WorldWideScience

Sample records for blue-green alga spirulina

  1. Extraction of nutraceuticals from Spirulina (blue-green alga): A bioorganic chemistry practice using thin-layer chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Bravo de Laguna, Irma; Toledo Marante, Francisco J; Luna-Freire, Kristerson R; Mioso, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina is a blue-green alga (cyanobacteria) with high nutritive value. This work provides an innovative and original approach to the consideration of a bioorganic chemistry practice, using Spirulina for the separation of phytochemicals with nutraceutical characteristics via thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates. The aim is to bring together current research, theory, and practice, and always in accordance with pedagogical ideas.

  2. Extraction of Nutraceuticals from Spirulina (Blue-Green Alga): A Bioorganic Chemistry Practice Using Thin-layer Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Bravo de Laguna, Irma; Toledo Marante, Francisco J.; Luna-Freire, Kristerson R.; Mioso, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina is a blue-green alga (cyanobacteria) with high nutritive value. This work provides an innovative and original approach to the consideration of a bioorganic chemistry practice, using Spirulina for the separation of phytochemicals with nutraceutical characteristics via thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates. The aim is to bring together…

  3. Epithermal neutron activation analysis of blue-green algae Spirulina Platensis as a matrix for selenium-containing pharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the potentiality of the blue-green algae Spirulina Platensis as a matrix for the production of Se-containing pharmaceuticals, the background levels of 31 major, minor and trace elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni (using (n,p)-reaction), As, Br, Zn, Rb, Mo, Ag, Sb, I, Ba, Sm, Tb, Tm, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Th) in Spirulina Platensis biomass were determined by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis. The possibility of the purpose-oriented incorporation of Se into Spirulina Platensis biomass was demonstrated. The polynomial dependence of the Se accumulation on nutritional medium loading was revealed. The employed analytical technique allows one to reliably control the amount of toxic elements in algae Spirulina Platensis. Based on this study, a conclusion of the possibility to use Spirulina Platensis as a matrix for the production of Se-containing pharmaceuticals was drawn

  4. Epithermal neutron activation analysis of blue-green algae Spirulina platensis as a matrix for selenium-containing pharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the potentiality of the blue-green algae Spirulina platensis as a matrix for the production of Se-containing pharmaceuticals, the background levels of 31 major, minor and trace elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni using (n,p) reaction), As, Br, Zn, Rb, Mo, Ag, Sb, I, Ba, Sm, Tb, Tm, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Th were determined in Spirulina platensis biomass by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis. The possibility of the purpose-oriented incorporation of Se into Spirulina platensis biomass was demonstrated. The polynomial dependence of the Se accumulation on nutritional medium loading was revealed. The analytical technique used allows to control the amount of toxic elements in algae Spirulina platensis. Conclusion of the possibility to use Spirulina platensis as a matrix for the production of Se-containing pharmaceutical was drawn. (author)

  5. Blue-green algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for 6 months relieves allergy symptoms in adults. Arsenic poisoning. Early research shows that taking a combination of blue-green algae and zinc by mouth twice daily for 12 weeks reduces arsenic levels and its effects on the skin in ...

  6. Food production and gas exchange system using blue-green alga (Spirulina) for CELSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Mitsuo; Otsubo, Koji; Nitta, Keiji; Hatayama, Shigeki

    In order to reduce the cultivation area required for the growth of higher plants in space adoption of algae, which have a higher photosynthetic ability, seems very suitable for obtaining oxygen and food as a useful source of high quality protein. The preliminary cultivation experiment for determining optimum cultivation conditions and for obtaining the critical design parameters of the cultivator itself has been conducted. Spirulina was cultivated in the 6-liter medium containing a sodium hydrogen carbonate solution and a cultivation temperature controlled using a thermostat. Generated oxygen gas was separated using a polypropyrene porous hollow fiber membrane module. Through this experiment, oxygen gas (at a concentration of more than 46%) at a rate of 100 ~ 150 ml per minute could be obtained.

  7. Experimental substantiation of the possibility of developing selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals based on blue-green algae Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The great potential of using blue-green algae Spirulina platensis as a matrix for the production of selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals is shown experimentally. The background levels of 31 major, minor and trace elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni (using (n,p)-reaction), As, Br, Zn, Rb, Mo, Ag, Sb, I, Ba, Sm, Tb, Tm, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Th) in Spirulina platensis biomass were determined by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis. The dependence of selenium and iodine accumulation in spirulina biomass on a nutrient medium loading of the above elements was characterised. To demonstrate the possibilities of determining toxic element intake by spirulina biomass, mercury was selected. The technological parameters for production of iodinated treatment-and-prophylactic pills are developed

  8. Experimental Substantiation of the Possibility of Developing Selenium- and Iodine-Containing Pharmaceuticals Based on Blue-Green Algae Spirulina Platensis

    CERN Document Server

    Mosulishvili, L M; Belokobylsky, A I; Khisanishvili, L A; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, C C; Gundorina, S F

    2001-01-01

    The great potential of using blue-green algae Spirulina platensis as a matrix for the production of selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals is shown experimentally. The background levels of 31 major, minor and trace elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni (using -reaction), As, Br, Zn, Rb, Mo, Ag, Sb, I, Ba, Sm, Tb, Tm, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Th) in Spirulina platensis biomass were determined by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis. The dependence of selenium and iodine accumulation in spirulina biomass on a nutrient medium loding of the above elements was characterised. To demonstrate the possibilities of determining toxic element intake by spirulina biomass, mercury was selected. The technological parameters for production of iodinated treatment-and-prophylactic pills are developed.

  9. Anti-cancer effects of blue-green alga Spirulina platensis, a natural source of bilirubin-like tetrapyrrolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koníčková, Renata; Vaňková, Kateřina; Vaníková, Jana; Váňová, Kateřina; Muchová, Lucie; Subhanová, Iva; Zadinová, Marie; Zelenka, Jaroslav; Dvořák, Aleš; Kolář, Michal; Strnad, Hynek; Rimpelová, Silvie; Ruml, Tomáš; J Wong, Ronald; Vítek, Libor

    2014-01-01

    Spirulina platensis is a blue-green alga used as a dietary supplement because of its hypocholesterolemic properties. Among other bioactive substances, it is also rich in tetrapyrrolic compounds closely related to bilirubin molecule, a potent antioxidant and anti-proliferative agent. The aim of our study was to evaluate possible anticancer effects of S. platensis and S. platensis-derived tetrapyrroles using an experimental model of pancreatic cancer. The anti-proliferative effects of S. platensis and its tetrapyrrolic components [phycocyanobilin (PCB) and chlorophyllin, a surrogate molecule for chlorophyll A] were tested on several human pancreatic cancer cell lines and xenotransplanted nude mice. The effects of experimental therapeutics on mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and glutathione redox status were also evaluated. Compared to untreated cells, experimental therapeutics significantly decreased proliferation of human pancreatic cancer cell lines in vitro in a dose-dependent manner (from 0.16 g•L-1 [S. platensis], 60 μM [PCB], and 125 μM [chlorophyllin], p<0.05). The anti-proliferative effects of S. platensis were also shown in vivo, where inhibition of pancreatic cancer growth was evidenced since the third day of treatment (p < 0.05). All tested compounds decreased generation of mitochondrial ROS and glutathione redox status (p = 0.0006; 0.016; and 0.006 for S. platensis, PCB, and chlorophyllin, respectively). In conclusion, S. platensis and its tetrapyrrolic components substantially decreased the proliferation of experimental pancreatic cancer. These data support a chemopreventive role of this edible alga. Furthermore, it seems that dietary supplementation with this alga might enhance systemic pool of tetrapyrroles, known to be higher in subjects with Gilbert syndrome. PMID:24552870

  10. Gelation of edible blue-green algae protein isolate (Spirulina platensis Strain Pacifica): thermal transitions, rheological properties, and molecular forces involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronakis, I S

    2001-02-01

    Proteins isolated from blue-green algae Spirulina platensis strain Pacifica were characterized by visible absorption, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), viscometry, and dynamic oscillatory rheological measurements. Unique thermal unfolding, denaturation, aggregation, and gelation of the algal protein isolate are presented. DSC analysis showed that thermal transitions occur at about 67 and 109 degrees C at neutral pH. Calcium chloride stabilized the quaternary structure against denaturation and shifted the transitions at higher temperatures. Viscometric studies of Spirulina protein isolate as a function of temperature showed that the onset of the viscosity increase is closely related to the dissociation-denaturation process. Lower viscosities were observed for the protein solutions dissolved at pH 9 due to an increased protein solubility. Solutions of Spirulina protein isolate form elastic gels during heating to 90 degrees C. Subsequent cooling at ambient temperatures caused a further pronounced increase in the elastic moduli and network elasticity. Spirulina protein isolate has good gelling properties with fairly low minimum critical gelling concentrations of about 1.5 and 2.5 wt % in 0.1 M Tris buffer, pH 7, and with 0.02 M CaCl(2) in the same buffer, respectively. It is suggested that mainly the interactions of exposed hydrophobic regions generate the molecular association, initial aggregation, and gelation of the protein isolate during the thermal treatment. Hydrogen bonds reinforce the network rigidity of the protein on cooling and further stabilize the structure of Spirulina protein gels but alone are not sufficient to form a network structure. Intermolecular sulfhydryl and disulfide bonds were found to play a minor role for the network strength of Spirulina protein gels but affect the elasticity of the structures formed. Both time and temperature at isothermal heat-induced gelation within 40-80 degrees C affect substantially the network formation and

  11. In vitro and in vivo safety assessment of edible blue-green algae, Nostoc commune var. sphaeroides Kützing and Spirulina plantensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Park, Youngki; Cassada, David A; Snow, Daniel D; Rogers, Douglas G; Lee, Jiyoung

    2011-07-01

    Blue-green algae (BGA) have been consumed as food and herbal medicine for centuries. However, safety for their consumption has not been well investigated. This study was undertaken to evaluate in vitro and in vivo toxicity of cultivated Nostoc commune var. sphaeroides Kützing (NO) and Spirulina platensis (SP). Neither NO nor SP contained detectable levels of microcystin (MC)-LA, MC-RR, MC-LW and MC-LR by LC/MS/MS. Cell viability remained ∼70-80% when HepG2 cells were incubated with 0-500 μg/ml of hexane, chloroform, methanol and water-extractable fractions of NO and SP. Four-week-old male and female C57BL/6J mice were fed an AIN-93G/M diet supplemented with 0%, 2.5% or 5% of NO and SP (wt/wt) for 6 months. For both genders, BGA-rich diets did not induce noticeable abnormality in weight gain and plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase concentrations except a significant increase in plasma ALT levels by 2.5% NO supplementation in male mice at 6 month. Histopathological analysis of livers, however, indicated that BGA did not cause significant liver damage compared with controls. In conclusion, our results suggest that NO and SP are free of MC and the long-term dietary supplementation of up to 5% of the BGA may be consumed without evident toxic side-effects. PMID:21473896

  12. Spirulina: The Alga That Can End Malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ripley D.

    1985-01-01

    One approach to eliminating malnutrition worldwide is to grow spirulina in recycled village wastes. Spirulina is a blue-green alga and a natural concentrated food. Spirulina can give poor villages a nutritional food supplement they can grow themselves and can reduce infectious disease at the same time. (Author/RM)

  13. Algae and blue-green algae as mosquito food

    OpenAIRE

    Rettich, František; Popovský, Jiří; Cepák, Vladimír

    2001-01-01

    Ten genera of cyanophytes and 73 genera of algae were found in the guts of Aedes, Culex, Anopheles and Culiseta larvae collected in various breeding places of the Elbe-Lowland (Bohemia) and Prague. The quality and quantity of blue-green algae and algae found in mosquito guts depended on their presence in the water of mosquito breeding places and on the feeding type (filter fieders, scrapers) of mosquito larvae. Chlorophycean algae possesing cell wall with sporopollenin and algae with a mucila...

  14. Dinitrogen fixation by blue-green algae from paddy fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent work using radioactive nitrogen on the blue-green algae of paddy fields has been reviewed. These algae fix dinitrogen and photoassimilate carbon evolving oxygen, thereby augmenting nitrogen and carbon status of the soil and also providing oxygen to the water-logged rice paddies. Further studies using radioactive isotopes 13N, 24Na and 22Na on their nitrogen fixation, nitrogen assimilation pathways; regulation of nitrogenase, heterocysts production and sporulation and sodium transport and metabolism have been carried out and reported. The field application of blue green algae for N2 fixation was found to increase the status of soil nitrogen and yield of paddy. (M.G.B.)

  15. [Phycobiliproteins of blue-green, red and cryptophytic algae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnichuk, I N; Gusev, M V

    1979-04-01

    The present-day concepts on phycobiliproteins, the protein pigments of blue-green, red and cryptophyte algae are reviewed. The functions, distribution, localization, physico-chemical, spectral and immunochemical properties of phycobiliproteins are described. The properties of the polypeptide protein subunits and the composition and chemical structure of chromophores as well as their binding to the apoprotein molecules are discussed.

  16. Subunit structure of the phycobiliproteins of blue-green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, A N; Cohen-Bazire, G

    1971-07-01

    The phycobiliproteins of the blue-green algae Synechococcus sp. and Aphanocapsu sp. were characterized with respect to homogeneity, isoelectric point, and subunit composition. Each of the biliproteins consisted of two different noncovalently associated subunits, with molecular weights of about 20,000 and 16,000 for phycocyanin, 17,500 and 15,500 for allophycocyanin, and 22,000 and 20,000 for phycoerythrin. Covalently bound chromophore was associated with each subunit.

  17. Blue green alga mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its antibacterial efficacy against Gram positive organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uma Suganya, K.S. [Centre for Ocean Research, Sathyabama University, Chennai 600 119 (India); Govindaraju, K., E-mail: govindtu@gmail.com [Centre for Ocean Research, Sathyabama University, Chennai 600 119 (India); Ganesh Kumar, V.; Stalin Dhas, T.; Karthick, V. [Centre for Ocean Research, Sathyabama University, Chennai 600 119 (India); Singaravelu, G. [Nanoscience Division, Department of Zoology, Thiruvalluvar University, Vellore 632115 (India); Elanchezhiyan, M. [Department of Microbiology, Dr ALM Post Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Chennai 600113 (India)

    2015-02-01

    Biofunctionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) play an important role in design and development of nanomedicine. Synthesis of AuNPs from biogenic materials is environmentally benign and possesses high bacterial inhibition and bactericidal properties. In the present study, blue green alga Spirulina platensis protein mediated synthesis of AuNPs and its antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria is discussed. AuNPs were characterized using Ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy, Fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier Transform-Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, High Resolution-Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). Stable, well defined AuNPs of smaller and uniform shape with an average size of ∼ 5 nm were obtained. The antibacterial efficacy of protein functionalized AuNPs were tested against Gram positive organisms Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. - Highlights: • Size controlled synthesis of gold nanoparticles from blue green alga Spirulina platensis • Stability of gold nanoparticles at different temperatures • Potent antibacterial efficacy against Gram positive organisms.

  18. Blue-green algae in rice fields. Their ecology and their use as inoculant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a short review on blue-green algae in rice fields, their ecology and their use as inoculants. Some emphasis has been given to the recent studies of the relations between blue-green algae and rice which include the availability of algal nitrogen to the rice plant and epiphytic relationships. (author)

  19. Bioelectricity generation and microcystins removal in a blue-green algae powered microbial fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioelectricity production from blue-green algae was examined in a single chamber tubular microbial fuel cell (MFC). The blue-green algae powered MFC produced a maximum power density of 114 mW/m2 at a current density of 0.55 mA/m2. Coupled with the bioenergy generation, high removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen were also achieved in MFCs. Over 78.9% of total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD), 80.0% of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), 91.0% of total nitrogen (total-N) and 96.8% ammonium-nitrogen (NH3-N) were removed under closed circuit conditions in 12 days, which were much more effective than those under open circuit and anaerobic reactor conditions. Most importantly, the MFC showed great ability to remove microcystins released from blue-green algae. Over 90.7% of MC-RR and 91.1% of MC-LR were removed under closed circuit conditions (500 Ω). This study showed that the MFC could provide a potential means for electricity production from blue-green algae coupling algae toxins removal.

  20. Distribution of blue-green algae (Cyanophyta) in streams of Mt. Stara planina: Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Simić Snežana B.

    2002-01-01

    Distribution of blue-green algae was studied at 14 sites along five streams in the Stara Planina mountains. Algological samples were taken from the community of benthos and periphyton in the spring (March-May 1991), summer (June-August 1991, August 1996, July 1997), and autumn (September-November 1991, September 1997). Algae of the classes Chamaesiphonophyceae (species of the genus Chamaesiphon) and Hormogoniophyceae (species of the genera Symploca, Phormidium, Oscillatoria, Schizothrix, Nost...

  1. Cloning and sequencing of the ferredoxin gene of blue-green alga Anabaena siamensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shou-Dong; Song, Li-Rong; Liu, Yong-Ding; Zhao, Jin-Dong

    1998-03-01

    The structure gene for ferredoxin, petFI, from Anabaena siamensis has been amplified by polymerase chain reaction(PCR) and cloned into cloning vector pGEM-3zf(+). The nucleotide sequence of petFI has been determined with silver staining sequencing method. There is 96.8% homology between coding region of petFI from A. siamensis and that of petFI from A. sp. 7120. Amino acid sequences of seven strains of blue-green algae are compared.

  2. Distribution of blue-green algae (Cyanophyta in streams of Mt. Stara planina: Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Snežana B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of blue-green algae was studied at 14 sites along five streams in the Stara Planina mountains. Algological samples were taken from the community of benthos and periphyton in the spring (March-May 1991, summer (June-August 1991, August 1996, July 1997, and autumn (September-November 1991, September 1997. Algae of the classes Chamaesiphonophyceae (species of the genus Chamaesiphon and Hormogoniophyceae (species of the genera Symploca, Phormidium, Oscillatoria, Schizothrix, Nostoc, Rivularia Homoeothrix, Tolypothrix, and Plectonema were recorded. The species Chamaesiphon cylindricus, Symploca radians, Phormidium coutinhoi, Nostoc coeruleum, Homoeothrix janthina, Plectonema thomasinianum, and Tolypothrix distorta were registered herein first time in Serbia. Occurrence of blue-green algae in highland brooks and rivers of the Stara Planina mountains was monitored in relation to a large number of abiotic factors e.g. altitude above level, stream dimensions (width and depth, substrate bottom type (%, current flow rate, water temperature and pH oxygen concentration, concentrations of nitrates and phosphates, and BOD5, using Principal Coordinates analysis (PCX.

  3. Ecosystem manipulation for increasing biological N2 fixation by blue-green algae (CYANOBACTERIA) in lowland rice fields

    OpenAIRE

    I. F. Grant; Roger, Pierre-Armand; Watanabe, I

    1986-01-01

    An introduction to the soil/floodwater ecosystem of lowland rice fields is given. Two primary consumers are particularly important in limiting the growth and N2-fixing activities of blue-green algae in irrigated rice ; the OSTRACODA (Class CRUSTACEA) and the PULMONATA (MULUSCA). Control of grazing by neem seeds AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. Juss and cultural practices enhanced BGA biomass and increased N2-fixation ten fold. Significant increases in rice grain protein occur if heterocystous algae bloo...

  4. Effect of Nanohexaconazole on Nitrogen Fixing Blue Green Algae and Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Gopal, Madhuban; Pabbi, Sunil; Paul, Sangeeta; Alam, Md Imteyaz; Yadav, Saurabh; Nair, Kishore Kumar; Chauhan, Neetu; Srivastava, Chitra; Gogoi, Robin; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Goswami, Arunava

    2016-01-01

    Nanohexaconazole is a highly efficient fungicide against Rhizoctonia solani. Nanoparticles are alleged to adversely affect the non-target organisms. In order to evaluate such concern, the present study was carried out to investigate the effect of nanohexaconazole and its commercial formulation on sensitive nitrogen fixing blue green algae (BGA) and bacteria. Various activities of algae and bacteria namely growth, N-fixation, N-assimilation, Indole acetic acid (IAA) production and phosphate solubilization were differently affected in the presence of hexaconazole. Although, there was stimulatory to slightly inhibitory effect on the growth measurable parameters of the organisms studied at the recommended dose of nanohexaconazole, but its higher dose was inhibitory to all these microorganisms. On the other hand, the recommended as well as higher dose of commercial hexaconazole showed much severe inhibition of growth and metabolic activity of these organisms as compared to the nano preparation. The uses of nanohexazconazole instead of hexaconazole as a fungicide will not only help to control various fungal pathogens but also sustain the growth and activity of these beneficial microorganisms for sustaining soil fertility and productivity. PMID:27398501

  5. BIOGENESIS OF THYLAKOID MEMBRANES WITH RECONSTRUCTION OF CHLOROPHYLL-PROTEIN COMPLEXES IN DELETION-MUTANT OF ORF469 IN BLUE-GREEN ALGA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuQingyu; WangRuiyong; XuHong; WireVermaas

    1997-01-01

    The transformable blue green alga is used productively for mutation and deletion studies to provide functional information regarding photosynthetic reaction center complexes. We wish to take the application of transformable blue-green algal systems one step further ,and set out the

  6. Colony development and physiological characterization of the edible blue-green alga, Nostoc sphaeroides (Nostocaceae, Cyanophyta)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongyang Deng; Qiang Hu; Fan Lu; Guoxiang Liu; Zhengyu Hu

    2008-01-01

    The edible blue-green alga,Nostoc sphaeroides Kützing,is able to form microcolorties and spherical macrocolonies.It has been used as a potent herbal medicine and dietary supplement for centuries because of its nutraceutical and pharmacological benefits.However,lim-ited information is available on the development of the spherical macrocolonies and the environmental factors that affect their structure.This report described the morphogenesis of N.Sphaeroides from single trichomes to macrocolonies.During the process,most structural features of macrocolonies of various sizes were dense maculas,rings,the compact core and the formation of liquid core;and the filaments within the macrocolonies showed different lengths and arrays depending on the sizes of macrocolonies.Meanwhile temperature and light intensity also strongly affected the internal structure of macrocolonies.As microcolonies further increased in size to form 30 mm mac-rocolonies,the colonies differentiated into distinct outer,middle and inner layers.The filaments of the outer layer showed higher max-imum photosynthetic rates,higher light saturation point,and higher photosynthetic efficiency than those of the inner layer;whereas the filaments of the inner layer had a higher content of chlorophyll a and phycobiliproteins than those of the outer layer.The results obtained in this study were important for the mass cultivation of N.Sphaeroides as a nutraceutical product.

  7. Computer simulation of energy migration in the C-phycocyanin of the blue-green algae Agmenellum Quadruplicatum

    OpenAIRE

    Demidov, Andrey A.; Borisov, Alexander Yu.

    1993-01-01

    Two methods for simulation of energy migration in the C-phycocyanin fragments of PBS were developed. Both methods are based on the statistical analysis of an excitation behavior in modeling complexes with a limited number (up to hundreds) of chromophores using the Monte-Carlo approach and calculation of migration rates for the system of linear balance equations. Energy migration rates were calculated in the case of C-phycocyanin of the blue-green algae Agmenellum quadruplicatum. The main chan...

  8. [Comparison of histone-like proteins from blue-green algae with ribosomal basic proteins of alga and wheat germ histones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gofshteĭn, L V; Iurina, N P; Romashkin, V I; Oparin, A I

    1975-01-01

    Histone-like proteins was found in blue-green alga Anacystis nidulans, which has no nucleus. F2b2, F2a2, F2a1 fractions were found in histone-like algae proteins and no fraction F1. Content of basic amino acids (arginine being prevailing in algae protein) is quite identical in histone-like algae proteins and in wheat germs histones, while the content of acid amino acids is considerably higher in algae. The presence in procaryotic cells of basic proteins similar in a number of properties to histones of higher organisms suggests that these proteins are evolutionary precursors of eucaryotic histones. PMID:813782

  9. Studies in Growth Parameter and Pigment Contents in Endosulphan, EC- 35 Exposed Blue Green Alga (Anabena Cylindrica, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goutam Sabat

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Anabaena cylindrica L, a blue green alga commonly found in rice fields was experimentally exposed with a board spectrum insecticide, Endosulphan, EC50 in laboratory conditions for varied days. The growth of alga in terms of increase in Absorbance, dry weight and pigments like Total chlorophyll, carotenoid and phaeophytin were estimated to study the toxic effect and the subsequent recovery from insecticide stress. The results obtained indicated decrease in all studied parameters with increase in exposure period and concentration. The highest concentration (3.25ml/L and highest period (15 Days severely affected the growth of alga and decreased pigment content. However, when the algae were allowed to grow in insecticide free environment for 15 days, they could able to recover fully from the toxic stress.

  10. Sequence of the gene coding for the β-subunit of dinitrogenase from the blue-green alga Anabaena

    OpenAIRE

    Mazur, Barbara J.; Chui, Chok-Fun

    1982-01-01

    The nitrogen fixation nif K gene of the blue-green alga Anabaena, which codes for the β-subunit of dinitrogenase, has been subjected to sequence analysis. The nif K protein is predicted to be 512 amino acids long, to have a Mr or 57,583, and to contain six cysteine residues. Three of these cysteines are within peptides homologous to FeS cluster-binding cysteinyl peptides from ferredoxins and from a high potential iron protein and, thus, may be ligands to which FeS clusters bind in dinitrogena...

  11. Bio-oil production through pyrolysis of blue-green algae blooms (BGAB): Product distribution and bio-oil characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrolysis experiments of blue-green algae blooms (BGAB) were carried out in a fixed-bed reactor to determine the effects of pyrolysis temperature, particle size and sweep gas flow rate on pyrolysis product yields and bio-oil properties. The pyrolysis temperature, particle size and sweep gas flow rate were varied in the ranges of 300–700 °C, below 0.25–2.5 mm and 50–400 mL min−1, respectively. The maximum oil yield of 54.97% was obtained at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C, particle size below 0.25 mm and sweep gas flow rate of 100 mL min−1. The elemental analysis and calorific value of the oil were determined, and the chemical composition of the oil was investigated using gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS) technique. The analysis of bio-oil composition showed that bio-oil from BGAB could be a potential source of renewable fuel with a heating value of 31.9 MJ kg−1. - Highlights: ► Bio-oil production from pyrolysis of blue-green algae blooms in fixed bed reactor. ► Effects of pyrolysis conditions on product distribution were investigated. ► The maximum bio-oil yield reached 54.97 wt %. ► The bio-oil has high heating value and may be suitable as renewable fuel. ► Pyrolysis of algal biomass beneficial for energy recovery, eutrophication control

  12. Study On Technology For Treatment And Control Of Forming Blooms Of Blue-Green Algae In Eutrophic Ponds Or Other Small Water Bodies, Using Bentonite Material Modified Lanthanum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponds and lakes in Hanoi have been polluted seriously, so called eutrophication, and lead to form blooms of blue-green algae. This impacted on aquatic organisms and population living around the eutrophic ponds and lakes. This project studied on technology for treatment and control of forming blooms of blue-green algae in eutrophic ponds or other small water bodies by using bentonite material modified lanthanum, a rare earth element-environmentally friendly. Bentonite modified lanthanum material (bent-La) prepared from Binh Thuan bentonite (MMT) has ability for SRP absorption (Soluble Reactive Phosphorus) in eutrophic water. The isothermal lines according to Langmuir and Freundlich model, the absorption kinetics according to quadratic kinetic equation and Elovich model that describe SRP absorption process of bent-La material were determined. The thermodynamic parameters were also determined on the base of the experimental data. The study on SRP absorption of bent-La material in eutrophic water of Hoa Muc and Kim Dong lakes were carried out in the laboratory and in field work. The study results affirmed that the bent-La material has treated and controlled the forming blooms of blue-green algae in eutrophic ponds or other small water bodies. The technical flowsheet for preparation of bent-La material on a scale of 40 kg per batch and process for treatment and control of the forming blooms of blue-green algae in eutrophic water bodies have also been established. (author)

  13. Technology for Anaerobic Fermentation of Blue-Green Algae%水华蓝藻厌氧发酵工艺技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常志州; 杜静; 叶小梅; 严少华; 张振华

    2009-01-01

    以太湖水华蓝藻为底物,用改进的CSTR(continuous stirred tank reactor)工艺,研究了不同有机负荷条件下蓝藻厌氧发酵相关参数与蓝藻藻毒素的去除效果.结果表明:在(35±1) ℃条件下,逐步提高有机负荷,系统运行稳定,有机负荷最高可达3.53 kg·m-3·d-1,此时最大容积产气率达0.89 m3·m-3·d-1,COD去除率在70%左右,甲烷体积分数达60%以上.不同负荷条件下,出料中藻毒素(MC-RR、MC-LR)检测均为阴性,已达无害化处理要求,表明该工艺可以有效处置水华蓝藻,实现能量回收与无害化处理的目标.%Efficiency of the use of the modified continuous stirred tank reactor(CSTR) technology in anaerobic fermentation of blue-green algae collected from the Taihu Lake was studied under the different rates of organic loading.Results show that operation of the system at (35±1) ℃ remained stable with organic loading rate gradually increasing.After 65 days of operation,its organic loading could reach as high as 3.53 kg·m3·d-1,its gas producing rate well as high as 0.89 m3·m-3·d-1,its COD removal rate around 70%,and methane concentration of the biogas it produced over 60%.Test of the discharge from the system showed negative of microcystins (MC-RR or MC-LR) in all loading conditions.The findings suggest that the modified CSTR technology satisfies the requirement for efficient treatment of blue-green algae,while realizing the target of energy recovery and dehazardization of the blue-green algae.

  14. Mycosporine-like Amino Acids and Other Phytochemicals Directly Detected by High-Resolution NMR on Klamath (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae) Blue-Green Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, Valeria; Parenti, Francesca; Schenetti, Luisa; Mucci, Adele

    2016-09-01

    This study describes for the first time the use of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) on Klamath (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, AFA) blue-green algae directly on powder suspension. These algae are considered to be a "superfood", due to their complete nutritional profile that has proved to have important therapeutic effects. The main advantage of NMR spectroscopy is that it permits the detection of a number of metabolites all at once. The Klamath alga metabolome was revealed to be quite complex, and the most peculiar phytochemicals that can be detected directly on algae by NMR are mycosporine-like amino acids (porphyra-334, P334; shinorine, Shi) and low molecular weight glycosides (glyceryl β-d-galactopyranoside, GalpG; glyceryl 6-amino-6-deoxy-α-d-glucopyranoside, ADG), all compounds with a high nutraceutical value. The presence of cis-3,4-DhLys was revealed for the first time. This molecule could be involved in the anticancer properties ascribed to AFA.

  15. Comparative effects of the blue green algae Nodularia spumigena and a lysed extract on detoxification and antioxidant enzymes in the green lipped mussel (Perna viridis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, Warren R. [Department of Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)]. E-mail: warren.davies@rmit.edu.au; Siu, William H.L. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Jack, Ralph W. [Department of Microbiology, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Wu, Rudolf S.S. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lam, Paul K.S. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Nugegoda, Dayanthi [Department of Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    2005-07-01

    Nodularia spumigena periodically proliferates to cause toxic algal blooms with some aquatic animals enduring and consuming high densities of the blue green algae or toxic lysis. N. spumigena contains toxic compounds such as nodularin and lipopolysaccharides. This current work investigates physiological effects of exposure from bloom conditions of N. spumigena cells and a post-bloom lysis. Biochemical and antioxidative biomarkers were comparatively studied over an acute 3-day exposure. In general, a post-bloom N. spumigena lysis caused opposite physiological responses to bloom densities of N. spumigena. Specifically, increases in glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and decreases in glutathione S-transferase (GST) were observed from the N. spumigena lysis. In contrast, N. spumigena cell densities decreased GSH and increased GST and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in mussels. Findings also suggest that at different stages of a toxic bloom, exposure may result in toxic stress to specific organs in the mussel.

  16. Comparative effects of the blue green algae Nodularia spumigena and a lysed extract on detoxification and antioxidant enzymes in the green lipped mussel (Perna viridis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Warren R; Siu, William H L; Jack, Ralph W; Wu, Rudolf S S; Lam, Paul K S; Nugegoda, Dayanthi

    2005-01-01

    Nodularia spumigena periodically proliferates to cause toxic algal blooms with some aquatic animals enduring and consuming high densities of the blue green algae or toxic lysis. N. spumigena contains toxic compounds such as nodularin and lipopolysaccharides. This current work investigates physiological effects of exposure from bloom conditions of N. spumigena cells and a post-bloom lysis. Biochemical and antioxidative biomarkers were comparatively studied over an acute 3-day exposure. In general, a post-bloom N. spumigena lysis caused opposite physiological responses to bloom densities of N. spumigena. Specifically, increases in glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and decreases in glutathione S-transferase (GST) were observed from the N. spumigena lysis. In contrast, N. spumigena cell densities decreased GSH and increased GST and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in mussels. Findings also suggest that at different stages of a toxic bloom, exposure may result in toxic stress to specific organs in the mussel. PMID:16291202

  17. Spirulina- small but a spectacular species

    OpenAIRE

    Hemamalini Balaji

    2013-01-01

    Spirulina is a marine blue green algae which is being extensively studied as the biomass of these microalgae and the compounds they produce have been shown to possess several biological applications with numerous health benefits. Apart from being used as nutraceutical food supplement worldwide, it shows therapeutic benefits on an array of diseased conditions including hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycerolemia, cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory diseases, cancer and viral infections. Spirulin...

  18. Evaluation of disinfection by-product formation potential (DBPFP) during chlorination of two algae species--Blue-green Microcystis aeruginosa and diatom Cyclotella meneghiniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiaobin; Liu, Jinjin; Yang, Mingli; Ma, Hongfang; Yuan, Baoling; Huang, Ching-Hua

    2015-11-01

    Microcystis aeruginosa (blue-green alga) commonly blooms in summer and Cyclotella meneghiniana (diatom) outbreaks in fall in the reservoirs that serve as drinking water sources in Southeast China. Herein, an evaluation of disinfection by-product formation potential (DBPFP) from them during chlorination should be conducted. Five DBPs including trichloromethane (TCM), trichloronitromethane (TCNM), dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN), 1,1-dichloropropanone (1,1-DCP) and 1,1,1-trichloropropanone (1,1,1-TCP) were monitored. The formation potential of TCM and TCNM was enhanced with the increase of reaction time and chlorine dosage, whereas that of DCAN, 1,1-DCP and 1,1,1-TCP increased first and then fell with continuing reaction time. M. aeruginosa showed higher DBPFP than C. meneghiniana, the yield of DBPs varied with components of algal cells. The DBPFP order from components of M. aeruginosa was cell suspension (CS) ≈ intracellular organic matter (IOM) > extracellular organic matter (EOM) > cell debris (CD), which indicated that IOM was the main DBP precursors for M. aeruginosa. The yields of DBPs from components of C. meneghiniana were in the order of CS>IOM≈ CD ≈ EOM, suggesting that three components made similar contributions to the total DBP formation. The amount of IOM with higher DBPFP leaked from both algae species increased with the chlorine dosage, indicating that chlorine dosage should be considered carefully in the treatment of eutrophic water for less destroying of the cell integrity. Though fluorescence substances contained in both algae species varied significantly, the soluble microbial products (SMPs) and aromatic protein-like substances were the main cellular components that contributed to DBP formation for both algae.

  19. Vitamin A, nutrition, and health values of algae: Spirulina, Chlorella, and Dunaliella

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, G.; Suter, P M

    2011-01-01

    Spirulina, chlorella, and dunalliella are unicellular algae that are commercially produced worldwide. These algae are concentrated sources of carotenoids (especially provitamin A carotenoids) and other nutrients, such as vitamin B12. Their health benefits as a complementary dietary source for macro and micro nutrients have been studied and confirmed in various populations. The safety of human consuming these algae and products derived from these algae by humans has been widely studied. It is ...

  20. Application of Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis to Investigate Accumulation and Adsorption of Mercury by Spirulina platensis Biomass

    CERN Document Server

    Mosulishvili, L M; Khizanishvili, A I; Frontasyeva, M V; Kirkesali, E I; Aksenova, N G

    2004-01-01

    Epithermal neutron activation analysis was used to study interaction of blue-green alga Spirulina platensis with toxic metal mercury. Various concentrations of Hg(II) were added to cell cultures in a nutrient medium. The dynamics of accumulation of Hg was investigated over several days in relation to Spirulina biomass growth. The process of Hg adsorption by Spirulina biomass was studied in short-time experiments. The isotherm of adsorption was carried out in Freindlich coordinates. Natural Spirulina biomass has potential to be used in the remediation of sewage waters at Hg concentrations \\sim 100 {\\mu}g/l.

  1. Spirulina- small but a spectacular species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemamalini Balaji

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina is a marine blue green algae which is being extensively studied as the biomass of these microalgae and the compounds they produce have been shown to possess several biological applications with numerous health benefits. Apart from being used as nutraceutical food supplement worldwide, it shows therapeutic benefits on an array of diseased conditions including hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycerolemia, cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory diseases, cancer and viral infections. Spirulina is also incorporated as a functional ingredient in food products and beverages. The people in Africa have been known for consuming as Arthrospira (formerly, Spirulina as principle food for past 100 years. But it became famous after it was successfully used by NASA as a dietary supplement forastronauts on space missions. There have been numerous studies investigating the efficiency and current clinical applications of Spirulina in treating several diseases in the recent years.

  2. Therapeutic Effect of C-Phycocyanin Extracted from Blue Green Algae in a Rat Model of Acute Lung Injury Induced by Lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pak-on Leung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available C-Phycocyanin (CPC, extracted from blue green algae, is a dietary nutritional supplement due to its several beneficial pharmacological effects. This study was conducted to evaluate whether CPC protects against lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced acute lung injury (ALI in rats. Rats were challenged with LPS (5 mg/kg body weight intratracheally to induce ALI. After 3 h LPS instillation, rats were administrated with CPC (50 mg/kg body weight, i.p. for another 3 h. Our results showed that posttreatment with CPC significantly inhibited LPS-induced elevation of protein concentration, nitrite/nitrate level, release of proinflammatory cytokines, the number of total polymorphonuclear cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and lung edema evidenced by decrease of lung wet/dry weight ratio accompanied by a remarkable improvement of lung histopathological alterations. Furthermore, CPC significantly attenuated LPS-induced myeloperoxidase activity, O2− formation, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 as well as nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB activation in lungs. Additionally, CPC significantly downregulated proapoptotic proteins such as caspase-3 and Bax, but upregulated antiapoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL in lungs exposed to LPS. These findings indicate that CPC could be potentially useful for treatment of LPS-related ALI by inhibiting inflammatory responses and apoptosis in lung tissues.

  3. Photosensitizers from Spirulina for Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina is a kind of blue-green algae with good photosynthetic efficiency and might be used for photovoltaic power generation. So this paper used living spirulina as novel photosensitizer to construct spirulina biosolar cell. The results showed that spirulina had the photoelectric conversion effect, and could let the spirulina biosolar cell have 70 μA photocurrent. Meanwhile, adding glucose sucrose or chitosan in the spirulina anode chamber, they could make the maxima current density of the cell greatly increased by 80 μA, 100 μA, and 84 μA, respectively, and the sucrose could improve the maximum power density of the cell to 63 mW/m−2. Phycobiliprotein played an important role in the photosynthesis of spirulina. So in this paper phycobiliprotein was extracted from spirulina to composite with squaraine dye to sensitize nanocrystalline TiO2 photoanode for building dye sensitized solar cell, and the photoelectric properties of the cell also were investigated.

  4. The use of 15N-labelled dinitrogen in the study of nitrogen fixation by blue-green algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior to the development of the acetylene reduction technique 15N was used as the main qualitative and quantitative measure of nitrogen fixation by free-living cyanobacteria in a variety of aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Despite its expense and the technical difficulty, 15N is a major tool in the study of cyanobacteria, for example, incorporation of 15N2 is the definitive test for nitrogen fixation; it is used in the determination of the correct ratio of acetylene reduction to nitrogen fixation, in in situ nitrogen fixation assays, in tracing the formation and fate of extra-cellular nitrogen and in measuring the turnover and grazing rates of cyanobacterial intra-cellular nitrogen. These latter studies show that 15N-labelled extra-cellular nitrogen can serve as nitrogen sources for a variety of bacteria, fungi, algae and higher plants, and that cyanobacteria are graced and digested by a variety of animals. The turnover rates of cyanobacterial 15N-labelled cells are dependent on the type of cell, species, environmental conditions and the availability of degrading organisms. The breakdown products are rapidly mineralised and used as nitrogen sources by higher plants. (author)

  5. Relevance of micro- and blue-green algae to the degradation of xenobiotics in a model system simulating surface waters. Final report. Die Bedeutung von Mikro- und Blaualgen fuer den Abbau xenobiotischer Verbindungen in einem Oberflaechengewaesser-simulierenden Testsystem. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steber, J.

    1986-12-01

    For the purpose of a more realistic assessment of the degradability of chemicals in surface waters it was investigated whether microalgae and blue-green algae contribute significantly to the degradation in corresponding model tests. The ultimate degradation of 22 /sup 14/C-labelled xenobiotics was studied in a shake flask test by comparing conventional test conditions (bacterial inoculum, incubation in the dark) with those in the presence of an artificial biocenosis of bacteria and algae (light/dark incubation). With regard to total biodegradation (/sup 14/CO/sub 2/ + /sup 14/C-biomass), mainly comparable results were obtained. Only pentachlorophenol and aminotrismethylene- and ethylenediamine tetramethylene phosphonic acids showed an increased degradation in light-exposed and bacteria/algae-inoculated assays. More detailed investigations indicated a microalgae-independent photodegradation of PCP; moreover, algae seem to be involved only indirectly in the extensive degradation of the two phosphonic acids. It was concluded that microalgae and blue-green algae, in most cases, do not significantly contribute to the degradation potency of a surface water model system. Thus, routine degradation tests employing a bacteria/microalgae-biocenosis are not considered worthwhile. With 27 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  6. Let them eat algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciferri, O.

    1981-09-24

    The blue-green alga, Spirulina appears to be one of the candidates for the solution of the global problems of energy, food and chemical feedstock supplies. The harvesting of algae from Lake Texcoco, Mexico for the making of bread was noted in the 16th century by the Spanish and over 400 years later, dried biscuits made from algae were noted in Chad. Recent investigations have shown that the alga contains a very high proportion of protein - even higher than soya beans and is of high quality. A pilot plant covering 2 hectares for culturing Spirulina in a closed system is under construction in Italy. The polyethylene tubes will function as solar collectors and so extend the production season of the algae in more temperate regions.

  7. 提高太湖蓝藻厌氧发酵产丁酸的预处理方法%Pretreatment Methods to Enhance the Butyric Acid Production by Anaerobic Fermentation on Taihu Lake Blue-Green Algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任洪艳; 吕娴; 阮文权

    2011-01-01

    Butyric acid oriented production via anaerobic fermentation is a desirable pathway to the recycling treatment of blue-green algae. In the study four different pretreatment methodsnamely acidalkalineheat and microwave were used to enhance the fermentation. The content of butyric acid and total organic acids produced from pretreated blue-green algae was evaluated. The results indicated that all pretreatments enhanced the t the production of butyric acid and total organic acids. Among of themalkaline pretreatment at pH 10 exhibited the highest production of butyric acid and total organic acids from the blue-green algae feedstockthe value achieved at 4390 mg/L and 5962 mg/L respectively which both doubled as compared to that before pretreatment.%蓝藻厌氧发酵定向产丁酸是蓝藻资源化处置的理想方式.作者选择4种操作简单易行的预处理方法,即酸法、碱法、加热和微波法对蓝藻进行预处理,考察处理后蓝藻厌氧发酵的丁酸和有机酸产量.结果表明,各预处理方法均能不同程度地提高蓝藻厌氧发酵过程中的丁酸产量和有机酸产量.其中蓝藻经过pH 10碱性预处理后调节初始pH 5.0厌氧发酵的丁酸及有机酸产量最高,分别为4390 mg/L和5962 mg/L,比空白提高了近1倍.

  8. Cloning and Expression of Beta Subunit Gene of Phycocyanin From Spirulina platensis in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Shoja, Zahra; Rajabi Memari, Hamid; Roayaei Ardakani, Mohammd

    2015-01-01

    Background: C-Phycocyanin (C-PC) from blue-green algae such as Spirulina has been reported to have various pharmacological characteristics, including anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities. Recombinant β-subunit of C-PC (C-PC/β) is an inhibitor of cell proliferation and an inducer of cancer cell apoptosis. Objectives: Since C-PC/β has a big potential to be used as a promising cancer prevention or therapy agent, the purpose of this study was to clone and express Spirulina platensis cpcB ge...

  9. 蓝、绿藻SOD同工酶类型及其进化%Evolution of Blue-Green Algae through Analyzing Their Superoxide Dismutase Isozyme Types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶明煊; 吴国荣; 魏锦城

    1999-01-01

    以新鲜蓝藻极大螺旋藻(Spirulina maxima)、钝顶螺旋藻(Spirulina platensis)、盐泽螺旋藻(Spirulina subsalsa)、单细胞绿藻盐藻(Dunaliella salina) 、多细胞绿藻轮藻(Chara)、水绵(Spirogyra)和鞘藻(Odeogonium)为实验材料.经抽滤、超声波破碎后,进行聚丙烯酰胺凝胶梯度电泳和抑制剂处理,结果表明三种螺旋藻都只含有Fe-SOD,其中极大螺旋藻、钝顶螺旋藻含有4条Fe-SOD同工酶谱带,而盐泽螺旋藻含有6条谱带;盐藻、水绵、鞘藻含有Fe-SOD和Mn-SOD两种类型,而轮藻含有Fe-SOD、Mn-SOD和Cu.Zn-SOD三种类型.

  10. Start-up strategy of contingency plan against blue-green algae crisis based on online method%基于在线方法的蓝藻危机应急预案启动策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余昇; 徐寅峰; 董玉成; 郑斐峰

    2011-01-01

    It is a key problem to decide the time at which to active a contingency plan in the area of emergency management. Blue-green algae crisis represents a kind of emergency management problem whose growth rate or diffusion speed is unexpected. Based on online method and taking this crisis as the background, this work presented contingency plan start-up strategies for two cases where the loss is ceased immediately and where the loss gradually decreases to zero respectively. These strategies were proved to be optimal. An illustration about blue-green algae crisis in Taihu Lake was given as well. The conclusions provide guidance for deci8ion makers to solve crucial emergencies.%应对危机时,何时启动预案是应急管理中需要解决的关键问题.太湖蓝藻危机代表一类生长速度或传播速度不确定的突发事件,以此为背景基于在线方法,考虑了预案启动后损失立即停止和损失逐渐减少至零两种情形,针对这两种情形,分别设计了应急预案启动策略,并证明它们是最优启动策略,最后对太湖蓝藻危机进行实例计算并分析了策略的竞争性能,研究结果具有一定的实际指导意义和参考价值.

  11. Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of spirulina on rat model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Pak, Wing; Takayama,Fusako; Mine, Manaka; Nakamoto, Kazuo; Kodo, Yasumasa; Mankura, Mitsumasa; Egashira, Toru; Kawasaki, Hiromu; Mori, Akitane

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remains unclear, but accumulating data suggest oxidative stress and the relationship between inflammation and immunity plays a crucial role. The aim of this study is to investigate the spirulina, which is a blue-green algae rich in proteins and other nutritional elements, and its component-phycocyanin effect on a rat model of NASH. NASH model rats were established by feeding male Wistar rats with choline-deficient high-fat diet (CDHF) an...

  12. Spirulina in Clinical Practice: Evidence-Based Human Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Karkos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina or Arthrospira is a blue-green alga that became famous after it was successfully used by NASA as a dietary supplement for astronauts on space missions. It has the ability to modulate immune functions and exhibits anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting the release of histamine by mast cells. Multiple studies investigating the efficacy and the potential clinical applications of Spirulina in treating several diseases have been performed and a few randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews suggest that this alga may improve several symptoms and may even have an anticancer, antiviral and antiallergic effects. Current and potential clinical applications, issues of safety, indications, side-effects and levels of evidence are addressed in this review. Areas of ongoing and future research are also discussed.

  13. The effect of spirulina gel on fibroblast cell number after wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitria Rahmitasari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wound healing treatment after tooth extraction should be an important consideration due to mouth discomfort and pain. Spirulina (blue green algae consists of C-phycocyanin, b–carotenoids, vitamin E, zinc, some other trace elements and natural phytochemical which are believed to act as antioxidant and takes part in wound healing process. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of spirulina gel on fibroblast cell number after wound healing process. Methods: Twenty eight males guinea pig are devided into four group, 7 guinea pig each. They are control group and treatment group which is given 0%, 3%, 6%, and 12% spirulina gel. After tooth extraction, histopathological evaluation was done to count fibroblast cell. The data was analyzed by One-Way ANOVA and Tukey HSD. Results: The research has proven the relation between the increased growth of fibroblast cell and spirulina gel application. The higher the doses, the more cell growth. Hence, there has been significant different (p < 0.05 among groups. Conclusion: Spirulina gel increases the number of fibroblast in wound after tooth extraction and 12% spirulina gel has the most potential ability.Latar Belakang: Proses penyembuhan luka pasca pencabutan gigi merupakan salah satu hal yang penting karena akan menimbulkan rasa nyeri dan tidak nyaman dalam rongga mulut. Spirulina (Blue green Algae mengandung C-phycocyanin, b-carotenoids, vitamin E, seng, beberapa trace elemen lainnya, dan phytochemical alami yang terbukti dapat berperan sebagai antioksidan dalam proses penyembuhan luka. Tujuan: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui efek pemberian gel spirulina terhadap jumlah sel fibroblas pada proses penyembuhan luka pasca pencabutan gigi. Metode: Dua puluh delapan ekor guinea pig jantan dibagi dalam 7 kelompok, masing-masing terdiri dari 4 ekor. Kelompok tersebut adalah kelompok kontrol dan kelompok perlakuan yang diberikan gel spirulina dengan konsentrasi 0

  14. Myall Lakes - Isotope dating of short term environmental changes in a coastal lake system - Anthropogenic pressures causing blue-green algae outbreaks in a national park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Myall Lakes system, 50 km North of Newcastle, Australia, is a barrier lake system covering 10,000ha, and is brackish (ranging from Oligohaline to Mesohaline under the Venice System classification). The Myall Lakes system is far less disturbed than similar coastal lakes, and as an important migratory bird habitat, they are protected under the RAMSAR agreement. They are also fully encompassed by the Myall Lakes National Park, declared in 1972, and are important to the local tourism and fisheries industries. Only two small streams provide freshwater input therefore water-retention time is of concern, because any changes to nutrient regimes, or pollution in the catchment affecting the Lakes, may take a long time to be corrected. In recent summers a series of cyanobacteria blooms have occurred which may indicate that human activities such as agriculture and recreational boating and fishing are affecting the Myall Lakes. Four sediment cores, up to 95cm long, were collected and sub-sampled for trace elements, palynological assemblages, sediment grain size and organic/carbonate content. Lead-210 (210Pb) was used to determine sedimentation rates and construct a chronology. Fossilised algal remains, specifically the akinetes of cyanobacteria, were used to estimate previous algal populations in the lake system. This technique has the potential to be an important tool in not only historical environmental reconstruction but also in catchment management. Results indicate that there have been cyclical fluctuations in the populations of aquatic plants and algae throughout recent history. (author)

  15. Prospects of using unicellular algae protein in biological life-support systems. [Chlorella, Chlamydomonas, Spirulina, Euglena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonyan, A.A.; Abakumova, I.A.; Meleshko, G.I.; Vlasova, T.F.

    The concentration, amino acid composition and biological value of proteins of unicellular algae belonging to various taxonomic groups (Chlorella, Chlamydomonas, Spirulina, Euglena) were investigated. With respect to their characteristics, these algae hold promise as components of biological life-support systems (BLSS). Indices characterizing the protein and biomass quality and biological value were calculated. Such indices as A/E (where A is an essential amino acid and E is the sum total of amino acids), anti-E/T (where anti-E is nitrogen of essential amino acids and T is its sum total), amino acid number, factor of digestibility in vitro were high enough and close to the respective parameters of the reference protein. Animal experiments showed high biological value of the algal biomass and the lack of its toxic or other adverse effects. It is suggested that the differences in the protein composition associated with various algal forms and cultivation conditions can be used to produce balanced diets by varying the portion of each form of the photoautotropic component of BLSS.

  16. Viability of dried vegetative trichomes, formation of akinetes and heterocysts and akinete germination in some blue-green algae under water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, S C; Singh, V

    1999-01-01

    Almost all dried vegetative trichomes ofAnabaena iyengarii, Westiellopsis prolifica andNostochopsis lobatus died within 1 h, while those ofOscillatoria acuminata retained viability to some extent for 1 d under similar storage conditions. The viability of dried vegetative trichomes ofO. acuminata decreased about equally on storage at 20 degrees C in the light or in the dark, but dropped rapidly at 12 and 0 degrees C in the dark. Vegetative trichomes ofA. iyengarii, N. lobatus andW. prolifica were more sensitive to frost than those ofO. acuminata, and this correlated with their low resistance to desiccation because both types of exposure involved osmotic stress. Both dried and wet akinetes ofA. iyengarii, W. prolifica andN. lobatus were about equally viable when stored at 20 degrees C in the light or the dark or at 12 and 0 degrees C in the dark, but their germination ability decreased on storage at 0 degrees C. The water stress imposed on growing vegetative trichomes either in high-agar media or in NaCl-supplemented liquid media reduced the survival ofO. acuminata trichomes, decreased or totally suppressed akinete and heterocyst formation and akinete germination inA. iyengarii, W. prolifica andN. lobatus. The sensitivity decreased in the sequenceA. iyengarii green algae was more sensitive to physiological water stress than their formation. In all of them, akinetes formed under water stress were equally viable as those formed under normal conditions. Trichomes ofO. acuminata became broader when grown in 0.5-0.8 mol/L NaCl-supplemented media, probably due to polyol accumulation, and they also developed a thin sheath-like structure. PMID:18461490

  17. Seawater Acclimation of Spirulina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaochen GUAN; Yixuan LI; Gan WANG; Lang QIN; Yi ZHU; Yunbo LUO

    2012-01-01

    Abstract [Objective] This study aimed to seek the cultivation method for Spirulina with seawater. [Method] Spirulina was habituated culture progressively with pre- pared seawater acclimation solution. The morphological changes of Spirulina were observed and its biochemical indicators were measured. [Result] A new algae species was obtained, which had better stability and greater average length than Spirulina in fresh water. Compared with the Spirulina in fresh water, the new al- gae species showed no significant change in chlorophyll content, but a 62.8% in- crease in the concentration of phycocyanin. [Conclusion] The method could save resources and cost, which lays the foundation for large scale production and processing of Spirulina.

  18. Investigation of the structure and element composition of C-phycocyanin extracted from the microalgae Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure and element composition of C-phycocyanin (C-PC) extracted from the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis were studied. The behavior of structural subunits forming phycobilisomes in the purification process was studied by capillary electrophoresis. Their proportion in high-purity C-PC was determined. The element composition of C-PC of different purity was studied by means of the epithermal neutron activation analysis, and metals which may form macromolecular complexes with C-PC were determined (Zn, Cr, Ni, Co, As, Sr, Mo, Ag, Hg). It was shown that contents of toxic metals did not exceed accepted permissible levels for the human organism. (author)

  19. Investigation of the Structure and Element Composition of C-Phycocyanin Extracted from the Microalgae Spirulina platensis

    CERN Document Server

    Mosulishvili, L M; Kirkesali, E I; Khizanishvili, A I; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, S S; Gundorina, S F

    2002-01-01

    The structure and element composition of C-phycocyanin (C-PC) extracted from the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis were studied. The behavior of structural subunits forming phycobilisomes in the purification process was studied by capillary electrophoresis. Their proportion in high-purity C-PC was determined. The element composition of C-PC of different purity was studied by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis, and metals which may form macromolecular complexes with C-PC were determined (Zn, Cr, Ni, Co, As, Sr, Mo, Ag, Hg). It was shown that contents of toxic metals did not exceed accepted permissible levels for the human organism.

  20. A spirulina-enhanced diet provides neuroprotection in an α-synuclein model of Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mibel M Pabon

    Full Text Available Inflammation in the brain plays a major role in neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, microglial cell activation is believed to be associated with the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD. An increase in microglia activation has been shown in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc of PD models when there has been a decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH positive cells. This may be a sign of neurotoxicity due to prolonged activation of microglia in both early and late stages of disease progression. Natural products, such as spirulina, derived from blue green algae, are believed to help reverse this effect due to its anti-inflammatory/anti-oxidant properties. An adeno-associated virus vector (AAV9 for α-synuclein was injected in the substantia nigra of rats to model Parkinson's disease and to study the effects of spirulina on the inflammatory response. One month prior to surgeries, rats were fed either a diet enhanced with spirulina or a control diet. Immunohistochemistry was analyzed with unbiased stereological methods to quantify lesion size and microglial activation. As hypothesized, spirulina was neuroprotective in this α-synuclein model of PD as more TH+ and NeuN+ cells were observed; spirulina concomitantly decreased the numbers of activated microglial cells as determined by MHCII expression. This decrease in microglia activation may have been due, in part, to the effect of spirulina to increase expression of the fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1 on microglia. With this study we hypothesize that α-synuclein neurotoxicity is mediated, at least in part, via an interaction with microglia. We observed a decrease in activated microglia in the rats that received a spirulina- enhanced diet concomitant to neuroprotection. The increase in CX3CR1 in the groups that received spirulina, suggests a potential mechanism of action.

  1. TAHLAB (SPIRULINA AND FEW OTHER MEDICINAL PLANTS HAVING ANTI-OXIDANT & IMMUNOMODULATORY PROPERTIES DESCRIBED IN UNANI MEDICINE - A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Anzar Alam*, Nafis Haider , Shamim Ahmed , Md. Tanwir Alam and Abdul Azeez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available : Antioxidants are substances that may protect cells from the damage caused by unstable molecules known as free radicals; free radicals damage may lead to cancer and other diseases. Some of the example of antioxidants are like β-carotene, lycopene, Vit. C, E & A and other substances which are found in variety of fruits, vegetables, algae (spirulina & other medicinal plants. Spirulina (Blue green algae is a microscopic single cell alga which grows in fresh water and has a simple structure but a complex composition. It is a concentrated source of food containing nutraceutical, antioxidants, probiotics and phytonutrients. It has been subjected to through screening for its biological role; some of the finding is promising. It has immunostimulant activities. It stimulates the production and activity of bone marrow stem cells, macrophages, T-cells, spleen & thymus gland shows enhanced function. In-vitro studies on spirulina indicate that it enhances the cell nuclease activity and DNA repair & hence, it has possible role in cancer treatment. Spirulina has the potential to be accepted by global certification authorities as a safe nutritional and dietary supplement. Some of the plants extensively studied for immunostimulant activity are Halela, Balela, Amla, Asgandh, Satavar, Ustakhudoos, Gilo, Zanjabeel, Brahmi etc. The activation of mononuclear cells to release cytokines and interleukins-I, has been documented for Gilo (Tinospora cordifolia, syringing and cordial, the active constituents of this plant, show anticomplimentry and immunomodulatory activity.

  2. 基于物联网技术的太湖蓝藻水华预警平台%Blue-green algae bloom forecast platform with Internet of things

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宏伟; 吴挺峰; 张唯易; 李未

    2011-01-01

    To overcome the shortcomings of conventional algal bloom forecast system in acquiring data, this study applied the Internet of Things (IoT) technology to establish a data transmission network with three-layer structure, and thus secured data continuity. With improved retrieval approach of water quality parameters, technology of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) and forecast model of algal bloom, the blue-green algal bloom forecast platform was developed. The evaluation demonstrates that the platform achieves an overall accuracy of 80% in forecasting blue-green blooms in Taihu Lake in next three days.%针对以往藻类水华预测系统在数据源方面存在的不足,采用物联网技术,实现基于三层网络传输结构的监测体系,保证了数据的时间连续性;并对遥感水质参数定量反演方法、中程无线传感网络技术和藻类水华预测预警模型方面进行了改进.在此基础上,开发了太湖蓝藻预测预警平台,运行结果表明蓝藻水华未来3天的平均预测精度达到了80%以上.

  3. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic investigations of selenium-containing phycocyanin from se-lenium-rich algae (Spirulina platensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The selenium-containing phycocyanin from the selenium-rich algae (Spirulina platensis) has been crystallized in two crystal forms by the hanging-drop vapor diffusion techniques. A chromatographic procedure of gel filtration and anion exchange was used for purification. Form I crystal with space group P21 and cell parameters a =108.0 ?, b = 117.0 ?, c = 184.0 ?, b = 90.2° and 12(ab) units in the asymmetric unit was obtained by using (NH4)2SO4 as precipitant. These crystals diffract up to 2.8 ?. Form II crystal obtained by using PEG4000 as precipitant belongs to space group P63 with unit cell constants a = 155.0 ?, c = 40.3 ?, g =120.0° and one(ab) unit in the asymmetric unit. The crystals diffract beyond 2.9 ?. The possible stacking forms of phycocyanin molecules in the first crystal form were discussed.

  4. Antioxidant activity of different fractions of Spirulina platensis protean extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero Estrada, J E; Bermejo Bescós, P; Villar del Fresno, A M

    2001-01-01

    Spirulina platensis, planktonic blue-green algae, is gaining increasing attention because of its nutritional and medicinal properties. This microalgae contains phycobiliproteins (phycocyanin and allophycocyanin). Previous reports from our laboratory have shown that a protean extract of S. platensis is a potent free-radical scavenger (hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals) and inhibits microsomal lipid peroxidation. The aim of this study was to purify and characterize phycocyanin of S. platensis. Besides, we tried to demonstrate that one of the main components responsible for this antioxidant activity is a biliprotein phycocyanin. For this purpose, we studied the antioxidant activity of different fractions obtained during the phycocyanin purification process, through the scavenger activity of hydroxyl radical. We also observed that an increase in phycocyanin content was related to an increase in the antioxidant activity in different fractions, and therefore phycobiliprotein phycocyanin is the component mainly responsible for the antioxidant activity.

  5. 青霉素处理检查和分离蓝藻细胞液泡%Determination and Isolation of Cell Vacuoles from Blue-green Algae by Penicillin Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭碧薇; 易平; 刘希玲; 郭厚良

    2003-01-01

    Growing in the liquid medium containing penicillin, the cells of the Cyanobacteria,Anabaena 7120, Nostoc flagelliforme, and Synechocystis 6803 were broken and vacuoles were released. Percentage of broken cells declined and percentage of broken cells increased with the growing days of the algae. The percentage of vacuoles to broken cells were respectively 0.7%, 0.8%, and 13.3% in the three types of algae Anabaena 7120, N.flagelliforme and Synechocystis 6803 which had grown for 3 days.

  6. A new model of phycobilisome in Spirulina platensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉忠; 陈秀兰; 周百成; 曾呈奎; 刘洁; 时东霞; 庞世瑾

    1999-01-01

    Phycobilisomes (PBS) were isolated from blue-green alga Spirulina platensis. Scanning tunneling microscope was used to investigate the three-dimensional structure of PBS deposited on freshly cleaved highly oriented py-rolytic graphite (HOPG) in ambient condition at room temperature. The results showed that the rods of PBS radiated from the core to different directions in the space other than arrayed in one plane, which was different from the typical hemi-discoidal model structure. The diameter of PBS was up to 70 nm, and the rod was approximately 50 nm in length. Similar results were observed in Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film of PBS. The dissociated PBS could reaggregate into rod-like structures and easily form two-dimensional membrane while being absorbed on HOPG, however, no intact PBS was observed. The filling-space model structure of PBS in Spirulina platensis with STM from three-dimensional real space at nanometer scale was found, which showed that this new structural model of PBS surely exists in blue

  7. Drying Spirulina with Foam Mat Drying at Medium Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Aji Prasetyaningrum; Mohamad Djaeni

    2012-01-01

    Spirulina is a single cell blue green microalgae (Cyanobacteria) containing many Phytonutrients (Beta-carotene, Chlorophyl, Xanthophyl, Phyocianin) using as anti-carcinogen in food. Producing dry spirulina by quick drying process at medium temperature is very important to retain the Phytonutrient quality. Currently, the work is still challenging due to the gel formation that block the water diffusion from inside to the surface.  This research studies the performance of foam-mat drying on prod...

  8. Utilization of Spirulina platensis for wastewater treatment in fermented rice noodle factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumontip Bunnag

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina platensis is a single-cell blue-green alga which belongs to the family Oscillatoriaceae.S. platensis can grow in polluted water and it has been widely used to remove excess nitrate-nitrogenand total phosphorus content in wastewater from noodle factories. This study was aimed to investigatethe effect of wastewater on growth of S. platensis and to examine its potential to reduce nitrate-nitrogenand total phosphorus contents in wastewater from fermented rice noodle factory. Twenty five percentwastewatermixed Zarrouk’s medium gave rise to the highest growth rate of S. platensis. Optical density(OD of S. platensis culture increased from 0.07±0.04 to 0.24±0.12. Also, the results exhibited the leastvalue of nitrate-nitrogen and total phosphorus contents when performed in 25 % and 100 %wastewater-mixed Zarrouk’s media, respectively.

  9. Extraction of light filth from spirulina powders and tablets: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, M J; Angold, S; Beavin, B B; Bradicich, R B; Decker, S J; Dzidowski, G R; Levesque, E; Locatelli, R G; Mably, M; Paredes, A

    1989-01-01

    Results are reported for a collaborative study of a method for the extraction of light filth from spirulina (a blue-green alga) powder and tablets. A 50 g portion of either powder or tablets is dispersed in water, and then boiled with dilute HCI solution. Hairs and insect fragments are isolated by wet sieving on a No. 230 sieve, flotation with mineral oil, and washings of the mineral oil in a percolator. Average recoveries by 12 collaborators for tablets and powders were 70.6 and 70.2%, respectively, for 10 rat hair spikes and 68.3 and 84.4%, respectively, for 20 insect fragment spikes. The method has been approved interim official first action. PMID:2501292

  10. Conditions research on directional fermentation of butyric acid from blue-green algae%蓝藻定向发酵产丁酸的条件研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕娴; 严群; 阮文权

    2011-01-01

    以4种有机酸(乳酸、乙酸、丙酸、丁酸)对厌氧颗粒污泥进行胁迫处理,将胁迫后的污泥接种太湖蓝藻进行发酵产丁酸的实验,考察单一有机酸及混合有机酸胁迫对提高蓝藻厌氧发酵产丁酸的影响.结果表明,采用乳酸浓度2 g/L、乙酸浓度6 g/L、丙酸浓度5 g/L和丁酸浓度12 g/L的混合有机酸胁迫污泥后产丁酸效果最佳,获得的最大丁酸产量为10252 mg/L,比空白提高了139%.实验中还对厌氧消化过程中蛋白酶活性的变化进行了测定,结果表明通过一定浓度的有机酸胁迫污泥,可以提高微生物的耐酸能力,进而提高蛋白酶的活性,最终达到提高丁酸产量的目的.%Four kinds of organic acids(lactic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid) stress were adopted in this experiment to pre-treat the anaerobic granular sludge, then blue algae were inoculated with stressed sludge to produce butyric in order to evaluate the effect of stress on increasing butyric production. The results indicated that the tolerance of acid in sludge could be improved, thereby increasing butyric yield. The results show that the mixed organic acids which contains 2 g/L lactic acid, 6 g/L acetic acid, 5 g/L propionic acid and 12 g/L butyric acid has the best effect, the maximum butyric yield could reach 10 252 mg/L, which improved by 139% compared to control. The assay of protease activity during the fermentation in our study indicated that the appropriate concentration of organic acid stress could enhance the acid tolerance response of anaerobic sludge, improve enzyme activities, and ultimately raise the butyric yield.

  11. The Blue-green Algae Calcification Test Preliminary Research on Land Facies Calcium Carbonate Deposit in Different Water Hydrodynamic Condition%不同水动力下陆相碳酸钙沉积的蓝藻钙化试验的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程星; 石方红; 李本刚; 张金梅; 潘响亮

    2012-01-01

    The surface calcification is a kind of deposit on the earth, which is an important deposit type of land calci- um carbonate. For a long time, the hydrodynamic formation cause of land calcium carbonate deposit is familiar to the researchers. The research of the biological cause of the formation is relatively fewer. In fact, the biological cause should be not ignored as well, especially algous deposit process. From imitating for field hydrodynamic force condi- tion, taking the blue-green algae for example, the research makes a biological deposit test under the different hydrody- namic force condition. From the test, we get optimum hydrodynamic condition of algae growth and their calcification rate, that is under the rate of 0 ~ 60 rpm, under the excessive strong , the growth of blue-green algae will be restrain- ed, and reduce the deposit rate of calcium carbonate. Under the condition of waterfall, hydrodynamic force is strong, in calcium carbonate depositing process, hydrodynamic formation cause of land calcium carbonate deposit is the lead cause; Under the weaker hydrodynamic condition, such as in fiver bed, biological calcification deposit will be the lead cause. Therefore, hydrodynamic-biological cause viewpoint has been proposed in the article. From the field algous samples, the calcium carbonate depositing test has been done under the different water hy- drodynamic conditions. The test results show that under the faster water condition, most calcium carbonate will deposit very quick, and fewer algae calcium carbonate will precipitate because of adverse living environment under the condi- tion. And under the slower water condition, because of being avail for algae' s living, more algae calcium carbonate will precipitate, and few calcium carbonate will deposit under the condition without algae. Also, under the motionless condition, contribution of calcium carbonate deposit have been compared in the article between the algous environment and without algous

  12. Role of pH on antioxidants production by Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Mahmoud Sami Ismaiel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Algae can tolerate a broad range of growing conditions but extreme conditions may lead to the generation of highly dangerous reactive oxygen species (ROS, which may cause the deterioration of cell metabolism and damage cellular components. The antioxidants produced by algae alleviate the harmful effects of ROS. While the enhancement of antioxidant production in blue green algae under stress has been reported, the antioxidant response to changes in pH levels requires further investigation. This study presents the effect of pH changes on the antioxidant activity and productivity of the blue green alga Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis. The algal dry weight (DW was greatly enhanced at pH 9.0. The highest content of chlorophyll a and carotenoids (10.6 and 2.4 mg/g DW, respectively was recorded at pH 8.5. The highest phenolic content (12.1 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g DW was recorded at pH 9.5. The maximum production of total phycobiliprotein (159 mg/g DW was obtained at pH 9.0. The antioxidant activities of radical scavenging activity, reducing power and chelating activity were highest at pH 9.0 with an increase of 567, 250 and 206% compared to the positive control, respectively. Variation in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and peroxidase (POD was also reported. While the high alkaline pH may favor the overproduction of antioxidants, normal cell metabolism and membrane function is unaffected, as shown by growth and chlorophyll content, which suggests that these conditions are suitable for further studies on the harvest of antioxidants from S. platensis.

  13. Role of pH on antioxidants production by Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaiel, Mostafa Mahmoud Sami; El-Ayouty, Yassin Mahmoud; Piercey-Normore, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Algae can tolerate a broad range of growing conditions but extreme conditions may lead to the generation of highly dangerous reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may cause the deterioration of cell metabolism and damage cellular components. The antioxidants produced by algae alleviate the harmful effects of ROS. While the enhancement of antioxidant production in blue green algae under stress has been reported, the antioxidant response to changes in pH levels requires further investigation. This study presents the effect of pH changes on the antioxidant activity and productivity of the blue green alga Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis. The algal dry weight (DW) was greatly enhanced at pH 9.0. The highest content of chlorophyll a and carotenoids (10.6 and 2.4mg/g DW, respectively) was recorded at pH 8.5. The highest phenolic content (12.1mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g DW) was recorded at pH 9.5. The maximum production of total phycobiliprotein (159mg/g DW) was obtained at pH 9.0. The antioxidant activities of radical scavenging activity, reducing power and chelating activity were highest at pH 9.0 with an increase of 567, 250 and 206% compared to the positive control, respectively. Variation in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) was also reported. While the high alkaline pH may favor the overproduction of antioxidants, normal cell metabolism and membrane function is unaffected, as shown by growth and chlorophyll content, which suggests that these conditions are suitable for further studies on the harvest of antioxidants from S. platensis. PMID:26991300

  14. The fifth dimension of the taste in Spirulina platensis feed. Study on the influence of monosodium glutamate in the development and composition of the Spirulina platensis algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan MANEA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Food additives have become a way of life, creating pleasure and food request. But from the point of view of health promotion, it is necessary to demonstrate the risks and find out new possibilities for a good sensorial aspect of the food. This would apply especially in the case of long-term consumption, or in some particular conditions (allergies to different ingredients which appear more often to consumers. Cheap products are manufactured by using E-dangerous. The explanation is simple: the natural E extracted from various fruits and vegetables are very expensive. The study wants to demonstrate that the monosodium glutamate (MSG into the culture medium of plantscan affect their healthiness. Spirulina platensis has the same type of amino acids as humans and this is why it has been chosen as an experiment plant. Four samples obtained from the Spirulina’s culturemedium were studied: one blank and three with 0.2%, 0.4% and respectively 0.6% MSG in the culture medium. The mineral content was evaluated using the Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS and a rapid increase of calcium and magnesium content was registered for the sample with the biggest amount of MSG. The structure of the filaments and the cells appearance were evaluated microscopically. There were changes identified in the structure after three days of cultivating. Also, the sample with 0.6% MSG presented dead cells and the ones which were still alive had profound changes in form and structure.

  15. Drying Spirulina with Foam Mat Drying at Medium Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aji Prasetyaningrum

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina is a single cell blue green microalgae (Cyanobacteria containing many Phytonutrients (Beta-carotene, Chlorophyl, Xanthophyl, Phyocianin using as anti-carcinogen in food. Producing dry spirulina by quick drying process at medium temperature is very important to retain the Phytonutrient quality. Currently, the work is still challenging due to the gel formation that block the water diffusion from inside to the surface.  This research studies the performance of foam-mat drying on production of dry spirulina. In this method the spirulina was mixed with foaming agent (glair/egg albumen, popular as white egg at 2.5% by weight at air velocity 2.2 m/sec. Here, the effect of spirulina thickness and operational temperature on drying time and quality (Beta-carotene and color were observed. The drying time was estimated based on the measurement of water content in spirulina versus time. Result showed that the thicker spirulina, the longer drying time. Conversely, the higher operational temperature, faster drying time. At thickness ranging 1-3 mm and operational temperature below 70oC, the quality of spirulina can fit the market requirement

  16. Epiphytic algae on mosses in the vicinity of Syowa Station, Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Shuji, Ohtani

    1986-01-01

    Species composition and abundance of epiphytic algae on mosses growing in the vicinity of Syowa Station were investigated. Moss samples were collected from three localities, East Ongul Island, Mukai Rocks and Langhovde. The epiphytic algae identified in these samples were 23 species in total, 16 of blue-green algae, 4 of diatoms, 3 of green algae. Blue-green algae were more frequently found among these epiphytic algae on mosses in each locality. Among the three localities, Langhovde was the m...

  17. Blue-green photoluminescence in MCM-41 mesoporous nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, J L; Lui, Y L; Cheng, P W; Cheng, C F

    2003-01-01

    Different photoluminescence (PL) techniques have been used to study the blue-green emission from siliceous MCM-41 nanotubes. It was found that the intensity of the blue-green PL is enhanced by rapid thermal annealing (RTA). This enhancement is explained by the generation of twofold-coordinated Si centres and non-bridging oxygen hole centres, in line with the surface properties of MCM-41. On the basis of the analysis of the PL following RTA, polarized PL, and PL excitation, we suggest that the triplet-to-singlet transition of twofold-coordinated silicon centres is responsible for the blue-green PL in MCM-41 nanotubes. (letter to the editor)

  18. Proteins expressed in blue-green sharpshooter leafhoppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    We used a metagenomics approach to identify proteins from the blue-green sharpshooter, Graphocephala atropunctata (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) which is an important vector of Pierce’s disease of grapes. The 44 proteins are being used as markers to monitor and identify current and exotic introductions o...

  19. Removal of nutrients by algae from municipal wastewater contaminated with heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    Aryal, Bigyan

    2015-01-01

    Selected species of algae (green algae and blue green algae) were cultivated in municipal wastewater using PBR (photo-bioreactor) bottles. Uptake of nutrients by these algae species was measured on different dates. From the results of the experiments, it was observed that a combination of certain blue green algae species (cyanobacteria) was able to remove most of the nutrients from the wastewater. The presence of heavy metal ions in the wastewater also affected the nutrient-absorbing capacit...

  20. Blue-green and green phosphors for lighting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlur, Anant Achyut; Chandran, Ramachandran Gopi; Henderson, Claire Susan; Nammalwar, Pransanth Kumar; Radkov, Emil

    2012-12-11

    Embodiments of the present techniques provide a related family of phosphors that may be used in lighting systems to generate blue or blue-green light. The phosphors include systems having a general formula of: ((Sr.sub.1-zM.sub.z).sub.1-(x+w)A.sub.wCe.sub.x).sub.3(Al.sub.1-ySi.s- ub.y)O.sub.4+y+3(x-w)F.sub.1-y-3(x-w) (I), wherein 0phosphors made accordingly to these formulations maintain emission intensity across a wide range of temperatures. The phosphors may be used in lighting systems, such as LEDs and fluorescent tubes, among others, to produce blue and blue/green light. Further, the phosphors may be used in blends with other phosphors, or in combined lighting systems, to produce white light suitable for illumination.

  1. Distribution and biomass estimation of shell-boring algae in the intertidal area at Goa India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Sharma, S.; Lande, V.

    and particulate organic carbon (POC) values in cultures of the green alga Gomontia sp. and the blue-green alga Plectonema terebrans, in biomass and POC contribution of these two types of microalgae in shells were calculated....

  2. Biochemical composition and antioxidant activities of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis in response to gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabana, Effat Fahmy; Gabr, Mahmoud Ali; Moussa, Helal Ragab; El-Shaer, Enas Ali; Ismaiel, Mostafa M S

    2017-01-01

    Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis is a blue-green alga, rich with bioactive components and nutrients. To evaluate effect of gamma irradiation, A. platensis was exposed to different doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5kGy. The data showed that the phenolic and proline contents significantly increased with the increase of gamma irradiation doses up to 2.0kGy, above which a reduction was observed. The soluble proteins and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were stimulated by all tested irradiation doses. Furthermore, the vitamins (A, K and B group) and mineral contents (N, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg and Fe) were stimulated by the irradiation doses compared with the control. The activities of some N-assimilating and antioxidant enzymes were significantly increased with the irradiation doses up to 2.0kGy. This study suggests the possible use of gamma irradiation as a stimulatory agent to raise the nutritive value and antioxidant activity of A. platensis. PMID:27507509

  3. Phycocyanin and phycocyanobilin from Spirulina platensis protect against diabetic nephropathy by inhibiting oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jing; Inoguchi, Toyoshi; Sasaki, Shuji; Maeda, Yasutaka; McCarty, Mark F; Fujii, Masakazu; Ikeda, Noriko; Kobayashi, Kunihisa; Sonoda, Noriyuki; Takayanagi, Ryoichi

    2013-01-15

    We and other investigators have reported that bilirubin and its precursor biliverdin may have beneficial effects on diabetic vascular complications, including nephropathy, via its antioxidant effects. Here, we investigated whether phycocyanin derived from Spirulina platensis, a blue-green algae, and its chromophore phycocyanobilin, which has a chemical structure similar to that of biliverdin, protect against oxidative stress and renal dysfunction in db/db mice, a rodent model for Type 2 diabetes. Oral administration of phycocyanin (300 mg/kg) for 10 wk protected against albuminuria and renal mesangial expansion in db/db mice, and normalized tumor growth factor-β and fibronectin expression. Phycocyanin also normalized urinary and renal oxidative stress markers and the expression of NAD(P)H oxidase components. Similar antioxidant effects were observed following oral administration of phycocyanobilin (15 mg/kg) for 2 wk. Phycocyanobilin, bilirubin, and biliverdin also inhibited NADPH dependent superoxide production in cultured renal mesangial cells. In conclusion, oral administration of phycocyanin and phycocyanobilin may offer a novel and feasible therapeutic approach for preventing diabetic nephropathy. PMID:23115122

  4. Biological importance of marine algae

    OpenAIRE

    Ali A. El Gamal

    2009-01-01

    Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. Algae can be classified into two main groups; first one is the microalgae, which includes blue green algae, dinoflagellates, bacillariophyta (diatoms)… etc., and second one is macroalgae (seaweeds) which includes green, brown and red algae. The microalgae phyla have been recognized to provide chemical and pharmacological...

  5. Extração e purificação de clorofila a, da alga Spirulina maxima: um experimento para os cursos de química Extraction and purification of chlorophyll a isolated from Spirulina maxima: an experiment for the chemistry courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Jecks Maestrin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a simple and economical experiment for the extraction and purification of chlorophyll a from Spirulina maxima. Extraction and purification of natural compounds can be considered one of the most illustrative experiments that can be performed in Organic Chemistry courses. Particularly, the chromatography of dyes and pigments allows students to have a better comprehension of the chromatography separations. These compounds represent an important class of organic pigments applied in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, detergent compositions, and various other fields and can be extracted from plants and algae. To extract, separate and purify chlorophyll a from associated pigments such as xanthophylls, carotenes, and pheophytins, very costly processes are reported. The present approach is perfectly adequate for use in Chemistry experiments for undergraduate students.

  6. Marine Algae and Seagrasses of Adana (Mediterranean, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Aysel, V.; Erdugan, H.; Okudan, E. S.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Marine algae and seagrasses were researched in the upper infralittoral zone of Adana (Turkish Mediterranean coasts) in this study. 381 algae and 5 seagrasses (Liliopsida) were determined (Total 386 taxa). 27 of them belong to blue-green algae (Cyanophyceae), 204 to red algae [Rhodellophyceae (2), Compsopogonophyceae (2), Bangiophyceae (5), Florideophyceae(195)], 78 to brown algae (Fucophyceae), 72 to green algae [Chlorophyceae (7), Ulvophyceae (18), Trentepohliophyceae (1), Cladophor...

  7. Marine Algae and Seagrasses of Hatay (Mediterranean, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Aysel, V.; Erdugan, H.; Okudan, E. S.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In this research, marine algae and seagrasses were investigated in the upper infralittoral zone of Hatay (Turkish Mediterranean coasts). A total of 377 algae and 5 seagrasses were determined. 30 of them belong to blue-green algae (Cyanophyceae), 201 to red algae [Rhodellophyceae (2), Compsopogonophyceae (2), Bangiophyceae (5), Florideophyceae (192)], 73 to brown algae (Fucophyceae), 73 to green algae [Chlorophyceae (5), Ulvophyceae (19), Trentepohliophyceae (1), Cladophorophyceae (24...

  8. Marine Algae and Seagrasses of Mersin Shore (Mediterranean, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Aysel, V.; Okudan, E. S.; Erdugan, H.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In this research, marine algae and seagrasses were investigated in the upper infralittoral zone of Mersin (Turkish Mediterranean coasts). A total of 396 algae and 5 seagrasses were determined. 36 of them belong to blue-green algae (Cyanophyceae), 204 to red algae [Rhodellophyceae (2), Compsopogonophyceae (2), Bangiophyceae (6), Florideophyceae(I94)], 82 to brown algae (Fucophyceae), 74 to green algae [Chlorophyceae (7), Ulvophyceae (19), Trentepohliophyceae (1), Cladophorophyceae (25...

  9. Reviews of Spirulina Algae in Clinical Application for Children%螺旋藻在儿童临床应用中的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申开泽; 张瑶; 余绍蕾; 鸭乔; 万庆家

    2013-01-01

    螺旋藻是一种富富含b-胡萝卜素、维生素B12、铁、微量矿物质、亚油酸且易吸收的高蛋白产品,在营养保健和预防疾病等方面均有广泛应用.本文综述了过去30多年里开展的螺旋藻以儿童为试验对象的临床研究概况.临床研究表明,螺旋藻对儿童保健有积极的价值,而且没有任何副作用.本文也总结和分析了儿童用螺旋藻产品的开发现状及存在的问题,并针对存在的问题提出相关建议,以期为国内开发儿童用螺旋藻产品提供参考.%Spirulina is an easily digestible high protein product with high levels of beta-carotene, vitamin B12, iron and trace minerals, and the rare essential fatty acid y-linolenic acid. It has been consumed as a safely food ingredient and is currently used in health care and disease prevention. In this review, emphasis is given to the beneficial effects of Spirulina in children clinical trials conducted in the past 30 years. These human clinical trials have demonstrated various health benefits in young children with no side effects. In addition, current situation and existing problem on the research and development of children food sourced from Spirulina are analyzed. Some suggestions are also proposed for further developing Spirulina products for children in China.

  10. Antioxidant effect of Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima in a neurotoxic model caused by 6-OHDA in the rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobón-Velasco, J C; Palafox-Sánchez, Victoria; Mendieta, Liliana; García, E; Santamaría, A; Chamorro-Cevallos, G; Limón, I Daniel

    2013-08-01

    There is evidence to support that an impaired energy metabolism and the excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to brain injury in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD), whereas diets enriched in foods with an antioxidant action may modulate its progression. Several studies have proved that the antioxidant components produced by Spirulina, a microscopic blue-green alga, might prevent cell death by decreasing free radicals, inhibiting lipoperoxidation and upregulating the antioxidant enzyme systems. In our study, we investigated the protective effect of the Spirulina maxima (S. maxima) against the 6-OHDA-caused toxicity in the rat striatum. The S. maxima (700 mg/kg/day, vo) was administered for 40 days before and 20 days after a single injection of 6-OHDA (16 μg/2 μL) into the dorsal striatum. At 20-day postsurgery, the brain was removed and the striatum was obtained to evaluate the indicators of toxicity, such as nitric oxide levels, ROS formation, lipoperoxidation, and mitochondrial activity. These variables were found significantly stimulated in 6-OHDA-treated rats and were accompanied by declines in dopamine levels and motor activity. In contrast, the animals that received the chronic treatment with S. maxima had a restored locomotor activity, which is associated with the decreased levels of nitric oxide, ROS, and lipoperoxidation in the striatum, although mitochondrial functions and dopamine levels remained preserved. These findings suggest that supplementation with antioxidant phytochemicals (such as contained in S. maxima) represents an effective neuroprotective strategy against 6-OHDA-caused neurotoxicity vía free radical production to preserve striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission in vivo.

  11. L'algue alimentaire Spirulina sp. Découverte de lacs naturels à Wadi el Natroun en République Arabe d'Egypte Spirulina Sp. Food Alga. Discovery of Natural Lakes At Wadi El Natrun in the Arab Republic of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdin El Sherif S. A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Bien que connue depuis les temps les plus anciens, la dépression de Wadi el Natroun n'avait jamais été prospectée autrement que pour sa richesse en sels minéraux. C'est en 1977 que les auteurs, cherchant à savoir s'il existait des lacs naturels à Spirulines en République Arabe d'Égypte, découvrirent dans la dépression de Wadi el Natroun certains lacs comme Abou Gobara et El Khadra où croissaient spontanément les algues spirulines. Le climat du site, l'origine et la composition des eaux, ainsi que la concentration en algues, ont été étudiés afin d'estimer la productivité du site en vue d'une éventuelle exploitation industrielle. L'exploitation de ces lacs permettrait de mettre en valeur le site de Wadi el Natroun par la production d'une substance très riche en protéine pour l'alimentation humaine dont à tant besoin la République Arabe d'Égypte. Even though it has been known from olden days, the depression of Wadi el Natrun had never been prospected other than for its wealth of mineral salts. It was in 1977 that the authors began searching for natural lakes with Spirulina algae in the Arab Republic of Egypt and, in the depression of Wadi el Natrun, discovered varions lakes such as Abu Gobara and El Khadra where Spirulina algae grew in a natural state. The climate of the site, the original and composition of the water as well as the algae concentration were analyzed to evaluate the productivity of the site for eventual industrial exploitation. The exploitation of these lakes would give value to the Wadi el Natrun site by producing a very protein-rich substance for human nourishment which the Arab Republic of Egypt needs so badly.

  12. Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, John A; Giordano, Mario

    2014-07-01

    Algae frequently get a bad press. Pond slime is a problem in garden pools, algal blooms can produce toxins that incapacitate or kill animals and humans and even the term seaweed is pejorative - a weed being a plant growing in what humans consider to be the wrong place. Positive aspects of algae are generally less newsworthy - they are the basis of marine food webs, supporting fisheries and charismatic marine megafauna from albatrosses to whales, as well as consuming carbon dioxide and producing oxygen. Here we consider what algae are, their diversity in terms of evolutionary origin, size, shape and life cycles, and their role in the natural environment and in human affairs. PMID:25004359

  13. A survey of Marine Algae and Seagrasses of İstanbul, (Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Aysel, V.; Erduğan, H.; Dural, B.; Okudan, E.Ş.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract In this research, have been studied marine algae in the upper infralittoral zone of the Bosphorus coasts of İstanbul (including Bosphorus) . A total of 244 taxon have been determined. 11 of them belong to blue-green bacteria (Cyanophyta), 127 to red algae (Rhodophyta), 46 to brown algae (Heterokontophyta), 60 to green algae (Chlorophyta) and 2 to flowering plants (Tracheophyta).

  14. Retinal oximeter for the blue-green oximetry technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denninghoff, Kurt R.; Sieluzycka, Katarzyna B.; Hendryx, Jennifer K.; Ririe, Tyson J.; Deluca, Lawrence; Chipman, Russell A.

    2011-10-01

    Retinal oximetry offers potential for noninvasive assessment of central venous oxyhemoglobin saturation (SO2) via the retinal vessels but requires a calibrated accuracy of +/-3% saturation in order to be clinically useful. Prior oximeter designs have been hampered by poor saturation calibration accuracy. We demonstrate that the blue-green oximetry (BGO) technique can provide accuracy within +/-3% in swine when multiply scattered light from blood within a retinal vessel is isolated. A noninvasive on-axis scanning retinal oximeter (ROx-3) is constructed that generates a multiwavelength image in the range required for BGO. A field stop in the detection pathway is used in conjunction with an anticonfocal bisecting wire to remove specular vessel reflections and isolate multiply backscattered light from the blood column within a retinal vessel. This design is tested on an enucleated swine eye vessel and a retinal vein in a human volunteer with retinal SO2 measurements of ~1 and ~65%, respectively. These saturations, calculated using the calibration line from earlier work, are internally consistent with a standard error of the mean of +/-2% SO2. The absolute measures are well within the expected saturation range for the site (-1 and 63%). This is the first demonstration of noninvasive on-axis BGO retinal oximetry.

  15. Marine algae and seagrasses of Tekirdag (Black Sea,Turkey)*

    OpenAIRE

    Aysel, Veysel; Erdugan, Hüseyin; DURAL, Berrin; SükranOkudan, E.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In this study, marine algae and seagrasses in the upper infralittoral zone of the Black Sea coast of Tekirdag (Turkey) were investigated. A total 156 taxon (153 algae and 3 seagrasses) in species or inferior to the species category were determined. 15 of them belong to blue-green bacteria (Cyanophyta), 84 to red algae (Rhodophyta), 26 to brown algae (Heterokontophyta), 28 to green algae (Chlorophyta) and 3 to marineflowering plants (Magnoliophyta).

  16. Role of pH on antioxidants production by Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa Mahmoud Sami Ismaiel; Yassin Mahmoud El-Ayouty; Michele Piercey-Normore

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Algae can tolerate a broad range of growing conditions but extreme conditions may lead to the generation of highly dangerous reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may cause the deterioration of cell metabolism and damage cellular components. The antioxidants produced by algae alleviate the harmful effects of ROS. While the enhancement of antioxidant production in blue green algae under stress has been reported, the antioxidant response to changes in pH levels requires further investig...

  17. Nutritional and medical applications of spirulina microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S M; Khosravi-Darani, K; Mozafari, M R

    2013-06-01

    Spirulina spp. and its processing products are employed in agriculture, food industry, pharmaceutics, perfumery and medicine. Spirulina has several pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial (including antiviral and antibacterial), anticancer, metalloprotective (prevention of heavy-metal poisoning against Cd, Pb, Fe, Hg), as well as immunostimulant and antioxidant effects due to its rich content of protein, polysaccharide, lipid, essential amino and fatty acids, dietary minerals and vitamins. This article serves as an overview, introducing the basic biochemical composition of this algae and moves to its medical applications. For each application the basic description of disease, mechanism of damage, particular content of Spirulina spp. for treatment, in vivo and/or in vitro usage, factors associated with therapeutic role, problems encountered and advantages are given. PMID:23544470

  18. Manipulating cyanobacteria: Spirulina for potential CELSS diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadros, Mahasin G.; Smith, Woodrow; Mbuthia, Peter; Joseph, Beverly

    1989-01-01

    Spirulina sp. as a bioregenerative photosynthetic and an edible alga for spacecraft crew in a CELSS, was characterized for the biomass yield in batch cultures, under various environmental conditions. The partitioning of the assimalitory products (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids) were manipulated by varying the environmental growth conditions. Experiments with Spirulina have shown that under stress conditions (i.e., high light 160 uE/sq m/s, temperature 38 C, nitrogen or phosphate limitation; 0.1 M sodium chloride) carbohydrates increased at the expense of proteins. In other experiments, where the growth media were sufficient in nutrients and incubated under optimum growth conditions, the total of the algal could be manipulated by growth conditions. These results support the feasibility of considering Spirulina as a subsystem in CELSS because of the ease with which its nutrient content can be manipulated.

  19. NUTRITIONAL AND TOXICOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF SPIRULINA (ARTHROSPIRA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Salmeán, Gabriela; Fabila-Castillo, Luis; Chamorro-Cevallos, German

    2015-07-01

    Undernutrition constitutes a public health problem particularly in developing countries. The utilization of algae, particularly Spirulina, as a functional food was suggested decades ago due to the fact that it is not only a protein-dense food source, but because its amino acid profile is considered as of high biologic-value protein content. Spirulina provides essential fats (e.g., gamma-linolenic oleic acids), concomitant to low content nucleic acids. It also has an exceptionally high content of vitamin B12, is a good source of beta-carotene, iron, calcium and phosphorous. Moreover, Spirulina has also proven to have good acceptance as of its organoleptic properties (thus making it a possible prospect for food or a nutrition supplement) and it has not exhibited neither acute nor chronic toxicities, making it safe for human consumption.

  20. 钝顶螺旋藻营养生理的研究 III.钝顶螺旋藻对磷酸盐的吸收利用%THE STUDY ON NUTRITIONAL PHYSIOLOGY OF SPIRULINA PLATENSIS III:THE UPTAKE AND USAGE OF INORGANIC PHOSPHATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石晓勇; 沙珍霞; 张学成

    2000-01-01

    利用均匀设计法设计得到的12种培养基及对照Zarrouk培养基对钝顶螺旋藻(Spirulina platensis)S6品系进行培养,研究了添加磷酸盐的不同培养基下螺旋藻对磷酸盐的吸收利用。结果表明,螺旋藻S6对磷酸盐的净利用量在0.20~0.86mmol/L之间,且与螺旋藻生长速度呈线性关系;磷酸盐为螺旋藻生长利用的主要磷源,含量不足会限制螺旋藻的正常生长;培养基中的磷酸盐添加量以1.16mmol/L左右最为适宜,既可满足藻体的最佳生长,又可降低约60%的磷源养殖成本。%Cultured with twelve media designed with the uniform design method, in comparison with the zarrouk medium,the uptake of phosphate(PO4-P) in different media by the blue-green algae Spirulina platensis strain S6 are studied in this paper. Result shows that the net usage quantity of phosphate by Spirulina S6 is in the range of 0.20~0.86 mmol/L, which has a linear relationship with the algae growth rate. PO4-P is the main phosphorous source of Spirulina S6 growth and usage, and it will limit the growth rate of algae when in a low concentration. The suitable concentration of phosphate is about 1.16 mmol/L, which can maintain the optimum growth of algae and also can reduce the cost of cultivation by 60%.

  1. Spirulina platensis and phycocyanobilin activate atheroprotective heme oxygenase-1: a possible implication for atherogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasky, Zbynek; Zemankova, Lenka; Nemeckova, Ivana; Rathouska, Jana; Wong, Ronald J; Muchova, Lucie; Subhanova, Iva; Vanikova, Jana; Vanova, Katerina; Vitek, Libor; Nachtigal, Petr

    2013-11-01

    Spirulina platensis, a water blue-green alga, has been associated with potent biological effects, which might have important relevance in atheroprotection. We investigated whether S. platensis or phycocyanobilin (PCB), its tetrapyrrolic chromophore, can activate atheroprotective heme oxygenase-1 (Hmox1), a key enzyme in the heme catabolic pathway responsible for generation of a potent antioxidant bilirubin, in endothelial cells and in a mouse model of atherosclerosis. In vitro experiments were performed on EA.hy926 endothelial cells exposed to extracts of S. platensis or PCB. In vivo studies were performed on ApoE-deficient mice fed a cholesterol diet and S. platensis. The effect of these treatments on Hmox1, as well as other markers of oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction, was then investigated. Both S. platensis and PCB markedly upregulated Hmox1 in vitro, and a substantial overexpression of Hmox1 was found in aortic atherosclerotic lesions of ApoE-deficient mice fed S. platensis. In addition, S. platensis treatment led to a significant increase in Hmox1 promoter activity in the spleens of Hmox-luc transgenic mice. Furthermore, both S. platensis and PCB were able to modulate important markers of oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction, such as eNOS, p22 NADPH oxidase subunit, and/or VCAM-1. Both S. platensis and PCB activate atheroprotective HMOX1 in endothelial cells and S. platensis increased the expression of Hmox1 in aortic atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE-deficient mice, and also in Hmox-luc transgenic mice beyond the lipid lowering effect. Therefore, activation of HMOX1 and the heme catabolic pathway may represent an important mechanism of this food supplement for the reduction of atherosclerotic disease. PMID:24056745

  2. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Spirulina platensis Extract via the Modulation of Histone Deacetylases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tho X. Pham

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that the organic extract of Spirulina platensis (SPE, an edible blue-green alga, possesses potent anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated if the regulation of histone deacetylases (HDACs play a role in the anti-inflammatory effect of SPE in macrophages. Treatment of macrophages with SPE rapidly and dose-dependently reduced HDAC2, 3, and 4 proteins which preceded decreases in their mRNA levels. Degradation of HDAC4 protein was attenuated in the presence of inhibitors of calpain proteases, lysosomal acidification, and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, respectively, but not a proteasome inhibitor. Acetylated histone H3 was increased in SPE-treated macrophages to a similar level as macrophages treated with a pan-HDAC inhibitor, with concomitant inhibition of inflammatory gene expression upon LPS stimulation. Knockdown of HDAC3 increased basal and LPS-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression, while HDAC4 knockdown increased basal expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β, but attenuated LPS-induced inflammatory gene expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that SPE decreased p65 binding and H3K9/K14 acetylation at the Il-1β and tumor necrosis factor α (Tnfα promoters. Our results suggest that SPE increased global histone H3 acetylation by facilitating HDAC protein degradation, but decreases histone H3K9/K14 acetylation and p65 binding at the promoters of Il-1β and Tnfα to exert its anti-inflammatory effect.

  3. Upstream factors affecting Tualatin River algae—Tracking the 2008 Anabaena algae bloom to Wapato Lake, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, Stewart A.; Carpenter, Kurt D.; Fesler, Kristel J.; Dorsey, Jessica L.

    2015-12-17

    Significant Findings A large bloom that included floating mats of the blue-green algae Anabaena flos-aquae occurred in the lower 20 miles of the Tualatin River in northwestern Oregon between July 7 and July 17, 2008.

  4. Marine algae and seagrasses of Samsun (Black Sea, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Aysel, Veysel; DURAL, Berrin; Şenkardeşler, Ayhan; Aysel, Hüseyin Erduğan and Fulya

    2008-01-01

    Abstract In this investigation, the presence and the distribution of the blue-green algae; Cyanophyeae, 20 taxa, red algae; Rhodophyceae, 106 taxa, one of them is new record for the Blacksea shore of Turkey, Gelidium pusillum (Stackhouse) Le Jolis var. pusillum brown algae; Fucophyceae, 27 taxa, green algae; Chlorophyceae, 21 taxa, and seagrasses, 2 taxa were identified in the upper infralittoral zone of Samsun (Black Sea) shore of Turkey. A total 176 taxon was determined.

  5. The Glaucophyta: the blue-green plants in a nutshell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Jackson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Glaucophyta is one of the three major lineages of photosynthetic eukaryotes, together with viridiplants and red algae, united in the presumed monophyletic supergroup Archaeplastida. Glaucophytes constitute a key algal lineage to investigate both the origin of primary plastids and the evolution of algae and plants. Glaucophyte plastids possess exceptional characteristics retained from their cyanobacterial ancestor: phycobilisome antennas, a vestigial peptidoglycan wall, and carboxysome-like bodies. These latter two traits are unique among the Archaeplastida and have been suggested as evidence that the glaucophytes diverged earliest during the diversification of this supergroup. Our knowledge of glaucophytes is limited compared to viridiplants and red algae, and this has restricted our capacity to untangle the early evolution of the Archaeplastida. However, in recent years novel genomic and functional data are increasing our understanding of glaucophyte biology. Diverse comparative studies using information from the nuclear genome of Cyanophora paradoxa and recent transcriptomic data from other glaucophyte species provide support for the common origin of Archaeplastida. Molecular and ultrastructural studies have revealed previously unrecognized diversity in the genera Cyanophora and Glaucocystis. Overall, a series of recent findings are modifying our perspective of glaucophyte diversity and providing fresh approaches to investigate the basic biology of this rare algal group in detail.

  6. Bioremediation potential of spirulina: toxicity and biosorption studies of lead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hong; PAN Shan-shan

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the possibility of using live spirulina to biologically remove aqueous lead of low concentration (below 50 mg/L) from wastewater. The spirulina cells were first immersed for seven days in five wastewater samples containing lead of different concentrations, and the growth rate was determined by light at wavelength of 560 nm. The 72 h-EC50 (72 h medium effective concentration) was estimated to be 11.46 mg/L (lead). Afterwards, the lead adsorption by live spirulina cells was conducted. It was observed that at the initial stage (0-12 min) the adsorption rate was so rapid that 74% of the metal was biologically adsorbed. The maximum biosorption capacity of live spirulina was estimated to be 0.62 mg lead per 105 alga cells.

  7. Synthesis and Strong Blue-Green Emission Properties of ZnO Nanowires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘东方; 唐东升; 慈立杰; 闫小琴; 梁迎新; 周振平; 袁华军; 周维亚; 王刚

    2003-01-01

    ZnO nanowires were catalytically grown on Au-coated silicon substrates by the carbon thermal reduction method.The process involved addition of a low partial pressure of hydrogen sulphide to the argon carrier flow. The addition of H2S led to the higher yield and longer nanowires without any morphology change, and no sulphuric content was observed by the energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy in the resulting nanowires. The nanowires exhibited strong blue-green emission at room temperature and an increasing intensity when the partial pressure of H2S was raised. The temperature-dependent photoluminescence spectra show that intensity of the blue-green emission,almost without shift, decreases slowly with increasing temperature. Heat treatments indicated that quenching resulted in a higher ratio of blue-green emission to ultraviolet emission.

  8. Limits to depletion of blue-green light stimulated luminescence in feldspars: Implications for quartz dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, M.; Singhvi, A.K.

    2001-01-01

    populations participate in the feldspar BGSL process. These are: (1) Type (A) trap populations that can be stimulated by both the infra-red and the blue-green light at 125 degreesC and, (2) Type (B) trap populations that respond only to blue-green-light stimulation at 125 degreesC. However, infra-red......Feldspar contaminants in quartz aliquots, either as micro-inclusions or as remnant grains (due to inadequate etching) can affect the accuracy and precision of paleodose estimates based on blue-green light stimulated luminescence (BGSL). Such contamination could also alter the shape of the BGSL...... stimulation curve of otherwise pure quartz. In this study, the functional relationship between the infra-red stimulated luminescence (IRSL) and BGSL of feldspars, (1) at different preheats, and (2) with IR bleaching at different stimulation temperatures and durations, is examined. The results suggest two trap...

  9. Spirulina cultivation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo-Tang; Xiang, Wen-Zhou; Zeng, Cheng-Kui

    1998-03-01

    This paper reviews and discusses the development and many problems of Spirulina cultivation in China, points out the advantages and disadvantages of open photobioreactor system, and predicts that seawater Spirulina cultivation will be a new trend to be strengthened and emphasized due to its special physiological characteristics, easier management, lower fertilizer cost, and higher resistance to contaminants and rare pollution of chemicals.

  10. Occurrence of toxic blue-green algae in the Kucukcekmece lagoon (Istanbul, Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albay, Meric; Matthiensen, Alexandre; Codd, Geoffrey A

    2005-06-01

    The concentration of microcystin (MC) in the Kucukcekmece Lagoon, Istanbul, Turkey, and the physicochemical and biological parameters of water quality were investigated from October 2000 to June 2003. Water samples were collected from surface waters at three sites. Most bloom samples were dominated by Microcystis aeruginosa. The major microcystin variants detected by HPLC-PDA were microcystin-YR and microcystin-LR. Microcystin concentration increased dramatically from early summer to early autumn and thereafter tended to decrease. The toxin concentration found in the filtered samples from surface waters varied between 0.06 and 24.2 microg L(-1) microcystin-LR equivalents. Each year extensive fish mortality was recorded between mid-June and early October, coinciding with heavy algal blooms. A comparison of the conditions associated with cyanotoxin episodes in 2000, 2001, and 2002 showed that the microcystin increase was related to temperature, high concentration of dissolved nutrients, high light intensity (PAR). The highest MC concentrations were recorded at temperatures between 24 degrees C and 28.5 degrees C. Field data showed that the highest MC concentration (>3 microg L(-1)) and the highest cyanobacterial biomass (>30 mg L(-1)) corresponded to a total nitrogen:total phosphorus ratio greater than 7:1. The highest concentrations of M. aeruginosa biomass (173 mg L(-1)) and MC (24.2 microg L(-1) MC-LR equiv.) and the highest salinity (8.8%) were measured concurrently in the lagoon. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of cyanobacterial toxins in the Kucukcekmece Lagoon. PMID:15892069

  11. Solution structure of reduced plastocyanin from the blue-green alga Anabaena variabilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badsberg, U; Jørgensen, A.M.; Gesmar, H;

    1996-01-01

    The three-dimensional solution structure of plastocyanin from Anabaena variabilis (A.v.PCu) has been determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Sixty structures were calculated by distance geometry from 1141 distance restraints and 46 dihedral angle restraints. The distance geometry s...

  12. Solution Structure of Reduced Plastocyanin from the Blue-Green Alga Anabaena Variabilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Led, J.J.; Badsberg, U.; Jørgensen, A.M.;

    1996-01-01

    The three-dimensional solution structure of plastocyanin from Anabaena variabilis (A.v. PCu) has been determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Sixty structures were calculated by distance geometry from 1141 distance restraints and 46 dihedral angle restraints. The distance geometry ...

  13. Biliary excretion of biochemically active cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) hepatotoxins in fish

    OpenAIRE

    Sahin, Ali; Tencalla, Francesca G.; Dietrich, Daniel R.; Naegeli, Hanspeter

    1996-01-01

    Previous reports demonstrated that microcystin and related cyanobacteria polypeptides are rapidly cleared from plasma and accumulate in liver tissue. In the present study, we have used their ability to inhibit protein phosphatases to show that these cyanobacteria hepatotoxins are excreted into the bile of experimentally poisoned rainbow trout. At various times after oral administration of hepatotoxic Microcystis aeruginosa, bile samples were analysed for microcystin content by methanol extrac...

  14. THE SOIL ALGAE OF CIBODAS FOREST RESERVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Johnson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three species of green algae and one blue-green alga were recorded from eight samples of soil found associated with bryophytes in the Cibodas Forest Reserve. Chemical analysis of the soil showed severe leaching of soluable mineral substances associated with a low pH. The low light intensity under forest conditions and the low pH may account for the limited algal flora.

  15. Managing phosphorus fertilizer to reduce algae, maintain water quality, and sustain yields in water-seeded rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    In water-seeded rice systems blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) hinder early-season crop growth by dislodging rice seedlings and reducing light. Since algae are often phosphorus (P) limited, we investigated whether changing the timing of P fertilizer application could reduce algae without reducing cro...

  16. Vitmin A, nutrition, and health values of algea: spirulina, chlorella, and dunaliella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirulina, chlorella, and dunalliella are unicellular algae that are commercially produced worldwide. These algae are concentrated sources of carotenoids (especially provitamin A carotenoids) and other nutrients, such as vitamin B12. Their health benefits as a complementary dietary source for macro ...

  17. Design of transmitter and receiver for experimental blue-green laser communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Chen, Xiaolu; Wen, Dong; Sun, Xiaolei

    2015-02-01

    An experimental blue-green laser communication system was developed using optical pulse position modulation (PPM) to study the feasibility of high-rate underwater communication among submerged objects. As a primary optical modulation means, PPM modulation is reviewed firstly. By comparison with other means, the conclusion was drawn that PPM has lower power requirement and it is a near optimal modulation for background-limited optical communications. For establishing laser beam propagating through the channel with modulated information through different pulse positions from the transmitter to the receiver, the transmitter subsystem and the receiver subsystem are developed and the key techniques are described separately in detail. Results indicated that the whole blue-green communication system was compact, efficient, reliable and inexpensive, and achieved a high-speed rate communication up to megabits per second and a reasonably low error rates.

  18. Fluorescence action spectra of algae and bean leaves at room and at liquid nitrogen temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedheer, J.C.

    1965-01-01

    Fluorescence action spectra were determined, both at room temperature and at liquid nitrogen temperature, with various blue-green, red and green algae, and greening bean leaves. The action spectra of algae were established with samples of low light absorption as well as dense samples. Fluorescence

  19. 螺旋藻粉脱腥及其饮料研制%SPIRULINA POWDER DEODORIZATION AND ITS DRINK DEVELOPMEMT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任文明; 成培芳; 贾志成; 周丽杰

    2012-01-01

    Through the research and analysis on the deodorization of the spirulina powder, this essay intends to explore more effective synthesis deodorizing methods and develop spirulina drinks. The test results indicate that the best method is vacuum pumping for 70 min in the 65℃, 0. 085 MPa vacuum degree. The main formula of spirulina drinks is spirulina 0. 8% , xylitol 2. 5%, citric acid 0.025% and ethyl malt phenol 0.001%. Finally, the blue - green transparent and soft spirulina drinks are prepared..%本论文通过对螺旋藻粉进行脱腥研究分析,探索更为有效的综合脱腥方法,并进行螺旋藻饮料研制.试验结果表明,螺旋藻粉脱腥的最佳方法为:在65℃,0.085 MPa的真空度下抽真空70min.螺旋藻饮料的配方为:螺旋藻液0.8%,木糖醇2.5%、柠檬酸0.025%,乙基麦芽酚0.001%.制得蓝绿透明,口感柔软的螺旋藻饮料.

  20. Large red cyanobacterial mats (Spirulina subsalsa Oersted ex Gomont in the shallow sublittoral of the southern Baltic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Balazy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the first observation of large red cyanobacterial mats in the southern Baltic Sea. The mats (up to 2.5 m in diameter were observed by SCUBA divers at 7.7 m depth on loamy sediments in the Gulf of Gdańsk in mid-November 2013. The main structure of the mat was formed by cyanobacteria Spirulina subsalsa Oersted ex Gomont; a number of other cyanobacteria, diatoms and nematode species were also present. After a few days in the laboratory, the red trichomes of S. subsalsa started to turn blue-green in colour, suggesting the strong chromatic acclimation abilities of this species.

  1. Hydrothermal liquefaction of Spirulina and Nannochloropsis Salina under subcritical and supercritical water conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Reddy, H.; Deng, S.;

    2013-01-01

    Six hydrothermal liquefaction experiments on Nannochloropsis salina and Spirulina platensis at subcritical and supercritical water conditions (220-375 °C, 20-255 bar) were carried out to explore the feasibility of extracting lipids from wet algae, preserving nutrients in lipid-extracted algae solid...... residue, and recycling process water for algae cultivation. GC-MS, elemental analyzer, FT-IR, calorimeter and nutrient analysis were used to analyze bio-crude, lipid-extracted algae and water samples produced in the hydrothermal liquefaction process. The highest bio-crude yield of 46% was obtained...... on Nannochloropsis salina at 350 °C and 175 bar. For Spirulina platensis algae sample, the optimal hydrothermal liquefaction condition appears to be at 310 °C and 115 bar, while the optimal condition for Nannochloropsis salina is at 350 °C and 175 bar. Preliminary data also indicate that a lipid-extracted algae...

  2. FUNCTIONAL VEGETABLE SALADS WITH ALGAE

    OpenAIRE

    Козонова, Ю.О.; Авдєєва, А.А.

    2015-01-01

    Now on the Ukrainian market frozen vegetable salads are well represented. They contain a small amount of protein and have an unbalanced composition nutrientny. Adding algae to the vegetable salads composition allows to resolve this contradiction. In this paper the functional vegetable salads expanding assortment possibilities are represented. The product components composition was designed. It is advisable to add different types of algae (kelp, spirulina and fucus) to the quick-frozen functio...

  3. THE STUDY ON NUTRITIONAL PHYSIOLOGY OF SPIRULINA PLATENSIS II:THE UPTAKE AND USAGE OF INORGANIC NITROGEN%钝顶螺旋藻营养生理的研究 II.钝顶螺旋藻对无机氮的吸收利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙珍霞; 石晓勇; 张学成; 谭桂英

    2000-01-01

    利用均匀设计法设计得到的12种培养基及对照Zarrouk培养基对钝顶螺旋藻(Spirulina platensis)S6品系进行培养,研究了在不同培养基下螺旋藻对无机氮的吸收利用。结果表明,螺旋藻可以同时以NO3-N 和NH4-N为氮源。NO3-N对螺旋藻是最为通用和安全的氮源,但添加浓度以11mmol/L左右最为适宜,既可满足藻体的最佳生长需求又可降低养殖成本;适宜浓度的NH4-N可促进螺旋藻的生长,浓度过高则会造成NH3中毒,NH4-N的添加量以1.27~2.57mmol/L范围最为适宜。%Cultured with twelve media designed with the uniform design method, in comparison with the zarrouk medium,the uptake of inorganic nitrogen(NO3-N and NH4-N) by the blue-green algae Spirulina platensis strain S6 are studied in this paper. Result shows that the Spirulina can use both NO3-N and NH4-N as nitrogen sources at the same time. NO3-N is the most popular and safest nitrogen source to Spirulina, the suitable concentration is about 11mmol/L, which can speed the growth rate and reduce the cost of cultivation as well. NH4-N of the suitable concentration can enhance the growth of Spirulina,but overhigh concentration will cause the ammoniac toxicosis, the suitable concentration of NH4-N is about 1.27~2.57mmol/L.

  4. Extração e purificação de clorofila a, da alga Spirulina maxima: um experimento para os cursos de química Extraction and purification of chlorophyll a isolated from Spirulina maxima: an experiment for the chemistry courses

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula Jecks Maestrin; Cláudio Roberto Neri; Kleber Thiago de Oliveira; Osvaldo Antonio Serra; Yassuko Iamamoto

    2009-01-01

    This work describes a simple and economical experiment for the extraction and purification of chlorophyll a from Spirulina maxima. Extraction and purification of natural compounds can be considered one of the most illustrative experiments that can be performed in Organic Chemistry courses. Particularly, the chromatography of dyes and pigments allows students to have a better comprehension of the chromatography separations. These compounds represent an important class of organic pigments appli...

  5. Shape transition in ZnO nanostructures and its effect on blue-green photoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report that ZnO nanostructures synthesized by a chemical route undergo a shape transition at ∼20 nm from spherical to hexagonal morphology thereby changing the spectral components of the blue-green emission. Spherically shaped nanocrystals (size range 11-18 nm) show emission in the range of 555-564 nm and the emission shifts to the longer wavelength as the size increases. On the other hand, rods and hexagonal platelets (size range 20-85 nm), which are the equilibrium morphology after the shape transition, show an emission near 465-500 nm which shifts to shorter wavelength as the size increases. The shape transition also leads to relaxation of microstrain in the system. Our analysis shows that the visible emission originates from a defect layer on the nanostructure surface which is affected by the shape transition. The change in the spectral component of the blue-green emission on change of shape has been explained as arising from band bending due to a depletion layer in smaller spherical particles which is absent in the larger particles with flat faces.

  6. [From algae to "functional foods"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadalà, M; Palmieri, B

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, a growing interest for nutraceutical algae (tablets, capsules, drops) has been developed, due to their effective health benefits, as a potential alternative to the classic drugs. This review explores the use of cyanobacterium Spirulina, the microalgae Chlorella, Dunaliella, Haematococcus, and the macroalgae Klamath, Ascophyllum, Lithothamnion, Chondrus, Hundaria, Glacilaria, Laminaria, Asparagopsis, Eisenia, Sargassum as nutraceuticals and dietary supplements, in terms of production, nutritional components and evidence-based health benefits. Thus, our specific goals are: 1) Overview of the algae species currently used in nutraceuticals; 2) Description of their characteristics, action mechanisms, and possible side effects; 3) Perspective of specific algae clinical investigations development. PMID:26378764

  7. Protective effect of aqueous extract from Spirulina platensis against cell death induced by free radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishnan Ammu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spirulina is a commercial alga well known to contain various antioxidants, especially phycocyanin. Apart from being sold as a nutraceutical, Spirulina is incorporated as a functional ingredient in food products and beverages. Most of the previous reports on antioxidant activity of Spirulina were based on chemical rather than cell-based assays. The primary objective of this study was to assess the antioxidant activity of aqueous extract from Spirulina based on its protective effect against cell death induced by free radicals. Methods The antioxidant activity of the cold water extract from food-grade Spirulina platensis was assessed using both chemical and cell-based assays. In the cell-based assay, mouse fibroblast cells (3T3 cells were incubated for 1 h in medium containing aqueous extract of Spirulina or vitamin C (positive control at 25, 125 and 250 μg/mL before the addition of 50 μM 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH or 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS. The cells were incubated for another 24 h before being assessed for cell death due to apoptosis using the Cell Death Detection ELISA Kit. Spectrophotometric assays based on DPPH and ABTS were also used to assess the antioxidant activity of the extract compared to vitamin C and vitamin E (positive controls. Results Spirulina extract did not cause cytotoxic effect on 3T3 cells within the range of concentrations tested (0 - 250 μg/mL. The extract reduced significantly (p Conclusions The results showed that aqueous extract of Spirulina has a protective effect against apoptotic cell death due to free radicals. The potential application of incorporating Spirulina into food products and beverages to enhance their antioxidant capacity is worth exploring.

  8. Summary of studies on the blue-green autofluorescence and light transmission of the ocular lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Best, Jaap A.; Kuppens, Esmeralda V.

    1996-07-01

    This paper reviews previous work done to demonstrate the clinical relevance of the measurement of blue-green autofluorescence and light transmission of the ocular lens. These can be determined quantitatively with fluorophotometry in a few seconds. Autofluorescence and transmission values are determined in healthy volunteers, in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and in patients with untreated glaucoma or untreated ocular hypertension. The lens autofluorescence of healthy volunteers increased linearly and transmission decreased exponentially with age. Each year of diabetes induced an increase of autofluorescence equal to one extra year of age. Untreated glaucoma or ocular hypertension had no significant effect on lens autofluorescence and transmission. Increased autofluorescence and decreased transmission values in comparison with values of a healthy population are proved to be indicative for an increased risk of developing cataract and the clinical usefulness of these measures is demonstrated. Diabetes is a risk factor for developing cataracts while untreated glaucoma or ocular hypertension is not.

  9. The Origin of Blue-Green Window and the Propagation of Radiation in Ocean Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Reghunath

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of the present knowledge about the origin of blue-green window in the attenuation spectrum of ocean waters is presented. The various physical mechanisms which contribute to the formation of the w-indow are dealt separately and discussed. The typical values of attenuation coefficient arising out of the various processes are compiled to obtain the total beam attenuation coefficient. These values are then compared with measured values of attenuation coefficient for ocean waters collected from Arabian sea and Bay of Bengal. The region of minimum attenuation in pure particle-free sea water is found to be at 450 to 500 nm. It is sbown that in the presence of suspended 'particlesand chlorophyll, the window shifts to longer wavelength side. Some suggestions for future work in this area are also given in the concluding section.

  10. Microbial synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Streptomyces glaucus and Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time in Georgia a novel actinomycete strain Streptomyces glaucus 71 MD isolated from a soy rhizosphere has been used for microbial synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images revealed that most of the particles produced by these microorganisms from AgNO3 are spherical-like in shape with an average size of 13 nm. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) allowed one to observe extracellular synthesis of nanoparticles, which has many advantages from the point of view of applications. Production of silver nanoparticles proceeds extracellularly with the participation of another microorganism, blue-green microalgae Spirulina platensis. It is shown that the production rate of the nanoparticles depends not only on the initial concentration of AgNO3 but also varies with time in a no monotonic way

  11. Study on Seawater-acclimation Spirulina%海水驯化螺旋藻研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关邵晨; 王璇; 李杰; 秦琅; 董仁杰; 朱毅

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to seek Spirulina culture methods with seawater. [Method] Spirulina was habituated culture progressively with prepared seawater-acclimation solution, moreover, the morphological changes of Spirulina were observed and its biochemical indicators were measured. [Result]The new algaes was obtained, it has better stability and average length was greater than Spirulina in fresh water, its chlorophyll content was substantially unchanged, and the concentration of phycocyanin increased by 62.8% compared with Spirulina in fresh water. [Conclusion] The method can save resources and cost, which lay the foundation for large scale production and processing of Spirulina.%[目的]探寻螺旋藻的海水培养方法.[方法]用配制的海水驯化培养液对螺旋藻进行逐级驯化培养,观察螺旋藻的形态学变化并测量其生化指标.[结果]得到了平均长度大于淡水螺旋藻且稳定性良好的藻种,其叶绿素含量基本不变,藻蓝蛋白浓度较淡水培养的螺旋藻增加了62.8%.[结论]该方法可节省资源和成本,为螺旋藻的规模化生产和加工奠定了基础.

  12. Green roof and storm water management policies: monitoring experiments on the ENPC Blue Green Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versini, Pierre-Antoine; Gires, Auguste; Fitton, George; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Currently widespread in new urban projects, green roofs have shown a positive impact on urban runoff at the building/parcel scale. Nevertheless, there is no specific policy promoting their implementation neither in Europe nor in France. Moreover they are not taken into account (and usually considered as an impervious area) in the sizing of a retention basin for instance. An interesting example is located in the heart of the Paris-East Cluster for Science and Technology (Champs-sur-Marne, France). Since 2013 a large (1 ha) wavy-form vegetated roof (called bleu green wave) is implemented. Green roof area and impervious areas are connected to a large retention basin, which has been oversized. The blue green wave represents a pioneering site where an initially amenity (decorative) design project has been transformed into a research oriented one. Several measurement campaigns have been conducted to investigate and better understand the hydrological behaviour of such a structure. Rainfall, humidity, wind velocity, water content and temperature have been particularly studied. The data collected are used for several purposes: (i) characterize the spatio-temporal variability of the green roof response, (ii) calibrate and validate a specific model simulating its hydrological behavior. Based on monitoring and modeling results, green roof performances will be quantified. It will be possible to estimate how they can reduce stormwater runoff and how these performances can vary in space and in time depending on green roof configuration, rainfall event characteristics and antecedent conditions. These quantified impacts will be related to regulation rules established by stormwater managers in order to connect the parcel to the sewer network. In the particular case of the building of a retention basin, the integration of green roof in the sizing of the basin will be studied. This work is funded by the European Blue Green Dream project (http://bgd.org.uk/, funded by Climate

  13. The Production of High Purity Phycocyanin by Spirulina platensis Using Light-Emitting Diodes Based Two-Stage Cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hyo; Lee, Ju Eun; Kim, Yoori; Lee, Seung-Yop

    2016-01-01

    Phycocyanin is a photosynthetic pigment found in photosynthetic cyanobacteria, cryptophytes, and red algae. In general, production of phycocyanin depends mainly on the light conditions during the cultivation period, and purification of phycocyanin requires expensive and complex procedures. In this study, we propose a new two-stage cultivation method to maximize the quantitative content and purity of phycocyanin obtained from Spirulina platensis using red and blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) under different light intensities. In the first stage, Spirulina was cultured under a combination of red and blue LEDs to obtain the fast growth rate until reaching an absorbance of 1.4-1.6 at 680 nm. Next, blue LEDs were used to enhance the concentration and purity of the phycocyanin in Spirulina. Two weeks of the two-stage cultivation of Spirulina yielded 1.28 mg mL(-1) phycocyanin with the purity of 2.7 (OD620/OD280). PMID:26433600

  14. Evidence from action and fluorescence spectra that UV-induced violet-blue-green fluorescence enhances leaf photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantha, S V; Johnson, G A; Day, T A

    2001-03-01

    We assessed the contribution of UV-induced violet-blue-green leaf fluorescence to photosynthesis in Poa annua, Sorghum halepense and Nerium oleander by measuring UV-induced fluorescence spectra (280-380 nm excitation, 400-550 nm emission) from leaf surfaces and determining the monochromatic UV action spectra for leaf photosynthetic O2-evolution. Peak fluorescence emission wavelengths from leaf surfaces ranged from violet (408 nm) to blue (448 nm), while excitation peaks for these maxima ranged from 333 to 344 nm. Action spectra were developed by supplementing monochromatic radiation from 280 to 440 nm, in 20 nm increments, to a visible nonsaturating background of 500 mumol m-2 s-1 photosynthetically active radiation and measuring photosynthetic O2-evolution rates. Photosynthetic rates tended to be higher with the 340 nm supplement than with higher or lower wavelength UV supplements. Comparing photosynthetic rates with the 340 nm supplement to those with the 400 nm supplement, the percentage enhancement in photosynthetic rates at 340 nm ranged from 7.8 to 9.8%. We suspect that 340 nm UV improves photosynthetic rates via fluorescence that provides violet-blue-green photons for photosynthetic energy conversion because (1) the peak excitation wavelength (340 nm) for violet-blue-green fluorescence from leaves was also the most effective UV wavelength at enhancing photosynthetic rates, and (2) the magnitude of photosynthetic enhancements attributable to supplemental 340 nm UV was well correlated (R2 = 0.90) with the apparent intensity of 340 nm UV-induced violet-blue-green fluorescence emission from leaves.

  15. A comparative study of blue, green and yellow light emitting diode structures grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaiah, Kodigala Subba; Su, Y. K.; Chang, S. J.; Chen, C. H.

    2006-02-01

    The blue, green and yellow light emitting diode (LED) structures have been fabricated by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), and characterized by using different techniques, in order to understand the mechanism between these LEDs. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis revealed that the surface roughness value and density of etch pits were different in the blue, green and yellow LEDs. The threading, misfit dislocations, interfacial dislocations, nano-pipe-like structures and quantum dot-like structures, which determine quality of the structures, were observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) in the LED structures. The reasons for their formation in the layers are now elucidated. The indium composition, period width such as well and barrier widths were determined by simulating experimental high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) spectra. The In composition obtained by HRXRD and photoluminescence (PL) measurements for the same LED structure was not one and the same due to several reasons. In fact, the InGaN quantum well emission peaks at 2.667 and 2.544 eV of the blue and green LEDs, respectively showed S-shaped character shift, whereas the quantum well peak at 2.219 eV of yellow LEDs did not show any shift in the PL spectra with decreasing temperature. The blue, green and yellow LEDs showed different activation energies.

  16. ROx3: Retinal oximetry utilizing the blue-green oximetry method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Jennifer Kathleen Hendryx

    The ROx is a retinal oximeter under development with the purpose of non-invasively and accurately measuring oxygen saturation (SO2) in vivo. It is novel in that it utilizes the blue-green oximetry technique with on-axis illumination. ROx calibration tests were performed by inducing hypoxia in live anesthetized swine and comparing ROx measurements to SO 2 values measured by a CO-Oximeter. Calibration was not achieved to the precision required for clinical use, but limiting factors were identified and improved. The ROx was used in a set of sepsis experiments on live pigs with the intention of tracking retinal SO2 during the development of sepsis. Though conclusions are qualitative due to insufficient calibration of the device, retinal venous SO2 is shown to trend generally with central venous SO2 as sepsis develops. The novel sepsis model developed in these experiments is also described. The method of cecal ligation and perforation with additional soiling of the abdomen consistently produced controllable severe sepsis/septic shock in a matter of hours. In addition, the ROx was used to collect retinal images from a healthy human volunteer. These experiments served as a bench test for several of the additions/modifications made to the ROx. This set of experiments specifically served to illuminate problems with various light paths and image acquisition. The analysis procedure for the ROx is under development, particularly automating the process for consistency, accuracy, and time efficiency. The current stage of automation is explained, including data acquisition processes and the automated vessel fit routine. Suggestions for the next generation of device minimization are also described.

  17. A blue/green water-based accounting framework for assessment of water security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Dulce B. B.; Gupta, Hoshin V.; Mendiondo, Eduardo M.

    2014-09-01

    A comprehensive assessment of water security can incorporate several water-related concepts, while accounting for Blue and Green Water (BW and GW) types defined in accordance with the hydrological processes involved. Here we demonstrate how a quantitative analysis of provision probability and use of BW and GW can be conducted, so as to provide indicators of water scarcity and vulnerability at the basin level. To illustrate the approach, we use the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to model the hydrology of an agricultural basin (291 km2) within the Cantareira Water Supply System in Brazil. To provide a more comprehensive basis for decision making, we analyze the BW and GW-Footprint components against probabilistic levels (50th and 30th percentile) of freshwater availability for human activities, during a 23 year period. Several contrasting situations of BW provision are distinguished, using different hydrological-based methodologies for specifying monthly Environmental Flow Requirements (EFRs), and the risk of natural EFR violation is evaluated by use of a freshwater provision index. Our results reveal clear spatial and temporal patterns of water scarcity and vulnerability levels within the basin. Taking into account conservation targets for the basin, it appears that the more restrictive EFR methods are more appropriate than the method currently employed at the study basin. The blue/green water-based accounting framework developed here provides a useful integration of hydrologic, ecosystem and human needs information on a monthly basis, thereby improving our understanding of how and where water-related threats to human and aquatic ecosystem security can arise.

  18. Nutritional studies on Spirulina maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranesi, M; Barzanti, V; Carenini, G; Gentili, P

    1984-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the nutritional value of proteins derived from algal biomasses of genus Spirulina maxima, with a view to the possible use of such proteins in human alimentation. Recently the use of such biomasses has commanded attention both as an alternative source of alimentary protein and as a coadjuvant in diet treatment requiring a reduced caloric intake - this because these substances seem to prolong gastric transit time and so produce a feeling of satiety. Our research was conducted in young growing rats; it provided confirmation of the validity of Spirulina as a protein source in terms of good weight gains by the test animals and freedom from adverse effects; the same research, on the other hand, failed to confirm the effectiveness of these protein materials in reducing caloric intake: throughout the test period, indeed, feed consumption (hence caloric intake) was practically the same in the control lot and in animals receiving Spirulina protein. PMID:6442827

  19. Tuning emission in violet, blue, green and red in cubic GaN/InGaN/GaN quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco Hinostroza, I. E.; Avalos-Borja, M.; Compeán García, V. D.; Zamora, C. Cuellar; Rodríguez, A. G.; López Luna, E.; Vidal, M. A.

    2016-02-01

    Light emission in the three primary colors was achieved in cubic GaN/InGaN/GaN heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy on MgO substrates in a single growth process. A heterostructure with four quantum wells with a width of 10 nm was grown; this quantum wells width decrease the segregation effect of In. Photoluminescence emission produced four different emission signals: violet, blue, green-yellow and red. Thus, we were able to tune energy transitions in the visible spectrum modifying the In concentration in cubic InxGa1-xN ternary alloy.

  20. Clinical results of a new high-phototherapeutic-efficiency blue-green lamp for the management of hyperbilirubinemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donzelli, Gian Paolo; Pratesi, Simone; Agati, Giovanni; Fusi, Franco; Pratesi, Riccardo

    1996-01-01

    We report a preliminary study on the introduction of a new, blue-green fluorescent lamp with high phototherapeutic efficiency in the treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. The lamp (New Lamp) has an emission spectrum, peaked at 490 nm and about 40 nm wide, that was not previously investigated in clinical trials. Our study demonstrates the significantly greater efficacy of the New Lamp in decreasing the bilirubin serum level, in comparison with the most commonly used blue fluorescent lamp. The rate of decline of bilirubin concentration with the New Lamp was twice that with Philips/BB light. The success of the blue-green PT is mainly due to the combined effects of the (1) increase from blue to green of the quantum yield for lumirubin, that is the bilirubin photoproduct rapidly excreted from the organism; (2) corresponding decrease of the configurational photoisomer, formed with high concentration but not excreted from the organism; (3) filtering effect of the skin, which attenuates more blue than green light. Our results represent the first significant improvement of phototherapy efficiency following the development and introduction of the special-blue lamp by Sisson in 1970. The phototherapy exposure time has now been reduced to less than 1-day in preterm infants, ensuring less stress to the infant and less interference with nursing care.

  1. Computer simulation on kinetics of primary process in photosynthesis of algae (Ⅳ)——Excitation energy transfer in phycobilisomes from blue-green algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵井泉; 朱晋昌; 蒋丽金

    1995-01-01

    A more exact model of phycobilisomes has been designed with the rods composed of the hexamer disks and an abstract allophycocyanin (APC) core. Based on this model, the excitation energy transfer was simulated using the computer simulation technique. The simulation shows that the excitation energy is transferred from the outlayer disk to the core in a partly reversible way in phycobilisomes, and that the transfer rate from the last disk to the core is less than those between disks. The energy transfer between the two trimers in a hexamer is dominantly through the α84-chromophores (m), while that between the disks is through the β84-chromophores (f) that are also responsible for the transfer of energy into the core.

  2. Floristic account of the marine benthic algae from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef, Line Islands, Central Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vroom, P.S.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The marine benthic algae from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef were identified from collections obtained from the Whippoorwill Expedition in 1924, the Itasca Expedition in 1935, the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Taney in 1938, the Smithsonian Institution’s Pacific Ocean Biological Survey Program in 1964 and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (RAMP in 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004 and 2006. A total of 124 species, representing 8 Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae, 82 Rhodophyta (red algae, 6 Heterokontophyta (brown algae and 28 Chlorophyta (green algae, are reported from both islands. Seventy-nine and 95 species of marine benthic algae are recorded from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef, respectively. Of the 124 species, 77 species or 62% (4 blue-green algae, 57 red algae, 2 brown algae and 14 green algae have never before been reported from the 11 remote reefs, atolls and low islands comprising the Line Islands in the Central Pacific.

  3. Monochromatic blue-green and red emission of rare-earth ions in MgGa2O4 spinel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pr3+-activated blue-green phosphor and Eu3+-activated red phosphor hosted in MgGa2O4 spinel have been prepared by a gel-assisted high-temperature calcination process, respectively. Both anion and cation vacancies in the host were formed by decreasing the Mg concentration in the reaction source. The induced vacancies provide possibility of the accommodation of the doped rare-earth ions with larger atomic size in the highly symmetrical spinel structure. Due to the efficient energy transfer from the spinel host to the sole 4f sub-level of the doped rare earths, monochromatic emissions with high efficiency can be obtained to allow the phosphors to find applications in solid-state laser device and other phosphors excited under low energy. The corresponding spectroscopic transition mechanism has been proposed in this work.

  4. Response of freshwater algae to water quality in Qinshan Lake within Taihu Watershed, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianying; Ni, Wanmin; Luo, Yang; Jan Stevenson, R.; Qi, Jiaguo

    Although frequent algal blooms in Taihu Lake in China have become major environmental problems and have drawn national and international attention, little is understood about the relationship between algal blooms and water quality. The goal of this study was to assess the growth and species responses of freshwater algae to variation in water quality in Qinshan Lake, located in headwaters of the Taihu watershed. Water samples were collected monthly from ten study sites in the Qinshan Lake and were analyzed for species distribution of freshwater algae and physiochemical parameters such as total nitrogen (TN), NH4+-N, NO3--N, total phosphorus (TP), chemical oxygen demand (COD Mn) and Chl-a. The results showed that average TN was 4.47 mg/L, with 92.2% of values greater than the TN standard set by the Chinese Environmental Protection Agency; average TP was 0.051 mg/L, with 37.9% of values above the TP national standard; and average trophic level index (TLI) was 53, the lower end of eutrophic condition. Average Chl-a concentration was 12.83 mg/m 3. Green algae and diatom far outweighed other freshwater algae and were dominant most time of the year, with the highest relative abundances of 96% and 99%, respectively. Blue-green algae, composed mainly toxic strains like Microcystis sp ., Nostoc sp. and Oscillatoria sp., became most dominant in the summer with the maximum relative abundance of 69%. The blue-green algae sank to the lake bottom to overwinter, and then dinoflagellates became the dominant species in the winter, with highest relative abundance of 89%. Analysis indicated that nutrients, especially control of ammonia and co-varying nutrients were the major restrictive factor of population growth of blue-green algae, suggesting that control in nutrient enrichments is the major preventive measure of algal blooms in Qinshan Lake.

  5. Adsorption of rare earth metal ion by algae. Sorui ni yoru kidorui ion no kyuchaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwabara, T.; Yazawa, A. (Miyagi National College of Technology, Miyagi (Japan))

    1994-02-25

    This paper reports the result of investigations on adsorption of rare earth metal ion by using algae, and adsorption of different metal ions by using egg white and soy bean protein. Rare earth metal ion is adsorbed at a considerably high rate with alga powder of different kinds. The adsorption has been judged to be cation exchange reactive adsorption, while with use of spirulina and chlorella a maximum value of adsorption rate has been observed at pH from 3 to 4.5. Therefore, selective adsorption and separation of metal ions other than rare earth metal ion has become possible. When the blue pigment extracted from spirulina, the spirulina blue, is used, the rare earth metal ion had its selective adsorption and separation performance improved higher than using spirulina itself at pH from 3 to 4.5. As a result of adsorption experiment using egg white and soy bean protein, it has been found that the metal ion adsorption behavior of the spirulina blue depends on coagulative action of protein structure to some extent. However, the sharp selective adsorption performance on rare earth metal ion due to particular pH strength has been found because of actions unique to the pigment structure of phycocyanin, a major component in the spirulina blue. 7 refs., 19 figs.

  6. Removal of Nitrate and Phosphate from Municipal Wastewater Sludge by Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina platensis and Scenedesmus quadricauda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal K.C.A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate and phosphorus in wastewater contribute to health and environmental threats as they are linked to illnesses as well as ecosystem disruption via algal blooms in contaminated water bodies. Based on above perspectives a comparative study was conducted on three local freshwater microalgae:Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina platensis and Scenedesmus quadricauda to evaluate their effects on nitrate and phosphorus removal from municipal wastewater sludge (MWS. Algae performance in removing nitrate and phosphorus was evaluated by measuring nitrate and phosphorus content of MWS incubated with the strains for 7 days. Instantaneous readings were taken every 48 hours to determine periodic levels of the nutrients phosphate and nitrate. BOD5 was also evaluated to identify the strain with the most robust growth that would demand for oxygen the most in the dark. Spirulina platensis was shown as the most efficient microalgae to reduce nitrate in MWS and the best-growing among the three strains, while Chlorella vulgaris removed phosphorus the most effectively. Thus Spirulina and Chlorella could be potential candidates by showing their intrinsic merit for the reduction of phosphate and nitrate in wastewater treatment.ABSTRAK: Nitrat dan fosforus dalam air sisa menggugat kesihatan dan mengancam alam sekitar memandangkan ia berkait dengan penyakit-penyakit serta gangguan terhadap ekosistem melalui pembiakan alga dalam air yang tercemar. Berdasarkan perspektif di atas, satu kajian perbandingan telah dijalankan terhadap tiga mikro alga air tawar tempatan : Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina platensis dan Scenedesmus quadricauda untuk dinilai kesannya terhadap penyingkiran nitrat dan fosforus dari enap cemar air sisa bandaran (municipal wastewater sludge (MWS. Kebolehan alga dalam penyingkiran nitrat dan fosforus dikaji dengan menyukat kandungan nitrat dan fosforus dalam MWS yang dieramkan dengan strain ini selama 7 hari. Bacaan serta-merta diambil setiap 48 jam untuk

  7. Effects of Chemical Parameters on Spirulina platensis Biomass Production: Optimized Method for Phycocyanin Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Vasanthi, B.; P. Soundarapandian

    2008-01-01

    The micro alga, Spirulina is a rich source of protein, which is used as a protein supplement for humans, chicks and also in aquaculture. Among the cultures, CS-1 registered maximum biomass production and S-20 showed highest biomass production among the local isolates. Optimum temperature of 35C was the best for maximum biomass production of S. platensis cultures. Among the cultures CS-1 culture, put forth maximum biomass production at 35C. The biomass production of all S. platensis cult...

  8. Biosorption of Heavy Metal Cu2+ and Cr2+ in Textile Wastewater by Using Immobilized Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiyanto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to utilize microalgae Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp., as biosorption agents for heavy metals removal available in textile waste water. The biosorption of Cu and Cr ions from textile waste water solutions by immobilized algae (Chlorella and Spirulina were tested under laboratory conditions as a function of waste concentration (15-50% dilution and ratio of bead and waste water (1:1-1:3. Experimental results showed that the Langmuir adsorption models were suitable for describing the short-term biosorption of by all algal species. The best ratio of bead: wastewater (v/v for removal heavy metal in textile wastewater was 1:3. The maximum Cu removed from the waste was 89% while Cr was removed with 90% by using Chlorella sp. The algae Spirulina showed a higher removal capacity of 90%. The maximum absorption capacity of Cu was achieved at 16.2 and 13.6 mg/g by using Chlorella and Spirulina, respectively, while the maximum sorption capacity for Cr was achieved at 1.95 and 1.45 mg/g for algae Chlorella and Spirulina, respectively.

  9. Efficient harvesting of wet blue-green microalgal biomass by two-aminoclay [AC]-mixture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hye-Min; Lee, Hyun Uk; Kim, Eui Jin; Seo, Soonjoo; Kim, Bohwa; Lee, Go-Woon; Oh, You-Kwan; Kim, Jun Yeong; Huh, Yun Suk; Song, Hyun A; Lee, Young-Chul

    2016-07-01

    Blue-green microalgal blooms have been caused concerns about environmental problems and human-health dangers. For removal of such cyanobacteria, many mechanical and chemical treatments have been trialled. Among various technologies, the flocculation-based harvesting (precipitation) method can be an alternative if the problem of the low yield of recovered biomass at low concentrations of cyanobacteria is solved. In the present study, it was utilized mixtures of magnesium aminoclay [MgAC] and cerium aminoclay [CeAC] with different particle sizes to harvest cyanobacteria feedstocks with ∼100% efficiency within 1h by ten-fold lower loading of ACs compared with single treatments of [MgAC] or [CeAC]. This success was owed to the compact networks of the different-sized-ACs mixture for efficient bridging between microalgal cells. In order to determine the usage potential of biomass harvested with AC, the mass was heat treated under the reduction condition. This system is expected to be profitably utilizable in adsorbents and catalysts. PMID:27023387

  10. Health aspects of Spirulina (Arthrospira) microalga food supplement

    OpenAIRE

    Sotiroudis Theodore G.; Sotiroudis Georgios T.

    2013-01-01

    Spirulina, now named Arthrospira, is a microscopic and filamentous cyanobacterium that has a long history of use as a safe food lacking toxicity. It is commercially produced in large outdoor ponds under controlled conditions. The aim of this review article is to summarize available recent information concerning human clinical potential and applications of Spirulina, as well as clinical data related to the safety and side effects of Spirulina. Potential health benefits of Spirulina are m...

  11. Photosynthetic production of hydrogen by algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, H.

    1978-09-01

    Because hydrogen as a fuel is very attractive both in energy and ecological terms, the photosynthetic production of hydrogen by some algae is attracting considerable attention. In addition to the ordinary photosynthetic mechanisms, many algae have enzymes which can produce hydrogen: hydrogenation enzymes and nitrogen-fixation enzymes. Certain enzymes with the former begin to produce hydrogen after several hours in an anaerobic envirionment; the reason for the delay is that the hydrogen-producing enzymes must adjust to the anaerobic conditions. Eventually the production of hydrogen ceases because production of oxygen by the ordinary photosynthetic mechanism suppresses activity of the hydrogen-producing enzymes. Any use of these algae to produce hydrogen must involve alternating hydrogen production and rest. Nitrogen-fixing enzymes are found especially in the blue-green algae. These seem to produce hydrogen from organic compounds produced by the ordinary photosynthetic process. The nitrogen-fixation type of hydrogen-producing photosynthesis seems the more promising type for future exploitation.

  12. Ba3(P1−MnO4)2 : Blue/green inorganic materials based on tetrahedral Mn(V)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sourav Laha; Rohit Sharma; S V Bhat; M L P Reddy; J Gopalakrishnan; S Natarajan

    2011-10-01

    We describe a blue/green inorganic material, Ba3(P1−MnO4)2 (I) based on tetrahedral MnO$^{3-}_{4}$ :32 chromophore. The solid solutions (I) which are sky-blue and turquoise-blue for ≤ 0.25 and dark green for ≥ 0.50, are readily synthesized in air from commonly available starting materials, stabilizing the MnO$^{3-}_{4}$ chromophore in an isostructural phosphate host. We suggest that the covalency/ionicity of P–O/Mn–O bonds in the solid solutions tunes the crystal field strength around Mn(V) such that a blue colour results for materials with small values of . The material could serve as a nontoxic blue/green inorganic pigment.

  13. An Investigation of Color Memory as a Function of Hue, Saturation, Lightness and Observer Imagery Vividness for Blue, Green and Orange Test Hues

    OpenAIRE

    Laws, Eric L.

    2000-01-01

    Observer Imagery Vividness for Blue, Green and Orange Test Hues By Eric L. Laws Committee Chair: Dr. A. M. Prestrude Department of Psychology (Abstract) Fifty-two college-aged observers participated in an experiment assessing color memory via a PowerPoint '97 computer display program which varied one of the three dimensions of hue, saturation and lightness at a time. Consistent with previous research, errors were greater for the lightness conditions followed by saturation...

  14. A second conserved GAF domain cysteine is required for the blue/green photoreversibility of cyanobacteriochrome Tlr0924 from Thermosynechococcus elongatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Nathan C.; Njuguna, Stephanie Lane; Roberts, Laurel; Castillo, Elenor; Parson, Victoria L.; Dwojak, Sunshine; Lagarias, J. Clark; Spiller, Susan C.

    2008-01-01

    Phytochromes are widely occurring red/far-red photoreceptors that utilize a linear tetrapyrrole (bilin) chromophore covalently bound within a knotted PAS-GAF domain pair. Cyanobacteria also contain more distant relatives of phytochromes that lack this knot, such as the phytochrome-related cyanobacteriochromes implicated to function as blue/green switchable photoreceptors. In this study, we characterize the cyanobacteriochrome Tlr0924 from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus. Full-length Tlr0924 exhibits blue/green photoconversion across a broad range of temperatures, including physiologically relevant temperatures for this organism. Spectroscopic characterization of Tlr0924 demonstrates that its green-absorbing state is in equilibrium with a labile, spectrally distinct blue-absorbing species. The photochemically generated blue-absorbing state is in equilibrium with another species absorbing at longer wavelengths, giving a total of 4 states. Cys499 is essential for this behavior, because mutagenesis of this residue results in red-absorbing mutant biliproteins. Characterization of the C499D mutant protein by absorbance and CD spectroscopy supports the conclusion that its bilin chromophore adopts a similar conformation to the red-light-absorbing Pr form of phytochrome. We propose a model photocycle in which Z/E photoisomerization of the 15/16 bond modulates formation of a reversible thioether linkage between Cys499 and C10 of the chromophore, providing the basis for the blue/green switching of cyanobacteriochromes. PMID:18549244

  15. Changes of the laser-induced blue, green and red fluorescence signatures during greening of etiolated leaves of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UV-laser-induced blue, green and red fluorescence-emission spectra were used to characterize the pigment status of etiolated leaves of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) during a 48 h greening period under white light conditions. Upon UV-light excitation (337 nm) leaves not only show a fluorescence emission in the red spectral region between 650 and 800nm (chlorophyll fluorescence with maxima near 690nm and 735 nm), but also in the blue and green regions between 400 to 570 nm with maxima or shoulders near 450 nm (blue) and 530 nm (green). During greening of etiolated leaves the chlorophyll-fluorescence ratio F690/F735 strongly correlated with the total chlorophyll content and the ratio of the chlorophylls to the carotenoids (a+b/x+c). The ratio of the blue to the green fluorescence F450/F530 was also correlated with the total chlorophyll content and the ratio of chlorophylls to total carotenoids (a+b/x+c). Consequently, there also existed a correlation between the chlorophyll-fluorescence ratio F690/F735 and the ratio of the blue to green fluorescence F450/F530. In contrast, the ratios of the blue to red fluorescences F450/F690 and F450/F735 did not show clear relations to the pigment content of the investigated plants. The particular shape of the UV-laser-induced-fluorescence emission spectra of wheat leaves as well as the dependencies of the fluorescence ratios on the pigment content are due to a partial and differential reabsorption of the emitted fluorescences by the photosynthetic pigments

  16. FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERS EVALUATION OF BISCUITS SUBLIMATED WITH PURE PHYCOCYANIN ISOLATED FROM SPIRULINA AND SPIRULINA BIOMASS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Baky, Hanaa H; El Baroty, Gamal S; Ibrahem, Eman A

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the effect of incorporation of biomass and phycocyanin extracts of Spirulina platensis growing in define media at large scales (300 liters, limited in nitrogen and high salinity) to traditional butter biscuits in order to increase general mental health as functional products, FPs). The FP were manufactured at a pilot scale formulated by adding algal biomass (0.3, 0.6 and 0.9%) and S. platensis phycocyanin (at 0.3%) to wheat flour and stored for one month at room temperature, protected from light and air. The approximate and nutrition composition of S. platensis biomass showed high quantity (% dry weight, dw.) of phycocyanin (13.51%, natural food colorant), tocopherols (0.43%), carotenoids (2.65%), vitamins C (1.25%), -6, -3 fatty acids, essential elements (Fe, Zn, Cr, Se, and others) and antioxidant compounds includes: total phenolic (1.73%), flavonoids (0.87%) and glutathione (0.245 mM). FPs showed a high oxidative stability during storage (30 days) periods (as assessed by antiradical scavenging activity of DPPH and TBA test), compared with that in untreated food products (control). Data of sensory evaluation revealed that FPs containing S. platensis biomass or algae extracts were significantly acceptable as control for main sensory characteristics (colour, odour/ aroma, flavor, texture, the global appreciation and overall acceptability). S. platensis FPs presented an accentuated green tonality, which increase with the quantity of added biomass. Thus, it could be concluded that functional biscuits had good sensory and nutritional profiles and can be developed as new niche food market.

  17. FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERS EVALUATION OF BISCUITS SUBLIMATED WITH PURE PHYCOCYANIN ISOLATED FROM SPIRULINA AND SPIRULINA BIOMASS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Baky, Hanaa H; El Baroty, Gamal S; Ibrahem, Eman A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the effect of incorporation of biomass and phycocyanin extracts of Spirulina platensis growing in define media at large scales (300 liters, limited in nitrogen and high salinity) to traditional butter biscuits in order to increase general mental health as functional products, FPs). The FP were manufactured at a pilot scale formulated by adding algal biomass (0.3, 0.6 and 0.9%) and S. platensis phycocyanin (at 0.3%) to wheat flour and stored for one month at room temperature, protected from light and air. The approximate and nutrition composition of S. platensis biomass showed high quantity (% dry weight, dw.) of phycocyanin (13.51%, natural food colorant), tocopherols (0.43%), carotenoids (2.65%), vitamins C (1.25%), -6, -3 fatty acids, essential elements (Fe, Zn, Cr, Se, and others) and antioxidant compounds includes: total phenolic (1.73%), flavonoids (0.87%) and glutathione (0.245 mM). FPs showed a high oxidative stability during storage (30 days) periods (as assessed by antiradical scavenging activity of DPPH and TBA test), compared with that in untreated food products (control). Data of sensory evaluation revealed that FPs containing S. platensis biomass or algae extracts were significantly acceptable as control for main sensory characteristics (colour, odour/ aroma, flavor, texture, the global appreciation and overall acceptability). S. platensis FPs presented an accentuated green tonality, which increase with the quantity of added biomass. Thus, it could be concluded that functional biscuits had good sensory and nutritional profiles and can be developed as new niche food market. PMID:26262722

  18. Bioremoval of toxic elements with aquatic plants and algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T.C.; Ramesh, G. [Harbor Branch Oceanographic Inst., Fort Pierce, FL (United States); Weissman, J.C.; Varadarajan, R. [Microbial Products, Inc., Vero Beach, FL (United States); Benemann, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Aquatic plants were screened to evaluate their ability to adsorb dissolved metals. The plants screened included those that are naturally immobilized (attached algae and rooted plants) and those that could be easily separated from suspension (filamentous microalgae, macroalgae, and floating plants). Two plants were observed to have high adsorption capabilities for cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) removal: one blue green filamentous alga of the genus Phormidium and one aquatic rooted plant, water milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum). These plants could also reduce the residual metal concentration to 0.1 mg/L or less. Both plants also exhibited high specific adsorption for other metals (Pb, Ni, and Cu) both individually and in combination. Metal concentrations were analyzed with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS).

  19. Comparative effect of lunar fines and terrestrtrial ash on the growth of a blue-green alga and germinating radish seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, E. J.

    1983-01-01

    Although it is understood that photosynthetic organisms will be required as components of a closed ecological life support system (CELSS) for a manned lunar based, a basic problem is to identify organisms best capable of utilizing lunar regolith materials. Also, there is need to determine what nutrient supplements have to be added to lunar soils, and at what levels in order to promote high bio-mass production.

  20. Sensitivity of green and blue-green algae to methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) during a fifteen-day test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jianmeng; MA Jianyi; CAO Wei; WANG Pinwei; TONG Senmiao; SUN Yizhao

    2009-01-01

    The test was designed to assess the toxicity of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) to Chlorella ellipsoidea and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae during 15 d with concentrations of MTBE from high (2.00×104 mg/L) to low (2 mg/L). The results showed that the toxicity was low when the concentration of MTBE was 1.00×104-2.00×104 mg/L (the greatest inhibition of growth-rate was 70%-71%, occurring on day 1-5). Low concentrations (2-500 mg/L) stimulated algal growth up to the greatest effect of 85%-200% when the concentration of MTBE was 50-100 mg/L on day 3-5. The low concentrations may lead to an algal bloom owing to overabundance, which represents an aquatic ecological risk. However, the stimulatory effect occurred only during the day 1-5 and disappeared gradually during the day 13-15. The toxicity of MTBE (72-120 h EC50) is 6.65×103-9.58×103 mg/L for C. ellipsoidea and that is 1.14×104-2.00×104 mg/L for A. spiroides. We found that the toxicity and ecological risk of MTBE for the algal community structure were low. The toxicity was influenced by the duration of the test. We suggest that the duration of the test should not be shorter than half a life-cycle.

  1. Effect of light on the content of photosynthetically active pigments in plants. Pt. 4. Chromatic adaption in blue-green algae Anabaena cylindrica and A. variabilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czeczuga, B.

    1986-07-15

    The photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, carotenoids and phycobiliprotein pigments) of two species of the genus Anabaena grown in white, red, yellow, green and blue light were examined. The highest concentration of the cells was observed in the sample with red light in case of the both species, and the smallest with blue light. The biggest amounts of chlorophyll a and carotenoids were included in the cells of samples with the yellow and the smallest in case of the red light. The ratio of two phycobiliproteins is as follows: - in Anabaena cylindrica: the highest amount of C-phycocyanin in the cells was observed in the case of the red light, and C-phycoerytherin was found in the blue light; - in Anabaena variabiles: the highest amount of C-phycocyanien in the cells was found in case of the yellow light, and allophycocyanin was found in the blue light.

  2. De novo quence analysis and intact mass measurements for characterization of phycocyanin subunit isoforms from the blue-green alga Aphanizomenon flos-aquae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinalducci, Sara; Roepstorff, Peter; Zolla, Lello

    2009-01-01

    In this work, partial characterization of the primary structure of phycocyanin from the cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) was achieved by mass spectrometry de novo sequencing with the aid of chemical derivatization. Combining N-terminal sulfonation of tryptic peptides by 4-sulfophenyl...

  3. Determination of Vacuoles from the Blue-green Algae by Squash Method%压片法检查蓝藻液泡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭厚良; 赵以军; 吴红艳

    2001-01-01

    鱼腥藻7120(Anabaena sp.PCC 7120)在含0.1 mol/L NaCl的条件下培养4 d,90%以上细胞液泡化.若在正常条件下培养,1个多月之后部分细胞开始液泡化,随着培养时间延长,液泡化细胞比例逐渐提高.液泡化藻丝材料在玻片上经手指轻轻施压,细胞破裂,液泡从细胞破裂处释出.所释放液泡完全透明,大小不等,可在相差显微镜下显示,个别液泡可弹至细胞外远处.无机盐诱导的液泡化和细胞衰老引起的液泡化之间具有明显的平行性.

  4. Monolithic integration of InGaN segments emitting in the blue, green, and red spectral range in single ordered nanocolumns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, S.; Bengoechea-Encabo, A.; Sanchez-Garcia, M. A.; Calleja, E. [ISOM and Dept. Ingenieria Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Kong, X.; Trampert, A. [Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoeperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-05-06

    This work reports on the selective area growth by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and characterization of InGaN/GaN nanocolumnar heterostructures. The optimization of the In/Ga and total III/V ratios, as well as the growth temperature, provides control on the emission wavelength, either in the blue, green, or red spectral range. An adequate structure tailoring and monolithic integration in a single nanocolumnar heterostructure of three InGaN portions emitting in the red-green-blue colors lead to white light emission.

  5. Formulation of Red Seaweed and Spirulina platensis Based Jelly Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wini Trilaksani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Generally, jelly drinks in the market contain synthetic sweeteners, coloring and flavoring agents, as well as low in nutrients content, therefore it needs to be developed in order to obtain more healthy product by adding seaweed and Spirulina. The aims of this research were to determine the best formula of jelly drinks with seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii and Spirulina platensis and to compare the characteristics (nutrients and antioxidant activity of jelly drinks made from culture-based Spirulina and from commercial Spirulina. Jelly drinks made from commercial Spirulina (0.2%; 0.4%; and 0.6% had protein content 1.218-2.750% (db and the IC50 value was 3363.5-6070 ppm. Bayes test showed that jelly drink with commercial Spirulina 0.4% was the selected product and was used as the reference formula on this research. Types of Spirulina (commercial and culture gave no significant effect (p>0.05 to the hedonic test results and antioxidant activity however affected significantly on protein content (p<0.05. Jelly drink supplemented with 0.4% of culture-based Spirulina produced 92 kcal of energy; meanwhile the jelly drink with 0.4% of commercial Spirulina produced 79 kcal of energy.

  6. Thickness and annealing effects on thermally evaporated InZnO thin films for gas sensors and blue, green and yellow emissive optical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugumaran, Sathish; Jamlos, Mohd Faizal; Ahmad, Mohd Noor; Bellan, Chandar Shekar; Sivaraj, Manoj

    2016-08-01

    Indium zinc oxide (InZnO) thin films with thicknesses of 100 nm and 200 nm were deposited on glass plate by thermal evaporation technique. Fourier transform infrared spectra showed a strong metal-oxide bond. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed amorphous nature for as-deposited film whereas polycrystalline structure for annealed films. Scanning electron microscope images showed a uniform distribution of spherical shape grains. Grain size was found to be higher for 200 nm film than 100 nm film. The presence of elements (In, Zn and O) was confirmed from energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Photoluminescence study of 200 nm film showed a blue, blue-green and blue-yellow emission whereas 100 nm film showed a broad green and green-yellow emissions. Both 100 nm and 200 nm films showed good oxygen sensitivity from room temperature to 400 °C. The observed optical and sensor results indicated that the prepared InZnO films are highly potential for room temperature gas sensor and blue, green and yellow emissive opto-electronic devices.

  7. System responses to equal doses of photosynthetically usable radiation of blue, green, and red light in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Collier Valle

    Full Text Available Due to the selective attenuation of solar light and the absorption properties of seawater and seawater constituents, free-floating photosynthetic organisms have to cope with rapid and unpredictable changes in both intensity and spectral quality. We have studied the transcriptional, metabolic and photo-physiological responses to light of different spectral quality in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum through time-series studies of cultures exposed to equal doses of photosynthetically usable radiation of blue, green and red light. The experiments showed that short-term differences in gene expression and profiles are mainly light quality-dependent. Transcription of photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes was activated mainly through a light quality-independent mechanism likely to rely on chloroplast-to-nucleus signaling. In contrast, genes encoding proteins important for photoprotection and PSII repair were highly dependent on a blue light receptor-mediated signal. Changes in energy transfer efficiency by light-harvesting pigments were spectrally dependent; furthermore, a declining trend in photosynthetic efficiency was observed in red light. The combined results suggest that diatoms possess a light quality-dependent ability to activate photoprotection and efficient repair of photodamaged PSII. In spite of approximately equal numbers of PSII-absorbed quanta in blue, green and red light, the spectral quality of light is important for diatom responses to ambient light conditions.

  8. Biosorption of cadmium and lead from aqueous solution by fresh water alga Anabaena sphaerica biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel -Aty, Azza M.; Ammar, Nabila S.; Hany H. Abdel Ghafar; Ali, Rizka K.

    2013-01-01

    The present work represents the biosorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solution onto the biomass of the blue green alga Anabaena sphaerica as a function of pH, biosorbent dosage, contact time, and initial metal ion concentrations. Freundlich, Langmuir, and Dubinin–Radushkevich (D–R) models were applied to describe the biosorption isotherm of both metals by A. sphaerica biomass. The biosorption isotherms studies indicated that the biosorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) follows the Langmuir an...

  9. The Study of Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushforth, Samuel R.

    1977-01-01

    Included in this introduction to the study of algae are drawings of commonly encountered freshwater algae, a summary of the importance of algae, descriptions of the seven major groups of algae, and techniques for collection and study of algae. (CS)

  10. Investigation into feed utilization by fore-aged silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) using double-marked algae (/sup 14/C and /sup 51/Cr)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessel, B.; Spittler, P.; Heerkloss, R. (Rostock Univ. (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Biologie)

    1982-01-01

    The blue-green alga Microcystis firma and two green algae, Dunaliella viridis and Chlorella vulgaris, were double-marked with /sup 14/C and /sup 51/Cr. The /sup 51/Cr was used as an indicator to measure the assimilation efficiency of fore-aged silver carp for radiocarbon. The assimilation efficiency values obtained were 89.0 +- 5.43% for M. firma, 61.3 +- 15.28% for D. viridis and 91.3 +- 2.22% for C. vulgaris.

  11. Caracterização ácido-base da superfície de espécies mistas da alga Spirulina através de titulação potenciométrica e modelo de distribuição de sítios discretos Acid base characterization of the surface of mixed species of algae Spirulin by potentiometric titration and discrete site distribution model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabete C. de Lima

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Acid base properties of mixed species of the microalgae Spirulina were studied by potentiometric titration in medium of 0.01 and 0.10 mols L-1 NaNO3 at 25.0±0.10 C using modified Gran functions or nonlinear regression techniques for data fitting. The discrete site distribution model was used, permitting the characterization of five classes of ionizable sites in both ionic media. This fact suggests that the chemical heterogeneity of the ionizable sites on the cell surface plays a major role on the acid-base properties of the suspension in comparison to electrostatic effects due to charge-charge interactions. The total of ionizable sites were 1.75±0.10 and 1.86±0.20 mmolsg-1 in ionic media of 0.01 and 0.10 mols L-1 NaNO3, respectively. A major contribution of carboxylic groups was observed with an average 34 and 22% of ionizable sites being titrated with conditional pcKa of 4.0 and 5.4, respectively. The remaining 44% of ionizable sites were divided in three classes with averaged conditional pcKa of 6.9, 8.7 and 10.12, which may be assigned respectively to imidazolic, aminic, and phenolic functionalities.

  12. Teores de β-caroteno em suplementos e biomassa de Spirulina Contents of β-carotene in supplements and biomass of Spirulina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Barroso de Alencar

    2011-04-01

    /v delivered at 2 mL min-1 and chromatograms registered at 450 nm absorbance. Food supplement made with Spirulina presented low content of β-carotene. The highest content of β-carotene was detected in S. platensis cultivated under 24º C with photoperiod of 16 h light and 8 h dark. Considering its pro-vitamin activity, retinol equivalent (RE was calculated from β-carotene to determine whether alga material could be claimed as an useful or an excellent source of the vitamins A.

  13. Blue-green-red luminescence from CeCl3- and MnCl2-doped hafnium oxide layers prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafnium oxide films doped with CeCl3 and/or MnCl2, and deposited at 300 deg. C by an ultrasonic spray pyrolysis process, were characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive spectroscopy and photoluminescence. The XRD results revealed that the films are predominantly amorphous. The weak green-red emission of Mn2+ is enhanced through an efficient energy transfer from Ce3+ to Mn2+ ions. Spectroscopic data revealed that the energy transfer is nonradiative in nature and it could occur in Ce3+ and Mn2+ clusters through a short-range interaction mechanism. The efficiency of this transfer increases with the Mn2+ ion concentration, so that an efficiency of about 78% is attained for a 5 at.% of MnCl2 concentration, which makes these films interesting phosphors for the design of luminescent layers with blue, green and red emissions

  14. Monochromatic blue-green and red emission of rare-earth ions in MgGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Yangxian, E-mail: admat@jsmail.hebut.edu.c [School of Material Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Niu Pingjuan [Information and Communication Engineering School, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300160 (China); Hu Long; Xu Xuewen; Tang Cencun [School of Material Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China)

    2009-10-15

    Pr{sup 3+}-activated blue-green phosphor and Eu{sup 3+}-activated red phosphor hosted in MgGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel have been prepared by a gel-assisted high-temperature calcination process, respectively. Both anion and cation vacancies in the host were formed by decreasing the Mg concentration in the reaction source. The induced vacancies provide possibility of the accommodation of the doped rare-earth ions with larger atomic size in the highly symmetrical spinel structure. Due to the efficient energy transfer from the spinel host to the sole 4f sub-level of the doped rare earths, monochromatic emissions with high efficiency can be obtained to allow the phosphors to find applications in solid-state laser device and other phosphors excited under low energy. The corresponding spectroscopic transition mechanism has been proposed in this work.

  15. Formulation of a low-cost medium for mass production of Spirulina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raoof, Basirath [Division of Microbiology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110 012 (India); Kaushik, B.D. [Division of Microbiology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110 012 (India)]. E-mail: bdkaushik@hotmail.com; Prasanna, Radha [Centre for Conservation and Utilization of Blue-Green Algae, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, 110 012 (India)

    2006-06-15

    A new medium was formulated for mass production of Spirulina sp. by incorporating selected nutrients of the standard Zarrouk's medium (SM) and other cost-effective alternative chemicals. This newly formulated medium (RM{sub 6}) contains single super phosphate (1.25 g l{sup -1}), sodium nitrate (2.50 g l{sup -1}), muriate of potash (0.98 g l{sup -1}), sodium chloride (0.5 g l{sup -1}), magnesium sulphate (0.15 g l{sup -1}), calcium chloride (0.04 g l{sup -1}), and sodium bicarbonate (commercial grade) 8 g l{sup -1}. The alga was grown in an illuminated (50 {mu}mol photons m{sup -2} s{sup -1} white light) growth room at 30{+-}1 {sup o}C. Maximum growth rate in terms of dry biomass, chlorophyll and proteins in SM was recorded between 6 and 9 days of growth and values were 0.114, 0.003 and 0.068 as compared to 0.112, 0.003 and 0.069 mg ml{sup -1} d{sup -1} in RM{sub 6},. No significant differences were observed in the protein profiles of Spirulina sp. grown in both the media. From the scale up point of view, the revised medium was found to be highly economical, since it is five times cheaper than Zarrouk's medium.

  16. Highly efficient blue-green quantum dot light-emitting diodes using stable low-cadmium quaternary-alloy ZnCdSSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huaibin; Wang, Sheng; Wang, Hongzhe; Niu, Jinzhong; Qian, Lei; Yang, Yixing; Titov, Alexandre; Hyvonen, Jake; Zheng, Ying; Li, Lin Song

    2013-05-22

    High-quality blue-green emitting ZnxCd(1-x)S(1-y)Se(y)/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) have been synthesized by a phosphine-free method. The quantum yields of as-synthesized ZnxCd(1-x)S(1-y)Se(y)/ZnS core/shell QDs can reach 50-75% with emissions between 450 and 550 nm. The emissions of such core/shell QDs are not susceptible to ligand loss through the photostability test. Blue-green light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based on the low-cadmium ZnxCd(1-x)S(1-y)Se(y)/ZnS core/shell QDs have been successfully demonstrated. Composite films of poly[9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-N-[4-(3-methylpropyl)]-diphenylamine] (TFB) and ZnO nanoparticle layers were chosen as the hole-transporting and the electron-transporting layers, respectively. Highly bright blue-green QD-based light-emitting devices (QD-LEDs) showing maximum luminance up to 10000 cd/m(2), in particular, the blue QD-LEDs show an unprecedentedly high brightness over 4700 cd/m(2) and peak external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 0.8%, which is the highest value ever reported. These results signify a remarkable progress in QD-LEDs and offer a practicable platform for the realization of QD-based blue-green display and lighting. PMID:23633527

  17. Light adaptability of tow strains of Spirulina (Arthrospra) platensis%两族群钝顶螺旋藻Spirulina (Arthrospra) platensis光强适应性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高凌岩; 高锦; 王林和

    2011-01-01

    螺旋藻光强适应性与其族群、培养时间等条件相关。为了探明分布在鄂尔多斯高原沙区碱湖的钝顶螺旋藻Spirulina(Arthrospra)platensis的光强适应性,采用比色法、生物量法实地、长期观测了其光强适应性,并与乍得湖引进的钝顶螺旋藻进行了比较。结果表明:24℃、连续7天荧光灯的照射下,国内族群的光补偿点约为0.58μmol·m^-2·s^-1;光饱和点约为82.1μmol·m^-2·s^-1;光抑制点约为129.6μmol·m^-2·s^-1;光分解点为230μmol·m^-2·s^-1。129.6μmol·m^-2·s^-1的连续光能够使两族群的很多藻丝体完全压紧。超过230μmol·m^-2·s^-1使国内族群以多个藻丝体纠结成团的方式避免高光强;而引进族群的藻丝体则不能。无论是液相或是固相螺旋藻都能够被光分解。两族群的藻丝体都需要暗的修复期。藻丝体有趋光性。%Light adaptability of Spirulina has relationship with its strains,cultural time and etc..The Spirulina that came from Erdos Plateau sand area's alkaline lakes was tested by the methods of color comparison,production,observation at the lake and lab for long time to study it's light adaptability,and the Spirulina came from Chad lake was use to compare with the strain.The results indicated that the native strain of Spirulina 's compensation point of light is 0.58μmol·m^-2s^-1,sturation of light is 82.1 μmol·m^-2s^-1,stress point of light is 129.6μmol·m-2s-1,decomposing point of light is 230μmol·m^-2s^-1 for the single alga.The native strain can make a ball in several algae to escape from strong light.But the intruduced strain can't do in this way and it can be decomposed on 230μmol·m^-2s^-1 continuous light when OD560 is 0.06.The continuous 129.6μmol·m^-2s^-1 light make many algae no helix space for both strains.Spirulina can be decomposed by light wathever in liquid or on soild.The both strains are much more healthy under the rhythm with light and dark than the

  18. Algae Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae are highly efficient at producing biomass, and they can be found all over the planet. Many use sunlight and nutrients to create biomass, which contain key components—including lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates— that can be converted and upgraded to a variety of biofuels and products. A functional algal biofuels production system requires resources such as suitable land and climate, sustainable management of water resources, a supplemental carbon dioxide (CO2) supply, and other nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus). Algae can be an attractive feedstock for many locations in the United States because their diversity allows for highpotential biomass yields in a variety of climates and environments. Depending on the strain, algae can grow by using fresh, saline, or brackish water from surface water sources, groundwater, or seawater. Additionally, they can grow in water from second-use sources such as treated industrial wastewater; municipal, agricultural, or aquaculture wastewater; or produced water generated from oil and gas drilling operations.

  19. Health aspects of Spirulina (Arthrospira microalga food supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiroudis Theodore G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina, now named Arthrospira, is a microscopic and filamentous cyanobacterium that has a long history of use as a safe food lacking toxicity. It is commercially produced in large outdoor ponds under controlled conditions. The aim of this review article is to summarize available recent information concerning human clinical potential and applications of Spirulina, as well as clinical data related to the safety and side effects of Spirulina. Potential health benefits of Spirulina are mainly due to its chemical composition, which includes proteins (the highest protein content of any natural food, 55%-70%, carbohydrates, essential amino acids, minerals (especially iron, essential fatty acids, vitamins, and pigments. In this respect, three major bioactive components of Spirulina, the protein phycocyanin (a biliprotein pigment, sulfated polysaccharides and gamma linolenic acid seem to play significant role in imparting improved human body functions. Furthermore, new experimental evidence supports the immunomodulation and antiviral effects of Spirulina supplementation. According to the Dietary Supplements Information Expert Committee of United States Pharmacopeial Convention the available clinical evidence does not indicate a serious risk to health or other public health concerns for Spirulina. However, a few cases of severe side-effects have been reported.

  20. Electron beam irradiation for biological decontamination of Spirulina platensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasoveanu, Mirela [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Department of Electron Accelerators, 409 Atomistilor Street, P.O. Box MG-36, RO 76 900 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)]. E-mail: mirela@infim.ro; Nemtanu, Monica [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Department of Electron Accelerators, 409 Atomistilor Street, P.O. Box MG-36, RO 76 900 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Minea, R. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Department of Electron Accelerators, 409 Atomistilor Street, P.O. Box MG-36, RO 76 900 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Grecu, Maria Nicoleta [National Institute for Materials Physics, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Mazilu, Elena [Hofigal SA (Romania); Radulescu, Nora [Hofigal SA (Romania)

    2005-10-15

    The Cyanobacterium Spirulina is commercialized for its use in health foods and for therapeutic purposes due to its valuable constituents particularly proteins and vitamins. The aim of the paper is to study the Spirulina platensis behaviour when it is electron beam irradiated for biological decontamination. Microbial load, antioxidant activity, enzymatic inhibition, electron spin resonance (ESR) and UV-Vis spectra were measured for doses up to 80 kGy. The results were correlated with doses in order to find where decontamination is efficient, keeping the Spirulina qualities.

  1. Photobiological hydrogen production employing Spirulina Maxima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ugas, A.J.; Sebastian, P.J. [CIE-UNAM, Morelos (Mexico); Duhakt, R.V.; Valencia, R.T. [IBT-UNAM, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    Efforts are being made to develop materials and processes for the renewable production of hydrogen. This paper described the biological production of hydrogen using microorganisms via the photosynthetic route. Several experiments were conducted to produce hydrogen from the biomass of a strain of photosynthetic Spirulina maxim. Conductimetry was used to quantify the results, along with its introduction in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The current generated was then measured. Spirulina maxim was cultivated under illumination by magnetic agitation air bubbling. The biomass was concentrated by filtration with micro-porous nylon cloth. The algal biomass was quantified by dry weight and by spectrophotometry. The biomass underwent an anaerobic process in darkness, under a nitrogen flow for 30 minutes. The photosynthesis reaction and the production of the enzyme hydrogenase were induced by leaving the culture in agitation and under illumination for 30 minutes to 2 hours. Tests were conducted with and without the addition of 2 grams of sodium ditionite before the photosynthesis process and with the same incident radiation in the bioreactor, which was coupled to a PEM fuel cell. The electric current generated was measured. The results indicate that after a certain stage of cellular growth, Spirulina maxim was capable of producing hydrogen photosynthetically after a process of anaerobic darkness. The biological production of hydrogen was quantifiable by conductimetry and coupling the bioreactor to a PEM fuel cell. The sodium ditionite proved to be a strong reducing agent that inhibits the oxygen production during the photosynthesis process and allows the activation of the enzyme hydrogenase. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. Photoinhibition induced alterations in energy transfer process in phycobilisomes of PS II in the cyanobacterium, Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Duvvuri Prasanna; Murthy, Sistla D S

    2007-09-30

    Exposure of algae or plants to irradiance from above the light saturation point of photosynthesis is known as high light stress. This high light stress induces various responses including photoinhibition of the photosynthetic apparatus. The degree of photoinhibition could be clearly determined by measuring the parameters such as absorption and fluorescence of chromoproteins. In cyanobacteria and red algae, most of the photosystem (PS) II associated light harvesting is performed by a membrane attached complex called the phycobilisome (PBS). The effects of high intensity light (1000-4000 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1)) on excitation energy transfer from PBSs to PS II in a cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis were studied by measuring room temperature PC fluorescence emission spectra. High light (3000 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1)) stress had a significant effect on PC fluorescence emission spectra. On the other hand, light stress induced an increase in the ratio of PC fluorescence intensity of PBS indicating that light stress inhibits excitation energy transfer from PBS to PS II. The high light treatment to 3000 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1) caused disappearance of 31.5 kDa linker polypeptide which is known to link PC discs together. In addition we observed the similar decrease in the other polypeptide contents. Our data concludes that the Spirulina cells upon light treatment causes alterations in the phycobiliproteins (PBPs) and affects the energy transfer process within the PBSs.

  3. Algae mediated synthesis of cadmium sulphide nanoparticles and their application in bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad Mandal, Ranju; Sekh, Sanoyaz; Sarkar, Neera Sen; Chattopadhyay, Dipankar; De, Swati

    2016-05-01

    The present work is a study on the biological synthesis of cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanoparticles using blue-green algae that is popularly used as a food supplement. This synthesis is unique in the sense that no external sulphur precursor is required, the CdS nanoparticles are synthesized in situ in the algal medium. The CdS nanoparticles thus synthesized are photoluminescent and can act as highly efficient photocatalysts for degradation of the dye pollutant malachite green. Thus the CdS nanoparticles synthesized in situ in the algae conform to the desired criteria of waste water treatment i.e. biosorption of the pollutant and its subsequent degradation. The novelty of this work also lies in its potential for use in bioremediation by conversion of the toxic Cd(II) ion to less toxic CdS nanoparticles within the algal framework.

  4. Biofunctionalized Nanofibers Using Arthrospira (Spirulina Biomass and Biopolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Greque de Morais

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrospun nanofibers composed of polymers have been extensively researched because of their scientific and technical applications. Commercially available polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB and polyhydroxybutyrate-co-valerate (PHB-HV copolymers are good choices for such nanofibers. We used a highly integrated method, by adjusting the properties of the spinning solutions, where the cyanophyte Arthrospira (formally Spirulina was the single source for nanofiber biofunctionalization. We investigated nanofibers using PHB extracted from Spirulina and the bacteria Cupriavidus necator and compared the nanofibers to those made from commercially available PHB and PHB-HV. Our study assessed nanofiber formation and their selected thermal, mechanical, and optical properties. We found that nanofibers produced from Spirulina PHB and biofunctionalized with Spirulina biomass exhibited properties which were equal to or better than nanofibers made with commercially available PHB or PHB-HV. Our methodology is highly promising for nanofiber production and biofunctionalization and can be used in many industrial and life science applications.

  5. Extraction and In Vitro Antimalarial Activity Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis

    OpenAIRE

    Diah Anggraini; Iriani Setyaningsih; Puji Budi Setia Asih

    2016-01-01

    Phycocyanin is biopigment found only in a conductor such as Spirulina platensis. Phycocyanin from Nostoc can inhibit Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 8.4 μg/mL so that phycocyanin from S. platensis also can inhibit P. falciparum like Nostoc. The aim of this study was to determine the best method for phycocyanin extraction using three solvents. They were phosphate buffer, water, and aseton. Spirulina were cultured in the conditions intensity of light 3000 Lux, salinity 15 ppt, dark-...

  6. OPTIMALISASI EKSTRAKSI DAN UJI STABILITAS PHYCOCYANIN DARI MIKROALGA Spirulina platensis

    OpenAIRE

    Bakti Jos; Prayudi Eko Setyawan; Yudha Satria

    2012-01-01

    The growing awareness of the importance of natural colours especially food and cosmetic colorants has placedgreat demand on biological sources of natural colours. It is for this reason that the phycobiliproteins inSpirulina platensis is gaining increasing attention as an alternative colour for these products. Numerousscientific reports confirm the fact that Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis, is not only an effective naturalblue colorant, but also a compound that is beneficial to the health...

  7. [Analysis of Spirulina powder by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and calculation of protein content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Jing; Xu, Chang-Hua; Li, Wei-Ming; Wang, Feng; Zhou, Qun; Li, An; Zhao, Yue-Liang; Ha, Yi-Ming; Sun, Su-Qin

    2013-04-01

    Spirulina, Spirulina powder and dextrin standard were analyzed and identified by Infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The main components, protein (1 657 and 1 537 cm(-1)) and carbohydrate (1 069 and 1054 cm(-1)), had distinct fingerprint characteristics of IR spectra. By comparing the IR spectra of Spirulina, Spirulina powder and dextrin standard, the dominant nutrition in Spirulina powder was identified as protein and carbohydrate. The dominant accessory added in Spirulina powder was dextrin. Comparing the IR spectra of Spirulina powder from 28 different factories and figuring out the correlation provides the information about the amount of accessory. A standard curve of the ratio of absorption peak intensities to protein content was constructed to accurately determine the amount of protein in Spirulina powder.

  8. Blue-green fluorescence and visible-infrared reflectance of corn (Zea mays L.) grain for in situ field detection of nitrogen supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensing of spectral attributes of corn (Zea mays L.) grain from site specific areas of the field during the harvest process may be useful in managing agronomic inputs and production practices on those areas of the field in subsequent growing seasons. Eight levels of nitrogen (N) fertilization were applied to field grown corn at Beltsville, Maryland. These N treatments produced a range of chlorophyll levels, biomass and physiological condition in the live plant canopies. After harvest, spectra were obtained in the laboratory on whole grain samples. Fluorescence emissions were acquired from 400 to 600 nm and percent reflectance were measured in the visible (VIS) near infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) regions from 400 nm to 2400 nm. A ultraviolet (UV) excitation band centered at 385 nm was the most effective in producing fluorescence emission differences in the blue-green region of the fluorescence spectrum with maxima centered from 430-470nm in the blue and with an intense shoulder centered at around 530-560 nm in the green region. Reflectance showed the most spectral differences in the NIR and MIR (970-2330 nm) regions

  9. Synthesis of Blue-Green Phosphors Sr4Si3O8Cl4:Eu2+ by Gel-Combustion Method and Their Luminescent Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Qing Zhai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sr4Si3O8Cl4:Eu2+ blue-green phosphors were synthesized by the gel-combustion method. The as-synthesized phosphors were analyzed and characterized by X-ray diffraction and fluorescence spectrophotometer. The results indicate that orthorhombic phase Sr4Si3O8Cl4:Eu2+ has been formed after the precursor calcined at 900°C reductive temperature. The excitation spectrum of Sr4Si3O8Cl4:Eu2+ is a broad band in the range of 250 ~ 450 nm and the main peak at 324 nm. The emission spectrum is also a broad band with the main emission peak at about 484 nm, which is ascribed to the typical 4f5d1 to 4f7 transition of Eu2+. Moreover, the effects of the concentration of Eu2+, the reductive temperature, and the doping amount of Mg2+ on luminescent properties were discussed.

  10. Blue-green tunable color of Ce3+/Tb3+ coactivated NaBa3La3Si6O20 phosphor via energy transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhen; Xia, Mingjun

    2016-01-01

    A series of color tunable phosphors NaBa3La3Si6O20:Ce3+, Tb3+ were synthesized via the high-temperature solid-state method. NaBa3La3Si6O20 crystallizes in noncentrosymmetric space group Ama2 with the cell parameters of a = 14.9226(4) Å, b = 24.5215(5) Å and c = 5.6241(2) Å by the Rietveld refinement method. The Ce3+ ions doped NaBa3La3Si6O20 phosphors have a strong absorption band from 260 to 360 nm and show near ultraviolet emission light centered at 378 nm. The Ce3+ and Tb3+ ions coactivated phosphors exhibit color tunable emission light from deep blue to green by adjusting the concentration of the Tb3+ ions. An energy transfer of Ce3+ → Tb3+ investigated by the photoluminescence properties and lifetime decay, is demonstrated to be dipole–quadrupole interaction. These results indicate the NaBa3La3Si6O20:Ce3+, Tb3+ phosphors can be considered as potential candidates for blue-green components for white light emitting diodes. PMID:27628111

  11. Producción artesanal del rotífero Philodina sp. y de algas para la alimentación de post-larvas de bocachico Artisan production of rotifero and algaes for bocachico post-larva feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Eugenia Quintero P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de algas mixtas se realizó en el Instituto de Piscicultura Tropical de la Corporación Autónoma Regional del Valle del Cauca (Buga 25 ºC y 969 m.s.n.m. utilizando fertilizantes inorgánicos en baldes plásticos, se produjeron en promedio 386 x 10³ células/ml de cultivo. En el cultivo de Philodina en frascos de vidrio alimentado con algas y levadura, se obtuvieron 410 rotíferos/ml de cultivo. Se evaluaron tres tratamientos: rotíferos enriquecidos con aceite de pescado; rotíferos más algas (Chlorella, Scenedesmus, Pediastrum, Spyrogira y Anabaena y Artemia salina + Spirulina, usando 100 post-larvas de bocachico/acuario, alimentadas dos veces al día según biomasa sembrada. El mayor porcentaje de sobrevivencia, peso y talla se obtuvo con el alimento constituido por rotíferos enriquecidos con aceite de pescado (93 %,3.2mg, 6.86mm, seguido de rotíferos + algas (80.67 %,2 mg, 6.1mm y Artemia+ Spirulina (60.6 %,1.6mg, 6.06mm respectivamenteIn the Tropical Piscicultural Institute of the Regional Autonomous Corporation of Buga, Cauca, Valley, Colombia (25ºC temperature, 969 m a s l, a research was carried out with the objective to produce and use algaes and rotifers (living food cultures to feed bocachico post-larvas (Prochilodus reticulatus magdalenae. A complete random design with three treatments and three repetitions was established. 100 bocachico/aquarium post larva were used and fed twice a day according to sown biomass. The cultures of mixed algaes were established by using inorganic fertilizers produced in plastic pails and obtaining an average of 386 x 10³ cells/ml of culture. On the other hand, the cultures of Philodina rotifers were established in glass bottles and feeding them with algaes and yeast. An average of 410 rotifers/ml of culturing was obtained . To evaluate the highest rate of survival, growing and weight of bocachico post-larvas, three kind of food were used: Rotifers enriched with fish oil; rotifers plus

  12. Efficient blue-green and green electroluminescent devices obtained by doping iridium complexes into hole-block material as supplementary light-emitting layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Liang [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Zheng, Youxuan, E-mail: yxzheng@mail.nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Deng, Ruiping; Feng, Jing; Song, Mingxing; Hao, Zhaomin [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Zhang, Hongjie, E-mail: hongjie@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Zuo, Jinglin; You, Xiaozeng [State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-04-15

    In this work, organic electroluminescent (EL) devices with dominant and supplementary light-emitting layers (EMLs) were designed to further improve the EL performances of two iridium{sup III}-based phosphorescent complexes, which have been reported to provide EL devices with slow EL efficiency roll-off. The widely used hole-block material 2,2′,2''-(1,3,5-Benzinetriyl)-tris(1-phenyl-1-H-benzimidazole) (TPBi) was selected as host material to construct the supplementary EML. Compared with single-EML devices, double-EMLs devices showed higher EL efficiencies, higher brightness, and lower operation voltage attributed to wider recombination zone and better balance of carriers. In addition, the insertion of supplementary EML is instrumental in facilitating carriers trapping, thus improving the color purity. Finally, high performance blue-green and green EL devices with maximum current efficiencies of 35.22 and 90.68 cd/A, maximum power efficiencies of 26.36 and 98.18 lm/W, and maximum brightness of 56,678 and 112,352 cd/m{sup 2}, respectively, were obtained by optimizing the doping concentrations. Such a device design strategy extends the application of a double EML device structure and provides a chance to simplify device fabrication processes. -- Highlights: • Electroluminescent devices with supplementary light-emitting layer were fabricated. • Doping concentrations and thicknesses were optimized. • Better balance of holes and electrons causes the enhanced efficiency. • Improved carrier trapping suppresses the emission of host material.

  13. Study of bio-oil and bio-char production from algae by slow pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examined bio-oil and bio-char fuel produced from Spirulina Sp. by slow pyrolysis. A thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) was used to investigate the pyrolytic characteristics and essential components of algae. It was found that the temperature for the maximum degradation, 322 °C, is lower than that of other biomass. With our fixed-bed reactor, 125 g of dried Spirulina Sp. algae was fed under a nitrogen atmosphere until the temperature reached a set temperature between 450 and 600 °C. It was found that the suitable temperature to obtain bio-char and bio-oil were at approximately 500 and 550 °C respectively. The bio-oil components were identified by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The saturated functional carbon of the bio-oil was in a range of heavy naphtha, kerosene and diesel oil. The energy consumption ratio (ECR) of bio-oil and bio-char was calculated, and the net energy output was positive. The ECR had an average value of 0.49. -- Highlights: •Bio-oil and bio-char fuel produced from Spirulina Sp. by slow pyrolysis. •Suitable temperature to obtained bio-oil and bio-char were at about 550 and 500 °C. •Saturated functional carbon of bio-oil was heavy naphtha, kerosene, diesel oil. •ECR had an average value of 0.49

  14. Extraction and In Vitro Antimalarial Activity Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Anggraini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Phycocyanin is biopigment found only in a conductor such as Spirulina platensis. Phycocyanin from Nostoc can inhibit Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 8.4 μg/mL so that phycocyanin from S. platensis also can inhibit P. falciparum like Nostoc. The aim of this study was to determine the best method for phycocyanin extraction using three solvents. They were phosphate buffer, water, and aseton. Spirulina were cultured in the conditions intensity of light 3000 Lux, salinity 15 ppt, dark-light 8-16 hours. The response parameters of this study were C-phycocyanin (C-PC content, yield, and protein content. Yield biomass of Spirulina which cultivated using toplest was higher than the aquarium. The best solvent for phycocyanin extraction was a phosphate buffer with C-PC content, yield, and protein content 8 mg/mL, 202.26 mg/g, and 1.88%.

  15. Hydrogen production employing Spirulina maxima 2342: A chemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juantorena, A.U.; Santoyo, E.; Gamboa, S.A.; Lastres, O.D. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, UNAM, Temixco 62580, Morelos (Mexico); Sebastian, P.J. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, UNAM, Temixco 62580, Morelos (Mexico); Cuerpo Academico de Energia, UP Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico); Sanchez-Escamilla, D. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Bustos, A. [Centro de Ciencias Fisicas, UNAM, Ave. Universidad, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Eapen, D. [Investigacion y Desarrollo en Agroindustria, UP Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico)

    2007-10-15

    The biomass of the cyanobacteria, Spirulina maxima 2342, was autotrophically obtained in a 20 l bioreactor under illumination and air bubbling and analyzed for its photobiological hydrogen production capability. A volume of 250 ml of Spirulina sp. taken from the reactor was used as culture sample for performing the experiments. An illumination-agitation process was employed to induce the hydrogen photoproduction reaction. The hydrogen produced in this process was quantified by gas chromatography technique using Molesieve 5 A(16ft x (1)/(8)in) column and a thermal conductivity detector (with a detector temperature of 110{sup o}C and a column temperature of 60{sup o}C). The culture samples were finally observed in an electron microscope to evaluate the effect of vacuum on the Spirulina sp. cells. (author)

  16. Cultivation of Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis using confectionary wastes for aquaculture feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Y. El-Kassas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The microalga biomass production from confectionary effluent is a possible solution for the urgent need for a live food in aquaculture. Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis was the dominant alga in effluent of “Biscomisr a confectionary factory”, in Alexandria–Egypt. Therefore, it was isolated from the effluent samples and used throughout the study. The cyanobacterium, A. platensis was grown on the effluent using 22 Central Composite Design (22 CCD. This work addresses the best effluent dilution (WC, % as well as sodium bicarbonate concentration (SBC on the alga growth and biochemical composition. Total protein, carbohydrate, lipid contents and fatty acid profiles of the produced algal biomass were highly improved. The statistical analyses suggested that the main effect of (WC, % is significant negative influences on the algal contents of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates (p > 0.01. Although it had a significant positive influence on chlorophyll (p > 0.01, no significant effect on algal β carotenes (p > 0.05 had been reported. The inter action effect of SBC together with WC, % exerted a significant negative influence on the algal proteins (p > 0.01 and no significant effect on the other responses (p > 0.05. The produced alga biomass was used for feeding the rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis for further application in aquaculture. Growth rate, reproductive rate and fecundity attributes, fatty acid content of B. plicatilis were amended. The Pearson correlation test indicated that β carotenes displayed a highly positive significant correlation with the growth rate of B. plicatilis (r = 0.733, p < 0.01 and the carbohydrates showed significant positive correlations with Egg % (r = 0.657, p < 0.05.

  17. Next generation paradigm for urban pluvial flood modelling, prediction, management and vulnerability reduction - Interaction between RainGain and Blue Green Dream projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimovic, C.

    2012-04-01

    The effects of climate change and increasing urbanisation call for a new paradigm for efficient planning, management and retrofitting of urban developments to increase resilience to climate change and to maximize ecosystem services. Improved management of urban floods from all sources in required. Time scale for well documented fluvial and coastal floods allows for timely response but surface (pluvial) flooding caused by intense local storms had not been given appropriate attention, Pitt Review (UK). Urban surface floods predictions require fine scale data and model resolutions. They have to be tackled locally by combining central inputs (meteorological services) with the efforts of the local entities. Although significant breakthrough in modelling of pluvial flooding was made there is a need to further enhance short term prediction of both rainfall and surface flooding. These issues are dealt with in the EU Iterreg project Rain Gain (RG). Breakthrough in urban flood mitigation can only be achieved by combined effects of advanced planning design, construction and management of urban water (blue) assets in interaction with urban vegetated areas' (green) assets. Changes in design and operation of blue and green assets, currently operating as two separate systems, is urgently required. Gaps in knowledge and technology will be introduced by EIT's Climate-KIC Blue Green Dream (BGD) project. The RG and BGD projects provide synergy of the "decoupled" blue and green systems to enhance multiple benefits to: urban amenity, flood management, heat island, biodiversity, resilience to drought thus energy requirements, thus increased quality of urban life at lower costs. Urban pluvial flood management will address two priority areas: Short Term rainfall Forecast and Short term flood surface forecast. Spatial resolution of short term rainfall forecast below 0.5 km2 and lead time of a few hours are needed. Improvements are achievable by combining data sources of raingauge networks

  18. Evaluation of Cataract Preventive Action of Phycocyanin

    OpenAIRE

    Kothadia AD; AM Shenoy; Shabaraya AR; Rajan MS; UM Viradia; Patel NH

    2011-01-01

    Phycocyanin is a biliprotein pigment found in blue-green algae Spirulina platensis, which have attracted attention because of their nutritional value and medicinal properties. This pigment has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activity in different experimental models. This data supports the view that phycocyanin may prevent cataract progression. Cataract preventive action of phycocyanin was evaluated against naphthalene and galactose induced cataract experimental models in ...

  19. Spirulina (Arthrospira): An Important Source of Nutritional and Medicinal Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulmumin A. Nuhu

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are aquatic and photosynthetic organisms known for their rich pigments. They are extensively employed as food supplements due to their rich contents of proteins. While many species, such as Anabaena sp., produce hepatotoxins (e.g., microcystins and nodularins) and neurotoxins (such as anatoxin a), Spirulina (Arthrospira) displays anticancer and antimicrobial (antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral) activities via the production of phycocyanin, phycocyanobilin, allophycocyanin,...

  20. Protective effects of Spirulina on the liver function and hyperlipidemia of rats and human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Mohamed El-Sheekh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effects of Spirulina on subchronic treatments (two weeks of hyperlipidemia and liver function of the rats and humans were investigated. The hyperlipidemia was induced in the rats using 25% of soya bean oil and 25% butter. The butter induced more hyperlipidemia than soya bean oil. Spirulina was used at the concentrations of 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 % of diet weight of the rats. The decrease in hyperlipidemia by Spirulina was dependent on its concentration in the diet. In case of human studies, about four g/day of Spirulina was taken via oral administration by Egyptian volunteers patients with hyperlipidemia. Spirulina decreased the levels of hyperlipidemia in these patients. The effects were dependent on the amount and number of administered dose of Sprirulina. The results suggested that the Spirulina treatment could induce marked reduction of aminotransferase through correcting lipid profile and increasing high density lipoprotein.

  1. Magnetic separation of algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nath, Pulak; Twary, Scott N.

    2016-04-26

    Described herein are methods and systems for harvesting, collecting, separating and/or dewatering algae using iron based salts combined with a magnetic field gradient to separate algae from an aqueous solution.

  2. Effect of Different Light Qualities on Growth, Pigment Content, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in the Red Alga Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Spectral light changes evoke different morphogenetic and photosynthetic responses that can vary among different algae species. The aim of this study is to investigate the photosynthetic characteristics of the red macroalgae grown under different spectrum environments. In this study, Pyropia haitanensis were cultured under blue, red, and green LED and fluorescent tubes light. The growth rate, photopigment composition, chlorophyll fluorescence, and antioxidative enzymes activities in different light spectrums were investigated. The results revealed that growth rate was significantly higher in the thalli grown under blue, green, and fluorescent tubes light. Contents of Chl a and phycobiliprotein in red light were lower among all the growth conditions. Furthermore, a striking increase in SOD and CAT activity was observed in red light treatment along with the NPQ increase. The results revealed that the photosynthetic efficiency and increased growth rate of P. haitanensis benefitted from light spectrums such as blue, green, and fluorescent tubes light by pigment composition and photochemical efficiency manipulation, whereas red light has disadvantageous effects. Accordingly, the results for improving quality and the economic yield of algae species in some extent and the combination of different wavelengths could allow better economic resource exploitation. PMID:27642603

  3. Effect of Different Light Qualities on Growth, Pigment Content, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in the Red Alga Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huanyang

    2016-01-01

    Spectral light changes evoke different morphogenetic and photosynthetic responses that can vary among different algae species. The aim of this study is to investigate the photosynthetic characteristics of the red macroalgae grown under different spectrum environments. In this study, Pyropia haitanensis were cultured under blue, red, and green LED and fluorescent tubes light. The growth rate, photopigment composition, chlorophyll fluorescence, and antioxidative enzymes activities in different light spectrums were investigated. The results revealed that growth rate was significantly higher in the thalli grown under blue, green, and fluorescent tubes light. Contents of Chl a and phycobiliprotein in red light were lower among all the growth conditions. Furthermore, a striking increase in SOD and CAT activity was observed in red light treatment along with the NPQ increase. The results revealed that the photosynthetic efficiency and increased growth rate of P. haitanensis benefitted from light spectrums such as blue, green, and fluorescent tubes light by pigment composition and photochemical efficiency manipulation, whereas red light has disadvantageous effects. Accordingly, the results for improving quality and the economic yield of algae species in some extent and the combination of different wavelengths could allow better economic resource exploitation. PMID:27642603

  4. Epithermal neutron activation analysis of Spirulina platensis biomass and extracted C-phycocianin and DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) was used for study the biomass of Spirulina platensis. The background levels of concentration 27 macro-, micro- and trace elements ranging from 10-3 to 104 ppm was determined. It was found that the biomass of Spirulina does not contain toxic element concentrations above the tolerance level and can be utilized as a matrix of pharmaceuticals. The concentrations of basic elements in C-phycocianin and DNA extracted from Spirulina platensis were determined by ENAA. A comparison of the element content of a whole Spirulina biomass with that of a refined C-phycocianin preparation was made. (author)

  5. Quantification of the hydrogen produced by Spirulina maxima using a PEMFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juantorena, U.A.; Gamboa, S.A. [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Morelos (Mexico). Centro de Investigacion en Energia; Sebastian, P.J. [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Morelos (Mexico). Centro de Investigacion en Energia]|[Univ. Politecnica de Chiapas (Mexico); Bustos, G.A. [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Morelos (Mexico). Centro de Ciencias Fisicas

    2006-07-01

    This paper addressed the challenges associated with producing hydrogen through biological methods, and the potential for biotechnology to resolve them. It has been shown that cyanobacteria can produce hydrogen through auto-fermentation under anaerobic conditions in the dark. In this study, the amount of hydrogen produced by the photosynthetic micro-algae Spirulina maxima 2342 under different experimental conditions was quantified. The produced hydrogen was then fed into a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and was quantified from the electricity generated in the fuel cell. The Faraday efficiency was calculated by substituting the current density in the regression equation. The hydrogen flow into the cell was calculated in terms of its relation to the hydrogen produced by the bioreactor. It was shown that higher potential values, hydrogen flow and Faraday efficiency correspond to higher light intensity values. It was concluded that a PEMFC can be used to quantify the hydrogen produced by a photosynthetic micro-algal system. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  6. A light-harvesting siphonaxanthin-chlorophyll a/b-protein complex of marine green alga,Bryopsis corticulans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hui; SHEN Shihua; HE Junfang; LENG Jing; LI Liangbi; KUANG Tingyun

    2004-01-01

    A light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-protein complex (LHCP) was isolated directly from thylakoid membranes of marine green alga, Bryopsis corticulans, by two consecutive runs of liquid chromatography. The trimeric form of the light-harvesting complex has been obtained by sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation. The result of SDSPAGE shows that the light-harvesting complex is composed of at least five apoproteins in which a protein with apparent molecular weight of about 31 kD was never found in the major light-harvesting complex (LHC Ⅱ) from higher plants.The isolated Bryopsis corticulans light-harvesting complex contains a specific carotenoid, siphonaxanthin, as well as chlorophyll (Chl) a, Chl b, neoxanthin and violaxanthin. Siphonaxanthin which is present in the light-harvesting siphonaxanthin-chlorophyll a/b-protein complex of Bryopsis corticulans is responsible for enhanced absorption in the blue-green region (530 nm). Efficient energy transfer from both siphonaxanthin and Chl b to Chl a in Bryopsis corticulans LHCP, which has similar absorption and fluorescence emission spectra to those of the lutein-chlorophyll a/b-protein of higher plants, proved that molecular arrangement of the light-harvesting pigments was highly ordered in the Bryopsis corticulans LHCP. The siphonaxanthin-chlorophyll a/b-proteins allow enhanced absorption of blue-green light, the predominant light available in deep ocean waters or shaded subtidal marine habitats.

  7. Evaluation of Spirulina Supplementation on Intermittent Binge Ethanol - Induced Neurotoxicity in Dentate Gyrus of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Asari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Spirulina is a widely used nutritional supplement which is rich in antioxidants and proteins.  Studies have shown that intermittent binge-like ethanol consumption during adolescent period caused neuronal damage in specific parts of the brain, including the dentate gyrus. It has been suggested that antioxidant therapy may provide some level of protection against neurotoxicity of ethanol at cellular level. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the preventive effects of spirulina supplementation on ethanol-induced neurotoxicity in the dentate gyrus of adolescent rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given ethanol (10 g/kg/day, intermittent binge model, or spirulina platensis (1000 mg/kg/day or both from postnatal day 30 for two weeks duration. The cerebral hemispheres were processed for routine histological staining and immunohistochemistry with anti-GFAP antibody.  Ethanol-treated group showed significant deficit in the numbers of granule cells and hilar neurons of the dentate gyrus when compared to the control group. Spirulina supplementation failed to provide protection against ethanol-induced neuronal loss. Spirulina supplementation also failed to alter increased expression of GFAP immunoreactivity induced by ethanol exposure. In conclusion, these findings indicate that spirulina supplementation is not effective in reducing the ethanol-induced neurotoxicity in the dentate gyrus of adolescent rats. Industrial Relevance. Spirulina is one of the widely used nutritional supplements particularly in Asian population. Being a strong antioxidant, spirulina has been shown to have many therapeutic effects in human. However, the question of whether spirulina supplementation is able to mitigate the effect of ethanol neurotoxicity is largely unknown. Therefore, the study was undertaken to investigate the possibility that spirulina supplementation is able to provide some protection against ethanol-induced neurotoxicity in a rat model

  8. The antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory activities of Spirulina: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinghua; Liu, Lian; Miron, Anca; Klímová, Blanka; Wan, Dan; Kuča, Kamil

    2016-08-01

    Spirulina is a species of filamentous cyanobacteria that has long been used as a food supplement. In particular, Spirulina platensis and Spirulina maxima are the most important. Thanks to a high protein and vitamin content, Spirulina is used as a nutraceutical food supplement, although its other potential health benefits have attracted much attention. Oxidative stress and dysfunctional immunity cause many diseases in humans, including atherosclerosis, cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure, and hypertension. Thus, the antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory activities of these microalgae may play an important role in human health. Here, we discuss the antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory activities of Spirulina in both animals and humans, along with the underlying mechanisms. In addition, its commercial and regulatory status in different countries is discussed as well. Spirulina activates cellular antioxidant enzymes, inhibits lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, scavenges free radicals, and increases the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Notably, there appears to be a threshold level above which Spirulina will taper off the antioxidant activity. Clinical trials show that Spirulina prevents skeletal muscle damage under conditions of exercise-induced oxidative stress and can stimulate the production of antibodies and up- or downregulate the expression of cytokine-encoding genes to induce immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory responses. The molecular mechanism(s) by which Spirulina induces these activities is unclear, but phycocyanin and β-carotene are important molecules. Moreover, Spirulina effectively regulates the ERK1/2, JNK, p38, and IκB pathways. This review provides new insight into the potential therapeutic applications of Spirulina and may provide new ideas for future studies. PMID:27259333

  9. 氮肥对3种固氮蓝藻种群数量的影响%Study on Effect of Fertilizers in Rice Fields to Fixing Blue-green Algaes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀红; 沈健英; 陆贻通

    2006-01-01

    通过2种常用化肥对固氮鱼腥藻(Anabaena azotica Ley),球胞鱼腥藻(Anabaena sphaerica Born),多变鱼腥藻(Anabaena variabilio Kutzing)影响的研究.结果表明,尿素和碳酸氢铵在低浓度(20 mg/L以下)表现为促进,当浓度为80 mg/L时,则显著抑制其种群生长;且高浓度时,尿素和碳酸氢铵对3种藻产生较强影响,处理96 h时的EC50值分别为54.0,67.0,85.7 mg/L及73.7,63.1,92.2 mg/L.

  10. 稻田除草剂对固氮蓝藻的毒性研究%Study on Herbicides in Rice Fields to Toxicity of Fixing Blue- green Algaes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀红; 沈健英; 陆贻通

    2004-01-01

    通过4种稻田除草剂对固氮鱼腥藻(Anabaena azotica Ley)、球胞鱼腥藻(Anabaena sphaerica Bom)、多变鱼腥藻(Anabaena variabilio Kutzing)的毒性进行了研究.结果表明,二甲四氯对3种藻的生长有促进作用,而丁草胺和乙草胺在低浓度(8 mg·L-1以下)表现为促进,当浓度为16 mg·L-1时,则显著抑制其生长,且高浓度时对3种藻产生较强毒性,处理96h时的EC50值分别为12.87、25.36、20.21 mg·L-1及50.52、18.37、45.43mg·L-1.3种藻对扑草净极为敏感,在低浓度时其生长受到严重抑制,继而迅速死亡.因此选择对固氮蓝藻安全的稻田除草剂,对维护稻田生态、促进农业可持续发展具有重要意义.

  11. Equilibrium and thermodynamics of azo dyes biosorption onto Spirulina platensis

    OpenAIRE

    G. L. Dotto; M. L. G. Vieira; V. M. Esquerdo; L. A. A. PINTO

    2013-01-01

    The equilibrium and thermodynamics of azo dye (tartrazine and allura red) biosorption onto Spirulina platensis biomass were investigated. The equilibrium curves were obtained at 298, 308, 318 and 328 K, and four isotherm models were fitted the experimental data. Biosorption thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ΔH and ΔS) were estimated. The results showed that the biosorption was favored by a temperature decrease. For both dyes, the Sips model was the best to represent the equilibrium...

  12. Biofunctionalized Nanofibers Using Arthrospira (Spirulina) Biomass and Biopolymer

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Greque de Morais; Christopher Stillings; Roland Dersch; Markus Rudisile; Patrícia Pranke; Jorge Alberto Vieira Costa; Joachim Wendorff

    2015-01-01

    Electrospun nanofibers composed of polymers have been extensively researched because of their scientific and technical applications. Commercially available polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and polyhydroxybutyrate-co-valerate (PHB-HV) copolymers are good choices for such nanofibers. We used a highly integrated method, by adjusting the properties of the spinning solutions, where the cyanophyte Arthrospira (formally Spirulina) was the single source for nanofiber biofunctionalization. We investigated na...

  13. Fresh pasta production enriched with Spirulina platensis biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Ailton Cesar Lemes; Katiuchia Pereira Takeuchi; João Carlos Monteiro de Carvalho; Eliane Dalva Godoy Danesi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the enrichment of Spirulina platensis in wheat flour to prepare fresh pasta to evaluate the green color and nutritional enrichment in addition to functional properties due to the presence of the bioactive compounds in the cyanobacterium. The pastas were evaluated for the centesimal composition, microbiological contamination, sensorial acceptance and technological characteristics such as cooking time, water absorption, volume displacement and loss of solids. T...

  14. C-phycocyanin extraction from Spirulina platensis wet biomass

    OpenAIRE

    C. C. Moraes; Luisa Sala; G. P. Cerveira; S. J. Kalil

    2011-01-01

    C-Phycocyanin is a natural blue dye used in food and pharmaceutical industry. In the present study, a simple and efficient method to extract C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis wet biomass is reported. The extractions were carried out using six different methods, including chemical (organic and inorganic acid treatment), physical (freezing and thawing, sonication, homogenization) and enzymatic (lysozyme treatment) methods. The extraction using ultrasonic bath in the presence of glass pearl...

  15. Spirulina as a protein source in the nutritional recovery of Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Muniz Moreira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of Spirulina (Arthrospira as a protein source in the nutritional recovery of rats subjected to protein malnutrition. In order to understand such effects, responses of the developing body, serum biochemical profile, and blood count of animals were analyzed. A total of, 23 Wistar Rattus norvegicus were given a proteic diet (AIN-93G adapted in malnutrition phase (phase I for 10 days. After this period, the rats were separated into four groups according to the protein source (recovery phase: Control (C, casein 12%; Spirulina level I (S1, Spirulina 8.8% + casein 5.0%; Spirulina level II (S2, Spirulina 17.6% + casein 0.15%, and Spirulina level III (S3, Spirulina 26.4%. Recovery phase (phase II lasted 30 days. In both the phases, the consumption and body weight of the rats were monitored daily and weekly, respectively. The S1 treatment showed the highest values of Feed Efficiency Ratio (FER and Quotient of Protein Efficiency Ratio (QPE (p<0.05. Significant differences among the treatments were found mainly in the levels of serum lipids, and S2 diet caused an increase in such responses (p<0.05. These results demonstrated that the nutritional recovery of animals was enabled by different concentrations of Spirulina.

  16. Molecular diversity of bacteria in commercially available "Spirulina" food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardaka, Elisabeth; Kormas, Konstantinos A; Katsiapi, Matina; Genitsaris, Savvas; Moustaka-Gouni, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Arthrospira is among the most well-known food supplements worldwide known as "Spirulina." While it is a widely recognized health-promoting natural product, there are no reports on the molecular diversity of commercially available brands of "Spirulina" supplements and the occurrence of other cyanobacterial and heterotrophic bacterial microorganisms in these products. In this study, 454-pyrosequencing analysis of the total bacterial occurrence in 31 brands of "Spirulina" dietary supplements from the Greek market was applied for the first time. In all samples, operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of Arthrospira platensis were the predominant cyanobacteria. Some products contained additional cyanobacterial OTUs including a few known potentially toxic taxa. Moreover, 469 OTUs were detected in all 31 products collectively, with most of them being related to the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia. All samples included heterotrophic bacterial OTUs, ranging from 9-157 per product. Among the most common OTUs were ones closely related to taxa known for causing health issues (i.e., Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Vibrio, Aeromonas, Clostridium, Bacillus, Fusobacterium, Enterococcus). The observed high cyanobacterial and heterotrophic bacterial OTUs richness in the final product is a point for further research on the growth and processing of Arthrospira biomass for commercial purposes. PMID:26819852

  17. Alkaloids in Marine Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Ekrem Sezik; Aline Percot; Kasım Cemal Güven

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the alkaloids found in green, brown and red marine algae. Algal chemistry has interested many researchers in order to develop new drugs, as algae include compounds with functional groups which are characteristic from this particular source. Among these compounds, alkaloids present special interest because of their pharmacological activities. Alkaloid chemistry has been widely studied in terrestrial plants, but the number of studies in algae is insignificant. In this review...

  18. Development of cassava doughnuts enriched with Spirulina platensis biomass Desenvolvimento de 'sonho de mandioca' enriquecido com biomassa de Spirulina platensis

    OpenAIRE

    Samantha Ferreira Rabelo; Ailton Cesar Lemes; Katiuchia Pereira Takeuchi; Marcela Tostes Frata; João Carlos Monteiro de Carvalho; Eliane Dalva Godoy Danesi

    2013-01-01

    The cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis has been cultivated in a fed batch process with urea as the nitrogen source, in order to obtain dehydrated biomass for incorporation into food, aiming at nutritional enrichment and the production of a functional character, due to the amount of proteins, vitamins and several bioactive compounds found in this cyanobacterium. In this study, response surface methodology was used to analyze the substitution of wheat flour by cassava in the development of dough...

  19. 蓝绿激光在水下航行器导航中的应用展望%Prospects of Blue-green Laser in the Navigation of Remote Underwater Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张礴; 顾李冯

    2011-01-01

    针对水下航行器导航的薄弱环节,提出运用蓝绿激光的特殊性质,从远程水下航行器自身出发,对以海底地形匹配导航作为惯性导航的补充的导航方式进行了讨论.%For resolving the existing weak links of remote underwater vehicle, writer put forward that underwater vehicle start from itself, by use of the special nature of blue - green laser, sealed terrain matching navigation with inertial navigation as a supplementary means of navigation in this article.

  20. Algae liquefaction / Hope Baloyi

    OpenAIRE

    Baloyi, Hope

    2012-01-01

    The liquefaction of algae for the recovery of bio–oil was studied. Algae oil is a non–edible feedstock and has minimal impact on food security and food prices; furthermore, it has been identified as a favourable feedstock for the production of biodiesel and this is attributed to its high oil yield per hectare. Algae oil can be potentially used for fuel blending for conventional diesel. The recovery step for algae oil for the production of biodiesel is costly and demands a lot of energy due to...

  1. Luminescent properties of blue green Sr3Al2O5Cl2:Pr3+ and orange red Sr3Al2O5Cl2:Eu2+, Pr3+ afterglow phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sr3Al2O5Cl2:Eu2+, Pr3+ phosphor has been synthesized via high temperature solid state reaction. The X-ray powder diffraction confirms that the obtained samples are pure orthorhombic Sr3Al2O5Cl2 phases, with a space group of D24-P212121. Blue green emission is observed when the sample is doped with Pr3+ ions and an orange red emission with Eu2+ ions doping. Both of the samples show obvious afterglow emission. The intensity and lifetime of such afterglow can be substantially enhanced in the case of Pr3+-Eu2+ co-doped, whose afterglow can last for approximately 300 min in the dark and the intensity is five times higher than the sample single doped with Eu2+. According to the thermoluminescence glow curves, the trap depth of these double-doped samples is about 0.95 eV, which is suitable for the generation of afterglow luminescence. And Pr3+ ions help to enhance the traps concentrations and modify the trap depth, which contributes to prolong the afterglow duration and increase the afterglow intensity of the phosphors. Finally, a feasible explanation of this afterglow generation is also discussed in this work. - Highlights: • The phosphors were synthesized via the solid state reaction at 800 °C. • Sr3Al2O5Cl2:Pr3+ phosphor gives a blue green afterglow luminescence. • Sr3Al2O5Cl2:Eu2+, Pr3+ phosphor present an orange red afterglow luminescence, lasting for 300 min

  2. Spirulina platensis: process optimization to obtain biomass Spirulina platensis: otimização de processo para a obtenção de biomassa

    OpenAIRE

    Iracema de Oliveira Moraes; Regina de Oliveira Moraes Arruda; Natália Rocha Maresca; Aline de Oliveira Antunes; Rodrigo de Oliveira Moraes

    2013-01-01

    Spirulina platensis is a photoautotrophic mesophilic cyanobacterium. Its main sources of nutrients are nitrate, urea, and ammonium salts. Spirulina cultivation requires temperature, light intensity, and nutrient content control. This microalgae has been studied and used commercially due to its therapeutic and antioxidant potential. In addition, several studies have reported its ability to use CO2, its immune activity, and use as an adjuvant nutritive factor in the treatment of obesity. The ob...

  3. Co-liquefaction of micro algae with coal. 2; Bisai sorui to sekitan no kyoekika hanno. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, C.; Matsui, T.; Otsuki, M.; Ikenaga, N.; Suzuki, T. [Kansai University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    For the removal and recycle of CO2, a global warming gas, utilization of photosynthesis by micro algae is investigated. Formed micro algae are decomposed into CO2, H2O and CH4 again, which does not result in the permanent fixation. For the effective utilization of these micro algae, creation of petroleum alternate energy was tried through the co-liquefaction of micro algae with coal. Were investigated influences of the reaction temperature during the co-liquefaction and influences of catalysts, such as Fe(CO)5-S, Ru(CO)12, and Mo(CO)6-S, which are effective for the coal liquefaction. Micro algae, such as chlorella, spirulina, and littorale, and Yallourn brown coal were tested. It was found that co-liquefaction of micro algae with coal can be successfully proceeded under the same conditions as the liquefaction of coal. The oil yield obtained from the co-liquefaction in the presence of Fe(CO)5-S, an effective catalyst for coal liquefaction, agreed appropriately with the arithmetical mean value from separate liquefaction of coal and micro algae. It was suggested that pyrrhotite, an active species for coal liquefaction, was sufficiently formed by increasing the addition of sulfur. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Increase in the carbohydrate content of the microalgae Spirulina in culture by nutrient starvation and the addition of residues of whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Salla, Ana Cláudia; Margarites, Ana Cláudia; Seibel, Fábio Ivan; Holz, Luiz Carlos; Brião, Vandré Barbosa; Bertolin, Telma Elita; Colla, Luciane Maria; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2016-06-01

    Non-renewable sources that will end with time are the largest part of world energy consumption, which emphasizes the necessity to develop renewable sources of energy. This necessity has created opportunities for the use of microalgae as a biofuel. The use of microalgae as a feedstock source for bioethanol production requires high yields of both biomass and carbohydrates. With mixotrophic cultures, wastewater can be used to culture algae. The aim of the study was to increase the carbohydrate content in the microalgae Spirulina with the additions of residues from the ultra and nanofiltration of whey protein. The nutrient deficit in the Zarrouk medium diluted to 20% and the addition of 2.5% of both residue types led to high carbohydrate productivity (60 mg L(-1) d(-1)). With these culture conditions, the increase in carbohydrate production in Spirulina indicated that the conditions were appropriate for use with microalgae as a feedstock in the production of bioethanol. PMID:26967336

  5. Antihyperglycemic effect of crude extracts of some Egyptian plants and algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbouZid, Sameh Fekry; Ahmed, Osama Mohamed; Ahmed, Rasha Rashad; Mahmoud, Ayman; Abdella, Ehab; Ashour, Mohamed Badr

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major global health problem. Various plant extracts have proven antidiabetic activity and are considered as promising substitution for antidiabetic drugs. The antihyperglycemic effect of 16 plants and 4 algae, commonly used in Egypt for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, was investigated. A diabetes model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide (120 mg/kg body weight [b.wt.]), then streptozotocin (200 mg/kg b.wt.) after 15 min. Hydroethanolic extracts (80%) of the plants and algae under investigation were prepared. The extracts were orally administered to nicotinamide-streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice by a gastric tube at doses 10 or 50 mg/kg b.wt. for 1 week. The antidiabetic activity was assessed by detection of serum glucose concentrations at the fasting state and after 2 h of oral glucose loading (4.2 mg/kg b.wt.). Extracts prepared from Cassia acutifolia, Fraxinus ornus, Salix aegyptiaca, Cichorium intybus, and Eucalyptus globulus showed the highest antihyperglycemic activity among the tested plants. Extracts prepared from Sonchus oleraceus, Bougainvillea spectabilis (leaves), Plantago psyllium (seeds), Morus nigra (leaves), and Serena repens (fruits) were found to have antihyperglycemic potentials. Extracts prepared from Caulerpa lentillifera and Spirulina versicolor showed the most potent antihyperglycemic activity among the tested algae. However, some of the tested plants have insulinotropic effects, all assessed algae have not. Identification of lead compounds from these plants and algae for novel antidiabetic drug development is recommended. PMID:24404976

  6. Algae Derived Biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahan, Kauser [Rowan Univ., Glassboro, NJ (United States)

    2015-03-31

    One of the most promising fuel alternatives is algae biodiesel. Algae reproduce quickly, produce oils more efficiently than crop plants, and require relatively few nutrients for growth. These nutrients can potentially be derived from inexpensive waste sources such as flue gas and wastewater, providing a mutual benefit of helping to mitigate carbon dioxide waste. Algae can also be grown on land unsuitable for agricultural purposes, eliminating competition with food sources. This project focused on cultivating select algae species under various environmental conditions to optimize oil yield. Membrane studies were also conducted to transfer carbon di-oxide more efficiently. An LCA study was also conducted to investigate the energy intensive steps in algae cultivation.

  7. Effects of Chemical Parameters on Spirulina platensis Biomass Production: Optimized Method for Phycocyanin Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Vasanthi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The micro alga, Spirulina is a rich source of protein, which is used as a protein supplement for humans, chicks and also in aquaculture. Among the cultures, CS-1 registered maximum biomass production and S-20 showed highest biomass production among the local isolates. Optimum temperature of 35C was the best for maximum biomass production of S. platensis cultures. Among the cultures CS-1 culture, put forth maximum biomass production at 35C. The biomass production of all S. platensis cultures was maximum at pH 10.0. Among the cultures, CS-1 recorded maximum biomass at pH 10.0. S. platensis culture S-20 showed highest biomass production among the local isolates. S. platensis cultures were grown under different light wave lengths ranging from 340-700 nm and observed that it grows best in red light but later on there was no significant difference between the biomass produced under red and normal white lights. S. platensis culture CS-1 has shown the highest chlorophyll, carotenoids and phycocyanin and protein contents. When the extracted protein was resolved on a 15% SDS-PAGE gel, the cultures have polypeptide subunits ranging from the molecular weights 20 to 95 kDa. The liquid nitrogen method was found to be the best by extraction higher quantity of phycocyanin from all S. platensis cultures. Among the cultures, S. platensis culture CS-1 recorded the highest phycocyanin content and among the local isolates SM-2 showed the highest pigment content. SDS-PAGE analysis of phycocyanin pigment revealed two characteristic bands with a molecular weights of 14.3 and 20.1 kDa approximately for a and subunits.

  8. Growth response of Spirulina platensis PCC9108 to elevated CO2 levels and flue gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedmahdi Hoseini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Because their ability to capture CO2, photosynthetical microorganisms have some advantages to CO2 mitigation from high CO2 streams such as flue gases and they can use CO2 as carbon source. Recently, experts have made efforts to exploit microorganisms intended for recovering CO2 from power plants. Materials and methods: To achieve this purpose, we studied the growth response of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis PCC9108 under different concentrations of carbon dioxide (ranging from 0.036% to 10% and flue gas in a bench-scale system. Preparation of different concentrations of CO2 and injection into Erlenmeyer flasks was performed by a system including air compressor, CO2 capsule, pressure gauge and flow meter. Results: The main goal of studying this paper is a survey of organism's potential to grow by generated CO2 from flue gas of power plant. It already had the potential and highest biomass production recorded at 8% CO2 (v/v. Also we proved that S.platensis PCC9108 can be grown under flue gas, although biomass production decreased fairly. Total lipid content of algae interestingly enhanced with elevated CO2 levels from ambient air to 4% and 6% which ranged from 14.5 to 15.8 and 16 dry weight (wt. % respectively. In contrast, total protein content illustrated no difference between all treatment and its value was about 46 wt.%. Discussion and conclusion: The results of present study suggested that understudied S.platensis PCC9108 is appropriate for mitigating CO2 because of its carbon fixation ability. Also due to its high protein content, this cyanobacterium is a good candidate to produce SCP (single cell protein.

  9. Iron ions increase the thermostability of phycocyanin of Spirulina maxima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Hong; Tai, Zi-Hou; Tseng, Chao-Tsi

    1998-03-01

    A spectral method to investigate the effect of Fe3+, Fe2+ on the thermostability of phycocyanin (PC) of Spirulina maxima showed that iron ions provent decrease of visible light absorbance and fluorescence intensity of PC. Increase in denaturation temperature caused by Fe3+ was observed by the micro-differential scanning calorimetric method. All results showed iron ions maintain the aggregation stability of the PC. The absorption spectrum of phycocyanobilin (PCB, a prosthetic group of PC) with Fe3+ in chloroform was quite different from that of free PCB.

  10. Spirulina (Arthrospira: An Important Source of Nutritional and Medicinal Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmumin A. Nuhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are aquatic and photosynthetic organisms known for their rich pigments. They are extensively employed as food supplements due to their rich contents of proteins. While many species, such as Anabaena sp., produce hepatotoxins (e.g., microcystins and nodularins and neurotoxins (such as anatoxin a, Spirulina (Arthrospira displays anticancer and antimicrobial (antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activities via the production of phycocyanin, phycocyanobilin, allophycocyanin, and other valuable products. This paper is an effort to collect these nutritional and medicinal applications of Arthrospira in an easily accessible essay from the vast literature on cyanobacteria.

  11. MERCURY ADSORPTION BY ARTHOBACTER GLOBIFORMIS AND SPIRULINA PLATENSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. Kalabegishvili

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing contamination of soil, sediment, and water with heavy metals by natural and industrial processes is a worldwide problem. Many bacteria and microalgae have demonstrated ability to absorb toxic elements. To study mercury biosorption by bacteria Arthrobacter globiformis and microalga Spirulina platensis neutron activation analysis (NAA was applied. The process of mercury biosorption by these media was described by Freundlich and Langmuir-Freundlich Model. Both microorganisms showed a great potential to be used as biosorbing agents for mercury removal from the environment.

  12. Uso tradicional y actual de spirulina sp. (Arthrospira sp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Ramírez- Moreno; Roxana Olvera-Ramírez

    2006-01-01

    Spirulina sp. (Arthrospira sp.) es una cianobacteria filamentosa no diferenciada, habitante de lagos alcalinos, que se cultiva para consumo humano debido a su contenido nutricional. En México, el consumo de esta cianobacteria se remonta a tiempos prehispánicos, cuando era conocida como tecuitlatl, siendo conocida como dihé por las tribus nativas de la región del lago de Chad, en África. En los últimos años se le han atribuido diversos efectos positivos en el tratamiento de algunos tipos de al...

  13. Producción artesanal del rotífero Philodina sp. y de algas para la alimentación de post-larvas de bocachico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Eugenia Quintero P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de algas mixtas se realizó en el Instituto de Piscicultura Tropical de la Corporación Autónoma Regional del Valle del Cauca (Buga 25 ºC y 969 m.s.n.m. utilizando fertilizantes inorgánicos en baldes plásticos, se produjeron en promedio 386 x 10³ células/ml de cultivo. En el cultivo de Philodina en frascos de vidrio alimentado con algas y levadura, se obtuvieron 410 rotíferos/ml de cultivo. Se evaluaron tres tratamientos: rotíferos enriquecidos con aceite de pescado; rotíferos más algas (Chlorella, Scenedesmus, Pediastrum, Spyrogira y Anabaena y Artemia salina + Spirulina, usando 100 post-larvas de bocachico/acuario, alimentadas dos veces al día según biomasa sembrada. El mayor porcentaje de sobrevivencia, peso y talla se obtuvo con el alimento constituido por rotíferos enriquecidos con aceite de pescado (93 %,3.2mg, 6.86mm, seguido de rotíferos + algas (80.67 %,2 mg, 6.1mm y Artemia+ Spirulina (60.6 %,1.6mg, 6.06mm respectivamente

  14. Development of cassava doughnuts enriched with Spirulina platensis biomass Desenvolvimento de 'sonho de mandioca' enriquecido com biomassa de Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Ferreira Rabelo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis has been cultivated in a fed batch process with urea as the nitrogen source, in order to obtain dehydrated biomass for incorporation into food, aiming at nutritional enrichment and the production of a functional character, due to the amount of proteins, vitamins and several bioactive compounds found in this cyanobacterium. In this study, response surface methodology was used to analyze the substitution of wheat flour by cassava in the development of doughnuts with added Spirulina platensis biomass and inverted sugar, in order to increase the rate of the Maillard's reaction and mask the green colour of the biomass. The formulations were evaluated in relation to their proximate, sensory and technological compositions, which, when compared to the standard formulation, without the addition of S. platensis biomass and inverted sugar, showed the feasibility of adding the biomass to bestow nutritional enrichment without significantly affecting the sensory acceptance of the product or its typical characteristics.Cultivos da cianobactéria Spirulina platensis vêm sendo conduzidos utilizando-se ureia como fonte de nitrogênio, em processo descontínuo alimentado, para obtenção de biomassa desidratada para ser incorporada em alimentos visando enriquecimento nutricional e conferir caráter funcional em virtude da composição rica em proteínas, vitaminas e diversos componentes bioativos. Neste trabalho, foi estudada a substituição da farinha de trigo pela mandioca, além da adição de biomassa de Spirulina platensis e açúcar invertido, para desenvolver um 'sonho' com elevada taxa da Reação de Maillard para mascarar a coloração verde da biomassa, por meio da metodologia de superfície de resposta. As formulações foram avaliadas em relação aos aspectos de composição centesimal, sensoriais e tecnológicos que, quando comparados com o padrão, sem adição de biomassa de S. platensis e açúcar invertido

  15. OPTIMALISASI EKSTRAKSI DAN UJI STABILITAS PHYCOCYANIN DARI MIKROALGA Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakti Jos

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing awareness of the importance of natural colours especially food and cosmetic colorants has placedgreat demand on biological sources of natural colours. It is for this reason that the phycobiliproteins inSpirulina platensis is gaining increasing attention as an alternative colour for these products. Numerousscientific reports confirm the fact that Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis, is not only an effective naturalblue colorant, but also a compound that is beneficial to the health of the consumer. The aim of this research is toconduct evaluation studies phycocyanin production by extraction with polar solvents at various concentrationsto obtain extracts for maximum yield. The methods in this study has several stages, namely preparation ofmaterials, extraction, solubility studies of phycocyanin, phycocyanin’s stability test. Changing variables in thisstudy are water, acetic acid 70%, 75%, 80%, ammonium sulphate 50%, 55%, 60%. The analysis of the extractsof phycocyanin’s content using spectrophotometric methods. The observations produces a blue pigment whichhas the highest color intensity with maximum absorbance of 620 nm. Acetic acid 80% is the most effectivesolvent to extract the blue pigment phycocyanin than water and ammonium sulfate. Extraction is influenced bythe pH of the increase in absorption (absorbance with increasing pH and was not influenced by storagetemperature and time

  16. Biosorption characteristics of Spirulina and Chlorella cells to accumulate heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    Kőnig-Péter Anikó; Kilár Ferenc; Felinger Attila; Pernyeszi Tímea

    2015-01-01

    The heavy metal biosorption of dried Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis-Spirulina maxima cells was studied under various experimental conditions. The effect of biosorbent dosage, pH, adsorption time, temperature, initial metal concentration on biosorption was studied. Biosorption process can be divided into two parts: the first part follows zero-order, the second part pseudo second-order kinetics. Characterization of biosorption equilibrium was eval...

  17. Biological Effects of Spirulina (Arthrospira) Biopolymers and Biomass in the Development of Nanostructured Scaffolds

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Greque de Morais; Bruna da Silva Vaz; Etiele Greque de Morais; Jorge Alberto Vieira Costa

    2014-01-01

    Spirulina is produced from pure cultures of the photosynthetic prokaryotic cyanobacteria Arthrospira. For many years research centers throughout the world have studied its application in various scientific fields, especially in foods and medicine. The biomass produced from Spirulina cultivation contains a variety of biocompounds, including biopeptides, biopolymers, carbohydrates, essential fatty acids, minerals, oligoelements, and sterols. Some of these compounds are bioactive and have anti-i...

  18. Technological and nutritional assessment of dry pasta with oatmeal and the microalga Spirulina platensis

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Arnhold Pagnussatt; Franciela Spier; Telma Elita Bertolin; Jorge Alberto Vieira Costa; Luiz Carlos Gutkoski

    2014-01-01

    Wheat flour is the most important raw material in the production of pasta. The production process consists of mixing water and flour, kneading, extrusion and drying. Oats and the microalga Spirulina platensis play a physiological role in the growth, development and maintenance of the human organism due to their high nutritional value. The aim of this study was to assess the technological and nutritional properties of dry pasta prepared with the addition of oatmeal and Spirulina platensis. The...

  19. Biomass of Spirulina maxima enriched by biosorption process as a new feed supplement for swine

    OpenAIRE

    Saeid, A.; Chojnacka, K.; Korczyński, M.; Korniewicz, D.; Dobrzański, Z.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the new mineral feed additives with Cu produced in a biosorption process from a semi-technical scale. The natural biomass of edible microalga Spirulina sp. was enriched with Cu(II) and then used as a mineral supplement in feeding experiments on swine to assess its nutrition properties. A total of 24 piglets divided into two groups (control and experimental) were used to determine the bioavailability of a new generation of mineral feed additives based on Spirulina maxima....

  20. DESEMPENHO DE CORDEIROS SANTA INÊS SUBMETIDOS A ALEITAMENTO ARTIFICIAL ENRIQUECIDO COM Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilson Rocha Bezerr a

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out in Maria Paz Ranch/SheepProduction Department, in São José de Espinharas, PB. Analyseswere performed in the Laboratory of Animal Nutrition/Centrode Saúde e Tecnologia Rural/Universidade Federal de CampinaGrande. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectof the supplementation with cow milk enriched with Spirulinaplatensis (Sp on lamb performance submitted to creep feeding,and determine the most adequate period to suplemet nursinglambs with Spirulina platensis. Data on dry matter (DMC andcrude protein (CPC consumptions, body weight (BW, and meandaily body weight gain (MDBWG were colleted. The three levelsof Spirulina supplementation were assigned to 30 lambs (plotsaccording to a randomized block (lamb weight design with 10replications. Data were collected in four consecutive periods,characterizing a split plot in time. DM and CP consumptions werenot affected by spirulina level x period interaction, and increasedwith periods (animal age. BW and MDBWG were affected bythe spirulina level x period interaction. Spirulina levels affectedMDBWG only from day 0 to day 15, when the MDBWG (300gwas higher at level 10g than at level zero of Spirulina that resulted in 205g in MDBWG. Live body weight at the end of each periodwas also higher when the lambs were supplemented with 10 g ofSpirulina (12.00 17.02, 19.71 and 25.30kg, respectively, for thefour consecutive periods. The dilution of Spirulina platensis incow milk showed to be efficient on the daily performance of lambswhen utilized in concentration of 10g/day and from period 15 to30 days of age.

  1. Epithermal neutron activation analysis of Spirulina platensis biomass, of the C-phycocianin and of DNA extracted from it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) was used for study of the biomass of Spirulina platensis. The background levels of concentration of 27 macro-, micro- and trace elements ranging from 10-3 up to 104 ppm were determined. It was found that the biomass of Spirulina does not contain toxic elements above the tolerance levels and can be utilized as a matrix of pharmaceuticals based on it. The concentrations of basic elements in C-phycocianin and DNA extracted from Spirulina platensis were determined by ENAA. A comparison of the element content of a whole Spirulina biomass with that of a refined C-phycocianin preparation was made

  2. Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis of Spirulina platensis Biomass, of the C-Phycocianin and of DNA Extracted from It

    CERN Document Server

    Mosulishvili, L M; Belokobylsky, A I; Kirkesali, E I; Khizanishvili, A I; Pomyakushina, E V

    2002-01-01

    The epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) was used for study of the biomass of Spirulina platensis. The background levels of concentration 27 macro-, micro- and trace elements ranging from 10^{-3} up to 10^{4} ppm were determined. It was found that the biomass of spirulina does not contain toxic elements above the tolerance levels and can be utilized as a matrix of pharmaceuticals based on it. The concentrations of basic elements in C-phycocianin and DNA extracted from Spirulina platensis were determined by ENAA. A comparison of the element content of a whole spirulina biomass with that of a refined C-phycocianin preparation was made.

  3. Well-tolerated Spirulina extract inhibits influenza virus replication and reduces virus-induced mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Hsiang; Chang, Gi-Kung; Kuo, Shu-Ming; Huang, Sheng-Yu; Hu, I-Chen; Lo, Yu-Lun; Shih, Shin-Ru

    2016-01-01

    Influenza is one of the most common human respiratory diseases, and represents a serious public health concern. However, the high mutability of influenza viruses has hampered vaccine development, and resistant strains to existing anti-viral drugs have also emerged. Novel anti-influenza therapies are urgently needed, and in this study, we describe the anti-viral properties of a Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) cold water extract. Anti-viral effects have previously been reported for extracts and specific substances derived from Spirulina, and here we show that this Spirulina cold water extract has low cellular toxicity, and is well-tolerated in animal models at one dose as high as 5,000 mg/kg, or 3,000 mg/kg/day for 14 successive days. Anti-flu efficacy studies revealed that the Spirulina extract inhibited viral plaque formation in a broad range of influenza viruses, including oseltamivir-resistant strains. Spirulina extract was found to act at an early stage of infection to reduce virus yields in cells and improve survival in influenza-infected mice, with inhibition of influenza hemagglutination identified as one of the mechanisms involved. Together, these results suggest that the cold water extract of Spirulina might serve as a safe and effective therapeutic agent to manage influenza outbreaks, and further clinical investigation may be warranted. PMID:27067133

  4. Teores de β-caroteno em suplementos e biomassa de Spirulina Contents of β-carotene in supplements and biomass of Spirulina

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Barroso Alencar; Kelma Maria dos Santos Pires-Cavalcante; Jefferson Pablo de Souza Saboya; Márcia Barbosa de Sousa; Wladimir Ronald Lobo Farias; Silvana Saker-Sampaio

    2011-01-01

    A cianobactéria Spirulina tem sido utilizada há séculos, tendo em vista suas propriedades nutricionais e medicinais. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se analisar os teores de β-caroteno tanto em suplementos alimentares a base de Spirulina comercializados em estabelecimentos de produtos naturais no mercado varejista, quanto em S. platensis cultivada em laboratório. Alguns pigmentos carotenóides possuem atividade de vitamina A e, dentre eles, o β-caroteno é o que apresenta maior atividade bi...

  5. Cyanophyta recorded in Erbil ,Kurdistan region of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janan Jabbar Toma

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred fourty four species of blue green algae have been listed and recorded in this investigation. The listed species belong to five main groups of cyanophyta, making up all together fourty six genus. It was found that blue green algae in Erbil represented (54% of Iraqi blue green algae, and (11% of all known algae in Iraq so far

  6. Fresh pasta production enriched with Spirulina platensis biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Cesar Lemes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the enrichment of Spirulina platensis in wheat flour to prepare fresh pasta to evaluate the green color and nutritional enrichment in addition to functional properties due to the presence of the bioactive compounds in the cyanobacterium. The pastas were evaluated for the centesimal composition, microbiological contamination, sensorial acceptance and technological characteristics such as cooking time, water absorption, volume displacement and loss of solids. The superior protein contents and the satisfactory technological and sensorial attributes compared with the control with no cyanobacterium showed the usefulness of incorporating S. platensis biomass in the fresh pastas. The microbiological quality was in compliance with the legislation in force. The sensorial quality was considered satisfactory (“liked very much” and purchase intention high (“probably would buy”.

  7. C-phycocyanin extraction from Spirulina platensis wet biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Moraes

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available C-Phycocyanin is a natural blue dye used in food and pharmaceutical industry. In the present study, a simple and efficient method to extract C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis wet biomass is reported. The extractions were carried out using six different methods, including chemical (organic and inorganic acid treatment, physical (freezing and thawing, sonication, homogenization and enzymatic (lysozyme treatment methods. The extraction using ultrasonic bath in the presence of glass pearls in the biomass proved to be the most efficient method, 56% higher than using freezing and thawing (the method most frequently used, and presented a extraction yield of 43.75 mg.g-1 and a C-phycocyanin concentration of 0.21 mg.mL-1.

  8. Influence of Spirulina platensis powder on the microflora of yoghurt and acidophilus milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Guldas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to monitor the influence of the powdered Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis addition to plain yoghurt and the yoghurt containing Lactobacillus acidophiluson survival of the microbiota during the refrigerated storage. The cell viability of yoghurt starter cultures (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus acidophilus under refrigeration conditions in yoghurts prepared with (0.5 or 1.0 (w/w % and without the addition of Spirulina powder was investigated. The yoghurts were prepared under hygienic laboratory conditions and their pH and acidity were controlled during the process. The samples of yoghurts were stored at 4 °C and investigated on days 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30. Viable counts of the lactic acid bacteria were above 6 cfu g-1of all “spirulina powder” added samples whereas control yoghurt samples contained lower lactic acid bacteria count at the end of the storage period. Addition of 1 % Spirulina platensis powder into the yoghurts did not cause significant differences on the viable lactic acid bacteria (p≤0.05. The results showed the positive effect of S. platensis powder on the survival of the lactic acid bacteria during storage of yoghurt (P≤0.05. The sensory analysis was also performed for the yoghurt samples. Sensory scores of 0.5 % spirulina powder added yoghurt samples were better than 1 % spirulina powder added ones. It was determined that spirulina powder added yoghurt is a good medium of lactic acid bacteria during the 30 days of refrigerated storage.

  9. The resource utilization of algae - preparing coal slurry with algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidong Li; Weifeng Li; Haifeng Li [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). Key Laboratory of Coal Gasification of Education Ministry of China

    2010-05-15

    Nowadays, the occurrence of harmful algal blooms is increasing rapidly all over the world. However, the methods of resource utilization of algae are very few. In this study, we propose a new way to dispose algae, which is gasification of coal-algae slurry. Coal slurries prepared with algae were investigated, and gasification reactivity of coal-algae slurry was compared with that of coal-water slurry (CWS). The results showed that, anaerobic fermentation, chemical treatment, high-speed shearing and heating are effective pre-treatment methods on reducing the viscosity of algae, which could obviously increase the maximum solids concentration of coal-algae slurry. When the de-ionized water/algae ratio is 1:1, the maximum solids concentration could get to 62.5 wt.%, which is almost the same as that of CWS. All the coal-algae slurries exhibit pseudo-plastic behavior, and this type of fluid is shear-thinning. Compared with CWS, the stability of coal-algae slurry is much better, which could be no solids deposition after 70 h. The coal-algae slurry displays better gasification reactivity than CWS. 30 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. 棱镜色散腔XeF(C-A)蓝绿激光线宽压缩%Spectral narrowing of XeF(C-A) blue-green lasers using prism dispersive resonator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱峰; 沈炎龙; 于力; 唐影; 易爱平; 安晓霞; 黄超

    2013-01-01

    XeF(C-A)蓝绿激光的增益系数较低,仅为0.003 cm-1,要获得高能量窄线宽激光输出有一定难度.利用色散元件棱镜开展了高单脉冲能量窄线宽激光输出实验研究,结果表明:采用凹面输出镜的情况下,激光线宽可以压缩到约2.5 nm,激光输出能量最大为3.47J;采用平面输出镜,激光线宽压缩到约0.7 nm,激光输出能量最大为2.93J,激光光谱调谐范围最大可达到60 nm,在460~520 nm之间.%As the gain coefficient of XeF(C-A) blue-green lasers is low, it is difficult to obtain a laser pulse with both high energy and narrow spectrum. In this paper, a dispersive prism is used in the resonator to compress the laser spectrum and to get high laser pulse energy. The experimental results show that, using a concave output mirror, the laser spectrum can be compressed to about 2. 5 nm and the maximal laser energy is 3. 47 J. As a comparison, using a plane output mirror, the laser spectrum can be compressed to about 0. 7 nm with the laser pulse energy of 2. 93 J. In the expriment, the laser spectrum can be tunable between 460 nm and 520 nm and the tunable width is about 60 nm.

  11. Cloning,Sequencing and Phylogenetic Study of rbcL Gene from Cyanobacteria Arthrospira and Spirulina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jinjie(刘金姐); Zhang Xuecheng; Sui Zhenghong; Mao Yunxiang; Sun Xue

    2004-01-01

    Large subunit gene of rubisco (rbcL) of cyanobacteria Arthrospira platensis FACHB341, A. Platensis FACHB439, A. Maxima OUQDSM and Spirulina sp. FACHB440 is cloned, sequenced and characterized. Results show that GC content of the gene in strain Spirulina sp. FACHB440 is higher than that in the others. The alignments based on deduced amino acid sequences indicate that Spirulina sp. FACHB440 is different from that in other three samples of Arthrospira, though they have the same conserved functional sites (95, 98, 121, 124, 221, 257). The nucleotide sequence similarity among the three strains of the genus of Arthrospira (96.5~99.6%) is higher than that between Arthrospira and Spirulina (78.1~78.5%). By comparison of the corresponding sequence of other cyanobacteria, a phylogenetic tree with two clusters is constructed. A. Platensis FACHB341, A. Maxima OUQDSM and A. Platensis FACHB439 form the monophyletic linage, which is fully supported by bootstrap values (1000), while Spirulina sp. FACHB440 and Anabaena sp. PCC7120 cluster in another linage with the bootstrap value of 909.

  12. Inhibitory effects of Spirulina in zymosan-induced arthritis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diadelis Remirez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory effect of microalgae Spirulina was studied in zymosan-induced arthritis in mice. Four days after the intra-articular injection of zymosan (15 mg/ml, Spirulina (100 and 400 mg/kg per-orally was administered to animals for 8 days. The mice were than killed and β-glucuronidase was measured in the synovial fluid. Each knee joint was totally removed for histopathological studies. Spirulina significantly reduced the levels of β-glucuronidase that had been increased by zymosan. Histopathological and ultrastructural studies showed inhibition of the inflammatory reaction, whereas no destruction of cartilage, well-preserved chondrocytes, and normal rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria were seen. The anti-arthritic effect exerted by Spirulina as shown in this model may be at least partly due to the previously reported anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties of its constituent, phycocyanin. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the anti-inflammatory effect of Spirulina in an experimental model of arthritis.

  13. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF SPIRULINA ON ETHYLENE GLYCOL INDUCED UROLITHIASIS IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Sunitha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our present study is to assess the effects of spirulina as a preventive agent in experimentally induced urolithiasis model in rats. Rats were induced to produce kidney stone by providing drinking water containing 0.75% ethylene glycol (v/v (EG for 6 weeks. In additiion to this, spirulina extract 20mg/kg, were administered along with ethylene glycol for 6 weeks. On 24 hours after 6 weeks, the blood was collected from individual rats and used for the estimation of sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorus, urea and creatinine. The ethylene glycol feeding resulted in an increased level of serum sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, urea and creatinine, with a decreased level of phosphorus, compared to normal rats. All these conditions were reversed on spirulina treatment. Histopathological analysis also showed that rats treated with ethylene glycol had large deposits of calcium oxalate crystals, and that deposits were reduced in rats treated with spirulina. These data suggest that spirulina has a protective activity against urolithiasis.

  14. Pond of algae makes a poor man's pate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyce, C.

    1985-07-18

    The alga, Spirulina platensis is being grown in Brazil in a 400 square metre pond. As 70% of its protein is totally metabolized by the body and it is also rich in Vitamin B12, it is hoped that it can help to feed some of Brazils millions of undernourished people. Work is also being done on the peach palm which grows several trunks, all but one of which can be harvested regularly without killing the tree. Genetic engineering experiments on the bacterium Escherichia coli and a strain of Bacillus subtilis are being carried out to manufacture a toxin that kills the fungi Fusarium oxysporum and other fungi that damage crops. Another project is being done to identify the genes in the Brazil nut which produce methionine.

  15. Bioagents and Commercial Algae Products as Integrated Biocide Treatments for Controlling Root Rot Diseases of Some Vegetables under Protected Cultivation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtar M. Abdel-Kader

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrated commercial blue-green algae extracts and bioagents treatments against vegetables root rot incidence when used as soil drench under greenhouse and plastic house conditions were evaluated. All applied treatments reduced significantly root rot incidence at both pre- and postemergence growth stages of cucumber, cantaloupe, tomato, and pepper plants compared with untreated check control. In pot experiment, the obtained results showed that treatments of Trichoderma harzianum or Bacillus subtilis either alone or combined with commercial algae extracts were significantly superior for reducing root rot disease for two tested vegetable plants compared with the other tested treatments as well as control. It is also observed that rising concentrations of either algae products, Oligo-X or Weed-Max, were reflected in more disease reduction. Promising treatments for controlling root rot disease incidence were applied under plastic houses conditions. As for field trails carried out under plastic houses conditions at different locations, the obtained results revealed that the applied combined treatments significantly reduced root rot incidence compared with fungicide and check control treatments. At all locations it was observed that Weed-Max (2 g/L + Bacillus subtilis significantly reduced disease incidence of grown vegetables compared with Oligo-X (2 mL/L + Trichoderma harzianum treatments. An obvious yield increase in all treatments was significantly higher than in the control. Also, the harvested yield in applied combined treatments at all locations was significantly higher than that in the fungicide and control treatments.

  16. Light adaptation of the unicellular red alga, Cyanidioschyzon merolae, probed by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Yoshifumi; Aikawa, Shimpei; Kondo, Akihiko; Akimoto, Seiji

    2015-08-01

    Photosynthetic organisms change the quantity and/or quality of their pigment-protein complexes and the interactions among these complexes in response to light conditions. In the present study, we analyzed light adaptation of the unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae, whose pigment composition is similar to that of cyanobacteria because its phycobilisomes (PBS) lack phycoerythrin. C. merolae were grown under different light qualities, and their responses were measured by steady-state absorption, steady-state fluorescence, and picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopies. Cells were cultivated under four monochromatic light-emitting diodes (blue, green, yellow, and red), and changes in pigment composition and energy transfer were observed. Cells grown under blue and green light increased their relative phycocyanin levels compared with cells cultured under white light. Energy-transfer processes to photosystem I (PSI) were sensitive to yellow and red light. The contribution of direct energy transfer from PBS to PSI increased only under yellow light, while red light induced a reduction in energy transfer from photosystem II to PSI and an increase in energy transfer from light-harvesting chlorophyll protein complex I to PSI. Differences in pigment composition, growth, and energy transfer under different light qualities are discussed. PMID:25577254

  17. Biosorption of cadmium and lead from aqueous solution by fresh water alga Anabaena sphaerica biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza M. Abdel -Aty

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present work represents the biosorption of Cd(II and Pb(II from aqueous solution onto the biomass of the blue green alga Anabaena sphaerica as a function of pH, biosorbent dosage, contact time, and initial metal ion concentrations. Freundlich, Langmuir, and Dubinin–Radushkevich (D–R models were applied to describe the biosorption isotherm of both metals by A. sphaerica biomass. The biosorption isotherms studies indicated that the biosorption of Cd(II and Pb(II follows the Langmuir and Freundlish models. The maximum biosorption capacities (qmax were 111.1 and 121.95 mg/g, respectively, at the optimum conditions for each metal. From the D–R isotherm model, the mean free energy was calculated to be 11.7 and 14.3 kJ/mol indicating that the biosorption mechanism of Cd(II and Pb(II by A. sphaerica was chemisorption. The FTIR analysis for surface function group of algal biomass revealed the existence of amino, carboxyl, hydroxyl, and carbonyl groups, which are responsible for the biosorption of Cd(II and Pb(II. The results suggested that the biomass of A. sphaerica is an extremely efficient biosorbent for the removal of Cd(II and Pb(II from aqueous solutions.

  18. Effect of functional oils and algae on the performance of finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. Dendena

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters because of the problems arising from this use, especially bacterial resistance and residues in animal products, he led the search for new alternatives that stood out the use of additives with natural components, who presented economically viable and beneficial. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of functional oils and algae on the weight gain of variables (WG, feed intake (FI, feed conversion (FC, feed cost per kilogram of animals produced and consistency of stool finishing pigs. Was used 18 animals distributed in a completely randomized design with two treatments (T1 - T2 and control treatment - Treatment with additives, three repetitions and three animals each. Performance data were submitted to analysis of variance, the difference between the averages verified by test F. The additive used is a mark consisting of castor oil, cashew nut oil, meal oyster shell, vermiculite and gender algae Spirulina.The daily feed intake was not affected by treatments (P> 0.05 and no significant differences were in fecal score of pigs. But the average daily gain and feed conversion were influenced significantly (P <0.05 by the treatments, and the additive treatment obtained the best results for both variables. It can be concluded that the use of functional oils and algae improved the productive and economic performance of pigs

  19. Microbiological decontamination of Spirulina Platensis and green coffee using accelerated electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological raw materials can be contaminated with microorganisms and to make them suitable for commercialization, the quality relative to microbial content is necessary to be achieved. Irradiation is a decontamination method for numerous foodstuffs, being a feasible, very effective and environment friendly procedure. The aim of the paper is to evaluate the possibility to apply the electron beam treatment on Spirulina Platensis and green coffee for biological decontamination. The cyanobacterium Spirulina and green coffee have been irradiated with electron beams up to 40 kGy. To determine the microbial load, antioxidant activity, and rheological behaviour the techniques of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and absorption spectroscopy have been applied. The results showed that accelerated electron beams could be efficient to decontaminate Spirulina as well as green coffee without significant changes in their properties. (authors)

  20. Algae Review Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae-based biofuels and bioproducts offer great promise in contributing to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office’s (BETO’s) vision of a thriving and sustainable bioeconomy fueled by innovative technologies. The state of technology for producing algal biofuels continues to mature with ongoing investment by DOE and the private sector, but additional research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) is needed to achieve widespread deployment of affordable, scalable, and sustainable algal biofuels.

  1. Blue-green laser diode research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    Twenty-four heteroepitaxial ZnSe films were grown on GaAs in the St. Paul laboratory during the reporting period. A range of ratios of the Zn beam pressure to the Se beam pressure during growth (the BPR), and a range of substrate temperatures during growth, were investigated to determine the set of growth conditions giving the best intrinsic films, i.e., the largest near-band-edge emission observed in photoluminescence, combined with the highest peak mobility, lowest room temperature carrier density, and lowest total concentration of ionized impurities. While the series of films has not yet been completed, it appears that a BPR of 1:1 and a substrate temperature of 350 C give the best intrinsic films. Preliminary evidence suggests that the surface quality of the films begins to degrade after exposure to room ambience for about two weeks. The six-month report for this project described the first attempts to grow ZnSe epitaxially on Ge substrates. This work has been expanded to include an epitaxial buffer layer of Ge between the ZnSe layer and the Ge substrate. This was done to provide a smoother substrate for the ZnSe growth. RHEED patterns indicate that ZnSe films grown on the Ge buffer layer are indeed smoother on the atomic scale. Photoluminescence results show that the near-band-edge emission is much stronger than for films without a buffer layer.

  2. Biosorption of Ag(I)-Spirulina platensis for different pH

    OpenAIRE

    Gelagutashvili, E.; Ginturi, E.; Kuchava, N.; Bagdavadze, N.; Rcheulishvili, A.

    2011-01-01

    Biosorption of Ag(I)-Spirulina platensis for different pH were investigated using dialysis and Atomic-absorbtion analysis. It was shown, that the biosorption constant for Ag(I) Spirulina platensis complex and the capacity depend on the change of pH. In particular, with the increase of pH (pH=5.5. and pH=8.6 cases), the biosorption constant increase and the capacity decreases. The nature of interaction is also changed. In case of neutral pH, the interaction Ag(I)-S. platensis is of cooperative...

  3. Culture of Spirulina platensis in human urine for biomass production and O2 evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Dao-lun; WU Zu-cheng

    2006-01-01

    Attempts were made to culture Spirulina platensis in human urine directly to achieve biomass production and O2 evolution, for potential application to nutrient regeneration and air revitalization in life support system. The culture results showed that Spirulinaplatensis grows successfully in diluted human urine, and yields maximal biomass at urine dilution ratios of 140~240.Accumulation of lipid and decreasing of protein occurred due to N deficiency. O2 release rate of Spirulina platensis in diluted human urine was higher than that in Zarrouk medium.

  4. Hepato protective effect of Spirulina Against Gamma Radiation and Carbon Tetrachloride induced Liver Injury in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vast biodiversity of nature provides bioactive compounds that may be useful in the fight against chronic diseases. Although there are a number of drugs available in the market, long time use may cause a number of side effects. Spirulina is a microscopic and filamentous cyanobacterium that contains essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and anti-oxidative components. In the present study, Spirulina platensis has been investigated as a possible modifier of radiation and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in albino rats. In the experiment, a total of 60 rats were used and divided into six groups of ten rats each: group 1, normal untreated rats; group 2, animals received only Spirulina (10 mg/kg) for 30 consecutive days; group 3, animals were exposed to 4 Gy whole body gamma radiation as a single shot dose; group 4, animals were injected intraperitoneally with CCl4 in olive oil (5 ml/kg i.p.) twice a week for four weeks ; group 5, rats were given orally Spirulina (10 mg/kg) for 30 days then exposed to 4 Gy gamma radiation as a single shot dose; and group 6, rats were given orally Spirulina (10 mg/kg) for 30 days and injected intraperitoneally with CCl4 in olive oil (5 ml/kg i.p.) twice a week for four weeks. The results revealed that animals treated with CCl4 or exposed to gamma radiation showed significant increase in the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β). Also, a marked increase in the liver tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was observed. On the other hand, decrease in glutathione (GSH), glutathione transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) was observed in liver tissues of animal treated with CCl4 or exposed to gamma radiation. Oral pretreatment of rats with aqueous extract of Spirulina counteracted the radiation or CCl4 -induced lipid

  5. Cultivo del nematodo Panagrellus redivivus (Goodey, 1945) en un medio de avena enriquecida con Spirulina sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramón de Lara; Thalía Castro; Jorge Castro; Germán Castro

    2007-01-01

    El nematodo Panagrellus redivivus se cultivó en dos medios: uno con hojuelas de avena y otro con hojuelas de avena enriquecido con Spirulina sp., en recipientes de plástico de 15x15x5 cm de altura con 200 g de hojuela de avena y 300 mL de agua purificada. Se utilizaron 5 g de Spirulina en el medio. Se utilizó el programa SYSTAT versión 10.2 para el análisis estadístico; para determinar las diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos, se usó un análisis de varianza unidireccional (ANDEVA...

  6. Production of biomass by Spirulina at different groundwater type. Case of Ouargla-Southeast Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggaï, Ali; Dadamoussa, Belkheir; Djaghoubi, Afaf; Bissati, Samia

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, Spirulina platensis was cultivated to estimate the biomass production with different groundwater type in Ouargla. Growth experiments were undertaken in flasks under shelter in outdoor condition. For this, the temperature, pH and salinity value was recorded between two days of growth. Biomass concentration in the culture media was calculated by measuring the DO625. The combination of the Mioplocen water with the nutriments gave the highest values of biomass concentration with avenge of 1.78 ±0.91g/l. All the three-type water supported the growth of Spirulina that appeared as good as a culture media.

  7. Hydrogen ions directly regulating the oligomerization state of Photosystem I in intact Spirulina platensis cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    H+ concentration induced-monomerization or trimerization of photosystem I (PSI) in cyanobacteria has never been directly observed. In this work, taking characteristic spectra for the trimers and monomers as the indicators, it was experimentally demonstrated that H+ could induce the oligomeric changes of PSI reaction centers in the intact Spirulina ,platensis cells and also in the isolated thylakoid membrane complexes. Especially, the higher concentration of H+ would induce the monomerization while the lower the trimerization, suggesting the electrostatic interaction should be mainly responsible forchanges in the oligomeric state of PSI in Spirulina platensis.

  8. Evaluation of the Influence of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Nutrients in the Culture and Production ofbiosurfactants by MicroalgaSpirulina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Fernandes De Carvalho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the influence of phosphorus and nitrogen nutrients in the culture and production of biosurfactants by Spirulina platensis LEB 52,Spirulina platensisParacas and Spirulina sp. LEB 18. For this, experiments were performed using Full Factorial Design 22 to evaluate the influence of phosphorus and nitrogen nutrients on the maximum biomass concentration and maximum productivity in the cultures, as well as in production biosurfactant by extracts derived from microalgae through surface tension measurements. The Spirulina platensis LEB 52 provided higher biomass production when compared with the Spirulina platensis LEB 52 andSpirulina platensisParacas, but the phosphorus and nitrogen variables showed no significant influence on the maximum biomass concentration and maximum productivity. The resultds showed that Spirulina sp. LEB 18 was more favorable for the production of biosurfactants in relation to the others strains, because it presented an extract with a surface tension measurement of 31.2 mN.m-1 in a culture performed with higher concentrations of nitrogen (412 mg.L-1 and without the addition of phosphorus.

  9. Medical Application of Spirulina platensis Derived C-Phycocyanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Huang, Yinghong; Zhang, Ronghua; Cai, Tiange; Cai, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Along with the development of marine biological pharmaceutical research, high-effective and low-toxic drugs and functional foods isolated from marine organisms have become a new field of pharmacy and bromatology. The pharmacological actions, such as anti-inflammation, antioxidation, antitumor, immunological enhancement, and hepatorenal protection of C-phycocyanin (C-PC) from Spirulina platensis, have been reported, and C-PC has important value of development and utilization either as drug or as functional food. There are many researches about the various pharmacological actions and mechanisms of C-PC, but related reports are only to some extent integrated deeply and accurately enough, which put some limitations to the further application of C-PC in medicine. Particularly, with the improvement of living standards and attention to health issues, C-PC being a functional food is preferred by more and more people. C-PC is easy to get, safe, and nontoxic; thus, it has a great potential of research and development as a drug or functional food. Here, the separation and purification, physicochemical properties, physiological and pharmacological activities, safety, and some applications are reviewed to provide relevant basis for the development of natural medicine and applied products. PMID:27293463

  10. Production and characterization of antimicrobial active substance from Spirulina platensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa M El-Sheekh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out to investigate the ability of Spirulina platensis to produce antimicrobial substance against bacteria and fungi.The cells of the cyanobacterium were subjected to different extractions and the purified antagonistic compound proved to be effective against broad spectrum of bacteria and fungi. The antagonistic compound was purified using thin layer chromatography.The results indicated that the IR spectrum showed bands at 1269 cm(-1, 1414 cm(-1 (C-O-C, 1643 cm(-1 (CO of amide,1563 cm(-1 (C = C and broad band 3441 cm(-1 (of OH and NH., (1HNMR showed δ 0.8 (-CH3, δ 1.2 (-CH2, δ 4.2(-OH, δ 7.2(-NH, δ 7.4 and δ 7.7 (aromatic CH., Mass spectrum showed molecular ion beak at m/z = 341 (abundance (0.03%. Also, the elemental analysis gave molecular formula,C15H18NO8.The purified antimicrobial compound produced by S. platensis was more active against Gram positive, Gram negative bacteria and unicellular fungi, C. albicans. The highest biological activity was recorded against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger. The results of this investigation proved that cyanobacteria could be a good source for production of antimicrobial agents which could be effective when compared with contemporary antimicrobial compounds.

  11. Medical Application of Spirulina platensis Derived C-Phycocyanin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the development of marine biological pharmaceutical research, high-effective and low-toxic drugs and functional foods isolated from marine organisms have become a new field of pharmacy and bromatology. The pharmacological actions, such as anti-inflammation, antioxidation, antitumor, immunological enhancement, and hepatorenal protection of C-phycocyanin (C-PC from Spirulina platensis, have been reported, and C-PC has important value of development and utilization either as drug or as functional food. There are many researches about the various pharmacological actions and mechanisms of C-PC, but related reports are only to some extent integrated deeply and accurately enough, which put some limitations to the further application of C-PC in medicine. Particularly, with the improvement of living standards and attention to health issues, C-PC being a functional food is preferred by more and more people. C-PC is easy to get, safe, and nontoxic; thus, it has a great potential of research and development as a drug or functional food. Here, the separation and purification, physicochemical properties, physiological and pharmacological activities, safety, and some applications are reviewed to provide relevant basis for the development of natural medicine and applied products.

  12. Effect of lead on the growth of Spirulina maxima (Arthrospira)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez- Villagran, D.; Torres-Munoz, J. A.; Rios-Leal, E.; Aguilar-Lopez, R.; Dominguez-Bocanegra, A. R.

    2009-07-01

    The pollution of aquatic ecosystems caused by heavy metals from industrial and domestic sources leads to the bioaccumulation of these toxicants in cyanobacteria and microalgae with damage or inhibition of specific enzymes and transfer of metals through the food web (He et al., 1998). Moreover, even through ions of some metals, such as zinc, are involved in the metabolism of algae. (Author)

  13. ECOLOGICAL FEATURES OF ALGAE COMMUNITIES IN FOREST FLOOR OF PINE PLANTATIONS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF LANDSCAPES IN STEPPE AREA OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltsev Yevhen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The steppe zone of Ukraine features a large variety of types of natural landscapes that together significantly differ in microclimatic, soil, hydrological and geobotanic conditions. Such a diversity of forest conditions affects not only the trees, but also on all biotic components of forest ecosystems including algae. Purpose of the study was establish systematic position of species, dominant and subdominant, leading families of algae for plantings in forest floor of pine plantations of the valley-terrace and inundable-terrace landscapes in steppe area of Ukraine. In general, in the forest floor of Samara pine forest marked 34 species of algae with 4 divisions, most of which related to green: Chlorophyta – 22 (65%, Xanthophyta – 8 (23%, Bacillariophyta – 2 (6% and Eustigmatophyta – 2 (6%. Among the leading families of the greatest number of species belonged to: Pleurochloridaceae (7 species, Chlorococcaceae (5, Chlamydomonadaceae (4. During all studied seasons in base of algae communities were species resistant to extreme values of all climatic conditions. Total in forest floor of pine forest in Altagir forest marked 42 species of algae with 5 divisions: Chlorophyta - 23 (55 %, Xanthophyta - 9 (21 %, Cyanophyta - 5 (12 %, Bacillariophyta - 3 (7% and Eustigmatophyta – 2 (5%. Systematic structure of list species determine three family, which have the number of species in excess of the average number (2: Pleurochloridaceae, Chlamydomonadaceae and Myrmeciaceae. The base of algae community are moisture-loving and shade-tolerant species, which may be the result of favorable moisture regime. In the forest floor of pine plantings in forest floor of pine plantations of the valley-terrace (Samara pine forest and inundable-terrace (Altagir forest landscapes found 64 species of algae with 5 divisions, which are dominated by green algae - 37 species (58%, that exceed xanthophytes - 15 (23%, blue-green 5 (8 %, eustigmatofites 4 (6% and diatoms 3 (5

  14. Dynamics of algae growth and nutrients in experimental enclosures culturing bighead carp and common carp:Phosphorus dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suiliang Huang; Baoyan Liu; Shaoming Wang; Yang Luo; Adam Szymkiewicz; Romuald Szymkiewicz; Min Wu; Changjuan Zang; Shenglan Du; Joseph Domagalski; Magdalena Gajewska; Feng Gao; Chao Lin; Yong Guo

    2016-01-01

    This is the third paper of the series about “Dynamics of algae growth and nutrients in experimental enclosures culturing bighead carp and common carp”. In this paper, phosphorus dynamics were inves-tigated under the condition of culturing bighead carp and common carp with added fish food (nitrogen dynamics is discussed in the second paper because their behaviors are so different from each other). Nearly fifty days’ observation results indicated that the reservoir water was typical of “phosphorus limited” water, and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) was the main constituent of measured total phosphorus (TP). The presence of fish food resulted in significantly higher SRP, dissolved total phos-phorus (DTP) and TP concentrations in contrast with the reservoir water. Moreover, continuous supply of fish food led to the decline of total nitrogen to total phosphorus (TN:TP) from more than 100 to less than 5. Variations in the ratio of TN to TP favored the growth of blue-green algae. Fish species affected phosphorus concentrations, and culturing bait-eating common carp contributed more to reducing the SRP, DTP and TP concentrations than culturing planktivorous bighead carp. 0.5%, 4.1%and 3.1%TP can be removed in enclosures with culturing bighead carp, common carp and mixed bighead carp and common carp, respectively. Abundant phosphorus in the fish culturing activities may be present as the uneaten food, algae cells, and within the water column and sediment, which should be taken into serious con-sideration for the target of future water eutrophication prevention and safety of the drinking water supply.

  15. Stable bio-oil production from proteinaceous cyanobacteria: tail gas reactive pyrolysis of spirulina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrolysis of Spirulina, a cyanobacteria with high levels of protein (74 wt %) and low levels of lipid (0.8 wt %) content, has the potential to produce fuels and platform chemicals that differ from those produced from lignocellulosic materials. The yields and product distribution from fluidized-bed p...

  16. 78 FR 68713 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Spirulina Extract; Confirmation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... the safe use of spirulina extract made from the dried biomass of the cyanobacteria Arthrospira... final rule published August 13, 2013 (78 FR 49117), is confirmed as September 13, 2013. FOR FURTHER... the Federal Register of August 13, 2013 (78 FR 49117), we amended the color additive regulations...

  17. Wool quality traits of purebred and crossbred Merino lambs orally drenched with Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W.B. Holman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Spirulina supplementation, sire breed and sex on the wool characteristics of purebred and crossbred Merino weaned lambs under a single pasture-based management system. Lambs sired by Merino, White Suffolk, Dorset, Black Suffolk breeds were randomly allocated into 3 treatments – the control group grazing without Spirulina (0 mL, low (100 mL and high (200 mL Spirulina groups. All lambs were kept as a single mob in paddocks, grazed for 9 weeks and wool samples analysed. Differences in wool quality between the control and supplemented groups were not significant (P>0.05. However, sire breed significantly (P<0.001 influenced fibre diameter, spinning fineness, comfort factor and fibre curvature with purebred Merinos having superior wool quality than crossbreds. Wethers grew higher quality wool than ewes. Spirulina has a potential as an alternative supplementary bioresource in dual-purpose sheep feeding because it does not compromise wool quality in supplemented weaner lambs.

  18. Effect of Supplementing Spirulina on Live Performance, Carcass Composition and Meat Quality of Japanese Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Swee Weng CHEONG

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis inclusion in feed on live performance, carcass composition and meat quality of Japanese quails during growing stage to identify the best inclusion range for Japanese quails without affecting the growth and carcass parameters. Three hundred Japanese quails of 15 days of age were used in this experiment, randomly divided into 5 groups with 3 replication comprised of 30 males and 30 females. The quails were fed with a basal diet as a control and 4 levels of Spirulina inclusion diet 1, 2, 4 and 8 %. Diets were fed to birds from 15 days to 35 days of age. Body weight gain (BWG, Feed intake (FI, Feed conversion ratio (FCR and Mortality rate (MR were recorded weekly during the experiment. Carcass composition and meat quality tests were done after slaughtering. BWG, FI, FCR and MR were significantly different (p < 0.05 in the experiment. Carcass composition was found to be significantly different in the leg percentage (p < 0.05. Meat color and meat shear force value were also found to differ significantly (p < 0.05 with the Spirulina inclusion diet showing a better result than the control. Therefore, the result of this experiment suggests that diets up to 4 % of Spirulina achieve the best live performance, carcass composition and meat quality.

  19. Biological effects of Spirulina (Arthrospira) biopolymers and biomass in the development of nanostructured scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, Michele Greque; Vaz, Bruna da Silva; de Morais, Etiele Greque; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Spirulina is produced from pure cultures of the photosynthetic prokaryotic cyanobacteria Arthrospira. For many years research centers throughout the world have studied its application in various scientific fields, especially in foods and medicine. The biomass produced from Spirulina cultivation contains a variety of biocompounds, including biopeptides, biopolymers, carbohydrates, essential fatty acids, minerals, oligoelements, and sterols. Some of these compounds are bioactive and have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, and antifungal properties. These compounds can be used in tissue engineering, the interdisciplinary field that combines techniques from cell science, engineering, and materials science and which has grown in importance over the past few decades. Spirulina biomass can be used to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), biopolymers that can substitute synthetic polymers in the construction of engineered extracellular matrices (scaffolds) for use in tissue cultures or bioactive molecule construction. This review describes the development of nanostructured scaffolds based on biopolymers extracted from microalgae and biomass from Spirulina production. These scaffolds have the potential to encourage cell growth while reducing the risk of organ or tissue rejection.

  20. Biological Effects of Spirulina (Arthrospira Biopolymers and Biomass in the Development of Nanostructured Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Greque de Morais

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina is produced from pure cultures of the photosynthetic prokaryotic cyanobacteria Arthrospira. For many years research centers throughout the world have studied its application in various scientific fields, especially in foods and medicine. The biomass produced from Spirulina cultivation contains a variety of biocompounds, including biopeptides, biopolymers, carbohydrates, essential fatty acids, minerals, oligoelements, and sterols. Some of these compounds are bioactive and have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, and antifungal properties. These compounds can be used in tissue engineering, the interdisciplinary field that combines techniques from cell science, engineering, and materials science and which has grown in importance over the past few decades. Spirulina biomass can be used to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs, biopolymers that can substitute synthetic polymers in the construction of engineered extracellular matrices (scaffolds for use in tissue cultures or bioactive molecule construction. This review describes the development of nanostructured scaffolds based on biopolymers extracted from microalgae and biomass from Spirulina production. These scaffolds have the potential to encourage cell growth while reducing the risk of organ or tissue rejection.

  1. Biological Effects of Spirulina (Arthrospira) Biopolymers and Biomass in the Development of Nanostructured Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, Michele Greque; Vaz, Bruna da Silva; de Morais, Etiele Greque; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Spirulina is produced from pure cultures of the photosynthetic prokaryotic cyanobacteria Arthrospira. For many years research centers throughout the world have studied its application in various scientific fields, especially in foods and medicine. The biomass produced from Spirulina cultivation contains a variety of biocompounds, including biopeptides, biopolymers, carbohydrates, essential fatty acids, minerals, oligoelements, and sterols. Some of these compounds are bioactive and have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, and antifungal properties. These compounds can be used in tissue engineering, the interdisciplinary field that combines techniques from cell science, engineering, and materials science and which has grown in importance over the past few decades. Spirulina biomass can be used to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), biopolymers that can substitute synthetic polymers in the construction of engineered extracellular matrices (scaffolds) for use in tissue cultures or bioactive molecule construction. This review describes the development of nanostructured scaffolds based on biopolymers extracted from microalgae and biomass from Spirulina production. These scaffolds have the potential to encourage cell growth while reducing the risk of organ or tissue rejection. PMID:25157367

  2. The effects of ionizing radiations on the main beneficial free radical in Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methods of mass spectrometry, gas chromatography - mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography were used in the analytical studies performed in order to establish the effects of ionizing radiation on the main beneficial free radical (C Phycocyanin, a-chlorophylls, b-chlorophylls, carotenoids and unsaturated fatty acids) in Spirulina platensis biomass. (author)

  3. Technological and nutritional assessment of dry pasta with oatmeal and the microalga Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Arnhold Pagnussatt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat flour is the most important raw material in the production of pasta. The production process consists of mixing water and flour, kneading, extrusion and drying. Oats and the microalga Spirulina platensis play a physiological role in the growth, development and maintenance of the human organism due to their high nutritional value. The aim of this study was to assess the technological and nutritional properties of dry pasta prepared with the addition of oatmeal and Spirulina platensis. The wheat flour was characterized and the effect of partial replacement by oatmeal and Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis was evaluated using response surface methodology (RSM. The mixtures were analysed for moisture, protein, ash, colour, particle size, falling number and alveography. The formulated pastas were dried and evaluated for moisture, colour, cooking test, acidity, proximate composition and amino acids. Generally, the addition of Spirulina platensis influenced the soluble solids content and colour of the pasta, while the oatmeal mainly affected the acid content. The oatmeal increased the values of crude protein and total dietary fibre (13.06% when compared with the commercial pasta (2.40% and may be considered as a source of fibre.

  4. Miocene Coralline algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosence, D.W.J.

    1988-01-01

    The coralline algae (Order Corallinales) were sedimentologically and ecologically important during the Miocene, a period when they were particularly abundant. The many poorly described and illustrated species and the lack of quantitative data in coralline thalli make specific determinations particularly difficult, but some species are well known and widespread in the Tethyan area. The sedimentologic importance of the Miocene coralline algae is reflected in the abundance of in-situ coralline buildups, rhodoliths, and coralline debris facies at Malta and Spain; similar sequences are known throughout the Tethyan Miocene. In-situ buildups vary from leafy crustose biostromes to walled reefs with dense coralline crusts and branches. Growth forms are apparently related to hydraulic energy. Rhodoliths vary from leafy, crustose, and open-branched forms in muddy sediments to dense, crustose, and radial-branching forms in coarse grainstones. Rhodolith form and internal structure correlate closely with hydraulic energy. Coralline genera are conservative and, as such, are useful in paleoenvironmental analysis. Of particular interest are the restricted depth ranges of recent coralline genera. More research is needed on the sedimentology, paleoecology, and systematics of the Cenozoic corallines, as they have particular value in paleoenvironmental analysis.

  5. Modification of algae with zinc, copper and silver ions for usage as natural composite for antibacterial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahltig, B; Soltmann, U; Haase, H

    2013-03-01

    Nanometer sized metal particles are used in many applications as antimicrobial materials. However in public discussion nanoparticular materials are a matter of concern due to potential health risks. Hence there is a certain demand for alternative antimicrobial acting materials. For this, the aim of this work is to realize an antimicrobial active material based on the release of metal ions from a natural depot. By this, the use of elemental metal particles or metal oxide particles in nanometer or micrometer scale is avoided. As natural depot four different algae materials (gained from Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesicolosus, Spirulina platensis and Nannochloropsis) are used and loaded by bioabsorption with metal ions Ag(+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+). The amount of metal bound by biosorption differs strongly in the range of 0.8 to 5.4 mg/g and depends on type of investigated algae material and type of metal ion. For most samples a smaller release of biosorbed Ag(+) and Cu(2+) is observed compared to a strong release of Zn(2+). The antibacterial activity of the prepared composites is investigated with Escherichia coli. Algae material without biosorbed metal has only a small effect on E. coli. Also by modification of algae with Zn(2+) only a small antibacterial property can be observed. Only with biosorption of Ag(+), the algae materials gain a strong bactericidal effect, even in case of a small amount of released silver ions. These silver modified algae materials can be used as highly effective bactericidal composites which may be used in future applications for the production of antimicrobial textiles, papers or polymer materials. PMID:25427514

  6. Spirulina promotes stem cell genesis and protects against LPS induced declines in neural stem cell proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam D Bachstetter

    Full Text Available Adult stem cells are present in many tissues including, skin, muscle, adipose, bone marrow, and in the brain. Neuroinflammation has been shown to be a potent negative regulator of stem cell and progenitor cell proliferation in the neurogenic regions of the brain. Recently we demonstrated that decreasing a key neuroinflammatory cytokine IL-1beta in the hippocampus of aged rats reversed the age-related cognitive decline and increased neurogenesis in the age rats. We also have found that nutraceuticals have the potential to reduce neuroinflammation, and decrease oxidative stress. The objectives of this study were to determine if spirulina could protect the proliferative potential of hippocampal neural progenitor cells from an acute systemic inflammatory insult of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. To this end, young rats were fed for 30 days a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.1% spirulina. On day 28 the rats were given a single i.p. injection of LPS (1 mg/kg. The following day the rats were injected with BrdU (50 mg/kg b.i.d. i.p. and were sacrificed 24 hours after the first injection of BrdU. Quantification of the BrdU positive cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus demonstrated a decrease in proliferation of the stem/progenitor cells in the hippocampus as a result of the LPS insult. Furthermore, the diet supplemented with spirulina was able to negate the LPS induced decrease in stem/progenitor cell proliferation. In a second set of studies we examined the effects of spirulina either alone or in combination with a proprietary formulation (NT-020 of blueberry, green tea, vitamin D3 and carnosine on the function of bone marrow and CD34+ cells in vitro. Spirulina had small effects on its own and more than additive effects in combination with NT-020 to promote mitochondrial respiration and/or proliferation of these cells in culture. When examined on neural stem cells in culture spirulina increased proliferation at baseline and protected

  7. Spirulina platensis Extract Supplementation Attenuates Diabetic Complication in Gamma Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder, is becoming a major health problem. Although there are a number of drugs available on the market, long time use may cause a number of side effects. Spirulina is a microscopic and filamentous cyanobacterium that contains essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and anti-oxidative components. The objective of this study was to analyze the possible hypo glycemic and hypolipidaemic effects of Spirulina intake against streptozotocin and/or radiation induced diabetes in male albino rats. In the experiment, a total of 60 rats were used and the rats were divided into six groups of ten rats each: group I, normal untreated rats (control) ; group II, animals of this group received only Spirulina (15 mg/kg) for 30 consecutive days; group III, animals were injected intraperitoneally with a freshly prepared solution of streptozotocin(STZ) (45 mg/kg i.p.) in 0.1 M citrate buffer, ph 4.5 for 30 consecutive days ; group IV, as group II then given Spirulina for 30 days , group V, same as group III then exposed to 6 Gy gamma radiation as a single dose shot ; and group VI, Spirulina + diabetic irradiated group, rats were given orally Spirulina (15 mg/kg) then injected in - traperitoneally with (STZ) followed by irradiation at a dose level of 6 Gy as a single dose shot. The results revealed that animal treated with STZ or/and exposed to gamma radiation showed an increase in fasting blood sugar (FBS), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (Tg), low density lipoprotein (LDL), plasma insulin and C- peptide in compared to control. Also, a marked increase in the liver tissue of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and a decrease in glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) was observed. Oral pretreatment of rats with aqueous extract of Spirulina (SPE) counteracted STZ or/and radiation induced lipid peroxidation and encouraging hypoglycemic and hypolipidaemic properties of the treated

  8. Producción artesanal del rotífero Philodina sp. y de algas para la alimentación de post-larvas de bocachico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grisales Felipe

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de algas mixtas se realizó en el Instituto de Piscicultura Tropical de la Corporación Autónoma Regional del Valle del Cauca (Buga 25 °C y 969 m.s.n.m. utilizando fertilizantes inorgánicos en baldes plásticos, se produjeron en promedio 386 x 103 células/ml de cultivo. En el cultivo de Philodina en frascos de vidrio alimentado con algas y levadura, se obtuvieron 410 rotíferos/ml de cultivo. Se evaluaron tres tratamientos: rotíferos enriquecidos con aceite de pescado; rotíferos más algas (Chlorella, Scenedesmus, Pediastrum, Spyrogira y Anabaena y Artemia salina + Spirulina, usando 100 post-larvas de bocachico/acuario, alimentadas dos veces al día según biomasa sembrada. El mayor porcentaje de sobrevivencia, peso y talla se obtuvo con el alimento constituido por rotíferos enriquecidos con aceite de pescado (93 %,3.2mg, 6.86mm, seguido de rotíferos + algas (80.67 %,2 mg, 6.1mm y Artemia+ Spirulina (60.6 %,1.6mg, 6.06mm respectivamente

  9. Effect of Spirulina maxima Supplementation on Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, and Zinc Status in Obese Patients with Treated Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliburska, J; Szulińska, M; Tinkov, A A; Bogdański, P

    2016-09-01

    The effects of Spirulina maxima supplementation on calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc status were studied in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial of 50 obese subjects with treated hypertension, each randomized to receive 2 g of spirulina or a placebo daily for 3 months. At baseline and after treatment, the calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc concentration in plasma was assessed. It was found that 3 months of S. maxima supplementation resulted in a significant decrease in the iron level in the plasma of obese patients. In conclusion, this is the first clinical study on the influence of spirulina supplementation on mineral status in obese patients with hypertension. Spirulina supplementation affects the iron status of obese Caucasians with well-treated hypertension. PMID:26779620

  10. Chemomodulation of carcinogen metabolising enzymes, antioxidant profiles and skin and forestomach papillomagenesis by Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, T; Banejee, S; Yadav, P K; Rao, A R

    2001-10-01

    Numerous reports have revealed an inverse association between consumption of some selective natural products and risk of developing cancer. In the present study the effect of 250 and 500 mg/kg body wt. of Spirulina was examined on drug metabolising phase I and phase II enzymes, antioxidant enzymes, glutathione content, lactate dehydrogenase and lipid peroxidation in the liver of 7-week-old Swiss albino mice. The implications of these biochemical alterations have been further evaluated adopting the protocol of benzo(a)pyrene induced forestomach and 7,12 dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) initiated and croton oil promoted skin papillomagenesis. Our primary findings reveal the 'Monofunctional' nature of Spirulina as deduced from its potential to induce only the phase II enzyme activities associated mainly with carcinogen detoxification. The glutathione S-transferase and DT-diaphorase specific activities were induced in hepatic and all the extrahepatic organs examined (lung, kidney and forestomach) by Spirulina pretreatment (significance level being from p < 0.05 to p < 0.005) except for the low dose treatment in forestomach. With reference to antioxidant enzymes viz., superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione were increased significantly by both the chosen doses of Spirulina from p < 0.01 to p < 0.005. Chemopreventive response was quantitated by the average number of papillomas per effective mouse (tumor burden) as well as percentage of tumor bearing animals. There was a significant inhibition of tumor burden as well as tumor incidence in both the tumor model systems studied. In the skin tumor studies tumor burden was reduced from 4.86 to 1.20 and 1.15 by the low and high dose treatment respectively. In stomach tumor studies tumor burden was 2.05 and 1.73 by the low and high doses of Spirulina treatment against 3.73 that of control. PMID:11768236

  11. Binding characteristics of copper and cadmium by cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → The carboxyl groups play a vital role in the binding of Cu(II) and Cd(II) to S. platensis cells. → Ion exchange and complexation are the dominating mechanism for Cu(II) and Cd(II) adsorption. → XAFS analysis provided evidence for the inner-sphere complexation of Cu by carboxyl ligands and showed that Cu is complexed by two 5-membered chelate rings on S. platensis surface. - Abstract: Cyanobacteria are promising biosorbent for heavy metals in bioremediation. Although sequestration of metals by cyanobacteria is known, the actual mechanisms and ligands involved are not very well understood. The binding characteristics of Cu(II) and Cd(II) by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis were investigated using a combination of chemical modifications, batch adsorption experiments, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. A significant increase in Cu(II) and Cd(II) binding was observed in the range of pH 3.5-5.0. Dramatical decrease in adsorption of Cu(II) and Cd(II) was observed after methanol esterification of the nonliving cells demonstrating that carboxyl functional groups play an important role in the binding of metals by S. platensis. The desorption rate of Cu(II) and Cd(II) from S. platensis surface was 72.7-80.7% and 53.7-58.0% by EDTA and NH4NO3, respectively, indicating that ion exchange and complexation are the dominating mechanisms for Cu(II) and Cd(II) adsorption. XAFS analysis provided further evidence on the inner-sphere complexation of Cu by carboxyl ligands and showed that Cu is complexed by two 5-membered chelate rings on S. platensis surface.

  12. Binding characteristics of copper and cadmium by cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang Linchuan [State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zhou Chen; Cai Peng [Key Laboratory of Subtropical Agricultural Resources and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Chen Wenli [State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Rong Xingmin; Dai Ke; Liang Wei [Key Laboratory of Subtropical Agricultural Resources and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Gu Jidong [Department of Ecology and Biodiversity, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Huang Qiaoyun, E-mail: qyhuang@mail.hzau.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Key Laboratory of Subtropical Agricultural Resources and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} The carboxyl groups play a vital role in the binding of Cu(II) and Cd(II) to S. platensis cells. {yields} Ion exchange and complexation are the dominating mechanism for Cu(II) and Cd(II) adsorption. {yields} XAFS analysis provided evidence for the inner-sphere complexation of Cu by carboxyl ligands and showed that Cu is complexed by two 5-membered chelate rings on S. platensis surface. - Abstract: Cyanobacteria are promising biosorbent for heavy metals in bioremediation. Although sequestration of metals by cyanobacteria is known, the actual mechanisms and ligands involved are not very well understood. The binding characteristics of Cu(II) and Cd(II) by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis were investigated using a combination of chemical modifications, batch adsorption experiments, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. A significant increase in Cu(II) and Cd(II) binding was observed in the range of pH 3.5-5.0. Dramatical decrease in adsorption of Cu(II) and Cd(II) was observed after methanol esterification of the nonliving cells demonstrating that carboxyl functional groups play an important role in the binding of metals by S. platensis. The desorption rate of Cu(II) and Cd(II) from S. platensis surface was 72.7-80.7% and 53.7-58.0% by EDTA and NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}, respectively, indicating that ion exchange and complexation are the dominating mechanisms for Cu(II) and Cd(II) adsorption. XAFS analysis provided further evidence on the inner-sphere complexation of Cu by carboxyl ligands and showed that Cu is complexed by two 5-membered chelate rings on S. platensis surface.

  13. 隐藻藻胆蛋白的结构与能量传递功能%The Structure and Energy Transfer of Phycobiliproteins in Cryptophytic Algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈敏; 王宁; 杨多利; 李文军

    2015-01-01

    藻胆蛋白主要存在于蓝藻、红藻及部分隐藻,作为主要的捕光复合物担负着吸收和传递光能的作用。同时藻胆蛋白还是具有很高量子产率的荧光蛋白,因而在光合理论研究及应用方面受到广泛的关注。隐藻藻胆蛋白继承自红藻,但在其蛋白和色基结构、组成、性质、在叶绿体中的存在状态以及与光合膜上反应中心的接触方式等方面都与红、蓝藻藻胆蛋白不同。目前对于红、蓝藻中的藻胆蛋白以及组装而成的藻胆体等均有相当透彻的研究,而对于隐藻藻胆蛋白的了解要少得多。隐藻藻胆蛋白在进化上可能属于比较原始的类型,并且结构上相对于庞大的藻胆体简单得多,因此对于了解藻胆蛋白基本的结构与捕光功能的关系、探讨隐藻的进化地位以及光合生物进化的亲缘关系等的研究方面,具有重要意义,也更为便捷。本文从结构和能量传递功能等方面对目前发现的隐藻藻胆蛋白的研究近况做了综述,总结了目前研究存在的不明之处,并对今后的研究思路提出了看法。%Phycobiliproteins are mainly found in blue-green algae, red algae and some species of cryptophytic algae. They function as major light-harvesting complexes to harvest and transfer sunlight energy. Meanwhile, phycobiliproteins are also lfuorescent proteins with high lfuorescence quantum yield, and in consequence be widely concerned in both theoretical photosynthesis investigation and application. The cryptophytic phycobilip-roteins are inherited from red algae but varied in several ways compared to phycobiliproteins from red algae and blue-green algae, including their protein and phycobilin structure, composition, properties, existential states within chloroplast, as well as the contact forms with reaction centers embedded in photosynthetic membrane, etc. At present, there is a thorough understanding with both phycobiliproteins and

  14. Effect of Replacing Fishmeal with Spirulina on Growth, Carcass Composition and Pigment of the Mekong Giant Catfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudaporn Tongsiri

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina has been commercially cultivated because of its high nutritional content. It can be considered a nutritional supplement for humans with various health benefits, and a feed supplement for animals having economic benefits. In aquaculture, Spirulina has been used to improve the immune system and increase the survival rate in juvenile commercial fish, as well as to increase their flesh pigment. From these applications, Spirulina could be used to replace high protein feed ingredient such as fishmeal and soybean meal to save the costs of feed. The M ekong Giant Catfish (Pla Buk, Pangasianodon gigas Chevey, is one of the largest species of freshwater catfish in the world. This fish is an endemic species in the Mekong River and its branches. At present, Thailand could culture this fish on a commercial scale. This study was conducted to investigate replacing fishmeal with Spirulina, at 0, 15, 30 and 100%, and to evaluate growth, feed utilization and pigment in flesh of fish. The results showed that the proximate composition of the various feeds (4 formulas had similar nutritional value. Average daily gain, specific growth rate and feed conversion rate were not significantly different. However total biomass increase of fish fed with Spirulina 0% was significantly lower than fish fed with Spirulina 15, 30 and 100% (p<0.05. The standard length of the fish and weight in terms of flesh, gut and stomach were not significantly different. As well, flesh pigment and carotenoids were not significantly different.

  15. Effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on growth, protein and chlorophyll-a content of Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygideger, Saadet Demirors; Okkay, Ozlem

    2008-03-01

    In this study, effect of different 2,4 -dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) concentrations (0.0, 9.10(-5), 9.10(-4), 9.10(-3) and 9.10(-2) mM) on growth rate, content of protein and chlorophyll-a in Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis cells was investigated. The most stimulatory effect on growth rate, protein and pigment ratio of C. vulgaris and S. platensis was observed at 9.10(-4) mM concentrations of 2,4-D. The results show that low concentrations of 2,4-D have hormonal effect due to being a synthetic auxin. Cell number protein and pigment rates were inhibited at 9.10(-2) mM concentration in C. vulgaris. Such parameters were inhibited in S. platensis, both at 9.10(-3) and 9.10(-2) mM 2,4-D concentrations. This is due to herbicidal effect of high concentrations of 2,4-D. S. platensis was found to be more sensitive than S. vulgaris to 2,4-D applications. The use of algae as bio-indicators in herbicide contaminated fresh water habitats, was discussed. PMID:18831369

  16. Energy values and chemical composition of spirulina (Spirulina platensis evaluated with broilers Valores energéticos e composição química da espirulina (Spirulina platensis avaliada com frangos de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Ribeiro Alvarenga

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the chemical and energy composition of spirulina (Spirulina platensis, the nutrient metabolizability coefficients, and the values of apparent metabolizable energy (AME and the apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn in broilers. A digestibility trial was carried out by using total excreta collection method, with 90 Cobb 500 lineage chicks, with initial weight of 256 ± 5 g at 11 days of age. Birds were allotted in metabolic cages for 10 days, distributed in a completely randomized design, with three treatments and six repetitions with five birds each. Diets consisted on a reference-ration based on corn and soybean meal and two test diets, one containing spirulina (30% and the other one with soybean meal (30%. Spiruline was superior to soybean meal for contents of dry matter (DM, gross energy (9.60%, crude protein (26.56%, ether extract (54.45%, mineral matter (42.77%, calcium (100% and total phosphorus (130.77% and also for most amino acids, except lysine, glutamate, histidine and proline. Nevertheless, spiruline presented lower values of gross fiber (83.95%, acid detergent fiber (85.12% and neutral detergent fiber (6.15. The AME and AMEn values (kcal/kg of DM were, respectively, 2,906 and 2,502 for the spirulina and 2,646 and 2,340 for the soybean meal and AMEn of spirulina was 6.92% higher than soybean meal.Objetivou-se determinar a composição química e energética da espirulina (Spirulina platensis, os coeficientes de metabolizabilidade dos nutrientes e os valores de energia metabolizável aparente (EMA e aparente corrigida pelo balanço de nitrogênio (EMAn em frangos de corte. Realizou-se um ensaio de digestibilidade utilizando-se a metodologia de coleta total de excretas com 90 pintos machos da linhagem Cobb 500, com peso inicial de 256 ± 5 g aos 11 dias de idade. As aves foram alojadas em gaiolas de metabolismo durante dez dias, distribuídas em delineamento

  17. The ycf27 genes from cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae: distribution and implications for chloroplast evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Mark K; Houmard, Jean; Mullineaux, Conrad W

    2002-08-27

    The two ycf27 genes from the filamentous cyanobacterium Tolypothrix PCC 7601 have been cloned and sequenced. These two genes, previously designated rpaA and rpaB, encode putative transcriptional regulators of the 'OmpR' family. In Synechocystis PCC 6803, homologous genes have been linked to the regulation of transfer of excitation energy from the phycobilisome to photosystem (PS) I and PSII respectively. Partial clones from Spirulina platensis, Dactylococcopsis salina and Synechococcus PCC 7002 have also been sequenced. A table of identity between the proteins confirms that RpaB belongs in the same family as the algal ycf27 proteins. However, RpaA is a rather different protein and should lose the designation ycf27. The loss of rpaB from the plastid genomes of eukaryotic algae is associated with the loss of phycobiliproteins, so it is likely that this gene performs a similar role in algae to that in cyanobacteria. The implications for chloroplast evolution are discussed along with the possible identity of the cognate histidine kinase gene in the plastid genomes.

  18. Fuel From Algae: Scaling and Commercialization of Algae Harvesting Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-01-15

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Led by CEO Ross Youngs, AVS has patented a cost-effective dewatering technology that separates micro-solids (algae) from water. Separating micro-solids from water traditionally requires a centrifuge, which uses significant energy to spin the water mass and force materials of different densities to separate from one another. In a comparative analysis, dewatering 1 ton of algae in a centrifuge costs around $3,400. AVS’s Solid-Liquid Separation (SLS) system is less energy-intensive and less expensive, costing $1.92 to process 1 ton of algae. The SLS technology uses capillary dewatering with filter media to gently facilitate water separation, leaving behind dewatered algae which can then be used as a source for biofuels and bio-products. The biomimicry of the SLS technology emulates the way plants absorb and spread water to their capillaries.

  19. The leaves of green plants as well as a cyanobacterium, a red alga, and fungi contain insulin-like antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.B. Silva

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the detection of insulin-like antigens in a large range of species utilizing a modified ELISA plate assay and Western blotting. We tested the leaves or aerial parts of species of Rhodophyta (red alga, Bryophyta (mosses, Psilophyta (whisk ferns, Lycopodophyta (club mosses, Sphenopsida (horsetails, gymnosperms, and angiosperms, including monocots and dicots. We also studied species of fungi and a cyanobacterium, Spirulina maxima. The wide distribution of insulin-like antigens, which in some cases present the same electrophoretic mobility as bovine insulin, together with results recently published by us on the amino acid sequence of an insulin isolated from the seed coat of jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis and from the developing fruits of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, suggests that pathways depending on this hormone have been conserved through evolution.

  20. Transgenic algae engineered for higher performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, Pat J; Anderson, Penelope S; Knight, Thomas J

    2014-10-21

    The present disclosure relates to transgenic algae having increased growth characteristics, and methods of increasing growth characteristics of algae. In particular, the disclosure relates to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and a glutamine synthetase.

  1. Extraction, purification and nanoformulation of natural phycocyanin (from Klamath algae) for dermal and deeper soft tissue delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caddeo, Carla; Chessa, Maura; Vassallo, Antonio; Pons, Ramon; Diez-Sales, Octavio; Fadda, Anna Maria; Manconi, Maria

    2013-11-01

    This study focuses on the extraction and isolation of a natural anti-inflammatory phycocyanin and its nanoformulation in innovative and efficient vesicular carriers able to improve its delivery to the skin. C-phycocyanin was successfully isolated from a commercial dry extract (AfaMax) of blue-green Klamath algae. Protein extraction and purity were confirmed by gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE), MALDI top-down sequencing, Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry, and UV absorption. Purified C-phycocyanin was then encapsulated in different phospholipid vesicles: liposomes, ethosomes and Penetration Enhancer containing Vesicles (PEVs), the latter containing the penetration enhancer propylene glycol or Transcutol P. The main colloidal characteristics of the systems were assessed, showing spherical vesicles around 100 nm, negatively charged, with different lamellarity depending on the formulation composition. An in depth investigation on vesicle geometrical properties and morphology was carried out by Small and Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering. Further, the ability of rhodamine-labelled vesicles to allow fluorescent phycocyanin penetration and distribution through human skin was evaluated by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, while a complete picture of vesicle-treated skin architecture was gained using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Results indicate that PEVs, especially propylene glycol containing vesicles, are promising carriers for the delivery of the high molecular weight protein phycocyanin to the deep skin layers. PMID:24059092

  2. Elongation of lifetime of photosynthetic biofuel-cells containing immobilized algae; Koteika aiso wo mochiita kogosei biseibutsu denchi no chojumyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagishita, T.; Sawayama, S.; Inoue, S.; Ogi, T. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1994-12-08

    An experimental study is performed for elongation of lifetime of photosynthetic biofuel-cells using the living blue-green algae and a mediator. In the experiment, correlation between a current generated from cultured Anabaena and the life of the cells is investigated. Anabaena is recovered from the cells after the cells are operated for 10 hours in the dark and is cultured for 10 hours under irradiation with a Xe lamp and ventilation of 3 % CO2. Thereafter, immobilized Anabaena is returned into the cells and the cells are again actuated in repetition. Three load resistances 1 K ohm, 700 ohm, 400 ohm are employed and operation time of the current is lengthened under any conditions compared with the case where the cells are continuously operated. Further, provided a generated current is limited to 0.6 mA or lower, the current is not lowered even if the cells are operated for 90 hours. It is concluded that provided Anabaena is cultured after the electricity of 6.4 mA/h per the amount of chlorophyl in Anabaena is taken out, an output of the cells is kept unchanged for a long time. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Equilibrium and kinetic studies of lead biosorption by three Spirulina (Arthrospira species in open raceway ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Kiran RR

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The present investigation deals with the biosorption of lead from aqueous solutions in open race way pond using edible and live Spirulina (Arthospira maxima, Spirulina (Arthospira indica, Spirulina (Arthospira platensis. Studies on various initial lead (II ion concentrations, biosorbent dosage, pH and bioaccumulation potential were evaluated. The organisms are tolerant up to 4 mg/l and after that slight growth inhibition was found. Spirulina (Arthospira indica showed more tolerance when compared with Spirulina (Arthospira maxima and Spirulina (Arthospira plantensis. The adsorption rate data was fitted to pseudo second order kinetics. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were applied to the experimental data and their equilibrium parameters were determined. Further optimization of initial lead (II ion concentration, solution pH, agitation speed and biosorbent dosage were done using Box-Behnken experimental design coupled with artificial neural networks. This study provides a deep insight for exploring potential of using algal open race way ponds for biosorption of heavy metals. The diversity of the results can be expanded still further for other algal species and heavy metals. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  4. Scenario studies for algae production

    OpenAIRE

    Slegers, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae are a promising biomass for the biobased economy to produce food, feed, fuel, chemicals and materials. So far, large-scale production of algae is limited and as a result estimates on the performance of such large systems are scarce. There is a need to estimate large-scale biomass productivity and energy consumption, while considering the uncertainty and complexity in such large-scale systems. In this thesis frameworks are developed to assess 1) the productivity during algae cultiva...

  5. Neuroprotective Effects of Marine Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Se-Kwon Kim; Ratih Pangestuti

    2011-01-01

    The marine environment is known as a rich source of chemical structures with numerous beneficial health effects. Among marine organisms, marine algae have been identified as an under-exploited plant resource, although they have long been recognized as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Presently, several lines of studies have provided insight into biological activities and neuroprotective effects of marine algae including antioxidant, anti-neuroinflammatory, choline...

  6. Carotenoids in Algae: Distributions, Biosyntheses and Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Shinichi Takaichi

    2011-01-01

    For photosynthesis, phototrophic organisms necessarily synthesize not only chlorophylls but also carotenoids. Many kinds of carotenoids are found in algae and, recently, taxonomic studies of algae have been developed. In this review, the relationship between the distribution of carotenoids and the phylogeny of oxygenic phototrophs in sea and fresh water, including cyanobacteria, red algae, brown algae and green algae, is summarized. These phototrophs contain division- or class-specific carote...

  7. Optimization of mechanical stirring technology in anaerobic fermentation treating algae and pilot trial validation%蓝藻厌氧发酵产沼气机械搅拌工艺优化及中试验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余亚琴; 吴义锋

    2014-01-01

    Water pollution caused by the excessive growth of blue-green algae has become a growing environmental problem. One current approach to reducing the algae in Taihu Lake is to refloat the algae after a bloom has occurred. It can remove nitrogen and phosphorus in the lake simultaneously. The amount of algae-laden water collected from Taihu Lake can be up to approximately several thousand tons in wet weight per day. And they needs timely and effective treatment. The algae can be effectively degraded and produced into methane by anaerobic fermentation technology. The algae is easy to float and crust in the reactor, thus affecting the efficiency of the gas production and reducing the processing effect of the reactor. In anaerobic reactors, proper stirring can prevent algae floating and facilitate contact between the algae and other microbes, thereby improving gas production efficiency. This paper designed experimental device for optimizing the stirring of blue-green algae anaerobic fermentation. The device was made of double transparent glass with a working volume of 3 L. The device was equipped with an adjustable speed motor, which control the stirring interval, stirring duration and stirring cycle. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the stirring conditions. Simultaneously, the pilot study was adopted to provide a support of the best stirring condition of blue-green algae anaerobic fermentation. In the pilot study, protease content was assayed to characterize hydrolysis activity, TTC-dehydrogenase content was measured to characterize microbial enzyme activity, and coenzyme F420 content showed the activity of methanogenic anaerobes. The experimental results showed that the algae anaerobic fermentation was influenced by stirring interval, stirring duration, and stirring cycle. The correlation coefficient of the RSM regression equation was 0.98. RSM revealed the optimized stirring parameters for algae anaerobic fermentation as follows

  8. Biosorption of Ag(I)-Spirulina platensis for different pH

    CERN Document Server

    Gelagutashvili, E; Kuchava, N; Bagdavadze, N; Rcheulishvili, A

    2011-01-01

    Biosorption of Ag(I)-Spirulina platensis for different pH were investigated using dialysis and Atomic-absorbtion analysis. It was shown, that the biosorption constant for Ag(I) Spirulina platensis complex and the capacity depend on the change of pH. In particular, with the increase of pH (pH=5.5. and pH=8.6 cases), the biosorption constant increase and the capacity decreases. The nature of interaction is also changed. In case of neutral pH, the interaction Ag(I)-S. platensis is of cooperative character and maximum metal biosorption by S. platensis biomass was observed at pH 7.0.

  9. Production of Generation-2 Mekong giant catfish (Pangasinodon gigas cultured with Spirulina sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriangsak Meng-umphan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the treatment of Spirulina-supplemented pellet feed to 5-year-old F1 groups of Mekong giant catfish (Pangasinodon gigas from the brood stock and intended for use as breeders. The effects on their growth and maturation when cultured in an earthen pond were observed. Results revealed that, compared to control, there was more gain in weight while the feed conversion ratio was lower. The number of red blood cells was also higher while that of white blood cells was lower, compared to control. Out of 18 treated fish (9 males and 9 females, 6 males and 2 females gave sperms and eggs while none from control group did. It was concluded that Spirulina supplemented in pellet feed can improve growth and maturation performance to the brood stock of Mekong giant catfish.

  10. Cultivo mixotrófico da microalga Spirulina platensis em batelada alimentada Mixotrophic growth of Spirulina platensis in fed-batch mode

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Muliterno; Patrícia Correa Mosele; Jorge Alberto Vieira Costa; Marcelo Hemkemeier; Telma Elita Bertolin; Luciane Maria Colla

    2005-01-01

    A Spirulina platensis tem sido estudada devido a seu alto valor protéico, digestibilidade e por apresentar quantidades significativas de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados, vitaminas, fenólicos e ficocianina, podendo ser utilizada na alimentação humana. A utilização de nutrientes de baixo custo é um fator importante na produção da cianobactéria por possibilitar a redução de custos de processo. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar o cultivo mixotrófico da S. platensis por meio da adição de uma fo...

  11. Well-tolerated Spirulina extract inhibits influenza virus replication and reduces virus-induced mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Hsiang Chen; Gi-Kung Chang; Shu-Ming Kuo; Sheng-Yu Huang; I-Chen Hu; Yu-Lun Lo; Shin-Ru Shih

    2016-01-01

    Influenza is one of the most common human respiratory diseases, and represents a serious public health concern. However, the high mutability of influenza viruses has hampered vaccine development, and resistant strains to existing anti-viral drugs have also emerged. Novel anti-influenza therapies are urgently needed, and in this study, we describe the anti-viral properties of a Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) cold water extract. Anti-viral effects have previously been reported for extracts a...

  12. Study of phycocyanin production from Spirulina platensis under different light spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo Walter; Júlio Cesar de Carvalho; Vanete Thomaz Soccol; Ana Bárbara Bisinella de Faria; Vanessa Ghiggi; Carlos Ricardo Soccol

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the production of phycocyanin by Spirulina platensis under different spectra of light. The dependent variables evaluated were the amount of phycocyanin obtained and its purity, demonstrating that there might be a restructuring of phycobilisomes, especially when the culture was subjected to red light, which increased the purity level up to 33% with a reduction of 16% in phycocyanin content, but with higher photosynthetic efficiency compared to natural li...

  13. Kinetics and adsorption isotherm of C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis on ion-exchange resins

    OpenAIRE

    Sala, L; F. S. Figueira; G. P. Cerveira; C. C. Moraes; S. J. Kalil

    2014-01-01

    C-phycocyanin is a natural blue dye extracted from Spirulina platensis, which has many applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this paper the effect of pH and temperature on the adsorption of C-phycocyanin onto two different ion exchange resins (Streamline DEAE and Streamline Q XL) for expanded bed adsorption chromatography was investigated. Moreover, the kinetics and adsorption isotherm were evaluated. The equilibrium for the Q XL matrix was reached after 60 min, while for...

  14. Decontaminative effect of irradiation on spirulina powder and its active components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decontaminative effects of 60Co γ-rays, irradiation on spirulina powder and its main active components, such as mineral, vitamin, amino acid and activities of SOD and POD were studied. The results showed that the irradiation treatment was very effective on eliminating microorganism in spirulina powder, and the components varied with the irradiation dose. In the range of 4.0-8.0 kGy, the higher the irradiation dose is, the more the content of polysaccharide is. On the contrary, contents of phycobiliprotein, phycocyanins, vitamin and activities of SOD, POD decrease with the increase of dose. The number of microorganism in spirulina powder was controlled the national standard when irradiation dose was 6.0 kGy. Compared with CK, the ranges of all components in irradiated Spirulinal powder are just like that there was 27.2% increase in the content of polysaccharide if irradiation dose was 8 kGy, and the contents of Phycobiliprotein and Phycocyanins decreased significantly if dose was more than 6.0 kGy. When dose ranged from 4 kGy to 8 kGy, decrease ratios to contents of Vc are 40.6%, 62.8%, 14.1%, contents of VA are 36.3%, 17.6%, 17.0%, contents of VE are 25.8%, 61.7%, 52.6%. On the base of these results, we conclude that the optimal doses for Spirulina powder irradiation is in the range of 4.0-6.0 kGy for the sake of various quality factors. (authors)

  15. Study of phycocyanin production from Spirulina platensis under different light spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Walter

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the production of phycocyanin by Spirulina platensis under different spectra of light. The dependent variables evaluated were the amount of phycocyanin obtained and its purity, demonstrating that there might be a restructuring of phycobilisomes, especially when the culture was subjected to red light, which increased the purity level up to 33% with a reduction of 16% in phycocyanin content, but with higher photosynthetic efficiency compared to natural light.

  16. Stable Isolation of Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis Associated with High-Pressure Extraction Process

    OpenAIRE

    Kyung-Hwan Jung; Jin Oh Park; Jong Ho Park; Woo Seok Choi; Yong Chang Seo; Hyeon Yong Lee

    2013-01-01

    A method for stably purifying a functional dye, phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis was developed by a hexane extraction process combined with high pressure. This was necessary because this dye is known to be very unstable during normal extraction processes. The purification yield of this method was estimated as 10.2%, whose value is 3%–5% higher than is the case from another conventional separation method using phosphate buffer. The isolated phycocyanin from this process also show...

  17. Exercise and spirulina control non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis and lipid profile in diabetic Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Gláucio A; Ghezzi Ana; Teixeira Inaian P; Beck Wladimir R; Puga Guilherme M; Moura Leandro P; de Mello Maria Alice R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus is associated with metabolic dysfunctions, including alterations in circulating lipid levels and fat tissue accumulation, which causes, among other pathologies, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Aim of the study The objective of this study was to analyse the effects of physical exercise and spirulina intake on the control of NAFLD in diabetic Wistar rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in the animals through intravenous administration of alloxan. T...

  18. Effect of three different types of culture conditions on Spirulina maxima growth

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Paula da Costa Monteiro; Rosa Helena Luchese; Theresinha Monteiro Absher

    2010-01-01

    Growth of Spirulina maxima was studied in three types of culture conditions with four replicates each: 1) manual aeration with natural sunlight; 2) manual aeration with artificial light; and 3) constant aeration with an aquarium compressor and artificial light. After 185 days of incubation, growth declined in the first two treatments, while in the third treatment, higher growth was observed with average optical density of 3.7 against 1.8 and 1.9 in the first and second treatment, respectively...

  19. Protective Role of Spirulina on Gamma Rays Induced Haematological and Biochemical Disorders in Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study reports the haematological and biochemical protective effect of Salipriina on Swiss albino mice exposed to gamma radiation. Swiss albino mice (8 weeks old) were administered intraperitoneally Sanepil (800 mg/kg b.wt.) prior to whole body gamma-irradiation (7.5 Gy). Radiation exposure resulted in a significant decline in different bone marrow cells (pro-and normoblasts) and blood constituents (erythrocytes, leukocytes, differential leukocyte count, haematocrit,haemoglobin and erythrocyte sedimentation rate). Pro- and normoblasts, erythrocytes, leukocytes, haematocrit and haemoglobin values showed a significant (p<0.05) decline during the first 3 days, followed by a gradual recovery starting from day 7, but normal values were not recorded until 14 days post-exposure. Treatment of mice with Spirulina also caused a significant decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) formation in the liver, suggesting its role in protection against radiation induced membrane and cellular damage. Similarly, pretreatment of mice with Spirulina caused a significant increase in serum glutathione (GSH) level in comparison with that of irradiated animals. Results suggest that Spirulina modulate the radiation induced hematological and biochemical alterations in Swiss albino mice

  20. Spirulina platensis feeding inhibited the anemia- and leucopenia-induced lead and cadmium in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simsek, Nejdet [University of Atatuerk, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, 25700 Erzurum (Turkey); Karadeniz, Ali, E-mail: karadenizali@gmail.com [University of Atatuerk, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Physiology, 25700 Erzurum (Turkey); Kalkan, Yildiray; Keles, Osman N.; Unal, Buenyami [University of Atatuerk, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2009-05-30

    In the present investigation, the effect of Spirulina platensis (Sp) was undertaken on rats fed with lead and cadmium including diet by using physiological, enzymehistochemical and stereological methods. For this aim, 50 rats were equally divided into five groups as control (C), lead (Pb), Spirulina + lead (Sp + Pb), cadmium (Cd), and Spirulina + cadmium (Sp + Cd). Red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts, packed cell volume (PCV), and haemoglobine (Hb) concentrations were determined by haemocytometric methods in blood samples collected on 30th day. Population of T lymphocyte was counted by the {alpha}-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE) staining method, and reticulocytes were counted by stereological method. The counts of RBC, WBC, and ANAE positive T lymphocyte, and the values of Hb, PCV, and MCHC were decreased in the Pb and Cd groups compared to control group. Also, the number of reticulocytes (polychromatofilic erythrocyte) increased in the Pb groups, whereas it decreased in the Cd group. On the other hand, these values were ceased by S. platensis in the treated groups. These results suggest that S. platensis supplementation may be useful in adjuvant treatment of leukemia and anemia caused by lead and cadmium toxication.

  1. Biosorption characteristics of Spirulina and Chlorella cells to accumulate heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kőnig-Péter Anikó

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The heavy metal biosorption of dried Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis-Spirulina maxima cells was studied under various experimental conditions. The effect of biosorbent dosage, pH, adsorption time, temperature, initial metal concentration on biosorption was studied. Biosorption process can be divided into two parts: the first part follows zero-order, the second part pseudo second-order kinetics. Characterization of biosorption equilibrium was evaluated with Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich models using non-linear regression. The optimum pH range was found to be 5.0 − 6.0 for Pb(II and 4.0 − 6.0 for Cu(II and Cd(II adsorption. The maximum adsorption capacities for Pb(II, Cd(II and Cu(II were 144, 161 and 138 mg g-1 by Chlorella cells and 370, 201 and 165 by Spirulina cells, based on the experimental data. The same values for activated carbon were 86, 134 and 43 mg g-1, respectively.

  2. Inf luence of Spirulina platensis exudates on the endocrine and nervous systems of a mammalian model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samah; Mamdouh; Mohamed; Fathy; Ashraf; Mohamed; Mohamed; Essa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the ef ect of intra-peritoneal injection of purii ed exudates of axenic Spirulina platensis on the mammalian endocrine and nervous systems. Methods: The intra-peritoneal injection of the cyanobacterial exudates in mice was applied. Sex hormonal levels of testosterone and progesterone were measured using radioimmunoassay while the follicular stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone were evaluated by direct chemiluminescence. In addition, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were monitored in the hippocampus region using spectrophotometric method. The levels of the hippocampal monoamines, dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography while the acetyl choline neurotransmitter was measured by colorimetric method using choline/acetylcholine assay kit. Results: A sharp disruption in the sex hormones levels of testosterone, progesterone, follicular stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone was demonstrated in the serum of the treated mice. At the same time, a signii cant reduction in the endogenous antioxidant defense enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase was observed in the hippocampus region of the injected mice. Moreover, levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin and acetyl choline neurotransmitter in the same region were signii cantly af ected as a result of the treatment with Spirulina i ltrate. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometer and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis showed the presence of some sterol-like compounds in the cyanobacterial i ltrate. Conclusions: This study demonstrated the capability of Spirulina to release detrimental bioactive metabolites into their surrounding that can disrupt the mammalian endocrine and nervous systems.

  3. Spirulina sp. LEB-18 culture using effluent from the anaerobic digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Borges

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The carbon source is the most expensive nutrient for Spirulina production; effluents from anaerobic digestion contain this nutrient in the form of HCO3-. The aim of this study was to assess the growth kinetics, composition and fatty acid profile of Spirulina sp. LEB-18 grown in standard Zarrouk medium (NaHCO3 16.8 g L-1 and in Zarrouk medium replaced with 20% (v/v effluent with reduced concentrations of NaHCO3 (5.3 and 2.8 g L-1. The use of effluent and lower concentrations of HCO3 was found to be an alternative to reduce the costs of Spirulina production, because there were no significant differences in growth parameters (µmax 0.324 - 0.354 d-1; Pmax 0.280 - 0.297 g L-1 d-1, in the different culture medium used. Lipids ranged between 4.9 and 5.0%; the media with effluent had higher levels of linoleic acid compared to the standard medium.

  4. Arsenic-induced genotoxicity in Nile tilapia (Orechromis niloticus); the role of Spirulina platensis extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Alaa El-Din H; Elbaghdady, Heba Allah M; Zahran, Eman

    2015-12-01

    Arsenic (As) is one of the most relevant environmental global single substance toxicants that have long been regarded as a carcinogenic and genotoxic potential. In this respect, we evaluated the cytogenetic effect of arsenic exposure in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), in terms of erythrocyte alteration, apoptosis, and induction of micronuclei. Spirulina platensis (SP) is a filamentous cyanobacterium microalgae with potent dietary phytoantioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancerous properties supplementation. The protective role of Spirulina as supplementary feeds was studied in Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) against arsenic-induced cytogenotoxicity. Four groups were assigned as control group (no SP or As), As group (exposed to water-born As in the form of NaAsO2 at 7 ppm), SP1 (SP at 7.5% + As at the same level of exposure), and SP2 (SP at 10% + As at the same level of exposure). As-treated group had a significant increase in all cytogenetic analyses including erythrocyte alteration, apoptosis, and induction of micronuclei after 2 weeks with continuous increase in response after 3 weeks. The combined treatment of Spirulina at two different concentrations of 7.5 and 10% had significantly declined the induction of erythrocyte alteration, apoptosis, and micronuclei formation induced by arsenic intoxication.

  5. Enhancement of biodiesel production from different species of algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Moneim M. R. Afify, Abd

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Eight algal species (4 Rhodo, 1 chloro and 1 phaeophycean macroalgae, 1 cyanobacterium and 1 green microalga were used for the production of biodiesel using two extraction solvent systems (Hexane/ether (1:1, v/v and (Chloroform/ methanol (2:1, v/v. Biochemical evaluations of algal species were carried out by estimating biomass, lipid, biodiesel and sediment (glycerin and pigments percentages. Hexane/ ether (1:1, v/v extraction solvent system resulted in low lipid recoveries (2.3-3.5% dry weight while; chloroform/methanol (2: 1, v/v extraction solvent system was proved to be more efficient for lipid and biodiesel extraction (2.5 – 12.5% dry weight depending on algal species. The green microalga Dictyochloropsis splendida extract produced the highest lipid and biodiesel yield (12.5 and 8.75% respectively followed by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (9.2 and 7.5 % respectively. On the other hand, the macroalgae (red, brown and green produced the lowest biodiesel yield. The fatty acids of Dictyochloropsis splendida Geitler biodiesel were determined using gas liquid chromatography. Lipids, biodiesel and glycerol production of Dictyochloropsis splendida Geitler (the promising alga were markedly enhanced by either increasing salt concentration or by nitrogen deficiency with maximum production of (26.8, 18.9 and 7.9 % respectively at nitrogen starvation condition.

    Ocho especies de algas (4 Rhodo, 1 cloro y 1 macroalgas phaeophycean, 1 cianobacteria y 1 microalga verde fueron utilizados para la producción de biodiesel utilizando dos sistemas de extracción con disolventes (hexano/éter (1:1, v/v y (Cloroformo / metanol (2:1, v/v. La evaluación bioquímica de las especies de algas se llevó a cabo mediante la estimación de los porcentajes de biomasa, de lípidos, de biodiesel y de sedimento (glicerina y pigmentos. El sistema extracción con el disolvente hexano/éter (1:1, v

  6. Comparison between the effects of alcohol and hexane extract of spirulina in arsenic removal from isolated tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, S K; Misbahuddin, M; Ahmed, A U

    2010-01-01

    Chronic arsenic poisoning (arsenicosis) is a major public health problem in Bangladesh. People are consuming high concentration of arsenic (>10 ppb) through their drinking water. But still now, there is no specific treatment of it. Spirulina, natural bluish-green microalgae, is found to be effective in the treatment of arsenicosis recently. Keeping this fact in mind the present study was conducted in the Department of Pharmacology, BSMMU to compare the effectiveness of alcohol & Hexane extract of Spirulina in arsenic removal from isolated tissues (rat liver). The experiment was performed in two phases-in phase I, liver tissues incubated with arsenic at 37 degree centigrade at different incubation period & accumulation of arsenic was measured. In phase II, arsenic-loaded liver tissues were incubated at 37 degree centigrade in presence and absence of alcohol extract & hexane extract of spirulina. Arsenic removal (%) from liver tissues by alcohol extract and hexane extract of spirulina was estimated by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. This study showed that there is time dependent accumulation of arsenic in isolated liver tissue and highest accumulation found was 0.69 microg/g tissues after 45 minutes incubation, which was highly significant. Removal of arsenic (%) from arsenic loaded liver tissues by alcohol extract & hexane extracts were 33.8% & 83.0% respectively. Between the two extracts of spirulina the hexane extract causes more percentage removal of arsenic which is highly significant (parsenic from rat liver tissues than alcohol extract.

  7. Algae Bloom in a Lake

    OpenAIRE

    David Sanabria

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine the likelihood of an algae bloom in a particular lake located in upstate New York. The growth of algae in this lake is caused by a high concentration of phosphorous that diffuses to the surface of the lake. Our calculations, based on Fick's Law, are used to create a mathematical model of the driving force of diffusion for phosphorous. Empirical observations are also used to predict whether the concentration of phosphorous will diffuse to the surface...

  8. Algae Bloom in a Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sanabria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the likelihood of an algae bloom in a particular lake located in upstate New York. The growth of algae in this lake is caused by a high concentration of phosphorous that diffuses to the surface of the lake. Our calculations, based on Fick's Law, are used to create a mathematical model of the driving force of diffusion for phosphorous. Empirical observations are also used to predict whether the concentration of phosphorous will diffuse to the surface of this lake within a specified time and under specified conditions.

  9. Formation of algae growth constitutive relations for improved algae modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Drewry, Jessica Louise.

    2013-01-01

    This SAND report summarizes research conducted as a part of a two year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to improve our abilities to model algal cultivation. Algae-based biofuels have generated much excitement due to their potentially large oil yield from relatively small land use and without interfering with the food or water supply. Algae mitigate atmospheric CO2 through metabolism. Efficient production of algal biofuels could reduce dependence on foreign oil by providing a domestic renewable energy source. Important factors controlling algal productivity include temperature, nutrient concentrations, salinity, pH, and the light-to-biomass conversion rate. Computational models allow for inexpensive predictions of algae growth kinetics in these non-ideal conditions for various bioreactor sizes and geometries without the need for multiple expensive measurement setups. However, these models need to be calibrated for each algal strain. In this work, we conduct a parametric study of key marine algae strains and apply the findings to a computational model.

  10. Effect of microalga Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis on hippocampus lipoperoxidation and lipid profile in rats with induced hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Elita Bertolin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies have been conducted on microalga Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis due to its therapeutic potential in several areas, including the capacity for preventing and decreasing the damages caused by hyperlipidemia and the antioxidant activity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of microalga Spirulina platensis on hippocampus lipoperoxidation and lipid profile in rats with induced hypercholesterolemia during 60 days. The measurement of hippocampus lipoperoxidation did not demonstrate significant difference (p>0.05 when Spirulina platensis was added to hypercholesterolemic diet. The evaluation of lipid profile showed that the administration of the microalga in therapeutic and preventive ways led to a significant protective effect (pA microalga Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis vem sendo fonte de pesquisas devido a evidências de seu potencial terapêutico em diversas áreas, dentre elas a capacidade de prevenção e diminuição dos danos causados por dislipidemias e sua atividade antioxidante. Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da microalga Spirulina platensis sobre a lipoperoxidação no hipocampo e perfil lipídico sérico em ratos com hipercolesterolemia induzida durante 60 dias. A dosagem da lipoperoxidação no hipocampo não demonstrou diferença significativa (p>0,05 quando Spirulina platensis foi adicionada na dieta hipercolêsterolemica. A avaliação do perfil lipídico demonstrou que a administração da microlaga de forma terapêutica e preventiva demonstrou efeito significativo (p<0,05 na proteção do desenvolvimento de hipercolesterolemia.

  11. BISCOITOS DE CHOCOLATE ENRIQUECIDOS COM Spirulina platensis: CARACTERÍSTICAS FÍSICOQUÍMICAS, SENSORIAIS E DIGESTIBILIDADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. MORAIS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    As microalgas, como Spirulina, podem ser fonte de proteínas para alimentação humana, com a possibilidade de obter outros produtos como biopigmentos, vitaminas e lipídios. A biomassa obtida pode ser introduzida diretamente na dieta podendo auxiliar em casos de desnutrição. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características físico-química, sensorial e digestibilidade de biscoitos de chocolate enriquecidos com a microalga Spirulina platensis. Foram elaborados quatro biscoitos de chocolate: controle (sem Spirulina e biscoitos contendo 1,0; 3,0 e 5,0% de Spirulina platensis. O biscoito com adição de 5,0% de Spirulina platensis apresentou o conteúdo protéico 7,7% maior que o controle. Os biscoitos com adição de 1,0% de S. platensis apresentaram maior digestibilidade (86,9% que os demais. Volume específico, espessura e fator de expansão não foram alterados pela adição de Spirulina. Não houve diferença significativa entre o biscoito controle e os biscoitos com adição de 5,0% nos atributos cor, crocância, mastigabilidade e maciez. Na avaliação questionamento de intenção de compra, comparando os biscoitos com adição de S. platensis, a amostra com maior aceitação pelos julgadores foi com 1,0% de S. platensis.

  12. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  14. Macro algae as substrate for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik; Sarker, Shiplu; Gautam, Dhan Prasad;

    Algae as a substrate for biogas is superior to other crops since it has a much higher yield of biomass per unit area and since algae grows in the seawater there will be no competition with food production on agricultural lands. So far, the progress in treating different groups of algae as a sourc...

  15. Evaluation of Spirulina platensis extract as natural antivirus against foot and mouth disease virus strains (A, O, SAT2)

    OpenAIRE

    Hind M. Daoud; Soliman, Eman M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This work was aimed to document the antiviral activates of Spirulina platensis extract against foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) different types to evaluate its replication in Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK) cell culture and in baby mice. Materials and Methods: Cytotoxicity assay studied for S. platensis extract on BHK cells to determine the non-toxic dose. The non-toxic dose of Spirulina extract was mixed with each type of FMDV (A, O, SAT2). Then 10-fold dilutions from each mixture were don...

  16. Mutant strains of Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis to increase the efficiency of micro-ecological life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Igor

    The European Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) is an advanced idea for organizing a bioregenerative system for long term space flights and extraterrestrial settlements (Hendrickx, De Wever et al., 2005). Despite the hostility of both lunar and Martian environments to unprotected life, it seems possible to cultivate photosynthetic bacteria using closed bioreactors illuminated and heated by solar energy. Such reactors might be employed in critical processes, e.g. air revitalization, foodcaloric and protein source, as well as an immunomodulators production. The MELiSSA team suggested cyanobacterium Spirulina as most appropriate agent to revitalize air and produce a simple "fast" food. This is right suggestion because Spirulina was recently shown to be an oxygenic organism with the highest level of O2 production per unit mass (Ananyev et al., 2005). Chemical composition of Spirulina includes proteins (55Aiming to make Spirulina cultivation in life support systems like MELiSSA more efficient, we selected Spirulina mutant strains with increased fraction of methionine in the biomass of this cyanobacterium and compared the effect of parental wild strain of Spirulina and its mutants on the tendency of such experimental illnesses as radiationinduced lesions and hemolythic anemia. Results: It was found that mutant strains 198B and 27G contain higher quantities of total protein, essential amino acids, c-phycocyanin, allophycocyanin and chlorophyll a than parental wild strain of S. platensis. The strain 198B is also characterized with increased content of carotenoids. Revealed biochemical peculiarities of mutant strains suggest that these strains can serve as an additional source of essential amino acids as well as phycobiliproteins and carotenoids for the astronauts. Feeding animals suffering from radiation-induced lesions, c-phycocyanin, extracted from strain 27G, led to a correction in deficient dehydrogenase activity and energy-rich phosphate levels

  17. EQUILIBRIUM MODELLING AND SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES FOR THE BIOSORPTION OF ZN+2 IONS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION USING IMMOBILIZED SPIRULINA PLATENSIS

    OpenAIRE

    N. Gaur ، R. Dehankhar

    2009-01-01

    Biosorption equilibrium of zinc ions to Spirulina platensis both in free and immobilized forms were studied in batch system with respect to pH, metal ion concentration, algal dosages and time. The maximum adsorption was observed at pH=8, optimum metal ion concentration and algal dose were 100 mg/L and 1g/100mL, respectively. Biosorption equilibrium was established in 90 minutes. The maximum attainable biosorption was found to be 97.1% for Spirulina platensis. The equilibrium adsorption capaci...

  18. Synthesis of CdSe nanoparticles and their effect on the antioxidant activity of Spirulina platensis and Porphyridium cruentum cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single-crystalline cadmium selenide nanoparticles were obtained using high-temperature solution phase synthesis (HTSPS) synthesis. X-Ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to confirm the crystallinity and morphology of the resulting nanoparticles. To study the action of CdSe on antioxidant activity, we selected two biotechnological important strains of microalgae: cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis and red microalgae Porphyridium cruentum. In the case of Porphyridium cruentum, the obtained results demonstrated an increase in the productivity. For Spirulina platensis, the presence of the compound in the cultivating medium decreased the productivity of cyanobacteria.

  19. Algae. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    The plants and plantlike organisms informally grouped together as algae show great diversity of form and size and occur in a wide variety of habitats. These extremely important photosynthesizers are also economically significant. For example, some species contaminate water supplies; others provide food for aquatic animals and for man; still others…

  20. Scenario studies for algae production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slegers, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae are a promising biomass for the biobased economy to produce food, feed, fuel, chemicals and materials. So far, large-scale production of algae is limited and as a result estimates on the performance of such large systems are scarce. There is a need to estimate large-scale biomass producti

  1. Macro algae as substrate for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik; Sarker, Shiplu; Gautam, Dhan Prasad;

    Algae as a substrate for biogas is superior to other crops since it has a much higher yield of biomass per unit area and since algae grows in the seawater there will be no competition with food production on agricultural lands. So far, the progress in treating different groups of algae as a source...... of energy is promising. In this study 5 different algae types were tested for biogas potential and two algae were subsequent used for co-digestion with manure. Green seaweed, Ulva lactuca and brown seaweed Laminaria digitata was co-digested with cattle manure at mesophilic and thermophilic condition...

  2. Analysis of Solid and Aqueous Phase Products from Hydrothermal Carbonization of Whole and Lipid-Extracted Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Broch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae have tremendous potential as a feedstock for production of liquid biofuels, particularly biodiesel fuel via transesterification of algal lipids. However, biodiesel production results in significant amounts of algal residues, or “lipid extracted algae” (LEA. Suitable utilization of the LEA residue will improve the economics of algal biodiesel. In the present study, we evaluate the hydrothermal carbonization (HTC of whole and lipid extracted algal (Spirulina maxima feedstocks in order to produce a solid biofuel (hydrochar and value-added co-products in the aqueous phase. HTC experiments were performed using a 2-L Parr reactor (batch type at 175–215 °C with a 30-min holding time. Solid, aqueous and gaseous products were analyzed using various laboratory methods to evaluate the mass and carbon balances, and investigate the existence of high value chemicals in the aqueous phase. The HTC method is effective in creating an energy dense, solid hydrochar from both whole algae and LEA at lower temperatures as compared to lignocellulosic feedstocks, and is effective at reducing the ash content in the resulting hydrochar. However, under the treatment temperatures investigated, less than 1% of the starting dry algae mass was recovered as an identified high-value chemical in the aqueous phase.

  3. Allelopatrhic effect of Acorus tatarinowii upon algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Besides competing with algae for light and mineralnutrients (i.e. N, P, etc.), the root system of Acorus tatarinowii excretes some chemical substances, which injure and eliminate alga cells, to inhibit the growth of the algae. When the algae cells were treated in "A. tatarinowii water", some of the chlorophyll a were destroyed and the photosynthetic rate of algae decreased markedly and the ability of alga cells to deoxidize triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) reduced greatly. Then alga cells turned from bright red to bluish green under fluorescence microscope. These showed that the allelopathic effects of A.tatarinowii on algae were obvious and planting A. tatarinowii can control some green algae. The experiment on the extractions of the secretions of the root system showed that the inhibitory effect had a concentration effect. If the concentration of the root secretion was below 30 /disc, the inhibitory rate was negative; if it was over 45 /disc, the inhibitory rate was positive. This proved that the influence of the root secretion on the same acceptor was a kind of concentration effect. When the concentration of the root secretion was low, it promoted the growth of algae; when the concentration reached a definite threshold value, it restrained the growth of algae. In present case, the threshold value was between 30 /disc and 45 u?disc.

  4. Preventive effect of Spirulina maxima on the fatty liver induced by a fructose-rich diet in the rat, a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González de Rivera, C; Miranda-Zamora, R; Díaz-Zagoya, J C; Juárez-Oropeza, M A

    1993-01-01

    Cyanobacteria Spirulina maxima from Texcoco Lake in Mexico was administered as a 5% component of a purified diet, to Wistar rats together with a high percentage of fructose (60%) and its effect on several lipid fractions of plasma and liver was studied and compared to those of rats fed purified diets containing 60% of glucose or 60% of fructose. A preventive effect of Spirulina maxima on the fructose-induced increase of the liver triglycerides level was observed together with an elevation of the phospholipid concentration in this tissue. On the other hand Spirulina maxima produced a plasma cholesterol level even lower than that observed in the control group.

  5. Variation of Spirulina maxima biomass production in different depths of urea-used culture medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md-Abu Affan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fewer studies have assessed the outdoor cultivation of Spirulina maxima compared with S. platensis, although the protein content of S. maxima is higher than S. platensis. Spirulina growth medium requires an increased amount of NaHCO3, Na2CO3, and NaNO3, which increases the production cost. Therefore, the current study used a low-cost but high-efficiency biomass production medium (Medium M-19 after testing 33 different media. The medium depth of 25 cm (group A was sub-divided into A1 (50% cover with a black curtain (PolyMax, 12 oz ultra-blackout, A2 (25% cover, and A3 (no cover. Similarly the medium depths of 30 and 35 cm were categorized as groups B (B1, B2, and B3 and C (C1, C2, and C3, respectively, and the effects of depth and surface light availability on growth and biomass production were assessed. The highest biomass production was 2.05 g L-1 in group A2, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than that in all other groups and sub-groups. Spirulina maxima died in B1 and C1 on the fifth day of culture. The biochemical composition of the biomass obtained from A2 cultures, including protein, carbohydrate, lipid, moisture, and ash, was 56.59%, 14.42%, 0.94%, 5.03%, and 23.02%, respectively. Therefore, S. maxima could be grown outdoors with the highest efficiency in urea-enriched medium at a 25-cm medium depth with 25% surface cover or uncovered.

  6. Perda química de carbono e cinética do crescimento celular em cultivos de Spirulina Chemical carbon losses and growth kinetics in Spirulina cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele da Rosa Andrade

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic microorganism cultures, such as microalgae, represent one of the alternatives for fossil CO2 emissions mitigation. Carbon supply is the major cost component in microalgal cultures. Aiming to enhance the dissolved inorganic carbon uptake efficiency in microalgal cultures, Spirulina sp LEB-18 was cultivated in mediums containing NaHCO3 concentrations ranging from 2.8 to 100 g L-1. Results indicated that lower dissolved inorganic carbon concentratios (2.8 g L-1 NaHCO3 produce higher growth parameters (Xmax = 0.75 g L-1; Pmax = 0.145 g L-1 d-1; µmax = 0.254 d-1 and lower carbon losses (13.61%. At 50 g L-1 of NaHCO3 cell growth was inhibited and carbon losses reached 38.73%.

  7. Extraction and purification of C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis (CCC540)

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Devendra; Dhar, Dolly Wattal; Pabbi, Sunil; Kumar, Neeraj; Walia, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    In this study a simple protocol was developed for purifying phycocyanin (PC) from Spirulina platensis (CCC540) by using ammonium sulphate precipitation, followed by a single step chromatography by using DEAE-Cellulose-11 and acetate buffer. Precipitation with 65 % ammonium sulphate resulted in 80 % recovery of phycocyanin with purity of 1.5 (A620/A280). Thro1ugh chromatography an 80 % recovery of phycocyanin with a purity of 4.5 (A620/A280) was achieved. In SDS_PAGE analysis, the purified PC ...

  8. The improvement of phycocyanin stability extracted from Spirulina sp using extrusion encapsulation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzery, Meiny; Hadiyanto, Sutanto, Heri; Soetrisnanto, Danny; Majid, Dian; Setyawan, Deny; Azizah, Nur

    2015-12-01

    The stability of phycocyanin extracted from microalgae Spirulina has been evaluated and it showed that the stability of this antioxidant was affected by temperature and pH changes. The encapsulation technique was of the alternatives to overcome this stability changes. The objective of this paper was to investigate the effects of coating materials (alginate and chitosan) during encapsulation by using extrusion technique. The experiments were conducted with variation of alginate as coating materials. The size of each microcapsules was evaluated by using SEM/XRD for its size and homogeneity.

  9. Antioxidant properties of Spirulina (Arthospira) platensis cultivated under different temperatures and nitrogen regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Luciane Maria Colla; Eliana Badiale Furlong; Jorge Alberto Vieira Costa

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of this work was to investigate the effects of temperature and nitrogen concentration on the antioxidant potential of extracts from Spirulina (Arthospira) platensis biomass. S. platensis biomass obtained at 35ºC and with 1.875 g.L-1 or 2.5 g.L-1 of sodium nitrate in the culture medium presented higher concentrations of phenolic compounds. The antioxidant potential of methanol extracts of biomass on the enzymatic browning caused by peroxidase were 29 and 35%, respectively, being t...

  10. Biohydrogen production with the light-harvesting function of grana from spirulina and colloidal platinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amao, Yutaka; Nakamura, Naoki [Department of Applied Chemistry, Oita University Dannoharu 700, Oita 870-1192 (Japan)

    2006-01-15

    Biohydrogen production with the light-harvesting function of grana from spirulina by use of three-component system consisting of NADH, methylviologen (MV{sup 2+}) and colloidal platinum was investigated. The decay rate of chlorophyll included in grana was suppressed by addition of NADH and little degradation was observed in 120min irradiation. The biohydrogen production system was developed using the light-harvesting function of grana and platinum colloid in the presence of NADH and MV{sup 2+} and the amount of hydrogen produced was estimated to be 0.14{mu}mol after 4h irradiation. (author)

  11. Molecular replacement studies on crystal structure of allophycocyanin from red algae Porphyra yezoensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Using the crystal structure of allophycocyanin from cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (APC-SP) as a search model,the crystal structure of allophycocyanin from red algae Porphyra yezoensis (APC-PY) has been studied by molecular replacement methods.The APC-PY crystals (Form 3) belong to the space group of R32,cell dimensions a=b= 10.53 nm,c=18.94 nm,α= β= 90°,γ=120°;there is one αβ monomer in each crystallographic asymmetric unit in the cell.The translation function search gave a unique peak with a correlation coefficient (Cc) of 67.0% and an R-factor of 36.1% for reflection data from 1.0 to 0.4 nm.Using the results by molecular replacement,the initial model of APC-PY was built,and the coincidence of the chromophore in APC-PY initial model with its 2Fo-Fc OMIT map further confirms the results by molecular replacement.

  12. Molecular replacement studies on crystal structure of allophycocyanin from red algae Porphyra yezoensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘锦玉; 江涛; 张季平; 常文瑞; 梁栋材

    2000-01-01

    Using the crystal structure of allophycocyanin from cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (APC-SP) as a search model, the crystal structure of allophycocyanin from red algae Porphyra yezoensis (APC-PY) has been studied by molecular replacement methods. The APC-PY crystals (Form 3) belong to the space group of R32, cell dimensions a = b = 10.53 nm, c = 18.94 nm, α =β = 90°, γ= 120°; there is one αβ monomer in each crystallographic asymmetric unit in the cell. The translation function search gave a unique peak with a correlation coefficient (Cc) of 67.0% and an R-factor of 36.1 % for reflection data from 1.0 to 0.4 nm. Using the results by molecular replacement, the initial model of APC-PY was built, and the coincidence of the chromophore in APC-PY initial model with its 2Fo-FC OMIT map further confirms the results by molecular replacement.

  13. PPR proteins of green algae

    OpenAIRE

    Tourasse, Nicolas J; Choquet, Yves; Vallon, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Using the repeat finding algorithm FT-Rep, we have identified 154 pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins in nine fully sequenced genomes from green algae (with a total of 1201 repeats) and grouped them in 47 orthologous groups. All data are available in a database, PPRdb, accessible online at http://giavap-genomes.ibpc.fr/ppr. Based on phylogenetic trees generated from the repeats, we propose evolutionary scenarios for PPR proteins. Two PPRs are clearly conserved in the entire green lineage:...

  14. The anti-allergic activity of polyphenol extracted from five marine algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Lin, Hong; Li, Zhenxing; Mou, Quangui

    2015-08-01

    Natural polyphenol has been widely believed to be effective in allergy remission. Currently, most of the natural polyphenol products come from terrestrial sources such as tea, grape seeds among others, and few polyphenols have been developed from algae for their anti-allergic activity. The aim of the study was to screen some commercial seaweed for natural extracts with anti-allergic activity. Five algae including Laminaria japonica, Porphyra sp., Spirulina platensis, Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Scytosiphon sp. were extracted with ethanol, and the extracts were evaluated for total polyphenol contents and anti-allergic activity with the hyaluronidase inhibition assay. Results showed that the total polyphenol contents in the ethanol extracts ranged from 1.67% to 8.47%, while the highest was found in the extract from Scytosiphon sp. Hyaluronidase inhibition assay showed that the extracts from Scytosiphon sp. had the lowest IC50, 0.67 mg mL-1, while Chlorella pyrenoidosa extract had the highest IC50, 15.07 mg mL-1. The anti-allergic activity of Scytosiphon sp. extract was even higher than the typical anti-allergic drug Disodium Cromoglycate (DSCG) (IC50 = 1.13 mg mL-1), and was similar with natural polyphenol from Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) (IC50 = 0.56 mg mL-1). These results indicated that the ethanol extract of Scytosiphon sp. contains a high concentration of polyphenol with high anti-allergic activity. Potentially Scytosiphon sp. can be developed to a natural anti-allergic compound for allergy remission.

  15. Parasites in algae mass culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd William Lane

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasites are now known to be ubiquitous across biological systems and can play an important role in modulating algal populations. However, there is a lack of extensive information on their role in artificial ecosystems such as algal production ponds and photobioreactors. Parasites have been implicated in the demise of algal blooms. Because individual mass culture systems often tend to be unialgal and a select few algal species are in wide scale application, there is an increased potential for parasites to have a devastating effect on commercial scale monoculture. As commercial algal production continues to expand with a widening variety of applications, including biofuel, food and pharmaceuticals, the parasites associated with algae will become of greater interest and potential economic impact. A number of important algal parasites have been identified in algal mass culture systems in the last few years and this number is sure to grow as the number of commercial algae ventures increases. Here, we review the research that has identified and characterized parasites infecting mass cultivated algae, the techniques being proposed and or developed to control them, and the potential impact of parasites on the future of the algal biomass industry.

  16. Bio diesel production from algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algae appear to be an emerging source of biomass for bio diesel that has the potential to completely displace fossil fuel. Two thirds of earth's surface is covered with water, thus alga e would truly be renewable option of great potential for global energy needs. This study discusses specific and comparative bio diesel quantitative potential of Cladophora sp., also highlighting its biomass (after oil extraction), pH and sediments (glycerine, water and pigments) quantitative properties. Comparison of Cladophora sp., with Oedogonium sp., and Spirogyra sp., (Hossain et al., 2008) shows that Cladophora sp., produce higher quantity of bio diesel than Spirogyra sp., whereas biomass and sediments were higher than the both algal specimens in comparison to the results obtained by earlier workers. No prominent difference in pH of bio diesel was found. In Pakistan this is a first step towards bio diesel production from algae. Results indicate that Cladophora sp., provide a reasonable quantity of bio diesel, its greater biomass after oil extraction and sediments make it a better option for bio diesel production than the comparing species. (author)

  17. Spirulina platensis effects on the levels of total cholesterol, HDL and triacylglycerols in rabbits fed with a hypercholesterolemic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Maria Colla

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, hypercholesterolemia was induced in rabbits by feeding them a high cholesterol diet (CD, 350 mg/d and the effects of supplementing this diet with 0.5 g/d Spirulina platensis was evaluated by measuring the levels of serum total-cholesterol (TC, triacylglycerols (TAG and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol at the start of the experiment and after 30 d and 60 d. It was found that the levels of serum cholesterol decreased from 1,054±101 mg.dL-1 in the rabbits fed a CD without S. platensis to 516±163 mg.dL-1 to those fed with a high cholesterol diet supplemented with S. platensis (significant at p A microalga Spirulina é cultivada e comercializada no mundo devido a suas características nutricionais (elevada concentração de proteínas, em torno de 65%, vitaminas e sais minerais e ao seu potencial terapêutico no tratamento de inúmeras doenças, inclusive a hipercolesterolemia. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a inibição da hipercolesterolemia induzida em coelhos por uma dieta adicionada de colesterol (350 mg.d-1, pela suplementação de 0,5 g.dia-1 de biomassa de Spirulina platensis, sendo avaliados os níveis de colesterol total, triglicerídeos e HDL nos tempos de 0 d, 30 d e 60 d de tratamento. Os resultados indicaram que a adição de Spirulina platensis na dieta ocasionou decréscimo nos níveis de colesterol total de 1054±101 mg.dL-1 para 516±163 mg.dL-1 (p<0,0001, para os coelhos alimentados com a dieta colesterolêmica em comparação com os que receberam a dieta adicionada de Spirulina platensis. A adição de Spirulina a dieta colesterolêmica não ocasionou decréscimo significativo nos níveis de triglicerídios dos coelhos. Os valores de HDL aumentaram de 73±31 mg.dL-1 para 91,0±15,7 mg.dL-1, comparando-se os coelhos alimentados com a dieta colesterolêmica e os alimentados com a dieta adicionada de Spirulina, estatisticamente diferentes a um nível de significância maior que 0,1533.

  18. Spirulina platensis versus silymarin in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. A pilot randomized, comparative clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakoot Mostafa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spirulina platensis, a cynobacterium used frequently as a dietary supplement had been found to exhibit many immune-stimulating and antiviral activities. It had been found to activate macrophages, NK cells, T cells, B cells, and to stimulate the production of Interferon gamma (IFN-γ and other cytokines. Natural substances isolated from Spirulina platensis had been found to be potent inhibitors against several enveloped viruses by blocking viral absorption/penetration and some replication stages of progeny viruses after penetration into cells. We aimed to study whether this dietary supplement possesses any therapeutically feasible activity worthy of further larger controlled clinical evaluation. Methods Sixty six patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection and eligible for inclusion had been randomized to either Spirulina or Silymarin treated groups for a period of six months treatment. The two groups were followed up and blindly compared for early (after 3 months and end of 6 months treatment virological response. The effects of both treatments on each of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire scores (CLDQ, Arizona Sexual Experience Scale scores (ASEX and the occurrence of any attributable adverse events were also compared. Results Among the 30 patients who had been treated with Spirulina and completed the 6 months protocol, 4 patients (13.3% had a complete end of treatment virological response and 2 patients (6.7% had a partial end of treatment response defined as significant decrease of virus load of at least 2-logs10. Though the proportion of responders in Spirulina group was greater than in the Silymarin group, the difference was not statistically significant at the end of both 6 months (p = 0.12 and 3 months treatment (p = 0.22 by Exact test. Alanine aminotransferase as well as CLDQ and ASEX scores were found to be more significantly improved in Spirulina than in Silymarin treated group

  19. Impact of water extracts of Spirulina (WES on bacteria, yeasts and molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Duda-Chodak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Due to its chemical composition, Spirulina is widely used as a dietary supplement that exerts positive effects on the human body. It also has the ability to inhibit the growth of cert ain microorganisms, both pathogens that pose a health hazard, as well as those that cause food spoilage in all branches of food industry. The main aim of this study was to determine the impact of water extracts of Spirulina (WES on the growth of various microorganism both useful and harmful for humans and the economy. Material and methods. The impact of different WES concentrations (0.1, 1.0, 2.5, or 5.0% on the growth of various bacteria, yeasts and molds was determined by diffusion method on solid medium. Results. It was demonstrated that WES have a diversifi ed impact on microorganisms, depending on the species. The inhibitory activity was shown against Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Rhodotorula, and Penicillium. WES had strong stimulating effect on Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris and Geotrichum. Moreover, higher concentrations of WES stimulated also the development of mycelium and production of conidiophores by Cladosporium and Aspergillus niger. Conclusions. Inhibitory impact of WES on microorganisms that cause food spoilage may be used in food production. However, the obtained results indicate the need for further studies, particularly in order to evaluate the effect of the WES on microfl ora in the food matrices.

  20. Preliminary investigations of Spirulina effect on cancer cells: interest for long-term manned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baatout, S.; Bekaert, S.; Hendrickx, L.; Derradji, H.; Mergeay, M.

    Background In view of long haul space exploration missions the development of regenerative life support systems is of crucial importance to increase the crew autonomy and decrease the cost associated to the mass embarked Therefore in the late 80 s the European Space Agency initiated the MELiSSA project Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative MELiSSA has been conceived as a micro-organisms and higher plant process enabling high recycling efficiency The cyanobacteria Arthrospira sp is occupying one of the MELiSSA compartments Its genome is now being sequenced and this will help to better understand or improve its food value as well as to have a look at its putative toxic potential Aim In this study we were interested in studying the threshold of intrinsic cytotoxic effects of Spirulina dry extract from Sigma containing washed and lyophilized mixed Arthrospira strains on human cancer cells and its cell type dependency Method For that purpose we used flow cytometry to estimate cell death apoptosis and necrosis in three human leukaemic cell lines HELA cervix carcinoma IM-9 multiple myeloma K562 chronic myelogenous leukaemia Cells were cultured in the presence of an aqueous extract of Spirulina concentrations ranging from 0 to 500 mu g ml for 15 to 40 hours Apoptosis and necrosis were evaluated by annexin-V-PI staining cell size and granularity Early apoptosis was monitored by analysing the maintenance of mitochondrial membrane potential DioC 6 3 and the

  1. Ultraviolet-B induced damage to photosystem II in intact filaments of Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When Spirulina platensis filaments were exposed to 0.75 mW x m-2 x s-1 of ultraviolet-B radiation (the ultraviolet-B radiation under clear sky condition is ∝1.0 mW x m-2 x s-1), an inhibition in photosystem II activity was observed, the inhibition being 90% after 90 min exposure. Upon exposure to ultraviolet-B, the room temperature emission characteristics of Spirulina cells were altered when excited with light primarily absorbed by chlorophyll a or phycobilisomes. When the cells were exposed for 3 h the emission at 685 nm (F685), when excited at 440 nm (primarily chlorophyll a absorption), was enhanced compared to 715 nm (F715) band of photosystem I suggesting a decrease in energy transfer from photosystem II to photosystem I. Similarly, when the cells were excited at 580 nm (primarily the phycobilisomes), the ratio of emission intensity at 685 nm (F685) to that of 655 nm (F655) was decreased in the exposed cells. This change in emission characteristics seems to be linked with the uncoupling of the energy transfer from all phycocyanin to chlorophyll a of photosystem II. A small shift in emission peak positions was also indicated when excited either at 440 nm or 580 nm. (orig./AJ)

  2. Ultraviolet-B induced damage to photosystem II in intact filaments of Spirulina platensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolli, B.K.; Tiwari, S.; Mohanty, P. [Jawaharlal Nehru Univ., New Delhi (India). Schoof of Life Sciences

    1998-05-01

    When Spirulina platensis filaments were exposed to 0.75 mW x m{sup -2} x s{sup -1} of ultraviolet-B radiation (the ultraviolet-B radiation under clear sky condition is {proportional_to}1.0 mW x m{sup -2} x s{sup -1}), an inhibition in photosystem II activity was observed, the inhibition being 90% after 90 min exposure. Upon exposure to ultraviolet-B, the room temperature emission characteristics of Spirulina cells were altered when excited with light primarily absorbed by chlorophyll a or phycobilisomes. When the cells were exposed for 3 h the emission at 685 nm (F{sub 685}), when excited at 440 nm (primarily chlorophyll a absorption), was enhanced compared to 715 nm (F{sub 715}) band of photosystem I suggesting a decrease in energy transfer from photosystem II to photosystem I. Similarly, when the cells were excited at 580 nm (primarily the phycobilisomes), the ratio of emission intensity at 685 nm (F{sub 685}) to that of 655 nm (F{sub 655}) was decreased in the exposed cells. This change in emission characteristics seems to be linked with the uncoupling of the energy transfer from all phycocyanin to chlorophyll a of photosystem II. A small shift in emission peak positions was also indicated when excited either at 440 nm or 580 nm. (orig./AJ)

  3. Semicontinuous cultivation of the Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis in a closed photobioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichert, C.C.; Costa, J.A.V. [Fundacao Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), Rio Grande, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica], Email: dqmjorge@furg.br; Reinehr, C.O. [Universidade de Passo Fundo, RS (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa em Alimentacao], Email: reinehr@upf.br

    2006-01-15

    The cultivation of photosynthetic microorganisms such as the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis has been studied by researchers in many countries because these organisms can produce products with industrial potential. We studied the specific growth rate ({mu}{sub x}, day{sup -1}) and productivity (P{sub x}, in mg/L/day of Spirulina platensis biomass, dry weight basis) of two S. platensis strains (LEB-52 and Paracas) growing in aerated semicontinuous culture in two-liter Erlenmeyer flasks for 90 days (2160 h) at 30 deg C under 2500 lux of illumination in a 12 h photoperiod. Independent of the S. platensis strain used we found that low biomass concentrations (0.50 g/L) and high renewal rates (50% v/v) resulted in a high specific growth rate ({mu}{sub x} = 0.111 day{sup -1}) and high productivity (P{sub x} = 42.3 mg/L/day). These values are two to four times higher than those obtained in simple batch cultivation and indicate that the semicontinuous cultivation of S. platensis is viable. (author)

  4. Semicontinuous cultivation of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis in a closed photobioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Reichert

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of photosynthetic microorganisms such as the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis has been studied by researchers in many countries because these organisms can produce products with industrial potential. We studied the specific growth rate (µx, day-1 and productivity (Px, in mg/L/day of Spirulina platensis biomass, dry weight basis of two S. platensis strains (LEB-52 and Paracas growing in aerated semicontinuous culture in two-liter Erlenmeyer flasks for 90 days (2160 h at 30°C under 2500 lux of illumination in a 12 h photoperiod. Independent of the S. platensis strain used we found that low biomass concentrations (0.50 g/L and high renewal rates (50% v/v resulted in a high specific growth rate (µx = 0.111 day-1 and high productivity (Px = 42.3 mg/L/day. These values are two to four times higher than those obtained in simple batch cultivation and indicate that the semicontinuous cultivation of S. platensis is viable.

  5. Antioxidant Effect of Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima on Chronic Inflammation Induced by Freund's Complete Adjuvant in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Rebolledo, Gabriel Alfonso; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; García-Rodríguez, Rosa Virginia; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán A; Hernández-Reyes, Ana Gabriela; Martínez-Galero, Elizdath

    2015-08-01

    One of the major mechanisms in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation is the excessive production of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species, and therefore, oxidative stress. Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima has marked antioxidant activity in vivo and in vitro, as well as anti-inflammatory activity in certain experimental models, the latter activity being mediated probably by the antioxidant activity of this cyanobacterium. In the present study, chronic inflammation was induced through injection of Freund's complete adjuvant (CFA) in rats treated daily with Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima for 2 weeks beginning on day 14. Joint diameter, body temperature, and motor capacity were assessed each week. On days 0 and 28, total and differential leukocyte counts and serum oxidative damage were determined, the latter by assessing lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content. At the end of the study, oxidative damage to joints was likewise evaluated. Results show that S. maxima favors increased mobility, as well as body temperature regulation, and a number of circulating leukocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes in specimens with CFA-induced chronic inflammation and also protects against oxidative damage in joint tissue as well as serum. In conclusion, the protection afforded by S. maxima against development of chronic inflammation is due to its antioxidant activity.

  6. Antibacterial and anticancerous biocompatible silver nanoparticles synthesised from the cold-tolerant strain of Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj Karthick Raja Namasivayam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To synthesize silver nanoparticles from the biomass of cold tolerant strain of Spirulina platensis and evalute the synthesized nanoparticles against antibacterial and anticancer activity. Methods: Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the algal culture and characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and X ray diffraction studies. Antibacterial activity has been studied with free nanoparticles adopting agar diffusion assay, biofilm inhibition assay and nanoparticles fabricated wound dressing against representative Gram-negative organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive organism Staphylococcus aureus respectively. The in vitro anticancer activity of silver nanoparticles were screened against human Hep2 cell lines by means of MTT assay. Results: Reduction of silver ions by the algal culture was observed during 72 h of incubation and the synthesized nanoparticles were further characterized. Antibacterial study reveals both the strains were susceptible to free nanoparticles and fabricated wound dressing treatment. The in vitro anticancer activity of silver nanoparticles were screened against human Hep 2 cell lines by means of MTT assay which reveals that cell viability has been reduced as dose dependent manner. Conclusions: The observed results imply that silver nanoparticles synthesized from Spirulina platensis cold tolerant strain can be used as potential antibacterial and anticancerous agent.

  7. Fractionation and characterization of polysaccharides from cyanobacterium Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima in nitrogen-limited batch culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    By a sequentially selective extraction procedure, polysaccharides (PS) from cyanobacterium Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima that can be bio-functionally healthy components were fractionated in four parts including the culture medium (PSCM), the external layers of the cell (PSEL), the cell wall (PSCW) and storage granules (PSSG). The four fractionated parts of polysaccharides were characterized by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) equipped with FID and fused-silica capillary column (15 m×0.53 mm i. d.). The contents of PSCM, PSEL, PSCW and PSSG were about 2.0%, 2.6%, 10.0% and 52.0% to cell dry matter, respectively. Glucose was almost the only monosaccharide in PSSG and PSCW and most predominant in PSEL, while in PSCM, xylose, rhamnose and glucose were the main ones. Two uronic acids represented by glucuronic acid and galacturoic acid, six neutral monosaccharides including fucose, rhamnose, xylose, mannose, galactose and glucose, and two possible unidentified sugars were found in PSEL and PSCM. These data are valuable for the selective productions of high-added value sugars from Spirulina.

  8. Antibacterial and anticancerous biocompatible silver nanoparticles synthesised from the cold-tolerant strain of Spirulina platensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duraisamy Jayakumar; Ramesh Kumar; Rajan SowriArvind Bharani

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To synthesize silver nanoparticles from the biomass of cold tolerant strain of Spirulina platensis and evalute the synthesized nanoparticles against antibacterial and anticancer activity. Methods: Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the algal culture and characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and X ray diffraction studies. Antibacterial activity has been studied with free nanoparticles adopting agar diffusion assay, biofilm inhibition assay and nanoparticles fabricated wound dressing against representative Gram-negative organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive organism Staphylococcus aureus respectively. The in vitro anticancer activity of silver nanoparticles were screened against human Hep2 cell lines by means of MTT assay. Results: Reduction of silver ions by the algal culture was observed during 72 h of incubation and the synthesized nanoparticles were further characterized. Antibacterial study reveals both the strains were susceptible to free nanoparticles and fabricated wound dressing treatment. The in vitro anticancer activity of silver nanoparticles were screened against human Hep 2 cell lines by means of MTT assay which reveals that cell viability has been reduced as dose dependent manner. Conclusions: The observed results imply that silver nanoparticles synthesized from Spirulina platensis cold tolerant strain can be used as potential antibacterial and anticancerous agent.

  9. Introduction to Spirulina and Its Nutrition and Health Protection Function%螺旋藻及其营养保健功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨世诚

    2003-01-01

    @@ 螺旋藻(Spirulina spp.)是出现于35亿年前的原核藻类,由多细胞单列构成纤细螺旋状藻体.在近代生物科学分类上,多数藻类专家将螺旋藻归属于蓝藻门、蓝藻纲、段殖体目、颤藻科、螺旋藻属(Spirulina).

  10. Bacterial Enhancement of Vinyl Fouling by Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Paul E.

    1986-01-01

    The role of bacteria in the development of algae on low-density vinyl was investigated. Unidentified bacterial contaminants in unialgal stock cultures of Phormidium faveolarum and Pleurochloris pyrenoidosa enhanced, by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude, colonization of vinyl by these algae, as determined by epifluorescence microscopy counts and chlorophyll a in extracts of colonized vinyl. Colonization by bacteria always preceded that by algae. Scanning electron microscopy of the colonized Phormidiu...

  11. Zeolite‐Based Algae Biofilm Rotating Photobioreactor for Algae and Biomass Production

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Ashton M.

    2011-01-01

    Alkaline conditions induced by algae growth in wastewater stabilization ponds create deprotonated ammonium ions that result in ammonia gas (NH3) volatilization. If algae are utilized to remediate wastewater through uptake of phosphorus, the resulting nitrogen loss will hinder this process because algae generally require a stoichiometric molar ratio of N16P1. Lower ratios of N/P due to loss of ammonia gas will limit the growth and yield of algae, and therefore will reduce phosphorus removal fr...

  12. Toxic Effects of Phthalates on Ocean Algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the interaction of phthalates and ocean algae based on the standard appraisal method of chemical medicine for algae toxicity. Through the experiments on the toxic effects of dimethyl (o-) phthalate (DMP), diethyl (o-) phthalate (DEP), dibutyl (o-)phthalate (DBP) on ocean algae, the 50 % lethal concentration of the three substances in 48 h and 96 h for plaeodectylum tricornutum, platymonas sp, isochrysis galbana, and skeletonema costatum is obtained. Tolerance limits of the above ocean algae of DMP, DEP, and DBP are discussed.

  13. Cultivation of Spirulina in Biogas Wastewater%利用沼气废液培养螺旋藻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉宝; 郑江; 黎中宝; 陆斌; 林耀江; 周文虹

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to obtain the way to cultivate Spirulina in biogas wastewater. [ Method] The cultivating technology of Spiruli-na in the biogas wastewater was obtained by adding certain proportion of Zarrouk culture to the wastewater, and the cultivating condition was optimized by the orthogonal experiment. The purification of the biogas wastewater by Spirulina was also studied by testing the changes of the concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus in the wastewater during the cultivation of Spirulina. [Result] Spirulina could not grow directly in the biogas wastewater,but also could grow very well after adding 10% of Zarrouk culture to the wastewater. The orthogonal experiment showed that the best growing condition for Spirulina in the wastewater was pH 8,initial optical density 0.3 at 560 nm,illumination 5000 lx. The study also showed that Spirulina had good removal of the nitrogen and phosphorus in the wastewater. The elimination rates of active phosphorus,nitrate nitrogen and nitrite nitrogen by Spiruiina reached to 97.1% ,61.2% ,and 53.6% respectively. [Conclusion] It can be feasible to cultivate Spirulina in the biogas wastewater. The cultivation can not only purify environment,but also greatly cut the production cost of Spirulina,which would be an effective and economical way to the resource utilization of the biogas wastewater.%[目的]利用沼液培养螺旋藻.[方法]通过向沼液中添加一定浓度的Zarrouk培养液获得了螺旋藻在沼液中的培养技术,采用正交实验优化了培养条件.并通过测定螺旋藻培养过程中,沼液中的氮、磷含量的变化,研究了螺旋藻对沼液的净化效果.[结果]螺旋藻不能在直接在沼液中生长,但在其中添加了10%比例的Zarrouk培养液后,螺旋藻生长良好.正交实验显示螺旋藻在沼液中的最佳生长条件为:pH为8、初始密度OD560为0.3,光照强度5 000 lx.螺旋藻对废水中的氮、磷均有较好的清除效果,螺旋藻

  14. Waste streams for algae cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Kautto, Antti

    2011-01-01

    ALDIGA, short for “Algae from Waste for Combined Biodiesel and Biogas Pro-duction”, aims to develop a concept for a closed circulation of resources in pro-ducing biodiesel and biogas from waste. The project is realized in co-operation between VTT, University of Helsinki, Lahti and Häme Universities of Applied Sciences, SYKE and funded by Tekes. The project’s first work phase ergo this bachelor’s thesis covered the mapping of available and suitable streams to be used in the cultivation of ...

  15. Cultivo mixotrófico da microalga Spirulina platensis em batelada alimentada Mixotrophic growth of Spirulina platensis in fed-batch mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Muliterno

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A Spirulina platensis tem sido estudada devido a seu alto valor protéico, digestibilidade e por apresentar quantidades significativas de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados, vitaminas, fenólicos e ficocianina, podendo ser utilizada na alimentação humana. A utilização de nutrientes de baixo custo é um fator importante na produção da cianobactéria por possibilitar a redução de custos de processo. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar o cultivo mixotrófico da S. platensis por meio da adição de uma fonte orgânica de carbono (glicose em modo bateladaalimentada. Foi utilizado um Planejamento Fatorial Completo 2³ para o cultivo e as variáveis de estudo foram a concentração de glicose (0,5 gL-1 e 1,0 gL-1, a diluição do meio Zarrouk (50% e 75% e a iluminância (1800 lux e 3000 lux. A concentração celular máxima obtida foi de 5,38 gL-1 com uma velocidade específica máxima de crescimento de 0,0063 h-1, nas condições de 0,5 gL-1 de glicose, diluição do meio de 75% e iluminância de 3000 lux.The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis has been studied due to its high content (~65% of highly digestible protein as well as significant amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids, phenolics, vitamins, minerals and phycocyanin which could be useful in the human nutrition. The use of nutrients of low costs in the cyanobacterium growth could reduce the costs of production. We studied the fed-batch mixotrophic growth of the S. platensis in Zarrouk's medium with glucose (0.5 gL-1 and 1.0 gL-1 as carbon source and also investigated the effects of dilution (50% and 75%, with water and illumination (1,800 lux and 3,000 lux using a 2³ factorial design. The maximum celular concentration of 5.38 gL-1 and maximum specific growth rate of 0.0063 h-1 were obtained with a glucose concentration of 0.5 gL-1, 50% dilution and 1800 lux of illuminance.

  16. Cultivo de Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina en fotobiorreactor tubular doblemente curvado a condiciones ambientales en el sur del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Eleazar Huarachi Olivera

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Cultivation of Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina in curved doubly tubular photobioreactor to environmental conditions in the South of the PeruTítulo corto: Cultivo de Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina en fotobiorreactorResumen: El presente trabajo investigó el cultivo de la microalga Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina en valores de productividad cultivado en fotobiorreactor tubular doblemente curvado a condiciones ambientales con el fin de aprovechar la alta radiación solar de la región Arequipa en el sur de Perú (16°24´50´´ LS; 71°32´02´´ LO; 2344 msnm. El fotobiorreactor fue construido con un tubo transparente de policloruro de vinilo  (PVC. La productividad del cultivo fue de 13.9 g/m2 en 14 días ó 1 g/m2/día y una concentración de clorofila - “a” de 0.00785 mg/L con una máxima radiación de 1179 W/m2, y una iluminación de 121500 lux, convirtiendo sus filamentos helicoidales a morfologías anormales, tales como formas irregulares curvas e incluso lineales con fragmentaciones, demostrando que el cultivo se vio afectado por la alta radiación y las variaciones de  temperaturas de Arequipa.Palabras clave: cultivo, fotobiorreactor, productividad, sur de Perú, Spirulina.Abstract: The present work investigated the cultivation of microalgae Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina in productivity values cultivated in doubly curved tubular photobioreactor to environmental conditions in order to take advantage of the high solar radiation of the Arequipa region in southern Peru (16°24´50´´ LS; 71°32´02´´LW; 2344 msnm.. The photobioreactor was built with a transparent tube of polyvinyl chloride (PVC. The productivity of the crop was 13.9 g/m2 in 14 days or 1 g/m2/day and a concentration of chlorophyll - "a" 0.00785 mg/L with a maximum radiation of 1179 W/m2, and a 121500 lux illumination, making its helical filaments abnormal morphologies, such as curves and linear even irregular shapes with fragmentation

  17. Cultivation of macroscopic marine algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J.H.

    1982-11-01

    The red alga Gracilaria tikvahiae may be grown outdoors year-round in central Florida with yields averaging 35.5 g dry wt/m/sup 2/.day, greater than the most productive terrestrial plants. This occurs only when the plants are in a suspended culture, with vigorous aeration and an exchange of 25 or more culture volumes of enriched seawater per day, which is not cost-effective. A culture system was designed in which Gracilaria, stocked at a density of 2 kg wet wt/m/sup 2/, grows to double its biomass in one to two weeks; it is then harvested to its starting density, and anaerobically digested to methane. The biomass is soaked for 6 hours in the digester residue, storing enough nutrients for two weeks' growth in unenriched seawater. The methane is combusted for energy and the waste gas is fed to the culture to provide mixing and CO/sub 2/, eliminating the need for aeration and seawater exchange. The green alga Ulva lactuca, unlike Gracilaria, uses bicarbonate as a photosynthesis carbon source, and can grow at high pH, with little or no free CO/sub 2/. It can therefore produce higher yields than Gracilaria in low water exchange conditions. It is also more efficiently converted to methane than is Gracilaria, but cannot tolerate Florida's summer temperatures so cannot be grown year-round. Attempts are being made to locate or produce a high-temperature tolerant strain.

  18. Formation of hybrid phycobilisomes by association of phycobiliproteins from Nostoc and Fremyella

    OpenAIRE

    Canaani, Ora; Gantt, Elisabeth

    1982-01-01

    Formation of phycobilisomes has been accomplished in vitro from isolated phycobiliprotein fractions obtained from the same blue-green alga (intrageneric) and from different blue-green algae (intergeneric). Phycobilisomes, which are supra-molecular complexes of phycobiliproteins, serve as major light-harvesting antennae for photosynthesis in blue-green and red algae. Intrageneric association into energetically functional phycobilisomes, previously reported to occur with Nostoc sp. allophycocya...

  19. Algae commensal community in Genlisea traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Wołowski

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The community of algae occurring in Genlisea traps and on the external traps surface in laboratory conditions were studied. A total of 29 taxa were found inside the traps, with abundant diatoms, green algae (Chlamydophyceae and four morphotypes of chrysophytes stomatocysts. One morphotype is described as new for science. There are two ways of algae getting into Genlisea traps. The majority of those recorded inside the traps, are mobile; swimming freely by flagella or moving exuding mucilage like diatoms being ablate to colonize the traps themselves. Another possibility is transport of algae by invertebrates such as mites and crustaceans. In any case algae in the Genlisea traps come from the surrounding environment. Two dominant groups of algae (Chladymonas div. and diatoms in the trap environment, show ability to hydrolyze phosphomonoseters. We suggest that algae in carnivorous plant traps can compete with plant (host for organic phosphate (phosphomonoseters. From the spectrum and ecological requirements of algal species found in the traps, environment inside the traps seems to be acidic. However, further studies are needed to test the relations between algae and carnivorous plants both in laboratory conditions and in the natural environment. All the reported taxa are described briefly and documented with 74 LM and SEM micrographs.

  20. The Algae flora in Tekirdag - Istanbul coastline

    OpenAIRE

    Koç, Hüseyin; AYDIN, Ayten

    2001-01-01

    Abstract In this work 36 algae species were collected on the coastline between Tekirdag and Istanbul. There were 12 Chlorophyceae, 10 Phaeophyceae and 14 Rhodophyceae amongst them. The algae were f irst determined in Sea of Marmara are: Gigartina teedii, Cystoseira opuntioides, Lithothamnion lichenoides, Hildenbrandia prototypus, Rhodymenia corallicola.

  1. The ice nucleation activity of extremophilic algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kviderova, Jana; Hajek, Josef; Worland, Roger M

    2013-01-01

    Differences in the level of cold acclimation and cryoprotection estimated as ice nucleation activity in snow algae (Chlamydomonas cf. nivalis and Chloromonas nivalis), lichen symbiotic algae (Trebouxia asymmetrica, Trebouxia erici and Trebouxia glomerata), and a mesophilic strain (Chlamydomonas reinhardti) were evaluated. Ice nucleation activity was measured using the freezing droplet method. Measurements were performed using suspensions of cells of A750 (absorbance at 750 nm) ~ 1, 0.1, 0.01 and 0.001 dilutions for each strain. The algae had lower ice nucleation activity, with the exception of Chloromonas nivalis contaminated by bacteria. The supercooling points of the snow algae were higher than those of lichen photobionts. The supercooling points of both, mesophilic and snow Chlamydomonas strains were similar. The lower freezing temperatures of the lichen algae may reflect either the more extreme and more variable environmental conditions of the original localities or the different cellular structure of the strains examined. PMID:23625082

  2. Algae inhibition experiment and load characteristics of the algae solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, L.; Gao, J. X.; Zhang, Y. X.; Yang, Z. K.; Zhang, D. Q.; He, W.

    2016-08-01

    It is necessary to inhibit microbial growth in an industrial cooling water system. This paper has developed a Monopolar/Bipolar polarity high voltage pulser with load adaptability for an algal experimental study. The load characteristics of the Chlorella pyrenoidosa solution were examined, and it was found that the solution load is resistive. The resistance is related to the plate area, concentration, and temperature of the solution. Furthermore, the pulser's treatment actually inhibits the algae cell growth. This article also explores the influence of various parameters of electric pulses on the algal effect. After the experiment, the optimum pulse parameters were determined to be an electric field intensity of 750 V/cm, a pulse width per second of 120μs, and monopolar polarity.

  3. Studies on the photosynthetic physiology of Spirulina erdosensis%鄂尔多斯螺旋藻(Spirulina erdosensis)光合生理的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘华; 乔辰; 巩东辉; 王志忠

    2003-01-01

    对鄂尔多斯高原碱湖的鄂尔多斯螺旋藻Spirulina erdosensis光合色素的吸收光谱、含量、光合速率和呼吸速率日变化进行了研究.结果表明:活体吸收光谱体现出了各色素在不同波段范围内的吸收差异;各种色素相对荧光强度有明显的差异.藻胆素的含量最高为97.86 mg*g-1DW;类胡萝卜素的最低,为2.11 mg*g-1DW;Chl a为7.70 mg*g-1DW.其光合速率的日变化呈单峰曲线,真、净光合速率均在13∶00达到最大,分别为36.24 μmol*m-2*s-1和23.45 μmol*m-2*s-1.

  4. Inhibitory effects of small molecular peptides from Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis on cancer cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhujun; Zhang, Xuewu

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the whole proteins of Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis were extracted, hydrolysis with three proteases (trypsin, alcalase and papain) was performed, and gel filtration chromatography was employed to separate hydrolysates. Totally, 15 polypeptides were isolated, which showed anti-proliferation activities on five cancer cells (HepG-2, MCF-7, SGC-7901, A549 and HT-29), with the IC50 values between <31.25 and 336.57 μg mL(-1). Moreover, a new peptide YGFVMPRSGLWFR was identified from papain-digested hydrolysates. It also exhibited inhibitory activities on cancer cells, and the best activity was observed on A549 cancer cells (IC50 values 104.05 μg mL(-1)). In other words, these polypeptides exhibited anti-proliferation activities on cancer cells, and low toxicity or stimulatory activity on normal cells, suggesting that they are promising ingredients in food and pharmaceutical applications. PMID:26584028

  5. Impact of natural light on growth and biopigment profile of cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gaurav; Kumar, Manoj; Ali, Mohammad Irfan; Saran, Suman; Jasuja, Nakuleshwar Dut

    2015-11-01

    Cyanobacteria are economically important microorganisms and good source of natural pigments such as chlorophyll, carotenoids and phycobilliproteins. The present research work showed the optimum combination of photophase and scotophase of Spirulina platensis on biomass and chlorophyll-a, carotenoids, phycocyanin, allophycocyanin, and phycoerythrin contents. The study revealed that among all six light conditions tested, the cultures placed at west facing window, receiving natural day light at temperature 30°C showed extremely significant higher biomass (O.D. 3.46 ± 0.17%) and biopigment accumulation Chlorophyll a 8.94 ± 0.43%, Carotenoid 1.62 ± 0.18%, phycocyanin 2.26 ± 0.14%, allophycocyanin 2.66 ± 0.18% and phycoerythrin 1.32 ± 0.31% as compared to the standard (Full day natural light), which might be beneficial for large scale production of biopigment. PMID:26688978

  6. Growth and biopigment accumulation of cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis at different light intensities and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to find out optimum culture condition for algal growth, the effect of light irradiance and temperature on growth rate, biomass composition and pigment production of Spirulina platensis were studied in axenic batch cultures. Growth kinetics of cultures showed a wide range of temperature tolerance from 20 ºC to 40 ºC. Maximum growth rate, cell production with maximum accumulation of chlorophyll and phycobilliproteins were found at temperature 35 ºC and 2,000 lux light intensity. But with further increase in temperature and light intensity, reduction in growth rate was observed. Carotenoid content was found maximum at 3,500 lux. Improvement in the carotenoid content with increase in light intensity is an adaptive mechanism of cyanobacterium S.platensis for photoprotection, could be a good basis for the exploitation of microalgae as a source of biopigments.

  7. Effects of dissolved organic matter on the growth and pigments synthesis of Spirulina platensis ( Arthrospira )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Zengling; GAO Kunshan; WATANABE Teruo

    2006-01-01

    Excessive accumulation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the culture ponds of Spirulina platensis is usually considered to be one of the potential factors affecting the production of S. platensis, however, we are not quite aware of effects of DOM on the growth and pigments synthesis of S. platensis. In the present study, S. platensis was grown in batch or semi-continuous cultures using the filtrate in the culture ponds that had not been renewed for years. It was found that disssolved organic carbon up to 60 mg/L did not bring about an inhibitory effect on the growth of S. platensis, but increased the contents of chlorophyll a and phycocyanin instead. However, further accumulation of dissolved organic matter could decrease the content of chlorophyll a.

  8. Fusarium graminearum growth inhibition mechanism using phenolic compounds from Spirulina sp Mecanismo de inibição de Fusarium graminearum por compostos fenólicos extraídos de Spirulina sp

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Arnhold Pagnussatt; Larine Kupski; Francine Toralles Darley; Paula Freitas Filoda; Émerson Medeiros Del Ponte; Jaqueline Garda-Buffon; Eliana Badiale-Furlong

    2013-01-01

    The application of natural antifungal substances is motivated by the need for alternatives to existing methods that are not always applicable, efficient, or that do not pose risk to consumers or the environment. Furthermore, studies on the behaviour of toxigenic species in the presence of natural fungicides have enabled their safe application in the food chain In this study, Spirulina LEB-18 phenolic extract was assessed for its antifungal activity on 12 toxigenic strains of Fusarium graminea...

  9. PEMANFAATAN Spirulina platensis SEBAGAI SUPLEMEN PROTEIN SEL TUNGGAL (PST MENCIT (Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryo Kuntoro Adi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The using of Spirulina platensis as Supplement of Single-Celled Protein (SCP to Mice. High protein in Spirulina platensis can be used as a source of Single-Celled Protein. By using mice (Mus musculus as a animal laboratory, the objective of this research is to know the influence of Biomass S. platensis to the increase of body weight of mice. The name of species is Mus musculus, strain is Swiss derivate. Utilized mice were male, 30-50 weighing gram, and 5-7 weeks of age. Treatment group was given by palette and given by biomass of S. Platensis, while control also fed palette but did not give biomass of S. platensis. Yielded biomass was used as food mixed with palette with composition of dry biomass S. platensis with palette was 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50%. Data analysis was conducted by using t-tes and analysis of variance. The results showed that by giving of dry biomass of S. platensis affected to the increasement of body weight from the first day until twelfth day of observation, and decrease on the thirteenth and fourteenth day. Pursuant to result of statistic, there is a significant difference (p < 0,05 between before giving and after giving of dry biomass S. platensis during 17 day. By giving dry biomass of S. platensis to mice (Mus musculus at first and second week, it was found the difference of average mice body weight among six concentrations of biomass but did not at the third week. It means that not all concentration of biomass have same effect to the increase of mice body weight as a Single-Celled Protein.

  10. Stable Isolation of Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis Associated with High-Pressure Extraction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Hwan Jung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for stably purifying a functional dye, phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis was developed by a hexane extraction process combined with high pressure. This was necessary because this dye is known to be very unstable during normal extraction processes. The purification yield of this method was estimated as 10.2%, whose value is 3%–5% higher than is the case from another conventional separation method using phosphate buffer. The isolated phycocyanin from this process also showed the highest purity of 0.909 based on absorbance of 2.104 at 280 nm and 1.912 at 620 nm. Two subunits of phycocyanin namely α-phycocyanin (18.4 kDa and β-phycocyanin (21.3 kDa were found to remain from the original mixtures after being extracted, based on SDS-PAGE analysis, clearly demonstrating that this process can stably extract phycocyanin and is not affected by extraction solvent, temperature, etc. The stability of the extracted phycocyanin was also confirmed by comparing its DPPH (α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity, showing 83% removal of oxygen free radicals. This activity was about 15% higher than that of commercially available standard phycocyanin, which implies that the combined extraction method can yield relatively intact chromoprotein through absence of degradation. The results were achieved because the low temperature and high pressure extraction effectively disrupted the cell membrane of Spirulina platensis and degraded less the polypeptide subunits of phycocyanin (which is a temperature/pH-sensitive chromoprotein as well as increasing the extraction yield.

  11. Production of Spirulina sp by utilization of wastewater from the powder type energy drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumantri, Indro; Priyambada, Ika Bagus

    2015-12-01

    Wastewater of energy drink type of powder produced when the the production equipment required cleaning treatment to produce one taste to others. These equipments washed by water, so that, it produced wastewater. It contains high organic substances and classified as high degradable due to food product. The content of wastewater is high carbon and nitrogen substances. Microalgae is an autotrophic microorganism, live without carbon presence, utilized to digest the substances in wastewater especially for nitrogen substances. Spirulina sp is the type of microalgae selected to utilize the wastewater of energy drink, the selection criteria is the size of Spirulina sp is relatively large and easy to separated from its solution. The experiment conducted by cultivate the seeding microalgae with certain nutrients until the certain volume. The synthetic wastewater obtained from one of energy drink type of powder with commercial brand as Kuku Bima Ener-G, the wastewater concentration selected under the close to the real condition of wastewater as basis of COD measurement (6 sachet/L or COD of 12.480mg/L) and aqueous concentration (1 sachet/L or COD of 2080mg/L). The batch experiments with 1L volume conducted and with variable of percent volume of wastewater added in order to observe the growth of microlagae. The response of the microalgae growth obtained by increasing the optical density of the microalgae solution and continued by calculation for the growth rate of microalgae. The result of the experiments indicated that for the aqueous concentration (1 sachet/L or COD of 2080mg/L) the optimum added of wastewater is 40 % with growrate of 0.55/day while for the concentrated wastewater (6 sachet/L or COD of 12.480mg/L), the optimum condition is 25 % wastewater added with growth rate of 0.43/day.

  12. Surface decoration by Spirulina polysaccharide enhances the cellular uptake and anticancer efficacy of selenium nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Y

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fang Yang1*, Quanming Tang1,2*, Xueyun Zhong3, Yan Bai1, Tianfeng Chen1, Yibo Zhang1, Yinghua Li1, Wenjie Zheng11Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China; 2South China Seas Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China; 3Department of Pathology, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: A simple and solution-phase method for functionalization of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs with Spirulina polysaccharides (SPS has been developed in the present study. The cellular uptake and anticancer activity of SPS-SeNPs were also evaluated. Monodisperse and homogeneous spherical SPS-SeNPs with diameters ranging from 20 nm to 50 nm were achieved under optimized conditions, which were stable in the solution phase for at least 3 months. SPS surface decoration significantly enhanced the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of SeNPs toward several human cancer cell lines. A375 human melanoma cells were found extremely susceptible to SPS-SeNPs with half maximal (50% inhibitory concentration value of 7.94 µM. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms revealed that SPS-SeNPs inhibited cancer cell growth through induction of apoptosis, as evidenced by an increase in sub-G1 cell population, deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation, chromatin condensation, and phosphatidylserine translocation. Results suggest that the strategy to use SPS as a surface decorator could be an effective way to enhance the cellular uptake and anticancer efficacy of nanomaterials. SPS-SeNPs may be a potential candidate for further evaluation as a chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent against human cancers.Keywords: selenium nanoparticles, Spirulina polysaccharide, cellular uptake, anticancer, apoptosis

  13. Spirulina elicits the activation of innate immunity and increases resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus in shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Tayag, Carina Miranda; Li, Hui-Fang; Putra, Dedi Fazriansyah; Kuo, Yi-Hsuan; Bai, Jia-Chin; Chang, Yu-Hsuan

    2016-08-01

    The effect of Spirulina dried powder (SDP) on the immune response of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was studied in vitro and in vivo. Incubating shrimp haemocytes in 0.5 mg ml(-1) SDP caused the degranulation of haemocytes and a reduction in the percentage of large cells within 30 min. Shrimp haemocytes incubated in 1 mg ml(-1) SDP significantly increased their phenoloxidase (PO) activity, serine proteinase activity, and respiratory burst activity (RB, release of superoxide anion). A recombinant protein of lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP) of the white shrimp was produced, named rLvLGBP, and examined for its binding with SDP. An ELISA binding assay showed that rLvLGBP binds to SDP with a dissociation constant of 0.0507 μM. In another experiment, shrimp fed diets containing SDP at 0 (control), 30, and 60 g kg(-1) after four weeks were examined for LGBP transcript level and lysozyme activity, as well as phagocytic activity, clearance efficiency, and resistance to Vibrio alginolyticus. These parameters were significantly higher in shrimp receiving diets containing SDP at 60 g kg(-1) or 30 g kg(-1) than in controls. In conclusion, shrimp haemocytes receiving SDP provoked the activation of innate immunity as evidenced by the recognition and binding of LGBP, degranulation of haemocytes, reduction in the percentage of large cells, increases in PO activity, serine proteinase activity, superoxide anion levels, and up-regulated LGBP transcript levels. Shrimp receiving diets containing SDP had increased lysozyme activity and resistance against V. alginolyticus infection. This study showed the mechanism underlying the immunostimulatory action of Spirulina and its immune response in shrimp.

  14. Influência do consumo de diferentes níveis de Spirulina no desenvolvimento e perfil lipídico de ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Moreira Chiattoni

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina é uma cianobactéria que vem sendo produzida e estudada por suas propriedades nutricionais e por seus benefícios à saúde. Neste estudo, avaliou-se a influência de dietas acrescidas de diferentes concentrações de Spirulina sobre o desenvolvimento corporal e o perfil lipídico de ratos. Foram utilizados 24 ratos Wistar, alimentados, durante 40 dias, com quatro dietas isoproteicas (10% distintas, sendo seis animais por grupo: 1 Dieta controle (AIN93G adaptada; 2 Dieta S1 (8,8% de Spirulina; 3 Dieta S2 (17,6% de Spirulina; 4 Dieta S3 (26,4% de Spirulina. Foram avaliados parâmetros nutricionais e o perfil lipídico dos animais, cujos dados foram analisados estatisticamente por Análise de Variância, seguida do teste de Tukey, a 5% de significância (p ≤ 0,05. O tratamento com 8,8% de Spirulina mostrou-se equivalente ao controle, apresentando respostas mais adequadas de CEA, medidas de crescimento e lipídios séricos. Já o S2 não foi capaz de promover um bom desenvolvimento corporal, comparado com o do controle, além de elevar os níveis de colesterol total e LDL-c. O tratamento S3 apresentou somente valores estatisticamente diferentes de HDL-c, quando comparado com os do controle (p ≤ 0,05. Conclui-se que, no tempo e condições do estudo, o tratamento S3, único com Spirulina como fonte exclusiva de proteína, foi capaz de substituir a fonte proteica padrão (caseína na dieta para roedores, promovendo o adequado desenvolvimento corporal e lipídico dos animais.

  15. 光照对螺旋藻生长速率的影响%The Effect of Light on the Growth Rate of Spirulina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永强; 陈清香; 师文庆; 熊正烨; 李思东; 李高荣; 凌旭炜

    2014-01-01

    螺旋藻是一种经济价值很高的微藻。针对螺旋藻的高光效性,在不同波长LED灯照射下,研究光照对螺旋藻生长速率的影响。结果表明,在螺旋藻的养殖中,经过红光(650-675 nm)、绿光(522-532 nm)和蓝光(465-475 nm)处理后,获得最大螺旋藻的干物质含量分别为1.232 g/L、1.195 g/L、0.742 g/L;红光处理过的螺旋藻生长速度最快,所得的干物质含量比对照样增加了66.04%。%Spirulina is a kind of microalgae with high economic value.Based on the characteristics of high lighting effects,the influence of light with different wavelengths on the growth rate of spirulina was studied in this paper.The re-sults show that the most dry matter content of spirulina is respectively 1.232 g/L,1.195 g/L and 0.742 g/L after illu-minating by the red LED light source(wavelength of 650-675 nm),the green LED light source(wavelength of 522-532 nm)and the blue LED light source(wavelength of 465-475 nm)in culturing of Spirulina.Moreover,the growth rate of spirulina is the fastest in red LED light source,and the dry matter content of spirulina increased by 66.04% as com-pared with those of ordinary spirulina.

  16. Gambaran Sel Eosinofil, Monosit, dan Basofil Setelah Pemberian Spirulina pada Ayam yang Diinfeksi Virus Flu Burung (OBSERVATION OF EOSINOPHILS, MONOCYTES, AND BASOPHILS AFTER TREATED WITH SPIRULINA IN CHICKENS THAT INFECTED WITH AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Paramita Lokapirnasari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available High Pathogenecity Avian Influenza (HPAI viruses have high virulence and can frequently causesudden death on birds. The aims of this research was to know the role of Spirulina to a number ofmonocytes and lymphocytes in the blood of chickens which infected with the H5N1 virus. This researchconsisted of three levels of treatment in which each level given Spirulina 0%, 10%, 20% in the fresh wateralgae as drinking water. Each treatment consisted of seven replicates, and the treatment was done sincethe chickens at age 19 until 44 days ( for 25 days. Artificial infection of the chickens with the virus waschallenged by using AI (H5N1 104 EID 50 (A/Ck/Indonesia/BL/03 with route to the respiratory tract (nosedrops 0,1 mL starting on day 19. The results showed that there were a significant difference (p<0.05 ontreatment that given Spirulina at doses of 0%, 10% and 20% for the number ofn monocytes, eosinophils,whereas no significant difference (p > 0.05 was observed in basophils.

  17. 青岛海边数种螺旋藻(Spirulina spp.)的分类研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨娜; 李明仁; 卞伯仲

    1988-01-01

    本文描述了从青岛海边分离的数种螺旋藻的形念与分类,按照文献(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)(9)标准种形态的描述.本研究室藻种号MACC/Y146被定为Spirulina versicolor,MACC/Y171被定为S.subtilissima。MACC/Y38被定为.S.subsalsa。MACC/Y133被定为Spirulina sp.,其中MACC/Y146。MACC/Y133我国尚未报导,以上各种均系单克隆培养。

  18. Antihyperlipemic and antihypertensive effects of Spirulina maxima in an open sample of mexican population: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez-Oropeza Marco A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spirulina maxima is a filamentous cyanobacterium used as food supplement because of its high nutrient contents. It has been experimentally proven, in vivo and in vitro that posses several pharmacological properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Spirulina maxima orally supplied (4.5 g/day, for 6 weeks to a sample of 36 subjects (16 men and 20 women, with ages between 18–65 years on serum lipids, glucose, aminotransferases and on blood pressure. The volunteers did not modify their dietary habits or lifestyle during the whole experimental period. From each subject, a sample of blood was drawn in fasting state of 12 hours to determi the plasma concentrations of glucose, triacylglycerols (TAG, total cholesterol (TC, cholesterol associated to high density lipoprotein (HDL-C and aspartate aminotransferase (AST. Anthropometric measurements including systolic (SYST-P and diastolic (DIAST-P blood pressure, height, weight and Body Mass Index (BMI were also recorded. Results Comparing initial and final data, the results showed that there were no significant changes in the values of glucose and AST, but significant differences in TAG, TC, and HDL-C, were observed: TAG 233.7 ± 177.8 vs. 167.7 ± 100.7 mg/dL (p Spirulina maxima treatment but independently of the TAG changes. In addition, significant differences were found comparing initial and final SYST-P and DIAST-P blood pressure in both male and female: SYST-P male 121 ± 9 vs. 111 ± 8 mm Hg (p Conclusion The Spirulina maxima showed a hypolipemic effect, especially on the TAG and the LDL-C concentrations but indirectly on TC and HDL-C values. It also reduces systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

  19. Biossorção passiva de cromo (VI) através da microalga Spirulina platensis

    OpenAIRE

    Clinei Dal Magro; Maitê Carla Deon; Antônio Thomé; Jeferson Steffanello Piccin; Luciane Maria Colla

    2013-01-01

    Effluents containing toxic metals are dangerous and more economical, efficient and environmentally friendly treatments must be studied, with the biosorption process with microbial biomass constituting an efficient solution. Thus, the ability of Spirulina platensis biomass for removing chromium (VI) using passive and active biosorption was evaluated. Inactive microalgae biomass and synthetic solution containing chromium (VI) were used to evaluate important factors in the process and biomass bi...

  20. Single step aqueous two-phase extraction for downstream processing of C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis

    OpenAIRE

    Chethana, S.; Nayak, Chetan A.; M.C. Madhusudhan; Raghavarao, K. S. M. S.

    2014-01-01

    C-phycocyanin, a natural food colorant, is gaining importance worldwide due to its several medical and pharmaceutical applications. In the present study, aqueous two-phase extraction was shown to be an attractive alternative for the downstream processing of C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis. By employing differential partitioning, C-phycocyanin selectively partitioned to the polymer rich (top) phase in concentrated form and contaminant proteins to the salt rich (bottom) phase. This resul...

  1. The relationship between the antioxidant system and phycocyanin production in Spirulina maxima with respect to nitrate concentration

    OpenAIRE

    ÜREK, Raziye ÖZTÜRK; TARHAN, Leman

    2012-01-01

    The relationship among antioxidant enzyme activities, such as iron-superoxide dismutase (FeSOD) and ascorbate-dependent peroxidase (AsA-POD), and phycocyanin, chlorophyll, total carotenoid, ascorbate contents, and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were investigated in Spirulina maxima SAG 84.79 in nitrate limited (10 mM), control (30 mM), and supplemented (50 mM) conditions. In the present study, extracellular nitrate and intracellular iron, magnesium, and copper levels were also investigated. ...

  2. Purification of C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis in aqueous two-phase systems using an experimental design

    OpenAIRE

    Francine Silva Antelo; Jorge Alberto Vieira Costa; Susana Juliano Kalil

    2015-01-01

    C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis was purified in aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) of polyethylene glycol (PEG)/potassium phosphate, varying the molar mass of the PEG. Results using a full factorial design showed that an increase in the concentration of salt and decrease in the concentration of PEG caused an increment in the purification factor for all the ATPS studied. Optimization of the conditions of the purification was studied using a central composite rotatable design for each mola...

  3. Effect of Spirulina Intervention on Oxidative Stress, Antioxidant Status, and Lipid Profile in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Oxidative stress is intimately associated with many diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Study objectives include a comparison of the oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and lipid profile between COPD patients and controls and evaluation of the effect of spirulina intervention on oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and lipid profile of COPD patients. Methods. 30 patients with COPD and 20 controls with no respiratory problems were selected. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria were served as the basis of COPD diagnosis. The serum content of malondialdehyde (MDA, lipid hydroperoxide, glutathione (GSH, vitamin C, cholesterol, triglyceride (TG, and high density lipoprotein (HDL was measured. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione-s-transferase (GST was also measured. Two different doses, (500 × 2 mg and (500 × 4 mg spirulina, were given to two groups, each of which comprises 15 COPD patients. Results. All targeted blood parameters have significant difference (P=0.000 between COPD patients and controls except triglyceride (TG. Spirulina intake for 30 and 60 days at (500 × 2 mg dose has significantly reduced serum content of MDA, lipid hydroperoxide, and cholesterol (P=0.000 while increasing GSH, Vit C level (P=0.000, and the activity of SOD (P=0.000 and GST (P=0.038. At the same time, spirulina intake for 30 and 60 days at (500 × 4 mg dose has favorable significant effect (P=0.000 on all targeted blood parameters except for HDL (P=0.163.

  4. 15 CFR Appendix II to Part 921 - Typology of National Estuarine Research Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., bacteria, and unicellular algae along with macroscopic crustaceans, mollusks, and worms with a detritus... diatoms, dinoflaggellates, filamintous blue-green and green algae, and chaemosynthetic purple sulfur... are dominated by macroscopic algae, usually thalloid, but also filamentous or unicellular in...

  5. Algae Biofuel in the Nigerian Energy Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elegbede, Isa; Guerrero, Cinthya

    2016-05-01

    The issue of energy consumption is one of the issues that have significantly become recognized as an important topic of global discourse. Fossil fuels production reportedly experiencing a gradual depletion in the oil-producing nations of the world. Most studies have relatively focused on biofuel development and adoption, however, the awareness of a prospect in the commercial cultivation of algae having potential to create economic boost in Nigeria, inspired this research. This study aims at exploring the potential of the commercialization of a different but commonly found organism, algae, in Nigeria. Here, parameters such as; water quality, light, carbon, average temperature required for the growth of algae, and additional beneficial nutrients found in algae were analysed. A comparative cum qualitative review of analysis was used as the study made use of empirical findings on the work as well as the author's deductions. The research explored the cultivation of algae with the two major seasonal differences (i.e. rainy and dry) in Nigeria as a backdrop. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in the contribution of algae and other sources of biofuels as a necessity for bioenergy in Nigeria. However, for an effective sustainability of this prospect, adequate measures need to be put in place in form of funding, provision of an economically-enabling environment for the cultivation process as well as proper healthcare service in the face of possible health hazard from technological processes. Further studies can seek to expand on the potential of cultivating algae in the Harmattan season.

  6. DGDG and Glycolipids in Plants and Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisch, Barbara; Dörmann, Peter; Hölzl, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthetic organelles in plants and algae are characterized by the high abundance of glycolipids, including the galactolipids mono- and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG, DGDG) and the sulfolipid sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG). Glycolipids are crucial to maintain an optimal efficiency of photosynthesis. During phosphate limitation, the amounts of DGDG and SQDG increase in the plastids of plants, and DGDG is exported to extraplastidial membranes to replace phospholipids. Algae often use betaine lipids as surrogate for phospholipids. Glucuronosyldiacylglycerol (GlcADG) is a further glycolipid that accumulates under phosphate deprived conditions. In contrast to plants, a number of eukaryotic algae contain very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids of 20 or more carbon atoms in their glycolipids. The pathways and genes for galactolipid and sulfolipid synthesis are largely conserved between plants, Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and algae with complex plastids derived from secondary or tertiary endosymbiosis. However, the relative contribution of the endoplasmic reticulum- and plastid-derived lipid pathways for glycolipid synthesis varies between plants and algae. The genes for glycolipid synthesis encode precursor proteins imported into the photosynthetic organelles. While most eukaryotic algae contain the plant-like galactolipid (MGD1, DGD1) and sulfolipid (SQD1, SQD2) synthases, the red alga Cyanidioschyzon harbors a cyanobacterium-type DGDG synthase (DgdA), and the amoeba Paulinella, derived from a more recent endosymbiosis event, contains cyanobacterium-type enzymes for MGDG and DGDG synthesis (MgdA, MgdE, DgdA).

  7. Method and apparatus for processing algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Geoffrey; Reich, Alton J.; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite; Di Salvo, Roberto

    2012-07-03

    Methods and apparatus for processing algae are described in which a hydrophilic ionic liquid is used to lyse algae cells. The lysate separates into at least two layers including a lipid-containing hydrophobic layer and an ionic liquid-containing hydrophilic layer. A salt or salt solution may be used to remove water from the ionic liquid-containing layer before the ionic liquid is reused. The used salt may also be dried and/or concentrated and reused. The method can operate at relatively low lysis, processing, and recycling temperatures, which minimizes the environmental impact of algae processing while providing reusable biofuels and other useful products.

  8. Mathematical modeling and through artificial neural networks of the Spirulina sp. growth in a photobioreactor with fluorescent light source and solid state lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Vásquez-Villalobos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Gompertz and logistic mathematical models in the Spirulina sp. growth kinetics were evaluated and were compared with a modeling through Backpropagation Artificial Neural Networks (BP- ANN. Spirulina was cultivated in a (3 L/min of 500 mL aerated laboratory photobioreactor with 40W fluorescent lighting and 1W lighting Solid State (LED-Light Emitting Diode obtaining 11.0 klx lighting with both systems. The LED lighting allowed to obtain a (ɑ 0.90 high biomass value compared with that one obtained with fluorescent lighting of 0.82, as well as a greater growth rate µ=0.63 h-1 preceded by a shorter latency time λ = 0.34 h. The BP-ANN showed a good accuracy with respect to the Gompertz I corrected model for both the Spirulina sp cultivation case with fluorescent lighting and with LED displaying correlation coefficients (R of the 0.993 and 0.994 order respectively, with regard to the experimental data. Spirulina modeling through the Gompertz I corrected model is advantageous because besides showing R 0.987 and 0.990 values in Spirulina sp. cultures with fluorescent lighting and with LED respectively, it allows to attain the growth parameters kinetics directly.

  9. Effect of Heavy Metal Chromium (Ⅵ) on Growth of Spirulina%重金属离子铬(Ⅵ)对螺旋藻生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张少斌; 穆杨; 刘慧; 史广胜

    2012-01-01

    研究了不同质量浓度的重金属离子铬(Ⅵ)对螺旋藻生长及其藻胆蛋白含量的影响.结果表明:铬(Ⅵ)在一定浓度范围内(<10 mg/L)能够提高螺旋藻藻胆蛋白的含量,对螺旋藻的生长具有促进作用.当铬(Ⅵ)浓度过高(>10 mg/L)时,螺旋藻藻胆蛋白含量下降,螺旋藻的生长受到较强抑制.%In this paper, the effect of heavy metal ion chromium (VI) with different mass concentrations on the growth and phy-cobiliprotein content of spirulina was studied. The results showed that chromium (VI) with proper concentration ( < 10 mg/L) could increase the content of phycobiliprotein in spirulina, and accelerate the growth of spirulina. The content of phycobiliprotein in spirulina decreased and the growth of spirulina was inhibited when the concentration of chromium (VI) was above 10 mg/L.

  10. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.275 Dried algae meal. (a) Identity. The color additive dried algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture...

  11. Nonlinear Analysis in a Nutrient-Algae-Zooplankton System with Sinking of Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Chuanjun Dai; Min Zhao

    2014-01-01

    A reaction-diffusion-advection model is proposed for the Zeya Reservoir to study interactions between algae and zooplankton, including the diffusive spread of algae and zooplankton and the sinking of algae. The model is investigated both with and without sinking. Conditions of Hopf and Turing bifurcation in the spatial domain are obtained, and conditions for differential-flow instability that gives rise to the formation of spatial patterns are derived. Using numerical simulation, the authors ...

  12. Dipeptides from the red alga Acanthopora spicifera

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Kamat, S.Y.

    An investigation of red alga Acanthophora spicifera afforded the known peptide, aurantiamide acetate and a new diastereoisomer of this dipeptide (dia-aurantiamide acetate). This is a first report of aurantiamide acetate from a marine source...

  13. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Joyce [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Algae Platform Review meeting.

  14. Stochastic Forecasting of Algae Blooms in Lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2013-01-03

    We consider a general framework to predict the development of harmful algal blooms (HABs) in a lake driven by uncertain parameters. To quantify the concentration uncertainty of those algae groups via their joint probabilistic density function (PDF), we explore an approach based on the Fokker-Planck equation. Our result is presented in an example where abundant nutrients contribute to the proliferation of cyanobacteria and other minor algae groups.

  15. Inventory of North-West European algae initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Spruijt, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 an inventory of North-West European (NWE) algae initiatives was carried out to get an impression of the market and research activities on algae production and refinery, especially for bioenergy purposes. A questionnaire was developed that would provide the EnAlgae project with information on the value chains in which algae production was positioned within these initiatives. The questionnaire was used by EnAlgae project partners to collect information in Great Britain, Ireland, Germany...

  16. Antioxidant Activity of Hawaiian Marine Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony D. Wright

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine algae are known to contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, many of which have commercial applications in pharmaceutical, medical, cosmetic, nutraceutical, food and agricultural industries. Natural antioxidants, found in many algae, are important bioactive compounds that play an important role against various diseases and ageing processes through protection of cells from oxidative damage. In this respect, relatively little is known about the bioactivity of Hawaiian algae that could be a potential natural source of such antioxidants. The total antioxidant activity of organic extracts of 37 algal samples, comprising of 30 species of Hawaiian algae from 27 different genera was determined. The activity was determined by employing the FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays. Of the algae tested, the extract of Turbinaria ornata was found to be the most active. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of a variety of different carotenoids as the active principles. The major bioactive antioxidant compound was identified as the carotenoid fucoxanthin. These results show, for the first time, that numerous Hawaiian algae exhibit significant antioxidant activity, a property that could lead to their application in one of many useful healthcare or related products as well as in chemoprevention of a variety of diseases including cancer.

  17. 螺旋藻功能及其发酵液的研究进展%Research Advance of the Functions and Fermentation of Spirulina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓青; 吴彬彬; 张艳玲; 刘俊江; 梁岩

    2014-01-01

    Spirulina is always considered as relatively safe food, and contains a variety of nutrients. This article briefly reviewed the discovery and development of spirulina、the research progress of its functions and the research situation of spirulina fermentation. Finally, we prospected the development prospect of spirulina fermentation.%螺旋藻是较安全的食品,含有多种营养物质。本文简要综述了螺旋藻的发现和发展,功能的研究进展及发酵液的研究状况,展望了螺旋藻的发展前景。

  18. Airborne bathymetric charting using pulsed blue-green lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H. H.

    1977-01-01

    Laboratory and airborne experiments have proven the feasibility and demonstrated the techniques of an airborne pulsed laser system for rapidly mapping coastal water bathymetry. Water depths of 10 plus or minus 0.25 m were recorded in waters having an effective attenuation coefficient of 0.175 m. A 2-MW peak power Nd:YAG pulsed laser was flown at an altitude of 600 m. An advanced system, incorporating a mirror scanner, a high pulsed rate laser, and a good signal processor, could survey coastal zones at the rate of several square miles per hour.

  19. Eco-Labeled Seafood: Determinants for (Blue Green Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Jonell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Eco-certification has become an increasingly popular market-based tool in the endeavor to reduce negative environmental impacts from fisheries and aquaculture. In this study, we aimed at investigating which psychological consumer characteristics influence demand for eco-labeled seafood by correlating consumers’ stated purchasing of eco-labeled seafood to nine variables: environmental knowledge regarding seafood production, familiarity with eco-labels, subjective knowledge, pro-environmental self-identification, sense of personal responsibility, concern for negative environmental impacts from seafood production, perceived consumer effectiveness, gender and education. Questionnaires were distributed to consumers in Stockholm, Sweden, and the data were tested with multiple regression analysis using linear modeling and model averaging (n = 371. Two variables were the best predictors of stated purchasing of eco-labeled seafood: (i recognition and understanding of eco-labels for seafood (Marine Stewardship Council, Fish for Life, Aquaculture Stewardship Council and KRAV; and (ii concern for negative environmental impacts associated with seafood production. Meanwhile, consumer environmental knowledge was a weaker predictor. Results from this study suggest that strengthening the emotional component of consumer decision-making and improving the level of consumer familiarity with seafood eco-labels could stimulate more pro-environmental seafood consumption.

  20. iAK692: A genome-scale metabolic model of Spirulina platensis C1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klanchui Amornpan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis is a well-known filamentous cyanobacterium used in the production of many industrial products, including high value compounds, healthy food supplements, animal feeds, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, for example. It has been increasingly studied around the world for scientific purposes, especially for its genome, biology, physiology, and also for the analysis of its small-scale metabolic network. However, the overall description of the metabolic and biotechnological capabilities of S. platensis requires the development of a whole cellular metabolism model. Recently, the S. platensis C1 (Arthrospira sp. PCC9438 genome sequence has become available, allowing systems-level studies of this commercial cyanobacterium. Results In this work, we present the genome-scale metabolic network analysis of S. platensis C1, iAK692, its topological properties, and its metabolic capabilities and functions. The network was reconstructed from the S. platensis C1 annotated genomic sequence using Pathway Tools software to generate a preliminary network. Then, manual curation was performed based on a collective knowledge base and a combination of genomic, biochemical, and physiological information. The genome-scale metabolic model consists of 692 genes, 837 metabolites, and 875 reactions. We validated iAK692 by conducting fermentation experiments and simulating the model under autotrophic, heterotrophic, and mixotrophic growth conditions using COBRA toolbox. The model predictions under these growth conditions were consistent with the experimental results. The iAK692 model was further used to predict the unique active reactions and essential genes for each growth condition. Additionally, the metabolic states of iAK692 during autotrophic and mixotrophic growths were described by phenotypic phase plane (PhPP analysis. Conclusions This study proposes the first genome-scale model of S. platensis C1, iAK692, which is a

  1. Identification of differentially expressed proteins of Arthrospira (Spirulina) plantensis-YZ under salt-stress conditions by proteomics and qRT-PCR analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Huili; Yang, Yanmei; Chen, Wei; Ding, Li; Li, Peizhen; Zhao, Xiaokai; Wang, Xuedong; Li, Aiying; Bao, Qiyu

    2013-01-01

    Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis as a representative species of cyanobacteria has been recognized and used worldwide as a source of protein in the food, which possesses some unusual and valuable physiological characteristics, such as alkali and salt tolerance. Based on complete genome sequencing of Arthrospira (Spirulina) plantensis-YZ, we compared the protein expression profiles of this organism under different salt-stress conditions (i.e. 0.02 M, 0.5 M and 1.0 M NaCl, respectively), using ...

  2. Influência do consumo de diferentes níveis de Spirulina no desenvolvimento e perfil lipídico de ratos

    OpenAIRE

    Lidiane Moreira Chiattoni; Mírian Ribeiro Galvão Machado; Rosane da Silva Rodrigues; Leonor Almeida de Souza Soares

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina é uma cianobactéria que vem sendo produzida e estudada por suas propriedades nutricionais e por seus benefícios à saúde. Neste estudo, avaliou-se a influência de dietas acrescidas de diferentes concentrações de Spirulina sobre o desenvolvimento corporal e o perfil lipídico de ratos. Foram utilizados 24 ratos Wistar, alimentados, durante 40 dias, com quatro dietas isoproteicas (10%) distintas, sendo seis animais por grupo: 1) Dieta controle (AIN93G adaptada); 2) Dieta S1 (8,8% de Spi...

  3. Research on Plastic Technology and Tensile Properties of Spirulina%螺旋藻的塑化技术及其拉伸性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程羊; 蔡军; 张德远

    2015-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of the poor mechanical properties of the original spirulina, plastic technology of spirulina was proposed in this paper. Silicone rubber with good tensile properties was used as plasticizer. And the silicone rubber was put into spirulina through plastic technology. Microscope was used to observe and analyze the morphology of spirulina before and after plastic process. In order to further reveal the tensile property of such plasticizing spring particles, they were mixed into Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) uniformly. Then the mixture was spin-coated on the silicon wafer. After the film was solidified, the tensile test was carried out with a strip cut from the film. The tensile phenomenon of the spirulina was monitored in real time by an optical microscope equipped with digital camera, until the particle was break. And the tensile properties of the spirulina before and after plastic process were analyzed. The results indicated that the silicone rubber was successfully put into the spirulina and the tensile properties of spirulina were enhanced after the plastic process.%为了提高螺旋藻原始模板的机械性能差的问题,本文提出了螺旋藻塑化的技术。以螺旋藻为模板,通过塑化技术向螺旋藻内部渗透进入塑性良好的硅橡胶。在显微镜下观察和分析螺旋藻塑化前后的形体变化。然后,将螺旋藻加入PDMS(polydimethylsiloxane)中充分混合,并将混合后的材料旋涂出薄膜,待PDMS固化之后,拉伸PDMS薄膜并通过光学显微镜观察和分析PDMS薄膜内部的微粒的形态变化。最后,分析螺旋藻塑化前后的拉伸性能的变化。结果表明,螺旋藻在塑化处理之后,螺旋藻内部和表面都附着了塑性良好的硅橡胶;螺旋藻塑化之后的拉伸性能较原始螺旋藻有了明显提高。

  4. Hyperspectral imaging of snow algae and green algae from aeroterrestrial habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzinger, Andreas; Allen, Michael C; Deheyn, Dimitri D

    2016-09-01

    Snow algae and green algae living in aeroterrestrial habitats are ideal objects to study adaptation to high light irradiation. Here, we used a detailed description of the spectral properties as a proxy for photo-acclimation/protection in snow algae (Chlamydomonas nivalis, Chlainomonas sp. and Chloromonas sp.) and charophyte green algae (Zygnema sp., Zygogonium ericetorum and Klebsormidium crenulatum). The hyperspectral microscopic mapping and imaging technique allowed us to acquire total absorption spectra of these microalgae in the waveband of 400-900nm. Particularly in Chlamydomonas nivalis and Chlainomonas sp., a high absorbance between 400-550nm was observed, due to naturally occurring secondary carotenoids; in Chloromonas sp. and in the charopyhte algae this high absorbance was missing, the latter being close relatives to land plants. To investigate if cellular water loss has an influence on the spectral properties, the cells were plasmolysed in sorbitol or desiccated at ambient air. While in snow algae, these treatments did hardly change the spectral properties, in the charopyhte algae the condensation of the cytoplasm and plastids increased the absorbance in the lower waveband of 400-500nm. These changes might be ecologically relevant and photoprotective, as aeroterrestrial algae are naturally exposed to occasional water limitation, leading to desiccation, which are conditions usually occurring together with higher irradiation. PMID:27442511

  5. Algae production for energy and foddering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Attila; Jobbagy, Peter; Durko, Emilia [University of Debrecen, Faculty of Applied Economics and Rural Development (UD-FAERD), Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2011-09-15

    This study not only presents the results of our own experiments in alga production, but also shows the expected economic results of the various uses of algae (animal feed, direct burning, pelleting, bio-diesel production), the technical characteristics of a new pelleting method based on literature, and also our own recommended alga production technology. In our opinion, the most promising alternative could be the production of alga species with high levels of oil content, which are suitable for utilization as by-products for animal feed and in the production of bio-diesel, as well as for use in waste water management and as a flue gas additive. Based on the data from our laboratory experiments, of the four species we analyzed, Chlorella vulgaris should be considered the most promising species for use in large-scale experiments. Taking expenses into account, our results demonstrate that the use of algae for burning technology purposes results in a significant loss under the current economic conditions; however, the utilization of algae for feeding and bio-diesel purposes - in spite of their innovative nature - is nearing the level needed for competitiveness. By using the alga production technology recommended by us and described in the present study in detail, with an investment of 545 to 727 thousand EUR/ha, this technology should be able to achieve approximately 0-29 thousand EUR/ha net income, depending on size. More favorable values emerge in the case of the 1-ha (larger) size, thanks to the significant savings on fixed costs (depreciation and personnel costs). (orig.)

  6. Radiation sterilization of harmful algae in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Objective: Drinking water, water used in food production and for irrigation, water for fish farming, waste water, surface water, and recreational water have been recently recognized as a vector for the transmission of harmful micro-organisms. The human and animal harmful algae is a waterborne risk to public health and economy because the algae are ubiquitous and persistent in water and wastewater, not completely removed by physical-chemical treatment processes, and relatively resistant to chemical disinfection. Gamma and electron beam radiation technology is of growing in the water industry since it was demonstrated that gamma and electron beam radiation is very effective against harmful algae. Materials and Methods: Harmful algae (Scenedesmus quadricauda(Turpin) Brebisson 1835 (AG10003), Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck 1896 (AG30007) and Chlamydomonas sp. (AG10061)) were distributed from Korean collection for type cultures (KCTC). Strains were cultured aerobically in Allen's medium at 25□ and 300 umol/m2s for 1 week using bioreactor. We investigated the disinfection efficiency of harmful algae irradiated with gamma (0.05 to 10 kGy for 30 min) and electron beam (1 to 19 kGy for 5 sec) rays. Results and Conclusion: We investigated the disinfection efficiency of harmful algae irradiated with gamma and electron beam rays of 50 to 19000 Gy. We established the optimum sterilization condition which use the gamma and electron beam radiation. Gamma ray disinfected harmful algae at 400 Gy for 30 min. Also, electron beam disinfected at 1000 Gy for 5 sec. This alternative disinfection practice had powerful disinfection efficiency. Hence, the multi-barrier approach for drinking water treatment in which a combination of various disinfectants and filtration technologies are applied for removal and inactivation of different microbial pathogens will guarantee a lower risk of microbial contamination.

  7. Algae Biofuel in the Nigerian Energy Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elegbede Isa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The issue of energy consumption is one of the issues that have significantly become recognized as an important topic of global discourse. Fossil fuels production reportedly experiencing a gradual depletion in the oil-producing nations of the world. Most studies have relatively focused on biofuel development and adoption, however, the awareness of a prospect in the commercial cultivation of algae having potential to create economic boost in Nigeria, inspired this research. This study aims at exploring the potential of the commercialization of a different but commonly found organism, algae, in Nigeria. Here, parameters such as; water quality, light, carbon, average temperature required for the growth of algae, and additional beneficial nutrients found in algae were analysed. A comparative cum qualitative review of analysis was used as the study made use of empirical findings on the work as well as the author’s deductions. The research explored the cultivation of algae with the two major seasonal differences (i.e. rainy and dry in Nigeria as a backdrop. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in the contribution of algae and other sources of biofuels as a necessity for bioenergy in Nigeria. However, for an effective sustainability of this prospect, adequate measures need to be put in place in form of funding, provision of an economically-enabling environment for the cultivation process as well as proper healthcare service in the face of possible health hazard from technological processes. Further studies can seek to expand on the potential of cultivating algae in the Harmattan season.

  8. Cultivation of microalgae Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis from biological treatment of swine wastewater Cultivo da microalga Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis a partir de tratamento biológico de efluente suíno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Mezzomo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The microalgae biomass production from swine wastewater is a possible solution for the environmental impact generated by wastewater discharge into water sources. The biomass can be added to fish feed, which can be used in the formulation of meat products. This work addresses the adaptation of the microalgae Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis in swine wastewater and the study of the best dilution of the wastewater for maximum biomass production and for removal of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, ammonia and phosphorous to the microalgae. The cultivation of Spirulina platensis, strain Paracas presented maximum cellular concentrations and maximum specific growth rates in the wastewater concentration of 5.0 and 8.5%. The highest COD removals occurred with 26.5 and 30.0% of wastewater in the medium. The maximum removal of total phosphorous (41.6%, was with 8.5% of wastewater, which is related to the microalgae growth. The results of Spirulina culture in the swine wastewater demonstrated the possibility of using these microalgae for the COD and phosphorous removal and for biomass production.A produção de biomassa de microalgas a partir de efluente suíno consiste em uma possível solução para o impacto ambiental gerado pela descarga de efluentes em fontes naturais. A biomassa produzida pode ser adicionada a rações de peixes, os quais podem ser utilizados na formulação de produtos cárneos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi a adaptação da microalga Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis em efluente suíno e o estudo da diluição ideal de efluente para obter a máxima produção de biomassa e remoção de Demanda Química de Oxigênio (DQO, amônia e fósforo do efluente pela microalga. O cultivo da Spirulina platensis, cepa Paracas apresentou máxima concentração celular e máxima taxa específica de crescimento em concentrações de efluente de 5,0 e 8,5%. As maiores remoções de DQO ocorreram com 26,5 e 30,0% de efluente no meio. A

  9. CO2 Biofixation by the Cyanobacterium Spirulina sp. LEB 18 and the Green Alga Chlorella fusca LEB 111 Grown Using Gas Effluents and Solid Residues of Thermoelectric Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Vaz, Bruna; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira; de Morais, Michele Greque

    2016-01-01

    The concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere has increased from 280 to 400 ppm in the last 10 years, and the coal-fired power plants are responsible for approximately 22 % of these emissions. The burning of fossil fuel also produces a great amount of solid waste that causes serious industrial and environmental problems. The biological processes become interesting alternative in combating pollution and developing new products. The objective of this study was to evaluate the CO2 biofixation potential of microalgae that were grown using gaseous effluents and solid residues of thermoelectric origin. The microalgae Chlorella fusca LEB 111 presented higher rate of CO2 biofixation (42.8 %) (p coal combustion, using the minerals present in this residue as the source of the essential metals required for their growth and the CO2 derived from the combustion gas as their carbon source. PMID:26453033

  10. Evaluation of Cataract Preventive Action of Phycocyanin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothadia AD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Phycocyanin is a biliprotein pigment found in blue-green algae Spirulina platensis, which have attracted attention because of their nutritional value and medicinal properties. This pigment has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activity in different experimental models. This data supports the view that phycocyanin may prevent cataract progression. Cataract preventive action of phycocyanin was evaluated against naphthalene and galactose induced cataract experimental models in wistar rats at dose 200 mg/kg/day p.o and vitamin E was used as a reference standard. Phycocyanin treated animals showed no opacification in the lens and they also showed significantly increased level of glutathione (GSH, soluble proteins and water content as compared to positive control group in the lens in both the experimental models. Cataract preventive action of phycocyanin may be due to is antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity.

  11. Adsorptive removal of dye using biochar derived from residual algae after in-situ transesterification: Alternate use of waste of biodiesel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nautiyal, Piyushi; Subramanian, K A; Dastidar, M G

    2016-11-01

    The primary aim of this present study was to utilize the residual biomass (DB) of Spirulina platensis algae, left after in-situ transesterification, for biochar preparation. This is a solid waste residue of biodiesel industry. The biochar (BC) prepared was examined for its capacity to adsorb congo red dye from the aqueous solution. The results were compared with other adsorbents used in the study such as commercial activated carbon (AC), original algae biomass (AB) and DB. The results of proximate analysis of BC showed the decrease in the percentage of volatile matter and an increase in fixed carbon content compared to DB. The physico-chemical properties of BC were studied using elemental analysis, SEM, FTIR and XRD techniques. The AC and BC adsorbents showed better performance in removing 85.4% and 82.6% of dye respectively from solution compared to AB (76.6%) and DB (78.1%). The effect of initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage and pH of solution on the adsorption phenomena was studied by conducting the batch adsorption experiments. The highest specific uptake for biochar was observed at acidic pH of 2 with 0.2 g/100 ml of adsorbent dosage and 90 mg/l of initial concentration. The equilibrium adsorption data were fitted to three isotherms, namely Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin. Freundlich model proved to show the best suited results with value of correlation coefficient of 99.12%. Thus, the application of DB for production of biochar as potential adsorbent supports sustainability of algae biodiesel. PMID:27474901

  12. Antiviral effect of polysaccharide from Spirulina platensis (PSP) on HSV-2 in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG YU; XIAO ZHU; WEN QING ZHANG; RUI L(U)

    2006-01-01

    To explore the antiviral effect and mechanism of polysaccharide from Spirulina platensis(PSP) on herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), a standard strain of HSV-2 (333 strain) was used to investigate the antiviral effect of PSP in vitro. PSP in various concentrations was applied to different stages of HSV-2 replication cycle. Finally, the virus infectivity (TCID50), cytopathic effect (CPE),and MTT staining method for viable cells (MTT assay) were used as markers to evaluate the effect of PSP on HSV-2. The quantity of HSV-DNA was detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR(FQ-PCR). The HSV-2 infected Vero cell ultrastructures were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that PSP had little cytotoxic effect on Vero cells, it could not directly inactivate HSV-2 infectivity. PSP not only interfered in adsorption of HSV-2 to Vero cells but also inhibited HSV-2 biosynthesis in the cells. FQ-PCR results showed that the inhibitory rate on HSVDNA also increased in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. TEM also confirmed that PSP exhibited pronounced inhibitory effect on HSV-2. In conclusion, the antiviral effect of PSP on HSV-2 may be attributed to the inhibition of virus adsorption, virus replication and synthesis in cells.

  13. Probing the connection of PBSs to the photosystems in Spirulina platensis by artificially induced fluorescence fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Heng [Key Laboratory of Photochemistry, Center for Molecular Science, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Yang Shuzhen [Key Laboratory of Photochemistry, Center for Molecular Science, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Xie Jie [Key Laboratory of Photochemistry, Center for Molecular Science, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Zhao Jingquan [Key Laboratory of Photochemistry, Center for Molecular Science, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)]. E-mail: zhaojq@iccas.ac.cn

    2007-01-15

    The molecular architecture and the structural connections of phycobilisomes (PBSs) to the photosystems in the intact cells of Spirulina platensis were studied by taking advantage of glycerol- and betaine-induced fluorescence fluctuations. Generally, with a selective excitation of C-phycocyanin (C-PC), glycerol could induce not only decoupling of PBSs from the photosystems but also of C-PC rods from allophycocyanin (APC) cores, while betaine could strengthen the connection of PBSs to the thylakoid membrane but induce a partial dissociation of PBS. On the other hand, glycerol did not exert an influence on the fluorescence spectra of the photosystems in isolated thylakoid membrane. Therefore, it was deduced that glycerol could provide a molecular environment to weaken the hydrophobic interactions of not only the L{sub CM} with the membrane but also the linker polypeptides to the water-soluble phycobiliproteins (C-PC and APC), while the betaine could strengthen the hydrophobic interaction of L{sub CM} with the membrane but weaken the electrostatic interaction of linker polypeptides to C-PC and/or APC.

  14. Fusarium graminearum growth inhibition mechanism using phenolic compounds from Spirulina sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Arnhold Pagnussatt

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of natural antifungal substances is motivated by the need for alternatives to existing methods that are not always applicable, efficient, or that do not pose risk to consumers or the environment. Furthermore, studies on the behaviour of toxigenic species in the presence of natural fungicides have enabled their safe application in the food chain In this study, Spirulina LEB-18 phenolic extract was assessed for its antifungal activity on 12 toxigenic strains of Fusarium graminearum isolated from barley and wheat. The susceptible metabolic pathways were assessed through the determination of structural compounds (glucosamine and ergosterol and enzyme activity of the microorganisms' primary metabolism. The results indicate that phenolic extracts reduced the growth rate of the toxigenic species investigated. The IC50 was obtained by applying 3 to 8% (p/p of phenolic compounds in relation to the culture medium. The use of this natural fungicide proved promising for the inhibition of fungal multiplication, especially in terms of the inactivation of enzymatic systems (amylase and protease of Fusarium graminearum.

  15. The effects of temperature and frequencies in ultrasound assisted extraction of phycocyanin from microalgae Spirulina sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microalgae Spirulina sp has been identified as source of protein and other high added value compounds. One of the compounds is phycocyanin as also known for antioxidant use. The extraction of this compound by using conventional method (soxhlet extraction) resulted low yield and longer processing time. This research was aimed to extract phycocyanin by using an extraction assisted by ultrasound irradiation. The extraction was performed by using variable of ultrasound frequency and extraction temperature and ethanol was used as a solvent. The result showed that yield of phycocyanin extracted by conventional method was 11.13% while the ultrasound irradiation could increase the yield up to 15.61% at constant frequency of 42 kHz, while the optimum temperature was obtained at 45°C. The analysis of variable interactions showed that both temperature and time has an interaction and temperature was the highest variable in increasing the yield. The conclusion of this research was the ultrasound could improve significantly the efficiency of extraction as well as activity of phycocyanin extracted from microalgae

  16. The effects of temperature and frequencies in ultrasound assisted extraction of phycocyanin from microalgae Spirulina sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadiyanto,, E-mail: hadiyanto@live.undip.ac.id; Suttrisnorhadi,; Soetrisnanto, Danny; Azizah, Nur [Department of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University, Jl. Prof. Soedarto, SH-Tembalang, Semarang 50239 INDONESIA (Indonesia); Sutanto, Heri [Physic Department, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Diponegoro University (Indonesia); Suzery, Meiny [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Diponegoro University (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Microalgae Spirulina sp has been identified as source of protein and other high added value compounds. One of the compounds is phycocyanin as also known for antioxidant use. The extraction of this compound by using conventional method (soxhlet extraction) resulted low yield and longer processing time. This research was aimed to extract phycocyanin by using an extraction assisted by ultrasound irradiation. The extraction was performed by using variable of ultrasound frequency and extraction temperature and ethanol was used as a solvent. The result showed that yield of phycocyanin extracted by conventional method was 11.13% while the ultrasound irradiation could increase the yield up to 15.61% at constant frequency of 42 kHz, while the optimum temperature was obtained at 45°C. The analysis of variable interactions showed that both temperature and time has an interaction and temperature was the highest variable in increasing the yield. The conclusion of this research was the ultrasound could improve significantly the efficiency of extraction as well as activity of phycocyanin extracted from microalgae.

  17. Kinetics and adsorption isotherm of C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis on ion-exchange resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sala

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available C-phycocyanin is a natural blue dye extracted from Spirulina platensis, which has many applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this paper the effect of pH and temperature on the adsorption of C-phycocyanin onto two different ion exchange resins (Streamline DEAE and Streamline Q XL for expanded bed adsorption chromatography was investigated. Moreover, the kinetics and adsorption isotherm were evaluated. The equilibrium for the Q XL matrix was reached after 60 min, while for DEAE it was only reached after 140 min. C-phycocyanin showed the highest partition coefficient at pH 7.5 for both resins at 25 ºC. The C-phycocyanin adsorption isotherm was very well represented by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Langmuir-Freundlich models, where the estimated values for Qm and Kd obtained by the Langmuir isotherm were, respectively, 33.92 mg.mL-1 and 0.123 mg.mL-1 for DEAE, and 28.12 mg.mL-1 and 0.082 mg.mL-1 for the Q XL matrix. A negative cooperativity was observed for C-phycocyanin binding when the Q XL matrix was used, while the cooperativity was purely independent using the DEAE matrix.

  18. Selection and RAPD analysis of a new spirulina platensisstrain with high phycobiliproteins contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents of phycocyanin (PC), allo-phycocyanin (APC), phycobiliproteins (PBP) and the ratio of PC and APC (PC/APC) of nine Spirulina platensis strains used in pilot plant cultivation were 10.74%-16.26%, 3.67%-5.55%, 14.42%-21.81% and 2.87-3.05, respectively. By mechanical grinding and sedimentation, the single cells or spheroplasts of Sp-CH, whose PBP contents was highest in the nine tested strains, were obtained. They were treated by 0.6% EMS for 30 min and 2.4 kGy 60Co γ-rays, and then cultured by the single filament separating, a high PBP content strain named as Sp-CH32 was obtained. The contents of PC, APC and PBP of Sp-CH32 were about 36%, 89% and 50%, higher than that of Sp-CH, respectively. And the PC/APC of Sp-CH32 were 1.91-2.23. Moreover, RAPD analysis showed that the amplifcation bands of primers S38 revealed significant polymorphisms in Sp-CH32 and Sp-CH. The pilot plant cultivation in 3 consecutive years showed that Sp-CH32 was a perfect high PBP content strain with excellent characteristics, and has been applied in mass cultivation and industrialization. (authors)

  19. Probing the connection of PBSs to the photosystems in Spirulina platensis by artificially induced fluorescence fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The molecular architecture and the structural connections of phycobilisomes (PBSs) to the photosystems in the intact cells of Spirulina platensis were studied by taking advantage of glycerol- and betaine-induced fluorescence fluctuations. Generally, with a selective excitation of C-phycocyanin (C-PC), glycerol could induce not only decoupling of PBSs from the photosystems but also of C-PC rods from allophycocyanin (APC) cores, while betaine could strengthen the connection of PBSs to the thylakoid membrane but induce a partial dissociation of PBS. On the other hand, glycerol did not exert an influence on the fluorescence spectra of the photosystems in isolated thylakoid membrane. Therefore, it was deduced that glycerol could provide a molecular environment to weaken the hydrophobic interactions of not only the LCM with the membrane but also the linker polypeptides to the water-soluble phycobiliproteins (C-PC and APC), while the betaine could strengthen the hydrophobic interaction of LCM with the membrane but weaken the electrostatic interaction of linker polypeptides to C-PC and/or APC

  20. Biological Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Cell-Free Extract of Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using the cell-free extract of Spirulina platensis. Biosynthesised AgNPs were characterised by UV-Vis spectroscopy, SEM, TEM, and FTIR analysis and finally evaluated for antibacterial activity. Extracellular synthesis using aqueous extract of S. platensis showed the formation of well scattered, highly stable, spherical AgNPs with an average size of 30–50 nm. The size and morphology of the nanoparticles were confirmed by SEM and TEM analysis. FTIR and UV-Vis spectra showed that biomolecules, proteins and peptides, are mainly responsible for the formation and stabilisation of AgNPs. Furthermore, the synthesised nanoparticles exhibited high antibacterial activity against pathogenic Gram-negative, that is, Escherichia coli, MTCC-9721; Proteus vulgaris, MTCC-7299; Klebsiella pneumoniae, MTCC-9751, and Gram-positive, that is, Staphylococcus aureus, MTCC-9542; S. epidermidis, MTCC-2639; Bacillus cereus, MTCC-9017, bacteria. The AgNPs had shown maximum zone of inhibition (ZOI that is 31.3±1.11 in P. vulgaris. Use of such a microalgal system provides a simple, cost-effective alternative template for the biosynthesis of nanomaterials of silver in a large scale that could be of great use in biomedical applications.

  1. Removal of heavy metals from tannery effluents of Ambur industrial area, Tamilnadu by Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, S; Kalaivani, T; Rajasekaran, C; Shalini, M; Vinodhini, S; Priyadharshini, S Sunitha; Vidya, A G

    2015-06-01

    The present study was carried out with the tannery effluent contaminated with heavy metals collected from Ambur industrial area to determine the phycoremediation potential of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis. Two different concentrations (50 and 100 %) of heavy metals containing tannery effluent treated with A. platensis were analysed for growth, absorption spectra, biochemical properties and antioxidant enzyme activity levels. The effluent treatments revealed dose-dependent decrease in the levels of A. platensis growth (65.37 % for 50 % effluent and 49.32 % for 100 % effluent), chlorophyll content (97.43 % for 50 % effluent and 71.05 % for 100 % effluent) and total protein content (82.63 % for 50 % effluent and 62.10 % for 100 % effluent) that leads to the reduction of total solids, total dissolved solids and total suspended solids. A. platensis with lower effluent concentration was effective than at higher concentration. Treatment with the effluent also resulted in increased activity levels of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (14.58 units/g fresh weight for 50 % and 24.57 units/g fresh weight for 100 %) and catalase (0.963 units/g fresh weight for 50 % and 1.263 units/g fresh weight for 100 %). Furthermore, heavy metal content was determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. These results indicated that A. platensis has the ability to combat heavy metal stress by the induction of antioxidant enzymes demonstrating its potential usefulness in phycoremediation of tannery effluent.

  2. PRODUCTION OF SPIRULINA PLATENSIS (CYANOPHYTA IN CONICAL PHOTOBIOREACTOR TUBULES UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huarachi, Ronald

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The production of the Cyanophyta Spirulina platensis was investigated in a conical photobioreactor tubules under laboratory conditions. The laboratory-scale photobioreactor was constructed with a basal area of 0.221 m2 and a cone (0.56 m x 0.60 m top diameter designed with a PVC hose (47 m in length with 12 mm diameter using 40 m long for the 26 coils forming the cone, and 6.4 m for the heat exchanger, reinforced with metal wire and lined with aluminum foil (total volume = 4,085 L. The inner surface of the cone (0.5982 m2 (12 h light/12 h dark was illuminated with a mercury vapor lamp. The photobioreactor operation ran with an air pump with a flow rate of 0.021 L/s resulting in a rate of production of dry biomass of 3.362 g/m2 and a concentration of chlorophyll "a" of 0.05658 mg/L with illumination at 5617.23 lux. The growth of S. platensis in conical photobioreactor tubules conforms to an "S" curve growth model in 22 days (R2 = 0, 865; F = 57, 592.

  3. Scaffolds Containing Spirulina sp. LEB 18 Biomass: Development, Characterization and Evaluation of In Vitro Biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmatz, Daiane Angelica; Uebel, Livia Da Silva; Kuntzler, Suelen Goettems; Dora, Cristiana Lima; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira; de Morais, Michele Greque

    2016-01-01

    Polymer nanofibers are nanomaterials that can be used as scaffolds in tissue engineering. The objective of this study was to develop, characterize and evaluate the in vitro degradation of a biomaterial consisting of nanofibers produced from biodegradable and biocompatible polymers with potential applications as a scaffold for tissue regeneration and containing Spirulina sp. LEB 18 biomass as the bioactive compound. The polymers used were poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) and polycaprolactone. The polymeric solutions exhibited sufficiently high viscosity to produce uniform nanofibers with diameters between 335 and 617 nm. The applied conditions were as follows: a voltage of 25 kV, a distance from the capillary to the collector of 120 mm, a capillary diameter of 0.80 mm, and 12% polycaprolactone and a blend of 5% polycaprolactone and 10% poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate). The biomass was incorporated into the nanofibers at a concentration of 3%, and the incorporation was confirmed using confocal microscopy. The nanofibers were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis, which showed that the addition of biomass did not alter the thermal properties of the biomaterial. The addition of biomass improved the tensile strength and elongation of the scaffolds compared with those produced with polymers alone. A biodegradation assay showed enzymatic action toward the biomaterial, simulating the behavior of natural tissue. Based on the analysis, it was concluded that the scaffolds that were produced have the potential to be applied in the field of tissue regeneration as biomaterials with pharmacological properties. PMID:27398568

  4. The effects of temperature and frequencies in ultrasound assisted extraction of phycocyanin from microalgae Spirulina sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadiyanto, Suttrisnorhadi, Sutanto, Heri; Suzery, Meiny; Soetrisnanto, Danny; Azizah, Nur

    2015-12-01

    Microalgae Spirulina sp has been identified as source of protein and other high added value compounds. One of the compounds is phycocyanin as also known for antioxidant use. The extraction of this compound by using conventional method (soxhlet extraction) resulted low yield and longer processing time. This research was aimed to extract phycocyanin by using an extraction assisted by ultrasound irradiation. The extraction was performed by using variable of ultrasound frequency and extraction temperature and ethanol was used as a solvent. The result showed that yield of phycocyanin extracted by conventional method was 11.13% while the ultrasound irradiation could increase the yield up to 15.61% at constant frequency of 42 kHz, while the optimum temperature was obtained at 45°C. The analysis of variable interactions showed that both temperature and time has an interaction and temperature was the highest variable in increasing the yield. The conclusion of this research was the ultrasound could improve significantly the efficiency of extraction as well as activity of phycocyanin extracted from microalgae.

  5. Subcellular proteomic characterization of the high-temperature stress response of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheevadhanarak Supapon

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study examined the changes in protein expression in Spirulina platensis upon exposure to high temperature, with the changes in expression analyzed at the subcellular level. In addition, the transcriptional expression level of some differentially expressed proteins, the expression pattern clustering, and the protein-protein interaction network were analyzed. The results obtained from differential expression analysis revealed up-regulation of proteins involved in two-component response systems, DNA damage and repair systems, molecular chaperones, known stress-related proteins, and proteins involved in other biological processes, such as capsule formation and unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. The clustering of all differentially expressed proteins in the three cellular compartments showed: (i the majority of the proteins in all fractions were sustained tolerance proteins, suggesting the roles of these proteins in the tolerance to high temperature stress, (ii the level of resistance proteins in the photosynthetic membrane was 2-fold higher than the level in two other fractions, correlating with the rapid inactivation of the photosynthetic system in response to high temperature. Subcellular communication among the three cellular compartments via protein-protein interactions was clearly shown by the PPI network analysis. Furthermore, this analysis also showed a connection between temperature stress and nitrogen and ammonia assimilation.

  6. Aminopyridine modified Spirulina platensis biomass for chromium(VI) adsorption in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramoglu, Gulay; Akbulut, Aydin; Arica, M Yakup

    2016-01-01

    Chemical modification of Spirulina platensis biomass was realized by sequential treatment of algal surface with epichlorohydrin and aminopyridine. Adsorptive properties of Cr(VI) ions on native and aminopyridine modified algal biomass were investigated by varying pH, contact time, ionic strength, initial Cr(VI) concentration, and temperature. FTIR and analytical analysis indicated that carboxyl and amino groups were the major functional groups for Cr(VI) ions adsorption. The optimum adsorption was observed at pH 3.0 for native and modified algal biomasses. The adsorption capacity was found to be 79.6 and 158.7 mg g(-1), for native and modified algal biomasses, respectively. For continuous system studies, the experiments were conducted to study the effect of important design parameters such as flow rate and initial concentration of metal ions, and the maximum sorption capacity was observed at a flow rate of 50 mL h(-1), and Cr(VI) ions concentration 200 mg L(-1) with modified biomass. Experimental data fitted a pseudo-second-order equation. The regeneration performance was observed to be 89.6% and 94.3% for native and modified algal biomass, respectively. PMID:27533866

  7. Pemberian Fikosianin Spirulina Meningkatkan Jumlah Sel Darah, Aktivitas Fagositosis, dan Pertumbuhan Ikan Kerapu Bebek Juvenil (ADMINISTRATION OF SPIRULINA PHYCOCYANIN ENHANCES BLOOD CELLS, PHAGOCYTIC ACTIVITY AND GROWTH IN HUMPBACK GROUPER JUVENILE)

    OpenAIRE

    Woro Hastuti Satyantini; Sukenda .; Enang Harris; Nur Bambang Priyo Utomo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate effects of Spirulina phycocyanin on the total  blood cell count,phagocytic activity, and growth of humpback grouper fish, Cromileptes altivelis juvenil.  Fishes were fedwith a diet containing   0, 150, 250, 350 dan 450 mg  phycocyanin per kg diet for four weeks and eachtreatment was triplicates.  Initial body weight  of  grouper was  8.46 ± 0.22 g with a density of 10 fish per56 litre volume. The total count of  erythrocytes and leucocytes increased un...

  8. Aplicación de estrategias nutricionales y su efecto en el crecimiento en el cultivo continuo de Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) Application of nutritional strategies and their effect in continuous culture of Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabet Rojas; Marcela Ávila; Gustavo Parada

    2012-01-01

    Se realizó un cultivo continuo de Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) durante 78 días en un fotobiorreactor tubular de 300 L de volumen. Durante este periodo se registró el crecimiento en biomasa y la respuesta del cultivo a la estrategia de adición del medio nutritivo. Utilizando como base el medio Zarrouk modificado, se elaboraron tres medios: medio inicial (MI), medio crecimiento (SA1+SA2) y medio mantenimiento (SB1+SB2) para las distintas etapas del cultivo. La entrega de los medios se efec...

  9. Culture Conditions stimulating high γ-Linolenic Acid accumulation by Spirulina platensis Condições de cultura simulando o levado acúmulo de ácido γ-linolênico por Spirulina platensis

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasa Reddy Ronda; S. S. Lele

    2008-01-01

    Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) production by Spirulina platensis under different stress-inducing conditions was studied. Submerged culture studies showed that low temperature (25ºC), strong light intensity (6 klux) and primrose oil supplement (0.8%w/v) induced 13.2 mg/g, 14.6 mg/g and 13.5 mg linolenic acid per gram dry cell weight respectively. A careful observation of fatty acid profile of the cyanobacteria shows that, oleic acid and linoleic acid, in experiments with varying growth temperature...

  10. Radiation effects on algae and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of radiation on algae have been summarized in this article. Today, algae are being considered to have the great potential to fulfill the demand of food, fodder, fuel and various pharmaceutical products. Red algae are particularly rich in the content of polysaccharides present in their cell wall. For isolation of these polysaccharides, separation of cells cemented together by middle lamella is essential. The gamma rays are known to bring about biochemical changes in the cell wall and cause the breakdown of the middle lamella. These rays ate also known to speed up the starch sugar inter-conversion in the cells which is very useful for the tapping the potential of algae to be used as biofuel as well as in pharmaceutical industries. Cyanobacteria, among algae and other plants are more resistant to the radiation. In some cyanobacteria the radiation treatment is known to enhance the resistance against the antibiotics. Radiation treatment is also known to enhance the diameter of cell and size of the nitrogen fixing heterocyst. (author)

  11. Controlled regular locomotion of algae cell microrobots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shuangxi; Jiao, Niandong; Tung, Steve; Liu, Lianqing

    2016-06-01

    Algae cells can be considered as microrobots from the perspective of engineering. These organisms not only have a strong reproductive ability but can also sense the environment, harvest energy from the surroundings, and swim very efficiently, accommodating all these functions in a body of size on the order of dozens of micrometers. An interesting topic with respect to random swimming motions of algae cells in a liquid is how to precisely control them as microrobots such that they swim according to manually set routes. This study developed an ingenious method to steer swimming cells based on the phototaxis. The method used a varying light signal to direct the motion of the cells. The swimming trajectory, speed, and force of algae cells were analyzed in detail. Then the algae cell could be controlled to swim back and forth, and traverse a crossroad as a microrobot obeying specific traffic rules. Furthermore, their motions along arbitrarily set trajectories such as zigzag, and triangle were realized successfully under optical control. Robotize algae cells can be used to precisely transport and deliver cargo such as drug particles in microfluidic chip for biomedical treatment and pharmacodynamic analysis. The study findings are expected to bring significant breakthrough in biological drives and new biomedical applications. PMID:27206511

  12. Sustainable Algae Biodiesel Production in Cold Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudras Baliga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This life cycle assessment aims to determine the most suitable operating conditions for algae biodiesel production in cold climates to minimize energy consumption and environmental impacts. Two hypothetical photobioreactor algae production and biodiesel plants located in Upstate New York (USA are modeled. The photobioreactor is assumed to be housed within a greenhouse that is located adjacent to a fossil fuel or biomass power plant that can supply waste heat and flue gas containing CO2 as a primary source of carbon. Model results show that the biodiesel areal productivity is high (19 to 25 L of BD/m2/yr. The total life cycle energy consumption was between 15 and 23 MJ/L of algae BD and 20 MJ/L of soy BD. Energy consumption and air emissions for algae biodiesel are substantially lower than soy biodiesel when waste heat was utilized. Algae's most substantial contribution is a significant decrease in the petroleum consumed to make the fuel.

  13. Biological toxicity of lanthanide elements on algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Peidong; Zhao, Qing; Su, Dan; Li, Peijun; Stagnitti, Frank

    2010-08-01

    The biological toxicity of lanthanides on marine monocellular algae was investigated. The specific objective of this research was to establish the relationship between the abundance in the seawater of lanthanides and their biological toxicities on marine monocellular algae. The results showed that all single lanthanides had similar toxic effects on Skeletonema costatum. High concentrations of lanthanides (29.04+/-0.61 micromol L(-1)) resulted in 50% reduction in growth of algae compared to the controls (0 micromol L(-1)) after 96 h (96 h-EC50). The biological toxicity of 13 lanthanides on marine monocellular algae was unrelated with the abundance of different lanthanide elements in nature, and the "Harkins rule" was not appropriate for the lanthanides. A mixed solution that contained equivalent concentrations of each lanthanide element had the same inhibition effect on algae cells as each individual lanthanide element at the same total concentration. This phenomenon is unique compared to the groups of other elements in the periodic table. Hence, we speculate that the monocellular organisms might not be able to sufficiently differentiate between the almost chemically identical lanthanide elements. PMID:20547408

  14. Estimation of alga growth stage and lipid content growth rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embaye, Tsegereda N. (Inventor); Trent, Jonathan D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Method and system for estimating a growth stage of an alga in an ambient fluid. Measured light beam absorption or reflection values through or from the alga and through an ambient fluid, in each of two or more wavelength sub-ranges, are compared with reference light beam absorption values for corresponding wavelength sub-ranges for in each alga growth stage to determine (1) which alga growth stage, if any, is more likely and (2) whether estimated lipid content of the alga is increasing or has peaked. Alga growth is preferably terminated when lipid content has approximately reached a maximum value.

  15. 螺旋藻的磁处理培养%Cultivation of Spirulina Platensis with a Magnetic Field Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭祀远; 李志勇; 李琳; 蔡妙颜; 郑必胜

    2002-01-01

    The enhancement of cultivation of Spirulina platensis with a magnetic field treatment technology was investigated. It was found that the cultivation of Spirulina platensis could be obviously promoted by a suitable magnetic field treatment. When microalgae Spirulina platensis were cultured under an extraneous magnetic field with intensity of 200~320 kA/m, the maximum dry weight of cells was 2.76 g/L on the sixth growth day, which was 46.8% more than the control. Meanwhile the specific growth rate increased from 0.4 to 0.6 d-1, and the cultural period could be cut down for 2~3 d. At the same time, the content of proteins in Spirulina platensis increased by 5.2 mg/g, the total amino acids (except tryptophan) in Spirulina platensis increased by 0.71 mg/g, where essential amino acids increased by 3.15 mg/g. In addition, the contents of trace elements such as Sr, Ni, Cu, Mn and Zn also increased sharply, e.g., Sr and Ni were 22.3 and 5.1 times more than the controls respectively. Finally, the paper presents a brief discussion on the stimulation of magnetic field treatment of the culture of Spirulina platensis and points out that it is relative to the promotion of photosynthesis and the enhancement of nutritional assimilation.%就磁场处理技术对螺旋藻培养过程的强化进行了研究,发现螺旋藻的培养能明显地被适当的磁场处理所刺激.在强度为200~320 kA/m的外加磁场作用下培养至第6天,螺旋藻最大细胞干重达2.76 g/L, 比同等条件下的空白对照试样多46.8 %;其比生长率由0.4 d-1增至0.6 d-1,培养周期可缩短2~3 d.同时,螺旋藻中蛋白质的含量增加了5.2 mg/g;氨基酸总含量(除色氨酸外)增加了0.71 mg/g,其中必需氨基酸增加了 3.15 mg/g.此外,微量元素 Sr、Ni、Cu、Mn和Zn等均有显著增加,其中Sr和Ni分别增加了22.3和5.1倍.文中最后讨论了磁场处理对螺旋藻培养的强化机制,指出这种刺激作用与磁场处理加速了螺旋藻的光合

  16. [Study on the Visualization of the Biomass of Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana, and Spirulina sp. Based on Hyperspectral Imaging Technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lu-lu; Wet, Xuan; Zhao, Yan-ru; Shao, Yong-ni; Qiu, Zheng-jun; He, Yong

    2016-03-01

    Effective cultivation of the microalgae is the key issue for microalgal bio-energy utilization. In nutrient rich culture conditions, the microalge have a fast growth rate, but they are more susceptible to environmental pollution and influence. So to monitor the the growth process of microalgae is significant during cultivating. Hyperspectral imaging has the advantages of both spectra and image analysis. The spectra contain abundant material quality signal and the image contains abundant spatial information of the material about the chemical distribution. It can achieve the rapid information acquisition and access a large amount of data. In this paper, the authors collected the hyperspectral images of forty-five samples of Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana, and Spirulina sp., respectively. The average spectra of the region of interest (ROI) were extracted. After applying successive projection algorithm (SPA), the authors established the multiple linear regression (MLR) model with the spectra and corresponding biomass of 30 samples, 15 samples were used as the prediction set. For Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana, and Spirulina sp., the correlation coefficient of prediction (r(pre)) are 0.950, 0.969 and 0.961, the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for 0.010 2, 0.010 7 and 0.007 1, respectively. Finally, the authors used the MLR model to predict biomass for each pixel in the images of prediction set; images displayed in different colors for visualization based on pseudo-color images with the help of a Matlab program. The results show that using hyperspectral imaging technique to predict the biomass of Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp. were better, but for the Isochrysis galbana visualization needs to be further improved. This research set the basis for rapidly detecting the growth of microalgae and using the microalgae as the bio-energy.

  17. [Study on the Visualization of the Biomass of Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana, and Spirulina sp. Based on Hyperspectral Imaging Technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lu-lu; Wet, Xuan; Zhao, Yan-ru; Shao, Yong-ni; Qiu, Zheng-jun; He, Yong

    2016-03-01

    Effective cultivation of the microalgae is the key issue for microalgal bio-energy utilization. In nutrient rich culture conditions, the microalge have a fast growth rate, but they are more susceptible to environmental pollution and influence. So to monitor the the growth process of microalgae is significant during cultivating. Hyperspectral imaging has the advantages of both spectra and image analysis. The spectra contain abundant material quality signal and the image contains abundant spatial information of the material about the chemical distribution. It can achieve the rapid information acquisition and access a large amount of data. In this paper, the authors collected the hyperspectral images of forty-five samples of Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana, and Spirulina sp., respectively. The average spectra of the region of interest (ROI) were extracted. After applying successive projection algorithm (SPA), the authors established the multiple linear regression (MLR) model with the spectra and corresponding biomass of 30 samples, 15 samples were used as the prediction set. For Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana, and Spirulina sp., the correlation coefficient of prediction (r(pre)) are 0.950, 0.969 and 0.961, the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for 0.010 2, 0.010 7 and 0.007 1, respectively. Finally, the authors used the MLR model to predict biomass for each pixel in the images of prediction set; images displayed in different colors for visualization based on pseudo-color images with the help of a Matlab program. The results show that using hyperspectral imaging technique to predict the biomass of Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp. were better, but for the Isochrysis galbana visualization needs to be further improved. This research set the basis for rapidly detecting the growth of microalgae and using the microalgae as the bio-energy. PMID:27400526

  18. Nitrogen limitation in natural populations of cyanobacteria (Spirulina and Oscillatoria spp.) and its effect on macromolecular synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural populations of the cyanobacteria Spirulina species and Oscillatoria species obtained from Israeli fish ponds were limited in growth by nitrogen availability in summer. Physiological indicators for nitrogen limitation, such as phycocyanin, chlorophyll a, and carbohydrate content, did not show clear evidence for nitrogen limited growth, since these organisms are capable of vertical migration from and to the nitrogen-rich bottom. By means of 14C labeling of the cells under simulated pond conditions followed by cell fractionation into macromolecular compounds, it was found that carbohydrates synthesized at the lighted surface were partially utilized for dark protein synthesis at the bottom of these ponds

  19. Freshwater algae of the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, W.D.; Giles, K.R.

    1979-06-01

    Fifty-two species of freshwater algae were identified in samples collected from the eight known natural springs of the Nevada Test Site. Although several species were widespread, 29 species were site specific. Diatoms provided the greatest variety of species at each spring. Three-fifths of all algal species encountered were diatoms. Well-developed mats of filamentous green algae (Chlorophyta) were common in many of the water tanks associated with the springs and accounted for most of the algal biomass. Major nutrients were adequate, if not abundant, in most spring waters - growth being limited primarily by light and physical habitat. There was some evidence of cesium-137 bioconcentration by algae at several of the springs.

  20. Microspectroscopy of the photosynthetic compartment of algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Valtere; Frassanito, Anna Maria; Passarelli, Vincenzo; Barsanti, Laura; Gualtieri, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    We performed microspectroscopic evaluation of the pigment composition of the photosynthetic compartments of algae belonging to different taxonomic divisions and higher plants. The feasibility of microspectroscopy for discriminating among species and/or phylogenetic groups was tested on laboratory cultures. Gaussian bands decompositions and a fitting algorithm, together with fourth-derivative transformation of absorbance spectra, provided a reliable discrimination among chlorophylls a, b and c, phycobiliproteins and carotenoids. Comparative analysis of absorption spectra highlighted the evolutionary grouping of the algae into three main lineages in accordance with the most recent endosymbiotic theories.

  1. Serpins in plants and green algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Thomas Hugh; Hejgaard, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    . Serpins have been found in diverse species of the plant kingdom and represent a distinct clade among serpins in multicellular organisms. Serpins are also found in green algae, but the evolutionary relationship between these serpins and those of plants remains unknown. Plant serpins are potent inhibitors...... of mammalian serine proteinases of the chymotrypsin family in vitro but, intriguingly, plants and green algae lack endogenous members of this proteinase family, the most common targets for animal serpins. An Arabidopsis serpin with a conserved reactive centre is now known to be capable of inhibiting...

  2. Harvesting of algae by froth flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEVIN, G V; CLENDENNING, J R; GIBOR, A; BOGAR, F D

    1962-03-01

    A highly efficient froth flotation procedure has been developed for harvesting algae from dilute suspensions. The method does not depend upon the addition of flotants. Harvesting is carried out in a long column containing the feed solution which is aerated from below. A stable column of foam is produced and harvested from a side arm near the top of the column. The cell concentration of the harvest is a function of pH, aeration rate, aerator porosity, feed concentration, and height of foam in the harvesting column. The economic aspects of this process seem favorable for mass harvesting of algae for food or other purposes. PMID:14464557

  3. Foresight Brief: Seaweed & Algae as Biofuels Feedstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2008-01-01

    Seaweed is a known potential carbon-dioxide (CO2) neutral source of second generation biofuels. When seaweed grows it absorbs CO2 from the atmosphere and this CO2 is released back to the atmosphere during combustion. What makes seaweed, and in particular micro algae, so promising as a fuel source is their growth rates and high lipid (oil) content. Algae are among the fastest-growing plants in the world. Energy is stored inside the cell as lipids and carbohydrates, and can be converted into fu...

  4. Association of thraustochytrids and fungi with living marine algae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Nagarkar, S.; Raghukumar, S.

    Occurrence of thraustochytrids, yeasts and mycelial fungi in six marine algae was studied. Thraustochytrids and mycelial fungi were recovered from non-surface-sterilized as well as surface-sterilized pieces of algae, whereas yeasts were isolated...

  5. An Overview of Algae Biofuel Production and Potential Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algae are among the most potentially significant sources of sustainable biofuels in the future of renewable energy. A feedstock with virtually unlimited applicability, algae can metabolize various waste streams (e.g., municipal wastewater, carbon dioxide from industrial flue gas)...

  6. WASP7 BENTHIC ALGAE - MODEL THEORY AND USER'S GUIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The standard WASP7 eutrophication module includes nitrogen and phosphorus cycling, dissolved oxygen-organic matter interactions, and phytoplankton kinetics. In many shallow streams and rivers, however, the attached algae (benthic algae, or periphyton, attached to submerged substr...

  7. Protective effects of a polysaccharide from Spirulina platensis on dopaminergic neurons in an MPTP-induced Parkinson′s disease model in C57BL/6J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine whether a polysaccharide obtained from Spirulina platensis shows protective effects on dopaminergic neurons. A Parkinson′s disease model was established through the intraperitoneal injection of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP in C57BL/6J mice. Prior to the MPTP injection, some mice were pretreated with intraperitoneal injections of a polysaccharide derived from Spirulina platensis once daily for 10 days. The results showed that the immunoreactive staining and mRNA expression of the dopamine transporter and tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, in the substantia nigra, were significantly increased in mice pretreated with 800 mg/kg of the polysaccharide compared with those in MPTP-treated mice. The activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in the serum and midbrain were also increased significantly in mice injected with MPTP after pretreatment with the polysaccharide from Spirulina platensis. By contrast, the activity of monoamine oxidase B in serum and midbrain maintained unchanged. These experimental findings indicate that the polysaccharide obtained from Spirulina platensis plays a protective role against the MPTP-induced loss of dopaminergic neurons in C57BL/6J mice, and that the antioxidative properties of this polysaccharide likely underlie its neuroprotective effect.

  8. Enhancement of natural killer cell activity in healthy subjects by Immulina®, a Spirulina extract enriched for Braun-type lipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Balachandran, Premalatha; Christensen, Ole;

    2010-01-01

    Immulina®, a commercial extract of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis is a potent activator of THP-1 monocytes and CD4+ T cells IN VITRO and enhances several immunological functions in mice. We further characterized Immulina® by determining that Braun-type lipoproteins are responsible for a major...

  9. 螺旋藻属(Spirulina(Arthrospira))一新种%A New Species of Spirulina (Arthrospira) from the Mu Us Sandy Land of Inner Mongolia. Autonomous Region in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李博生; 乔辰; 曾昭琪

    2001-01-01

    该文论述了螺旋藻属一新种.该新种采集于内蒙古伊克昭盟毛乌素沙地巴彦淖尔湖.通过光学显微镜、扫描和透射电子显微镜照片,描述了这一新种的形态特征,定名为巴彦淖尔螺旋藻(Spirulina)(Arthrosptra)bayannurens B.Sh.Li et C.Qiao sp.nov.).巴彦淖尔螺旋藻的模式标本存放在内蒙古农业大学植物标本室.%A new species, Spirulina (Arthrospira) bayannurensis B. Sh. Li et C. Qiao sp. nov. was firstlycollected from the Lake of Bayannur, Mu Us Sandy Land, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in China on April 30, 1996. The morphological characteristics of the new species are described and illustrated by light micrographs,scanning and transmission electron micrographs. The type specimen of this new species is kept in Herbarium of In ner Mongolia Agricultural University.

  10. Catalog of marine benthic algae from New Caledonia

    OpenAIRE

    Garrigue, Claire; Tsuda, R.T.

    1988-01-01

    A catalog of the marine benthic algae (#Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta$ and #Rhodophyta$) reported from New Caledonia is presented in two sections : 1. Classification; 2. Check list with references and localities. There are 35 genera, 130 species of green algae; 23 genera, 59 species of brown algae; and 79 genera, 147 species of red algae which represent a rich algal flora for the subtropics. (Résumé d'auteur)

  11. Algae Along Qatar Coasts Utilization And Future Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Kornprobst, Jean-Michel

    1999-01-01

    Most of marine algae have no equivalent on earth and therefore could be considered as irreplaceable sources of primary and secondary metabolites. This is especially the case for hydrocolloids from red and brown algae that are cultured and used at an industrial scale for food-processing (carrageenans and agars from red algae and alginates from brown algae are widely used as gelling agents and thickeners) but also for pharmaceutical uses (agar gels for culture of microorganisms). Others main ap...

  12. Influence on the Growth of Spirulina maxima by In-frared Radiation%红外辐射对极大螺旋藻生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙备; 何鹏; 高天天; 钟水库; 何开岩; 曾威

    2015-01-01

    【目的】采用红外辐射处理极大螺旋藻以提高其产量。【方法】分别使用远红外(2~25μm)、近红外(940 nm 和850 nm)处理极大螺旋藻,测定其最终干重和生长速率,研究不同波长红外线对极大螺旋藻生长的影响。【结果】极大螺旋藻经远红外(2~25μm)辐射处理后的最大干重为对照组的3倍,经940 nm 红外处理后的最大干重为对照组的2.3倍,经850 nm 红外辐射处理后的最终干重与对照组相差不大。【结论】远红外(2~25μm)和940 nm 波长的近红外对极大螺旋藻的生长都有促进作用,而850 nm 红外对极大螺旋藻的生长无促进作用。%Objective]The production of Spirulina maxima was increased by infrared radia-tion treatment.[Methods]Far-infrared light(2 ~25 μm),940 nm and 850 nm infrared light were used to treat Spirulina maxima .The last dry weight and growth rate were measured. The effect of different infrared wavelengths on growth of Spirulina maxima was studied.[Results]The last dry weight and growth rate of Spirulina maxima ,which had been pro-cessed by the far-infrared light(2 ~25 μm),was three times more than the control group. Spirulina maxima had been processed by 940 nm infrared light was twice more than the control group,while Spirulina maxima had been processed by 850 nm infrared light was the same as the control group.[Conclusion]Far-infrared light(2~25 μm)and 940 nm infrared light can promot the growth of Spirulina maxima ,but 850 nm infrared light can not.

  13. High-efficiency Solubility of Spirulina and Chlorella%螺旋藻和小球藻的高效溶解研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史博; 郭永俊; 陈秋童; 梁亮

    2015-01-01

    为寻找能与聚合物复合的螺旋藻和小球藻的溶解条件,采用有机试剂、水为溶剂,通过改变溶解温度、pH值等,获得螺旋藻和小球藻溶解液.研究表明,采用有机溶剂溶解小球藻和螺旋藻获得的溶出物主要为油脂;采用水为溶剂可提取螺旋藻和小球藻中大部分可溶物,当pH=7,在55℃经4h溶解后,螺旋藻可溶物质量为藻粉干重的60%;pH=14,在70℃经5h溶解后,小球藻可溶物为藻粉干重的84%,红外光谱表明螺旋藻溶解前后,其组成未发生明显的化学结构改变;小球藻在碱性条件溶解后产物的化学组成发生了变化.%The dissolved conditions of spirulina and cholrella are researched in order to prepare composites of polymer with microalgae.The solutions of spirulina and chlorella are obtained by using organic agents and water as solvents at different temperature,pH values and so on. With organic solvent,the dissolved matter amount of spirulina and chlorella is under 20%,and the dissolved matter is mainly oil.The solu-bility of spirulina and chlorella in water is better due to high protein contents of them.The dissolved amount of spirulina reaches 60% of spirulina dry weight via 55 ℃/4 h at pH=7,and chlorella reached 84% of chlorella dry weight via 70 ℃/5 h at pH=14.IR spectrum in-dicates that the gradients and structure of spirulina remain unchanged before and after dissolvation,but some changes of the chemical gradi-ent of chlorella occur at alkaline condition.

  14. Application of spirulina polysaccharide in moisturizing lotion%螺旋藻多糖在润肤露中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞秀枰; 何忠东; 陈智刚; 陈忻; 陈晓刚; 刘冬龙

    2013-01-01

    通过对螺旋藻多糖润肤露的保湿性能、抗紫外线效果和螺旋藻多糖的抗氧化作用进行测试,评价了螺旋藻多糖在润肤露中的应用功效.结果表明,螺旋藻多糖润肤露的感官指标和理化指标等满足相关标准要求;在RH 43%的较干燥环境下,添加螺旋藻多糖质量分数为2%的润肤露与质量分数为5%的甘油溶液,24h内的有效保湿率接近;相同条件下,螺旋藻多糖具有良好的抗氧化性,对超氧自由基及脂过氧自由基的清除作用优于Vc;在波长280~320 nm,添加螺旋藻多糖质量分数为0.3% ~1.0%的润肤露抗紫外线效果的SP’为10~15.%Application efficacy of spirulina polysaccharide in moisturizing lotion was evaluated via measurements and/or tests with respect to moisture retention performance, UV screening effect and antioxidation effect of moisturizing lotion formulated with spirulina polysaccharide. Results indicated that,the sensory organs testing data and physical/chemical indices of the prepared spirulina polysaccharide moisturizing lotion can satisfy requirements as specified in relevant standards. Under rather dry atmospheric condition with relative humidity of 43% for 24 h,moisturizing lotion containing 2% (mass fraction) of spirulina polysaccharide shows same moisture retention capacity of aqueous solution containing 5% (mass fraction) of glycerine. The free radical scavenging capacity of spirulina polysaccharide is superior to Vc under same conditions. The antioxidation capacity of spirulina polysaccharide is obvious. Under UV with wavelength of 280 - 320 nm, the moisturizing lotion containing 0. 3% -1.0% of spirulina polysaccharide displays UV screening effect with SPF 10-15.

  15. New methodologies for integrating algae with CO2 capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez Mireles, I.; Stel, R.W. van der; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2014-01-01

    It is generally recognized, that algae could be an interesting option for reducing CO2 emissions. Based on light and CO2, algae can be used for the production various economically interesting products. Current algae cultivation techniques, however, still present a number of limitations. Efficient fe

  16. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  17. How to Identify and Control Water Weeds and Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applied Biochemists, Inc., Mequon, WI.

    Included in this guide to water management are general descriptions of algae, toxic algae, weed problems in lakes, ponds, and canals, and general discussions of mechanical, biological and chemical control methods. In addition, pictures, descriptions, and recommended control methods are given for algae, 6 types of floating weeds, 18 types of…

  18. Novel Fiber Optic Fluorometer for the Measurement of Alga Concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A novel fluorometer based on fiber optics is briefly introduced for the measurement of alga concentration. Both the exciting light and the fluorescence from alga chlorophyll are transmitted along a fiber cable. By this way, we can get alga concentration by measuring its chlorophyll-a fluorescence intensity. The experiment results show that this instrument is characterized by good sensitivity, linearity and accuracy.

  19. Inventory of North-West European algae initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 an inventory of North-West European (NWE) algae initiatives was carried out to get an impression of the market and research activities on algae production and refinery, especially for bioenergy purposes. A questionnaire was developed that would provide the EnAlgae project with information on

  20. Effect of dietary supplementation of spirulina (Arthrospira platensis and thyme (Thymus vulgaris on carcass composition, meat physical traits, and vitamin B12 content on growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Dalle Zotte

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effect and duration of dietary inclusion of 5% spirulina (Arthrospira platensis and/or 3% thyme (Thymus vulgaris on growing rabbit carcass composition, meat and bone rheological traits, and the vitamin B12 content of Longissimus dorsi (LD meat. The study involved 294 maternal line growing rabbits from the Pannon breeding programme. At weaning (5 wk, animals were randomly divided by dietary treatment into 7 groups of 42 rabbits each. A control group (C-C received a pellet with no supplementation throughout the trial (5-11 wk of age, whereas the other groups were fed diets supplemented with 5% spirulina (S, 3% thyme (T or with both ingredients (ST for either the entire growing period (5-11 wk of age; groups: S-S, T-T, ST-ST, respectively, or its final part only (8-11 wk of age; groups: C-S, C-T, C-ST, respectively. Results showed that regardless of the duration of supplementation, spirulina and thyme provided no effect on the traits examined, except for scapular fat content, whose value was higher in the S-S group than in the C-T group (P<0.05. Spirulina was confirmed as a rich source of vitamin B12 that was successfully transferred into LD meat, thus demonstrating its value as an effective natural supplement in producing food fortified with this vital element. Further studies are necessary to clarify the effect of spirulina on carcass fat deposition, bone development, and mineralisation.

  1. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae.

    OpenAIRE

    Surendraraj, Alagarsamy; Farvin Koduvayur Habeebullah , Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme and Termamyl and the glycoproteins were isolated from these enzyme extracts.

  2. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme...

  3. Bromophenols in Marine Algae and Their Bioactivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ming, Liu; Hansen, Poul Erik; Lin, Xiukun

    2011-01-01

    Marine algae contain various bromophenols that have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-diabetic, and anti-thrombotic effects. Here, we briefly review the recent progress of these marine algal biomaterials, with respect...

  4. Pheromone signaling during sexual reproduction in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Johannes; Vyverman, Wim; Pohnert, Georg

    2014-08-01

    Algae are found in all aquatic and many terrestrial habitats. They are dominant in phytoplankton and biofilms thereby contributing massively to global primary production. Since algae comprise photosynthetic representatives of the various protoctist groups their physiology and appearance is highly diverse. This diversity is also mirrored in their characteristic life cycles that exhibit various facets of ploidy and duration of the asexual phase as well as gamete morphology. Nevertheless, sexual reproduction in unicellular and colonial algae usually has as common motive that two specialized, sexually compatible haploid gametes establish physical contact and fuse. To guarantee mating success, processes during sexual reproduction are highly synchronized and regulated. This review focuses on sex pheromones of algae that play a key role in these processes. Especially, the diversity of sexual strategies as well as of the compounds involved are the focus of this contribution. Discoveries connected to algal pheromone chemistry shed light on the role of key evolutionary processes, including endosymbiotic events and lateral gene transfer, speciation and adaptation at all phylogenetic levels. But progress in this field might also in the future provide valid tools for the manipulation of aquaculture and environmental processes.

  5. Proteomic analysis and qRT-PCR verification of temperature response to Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Huili

    Full Text Available Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis (ASP is a representative filamentous, non-N2-fixing cyanobacterium that has great potential to enhance the food supply and possesses several valuable physiological features. ASP tolerates high and low temperatures along with highly alkaline and salty environments, and can strongly resist oxidation and irradiation. Based on genomic sequencing of ASP, we compared the protein expression profiles of this organism under different temperature conditions (15°C, 35°Cand 45°C using 2-DE and peptide mass fingerprinting techniques. A total of 122 proteins having a significant differential expression response to temperature were retrieved. Of the positively expressed proteins, the homologies of 116 ASP proteins were found in Arthrospira (81 proteins in Arthrospira platensis str. Paraca and 35 in Arthrospira maxima CS-328. The other 6 proteins have high homology with other microorganisms. We classified the 122 differentially expressed positive proteins into 14 functions using the COG database, and characterized their respective KEGG metabolism pathways. The results demonstrated that these differentially expressed proteins are mainly involved in post-translational modification (protein turnover, chaperones, energy metabolism (photosynthesis, respiratory electron transport, translation (ribosomal structure and biogenesis and carbohydrate transport and metabolism. Others proteins were related to amino acid transport and metabolism, cell envelope biogenesis, coenzyme metabolism and signal transduction mechanisms. Results implied that these proteins can perform predictable roles in rendering ASP resistance against low and high temperatures. Subsequently, we determined the transcription level of 38 genes in vivo in response to temperature and identified them by qRT-PCR. We found that the 26 differentially expressed proteins, representing 68.4% of the total target genes, maintained consistency between transcription and

  6. Neuroprotective effect of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis against kainic acid-neuronal death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Juárez, Angélica; Chamorro, Germán; Alva-Sánchez, Claudia; Paniagua-Castro, Norma; Pacheco-Rosado, Jorge

    2016-08-01

    Context Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis (SP) is a cyanobacterium which has attracted attention because of its nutritional value and pharmacological properties. It was previously reported that SP reduces oxidative stress in the hippocampus and protects against damaging neurobehavioural effects of systemic kainic acid (KA). It is widely known that the systemic administration of KA induces neuronal damage, specifically in the CA3 hippocampal region. Objective The present study determines if the SP sub-chronic treatment has neuroprotective properties against KA. Materials and methods Male SW mice were treated with SP during 24 d, at doses of 0, 200, and 800 mg/kg, once daily, and with KA (35 mg/kg, ip) as a single dose on day 14. After the treatment, a histological analysis was performed and the number of atrophic neuronal cells in CA3 hippocampal region was quantified. Results Pretreatment with SP does not protect against seizures induced by KA. However, mortality in the SP 200 and the SP 800 groups was of 20%, while for the KA group, it was of 60%. A single KA ip administration produced a considerable neuronal damage, whereas both doses of SP sub-chronic treatment reduced the number of atrophic neurons in CA3 hippocampal region with respect to the KA group. Discussion The SP neurobehaviour improvement after KA systemic administration correlates with the capacity of SP to reduce KA-neuronal death in CA3 hippocampal cells. This neuroprotection may be related to the antioxidant properties of SP. Conclusion SP reduces KA-neuronal death in CA3 hippocampal cells. PMID:26799655

  7. Cultivation of Spirulina platensis by continuous process using ammonium chloride as nitrogen source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sassano, C.E.N.; Gioielli, L.A.; Almeida, K.A.; Sato, S.; Carvalho, J.C.M. [Department of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 580, Bloco 16, 05508-900 Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil); Perego, P.; Converti, A. [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering ' ' G.B. Bonino' ' , University of Genoa, via Opera Pia 15, 16145 Genoa (Italy)

    2007-08-15

    This work is focused on the influence of dilution rate (0.08{<=}D{<=}0.32 d{sup -1}) on the kinetics of continuous cultivation of Spirulina platensis at two different concentrations of ammonium chloride (N{sub 0}=1.0 and 10 mM) as nitrogen source. Cell productivity increased in both series of runs up to D{approx_equal}0.12-0.16 d{sup -1}, and then decreased. While at N{sub 0}=1.0 mM biomass washing was certainly the cause of progressive cell concentration decrease, a combination of this phenomenon with the toxic effect of excess ammonia was responsible, at N{sub 0}=10 mM and D{>=}0.20 d{sup -1}, for quick stop of cell growth just beyond the achievement of maximum cell productivity (92.4 mg l{sup -1} d{sup -1}). Similar profile was observed for protein productivity, that achieved a maximum value of 67.0 mg l{sup -1} d{sup -1}, because of the very high protein content (72.5%) of biomass produced under these conditions. The yield of nitrogen-to-biomass was much higher at the lower N{sub 0}, because of the low protein content, and reached a maximum value of 9.7 g g{sup -1} at D=0.08-0.12 d{sup -1}. The yield of nitrogen-to-protein showed less marked difference, being most of the nitrogen present in the cell as proteins or free amino-acids. (author)

  8. Effects of C-phycocyanin and Spirulina on salicylate-induced tinnitus, expression of NMDA receptor and inflammatory genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juen-Haur Hwang

    Full Text Available Effects of C-phycocyanin (C-PC, the active component of Spirulina platensis water extract on the expressions of N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, and cyclooxygenase type 2 (COX-2 genes in the cochlea and inferior colliculus (IC of mice were evaluated after tinnitus was induced by intraperitoneal injection of salicylate. The results showed that 4-day salicylate treatment (unlike 4-day saline treatment caused a significant increase in NR2B, TNF-α, and IL-1β mRNAs expression in the cochlea and IC. On the other hand, dietary supplementation with C-PC or Spirulina platensis water extract significantly reduced the salicylate-induced tinnitus and down-regulated the mRNAs expression of NR2B, TNF-α, IL-1β mRNAs, and COX-2 genes in the cochlea and IC of mice. The changes of protein expression levels were generally correlated with those of mRNAs expression levels in the IC for above genes.

  9. Effects of C-phycocyanin and Spirulina on Salicylate-Induced Tinnitus, Expression of NMDA Receptor and Inflammatory Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Juen-Haur; Chen, Jin-Cherng; Chan, Yin-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Effects of C-phycocyanin (C-PC), the active component of Spirulina platensis water extract on the expressions of N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B), tumor necrosis factor–α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and cyclooxygenase type 2 (COX-2) genes in the cochlea and inferior colliculus (IC) of mice were evaluated after tinnitus was induced by intraperitoneal injection of salicylate. The results showed that 4-day salicylate treatment (unlike 4-day saline treatment) caused a significant increase in NR2B, TNF-α, and IL-1β mRNAs expression in the cochlea and IC. On the other hand, dietary supplementation with C-PC or Spirulina platensis water extract significantly reduced the salicylate-induced tinnitus and down-regulated the mRNAs expression of NR2B, TNF-α, IL-1β mRNAs, and COX-2 genes in the cochlea and IC of mice. The changes of protein expression levels were generally correlated with those of mRNAs expression levels in the IC for above genes. PMID:23533584

  10. Carvedilol and spirulina may provide important health protection to smokers and other nicotine addicts: a call for pertinent research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F; O'Keefe, James H; DiNicolantonio, James J

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine and soluble semi-stable aldehydes and ketones in cigarette smoke are key mediators of the elevated risks for vascular disease, cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease observed in smokers. Nicotine, via sympathetic stimulation, increases risk for both vascular disease and cancer. Comprehensive suppression of sympathetic activity with the well-tolerated drug carvedilol, which inhibits betal 1, beta2 and alphal adrenergic receptors, may be protective to smokers and other nicotine addicts. The soluble aldehydes and ketones in tobacco smoke appear to exert their adverse effects through activation of NADPH oxidase complexes in vascular tissues and in the lungs. The phytochemical phycocyanobilin (PhyCB), richly supplied by the edible cyanobacterium spirulina, in studies on rodents and in human cell cultures has shown the ability to safely mimic intracellular bilirubin's physiological role as an inhibitor ofNADPH oxidase activity. It therefore may have potential for mitigating the pro-oxidative effects of tobacco smoke aldehydes and ketones. Joint administration of carvedilol and spirulina merits exploration as a strategy for moderating the pathogenic impact of smoking in chronic tobacco users who either fail to quit or refuse to try cessation of tobacco. Carvedilol may be appropriate for those who manage a nicotine addiction in other ways (smokeless tobacco, e-cigarettes, nicotine gum). Further clinical studies to evaluate the impact of carvedilol on cardiovascular risk factors in nicotine addicts, and rodent studies to assess markers of lung inflammation in smoke- exposed rodents fed PhyCB, are recommended. PMID:25812281

  11. Chemical absorption and CO2 biofixation via the cultivation of Spirulina in semicontinuous mode with nutrient recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rosa, Gabriel Martins; Moraes, Luiza; Cardias, Bruna Barcelos; de Souza, Michele da Rosa Andrade Zimmermann; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2015-09-01

    The chemical absorption of carbon dioxide (CO2) is a technique used for the mitigation of the greenhouse effect. However, this process consumes high amounts of energy to regenerate the absorbent and to separate the CO2. CO2 removal by microalgae can be obtained via the photosynthesis process. The objective of this study was to investigate the cultivation and the macromolecules production by Spirulina sp. LEB 18 with the addition of monoethanolamine (MEA) and CO2. In the cultivation with MEA, were obtained higher results of specific growth rate, biomass productivity, CO2 biofixation, CO2 use efficiency, and lower generation time. Besides this, the carbohydrate concentration obtained at the end of this assay was approximately 96.0% higher than the control assay. Therefore, Spirulina can be produced using medium recycle and the addition of MEA, thereby promoting the reduction of CO2 emissions and showing potential for areas that require higher concentrations of carbohydrates, such as in bioethanol production. PMID:26051496

  12. Influência do teor de nitrogênio no cultivo de Spirulina maxima em duas temperaturas - Parte I: Alteração da composição da biomassa Influence of nitrogen concentration on the culture of Spirulina maxima grown at two temperatures - Part I: Changes in biomass composition

    OpenAIRE

    Gilvair Marconi dos Santos; Ricardo Verthein Tavares de Macedo; Ranulfo Monte Alegre

    2003-01-01

    Spirulina maxima é uma cianobactéria de grande interesse para a produção de substâncias nutritivas e terapêuticas. É mesofílica, essencialmente fotoautotrófica, sendo suas principais fontes de nitrogênio os nitratos, uréia ou sais de amônio em meios com alta alcalinidade [1, 2, 3, 10, 16]. Spirulina maxima foi cultivada em fermentadores, expostos a luz com intensidade de 2400lux, contendo 3L do meio proposto por PAOLETTI, PUSHPARAJ & TOMASELLI [7] com concentração de 2,5g/L de KNO3, em meio m...

  13. THE USE OF ALGAE CONCENTRATES, DRIED ALGAE AND ALGAL SUBSTITUTES TO FEED BIVALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludi Parwadani Aji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae have high nutritional value and are used to feed adult and larval stages of bivalves, the larvae of some fish and crustaceans and zooplankton. However, microalgae production for aquaculture animal is very expensive. To overcome this, the use of preserved microalgae such as algae concentrate and dried algae, or algal substitutes has been developed. There are both advantages and disadvantages to this alternative food. For example, even though the cost production for algal substitute yeast-based diet is cheaper, their nutritional value is much lower compared to fresh microalgae. Moreover, there is no significant difference in nutritional value between preserved (concentrated or dried and fresh microalgae; however, preserving microalgae for long periods will affect their nutritional value. In spite of this problem, preserved microalgae such as algal concentrate and dried algae seem to be more effective to feed bivalves than algal substitutes yeast based diet due to their availability and relatively high nutritional value. Furthermore, algae concentrates are more suitable to replace fresh algae than dried algae.

  14. Componentes funcionales en aceites de pescado y de alga Functional components in fish and algae oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Conchillo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Buena parte del desarrollo de nuevos alimentos funcionales está encaminada al descubrimiento o aplicación de componentes de los alimentos que favorezcan la instauración de un perfil lipídico saludable en el organismo. El objetivo del trabajo fue realizar la caracterización de la fracción lipídica de dos tipos de aceites, de pescado y de alga, para valorar su potencial utilización como ingredientes funcionales, tanto en relación con el contenido en ácidos grasos de alto peso molecular como con la presencia de esteroles y otros componentes de la fracción insaponificable. Ambos aceites presentaron una fracción lipídica muy rica en ácidos grasos poliinsaturados ω-3 de alto peso molecular, con un 33,75% en el caso del aceite de pescado y un 43,97% en el de alga, siendo el EPA el ácido graso mayoritario en el pescado y el DHA en el alga. La relación ω-6/ω-3 fue en ambos aceites inferior a 0,4. En cuanto a la fracciσn insaponificable, el aceite de alga presentσ un contenido 3 veces menor de colesterol y una mayor proporciσn de escualeno. El contenido en fitosteroles fue significativamente superior en el aceite de alga.An important area of the development of new functional foods is facussed on finding or applying food components which favour achieving a healthier lipid profile in the organism. The objective of this work was to carry out the characterisation of the lipid fraction of two oils, fish oil and algae oil, to evaluate their potential use as functional ingredients, in relation to the high molecular weight fatty acid content and the presence of sterols and other components of the unsaponificable fraction. Both oils showed a lipid fraction rich in high molecular weight polyunsaturated ω-3 fatty acids, containing a 33.75% in the fish oil and a 43.97% in the algae oil. Eicosapentaenoic acid was the major fatty acid in fish oil, whereas docosahexaenoic was the most abundant fatty acid in algae oil. The ω-6/ω-3 ratio was lower

  15. Photodegradation of Norfloxacin in aqueous solution containing algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junwei Zhang; Dafang Fu; Jilong Wu

    2012-01-01

    Photodegradation of Norfloxacin in aqueous solution containing algae under a medium pressure mercury lamp (15 W,λmax =365 nm) was investigated.Results indicated that the photodegradation of Norfloxacin could be induced by the algae in the heterogeneous algaewater systems.The photodegradation rate of Norfloxacin increased with increasing algae concentration,and was greatly influenced by the temperature and pH of solution.Meanwhile,the cooperation action of algae and Fe(Ⅲ),and the ultrasound were beneficial to photodegradation of Norfloxaciu.The degradation kinetics of Norfloxacin was found to follow the pseudo zero-order reaction in the suspension of algae.In addition,we discussed the photodegradation mechanism of Norfloxacin in the suspension of algae.This work will be helpful for understanding the photochemical degradation of antibiotics in aqueous environment in the presence of algae,for providing a new method to deal with antibiotics pollution.

  16. Biofuels from algae for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms that can produce lipids, proteins and carbohydrates in large amounts over short periods of time. These products can be processed into both biofuels and useful chemicals. Two algae samples (Cladophora fracta and Chlorella protothecoid) were studied for biofuel production. Microalgae appear to be the only source of renewable biodiesel that is capable of meeting the global demand for transport fuels. Microalgae can be converted to biodiesel, bioethanol, bio-oil, biohydrogen and biomethane via thermochemical and biochemical methods. Industrial reactors for algal culture are open ponds, photobioreactors and closed systems. Algae can be grown almost anywhere, even on sewage or salt water, and does not require fertile land or food crops, and processing requires less energy than the algae provides. Microalgae have much faster growth-rates than terrestrial crops. the per unit area yield of oil from algae is estimated to be from 20,000 to 80,000 liters per acre, per year; this is 7-31 times greater than the next best crop, palm oil. Algal oil can be used to make biodiesel for cars, trucks, and airplanes. The lipid and fatty acid contents of microalgae vary in accordance with culture conditions. The effect of temperature on the yield of hydrogen from two algae (C. fracta and C. protothecoid) by pyrolysis and steam gasification were investigated in this study. In each run, the main components of the gas phase were CO2, CO, H2, and CH4.The yields of hydrogen by pyrolysis and steam gasification processes of the samples increased with temperature. The yields of gaseous products from the samples of C. fracta and C. protothecoides increased from 8.2% to 39.2% and 9.5% to 40.6% by volume, respectively, while the final pyrolysis temperature was increased from 575 to 925 K. The percent of hydrogen in gaseous products from the samples of C. fracta and C. protothecoides increased from 25.8% to 44.4% and 27.6% to 48.7% by volume, respectively

  17. Quality Analysis of Spirulina Products Using Three-Step Infrared Spectroscopy%基于红外光谱三级鉴别技术的螺旋藻产品品质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海静; 孙素琴; 李安; 哈益明

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to analyze the principle components in natural Spirulina, Spirulina powder and Spirulina tablet. This could provide a fast, accurate and effective method for quality detection and authenticity test. [Method] FTIR spectra of two natural Spirulina, four Spirulina powder and four Spirulina tablets were collected. Original IR spectra, second derivate and two-dimensional correlation IR spectra were analyzed to determine the major absorption functional group, main component and differences between samples. Scanning electron microscope images, protein contents and ammo acid composition were used to explain the differences in FTIR spectra. [Result] Natual Spirulina had three saccharides characteristic peaks in original IR spectra at 1 154/1 156 cm-1, 1 079 cm-1 and 1 039/1 035 cm-1. In the range of 1 000-1 230 cm-1, natural Spirulina had five auto-peaks at 1 161, 1 138, 1 083, 1 054 and 1 026 cm-1 in 2D-IR correlation spectra. Saccharides characteristic peaks in Spirulina powder and Spirulina tablets were different from natural Spirulina in shape and position and they had fewer atuopeaks in 2D-IR spectroscopy. The content of a-helix in natural Spirulina protein was 24.6 % while the content decreased to 15.0% in Spirulina powder and Spirulina tablets. The amide band in 2D-IR spectroscopy of natural Spirulina was smooth and separate absolutely while amide band of Spirulina powder and Spirulina tablets was broad, bifurcate and hardly separate. Protein contents and amino acid composition also showed that Spirulina products had higher protein content and different amino acid compositions compared with natural Spirulina. [Conclusion] FTIR spectra can distinguish the defferences in saccharides and protein of natural Spirulina, Spirulina powder and Spirulina tablet, thus providing an effective way for quality detection and authenticity test of Spirulina products.%[目的]利用红外光谱技术分析天然螺旋

  18. Microbes and algae for biodiesel production - Microfuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruohonen, L. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)], email: laura.ruohonen@vtt.fi; Tamminen, T. [Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE), Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-07-01

    There is an acute need to identify alternatives to replace fossil resources, in particular in transportation fuels. Thus, biomass-based biofuels such as bioethanol and biodiesel have gained significant attention towards this goal. However, the source of biomass has raised concerns; competition with the food chain and arable land must be avoided. The project focused on identification of alternative ways to produce biomass for triacylglycerides production as raw material for biodiesel, that of autotrophic production by algae, and heterotrophic production by fungi. The fungal production process is already presently implemented by Neste Oil: In the press release on 28 August 2012, Neste Oil announced the completion of the first phase of its microbial oil pilot plant. A joint algae research programme between Neste Oil and SYKE was launched in August 2011, with the aim of further developing the knowledge basis for cost-effective microalgal production in industrial-scale volumes for future production needs.

  19. Structurally Distinct Cation Channelrhodopsins from Cryptophyte Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govorunova, Elena G; Sineshchekov, Oleg A; Spudich, John L

    2016-06-01

    Microbial rhodopsins are remarkable for the diversity of their functional mechanisms based on the same protein scaffold. A class of rhodopsins from cryptophyte algae show close sequence homology with haloarchaeal rhodopsin proton pumps rather than with previously known channelrhodopsins from chlorophyte (green) algae. In particular, both aspartate residues that occupy the positions of the chromophore Schiff base proton acceptor and donor, a hallmark of rhodopsin proton pumps, are conserved in these cryptophyte proteins. We expressed the corresponding polynucleotides in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells and studied electrogenic properties of the encoded proteins with whole-cell patch-clamp recording. Despite their lack of residues characteristic of the chlorophyte cation channels, these proteins are cation-conducting channelrhodopsins that carry out light-gated passive transport of Na(+) and H(+). These findings show that channel function in rhodopsins has evolved via multiple routes. PMID:27233115

  20. Radiokinetic study in betony marine algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influx and outflux kinetics of some radionuclides in algae of the Rio de Janeiro coastline, were studied in order to select bioindicators for radioactive contamination in aquatic media, due to the presence of Nuclear Power Stations. Bioassays of the concentration and loss of radionuclides such as 137Cs, 51Cr, 60Co and 131I were performed in 1000cm3 aquarium under controlled laboratory conditions, using a single channel gamma counting system, to study the species of algae most frequently found in the region. The concentration and loss parameters for all the species and radionuclides studied were obtained from the normalized results. The loss parameters were computerwise adjusted using Powell's multiparametric method. (author)