cones. In most cases reds and greens are confused. Acquired defects of color vision may often develop in, the course of ocular, mainly retinal, disease. Red-green defects are frequently characteristic of lesions of the optic nerve and optic pathways, while blue-yellow defects are more likely to result from lesions of the outer layers of the retina. PMID:25208588

  5. The eschatological opponent of Daniel and the Antichrist of the Syriac Apocalypse of Daniel

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Daiane Silva José

    2014-01-01

    The Syriac Apocalypse of Daniel (Syr Apoc Dan), a Christian apocalypse from the seventh century of Common Era, is clearly tributary to the canonical book of Daniel (Dn). In its turn, Dn provided the figure of an eschatological opponent who was re-signified in Christianity: the Antichrist. The cosmic dimensions of the malevolent character of oppressive tyrant of Dn – his arrogance against the gods, the abomination of desolation, military conquests and persecutions of the saints, the change of ...

  6. Gender in Jeopardy!: The Role of Opponent Gender in High-Stakes Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Jetter, Michael; Walker, Jay K.

    2016-01-01

    Using 4,279 episodes of the popular US game show Jeopardy!, we analyze whether the opponents' gender is able to explain the gender gap in competitive behavior. Our findings indicate that gender differences disappear when women compete against men. This result is surprising, but emerges with remarkable consistency for the probability to (i) respond, (ii) respond correctly, and (iii) respond correctly in high-stakes situations. Even risk preferences in wagering decisions, where gender differenc...

  7. PR WAR: PR STRATEGIES OF THE FOSSIL FUEL INDUSTRY AND ITS OPPONENTS

    OpenAIRE

    David McQueen

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of relations between the fossil fuel industry and its opponents. The paper will explore how different weapons in a ‘PR war’ contribute to particular policy and public opinion outcomes. The paper revisits the Deepwater Horizon crisis and looks at how campaigning groups such as Greenpeace effectively discredited BP, its crisis communications and the ‘Beyond Petroleum’ CSR strategy. It will also contrast campaigns in Ireland, Nigeria and the Arctic against the oil ...

  8. Hydroelectricity and ecological considerations. Falsification of the environmental reality by the opponents of hydropower

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Giziński

    2013-01-01

    Opponents of hydroelectricity claim falsely that hydrotechnical development of the Lower Vistula River constitutes implementation of Edward Gierek’s concept of bringing only environmental damage1. Statements on the negative environmental impact of constructing small hydroelectric power stations (SHPS) are equally groundless. Permanent protests against the construction of dams and river damming, regardless of the motivations and will of protesters, increase energy dependence on Russia, and pre...

  9. Dealing with opponents of industry: Let the allies work for you

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The opponents of industry, and most Green campaigning groups, thrive on controversy. Opponents of industry, and of the nuclear industry in particular, can expect to find a more receptive public audience than do the companies they attack. Therefore, there is little to be gained by industry entering into direct conflict, or even high-profile debate, with opponents. Industry spokesmen do not rate as being trustworthy in the eyes of the public. And it does not pay to directly attack the credibility, however justified such criticisms are, of the likes of Greenpeace. In a polarised debate, if your company is seen to be partisan and the opponents to be neutral, the public will gravitate towards the opponents. The way forward is to influence the forces which ran help industry establish the middle ground to dissipate the tension. The problem for industry is not so much that it has opponents, but that it does not have enough third party advocates to mediate in disputes. Therefore, the first step is to identify the key issues facing a company or industry. The second, is to work with credible people and organisations to establish independent mechanisms which can prevent an unfavourable climate building up around those issues. The art of dealing with opponents, is the art of identifying such mechanisms (people, organisations and professions) to influence an increasingly cynical and distrusting public. These opinion-formers should be the main focus of a communications strategy designed to counter opponents. They are the conduit through which to influence public opinion in general. For instance, the debate surrounding the incidence of leukaemia around nuclear sites cannot be answered by the industry using the facts, scientific evidence, or by entering into a noisy dialogue with opponents. However, the medical profession, along with scientists working outside the nuclear industry, is in a position to shift public concern away from nuclear sites. BNFL has promoted

  10. Opponents and Supporters of Water Policy Change in the Netherlands and Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia E. Werners

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the role of individuals and the strategies that they use to bring about or oppose major policy change. Current analysis of the role that individuals or small collectives play in periods of major policy change has focussed on strategies that reinforce change and on the supporters of change. This paper adds the perspective of opponents, and asks whether they use similar strategies as those identified for supporters. Five strategies are explored: developing new ideas, building coalitions to sell ideas, using windows of opportunity, playing multiple venues and orchestrating networks. Using empirical evidence from Dutch and Hungarian water policy change, we discuss whether individuals pursued these strategies to support or oppose major policy change. Our analysis showed the significance of recognition of a new policy concept at an abstract level by responsible government actors, as well as their engagement with a credible regional coalition that can contextualise and advocate the concept regionally. The strategies of supporters were also used by opponents of water policy change. Opposition was inherent to policy change, and whether or not government actors sought to engage with opponents influenced the realisation of water policy change.

  11. Color naming and the phototoxic effects of sunlight on the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Delwin T; Brown, Angela M

    2002-11-01

    Many languages have no basic color term for "blue." Instead, they call short-wavelength stimuli "green" or "dark". We show that this cultural, linguistic phenomenon could result from accelerated aging of the eye because of high, chronic exposure to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) in sunlight (e.g., phototoxic lens brunescence). Reviewing 203 world languages, we found a significant relationship between UV dosage and color naming: In low-UV localities, languages generally have the word "blue"; in high-UV areas, languages without "blue" prevail. Furthermore, speakers of these non-"blue" languages often show blue-yellow color vision deficiency. We tested our phototoxicity hypothesis in a color-naming experiment, using computerized, colorimetric simulations of Munsell colors as viewed through clear and brunescent lenses. As predicted, our young subjects used "blue" as in English when the simulated lens was clear, but named colors as in tropical languages when the lens was dense. Our within-subjects design precludes a cultural explanation for this result. PMID:12430833

  12. Reinforcement Learning in the Game of Othello: Learning Against a Fixed Opponent and Learning from Self-Play

    OpenAIRE

    van der Ree, Michiel; Wiering, Marco

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares three strategies in using reinforcement learning algorithms to let an artificial agent learnto play the game of Othello. The three strategies that are compared are: Learning by self-play, learning from playing against a fixed opponent, and learning from playing against a fixed opponent while learning from the opponent’s moves as well.These issues are considered for the algorithms Q-learning, Sarsa and TD-learning. These three reinforcement learning algorithms are combined ...

  13. Color-induced graph colorings

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive treatment of color-induced graph colorings is presented in this book, emphasizing vertex colorings induced by edge colorings. The coloring concepts described in this book depend not only on the property required of the initial edge coloring and the kind of objects serving as colors, but also on the property demanded of the vertex coloring produced. For each edge coloring introduced, background for the concept is provided, followed by a presentation of results and open questions dealing with this topic. While the edge colorings discussed can be either proper or unrestricted, the resulting vertex colorings are either proper colorings or rainbow colorings. This gives rise to a discussion of irregular colorings, strong colorings, modular colorings, edge-graceful colorings, twin edge colorings and binomial colorings. Since many of the concepts described in this book are relatively recent, the audience for this book is primarily mathematicians interested in learning some new areas of graph colorings...

  14. Offshore wind power in Sweden—A qualitative analysis of attitudes with particular focus on opponents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish Parliament has voted for massive expansion of wind power within the next decade. As in many other countries, the establishment of new wind farms has aroused local opposition. This paper contributes to the literature using a qualitative methodology to analyse attitudes towards wind power. In 2007, we carried out in-depth interviews with 40 stakeholders concerned with two planned near-shore farms in Sweden; despite their location, the wind farms' visual impact provoked strong negative attitudes. However, we found no evidence of the NIMBY-syndrome; rather, those opposing the wind farms question wind power more generally, especially vis-à-vis nuclear power. The analysis of attitudes is based on three components: cognition, feeling and action tendency. The results show high consistency between the feeling and cognitive components of attitudes: a negative feeling regarding landscape impact, for example, is accompanied by a belief that wind power is inefficient and unprofitable. However, in many cases the action tendency component is in dissonance with the other two: opponents remain passive despite being against the establishment of new wind farms. These passive opponents represent elements of uncertainty as they may suddenly, at a late stage, turn into active opponents exerting an effect on the decision process. - Highlights: ► Opposition to near-shore wind farms expressed in in-depth interviews is analysed. ► Wind power is viewed as a threat to landscape qualities regardless of proximity. ► Inefficiency and unprofitability are reasons to question wind power establishments. ► Passive opposition is an element of uncertainty that may turn into active opposition. ► Understanding of local response must rest on level of support as well as activity.

  15. Contribution of a luminance-dependent S-cone mechanism to non-assimilative color spreading in the watercolor configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji eKimura

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the watercolor configuration composed of wavy double contours, both assimilative and non-assimilative color spreading have been demonstrated depending on the luminance conditions of the inner and outer contours (IC and OC, respectively. This study investigated how the induced color in the watercolor configuration was modulated by combinations of the IC and the OC color, particularly addressing non-assimilative color spreading. In two experiments, the IC color was fixed to a certain color and combined with various colors selected from a hue circle centered at the background white color. Color spreading was quantified with a chromatic cancellation technique. Results showed that both the magnitude and the apparent hue of the color spreading were largely changed with the luminance condition. When the IC contrast (Weber contrast of the IC to the background luminance was smaller in size than the OC contrast (higher IC luminance condition, the color spreading was assimilative. When the luminance condition was reversed and the IC contrast was greater than the OC contrast (lower IC luminance condition, the color spreading was non-assimilative and yellowish. When the color spreading was analyzed in terms of cone-opponent excitations, the results were consistent with the interpretation that the color spreading is explainable by a combination of chromatic diffusion from the IC and chromatically opponent induction from the OC. The color spreading in the higher IC luminance condition mainly reflected the chromatic diffusion by both (L–M and S cone-opponent mechanisms. The non-assimilative color spreading in the lower IC luminance condition mostly reflected S-cone mediated opponent induction and the contribution of -S inducing mechanisms was differentially large. These findings provided several constraints on possible visual mechanisms underlying the watercolor effect.

  16. Feasibility of use of color-coded rings by nurse midwives: An appropriate technology based on partographic principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha K Pratinidhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the feasibility of use of color-coded rings as a proxy for partograph for early identification of slow progress of labor. Materials and Methods: Color-coded rings were devised as a tool using appropriate technology to translate the partographic principles into simpler, easy to understand methodology. The rings were in pairs of 4 colors i.e., red, blue, yellow, and green, ranging from 3 cm to 10 cm in diameter with a difference of 4 cm between rings of the same color. The midwife performed p/v examination of the woman in labor to assess the initial cervical dilatation and identify corresponding ring. P/V was to be repeated after 4 hours to reassess the cervical dilatation and compare it with the bigger ring of the same color indicating expected cervical dilatation. If existing cervical dilatation measured lesser, it was interpreted as slow progress of labor indicating referral. Results: 44 women [23 (22.1% primis and 21 (13% multis] showed delayed progress of labor as judged by use of color-coded rings. 20 women (4 primis and 16 multis showed satisfactory progress or delivered by the time arrangements for referral were made. Conclusion: Use of color-coded rings may serve as a valuable tool based on appropriate technology to assess slow progress of labor not only in the hands of nurse midwives but it also can serve as a training tool for TBAs to help facilitate timely referral of such cases.

  17. Color Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rose in full bloom. If you have a color vision defect, you may see these colors differently than most people. There are three main kinds of color vision defects. Red-green color vision defects are the ...

  18. Color Homography

    OpenAIRE

    Finlayson, Graham; Gong, Han; Fisher, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We show the surprising result that colors across a change in viewing condition (changing light color, shading and camera) are related by a homography. Our homography color correction application delivers improved color fidelity compared with the linear least-square.

  19. Communication, opponents, and clan performance in online games: a social network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong Joo; Choi, Jaewon; Kim, Jong Woo; Park, Sung Joo; Gloor, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Online gamers form clans voluntarily to play together and to discuss their real and virtual lives. Although these clans have diverse goals, they seek to increase their rank in the game community by winning more battles. Communications among clan members and battles with other clans may influence the performance of a clan. In this study, we compared the effects of communication structure inside a clan, and battle networks among clans, with the performance of the clans. We collected battle histories, posts, and comments on clan pages from a Korean online game, and measured social network indices for communication and battle networks. Communication structures in terms of density and group degree centralization index had no significant association with clan performance. However, the centrality of clans in the battle network was positively related to the performance of the clan. If a clan had many battle opponents, the performance of the clan improved. PMID:23745617

  20. The Effect of Performer Gender, Performer Skill Level, and Opponent Gender on Self-Confidence in a Competitive Situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Evelyn G.

    1990-01-01

    Studies relationships among sex difference, performance expectation, and actual performance in video game competition between female and male subjects. Finds that self-confidence of females is not lower than that of males after competing against a good opponent, indicating that performance expectancies may be more related to skill level than to…

  1. Latency of chromatic information in area V4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mindy; Xian, Sherry; Rubin, Jonathan; Moore, Tirin

    2014-02-01

    In the primate visual system, information about color is known to be carried in separate divisions of the retino-geniculo-cortical pathway. From the retina, responses of photoreceptors to short (S), medium (M), and long (L) wavelengths of light are processed in two different opponent pathways. Signals in the S-opponent pathway, or blue/yellow channel, have been found to lag behind signals in the L/M-opponent pathway, or red/green channel in primary visual area V1, and psychophysical studies have suggested similar perceptual delays. However, more recent psychophysical studies have found that perceptual differences are negligible with the proper controls, suggesting that information between the two channels is integrated at some stage of processing beyond V1. To study the timing of color signals further downstream in visual cortex, we examined the responses of neurons in area V4 to colored stimuli varying along the two cardinal axes of the equiluminant opponent color space. We used information theory to measure the mutual information between the stimuli presented and the neural responses in short time windows in order to estimate the latency of color information in area V4. We found that on average, despite the latency difference in V1, information about S-opponent signals arrives in V4 at the same time as information about L/M-opponent signals. This work indicates a convergence of signal timing among chromatic channels within extrastriate cortex. PMID:23811158

  2. Honey Bee Location- and Time-Linked Memory Use in Novel Foraging Situations: Floral Color Dependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Amaya-Márquez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Learning facilitates behavioral plasticity, leading to higher success rates when foraging. However, memory is of decreasing value with changes brought about by moving to novel resource locations or activity at different times of the day. These premises suggest a foraging model with location- and time-linked memory. Thus, each problem is novel, and selection should favor a maximum likelihood approach to achieve energy maximization results. Alternatively, information is potentially always applicable. This premise suggests a different foraging model, one where initial decisions should be based on previous learning regardless of the foraging site or time. Under this second model, no problem is considered novel, and selection should favor a Bayesian or pseudo-Bayesian approach to achieve energy maximization results. We tested these two models by offering honey bees a learning situation at one location in the morning, where nectar rewards differed between flower colors, and examined their behavior at a second location in the afternoon where rewards did not differ between flower colors. Both blue-yellow and blue-white dimorphic flower patches were used. Information learned in the morning was clearly used in the afternoon at a new foraging site. Memory was not location-time restricted in terms of use when visiting either flower color dimorphism.

  3. Color Blindness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严双红

    2007-01-01

    About one in 12 boys is color-blind, and one in every 400 girls, so in each school class there are likely to be at least one or two people who are color-blind. Because they are color- blind from birth, most people do not know that they are color-

  4. Eggs and Abortion: "Women-Protective" Language Used by Opponents in Legislative Debates over Reproductive Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesudason, Sujatha; Weitz, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we undertake an examination of the presence of similar "women-protective" discourses in policy debates occurring over two bills on reproductive-related topics considered during the 2013 California legislature session. The first bill (AB154), now signed into law, allows nurse practitioners, certified nurse midwives, and physician assistants to perform first-trimester aspiration abortions. The second bill (AB926), had it passed, would remove the prohibition on paying women for providing eggs to be used for research purposes. Using frame analysis we find evidence of similar protective arguments by opponents of both bills, although these advocates do not share ideological positions on abortion rights or women's autonomy. In the case of AB154, anti-abortion advocates use language and frames that call for protecting the health of women against the imputed interests of the "abortion industry." In the case of AB926, feminists and pro-choice advocates evoke similar frameworks for the protection of women against the interests of the "medical research industry." Both sides argue for the "protection of women," from opposing positions on the rights and autonomy of women in relationship to reproductive freedom. PMID:26242947

  5. The influence of different level of opponents on internal responsesand external loads during small-sided games in soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Hůlka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Small-sided games belong to specific training where exercise intensity can be manipulated mainly by modifying external factors. To ensure suitable usage of small-sided games in practice, we have to know the variables, which could influence internal responses and external loads. Objective: The purpose of this work is to determine the influence of opponents of different levels on internal response and external load during a 4-a-side soccer game. Methods: Twenty physical education and soccer coaching students (age 22.53 ± 1.02 years; body mass index 20.83 ± 2.13 kg ⋅ m-2; peak heart rate 195.26 ± 6.05 beats ⋅ min-1 participated in the study. Heart rate, distance covered, global rate of perceived exertion, and technical demands (passes, shots, steals, turnovers were monitored. The participants were divided into two higher level teams and two lower level teams according to experts' perfomance ranking. Results: The results showed significantly lower average heart rate achieved by higher level teams in the 4-a-side game against lower level opponents compared to against higher level teams. Then lower level teams reached significantly higher average heart rate in the 4-a-side game against higher level teams than in mutual lower level team 4-a-side game. We found out significantly higher distance covered by lower level teams in 4-a-side game against higher level teams than in lower level teams mutual 4-a-side game. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrated that the performance level of opponents influence internal and external load of the players. The higher level of opponents increases the work load of lower level teams.

  6. Cooperation, leadership and numerical assessment of opponents in conflicts between groups of feral dogs (Canis lupus familiaris)

    OpenAIRE

    Bonanni, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    This thesis attempted to assess the adaptive value of the behaviour of feral dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) by using such species as a model for testing predictions based on evolutionary theories. In particular, the following topics concerning dogs’ behaviour were examined: intergroup agonistic behaviour in relation to numerical assessment of opponents, cooperative behaviour during intergroup conflicts and decision making processes during collective activity changes. The research focuse...

  7. Uncalibrated color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroney, Nathan

    2006-01-01

    Color calibration or the use of color measurement processes to characterize the color properties of a device or workflow is often expected or assumed for many color reproduction applications. However it is interesting to consider applications or situations in which color calibration is not as critical. In the first case it is possible to imagine an implicit color calibration resulting from a standardization or convergence of the colorant and substrate spectrum. In the second case it is possible to imagine cases where the device color variability is significantly less than the user color thresholds or expectations for color consistency. There are still general requirements for this form of pragmatic color but they are generally lower than for the higher end of digital color reproduction. Finally it is possible to imagine an implicit calibration that leverages in some way the highly accurate memory color for the hue of common objects. This scenario culminates with a challenge to create a natural capture calibration standard that does not require individual calibration, is spectrally diverse, is inexpensive and is environmentally friendly.

  8. Ocean Color

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Satellite-derived Ocean Color Data sets from historical and currently operational NASA and International Satellite missions including the NASA Coastal Zone Color...

  9. Color Names

    OpenAIRE

    Benavente, Robert; Van De Weijer, Joost; Vanrell, Maria; Schmid, Cordelia; Baldrich, Ramon; Verbeek, Jakob; Larlus, Diane

    2012-01-01

    International audience Within a computer vision context color naming is the action of assigning linguistic color labels to pixels, regions or objects in images. Humans use color names routinely and seemingly without effort to describe the world around us. They have been primarily studied in the fields of visual psychology, anthropology and linguistics [17]. Color names are for example used in the context of image retrieval. A user might query an image search engine for "red cars". The syste...

  10. Memory of opponents is more potent than visual sign stimuli after social hierarchy has been established

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzan, W.J.; Höglund, Erik; Watt, M.J.;

    2007-01-01

    when animals were re-introduced, regardless of visual signal reversal or length of separation between interactions. However in males with "normal" eyespot color, dominant males had reduced serotonergic activity in CA3 and raphe, while subordinate males exhibited elevated CA3 dopaminergic activity...

  11. Color Categories and Color Appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

  12. Color Terms and Color Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, Jules

    2006-01-01

    In their lead articles, both Kowalski and Zimiles (2006) and O'Hanlon and Roberson (2006) declare a general relation between color term knowledge and the ability to conceptually represent color. Kowalski and Zimiles, in particular, argue for a priority for the conceptual representation in color term acquisition. The complexities of the interaction…

  13. Opposing effects of atropine and timolol on the color and luminance emmetropization mechanisms in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Laura A; Rucker, Frances J

    2016-05-01

    This study analyzed the luminance and color emmetropization response in chicks treated with the nonselective parasympathetic antagonist atropine and the sympathetic β-receptor blocker timolol. Chicks were binocularly exposed (8h/day) for 4days to one of three illumination conditions: 2Hz sinusoidal luminance flicker, 2Hz sinusoidal blue/yellow color flicker, or steady light (mean 680lux). Atropine experiments involved monocular daily injections of either 20μl of atropine (18nmol) or 20μl of phosphate-buffered saline. Timolol experiments involved monocular daily applications of 2 drops of 0.5% timolol or 2 drops of distilled H2O. Changes in the experimental eye were compared with those in the fellow eye after correction for the effects of saline/water treatments. Atropine caused a reduction in axial length with both luminance flicker (-0.078±0.021mm) and color flicker (-0.054±0.017mm), and a reduction in vitreous chamber depth with luminance flicker (-0.095±0.023mm), evoking a hyperopic shift in refraction (3.40±1.77D). Timolol produced an increase in axial length with luminance flicker (0.045±0.030mm) and a myopic shift in refraction (-4.07±0.92D), while color flicker caused a significant decrease in axial length (-0.046±0.017mm) that was associated with choroidal thinning (-0.046±0.015mm). The opposing effects on growth and refraction seen with atropine and timolol suggest a balancing mechanism between the parasympathetic and β-receptor mediated sympathetic system through stimulation of the retina with luminance and color contrast. PMID:26971621

  14. Modeling human color categorization: color discrimination and color memory

    OpenAIRE

    Broek, van den, M.M.P.; Hendriks, M.A.; Puts, M.J.H.; Heskes, T.; Lucas, P.; Vuurpijl, L.G.; W. Wiegerinck

    2003-01-01

    Color matching in Content-Based Image Retrieval is done using a color space and measuring distances between colors. Such an approach yields non-intuitive results for the user. We introduce color categories (or focal colors), determine that they are valid, and use them in two experiments. The experiments conducted prove the difference between color categorization by the cognitive processes color discrimination and color memory. In addition, they yield a Color Look-Up Table, which can improve c...

  15. Color Portraits: From Color Picking to Interacting with Color

    OpenAIRE

    Jalal, Ghita; Maudet, Nolwenn; Mackay, Wendy E.

    2015-01-01

    Although ubiquitous, color pickers have remained largely unchanged for 25 years. Based on contextual interviews with artists and designers, we created the Color Portraits design space to characterize five key color manipulation activities: sampling and tweaking individual colors, manipulating color relationships, combining colors with other elements, revisiting previous color choices, and revealing a design process through color. We found similar color manipulation requirements with scientist...

  16. COLOR IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Lafon

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to present specific capabilities and limitations of the use of color digital images in a characterization process. The whole process is investigated, from the acquisition of digital color images to the analysis of the information relevant to various applications in the field of material characterization. A digital color image can be considered as a matrix of pixels with values expressed in a vector-space (commonly 3 dimensional space whose specificity, compared to grey-scale images, is to ensure a coding and a representation of the output image (visualisation printing that fits the human visual reality. In a characterization process, it is interesting to regard color image attnbutes as a set of visual aspect measurements on a material surface. Color measurement systems (spectrocolorimeters, colorimeters and radiometers and cameras use the same type of light detectors: most of them use Charge Coupled Devices sensors. The difference between the two types of color data acquisition systems is that color measurement systems provide a global information of the observed surface (average aspect of the surface: the color texture is not taken into account. Thus, it seems interesting to use imaging systems as measuring instruments for the quantitative characterization of the color texture.

  17. Put your Hands up in the Air? The Interpersonal Effects of Pride and Shame Expressions on Opponents and Teammates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip eFurley

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research was to investigate the interpersonal effects of pride and shame expressions amongst opponents and teammates in a soccer penalty scenario. Across a series of experiments using the point-light method, pride and shame expressions exerted strong effects upon observers’ anticipated emotions, associated cognitions, and performance expectations. Using the Implicit Association Test (IAT in two pilot studies we demonstrated that the created pride and shame point-light stimuli were implicitly associated with status and performance related attributes. In Experiment 1, observing pride expressions caused opponents to anticipate more negative emotions, cognitions, and lower performance expectancies towards their next performance in comparison with neutral expressions. In contrast, pride expressions led teammates to anticipate more positive emotions (i.e., pride and happiness, cognitions, and performance expectations towards their next performance than neutral expressions (Experiments 2-4. The results are discussed within the emotions as social information (EASI, van Kleef, 2009 framework by arguing that the social context has to be taken into account when investigating the interpersonal effects of emotion expressions. In conclusion, the present research highlights the potential interpersonal influence of the nonverbal expressions of pride and shame in soccer penalty shootouts.

  18. Ready for a fight? The physiological effects of detecting an opponent's pheromone cues prior to a contest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Mark J; Williams, John; Sinderman, Benjamin; Earley, Ryan L

    2015-10-01

    Reception of pheromone cues can elicit significant physiological (e.g. steroid hormone levels) changes in the recipient. These pheromone-induced physiological changes have been well documented for male-female interactions, but scarcely in same-sex interactions (male-male and female-female). We sought to address this dearth in the current literature and examine whether mangrove rivulus fish (Kryptolebias marmoratus) could detect and, ultimately, mount a physiological response to the pheromone signature of a potential, same-sex competitor. We examined steroid hormone levels in mangrove rivulus exposed to one of three treatments: 1) isolation, 2) exposure to pheromones of a size-matched partner, and 3) pheromone exposure to a size-matched opponent followed by a physical encounter with the opponent. We found that exposure to a competitor's pheromone cues elicited a significant increase in testosterone levels. Increases in testosterone were similar across genetically distinct lineages derived from geographically distinct populations. Further, testosterone levels were similar between individuals only exposed to pheromone cues and individuals exposed to both pheromone cues and a subsequent physical encounter. Our findings led us to generate a number of testable predictions regarding how mangrove rivulus utilize pheromone signals in social interactions, the molecular mechanisms linking social stimuli and hormonal responses, and the possible adaptive benefits of hormonal responsiveness to receiving a potential competitor's pheromone cues. PMID:26002821

  19. Cue combination and color edge detection in natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunhong; Mel, Bartlett W

    2008-01-01

    Biological vision systems are adept at combining cues to maximize the reliability of object boundary detection, but given a set of co-localized edge detectors operating on different sensory channels, how should their responses be combined to compute overall edge probability? To approach this question, we collected joint responses of red-green and blue-yellow edge detectors both ON- and OFF-edges using a human-labeled image database as ground truth (D. Martin, C. Fowlkes, D. Tal, & J. Malik, 2001). From a Bayesian perspective, the rule for combining edge cues is linear in the individual cue strengths when the ON-edge and OFF-edge joint distributions are (1) statistically independent and (2) lie in an exponential ratio to each other. Neither condition held in the color edge data we collected, and the function P(ON cues)-dubbed the "combination rule"-was correspondingly complex and nonlinear. To characterize the statistical dependencies between edge cues, we developed a generative model ("saturated common factor," SCF) that provided good fits to the measured ON-edge and OFF-edge joint distributions. We also found that a divisive normalization scheme derived from the SCF model transformed raw edge detector responses into values with simpler distributions that satisfied both preconditions for a linear combination rule. A comparison to another normalization scheme (O. Schwartz & E. Simoncelli, 2001) suggests that apparently minor details of the normalization process can strongly influence its performance. Implications of the SCF normalization scheme for cue combination in biological sensory systems are discussed. PMID:18484843

  20. Color matrix display simulation based upon luminance and chromatic contrast sensitivity of early vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Russel A.; Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.; Larimer, James O.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the design and operation of a new simulation model for color matrix display development. It models the physical structure, the signal processing, and the visual perception of static displays, to allow optimization of display design parameters through image quality measures. The model is simple, implemented in the Mathematica computer language, and highly modular. Signal processing modules operate on the original image. The hardware modules describe backlights and filters, the pixel shape, and the tiling of the pixels over the display. Small regions of the displayed image can be visualized on a CRT. Visual perception modules assume static foveal images. The image is converted into cone catches and then into luminance, red-green, and blue-yellow images. A Haar transform pyramid separates the three images into spatial frequency and direction-specific channels. The channels are scaled by weights taken from human contrast sensitivity measurements of chromatic and luminance mechanisms at similar frequencies and orientations. Each channel provides a detectability measure. These measures allow the comparison of images displayed on prospective devices and, by that, the optimization of display designs.

  1. Opponent actor learning (OpAL): modeling interactive effects of striatal dopamine on reinforcement learning and choice incentive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Anne G E; Frank, Michael J

    2014-07-01

    The striatal dopaminergic system has been implicated in reinforcement learning (RL), motor performance, and incentive motivation. Various computational models have been proposed to account for each of these effects individually, but a formal analysis of their interactions is lacking. Here we present a novel algorithmic model expanding the classical actor-critic architecture to include fundamental interactive properties of neural circuit models, incorporating both incentive and learning effects into a single theoretical framework. The standard actor is replaced by a dual opponent actor system representing distinct striatal populations, which come to differentially specialize in discriminating positive and negative action values. Dopamine modulates the degree to which each actor component contributes to both learning and choice discriminations. In contrast to standard frameworks, this model simultaneously captures documented effects of dopamine on both learning and choice incentive-and their interactions-across a variety of studies, including probabilistic RL, effort-based choice, and motor skill learning. PMID:25090423

  2. Physiological outperformance at the morphologically-transformed edge of the cyanobacteriosponge Terpios hoshinota (Suberitidae: Hadromerida when confronting opponent corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Terng Wang

    Full Text Available Terpios hoshinota, an encrusting cyanosponge, is known as a strong substrate competitor of reef-building corals that kills encountered coral by overgrowth. Terpios outbreaks cause significant declines in living coral cover in Indo-Pacific coral reefs, with the damage usually lasting for decades. Recent studies show that there are morphological transformations at a sponge's growth front when confronting corals. Whether these morphological transformations at coral contacts are involved with physiological outperformance (e.g., higher metabolic activity or nutritional status over other portions of Terpios remains equivocal. In this study, we compared the indicators of photosynthetic capability and nitrogen status of a sponge-cyanobacteria association at proximal, middle, and distal portions of opponent corals. Terpios tissues in contact with corals displayed significant increases in photosynthetic oxygen production (ca. 61%, the δ13C value (ca. 4%, free proteinogenic amino acid content (ca. 85%, and Gln/Glu ratio (ca. 115% compared to middle and distal parts of the sponge. In contrast, the maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm, which is the indicator usually used to represent the integrity of photosystem II, of cyanobacteria photosynthesis was low (0.256~0.319 and showed an inverse trend of higher values in the distal portion of the sponge that might be due to high and variable levels of cyanobacterial phycocyanin. The inconsistent results between photosynthetic oxygen production and Fv/Fm values indicated that maximum quantum yields might not be a suitable indicator to represent the photosynthetic function of the Terpios-cyanobacteria association. Our data conclusively suggest that Terpios hoshinota competes with opponent corals not only by the morphological transformation of the sponge-cyanobacteria association but also by physiological outperformance in accumulating resources for the battle.

  3. Modeling human color categorization: color discrimination and color memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den E.L.; Hendriks, M.A.; Puts, M.J.H.; Vuurpijl, L.G.; Heskes, T.; Lucas, P.; Vuurpijl, L.G.; Wiegerinck, W.

    2003-01-01

    Color matching in Content-Based Image Retrieval is done using a color space and measuring distances between colors. Such an approach yields non-intuitive results for the user. We introduce color categories (or focal colors), determine that they are valid, and use them in two experiments. The experim

  4. Color superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilczek, F. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1997-09-22

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken.

  5. A Vision Chip for Color Segmentation and Pattern Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Etienne-Cummings

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A 128(H × 64(V × RGB CMOS imager is integrated with region-of-interest selection, RGB-to-HSI transformation, HSI-based pixel segmentation, (36bins × 12bits-HSI histogramming, and sum-of-absolute-difference (SAD template matching. Thirty-two learned color templates are stored and compared to each image. The chip captures the R, G, and B images using in-pixel storage before passing the pixel content to a multiplying digital-to-analog converter (DAC for white balancing. The DAC can also be used to pipe in images for a PC. The color processing uses a biologically inspired color opponent representation and an analog lookup table to determine the Hue (H of each pixel. Saturation (S is computed using a loser-take-all circuit. Intensity (I is given by the sum of the color components. A histogram of the segments of the image, constructed by counting the number of pixels falling into 36 Hue intervals of 10 degrees, is stored on a chip and compared against the histograms of new segments using SAD comparisons. We demonstrate color-based image segmentation and object recognition with this chip. Running at 30 fps, it uses 1 mW. To our knowledge, this is the first chip that integrates imaging, color segmentation, and color-based object recognition at the focal plane.

  6. Color Sense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Heidi S. S.; Maki, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports a study conducted by members of the WellU Academic Integration Subcommittee of The College of St. Scholastica's College's Healthy Campus Initiative plan whose purpose was to determine whether changing color in the classroom could have a measurable effect on students. One simple improvement a school can make in a classroom is…

  7. Color tejido

    OpenAIRE

    Rius Tormo, Palmira

    2010-01-01

    La exposición que se propone tiene como núcleo principal el color y muestra las posibilidades expresivas que aporta a los diferentes materiales. Las 7 obras presentadas buscan la armonía estética y la fuerza simbólica.

  8. Impartial coloring games

    CERN Document Server

    Beaulieu, Gabriel; Duchêne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Coloring games are combinatorial games where the players alternate painting uncolored vertices of a graph one of $k > 0$ colors. Each different ruleset specifies that game's coloring constraints. This paper investigates six impartial rulesets (five new), derived from previously-studied graph coloring schemes, including proper map coloring, oriented coloring, 2-distance coloring, weak coloring, and sequential coloring. For each, we study the outcome classes for special cases and general computational complexity. In some cases we pay special attention to the Grundy function.

  9. Colorful drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakio, Satu; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2010-03-01

    Drying is one of the standard unit operations in the pharmaceutical industry and it is important to become aware of the circumstances that dominate during the process. The purpose of this study was to test microcapsulated thermochromic pigments as heat indicators in a fluid bed drying process. The indicator powders were manually granulated with alpha-lactose monohydrate resulting in three particle-size groups. Also, pellets were coated with the indicator powders. The granules and pellets were fluidized in fluid bed dryer to observe the progress of the heat flow in the material and to study the heat indicator properties of the indicator materials. A tristimulus colorimeter was used to measure CIELAB color values. Color indicator for heat detection can be utilized to test if the heat-sensitive API would go through physical changes during the pharmaceutical drying process. Both the prepared granules and pellets can be used as heat indicator in fluid bed drying process. The colored heat indicators give an opportunity to learn new aspects of the process at real time and could be exploded, for example, for scaling-up studies. PMID:20039220

  10. Color Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, B; Takada, M; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Connolly, Andrew; Takada, Masahiro

    2006-01-01

    Lensing tomography with multi-color imaging surveys can probe dark energy and the cosmological power spectrum. However accurate photometric redshifts for tomography out to high redshift require imaging in five or more bands, which is expensive to carry out over thousands of square degrees. Since lensing makes coarse, statistical use of redshift information, we explore the prospects for tomography using limited color information from two or three band imaging. With an appropriate calibration sample, we find that it is feasible to create up to four redshift bins using imaging data in just the g, r and i bands. We construct such redshift sub-samples from mock catalogs by clustering galaxies in color space and discarding regions with poorly-defined redshift distributions. The loss of galaxy number density decreases the accuracy of lensing measurements, but even losing half or more of the galaxies is not a severe loss for large area surveys. We estimate the errors on lensing power spectra and dark energy parameter...

  11. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase dependent inhibition as a broad basis for opponent coding in Mammalian olfactory receptor neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill Ukhanov

    Full Text Available Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K signaling has been implicated in mediating inhibitory odorant input to mammalian olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs. To better understand the breadth of such inhibition in odor coding, we screened a panel of odorants representing different chemical classes, as well as odorants known to occur in a natural odor object (tomato, for their ability to rapidly activate PI3K-dependent inhibitory signaling. Odorants were screened on dissociated native rat ORNs before and after pre-incubation with the PI3K-isoform specific blockers AS252424 and TGX221. Many different odorants increased their excitatory strength for particular ORNs following PI3K blockade in a manner consistent with activating PI3K-dependent inhibitory signaling in those cells. The PI3K-dependent inhibitory odorants overlapped with conventional excitatory odorants, but did not share the same bias, indicating partial partitioning of the odor space. Finding that PI3K-dependent inhibition can be activated by a wide range of otherwise conventional excitatory odorants strongly implies PI3K-dependent inhibition provides a broad basis for opponent coding in mammalian ORNs.

  12. Computational color technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Henry R

    2006-01-01

    Henry Kang provides the fundamental color principles and mathematical tools to prepare the reader for a new era of color reproduction, and for subsequent applications in multispectral imaging, medical imaging, remote sensing, and machine vision. This book is intended to bridge the gap between color science and computational color technology, putting color adaptation, color constancy, color transforms, color display, and color rendition in the domain of vector-matrix representations and theories. Computational Color Technology deals with color digital images on the spectral level using vector-m

  13. Color space conversion for linear color grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dah-Jye

    2000-10-01

    Color grading is an important process for various industries such as food processing, fruit and vegetable grading, etc. Quality and price are often determined by the color of product. For example, darker red color for apples means higher price. In color machine vision applications, image is acquired with a color CCD camera that outputs color information in three channels, red, gree, and blue. When grading color, these three primary colors must be processed to determine the color level for separation. A very popular color space conversion technique for color image processing is RGB-to-HSI, where HSI represents hue, saturation, and intensity, respectively. However, the conversion result is still 3D information that makes determining color grades very difficult. A new color space conversion technique that can be implemented for high-speed real-time processing for color grading is introduced in this paper. Depending on the application, different color space conversion equations must be used. The result of this technique is a simple one-dimensional array that represents different color levels. This linear array makes linear color grading adjustment possible.

  14. Hidden Color

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the acceptance of QCD as the fundamental theory of strong interactions, one of the basic problems in the analysis of nuclear phenomena became how to consistently account for the effects of the underlying quark/gluon structure of nucleons and nuclei. Besides providing more detailed understanding of conventional nuclear physics, QCD may also point to novel phenomena accessible by new or upgraded nuclear experimental facilities. We discuss a few interesting applications of QCD to nuclear physics with an emphasis on the hidden color degrees of freedom

  15. Exploring Opponent Formats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Møller; Rasmussen, Majken; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2013-01-01

    The recent growth in development and research in computer-supported physical games has sprouted a wide variety of games merging qualities from both computer games and sports. Despite the increasing interest in this type of games, exploration of their specific game mechanics and the understanding ...

  16. The relationship of psychophysiological characteristics karate qualifications in light weight category with the effective implementation of kick leg techniques in upper level of the opponent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Saienko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: set the density of the relationship of psycho-physiological characteristics of karate qualifications in light weight category with the efficiency of the implementation of kick leg techniques in the upper level of the opponent. Material and Methods: The study involved thirty highly skilled karatekas in light weight category. Conducted pedagogical and psychophysiological testing, carried out an analysis of competitive actions, carried out a special analysis of scientific and methodical literature, applied the methods of mathematical statistics. Results: The degree of correlation between the obtained numerical results of psycho-physiological characteristics and indicators of the effectiveness different types of gradient kicking karate qualifications in light weight category in upper level of the opponent. Conclusions: karatekas high qualifications in light weight category, the higher the strength of neural processes in the processing of information in the imposed rhythm, the more reliable in a competitive match under implementation methods kick leg them with maximum power and speed-up in upper level of the opponent, and at the higher they characteristic of functional mobility of nervous processes in the processing of information in the imposed rhythm, the greater the likelihood of fighters attacking moves fast.

  17. The Disunity of Color

    OpenAIRE

    Matthen, Mohan

    1999-01-01

    What is color? What is color vision? Most philosophers answer by reference to humans: to human color qualia, or to the environmental properties or "quality spaces" perceived by humans. It is argued, with reference to empirical findings concerning comparative color vision and the evolution of color vision, that all such attempts are mistaken. An adequate definition of color vision must eschew reference to its outputs in the human cognition and refer only to inputs: color vision consists in...

  18. Using color management in color document processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehab, Smadar

    1995-04-01

    Color Management Systems have been used for several years in Desktop Publishing (DTP) environments. While this development hasn't matured yet, we are already experiencing the next generation of the color imaging revolution-Device Independent Color for the small office/home office (SOHO) environment. Though there are still open technical issues with device independent color matching, they are not the focal point of this paper. This paper discusses two new and crucial aspects in using color management in color document processing: the management of color objects and their associated color rendering methods; a proposal for a precedence order and handshaking protocol among the various software components involved in color document processing. As color peripherals become affordable to the SOHO market, color management also becomes a prerequisite for common document authoring applications such as word processors. The first color management solutions were oriented towards DTP environments whose requirements were largely different. For example, DTP documents are image-centric, as opposed to SOHO documents that are text and charts centric. To achieve optimal reproduction on low-cost SOHO peripherals, it is critical that different color rendering methods are used for the different document object types. The first challenge in using color management of color document processing is the association of rendering methods with object types. As a result of an evolutionary process, color matching solutions are now available as application software, as driver embedded software and as operating system extensions. Consequently, document processing faces a new challenge, the correct selection of the color matching solution while avoiding duplicate color corrections.

  19. Color features for dating historical color images

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando, Basura; Muselet, Damien; Khan, Rahat; Tuytelaars, Tinne

    2014-01-01

    Fernando B., Muselet D., Khan R., Tuytelaars T., ''Color features for dating historical color image'', IEEE international conference on image processing - ICIP 2014, 5 pp., October 27-30, 2014, Paris, France.

  20. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  1. Skin color - patchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003224.htm Skin color - patchy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Patchy skin color is areas where the skin color is irregular. ...

  2. LED Color Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-01

    Color quality is an important consideration when evaluating LED-based products for general illumination. This fact sheet reviews the basics regarding light and color and summarizes the most important color issues related to white-light LED systems.

  3. Skin color - patchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchy skin color is areas where the skin color is irregular. Mottling or mottled skin refers to blood vessel changes in ... in the skin cells that gives skin its color Growth of bacteria or other organisms on the ...

  4. Unit 50 - Color

    OpenAIRE

    Unit 57, CC in GIS; Kimerling, Jon

    1990-01-01

    This unit presents an overview of topics related to color, including its physical basis, human visual perception, how color is generated by a CRT and created on paper and how color is measured and specified.

  5. Digital color imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Maloigne, Christine; Macaire, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    This collective work identifies the latest developments in the field of the automatic processing and analysis of digital color images.For researchers and students, it represents a critical state of the art on the scientific issues raised by the various steps constituting the chain of color image processing.It covers a wide range of topics related to computational color imaging, including color filtering and segmentation, color texture characterization, color invariant for object recognition, color and motion analysis, as well as color image and video indexing and retrieval. <

  6. Color grading and colors in film

    OpenAIRE

    Výbora, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focuses on use of colors in film industry and the possibilities of color grading. It examines manipulation with colors in film history, and examines color theory, which in- cludes their use, meanings and ways of combining them. Next, it maps common visuals styles used in film industry and compares how frequently they are used. With the help of all gathered knowledge, it presents few ways how to color grade in DaVinci Resolve software to achieve desired look. The outcome of the col...

  7. A Bio-Inspired AER Temporal Tri-Color Differentiator Pixel Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farian, Łukasz; Leñero-Bardallo, Juan Antonio; Häfliger, Philipp

    2015-10-01

    This article investigates the potential of a bio-inspired vision sensor with pixels that detect transients between three primary colors. The in-pixel color processing is inspired by the retinal color opponency that are found in mammalian retinas. Color transitions in a pixel are represented by voltage spikes, which are akin to a neuron's action potential. These spikes are conveyed off-chip by the Address Event Representation (AER) protocol. To achieve sensitivity to three different color spectra within the visual spectrum, each pixel has three stacked photodiodes at different depths in the silicon substrate. The sensor has been fabricated in the standard TSMC 90 nm CMOS technology. A post-processing method to decode events into color transitions has been proposed and implemented as a custom interface to display real-time color changes in the visual scene. Experimental results are provided. Color transitions can be detected at high speed (up to 2.7 kHz). The sensor has a dynamic range of 58 dB and a power consumption of 22.5 mW. This type of sensor can be of use in industrial, robotics, automotive and other applications where essential information is contained in transient emissions shifts within the visual spectrum. PMID:26540694

  8. On Partitioning Colored Points

    CERN Document Server

    Toda, Takahisa

    2010-01-01

    P. Kirchberger proved that, for a finite subset $X$ of $\\mathbb{R}^{d}$ such that each point in $X$ is painted with one of two colors, if every $d+2$ or fewer points in $X$ can be separated along the colors, then all the points in $X$ can be separated along the colors. In this paper, we show a more colorful theorem.

  9. Texture affects color emotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Lucassen; T. Gevers; A. Gijsenij

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have recorded color emotions in subjects viewing uniform color (UC) samples. We conduct an experiment to measure and model how these color emotions change when texture is added to the color samples. Using a computer monitor, our subjects arrange samples along four scales: warm-cool,

  10. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. ... Abnormal urine color may be caused by infection, disease, medicines, or food you eat. Cloudy or milky urine is a sign ...

  11. Color vision test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eye test -- color; Vision test -- color; Ishihara color vision test ... lighting. The health care provider will explain the test to you. You will be shown several cards with colored dot patterns. These cards are called Ishihara plates. In the patterns, some of the dots ...

  12. Facts About Color Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quickly diagnose specific types of color blindness. The Ishihara Color Test is the most common test for red-green ... red-green color blindness. The newer Cambridge Color Test uses a visual array similar to the Ishihara plates, except displayed on a computer monitor. The ...

  13. Industrial Color Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Georg A

    2010-01-01

    This unique book starts with a short historical overview of the development of the theories of color vision and applications of industrial color physics. The three dominant factors producing color - light source, color sample, and observer - are described in detail. The standardized color spaces are shown and related color values are applied to characteristic color qualities of absorption as well as of effect colorants. The fundamentals of spectrometric and colorimetric measuring techniques together with specific applications are described. Theoretical models for radiative transfer in transparent, translucent, and opaque layers are detailed; the two, three, and multi-flux approximations are presented for the first time in a coherent formalism. These methods constitute the fundamentals not only for the important classical methods, but also modern methods of recipe prediction applicable to all known colorants. The text is supplied with 52 tables, more than 200 partially colored illustrations, an appendix, and a...

  14. The road coloring problem

    OpenAIRE

    Trahtman, A. N.

    2007-01-01

    The synchronizing word of deterministic automaton is a word in the alphabet of colors (considered as letters) of its edges that maps the automaton to a single state. A coloring of edges of a directed graph is synchronizing if the coloring turns the graph into deterministic finite automaton possessing a synchronizing word. The road coloring problem is a problem of synchronizing coloring of directed finite strongly connected graph with constant outdegree of all its vertices if the greatest comm...

  15. What color is it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschbach, Reiner; Sharma, Gaurav; Unal, Gozde B.

    2005-01-01

    Color management allows the deterministic handling of color data from input to output. This, of course, assumes that the first digital representation of our data is the "correct" color. It assumes that we did not make any errors in the input definitions, did not use wrong color input profiles, captured the user's intent, or fell prey to a host of other potential problems. After we have made those assumptions, we now can deterministically transfer the color from one place to another. Note that there is a big difference between "reproducing" one color at a different location and "deterministically transferring one set of color data to another location". The deterministic transfer is limited to the small set of physical metrics we decided to call "color". All other components of color are ignored.

  16. Representation of Perceptual Color Space in Macaque Posterior Inferior Temporal Cortex (the V4 Complex)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohon, Kaitlin S.; Hermann, Katherine L.; Hansen, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The lateral geniculate nucleus is thought to represent color using two populations of cone-opponent neurons [L vs M; S vs (L + M)], which establish the cardinal directions in color space (reddish vs cyan; lavender vs lime). How is this representation transformed to bring about color perception? Prior work implicates populations of glob cells in posterior inferior temporal cortex (PIT; the V4 complex), but the correspondence between the neural representation of color in PIT/V4 complex and the organization of perceptual color space is unclear. We compared color-tuning data for populations of glob cells and interglob cells to predictions obtained using models that varied in the color-tuning narrowness of the cells, and the color preference distribution across the populations. Glob cells were best accounted for by simulated neurons that have nonlinear (narrow) tuning and, as a population, represent a color space designed to be perceptually uniform (CIELUV). Multidimensional scaling and representational similarity analyses showed that the color space representations in both glob and interglob populations were correlated with the organization of CIELUV space, but glob cells showed a stronger correlation. Hue could be classified invariant to luminance with high accuracy given glob responses and above-chance accuracy given interglob responses. Luminance could be read out invariant to changes in hue in both populations, but interglob cells tended to prefer stimuli having luminance contrast, regardless of hue, whereas glob cells typically retained hue tuning as luminance contrast was modulated. The combined luminance/hue sensitivity of glob cells is predicted for neurons that can distinguish two colors of the same hue at different luminance levels (orange/brown). PMID:27595132

  17. Representation of Perceptual Color Space in Macaque Posterior Inferior Temporal Cortex (the V4 Complex).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohon, Kaitlin S; Hermann, Katherine L; Hansen, Thorsten; Conway, Bevil R

    2016-01-01

    The lateral geniculate nucleus is thought to represent color using two populations of cone-opponent neurons [L vs M; S vs (L + M)], which establish the cardinal directions in color space (reddish vs cyan; lavender vs lime). How is this representation transformed to bring about color perception? Prior work implicates populations of glob cells in posterior inferior temporal cortex (PIT; the V4 complex), but the correspondence between the neural representation of color in PIT/V4 complex and the organization of perceptual color space is unclear. We compared color-tuning data for populations of glob cells and interglob cells to predictions obtained using models that varied in the color-tuning narrowness of the cells, and the color preference distribution across the populations. Glob cells were best accounted for by simulated neurons that have nonlinear (narrow) tuning and, as a population, represent a color space designed to be perceptually uniform (CIELUV). Multidimensional scaling and representational similarity analyses showed that the color space representations in both glob and interglob populations were correlated with the organization of CIELUV space, but glob cells showed a stronger correlation. Hue could be classified invariant to luminance with high accuracy given glob responses and above-chance accuracy given interglob responses. Luminance could be read out invariant to changes in hue in both populations, but interglob cells tended to prefer stimuli having luminance contrast, regardless of hue, whereas glob cells typically retained hue tuning as luminance contrast was modulated. The combined luminance/hue sensitivity of glob cells is predicted for neurons that can distinguish two colors of the same hue at different luminance levels (orange/brown). PMID:27595132

  18. Light, Color, and Mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiburzi, Brian; Tamborino, Laurie; Parker, Gordon A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes an exercise in which students can use flashlights, mirrors, and colored paper to discover scientific principles regarding optics. Addresses the concepts of angles of incidence and reflection, colored vs. white light, and mirror images. (WRM)

  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ... high eye pressure damages the optic nerve. When Cancer Treatment Caused Cataracts, Surgery Helped Her See Again ...

  20. Colors Can Affect Us!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊斌

    2006-01-01

    Different colors affect us differently.The following will show us how they work. Experiment proves that math problems worked on yellow paper have fewer mistakes than problems written on other colors of paper.

  1. Introduction to Color Superconductivity

    OpenAIRE

    Nardulli, G.

    2006-01-01

    At high nuclear density and small temperature, due to the asymptotic freedom property of Quantum ChromoDynamics and to the existence of an attractive channel in the color interaction, diquark condensates might be formed. Since these condensates break the color gauge symmetry, this phenomenon has the name of color superconductivity. In the last few years this has become a very active field of research. While a direct experimental test is still missing, color superconductivity might have implic...

  2. Color rendition engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukauskas, Artūras; Vaicekauskas, Rimantas; Vitta, Pranciškus; Tuzikas, Arūnas; Petrulis, Andrius; Shur, Michael

    2012-02-27

    A source of white light with continuously tuned color rendition properties, such as color fidelity, as well as color saturating and color dulling ability has been developed. The source, which is composed of red (R), amber (A), green (G), and blue (B) light-emitting diodes, has a spectral power distribution varied as a weighted sum of "white" RGB and AGB blends. At the RGB and AGB end-points, the source has a highest color saturating and color dulling ability, respectively, as follows from the statistical analysis of the color-shift vectors for 1269 Munsell samples. The variation of the weight parameter allows for continuously traversing all possible metameric RAGB blends, including that with the highest color fidelity. The source was used in a psychophysical experiment on the estimation of the color appearance of familiar objects, such as vegetables, fruits, and soft-drink cans of common brands, at correlated color temperatures of 3000 K, 4500 K, and 6500 K. By continuously tuning the weight parameter, each of 100 subjects selected RAGB blends that, to their opinion, matched lighting characterized as "most saturating," "most dulling," "most natural," and "preferential". The end-point RGB and AGB blends have been almost unambiguously attributed to "most saturating" and "most dulling" lighting, respectively. RAGB blends that render a highest number of colors with high fidelity have, on average, been attributed to "most natural" lighting. The "preferential" color quality of lighting has, on average, been matched to RAGB blends that provide color rendition with fidelity somewhat reduced in favor of a higher saturation. Our results infer that tunable "color rendition engines" can validate color rendition metrics and provide lighting meeting specific needs and preferences to color quality. PMID:22418343

  3. White polymer light-emitting diodes co-doped with three phosphorescent iridium(III) complexes aimed at improvement of color rendering properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To obtain white electroluminescence (EL) with a high color rendering index (CRI), we fabricated polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) co-doped with high-efficiency blue-, yellow- and red-phosphorescent bis-cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes (Ir-1, Ir-2, and Ir-3, respectively) in a single emitting layer based on a PVCz-OXD-7 blended film (PVCz, poly(9-vinylcarbazole); OXD-7, 1,3-bis[5-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]benzene). When the constituent ratio of the emitting layer (PVCz:OXD-7:Ir-1:Ir-2:Ir-3) was adjusted to 10:3.0:1.2:0.060:0.036 in weight ratio, an approximately white PLED (WPLED) was obtained showing a Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinate of (0.38, 0.44) and a CRI of 83 at 1000 cd m−2. To elucidate the energy transfer among the phosphorescent emitters, we also investigated the photophysical properties of the PVCz-based thin film whose constituent ratio is the same as the emitting layer of the WPLED, and it was found that a cascade of the energy transfer from the blue to the red via the yellow emitter considerably contributes to the emission process along with the direct energy transfer from the blue to the red and yellow emitters. - Highlights: • PLEDs co-doped with three phosphorescent emitters were fabricated. • Approximately white EL with a color rendering index of 83 was obtained. • The energy transfer mechanism among the phosphorescent emitters was elucidated

  4. Color: Implications in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Sikri Vimal

    2010-01-01

    The success of restorative dentistry is determined on the basis of functional and esthetic results. To achieve esthetics, four basic determinants are required in sequence; viz., position, contour, texture and color. The knowledge of the concept of color is essential for achieving good esthetics. This review compiles the various aspects of color, its measurements and shade matching in dentistry.

  5. Tanslation of Color Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丹

    2009-01-01

    Being a minor part in the translation field,the translation of color words is far more complex than people may have imagined.Apart from the literal meaning of color words in the target language,there are other factors that affect the understanding.This paper mainly focuses on three main characteristics of color words that make the translation work difficult-color words'variations and combinations,rich symbolic meanings and culture differences.It also provides possible ways to deal with the prickly problem of finding equivalents,the complexity of transferring symbolic meanings and the subtle problem of crossing culture boundaries in translation of color words.

  6. Watermarking spot colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alattar, Osama M.; Reed, Alastair M.

    2003-06-01

    Watermarking of printed materials has usually focused on process inks of cyan, magenta, yellow and black (CMYK). In packaging, almost three out of four printed materials include spot colors. Spot colors are special premixed inks, which can be produced in a vibrant range of colors, often outside the CMYK color gamut. In embedding a watermark into printed material, a common approach is to modify the luminance value of each pixel in the image. In the case of process color work pieces, the luminance change can be scaled to the C, M, Y and K channels using a weighting function, to produce the desired change in luminance. In the case of spot color art designs, there is only one channel available and the luminance change is applied to this channel. In this paper we develop a weighting function to embed the watermark signal across the range of different spot colors. This weighting function normalizes visibility effect and signal robustness across a wide range of different spot colors. It normalizes the signal robustness level over the range of an individual spot color"s intensity levels. Further, it takes into account the sensitivity of the capturing device to the different spot colors.

  7. Technology of duotone color transformations in a color managed workflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Duotone refers to an image with various shades of a hue mapped in an vector or wedge through a color space. The colorant, the gradient curve, and the number of colorants used define the slice through the color space. The image is printed with two or more analogue colorants. The colorants may be custom formulated or selected from a named color system. Typically two colorants are placed on a substrate by a halftone procedure, and the visual result, the mixture of the two colorants, is a third color. A gamut map of the colorants requires an accurate model of the thrid color that results from halftoning and printing the two inks. Color management procedures convert this gamut model to a vector through a monitor RGB color space and then to CMYK for proofing. This paper describes such a color management procedure.

  8. Colors, colored overlays, and reading skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcangelo eUccula

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts. It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e. who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions – e.g. color, shape or movement illusions – while reading. This condition would interest the 12-14% of the general population and up to the 46% of the dyslexic population. Thus, colored overlays have been largely employed as a remedy for some aspects of the difficulties in reading experienced by dyslexic individuals, as fluency and speed. Despite the wide use of colored overlays, how they exert their effects has not been made clear yet. Also, according to some researchers, the results supporting the efficacy of colored overlays as a tool for helping readers are at least controversial. Furthermore, the very nature of the Meares-Irlen syndrome has been questioned. Here we provide a concise, critical review of the literature.

  9. S-cone excitation ratios for reaction times to blue-yellow suprathreshold changes at isoluminance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, José M; Díaz, José A

    2010-09-01

    We examined different contrast metrics to scale visual latencies for suprathreshold stimuli modulated along tritan confusion lines. S-cone increments ('blue') and decrements ('yellow') were isolated along two different tritan confusion lines, each one having a different luminance value. Reaction times (RT) were evaluated as a function of the Weber contrast and the S-cone excitation ratio between the test stimulus and the background. RTs were described using a model that generalizes Piéron's law and incorporates the notion of threshold units and power law scaling. Our results show that RTs for S-cone increments and decrements equate better when using the S-cone excitation ratio. However, a single function did not describe all RT data. S-cone RTs are better described by separate functions. We conclude that S-cone increments and decrements do not scale in the same manner. Both Weber contrast and the S-cone excitation ratio are plausible metrics at isoluminance. The implications for the S-cone pathways are discussed. PMID:20883334

  10. Color Reproduction with a Smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Lars-Jochen; Colicchia, Giuseppe; Girwidz, Raimund

    2013-01-01

    The world is full of colors. Most of the colors we see around us can be created on common digital displays simply by superposing light with three different wavelengths. However, no mixture of colors can produce a fully pure color identical to a spectral color. Using a smartphone, students can investigate the main features of primary color addition…

  11. Affective Image Colorization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hui Wang; Jia Jia; Han-Yu Liao; Lian-Hong Cai

    2012-01-01

    Colorization of gray-scale images has attracted many attentions for a long time.An important role of image color is the conveyer of emotions (through color themes).The colorization with an undesired color theme is less useful,even it is semantically correct.However this has been rarely considered.Automatic colorization respecting both the semantics and the emotions is undoubtedly a challenge.In this paper,we propose a complete system for affective image colorization.We only need the user to assist object segmentation along with text labels and an affective word.First,the text labels along with other object characters are jointly used to filter the internet images to give each object a set of semantically correct reference images.Second,we select a set of color themes according to the affective word based on art theories.With these themes,a generic algorithm is used to select the best reference for each object,balancing various requirements.Finally,we propose a hybrid texture synthesis approach for colorization.To the best of our knowledge,it is the first system which is able to efficiently colorize a gray-scale image semantically by an emotionally controllable fashion.Our experiments show the effectiveness of our system,especially the benefit compared with the previous Markov random field (MRF) based method.

  12. Enhancing Color Representation for the Color Vision Impaired

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jia-Bin; Wu, Sih-Ying; Chen, Chu-Song

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a fast re-coloring algorithm to improve the accessibility for the color vision impaired. Compared to people with normal color vision, people with color vision impairment have difficulty in distinguishing between certain combinations of colors. This may hinder visual communication owing to the increasing use of colors in recent years. To address this problem, we re-map the hue components in the HSV color space based on the statistics of local characteristics of the or...

  13. Color image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Kimberley A.; Ruck, Dennis W.; Rogers, Steven K.; Oxley, Mark E.

    1994-03-01

    The most difficult stage of automated target recognition is segmentation. Current segmentation problems include faces and tactical targets; previous efforts to segment these objects have used intensity and motion cues. This paper develops a color preprocessing scheme to be used with the other segmentation techniques. A neural network is trained to identify the color of a desired object, eliminating all but that color from the scene. Gabor correlations and 2D wavelet transformations will be performed on stationary images; and 3D wavelet transforms on multispectral data will incorporate color and motion detection into the machine visual system. The paper will demonstrate that color and motion cues can enhance a computer segmentation system. Results from segmenting faces both from the AFIT data base and from video taped television are presented; results from tactical targets such as tanks and airplanes are also given. Color preprocessing is shown to greatly improve the segmentation in most cases.

  14. Masters Colors -meikkisarjan lanseeraus

    OpenAIRE

    Muhonen, Veera; Renlund, Siri

    2013-01-01

    Toiminnallisen opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli suunnitella ja toteuttaa Masters Colors –meikkisarjan lanseeraustoimenpiteet. Opinnäytetyö toteutettiin yhteistyössä hoitolakosmetiikan maahantuontiyritys Benecom Oy:n kanssa. Yrityksen päätoimisena maahantuontisarjana toimii Guinot-hoitolakosmetiikkasarja, jonka lisäksi Benecom Oy tuo maahan Guinot-konsernin Masters Colors –meikkisarjaa sekä Cosmecology –kosmetiikkaa. Masters Colors on kehitetty laajentamaan Guinot-kauneushoitoloiden palveluvali...

  15. Visual color image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Guoping; Schaefer, Gerald

    1999-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a color image processing method by combining modern signal processing technique with knowledge about the properties of the human color vision system. Color signals are processed differently according to their visual importance. The emphasis of the technique is on the preservation of total visual quality of the image and simultaneously taking into account computational efficiency. A specific color image enhancement technique, termed Hybrid Vector Median Filtering is presented. Computer simulations have been performed to demonstrate that the new approach is technically sound and results are comparable to or better than traditional methods.

  16. Polarization encoded color camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonbrun, Ethan; Möller, Guðfríður; Di Caprio, Giuseppe

    2014-03-15

    Digital cameras would be colorblind if they did not have pixelated color filters integrated into their image sensors. Integration of conventional fixed filters, however, comes at the expense of an inability to modify the camera's spectral properties. Instead, we demonstrate a micropolarizer-based camera that can reconfigure its spectral response. Color is encoded into a linear polarization state by a chiral dispersive element and then read out in a single exposure. The polarization encoded color camera is capable of capturing three-color images at wavelengths spanning the visible to the near infrared. PMID:24690806

  17. How color effekts communication

    OpenAIRE

    Sachilovich, K. P.

    2013-01-01

    When speaking about communication, there are, in fact two aspects that come into mind, namely, verbal and non-verbal communication. By nonverbal means of communication people usually mean mimics, gestures, posture, voice, intonation, etc. But very few of them are aware of the fact that color is also a means of non-verbal communication, and a very powerful one. When talking about color I mean color in every meaning of the word. For instance, let’s take the color of walls in classrooms or a...

  18. Color mixing models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Steven J.

    1992-05-01

    In black-and-white printing the page image can be represented within a computer as an array of binary values indicating whether or not pixels should be inked. The Boolean operators of AND, OR, and EXCLUSIVE-OR are often used when adding new objects to the image array. For color printing the page may be represented as an array of continuous tone color values, and the generalization of these logic functions to gray-scale or full-color images is, in general, not defined or understood. When incrementally composing a page image new colors can replace old in an image buffer, or new colors and old can be combined according to some mixing function to form a composite color which is stored. This paper examines the properties of the Boolean operations and suggests full-color mixing functions which preserve the desired properties. These functions can be used to combine colored images, giving various transparency effects. The relationships between the mixing functions and physical models of color mixing are also discussed.

  19. Extended quantum color coding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantum color coding scheme proposed by Korff and Kempe [e-print quant-ph/0405086] is easily extended so that the color coding quantum system is allowed to be entangled with an extra auxiliary quantum system. It is shown that in the extended scheme we need only ∼2√(N) quantum colors to order N objects in large N limit, whereas ∼N/e quantum colors are required in the original nonextended version. The maximum success probability has asymptotics expressed by the Tracy-Widom distribution of the largest eigenvalue of a random Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE) matrix

  20. Omni-Lie Color Algebras and Lie Color 2-Algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Omni-Lie color algebras over an abelian group with a bicharacter are studied. The notions of 2-term color $L_{\\infty}$-algebras and Lie color 2-algebras are introduced. It is proved that there is a one-to-one correspondence between Lie color 2-algebras and 2-term color $L_{\\infty}$-algebras.

  1. Encyclopedia of color science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Color Science and Technology provides an authoritative single source for understanding and applying the concepts of color to all fields of science and technology, including artistic and historical aspects of color. Many topics are discussed in this timely reference, including an introduction to the science of color, and entries on the physics, chemistry and perception of color. Color is described as it relates to optical phenomena of color and continues on through colorants and materials used to modulate color and also to human vision of color. The measurement of color is provided as is colorimetry, color spaces, color difference metrics, color appearance models, color order systems and cognitive color. Other topics discussed include industrial color, color imaging, capturing color, displaying color and printing color. Descriptions of color encodings, color management, processing color and applications relating to color synthesis for computer graphics are included in this work. The Encyclo...

  2. 3-D Color Wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, Ann

    2010-01-01

    The blending of information from an academic class with projects from art class can do nothing but strengthen the learning power of the student. Creating three-dimensional color wheels provides the perfect opportunity to combine basic geometry knowledge with color theory. In this article, the author describes how her seventh-grade painting…

  3. Language and Color Symbolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Earl R.

    1977-01-01

    Suggests discussion and a writing assignment on the ways color terms have changed from Old English and Indo-European roots; urges a study of Black-White polarity that goes beyond racial connotations of those terms. Provides informative materials on many specific color terms. (TJ)

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ... keratoconus have a new treatment option. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved corneal collagen ...

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are ... a new treatment option. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved corneal collagen cross-linking ( ...

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ... Cheryl terHorst On one of his regular mid-day swims, 78-year old Leroy Muffler noticed a ...

  7. Gauge color codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bombin Palomo, Hector

    2015-01-01

    Color codes are topological stabilizer codes with unusual transversality properties. Here I show that their group of transversal gates is optimal and only depends on the spatial dimension, not the local geometry. I also introduce a generalized, subsystem version of color codes. In 3D they allow the...

  8. Color Constancy by Deep Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Lou; T. Gevers; N. Hu; M.P. Lucassen

    2015-01-01

    Computational color constancy aims to estimate the color of the light source. The performance of many vision tasks, such as object detection and scene understanding, may benefit from color constancy by estimating the correct object colors. Since traditional color constancy methods are based on speci

  9. Orthogonal Graph Colorings

    CERN Document Server

    Ballif, Serge C

    2011-01-01

    We generalize the notion of orthogonal latin squares to colorings of simple graphs. We define two $n$-colorings of a graph to be \\emph{orthogonal} if no ordered pair of colors occurs more than once when the two colorings of each vertex are listed as an ordered pair. We show that the usual bounds on the maximum size of a certain set of orthogonal latin structures such as latin squares, row latin squares, equi-$n$ squares, single diagonal latin squares, double diagonal latin squares, and sudoku squares are a special cases of bounds on orthogonal colorings of graphs. We also show that the problem of finding a transversal in a latin square of order $n$ is equivalent to finding an $n$-clique in a particular graph.

  10. Color Medical Image Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Since the early 20th century, medical imaging has been dominated by monochrome imaging modalities such as x-ray, computed tomography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. As a result, color information has been overlooked in medical image analysis applications. Recently, various medical imaging modalities that involve color information have been introduced. These include cervicography, dermoscopy, fundus photography, gastrointestinal endoscopy, microscopy, and wound photography. However, in comparison to monochrome images, the analysis of color images is a relatively unexplored area. The multivariate nature of color image data presents new challenges for researchers and practitioners as the numerous methods developed for monochrome images are often not directly applicable to multichannel images. The goal of this volume is to summarize the state-of-the-art in the utilization of color information in medical image analysis.

  11. Comparison of color demosaicing methods

    OpenAIRE

    Losson, Olivier; Macaire, Ludovic; Yang, Yanqin

    2010-01-01

    Mono-CCD color cameras acquire only one color component at each pixel by means of their color filter array (CFA) covering the CCD sensor. To obtain a color image, a procedure - called demosaicing - is then necessary to estimate the other two missing color components at each pixel. This chapter deals with the quality of color images generated in such a way. We attempt to determine which demosaicing method provides the best results according to several comparison criteria, particularly for subs...

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to ... wear costume contact lenses for Halloween or any time of year, follow these guidelines: Get an eye ...

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... popping touch. But colored contact lenses are popular year-round, not just at Halloween. But few know ... contact lenses for Halloween or any time of year, follow these guidelines: Get an eye exam from ...

  14. THE COLOR GLASS CONDENSATE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCLERRAN,L.

    2001-08-26

    The Color Glass Condensate is a state of high density gluonic matter which controls the high energy limit of hadronic interactions. Its properties are important for the initial conditions for matter produced at RHIC.

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sell contacts without a prescription are breaking the law, and may be fined $11,000 per violation. " ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ...

  16. Fingers that change color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause fingers or toes to change color: Buerger disease Chilblains. Painful inflammation of small blood vessels. Cryoglobulinemia Frostbite Necrotizing vasculitis Peripheral artery disease Raynaud phenomenon. Sudden change in the ...

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, professor of ophthalmology at ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ...

  18. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lenses . Learn about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. ... Studies Show Zika Virus May Cause More ...

  19. Phoenix Color Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    These images of three Phoenix color targets were taken on sols 1 and 2 by the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) on board the Phoenix lander. The bottom target was imaged in approximate color (SSI's red, green, and blue filters: 600, 530, and 480 nanometers), while the others were imaged with an infrared filter (750 nanometers). All of them will be imaged many times over the mission to monitor the color calibration of the camera. The two at the top show grains 2 to 3 millimeters in size that were likely lifted to the Phoenix deck during landing. Each of the large color chips on each target contains a strong magnet to protect the interior material from Mars' magnetic dust. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Neutron color image intensifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron radiography is expanding from the conventional reactor based imaging to the imaging by accelerator based pulsed neutron source. Among them, an expectation for image intensifier technology is increasing especially for video rate dynamic image detection or time dependent imaging in a pulsed neutron source. Based on the X-ray color image intensifier technology, Toshiba has developed neutron color image intensifiers as a powerful imaging tool for dynamic and time dependent neutron radiographics. In this paper, the construction and the feature of the developed neutron color image intensifier and some examples of neutron images are presented. I would be grateful if this paper helps for wide application of neutron color image intensifiers. (author)

  1. Relighting multiple color textures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DIAO Chang-yu; LU Dong-ming; LIU Gang

    2005-01-01

    With the development of digital library technology, library books made of paper can be digital released and read, and Endangered Cultural Heritages can be preserved. Traditional library's contents and functions can be greatly enhanced by digital technologies. For these new library objects, the primary key problem is precisely reconstructing their 3D models. When constructing complete 3D models, multiple color texture maps are often necessary. A commonly encountered problem uncounted during fusing of textures from multiple color images is color distortion. Each texture of a single 3D model may be obtained under possibly different lighting conditions and color response of the camera. To remove any visible seam and improve color consistency between the textures while avoiding color distortion, we propose a new efficient algorithm to relight all the texture images globally,spread residual light difference, and recolor each image by homogeneous transformation. A relative illumination model was adopted to obtain the relighting function. We choose lαβ color space with minimal correlation between channels for many natural scenes, for calculating the relighting result. Looking into two overlapped images A and B, we can pairwise relight B into A's luminosity condition in two steps. We first scale B's l channel by the lA/lB ratio of the overlapped region. We can assume A and B are in a same color plane now. Then a homogeneous transformation is applied to B's α and β channels which moves B into A's hue and saturation condition. For multiple overlapped color textures, a patch based weighted global relighting method was proposed to minimize the total color difference. The pairwise relighting method was used between each two overlapped images, and the difference in every overlapped region after relighting was weighted and summed up to construct an energy value. We used Nelder-Mead method to find a minimal energy value and the relighting parameters for every image. After

  2. Shareholder voice and its opponents

    OpenAIRE

    Donald, David C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper has shown that some of the principal arguments against shareholder voice are unfounded. It has shown that shareholders do own corporations, and that the nature of their property interest is structured to meet the needs of the relationships found in stock corporations. The paper has explained that fiduciary and other duties restrain the actions of shareholders just as they do those of management, and that critics cannot reasonably expect court-imposed fiduciary duties to extend beyo...

  3. Unfolding the color code

    OpenAIRE

    Kubica, Aleksander; Yoshida, Beni; Pastawski, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The topological color code and the toric code are two leading candidates for realizing fault-tolerant quantum computation. Here we show that the color code on a $d$-dimensional closed manifold is equivalent to multiple decoupled copies of the $d$-dimensional toric code up to local unitary transformations and adding or removing ancilla qubits. Our result not only generalizes the proven equivalence for $d=2$, but also provides an explicit recipe of how to decouple independent components of the ...

  4. Novikov Color Algebra and Tortken Color Algebra%Novikov Color 代数与 Tortken Color 代数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高秀娟; 徐丽媛

    2016-01-01

    Three concepts of Novikov color algebra,Tortken color algebra and Jordan color algebra were defined,then the relations among three algebras were discussed.We gave the basic properties of Novikov color algebra and Tortken color algebra.Then we proved a Tortken color algebra with an identity element is both associative and color commutative.We also showed how to use Novikov color algebra to construct a Tortken color algebra.%给出 Novikov color 代数、Tortken color 和 Jordan color 代数的定义,并讨论它们之间的关系,证明了有单位元的 Tortken color 代数是结合的,也是 color 交换的。给出 Novikov color 代数和 Tortken color 代数的基本性质以及利用 Novikov color 代数构造 Tortken color代数的方法。

  5. Color planner for designers based on color emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ka-Man; Xin, John H.; Taylor, Gail

    2002-06-01

    During the color perception process, an associated feeling or emotion is induced in our brains, and this kind of emotion is termed as 'color emotion.' The researchers in the field of color emotions have put many efforts in quantifying color emotions with the standard color specifications and evaluating the influence of hue, lightness and chroma to the color emotions of human beings. In this study, a color planner was derived according to these findings so that the correlation of color emotions and standard color specifications was clearly indicated. Since people of different nationalities usually have different color emotions as different cultural and traditional backgrounds, the subjects in this study were all native Hong Kong Chinese and the color emotion words were all written in Chinese language in the visual assessments. Through the color planner, the designers from different areas, no matter fashion, graphic, interior or web site etc., can select suitable colors for inducing target color emotions to the customers or product-users since different colors convey different meanings to them. In addition, the designers can enhance the functionality and increase the attractiveness of their designed products by selecting suitable colors.

  6. Luminance contours can gate afterimage colors and 'real' colors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anstis, S.; Vergeer, M.L.T.; Lier, R.J. van

    2012-01-01

    It has long been known that colored images may elicit afterimages in complementary colors. We have already shown (Van Lier, Vergeer, & Anstis, 2009) that one and the same adapting image may result in different afterimage colors, depending on the test contours presented after the colored image. The c

  7. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  8. Harmonious coloring of uniform hypergraphs

    OpenAIRE

    Bartłomiej Bosek; Sebastian Czerwiński; Jarosław Grytczuk; Paweł Rzążewski

    2016-01-01

    A \\emph{harmonious coloring} of a $k$-uniform hypergraph $H$ is a vertex coloring such that no two vertices in the same edge share the same color, and each $k$-element subset of colors appears on at most one edge. The \\emph{% harmonious number} $h(H)$ is the least number of colors needed for such a coloring. %These notions arose as a natural extension of a widely studied %topic of harmonious coloring of simple graphs. We prove that $k$-uniform hypergraphs of bounded maxim...

  9. Artificial color perception using microwaves

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhury, Debesh

    2013-01-01

    We report the feasibility of artificial color perception under microwave illumination using a standard microwave source and an antenna. We have sensed transmitted microwave power through color objects and have distinguished the colors by analyzing the sensed transmitted power. Experiments are carried out using a Gunn diode as the microwave source, some colored liquids as the objects and a microwave diode as the detector. Results are presented which open up an unusual but new way of perceiving colors using microwaves.

  10. Color Memory of University Students: Influence of Color Experience and Color Characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, Carlisle; Epps, Helen H.; Kaya, Naz

    2006-01-01

    The ability to select a previously viewed color specimen from an array of specimens that differ in hue, value, or chroma varies among individuals, and may be related to one's basic color discrimination ability or to prior experience with color. This study investigated short-term color memory of 40 college students, 20 of whom were interior design…

  11. Precision of Synesthetic Color Matching Resembles That for Recollected Colors Rather than Physical Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Derek H.; Wegener, Signy V.; Brown, Francesca; Mattingley, Jason B.

    2012-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is an atypical condition in which individuals experience sensations of color when reading printed graphemes such as letters and digits. For some grapheme-color synesthetes, seeing a printed grapheme triggers a sensation of color, but "hearing" the name of a grapheme does not. This dissociation allowed us to compare the…

  12. A novel color mapping method for preferred color reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyeong Man; Oh, Hyun Soo; Kim, Sang Ho; Choi, Don Chul

    2007-01-01

    We propose a novel color mapping method that generates smooth color transition and can accommodate the color preference. The method consists of two stages; rough calibration and black generation. The rough calibration process generates a three dimensional (3-D) Look-Up-Table converting input RGB data to printable CMY values. When the 3-D LUT is created, a new intent for color mapping, target color is internally used. The target color is predefined from a reference color book based on the color preferences of testers involved in the target definition phase. All of the input data of the 3-D LUT are mapped to the printable values in a printer based on the target color, and then simply converted to CMYK values. We evaluated the proposed algorithm comparing with a commercial printer profiler and found that the proposed algorithm makes better printing quality.

  13. Color control of the multi-color printing device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-hua; XIU Xiao-jie; ZHU Wen-hua; TANG Hong-jun

    2006-01-01

    Conventional color-printing systems often use inks of three hues, such as CMY, CMYK and CMYKLcLm, but in order to obtain more realistic color reproductions, the ink set of more than three hues has been adopted by some color-printing systems. It is difficult, however, to model the composed color with the multiple inks when the number of the output ink hues exceeds three due to the none-unique mapping between the color spaces of the CIE Lab and the multi-color printing device. In this paper, we propose a fine color-printing method for multi-color printing device with the ink set of more than three hues. The proposed approach has good color expression ability and provides fine control of the printed color. By dividing the output color space into several subspaces, our method allows one-to-one mapping between the standard color space and the multi-color output color space. It has been proved effective when applied to the digital inkjet printer-Mutoh8000.

  14. The color of money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Kristjánsson, Árni; Einarsdóttir, Kristin Vala;

    2014-01-01

    of attention are affected by reward, and whether the effect involves general enhancement or is specific to discrete components of attention. Observers viewed brief displays of differentially colored letters and reported their identity. Each color signified a consistent monetary value and we measured...... the accuracy of identification under different color-pairing conditions. At the end of the session, observers were paid the balance earned during the experiment. By fitting a model based on the Theory of Visual Attention (Bundesen, 1990) to the data, we estimated processing speed, selectivity, visual short......-term memory and the threshold for perception. Our primary hypothesis was that observers could, under data-limited conditions via brief exposure, distribute their attentional resources according to the value of the stimuli, i.e. that selectivity would be higher for high-value over lower-value targets...

  15. The Colors of Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVogel, Kayla; Chanover, Nancy; Thelen, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Very little is known about the coloring agents, or chromophores, that color the clouds of Saturn’s belts and zones. Although the clouds of Saturn are more muted in their coloration and do not exhibit the more striking variations seen among Jupiter’s belts, zones, and cyclonic storm features, the physical processes that render Saturn’s clouds a yellowish hue are likely similar to those at work on Jupiter. Thus, a comprehensive color study that includes both Jupiter and Saturn is warranted to advance our understanding of chromophores in the giant planet atmospheres. Here we report on our efforts to characterize the colors of Saturn’s clouds.This study involves the analysis of two imaging data sets: those from Cassini’s Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS), and Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST data were acquired in 1994, 1998, 2002 and 2004 using eleven different filters spanning 255-973 nm. After the images were photometrically and geometrically calibrated, we used them to create low resolution spectra for six different latitude regions: the Equatorial Zone, the Equatorial Belt, the South Equatorial Belt, the South Temperate Zone, the South Temperate Belt and the South South Temperate Belt. The Cassini ISS images were acquired in 2004 and 2011 using twelve different filters spanning 258-938 nm, and corresponding low resolution spectra of the same latitude regions were generated using the ISS images. We compare these low resolution spectra to Saturn’s full-disk spectrum (Karkoschka, E., 1994, Icarus 111, 174) to examine colors of discrete latitudes versus the full-disk spectrum of Saturn. The extensive temporal coverage afforded by the combination of the HST and ISS images will enable us to explore possible seasonal variations in Saturn’s cloud colors. Finally, we examine the color evolution of the major 2011 storm on Saturn using the ISS data.This work was supported by the Discovery Scholars Program in

  16. QCD: color or glow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The some of motivations for color and the numerous qualitative successes of QCD are presented. Non-leading higher order contributions to the (x, Q2)-dependence of scaling violations of non-singlet and singlet structure functions are discussed, especially non-perturbative correction to deep inelastic processes such as higher twist contributions. Finally the topic of how to account theoretically for the existence of free fractionally charged particles by concentrating mainly on spontaneously breaking SU(3) color is presented. (M.F.W.)

  17. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  18. Color conversion using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Shoji

    1998-01-01

    Neural network methods are described for color coordinate conversion between color systems. We present solutions for two problems of (1) conversion between two color-specification systems and (2) conversion between a color-specification system and a device coordinate system. First we discuss the color-notation conversion between the Munsell and CIE color systems. The conversion algorithms are developed for both directions of Munsell-to-L*a*b* and L*a*b*-to-Munsell. Second we discuss a neural network method for color reproduction on a printer. The color reproduction problem on the printer using more than four inks is considered as the problem of controlling an unknown system. The practical algorithms are presented for realizing the mapping from the L*a*b* space to the CMYK space. Moreover the method is applied to the color control using CMYK plus light cyan and light magenta.

  19. Color constancy in Japanese animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Yasuyo G.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we measure the colors used in a Japanese Animations. The result can be seen on CIE-xy color spaces. It clearly shows that the color system is not a natural appearance system but an imagined and artistic appearance system. Color constancy of human vision can tell the difference in skin and hair colors between under moonlight and day light. Human brain generates a match to the memorized color of an object from daylight viewing conditions to the color of the object in different viewing conditions. For example, Japanese people always perceive the color of the Rising Sun in the Japanese flag as red even in a different viewing condition such as under moonlight. Color images captured by a camera cannot present those human perceptions. However, Japanese colorists in Animation succeeded in painting the effects of color constancy not only under moonlight but also added the memory matching colors. They aim to create a greater impact on viewer's perceptions by using the effect of the memory matching colors. In this paper, we propose the Imagined Japanese Animation Color System. This system in art is currently a subject of research in Japan. Its importance is that it could also provide an explanation on how human brain perceives the same color under different viewing conditions.

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering ... new treatment option. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) ...

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... I had not been properly fitted by an eye care professional, the lenses stuck to my eye like a suction cup." ... lenses, costume contacts can certainly add a spooky, eye-popping touch. But colored contact lenses are popular year-round, not just at Halloween. ...

  2. Structural Colors of Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Cecilia; Dushkina, Natalia

    2016-03-01

    Structural colors create iridescent colors in bird feathers. The goal is to understand why structural colors act the way they do in certain situations. The research conducted over the course of the fall semester was to understand the optical phenomenon producing colors in individual barbules. Through the use of a polarizing optical microscope, certain hypotheses were built to explain certain phenomenon. Using a dark field illumination involving light acting at wide angles in microscopy, the barbules were not affected by polarization. So it can be suggested that the barbules have certain characteristics, possibly internal, which prevents wide-angle polarization. More recently, it was found that the barbules, when stacked upon one another, create a discoloration at the cross over point. It can be suggested that the barbules act as thin films and create a situation of thin film interference. More data will be taken using the Scanning Electron Microscope as well as getting cross sectional data to help understand the internal characteristics of the barbules. From the support of the Neimeyer-Hodgson Grant, Chris Stull, and Millersville University of Pennsylvania.

  3. Color Wheel Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a painting and drawing lesson which was inspired by the beautiful circular windows found in cathedrals and churches (also known as "rose windows"). This two-week lesson would reinforce both the concept of symmetry and students' understanding of the color wheel. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  4. Comprehension of COLOR Metaphors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昱君

    2012-01-01

      本文试图通过对英汉颜色隐喻的比较研究,探讨隐喻的相似性及差异。%  In this thesis,I have attempted to discuss the similarities and differences of metaphor by making a comparative study of color metaphors in English and Chinese.

  5. COLOR YES; CANCER NO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyes based on known carcinogens such as benzidine and beta naphthylamine can no longer be manufactured in the United States. n addition, numerous colorants have been banned from use by the food and cosmetic industries. hese limitations have led to the examination of structure-act...

  6. Color appearance in stereoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadia, Davide; Rizzi, Alessandro; Bonanomi, Cristian; Marini, Daniele; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between color and lightness appearance and the perception of depth has been studied since a while in the field of perceptual psychology and psycho-physiology. It has been found that depth perception affects the final object color and lightness appearance. In the stereoscopy research field, many studies have been proposed on human physiological effects, considering e.g. geometry, motion sickness, etc., but few has been done considering lightness and color information. Goal of this paper is to realize some preliminar experiments in Virtual Reality in order to determine the effects of depth perception on object color and lightness appearance. We have created a virtual test scene with a simple 3D simultaneous contrast configuration. We have created three different versions of this scene, each with different choices of relative positions and apparent size of the objects. We have collected the perceptual responses of several users after the observation of the test scene in the Virtual Theater of the University of Milan, a VR immersive installation characterized by a semi-cylindrical screen that covers 120° of horizontal field of view from an observation distance of 3.5 m. We present a description of the experiments setup and procedure, and we discuss the obtained results.

  7. Social Property of Colors and Translation of Color Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾慧彬

    2013-01-01

    The paper is about the social property of colors andtranslationofcolorwords.Colorsareveryimportantinour sociallife,accordingtothispaperwecanknowsomerelations aboutsocialandcolor.EspeciallyaboutthedifferencesofChinese and English color words. Through the differences, three basic translatingmethodsaregeneralized.

  8. Color naming: color scientists do it between Munsell sheets of color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, Giordano B.; Moroney, Nathan M.

    2010-01-01

    With the advent of high dynamic range imaging and wide gamut color spaces, gamut mapping algorithms have to nudge image colors much more drastically to constrain them within a rendering device's gamut. Classical colorimetry is concerned with color matching and the developed color difference metrics are for small distances. For larger distances, categorization becomes a more useful concept. In the gamut mapping case, lexical distance induced by color names is a more useful metric, which translates to the condition that a nudged color may not cross a name boundary. The new problem is to find these color name boundaries. We compare the experimental procedures used for color naming by linguists, ethnologists, and color scientists and propose a methodology that leads to robust repeatable experiments.

  9. Foreign Language Experience and Color Word Interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, Cyrus R.

    If various color names are printed in various color inks, an observer has great difficulty in rapidly naming the ink colors (Stroop Color Word Test) unless the color names and the ink colors are mutually reinforcing, or the color names are unknown to the observer. The latter suggests a partial measure of second-language fluency, the feasibility of…

  10. Human preference for individual colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stephen E.; Schloss, Karen B.

    2010-02-01

    Color preference is an important aspect of human behavior, but little is known about why people like some colors more than others. Recent results from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP) provide detailed measurements of preferences among 32 chromatic colors as well as other relevant aspects of color perception. We describe the fit of several color preference models, including ones based on cone outputs, color-emotion associations, and Palmer and Schloss's ecological valence theory. The ecological valence theory postulates that color serves an adaptive "steering' function, analogous to taste preferences, biasing organisms to approach advantageous objects and avoid disadvantageous ones. It predicts that people will tend to like colors to the extent that they like the objects that are characteristically that color, averaged over all such objects. The ecological valence theory predicts 80% of the variance in average color preference ratings from the Weighted Affective Valence Estimates (WAVEs) of correspondingly colored objects, much more variance than any of the other models. We also describe how hue preferences for single colors differ as a function of gender, expertise, culture, social institutions, and perceptual experience.

  11. Color Homogenization of the Color Cryosection Images Based on Color Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Wei; Xuemei Li; Yuanfeng Zhou; Jie Wang

    2012-01-01

    Color inhomogeneity is a known issue in serial cryosections, but there has not been a simple and effective method to solve this problem yet. A new method is proposed to reduce color inhomogeneities in this study, which is based on color transfer technique. It takes advantage of the similarity of adjacent images in image series. The new method can unify the color styles of adjacent slices to achieve the color homogenization of the image series. The color correction process of our method only n...

  12. Testing Children for Color Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / News Testing Children for Color Blindness Written by: Shirley Dang Apr. 03, 2014 New ... shows that kids can be tested for color blindness as soon as age 4, finds Caucasian boys ...

  13. Personalized 2D color maps

    KAUST Repository

    Waldin, Nicholas

    2016-06-24

    2D color maps are often used to visually encode complex data characteristics such as heat or height. The comprehension of color maps in visualization is affected by the display (e.g., a monitor) and the perceptual abilities of the viewer. In this paper we present a novel method to measure a user\\'s ability to distinguish colors of a two-dimensional color map on a given monitor. We show how to adapt the color map to the user and display to optimally compensate for the measured deficiencies. Furthermore, we improve user acceptance of the calibration procedure by transforming the calibration into a game. The user has to sort colors along a line in a 3D color space in a competitive fashion. The errors the user makes in sorting these lines are used to adapt the color map to his perceptual capabilities.

  14. Identity Based Color Image Cryptography

    OpenAIRE

    Gopi Krishnan S; Loganathan D

    2011-01-01

    An Identity based cryptography based on visual cryptography scheme was proposed for protecting color image. A color image to be protected and authentic entities such as account number, password, signature image are given as input. The binary key image is obtained by distributing the digital signature of obtained authentic entities. A secret color image which needs to be communicated is decomposed into three grayscale tones of Y-Cb-Cr color component. Then these grayscale images are half-toned...

  15. Artificial color perception using microwaves

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury, Debesh; Caulfield, H. John

    2013-01-01

    We report the feasibility of artificial color perception under microwave illumination using a standard microwave source and an antenna. We have sensed transmitted microwave power through color objects and have distinguished the colors by analyzing the sensed transmitted power. Experiments are carried out using a Gunn diode as the microwave source, some colored liquids as the objects and a microwave diode as the detector. Results are presented which open up an unusual but new way of perceiving...

  16. Color correction using color-flow eigenspace model in color face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, JaeYoung; Ro, Yong Man

    2009-02-01

    We propose a new color correction approach which, as opposed to existing methods, take advantages of a given pair of two color face images (probe and gallery) in the color face recognition (FR) framework. In the proposed color correction method, the color-flow vector and color-flow eigenspace model are developed to generate color corrected probe images. The main contribution of this paper is threefold: 1) the proposed method can reliably compensate the non-linear photic variations imposed on probe face images comparing to traditional color correction techniques; 2) to the best of our knowledge, for the first time, we conduct extensive experiment studies to compare the effectiveness of various color correction methods to deal with photometrical distortions in probe images; 3) the proposed method can significantly enhance the recognition performance degraded by severely illuminant probe face images. Two standard face databases CMU PIE and XM2VTSDB were used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed color correction method. The usefulness of the proposed method in the color FR is shown in terms of both absolute and comparative recognition performances against four traditional color correction solutions of White balance, Gray-world, Retinex, and Color-by-correlation.

  17. Violating expectations of color order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burling, Bil; Bender, Walter R.

    1996-04-01

    An exploration of emotion in color communication is presented in this paper. It begins with an outline of a proposed theory of emotion and a hypothesis of how color may induce emotion. A discussion follows that details what is essential in a color message to predict emotional responses. Experiments are described that might assist in validating the theory put forth in this paper.

  18. Possibility of color magnetic superconductivity

    OpenAIRE

    Tatsumi, Toshitaka; Maruyama, Tomoyuki; Nakano, Eiji

    2003-01-01

    Two aspects of quark matter at high density are addressed: one is color superconductivity and the other is ferromagnetism. We are mainly concerned with the latter and its relation to color superconductivity, which we call "color magnetic superconductivity". The relation of ferromagnetism and chiral symmetry restoration is also discussed.

  19. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  20. Colorimetric characterization beyond three colorants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Po-Chieh

    1999-12-01

    The colorimetric characterization of printers using more than three colorants is discussed. In such printers, there is no unique combination of colorant amounts for the reproduction of a particular color. We categorize these printers as either black printers or hi-fi printers. Black printers use black (K) in addition to cyan (C), magenta (M), and yellow (Y). Hi-fi printers use saturated colorants such as red (R), green (G), and blue (B) in addition to CMYK colorants. We propose two methods of determining combinations of colorant amounts: the variable reduction method and the division method. The variable reduction method uses connecting functions to reduce the number of variables controlling colorant amounts. Although this method offers simplicity, it does not always utilize the entire color gamut. The division method employs sub-gamuts composed of appropriate sets of three or four colorants; these sub- gamuts are combined to form the entire color. While the division method allows access to the entire color gamut, its boundaries tend to cause pseudo contours due to abrupt changes of colorant amount. To facilitate the use of the division method, we have developed a software tool and verified the algorithm involved using a hypothetical hi-fi printer in computer simulation.

  1. Astronomy with the Color Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald A.; Melrose, Justyn

    2014-01-01

    The standard method to create dramatic color images in astrophotography is to record multiple black and white images, each with a different color filter in the optical path, and then tint each frame with a color appropriate to the corresponding filter. When combined, the resulting image conveys information about the sources of emission in the…

  2. Image composition with color harmonization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Congde Wang; Rong Zhang; Fan Deng

    2009-01-01

    Image matting and color transfer are combined to achieve image composition.Firstly,digital matting is used to pull out the region of interest.Secondly,taking color harmonization into account,color transfer techniques are introduced in pasting the region onto the target image.Experimental results show that the proposed approach generates visually plea.sing composite images.

  3. Edge classification for color constancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Gijsenij; T. Gevers; J. van de Weijer

    2008-01-01

    The goal of color constancy is to measure image colors despite differences in the color of the light source. Traditionally, the computational method of obtaining this ability is by using pixel values only. Recently, methods using edges instead of pixel values have been proposed. However, different e

  4. 'Fram' in Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for 'Fram' in Color (QTVR) This view in approximately true color reveals details in an impact crater informally named 'Fram' in the Meridian Planum region of Mars. The picture is a mosaic of frames taken by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during the rover's 88th martian day on Mars, on April 23, 2004. The crater spans about 8 meters (26 feet) in diameter. Opportunity paused beside it while traveling from the rover's landing site toward a larger crater farther east. This view combines images taken using three of the camera's filters for different wavelengths of light: 750 nanometers, 530 nanometers and 430 nanometers.

  5. Color-to-colorant transformation for a seven ink process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Harold

    1994-04-01

    Adding RGB inks to the traditional set of CMYK inks increases the attainable color gamut. But the added complexity poses a challenge in generating suitable separations for rendering of color images. The approach taken in this study reduces the dimensionality of the problem by subdividing the 7 inks into smaller groupings. A series of 4 ink subsets from the 7 ink superset of CMYKRGB were individually characterized and a colorimetric transform from ink to color was obtained for each subset. In color space the 4 ink subsets represent adjacent and overlapping subgamuts of the 7 ink gamut. By utilizing these characterizations both individually and in combination with one another, an inktable which transforms color to ink was generated. In the darker tonal region, 4 inks/color permits access to regions of the full 7 ink gamut which are inaccessible to schemes employing 3 inks/color.

  6. Sexual selection on color and behavior within and between cichlid populations: Implications for speciation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael J.PAUERS; Jeffrey S.MCKINNON

    2012-01-01

    Sexual selection is widely viewed as playing a central role in hapiochromine cichlid speciation.Hypothetically,once divergent mate preferences evolve among populations of these fishes,reproductive isolation follows and the populations begin to behave as different species.Various studies have examined patterns of assortative mating among species and sometimes populations,but few have examined variation in directional preferences,especially among populations of the same species.We investigated mate choice behavior in two populations of Labeotropheus fuelleborni,a Lake Malawi endemic.We test whether mating.preferences between populations are based on the same traits and in the same direction as preferences within populations.We examine the potential contributions of two classes of trait,color patterns and behaviors,to reproductive isolation.When females chose between either two males of their own population,or two from another,female preferences were generally similar (for the female population) across the two contexts.Mate choice patterns differed between (female) populations for a measure of color,but only modestly for male behavior.In a separate experiment we simultaneously offered females a male of their own population and a male from a different population.In these trials,females consistently preferred males from their own population,which were also the males that displayed more frequently than their opponents,but not necessarily those with color traits suggested to be most attractive in the previous experiment.Thus directional preferences for chroma and related aspects of color may be important when females are presented with males of otherwise similar phenotypes,but may play little role in mediating assortative mating among populations with substantially different color patterns.A preference for male behavior could play some role in speciation if males preferentially court same-population females,as we have observed for the populations studied herein.

  7. Coincident disruptive coloration

    OpenAIRE

    Cuthill, Innes C.; Székely, Aron

    2008-01-01

    Even if an animal matches its surroundings perfectly in colour and texture, any mismatch between the spatial phase of its pattern and that of the background, or shadow created by its three-dimensional relief, is potentially revealing. Nevertheless, for camouflage to be fully broken, the shape must be recognizable. Disruptive coloration acts against object recognition by the use of high-contrast internal colour boundaries to break up shape and form. As well as the general outline, characterist...

  8. Contrast preserving color fusion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kamenický, Jan; Zitová, Barbara

    Bellingham : SPIE, 2011, 78660L/1-78660L/7. ISBN 978-0-8194-8403-1. ISSN 0277-786X. [IS&T/SPIE Electronic Imaging 2011. San Francisco (US), 23.01.2011-27.01.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR(CZ) GA102/08/1593 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : image fusion * color mapping * medical imaging Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics

  9. Coloring geographical threshold graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Percus, Allon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Muller, Tobias [EINDHOVEN UNIV. OF TECH

    2008-01-01

    We propose a coloring algorithm for sparse random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). Here, we analyze the GTG coloring algorithm together with the graph's clique number, showing formally that in spite of the differences in structure between GTG and RGG, the asymptotic behavior of the chromatic number is identical: {chi}1n 1n n / 1n n (1 + {omicron}(1)). Finally, we consider the leading corrections to this expression, again using the coloring algorithm and clique number to provide bounds on the chromatic number. We show that the gap between the lower and upper bound is within C 1n n / (1n 1n n){sup 2}, and specify the constant C.

  10. Watermarking on Colored Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The great success of internet and the ease of copying anddistributing the electronic data has presented a new challenge of how to protect the digital data. Digital watermarks have been proposed as a means for copyright protection of multimedia. Unlike the traditional visible watermark, the challenge here is to introduce a digital watermark that does not alter the quality of electronic content, while being extremely robust to attack. From the angle of signal processing, the two basic requirements for an effective watermarking scheme, robustness and transparency conflict with each other. So the digital watermark is information that is imperceptibly and robustly embedded in the host data such that it can not be removed without important degradation of images quality. This paper consists of two parts. In the first part, an authentication technique by embedding digital “watermarks” into colored images is proposed. In our approach, we embed the “watermarks” with visually recognizable patterns into the images by selectively modifying the middle-frequency coefficients of the image. In the second part, the technique of hiding a colored image into another colored one is proposed. The experimental results show that the proposed techniques successfully survive image processing operations, image cropping and the JPEG lossy compression.

  11. Color on emergency mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lili; Qi, Qingwen; Zhang, An

    2007-06-01

    There are so many emergency issues in our daily life. Such as typhoons, tsunamis, earthquake, fires, floods, epidemics, etc. These emergencies made people lose their lives and their belongings. Every day, every hour, even every minute people probably face the emergency, so how to handle it and how to decrease its hurt are the matters people care most. If we can map it exactly before or after the emergencies; it will be helpful to the emergency researchers and people who live in the emergency place. So , through the emergency map, before emergency is occurring we can predict the situation, such as when and where the emergency will be happen; where people can refuge, etc. After disaster, we can also easily assess the lost, discuss the cause and make the lost less. The primary effect of mapping is offering information to the people who care about the emergency and the researcher who want to study it. Mapping allows the viewers to get a spatial sense of hazard. It can also provide the clues to study the relationship of the phenomenon in emergency. Color, as the basic element of the map, it can simplify and clarify the phenomenon. Color can also affects the general perceptibility of the map, and elicits subjective reactions to the map. It is to say, structure, readability, and the reader's psychological reactions can be affected by the use of color.

  12. Coloring and Guarding Arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Bose, Prosenjit; Collette, Sébastien; Hurtado, Ferran; Korman, Matias; Langerman, Stefan; Taslakian, Perouz

    2012-01-01

    Given an arrangement of lines in the plane, what is the minimum number $c$ of colors required to color the lines so that no cell of the arrangement is monochromatic? In this paper we give bounds on the number c both for the above question, as well as some of its variations. We redefine these problems as geometric hypergraph coloring problems. If we define $\\Hlinecell$ as the hypergraph where vertices are lines and edges represent cells of the arrangement, the answer to the above question is equal to the chromatic number of this hypergraph. We prove that this chromatic number is between $\\Omega (\\log n / \\log\\log n)$. and $O(\\sqrt{n})$. Similarly, we give bounds on the minimum size of a subset $S$ of the intersections of the lines in $\\mathcal{A}$ such that every cell is bounded by at least one of the vertices in $S$. This may be seen as a problem on guarding cells with vertices when the lines act as obstacles. The problem can also be defined as the minimum vertex cover problem in the hypergraph $\\Hvertexcell$...

  13. Color imaging fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhard, Erik; Oguz Akyuz, Ahmet; Johnson, Garrett

    2008-01-01

    This book provides the reader with an understanding of what color is, where color comes from, and how color can be used correctly in many different applications. The authors first treat the physics of light and its interaction with matter at the atomic level, so that the origins of color can be appreciated. The intimate relationship between energy levels, orbital states, and electromagnetic waves helps to explain why diamonds shimmer, rubies are red, and the feathers of the Blue Jay are blue. Then, color theory is explained from its origin to the current state of the art, including image captu

  14. On Dominator Colorings in Graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Arumugam; Jay Bagga; K Raja Chandrasekar

    2012-11-01

    A dominator coloring of a graph is a proper coloring of in which every vertex dominates every vertex of at least one color class. The minimum number of colors required for a dominator coloring of is called the dominator chromatic number of and is denoted by $ d(G)$. In this paper we present several results on graphs with $ d(G)=(G)$ and $ d(G)=(G)$ where $(G)$ and $(G)$ denote respectively the chromatic number and the domination number of a graph . We also prove that if $(G)$ is the Mycielskian of , then $ d(G)+1≤ d((G))≤ d(G)+2$.

  15. Color differences without probit analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroney, Nathan

    2007-01-01

    Color science generally considers color differences from the standpoint of distance metrics. These distance metrics are typically experimental and are based on many paired comparisons and probit analysis. The predominant focus is on the derivation of a uniform metric that is optimized for small color differences around the just-noticeable difference limit. Increasingly sophisticated mathematical modeling is then used to fit a range of laboratory data sets. While this work has yielded invaluable industrial applications, it has perhaps left certain aspects of color differences under explored. For example how do non-experts typically describe color differences? What are the natural language characteristics of the description of color difference? This paper considers color differences specifically from the nominal or linguistic perspective.

  16. Reasoning about color in Prolog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Bruce G.; Whelan, Paul F.

    1994-10-01

    The use of color as a basis for segmenting images is attractive for a wide variety of industrial inspection applications, especially in the manufacturing of domestic goods, food, pharmaceuticals, toiletries and electronics. Human beings define colors, not formulae, or computer programs. Moreover, no two people have an identical view of what a color set, such as 'canary yellow' is. The article argues that teaching by showing is more relevant than the accepted methods of Color Science, in the design of factory-floor vision systems. Fast hardware for color recognition has been available for several years but has not yet received universal acceptance. This article explains how this equipment can be used in conjunction with symbolic processing software, based on the Artificial Intelligence language Prolog. Using this hardware-software system, a programmer is able to express ideas about colors in a natural way. The concepts of color set union, intersection, generalization and interpolation are all discussed.

  17. Structural Colors from Fano Resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Yichen; Wang, Imbert; Stelmakh, Veronika; Joannopoulos, John D; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-01-01

    Structural coloration is an interference phenomenon where colors emerge when visible light interacts with nanoscopically structured material, and has recently become a most interesting scientific and engineering topic. However, current structural color generation mechanisms either require thick (compared to the wavelength) structures or lack dynamic tunability. This report proposes a new structural color generation mechanism, that produces colors by the Fano resonance effect on thin photonic crystal slab. We experimentally realize the proposed idea by fabricating the samples that show resonance-induced colors with weak dependence on the viewing angle. Finally, we show that the resonance-induced colors can be dynamically tuned by stretching the photonic crystal slab fabricated on an elastic substrate.

  18. Color image and video enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Lecca, Michela; Smolka, Bogdan

    2015-01-01

    This text covers state-of-the-art color image and video enhancement techniques. The book examines the multivariate nature of color image/video data as it pertains to contrast enhancement, color correction (equalization, harmonization, normalization, balancing, constancy, etc.), noise removal and smoothing. This book also discusses color and contrast enhancement in vision sensors and applications of image and video enhancement.   ·         Focuses on enhancement of color images/video ·         Addresses algorithms for enhancing color images and video ·         Presents coverage on super resolution, restoration, in painting, and colorization.

  19. Determination of CRT color gamut boundaries in perceptual color space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Xu, Haisong

    2005-02-01

    CRT color gamut boundaries can be determined by two steps workflow. Firstly, the display should be calibrated with the method recommended by CIE to characterize the relationship between CIE tristimulus values and DAC values. The nonlinear relationship of each electronic channel between the color of the radiant output of CRT displays and the digital DAC values can be characterized accurately with GOG model using parameters of gain, offset, and gamma. Secondly, color gamut boundary can be determined using a fast and accurate algorithm. Generally, in a color space, any chosen degree of lightness will reduce that space to a plane. The color gamut on this equal-lightness plane can be transformed into RGB DAC value space. Since locations on the edges and surfaces of RGB DAC value space will correspond colors with relatively high saturation, the boundary of the curved surface in RGB DAC value space can be quickly computed for certain lightness. The accurate color gamut is obtained by mapping this boundary over to such a perceptual color space as CIELAB or CIELUV uniform color space. The key issue of this algorithm is to compute the equal-lightness curved surface in RGB DAC value space. The resolution of device gamut description depends on the number of segments that the lightness axis is separated into in the perceptual color space.

  20. Multi-color and artistic dithering

    OpenAIRE

    Ostromoukhov, V.; Hersch, R. D.

    1999-01-01

    A multi-color dithering algorithm is proposed, which converts a barycentric combination of color intensities into a multi-color non-overlapping surface coverage. Multi-color dithering is a generalization of standard bi-level dithering. Combined with tetrahedral color separation, multi-color dithering makes it possible to print images made of a set of non-standard inks. In contrast to most previous color halftoning methods, multi-color dithering ensures by construction that the different selec...

  1. A field guide to digital color

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Maureen Stone's field guide to digital color presents a survey of digital color with special emphasis on those fields important for computer graphics. The book provides the foundation for understanding color and its applications, discusses color media and color management and the use of color in computer graphics, including color design and selection. The book provides a guide for anyone who wants to understand and apply digital color. An annotated bibliography provides in-depth references for further study on each topic.

  2. Tree Colors: Color Schemes for Tree-Structured Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennekes, Martijn; de Jonge, Edwin

    2014-12-01

    We present a method to map tree structures to colors from the Hue-Chroma-Luminance color model, which is known for its well balanced perceptual properties. The Tree Colors method can be tuned with several parameters, whose effect on the resulting color schemes is discussed in detail. We provide a free and open source implementation with sensible parameter defaults. Categorical data are very common in statistical graphics, and often these categories form a classification tree. We evaluate applying Tree Colors to tree structured data with a survey on a large group of users from a national statistical institute. Our user study suggests that Tree Colors are useful, not only for improving node-link diagrams, but also for unveiling tree structure in non-hierarchical visualizations. PMID:26356921

  3. Color Changing Hydrogen Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Luke B.; Williams, Martha; Captain, Janine E.; Mohajeri, Nahid; Raissi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    During the Space Shuttle Program, one of the most hazardous operation that occurred was the loading of liquid hydrogen (LH2) during fueling operations of the spacecraft. Due to hydrogen's low explosive limit, any amount leaked could lead to catastrophic event. Hydrogen's chemical properties make it ideal as a rocket fuel; however, the fuel is deemed unsafe for most commercial use because of the inability to easily detect the gas leaking. The increased use of hydrogen over traditional fossil fuels would reduce greenhouse gases and America's dependency on foreign oil. Therefore a technology that would improve safety at NASA and in the commercial sector while creating a new economic sector would have a huge impact to NASA's mission. The Chemochromic Detector for sensing hydrogen gas leakage is a color-changing detector that is useful in any application where it is important to know not only the presence but also the location of the hydrogen gas leak. This technology utilizes a chemochromicpigment and polymer matrix that can be molded or spun into rigid or pliable shapes useable in variable temperature environments including atmospheres of inert gas, hydrogen gas, or mixtures of gases. A change in color of the detector material indicates where gaseous hydrogen leaks are occurring. The irreversible sensor has a dramatic color change from beige to dark grey and remains dark grey after exposure. A reversible pigment changes from white to blue in the presence of hydrogen and reverts back to white in the presence of oxygen. Both versions of the sensor's pigments were comprised of a mixture of a metal oxide substrate and a hydro-chromic compound (i.e., the compound that changed color in the presence of hydrogen) and immediately notified the operator of the presence of low levels of hydrogen. The detector can be used in a variety of formats including paint, tape, caulking, injection molded parts, textiles and fabrics, composites, and films. This technology brings numerous

  4. 'Snow White' in Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This color image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows the trench dubbed 'Snow White,' after further digging on the 25th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (June 19, 2008). The lander's solar panel is casting a shadow over a portion of the trench. The trench is about 5 centimeters (2 inches) deep and 30 centimeters (12 inches) long. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Pseudogap of Color Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Kitazawa, M; Kunihiro, T; Nemoto, Y; Kitazawa, Masakiyo; Koide, Tomoi; Kunihiro, Teiji; Nemoto, Yukio

    2004-01-01

    We show that the pseudogap of the quark density of states is formed in hot quark matter as a precursory phenomenon of the color superconductivity on the basis of a low-energy effective theory. We clarify that the soft mode of the di-quark pair field gives rise to a peculiar behavior of the quark dispersion relation and a short life-time of the quasiparticles near the Fermi surface, both of which make a depression of the density of states of quarks. Our result suggests that the appearance of the pseudogap is a universal phenomenon of strong coupling superconductors, irrespective of the dimensionality.

  6. A color management system for multi-colored LED lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarti, Maumita; Thorseth, Anders; Jepsen, Jørgen;

    2015-01-01

    A new color control system is described and implemented for a five–color LED light engine, covering a wide white gamut. The system combines a new way of using pre-calibrated look-up tables and a rule-based optimization of chromaticity distance from the Planckian locus with a calibrated color sensor....... The color sensor monitors the chromaticity of the mixed light providing the correction factor for the current driver by using the generated look-up table. The long term stability and accuracy of the system will be experimentally investigated with target tolerance within a circle radius 0.0011 in the...

  7. Achieving consistent color and grayscale presentation on medial color displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jiahua; Roehrig, Hans; Dallas, William; Krupinski, Elizabeth A.

    2008-03-01

    Color displays are increasingly used for medical imaging, replacing the traditional monochrome displays in radiology for multi-modality applications, 3D representation applications, etc. Color displays are also used increasingly because of wide spread application of Tele-Medicine, Tele-Dermatology and Digital Pathology. At this time, there is no concerted effort for calibration procedures for this diverse range of color displays in Telemedicine and in other areas of the medical field. Using a colorimeter to measure the display luminance and chrominance properties as well as some processing software we developed a first attempt to a color calibration protocol for the medical imaging field.

  8. Full Color Holographic Endoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability to produce color holograms from the human tissue represents a major medical advance, specifically in the areas of diagnosis and teaching. This has been achieved at Glyndwr University. In corporation with partners at Gooch and Housego, Moor Instruments, Vivid Components and peninsula medical school, Exeter, UK, for the first time, we have produced full color holograms of human cell samples in which the cell boundary and the nuclei inside the cells could be clearly focused at different depths – something impossible with a two-dimensional photographic image. This was the main objective set by the peninsula medical school at Exeter, UK. Achieving this objective means that clinically useful images essentially indistinguishable from the object human cells could be routinely recorded. This could potentially be done at the tip of a holo-endoscopic probe inside the body. Optimised recording exposure and development processes for the holograms were defined for bulk exposures. This included the optimisation of in-house recording emulsions for coating evaluation onto polymer substrates (rather than glass plates), a key step for large volume commercial exploitation. At Glyndwr University, we also developed a new version of our in-house holographic (world-leading resolution) emulsion.

  9. Sri Lanka, Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The topography of the island nation of Sri Lanka is well shown in this color-coded shaded relief map generated with digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. For this special view heights below 10 meters (33 feet) above sea level have been colored red. These low coastal elevations extend 5 to 10 km (3.1 to 6.2 mi) inland on Sri Lanka and are especially vulnerable to flooding associated with storm surges, rising sea level, or, as in the aftermath of the earthquake of December 26, 2004, tsunami. These so-called tidal waves have occurred numerous times in history and can be especially destructive, but with the advent of the near-global SRTM elevation data planners can better predict which areas are in the most danger and help develop mitigation plans in the event of particular flood events. Sri Lanka is shaped like a giant teardrop falling from the southern tip of the vast Indian subcontinent. It is separated from India by the 50km (31mi) wide Palk Strait, although there is a series of stepping-stone coral islets known as Adam's Bridge that almost form a land bridge between the two countries. The island is just 350km (217mi) long and only 180km (112mi) wide at its broadest, and is about the same size as Ireland, West Virginia or Tasmania. The southern half of the island is dominated by beautiful and rugged hill country, and includes Mt Pidurutalagala, the islandaE(TM)s highest point at 2524 meters (8281 ft). The entire northern half comprises a large plain extending from the edge of the hill country to the

  10. Natural colorants from filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Fábio Aurélio Esteves; Zaccarim, Bruna Regina; de Lencastre Novaes, Letícia Celia; Jozala, Angela Faustino; Santos, Carolina Alves Dos; Teixeira, Maria Francisca Simas; Santos-Ebinuma, Valéria Carvalho

    2016-03-01

    In the last years, there is a trend towards the replacement of synthetic colorants by natural ones, mainly due to the increase of consumer demand for natural products. The natural colorants are used to enhance the appearance of pharmaceutical products, food, and different materials, making them preferable or attractive. This review intends to provide and describe a comprehensive overview of the history of colorants, from prehistory to modern time, of their market and their applications, as well as of the most important aspects of the fermentation process to obtain natural colorants. Focus is given to colorants produced by filamentous fungal species, aiming to demonstrate the importance of these microorganisms and biocompounds, highlighting the production performance to get high yields and the aspects of conclusion that should be taken into consideration in future studies about natural colorants. PMID:26780357

  11. Image Segmentation Via Color Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Kaveh Heidary

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops a computationally efficient process for segmentation of color images. The input image is partitioned into a set of output images in accordance to color characteristics of various image regions. The algorithm is based on random sampling of the input image and fuzzy clustering of the training data followed by crisp classification of the input image. The user prescribes the number of randomly selected pixels comprising the trainer set and the number of color classes character...

  12. Color Ratios and Chromatic Adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Finlayson, Graham D.; Süsstrunk, Sabine

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the performance of chromatic adaptation transforms based on stable color ratios is investigated.It was found that for three different sets of reflectance data, their performance was not statistically different from CMCCAT2000,when applying the chromatic adaptation transforms to Lam’s corresponding color data set and using a perceptual error metric of CIE Delta E94.The sensors with the best color ratio stability are much sharper and more de-correlated than the CMCCAT2000 sensors...

  13. Estimating the colors of paintings

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Sérgio M. C.; Linhares, João M. M.; João, Catarina A. R.; Amano, Kinjiro; Montagner, Cristina; Melo, Maria J.; Vilarigues, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    Observers can adjust the spectrum of illumination on paintings for optimal viewing experience. But can they adjust the colors of paintings for the best visual impression? In an experiment carried out on a calibrated color moni- tor images of four abstract paintings obtained from hyperspectral data were shown to observers that were unfamiliar with the paintings. The color volume of the images could be manipulated by rotating the volume around the axis through the average (a*, b*) point for eac...

  14. Color Strategies for Image Databases

    OpenAIRE

    Süsstrunk, Sabine

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, color encoding strategies for different image database applications are discussed. The color image workflow is examined in detail, and master and derivative file encoding strategies are outlined in relation to capture, maintenance, and deployment of image files. For the most common image database purposes, recommendations are given as to which type of color encoding is most suitable. Advantages and disadvantages of sensor, input-referred, output-referred, and output device spec...

  15. Bosonic colored group field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Geloun, Joseph [Universite Paris XI, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Orsay Cedex (France); University of Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou (BJ). International Chair in Mathematical Physics and Applications (ICMPA-UNESCO Chair); Universite Cheikh Anta Diop, Departement de Mathematiques et Informatique, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Dakar (Senegal); Magnen, Jacques [Ecole Polytechnique, Centre de Physique Theorique, Palaiseau Cedex (France); Rivasseau, Vincent [Universite Paris XI, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Orsay Cedex (France)

    2010-12-15

    Bosonic colored group field theory is considered. Focusing first on dimension four, namely the colored Ooguri group field model, the main properties of Feynman graphs are studied. This leads to a theorem on optimal perturbative bounds of Feynman amplitudes in the ''ultraspin'' (large spin) limit. The results are generalized in any dimension. Finally, integrating out two colors we write a new representation, which could be useful for the constructive analysis of this type of models. (orig.)

  16. Toward a No-Reference Image Quality Assessment Using Statistics of Perceptual Color Descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dohyoung; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N

    2016-08-01

    Analysis of the statistical properties of natural images has played a vital role in the design of no-reference (NR) image quality assessment (IQA) techniques. In this paper, we propose parametric models describing the general characteristics of chromatic data in natural images. They provide informative cues for quantifying visual discomfort caused by the presence of chromatic image distortions. The established models capture the correlation of chromatic data between spatially adjacent pixels by means of color invariance descriptors. The use of color invariance descriptors is inspired by their relevance to visual perception, since they provide less sensitive descriptions of image scenes against viewing geometry and illumination variations than luminances. In order to approximate the visual quality perception of chromatic distortions, we devise four parametric models derived from invariance descriptors representing independent aspects of color perception: 1) hue; 2) saturation; 3) opponent angle; and 4) spherical angle. The practical utility of the proposed models is examined by deploying them in our new general-purpose NR IQA metric. The metric initially estimates the parameters of the proposed chromatic models from an input image to constitute a collection of quality-aware features (QAF). Thereafter, a machine learning technique is applied to predict visual quality given a set of extracted QAFs. Experimentation performed on large-scale image databases demonstrates that the proposed metric correlates well with the provided subjective ratings of image quality over commonly encountered achromatic and chromatic distortions, indicating that it can be deployed on a wide variety of color image processing problems as a generalized IQA solution. PMID:27305678

  17. Color 3D Reverse Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a principle and a method of col or 3D laser scanning measurement. Based on the fundamental monochrome 3D measureme nt study, color information capture, color texture mapping, coordinate computati on and other techniques are performed to achieve color 3D measurement. The syste m is designed and composed of a line laser light emitter, one color CCD camera, a motor-driven rotary filter, a circuit card and a computer. Two steps in captu ring object's images in the measurement process: Firs...

  18. Color tunable LED spot lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelen, C.; Ansems, J.; Deurenberg, P.; van Duijneveldt, W.; Peeters, M.; Steenbruggen, G.; Treurniet, T.; Valster, A.; ter Weeme, J. W.

    2006-08-01

    A new trend in illumination is to use dynamic light to set or dynamically vary the ambience of a room or office. For this we need color tunable spots that can reliably vary over at least a wide range of color temperatures, and preferably also more saturated colors. LEDs are in principle ideally suited for this application thanks to their nature of emitting light in a relatively narrow band. For color tunable spot lighting based on the concept of mixing RGB LED colors, the key results have been presented before. Limitations of these 3-intrinsic-color mixing systems with high color rendering properties are found in a limited operating temperature range due to wavelength shifts, a limited color temperature range, and a low maximum operating temperature due to a strong flux decrease with increasing temperature. To overcome these limitations, a 3-color R pcGB system with phosphor-converted red (R pc) and a 4-color RAGB system have been investigated. With both systems, a CRI of at least 80 can be maintained over the relevant color temperature range of approximately 2700 K to 6500 K. In this paper we compare these concepts on overall system aspects and report on the performance of prototype spot lamps. The main features of the RAGB and R pcGB spot lamp concepts can be summarized as: 1) The RAGB spot overcomes CRI and gamut shortcomings of RGB light sources and gives much freedom in wavelength selection, but suffers from temperature sensitivity and complex controls; 2) The R pcGB spot overcomes shortcomings concerning CRI and thermal dependence of RGB sources and enables relatively simple controls, but needs an improved overall red efficacy. With both color concepts, prototype spot lamps have been built. The amber to red emitting nitridosilicate-based phosphors can be wavelength-tuned for optimal performance, which is found at a peak emission around 610 nm for high color quality systems. This results in a simple and very robust system with good color consistency. For the

  19. Structural color of Morpho butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Glenn S.

    2009-11-01

    Structural color is caused by wavelength-selective scattering of light by microscopic features, such as those on the scales of some insects. The brilliant blue displayed by some male Morpho butterflies is a classic example of this phenomenon. In this paper, experiments used to distinguish structural color from color due to pigmentation are reviewed. A simple electromagnetic model is developed for the structural scattering from Morpho butterfly scales, and the blue color and iridescence normally seen for these butterflies are predicted by this model. The analysis is based on topics usually discussed in courses on electromagnetism and optics and can be used as an example to supplement classroom discussions of these topics.

  20. Color Assessment and Transfer for Web Pages

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Ou

    2012-01-01

    Colors play a particularly important role in both designing and accessing Web pages. A well-designed color scheme improves Web pages' visual aesthetic and facilitates user interactions. As far as we know, existing color assessment studies focus on images; studies on color assessment and editing for Web pages are rare. This paper investigates color assessment for Web pages based on existing online color theme-rating data sets and applies this assessment to Web color edit. This study consists o...

  1. Talk on the Application of Colors in Graphic Design%谈色彩在平面设计中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁丽; 闫娜

    2012-01-01

      Colors,images,text,constitute the three major elements of graphic design. These three elements in graphic design plays a different important role,Role of color in graphic design of this element is particularly important,As the grasp of Visual key to the first,most attractive to people of color,have the charm of forestall one ' s opponent by a show of strength. This article focuses on color Visual psychological use of color and graphic design principles.%  色彩、图像、文字是构成平面设计的三大要素,这三大要素在平面设计中起着不同的重要作用,而色彩这一要素在平面设计中的作用尤为重要,它作为把握人的视觉第一关键所在,色彩对人最有吸引力,具有先声夺人的艺术魅力。本文主要阐述了色彩的视觉心理和平面设计中色彩的运用原则。

  2. Colorful solar selective absorber integrated with different colored units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feiliang; Wang, Shao-Wei; Liu, Xingxing; Ji, Ruonan; Li, Zhifeng; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Chen, Yuwei; Lu, Wei

    2016-01-25

    Solar selective absorbers are the core part for solar thermal technologies such as solar water heaters, concentrated solar power, solar thermoelectric generators and solar thermophotovoltaics. Colorful solar selective absorber can provide new freedom and flexibility beyond energy performance, which will lead to wider utilization of solar technologies. In this work, we present a monolithic integration of colored solar absorber array with different colors on a single substrate based on a multilayered structure of Cu/TiN(x)O(y)/TiO(2)/Si(3)N(4)/SiO(2). A colored solar absorber array with 16 color units is demonstrated experimentally by using combinatorial deposition technique via changing the thickness of SiO(2) layer. The solar absorptivity and thermal emissivity of all the color units is higher than 92% and lower than 5.5%, respectively. The colored solar selective absorber array can have colorful appearance and designable patterns while keeping high energy performance at the same time. It is a new candidate for a number of solar applications, especially for architecture integration and military camouflage. PMID:26832602

  3. Adding Texture to Color: Quantitative Analysis of Color Emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Lucassen; T. Gevers; A. Gijsenij

    2010-01-01

    What happens to color emotion responses when texture is added to color samples? To quantify this we performed an experiment in which subjects ordered samples (displayed on a computer monitor) along four scales: Warm-Cool, Masculine-Feminine, Hard-Soft and Heavy-Light. Three sample types were used: u

  4. Color To Colorant Conversions In A Colorimetric Separation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, Richard; Kearsley, Wayne

    1990-06-01

    Within several years of establishment of the CIE's Standard Observer, Neugebauer based upon it a device-independent interpretation of ink mixture in halftone color reproduction. Despite limitations of the model, his approach is of fundamental importance at a time in which document preparation in distributed computing environments is coming of age. Fruition of this technology demands a device independent or colorimetric method for representing and rendering color. A commercial, digital system for implementing such an approach (Kodak Designmaster 8000) has been described and will be reviewed here with particular regard to the output of color imagery on four-color printers. Inversion of Neugebauer's model for conversion of color to device specific signals must be constrained by the color gamut of the output medium and the utilization of the black printer (Gray Component Replacement). The interaction of the black printer with the device gamut and its effect on image quality and metamerism will receive detailed consideration. It will be shown that colorimetry is a powerful tool in maintaining accurate color reproduction during substitution of black for chromatic components, but that properties of the colorants must also be considered in order to realize commercially acceptable GCR. Section 7 of the paper is an enumeration of summary conclusions.

  5. Resource Letter CCV-1: Color and Color Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuewer, Roger H., Ed.; Pease, Paul L.

    1980-01-01

    Listed are selected resource materials on color vision and the measurement and specification of the stimulus for vision, photometry, and colorimetry. The author's purpose is to equip teachers and students with an understanding of normal and abnormal color vision. References are categorized relative to content level. (Author/DS)

  6. Alice Walker's Womanism Colored in The Color Purple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋慧慧

    2009-01-01

    In her famous novel The Color Purple,Alice Walker's womanism is colored by four kinds of conseiousness-female consciousness,racial consciousness,root-seeking consciousness,and universal consciousness.It is owing to the womanism that the heroine celie grown from an abused woman to an independent selfhood.

  7. COLORING PROPERTIES OF WOOL FABRIC COLORED BY NEW DYESTUFFS - AZOMETHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJORDJEVIC Dragan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The azomethines have broad applications in food and dyestuff industries, and in analytical chemistry, catalysis and also in the field of agrochemical. These have played an influential part in the improvement of modern coordination chemistry, but also they can also be found at key points in the development of inorganic biochemistry, catalysis and also in optical materials. The present paper describes coloring properties of wool fabric colored by new dyestuffs - azomethines, derivate of isatin. Synthesizing of dyestuffs can often have one to six chromogen, which can be defined as the photoactive components that contain colored or uncolored absorbent components. In addition of monoazo, diazo, poly-azo, anthraquinone, xanthan and similar systems, the azomethines or imines, also includes to the chromogen groups. Azomethines, such as, isatin-3-hydrazone, isatin-3-thiosemicarbazone and isatin-3-phenylhydrazone, were synthesized and their coloring performance on wool fabric assessed. The synthesized azomethines showed very good substantively for wool fibers with good coloring performance according to CIEL*a*b* system which characterized quantitative and qualitative coloring property. Dyestuff 3 or isatin-3-phenylhydrazone bound to woolen textiles to a greater extent and greater intensity (minimum value of L. Dyestuff 2 or isatin-3-thiosemicarbazone linked to the minimum amount for textiles (the largest value of L. Although it must be noted that it is a lighter shade (yellow color as opposed to the dyestuff 3 (red color.

  8. Color Homogenization of the Color Cryosection Images Based on Color Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wei

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Color inhomogeneity is a known issue in serial cryosections, but there has not been a simple and effective method to solve this problem yet. A new method is proposed to reduce color inhomogeneities in this study, which is based on color transfer technique. It takes advantage of the similarity of adjacent images in image series. The new method can unify the color styles of adjacent slices to achieve the color homogenization of the image series. The color correction process of our method only needs the calculation of mean and standard deviation of pixels of the image. So the new method is simple and highly-efficient. By the multiplanar reformation images, the experimental result shows that the new method has a good performance.

  9. Deriving color adjectival nominalizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemis Alexiadou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I examine two types of nominalizations related to color adjectives in Greek, a suffixed one and a neutral one, which I will compare to their English and Dutch (and German counterparts. I show that the two differ in that suffixed nominalizations denote stage level properties, while neuter nominalizations denote individual level properties. This difference is due to the fact that suffixed nominalizations are count nouns, while neuter nominalizations are mass nouns. A comparison between Greek, and Dutch/German and English shows that languages have different nominalization strategies: nominalization can take place at three layers: at the root level, at the nP level, and finally at the DP level. This explains the differences in distribution and interpretation among the different nominalization types across languages

  10. Color of turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Zare, Armin; Georgiou, Tryphon T

    2016-01-01

    Second-order statistics of turbulent flows can be obtained either experimentally or via direct numerical simulations. Statistics reflect fundamentals of flow physics and can be used to develop low-complexity turbulence models. Due to experimental or numerical limitations it is often the case that only partial flow statistics can be reliably known, i.e., only certain correlations between a limited number of flow field components are available. Thus, it is of interest to complete the statistical signature of the flow field in a way that is consistent with the known dynamics. This is an inverse problem and our approach utilizes stochastically-forced linearization around turbulent mean velocity profile. In general, white-in-time stochastic forcing is not sufficient to explain turbulent flow statistics. In contrast, colored-in-time forcing of the linearized equations allows for exact matching of available correlations. To accomplish this, we develop dynamical models that generate the required stochastic excitation...

  11. False color viewing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage. 7 figs

  12. Colored Group Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gurau, Razvan

    2009-01-01

    Group field theories are higher dimensional generalizations of matrix models. Their Feynman graphs are fat and in addition to vertices, edges and faces, they also contain higher dimensional cells, called bubbles. In this paper, we propose a new, fermionic Group Field Theory, posessing a color symmetry, and take the first steps in a systematic study of the topological properties of its graphs. Unlike its bosonic counterpart, the bubbles of the Feynman graphs of this theory are well defined and readily identified. We prove that this graphs are combinatorial cellular complexes. We define and study the cellular homology of this graphs. Furthermore we define a homotopy transformation appropriate to this graphs. Finally, the amplitude of the Feynman graphs is shown to be related to the fundamental group of the cellular complex.

  13. Cornering color SU(5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planned collider experiments will decisively test the color SU(5) model of Foot and Hernandez, in which an extended QCD group is broken at the TeV scale. Constraints from cosmology and from neutral-kaon mixing imply that exotic charge-1/2 fermions of this model cannot all be given masses above about 1 TeV. These ''quirks'' carry a new strong confining force, from the surviving unbroken gauge symmetry. Searches for the leptonic decay products of quirkonium at CERN LEP II will probe quirk masses up to near the beam energy, while searches at planned hadron colliders will be sensitive to quirk masses all the way up to the TeV upper bound

  14. Light Vision Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valberg, Arne

    2005-04-01

    Light Vision Color takes a well-balanced, interdisciplinary approach to our most important sensory system. The book successfully combines basics in vision sciences with recent developments from different areas such as neuroscience, biophysics, sensory psychology and philosophy. Originally published in 1998 this edition has been extensively revised and updated to include new chapters on clinical problems and eye diseases, low vision rehabilitation and the basic molecular biology and genetics of colour vision. Takes a broad interdisciplinary approach combining basics in vision sciences with the most recent developments in the area Includes an extensive list of technical terms and explanations to encourage student understanding Successfully brings together the most important areas of the subject in to one volume

  15. Color-color Relations for Red Giants in Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Von Braun, K; Minske, J K; Salgado, J F J; Worthey, G; Braun, Kaspar von; Chiboucas, Kristin; Minske, Jocelyn Kelly; Salgado, Jose Francisco; Worthey, Guy

    1998-01-01

    New Johnson-Cousins UBVRI photometry of giants in globular clusters is combined with JHK photometry on the CIT system to produce color sequences for giants from the globular clusters M3, M5, M13, and M92. UBVRI data are also presented for giants in the metal-rich open cluster NGC 6791. These data fill a gap in the literature, especially for the R & I bands. We provide the empirical relations between broad band colors for various [Fe/H] values for metal-poor giants. The color sequences for U-B and B-V show clear separations for different [Fe/H] values. We also find weak, though unexpected, metallicity dependences of V-R, V-I, and J-K colors. H-K is metal-insensitive. The above colors are plotted as a function of V-K, and a literature (V-K) - T_{eff} relation is given.

  16. Color in machine vision and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Color is the phenomenon of human visual perception and the module of machine vision. Color information is widely used in the areas of virtual reality and humancomputer interaction. Color is the product of a visual environment, illumination and the human brain. Research on color information representation and its processing is typically interdisciplinary. Based on our research work on human color perception and machine color vision and its application, we summarized the hotspots of color studies in recent developments and new approaches to color vision,including basic theories and the application of color information in virtual reality, content-based image retrieval, and face recognition.

  17. Modelling, Measuring and Compensating Color Weak Vision

    OpenAIRE

    Oshima, Satoshi; Mochizuki, Rica; Lenz, Reiner; Chao, Jinhui

    2015-01-01

    We use methods from Riemann geometry to investigate transformations between the color spaces of color-normal and color weak observers. The two main applications are the simulation of the perception of a color weak observer for a color normal observer and the compensation of color images in a way that a color weak observer has approximately the same perception as a color normal observer. The metrics in the color spaces of interest are characterized with the help of ellipsoids defined by the ju...

  18. Gold color in dental alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, T

    1997-01-01

    This article will help the dental laboratory with alloy selection by exploring how the relationship among color, ductility and strength applies to gold and how color can be quantified. Because higher quality materials translate into higher profits, upselling to the dentist and patient is also discussed. PMID:9524484

  19. Full-color hybrid display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, W. D.

    1977-01-01

    System presents realistic and properly proportioned image of runway with its associated lights as it appears at dusk or at night. Display employs high resolution cathode ray tube and color wheel to produce colored lights from computer generated signals. Lights are then superimposed on conventional television display of runway.

  20. Color metasurfaces in industrial perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Kristensen, Anders

    This doctoral thesis describes the utilization of color metasurfaces in an industrial perspective, where nano-scale textures and contingent post processing replace inks, dyes and pigments in plastic production. The concept of colors by structure arguably reduces the number of raw materials and...

  1. 7 CFR 28.403 - Middling Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Color. 28.403 Section 28.403 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.403 Middling Color. Middling Color is color which is within the...

  2. Portable real-time color night vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    We developed a simple and fast lookup-table based method to derive and apply natural daylight colors to multi-band night-time images. The method deploys an optimal color transformation derived from a set of samples taken from a daytime color reference image. The colors in the resulting colorized mul

  3. The Psychological Four-Color Mapping Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gregory; Bias, Keri; Shive, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Mathematicians have proven that four colors are sufficient to color 2-D maps so that no neighboring regions share the same color. Here we consider the psychological 4-color problem: Identifying which 4 colors should be used to make a map easy to use. We build a model of visual search for this design task and demonstrate how to apply it to the task…

  4. Color response and color transport in a quark-gluon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using color kinetic theory, we discuss color conduction and color response in a quark-gluon plasma. Collective color oscillations and their damping rates are investigated. An instability of the thermal equilibrium state in high T QCD is discovered

  5. Color response and color transport in a quark-gluon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinz, U.

    1986-01-01

    Using color kinetic theory, we discuss color conduction and color response in a quark-gluon plasma. Collective color oscillations and their damping rates are investigated. An instability of the thermal equilibrium state in high T QCD is discovered.

  6. Color Naming Experiment in Mongolian Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandin-Erdene Osorjamaa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous researches on color terms and names in many languages. In Mongolian language there are few doctoral theses on color naming. Cross cultural studies of color naming have demonstrated Semantic relevance in French and Mongolian color name Gerlee Sh. (2000; Comparisons of color naming across English and Mongolian Uranchimeg B. (2004; Semantic comparison between Russian and Mongolian idioms Enhdelger O. (1996; across symbolism Dulam S. (2007 and few others. Also a few articles on color naming by some Mongolian scholars are Tsevel, Ya. (1947, Baldan, L. (1979, Bazarragchaa, M. (1997 and others. Color naming studies are not sufficiently studied in Modern Mongolian. Our research is considered to be the first intended research on color naming in Modern Mongolian, because it is one part of Ph.D dissertation on color naming. There are two color naming categories in Mongolian, basic color terms and non- basic color terms. There are seven basic color terms in Mongolian. This paper aims to consider how Mongolian color names are derived from basic colors by using psycholinguistics associative experiment. It maintains the students and researchers to acquire the specific understanding of the differences and similarities of color naming in Mongolian and  English languages from the psycho-linguistic aspect.Keywords: modern Mongolian, basic color terms, non-basic color terms, associative experiment, signal word, response word, color naming 

  7. Colored Quantum Algebra and Its Bethe State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the colored Yang—Baxter equation. Based on a trigonometric solution of colored Yang—Baxter equation, we construct a colored quantum algebra. Moreover we discuss its algebraic Bethe ansatz state and highest wight representation. (general)

  8. Strong color fields and heavy flavour production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clustering of color sources provides a natural framework of partonic interactions producing strong color fields. We study the consequences of these color fields in the production of heavy flavour and in the behavior of the nuclear modified factor.

  9. Strong color fields and heavy flavor production

    OpenAIRE

    Pajares, C.; Bautista, I.

    2010-01-01

    The clustering of color sources provides a natural framework for soft partonic interactions producing strong color fields. We study the consequences of these color fields in the production of heavy flavor and the behavior of the nuclear modification factor.

  10. Biomimetics, color, and the arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Franziska

    2015-03-01

    Color as dramatic, dynamic and dazzling as the iridescent hues on the wings of certain butterflies has never been encountered in the art world. Unlike and unmatched by the chemical pigments of the artists' palette, this changeable color is created by transparent, colorless nanostructures that, as with prisms, diffract and reflect light to render spectral color visible. Until now, iridescent colors, by their very nature, have defied artists' best efforts to fully capture these rainbow hues. Now, for the first time, the artist and researcher Franziska Schenk employs latest nature-inspired color-shift technology to actually simulate the iridescence of butterflies and beetles on canvas. Crucially, studying the ingenious ways in which a range of such displays are created by insects has provided the artist with vital clues on how to adapt and adopt these challenging optical nano-materials for painting. And indeed, after years of meticulous and painstaking research both in the lab and studio, the desired effect is achieved. The resulting paintings, like an iridescent insect, do in fact fluctuate in perceived color - depending on the light and viewing angle. In tracing the artist's respective biomimetic approach, the paper not only provides an insight into the new color technology's evolution and innovative artistic possibilities, but also suggests what artists can learn from nature.

  11. METAPHOR OF COLORS IN INDONESIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Dewa Putu Wijana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This brief article deals with the use of Indonesian words referring to colors for creating metaphorical expressions. All data presented are collected from various sources, such as Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesian Standard Dictionary, and added with data obtained from Oxford Advanced Leaner’s Dictionary, Indonesian proverb book, encyclopedia, terminology collection book, poetry anthology, song lyrics, and data of the author’s own creation as an Indonesian native speaker. Set aside from their literal meanings, the metaphorically used color words are collected and classified into two categories, i.e. achromatic and chromatic colors. Then, their universalities are determined by comparing them with English color metaphors. Finally the existence of specific Indonesian color metaphors are identified by correlating them with extra linguistic factors, such as environment, history, religion, politic and other socio cultural activities. A careful analysis on the data shows that there is nearly no significant difference in metaphorical uses of achromatic colors in English and Indonesian. However, despite universal nuances of chromatic color metaphors, some specific ones emerge due to various external factors, such as environment, education, history, politic, law, religion, literature, and other socio cultural facts that are specifically found and practiced in Indonesia.

  12. Symbolism of Colors in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蔚

    2013-01-01

    There are so many words to convey different colors in English. We should pay attention to not only their basic mean-ing, but also their deeply symbolized meaning. They express different meaning owing to different cultures. In western society, col-ors have their exotic symbolized meaning. This is a permanent cultural phenomenon. In the thesis, the author discusses the sym-bolic meaning of five basic colors:red, white, black, yellow and green, and the background of the symbolic meaning of each col-or.Color is very close to people’s life. It is important for people to understand the world. Colors not only have physical character, but also have rich intension and stretchy meanings. People of different nations often have different feeling about the same color as a result of their different cultural and historical background. So colors show differences between different cultures. The author dis-cusses seven main reasons that lead to the differences of colors’symbolic meaning between Chinese and western culture, such as different political systems, different historic vicissitudes, different cultural tradition and custom, different habits of thinking and way of expressing, different natural environments and living standards, different mentality, different emotion. These words are used frequently and have plenty of sentiment. What should pay more attention to is that because of the differences between differ-ent nationalities and cultural background, or different social classes, each color has its special meaning. It is active in terms of lin-guistics. That endows color words with associative meaning.

  13. Colored cool colorants based on rare earth metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreeram, Kalarical Janardhanan; Aby, Cheruvathoor Poulose; Nair, Balachandran Unni; Ramasami, Thirumalachari [Chemical Laboratory, Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Adyar, Chennai 600 020 (India)

    2008-11-15

    Colored pigments with high near infrared reflectance and not based on toxic metal ions like cadmium, lead and cobalt are being sought as cool colorants. Through appropriate doping two pigments Ce-Pr-Mo and Ce-Pr-Fe have been developed to offer a reddish brown and reddish orange color, respectively. These pigments have been characterized and found to be highly crystalline with an average size of 300 nm. A shift in band gap energy from 2.21 to 2.18 eV has been observed when Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} was used as a mineralizer. Scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDAX) measurement indicate a uniform grind shape and distribution of metal ion, with over 65% reflectance in the NIR region, these pigments can well serve as cool colorants. (author)

  14. Symbolic Significance of Colors in the Novel The Color Purple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卓珏

    2007-01-01

    This paper mainly explains the symbolic significance of colors in the novel The Color Purple by using theory of Alice Walker's Womaism. Black,in The Color Purple stands for humbleness,blue for a life of impulse,red for liberty and hope ,purple for women's consummate happiness. And the choice of "purple" as its title ,conceives a purple centered symbolic color system,which reveals the black women's expectation for living an ideal happy life. Walker gives an expression of black women's political condition ,state of life under the racial and sexual oppression. Her intentions are to arouse women's consciousness of self and to call on them to be self-respected ,self-supported and eventually be self-liberated.

  15. Color contrast processing in human striate cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Kentridge, R. W.; Heywood, C. A.; Weiskrantz, L.

    2007-01-01

    Color constancy refers to the unchanging nature of the perceived color of an object despite considerable variation in the wavelength composition of the light illuminating it. The color contrasts between objects and their backgrounds play a crucial role in color constancy. We tested a patient whose right striate cortex had been removed and demonstrated that he made no use of color contrast in judging color appearance but instead made judgments based simply on wavelength comparison. This was sh...

  16. Color and chemistry on Triton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W. Reid; Sagan, Carl

    1990-01-01

    The surface of Triton is very bright but shows subtle yellow to peach hues which probably arise from the production of colored organic compounds from CH4 + N2 and other simple species. In order to investigate possible relationships between chemical processes and the observed surface distribution of chromophores, the surface units are classified according to color/albedo properties, the rates of production of organic chromophores by the action of ultraviolet light and high-energy charged particles is estimated, and rates, spectral properties, and expected seasonal redistribution processes are compared to suggest possible origins of the colors seen on Triton's surface.

  17. Node Coloring and Color Conflict Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Saoucene Mahfoudh; Gerard Chalhoub; Pascale Minet; Michel Misson; Ichrak Amdouni

    2010-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks, energy efficiency is mainly achieved by making nodes sleep. In this paper, we present the combination of SERENA, a new node activity scheduling algorithm based on node coloring, with TDMA/CA, a collision avoidance MAC protocol. We show that the  combination of these two protocols enables substantial bandwidth and energy benefits for both general and data gathering applications. As a first contribution, we prove that the three-hop node coloring problem is NP-comple...

  18. Improved bound on facial parity edge coloring

    OpenAIRE

    Lužar, Borut; Škrekovski, Riste

    2013-01-01

    A facial parity edge coloring of a 2-edge connected plane graph is an edge coloring where no two consecutive edges of a facial walk of any face receive the same color. Additionally, for every face f and every color c either no edge or an odd number of edges incident to f are colored by c. Czap, Jendrol', Kardo\\v{s} and Sotak showed that every 2-edge connected plane graph admits a facial parity edge coloring with at most 20 colors. We improve this bound to 16 colors.

  19. Modules Over Color Hom-Poisson Algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Bakayoko, Ibrahima

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we introduce color Hom-Poisson algebras and show that every color Hom-associative algebra has a non-commutative Hom-Poisson algebra structure in which the Hom-Poisson bracket is the commutator bracket. Then we show that color Poisson algebras (respectively morphism of color Poisson algebras) turn to color Hom-Poisson algebras (respectively morphism of Color Hom-Poisson algebras) by twisting the color Poisson structure. Next we prove that modules over color Hom–associative algebr...

  20. Region-Based Object Recognition by Color Segmentation Using a Simplified PCNN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuli; Ma, Yide; Kim, Dong Hwan; Park, Sung-Kee

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a region-based object recognition (RBOR) method to identify objects from complex real-world scenes. First, the proposed method performs color image segmentation by a simplified pulse-coupled neural network (SPCNN) for the object model image and test image, and then conducts a region-based matching between them. Hence, we name it as RBOR with SPCNN (SPCNN-RBOR). Hereinto, the values of SPCNN parameters are automatically set by our previously proposed method in terms of each object model. In order to reduce various light intensity effects and take advantage of SPCNN high resolution on low intensities for achieving optimized color segmentation, a transformation integrating normalized Red Green Blue (RGB) with opponent color spaces is introduced. A novel image segmentation strategy is suggested to group the pixels firing synchronously throughout all the transformed channels of an image. Based on the segmentation results, a series of adaptive thresholds, which is adjustable according to the specific object model is employed to remove outlier region blobs, form potential clusters, and refine the clusters in test images. The proposed SPCNN-RBOR method overcomes the drawback of feature-based methods that inevitably includes background information into local invariant feature descriptors when keypoints locate near object boundaries. A large number of experiments have proved that the proposed SPCNN-RBOR method is robust for diverse complex variations, even under partial occlusion and highly cluttered environments. In addition, the SPCNN-RBOR method works well in not only identifying textured objects, but also in less-textured ones, which significantly outperforms the current feature-based methods. PMID:25494514

  1. Crystalline color superconductors: A review

    CERN Document Server

    Anglani, Roberto; Ciminale, Marco; Gatto, Raoul; Ippolito, Nicola; Mannarelli, Massimo; Ruggieri, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Non-homogenous superconductors and non-homogenous superfluids appear in a variety of contexts which include quark matter at extreme densities, fermionic systems of cold atoms, type-II cuprates and organic superconductors. In the present review we shall focus on the properties of quark matter at high baryonic density which can exist in the interior of compact stars. The conditions that are realized in this stellar objects tend to disfavor standard symmetric BCS pairing and may be in favor of a non-homogenous color superconducting phase. We discuss in details the properties of non-homogenous color superconductors and in particular of crystalline color superconductors. We also review the possible astrophysical signatures associated with the presence of non-homogenous color superconducting phases within the core of compact stars.

  2. Semantics of color in chromatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serov, Nikolai V.

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this investigation is to describe the semantics of color in chromatism (from the ancient Greek triune notion of >: (1) color as ideal (Id- plan), psychic; (2) tint as physical, verbal; material (M- plan), physiological, syntonic (S-plan), and (3) emotion as their informative-energetic correlation). Being a new field of science, chromatism links humanitarian and natural subjects by means of interdiscipline investigation of a real (f-m) man living in a real (color) surrounding environment. According to the definition for >, color may be considered to be the most universal notion, permitting to assume the unity of both a man and an environment. Due to this assumption, we may give models of human intellect.

  3. Retrieval for color artistry concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Jose A; Guan, Ling

    2004-03-01

    This paper presents a work on the retrieval of artworks for color artistry concepts. First we affirm the view that the Query-by-Example paradigm fundamental to the current content-based retrieval systems is able to extend only limited usefulness. We then propose a concept-based retrieval engine based on the generative grammar of elemental concepts methodology. In the latter, the language by which color artistry concepts are communicated in artworks is used to operate semantic searches. The color artistry language is explicated into elemental concepts and the associated generative grammar. The elemental concepts are used to index the artworks, while the generative grammar is used to facilitate post-coordinate expression of color artistry concept queries by using the elemental concepts. PMID:15376925

  4. Color Handling in Panoramic Photography

    OpenAIRE

    Hasler, David; Süsstrunk, Sabine

    2001-01-01

    Nowadays, the ability to create panoramic photographs is included with most of the commercial digital cameras. The principle is to shoot several pictures and stitch them together to build a panorama. To ensure the quality of the final image, the different pictures have to be perfectly aligned and the colors of the images should match. While the alignment of images has received a lot of attention from the computer vision community, the mismatch in colors was often ignored and handled using smo...

  5. Color Textons for Building Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänsch, R.; Hellwich, O.

    2011-09-01

    Textons are known to be powerful operators in capturing textural properties of image regions. This paper proposes a new method to consistently combine structural cues as well as color information in an unified framework of color textons. They are used as features to detect buildings from optical imagery. Despite the simple classification algorithm, presented results are promising and show the usefulness of the proposed feature operator in remote sensing applications.

  6. Color-flavor locked strangelets

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Jes

    2001-01-01

    Finite lumps of color-flavor locked strange quark matter (CFL-strangelets) are significantly more stable than strangelets without color-flavor locking for wide ranges of parameters, increasing the likelihood of strangelet metastability, or even absolute stability beyond some minimum baryon number $A_{min}$. Whereas bulk CFL strange quark matter is electrically neutral, CFL-strangelets are positively charged, with $Z\\approx 0.3 A^{2/3}$. This is quite different from ``ordinary'' strangelets an...

  7. Coloring fuzzy circular interval graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenbrand, Friedrich; Niemeier, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Computing the weighted coloring number of graphs is a classical topic in combinatorics and graph theory. Recently these problems have again attracted a lot of attention for the class of quasi-line graphs and more specifically fuzzy circular interval graphs. The problem is NP-complete for quasi-line graphs. For the subclass of fuzzy circular interval graphs however, one can compute the weighted coloring number in polynomial time using recent results of Chudnovsky and Ovetsky and of King and Re...

  8. A color sensor wavelength meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durfee, Dallin; Jackson, Jarom; Otterstrom, Nils; Jones, Tyler; Archibald, James

    2016-05-01

    We will discuss a laser wavelength meter based on a commercial color sensor chip consisting of an array of photodiodes with different absorptive color filters. By comparing the relative amplitudes of light on the photodiodes, the wavelength of light can be determined with picometer-level precision and with picometer-scale calibration drift over a period longer than a month. This work was supported by NSF Grant Number PHY-1205736.

  9. Riemann Geometric Color-Weak Compensationfor Individual Observers

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Takanori; Mochizuki, Rika; Lenz, Reiner; Chao, Jinhui

    2014-01-01

    We extend a method for color weak compensation based on the criterion of preservation of subjective color differences between color normal and color weak observers presented in [2]. We introduce a new algorithm for color weak compensation using local affine maps between color spaces of color normal and color weak observers. We show howto estimate the local affine map and how to determine correspondences between the origins of local coordinates in color spaces of color normal and color weak ob...

  10. Identity Based Color Image Cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopi Krishnan S

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available An Identity based cryptography based on visual cryptography scheme was proposed for protecting color image. A color image to be protected and authentic entities such as account number, password, signature image are given as input. The binary key image is obtained by distributing the digital signature of obtained authentic entities. A secret color image which needs to be communicated is decomposed into three grayscale tones of Y-Cb-Cr color component. Then these grayscale images are half-toned to binary image, and finally the obtained binary images are encrypted using binary key image to obtain binary cipher images. To encrypt Exclusive-OR operation is done on binary key image and three half-tones of secret color image separately. These binary images are combined to obtain cipher. In decryption the shares are decrypted by applying Exclusive-OR operation on cipher and key, then the recovered binary images are inverse half-toned and combined to get secret color image. This scheme is more efficient for communicating natural images across diffident channel.

  11. Why do color transforms work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, John C.

    1997-04-01

    Numerous papers have been written regarding techniques to translate color measurements from an RGB device into some standard color space. The papers seem to ignore the mathematical 'truth'...that the translation is impossible. Do these color transforms work, or under what conditions do they work, and what are the limitations. Why is it that they work. In this paper, light emitting diodes (LEDs) are viewed with a color video camera.It is seen that, for the spectra of LEDs, transforming from the camera color space the XYZ tristimulus space leads to very large errors. The problem stems from the fact that the RGB filter response are not a linear combination of XYZ responses. Next, it is shown that the transformation of CMYK halftones does not pose such difficulties.Here, it is found that a simple linear transform is relatively accurate, and some options to improve this accuracy are investigated. Several explanations are offered as to why transforms of CMYK are more accurate than transforms of LEDs. To determine which of the explanations is the most likely, linear transforms are applied to a variety of collections of colors.

  12. Color standardization in whole slide imaging using a color calibration slide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinky A Bautista

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Color consistency in histology images is still an issue in digital pathology. Different imaging systems reproduced the colors of a histological slide differently. Materials and Methods: Color correction was implemented using the color information of the nine color patches of a color calibration slide. The inherent spectral colors of these patches along with their scanned colors were used to derive a color correction matrix whose coefficients were used to convert the pixels′ colors to their target colors. Results: There was a significant reduction in the CIELAB color difference, between images of the same H & E histological slide produced by two different whole slide scanners by 3.42 units, P < 0.001 at 95% confidence level. Conclusion: Color variations in histological images brought about by whole slide scanning can be effectively normalized with the use of the color calibration slide.

  13. Color Hom-Akivis algebras, Color Hom-Leibniz algebras and Modules over Color Hom-Leibniz algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Bakayoko, Ibrahima; Bangoura, Momo; Manga, Bakary

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we introduce color Hom-Akivis algebras and prove that the commutator of any color non-associative Hom-algebra structure map leads to a color Hom-akivis algebra. We give various constructions of color Hom-Akivis algebras. Next we study flexible and alternative color Hom-Akivis algebras. Likewise color Hom-Akivis algebras, we introduce non-commutative color Hom-Leibniz-Poisson algebras and presente several constructions. Moreover we give the relationship between Hom-dialgebras and...

  14. Color reproduction system based on color appearance model and gamut mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fang-Hsuan; Yang, Chih-Yuan

    2000-06-01

    By the progress of computer, computer peripherals such as color monitor and printer are often used to generate color image. However, cross media color reproduction by human perception is usually different. Basically, the influence factors are device calibration and characterization, viewing condition, device gamut and human psychology. In this thesis, a color reproduction system based on color appearance model and gamut mapping is proposed. It consists of four parts; device characterization, color management technique, color appearance model and gamut mapping.

  15. Dominant color extraction based color correction for multi-view images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Shao; Mei Yu; Gangyi Jiang

    2007-01-01

    Color information is very important in setting the style of images. In this paper, a color correction method based on dominant color extraction is proposed to eliminate the color inconsistence between multi-view images. With the theory of basic color categories, dominant colors from the categories are extracted for reference image and input image, and then the corresponding color mapping relationships are built.Experimental results show that the proposed method is quite effective.

  16. Perceptual Representation of Color in Abstract Non-Color Word Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Aitao Lu; Ling Yang; John X Zhang; Yue Wu

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments showed that naming latencies were significantly shorter when the patch color was consistent with the object’s typical color relative to when they were inconsistent. Such color simulation was also found for verbs involving an object with color and words psychologically-related to color, indicating that color simulation is not limited to situations where there is a concrete, direct connection between the concept and the color information. Results from SOA manipulation indicate...

  17. The retinal ganglion cell classes of New World primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, E S; Silveira, L C; Gomes, F L; Lee, B B

    1996-12-01

    In the primate retina there are distinct ganglion cell classes, exhibiting particular morphologies and central projections, each responsible for conveying particular types of visual information to the brain. The chief retinal inputs to the cortex arise from specific ganglion cell classes, M-ganglion cells, responsible for carrying the luminance signal, and P-ganglion cells, that convey the red-green color opponent signal, as well as high contrast luminance signal. There are other ganglion cell classes, such as small-field bistratified cells, exhibiting dendrites that stratify at two different levels in the inner plexiform layer, which convey the blue-yellow color opponent signal. Most published data concerning primate retinal ganglion cell anatomy and physiology have been obtained from Old World species. Studies on New World monkeys have recently become of interest since they differ from the Old World monkeys with respect to the color vision inheritance pattern. On reviewing retinal ganglion cell layer organization in New World monkeys, it seems that there are more similarities than differences in relation to the Old World monkeys. Diurnal genera of New World monkeys exhibit a well-developed fovea centralis and ganglion cell density peak, as well as peripheral density values which are in the range reported for Old World monkeys and human. Moreover, all the major ganglion cell classes identified in Old World monkeys are also present in New World primates. Up to now, no obvious anatomical differences between dichromats and trichromats have been reported. The only genus that is significantly different from the others is the Aotus. It exhibits lower ganglion cell density in the central retina, and apparently lacks the small-field bistratified cells. PMID:9394516

  18. SRF Coloring: Stream Register File Allocation via Graph Coloring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Jun Yang; Yu Deng; Li Wang; Xiao-Bo Yan; Jing Du; Ying Zhang; Gui-Bin Wang; Tao Tang

    2009-01-01

    Stream Register File (SRF) is a large on-chip memory of the stream processor and its efficient management is essential for good performance. Current stream programming languages expose the management of SRF to the programmer, incurring heavy burden on the programmer and bringing difficulties to inheriting the legacy codes. SF95 is the language developed for FT64 which is the first 64-bit stream processor designed for scientific applications. SF95 conceals SRF from the programmer and leaves the management of SRF to its compiler. In this paper, we present a compiler approach named SRF Coloring to manage SRF automatically. The novelties of this paper are: first, it is the first time to use the graph coloring-based algorithm for the SRF management; second, an algorithm framework for SRF Coloring that is well suited to the FT64 architecture is proposed -- this framework is based on a well-understood graph coloring algorithm for register allocation, together with some modifications to deal with the unusual aspects of SRF problem; third, the SRF Coloring algorithm is implemented in SF95Compiler, a compiler designed for FT64 and SF95. The experimental results show that our approach represents a practical and promising solution to SRF allocation.

  19. 7 CFR 51.2283 - Off color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Off color. 51.2283 Section 51.2283 Agriculture... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Color Requirements § 51.2283 Off color. The term “off color” is not a color classification, but shall be applied to any lot which fails to meet...

  20. 7 CFR 29.3025 - General color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General color. 29.3025 Section 29.3025 Agriculture... General color. The color of tobacco considered in relation to the type as a whole. General color is distinguished from the restricted use of the term “color” within a group. It is basically related to body...

  1. 7 CFR 52.3760 - Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color. 52.3760 Section 52.3760 Agriculture Regulations... § 52.3760 Color. (a) General. The evaluation of color shall be determined within five minutes after the olives are removed from the container and is based upon the uniformity of the exterior color or...

  2. 7 CFR 58.435 - Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color. 58.435 Section 58.435 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....435 Color. Coloring when used, shall be Annatto or any cheese or butter color which meet...

  3. Basic Color Terms in Estonian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollman, Liivi; Sutrop, Urmas

    2011-01-01

    The article is written in the tradition of Brent Berlin and Paul Kay's theory of basic color terms. According to this theory there is a universal inventory of eleven basic color categories from which the basic color terms of any given language are always drawn. The number of basic color terms varies from 2 to 11 and in a language having a fully…

  4. 7 CFR 58.329 - Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color. 58.329 Section 58.329 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....329 Color. Coloring, when used shall be Annatto or any color which is approved by the U.S. Food...

  5. Gauge dependence identities for color superconducting QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using generalized Nielsen identities a formal proof is given that the fermionic quasiparticle dispersion relations in a color superconductor are gauge independent. This turns out to involve gluonic tadpoles which are calculated to one-loop order in a two-flavor color superconductor. Regarding the appearance of gluon tadpoles, we argue that in QCD the color superconducting phase is automatically color neutral

  6. Color Naming Universals: The Case of Berinmo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Paul; Regier, Terry

    2007-01-01

    Proponents of a self-identified "relativist" view of cross-language color naming have confounded two questions: (1) Is color naming largely subject to local linguistic convention? and (2) Are cross-language color naming differences reflected in comparable differences in color cognition by their speakers? The "relativist" position holds that the…

  7. A universal color image quality metric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Lucassen, M.P.

    2003-01-01

    We extend a recently introduced universal grayscale image quality index to a newly developed perceptually decorrelated color space. The resulting color image quality index quantifies the distortion of a processed color image relative to its original version. We evaluated the new color image quality

  8. 7 CFR 51.778 - Slightly colored.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Slightly colored. 51.778 Section 51.778 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Florida Grapefruit Definitions § 51.778 Slightly colored. Slightly colored means that except for an aggregate area of green color which does not exceed the area of a circle 2...

  9. 7 CFR 51.892 - Color terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... color means at least two-thirds of the surface of the berry is light red through dark red color; except... for the Cardinal variety light pink through purple color shall be permitted. ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color terms. 51.892 Section 51.892...

  10. Infants' Recognition of Objects Using Canonical Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Yang, Jiale; Otsuka, Yumiko; Dan, Ippeita; Masuda, Tomohiro; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.

    2010-01-01

    We explored infants' ability to recognize the canonical colors of daily objects, including two color-specific objects (human face and fruit) and a non-color-specific object (flower), by using a preferential looking technique. A total of 58 infants between 5 and 8 months of age were tested with a stimulus composed of two color pictures of an object…

  11. 7 CFR 51.1860 - Color classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color classification. 51.1860 Section 51.1860... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Color Classification § 51.1860 Color classification... illustrating the color classification requirements, as set forth in this section. This visual aid may...

  12. Color Perception of the Textile and Clothing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雁; 李栋高; 陈之戈

    2004-01-01

    The color perception is related to color objects, vision system and central nervous system. The methods of evaluation, classification and prediction of the color perception are investigated and analyzed in this paper. The artificial neural networks are used for color perception, clustering and predicting based on the given data obtained from both objective measurement and subjective evaluation.

  13. Three-Rainbow Coloring of Split Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡玉梅; 刘婷婷

    2015-01-01

    After a necessary condition is given, 3-rainbow coloring of split graphs with time complexity O(m) is obtained by constructive method. The number of corresponding colors is at most 2 or 3 more than the minimum num-ber of colors needed in a 3-rainbow coloring.

  14. Color correction optimization with hue regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Liu, Huaping; Quan, Shuxue

    2011-01-01

    Previous work has suggested that observers are capable of judging the quality of an image without any knowledge of the original scene. When no reference is available, observers can extract the apparent objects in an image and compare them with the typical colors of similar objects recalled from their memories. Some generally agreed upon research results indicate that although perfect colorimetric rendering is not conspicuous and color errors can be well tolerated, the appropriate rendition of certain memory colors such as skin, grass, and sky is an important factor in the overall perceived image quality. These colors are appreciated in a fairly consistent manner and are memorized with slightly different hues and higher color saturation. The aim of color correction for a digital color pipeline is to transform the image data from a device dependent color space to a target color space, usually through a color correction matrix which in its most basic form is optimized through linear regressions between the two sets of data in two color spaces in the sense of minimized Euclidean color error. Unfortunately, this method could result in objectionable distortions if the color error biased certain colors undesirably. In this paper, we propose a color correction optimization method with preferred color reproduction in mind through hue regularization and present some experimental results.

  15. Plasmonic Structural Colors for Plastic Consumer Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Mortensen, N. Asger; Kristensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Today colorants, such as pigments or dyes, are used to color plastic-based consumer products, either as base for solid colored bulk polymer or in inks for surface decoration. After usage, the products must be mechanically sorted by color before recycling, limiting any large-scale efficient...

  16. Inheritance of seed color in Capsicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zewdie, Y; Bosland, P W

    2003-01-01

    The mode of seed color inheritance in Capsicum was studied via an interspecific hybridization between C. pubescens Ruiz and Pav. (black seed color) and C. eximium Hunz. (yellow seed color). Black seed color was dominant over yellow seed color. The F(2) segregation pattern showed continuous variation. The generation means analysis indicated the presence of a significant effect of additive [d], dominance [h], and additive x additive [i] interaction for seed color inheritance. The estimate for a minimum number of effective factors (genes) involved in seed color inheritance was approximately 3. PMID:12920108

  17. Running head: What color is it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Andrew T.

    1988-01-01

    Color vision provides low-resolution spectrophotometric information about candidate materials for planetary surfaces that is comparable in precision to wideband photoelectric photometry, and considerably superior to Voyager TV data. Briefly explained are the basic concepts, teminology, and notation of color science. Also shown is how to convert a reflectance spectrum into a color specification. An Appendix lists a simple computer subroutine to convert spectral reflectance into CIE coordinates, and the text explains how to convert these to a surface color in a standard color atlas. Target and printed Solar System colors are compared to show how accurate are the printed colors.

  18. Olympus Mons in Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Sections of MOC images P024_01 and P024_02, shown here in color composite form, were acquired with the low resolution red and blue wide angle cameras over a 5 minute period starting when Mars Global Surveyor was at its closest point to the planet at the beginning of its 24th orbit (around 4:00 AM PDT on October 20, 1997). To make this image, a third component (green) was synthesized from the red and blue images. During the imaging period, the camera was pointed straight down towards the martian surface, 176 km (109 miles) below the spacecraft. During the time it took to acquire the image, the spacecraft rose to an altitude of 310 km (193 miles). Owing to data camera scanning rate and data volume constraints, the image was acquired at a resolution of roughly 1 km (0.609 mile) per pixel. The image shown here covers an area from 12o to 26o N latitude and 126o N to 138o W longitude. The image is oriented with north to the top.As has been noted in other MOC releases, Olympus Mons is the largest of the major Tharsis volcanoes, rising 25 km (15.5 miles) and stretching over nearly 550 km (340 miles) east-west. The summit caldera, a composite of as many as seven roughly circular collapse depressions, is 66 by 83 km (41 by 52 miles) across. Also seen in this image are water-ice clouds that accumulate around and above the volcano during the late afternoon (at the time the image was acquired, the summit was at 5:30 PM local solar time). To understand the value of orbital observations, compare this image with the two taken during approach (PIA00929 and PIA00936), that are representative of the best resolution from Earth.Through Monday, October 28, the MOC had acquired a total of 132 images, most of which were at low sun elevation angles. Of these images, 74 were taken with the high resolution narrow angle camera and 58 with the low resolution wide angle cameras. Twenty-eight narrow angle and 24 wide angle images were taken after the suspension of aerobraking. These images

  19. Node coloring for dense wireless sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Amdouni, Ichrak; Adjih, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    Coloring is used in wireless networks to improve communication efficiency, mainly in terms of bandwidth, energy and possibly end-to-end delays. In this research report, we define the h-hop node coloring problem, with h any positive integer. We prove that the associated decision problem is NP-complete. We then present a 3-hop distributed coloring algorithm that is optimized for dense networks: a node does not need to exchange the priorities and colors of its 2-hop neighbors. Through simulation results, we highlight the impact of priority assignment on the number of colors obtained for any network. We then focus on grids and identify a color pattern that can be reproduced to color the whole grid. We show how the coloring algorithm can use regularity properties to obtain a periodic color pattern with the optimal number of colors. We then consider grids with holes and study how to extend our results.

  20. A kaleidoscopic view of graph colorings

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    This book describes kaleidoscopic topics that have developed in the area of graph colorings. Unifying current material on graph coloring, this book describes current information on vertex and edge colorings in graph theory, including harmonious colorings, majestic colorings, kaleidoscopic colorings and binomial colorings. Recently there have been a number of breakthroughs in vertex colorings that give rise to other colorings in a graph, such as graceful labelings of graphs that have been reconsidered under the language of colorings. The topics presented in this book include sample detailed proofs and illustrations, which depicts elements that are often overlooked. This book is ideal for graduate students and researchers in graph theory, as it covers a broad range of topics and makes connections between recent developments and well-known areas in graph theory.

  1. A subjective evaluation of high-chroma color with wide color-gamut display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Junko; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Ohyama, Nagaaki

    2009-01-01

    Displays tends to expand its color gamut, such as multi-primary color display, Adobe RGB and so on. Therefore displays got possible to display high chroma colors. However sometimes, we feel unnatural some for the image which only expanded chroma. Appropriate gamut mapping method to expand color gamut is not proposed very much. We are attempting preferred expanded color reproduction on wide color gamut display utilizing high chroma colors effectively. As a first step, we have conducted an experiment to investigate the psychological effect of color schemes including highly saturated colors. We used the six-primary-color projector that we have developed for the presentation of test colors. The six-primary-color projector's gamut volume in CIELAB space is about 1.8 times larger than the normal RGB projector. We conducted a subjective evaluation experiment using the SD (Semantic Differential) technique to find the quantitative psychological effect of high chroma colors.

  2. Node Coloring and Color Conflict Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saoucene Mahfoudh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks, energy efficiency is mainly achieved by making nodes sleep. In this paper, we present the combination of SERENA, a new node activity scheduling algorithm based on node coloring, with TDMA/CA, a collision avoidance MAC protocol. We show that the  combination of these two protocols enables substantial bandwidth and energy benefits for both general and data gathering applications. As a first contribution, we prove that the three-hop node coloring problem is NP-complete. As a second contribution, the overhead induced by SERENA during network coloring is reduced, making possible the use of these protocols even in dense networks with limited bandwidth. The third contribution of this paper is to show that applying any slot assignment algorithmwith spatial reuse based on node neighborhood without taking into account link quality can lead to poor performances because of collisions. The use of good quality links will prevent this phenomenon. The fourth contribution consists of optimizing end-to-end delays for data gathering applications, by means of cross-layering with the application. However, color conflicts resulting from topology changes, mobility and late node arrivals can give rise to collisions. As a fifth contribution, we show how the MAC layer can detect color conflicts, and cope with them at the cost of a slightly reduced throughput. Then, we discuss the tradeoffbetween requesting SERENA to solve the color conflicts and dealing with them at the MAC layer, our third contribution. The combination of SERENA and TDMA/CA is evaluated through simulations on realistic topologies.

  3. Electromagnetic currents induced by color fields

    OpenAIRE

    Tanji, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    The quark production in classical color fields is investigated with a focus on the induction of an electromagnetic current by produced quarks. We show that the color SU(2) and the SU(3) theories lead significantly different results for the electromagnetic current. In uniform SU(2) color fields, the net electromagnetic current is not generated, while in SU(3) color fields the net current is induced depending on the color direction of background fields. Also the numerical study of the quark pro...

  4. Predicting transmittance spectra of electrophotographic color prints

    OpenAIRE

    Mourad, S.; Emmel, P.; R. D. Hersch

    2001-01-01

    For dry toner electrophotographic color printers, we present a numerical simulation model describing the color printer response based on a physical characterization of the different electrophotographic process steps. The proposed model introduces a Cross Transfer Efficiency designed to predict the color transmittance spectra of multi-color prints by taking into account the transfer influence of each deposited color toner layer upon the other layers. The simulation model leads to a better unde...

  5. Fault-Tolerant Conflict-Free Coloring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abam, Mohammad; de Berg, Mark; Poon, Sheung-Hung

    2008-01-01

    intersecting the range r. A conict-free coloring (CF-coloring) of S with respect to R is a coloring of S with the following property [5]: for any range r 2 R for which S(r) 6= ; there is an object o 2 S(r) with a unique color in S(r), that is, with a color not used by any other object in S(r). Trivially, a...

  6. A Discrete Model for Color Naming

    OpenAIRE

    Le Troter A; Sequeira J; Boi JM; Menegaz G.

    2007-01-01

    The ability to associate labels to colors is very natural for human beings. Though, this apparently simple task hides very complex and still unsolved problems, spreading over many different disciplines ranging from neurophysiology to psychology and imaging. In this paper, we propose a discrete model for computational color categorization and naming. Starting from the 424 color specimens of the OSA-UCS set, we propose a fuzzy partitioning of the color space. Each of the 11 basic color categor...

  7. Creating experimental color harmony map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamaret, Christel; Urban, Fabrice; Lepinel, Josselin

    2014-02-01

    Starting in the 17th century with Newton, color harmony is a topic that did not reach a consensus on definition, representation or modeling so far. Previous work highlighted specific characteristics for color harmony on com- bination of color doublets or triplets by means of a human rating on a harmony scale. However, there were no investigation involving complex stimuli or pointing out how harmony is spatially located within a picture. The modeling of such concept as well as a reliable ground-truth would be of high value for the community, since the applications are wide and concern several communities: from psychology to computer graphics. We propose a protocol for creating color harmony maps from a controlled experiment. Through an eye-tracking protocol, we focus on the identification of disharmonious colors in pictures. The experiment was composed of a free viewing pass in order to let the observer be familiar with the content before a second pass where we asked "to search for the most disharmonious areas in the picture". Twenty-seven observers participated to the experiments that was composed of a total of 30 different stimuli. The high inter-observer agreement as well as a cross-validation confirm the validity of the proposed ground-truth.

  8. Color-Blind Racism, Color-Blind Theology, and Church Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Color-blind racism develops when persons ignore color in people and see them simply as individuals. As persons of color in racialized societies such as the United States are unequally treated on account of their color, the issue becomes a matter of faith and religious experience as religious leaders and educators, who disregard color, overlook…

  9. Development of colored alumilite dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obara, Kenjiro; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Yagi, Toshiaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Yokoo, Noriko [Radiation Application Development Association, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    In the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), in-vessel components such as blanket and divertor, which are installed in the vacuum vessel of the ITER, are maintained by remote handling equipment (RH equipment). The RH equipment for maintenance is operated under sever environmental conditions, such as high temperature (50{approx}100 degC), high gamma-ray radiation ({approx}1 kGy/h) in an atmosphere of inert gas or vacuum; therefore many components of the RH equipment must have a suitable radiation resistance efficiency for long time operation (10{approx}100 MGy). Typical components of the RH equipment have been extensively tested under an intensive gamma-ray radiation. Monitoring of the radiation dose of the components of the RH equipment is essential to control the operation period of the RH equipment considering radiation resistance. However, the maximum measurable radiation dose of the conventional dosimeters, such as ionization chamber, liquid, glass and plastic dosimeters are limited to be approximately 1MGy which is too low to monitor the RH equipment for the ITER. In addition, these conventional dosimeters do not involve sufficient radiation resistance against the high gamma-ray radiation as well as are not easy handling and low cost. Based on the above backgrounds, a new dosimeter with bleaching of an azo group dye to be applied to a radiation monitor has been developed for high gamma-ray radiation use. The colored alumilite dosimeter is composed of the azo group dye (-N=N-) in an anodic oxidation layer of aluminum alloy (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). It can monitor the radiation dose by measuring the change of the bleaching of azo dye in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer due to gamma-ray irradiation. The degree of bleaching is measured as the change of hue (color) and brightness based on the Munsell's colors with a three dimensional universe using spectrophotometer. In the tests, the dependencies such as colors, anodized layer thickness, type of azo

  10. Electroweak Baryogenesis and Colored Scalars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Timothy; /SLAC /Michigan U., MCTP; Pierce, Aaron; /Michigan U., MCTP

    2012-02-15

    We consider the 2-loop finite temperature effective potential for a Standard Model-like Higgs boson, allowing Higgs boson couplings to additional scalars. If the scalars transform under color, they contribute 2-loop diagrams to the effective potential that include gluons. These 2-loop effects are perhaps stronger than previously appreciated. For a Higgs boson mass of 115 GeV, they can increase the strength of the phase transition by as much as a factor of 3.5. It is this effect that is responsible for the survival of the tenuous electroweak baryogenesis window of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. We further illuminate the importance of these 2-loop diagrams by contrasting models with colored scalars to models with singlet scalars. We conclude that baryogenesis favors models with light colored scalars. This motivates searches for pair-produced di-jet resonances or jet(s) + = E{sub T}.

  11. Rate calculation with colored noise

    CERN Document Server

    Bartsch, Thomas; Benito, R M; Borondo, F

    2016-01-01

    The usual identification of reactive trajectories for the calculation of reaction rates requires very time-consuming simulations, particularly if the environment presents memory effects. In this paper, we develop a new method that permits the identification of reactive trajectories in a system under the action of a stochastic colored driving. This method is based on the perturbative computation of the invariant structures that act as separatrices for reactivity. Furthermore, using this perturbative scheme, we have obtained a formally exact expression for the reaction rate in multidimensional systems coupled to colored noisy environments.

  12. Single-flavor color superconductivity with color-sextet pairing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brauner, Tomáš

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2005), s. 9-16. ISSN 0011-4626 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/02/0847 Keywords : color superconductivity * spontaneous symmetry breaking Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.360, year: 2005

  13. Color as a language in architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedal, Grete

    2002-06-01

    This paper takes into consideration the role of color as a non-verbal language between human beings and the environment. The communication is based on the function of the color vision to separate and identify. A language about color can be based on the same. The concept behind the Natural Color System is color differentiation and color identification, which I find very useful both in color education of design students and in environmental color design work. A commission to plan the exterior use of color for a whole mining town on 78 degree(s) North in Longyearbyen, Spitsbergen, will illustrate my ideas. This will serve as an example of how these different 'languages' can work together. After a twenty years ongoing process this work is now almost fulfilled and the result will be shown in the presentation.

  14. Transfer color to night vision images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaoyuan Sun; Zhongliang Jing; Gang Liu; Zhenhua Li

    2005-01-01

    @@ Natural color appearance is the key problem of color night vision field. In this paper, the color mood of daytime color image is transferred to the monochromic night vision image. This method gives the night image a natural color appearance. For each pixel in the night vision image, the best matching pixel in the color image is found based on texture similarity measure. Entropy, energy, contrast, homogeneity, and correlation features based on co-occurrence matrix are combined as texture similarity measure to find the corresponding pixels between the two images. We use a genetic algorithm (GA) to find the optimistic weighting factors assigned to the five different features. GA is also employed in searching the matching pixels to make the color transfer algorithm faster. When the best matching pixel in the color image is found, the chromaticity values are transferred to the corresponding pixel of the night vision image. The experiment results demonstrate the efficiency of this natural color transfer technique.

  15. Scanner-based macroscopic color variation estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chunghui; Lai, Di; Zeise, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Flatbed scanners have been adopted successfully in the measurement of microscopic image artifacts, such as granularity and mottle, in print samples because of their capability of providing full color, high resolution images. Accurate macroscopic color measurement relies on the use of colorimeters or spectrophotometers to provide a surrogate for human vision. The very different color response characteristics of flatbed scanners from any standard colorimetric response limits the utility of a flatbed scanner as a macroscopic color measuring device. This metamerism constraint can be significantly relaxed if our objective is mainly to quantify the color variations within a printed page or between pages where a small bias in measured colors can be tolerated as long as the color distributions relative to the individual mean values is similar. Two scenarios when converting color from the device RGB color space to a standardized color space such as CIELab are studied in this paper, blind and semi-blind color transformation, depending on the availability of the black channel information. We will show that both approaches offer satisfactory results in quantifying macroscopic color variation across pages while the semi-blind color transformation further provides fairly accurate color prediction capability.

  16. Modeling, Measuring, and Compensating Color Weak Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Satoshi; Mochizuki, Rika; Lenz, Reiner; Chao, Jinhui

    2016-06-01

    We use methods from Riemann geometry to investigate transformations between the color spaces of color-normal and color weak observers. The two main applications are the simulation of the perception of a color weak observer for a color normal observer and the compensation of color images in a way that a color weak observer has approximately the same perception as a color normal observer. The metrics in the color spaces of interest are characterized with the help of ellipsoids defined by the just-noticable-differences between color which are measured with the help of color-matching experiments. The constructed mappings are isometries of Riemann spaces that preserve the perceived color-differences for both observers. Among the two approaches to build such an isometry, we introduce normal coordinates in Riemann spaces as a tool to construct a global color-weak compensation map. Compared to previously used methods this method is free from approximation errors due to local linearizations and it avoids the problem of shifting locations of the origin of the local coordinate system. We analyse the variations of the Riemann metrics for different observers obtained from new color matching experiments and describe three variations of the basic method. The performance of the methods is evaluated with the help of semantic differential (SD) tests.

  17. ColorMath - A package for color summed calculations in SU(Nc)

    CERN Document Server

    Sjödahl, Malin

    2012-01-01

    A Mathematica package for color summed calculations in QCD (SU(Nc)) is presented. Color contractions of any color amplitude appearing in QCD may be performed, and the package uses a syntax which is very similar to how color structure is written on paper. It also supports the definition of color vectors and bases, and special functions such as scalar products are defined for such color tensors.

  18. Image color transfer to evoke different emotions based on color combinations

    OpenAIRE

    He, Li; Qi, Hairong; Zaretzki, Russell

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a color transfer framework to evoke different emotions for images based on color combinations is proposed. The purpose of this color transfer is to change the "look and feel" of images, i.e., evoking different emotions. Colors are confirmed as the most attractive factor in images. In addition, various studies in both art and science areas have concluded that other than single color, color combinations are necessary to evoke specific emotions. Therefore, we propose a novel frame...

  19. Digital color acquisition, perception, coding and rendering

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Maloigne, Christine; Macaire, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    In this book the authors identify the basic concepts and recent advances in the acquisition, perception, coding and rendering of color. The fundamental aspects related to the science of colorimetry in relation to physiology (the human visual system) are addressed, as are constancy and color appearance. It also addresses the more technical aspects related to sensors and the color management screen. Particular attention is paid to the notion of color rendering in computer graphics. Beyond color, the authors also look at coding, compression, protection and quality of color images and videos.

  20. Illustrating Chromatography with Colorful Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Brian G.; Farrell, Stephanie; Dominiak, Richard S.

    2007-01-01

    Advances in biology are prompting new discoveries in the biotechnology, pharmaceutical, medical technology, and chemical industries. This paper presents a detailed description of an anion exchange chromatography experiment using a pair of colorful proteins and summarizes the effect of operating parameters on protein separation. This experiment…

  1. Camouflage, Color Schemes, and Cubism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhin, Paula

    2002-01-01

    Presents an art activity where students learn about Cubism and color mixing. Explains that the students create camouflaged animals after learning about the work, "Female Torso" (Pablo Picasso). Includes directions for how to create the pictures and states that the assignment can be used with students of all ages. (CMK)

  2. On colorings of variable words

    OpenAIRE

    Tyros, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    In this note, we prove that the base case of the Graham--Rothschild Theorem, i.e., the one that considers colorings of the ($1$-dimensional) variable words, admits bounds in the class $\\mathcal{E}^5$ of Grzegorczyk's hierarchy.

  3. Colored graphs and matrix integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article we discuss two different asymptotic expansions of matrix integrals. The original approach using the so-called Feynman diagram techniques leads to sums over isomorphism classes of ribbon graphs. Asymptotic expansions of more general Gaussian integrals are sums over isomorphism classes of colored graphs without ribbon structure. Here we derive the former expansion from the latter one. This provides an independent proof for the expansion used by Kontsevich. It might be very interesting to compare the algebra arising in these two approaches. The asymptotic expansion using ribbon graphs leads to the tau function of the KDV hierarchy while the sums over colored graphs satisfy simple partial differential equations which generalize the Burgers equation. We describe the general approach using colored graphs in the second section. In the third section we specialize the results of the second section for the matrix integral. In this section we also derive the expansion over ribbon graphs. The proof is based on simple topological considerations which are contained in section 5. In the last section we give an explicit calculation of the first term of the expansion using colored graphs

  4. Color and Light in Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittner-Heir, Robbin M.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses studies showing that color and light have a significant influence on how students learn and retain information (for example, daylight is much more beneficial than fluorescent light). Describes how many architects and designers are now incorporating these findings into their work in schools. (EV)

  5. Color management in textile application

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lucia, Maurizio; Vannucci, Massimiliano; Buonopane, Massimo; Fabroni, Cosimo; Fabrini, Francesco

    2002-03-01

    The aim of this research was to study a system of acquisition and processing of images capable of confronting colored wool with a reference specimen, in order to define the conformity using objective parameters. The first step of the research was to comprise and to analyze in depth the problem: there has been numerous implications of technical, physical, cultural, biological and also psychological character, that come down from the attempt of giving a quantitative appraisal to the color. In the scene of the national and international scientific and technological research, little has been made as regards measurement of color through digital processing of the images through linear CCD. The reason is fundamentally of technological nature: only during the last years we found the presence on the market of low cost equipment capable of acquiring and processing images with adequate performances and qualities. The job described has permitted to create a first prototype of system for the color measuring with use of CCD linear devices. -Hardware identification to carry out a series of tests and experiments in laboratory. -Verification of such device in a textile facility. -Statistics analysis of the collected data and of the employed models.

  6. Allelic variation in the squirrel monkey x-linked color vision gene: biogeographical and behavioral correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropp, Susan; Boinski, Sue; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2002-06-01

    Most Neotropical primate species possess a polymorphic X-linked and a monomorphic autosomal color vision gene. Consequently, populations are composed of both dichromatics and trichromatics. Most theories on the maintenance of this genetic system revolve around possible advantages for foraging ecology. To examine the issue from a different angle, we compared the numbers and relative frequencies of alleles at the X-linked locus among three species of Saimiri representing a wide range of geographical and behavioral variation in the genus. Exons 3, 4, and 5 of the X-linked opsin gene were sequenced for a large number of X chromosomes for all three species. Several synonymous mutations were detected in exons 4 and 5 for the originally reported alleles but only a single nonsynonymous change was detected. Two alleles were found that appeared to be the result of recombination events. The low occurrence of recombinant alleles and absence of mutations in the amino acids critical for spectral tuning indicates that stabilizing selection acts to maintain the combinations of critical sites specific to each allele. Allele frequencies were approximately the same for all Saimiri species, with a slight but significant difference between S. boliviensis and S. oerstedii. No apparent correlation exists between allele frequencies and behavioral or biogeographical differences between species, casting doubt on the speculation that the spectral sensitivities of the alleles have been maintained because they are specifically well-tuned to Saimiri visual ecology. Rather, the spectral tuning peaks might have been maintained because they are as widely spaced as possible within the limited range of middlewave to longwave spectra useful to all primates. This arrangement creates a balance between maximizing the distance between spectral tuning peaks (allowing the color opponency of the visual system to distinguish between peaks) and maximizing the number of alleles within a limited range (yielding

  7. Color (RGB) imaging laser radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri De Collibus, M.; Bartolini, L.; Fornetti, G.; Francucci, M.; Guarneri, M.; Nuvoli, M.; Paglia, E.; Ricci, R.

    2008-03-01

    We present a new color (RGB) imaging 3D laser scanner prototype recently developed in ENEA, Italy). The sensor is based on AM range finding technique and uses three distinct beams (650nm, 532nm and 450nm respectively) in monostatic configuration. During a scan the laser beams are simultaneously swept over the target, yielding range and three separated channels (R, G and B) of reflectance information for each sampled point. This information, organized in range and reflectance images, is then elaborated to produce very high definition color pictures and faithful, natively colored 3D models. Notable characteristics of the system are the absence of shadows in the acquired reflectance images - due to the system's monostatic setup and intrinsic self-illumination capability - and high noise rejection, achieved by using a narrow field of view and interferential filters. The system is also very accurate in range determination (accuracy better than 10 -4) at distances up to several meters. These unprecedented features make the system particularly suited to applications in the domain of cultural heritage preservation, where it could be used by conservators for examining in detail the status of degradation of frescoed walls, monuments and paintings, even at several meters of distance and in hardly accessible locations. After providing some theoretical background, we describe the general architecture and operation modes of the color 3D laser scanner, by reporting and discussing first experimental results and comparing high-definition color images produced by the instrument with photographs of the same subjects taken with a Nikon D70 digital camera.

  8. 7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Middling Color and Strict Middling Spotted Color....

  9. 7 CFR 28.413 - Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.413 Section 28.413... Spotted Color. Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Middling Color and Middling Spotted Color....

  10. 7 CFR 28.415 - Low Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Low Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.415 Section 28... Spotted Color. Low Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Low Middling Color and Low Middling Spotted Color....

  11. 7 CFR 28.411 - Good Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.411 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Good Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Good Middling Color and Good Middling Spotted Color....

  12. LED color mixing with diffractive structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonenberger, Theresa; Baumgart, Jörg; Wendel, Simon; Neumann, Cornelius

    2013-03-01

    Lighting solutions with colored LEDs provide many opportunities for illumination. One of these opportunities is to create a color tunable light source. In this way different kinds of white light (color temperature) as well as discrete colors may be realized. This opens the field for applications as mood lighting. But there is always a spatial separation of the distinct LEDs that might get converted into an angular separation by any collimating optics. This angular separation causes such problems like color fringes and colored shadows that cannot be accepted in most applications. Conventional methods to solve these problems include e.g. mixing rods or dichroic filters. A new approach is the use of the dispersive effect of a diffractive structure to compensate the angular separation of the different colors. In this contribution the potential and limitations of diffractive structures in LED color mixing applications are discussed. Ray tracing simulations were performed to analyze such important parameters like efficiency, color performance and the cross section of the color mixing optics. New means for the estimation of color mixing performance were developed. A software tool makes it possible to detect the color distribution within ray trace data and it provides a quality factor to estimate the color mixing performance. It can be shown that the spectral band width has a large influence on the mixing process. Ray tracing simulations are compared with results of an experimental setup such that both measured as well as simulated data is presented.

  13. Characterization of Angle Dependent Color Travel of Printed Multi-Color Effect Pigment on Different Color Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Mirica Karlovits

    2014-01-01

    Color-travel pigments, which exhibit much more extensive color change as well provide angle-dependent optical effect can be used in many industrial products. In present paper the multi-color effect pigment printed on three different foils with different background color (black, silver and transparent) was investigated. The pigment was based on synthetically produced transparent silicon dioxide platelets coated with titanium dioxide. CIEL*a*b* values and reflection of prints were measured by m...

  14. Optimal color coding for compression of true color images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musatenko, Yurij S.; Kurashov, Vitalij N.

    1998-11-01

    In the paper we present the method that improves lossy compression of the true color or other multispectral images. The essence of the method is to project initial color planes into Karhunen-Loeve (KL) basis that gives completely decorrelated representation for the image and to compress basis functions instead of the planes. To do that the new fast algorithm of true KL basis construction with low memory consumption is suggested and our recently proposed scheme for finding optimal losses of Kl functions while compression is used. Compare to standard JPEG compression of the CMYK images the method provides the PSNR gain from 0.2 to 2 dB for the convenient compression ratios. Experimental results are obtained for high resolution CMYK images. It is demonstrated that presented scheme could work on common hardware.

  15. Obesity in kidney disease: A heavyweight opponent

    OpenAIRE

    Felizardo, Raphael Jose Ferreira; da Silva, Marina Burgos; Aguiar, Cristhiane Favero; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is an important worldwide challenge that must be faced in most developed and developing countries because of unhealthy nutritional habits. The consequences of obesity and being overweight are observed in different organs, but the kidney is one of the most affected. Excess adipose tissue causes hemodynamic alterations in the kidney that can result in renal disease. However, obesity is also commonly associated with other comorbidities such as chronic inflammation, hypertension and diabe...

  16. On Einstein's opponents, and other crackpots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dongen, J.A.E.F.

    2010-01-01

    Einsteins Gegner: Die öffentliche Kontroverse um die Relativitätstheorie in den 1920er Jahren, Milena Wazeck. Campus Verlag, pp. 429, EUR 39.90. ISBN: 978-3593389141 “This world is a strange madhouse. Currently, every coachman and every waiter is debating whether relativity theory is correct. Belief

  17. Wood colors and their coloring matters: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazaki, Yoshikazu

    2015-03-01

    A number of colored specialty woods, such as ebony, rosewood, mahogany and amboyna, and commercially important woods, such as morus, logwood, Brazilwood, Japanese yellowwood, blackwood, kwila, red beech and myrtle beech, exhibit a wide range of colors from black, violet, dark red, reddish brown, to pale yellow. These colors are not only due to colored pigments contained in extractives from those woods but also to insoluble polymers. Wood and bark from many species of both hardwood and softwood trees contain many types of flavonoid compounds. Research on flavonoids has been conducted mainly from two points of view. The first is chemotaxonomy with flavonoid compounds as taxonomic markers, and the second relates to the utilization of woods for pulp and paper and the use of tannins from bark for wood adhesives. Most chemotaxonomic studies have been conducted on flavonoids in the extracts from softwoods such as Podocarpus, Pinus, Pseudotsuga, Larix, Taxus, Libocedrus, Tsuja, Taxodium, Sequoia, Cedrus, Tsuga, Abies and Picea. Hardwood chemotaxonomic studies include those on Prunus and Eucalyptus species. Studies on flavonoids in pulp and paper production were conducted on Eucalyptus woods in Australia and woods from Douglas fir in the USA and larch in Japan. Flavonoids as tannin resources from black wattle tannin and quebracho tannin have been used commercially as wood adhesives. Flavonoids in the bark from radiata pine and southern pine, from western and eastern hemlock, southern red oak and Quercus dentata are also discussed. In addition, the distribution of flavonoids among tree species is described, as is the first isolation of rare procyanidin glycosides in nature. PMID:25924540

  18. Graph choosability and double list colorability

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid-Reza Fanaï

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we give a sufficient condition for graph choosability, based on Combinatorial Nullstellensatz and a specific property, called "double list colorability", which means that there is a list assignment for which there are exactly two admissible colorings.

  19. Electromagnetic currents induced by color fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanji, Naoto

    2015-12-01

    The quark production in classical color fields is investigated with a focus on the induction of an electromagnetic current by produced quarks. We show that the color SU(2) and the SU(3) theories lead significantly different results for the electromagnetic current. In uniform SU(2) color fields, the net electromagnetic current is not generated, while in SU(3) color fields the net current is induced depending on the color direction of background fields. Also the numerical study of the quark production in inhomogeneous color fields is done. Motivated by gauge field configurations provided by the color glass condensate framework, we introduce an ensemble of randomly distributed color electric fluxtubes. The spectrum of photons emitted from the quarks by a classical process is shown.

  20. 7 CFR 51.764 - Well colored.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... fruit has characteristic color for the variety with practically no trace of green color....

  1. Skin Cancer in Skin of Color

    OpenAIRE

    Bradford, Porcia T.

    2009-01-01

    Skin cancers in skin of color often present atypically or with advanced stage in comparison to Caucasian patients. Health care providers must maintain a high index of suspicion when examining skin lesions in skin of color.

  2. Color Vision Defects: What Teachers Should Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Barbara A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the nature of color vision defects as they relate to reading instruction. Suggests ways that teachers can adapt instruction to help provide maximal learning opportunities for the color deficient child. (RS)

  3. Spectral Test Instrument for Color Vision Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Balázs Vince Nagy; Gy(o)rgy (A)brahám

    2005-01-01

    Common displays such as CRT or LCD screens have limited capabilities in displaying most color spectra correctly. The main disadvantage of these devices is that they work with three primaries and the colors displayed are the mixture of these three colours. Consequently these devices can be confusing in testing human color identification, because the spectral distribution of the colors displayed is the combined spectrum of the three primaries. We have developed a new instrument for spectrally correct color vision measurement. This instrument uses light emitting diodes (LEDs) and is capable of producing all spectra of perceivable colors, thus with appropriate test methods this instrument can be a reliable and useful tool in testing human color vision and in verifying color vision correction.

  4. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Scientist Video Series Why can’t you see colors well in the dark? Do fish have eyelids? ... video series. Dr. Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how ...

  5. Analysis of Fast Break and Rebounds of China Men,Women's Basketball Team and Opponents in 16th Asian Games%16届亚运会中国男、女篮与对手在后场篮板和快攻方面的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑义

    2011-01-01

    运用文献法,视频法和数理统计法对广州亚运会中国男女篮与对手在后场篮板和快攻方面进行分析得出:中国男篮在后场篮板与对手差距不大,在快攻得分方面发挥不稳定,中国女篮在后场篮板方面远远超过对手,但在快攻方面明显落后于对手。%This paper uses literature method,video method and mathematical statistics method and the Guangzhou Asian Games,Chinese men and women's basketball team rebounds after opponents drawn from the analysis and fast-break aspects: There is little difference between opponents of the Chinese team in rebounds,in fast-break points play unstable,Chinese women's basketball in the area far more than rivals in rebounds,but are obviously behind the opponent in fast break.

  6. Coloration, placement et plongement de graphes

    OpenAIRE

    Tahraoui, Mohammed Amin

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, we investigate some problems in graph theory, namelythe graph coloring problem, the graph packing problem and tree pattern matchingfor XML query processing. The common point between these problems is that theyuse labeled graphs.In the first part, we study a new coloring parameter of graphs called the gapvertex-distinguishing edge coloring. It consists in an edge-coloring of a graph G whichinduces a vertex distinguishing labeling of G such that the label of each vertex isgiven ...

  7. Prevalence of Color Vision Deficiency in Qazvin

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad khalaj; Ameneh Barikani; Mozhgan Mohammadi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Color vision deficiency (CVD) is an X chromosome-linked recessive autosomal dominant. Determine the prevalence of color blindness in Qazvin population. Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study color vision deficiency examined in 1853 individuals with age 10-25 years old who participated in private clinics and eye clinic of Bu-Ali hospital in Qazvin in 2010. The screening of color vision deficiency was performed using Ishihara test. Data were analyzed by SPSS-16 with χP...

  8. Spatiochromatic Context Modeling for Color Saliency Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Shengping; Li, Xuelong; Wu, Xindong

    2016-06-01

    Visual saliency is one of the most noteworthy perceptual abilities of human vision. Recent progress in cognitive psychology suggests that: 1) visual saliency analysis is mainly completed by the bottom-up mechanism consisting of feedforward low-level processing in primary visual cortex (area V1) and 2) color interacts with spatial cues and is influenced by the neighborhood context, and thus it plays an important role in a visual saliency analysis. From a computational perspective, the most existing saliency modeling approaches exploit multiple independent visual cues, irrespective of their interactions (or are not computed explicitly), and ignore contextual influences induced by neighboring colors. In addition, the use of color is often underestimated in the visual saliency analysis. In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective color saliency model that considers color as the only visual cue and mimics the color processing in V1. Our approach uses region-/boundary-defined color features with spatiochromatic filtering by considering local color-orientation interactions, therefore captures homogeneous color elements, subtle textures within the object and the overall salient object from the color image. To account for color contextual influences, we present a divisive normalization method for chromatic stimuli through the pooling of contrary/complementary color units. We further define a color perceptual metric over the entire scene to produce saliency maps for color regions and color boundaries individually. These maps are finally globally integrated into a one single saliency map. The final saliency map is produced by Gaussian blurring for robustness. We evaluate the proposed method on both synthetic stimuli and several benchmark saliency data sets from the visual saliency analysis to salient object detection. The experimental results demonstrate that the use of color as a unique visual cue achieves competitive results on par with or better than 12 state

  9. Color indirect effects on melatonin regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Tian; Liu, Timon C.; Li, Yan

    2002-04-01

    Color indirect effect (CIE) is referred to as the physiological and psychological effects of color resulting from color vision. In previous papers, we have studied CIE from the viewpoints of the integrated western and Chinese traditional medicine, put forward the color-autonomic- nervous-subsystem model (CAM), and provided its time-theory foundation. In this paper, we applied it to study light effects on melatonin regulation in humans, and suggested that it is CIE that mediates light effects on melatonin suppression.

  10. Vehicle Color Recognition using Convolutional Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Rachmadi, Reza Fuad; Purnama, I. Ketut Eddy

    2015-01-01

    Vehicle color information is one of the important elements in ITS (Intelligent Traffic System). In this paper, we present a vehicle color recognition method using convolutional neural network (CNN). Naturally, CNN is designed to learn classification method based on shape information, but we proved that CNN can also learn classification based on color distribution. In our method, we convert the input image to two different color spaces, HSV and CIE Lab, and run it to some CNN architecture. The...

  11. Adaptive Color Mapping for NAO Robot Using Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Rahmani

    Full Text Available While playing soccer, the main task of the robot vision system is identifying and tracking objects such as ball, goals, teammate robots and opponent robots. The basis of many object identification methods, particularly those in soccer robots and RoboCup e ...

  12. The Additive Coloration of Alkali Halides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirgal, G. H.; and others

    1969-01-01

    Describes the construction and use of an inexpensive, vacuum furnace designed to produce F-centers in alkali halide crystals by additive coloration. The method described avoids corrosion or contamination during the coloration process. Examination of the resultant crystals is discussed and several experiments using additively colored crystals are…

  13. Color Charts, Esthetics, and Subjective Randomness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Yasmine B.

    2012-01-01

    Color charts, or grids of evenly spaced multicolored dots or squares, appear in the work of modern artists and designers. Often the artist/designer distributes the many colors in a way that could be described as "random," that is, without an obvious pattern. We conduct a statistical analysis of 125 "random-looking" art and design color charts and…

  14. 7 CFR 29.3508 - Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color. 29.3508 Section 29.3508 Agriculture Regulations... Type 95) § 29.3508 Color. The third factor of a grade based on the relative hues, saturations or chromas, and color values common to the type....

  15. 7 CFR 52.778 - Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color. 52.778 Section 52.778 Agriculture Regulations... United States Standards for Grades of Canned Red Tart Pitted Cherries 1 Factors of Quality § 52.778 Color. (a) (A) classification. Canned red tart pitted cherries that have a good color may be given a...

  16. 7 CFR 52.1006 - Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color. 52.1006 Section 52.1006 Agriculture Regulations... United States Standards for Grades of Dates Factors of Quality § 52.1006 Color. (a) (A) classification. Whole or pitted dates that possess a good color may be given a score of 18 to 20 points. “Good...

  17. 7 CFR 29.2507 - Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color. 29.2507 Section 29.2507 Agriculture Regulations...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2507 Color. The third factor of a grade based on the relative hues, saturation or chroma, and color values common to the type....

  18. 7 CFR 29.3010 - Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color. 29.3010 Section 29.3010 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Color. The third factor of a grade, based on the relative hues, saturations or chroma, and color...

  19. 7 CFR 29.1005 - Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color. 29.1005 Section 29.1005 Agriculture Regulations... Type 92) § 29.1005 Color. The third factor of a grade based on the relative hues, saturations or chromas, and color values common to the type....

  20. 7 CFR 29.2257 - Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color. 29.2257 Section 29.2257 Agriculture Regulations... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2257 Color. The third factor of a grade based on the relative hues, saturation or chroma, and color values...

  1. 7 CFR 52.806 - Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color. 52.806 Section 52.806 Agriculture Regulations... United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Factors of Quality § 52.806 Color. (a) (A) Classification. Frozen red tart pitted cherries that possess a good red color may be given...

  2. 7 CFR 58.633 - Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color. 58.633 Section 58.633 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....633 Color. Coloring used for ice cream and related products shall be those certified by the U.S....

  3. Designing for Color in Additive Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiríksson, Eyþór Rúnar; Luongo, Andrea; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall;

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a color design pipeline for 3D printed or additively manufactured parts. We demonstrate how to characterize and calibrate a commercial printer and how to obtain its forward and backward color transformation models. We present results from our assistive color design tool...

  4. Color Superconducting Quark Matter in Neutron Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Heiselberg, H.

    1999-01-01

    Color superconductivity in quark matter is studied for electrically charge neutral neutron star matter in $\\beta$-equilibrium. Both bulk quark matter and mixed phases of quark and nuclear matter are treated. The electron chemical potential and strange quark mass affect the various quark chemical potentials and therefore also the color superconductivity due to dicolor pairing or color-flavor locking.

  5. p-Coloring Classes of Torus Knots

    OpenAIRE

    Breiland, Anna-Lisa; Oesper, Layla; Taalman, Laura

    2009-01-01

    We classify by elementary methods the $p$-colorability of torus knots, and prove that every $p$-colorable torus knot has exactly one nontrivial $p$-coloring class. As a consequence, we note that the two-fold branched cyclic cover of a torus knot complement has cyclic first homology group.

  6. Colorizing single band intensified nightvision images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.

    2005-01-01

    We present a method to give single band intensified nightvision imagery a natural day-time color appearance. For input, the method requires a true color RGB source image and a grayscale nightvision target image. The source and target image are both transformed into a perceptually decorrelated color

  7. Color Vision Deficits and Literacy Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Sandra Rollins

    1994-01-01

    Shows that color blindness, whether partial or total, inhibits literacy acquisition. Offers a case study of a third grader with impaired color vision. Presents a review of literature on the topic. Notes that people with color vision deficits are often unaware of the handicap. (RS)

  8. 7 CFR 51.1436 - Color classifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... provided in this section. When the color of kernels in a lot generally conforms to the “light” or “light... grade. (1) “Light” means that the kernel is mostly golden color or lighter, with not more than 25... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color classifications. 51.1436 Section...

  9. Color Vision Deficiencies in Children. United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    Presented are prevalence data on color vision deficiencies (color blindness) in noninstitutionalized children, aged 6-11, in the United States, as estimated from the Health Examination Survey findings on a representative sample of over 7,400 children. Described are the two color vision tests used in the survey, the Ishihara Test for Color…

  10. What It's Like to Be Color Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes What It's Like to Be Color Blind KidsHealth > For Kids > What It's Like to Be Color Blind Print A A ... blind. But some people really are color blind. It doesn't mean they can't see any ...

  11. In Tokyo:Asia Color Feast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The fifth Asia Color Forum (Japan), organized by Asia Color Committee and Japan fashion Association, will be held in the city of Roppongi Hills of Tokyo during Sep. 1st-3rd. Top-class professional color design experts from Asian and paci c areas

  12. Color Perception in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Anna; Sowden, Paul; Burley, Rachel; Notman, Leslie; Alder, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether color perception is atypical in children with autism. In experiment 1, accuracy of color memory and search was compared for children with autism and typically developing children matched on age and non-verbal cognitive ability. Children with autism were significantly less accurate at color memory and search than…

  13. Monochromatic Progressions in Random Colorings

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay, Sujith

    2011-01-01

    Let N^{+}(k)= 2^{k/2} k^{3/2} f(k) and N^{-}(k)= 2^{k/2} k^{1/2} g(k) where 1=o(f(k)) and g(k)=o(1). We show that the probability of a random 2-coloring of {1,2,...,N^{+}(k)} containing a monochromatic k-term arithmetic progression approaches 1, and the probability of a random 2-coloring of {1,2,...,N^{-}(k)} containing a monochromatic k-term arithmetic progression approaches 0, for large k. This improves an upper bound due to Brown, who had established an analogous result for N^{+}(k)= 2^k l...

  14. Color superconductivity in quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied color superconductivity (CSC) in high density quark matter with two flavors on the basis of a model hamiltonian with Debye-screened gluon propagator. We found that the most attractive quark interaction of this hamiltonian is in the JP = 0+ - 0- channel with color anti-symmetric and flavor anti-symmetric representation. We also found that there is an attraction in the JP = 1+ - 1- channel although the strength is somewhat weaker. Depending on the strength of αs, the magnitude of the gap can be as large as 50-100 MeV. Even at extremely high baryon density ρB ∼ 20ρ0, the gap still exists with the size of 10-20 MeV. Open problems related to the physics of CSC are also discussed. (author)

  15. Pure optical dynamical color encryption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosso, Fabian; Tebaldi, Myrian; Fredy Barrera, John; Bolognini, Néstor; Torroba, Roberto

    2011-07-01

    We introduce a way to encrypt-decrypt a color dynamical phenomenon using a pure optical alternative. We split the three basic chromatic channels composing the input, and then each channel is processed through a 4f encoding method and a theta modulation applied to the each encrypted frame in every channel. All frames for a single channel are multiplexed. The same phase mask is used to encode all the information. Unlike the usual procedure we do not multiplex the three chromatic channels into a single encoding media, because we want to decrypt the information in real time. Then, we send to the decoding station the phase mask and the three packages each one containing the multiplexing of a single channel. The end user synchronizes and decodes the information contained in the separate channels. Finally, the decoding information is conveyed together to bring the decoded dynamical color phenomenon in real-time. We present material that supports our concepts.

  16. On the Coloring of Grid Wireless Sensor Networks: the Vector-Based Coloring Method

    CERN Document Server

    Amdouni, Ichrak; Minet, Pascale

    2011-01-01

    Graph coloring is used in wireless networks to optimize network resources: bandwidth and energy. Nodes access the medium according to their color. It is the responsibility of the coloring algorithm to ensure that interfering nodes do not have the same color. In this research report, we focus on wireless sensor networks with grid topologies. How does a coloring algorithm take advantage of the regularity of grid topology to provide an optimal periodic coloring, that is a coloring with the minimum number of colors? We propose the Vector-Based Coloring Method, denoted VCM, a new method that is able to provide an optimal periodic coloring for any radio transmission range and for any h-hop coloring, h>=1. This method consists in determining at which grid nodes a color can be reproduced without creating interferences between these nodes while minimizing the number of colors used. We compare the number of colors provided by VCM with the number of colors obtained by a distributed coloring algorithm with line and colum...

  17. Dynamic simulation of color blindness for studying color vision requirements in practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, M.P.; Alferdinck, J.W.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    We report on a dynamic simulation of defective color vision. Using an RGB video camera connected to a PC or laptop, the captured and displayed RGB colors are translated by our software into modified RGB values that simulate the color appearance of a person with a color deficiency. Usually, the simul

  18. The Relation between Children's Conceptual Functioning with Color and Color Term Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Kurt; Zimiles, Herbert

    2006-01-01

    Young children experience considerable difficulty in learning their first few color terms. One explanation for this difficulty is that initially they lack a conceptual representation of color sufficiently abstract to support word meaning. This hypothesis, that prior to learning color terms children do not represent color as an abstraction, was…

  19. The Colors of the Alphabet: Naturally-Biased Associations between Shape and Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Ferrinne; Maurer, Daphne

    2011-01-01

    Many letters of the alphabet are consistently mapped to specific colors in English-speaking adults, both in the general population and in individuals with grapheme-color synaesthesia who perceive letters in color. Here, across six experiments, we tested the ubiquity of the color/letter associations with typically developing toddlers, literate…

  20. METAPHOR OF COLORS IN INDONESIAN

    OpenAIRE

    I Dewa Putu Wijana

    2015-01-01

    This brief article deals with the use of Indonesian words referring to colors for creating metaphorical expressions. All data presented are collected from various sources, such as Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesian Standard Dictionary), and added with data obtained from Oxford Advanced Leaner’s Dictionary, Indonesian proverb book, encyclopedia, terminology collection book, poetry anthology, song lyrics, and data of the author’s own creation as an Indonesian native speaker. Set aside fro...

  1. Color Reproduction with Juxtaposed Halftoning

    OpenAIRE

    Babaei, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Recently, non-standard inks have begun to make their way into the world of printing. Non-standard inks are printing materials which exhibit unusual effects such as angular color dependence, texture, or fluorescence. They are made of special-effect pigments that play an increasingly important role in the paint, plastic, and cosmetic industries. In the printing industry, due to the challenges they pose, they have restricted applications. A long-held assumption in classic printing is the transp...

  2. Overview of Crystalline Color Superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Mannarelli, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Inhomogeneous phases may appear when a stress is applied to a system and the system can minimize the free energy breaking the rotational invariance. Various examples are known in Nature of this sort, as the paramagnetic to ferromagnetic phase transition, or the fluid/solid phase transition. If the rotational symmetry is broken down to a discrete symmetry, the system is typically named a crystal. We breifly review crystalline color superconductors, which arise in cold quark matter with mismatched Fermi spheres.

  3. Vision Screening by Color Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayroe, R.; Richardson, J. R.; Kerr, J.; Hay, S.; Mcbride, R.

    1985-01-01

    Screening test developed for detecting a range of vision defects in eye, including common precursors to amblyopia. Test noninvasive, safe, and administered easily in field by operator with no medical training. Only minimal momentary cooperation of subject required: Thus, test shows promise for use with very young children. Test produces color-slide images of retinas of eyes under specially-controlled lighting conditions. Trained observer screens five children per minute.

  4. [Cosmetic colorants. Toxicology and regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzek, T; Krätke, R; Klein, G; Schulz, C

    2005-01-01

    Some recent publications raised concern over a possible link between hair dye use and the incidence of bladder tumours in a Californian population. The Scientific Committee for Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products intended for Consumers (SCCNFP) demanded the toxicological testing of all hair dyes used in Europe to exclude any risk. The EU commission initiated corresponding measures. Only safe hair dyes will be included on a positive list while all other hair dyes will be banned. The hair dye lawsone--the dyeing ingredient of henna--was evaluated by the SCCNFP as genotoxic but the BfR came to another conclusion. The regulation of both lawsone and henna remains an open question. Furthermore, some cosmetic colorants were critically discussed. The azo dyes CI 12150, CI 26100, CI 27290 and CI 20170 are allowed for use in cosmetics. On cleavage they form the carcinogenic aromatic amines o-anisidine, 4-aminoazobenzene and 2,4-xylidine, respectively. For three of these dyes the cleavage by human skin bacteria in vitro to the respective arylamine was shown experimentally. Further problems may arise from colorants used for tattoos and permanent makeup. These products up to now are not subject to legislation and there are no regulatory stipulations with respect to health safety and purity for colorants used for these purposes. PMID:15650909

  5. A Colorful Ion Exchange Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Adélio

    1999-11-01

    A colorful ion-exchange experiment is described. The use of a resin with an adsorbed acid-base indicator allows students to follow the progress of the ion-exchange front along the column. In parallel, students can follow the ion-exchange breakthrough curve using a continuous conductometric cell at the column outlet. In the present example, K+ (KCl) exchanges with H+ (HCl) in a strong cationic resin (Amberlite IR 120). The adsorbed indicator is methyl violet. Sorption equilibrium is favorable to the K+ ions. Monovalent ions, used in this experiment, have the disadvantage of usually being colorless (except perhaps permanganate, but this is an extremely strong oxidant which attacks the resin). On the other hand, many divalent ions are colorful but the shape of the concentration front is hard to explain qualitatively as well as quantitatively. That is because the shape of the front depends on the total ionic concentration. However, color can be introduced in a monovalent ion-exchange system by adding an appropriate acid-base indicator to the resin. The text describes this experiment qualitatively. A simplified quantitative description, using the solute movement theory, can be found online.

  6. Anthocyanins as Functional Food Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Noboru; Sakagami, Hiroshi

    Anthocyanins, a proanthocyanidin-type of flavonoid, contain an abundance of functional phytochemicals and occur in fruits such as cranberry, blueberry, orange, apple and in vegetables such as tomato, sweet pepper, spinach, and radishes. Functional and essential diets have been ingested in daily life since the primitive era of history. When anthocyanins are coupled with some water-soluble sugar molecules, their color becomes red, yellow, violet, or blue. It is very intriguing that anthocyanins provide the colorful variety of pigments for pansies, petunias, plums, and other diverse flowers. Chlorophyll in various fruits and vegetables is the main green phyto-component, while anthocyanins are probably the most important visible plant pigments in the natural kingdom having specific colors. Anthocyanins have been clinically used in many folklore medicines worldwide. Anthocyanins could provide health benefits for age-related diseases as well as other diseases. Anthocyanins have higher antioxidant capacity against oxidative stress induced by excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide, and thus the human body might be protected from oxidative injury by anthocyanins. On the basis of these facts, we review the synthesis of plant flavonoids and their ability to scavenge oxidants, inhibit or activate enzymes, and the safety of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanidins present in common foods.

  7. Interactive bibliographical database on color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caivano, Jose L.

    2002-06-01

    The paper describes the methodology and results of a project under development, aimed at the elaboration of an interactive bibliographical database on color in all fields of application: philosophy, psychology, semiotics, education, anthropology, physical and natural sciences, biology, medicine, technology, industry, architecture and design, arts, linguistics, geography, history. The project is initially based upon an already developed bibliography, published in different journals, updated in various opportunities, and now available at the Internet, with more than 2,000 entries. The interactive database will amplify that bibliography, incorporating hyperlinks and contents (indexes, abstracts, keywords, introductions, or eventually the complete document), and devising mechanisms for information retrieval. The sources to be included are: books, doctoral dissertations, multimedia publications, reference works. The main arrangement will be chronological, but the design of the database will allow rearrangements or selections by different fields: subject, Decimal Classification System, author, language, country, publisher, etc. A further project is to develop another database, including color-specialized journals or newsletters, and articles on color published in international journals, arranged in this case by journal name and date of publication, but allowing also rearrangements or selections by author, subject and keywords.

  8. Three-flavor color superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I investigate some of the inert phases in three-flavor, spin-zero color-superconducting quark matter: the CFL phase (the analogue of the B phase in superfluid 3He), the A and A* phases, and the 2SC and sSC phases. I compute the pressure of these phases with and without the neutrality condition. Without the neutrality condition, after the CFL phase the sSC phase is the dominant phase. However, including the neutrality condition, the CFL phase is again the energetically favored phase except for a small region of intermediate densities where the 2SC/A* phase is favored. It is shown that the 2SC phase is identical to the A* phase up to a color rotation. In addition, I calculate the self-energies and the spectral densities of longitudinal and transverse gluons at zero temperature in color-superconducting quark matter in the CFL phase. I find a collective excitation, a plasmon, at energies smaller than two times the gap parameter and momenta smaller than about eight times the gap. The dispersion relation of this mode exhibits a minimum at some nonzero value of momentum, indicating a van Hove singularity. (orig.)

  9. Skin Color Segmentation in YCBCR Color Space with Adaptive Fuzzy Neural Network (Anfis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saber Iraji

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an efficient and accurate method for human color skin recognition in color images with different light intensity will proposed .first we transform inputted color image from RGB color space to YCBCR color space and then accurate and appropriate decision on that if it is in human color skin or not will be adopted according to YCBCR color space using fuzzy, adaptive fuzzy neural network(anfis methods for each pixel of that image. In our proposed system adaptive fuzzy neural network(anfis has less error and system worked more accurate and appropriative than prior methods.

  10. Calculation reduction method for color computer-generated hologram using color space conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Oikawa, Minoru; Takada, Naoki; Okada, Naohisa; Endo, Yutaka; Hirayama, Ryuji; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2013-01-01

    We report a calculation reduction method for color computer-generated holograms (CGHs) using color space conversion. Color CGHs are generally calculated on RGB space. In this paper, we calculate color CGHs in other color spaces: for example, YCbCr color space. In YCbCr color space, a RGB image is converted to the luminance component (Y), blue-difference chroma (Cb) and red-difference chroma (Cr) components. In terms of the human eye, although the negligible difference of the luminance component is well-recognized, the difference of the other components is not. In this method, the luminance component is normal sampled and the chroma components are down-sampled. The down-sampling allows us to accelerate the calculation of the color CGHs. We compute diffraction calculations from the components, and then we convert the diffracted results in YCbCr color space to RGB color space.

  11. Color management understanding and using ICC profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Phil

    2010-01-01

    Color Management serves as a comprehensive guide to the implementation of the ICC (International Color Consortium) profile specification, widely used for maintaining color fidelity across multi-media imaging devices and software. The book draws together many of the White Papers produced by the ICC to promote the use of color management and disseminate good practice; the ICC specification has become widely accepted within the color industry, and these papers have been updated, expanded and edited for this collection. Other chapters comprise material that will go on to form future ICC Whi

  12. Harmonious colors: from alchemy to science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, Giordano B.; Moroney, Nathan M.

    2012-01-01

    There is a very long tradition in designing color palettes for various applications, going back to at least the Upanishad. Although color palettes have been influenced by the available colorants, starting with the advent of aniline dyes in the late 1850s there have been few physical limits on the choice of individual colors. This abundance of choices exacerbates the problem of limiting the number of colors in a palette, i.e., in keeping them into a manageable quantity. For example, it is not practical for a car company to offer each model in hundreds of colors. Instead, for each model year a small number of color palettes is offered, each containing the colors for the body, trim, interior, etc. Another example is the fashion industry, where in addition to solid colors there are also patterns, leading to a huge variety of combinations that would be impossible to stock. The traditional solution is that of "color forecasting." Color consultants assess the sentiment or affective state of a target customer class and compare it with new colorants offered by the industry. They assemble a limited color palette, name the colors according to the sentiment, and publish their result. Textile manufacturers will produce fabrics in these colors and fashion designers will design clothes, accessories, and furniture based on these fabrics. Eventually, the media will communicate these forecasts to the consumers, who will be admired by their cohorts when they choose colors from the forecast palette, which by then is widely diffused. The color forecasting business is very labor intensive and difficult, thus for years computer engineers have tried to come up with algorithms to design harmonious color palettes, alas with little commercial success. For example, Johannes Itten's color theory has been implemented many times, but despite Itten's success in the Bauhaus artifacts, the computer tools have been of little utility. Indeed, contrary to the auditory sense, there is no known

  13. Art of color holography: pioneers in change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Martin J.; Bjelkhagen, Hans I.

    2000-10-01

    The possibility to easily record full color holograms, (simply color holograms) has opened new possibilities for art holographers. This paper includes details concerning preparation of subject matter and its practical suitability for color holographic recordings from practical working sessions at ARTCAPI Atelier de Recherche Technique et de Creation Artistique en Physique et en Informatique in France. Martin Richardson as invited artist and Hans Bjelkhagen as scientist holographer describe color holography to a wider public audience through artistic display. Both directly recorded true color images and computer-generated images based on the ZEBRA printing technique are to be presented.

  14. Fast skin color detector for face extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lihui; Grecos, Christos

    2005-02-01

    Face detection is the first step for an automatic face recognition system. For color images, skin color filter is considered as an important method for removing non-face pixels. In the paper, we will propose a novel and efficient detector for skin color regions for face extraction. The detector processes the image in four steps: lighting compensation, skin color filter and mask refinement and fast patch identification. Experimental results show that our detector is more robust and efficient than other skin color filters.

  15. Color Regeneration from Reflective Color Sensor Using an Artificial Intelligent Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Hayriye Altural; Ömer Galip Saracoglu

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost optical sensor based on reflective color sensing is presented. Artificial neural network models are used to improve the color regeneration from the sensor signals. Analog voltages of the sensor are successfully converted to RGB colors. The artificial intelligent models presented in this work enable color regeneration from analog outputs of the color sensor. Besides, inverse modeling supported by an intelligent technique enables the sensor probe for use of a colorimetric sensor that...

  16. Extraction of Geometric Features of Wear Particles in Color Ferrograph Images Based on RGB Color Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Gui-ming; WANG Han-gong; ZHANG Bao-jun; PAN Wei

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes the potential color formats of ferrograph images, and presents the algorithms of converting the formats to RGB(Red, Green, Blue) color space. Through statistical analysis of wear par-ticles' geometric features of color ferrograph images in the RGB color space, we give the differences of ferro-graph wear panicles' geometric features among RGB color spaces and gray scale space, and calculate their respective distributions.

  17. The interaction between surface color and color knowledge: Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Bramão, I.; Faísca, L.; Forkstam, C.; Inácio, F.; S. Araújo; Petersson, K.; Reis, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to evaluate the contribution of surface color and color knowledge information in object identification. We constructed two color-object verification tasks – a surface and a knowledge verification task – using high color diagnostic objects; both typical and atypical color versions of the same object were presented. Continuous electroencephalogram was recorded from 26 subjects. A cluster randomization procedure was used to explore the diffe...

  18. Computer-Aided Color Aesthetic Evaluation Method Based on the Combination of Form and Color

    OpenAIRE

    Wenke Kang; Shengfeng Qin; Quan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new method of color aesthetic evaluation based on the combination of form and color. According to the human visual physiological and psychological characteristics, this paper first proposes a new form-color field theory for the coupled form-color aesthetic evaluation based on the psychophysical field theory and the Moon and Spencer model. Second, it builds a coupled form-color topological graph for describing their interaction and develops a strength calculation algorith...

  19. Preferred Skin Color Enhancement of Digital Photographic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanzhao Zeng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Reproducing skin colors pleasingly is essential for photographic color reproduction. Moving skin colors toward their preferred skin color center improves the skin color preference. Two main factors to successfully enhance skin colors are: a method to detect skin colors effectively and a method to morph skin colors toward a preferred skin color region properly. This paper starts with introducing a method to enhance skin colors using a static skin color detection model. It significantly improves the color preference for skin colors that are not far off from regular skin tones. To enhance a greater range of skin tones effectively, another method that automatically adapts the skin color detection model to the skin tone of each individual image is proposed. It not only enhances skin colors effectively, but also adjusts the overall image colors to produce more accurate white balance on the image.

  20. Gray component replacement using color mixing models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Henry R.

    1994-05-01

    A new approach to the gray component replacement (GCR) has been developed. It employs the color mixing theory for modeling the spectral fit between the 3-color and 4-color prints. To achieve this goal, we first examine the accuracy of the models with respect to the experimental results by applying them to the prints made by a Canon Color Laser Copier-500 (CLC-500). An empirical halftone correction factor is used for improving the data fitting. Among the models tested, the halftone corrected Kubelka-Munk theory gives the closest fit, followed by the halftone corrected Beer-Bouguer law and the Yule-Neilsen approach. We then apply the halftone corrected BB law to GCR. The main feature of this GCR approach is based on the spectral measurements of the primary color step wedges and a software package implementing the color mixing model. The software determines the amount of the gray component to be removed, then adjusts each primary color until a good match of the peak wavelengths between the 3-color and 4-color spectra is obtained. Results indicate that the average (Delta) Eab between cmy and cmyk renditions of 64 color patches is 3.11 (Delta) Eab. Eighty-seven percent of the patches has (Delta) Eab less than 5 units. The advantage of this approach is its simplicity; there is no need for the black printer and under color addition. Because this approach is based on the spectral reproduction, it minimizes the metamerism.

  1. Color defects in a gauge condensate

    CERN Document Server

    Dzhunushaliev, V

    2006-01-01

    The model of an approximate non-perturbative calculations in the SU(3) gauge theory is offered. This approach is based on the separation of initial degrees of freedom on ordered and disordered phases. The ordered phase is almost classical degrees of freedom, the disordered phase is completely quantum degrees of freedom. Using some approximations and simplifications for 2 and 4-points Green's functions an effective Lagrangian describing both phases from the SU(3) Lagrangian is obtained. The calculations show that ordered phase is squeezed by disordered phase into defects. These defects are: an infinite flux tube filled with longitudinal color electric and magnetic fields; a color electric hedgehog; a defect having either two color electric dipoles + two color magnetic dipoles or two color electric dipoles or two color magnetic dipoles. It assumed that the color defects are quantum excitations in a gauge condensate.

  2. Compression-related properties of color spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drukarev, Alexander I.

    1997-01-01

    In modern color imaging a variety of color spaces are used to represent an image. It has been well established in literature that the choice of color space has an impact on the achievable compression. The purpose of this research is to investigate compression related properties of various color spaces. We investigated what we considered to be the most popular color spaces used today, namely, RGB, YIQ, YUV, YCbCr, HSI, CMYK, XYZ and CIELab. The following properties of color spaces that influence compressibility have been studied: energy distribution among color planes, plane bandwidth, DCT energy compaction, and impact of gamma correction. We also compared the compressibility of low resolution images, which have been used for most of the compression results reported in literature, with high resolution images, which are becoming increasingly important for modern imaging applications. The findings of this research have been illustrated by comparing the actual JPEG compression results for YCbCr and CIELab spaces.

  3. Color space selection for JPEG image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroney, Nathan; Fairchild, Mark D.

    1995-10-01

    The Joint Photographic Experts Group's image compression algorithm has been shown to provide a very efficient and powerful method of compressing images. However, there is little substantive information about which color space should be utilized when implementing the JPEG algorithm. Currently, the JPEG algorithm is set up for use with any three-component color space. The objective of this research is to determine whether or not the color space selected will significantly improve the image compression. The RGB, XYZ, YIQ, CIELAB, CIELUV, and CIELAB LCh color spaces were examined and compared. Both numerical measures and psychophysical techniques were used to assess the results. The final results indicate that the device space, RGB, is the worst color space to compress images. In comparison, the nonlinear transforms of the device space, CIELAB and CIELUV, are the best color spaces to compress images. The XYZ, YIQ, and CIELAB LCh color spaces resulted in intermediate levels of compression.

  4. k-fold coloring of planar graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A k-fold n-coloring of G is a mapping φ: V (G) → Zk(n) where Zk(n) is the collection of all ksubsets of {1,2,...,n} such that φ(u) ∩φ(v) = φ if uv ∈ E(G).If G has a k-fold n-coloring,i.e.,G is k-fold n-colorable.Let the smallest integer n such that G is k-fold n-colorable be the k-th chromatic number,denoted by χk(G).In this paper,we show that any outerplanar graph is k-fold 2k-colorable or k-fold χk(C*)-colorable,where C* is a shortest odd cycle of G.Moreover,we investigate that every planar graph with odd girth at least 10k-9(k 3) can be k-fold (2k + 1)-colorable.

  5. Color stability of thermochromic pigment in maxillofacial silicone

    OpenAIRE

    Kantola, Rosita; Lassila, Lippo V. J.; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Valittu, Pekka K.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Maxillofacial silicone elastomer is usually colored intrinsically with color pigments to match skin colors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the color stability of a maxillofacial silicone elastomer, colored with a thermochromic, color changing pigment. MATERIALS AND METHODS Disc-shaped maxillofacial silicone specimens were prepared and divided into 3 groups: a conventionally colored control group, one group additionally colored with 0.2 wt% thermochromic pigment , and one...

  6. Perceptual uniformity of commonly used color spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanaki, Ali; Espig, Kathryn; Kimpe, Tom; Xthona, Albert; Marchessoux, Cedric; Rostang, Johan; Piepers, Bastian

    2014-03-01

    Use of color images in medical imaging has increased significantly the last few years. Color information is essential for applications such as ophthalmology, dermatology and clinical photography. Use of color at least brings benefits for other applications such as endoscopy, laparoscopy and digital pathology. Remarkably, as of today, there is no agreed standard on how color information needs to be visualized for medical applications. This lack of standardization results in large variability of how color images are visualized and it makes quality assurance a challenge. For this reason FDA and ICC recently organized a joint summit on color in medical imaging (CMI). At this summit, one of the suggestions was that modalities such as digital pathology could benefit from using a perceptually uniform color space (T. Kimpe, "Color Behavior of Medical Displays," CMI presentation, May 2013). Perceptually uniform spaces have already been used for many years in the radiology community where the DICOM GSDF standard provides linearity in luminance but not in color behavior. In this paper we quantify perceptual uniformity, using CIE's ΔE2000 as a color distance metric, of several color spaces that are typically used for medical applications. We applied our method to theoretical color spaces Gamma 1.8, 2.0, & 2.2, standard sRGB, and DICOM (correction LUT for gray applied to all primaries). In addition, we also measured color spaces (i.e., native behavior) of a high-end medical display (Barco Coronis Fusion 6MP DL, MDCC-6130), and a consumer display (Dell 1907FP). Our results indicate that sRGB & the native color space on the Barco Coronis Fusion exhibit the least non-uniformity within their group. However, the remaining degree of perceptual non-uniformity is still significant and there is room for improvement.

  7. A quantitative theory of human color choices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia L Komarova

    Full Text Available The system for colorimetry adopted by the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE in 1931, along with its subsequent improvements, represents a family of light mixture models that has served well for many decades for stimulus specification and reproduction when highly controlled color standards are important. Still, with regard to color appearance many perceptual and cognitive factors are known to contribute to color similarity, and, in general, to all cognitive judgments of color. Using experimentally obtained odd-one-out triad similarity judgments from 52 observers, we demonstrate that CIE-based models can explain a good portion (but not all of the color similarity data. Color difference quantified by CIELAB ΔE explained behavior at levels of 81% (across all colors, 79% (across red colors, and 66% (across blue colors. We show that the unexplained variation cannot be ascribed to inter- or intra-individual variations among the observers, and points to the presence of additional factors shared by the majority of responders. Based on this, we create a quantitative model of a lexicographic semiorder type, which shows how different perceptual and cognitive influences can trade-off when making color similarity judgments. We show that by incorporating additional influences related to categorical and lightness and saturation factors, the model explains more of the triad similarity behavior, namely, 91% (all colors, 90% (reds, and 87% (blues. We conclude that distance in a CIE model is but the first of several layers in a hierarchy of higher-order cognitive influences that shape color triad choices. We further discuss additional mitigating influences outside the scope of CIE modeling, which can be incorporated in this framework, including well-known influences from language, stimulus set effects, and color preference bias. We also discuss universal and cultural aspects of the model as well as non-uniformity of the color space with respect to

  8. Color Space and Its Divisions: Color Order from Antiquity to the Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehni, Rolf G.

    2003-03-01

    It has been postulated that humans can differentiate between millions of gradations in color. Not surprisingly, no completely adequate, detailed catalog of colors has yet been devised, however the quest to understand, record, and depict color is as old as the quest to understand the fundamentals of the physical world and the nature of human consciousness. Rolf Kuehni's Color Space and Its Divisions: Color Order from Antiquity to the Present represents an ambitious and unprecedented history of man's inquiry into color order, focusing on the practical applications of the most contemporary developments in the field. Kuehni devotes much of his study to geometric, three-dimensional arrangements of color experiences, a type of system developed only in the mid-nineteenth century. Color spaces are of particular interest for color quality-control purposes in the manufacturing and graphics industries. The author analyzes three major color order systems in detail: Munsell, OSA-UCS, and NCS. He presents historical and current information on color space developments in color vision, psychology, psychophysics, and color technology. Chapter topics include: A historical account of color order systems Fundamentals of psychophysics and the relationship between stimuli and experience Results of perceptual scaling of colors according to attributes History of the development of mathematical color space and difference formulas Analysis of the agreements and discrepancies in psychophysical data describing color differences An experimental plan for the reliable, replicated perceptual data necessary to make progress in the field Experts in academia and industry, neuroscientists, designers, art historians, and anyone interested in the nature of color will find Color Space and Its Divisions to be the authoritative reference in its field.

  9. Color night vision method based on the correlation between natural color and dual band night image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Bai, Lian-fa; Zhang, Chuang; Chen, Qian; Gu, Guo-hua

    2009-07-01

    Color night vision technology can effectively improve the detection and identification probability. Current color night vision method based on gray scale modulation fusion, spectrum field fusion, special component fusion and world famous NRL method, TNO method will bring about serious color distortion, and the observers will be visual tired after long time observation. Alexander Toet of TNO Human Factors presents a method to fuse multiband night image a natural day time color appearance, but it need the true color image of the scene to be observed. In this paper we put forward a color night vision method based on the correlation between natural color image and dual band night image. Color display is attained through dual-band low light level images and their fusion image. Actual color image of the similar scene is needed to obtain color night vision image, the actual color image is decomposed to three gray-scale images of RGB color module, and the short wave LLL image, long wave LLL image and their fusion image are compared to them through gray-scale spatial correlation method, and the color space mapping scheme is confirmed by correlation. Gray-scale LLL images and their fusion image are adjusted through the variation of HSI color space coefficient, and the coefficient matrix is built. Color display coefficient matrix of LLL night vision system is obtained by multiplying the above coefficient matrix and RGB color space mapping matrix. Emulation experiments on general scene dual-band color night vision indicate that the color display effect is approving. This method was experimented on dual channel dual spectrum LLL color night vision experimental apparatus based on Texas Instruments digital video processing device DM642.

  10. Study on the Pigments of the Colored Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Zhao-wen; SHI Song-cun

    2004-01-01

    The ecological characteristics and fiber structure of the colored cotton were introduced briefly. The color changing mechanisms of the pigments extracted from colored cottons and some plants were discussed with the results of different experiments, which could offer an academic reference for the color fixations of the colored cotton textile produces and promote the development of the natural colored cotton industry.

  11. Color centers in optic fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Short-living and stationary color centers are studied in optic fibers (OF) with concentration of OH 1000 ppm at the temperatures of 77-300 K. As it was demonstrated in [1] concentration of OH of 1000 ppm in the optic fibers at room temperature does not observed. The studies showed that under irradiation at 77 K the color centers are formed with the absorption bands at 215, 260, 330 and 550 nm. In this work the idea was proposed that under irradiation with 105 Rad non-bridge oxygen atoms is not formed. This is supported by the researches showing that the band 215 nm, which is formed by E - centers, disappears at two values of temperature. The first E - centers disappear at 77 K, whereas the second one at 310 K. Here, the first E - center can be observed at 470-500 nm. Based on the stated above we assume that the values of OH concentration at 1000 ppm in optic fibers are not correct. It is obtained that at low temperatures of 77 - 300 K new phenomena are observed, i.e. existence of two E - color with peaks at 215 nm. The values of temperature at which these centers exist are different, the first exist at temperature up to 85 K, and the second one up to 300 K. (author) Reference: 1. V.B. Gavrilov, A.I. Golutvan, Yu.S. Gershtein et al. Absorption spectra in pure quartz optic fibers gamma-irradiated with 60Co source. // Instrumentation and techniques of experiment.- 1997.- No 4.- p. 23-32.

  12. Watermarking spot colors in packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Alastair; Filler, TomáÅ.¡; Falkenstern, Kristyn; Bai, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In January 2014, Digimarc announced Digimarc® Barcode for the packaging industry to improve the check-out efficiency and customer experience for retailers. Digimarc Barcode is a machine readable code that carries the same information as a traditional Universal Product Code (UPC) and is introduced by adding a robust digital watermark to the package design. It is imperceptible to the human eye but can be read by a modern barcode scanner at the Point of Sale (POS) station. Compared to a traditional linear barcode, Digimarc Barcode covers the whole package with minimal impact on the graphic design. This significantly improves the Items per Minute (IPM) metric, which retailers use to track the checkout efficiency since it closely relates to their profitability. Increasing IPM by a few percent could lead to potential savings of millions of dollars for retailers, giving them a strong incentive to add the Digimarc Barcode to their packages. Testing performed by Digimarc showed increases in IPM of at least 33% using the Digimarc Barcode, compared to using a traditional barcode. A method of watermarking print ready image data used in the commercial packaging industry is described. A significant proportion of packages are printed using spot colors, therefore spot colors needs to be supported by an embedder for Digimarc Barcode. Digimarc Barcode supports the PANTONE spot color system, which is commonly used in the packaging industry. The Digimarc Barcode embedder allows a user to insert the UPC code in an image while minimizing perceptibility to the Human Visual System (HVS). The Digimarc Barcode is inserted in the printing ink domain, using an Adobe Photoshop plug-in as the last step before printing. Since Photoshop is an industry standard widely used by pre-press shops in the packaging industry, a Digimarc Barcode can be easily inserted and proofed.

  13. Clustered-dot color halftone watermarks using spatial frequency and color separability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztan, Basak; Sharma, Gaurav

    2010-01-01

    A framework for clustered-dot color halftone watermarking is proposed. Watermark patterns are embedded in the color halftone on per-separation basis. For typical CMYK printing systems, common desktop RGB color scanners are unable to provide the individual colorant halftone separations, which confounds per-separation detection methods. Not only does the K colorant consistently appear in the scanner channels as it absorbs uniformly across the spectrum, but cross-couplings between CMY separations are also observed in the scanner color channels due to unwanted absorptions. We demonstrate that by exploiting spatial frequency and color separability of clustered-dot color halftones, estimates of the individual colorant halftone separations can be obtained from scanned RGB images. These estimates, though not perfect, allow per-separation detection to operate efficiently. The efficacy of this methodology is demonstrated using continuous phase modulation for the embedding of per-separation watermarks.

  14. Structural Color of Metallic Surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolařík, Vladimír; Horáček, Miroslav; Urbánek, Michal; Matějka, Milan; Krátký, Stanislav; Chlumská, Jana; Bok, Jan

    Ostrava: TANGER, 2014, s. 962-967. ISBN 978-80-87294-52-9. [METAL 2014. Mezinárodní konference metalurgie a materiál ů /23./. Brno (CZ), 21.05.2014-23.05.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA TA ČR TE01020233 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : nano structures * structural color * metallic surface * e-beam lithography Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  15. NLO evolution of color dipoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian Balitsky; Giovanni Chirilli

    2008-01-01

    The small-x deep inelastic scattering in the saturation region is governed by the non-linear evolution of Wilson-lines operators. In the leading logarithmic approximation it is given by the BK equation for the evolution of color dipoles. In the next-to-leaing order the BK equation gets contributions from quark and gluon loops as well as from the tree gluon diagrams with quadratic and cubic nonlinearities. We calculate the gluon contribution to small-x evolution of Wilson lines (the quark part was obtained earlier).

  16. Three-flavor color superconductivity

    OpenAIRE

    Malekzadeh, Hossein

    2008-01-01

    I investigate some of the inert phases in three-flavor, spin-zero color-superconducting quark matter: the CFL phase (the analogue of the B phase in superfluid 3He), the A and A* phases, and the 2SC and sSC phases. I compute the pressure of these phases with and without the neutrality condition. Without the neutrality condition, after the CFL phase the sSC phase is the dominant phase. However, including the neutrality condition, the CFL phase is again the energetically favored phase except for...

  17. Color confinement from fluctuating topology

    CERN Document Server

    Kharzeev, Dmitri E

    2015-01-01

    QCD possesses a compact gauge group, and this implies a non-trivial topological structure of the vacuum. In this contribution to the Gribov-85 Memorial volume, we first discuss the origin of Gribov copies and their interpretation in terms of fluctuating topology in the QCD vacuum. We then describe the recent work with E. Levin that links the confinement of gluons and color screening to the fluctuating topology, and discuss implications for spin physics, high energy scattering, and the physics of quark-gluon plasma.

  18. Automatic coloring to freehand line drawings online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, Saori; Mori, Hiroshi; Toyama, Fubito; Shoji, Kenji

    2015-03-01

    For a freehand line image drawn onto a PC screen where a user-selected reference image, e.g., a color photograph, as a model is faintly displayed with low contrast, we proposed a method for automatic coloring with a constrained Delaunay triangulation that divides the image into small triangles. Using a prototype system based on the proposed method, users can complete impressive pictures by only drawing lines. Our coloring method begins with the triangulation for the set of sampling points on the drawn lines, followed by sampling of color in each triangle on the reference image, smoothing of color among neighboring triangles, and painting of each triangle with the smoothed color. The result of the triangulation is modified such that it satisfies a constraint where its divided lines should not cross over the drawn lines not to mix colors beyond the drawn line. Our prototype system can display the coloring result of the current drawings immediately for convenience. So, the user can check the effect of a newly drawn line on coloring at any time. As the result of the coloring depends on how the user draws freehand lines, it can be seen as an art work with the individuality of each user's drawings.

  19. Theoretical research on color indirect effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T. C.; Liao, Changjun; Liu, Songhao

    1995-05-01

    Color indirect effects (CIE) means the physiological and psychological effects of color resulting from color vision. In this paper, we study CIE from the viewpoints of the integrated western and Chinese traditional medicine and the time quantum theory established by C. Y. Liu et al., respectively, and then put forward the color-automatic-nervous-subsystem model that could color excites parasympathetic subsystem and hot color excites sympathetic subsystem. Our theory is in agreement with modern color vision theory, and moreover, it leads to the resolution of the conflict between the color code theory and the time code theory oncolor vision. For the latitude phenomena on athlete stars number and the average lifespan, we also discuss the possibility of UV vision. The applications of our theory lead to our succeeding in explaining a number of physiological and psychological effects of color, in explaining the effects of age on color vision, and in explaining the Chinese chromophototherapy. We also discuss its application to neuroimmunology. This research provides the foundation of the clinical applications of chromophototherapy.

  20. Characterization of color scanners based on SVR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Zhang, Yi-xin

    2012-01-01

    By researching the principle of colorimetric characterization method and Support Vector Regression (SVR), we analyze the feasibility of nonlinear transformation from scanner RGB color space to CIELAB color space based on SVR and built a new characterization model. Then we use the MATLABR2009a software to make a data simulation experiment to verify the accuracy of this model and figure out the color differences by CIEDE2000 color difference formula. Based on CIEDE2000 color difference formula, the average, the maximum and the minimum color differences of the training set are 1.2376, 2.5593 and 0.2182, the average, the maximum and the minimum color differences of the text set are 1.9318, 4.1421 and 0.4228. From the experimental results, we can make a conclusion that SVR can realize the nonlinear transformation from scanner RGB color space to CIELAB color space and the model satisfies the accuracy of scanner characterization. Therefore, SVR can be used into the color scanner characterization management.

  1. [True color accuracy in digital forensic photography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsthaler, Frank; Birngruber, Christoph G; Kröll, Ann-Katrin; Kettner, Mattias; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2016-01-01

    Forensic photographs not only need to be unaltered and authentic and capture context-relevant images, along with certain minimum requirements for image sharpness and information density, but color accuracy also plays an important role, for instance, in the assessment of injuries or taphonomic stages, or in the identification and evaluation of traces from photos. The perception of color not only varies subjectively from person to person, but as a discrete property of an image, color in digital photos is also to a considerable extent influenced by technical factors such as lighting, acquisition settings, camera, and output medium (print, monitor). For these reasons, consistent color accuracy has so far been limited in digital photography. Because images usually contain a wealth of color information, especially for complex or composite colors or shades of color, and the wavelength-dependent sensitivity to factors such as light and shadow may vary between cameras, the usefulness of issuing general recommendations for camera capture settings is limited. Our results indicate that true image colors can best and most realistically be captured with the SpyderCheckr technical calibration tool for digital cameras tested in this study. Apart from aspects such as the simplicity and quickness of the calibration procedure, a further advantage of the tool is that the results are independent of the camera used and can also be used for the color management of output devices such as monitors and printers. The SpyderCheckr color-code patches allow true colors to be captured more realistically than with a manual white balance tool or an automatic flash. We therefore recommend that the use of a color management tool should be considered for the acquisition of all images that demand high true color accuracy (in particular in the setting of injury documentation). PMID:27386623

  2. On the complexity of the colorful directed paths in vertex coloring of digraphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saqaeeyan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The colorful paths and rainbow paths have been considered by severalauthors.A colorful directed path in a digraph $G$ is a directed path with $chi(G$ vertices whose colors are different. A $v$-colorful directed path is such a directed path, starting from $v$. We prove that for a given $3$-regular triangle-free digraph $G$ determining whether there is a proper $chi(G$-coloring of $G$such that for every $v in V (G$, there exists a $v$-colorful directed path is $ mathbf{NP} $-complete.

  3. Molecular basis for color vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, T

    1994-05-01

    Amino acid sequences of four kinds of chicken cone pigments and two kinds of nocturnal gecko visual pigment were determined. Calculations of amino acid identities indicate that gecko pigments should be cone pigments. A phylogenetic tree of visual pigments constructed demonstrated that cone pigments evolved earlier than rod pigments (rhodopsins), indicating that daylight vision including color vision appeared earlier than twilight vision. The divergence of cone pigments to rhodopsins would be caused by replacing basic amino acid residues to acidic ones according to net charge calculations. A comparison between chicken rhodopsin and cone pigments (chicken green and red) displayed that the cone pigments are faster in regeneration from 11-cis retinal and opsin, faster in formation of meta II-intermediate and shorter in lifetime of meta II-intermediate than rhodopsin. These facts would partly explain the rapid dark adaptation, the rapid light response and the low photosensitivity of cones compared with rods. In comparison with di- and tri-chromatic color visions, chicken tetra-chromatic vision was discussed on the basis of both absorption spectra of cone pigments and filtering effect of oil droplets. PMID:8011932

  4. Algebraic masks for color halftoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misic, Vladimir; Anderson, Peter G.

    2005-01-01

    Linear Pixel Shuffling (LPS) dithering produces blue-noise-like patterns, but the placement of thresholds in a dither matrix is a result of an exact algebra, rather than iterative procedure -- as is usually the case. In this paper, we investigate the potential use of LPS for construction of color (CMYK) dithering masks. In case of LPS dithering, the addition of the same value to each mask threshold, using modular arithmetic, is equivalent to the spatial mask shift. We propose a set of three shifted color masks for C, M, and Y that we construct from the original LPS mask using modular arithmetic. The main advantage of this approach is its simplicity. These shifts can be "tailored" to the statistical properties of the image and the set of new screens can be calculated on the fly. The proposed method enables creation of screens of arbitrary size, since the dithering masks are tiled automatically (actually, the masks are of unlimited size). The number of gray levels in each screen is limited by the choice of a modulus number used for mask thresholds calculation. This enables us to use a virtually unlimited number of thresholds that are not necessarily linearly related to the LPS calculated matrix values. Thus, it is relatively easy to construct a non-linear dither screen that will compensate for any printer non-linearity.

  5. Processing Color in Astronomical Imagery

    CERN Document Server

    Arcand, Kimberly K; Rector, Travis; Levay, Zoltan G; DePasquale, Joseph; Smarr, Olivia

    2013-01-01

    Every year, hundreds of images from telescopes on the ground and in space are released to the public, making their way into popular culture through everything from computer screens to postage stamps. These images span the entire electromagnetic spectrum from radio waves to infrared light to X-rays and gamma rays, a majority of which is undetectable to the human eye without technology. Once these data are collected, one or more specialists must process the data to create an image. Therefore, the creation of astronomical imagery involves a series of choices. How do these choices affect the comprehension of the science behind the images? What is the best way to represent data to a non-expert? Should these choices be based on aesthetics, scientific veracity, or is it possible to satisfy both? This paper reviews just one choice out of the many made by astronomical image processors: color. The choice of color is one of the most fundamental when creating an image taken with modern telescopes. We briefly explore the ...

  6. Multithreaded Algorithms for Graph Coloring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalyurek, Umit V.; Feo, John T.; Gebremedhin, Assefaw H.; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Pothen, Alex

    2012-10-21

    Graph algorithms are challenging to parallelize when high performance and scalability are primary goals. Low concurrency, poor data locality, irregular access pattern, and high data access to computation ratio are among the chief reasons for the challenge. The performance implication of these features is exasperated on distributed memory machines. More success is being achieved on shared-memory, multi-core architectures supporting multithreading. We consider a prototypical graph problem, coloring, and show how a greedy algorithm for solving it can be e*ectively parallelized on multithreaded architectures. We present in particular two di*erent parallel algorithms. The first relies on speculation and iteration, and is suitable for any shared-memory, multithreaded system. The second uses data ow principles and is targeted at the massively multithreaded Cray XMT system. We benchmark the algorithms on three di*erent platforms and demonstrate scalable runtime performance. In terms of quality of solution, both algorithms use nearly the same number of colors as the serial algorithm.

  7. Hepatitis Diagnosis Using Facial Color Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingjia; Guo, Zhenhua

    Facial color diagnosis is an important diagnostic method in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, due to its qualitative, subjective and experi-ence-based nature, traditional facial color diagnosis has a very limited application in clinical medicine. To circumvent the subjective and qualitative problems of facial color diagnosis of Traditional Chinese Medicine, in this paper, we present a novel computer aided facial color diagnosis method (CAFCDM). The method has three parts: face Image Database, Image Preprocessing Module and Diagnosis Engine. Face Image Database is carried out on a group of 116 patients affected by 2 kinds of liver diseases and 29 healthy volunteers. The quantitative color feature is extracted from facial images by using popular digital image processing techni-ques. Then, KNN classifier is employed to model the relationship between the quantitative color feature and diseases. The results show that the method can properly identify three groups: healthy, severe hepatitis with jaundice and severe hepatitis without jaundice with accuracy higher than 73%.

  8. RGB color sensor implemented with LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filoteo-Razo, J. D.; Estudillo-Ayala, J. M.; Hernández-Garcia, J. C.; Trejo-Durán, M.; Muñoz-Lopez, A.; Jauregui-Vázquez, D.; Rojas-Laguna, R.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of an optical sensor to detect color changes in fruit by means of white light reflection to measure fruit ripeness in industrial and agricultural applications. The system consists of a LED RGB array including photodetectors, a power source and plastic optic fiber (POF). By means of Labview ® graphic interface we can control the power emission of the diodes digitally mixing the colors at different intensities until we achieve white light to be used as a source for the color sensor. We used an ATmega2560 microcontroller as a data collection device to monitor the colors obtained and to show them as color models using Matlab ®. We show results from tests conducted using two guava samples, observing the evolution of the color change on the fruit skin until they became overripe.

  9. Application of Gold Nanoparticles to Paint Colorants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Hideo

    Metal nanoparticles possess unique properties that they do not exhibit in their bulk states. One of these properties is the color due to surface plasmon resonance. Gold nanoparticles appear red. This color has been utilized in glass for a long long time. In recent years, highly concentrated pastes of gold and silver nanoparticles have been successfully produced by using a special type of protective polymer and a mild reductant. The paste of gold nanoparticles can be used for paint and other materials as red colorants. In this article,application examples of gold nanoparticles as colorant are introduced. Recently, methods for producing bimetal nanoparticles such as gold/silver and gold/copper have been developed. These nanoparticles allow colors from yellow to green to be created. These methods and colors they produce are also described in this article.

  10. Electromagnetic currents induced by color fields

    CERN Document Server

    Tanji, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    The quark production in classical color fields is investigated with a focus on the induction of an electromagnetic current by produced quarks. We show that the SU(2) and the SU(3) theories lead significantly different results for the electromagnetic current. In uniform SU(2) color fields, the net electromagnetic current is not generated, while for SU(3) the net current is induced depending on the color direction of background fields. Also the numerical study of the quark production in inhomogeneous color fields is done. Motivated by gauge field configurations provided by the color glass condensate framework, we introduce an ensemble of randomly distributed color electric fluxtubes. The spectrum of photons emitted from the quarks by a classical process is shown.

  11. Tools for calculations in color space

    CERN Document Server

    Sjodahl, Malin

    2013-01-01

    Both the higher energy and the initial state colored partons contribute to making exact calculations in QCD color space more important at the LHC than at its predecessors. This is applicable whether the method of assessing QCD is fixed order calculation, resummation, or parton showers. In this talk we discuss tools for tackling the problem of performing exact color summed calculations. We start with theoretical tools in the form of the (standard) trace bases and the orthogonal multiplet bases (for which a general method of construction was recently presented). Following this, we focus on two new packages for performing color structure calculations: one easy to use Mathematica package, ColorMath, and one C++ package, ColorFull, which is suitable for more demanding calculations, and for interfacing with event generators.

  12. Application of Graph Coloring to Biological Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Khor, Susan

    2009-01-01

    We explore the application of graph coloring to biological networks, specifically protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. First, we find that given similar conditions (i.e. number of nodes, number of links, degree distribution and clustering), fewer colors are needed to color disassortative (high degree nodes tend to connect to low degree nodes and vice versa) than assortative networks. Fewer colors create fewer independent sets which in turn imply higher concurrency potential for a network. Since PPI networks tend to be disassortative, we suggest that in addition to functional specificity and stability proposed previously by Maslov and Sneppen (Science 296, 2002), the disassortative nature of PPI networks may promote the ability of cells to perform multiple, crucial and functionally diverse tasks concurrently. Second, since graph coloring is closely related to the presence of cliques in a graph, the significance of node coloring information to the problem of identifying protein complexes, i.e. dense subg...

  13. Prevalence of Color Vision Deficiency in Qazvin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad khalaj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Color vision deficiency (CVD is an X chromosome-linked recessive autosomal dominant. Determine the prevalence of color blindness in Qazvin population. Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study color vision deficiency examined in 1853 individuals with age 10-25 years old who participated in private clinics and eye clinic of Bu-Ali hospital in Qazvin in 2010. The screening of color vision deficiency was performed using Ishihara test. Data were analyzed by SPSS-16 with χP2P test with p<0.05. Results: Mean age of participant was 17.86±4.48 years. 59.5% of them were female. 3.49% of the total population had color vision deficiency that 0.93% and 2.56% were female and male respectively. Conclusion: color vision deficiency must be noticed by decision makers in health field for screen planning.

  14. Quaternion Diffusion for Color Image Filtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Xuan Liu; Shi-Guo Lian; Zhen Ren

    2006-01-01

    How to combine color and multiscale information is a fundamental question for computer vision, and quite a few color diffusion techniques have been presented. Most of these proposed techniques do not consider the direct interactions between color channel pairs. In this paper, a new method of color diffusion considering these effects is presented, which is based on quaternion diffusion (QD) equation. In addition to showing the solution to linear QD and its analysis, one form of nonlinear QD is discussed. Compared with other color diffusion techniques, considering the interactions between channel pairs, QD has the following advantages: 1) staircasing effect is avoided; 2) as diffusion tensor, the image derivative is regu larized without requiring additional convolution; 3) less time is needed. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of linear and nonlinear QD applied to natural color images for denoising by both visual and quantitative evaluations.

  15. Color Data Compensation for Illumination Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pranchalee Rattanasakornchai; Yasushi Hoshino; Chun Weilin

    2004-01-01

    Compensation method for illumination change, which has big influences on the characteristics of imaging system, is studied. On the condition that color chart is placed in the view of camera, the imaging system recognizes the color chart and the signals from the camera are processed by using the color chart data. Concerning the light from the window, and fluorescent light, it is confirmed that color chart is possible to be recognized and the color system is corrected to the expected chart signal within the error 10 % by considering quadratic terms of RGB. This method is considered to improve the accuracy of motion detection and also to better video communication by realizing preferalle color reproduction.

  16. An adaptively spatial color gamut mapping algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiandou Zhang; Haisong Xu

    2009-01-01

    To improve the accuracy of color image reproduction from displays to printers,an adaptively spatial color gamut mapping algorithm(ASCGMA)is proposed.In this algorithm,the compression degree of outof-reproduction-gamut color is not only related to the position of the color in CIELCH color space,but also depending on the neighborhood of the color to be mapped.The psychophysical experiment of pair comparison ks carried out to evaluate and compare this new algorithm with the HPMINDE and SGCK gamut mapping algorithms recommended by the International Commission on Illumination(CIE).The experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the algorithms of HPMINDE and SGCK except for the very dark images.

  17. To understand the radiation dose in color

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation is particles or electromagnetic waves having high energy, causing health damage to the human body, but cannot be perceived by the five senses of human. For enabling the visual sensing of radiation, the research and development of the functional dye material that changes from colorless body to colored body through irradiation is being promoted. This paper introduces the phenoxazine-based color former of solution type using the color former that changes color to blue through irradiation. The authors examined two types of phenoxazine-based color formers protected with alkyl oxycarbonyl group (-COOR), and mono-alkyl carbamoyl group (CONHR). Phenoxazine-based color former in acetonitrile solvent was revealed to be able to visually confirm the gamma irradiation dose of 10 Gy, but there is a problem of low temporal stability of the solution. (A.O.)

  18. Validation of the VIIRS Ocean Color

    OpenAIRE

    Arnone, Robert; FARGION Giulietta; MARTINOLICH Paul; Ladner, Sherwin; Lawson, Adam; BOWERS Jennifer; ONDRUSEK Michael; Zibordi, Giuseppe; Lee, ZhongPing; Trees, Charles; Davis, Curtiss; AHMED Samuel

    2012-01-01

    The Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) launched the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite including the Visible Infrared Sensor (VIIRS) on November 28, 2011 which has the capability to monitor ocean color properties. Four months after launch, we present an initial assessment of the VIIRS ocean color products including inter-comparisons with satellite and in situ observations. Satellite ocean color is used to characterize water quality properties, however, this requires th...

  19. Entanglement properties of topological color codes

    OpenAIRE

    Kargarian, Mehdi

    2008-01-01

    The entanglement properties of a class of topological stabilizer states, the so called \\emph{topological color codes} defined on a two-dimensional lattice or \\emph{2-colex}, are calculated. The topological entropy is used to measure the entanglement of different bipartitions of the 2-colex. The dependency of the ground state degeneracy on the genus of the surface shows that the color code can support a topological order, and the contribution of the color in its structure makes it interesting ...

  20. Inhibition of Return after Color Singletons

    OpenAIRE

    Priess, Heinz-Werner; Born, Sabine; Ansorge, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Inhibition of return (IOR) is the faster selection of hitherto unattended than previously attended positions. Some previous studies failed to find evidence for IOR after attention capture by color singletons. Others, however, did report IOR effects after color singletons. The current study examines the role of cue relevance for obtaining IOR effects. By using a potentially more sensitive method – saccadic IOR – we tested and found IOR after relevant color singleton cues that required an atten...

  1. Color Constancy For Improving Skin Detection

    OpenAIRE

    A. Nadian-Ghomsheh

    2014-01-01

    Skin detection is a preliminary step in many human related recognition systems. Most skin detection systems suffer from high false detection rate, resulting from low variance between the skin and non-skin color distributions. This paper proposes the use of simple color correction algorithms with low computation complexity to obtain a corrected version of the skin color distribution, which could lead to more accurate skin detection. White patch retinex, Grey world assumption and several improv...

  2. Skin-color Based Videos Categorization

    OpenAIRE

    Rehanullah Khan; Asad Maqsood; Zeeshan Khan; Muhammad Ishaq; Arsalan Arif

    2012-01-01

    On dedicated websites, people can upload videos and share it with the rest of the world. Currently these videos are cat- egorized manually by the help of the user community. In this paper, we propose a combination of color spaces with the Bayesian network approach for robust detection of skin color followed by an automated video categorization. Exper- imental results show that our method can achieve satisfactory performance for categorizing videos based on skin color.

  3. Neural timing and patterns of color vision

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    Visual perception helps us navigate through the world full of sensory information. The method by which the neural system organizes and modulates information has been studied but still remains elusive. To investigate how our brain encodes sensory information, we targeted color since it is one of the rudimentary features of vision. Using event-related potential (ERP), we tested healthy participants with normal color vision and instructed them with tasks of viewing isoluminant colored squares wh...

  4. Carcinogenicity and regulation of caramel colorings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Michael F

    2012-01-01

    2- and 4-methylimidazoles are present as contaminants in caramel colorings manufactured with ammonia catalysts. Both contaminants have been shown to induce cancer in animals and may be present in caramel colorings in amounts that exceed federal guidelines. California requires warning notices on products that could lead to consumption of more than 30 micrograms per day. The US Food and Drug Administration should bar the use of excessively contaminated caramel coloring in food. PMID:23026009

  5. Generalized vertex coloring problems using split graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Ekim, Tinaz; de Werra, Dominique

    2007-01-01

    Graph theory experienced a remarkable increase of interest among the scientific community during the last decades. The vertex coloring problem (Min Coloring) deserves a particular attention rince it has been able to capture a wide variety of applications. For mathematicians, it is interesting for an additional reason: it is extremely hard to solve it in an efficient way. In this thesis, we introduce several problems generalizing the usual vertex coloring problem, and hence, extending its appl...

  6. Generalized vertex coloring problems using split graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Ekim, Tinaz

    2006-01-01

    Graph theory experienced a remarkable increase of interest among the scientific community during the last decades. The vertex coloring problem (Min Coloring) deserves a particular attention rince it has been able to capture a wide variety of applications. For mathematicians, it is interesting for an additional reason: it is extremely hard to solve it in an efficient way. In this thesis, we introduce several problems generalizing the usual vertex coloring problem, and hence, extending its appl...

  7. Skin-color based videos categorization

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Rehanullah; Khan, Zeeshan; Ishaq, Muhammad; Arif, Arsalan

    2012-01-01

    On dedicated websites, people can upload videos and share it with the rest of the world. Currently these videos are cat- egorized manually by the help of the user community. In this paper, we propose a combination of color spaces with the Bayesian network approach for robust detection of skin color followed by an automated video categorization. Exper- imental results show that our method can achieve satisfactory performance for categorizing videos based on skin color.

  8. Quantization of color histograms using GLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Christopher C.; Yip, Milo K.

    2002-09-01

    Color histogram has been used as one of the most important image descriptor in a wide range of content-based image retrieval (CBIR) projects for color image indexing. It captures the global chromatic distribution of an image. Traditionally, there are two major approaches to quantize the color space: (1) quantize each dimension of a color coordinate system uniformly to generate a fixed number of bins; and (2) quantize a color coordinate system arbitrarily. The first approach works best on cubical color coordinate systems, such as RGB. For other non-cubical color coordinate system, such as CIELAB and CIELUV, some bins may fall out of the gamut (transformed from the RGB cube) of the color space. As a result, it reduces the effectiveness of the color histogram and hence reduces the retrieval performance. The second approach uses arbitrarily quantization. The volume of the bins is not necessary uniform. As a result, it affects the effectiveness of the histogram significantly. In this paper, we propose to develop the color histogram by tessellating the non-cubical color gamut transformed from RGB cube using a vector quantization (VQ) method, the General Loyld Algorithm (GLA) [6]. Using such approach, the problem of empty bins due to the gamut of the color coordinate system can be avoided. Besides, all bins quantized by GLA will occupy the same volume. It guarantees that uniformity of each quantized bins in the histogram. An experiment has been conducted to evaluate the quantitative performance of our approach. The image collection from UC Berkeley's digital library project is used as the test bed. The indexing effectiveness of a histogram space [3] is used as the measurement of the performance. The experimental result shows that using the GLA quantization approach significantly increase the indexing effectiveness.

  9. Nowhere-Harmonic Colorings of Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Matthias; Braun, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    Proper vertex colorings of a graph are related to its boundary map, also called its signed vertex-edge incidence matrix. The vertex Laplacian of a graph, a natural extension of the boundary map, leads us to introduce nowhere-harmonic colorings and analogues of the chromatic polynomial and Stanley's theorem relating negative evaluations of the chromatic polynomial to acyclic orientations. Further, we discuss some examples demonstrating that nowhere-harmonic colorings are more complicated from ...

  10. Color Image Segmentation in a Quaternion Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Subakan, Özlem N.; Vemuri, Baba C.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a feature/detail preserving color image segmentation framework using Hamiltonian quaternions. First, we introduce a novel Quaternionic Gabor Filter (QGF) which can combine the color channels and the orientations in the image plane. Using the QGFs, we extract the local orientation information in the color images. Second, in order to model this derived orientation information, we propose a continuous mixture of appropriate hypercomplex exponential basis functions. We d...

  11. Multispectral Analysis of Color Vision Deficiency Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Sergejs FOMINS; Ozolinsh, Maris

    2011-01-01

    Color deficiency tests are usually produced by means of polygraphy technologies and help to diagnose the type and severity of the color deficiencies. Due to different factors, as lighting conditions or age of the test, standard characteristics of these tests fail, thus not allowing diagnosing unambiguously the degree of different color deficiency. Multispectral camera was used to acquire the spectral images of the Ishihara and Rabkin pseudoisochromatic plates in the visible spectrum. Spectral...

  12. Glossiness representation using binocular color difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Woo-Soon; Moon, Young-Gyu; Park, Jae-Hyun; Song, Jang-Kun

    2013-07-15

    We demonstrate that a binocular color difference can be used to express the surface glossiness of an object on 3D display devices without being accompanied by a specular reflection pattern. A simple image with a binocular color difference provides a similar surface appearance impression to a real object that has the same binocular color difference. It is found that human binocular perception is likely to interpret binocular color difference as spectral reflectance rather than as transparency. Binocular glossiness is caused not only by a binocular lightness difference but also by a chromatic or hue difference. PMID:23939119

  13. TANK COLOR IMPACTS PERFORMANCE OF CULTURED FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewen McLean

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Tank color impacts marine fish larval performance, as dark tanks appear to provide contrast that allows larvae to better visualize live and artificial prey. While tanks can be fabricated in any color, commercially available on–growing systems are generally black, green, or dark and light blue. Anecdotal information suggested that certain juvenile fish perform better in tanks with black sides and sandy colored bottoms. To determine whether tank color impacted performance of juvenile fish we examined the effect of black, green, red, dark, and light blue colored tanks on the short–term growth and feed efficiency of summer flounder and growth, feed efficiency, body composition of Nile tilapia. Cortisol response was also examined for both species. Tank color did not affect growth performance of flounder or tilapia although fish maintained in red–colored tanks returned better percent increases in weight. Differences (P < 0.05 in feed conversion efficiency were observed for summer flounder held in red tanks. Plasma cortisol levels in summer flounder ranged from 1.39–3.71 ng cortisol per ml, compared to 12.7–94.4 ng cortisol per ml plasma for tilapia. Lowest cortisol levels (P < 0.05 were detected in flounder and tilapia reared in red–colored aquaria. Background color had no effects on tilapia fillet composition.

  14. A quadratic algorithm for road coloring

    CERN Document Server

    Béal, Marie-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The road coloring theorem states that every aperiodic directed graph with constant out-degree has a synchronized coloring. This theorem had been conjectured during many years as the road coloring problem before being settled by A. Trahtman. Trahtman's proof leads to an algorithm that finds a synchronized labeling with a cubic worst-case time complexity. We show a variant of his construction with a worst-case complexity which is quadratic in time and linear in space. We also extend the road coloring theorem to the periodic case.

  15. Charged black holes in colored Lifshitz spacetimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Ying Fan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider Einstein gravities coupled to a cosmological constant and SU(2 Yang–Mills fields in four and five dimensions. We find that the theories admit colored Lifshitz solutions with dynamic exponents z>1. We study the wave equations of the SU(2 scalar triplet in the bulk, and find that the vacuum color modifies the scaling dimensions of the dual operators. We also introduce a Maxwell field and construct exact solutions of electrically-charged black holes that approach the D=4, z=3 and D=5, z=4 colored Lifshitz spacetimes. We derive the thermodynamical first law for general colored and charged Lifshitz black holes.

  16. Unsupervised Color-texture Image Segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Sheng-yang; ZHANG Fan; WANG Yong-gang; YANG Jie

    2008-01-01

    The measure J in J value segmentation (JSEG) falls to represent the discontinuity of color, which degrades the robustness and discrimination of JSEG. An improved approach for JSEG algorithm was proposed for unsupervised color-texture image segmentation. The texture and photometric invariant edge information were combined, which results in a discriminative measure for color-texture homogeneity. Based on the image whose pixel values are values of the new measure, region growing-merging algorithm used in JSEG was then employed to segment the image. Finally, experiments on a variety of real color images demonstrate performance improvement due to the proposed method.

  17. Dihyperons in chiral color dielectric model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S C Phatak

    2003-11-01

    The mass of the dibaryon having spin, parity =0+, isospin = 0 and strangeness -2 is computed using chiral color dielectric model. The bare wave function is constructed as a product of two color-singlet three-quark clusters and then it is properly antisymmetrized by considering appropriate exchange operators for spin, flavor and color. Color magnetic energy due to gluon exchange, meson self energy and energy correction due to center of mass motion are computed. The calculation shows that the mass of the particle is 80 to 160 MeV less than twice mass.

  18. Color in Computer Vision Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gevers, Theo; van de Weijer, Joost; Geusebroek, Jan-Mark

    2012-01-01

    While the field of computer vision drives many of today’s digital technologies and communication networks, the topic of color has emerged only recently in most computer vision applications. One of the most extensive works to date on color in computer vision, this book provides a complete set of tools for working with color in the field of image understanding. Based on the authors’ intense collaboration for more than a decade and drawing on the latest thinking in the field of computer science, the book integrates topics from color science and computer vision, clearly linking theor

  19. Escaping RGBland: Selecting Colors for Statistical Graphics

    OpenAIRE

    Zeileis, Achim; Hornik, Kurt; Murrell, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Statistical graphics are often augmented by the use of color coding information contained in some variable. When this involves the shading of areas (and not only points or lines) - e.g., as in bar plots, pie charts, mosaic displays or heatmaps - it is important that the colors are perceptually based and do not introduce optical illusions or systematic bias. Here, we discuss how the perceptually-based Hue-Chroma-Luminance (HCL) color space can be used for deriving suitable color palettes for c...

  20. Choosing Color Palettes for Statistical Graphics

    OpenAIRE

    Zeileis, Achim; Hornik, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    Statistical graphics are often augmented by the use of color coding information contained in some variable. When this involves the shading of areas (and not only points or lines) - e.g., as in bar plots, pie charts, mosaic displays or heatmaps - it is important that the colors are perceptually based and do not introduce optical illusions or systematic bias. Here, we discuss how the perceptually-based Hue-Chroma-Luminance (HCL) color space can be used for deriving suitable color palettes for c...

  1. Cross-cultural color-odor associations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmel A Levitan

    Full Text Available Colors and odors are associated; for instance, people typically match the smell of strawberries to the color pink or red. These associations are forms of crossmodal correspondences. Recently, there has been discussion about the extent to which these correspondences arise for structural reasons (i.e., an inherent mapping between color and odor, statistical reasons (i.e., covariance in experience, and/or semantically-mediated reasons (i.e., stemming from language. The present study probed this question by testing color-odor correspondences in 6 different cultural groups (Dutch, Netherlands-residing-Chinese, German, Malay, Malaysian-Chinese, and US residents, using the same set of 14 odors and asking participants to make congruent and incongruent color choices for each odor. We found consistent patterns in color choices for each odor within each culture, showing that participants were making non-random color-odor matches. We used representational dissimilarity analysis to probe for variations in the patterns of color-odor associations across cultures; we found that US and German participants had the most similar patterns of associations, followed by German and Malay participants. The largest group differences were between Malay and Netherlands-resident Chinese participants and between Dutch and Malaysian-Chinese participants. We conclude that culture plays a role in color-odor crossmodal associations, which likely arise, at least in part, through experience.

  2. A laboratory evaluation of color video monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry, P.L.

    1993-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has considerable experience with monochrome video monitors used in alarm assessment video systems. Most of these systems, used for perimeter protection, were designed to classify rather than to identify intruders. There is a growing interest in the identification function of security video systems for both access control and insider protection. Because color video technology is rapidly changing and because color information is useful for identification purposes, Sandia National Laboratories established a program to evaluate the newest relevant color video equipment. This report documents the evaluation of an integral component, color monitors. It briefly discusses a critical parameter, dynamic range, details test procedures, and evaluates the results.

  3. The color doppler ultrasonography findings of leptospirosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the color ultrasonography findings of leptospirosis. Methods: The color ultrasonography findings of heart, liver, spleen, kidney, lymph node and gastrocnemius in 51 cases of leptospirosis were studied retrospectively. Results: Changes of the color ultrasonography findings were showed in all cases. The changes of liver, kidney, lymph node and gastrocnemius were conspicuous, and the positive rates were 62%, 47%, 88% and 90%. Conclusion: Changes of the color ultrasonography findings of heart, liver, spleen, kidney, lymph node and gastrocnemius can be found in leptospirosis cases, without specificity. (authors)

  4. Automatic color map digitization by spectral classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, N. Y.; Anuta, P. E.

    1979-01-01

    A method of converting polygon map information into a digital form which does not require manual tracing of polygon edges is discussed. The maps must be in color-coded format with a unique color for each category in the map. Color scanning using a microdensitometer is employed and a three-channel color separation digital data set is generated. The digital data are then classified by using a Gaussian maximum likelihood classifier, and the resulting digitized map is evaluated. Very good agreement is observed between the classified and original map.

  5. Colorization by classifying the prior knowledge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Weiwei

    2011-01-01

    When a one-dimensional luminance scalar is replaced by a vector of a colorful multi-dimension for every pixel of a monochrome image,the process is called colorization.However,colorization is under-constrained.Therefore,the prior knowledge is considered and given to the monochrome image.Colorization using optimization algorithm is an effective algorithm for the above problem.However,it cannot effectively do with some images well without repeating experiments for confirming the place of scribbles.In this paper,a colorization algorithm is proposed,which can automatically generate the prior knowledge.The idea is that firstly,the prior knowledge crystallizes into some points of the prior knowledge which is automatically extracted by downsampling and upsampling method.And then some points of the prior knowledge are classified and given with corresponding colors.Lastly,the color image can be obtained by the color points of the prior knowledge.It is demonstrated that the proposal can not only effectively generate the prior knowledge but also colorize the monochrome image according to requirements of user with some experiments.

  6. Colored Noise Prediction Based on Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Fei; Zhang Xiaohui

    2003-01-01

    A method for predicting colored noise by introducing prediction of nonhnear time series is presented By adopting three kinds of neural networks prediction models, the colored noise prediction is studied through changing the filter bandwidth for stochastic noise and the sampling rate for colored noise The results show that colored noise can be predicted The prediction error decreases with the increasing of the sampling rate or the narrowing of the filter bandwidth. If the parameters are selected properly, the prediction precision can meet the requirement of engineering implementation. The results offer a new reference way for increasing the ability for detecting weak signal in signal processing system

  7. Evaluating the smoothness of color transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristova, Anna; Wang, Zhaohui; Hardeberg, Jon Y.

    2011-01-01

    Multi-dimensional look up tables (LUTs) are widely employed for color transformations due to its high accuracy and general applicability. Using the LUT model generally involves the color measurement of a large number of samples. The precision and uncertainty of the color measurement will be mainly represented in the LUTs, and will affect the smoothness of the color transformation. This, in turn, strongly influences the quality of the reproduced color images. To achieve high quality color image reproduction, the color transformation is required to be relatively smooth. In this study, we have investigated the inherent characteristics of LUTs' transformation from color measurement and their effects on the quality of reproduced images. We propose an algorithm to evaluate the smoothness of 3D LUT based color transformations quantitatively, which is based on the analysis of 3D LUTs transformation from RGB to CIELAB and the second derivative of the differences between adjacent points in vertical and horizontal ramps of each LUT entry. The performance of the proposed algorithm was compared with a those proposed in two recent studies on smoothness, and a better performance is reached by the proposed method.

  8. Pet fur color and texture classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Jonathan; Mukherjee, Debarghar; Lim, SukHwan; Tretter, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Object segmentation is important in image analysis for imaging tasks such as image rendering and image retrieval. Pet owners have been known to be quite vocal about how important it is to render their pets perfectly. We present here an algorithm for pet (mammal) fur color classification and an algorithm for pet (animal) fur texture classification. Per fur color classification can be applied as a necessary condition for identifying the regions in an image that may contain pets much like the skin tone classification for human flesh detection. As a result of the evolution, fur coloration of all mammals is caused by a natural organic pigment called Melanin and Melanin has only very limited color ranges. We have conducted a statistical analysis and concluded that mammal fur colors can be only in levels of gray or in two colors after the proper color quantization. This pet fur color classification algorithm has been applied for peteye detection. We also present here an algorithm for animal fur texture classification using the recently developed multi-resolution directional sub-band Contourlet transform. The experimental results are very promising as these transforms can identify regions of an image that may contain fur of mammals, scale of reptiles and feather of birds, etc. Combining the color and texture classification, one can have a set of strong classifiers for identifying possible animals in an image.

  9. Chemistry of the Konica Dry Color System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Yoshihiko; Ohbayashi, Keiji; Onodera, Kaoru

    1991-08-01

    While silver halide photosensitive materials offer superiority in image quality -- both in color and black-and-white -- they require chemical solutions for processing, and this can be a drawback. To overcome this, researchers turned to the thermal development of silver halide photographic materials, and met their first success with black-and-white images. Later, with the development of the Konica Dry Color System, color images were finally obtained from a completely dry thermal development system, without the use of water or chemical solutions. The dry color system is characterized by a novel chromogenic color image-forming technology and comprises four processes. (1) With the application of heat, a color developer precursor (CDP) decomposes to generate a p-phenylenediamine color developer (CD). (2) The CD then develops silver salts. (3) Oxidized CD then reacts with couplers to generate color image dyes. (4) Finally, the dyes diffuse from the system's photosensitive sheet to its image-receiving sheet. The authors have analyzed the kinetics of each of the system's four processes. In this paper, they report the kinetics of the system's first process, color developer (CD) generation.

  10. Do instantons like a colorful background?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gies, H.; Pawlowski, J.M.; Wetterich, C. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Jaeckel, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    We investigate chiral symmetry breaking and color symmetry breaking in QCD. The effective potential of the corresponding scalar condensates is discussed in the presence of non-perturbative contributions from the semiclassical one-instanton sector. We concentrate on a color singlet scalar background which can describe chiral condensation, as well as a color cotet scalar background which can generate mass for the gluons. Whereas a non-vanishing singlet chiral field is favored by the instantons, we have found no indication for a preference of color octet backgrounds. (orig.)

  11. The chromatic polynomial and list colorings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    We prove that, if a graph has a list of k available colors at every vertex, then the number of list-colorings is at least the chromatic polynomial evaluated at k when k is sufficiently large compared to the number of vertices of the graph.......We prove that, if a graph has a list of k available colors at every vertex, then the number of list-colorings is at least the chromatic polynomial evaluated at k when k is sufficiently large compared to the number of vertices of the graph....

  12. The color space of a graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T.R.; Thomassen, Carsten

    2000-01-01

    If k is a prime power, and G is a graph with n vertices, then a k-coloring of G may be considered as a vector in GF(k)(n). We prove that the subspace of GF(3)(n) spanned by all 3-colorings of a planar triangle-free graph with n vertices has dimension n. In particular, any such graph has at least n...... - 1 nonequivalent 3-colorings, and the addition of any edge or any vertex of degree 3 results in a 3-colorable graph. (C) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc....

  13. Data Security With Colors Using Rsa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sankara Rao,

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Data Security with Colors using RSA technique that integrates the RGB Color model with the well-known public key cryptographic algorithm RSA (Rivest, Shamir and Adleman. This model provides both confidentiality and authentication to the data sent across the network. RSA algorithm uses public key and private key to encrypt and decrypt the data and thus provides confidentiality. But the public key is known to everyone and so anyone can encrypt the data and send the message. Hence authentication of users is needed. In this technique we use RGB color model to provide authentication. Every user will have a unique color assigned to him. A sender must know the receiver’s color to send a message. The color value is encrypted using a key which is used as a password while decrypting the message. To decrypt the message, the receiver must provide his color values. If the decrypted color values and his color values are equal then the sender and receiver are send to be authentic. The data encryption and decryption follows RSA procedure. Thus both authentication and confidentiality are provided for the data.

  14. Anatomy of Vitis Berries During Their Coloring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Yi-zhen; HE Pu-chao

    2002-01-01

    During 1998-1999, the course of the berry coloring and the development of the pigment cells from veraison to ripeness were studied by freeze sectioning 43 accessions of 12 Vitis species (including 10 Chinese wild species). External observation showed that the berries of most species began coloring on the fruit top surface or on the sun-lit surface, and the berry surface color was evenly distributed when the berry was ripe.Internal observation revealed that the pigment cells in a few layers between cuticle and sub-cuticle colored first, the cuticle colored from inner layers to outer layers while the sub-cuticle from outer to inner, and the cuticle cells began coloring a little earlier than the sub-cuticle ones in most species. The pigment cells developed unevenly during the berry ripening. In the beginning of berry coloring, the cell pigment density among the layers or among the cells in the same layer was different. Both the numbers of the pigmented cells and the cell pigment density increased during the berry coloring, while the former lasted a short time; however, the latter kept increasing from veraison to ripeness, and they reached the deepest color when the berry was ripe.

  15. A laboratory evaluation of color video monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories has considerable experience with monochrome video monitors used in alarm assessment video systems. Most of these systems, used for perimeter protection, were designed to classify rather than to identify intruders. There is a growing interest in the identification function of security video systems for both access control and insider protection. Because color video technology is rapidly changing and because color information is useful for identification purposes, Sandia National Laboratories established a program to evaluate the newest relevant color video equipment. This report documents the evaluation of an integral component, color monitors. It briefly discusses a critical parameter, dynamic range, details test procedures, and evaluates the results

  16. Medical color displays and their calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jiahua; Roehrig, Hans; Dallas, W.; Krupinski, Elizabeth

    2009-08-01

    Color displays are increasingly used for medical imaging, replacing the traditional monochrome displays in radiology for multi-modality applications, 3D representation applications, etc. Color displays are also used increasingly because of wide spread application of Tele-Medicine, Tele-Dermatology and Digital Pathology. At this time, there is no concerted effort for calibration procedures for this diverse range of color displays in Telemedicine and in other areas of the medical field. Using a colorimeter to measure the display luminance and chrominance properties as well as some processing software we developed a first attempt to a color calibration protocol for the medical imaging field.

  17. Ice Clouds in Color IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released August 9, 2004 This image shows two representations of the same infra-red image in the Elysium region of Mars. On the left is a grayscale image showing surface temperature, and on the right is a false-color composite made from 3 individual THEMIS bands. The false-color image is colorized using a technique called decorrelation stretch (DCS), which emphasizes the spectral differences between the bands to highlight compositional variations. The light blue area in the center of this image is a very nice example of a water ice cloud. Water ice is frequently present in the Martian atmosphere as a thin haze. Clouds such as this one can be difficult to identify in a temperature image, but are easy to spot in the DCS images. In this case, the water ice is relatively confined and concentrated which may be due to the topography of the Elysium volcanic construct. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 23.2, Longitude 150.1 East (209.9 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter

  18. Characterization of Angle Dependent Color Travel of Printed Multi-Color Effect Pigment on Different Color Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirica Karlovits

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Color-travel pigments, which exhibit much more extensive color change as well provide angle-dependent optical effect can be used in many industrial products. In present paper the multi-color effect pigment printed on three different foils with different background color (black, silver and transparent was investigated. The pigment was based on synthetically produced transparent silicon dioxide platelets coated with titanium dioxide. CIEL*a*b* values and reflection of prints were measured by multi-angle spectrophotometer at constant illumination at an angle of 45º and different viewing angles (-15º, 15°, 25º, 45º, 75º and 110º were used. The measurements of printed multi-color pigment showed that CIEL*a*b* color coordinates varied to great extents, depending on detection angles as well on color of the printing substrate. The study revealed that pigmnet printed on black background obtained significant change in color. The study has also shown that when viewing angle increases, the reflection curves decreases.

  19. The color measurement system for spot color printing basing multispectral camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nanbo; Jin, Weiqi; Huang, Qinmei; Song, Li

    2014-11-01

    Color measurement and control of printing has been an important issue in computer vision technology . In the past, people have used density meter and spectrophotometer to measure the color of printing product. For the color management of 4 color press, by these kind meters, people can measure the color data from color bar printed at the side of sheet, then do ink key presetting. This way have wide application in printing field. However, it can not be used in the case that is to measure the color of spot color printing and printing pattern directly. With the development of multispectral image acquisition, it makes possible to measure the color of printing pattern in any area of the pattern by CCD camera than can acquire the whole image of sheet in high resolution. This essay give a way to measure the color of printing by multispectral camera in the process of printing. A 12 channel spectral camera with high intensity white LED illumination that have driven by a motor, scans the printing sheet. Then we can get the image, this image can include color and printing quality information of each pixel, LAB value and CMYK value of each pixel can be got by reconstructing the reflectance spectra of printing image. By this data processing, we can measure the color of spot color printing and control it. Through the spot test in the printing plant, the results show this way can get not only the color bar density value but also ROI color value. By the value, we can do ink key presetting, that makes it true to control the spot color automatically in high precision.

  20. Grapheme learning and grapheme-color synesthesia: toward a comprehensive model of grapheme-color association

    OpenAIRE

    Michiko Asano; Kazuhiko Yokosawa

    2013-01-01

    Recent progress in grapheme-color synesthesia research has revealed that certain regularities, as well as individual differences, figure into grapheme-color associations. Although several factors are known to regulate grapheme-color associations, the impact of factors, including their interrelationships, on synesthesia remains unclear. We investigated determinants of synesthetic color for graphemes (characters, letters) of Hiragana, a phonetic script in the Japanese language, and the English ...