WorldWideScience

Sample records for blue-green alga spirulina

  1. Blue-green algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... unresponsive to other treatments, taking 500 mg of spirulina blue-green algae by mouth 3 times daily for 6 months ... was seen in undernourished children who were given spirulina blue-green algae with a combination of millet, soy and peanut ...

  2. Blue-green algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lac Klamath, Anabaena, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Arthrospira maxima, Arthrospira platensis, BGA, Blue Green Algae, Blue-Green Micro-Algae, Cyanobacteria, Cyanobactérie, Cyanophycée, Dihe, Espirulina, Hawaiian Spirulina, Klamath, Klamath Lake Algae, Lyngbya wollei, Microcystis aeruginosa, ...

  3. Isolation of plasmid from the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Song; Tong, Shun; Zhang, Peijun; Tseng, C. K.

    1993-09-01

    CCC plasmid was isolated from an economically important blue-green algaSpirulina platensis (1.7×106 dalton from the S6 strain and 1.2×106 dalton from the F3 strain) using a rapid method based on ultrasonic disruption of algal cells and alkaline removal of chromosomal DNA. The difference in the molecular weight of the CCC DNAs from the two strains differing in form suggests that plasmid may be related with the differentiation of algal form. This modified method, which does not use any lysozyme, is a quick and effective method of plasmid isolation, especially for filamentous blue-green algae.

  4. Experimental grounds for developing selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals based on blue-green algae Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of using blue-green algae Spirulina platensis as a matrix for production of the selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals was studied. The dependence of Se and I accumulation in Spirulina biomass during the cultivation in a nutrient medium loading of above elements was determined more precisely. The dynamics of Spirulina biomass growth was observed with nutrient medium loading of selenium. It is found that Spirulina platensis biomass quality may be used for pharmaceutical purposes

  5. Extraction of Nutraceuticals from Spirulina (Blue-Green Alga): A Bioorganic Chemistry Practice Using Thin-layer Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Bravo de Laguna, Irma; Toledo Marante, Francisco J.; Luna-Freire, Kristerson R.; Mioso, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina is a blue-green alga (cyanobacteria) with high nutritive value. This work provides an innovative and original approach to the consideration of a bioorganic chemistry practice, using Spirulina for the separation of phytochemicals with nutraceutical characteristics via thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates. The aim is to bring together…

  6. Epithermal neutron activation analysis of blue-green algae Spirulina Platensis as a matrix for selenium-containing pharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the potentiality of the blue-green algae Spirulina Platensis as a matrix for the production of Se-containing pharmaceuticals, the background levels of 31 major, minor and trace elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni (using (n,p)-reaction), As, Br, Zn, Rb, Mo, Ag, Sb, I, Ba, Sm, Tb, Tm, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Th) in Spirulina Platensis biomass were determined by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis. The possibility of the purpose-oriented incorporation of Se into Spirulina Platensis biomass was demonstrated. The polynomial dependence of the Se accumulation on nutritional medium loading was revealed. The employed analytical technique allows one to reliably control the amount of toxic elements in algae Spirulina Platensis. Based on this study, a conclusion of the possibility to use Spirulina Platensis as a matrix for the production of Se-containing pharmaceuticals was drawn

  7. Epithermal neutron activation analysis of blue-green algae Spirulina platensis as a matrix for selenium-containing pharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the potentiality of the blue-green algae Spirulina platensis as a matrix for the production of Se-containing pharmaceuticals, the background levels of 31 major, minor and trace elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni using (n,p) reaction), As, Br, Zn, Rb, Mo, Ag, Sb, I, Ba, Sm, Tb, Tm, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Th were determined in Spirulina platensis biomass by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis. The possibility of the purpose-oriented incorporation of Se into Spirulina platensis biomass was demonstrated. The polynomial dependence of the Se accumulation on nutritional medium loading was revealed. The analytical technique used allows to control the amount of toxic elements in algae Spirulina platensis. Conclusion of the possibility to use Spirulina platensis as a matrix for the production of Se-containing pharmaceutical was drawn. (author)

  8. Development of Pharmaceutical substances based on blue-green alga Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A blue-green alga S. platensis biomass is used as a basis for the development of pharmaceutical substances containing such vitally important trace elements as selenium, chromium and iodine. Using neutron activation analysis the possibility of target-oriented introduction of these elements into the S. platensis biocomplexes retaining its protein composition and natural beneficial properties has been proved. The curves of the dependence of the introduced element accumulation in the Spirulina biomass on its concentration in a nutrient medium, which make it possible to accurately measure out the required doses of the specified element in a substance, have been obtained. The peculiarities of interaction of various chromium forms (Cr(III) and Cr(VI) with the S. platensis biomass have been studied. It has been found that from a nutrient medium its cells mainly accumulate the vitally essential form of Cr(III) rather than toxic Cr(VI). Using the EPR technique and colorimetry, it has been demonstrated that the S. platensis substance enriched with Cr(III) is free from other toxic chromium forms. The developed technique can be used in pharmaceutical industry for the production of preparations containing Se, Cr, I, etc. on the basis of S. platensis biomass with the preservation of its natural beneficial properties and protein composition

  9. Bioaccumulation of Cr(III) ions by Blue Green-alga Spirulina sp. Part II. Mathematical Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Chojnacka; Piotr M. Wojciechowski

    2007-01-01

    In the present paper bioaccumulation of Cr(III) ions by blue-green algae Spirulina sp. is discussed. We found that the process consisted of two stages: passive in which Cr(III) ions are bound to the surface of cells, identical with biosorption and active, metabolism-dependent, in which Cr(III) ions are transported into the cellular interior. The passive stage occurs in both living and non-living cells and the active only in living biomass. Two distinctive mathematical models of the process we...

  10. Bioaccumulation of Cr(III ions by Blue Green-alga Spirulina sp. Part II. Mathematical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Chojnacka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper bioaccumulation of Cr(III ions by blue-green algae Spirulina sp. is discussed. We found that the process consisted of two stages: passive in which Cr(III ions are bound to the surface of cells, identical with biosorption and active, metabolism-dependent, in which Cr(III ions are transported into the cellular interior. The passive stage occurs in both living and non-living cells and the active only in living biomass. Two distinctive mathematical models of the process were proposed. The first was physical model basing on the identified mechanism of the process. In the second model, artificial neural networks were proposed.

  11. Investigation of the possibility of developing iodine-containing treatment and prophylactic pharmaceuticals based on blue-green algae Spirulina platensis using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of the treatment and prophylactic pharmaceuticals based on blue-green algae Spirulina platensis was demonstrated. NAA was used to determine the background level of iodine concentration as well as of element-impurities in the Spirulina biomass. The optimal range of iodine concentrations used for loading the nutrient media for Spirulina platensis cultivation for production of iodine-containing pharmaceuticals with a desirable iodine content was found. The technological parameters to produce iodinated pellets were established and the mode of their labeling was offered

  12. Food production and gas exchange system using blue-green alga (Spirulina) for CELSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Mitsuo; Otsubo, Koji; Nitta, Keiji; Hatayama, Shigeki

    In order to reduce the cultivation area required for the growth of higher plants in space adoption of algae, which have a higher photosynthetic ability, seems very suitable for obtaining oxygen and food as a useful source of high quality protein. The preliminary cultivation experiment for determining optimum cultivation conditions and for obtaining the critical design parameters of the cultivator itself has been conducted. Spirulina was cultivated in the 6-liter medium containing a sodium hydrogen carbonate solution and a cultivation temperature controlled using a thermostat. Generated oxygen gas was separated using a polypropyrene porous hollow fiber membrane module. Through this experiment, oxygen gas (at a concentration of more than 46%) at a rate of 100 ~ 150 ml per minute could be obtained.

  13. Promotive effect of se on the growth and antioxidation of a blue-green alga Spirulina maxima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi-Gang, Zhou; Zhi-Li, Liu

    1998-12-01

    Cultures of a blue-green alga Spirulina maxima (Setch. et Gard.) Geitler with various concentrations of Se in Zarrouk's medium showed that not higher than 40 mg/L Se could promote its growth. The present experiments showed that S. maxima grown under normal conditions, has an oxidant stress defence system for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) removal, which is the Halliwell-Asada pathway. When 4 to 20 mg/L Se was added to the algal medium, this pathway was replaced by a so-called Sestressed pathway containing GSH peroxidase (GSH-POD). As a result of the occurrence of both higher activity of GSH-POD and lower levels of hydroxyl radical (OH·), the Se-stressed pathway scavenged H2O2 so effectively that the growth of S. maxima was promoted by 4 to 20 mg/L Se. While GSH-POD activity of the alga disappeared at 40 mg/L Se, the recovery of ascorbate peroxidase was observed. The lower levels of ascorbic acid and GSH made the Halliwell-Asada pathway for scavenging H2O2 less effective, while the highest activity of catalase might be responsible in part for the H2O2 removal, causing the level of OH· in S. maxima grown at 40 mg/L Se to be much higher than the OH· level in this alga grown at 4 to 20 mg/L Se, but lower than that in the control. The OH· level changes caused the growth of S. maxima cultured at 40 mg/L Se to increase slightly to close to that of the control.

  14. Experimental Substantiation of the Possibility of Developing Selenium- and Iodine-Containing Pharmaceuticals Based on Blue-Green Algae Spirulina Platensis

    CERN Document Server

    Mosulishvili, L M; Belokobylsky, A I; Khisanishvili, L A; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, C C; Gundorina, S F

    2001-01-01

    The great potential of using blue-green algae Spirulina platensis as a matrix for the production of selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals is shown experimentally. The background levels of 31 major, minor and trace elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni (using -reaction), As, Br, Zn, Rb, Mo, Ag, Sb, I, Ba, Sm, Tb, Tm, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Th) in Spirulina platensis biomass were determined by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis. The dependence of selenium and iodine accumulation in spirulina biomass on a nutrient medium loding of the above elements was characterised. To demonstrate the possibilities of determining toxic element intake by spirulina biomass, mercury was selected. The technological parameters for production of iodinated treatment-and-prophylactic pills are developed.

  15. Experimental substantiation of the possibility of developing selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals based on blue-green algae Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The great potential of using blue-green algae Spirulina platensis as a matrix for the production of selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals is shown experimentally. The background levels of 31 major, minor and trace elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni (using (n,p)-reaction), As, Br, Zn, Rb, Mo, Ag, Sb, I, Ba, Sm, Tb, Tm, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Th) in Spirulina platensis biomass were determined by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis. The dependence of selenium and iodine accumulation in spirulina biomass on a nutrient medium loading of the above elements was characterised. To demonstrate the possibilities of determining toxic element intake by spirulina biomass, mercury was selected. The technological parameters for production of iodinated treatment-and-prophylactic pills are developed

  16. In vitro and in vivo safety assessment of edible blue-green algae, Nostoc commune var. sphaeroides Kützing and Spirulina plantensis

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yue; Park, Youngki; Cassada, David A.; Snow, Daniel D; Rogers, Douglas G.; Lee, Jiyoung

    2011-01-01

    Blue-green algae (BGA) have been consumed as food and herbal medicine for centuries. However, safety for their consumption has not been well investigated. This study was undertaken to evaluate in vitro and in vivo toxicity of cultivated Nostoc commune var. sphaeroides Kützing (NO) and Spirulina platensis (SP). Neither NO nor SP contained detectable levels of microcystin (MC)-LA, MC-RR, MC-LW and MC-LR by LC/MS/MS. Cell viability remained ~70-80% when HepG2 cells were incubated with 0-500 μg/m...

  17. Gelation of edible blue-green algae protein isolate (Spirulina platensis Strain Pacifica): thermal transitions, rheological properties, and molecular forces involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronakis, I S

    2001-02-01

    Proteins isolated from blue-green algae Spirulina platensis strain Pacifica were characterized by visible absorption, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), viscometry, and dynamic oscillatory rheological measurements. Unique thermal unfolding, denaturation, aggregation, and gelation of the algal protein isolate are presented. DSC analysis showed that thermal transitions occur at about 67 and 109 degrees C at neutral pH. Calcium chloride stabilized the quaternary structure against denaturation and shifted the transitions at higher temperatures. Viscometric studies of Spirulina protein isolate as a function of temperature showed that the onset of the viscosity increase is closely related to the dissociation-denaturation process. Lower viscosities were observed for the protein solutions dissolved at pH 9 due to an increased protein solubility. Solutions of Spirulina protein isolate form elastic gels during heating to 90 degrees C. Subsequent cooling at ambient temperatures caused a further pronounced increase in the elastic moduli and network elasticity. Spirulina protein isolate has good gelling properties with fairly low minimum critical gelling concentrations of about 1.5 and 2.5 wt % in 0.1 M Tris buffer, pH 7, and with 0.02 M CaCl(2) in the same buffer, respectively. It is suggested that mainly the interactions of exposed hydrophobic regions generate the molecular association, initial aggregation, and gelation of the protein isolate during the thermal treatment. Hydrogen bonds reinforce the network rigidity of the protein on cooling and further stabilize the structure of Spirulina protein gels but alone are not sufficient to form a network structure. Intermolecular sulfhydryl and disulfide bonds were found to play a minor role for the network strength of Spirulina protein gels but affect the elasticity of the structures formed. Both time and temperature at isothermal heat-induced gelation within 40-80 degrees C affect substantially the network formation and

  18. Evaluation of protective effects of water extract of Spirulina platensis (blue green algae on cisplatin-induced lipid peroxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Attempt has been made to evaluate free radical scavenging activity of water extract of Spirulina platensis on cisplatin-induced lipid peroxidation using some common laboratory markers. In this present study goat liver has been used as lipid source. This in vitro evaluation was done by measuring the malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, reduced glutathione and nitric oxide content of tissue homogenates. The results suggest that cisplatin could induce lipid peroxidation to a significant extent and it was also found that water extract of the algae has the ability to suppress the cisplatin-induced toxicity.

  19. In vitro and in vivo safety assessment of edible blue-green algae, Nostoc commune var. sphaeroides Kützing and Spirulina plantensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Park, Youngki; Cassada, David A; Snow, Daniel D; Rogers, Douglas G; Lee, Jiyoung

    2011-07-01

    Blue-green algae (BGA) have been consumed as food and herbal medicine for centuries. However, safety for their consumption has not been well investigated. This study was undertaken to evaluate in vitro and in vivo toxicity of cultivated Nostoc commune var. sphaeroides Kützing (NO) and Spirulina platensis (SP). Neither NO nor SP contained detectable levels of microcystin (MC)-LA, MC-RR, MC-LW and MC-LR by LC/MS/MS. Cell viability remained ∼70-80% when HepG2 cells were incubated with 0-500 μg/ml of hexane, chloroform, methanol and water-extractable fractions of NO and SP. Four-week-old male and female C57BL/6J mice were fed an AIN-93G/M diet supplemented with 0%, 2.5% or 5% of NO and SP (wt/wt) for 6 months. For both genders, BGA-rich diets did not induce noticeable abnormality in weight gain and plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase concentrations except a significant increase in plasma ALT levels by 2.5% NO supplementation in male mice at 6 month. Histopathological analysis of livers, however, indicated that BGA did not cause significant liver damage compared with controls. In conclusion, our results suggest that NO and SP are free of MC and the long-term dietary supplementation of up to 5% of the BGA may be consumed without evident toxic side-effects. PMID:21473896

  20. Anti-cancer effects of blue-green alga Spirulina platensis, a natural source of bilirubin-like tetrapyrrolic compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koníčková, R.; Vaňková, K.; Vaníková, J.; Váňová, K.; Muchová, L.; Subhanová, I.; Zadinová, M.; Zelenka, Jaroslav; Dvořák, Aleš; Kolář, Michal; Strnad, Hynek; Rimpelová, S.; Ruml, T.; Wong, R.J.; Vítek, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2014), s. 273-283. ISSN 1665-2681 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : bilirubin * chlorophyll * heme oxygenase * phycocyanin * phycocyanobilin * Spirulina platensis * tetrapyrroles Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 2.065, year: 2014

  1. [Immunostimulating activity of the lipopolysaccharides of blue-green algae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besednova, N N; Smolina, T P; Mikheĭskaia, L V; Ovodova, R G

    1979-12-01

    The whole cells of blue-gree algae and lipopolysaccharides isolated from these cells were shown to stimulate the production of macro-(mainly) and microglobulin antibodies in rabbits. The macro- and microphage indices in rabbits increased significantly after the injection of LPS isolated from blue-green algae 24--48 hours before infecting the animals with a virulent Y. pseudotuberculosis strain. Besides, the inhibiting action of this strain on the migration of phagocytes to the site of infection was abolished immediately after the injection. The use of the indirect hemagglutination test allowed to prove the absence of close antigenic interrelations between blue-green algae and the following organisms: Spirulina platensis, Microcystis aeruginosa, Phormidium africanum and P. uncinatum. PMID:117655

  2. Spirulina: The Alga That Can End Malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ripley D.

    1985-01-01

    One approach to eliminating malnutrition worldwide is to grow spirulina in recycled village wastes. Spirulina is a blue-green alga and a natural concentrated food. Spirulina can give poor villages a nutritional food supplement they can grow themselves and can reduce infectious disease at the same time. (Author/RM)

  3. Algae and blue-green algae as mosquito food

    OpenAIRE

    Rettich, František; Popovský, Jiří; Cepák, Vladimír

    2001-01-01

    Ten genera of cyanophytes and 73 genera of algae were found in the guts of Aedes, Culex, Anopheles and Culiseta larvae collected in various breeding places of the Elbe-Lowland (Bohemia) and Prague. The quality and quantity of blue-green algae and algae found in mosquito guts depended on their presence in the water of mosquito breeding places and on the feeding type (filter fieders, scrapers) of mosquito larvae. Chlorophycean algae possesing cell wall with sporopollenin and algae with a mucila...

  4. Neutron activation analysis for development of mercury sorbent based on blue-green alga salipriina palatinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epithermal neutron activation analysis was used to study interaction of blue-green alga Spirulina platensis with toxic metal mercury. Various concentrations of Hg(II) were added to cell cultures in a nutrient medium. The dynamic of accumulation of Hg was investigated over days in relation to Spirulina biomass growth. The process of Hg adsorption by Spirulina biomass was studied in short-time experiments. The isotherm of adsorption was / out in Freindlich coordinates. Natural Spirulina biomass has potential to be used in the remediation of sewage waters at Hg concentrations ∼ 100 μg/1

  5. In vitro evaluation of antiperoxidative potential of water extract of Spirulina platensis (blue green algae on cyclophosphamide-induced lipid peroxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to evaluate free radical scavenging activity of water extract of Spirulina platensis on cyclophosphamide-induced lipid peroxidation using some common laboratory markers. In this study goat liver has been used as liver source. This in vitro evaluation was done by measuring the malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, reduced glutathione and nitric oxide content of tissue homogenates. The results suggest that cyclophosphamide could induce lipid peroxidation to a significant extent and it was also found that water extract of the algae has the ability to suppress the drug-induced lipid peroxidation.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of blue-green and green algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashantkumar P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The methanolic extract of a blue-green alga and two green algae have been investigated for in vitro antimicrobial activity against Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Rhizopus nigricans using agar cup-plate method. Blue-green alga, namely, Microchaete tenera ; and green algae, namely, Nitella tenuissima and Sphaeroplea annulina , showed significant antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Microchaete tenera showed good antimicrobial activity against Proteus vulgaris and Aspergillus niger. Sphaeroplea annulina showed feeble antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus .

  7. Dinitrogen fixation by blue-green algae from paddy fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent work using radioactive nitrogen on the blue-green algae of paddy fields has been reviewed. These algae fix dinitrogen and photoassimilate carbon evolving oxygen, thereby augmenting nitrogen and carbon status of the soil and also providing oxygen to the water-logged rice paddies. Further studies using radioactive isotopes 13N, 24Na and 22Na on their nitrogen fixation, nitrogen assimilation pathways; regulation of nitrogenase, heterocysts production and sporulation and sodium transport and metabolism have been carried out and reported. The field application of blue green algae for N2 fixation was found to increase the status of soil nitrogen and yield of paddy. (M.G.B.)

  8. Evaluation of protective effects of water extract of Spirulina platensis (blue green algae) on cisplatin-induced lipid peroxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Ray S; Roy K; Sengupta Chandana

    2007-01-01

    Attempt has been made to evaluate free radical scavenging activity of water extract of Spirulina platensis on cisplatin-induced lipid peroxidation using some common laboratory markers. In this present study goat liver has been used as lipid source. This in vitro evaluation was done by measuring the malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, reduced glutathione and nitric oxide content of tissue homogenates. The results suggest that cisplatin could induce lipid peroxidation to a significant ext...

  9. Blue green alga mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its antibacterial efficacy against Gram positive organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofunctionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) play an important role in design and development of nanomedicine. Synthesis of AuNPs from biogenic materials is environmentally benign and possesses high bacterial inhibition and bactericidal properties. In the present study, blue green alga Spirulina platensis protein mediated synthesis of AuNPs and its antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria is discussed. AuNPs were characterized using Ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy, Fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier Transform-Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, High Resolution-Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). Stable, well defined AuNPs of smaller and uniform shape with an average size of ∼ 5 nm were obtained. The antibacterial efficacy of protein functionalized AuNPs were tested against Gram positive organisms Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. - Highlights: • Size controlled synthesis of gold nanoparticles from blue green alga Spirulina platensis • Stability of gold nanoparticles at different temperatures • Potent antibacterial efficacy against Gram positive organisms

  10. Blue green alga mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its antibacterial efficacy against Gram positive organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uma Suganya, K.S. [Centre for Ocean Research, Sathyabama University, Chennai 600 119 (India); Govindaraju, K., E-mail: govindtu@gmail.com [Centre for Ocean Research, Sathyabama University, Chennai 600 119 (India); Ganesh Kumar, V.; Stalin Dhas, T.; Karthick, V. [Centre for Ocean Research, Sathyabama University, Chennai 600 119 (India); Singaravelu, G. [Nanoscience Division, Department of Zoology, Thiruvalluvar University, Vellore 632115 (India); Elanchezhiyan, M. [Department of Microbiology, Dr ALM Post Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Chennai 600113 (India)

    2015-02-01

    Biofunctionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) play an important role in design and development of nanomedicine. Synthesis of AuNPs from biogenic materials is environmentally benign and possesses high bacterial inhibition and bactericidal properties. In the present study, blue green alga Spirulina platensis protein mediated synthesis of AuNPs and its antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria is discussed. AuNPs were characterized using Ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy, Fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier Transform-Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, High Resolution-Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). Stable, well defined AuNPs of smaller and uniform shape with an average size of ∼ 5 nm were obtained. The antibacterial efficacy of protein functionalized AuNPs were tested against Gram positive organisms Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. - Highlights: • Size controlled synthesis of gold nanoparticles from blue green alga Spirulina platensis • Stability of gold nanoparticles at different temperatures • Potent antibacterial efficacy against Gram positive organisms.

  11. Blue-green algae in rice fields. Their ecology and their use as inoculant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a short review on blue-green algae in rice fields, their ecology and their use as inoculants. Some emphasis has been given to the recent studies of the relations between blue-green algae and rice which include the availability of algal nitrogen to the rice plant and epiphytic relationships. (author)

  12. Salt Stress Culture of Blue-green Algae Spirulinafusiformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Rafiqul

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A Study was conducted on the salt stress culture of blue green algae S. fusiformis. The blue green algae S. fusiformis was grown at the different salinity of sea water as 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 1.2, 1.5, 3.0, 5.0, 7.0, 14.0, 15.0, 16.0, 17.0 and 18.0 ppt which were enriched with Zarouk medium. A new steady state was established after carry out an initial lag phase. The observed growth rate was slower and inversely related with concentration of salt stress i.e. the more was salinity, the slower was growth rate during the experiment. Instead of growth, a decrease in biomass was also observed in high salinity. The specific growth rate at all salt stress culture was lower than that of control (0 ppt. The result showed that the protein and carbohydrate content were varied from 37.3 to 56.1% and 16.8 to 31.4 %, respectively. At 1.0 and 1.2 ppt a marked increase in lipids of 19.6 and 15.6% were observed. Highest carotenoid content of 3.53 mg-1 g dry weight was found at 16 ppt, which is significantly (P<0.05 higher compared to control. Phycocyanin was high at 1 ppt (93 mg 1 g dry weight, which is significantly lower than that of control. The result showed that the production of lipids and carotenes in salt stress culture which would be 1-1.2 ppt and 15-16, ppt respectively in laboratory culture conditions.

  13. Dinitrogen fixation by blue-green algae from paddy fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluorescence emission spectra at 77K of isolated heterocysts of Anabaena L-31 do not show F685-695 but rather F715-730, thus confirming the absence of photosystem II and the presence of photosystem I. Recent work using radioactive nitrogen has been collated and a tentative scheme is outlined indicating the location of the enzymes and the pathways involved in the initial assimilation of nitrogen in blue-green algae. Glutamine synthetase extracted from heterocysts of Anabaena L-31 does not exhibit the adenylylation/deadenylylation phenomenon characteristic of the enzyme from bacteria. Our recent experiments suggest that nitrogenase in Anabaena is under dual control by glutamic acid and aspartic acid, the former inhibiting the enzyme synthesis and the latter relieving the inhibition. Two extracellular polypeptides have been obtained from this alga, one of which inhibits heterocyst formation whereas the other enhances heterocyst formation and partially relieves the inhibitory effect of the former. An extracellular substance, possibly a glycopeptide, has been obtained from A. torulosa, which stimulates sporulation. Studies with 24Na and 22Na indicate that A. torulosa, an alga from saline habitats, has an active photosynthesis-linked mechanism for the extrusion of sodium. Sodium is essential for optimum nitrogenase activity and growth. In field experiments inoculation with Nostoc 4 resulted in substantial increase in soil nitrogen. Paddy yield was comparable to those plots where 80kg N/ha of urea was used. (author)

  14. Investigation of the interaction of chrome compounds with blue-green microalgae Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of CrIII with the cells of blue-green microalgae Spirulina platensis in course of cultivation in a nutrient medium loaded with corresponding chrome compounds is studied. It is shown that the rate of absorption of CrVI ions by spirulina biomass from the nutrient medium is approximately two orders of magnitude lower as compared to that of CrIII ions. At the same time the presence of CrVI in a nutrient medium is accompanied by a significant decrease in the cell growth rate and by deteriorating the quality of spirulina biomass. It is established that at endogenous insertion of CrIII into the biocomplex of spirulina no change in the valence state of chromium in the nutrient medium is observed and the natural properties of the biomass do not change. On the basis of the obtained concentration dependences, the recommended doses of CrIII in the preparation 'Cr-Spirulina' within the ranges of 30-100 μg/g as a food addition, and 200-250 μg/g for a medical preventive treatment are determined. (author)

  15. Rapid surface plasmon resonance immunobiosensor assay for microcystin toxins in blue-green algae food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Tatiana; Danaher, Martin; Baxter, Andrew; Moloney, Mary; Victory, Danielle; Haughey, Simon A

    2011-05-15

    A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunobiosensor assay was developed and validated to detect microcystin toxins in Spirulina and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae blue-green algae (BGA) food supplements. A competitive inhibition SPR-biosensor was developed using a monoclonal antibody to detect microcystin (MC) toxins. Powdered BGA samples were extracted with an aqueous methanolic solution, centrifuged and diluted in HBS-EP buffer prior to analysis. The assay was validated in accordance with the performance criteria outlined in EU legislation 2002/657/EC. The limit of detection (LOD) of the assay was calculated from the analysis of 20 known negative BGA samples to be 0.561 mg kg(-1). The detection capability (CCβ) of the assay was determined to be ≤ 0.85 mg kg(-1) for MC-LR. The biosensor assay was successfully applied to detect MC-LR toxins in BGA samples purchased on the Irish retail market. MC-LR was detected in samples at levels ranging from <0.5 to 2.21 mg kg(-1). The biosensor results were in good agreement with an established LC-MS/MS assay. The assay is advantageous because it employs a simple clean-up procedure compared to chemical assays and allows automated unattended analysis of samples unlike ELISA. PMID:21482261

  16. Bioelectricity generation and microcystins removal in a blue-green algae powered microbial fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioelectricity production from blue-green algae was examined in a single chamber tubular microbial fuel cell (MFC). The blue-green algae powered MFC produced a maximum power density of 114 mW/m2 at a current density of 0.55 mA/m2. Coupled with the bioenergy generation, high removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen were also achieved in MFCs. Over 78.9% of total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD), 80.0% of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), 91.0% of total nitrogen (total-N) and 96.8% ammonium-nitrogen (NH3-N) were removed under closed circuit conditions in 12 days, which were much more effective than those under open circuit and anaerobic reactor conditions. Most importantly, the MFC showed great ability to remove microcystins released from blue-green algae. Over 90.7% of MC-RR and 91.1% of MC-LR were removed under closed circuit conditions (500 Ω). This study showed that the MFC could provide a potential means for electricity production from blue-green algae coupling algae toxins removal.

  17. Modeling the Role of Zebra Mussels in the Proliferation of Blue-green Algae in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under model assumptions from Saginaw Bay 1991, selective rejection of blue-green algae by zebra mussels appears to be a necessary factor in the enhancement of blue-green algae production in the presence of zebra mussels. Enhancement also appears to depend on the increased sedime...

  18. Uptake and Retention of Cs137 by a Blue-Green Alga in Continuous Flow and Batch Culture Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since routine monitoring data show that blue-green algae concentrate radioactivity from water by factors as great as 10,000, this study was initiated to investigate the uptake and retention patterns of specific radionuclides by the dominant genera of blue-green algae in the reactor effluents. Plectonema purpureum was selected for this study

  19. Blue-Green Algae Inhibit the Development of Atherosclerotic Lesions in Apolipoprotein E Knockout Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Chai Siah; Kim, Bohkyung; Pham, Tho X; Yang, Yue; Wegner, Casey J; Park, Young-Ki; Balunas, Marcy; Lee, Ji-Young

    2015-12-01

    Hyperlipidemia and inflammation contribute to the development of atherosclerotic lesions. Our objective was to determine antiatherogenic effect of edible blue-green algae (BGA) species, that is, Nostoc commune var. sphaeroides Kützing (NO) and Spirulina platensis (SP), in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice, a well-established mouse model of atherosclerosis. Male ApoE(-/-) mice were fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol (HF/HC, 15% fat and 0.2% cholesterol by wt) control diet or a HF/HC diet supplemented with 5% (w/w) of NO or SP powder for 12 weeks. Plasma total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) were measured, and livers were analyzed for histology and gene expression. Morphometric analysis for lesions and immunohistochemical analysis for CD68 were conducted in the aorta and the aortic root. NO supplementation significantly decreased plasma TC and TG, and liver TC, compared to control and SP groups. In the livers of NO-fed mice, less lipid droplets were present with a concomitant decrease in fatty acid synthase protein levels than the other groups. There was a significant increase in hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor protein levels in SP-supplemented mice than in control and NO groups. Quantification of aortic lesions by en face analysis demonstrated that both NO and SP decreased aortic lesion development to a similar degree compared with control. While lesions in the aortic root were not significantly different between groups, the CD68-stained area in the aortic root was significantly lowered in BGA-fed mice than controls. In conclusion, both NO and SP supplementation decreased the development of atherosclerotic lesions, suggesting that they may be used as a natural product for atheroprotection. PMID:26566121

  20. Distribution of blue-green algae (Cyanophyta) in streams of Mt. Stara planina: Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Simić Snežana B.

    2002-01-01

    Distribution of blue-green algae was studied at 14 sites along five streams in the Stara Planina mountains. Algological samples were taken from the community of benthos and periphyton in the spring (March-May 1991), summer (June-August 1991, August 1996, July 1997), and autumn (September-November 1991, September 1997). Algae of the classes Chamaesiphonophyceae (species of the genus Chamaesiphon) and Hormogoniophyceae (species of the genera Symploca, Phormidium, Oscillatoria, Schizothrix, Nost...

  1. Effects of Long-Term Supplementation of Blue-Green Algae on Lipid Metabolism in C57BL/6J mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ji-Young Lee

    2014-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is a primary risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In this study, we investigated the effect of long-term supplementation of two blue-green algae (BGA) species, i.e., Nostoc commune var. sphaeroides Kützing (NO) and Spirulina platensis (SP), on lipid metabolism in vivo. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed an AIN-93G/M diet supplemented with 2.5 or 5% (wt/wt) NO or SP for 6 months. Mice fed NO and SP showed lower plasma total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) concentrations than co...

  2. Health Benefits of Blue-Green Algae: Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ku, Chai Siah; Yang, Yue; Park, Youngki; Lee, Jiyoung

    2013-01-01

    Blue-green algae (BGA) are among the most primitive life forms on earth and have been consumed as food or medicine by humans for centuries. BGA contain various bioactive components, such as phycocyanin, carotenoids, γ-linolenic acid, fibers, and plant sterols, which can promote optimal health in humans. Studies have demonstrated that several BGA species or their active components have plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride-lowering properties due to their modulation of intestinal cholester...

  3. Effects of antibiotics and ultraviolet radiation on the halophilic blue-green alga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of a variety of antibiotics, ultraviolet radiation and N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NTG) on the survival and mutability of the halophilic blue-green alga, Aphanothece halophytica, were determined. The halophile was found extremely sensitive to penicillin G and bacitracin; moderately sensitive to novobiocin, amino acid analogs, chloramphenicol and streptomycin; and tolerant to actidione and hydroxyurea. Ultraviolet and NTG killing curves and photoreactivation capabilities were seimilar to those reported for other members of the Chroococcales. Three stable morphological mutants were obtained by ultraviolet and NTG treatment, the latter being much more efficient in the production of mutants. (orig.)

  4. Distribution of blue-green algae (Cyanophyta in streams of Mt. Stara planina: Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Snežana B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of blue-green algae was studied at 14 sites along five streams in the Stara Planina mountains. Algological samples were taken from the community of benthos and periphyton in the spring (March-May 1991, summer (June-August 1991, August 1996, July 1997, and autumn (September-November 1991, September 1997. Algae of the classes Chamaesiphonophyceae (species of the genus Chamaesiphon and Hormogoniophyceae (species of the genera Symploca, Phormidium, Oscillatoria, Schizothrix, Nostoc, Rivularia Homoeothrix, Tolypothrix, and Plectonema were recorded. The species Chamaesiphon cylindricus, Symploca radians, Phormidium coutinhoi, Nostoc coeruleum, Homoeothrix janthina, Plectonema thomasinianum, and Tolypothrix distorta were registered herein first time in Serbia. Occurrence of blue-green algae in highland brooks and rivers of the Stara Planina mountains was monitored in relation to a large number of abiotic factors e.g. altitude above level, stream dimensions (width and depth, substrate bottom type (%, current flow rate, water temperature and pH oxygen concentration, concentrations of nitrates and phosphates, and BOD5, using Principal Coordinates analysis (PCX.

  5. Photosensitizers from Spirulina for Solar Cell

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Spirulina is a kind of blue-green algae with good photosynthetic efficiency and might be used for photovoltaic power generation. So this paper used living spirulina as novel photosensitizer to construct spirulina biosolar cell. The results showed that spirulina had the photoelectric conversion effect, and could let the spirulina biosolar cell have 70 μA photocurrent. Meanwhile, adding glucose sucrose or chitosan in the spirulina anode chamber, they could make the maxima current density of the...

  6. Diurnal variation in n(2) fixation and photosynthesis by aquatic blue-green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, R B; Friberg, E E; Burris, R H

    1977-01-01

    Rates of (14)CO(2) fixation, O(2) evolution, and N(2) fixation (acetylene reduction) by natural populations of blue-green algae recovered from Lake Mendota were measured at frequent intervals between sunrise and sunset. Photosynthesis and N(2) fixation were depressed during midday when light intensity was greatest. As the light intensity rose, most of the algal population migrated to deeper, light-limited waters where radiation damage would be diminished. As the relative rate of N(2) fixation compared to CO(2) fixation increases with depth, it is suggested that the algae maintain balanced growth by migrating vertically via buoyancy regulation. High concentrations of dissolved O(2) in lake water may inhibit N(2) fixation by enhancing photorespiration. Several factors such as photosynthetic rate, light intensity, dissolved O(2), species composition, and vertical and horizontal migration all affect observed rates of in situ N(2) fixation. PMID:16659792

  7. Moessbauer study of cobalt and iron in the cyanobacterium (blue green alga)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moessbauer emission and absorption studies have been performed on cobalt and iron in the cyanobacterium (blue-green alga). The Moessbauer spectrum of the cyanobacterium cultivated with 57Co is decomposed into two doublets. The parameters of the major doublet are in good agreement with those of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) labeled with 57Co. The other minor doublet has parameters close to those of Fe(II) coordinated with six nitrogen atoms. These suggest that cobalt is used for the biosynthesis of vitamin B12 or its analogs in the cyanobacterium. The spectra of the cyanobacterium grown with 57Fe show that iron is in the high-spin trivalent state and possibly in the form of ferritin, iron storage protein. (orig.)

  8. Influence of the Systemic Application of Blue–Green Spirulina platensis Algae on the Cutaneous Carotenoids and Elastic Fibers in Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Darvin, Maxim E.; Sora Jung; Sabine Schanzer; Heike Richter; Elke Kurth; Gisela Thiede; Meinke, Martina C; Juergen Lademann

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of a food supplement rich in antioxidants on the antioxidant status of the skin. For this reason, the blue-green algae Spirulina platensis powder was used for oral application during eight weeks. The effect of oral application of the antioxidant-containing Spirulina platensis on characteristic skin aging parameters, e.g., concentration of cutaneous carotenoids and the collagen/elastin index (SAAID), was investigated in vivo. A signif...

  9. Ecosystem manipulation for increasing biological N2 fixation by blue-green algae (CYANOBACTERIA) in lowland rice fields

    OpenAIRE

    I. F. Grant; Roger, Pierre-Armand; Watanabe, I

    1986-01-01

    An introduction to the soil/floodwater ecosystem of lowland rice fields is given. Two primary consumers are particularly important in limiting the growth and N2-fixing activities of blue-green algae in irrigated rice ; the OSTRACODA (Class CRUSTACEA) and the PULMONATA (MULUSCA). Control of grazing by neem seeds AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. Juss and cultural practices enhanced BGA biomass and increased N2-fixation ten fold. Significant increases in rice grain protein occur if heterocystous algae bloo...

  10. Effect of Nanohexaconazole on Nitrogen Fixing Blue Green Algae and Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Gopal, Madhuban; Pabbi, Sunil; Paul, Sangeeta; Alam, Md Imteyaz; Yadav, Saurabh; Nair, Kishore Kumar; Chauhan, Neetu; Srivastava, Chitra; Gogoi, Robin; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Goswami, Arunava

    2016-01-01

    Nanohexaconazole is a highly efficient fungicide against Rhizoctonia solani. Nanoparticles are alleged to adversely affect the non-target organisms. In order to evaluate such concern, the present study was carried out to investigate the effect of nanohexaconazole and its commercial formulation on sensitive nitrogen fixing blue green algae (BGA) and bacteria. Various activities of algae and bacteria namely growth, N-fixation, N-assimilation, Indole acetic acid (IAA) production and phosphate solubilization were differently affected in the presence of hexaconazole. Although, there was stimulatory to slightly inhibitory effect on the growth measurable parameters of the organisms studied at the recommended dose of nanohexaconazole, but its higher dose was inhibitory to all these microorganisms. On the other hand, the recommended as well as higher dose of commercial hexaconazole showed much severe inhibition of growth and metabolic activity of these organisms as compared to the nano preparation. The uses of nanohexazconazole instead of hexaconazole as a fungicide will not only help to control various fungal pathogens but also sustain the growth and activity of these beneficial microorganisms for sustaining soil fertility and productivity. PMID:27398501

  11. BIOGENESIS OF THYLAKOID MEMBRANES WITH RECONSTRUCTION OF CHLOROPHYLL-PROTEIN COMPLEXES IN DELETION-MUTANT OF ORF469 IN BLUE-GREEN ALGA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuQingyu; WangRuiyong; XuHong; WireVermaas

    1997-01-01

    The transformable blue green alga is used productively for mutation and deletion studies to provide functional information regarding photosynthetic reaction center complexes. We wish to take the application of transformable blue-green algal systems one step further ,and set out the

  12. Contamination by Microcystis and microcystins of blue-green algae food supplements (BGAS) on the Italian market and possible risk for the exposed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichi, Susanna; Lavorini, Paolo; Funari, Enzo; Scardala, Simona; Testai, Emanuela

    2012-12-01

    Blue green algae supplements (BGAS) are generally proposed as health-promoting natural products for their purported beneficial effects. Spirulina spp. and Aphanizomenon flos aquae are mainly used in BGAS production. They are usually collected from the natural environment, where other potentially toxic cyanobacteria can be present, making possible BGAS contamination by cyanotoxins, with potential risk for human health. In this work we apply a combined approach, by using chemical and molecular techniques, on BGAS of 17 brands available in Italy. Samples containing Spirulina-only were free of contamination. The Aphanizomenon flos aquae-based samples were contaminated by highly variable levels of microcystins (MC-LR and MC-LA congeners), up to 5.2 μg MC-LR equivalents per gram product. The highest variability (up to 50 fold) was among batches of the same brand, although intra-batch differences were also evidenced. PCR analyses were positive only for the presence of Microcystis sp., identified as the toxin-producing species responsible for contamination. At the maximum contamination levels found, a risk for consumers can be expected following chronic or sub-chronic exposure to a reasonable daily BGAS consumption of 4 g. The need for a strict monitoring by producers and Health Authority to assure an adequate protection for consumers is underscored. PMID:23036452

  13. Colony development and physiological characterization of the edible blue-green alga, Nostoc sphaeroides (Nostocaceae, Cyanophyta)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongyang Deng; Qiang Hu; Fan Lu; Guoxiang Liu; Zhengyu Hu

    2008-01-01

    The edible blue-green alga,Nostoc sphaeroides Kützing,is able to form microcolorties and spherical macrocolonies.It has been used as a potent herbal medicine and dietary supplement for centuries because of its nutraceutical and pharmacological benefits.However,lim-ited information is available on the development of the spherical macrocolonies and the environmental factors that affect their structure.This report described the morphogenesis of N.Sphaeroides from single trichomes to macrocolonies.During the process,most structural features of macrocolonies of various sizes were dense maculas,rings,the compact core and the formation of liquid core;and the filaments within the macrocolonies showed different lengths and arrays depending on the sizes of macrocolonies.Meanwhile temperature and light intensity also strongly affected the internal structure of macrocolonies.As microcolonies further increased in size to form 30 mm mac-rocolonies,the colonies differentiated into distinct outer,middle and inner layers.The filaments of the outer layer showed higher max-imum photosynthetic rates,higher light saturation point,and higher photosynthetic efficiency than those of the inner layer;whereas the filaments of the inner layer had a higher content of chlorophyll a and phycobiliproteins than those of the outer layer.The results obtained in this study were important for the mass cultivation of N.Sphaeroides as a nutraceutical product.

  14. Some metabolic pathways in the blue - green alga micro cystis aeruginosa using 14 C - Labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blue - green algae (cyanobacteria) are of world Wied distribution in fresh water, their toxic and nontoxic strains are forming heavy blooms regularly in eutrophic natural water. They grow rapidly under many physicochemical stresses even in many domestic sewage (Skulberg et al., 1984). The toxic and nontoxic strains are morphologically indistin - guishable, so extensive toxicity testing must be taken into consideration and is so much essential because some species are marketed to human consumption as a food. From the toxicological point of view, at least five genera are now known as toxic strains, these are anabaena, nostoc, oscillator, aphanizomenon, micro cystis (Carmichael, 1981; Carmichael and Mahmood, 1984, and carmichael et al, 1985). The toxicity levels of these species are varied widely with regard to site, season, week or even day of collection (Carmichael and Gorham, 1981). Such variability may be correlated to the changes in species composition. The intensive growth of toxin producing organisms in municipal and recreational water supplies affect human health both wild and domestic animals, Livestock, pets, fish and birds in many countries and are suspected to cause the last and smell of drinking water to be unpleasant (Beasley et al, 1983 and carmichael et al, 1985)

  15. Repair of X-ray induced ruptures in DNA of blue-green alga Anacystis nidulans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work deals with systems of repair of radiation damage in the DNA of the blue-green alga Anacystis nidulans by the modified method of DNA fractionation by molecular weight with centrifuging in an alkaline sucrose gradient. It is shown that effective post-radiation repair of X-ray-induced breaks in DNA in A. nidulans cells takes place only after irradiation in a tris-HCl buffer at 200C. It is assumed that the system of restoration in actively metabolizing cells is similar to the mechanism of ''slow'' repair, which is responsible for repair synthesis and the elimination of the gaps formed during excision or post-replicative repair. On the basis of the differences found in the DNA sedimentation profiles immediately after irradiation of cells at 00 or 200 in a tris-HCl or a cerium buffer, the authors conclude that A. nidulans cells also have ''rapid'' repair systems which operate right in the irradiation period and resotre the single-strand breaks in DNA. Irradiation in a cerium buffer or at low temperature inhibited both the ''rapid'' and the ''slow'' repair of breaks in DNA. (V.A.P.)

  16. Photosystem I and photophosphorylation-dependent leucine incorporation in the blue-green alga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    sub(L)-Leucine uptake and incorporation in the blue-green alga Anacystis nidulans were measured during illumination with monochromatic light of 630 and 717 nm. With near as well as far red light, an enhanced uptake of 14C-sub(L)-leucine was observed. In far red light, the leucine uptake depended on light intensity and pH value. After the first few minutes, the uptake remained constant for more than one hour. The rate of uptake in light was the same in air as in nitrogen. The incorporation of 14C-leucine in the soluble fraction decreased in the presence of chloramphenicol which prevents protein synthesis. In far red light, its incorporation was insensitive to DCMU (5 x 10-6 M) but was depressed by uncouplers like CCCP or desaspidin. These effects are taken as evidence that leucine incorporation under the conditions used is dependent on photosystem I reactions and cyclic photophosphorylation. DBMIB and KCN in high concentrations decrease the leucine incorporation in far red light and indicate that plastoquinone and plastocyanin are members of the cyclic electron flow also in intact cells of Anacystis. Antimycin A has no inhibitory effect. The inhibition by other less specific inhibitors like salicylaldoxime, desaspidin and DSPD is discussed. (author)

  17. Computer simulation of energy migration in the C-phycocyanin of the blue-green algae Agmenellum Quadruplicatum

    OpenAIRE

    Demidov, Andrey A.; Borisov, Alexander Yu.

    1993-01-01

    Two methods for simulation of energy migration in the C-phycocyanin fragments of PBS were developed. Both methods are based on the statistical analysis of an excitation behavior in modeling complexes with a limited number (up to hundreds) of chromophores using the Monte-Carlo approach and calculation of migration rates for the system of linear balance equations. Energy migration rates were calculated in the case of C-phycocyanin of the blue-green algae Agmenellum quadruplicatum. The main chan...

  18. Diversity and Ecology of the Phytoplankton of Filamentous Blue-Green Algae (Cyanoprokaryota, Nostocales in Bulgarian Standing Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plamen Stoyanov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents data about the diversity and ecology of filamentous blue-green algae, found in the phytoplankton of 42 standing water basins in Bulgaria. We identified 9 species from Cyanoprokaryota, which belong to 5 genera from order Nostocales. Ecological characterization of the identified species has been performed. Data about the physicochemical parameters of the water basins are also provided.

  19. [Comparison of histone-like proteins from blue-green algae with ribosomal basic proteins of alga and wheat germ histones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gofshteĭn, L V; Iurina, N P; Romashkin, V I; Oparin, A I

    1975-01-01

    Histone-like proteins was found in blue-green alga Anacystis nidulans, which has no nucleus. F2b2, F2a2, F2a1 fractions were found in histone-like algae proteins and no fraction F1. Content of basic amino acids (arginine being prevailing in algae protein) is quite identical in histone-like algae proteins and in wheat germs histones, while the content of acid amino acids is considerably higher in algae. The presence in procaryotic cells of basic proteins similar in a number of properties to histones of higher organisms suggests that these proteins are evolutionary precursors of eucaryotic histones. PMID:813782

  20. New chemical constituents from Oryza sativa straw and their algicidal activities against blue-green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ateeque; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Ali, Mohd; Park, Inmyoung; Kim, Jin-Seog; Kim, Eun-Hye; Lim, Ju-Jin; Kim, Seul-Ki; Chung, Ill-Min

    2013-08-28

    Five new constituents, 5,4'-dihydroxy-7,3'-dimethoxyflavone-4'-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(2a→1b)-2a-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(2b→1c)-2b-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-2c-octadecanoate (1), 5,4'-dihydroxy-7,3'-dimethoxyflavone-4'-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-(2a→1b)-2a-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-(2b→1c)-2b-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-(2c→1d)-2c-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-2d-octadecanoate (2), kaempferol-3-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-(2a→1b)-2a-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-(2b→1c)-2b-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-(2c→1d)-2c-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-2d-hexadecanoate (3), methyl salicylate-2-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-(2a→1b)-2a-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-(2b→1c)-2b-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-(2c→1d)-2c-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-(2d→1e)-2d-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-(2e→1f)-2e-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-(2f→1g)-2f-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-(2g→1h)-2g-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-2h-geranilan-8',10'-dioic acid-1'-oate (4), and oleioyl-β-D-arabinoside (5), along with eight known compounds, were isolated from a methanol extract of Oryza sativa straw. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated using one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopies in combination with IR, ESI/MS, and HR-ESI/FTMS. In bioassays with blue-green algae, the efficacies of the algicidal activities of the five new compounds (1-5) were evaluated at concentrations of 1, 10, and 100 mg/L. Compound 5 had the highest growth inhibition (92.6 ± 0.3%) for Microcystis aeruginosa UTEX 2388 at a concentration of 100 ppm (mg/L). Compound 5 has high potential for the ecofriendly control of weeds and algae harmful to water-logged rice. PMID:23889328

  1. Studies in Growth Parameter and Pigment Contents in Endosulphan, EC- 35 Exposed Blue Green Alga (Anabena Cylindrica, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goutam Sabat

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Anabaena cylindrica L, a blue green alga commonly found in rice fields was experimentally exposed with a board spectrum insecticide, Endosulphan, EC50 in laboratory conditions for varied days. The growth of alga in terms of increase in Absorbance, dry weight and pigments like Total chlorophyll, carotenoid and phaeophytin were estimated to study the toxic effect and the subsequent recovery from insecticide stress. The results obtained indicated decrease in all studied parameters with increase in exposure period and concentration. The highest concentration (3.25ml/L and highest period (15 Days severely affected the growth of alga and decreased pigment content. However, when the algae were allowed to grow in insecticide free environment for 15 days, they could able to recover fully from the toxic stress.

  2. Sequence of the gene coding for the β-subunit of dinitrogenase from the blue-green alga Anabaena

    OpenAIRE

    Mazur, Barbara J.; Chui, Chok-Fun

    1982-01-01

    The nitrogen fixation nif K gene of the blue-green alga Anabaena, which codes for the β-subunit of dinitrogenase, has been subjected to sequence analysis. The nif K protein is predicted to be 512 amino acids long, to have a Mr or 57,583, and to contain six cysteine residues. Three of these cysteines are within peptides homologous to FeS cluster-binding cysteinyl peptides from ferredoxins and from a high potential iron protein and, thus, may be ligands to which FeS clusters bind in dinitrogena...

  3. The complete nucleotide sequence of a 16S ribosomal RNA gene from a blue-green alga, Anacystis nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, N; Sugiura, M

    1983-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a 16S ribosomal RNA gene from a blue-green alga, Anacystis nidulans, has been determined. Its coding region is estimated to be 1,487 base pairs long, which is nearly identical to those reported for chloroplast 16S rRNA genes and is about 4% shorter than that of the Escherichia coli gene. The 16S rRNA sequence of A. nidulans has 83% homology with that of tobacco chloroplast and 74% homology with that of E. coli. Possible stem and loop structures of A. nidulans 16S rRNA sequences resemble more closely those of chloroplast 16S rRNAs than those of E. coli 16S rRNA. These observations support the endosymbiotic theory of chloroplast origin. PMID:6412038

  4. Evidence for dark repair of far ultraviolet light damage in the blue-green alga, Gloeocapsa alpicola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inactivating effect of far UV light on the unicellular blue-green alga Gloeocapsa alpicola could be totally reversed by exposure to blue light immediately after irradiation. However, if the irradiated cells were held in the dark before exposure to blue light, reversal became progressively less efficient, and almost disappeared after 60-80 h holding. Caffeine and acriflavine inhibited loss of photoreversibility, suggesting an involvement of excision functions. Chloramphenicol and rifampicin slightly increased the rate of loss of photoreversibility, indicating that inducible functions play only a minor role. Split UV dose experiments indicated that light-dependent repair remained operational during dark liquid holding. These results provide preliminary evidence for dark repair in G. alpicola. (author)

  5. Bio-oil production through pyrolysis of blue-green algae blooms (BGAB): Product distribution and bio-oil characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrolysis experiments of blue-green algae blooms (BGAB) were carried out in a fixed-bed reactor to determine the effects of pyrolysis temperature, particle size and sweep gas flow rate on pyrolysis product yields and bio-oil properties. The pyrolysis temperature, particle size and sweep gas flow rate were varied in the ranges of 300–700 °C, below 0.25–2.5 mm and 50–400 mL min−1, respectively. The maximum oil yield of 54.97% was obtained at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C, particle size below 0.25 mm and sweep gas flow rate of 100 mL min−1. The elemental analysis and calorific value of the oil were determined, and the chemical composition of the oil was investigated using gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS) technique. The analysis of bio-oil composition showed that bio-oil from BGAB could be a potential source of renewable fuel with a heating value of 31.9 MJ kg−1. - Highlights: ► Bio-oil production from pyrolysis of blue-green algae blooms in fixed bed reactor. ► Effects of pyrolysis conditions on product distribution were investigated. ► The maximum bio-oil yield reached 54.97 wt %. ► The bio-oil has high heating value and may be suitable as renewable fuel. ► Pyrolysis of algal biomass beneficial for energy recovery, eutrophication control

  6. Study On Technology For Treatment And Control Of Forming Blooms Of Blue-Green Algae In Eutrophic Ponds Or Other Small Water Bodies, Using Bentonite Material Modified Lanthanum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponds and lakes in Hanoi have been polluted seriously, so called eutrophication, and lead to form blooms of blue-green algae. This impacted on aquatic organisms and population living around the eutrophic ponds and lakes. This project studied on technology for treatment and control of forming blooms of blue-green algae in eutrophic ponds or other small water bodies by using bentonite material modified lanthanum, a rare earth element-environmentally friendly. Bentonite modified lanthanum material (bent-La) prepared from Binh Thuan bentonite (MMT) has ability for SRP absorption (Soluble Reactive Phosphorus) in eutrophic water. The isothermal lines according to Langmuir and Freundlich model, the absorption kinetics according to quadratic kinetic equation and Elovich model that describe SRP absorption process of bent-La material were determined. The thermodynamic parameters were also determined on the base of the experimental data. The study on SRP absorption of bent-La material in eutrophic water of Hoa Muc and Kim Dong lakes were carried out in the laboratory and in field work. The study results affirmed that the bent-La material has treated and controlled the forming blooms of blue-green algae in eutrophic ponds or other small water bodies. The technical flowsheet for preparation of bent-La material on a scale of 40 kg per batch and process for treatment and control of the forming blooms of blue-green algae in eutrophic water bodies have also been established. (author)

  7. Effects of Long-Term Supplementation of Blue-Green Algae on Lipid Metabolism in C57BL/6J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Young Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia is a primary risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In this study, we investigated the effect of long-term supplementation of two blue-green algae (BGA species, i.e., Nostoc commune var. sphaeroides Kützing (NO and Spirulina platensis (SP, on lipid metabolism in vivo. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed an AIN-93G/M diet supplemented with 2.5 or 5% (wt/wt NO or SP for 6 months. Mice fed NO and SP showed lower plasma total cholesterol (TC and triglyceride (TG concentrations than control at certain months during 6 month experimental period. Both BGA supplementation for 6 months significantly increased hepatic TC contents whereas SP-fed groups had significantly less TG levels in the liver compared with control and NO groups. None of BGA-fed animals showed significantly different mRNA levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein 2, while 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR expression was higher in NO groups than the other groups in the liver. Furthermore, NO supplementation increased the hepatic expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1, stearoyl CoA desaturase 1, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1α, and acyl-CoA oxidase 1 but SP did not elicit any significant changes in mRNA levels of the genes compared with control. LDLR protein level was significantly higher in NO 2.5% and SP 5%, as compared to the control and NO 5% groups; while the level of fatty acid synthase protein in the liver was significantly higher in NO 5% and SP 5%, than that in the control group. (removing "," between "liver" and "was". In conclusion, our results suggest that long-term supplementation of NO and SP decreased plasma TC and TG concentrations. Therefore, supplementation of NO and SP may be potentially beneficial for preventing dyslipidemia-associated chronic diseases.

  8. Hypolipidemic Effect of a Blue-Green Alga (Nostoc commune) Is Attributed to Its Nonlipid Fraction by Decreasing Intestinal Cholesterol Absorption in C57BL/6J Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Chai Siah; Kim, Bohkyung; Pham, Tho X; Yang, Yue; Weller, Curtis L; Carr, Timothy P; Park, Young-Ki; Lee, Ji-Young

    2015-11-01

    We previously demonstrated that Nostoc commune var. sphaeroids Kützing (NO), a blue-green alga (BGA), exerts a hypolipidemic effect in vivo and its lipid extract regulates the expression of genes involved in cholesterol and lipid metabolism in vitro. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the hypolipidemic effect of NO is attributed to an algal lipid or a delipidated fraction in vivo compared with Spirulina platensis (SP). Male C57BL/6J mice were fed an AIN-93M diet containing 2.5% or 5% of BGA (w/w) or a lipid extract equivalent to 5% of BGA for 4 weeks to measure plasma and liver lipids, hepatic gene expression, intestinal cholesterol absorption, and fecal sterol excretion. Plasma total cholesterol (TC) was significantly lower in 2.5% and 5% NO-fed groups, while plasma triglyceride (TG) levels were decreased in the 5% NO group compared with controls. However, neither NO organic extract (NOE) nor SP-fed groups altered plasma lipids. Hepatic mRNA levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR), carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1α, and acyl-CoA oxidase 1 were induced in 5% NO-fed mice, while there were no significant changes in hepatic lipogenic gene expression between groups. NO, but not NOE and SP groups, significantly decreased intestinal cholesterol absorption. When HepG2 cells and primary mouse hepatocytes were incubated with NOE and SP organic extract (SPE), there were marked decreases in protein levels of HMGR, low-density lipoprotein receptor, and fatty acid synthase. In conclusion, the nonlipid fraction of NO exerts TC and TG-lowering effects primarily by inhibiting intestinal cholesterol absorption and by increasing hepatic fatty acid oxidation, respectively. PMID:26161942

  9. Metabolism of 14C-labelled glycine, serine, and homoserine in the blue-green alga Synechococcus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The blue-green alga Synechococcus (Anacystis nidulans, strain L 1402-1) was grown under normal air conditions (0.03 vol% CO2) and with enriched CO2(3.0 vol%) at + 35 0C and relative low light (0.6 x 103 μW/cm2). 14C incorporation after adding 14C-bicarbonate, 14C-aspartate, 14C-glycine, 14C-homoserine and 14C-serine into several products were studied during photosynthesis and in the dark. In high CO2 grown cells a very high initial labelling of aspartate and glycine serine could be observed. Radioactivity of 14C-aspartate was found mainly in glutamate, alanine and threonine. Aspartate, isoleucine and succinate were 14C-labelled after exposure to 14C-homoserine during photosynthesis and in the dark. 14C incorporation into several organic acids (e.g. glyceric acid, malate) and glutamate after feeding 14C-glycine and 14C-serine could be detected during light and dark periods. Results were discussed in respect to the metabolism of amino acids and photosynthetic carboxylation pathways in connection with an interrupted tricarboxylic acid cycle. (author)

  10. Induction of mutations in blue-green alga Anacystis nidulans by consolidated and split UV irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultraviolet mutability of consolidated and split dose treatment in A. nidulans was investigated with reference to induction of phage- and streptomycin-resistant markers. The consolidated UV treatment induced both the markers about 100-150-fold, whereas under photoreactivating conditions the survival of alga was enhanced and mutation frequency was decreased. The split UV treatment with 6 hr dark incubation between two UV exposures enhanced the survival and mutation frequencies to 500-700 fold above the back-ground level. The data give indirect evidence for the presence of error-prone dark repair system in this organism. (auth.)

  11. Hydrogen production from salt water by Marine blue green algae and solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, A.; Rosner, D.; Kumazawa, S.; Barciela, S.; Phlips, E.

    1985-01-01

    Two marine bluegreen algae, Oscillatoria sp. Miami BG 7 and Synechococcus sp Miami 041511 have been selected as the result of over 10 years continuous and intensive effort of isolation, growth examination, and the screening of hydrogen photoproduction capability in this laboratory. Both strains photoproduced hydrogen for several days at high rates and a quantity of hydrogen was accumulated in a closed vessel. Overall hydrogen donor substance of the hydrogen photoproduction was found to be salt water. Using strain Miami BG 7, a two step method of hydrogen photoproduction from salt water was successfully developed and this was recycled several times over a one month period using both free cells and immobilized cells in both indoor and outdoor under natural sunlight. According to these experiments, a prototype floating hydrogen production system was designed for further development of the biosolar hydrogen production system.

  12. Nitrogenase activity in cell-free extracts of the blue-green alga, Anabaena cylindrica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R V; Evans, M C

    1971-03-01

    Cell-free extracts with high nitrogenase activity were prepared by sonic oscillation and French press treatment from the blue-gree alga Anabaena cylindrica. Extracts were prepared from cells grown on a 95% N(2)-5% CO(2) gas mixture followed by a period of nitrogen starvation under an atmosphere of 95% argon-5% CO(2). No increase in the specific activity of extracts was achieved by breaking heterocysts. Activity (assayed by acetylene reduction) was found to be dependent on adenosine triphosphate (ATP), an ATP-generating system, and a low-potential reductant. Na(2)S(2)O(2) employed as reductant supports higher rates of nitrogenase activity than reduced ferredoxin. The activity is associated with a small-particle fraction that can be sedimented by ultracentrifugation. In contrast to the particulate nitrogenase of Azotobacter, which is stable in air, the A. cylindrica nitrogenase is an oxygen sensitive as nitrogenase prepared from anaerobic bacteria. PMID:4994040

  13. Induction of mutations in the blue-green alga Plectonema boryanum Gomont

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutations to cyanophage and streptomycin resistance were induced in the filamentous blue-gree alga Plectonema boryanum IU 594 after treatment with ultraviolet irradiation, N-methyl-N'-nitro-Nnitrosoguanidine, acriflavine, 2-aminopurine and caffeine. Phage-resistant mutants were obtained with all the mutagens tested. Their efficiencies were in the order: MNNG>UV>acriflavine >2-AP>caffeine. In contrast, the drug-resistant mutants were not induced by base analogues: the efficiencies were: acriflavine>MNNG>UV. Lethal and mutational lesions induced with UV were efficiently repaired under photo-reactivating conditions whereas post-treatment with caffeine resulted in enhanced mutation frequencies especially at low UV doses. Neither survival nor mutagenesis was enhanced by keeping the MNNG-treated population in subdued light

  14. Exploration of the gasification of Spirulina algae in supercritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew; Hendry, Doug; Wilkinson, Nikolas; Venkitasamy, Chandrasekar; Jacoby, William

    2012-09-01

    This study presents non-catalytic gasification of Spirulina algae in supercritical water using a plug flow reactor and a mechanism for feeding solid carbon streams into high pressure (>25 MPa) environments. A 2(III)(3-1) factorial experimental design explored the effect of concentration, temperature, and residence time on gasification reactions. A positive displacement pump fed algae slurries into the reactor at a temperature range of 550-600°C, and residence times between 4 and 9s. The results indicate that algae gasify efficiently in supercritical water, highlighting the potential for a high throughput process. Additional experiments determined Arrhenius parameters of Spirulina algae. This study also presents a model of the gasification reaction using the estimated activation energy (108 kJ/mol) and other Arrhenius parameters at plug flow conditions. The maximum rate of gasification under the conditions studied of 53 g/Ls is much higher than previously reported. PMID:22728180

  15. Evidence for two types of P-700 in membrane fragments from a blue-green alga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyama, T; McSwain, B D; Arnon, D I

    1977-04-11

    The mathematical analysis described in the preceding paper (Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1977) 460, 65-75), in which the steady-state photooxidation of P-700 was compared with overall electron flux in Photosystem I chloroplast fragments, was applied to membrane fragments from the blue-gree alga Nostoc muscorum (Strain 7119) noted for their high activity of both Photosystem I and Photosystem II. The same analysis, which gave good agreement between the photooxidation of P-700 and the overall light-induced electron flux (measured as NADP+ reduction) in Photosystem I chloroplast fragments, revealed in the algal membrane fragments two P-700 components: one responding to high light intensity (P-700 HI), the photooxidation of which was in good agreement with the overall electron flux (measured as NADP+ reduction by reduced 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol), and the other component responding to low light intensity (P-700 LI), the photooxidation of which was not correlated with the reduction of NADP+ by reduced 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol. PMID:403940

  16. [Investigation of the relation between pigment composition and CO2 exchange in the blue-green alga anacystis nidulans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döhler, G; Przybylla, K R

    1970-06-01

    Changes in culture conditions caused strong changes in the pigment composition in the blue-green alga Anacystis nidulans. Under "normal" illumination (white light; 0.6·10(3) erg/cm(2)·sec) the relation between the amounts of chlorophyll a and phycocyanin was 1:6.6. In a high light intensity (20.8·10(3) erg/cm(2)·sec) the phycocyanin content was reduced and the relations thus changed to 1:1.9. Growing the algae in red light of high intensity (20·10(3) erg/cm(2)·sec) increased the phycocyanin content; the chlorophyll a: phycocyanin relation was then 1:12.1.The action spectrum of apparent photosynthesis showed a minimum at 473 nm in all three cultures. The maximum of photosynthesis in low light cultures fell in the absorption region of phycocyanin at 621 nm. The action spectrum of the red light culture showed a reduced rate of photosynthesis in the same region. The strong light culture had an action spectrum similar to that of the red light culture with a maximum at 651 nm. The differing action spectrum of the low light culture may be a result of interruption in the energy transfer from phycocyanin to chlorophyll a within pigment system II.The transients of CO2 exchange are independent of the pigment composition. Two different types of transients were found depending on the wavelength of the incident light. In red light of 550-650 nm a higher stationary rate was reached after a maximum of photosynthesis at the beginning of the illumination period. In blue and far red light a lower rate was found after the first maximum. Following a illumination period in blue or far red light a CO2 evolution in the dark was observed. On the other hand, this CO2 evolution was not found after illumination with red light. These effects are possiblt caused by a decarboxylation reaction (photorespiration) which occurs only in blue and far red light. PMID:24500744

  17. The photochemical and fluorescence properties of whole cells, spheroplasts and spheroplast particles from the blue-green alga Phormidium luridum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tel-or, E; Malkin, S

    1977-02-01

    The photochemical activities and fluorescence properties of cells, spheroplasts and spheroplast particles from the blue-green alga Phormidium luridum were compared. The photochemical activities were measured in a whole range of wavelengths and expressed as quantum yield spectra (quantum yield vs. wavelength). The following reactions were measured. Photosynthesis (O2 evolution) in whole cells; Hill reaction (O2 evolution) with Fe(CN)63- and NADP as electron acceptors (Photosystem II and photosystem II + Photosystem I reactions); electron transfer from reduced 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol to diquat (Photosystem I reaction). The fluorescence properties were emission spectra, quantum yield spectra and the induction pattern. On the basis of comparison between the quantum yield spectra and the pigments compositions the relative contribution of each pigment to each photosystem was estimated. In normal cells and spheroplasts it was found that Photosystem I (Photosystem II) contains about 90% (10%) of the chlorophyll a, 90% (10%) of the carotenoids and 15% (85%) of the phycocyanin. In spheroplast particles there is a reorganization of the pigments; they loose a certain fraction (about half) of the phycocyanin but the remaining phycocyanin attaches itself exclusively to Photosystem I (!). This is reflected by the loss of Photosystem II activity, a flat quantum yield vs. wavelength dependence and a loss of the fluorescence induction. The fluorescence quantum yield spectra conform qualitatively to the above conclusion. More quantitative estimation shows that only a fraction (20--40%) of the chlorophyll of Photosystem II is fluorescent. Total emission spectrum and the ratio of variable to constant fluorescence are in agreement with this conclusion. The fluorescence emission spectrum shows characteristic differences between the constant and variable components. The variable fluorescence comes exclusively from chlorophyll a; the constant fluorescence is contributed, in addition

  18. Characterization and optimization of hydrogen production by a salt water blue-green alga Oscillatoria sp. Miami BG 7. II - Use of immobilization for enhancement of hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phlips, E. J.; Mitsui, A.

    1986-01-01

    The technique of cellular immobilization was applied to the process of hydrogen photoproduction of nonheterocystous, filamentous marine blue-green alga, Oscillatoria sp. Miami BG 7. Immobilization with agar significantly improved the rate and longevity of hydrogen production, compared to free cell suspensions. Rates of H2 production in excess of 13 microliters H2 mg dry/wt h were observed and hydrogen production was sustained for three weeks. Immobilization also provided some stabilization to environmental variability and was adaptable to outdoor light conditions. In general, immobilization provides significant advantages for the production and maintenance of hydrogen photoproduction for this strain.

  19. Wound healing potential of Spirulina platensis extracts on human dermal fibroblast cells

    OpenAIRE

    Syarina, Pauzi Nur Aimi; Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Abas, Faridah; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-01-01

    Blue-green alga (Spirulina platensis) is a well renowned nutri-supplement due to its high nutritional and medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to examine the wound healing efficiency of Spirulina platensis at various solvent extracts using in vitro scratch assay on human dermal fibroblast cells (HDF). Various gradient solvent extracts (50 μg/ml of methanolic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts) from Spirulina platensis were treated on HDF cells to acquire its wound healing properties t...

  20. Concurrently inhibitory and allelopathic effects of allelochemicals secreted by Myriophyllum spicatum on growth of blue-green algae; Hozakinofusamo ga hoshutsushita areropashi busshitsu no aisorui ni taisuru fukugo sayo oyobi areropashi koka no hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakai, S.; Inoue, Y.; Hosomi, M.; Murakami, A. [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-10

    This paper describes effects of allelochemicals secreted by Myriophyllum spicatum on growth of blue-green algae. In order to propose an effective growth inhibitory method of blue-green algae with less impact on the ecosystem, biological interaction (allelopathy) between large aquatic plants and algae was investigated. Pyrogallic acid, gallic acid, catechin and ellagic acid secreted by M. spicatum provided growth inhibitory effects of blue-green algae (Microcyctis aeruginosa), individually. Complex interaction and allelopathic contribution of these four polyphenols were evaluated. By comparing the actual effects with the expected values, synergetic growth inhibitory effects were recognized by adding four polyphenols at the same time. Furthermore, growth inhibitory effects were evaluated for actual culture solution of M. spicatum and simulated culture solution made by four polyphenols. As a result, it was found that these four polyphenols relate to allelopathy of M. spicatum. 25 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. TAHLAB (SPIRULINA) AND FEW OTHER MEDICINAL PLANTS HAVING ANTI-OXIDANT & IMMUNOMODULATORY PROPERTIES DESCRIBED IN UNANI MEDICINE - A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Anzar Alam*, Nafis Haider , Shamim Ahmed , Md. Tanwir Alam and Abdul Azeez

    2013-01-01

    : Antioxidants are substances that may protect cells from the damage caused by unstable molecules known as free radicals; free radicals damage may lead to cancer and other diseases. Some of the example of antioxidants are like β-carotene, lycopene, Vit. C, E & A and other substances which are found in variety of fruits, vegetables, algae (spirulina) & other medicinal plants. Spirulina (Blue green algae) is a microscopic single cell alga which grows in fresh water and has a simple structure bu...

  2. Blue-green algae (Cyanobacteria) in inland and inshore waters: assessment and minimumisation of risks to public health. Revised guidance

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsay, C.; Johnston, A M; Bateman, D N; Carvalho, L; Codd, G.A.; Hermanns, R.; Kelly, L.; Krokowski, J.; Reid, F.; McElhiney, J.; Cavanagh, J; McLaren, C.

    2007-01-01

    This is the first revision of the guidance document under the same title that was published by the Scottish Executive Health Department in 2002. The approach advocated for managing the risks to human and animal health of exposure to blue-green algal toxins continues to centre on production and implementation of “Local Action Plans”. These should be co-ordinated by the NHS Boards in Scotland and should be agreed by the various stakeholders identified herein. This document includes guidan...

  3. Influence of the Systemic Application of Blue–Green Spirulina platensis Algae on the Cutaneous Carotenoids and Elastic Fibers in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim E. Darvin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of a food supplement rich in antioxidants on the antioxidant status of the skin. For this reason, the blue-green algae Spirulina platensis powder was used for oral application during eight weeks. The effect of oral application of the antioxidant-containing Spirulina platensis on characteristic skin aging parameters, e.g., concentration of cutaneous carotenoids and the collagen/elastin index (SAAID, was investigated in vivo. A significant average increase from 2.67 ± 0.86 arb. units to 3.25 ± 0.93 arb. units (p < 0.001 in the cutaneous carotenoid concentration was detected subsequent to oral application of the carotenoid-containing Spirulina platensis powder, showing a significant improvement of the antioxidant status of the skin. A slight but not significant increase (p = 0.33 in the dermal SAAID mean values was measured from −0.54 ± 0.11 to −0.51 ± 0.11 subsequent to oral intake of Spirulina platensis powder.

  4. Comparative effects of the blue green algae Nodularia spumigena and a lysed extract on detoxification and antioxidant enzymes in the green lipped mussel (Perna viridis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nodularia spumigena periodically proliferates to cause toxic algal blooms with some aquatic animals enduring and consuming high densities of the blue green algae or toxic lysis. N. spumigena contains toxic compounds such as nodularin and lipopolysaccharides. This current work investigates physiological effects of exposure from bloom conditions of N. spumigena cells and a post-bloom lysis. Biochemical and antioxidative biomarkers were comparatively studied over an acute 3-day exposure. In general, a post-bloom N. spumigena lysis caused opposite physiological responses to bloom densities of N. spumigena. Specifically, increases in glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and decreases in glutathione S-transferase (GST) were observed from the N. spumigena lysis. In contrast, N. spumigena cell densities decreased GSH and increased GST and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in mussels. Findings also suggest that at different stages of a toxic bloom, exposure may result in toxic stress to specific organs in the mussel

  5. In vitro repair of UV- or X-irradiated bacteriophage T4 DNA by extract from blue-green alga Anacystis nidulans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cell-free extract from the blue-green alga Anacystis nidulans contains enzymes which activate the repair in vitro of transforming DNA of bacteriophage T4 damaged by UV light or X-rays. The repair effect of the extract was observed with double-stranded irradiated DNA but not with denatured irradiated DNA. The level of restoration of the transforming activity depends on the protein concentration in the reaction mixture and on the dose of irradiation. A fraction of DNA lesions induced by X-rays is repaired by a NAD-dependent polynucleotide ligase present in the extract. The repair of UV-induced lesions is most efficient in the presence of magnesium ions, NAD, ATP and the four deoxynucleoside triphosphates. The results indicate that the repair of UV-irradiated DNA is performed with the participation of DNA polymerase and polynucleotide ligase which function in the cell-free extract of the algae on the background of a low deoxyribonuclease activity

  6. Anaphylaxis to Spirulina confirmed by skin prick test with ingredients of Spirulina tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thuy-My; Knulst, André C; Röckmann, Heike

    2014-12-01

    Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis), blue-green microalgae, has high content in proteins, γ-linoleic acid and vitamins and therefore gained popularity as food supplement. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Spirulina is also an interesting alternative and sustainable protein source with the growing world population. We present a case of a 17-year-old male, who developed anaphylaxis the first time he ingested a Spirulina tablet. Skin prick test with diluted Spirulina tablet was positive. Further skin prick testing with separated ingredients (Spirulina platensis algae, silicon dioxide, inulin and magnesium stearate) was only positive for Spirulina platensis algae and negative in controls, confirming the allergy was caused by Spirulina and not by one of the additives. This case report shows that diagnosis of Spirulina allergy can safely be made by skin prick test with dilutions of the A. platensis or even more simple by skin prick test with the diluted tablet. Since Spirulina has gained popularity as food and nutritional supplement, it is important to realize the potential risk of this dietary supplement. Before Spirulina is produced and consumed on a wider scale, allergenicity risk assessment should be performed, including investigation of potential crossreactivity with well-known inhalant allergens and foods. PMID:25445756

  7. Spirulina- small but a spectacular species

    OpenAIRE

    Hemamalini Balaji

    2013-01-01

    Spirulina is a marine blue green algae which is being extensively studied as the biomass of these microalgae and the compounds they produce have been shown to possess several biological applications with numerous health benefits. Apart from being used as nutraceutical food supplement worldwide, it shows therapeutic benefits on an array of diseased conditions including hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycerolemia, cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory diseases, cancer and viral infections. Spirulin...

  8. The effect of replacing fishmeal with Spirulina on microbial load in common carp Cyprinus carpio L

    OpenAIRE

    N.M. Abdulrahman; and H.J.H. Ameen

    2013-01-01

    The use of blue green algae Spirulina in aquaculture has several potential advantages over the production of fish. This study was designed to investigate the effect of different replacement levels of fishmeal with Spirulina on microbial load of common carp Cyprinus carpio L., the trail was conducted for 105 days and for this purpose 200 fingerlings common carp. Mean initial weight was (32.7 g). The fish were acclimated to laboratory conditions and fed with control pellets (32% protein) prior ...

  9. Therapeutic Effect of C-Phycocyanin Extracted from Blue Green Algae in a Rat Model of Acute Lung Injury Induced by Lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pak-on Leung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available C-Phycocyanin (CPC, extracted from blue green algae, is a dietary nutritional supplement due to its several beneficial pharmacological effects. This study was conducted to evaluate whether CPC protects against lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced acute lung injury (ALI in rats. Rats were challenged with LPS (5 mg/kg body weight intratracheally to induce ALI. After 3 h LPS instillation, rats were administrated with CPC (50 mg/kg body weight, i.p. for another 3 h. Our results showed that posttreatment with CPC significantly inhibited LPS-induced elevation of protein concentration, nitrite/nitrate level, release of proinflammatory cytokines, the number of total polymorphonuclear cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and lung edema evidenced by decrease of lung wet/dry weight ratio accompanied by a remarkable improvement of lung histopathological alterations. Furthermore, CPC significantly attenuated LPS-induced myeloperoxidase activity, O2− formation, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 as well as nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB activation in lungs. Additionally, CPC significantly downregulated proapoptotic proteins such as caspase-3 and Bax, but upregulated antiapoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL in lungs exposed to LPS. These findings indicate that CPC could be potentially useful for treatment of LPS-related ALI by inhibiting inflammatory responses and apoptosis in lung tissues.

  10. Vitamin A, nutrition, and health values of algae: Spirulina, Chlorella, and Dunaliella

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, G.; Suter, P M

    2011-01-01

    Spirulina, chlorella, and dunalliella are unicellular algae that are commercially produced worldwide. These algae are concentrated sources of carotenoids (especially provitamin A carotenoids) and other nutrients, such as vitamin B12. Their health benefits as a complementary dietary source for macro and micro nutrients have been studied and confirmed in various populations. The safety of human consuming these algae and products derived from these algae by humans has been widely studied. It is ...

  11. [Investigation of the relation between extracellular excretion of glycollate and the photosynthetic CO2-uptake in the blue-green alga Anacystis nidulans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döhler, G; Braun, F

    1971-12-01

    The formations of transients in CO2 exchange in the blue-green alga Anacystic nidulans is dependent on the temperature used during the measurements. The algae were grown in a low light intensity (4000 lux) under normal air conditions and measured in the same low CO2 concentration (0.03 vol. %) but under a higher light intensity (10 000 lux). At a temperature of +20°C the stationary rate of CO2 uptake was reached directly. At a temperature of +35°C, on the other hand, a maximum of CO2 uptake could be observed at the beginning of the light period followed by a steady rate of photosynthesis, which was higher than at +20°C. In the beginning of the dark period a CO2 outburst appeared at 35°C.Only at a low temperature (+20°C) did we find a light induced glycollate excretion; after a maximum at 7 1/2 minutes illumination the release of glycollate ceases and the level decreases to a lower value. A similar time course exists during illumination in red light (621 nm, 1.5·10(-8) einsteins) and a temperature of +20°C. In blue light (432 nm, 1,5·10(-8) einsteins, +20°C) and in white light at a high temperature (+35°C) we could not find any light induced glycollate excretion. Our results are discussed in reference to the photorespiration. We explain the formation of transients in CO2 uptake of Anacystis at a high temperature (+35°C) and in blue light (+20°C) on the basis of the influence of photorespiration. PMID:24493459

  12. Application of epithermal neutron activation analysis to investigate accumulation and adsorption of mercury by Spirulina platensis biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epithermal neutron activation analysis was used to study interaction of blue-green alga Spirulina platensis with toxic metal mercury. Various concentrations of Hg(II) were added to cell cultures in a nutrient medium. The dynamics of accumulation of Hg was investigated over several days in relation to Spirulina biomass growth. The process of Hg adsorption by Spirulina biomass was studied in short-time experiments. The isotherm of adsorption was carried out in Freindlich coordinates. Natural Spirulina biomass has potential to be used in the remediation of sewage waters at Hg concentrations ∼100 μg/1

  13. Application of Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis to Investigate Accumulation and Adsorption of Mercury by Spirulina platensis Biomass

    CERN Document Server

    Mosulishvili, L M; Khizanishvili, A I; Frontasyeva, M V; Kirkesali, E I; Aksenova, N G

    2004-01-01

    Epithermal neutron activation analysis was used to study interaction of blue-green alga Spirulina platensis with toxic metal mercury. Various concentrations of Hg(II) were added to cell cultures in a nutrient medium. The dynamics of accumulation of Hg was investigated over several days in relation to Spirulina biomass growth. The process of Hg adsorption by Spirulina biomass was studied in short-time experiments. The isotherm of adsorption was carried out in Freindlich coordinates. Natural Spirulina biomass has potential to be used in the remediation of sewage waters at Hg concentrations \\sim 100 {\\mu}g/l.

  14. Algae for controlled ecological life support system diet characterization of cyanobacteria 'spirulina' in batch cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadros, M. G.

    1990-01-01

    Spirulina sp. is a bioregenerative photosynthetic and edible alga for space craft crews in a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CLESS). It was characterized for growth rate and biomass yield in batch cultures, under various environmental conditions. The cell characteristics were identified for one strain of Spirulina: S. maxima. Fast growth rate and high yield were obtained. The partitioning of the assimulatory products (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids) were manipulated by varying the environmental conditions. Experiments with Spirulina demonstrated that under stress conditions carbohydrate increased at the expense of protein. In other experiments, where the growth media were sufficient in nutrients and incubated under optimum growth conditions, the total proteins were increased up to almost 70 percent of the organic weight. In other words, the nutritional quality of the alga could be manipulated by growth conditions. These results support the feasibility of considering Spirulina as a subsystem in CELSS because of the ease with which its nutrient content can be manipulated.

  15. The use of 15N-labelled dinitrogen in the study of nitrogen fixation by blue-green algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior to the development of the acetylene reduction technique 15N was used as the main qualitative and quantitative measure of nitrogen fixation by free-living cyanobacteria in a variety of aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Despite its expense and the technical difficulty, 15N is a major tool in the study of cyanobacteria, for example, incorporation of 15N2 is the definitive test for nitrogen fixation; it is used in the determination of the correct ratio of acetylene reduction to nitrogen fixation, in in situ nitrogen fixation assays, in tracing the formation and fate of extra-cellular nitrogen and in measuring the turnover and grazing rates of cyanobacterial intra-cellular nitrogen. These latter studies show that 15N-labelled extra-cellular nitrogen can serve as nitrogen sources for a variety of bacteria, fungi, algae and higher plants, and that cyanobacteria are graced and digested by a variety of animals. The turnover rates of cyanobacterial 15N-labelled cells are dependent on the type of cell, species, environmental conditions and the availability of degrading organisms. The breakdown products are rapidly mineralised and used as nitrogen sources by higher plants. (author)

  16. Spirulina- small but a spectacular species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemamalini Balaji

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina is a marine blue green algae which is being extensively studied as the biomass of these microalgae and the compounds they produce have been shown to possess several biological applications with numerous health benefits. Apart from being used as nutraceutical food supplement worldwide, it shows therapeutic benefits on an array of diseased conditions including hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycerolemia, cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory diseases, cancer and viral infections. Spirulina is also incorporated as a functional ingredient in food products and beverages. The people in Africa have been known for consuming as Arthrospira (formerly, Spirulina as principle food for past 100 years. But it became famous after it was successfully used by NASA as a dietary supplement forastronauts on space missions. There have been numerous studies investigating the efficiency and current clinical applications of Spirulina in treating several diseases in the recent years.

  17. Relevance of micro- and blue-green algae to the degradation of xenobiotics in a model system simulating surface waters. Final report. Die Bedeutung von Mikro- und Blaualgen fuer den Abbau xenobiotischer Verbindungen in einem Oberflaechengewaesser-simulierenden Testsystem. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steber, J.

    1986-12-01

    For the purpose of a more realistic assessment of the degradability of chemicals in surface waters it was investigated whether microalgae and blue-green algae contribute significantly to the degradation in corresponding model tests. The ultimate degradation of 22 /sup 14/C-labelled xenobiotics was studied in a shake flask test by comparing conventional test conditions (bacterial inoculum, incubation in the dark) with those in the presence of an artificial biocenosis of bacteria and algae (light/dark incubation). With regard to total biodegradation (/sup 14/CO/sub 2/ + /sup 14/C-biomass), mainly comparable results were obtained. Only pentachlorophenol and aminotrismethylene- and ethylenediamine tetramethylene phosphonic acids showed an increased degradation in light-exposed and bacteria/algae-inoculated assays. More detailed investigations indicated a microalgae-independent photodegradation of PCP; moreover, algae seem to be involved only indirectly in the extensive degradation of the two phosphonic acids. It was concluded that microalgae and blue-green algae, in most cases, do not significantly contribute to the degradation potency of a surface water model system. Thus, routine degradation tests employing a bacteria/microalgae-biocenosis are not considered worthwhile. With 27 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  18. Photosensitizers from Spirulina for Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina is a kind of blue-green algae with good photosynthetic efficiency and might be used for photovoltaic power generation. So this paper used living spirulina as novel photosensitizer to construct spirulina biosolar cell. The results showed that spirulina had the photoelectric conversion effect, and could let the spirulina biosolar cell have 70 μA photocurrent. Meanwhile, adding glucose sucrose or chitosan in the spirulina anode chamber, they could make the maxima current density of the cell greatly increased by 80 μA, 100 μA, and 84 μA, respectively, and the sucrose could improve the maximum power density of the cell to 63 mW/m−2. Phycobiliprotein played an important role in the photosynthesis of spirulina. So in this paper phycobiliprotein was extracted from spirulina to composite with squaraine dye to sensitize nanocrystalline TiO2 photoanode for building dye sensitized solar cell, and the photoelectric properties of the cell also were investigated.

  19. Microwave plasma studies of Spirulina algae pyrolysis with relevance to hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growth of the hydrogen market has motivated increased study of hydrogen production. Understanding how biomass is converted to hydrogen gas can help in evaluating opportunities for reducing the environmental impact of petroleum-based fuels. Using an atmospheric-pressure microwave plasma reactor coupled with species-selective analysis, experiments are conducted at microwave power levels of 800, 900 and 1000 W, a reactant flow rate of 12 slm, and 1 g of dry Spirulina algae in nitrogen. At the absorbed microwave power levels used in this experiment, hydrogen gas produced is in the range of 36.75–45.13% volume fraction, 13.42–15.48 mg per minute, and 12.37–31.46 mg per gram of Spirulina algae consumed. Moreover, the selection of power levels demonstrates that 20.62–52.43% hydrogen atom mass content in dry algae is converted to hydrogen gas. In general, the effect of reaction temperatures on the gas product formation is qualitatively consistent with those produced from other biomass materials reported in literature. Overall, these results will help to expand our knowledge concerning Spirulina algae and hydrogen yield on the basis of microwave-assisted pyrolysis and reaction temperatures, which will inform the study and design of hydrogen production technologies. - Highlights: • A pyrolysis process for Spirulina algae is presented using microwave plasma. • H2, CO2 and CO are the main gas products observed in this study. • Maximum H2 gas-volume fraction of about 45% is achieved at 1 kW microwave power

  20. Spirulina platensis Lacks Antitumor Effect against Solid Ehrlich Carcinoma in Female Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Waleed; Elshazly, Shimaa M.; Mahmoud, Amr A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina is a blue-green alga used as a dietary supplement. It has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective properties. This study was designed to evaluate the antitumor effect of spirulina (200 and 800 mg/kg) against a murine model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma compared to a standard chemotherapeutic drug, 5-fluorouracil (20 mg/kg). Untreated mice developed a palpable solid tumor after 13 days. Unlike fluorouracil, spirulina at the investigated two dose levels failed to exert any protective effect. In addition, spirulina did not potentiate the antitumor effect of fluorouracil when they were administered concurrently. Interestingly, their combined administration resulted in a dose-dependent increase in mortality. The present study demonstrates that spirulina lacks antitumor effect against this model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma and increased mortality when combined with fluorouracil. However, the implicated mechanism is still elusive. PMID:26366170

  1. 蓝、绿藻SOD同工酶类型及其进化%Evolution of Blue-Green Algae through Analyzing Their Superoxide Dismutase Isozyme Types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶明煊; 吴国荣; 魏锦城

    1999-01-01

    以新鲜蓝藻极大螺旋藻(Spirulina maxima)、钝顶螺旋藻(Spirulina platensis)、盐泽螺旋藻(Spirulina subsalsa)、单细胞绿藻盐藻(Dunaliella salina) 、多细胞绿藻轮藻(Chara)、水绵(Spirogyra)和鞘藻(Odeogonium)为实验材料.经抽滤、超声波破碎后,进行聚丙烯酰胺凝胶梯度电泳和抑制剂处理,结果表明三种螺旋藻都只含有Fe-SOD,其中极大螺旋藻、钝顶螺旋藻含有4条Fe-SOD同工酶谱带,而盐泽螺旋藻含有6条谱带;盐藻、水绵、鞘藻含有Fe-SOD和Mn-SOD两种类型,而轮藻含有Fe-SOD、Mn-SOD和Cu.Zn-SOD三种类型.

  2. Cloning and Expression of Beta Subunit Gene of Phycocyanin From Spirulina platensis in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Shoja, Zahra; Rajabi Memari, Hamid; Roayaei Ardakani, Mohammd

    2015-01-01

    Background: C-Phycocyanin (C-PC) from blue-green algae such as Spirulina has been reported to have various pharmacological characteristics, including anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities. Recombinant β-subunit of C-PC (C-PC/β) is an inhibitor of cell proliferation and an inducer of cancer cell apoptosis. Objectives: Since C-PC/β has a big potential to be used as a promising cancer prevention or therapy agent, the purpose of this study was to clone and express Spirulina platensis cpcB ge...

  3. Effects of Spirulina on Cyclophosphamide-Induced Ovarian Toxicity in Rats: Biochemical and Histomorphometric Evaluation of the Ovary

    OpenAIRE

    Nese Arzu Yener; Orhun Sinanoglu; Erdin Ilter; Aygen Celik; Gulbuz Sezgin; Ahmet Midi; Ugur Deveci; Fehime Aksungar

    2013-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (Cyc) is known to cause ovotoxicity and infertility in women. Our aim is to investigate the possible ovotoxic effects of Cyc and possible antioxidant and protective effects of blue-green algae, Spirulina (Sp), in rat ovaries. Eighteen rats were given: group I (n = 6, control); group II (n = 6, CP), a single dose Cyc; group III (n = 6, Sp+Cyc), 7 days Sp+single dose Cyc. Tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities are assessed...

  4. Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of spirulina on rat model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Pak, Wing; Takayama,Fusako; Mine, Manaka; Nakamoto, Kazuo; Kodo, Yasumasa; Mankura, Mitsumasa; Egashira, Toru; Kawasaki, Hiromu; Mori, Akitane

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remains unclear, but accumulating data suggest oxidative stress and the relationship between inflammation and immunity plays a crucial role. The aim of this study is to investigate the spirulina, which is a blue-green algae rich in proteins and other nutritional elements, and its component-phycocyanin effect on a rat model of NASH. NASH model rats were established by feeding male Wistar rats with choline-deficient high-fat diet (CDHF) an...

  5. Spirulina in Clinical Practice: Evidence-Based Human Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Karkos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina or Arthrospira is a blue-green alga that became famous after it was successfully used by NASA as a dietary supplement for astronauts on space missions. It has the ability to modulate immune functions and exhibits anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting the release of histamine by mast cells. Multiple studies investigating the efficacy and the potential clinical applications of Spirulina in treating several diseases have been performed and a few randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews suggest that this alga may improve several symptoms and may even have an anticancer, antiviral and antiallergic effects. Current and potential clinical applications, issues of safety, indications, side-effects and levels of evidence are addressed in this review. Areas of ongoing and future research are also discussed.

  6. Comparison of marine algae (Spirulina platensis) and synthetic pigment in enhancing egg yolk colour of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahroojian, N; Moravej, H; Shivazad, M

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of dietary marine algae (Spirulina platensis) on egg yolk colour, and compare the effectiveness of Spirulina and synthetic pigment in enhancing egg yolk colour of laying hens fed on a wheat-based diet. In total, 160 Hy-line W36 laying hens of 63 weeks of age were studied by dividing them into 5 groups, 32 birds in each. Except for the control group (based on wheat and soyabean meal), the feed for three other groups contained 1·5, 2·0 and 2·5% of Spirulina; while one group contained synthetic pigments (BASF Lucantin® yellow: 30 mg/kg, and BASF Lucantin® red: 35 mg/kg). Egg production, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight and egg yolk colour were determined. A significant increase in egg yolk colour was observed in the treatments that received the Spirulina and synthetic pigment, compared with the control diet. There were no significant differences between the treatments with 2·5% Spirulina and synthetic pigment in enhancing egg yolk colour. Finally, the results indicated that the diet containing 2·5% Spirulina could be as effective as the diet with synthetic pigment in producing an agreeable egg yolk colour. PMID:22029786

  7. The effect of spirulina gel on fibroblast cell number after wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitria Rahmitasari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wound healing treatment after tooth extraction should be an important consideration due to mouth discomfort and pain. Spirulina (blue green algae consists of C-phycocyanin, b–carotenoids, vitamin E, zinc, some other trace elements and natural phytochemical which are believed to act as antioxidant and takes part in wound healing process. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of spirulina gel on fibroblast cell number after wound healing process. Methods: Twenty eight males guinea pig are devided into four group, 7 guinea pig each. They are control group and treatment group which is given 0%, 3%, 6%, and 12% spirulina gel. After tooth extraction, histopathological evaluation was done to count fibroblast cell. The data was analyzed by One-Way ANOVA and Tukey HSD. Results: The research has proven the relation between the increased growth of fibroblast cell and spirulina gel application. The higher the doses, the more cell growth. Hence, there has been significant different (p < 0.05 among groups. Conclusion: Spirulina gel increases the number of fibroblast in wound after tooth extraction and 12% spirulina gel has the most potential ability.Latar Belakang: Proses penyembuhan luka pasca pencabutan gigi merupakan salah satu hal yang penting karena akan menimbulkan rasa nyeri dan tidak nyaman dalam rongga mulut. Spirulina (Blue green Algae mengandung C-phycocyanin, b-carotenoids, vitamin E, seng, beberapa trace elemen lainnya, dan phytochemical alami yang terbukti dapat berperan sebagai antioksidan dalam proses penyembuhan luka. Tujuan: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui efek pemberian gel spirulina terhadap jumlah sel fibroblas pada proses penyembuhan luka pasca pencabutan gigi. Metode: Dua puluh delapan ekor guinea pig jantan dibagi dalam 7 kelompok, masing-masing terdiri dari 4 ekor. Kelompok tersebut adalah kelompok kontrol dan kelompok perlakuan yang diberikan gel spirulina dengan konsentrasi 0

  8. [The effect of monochromatic light on the extracellular excretion of glycolate and the photorespiration in the blue-green alga Anacystis nidulans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döhler, G; Koch, R

    1972-12-01

    The algae were grown under normal air conditions in a low light intensity (400 lux) and measured in the normal CO2-concentration (0.03 Vol. %). After an illumination period we observed a CO2 gush which is dependent on the temperature and wavelength used during the measurements. At +20°C a CO2 gush occurs only in the blue and far red regions. At +35°C, on the other hand, a CO2 outburst appears over the whole spectrum. The magnitude of the CO2 gush varies with the wavelength used during the light period. On this basis we have measured an action spectrum of photorespiration which is identical with the action spectrum of photosynthetic CO2 uptake.Only at a low temperature (+20°C) and illumination with red light (550 to 651 nm; 10(-s) einsteins/cm(2)·sec) did we find a light induced release of glycolate; in blue (432 and 473 nm; 10(-s) einsteins/cm(2)·sec) and far red light (681 and 703 nm; 10(-8) einsteins/cm(2)·sec) no glycolate excretion occurred. But after addition of α-hydroxy-2-pyridylmethane sulfonate (10(-3)M) glycolate was excreted during illumination with all used wavelengths. The magnitude of glycolate production was nearly the same in all cases. No glycolate excretion occurred at +35°C in the whole region of the spectrum. Here, too, the addition of α-HPMS forced release of glycolate in all wavelengths, indicating that glycolate biosynthesis was occurring.The results are discussed with reference to the physiological behaviour of the algae and activation of photorespiration in blue light. The obtained action spectrum of photorespiration is explained on the basis of a close relationship to photosynthesis. PMID:24477848

  9. Myall Lakes - Isotope dating of short term environmental changes in a coastal lake system - Anthropogenic pressures causing blue-green algae outbreaks in a national park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Myall Lakes system, 50 km North of Newcastle, Australia, is a barrier lake system covering 10,000ha, and is brackish (ranging from Oligohaline to Mesohaline under the Venice System classification). The Myall Lakes system is far less disturbed than similar coastal lakes, and as an important migratory bird habitat, they are protected under the RAMSAR agreement. They are also fully encompassed by the Myall Lakes National Park, declared in 1972, and are important to the local tourism and fisheries industries. Only two small streams provide freshwater input therefore water-retention time is of concern, because any changes to nutrient regimes, or pollution in the catchment affecting the Lakes, may take a long time to be corrected. In recent summers a series of cyanobacteria blooms have occurred which may indicate that human activities such as agriculture and recreational boating and fishing are affecting the Myall Lakes. Four sediment cores, up to 95cm long, were collected and sub-sampled for trace elements, palynological assemblages, sediment grain size and organic/carbonate content. Lead-210 (210Pb) was used to determine sedimentation rates and construct a chronology. Fossilised algal remains, specifically the akinetes of cyanobacteria, were used to estimate previous algal populations in the lake system. This technique has the potential to be an important tool in not only historical environmental reconstruction but also in catchment management. Results indicate that there have been cyclical fluctuations in the populations of aquatic plants and algae throughout recent history. (author)

  10. Myall Lakes - Isotope dating of short term environmental changes in a coastal lake system - Anthropogenic pressures causing blue-green algae outbreaks in a national park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Myall Lakes system, 50 km North of Newcastle, Australia, is a barrier lake system covering 10000ha, and is brackish (ranging from Oligohaline to Mesohaline under the Venice System classification). The Myall Lakes system is far less disturbed than similar coastal lakes, and as an important migratory bird habitat, they are protected under the RAMSAR agreement. They are also fully encompassed by the Myall Lakes National Park, declared in 1972, and are important to the local tourism and fisheries industries. Only two small streams provide freshwater input therefore water-retention time is of concern, because any changes to nutrient regimes, or pollution in the catchment affecting the Lakes, may take a long time to be corrected. In recent summers a series of cyanobacteria blooms have occurred which may indicate that human activities such as agriculture and recreational boating and fishing are affecting the Myall Lakes. Four sediment cores, up to 95cm long, were collected and sub-sampled for trace elements, palynological assemblages, sediment grain size and organic/carbonate content. Lead-210 (210Pb) was used to determine sedimentation rates and construct a chronology. Fossilised algal remains, specifically the akinetes of cyanobacteria, were used to estimate previous algal populations in the lake system. This technique has the potential to be an important tool in not only historical environmental reconstruction but also in catchment management. Results indicate that there have been cyclical fluctuations in the populations of aquatic plants and algae throughout recent history. (author)

  11. Viability of dried vegetative trichomes, formation of akinetes and heterocysts and akinete germination in some blue-green algae under water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, S C; Singh, V

    1999-01-01

    Almost all dried vegetative trichomes ofAnabaena iyengarii, Westiellopsis prolifica andNostochopsis lobatus died within 1 h, while those ofOscillatoria acuminata retained viability to some extent for 1 d under similar storage conditions. The viability of dried vegetative trichomes ofO. acuminata decreased about equally on storage at 20 degrees C in the light or in the dark, but dropped rapidly at 12 and 0 degrees C in the dark. Vegetative trichomes ofA. iyengarii, N. lobatus andW. prolifica were more sensitive to frost than those ofO. acuminata, and this correlated with their low resistance to desiccation because both types of exposure involved osmotic stress. Both dried and wet akinetes ofA. iyengarii, W. prolifica andN. lobatus were about equally viable when stored at 20 degrees C in the light or the dark or at 12 and 0 degrees C in the dark, but their germination ability decreased on storage at 0 degrees C. The water stress imposed on growing vegetative trichomes either in high-agar media or in NaCl-supplemented liquid media reduced the survival ofO. acuminata trichomes, decreased or totally suppressed akinete and heterocyst formation and akinete germination inA. iyengarii, W. prolifica andN. lobatus. The sensitivity decreased in the sequenceA. iyengarii green algae was more sensitive to physiological water stress than their formation. In all of them, akinetes formed under water stress were equally viable as those formed under normal conditions. Trichomes ofO. acuminata became broader when grown in 0.5-0.8 mol/L NaCl-supplemented media, probably due to polyol accumulation, and they also developed a thin sheath-like structure. PMID:18461490

  12. The effect of replacing fishmeal with Spirulina on microbial load in common carp Cyprinus carpio L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Abdulrahman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of blue green algae Spirulina in aquaculture has several potential advantages over the production of fish. This study was designed to investigate the effect of different replacement levels of fishmeal with Spirulina on microbial load of common carp Cyprinus carpio L., the trail was conducted for 105 days and for this purpose 200 fingerlings common carp. Mean initial weight was (32.7 g. The fish were acclimated to laboratory conditions and fed with control pellets (32% protein prior to the feeding trials for 21 days. Five experimental diets were used and Spirulina replaced fishmeal protein from the standard diet at 0% (T1, 5% (T2, 10% (T3, 15% (T4 and 20% (T5 levels. Bacterial total account in rearing water and the bacterial total count in carp intestine for the third treatment was higher significantly as compared to other treatments, which is the conclusion of this study.

  13. Prospects of using unicellular algae protein in biological life-support systems. [Chlorella, Chlamydomonas, Spirulina, Euglena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonyan, A.A.; Abakumova, I.A.; Meleshko, G.I.; Vlasova, T.F.

    The concentration, amino acid composition and biological value of proteins of unicellular algae belonging to various taxonomic groups (Chlorella, Chlamydomonas, Spirulina, Euglena) were investigated. With respect to their characteristics, these algae hold promise as components of biological life-support systems (BLSS). Indices characterizing the protein and biomass quality and biological value were calculated. Such indices as A/E (where A is an essential amino acid and E is the sum total of amino acids), anti-E/T (where anti-E is nitrogen of essential amino acids and T is its sum total), amino acid number, factor of digestibility in vitro were high enough and close to the respective parameters of the reference protein. Animal experiments showed high biological value of the algal biomass and the lack of its toxic or other adverse effects. It is suggested that the differences in the protein composition associated with various algal forms and cultivation conditions can be used to produce balanced diets by varying the portion of each form of the photoautotropic component of BLSS.

  14. Wound healing potential of Spirulina platensis extracts on human dermal fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syarina, Pauzi Nur Aimi; Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Abas, Faridah; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-01-01

    Blue-green alga (Spirulina platensis) is a well renowned nutri-supplement due to its high nutritional and medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to examine the wound healing efficiency of Spirulina platensis at various solvent extracts using in vitro scratch assay on human dermal fibroblast cells (HDF). Various gradient solvent extracts (50 μg/ml of methanolic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts) from Spirulina platensis were treated on HDF cells to acquire its wound healing properties through scratch assay and in this investigation we have used allantoin, as a positive control to compare efficacy among the phytoextracts. Interestingly, aqueous extract were found to stimulate proliferation and migration of HDF cells at given concentrations and enhanced closure rate of wound area within 24 hours after treatment. Methanolic and ethanolic extracts have shown proliferative effect, however these extracts did not aid in the migration and closure of wound area when compared to aqueous extract. Based on phytochemical profile of the plant extracts analyzed by LC-MS/MS, it was shown that compounds supposedly involved in accelerating wound healing are cinnamic acid, narigenin, kaempferol, temsirolimus, phosphatidylserine isomeric derivatives and sulphoquinovosyl diacylglycerol. Our findings concluded that blue-green algae may pose potential biomedical application to treat various chronic wounds especially in diabetes mellitus patients. PMID:27004048

  15. Kinetics of methane production from the codigestion of switchgrass and Spirulina platensis algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mashad, Hamed M

    2013-03-01

    Anaerobic batch digestion of four feedstocks was conducted at 35 and 50 °C: switchgrass; Spirulina platensis algae; and two mixtures of both switchgrass and S. platensis. Mixture 1 was composed of 87% switchgrass (based on volatile solids) and 13% S. platensis. Mixture 2 was composed of 67% switchgrass and 33% S. platensis. The kinetics of methane production from these feedstocks was studied using four first order models: exponential, Gompertz, Fitzhugh, and Cone. The methane yields after 40days of digestion at 35 °C were 355, 127, 143 and 198 ml/g VS, respectively for S. platensis, switchgrass, and Mixtures 1 and 2, while the yields at 50 °C were 358, 167, 198, and 236 ml/g VS, respectively. Based on Akaike's information criterion, the Cone model best described the experimental data. The Cone model was validated with experimental data collected from the digestion of a third mixture that was composed of 83% switchgrass and 17% S. platensis. PMID:23416617

  16. Seawater Acclimation of Spirulina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaochen GUAN; Yixuan LI; Gan WANG; Lang QIN; Yi ZHU; Yunbo LUO

    2012-01-01

    Abstract [Objective] This study aimed to seek the cultivation method for Spirulina with seawater. [Method] Spirulina was habituated culture progressively with pre- pared seawater acclimation solution. The morphological changes of Spirulina were observed and its biochemical indicators were measured. [Result] A new algae species was obtained, which had better stability and greater average length than Spirulina in fresh water. Compared with the Spirulina in fresh water, the new al- gae species showed no significant change in chlorophyll content, but a 62.8% in- crease in the concentration of phycocyanin. [Conclusion] The method could save resources and cost, which lays the foundation for large scale production and processing of Spirulina.

  17. Chemical properties of biocrude oil from the hydrothermal liquefaction of Spirulina algae, swine manure, and digested anaerobic sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardon, Derek R; Sharma, B K; Scott, John; Yu, Guo; Wang, Zhichao; Schideman, Lance; Zhang, Yuanhui; Strathmann, Timothy J

    2011-09-01

    This study explores the influence of wastewater feedstock composition on hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) biocrude oil properties and physico-chemical characteristics. Spirulina algae, swine manure, and digested sludge were converted under HTL conditions (300°C, 10-12 MPa, and 30 min reaction time). Biocrude yields ranged from 9.4% (digested sludge) to 32.6% (Spirulina). Although similar higher heating values (32.0-34.7 MJ/kg) were estimated for all product oils, more detailed characterization revealed significant differences in biocrude chemistry. Feedstock composition influenced the individual compounds identified as well as the biocrude functional group chemistry. Molecular weights tracked with obdurate carbohydrate content and followed the order of Spirulina

  18. Investigation of the Structure and Element Composition of C-Phycocyanin Extracted from the Microalgae Spirulina platensis

    CERN Document Server

    Mosulishvili, L M; Kirkesali, E I; Khizanishvili, A I; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, S S; Gundorina, S F

    2002-01-01

    The structure and element composition of C-phycocyanin (C-PC) extracted from the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis were studied. The behavior of structural subunits forming phycobilisomes in the purification process was studied by capillary electrophoresis. Their proportion in high-purity C-PC was determined. The element composition of C-PC of different purity was studied by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis, and metals which may form macromolecular complexes with C-PC were determined (Zn, Cr, Ni, Co, As, Sr, Mo, Ag, Hg). It was shown that contents of toxic metals did not exceed accepted permissible levels for the human organism.

  19. Investigation of the structure and element composition of C-phycocyanin extracted from the microalgae Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure and element composition of C-phycocyanin (C-PC) extracted from the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis were studied. The behavior of structural subunits forming phycobilisomes in the purification process was studied by capillary electrophoresis. Their proportion in high-purity C-PC was determined. The element composition of C-PC of different purity was studied by means of the epithermal neutron activation analysis, and metals which may form macromolecular complexes with C-PC were determined (Zn, Cr, Ni, Co, As, Sr, Mo, Ag, Hg). It was shown that contents of toxic metals did not exceed accepted permissible levels for the human organism. (author)

  20. 基于物联网技术的太湖蓝藻水华预警平台%Blue-green algae bloom forecast platform with Internet of things

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宏伟; 吴挺峰; 张唯易; 李未

    2011-01-01

    To overcome the shortcomings of conventional algal bloom forecast system in acquiring data, this study applied the Internet of Things (IoT) technology to establish a data transmission network with three-layer structure, and thus secured data continuity. With improved retrieval approach of water quality parameters, technology of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) and forecast model of algal bloom, the blue-green algal bloom forecast platform was developed. The evaluation demonstrates that the platform achieves an overall accuracy of 80% in forecasting blue-green blooms in Taihu Lake in next three days.%针对以往藻类水华预测系统在数据源方面存在的不足,采用物联网技术,实现基于三层网络传输结构的监测体系,保证了数据的时间连续性;并对遥感水质参数定量反演方法、中程无线传感网络技术和藻类水华预测预警模型方面进行了改进.在此基础上,开发了太湖蓝藻预测预警平台,运行结果表明蓝藻水华未来3天的平均预测精度达到了80%以上.

  1. A spirulina-enhanced diet provides neuroprotection in an α-synuclein model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabon, Mibel M; Jernberg, Jennifer N; Morganti, Josh; Contreras, Jessika; Hudson, Charles E; Klein, Ronald L; Bickford, Paula C

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation in the brain plays a major role in neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, microglial cell activation is believed to be associated with the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD). An increase in microglia activation has been shown in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of PD models when there has been a decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive cells. This may be a sign of neurotoxicity due to prolonged activation of microglia in both early and late stages of disease progression. Natural products, such as spirulina, derived from blue green algae, are believed to help reverse this effect due to its anti-inflammatory/anti-oxidant properties. An adeno-associated virus vector (AAV9) for α-synuclein was injected in the substantia nigra of rats to model Parkinson's disease and to study the effects of spirulina on the inflammatory response. One month prior to surgeries, rats were fed either a diet enhanced with spirulina or a control diet. Immunohistochemistry was analyzed with unbiased stereological methods to quantify lesion size and microglial activation. As hypothesized, spirulina was neuroprotective in this α-synuclein model of PD as more TH+ and NeuN+ cells were observed; spirulina concomitantly decreased the numbers of activated microglial cells as determined by MHCII expression. This decrease in microglia activation may have been due, in part, to the effect of spirulina to increase expression of the fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) on microglia. With this study we hypothesize that α-synuclein neurotoxicity is mediated, at least in part, via an interaction with microglia. We observed a decrease in activated microglia in the rats that received a spirulina- enhanced diet concomitant to neuroprotection. The increase in CX3CR1 in the groups that received spirulina, suggests a potential mechanism of action. PMID:23028885

  2. A spirulina-enhanced diet provides neuroprotection in an α-synuclein model of Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mibel M Pabon

    Full Text Available Inflammation in the brain plays a major role in neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, microglial cell activation is believed to be associated with the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD. An increase in microglia activation has been shown in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc of PD models when there has been a decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH positive cells. This may be a sign of neurotoxicity due to prolonged activation of microglia in both early and late stages of disease progression. Natural products, such as spirulina, derived from blue green algae, are believed to help reverse this effect due to its anti-inflammatory/anti-oxidant properties. An adeno-associated virus vector (AAV9 for α-synuclein was injected in the substantia nigra of rats to model Parkinson's disease and to study the effects of spirulina on the inflammatory response. One month prior to surgeries, rats were fed either a diet enhanced with spirulina or a control diet. Immunohistochemistry was analyzed with unbiased stereological methods to quantify lesion size and microglial activation. As hypothesized, spirulina was neuroprotective in this α-synuclein model of PD as more TH+ and NeuN+ cells were observed; spirulina concomitantly decreased the numbers of activated microglial cells as determined by MHCII expression. This decrease in microglia activation may have been due, in part, to the effect of spirulina to increase expression of the fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1 on microglia. With this study we hypothesize that α-synuclein neurotoxicity is mediated, at least in part, via an interaction with microglia. We observed a decrease in activated microglia in the rats that received a spirulina- enhanced diet concomitant to neuroprotection. The increase in CX3CR1 in the groups that received spirulina, suggests a potential mechanism of action.

  3. TAHLAB (SPIRULINA AND FEW OTHER MEDICINAL PLANTS HAVING ANTI-OXIDANT & IMMUNOMODULATORY PROPERTIES DESCRIBED IN UNANI MEDICINE - A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Anzar Alam*, Nafis Haider , Shamim Ahmed , Md. Tanwir Alam and Abdul Azeez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available : Antioxidants are substances that may protect cells from the damage caused by unstable molecules known as free radicals; free radicals damage may lead to cancer and other diseases. Some of the example of antioxidants are like β-carotene, lycopene, Vit. C, E & A and other substances which are found in variety of fruits, vegetables, algae (spirulina & other medicinal plants. Spirulina (Blue green algae is a microscopic single cell alga which grows in fresh water and has a simple structure but a complex composition. It is a concentrated source of food containing nutraceutical, antioxidants, probiotics and phytonutrients. It has been subjected to through screening for its biological role; some of the finding is promising. It has immunostimulant activities. It stimulates the production and activity of bone marrow stem cells, macrophages, T-cells, spleen & thymus gland shows enhanced function. In-vitro studies on spirulina indicate that it enhances the cell nuclease activity and DNA repair & hence, it has possible role in cancer treatment. Spirulina has the potential to be accepted by global certification authorities as a safe nutritional and dietary supplement. Some of the plants extensively studied for immunostimulant activity are Halela, Balela, Amla, Asgandh, Satavar, Ustakhudoos, Gilo, Zanjabeel, Brahmi etc. The activation of mononuclear cells to release cytokines and interleukins-I, has been documented for Gilo (Tinospora cordifolia, syringing and cordial, the active constituents of this plant, show anticomplimentry and immunomodulatory activity.

  4. Immunohistochemical Study Effects of Spirulina Algae on the Induced Mammary Tumor in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aimed at investigating the protective effects of Spirulina platensis on the induced mammary tumor in rats by dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and the proliferation of the tumor cells by using immunohistochemical staining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). At 50 days of age, group 1 remained untreated, group 2 treated with 2% Spirulina platenesis in food, group 3 received 50 mg/kg DMBA i.p. groupe 4 received 50 mg/kg DMBA i.p and fed on 2% spirulina. Rats were killed when the largest mammary tumor reached 1-2 cm in diameter or after 6 months of animal>s age. All the tumors produced by DMBA were ductal carcinoma in 100% of group 3, but in group 4 two rats had mammary tumor. The groups 1 and 2 had no tumor and have the same histological and immunostaining features, but in group 4, 13/15 rats had no tumor except formation of some cysts and hyperplasia in epithelial cells. The conclusion of this work suggests that Spirulina platnesis could be considered as a chemotherapeutic agent that causes apoptosis to tumor cells by reducing the number of malignant cells and resists cancer formation. (author)

  5. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic investigations of selenium-containing phycocyanin from se-lenium-rich algae (Spirulina platensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The selenium-containing phycocyanin from the selenium-rich algae (Spirulina platensis) has been crystallized in two crystal forms by the hanging-drop vapor diffusion techniques. A chromatographic procedure of gel filtration and anion exchange was used for purification. Form I crystal with space group P21 and cell parameters a =108.0 ?, b = 117.0 ?, c = 184.0 ?, b = 90.2° and 12(ab) units in the asymmetric unit was obtained by using (NH4)2SO4 as precipitant. These crystals diffract up to 2.8 ?. Form II crystal obtained by using PEG4000 as precipitant belongs to space group P63 with unit cell constants a = 155.0 ?, c = 40.3 ?, g =120.0° and one(ab) unit in the asymmetric unit. The crystals diffract beyond 2.9 ?. The possible stacking forms of phycocyanin molecules in the first crystal form were discussed.

  6. Anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic properties of Spirulina platensis and Spirulina lonar: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somchit, Muhammad Nazrul; Mohamed, Nor Azura; Ahmad, Zuraini; Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin; Shamsuddin, Lokman; Omar-Fauzee, Mohd Sofian; Kadir, Arifah Abdul

    2014-09-01

    Spirulina spp. is a blue-green algae belongs to the family of Oscillatoriaceae, which having diverse biological activity. The aim of this current study was to evaluate and compare the anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory activity of Spirulina platensis/SP and Spirulina lonar/SL extracts. In the anti-pyretic study, the ability to reduce the rectal temperature of rats induced pyrexia with 2g/kg Brewer's Yeast (BY) was performed. Rats were dosed either 2 or 4 mg/kg SP or SL. Rectal temperature was taken every hour for 8 hours. Results shown that there were significant dose-dependent (p<0.05) reduction of both treatments. However, SP treatment revealed faster reduction in rectal temperature. For anti-inflammatory activity, the reduction in the volume of paw edema induced by Prostaglandin E2 (100 IU/rat intraplantar) was measured. Rats were dosed orally with 2 or 4 mg/kg SP or SL. The paw edema was measured every 30 minutes for 4 hours using plethysmometer. Results had shown a significant dose dependent reduction in diameter of paw edema (p<0.05). The finding suggests that SP and SL extracts have anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory properties. However, SP was found to be more effective than SL as anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:25176383

  7. Porphyria cutanea tarda responding to spirulina

    OpenAIRE

    Pavithran K; Nair P

    1992-01-01

    A male patient of porphyria cutanea tarda responded to oral spirulina - an alga rich in beta - carotene. The beta - carotene in the spirulina quenches the singlet oxygen which is responsible for the tissue damage in porphyria-associated photosensitivity.

  8. 青霉素处理检查和分离蓝藻细胞液泡%Determination and Isolation of Cell Vacuoles from Blue-green Algae by Penicillin Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭碧薇; 易平; 刘希玲; 郭厚良

    2003-01-01

    Growing in the liquid medium containing penicillin, the cells of the Cyanobacteria,Anabaena 7120, Nostoc flagelliforme, and Synechocystis 6803 were broken and vacuoles were released. Percentage of broken cells declined and percentage of broken cells increased with the growing days of the algae. The percentage of vacuoles to broken cells were respectively 0.7%, 0.8%, and 13.3% in the three types of algae Anabaena 7120, N.flagelliforme and Synechocystis 6803 which had grown for 3 days.

  9. Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of spirulina on rat model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Wing; Takayama, Fusako; Mine, Manaka; Nakamoto, Kazuo; Kodo, Yasumasa; Mankura, Mitsumasa; Egashira, Toru; Kawasaki, Hiromu; Mori, Akitane

    2012-11-01

    The pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remains unclear, but accumulating data suggest oxidative stress and the relationship between inflammation and immunity plays a crucial role. The aim of this study is to investigate the spirulina, which is a blue-green algae rich in proteins and other nutritional elements, and its component-phycocyanin effect on a rat model of NASH. NASH model rats were established by feeding male Wistar rats with choline-deficient high-fat diet (CDHF) and intermittent hypoxemia by sodium nitrite challenge after 5 weeks of CDHF. After experimental period of 10 weeks, blood and liver were collected to determine oxidative stress injuries and efficacies of spirulina or phycocyanin on NASH model rats. In the NASH model rats, increase in plasma liver enzymes and liver fibrosis, increases in productions of reactive oxygen species from liver mitochondria and from leukocytes, the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B, and the change in the lymphocyte surface antigen ratio (CD4(+)/CD8(+)) were observed. The spirulina and phycocyanin administration significantly abated these changes. The spirulina or phycocyanin administration to model rats of NASH might lessen the inflammatory response through anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory mechanisms, breaking the crosstalk between oxidative stress and inflammation, and effectively inhibit NASH progression. PMID:23170052

  10. Preliminary studies on irradiated spirulina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last decades, a special attention is given to study different algae, especially to microscopic ones. Spirulina is one of them being used both nutritive supplement and medicine. The aim of the paper is to study the electron beam irradiated Spirulina by physical and biochemical methods. The UV-Vis and EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) spectra and antioxidant activity are presented for Spirulina irradiated up to 80 kGy. (authors)

  11. A new model of phycobilisome in Spirulina platensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉忠; 陈秀兰; 周百成; 曾呈奎; 刘洁; 时东霞; 庞世瑾

    1999-01-01

    Phycobilisomes (PBS) were isolated from blue-green alga Spirulina platensis. Scanning tunneling microscope was used to investigate the three-dimensional structure of PBS deposited on freshly cleaved highly oriented py-rolytic graphite (HOPG) in ambient condition at room temperature. The results showed that the rods of PBS radiated from the core to different directions in the space other than arrayed in one plane, which was different from the typical hemi-discoidal model structure. The diameter of PBS was up to 70 nm, and the rod was approximately 50 nm in length. Similar results were observed in Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film of PBS. The dissociated PBS could reaggregate into rod-like structures and easily form two-dimensional membrane while being absorbed on HOPG, however, no intact PBS was observed. The filling-space model structure of PBS in Spirulina platensis with STM from three-dimensional real space at nanometer scale was found, which showed that this new structural model of PBS surely exists in blue

  12. Drying Spirulina with Foam Mat Drying at Medium Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Aji Prasetyaningrum; Mohamad Djaeni

    2012-01-01

    Spirulina is a single cell blue green microalgae (Cyanobacteria) containing many Phytonutrients (Beta-carotene, Chlorophyl, Xanthophyl, Phyocianin) using as anti-carcinogen in food. Producing dry spirulina by quick drying process at medium temperature is very important to retain the Phytonutrient quality. Currently, the work is still challenging due to the gel formation that block the water diffusion from inside to the surface.  This research studies the performance of foam-mat drying on prod...

  13. Utilization of Spirulina platensis for wastewater treatment in fermented rice noodle factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumontip Bunnag

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina platensis is a single-cell blue-green alga which belongs to the family Oscillatoriaceae.S. platensis can grow in polluted water and it has been widely used to remove excess nitrate-nitrogenand total phosphorus content in wastewater from noodle factories. This study was aimed to investigatethe effect of wastewater on growth of S. platensis and to examine its potential to reduce nitrate-nitrogenand total phosphorus contents in wastewater from fermented rice noodle factory. Twenty five percentwastewatermixed Zarrouk’s medium gave rise to the highest growth rate of S. platensis. Optical density(OD of S. platensis culture increased from 0.07±0.04 to 0.24±0.12. Also, the results exhibited the leastvalue of nitrate-nitrogen and total phosphorus contents when performed in 25 % and 100 %wastewater-mixed Zarrouk’s media, respectively.

  14. Extraction of light filth from spirulina powders and tablets: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, M J; Angold, S; Beavin, B B; Bradicich, R B; Decker, S J; Dzidowski, G R; Levesque, E; Locatelli, R G; Mably, M; Paredes, A

    1989-01-01

    Results are reported for a collaborative study of a method for the extraction of light filth from spirulina (a blue-green alga) powder and tablets. A 50 g portion of either powder or tablets is dispersed in water, and then boiled with dilute HCI solution. Hairs and insect fragments are isolated by wet sieving on a No. 230 sieve, flotation with mineral oil, and washings of the mineral oil in a percolator. Average recoveries by 12 collaborators for tablets and powders were 70.6 and 70.2%, respectively, for 10 rat hair spikes and 68.3 and 84.4%, respectively, for 20 insect fragment spikes. The method has been approved interim official first action. PMID:2501292

  15. Radioactivity of nucleic acids and protein of Spirulina platensis algae cultivated in medium containing HTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incorporation of tritium into algae cultivated in media containing known amounts of HTO is characterized by a low value of ratio ''R'' equal to 0.18. The specific radioactivity of DNA isolated by different methods is proportional to tritium concentration in the culture medium within the range 1.1-7.4 MBq/cm3. The dose rate of radiation and number of nucleotides per every atom of tritium built-in were estimated. At the highest concentration of HTO every thirtieth DNA molecule with 9.5 x 106 molecular weight contains a tritium atom. Tritium distribution among basic chemical compounds of cells and its retention in DNA, RNA and protein after transfer of the biomass into inactive medium were determined. A considerable retention of tritium in RNA and DNA has been demonstrated. (author)

  16. Role of pH on antioxidants production by Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Mahmoud Sami Ismaiel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Algae can tolerate a broad range of growing conditions but extreme conditions may lead to the generation of highly dangerous reactive oxygen species (ROS, which may cause the deterioration of cell metabolism and damage cellular components. The antioxidants produced by algae alleviate the harmful effects of ROS. While the enhancement of antioxidant production in blue green algae under stress has been reported, the antioxidant response to changes in pH levels requires further investigation. This study presents the effect of pH changes on the antioxidant activity and productivity of the blue green alga Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis. The algal dry weight (DW was greatly enhanced at pH 9.0. The highest content of chlorophyll a and carotenoids (10.6 and 2.4 mg/g DW, respectively was recorded at pH 8.5. The highest phenolic content (12.1 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g DW was recorded at pH 9.5. The maximum production of total phycobiliprotein (159 mg/g DW was obtained at pH 9.0. The antioxidant activities of radical scavenging activity, reducing power and chelating activity were highest at pH 9.0 with an increase of 567, 250 and 206% compared to the positive control, respectively. Variation in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and peroxidase (POD was also reported. While the high alkaline pH may favor the overproduction of antioxidants, normal cell metabolism and membrane function is unaffected, as shown by growth and chlorophyll content, which suggests that these conditions are suitable for further studies on the harvest of antioxidants from S. platensis.

  17. Role of pH on antioxidants production by Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaiel, Mostafa Mahmoud Sami; El-Ayouty, Yassin Mahmoud; Piercey-Normore, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Algae can tolerate a broad range of growing conditions but extreme conditions may lead to the generation of highly dangerous reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may cause the deterioration of cell metabolism and damage cellular components. The antioxidants produced by algae alleviate the harmful effects of ROS. While the enhancement of antioxidant production in blue green algae under stress has been reported, the antioxidant response to changes in pH levels requires further investigation. This study presents the effect of pH changes on the antioxidant activity and productivity of the blue green alga Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis. The algal dry weight (DW) was greatly enhanced at pH 9.0. The highest content of chlorophyll a and carotenoids (10.6 and 2.4mg/g DW, respectively) was recorded at pH 8.5. The highest phenolic content (12.1mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g DW) was recorded at pH 9.5. The maximum production of total phycobiliprotein (159mg/g DW) was obtained at pH 9.0. The antioxidant activities of radical scavenging activity, reducing power and chelating activity were highest at pH 9.0 with an increase of 567, 250 and 206% compared to the positive control, respectively. Variation in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) was also reported. While the high alkaline pH may favor the overproduction of antioxidants, normal cell metabolism and membrane function is unaffected, as shown by growth and chlorophyll content, which suggests that these conditions are suitable for further studies on the harvest of antioxidants from S. platensis. PMID:26991300

  18. The fifth dimension of the taste in Spirulina platensis feed. Study on the influence of monosodium glutamate in the development and composition of the Spirulina platensis algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan MANEA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Food additives have become a way of life, creating pleasure and food request. But from the point of view of health promotion, it is necessary to demonstrate the risks and find out new possibilities for a good sensorial aspect of the food. This would apply especially in the case of long-term consumption, or in some particular conditions (allergies to different ingredients which appear more often to consumers. Cheap products are manufactured by using E-dangerous. The explanation is simple: the natural E extracted from various fruits and vegetables are very expensive. The study wants to demonstrate that the monosodium glutamate (MSG into the culture medium of plantscan affect their healthiness. Spirulina platensis has the same type of amino acids as humans and this is why it has been chosen as an experiment plant. Four samples obtained from the Spirulina’s culturemedium were studied: one blank and three with 0.2%, 0.4% and respectively 0.6% MSG in the culture medium. The mineral content was evaluated using the Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS and a rapid increase of calcium and magnesium content was registered for the sample with the biggest amount of MSG. The structure of the filaments and the cells appearance were evaluated microscopically. There were changes identified in the structure after three days of cultivating. Also, the sample with 0.6% MSG presented dead cells and the ones which were still alive had profound changes in form and structure.

  19. Closed and continuous algae cultivation system for food production and gas exchange in CELSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Mitsuo; Otsubo, Koji; Nitta, Keiji; Shimada, Atsuhiro; Fujii, Shigeo; Koyano, Takashi; Miki, Keizaburo

    In CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support System), utilization of photosynthetic algae is an effective means for obtaining food and oxygen at the same time. We have chosen Spirulina, a blue-green alga, and have studied possibilities of algae utilization. We have developed an advanced algae cultivation system, which is able to produce algae continuously in a closed condition. Major features of the new system are as follows. o (1)In order to maintain homogeneous culture conditions, the cultivator was designed so as to cause a swirl on medium circulation. (2)Oxygen gas separation and carbon dioxide supply are conducted by a newly designed membrane module. (3)Algae mass and medium are separated by a specially designed harvester. (4)Cultivation conditions, such as pH, temperature, algae growth rate, light intensity and quanlity of generated oxygen gas are controlled by a computer system and the data are automatically recorded. This equipment is a primary model for ground experiments in order to obtain some design data for space use. A feasibility of algae cultivation in a closed condition is discussed on the basis of data obtained by use of this new system.

  20. Spirulina in health care management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Archana; Zacharia, Anish J; Jarouliya, Urmila; Bhadauriya, Pratiksha; Prasad, G B K S; Bisen, P S

    2008-10-01

    Spirulina is a photosynthetic, filamentous, spiral-shaped and multicellular edible microbe. It is the nature's richest and most complete source of nutrition. Spirulina has a unique blend of nutrients that no single source can offer. The alga contains a wide spectrum of prophylactic and therapeutic nutrients that include B-complex vitamins, minerals, proteins, gamma-linolenic acid and the super anti-oxidants such as beta-carotene, vitamin E, trace elements and a number of unexplored bioactive compounds. Because of its apparent ability to stimulate whole human physiology, Spirulina exhibits therapeutic functions such as antioxidant, anti-bacterial, antiviral, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic and anti-diabetic and plethora of beneficial functions. Spirulina consumption appears to promote the growth of intestinal micro flora as well. The review discusses the potential of Spirulina in health care management. PMID:18855693

  1. Distribution and biomass estimation of shell-boring algae in the intertidal area at Goa India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Sharma, S.; Lande, V.

    The distribution and frequency of shell-boring green and blue-green algae in the intertidal at Goa, India were studied. The green alga Gomontia sp. and the blue green algae Hyella caespitosa Bornet et Flahault, H. gigas Lucas et Golubic...

  2. Spirulina non-protein components induce BDNF gene transcription via HO-1 activity in C6 glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Kyoji; Itoh, Mari; Nishibori, Naoyoshi; Her, Song; Lee, Mi-Sook

    2015-01-01

    Blue-green algae are known to contain biologically active proteins and non-protein substances and considered as useful materials for manufacturing the nutritional supplements. Particularly, Spirulina has been reported to contain a variety of antioxidants, such as flavonoids, carotenoids, and vitamin C, thereby exerting their protective effects against the oxidative damage to the cells. In addition to their antioxidant actions, polyphenolic compounds have been speculated to cause the protection of neuronal cells and the recovery of neurologic function in the brain through the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in glial cells. Then, the protein-deprived extract was prepared by removing the most part of protein components from aqueous extract of Spirulina platensis, and the effect of this extract on BDNF gene transcription was examined in C6 glioma cells. Consequently, the protein-deprived extract was shown to cause the elevation of BDNF mRNA levels following the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the glioma cells. Therefore, the non-protein components of S. platensis are considered to stimulate BDNF gene transcription through the HO-1 induction in glial cells, thus proposing a potential ability of the algae to indirectly modulate the brain function through the glial cell activity. PMID:25349086

  3. Epiphytic algae on mosses in the vicinity of Syowa Station, Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Shuji, Ohtani

    1986-01-01

    Species composition and abundance of epiphytic algae on mosses growing in the vicinity of Syowa Station were investigated. Moss samples were collected from three localities, East Ongul Island, Mukai Rocks and Langhovde. The epiphytic algae identified in these samples were 23 species in total, 16 of blue-green algae, 4 of diatoms, 3 of green algae. Blue-green algae were more frequently found among these epiphytic algae on mosses in each locality. Among the three localities, Langhovde was the m...

  4. Blue-green photoluminescence in MCM-41 mesoporous nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, J L; Lui, Y L; Cheng, P W; Cheng, C F

    2003-01-01

    Different photoluminescence (PL) techniques have been used to study the blue-green emission from siliceous MCM-41 nanotubes. It was found that the intensity of the blue-green PL is enhanced by rapid thermal annealing (RTA). This enhancement is explained by the generation of twofold-coordinated Si centres and non-bridging oxygen hole centres, in line with the surface properties of MCM-41. On the basis of the analysis of the PL following RTA, polarized PL, and PL excitation, we suggest that the triplet-to-singlet transition of twofold-coordinated silicon centres is responsible for the blue-green PL in MCM-41 nanotubes. (letter to the editor)

  5. Porphyria cutanea tarda responding to spirulina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavithran K

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A male patient of porphyria cutanea tarda responded to oral spirulina - an alga rich in beta - carotene. The beta - carotene in the spirulina quenches the singlet oxygen which is responsible for the tissue damage in porphyria-associated photosensitivity.

  6. Proteins expressed in blue-green sharpshooter leafhoppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    We used a metagenomics approach to identify proteins from the blue-green sharpshooter, Graphocephala atropunctata (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) which is an important vector of Pierce’s disease of grapes. The 44 proteins are being used as markers to monitor and identify current and exotic introductions o...

  7. Spirulina Species as a Source of Carotenoids and a-Tocopherol and its Anticarcinoma Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa H. Abd El-Baky

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study blue-green alga Spirulina platensis and Spirulina maxima were grown in batch culture at different nitrogen and NaCl concentrations, respectively. Both species were found to respond to nitrogen deficiency and high NaCl level by accumulation of large amounts of commercially important chemicals such as carotenoids and tocopherols. The higher carotenoids and a-tocopherol contents was obtained when Spirulina sp grown at low nitrogen level (51 ppm N, with values ranged from 19.82 to 24.1 mg g -1 and from 533.2 to 978.5 �g Kg-1 (dry weight, d.w., respectively. Whilst, these values in cells grown in free nitrogen medium were ranged from 30.15 to 31.13 mg g-1 and from 960.4 to 1325.7 �g Kg-1 (d.w, respectively. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC elution patter of total caroteniods extracted from S. platensis and S maxima culture contained a-carotene (49.6 to 319.5 �g g-1 lutein (0.06 to17.21 �g g-1, astaxanthin (6.61 to 160.27 �g g-1, zeaxanthin (1.25 to 18.55 �g g-1 and cryptoxanthin (1.41 to 20.13 �g g-1. S. maxima accumulated a large amount of cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin than that found in S. platensis. The effect of Spirulina species extracts containing various carotenoid compounds and tocopherols on the viability of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells (EACC were evaluated. All algae extracts at different concentration of 200 and 400 ppm significant reduced the cell viability ranged from 89.11 to 5.25%. These extracts did not induce any significant changes in DNA fragmentation of treated EACC compared with untreated cells. But lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and glutathione-S- transferase (GST enzyme activities and glutathione level in treated EACC were significantly higher than that in untreated cells. These finding suggest that algae extracts may be reduce cell viability by other mechanism such as membrane lyases instead of apoptosis. Thus, Spirulina extract rich in carotenoids and tocopherols could be used

  8. Application of power plant flue gas in a photobioreactor to grow Spirulina algae, and a bioactivity analysis of the algal water-soluble polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiao-Wei; Yang, Tsung-Shi; Chen, Mao-Jing; Chang, Yu-Ching; Lin, Chai-Yi; Wang, Eugene I-Chen; Ho, Chen-Lung; Huang, Kue-Ming; Yu, Chi-Cheng; Yang, Feng-Ling; Wu, Shih-Hsiung; Lu, Ying-Chen; Chao, Louis Kuop-Ping

    2012-09-01

    A novel photobioreactor was developed with a total volume of 30 m(3) which required merely 100 m(3) of land footprint. The bioreactor was capable of utilizing CO(2) in the flue gas of a power plant as the carbon source for the growth of a freshwater alga, Spirulina platensis, mitigating the greenhouse effect caused by the same amount of CO(2) discharge. Results of the study indicated that the photobioreactor was capable of fixing 2,234 kg of CO(2) per annum. Upon deducting the energy consumption of operating the bioreactor unit, the estimated amount of CO(2) to be fixed by a scaled-up reactor would be 74 tons ha(-1)year(-1). In addition, the study prove that protein-free polysaccharides of S. platensis could induce the production of pro-IL-1 and IL-1 proteins through the mediation of ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPKs pathways. As a consequence, immunogenic activities of the macrophage cells were enhanced. PMID:22820115

  9. Removal of nutrients by algae from municipal wastewater contaminated with heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    Aryal, Bigyan

    2015-01-01

    Selected species of algae (green algae and blue green algae) were cultivated in municipal wastewater using PBR (photo-bioreactor) bottles. Uptake of nutrients by these algae species was measured on different dates. From the results of the experiments, it was observed that a combination of certain blue green algae species (cyanobacteria) was able to remove most of the nutrients from the wastewater. The presence of heavy metal ions in the wastewater also affected the nutrient-absorbing capacit...

  10. Drying Spirulina with Foam Mat Drying at Medium Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aji Prasetyaningrum

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina is a single cell blue green microalgae (Cyanobacteria containing many Phytonutrients (Beta-carotene, Chlorophyl, Xanthophyl, Phyocianin using as anti-carcinogen in food. Producing dry spirulina by quick drying process at medium temperature is very important to retain the Phytonutrient quality. Currently, the work is still challenging due to the gel formation that block the water diffusion from inside to the surface.  This research studies the performance of foam-mat drying on production of dry spirulina. In this method the spirulina was mixed with foaming agent (glair/egg albumen, popular as white egg at 2.5% by weight at air velocity 2.2 m/sec. Here, the effect of spirulina thickness and operational temperature on drying time and quality (Beta-carotene and color were observed. The drying time was estimated based on the measurement of water content in spirulina versus time. Result showed that the thicker spirulina, the longer drying time. Conversely, the higher operational temperature, faster drying time. At thickness ranging 1-3 mm and operational temperature below 70oC, the quality of spirulina can fit the market requirement

  11. Measurements of photorespiration in some microscopic algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K H; Colman, B

    1974-09-01

    The rate of photorespiration in three green algae and four blue-green algae was determined by the measurement of the rate of loss of photosynthetically fixed (14)CO2 in light in CO2-free air at 25°. In all algae studied, CO2 evolution in light was considerably less than that in the dark, except for Chlamydomonas reinhardii which released slightly more CO2 in the light. Raising the temperature to 35° had little effect on the ratio of light to dark (14)CO2 release. Blue-green algae showed the lowest photorespiration rate of the algae studied. PMID:24458883

  12. Blue-green and green phosphors for lighting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlur, Anant Achyut; Chandran, Ramachandran Gopi; Henderson, Claire Susan; Nammalwar, Pransanth Kumar; Radkov, Emil

    2012-12-11

    Embodiments of the present techniques provide a related family of phosphors that may be used in lighting systems to generate blue or blue-green light. The phosphors include systems having a general formula of: ((Sr.sub.1-zM.sub.z).sub.1-(x+w)A.sub.wCe.sub.x).sub.3(Al.sub.1-ySi.s- ub.y)O.sub.4+y+3(x-w)F.sub.1-y-3(x-w) (I), wherein 0phosphors made accordingly to these formulations maintain emission intensity across a wide range of temperatures. The phosphors may be used in lighting systems, such as LEDs and fluorescent tubes, among others, to produce blue and blue/green light. Further, the phosphors may be used in blends with other phosphors, or in combined lighting systems, to produce white light suitable for illumination.

  13. Biological importance of marine algae

    OpenAIRE

    Ali A. El Gamal

    2009-01-01

    Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. Algae can be classified into two main groups; first one is the microalgae, which includes blue green algae, dinoflagellates, bacillariophyta (diatoms)… etc., and second one is macroalgae (seaweeds) which includes green, brown and red algae. The microalgae phyla have been recognized to provide chemical and pharmacological...

  14. Biochemical composition and antioxidant activities of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis in response to gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabana, Effat Fahmy; Gabr, Mahmoud Ali; Moussa, Helal Ragab; El-Shaer, Enas Ali; Ismaiel, Mostafa M S

    2017-01-01

    Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis is a blue-green alga, rich with bioactive components and nutrients. To evaluate effect of gamma irradiation, A. platensis was exposed to different doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5kGy. The data showed that the phenolic and proline contents significantly increased with the increase of gamma irradiation doses up to 2.0kGy, above which a reduction was observed. The soluble proteins and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were stimulated by all tested irradiation doses. Furthermore, the vitamins (A, K and B group) and mineral contents (N, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg and Fe) were stimulated by the irradiation doses compared with the control. The activities of some N-assimilating and antioxidant enzymes were significantly increased with the irradiation doses up to 2.0kGy. This study suggests the possible use of gamma irradiation as a stimulatory agent to raise the nutritive value and antioxidant activity of A. platensis. PMID:27507509

  15. Phycocyanin and phycocyanobilin from Spirulina platensis protect against diabetic nephropathy by inhibiting oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jing; Inoguchi, Toyoshi; Sasaki, Shuji; Maeda, Yasutaka; McCarty, Mark F; Fujii, Masakazu; Ikeda, Noriko; Kobayashi, Kunihisa; Sonoda, Noriyuki; Takayanagi, Ryoichi

    2013-01-15

    We and other investigators have reported that bilirubin and its precursor biliverdin may have beneficial effects on diabetic vascular complications, including nephropathy, via its antioxidant effects. Here, we investigated whether phycocyanin derived from Spirulina platensis, a blue-green algae, and its chromophore phycocyanobilin, which has a chemical structure similar to that of biliverdin, protect against oxidative stress and renal dysfunction in db/db mice, a rodent model for Type 2 diabetes. Oral administration of phycocyanin (300 mg/kg) for 10 wk protected against albuminuria and renal mesangial expansion in db/db mice, and normalized tumor growth factor-β and fibronectin expression. Phycocyanin also normalized urinary and renal oxidative stress markers and the expression of NAD(P)H oxidase components. Similar antioxidant effects were observed following oral administration of phycocyanobilin (15 mg/kg) for 2 wk. Phycocyanobilin, bilirubin, and biliverdin also inhibited NADPH dependent superoxide production in cultured renal mesangial cells. In conclusion, oral administration of phycocyanin and phycocyanobilin may offer a novel and feasible therapeutic approach for preventing diabetic nephropathy. PMID:23115122

  16. Marine Algae and Seagrasses of Adana (Mediterranean, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Aysel, V.; Erdugan, H.; Okudan, E. S.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Marine algae and seagrasses were researched in the upper infralittoral zone of Adana (Turkish Mediterranean coasts) in this study. 381 algae and 5 seagrasses (Liliopsida) were determined (Total 386 taxa). 27 of them belong to blue-green algae (Cyanophyceae), 204 to red algae [Rhodellophyceae (2), Compsopogonophyceae (2), Bangiophyceae (5), Florideophyceae(195)], 78 to brown algae (Fucophyceae), 72 to green algae [Chlorophyceae (7), Ulvophyceae (18), Trentepohliophyceae (1), Cladophor...

  17. Marine Algae and Seagrasses of Hatay (Mediterranean, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Aysel, V.; Erdugan, H.; Okudan, E. S.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In this research, marine algae and seagrasses were investigated in the upper infralittoral zone of Hatay (Turkish Mediterranean coasts). A total of 377 algae and 5 seagrasses were determined. 30 of them belong to blue-green algae (Cyanophyceae), 201 to red algae [Rhodellophyceae (2), Compsopogonophyceae (2), Bangiophyceae (5), Florideophyceae (192)], 73 to brown algae (Fucophyceae), 73 to green algae [Chlorophyceae (5), Ulvophyceae (19), Trentepohliophyceae (1), Cladophorophyceae (24...

  18. Marine Algae and Seagrasses of Mersin Shore (Mediterranean, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Aysel, V.; Okudan, E. S.; Erdugan, H.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In this research, marine algae and seagrasses were investigated in the upper infralittoral zone of Mersin (Turkish Mediterranean coasts). A total of 396 algae and 5 seagrasses were determined. 36 of them belong to blue-green algae (Cyanophyceae), 204 to red algae [Rhodellophyceae (2), Compsopogonophyceae (2), Bangiophyceae (6), Florideophyceae(I94)], 82 to brown algae (Fucophyceae), 74 to green algae [Chlorophyceae (7), Ulvophyceae (19), Trentepohliophyceae (1), Cladophorophyceae (25...

  19. Algae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Raven, John A.; Giordano, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 13 (2014), s. 590-595. ISSN 0960-9822 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : algae * life cycle * evolution Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 9.571, year: 2014

  20. Extração e purificação de clorofila a, da alga Spirulina maxima: um experimento para os cursos de química Extraction and purification of chlorophyll a isolated from Spirulina maxima: an experiment for the chemistry courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Jecks Maestrin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a simple and economical experiment for the extraction and purification of chlorophyll a from Spirulina maxima. Extraction and purification of natural compounds can be considered one of the most illustrative experiments that can be performed in Organic Chemistry courses. Particularly, the chromatography of dyes and pigments allows students to have a better comprehension of the chromatography separations. These compounds represent an important class of organic pigments applied in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, detergent compositions, and various other fields and can be extracted from plants and algae. To extract, separate and purify chlorophyll a from associated pigments such as xanthophylls, carotenes, and pheophytins, very costly processes are reported. The present approach is perfectly adequate for use in Chemistry experiments for undergraduate students.

  1. The effect of γ-irradiation on spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spirulina platensis was irradiated with 60Co-gamma rays. The LD50 of the colony was 300 krad. Low dose of γ-rays (less than 100 krad) could stimulated the growth of Spirulina platensis. Only small changes in the morphology of algae filament were found at the dose less than 50 krad. After ultrasonic treatment, the sensitivity of the dissociated cell colony of Spirulina platensis to γ-radiation increased significantly. The LD50 was 100 krad, and 250 krad caused 100% lethality. Cell lines with very long algae filaments were obtained from the 100 krad irradiated cell progeny

  2. Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, John A; Giordano, Mario

    2014-07-01

    Algae frequently get a bad press. Pond slime is a problem in garden pools, algal blooms can produce toxins that incapacitate or kill animals and humans and even the term seaweed is pejorative - a weed being a plant growing in what humans consider to be the wrong place. Positive aspects of algae are generally less newsworthy - they are the basis of marine food webs, supporting fisheries and charismatic marine megafauna from albatrosses to whales, as well as consuming carbon dioxide and producing oxygen. Here we consider what algae are, their diversity in terms of evolutionary origin, size, shape and life cycles, and their role in the natural environment and in human affairs. PMID:25004359

  3. Influence of Spirulina on the endocrine status and lipid peroxidation processes in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of blue-green seaweed Spirulina platensis (SP) on the endocrine status and lipid peroxidation (LP) in the liver, kidneys and heart of rats one month later single x-ray exposure was studied. The findings of the research demonstrate the efficacy of SP in correction of radiation impairment of adrenal glands glucocorticoid function, radiation increase of thyroxin and malonic dialdehyde levels and prevention of inhibition of organism antioxidant protection in rats exposed to ionizing radiation

  4. Reviews of Spirulina Algae in Clinical Application for Children%螺旋藻在儿童临床应用中的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申开泽; 张瑶; 余绍蕾; 鸭乔; 万庆家

    2013-01-01

    螺旋藻是一种富富含b-胡萝卜素、维生素B12、铁、微量矿物质、亚油酸且易吸收的高蛋白产品,在营养保健和预防疾病等方面均有广泛应用.本文综述了过去30多年里开展的螺旋藻以儿童为试验对象的临床研究概况.临床研究表明,螺旋藻对儿童保健有积极的价值,而且没有任何副作用.本文也总结和分析了儿童用螺旋藻产品的开发现状及存在的问题,并针对存在的问题提出相关建议,以期为国内开发儿童用螺旋藻产品提供参考.%Spirulina is an easily digestible high protein product with high levels of beta-carotene, vitamin B12, iron and trace minerals, and the rare essential fatty acid y-linolenic acid. It has been consumed as a safely food ingredient and is currently used in health care and disease prevention. In this review, emphasis is given to the beneficial effects of Spirulina in children clinical trials conducted in the past 30 years. These human clinical trials have demonstrated various health benefits in young children with no side effects. In addition, current situation and existing problem on the research and development of children food sourced from Spirulina are analyzed. Some suggestions are also proposed for further developing Spirulina products for children in China.

  5. A survey of Marine Algae and Seagrasses of İstanbul, (Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Aysel, V.; Erduğan, H.; Dural, B.; Okudan, E.Ş.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract In this research, have been studied marine algae in the upper infralittoral zone of the Bosphorus coasts of İstanbul (including Bosphorus) . A total of 244 taxon have been determined. 11 of them belong to blue-green bacteria (Cyanophyta), 127 to red algae (Rhodophyta), 46 to brown algae (Heterokontophyta), 60 to green algae (Chlorophyta) and 2 to flowering plants (Tracheophyta).

  6. Marine algae and seagrasses of Tekirdag (Black Sea,Turkey)*

    OpenAIRE

    Aysel, Veysel; Erdugan, Hüseyin; DURAL, Berrin; SükranOkudan, E.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In this study, marine algae and seagrasses in the upper infralittoral zone of the Black Sea coast of Tekirdag (Turkey) were investigated. A total 156 taxon (153 algae and 3 seagrasses) in species or inferior to the species category were determined. 15 of them belong to blue-green bacteria (Cyanophyta), 84 to red algae (Rhodophyta), 26 to brown algae (Heterokontophyta), 28 to green algae (Chlorophyta) and 3 to marineflowering plants (Magnoliophyta).

  7. Effects of spirulina on cyclophosphamide-induced ovarian toxicity in rats: biochemical and histomorphometric evaluation of the ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yener, Nese Arzu; Sinanoglu, Orhun; Ilter, Erdin; Celik, Aygen; Sezgin, Gulbuz; Midi, Ahmet; Deveci, Ugur; Aksungar, Fehime

    2013-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (Cyc) is known to cause ovotoxicity and infertility in women. Our aim is to investigate the possible ovotoxic effects of Cyc and possible antioxidant and protective effects of blue-green algae, Spirulina (Sp), in rat ovaries. Eighteen rats were given: group I (n = 6, control); group II (n = 6, CP), a single dose Cyc; group III (n = 6, Sp+Cyc), 7 days Sp+single dose Cyc. Tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities are assessed biochemically. Normal and atretic primordial and primary follicle counts for all sections obtained for each ovary are calculated. Mean number of follicle counts for each group are compared. In Sp+Cyc group, tissue MDA levels were significantly lower than those in the CP and higher than those in the C group (CP > Sp+Cyc > C). Tissue SOD activity was significantly higher in Sp+Cyc group than that in the CP group and lower than that in the C group (C > Sp+Cyc > C). No statistically significant difference was found between the ovarian CAT activities in any group. Histomorphometrically, there was also no significant difference between the mean numbers of normal and atretic small follicle counts. Our results suggest that single dose Cyc has adverse effects on oxidant status of the ovaries and Sp has protective effects in Cyc-induced ovotoxicity. PMID:23762559

  8. L'algue alimentaire Spirulina sp. Découverte de lacs naturels à Wadi el Natroun en République Arabe d'Egypte Spirulina Sp. Food Alga. Discovery of Natural Lakes At Wadi El Natrun in the Arab Republic of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdin El Sherif S. A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Bien que connue depuis les temps les plus anciens, la dépression de Wadi el Natroun n'avait jamais été prospectée autrement que pour sa richesse en sels minéraux. C'est en 1977 que les auteurs, cherchant à savoir s'il existait des lacs naturels à Spirulines en République Arabe d'Égypte, découvrirent dans la dépression de Wadi el Natroun certains lacs comme Abou Gobara et El Khadra où croissaient spontanément les algues spirulines. Le climat du site, l'origine et la composition des eaux, ainsi que la concentration en algues, ont été étudiés afin d'estimer la productivité du site en vue d'une éventuelle exploitation industrielle. L'exploitation de ces lacs permettrait de mettre en valeur le site de Wadi el Natroun par la production d'une substance très riche en protéine pour l'alimentation humaine dont à tant besoin la République Arabe d'Égypte. Even though it has been known from olden days, the depression of Wadi el Natrun had never been prospected other than for its wealth of mineral salts. It was in 1977 that the authors began searching for natural lakes with Spirulina algae in the Arab Republic of Egypt and, in the depression of Wadi el Natrun, discovered varions lakes such as Abu Gobara and El Khadra where Spirulina algae grew in a natural state. The climate of the site, the original and composition of the water as well as the algae concentration were analyzed to evaluate the productivity of the site for eventual industrial exploitation. The exploitation of these lakes would give value to the Wadi el Natrun site by producing a very protein-rich substance for human nourishment which the Arab Republic of Egypt needs so badly.

  9. Measurement of photorespiration in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmingham, B C; Coleman, J R; Colman, B

    1982-01-01

    The rates of true and apparent photosynthesis of two unicellular green algae, one diatom and four blue-green algae were measured in buffer at pH 8.0 at subsaturating concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon (13-27 micromolar). Initial rates of depletion from the medium of inorganic carbon and (14)C activity caused by the algae in a closed system were measured by gas chromatography and by liquid scintillation counting, respectively. The rate of photorespiration was calculated as the difference between the rates of apparent and true photosynthesis. The three eucaryotic algae and two blue-green algae had photorespiratory rates of 10 to 28% that of true photosynthesis at air levels of O(2). Reduction of the O(2) level to 2% caused a 52 to 91% reduction in photorespiratory rate. Two other blue-green algae displayed low photorespiratory rates, 2.4 to 6.2% that of true photosynthesis at air levels of O(2), and reduction of the O(2) concentration had no effect on these rates. PMID:16662171

  10. Role of pH on antioxidants production by Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa Mahmoud Sami Ismaiel; Yassin Mahmoud El-Ayouty; Michele Piercey-Normore

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Algae can tolerate a broad range of growing conditions but extreme conditions may lead to the generation of highly dangerous reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may cause the deterioration of cell metabolism and damage cellular components. The antioxidants produced by algae alleviate the harmful effects of ROS. While the enhancement of antioxidant production in blue green algae under stress has been reported, the antioxidant response to changes in pH levels requires further investig...

  11. Marine algae and seagrasses of Samsun (Black Sea, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Aysel, Veysel; DURAL, Berrin; Şenkardeşler, Ayhan; Aysel, Hüseyin Erduğan and Fulya

    2008-01-01

    Abstract In this investigation, the presence and the distribution of the blue-green algae; Cyanophyeae, 20 taxa, red algae; Rhodophyceae, 106 taxa, one of them is new record for the Blacksea shore of Turkey, Gelidium pusillum (Stackhouse) Le Jolis var. pusillum brown algae; Fucophyceae, 27 taxa, green algae; Chlorophyceae, 21 taxa, and seagrasses, 2 taxa were identified in the upper infralittoral zone of Samsun (Black Sea) shore of Turkey. A total 176 taxon was determined.

  12. 钝顶螺旋藻营养生理的研究 III.钝顶螺旋藻对磷酸盐的吸收利用%THE STUDY ON NUTRITIONAL PHYSIOLOGY OF SPIRULINA PLATENSIS III:THE UPTAKE AND USAGE OF INORGANIC PHOSPHATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石晓勇; 沙珍霞; 张学成

    2000-01-01

    利用均匀设计法设计得到的12种培养基及对照Zarrouk培养基对钝顶螺旋藻(Spirulina platensis)S6品系进行培养,研究了添加磷酸盐的不同培养基下螺旋藻对磷酸盐的吸收利用。结果表明,螺旋藻S6对磷酸盐的净利用量在0.20~0.86mmol/L之间,且与螺旋藻生长速度呈线性关系;磷酸盐为螺旋藻生长利用的主要磷源,含量不足会限制螺旋藻的正常生长;培养基中的磷酸盐添加量以1.16mmol/L左右最为适宜,既可满足藻体的最佳生长,又可降低约60%的磷源养殖成本。%Cultured with twelve media designed with the uniform design method, in comparison with the zarrouk medium,the uptake of phosphate(PO4-P) in different media by the blue-green algae Spirulina platensis strain S6 are studied in this paper. Result shows that the net usage quantity of phosphate by Spirulina S6 is in the range of 0.20~0.86 mmol/L, which has a linear relationship with the algae growth rate. PO4-P is the main phosphorous source of Spirulina S6 growth and usage, and it will limit the growth rate of algae when in a low concentration. The suitable concentration of phosphate is about 1.16 mmol/L, which can maintain the optimum growth of algae and also can reduce the cost of cultivation by 60%.

  13. NUTRITIONAL AND TOXICOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF SPIRULINA (ARTHROSPIRA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Salmeán, Gabriela; Fabila-Castillo, Luis; Chamorro-Cevallos, German

    2015-01-01

    Undernutrition constitutes a public health problem particularly in developing countries. The utilization of algae, particularly Spirulina, as a functional food was suggested decades ago due to the fact that it is not only a protein-dense food source, but because its amino acid profile is considered as of high biologic-value protein content. Spirulina provides essential fats (e.g., gamma-linolenic oleic acids), concomitant to low content nucleic acids. It also has an exceptionally high content of vitamin B12, is a good source of beta-carotene, iron, calcium and phosphorous. Moreover, Spirulina has also proven to have good acceptance as of its organoleptic properties (thus making it a possible prospect for food or a nutrition supplement) and it has not exhibited neither acute nor chronic toxicities, making it safe for human consumption. PMID:26262693

  14. Manipulating cyanobacteria: Spirulina for potential CELSS diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadros, Mahasin G.; Smith, Woodrow; Mbuthia, Peter; Joseph, Beverly

    1989-01-01

    Spirulina sp. as a bioregenerative photosynthetic and an edible alga for spacecraft crew in a CELSS, was characterized for the biomass yield in batch cultures, under various environmental conditions. The partitioning of the assimalitory products (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids) were manipulated by varying the environmental growth conditions. Experiments with Spirulina have shown that under stress conditions (i.e., high light 160 uE/sq m/s, temperature 38 C, nitrogen or phosphate limitation; 0.1 M sodium chloride) carbohydrates increased at the expense of proteins. In other experiments, where the growth media were sufficient in nutrients and incubated under optimum growth conditions, the total of the algal could be manipulated by growth conditions. These results support the feasibility of considering Spirulina as a subsystem in CELSS because of the ease with which its nutrient content can be manipulated.

  15. Nutritional and medical applications of spirulina microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S M; Khosravi-Darani, K; Mozafari, M R

    2013-06-01

    Spirulina spp. and its processing products are employed in agriculture, food industry, pharmaceutics, perfumery and medicine. Spirulina has several pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial (including antiviral and antibacterial), anticancer, metalloprotective (prevention of heavy-metal poisoning against Cd, Pb, Fe, Hg), as well as immunostimulant and antioxidant effects due to its rich content of protein, polysaccharide, lipid, essential amino and fatty acids, dietary minerals and vitamins. This article serves as an overview, introducing the basic biochemical composition of this algae and moves to its medical applications. For each application the basic description of disease, mechanism of damage, particular content of Spirulina spp. for treatment, in vivo and/or in vitro usage, factors associated with therapeutic role, problems encountered and advantages are given. PMID:23544470

  16. The Glaucophyta: the blue-green plants in a nutshell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Jackson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Glaucophyta is one of the three major lineages of photosynthetic eukaryotes, together with viridiplants and red algae, united in the presumed monophyletic supergroup Archaeplastida. Glaucophytes constitute a key algal lineage to investigate both the origin of primary plastids and the evolution of algae and plants. Glaucophyte plastids possess exceptional characteristics retained from their cyanobacterial ancestor: phycobilisome antennas, a vestigial peptidoglycan wall, and carboxysome-like bodies. These latter two traits are unique among the Archaeplastida and have been suggested as evidence that the glaucophytes diverged earliest during the diversification of this supergroup. Our knowledge of glaucophytes is limited compared to viridiplants and red algae, and this has restricted our capacity to untangle the early evolution of the Archaeplastida. However, in recent years novel genomic and functional data are increasing our understanding of glaucophyte biology. Diverse comparative studies using information from the nuclear genome of Cyanophora paradoxa and recent transcriptomic data from other glaucophyte species provide support for the common origin of Archaeplastida. Molecular and ultrastructural studies have revealed previously unrecognized diversity in the genera Cyanophora and Glaucocystis. Overall, a series of recent findings are modifying our perspective of glaucophyte diversity and providing fresh approaches to investigate the basic biology of this rare algal group in detail.

  17. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Spirulina platensis Extract via the Modulation of Histone Deacetylases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tho X. Pham

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that the organic extract of Spirulina platensis (SPE, an edible blue-green alga, possesses potent anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated if the regulation of histone deacetylases (HDACs play a role in the anti-inflammatory effect of SPE in macrophages. Treatment of macrophages with SPE rapidly and dose-dependently reduced HDAC2, 3, and 4 proteins which preceded decreases in their mRNA levels. Degradation of HDAC4 protein was attenuated in the presence of inhibitors of calpain proteases, lysosomal acidification, and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, respectively, but not a proteasome inhibitor. Acetylated histone H3 was increased in SPE-treated macrophages to a similar level as macrophages treated with a pan-HDAC inhibitor, with concomitant inhibition of inflammatory gene expression upon LPS stimulation. Knockdown of HDAC3 increased basal and LPS-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression, while HDAC4 knockdown increased basal expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β, but attenuated LPS-induced inflammatory gene expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that SPE decreased p65 binding and H3K9/K14 acetylation at the Il-1β and tumor necrosis factor α (Tnfα promoters. Our results suggest that SPE increased global histone H3 acetylation by facilitating HDAC protein degradation, but decreases histone H3K9/K14 acetylation and p65 binding at the promoters of Il-1β and Tnfα to exert its anti-inflammatory effect.

  18. Synthesis and Strong Blue-Green Emission Properties of ZnO Nanowires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘东方; 唐东升; 慈立杰; 闫小琴; 梁迎新; 周振平; 袁华军; 周维亚; 王刚

    2003-01-01

    ZnO nanowires were catalytically grown on Au-coated silicon substrates by the carbon thermal reduction method.The process involved addition of a low partial pressure of hydrogen sulphide to the argon carrier flow. The addition of H2S led to the higher yield and longer nanowires without any morphology change, and no sulphuric content was observed by the energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy in the resulting nanowires. The nanowires exhibited strong blue-green emission at room temperature and an increasing intensity when the partial pressure of H2S was raised. The temperature-dependent photoluminescence spectra show that intensity of the blue-green emission,almost without shift, decreases slowly with increasing temperature. Heat treatments indicated that quenching resulted in a higher ratio of blue-green emission to ultraviolet emission.

  19. Solution Structure of Reduced Plastocyanin from the Blue-Green Alga Anabaena Variabilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Led, J.J.; Badsberg, U.; Jørgensen, A.M.;

    1996-01-01

    The three-dimensional solution structure of plastocyanin from Anabaena variabilis (A.v. PCu) has been determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Sixty structures were calculated by distance geometry from 1141 distance restraints and 46 dihedral angle restraints. The distance geometry...... structures were optimized by simulated annealing and restrained energy minimization. The average rms deviation from the mean structure for the 20 structures with the lowest total energy is 1.25 Angstrom for the backbone atoms and 1.75 Angstrom for all heavy atoms. Overall, the global tertiary fold of A. v...... turn is compensated for by an extension of the small helix [from Ala53(51) to Ser60(58) in A.v. PCu] found in other plastocyanins. Moreover, the extra residues of A.v. PCu from Pro77 to Asp79 form an appended loop. These two features allow A.v. PCu to retain almost the same global fold as observed in...

  20. Solution structure of reduced plastocyanin from the blue-green alga Anabaena variabilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badsberg, U; Jørgensen, A.M.; Gesmar, H;

    1996-01-01

    The three-dimensional solution structure of plastocyanin from Anabaena variabilis (A.v.PCu) has been determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Sixty structures were calculated by distance geometry from 1141 distance restraints and 46 dihedral angle restraints. The distance geometry...... structures were optimized by simulated annealing and restrained energy minimization. The average rms deviation from the mean structure for the 20 structures with the lowest total energy is 1.25 A for the backbone atoms and 1.75 A for all heavy atoms. Overall, the global tertiary fold of A.v.PCu resembles...... extension of the small helix [from Ala53(51) to Ser60(58) in A.v.PCu] found in other plastocyanins. Moreover, the extra residues of A.v.PCu from Pro77 to Asp79 form an appended loop. These two features allow A.v.PCu to retain almost the same global fold as observed in other plastocyanins. From a comparison...

  1. Native Mussels Alter Nutrient Availability and Reduce Blue-Green Algae Abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrient cycling is a key process that ties all organisms together. This is especially apparent in stream environments in which nutrients are taken up readily and cycled through the system in a downstream trajectory. Ecological stoichiometry predicts that biogeochemical cycles of...

  2. Biliary excretion of biochemically active cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) hepatotoxins in fish

    OpenAIRE

    Sahin, Ali; Tencalla, Francesca G.; Dietrich, Daniel R.; Naegeli, Hanspeter

    1996-01-01

    Previous reports demonstrated that microcystin and related cyanobacteria polypeptides are rapidly cleared from plasma and accumulate in liver tissue. In the present study, we have used their ability to inhibit protein phosphatases to show that these cyanobacteria hepatotoxins are excreted into the bile of experimentally poisoned rainbow trout. At various times after oral administration of hepatotoxic Microcystis aeruginosa, bile samples were analysed for microcystin content by methanol extrac...

  3. THE SOIL ALGAE OF CIBODAS FOREST RESERVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Johnson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three species of green algae and one blue-green alga were recorded from eight samples of soil found associated with bryophytes in the Cibodas Forest Reserve. Chemical analysis of the soil showed severe leaching of soluable mineral substances associated with a low pH. The low light intensity under forest conditions and the low pH may account for the limited algal flora.

  4. Measuring System for Growth Control of the Spirulina Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce S., Claudio; Ponce L., Ernesto; Bernardo S., Barraza

    2008-11-01

    It describes the workings of a data-logging instrument that measures growth levels of the Spirulina aquaculture. The Spirulina is a very delicate algae and its culture may be suddenly lost due to overgrowth. This kind of instrument is not at present available in the market. The transduction is a submergible laser device whose measuring margin of error is near to 0.28%. The advantage of this new instrument is the improvement in the measurement and the low cost. The future application of this work is related to the industrial production of food and fuel from micro algae culture, for the growing world population.

  5. Managing phosphorus fertilizer to reduce algae, maintain water quality, and sustain yields in water-seeded rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    In water-seeded rice systems blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) hinder early-season crop growth by dislodging rice seedlings and reducing light. Since algae are often phosphorus (P) limited, we investigated whether changing the timing of P fertilizer application could reduce algae without reducing cro...

  6. Bioremediation potential of spirulina: toxicity and biosorption studies of lead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hong; PAN Shan-shan

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the possibility of using live spirulina to biologically remove aqueous lead of low concentration (below 50 mg/L) from wastewater. The spirulina cells were first immersed for seven days in five wastewater samples containing lead of different concentrations, and the growth rate was determined by light at wavelength of 560 nm. The 72 h-EC50 (72 h medium effective concentration) was estimated to be 11.46 mg/L (lead). Afterwards, the lead adsorption by live spirulina cells was conducted. It was observed that at the initial stage (0-12 min) the adsorption rate was so rapid that 74% of the metal was biologically adsorbed. The maximum biosorption capacity of live spirulina was estimated to be 0.62 mg lead per 105 alga cells.

  7. Studying the Effect of Ionization Radiation of 60Co on the Spirulina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Weidang; Guo, Shuang-Sheng; Ai, Weidang; Dong, Wen-Ping; Qin, Li-Feng; Tang, Yong-Kang

    It studied the effect of ionization radiation on the Spirulina plastensis(No.6) by using the γ-rays of 60 Co. In the experiment, Spirulina were irradiated, and the dose of the ionization radiation covered 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0kGy. After irradiating, these Spirulina were cultured under the same conditions. During the course of the experiment, the growth rate, photosynthetic efficiency and nutrition quality of the Spirulina, were analyzed. From the results, low dose of γ-rays (less than 1.5kGy) could improve the content of phycobilin and protein of Spirulina. Only small changes in the morphology of algae filament were found at dose less than 1.0kGy. But with the increase of the dose of γ-rays (more than 1.5kGy), the filaments would break up or even disintegrate. Spirulina had stronger ionization radiation proof and self-rehabilitation capacity, but the growth of Spirulina was stagnated. The LD50 (i.e. the dose resulted in 50% death of the Spirulina) of the colony was 2.0kGy. Considering the capacity of being resistant to γ-rays irradiation, Spirulina can be considered as one of the key biological components in the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) for future long-term space missions. Keywords: Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS); Spirulina; ionization radiation; biological component

  8. Spirulina is an effective dietary source of zeaxanthin to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bolan; Wang, Jie; Suter, Paolo M; Russell, Robert M; Grusak, Michael A; Wang, Yin; Wang, Zhixu; Yin, Shian; Tang, Guangwen

    2012-08-01

    Zeaxanthin is a predominant xanthophyll in human eyes and may reduce the risk of cataracts and age-related macular degeneration. Spirulina is an algal food that contains a high concentration of zeaxanthin. In order to determine the zeaxanthin bioavailability of spirulina for dietary supplementation in humans, spirulina was grown in nutrient solution with ²H₂O for carotenoid labelling. Single servings of ²H-labelled spirulina (4.0-5.0 g) containing 2.6-3.7 mg zeaxanthin were consumed by fourteen healthy male volunteers (four Americans and ten Chinese) with 12 g dietary fat. Blood samples were collected over a 45 d period. The serum concentrations of total zeaxanthin were measured using HPLC, and the enrichment of labelled zeaxanthin was determined using LC-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-MS (LC-APCI-MS). The results showed that intrinsically labelled spirulina zeaxanthin in the circulation was detected at levels as low as 10 % of the total zeaxanthin for up to 45 d after intake of the algae. A single dose of spirulina can increase mean serum zeaxanthin concentration in humans from 0.06 to 0.15 μmol/l, as shown in our study involving American and Chinese volunteers. The average 15 d area under the serum zeaxanthin response curve to the single dose of spirulina was 293 nmol × d/μmol (range 254-335) in American subjects, and 197 nmol × d/μmol (range 154-285) in Chinese subjects. It is concluded that the relative bioavailability of spirulina zeaxanthin can be studied with high sensitivity and specificity using ²H labelling and LC-APCI-MS methodology. Spirulina can serve as a rich source of dietary zeaxanthin in humans. PMID:22313576

  9. Spirulina cultivation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo-Tang; Xiang, Wen-Zhou; Zeng, Cheng-Kui

    1998-03-01

    This paper reviews and discusses the development and many problems of Spirulina cultivation in China, points out the advantages and disadvantages of open photobioreactor system, and predicts that seawater Spirulina cultivation will be a new trend to be strengthened and emphasized due to its special physiological characteristics, easier management, lower fertilizer cost, and higher resistance to contaminants and rare pollution of chemicals.

  10. Design of transmitter and receiver for experimental blue-green laser communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Chen, Xiaolu; Wen, Dong; Sun, Xiaolei

    2015-02-01

    An experimental blue-green laser communication system was developed using optical pulse position modulation (PPM) to study the feasibility of high-rate underwater communication among submerged objects. As a primary optical modulation means, PPM modulation is reviewed firstly. By comparison with other means, the conclusion was drawn that PPM has lower power requirement and it is a near optimal modulation for background-limited optical communications. For establishing laser beam propagating through the channel with modulated information through different pulse positions from the transmitter to the receiver, the transmitter subsystem and the receiver subsystem are developed and the key techniques are described separately in detail. Results indicated that the whole blue-green communication system was compact, efficient, reliable and inexpensive, and achieved a high-speed rate communication up to megabits per second and a reasonably low error rates.

  11. Application of blue-green and ultraviolet micro-LEDs to biological imaging and detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews authors' laboratory's work on the development of nitride-based blue-green and ultraviolet microscale LED devices with particular classes of imaging and spectroscopic applications in cellular level biology. Starting from neuroscience, we illustrate the utility of blue-green micro-LEDs for voltage-sensitive dye imaging of individual neural cells, as well as their ultraviolet counterparts for photostimulation of neurons. Arrays of micro-LEDs are also shown to be useful in projecting spatiotemporal patterns of photoexcitation to study the visual system development in living animals. As another illustration of the utility of the emerging nitride microdevice technology, we demonstrate the application of UV micro-LED arrays in bio-sensing technology as the core of a real-time fluorescence spectroscopy biowarning system. (invited paper)

  12. Limits to depletion of blue-green light stimulated luminescence in feldspars: Implications for quartz dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, M.; Singhvi, A.K.

    2001-01-01

    populations participate in the feldspar BGSL process. These are: (1) Type (A) trap populations that can be stimulated by both the infra-red and the blue-green light at 125 degreesC and, (2) Type (B) trap populations that respond only to blue-green-light stimulation at 125 degreesC. However, infra......-red stimulation at elevated temperature (220 degreesC) (ETIR) permits depletions of charges in Type (A) and Type (B) to the extent that the feldspar BGSL can be reduced by up to 97% in 5 min. These results offer prospects for (1) improved precision in paleodose estimates based on quartz; (2) BGSL dating of quartz...

  13. Overcoming uncertainty and barriers to adoption of Blue-Green Infrastructure for urban flood risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Thorne, C.R.; Lawson, E.C.; Ozawa, C.; Hamlin, S.L.; Smith, L.A.

    2015-01-01

    Blue-Green Infrastructure (BGI) and Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS) are increasingly recognised as vital components of urban flood risk management. However, uncertainty regarding their hydrologic performance and lack of confidence concerning their public acceptability create concerns and challenges that limit their widespread adoption. This paper investigates barriers to implementation of BGI in Portland, Oregon, using the Relevant Dominant Uncertainty (RDU) approach. Two types of RDU are...

  14. FUNCTIONAL VEGETABLE SALADS WITH ALGAE

    OpenAIRE

    Козонова, Ю.О.; Авдєєва, А.А.

    2015-01-01

    Now on the Ukrainian market frozen vegetable salads are well represented. They contain a small amount of protein and have an unbalanced composition nutrientny. Adding algae to the vegetable salads composition allows to resolve this contradiction. In this paper the functional vegetable salads expanding assortment possibilities are represented. The product components composition was designed. It is advisable to add different types of algae (kelp, spirulina and fucus) to the quick-frozen functio...

  15. In vitro antioxidant activity assessment on alcoholic extract of cyanobacteria cultures from Spirulina platensis

    OpenAIRE

    Senthilkumaran Jagadeesh J, Jaiganesh K, Somasundaram G

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant supplementation such as vitamin C, E, A and beta carotene etc, has proven to prevent the process of ageing caused by free radicals. Antioxidants either prevent free radical production or counteract the impeding damage by doing so they are involved in the protection and prevention of cellular damage which is the common pathway for cancer, aging and much disease. The cyanobacteria is a blue green micro algae believed to be a rich antioxidant source, found in abundance in Spiruli...

  16. 螺旋藻粉脱腥及其饮料研制%SPIRULINA POWDER DEODORIZATION AND ITS DRINK DEVELOPMEMT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任文明; 成培芳; 贾志成; 周丽杰

    2012-01-01

    Through the research and analysis on the deodorization of the spirulina powder, this essay intends to explore more effective synthesis deodorizing methods and develop spirulina drinks. The test results indicate that the best method is vacuum pumping for 70 min in the 65℃, 0. 085 MPa vacuum degree. The main formula of spirulina drinks is spirulina 0. 8% , xylitol 2. 5%, citric acid 0.025% and ethyl malt phenol 0.001%. Finally, the blue - green transparent and soft spirulina drinks are prepared..%本论文通过对螺旋藻粉进行脱腥研究分析,探索更为有效的综合脱腥方法,并进行螺旋藻饮料研制.试验结果表明,螺旋藻粉脱腥的最佳方法为:在65℃,0.085 MPa的真空度下抽真空70min.螺旋藻饮料的配方为:螺旋藻液0.8%,木糖醇2.5%、柠檬酸0.025%,乙基麦芽酚0.001%.制得蓝绿透明,口感柔软的螺旋藻饮料.

  17. Response of epidermal blue-green fluorescence emission from Barley leaves to uv radiation stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karlický, Václav; Nezval, J.; Štroch, Michal; Špunda, Vladimír

    Brno: Global change research centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i, 2013 - (Stojanov, R.; Žalud, Z.; Cudlín, P.; Farda, A.; Urban , O.; Trnka, M.), s. 232-236 ISBN 978-80-904351-8-6. [Global Change and Resilience. Brno (CZ), 22.05.2013-24.05.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA ČR GA522/09/0468 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : blue-green fluorescence * UV-B and UV-A radiation * barley * plant stress Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  18. Large red cyanobacterial mats (Spirulina subsalsa Oersted ex Gomont in the shallow sublittoral of the southern Baltic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Balazy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the first observation of large red cyanobacterial mats in the southern Baltic Sea. The mats (up to 2.5 m in diameter were observed by SCUBA divers at 7.7 m depth on loamy sediments in the Gulf of Gdańsk in mid-November 2013. The main structure of the mat was formed by cyanobacteria Spirulina subsalsa Oersted ex Gomont; a number of other cyanobacteria, diatoms and nematode species were also present. After a few days in the laboratory, the red trichomes of S. subsalsa started to turn blue-green in colour, suggesting the strong chromatic acclimation abilities of this species.

  19. Hydrothermal liquefaction of Spirulina and Nannochloropsis Salina under subcritical and supercritical water conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Reddy, H.; Deng, S.;

    2013-01-01

    Six hydrothermal liquefaction experiments on Nannochloropsis salina and Spirulina platensis at subcritical and supercritical water conditions (220-375 °C, 20-255 bar) were carried out to explore the feasibility of extracting lipids from wet algae, preserving nutrients in lipid-extracted algae solid...... residue, and recycling process water for algae cultivation. GC-MS, elemental analyzer, FT-IR, calorimeter and nutrient analysis were used to analyze bio-crude, lipid-extracted algae and water samples produced in the hydrothermal liquefaction process. The highest bio-crude yield of 46% was obtained on...... Nannochloropsis salina at 350 °C and 175 bar. For Spirulina platensis algae sample, the optimal hydrothermal liquefaction condition appears to be at 310 °C and 115 bar, while the optimal condition for Nannochloropsis salina is at 350 °C and 175 bar. Preliminary data also indicate that a lipid-extracted algae...

  20. THE STUDY ON NUTRITIONAL PHYSIOLOGY OF SPIRULINA PLATENSIS II:THE UPTAKE AND USAGE OF INORGANIC NITROGEN%钝顶螺旋藻营养生理的研究 II.钝顶螺旋藻对无机氮的吸收利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙珍霞; 石晓勇; 张学成; 谭桂英

    2000-01-01

    利用均匀设计法设计得到的12种培养基及对照Zarrouk培养基对钝顶螺旋藻(Spirulina platensis)S6品系进行培养,研究了在不同培养基下螺旋藻对无机氮的吸收利用。结果表明,螺旋藻可以同时以NO3-N 和NH4-N为氮源。NO3-N对螺旋藻是最为通用和安全的氮源,但添加浓度以11mmol/L左右最为适宜,既可满足藻体的最佳生长需求又可降低养殖成本;适宜浓度的NH4-N可促进螺旋藻的生长,浓度过高则会造成NH3中毒,NH4-N的添加量以1.27~2.57mmol/L范围最为适宜。%Cultured with twelve media designed with the uniform design method, in comparison with the zarrouk medium,the uptake of inorganic nitrogen(NO3-N and NH4-N) by the blue-green algae Spirulina platensis strain S6 are studied in this paper. Result shows that the Spirulina can use both NO3-N and NH4-N as nitrogen sources at the same time. NO3-N is the most popular and safest nitrogen source to Spirulina, the suitable concentration is about 11mmol/L, which can speed the growth rate and reduce the cost of cultivation as well. NH4-N of the suitable concentration can enhance the growth of Spirulina,but overhigh concentration will cause the ammoniac toxicosis, the suitable concentration of NH4-N is about 1.27~2.57mmol/L.

  1. Shape transition in ZnO nanostructures and its effect on blue-green photoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report that ZnO nanostructures synthesized by a chemical route undergo a shape transition at ∼20 nm from spherical to hexagonal morphology thereby changing the spectral components of the blue-green emission. Spherically shaped nanocrystals (size range 11-18 nm) show emission in the range of 555-564 nm and the emission shifts to the longer wavelength as the size increases. On the other hand, rods and hexagonal platelets (size range 20-85 nm), which are the equilibrium morphology after the shape transition, show an emission near 465-500 nm which shifts to shorter wavelength as the size increases. The shape transition also leads to relaxation of microstrain in the system. Our analysis shows that the visible emission originates from a defect layer on the nanostructure surface which is affected by the shape transition. The change in the spectral component of the blue-green emission on change of shape has been explained as arising from band bending due to a depletion layer in smaller spherical particles which is absent in the larger particles with flat faces.

  2. Modulation of DNA damage and alteration of gene expression during aflatoxicosis via dietary supplementation of Spirulina (Arthrospira) and Whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Aziza M; Abdel-Aziem, Sekena H; Abdel-Wahhab, Mosaad A

    2012-05-01

    Spirulina (SPN) and Whey protein (WPC) are being touted as functional foods with a number of health benefits. SPN is blue green algae while WPC is a protein complex derived from milk and both have strong antioxidant activity and provoke a free radical scavenging enzyme system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant potentials of SPN and WPC to regulate the alteration of genes' expression and counteract oxidative stress in rats during aflatoxecosis. Eighty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into eight groups, which included the control group, the group fed with aflatoxins (AFs)-contaminated diet (2.5 mg/kg diet) for 30 day, the group treated orally with WPC (300 mg/kg b.w.), the group treated orally with SPN (50 mg/kg b.w), the group treated orally with WPC plus SPN and the groups fed with AFs-contaminated diet and treated orally with WPC, SPN and/or WPC. Oxidative stress markers and gene expression were assayed in liver and testis and the damage of DNA was evaluated by DNA fragmentation and micronucleus tests. The results demonstrated that supplementation of SPN and/or WPC reduced the oxidative stress induced by AFs as indicated by decreased lipid peroxidation level, increased glutathione content and up-regulated PHGPx gene expression. Both agents succeed to inhibit DNA damage as indicated by the down-regulation of Fas gene expression, and decreased the percentage of DNA fragmentation and micronucleated erythrocytes. Moreover, WPC was found to be effective than SPN and the combined treatment was more effective than the single treatment. It could be concluded that both SPN and WPC induced a protective action and regulated the alteration of genes expression induced by AFs; however, the combined treatment may be useful than the single treatment. PMID:22325339

  3. Degradation and destruction of historical blue-green glass beads: a study using microspectroscopy of light transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blue-green historical beads are sometimes described as unstable because of their degradability. At present, it is not known what causes the deterioration of these beads. We explore the internal microstucture of degrading blue-green historical beads and its evolution in the process of bead deterioration. Investigating the transmittance and scattering spectra of visible and near infrared light we observe the formation of microscopic internal inhomogeneities of sizes less than 150 nm in the glass bulk, and growth of their density with an increase in the degree of bead degradation. By means of laser scanning microscopy we also observe numerous microinclusions and microcracks on the cleavage surface of a partially degraded bead. We discuss possible physical factors resulting in the destruction of the blue-green beads

  4. Extração e purificação de clorofila a, da alga Spirulina maxima: um experimento para os cursos de química Extraction and purification of chlorophyll a isolated from Spirulina maxima: an experiment for the chemistry courses

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula Jecks Maestrin; Cláudio Roberto Neri; Kleber Thiago de Oliveira; Osvaldo Antonio Serra; Yassuko Iamamoto

    2009-01-01

    This work describes a simple and economical experiment for the extraction and purification of chlorophyll a from Spirulina maxima. Extraction and purification of natural compounds can be considered one of the most illustrative experiments that can be performed in Organic Chemistry courses. Particularly, the chromatography of dyes and pigments allows students to have a better comprehension of the chromatography separations. These compounds represent an important class of organic pigments appli...

  5. On the Spirulina platensis - 60 Co2+ bioaccumulation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiochemical studies, IR spectrometry and electron microscopy studies have been carried out with the purpose of establishing the mechanisms involved in the bioaccumulation of 60 Co2+ in the blue alga Spirulina platensis. By measuring the radioactivity it was determined that, without ionic competition, an one week old culture of Spirulina platensis can retain up to 65% of the 60 Co2+ ions from a slightly radioactive solution. Sodium carbonate is involved in the mechanism of the bioaccumulation of these β + γ - radiocations (a phenomenon evidenced by IR spectrometry). Electronic microscopy studies point out that the compounds resulted from the interaction between the exopolysaccharides and 60 Co2+ disperse in the solution. Thus, even though the radiocobalt is completely blocked up in complex compounds, it is not completely retained on the surface and inside of the alga. (authors)

  6. [From algae to "functional foods"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadalà, M; Palmieri, B

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, a growing interest for nutraceutical algae (tablets, capsules, drops) has been developed, due to their effective health benefits, as a potential alternative to the classic drugs. This review explores the use of cyanobacterium Spirulina, the microalgae Chlorella, Dunaliella, Haematococcus, and the macroalgae Klamath, Ascophyllum, Lithothamnion, Chondrus, Hundaria, Glacilaria, Laminaria, Asparagopsis, Eisenia, Sargassum as nutraceuticals and dietary supplements, in terms of production, nutritional components and evidence-based health benefits. Thus, our specific goals are: 1) Overview of the algae species currently used in nutraceuticals; 2) Description of their characteristics, action mechanisms, and possible side effects; 3) Perspective of specific algae clinical investigations development. PMID:26378764

  7. The Origin of Blue-Green Window and the Propagation of Radiation in Ocean Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Reghunath

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of the present knowledge about the origin of blue-green window in the attenuation spectrum of ocean waters is presented. The various physical mechanisms which contribute to the formation of the w-indow are dealt separately and discussed. The typical values of attenuation coefficient arising out of the various processes are compiled to obtain the total beam attenuation coefficient. These values are then compared with measured values of attenuation coefficient for ocean waters collected from Arabian sea and Bay of Bengal. The region of minimum attenuation in pure particle-free sea water is found to be at 450 to 500 nm. It is sbown that in the presence of suspended 'particlesand chlorophyll, the window shifts to longer wavelength side. Some suggestions for future work in this area are also given in the concluding section.

  8. Summary of studies on the blue-green autofluorescence and light transmission of the ocular lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Best, Jaap A.; Kuppens, Esmeralda V.

    1996-07-01

    This paper reviews previous work done to demonstrate the clinical relevance of the measurement of blue-green autofluorescence and light transmission of the ocular lens. These can be determined quantitatively with fluorophotometry in a few seconds. Autofluorescence and transmission values are determined in healthy volunteers, in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and in patients with untreated glaucoma or untreated ocular hypertension. The lens autofluorescence of healthy volunteers increased linearly and transmission decreased exponentially with age. Each year of diabetes induced an increase of autofluorescence equal to one extra year of age. Untreated glaucoma or ocular hypertension had no significant effect on lens autofluorescence and transmission. Increased autofluorescence and decreased transmission values in comparison with values of a healthy population are proved to be indicative for an increased risk of developing cataract and the clinical usefulness of these measures is demonstrated. Diabetes is a risk factor for developing cataracts while untreated glaucoma or ocular hypertension is not.

  9. Protective effect of aqueous extract from Spirulina platensis against cell death induced by free radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishnan Ammu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spirulina is a commercial alga well known to contain various antioxidants, especially phycocyanin. Apart from being sold as a nutraceutical, Spirulina is incorporated as a functional ingredient in food products and beverages. Most of the previous reports on antioxidant activity of Spirulina were based on chemical rather than cell-based assays. The primary objective of this study was to assess the antioxidant activity of aqueous extract from Spirulina based on its protective effect against cell death induced by free radicals. Methods The antioxidant activity of the cold water extract from food-grade Spirulina platensis was assessed using both chemical and cell-based assays. In the cell-based assay, mouse fibroblast cells (3T3 cells were incubated for 1 h in medium containing aqueous extract of Spirulina or vitamin C (positive control at 25, 125 and 250 μg/mL before the addition of 50 μM 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH or 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS. The cells were incubated for another 24 h before being assessed for cell death due to apoptosis using the Cell Death Detection ELISA Kit. Spectrophotometric assays based on DPPH and ABTS were also used to assess the antioxidant activity of the extract compared to vitamin C and vitamin E (positive controls. Results Spirulina extract did not cause cytotoxic effect on 3T3 cells within the range of concentrations tested (0 - 250 μg/mL. The extract reduced significantly (p Conclusions The results showed that aqueous extract of Spirulina has a protective effect against apoptotic cell death due to free radicals. The potential application of incorporating Spirulina into food products and beverages to enhance their antioxidant capacity is worth exploring.

  10. The radioactivity of spirulina and its heavy elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spirulina is one of the three classes of algae that have the ability to accumulate contaminants from the environment in which they live. The main aim of this work is to study the radioactive contamination of Spirulina using gamma spectrometry and to determine its content of heavy elements using the technique of X-ray fluorescence analysis. Use of detector and Gamma Vision software, in the laboratory of nuclear analysis of the Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires -Madagascar (INSTN-Madagascar), allowed us to find some amount of radioactive elements such as potassium, lead, thallium and bismuth. The elements found in the laboratory of X-ray fluorescence analysis, of the same institute, using the conventional method along with the XRF AXIL software are calcium, iron, magnesium, bromine, rubidium and strontium as well as heavy elements zinc and copper. Spirulina is rich in potassium, its activity is 98±56 Bq.Kg-1 and the average concentration of the radioactive element is 16.2 g.Kg-1. Analysis results leads us to say that it is best to consume spirulina from well secured against pollution (greenhouse) culture and we can say that we need to improve crops in natural environments.

  11. Photochemical gas lasers and hybrid (solid/gas) blue-green femtosecond systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikheev, L. D.; Tcheremiskine, V. I.; Uteza, O. P.; Sentis, M. L.

    2012-01-01

    The review summarizes milestones and major breakthrough results obtained in the course of the development of a photochemical method applied to optical excitation of gas lasers on electronic molecular transitions by radiation from such unconventional pump sources as high-temperature electrical discharges and strong shock waves in gas. It also describes principles and techniques applied in hybrid (solid/gas) high-intensity laser systems emitting in the blue-green spectral region, and discusses wavelength scaling of laser-matter interaction by the example of laser wake-field acceleration (LWFA), high-order harmonic generation (HHG) and “water window” soft X-ray lasers. One of the most significant results of the photochemical method development consists in emerging broad bandwidth lasers (XeF(C-A), Xe2Cl, and Kr2F) operating in the blue-green spectral range, which have potential for amplification of ultra-short (down to 10 fs) optical pulses towards the Petawatt peak power level. The main goal of this review is to argue that the active media of these lasers may provide a basis for the development of fs systems generating super-intense ultrashort laser pulses in the visible spectral range. Some specific hybrid schemes, comprising solid state front-ends and photodissociation XeF(C-A) power boosting amplifiers, are described. They are now under development at the Lasers Plasmas and Photonic Processes (LP3) Laboratory (Marseille, France), the P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute (Moscow, Russia) and the Institute of High-Current Electronics (Tomsk, Russia) with the aim of conducting proof-of-principle experiments. Some consequences of the visible-wavelength laser field interaction with matter are also surveyed to demonstrate advantages of short driver wavelength in the considered examples. One of the most important consequences is the possibility of coherent soft X-ray generation within the “water window” spectral range with the use of short wavelength driver pulses to

  12. Green roof and storm water management policies: monitoring experiments on the ENPC Blue Green Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versini, Pierre-Antoine; Gires, Auguste; Fitton, George; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Currently widespread in new urban projects, green roofs have shown a positive impact on urban runoff at the building/parcel scale. Nevertheless, there is no specific policy promoting their implementation neither in Europe nor in France. Moreover they are not taken into account (and usually considered as an impervious area) in the sizing of a retention basin for instance. An interesting example is located in the heart of the Paris-East Cluster for Science and Technology (Champs-sur-Marne, France). Since 2013 a large (1 ha) wavy-form vegetated roof (called bleu green wave) is implemented. Green roof area and impervious areas are connected to a large retention basin, which has been oversized. The blue green wave represents a pioneering site where an initially amenity (decorative) design project has been transformed into a research oriented one. Several measurement campaigns have been conducted to investigate and better understand the hydrological behaviour of such a structure. Rainfall, humidity, wind velocity, water content and temperature have been particularly studied. The data collected are used for several purposes: (i) characterize the spatio-temporal variability of the green roof response, (ii) calibrate and validate a specific model simulating its hydrological behavior. Based on monitoring and modeling results, green roof performances will be quantified. It will be possible to estimate how they can reduce stormwater runoff and how these performances can vary in space and in time depending on green roof configuration, rainfall event characteristics and antecedent conditions. These quantified impacts will be related to regulation rules established by stormwater managers in order to connect the parcel to the sewer network. In the particular case of the building of a retention basin, the integration of green roof in the sizing of the basin will be studied. This work is funded by the European Blue Green Dream project (http://bgd.org.uk/, funded by Climate

  13. Partial amino acid sequence of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase from the blue-green algae Synechococcus leopoliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, F; Latshaw, S P; Steup, M; Gerbling, K P

    1989-08-01

    Purified fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus leopoliensis was S-carboxymethylated and cleaved with trypsin. The resulting peptides were purified by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography and the amino acid sequence of six of the purified peptides was determined by gas-phase microsequencing. The results revealed sequence homology with other fructose-1,6-bisphosphatases. The obtained sequence data provides information required for the design of oligonucleotide hybridization probes to screen existing libraries of cyanobacterial DNA. The determination of the amino acid sequence of cyanobacterial proteins may yield important information with respect to the endosymbiotic theory of evolution. PMID:2550924

  14. Comparative analyses of action spectra of glycolate excretion ('photorespiration') and photosynthesis in the blue-green alga Anacystis nidulans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The action spectra were determined by measuring photosynthetic H14CO-3 -fixation and 14C-glycolate excretion to the medium during 15 min exposure to light at 15 different wavelengths in the visible region using interference filters and a 2500 W high pressure Xe lamp at a constant photon flux of about 1.51 X 1019 quanta m-2. s-1 at all wavelengths. When plotted on relative scales the action spectrum of glycolate excretion lies below that of photosynthesis at all wavelengths shorter than 517 nm. As glycolate excretion had an exponential relationship to photosynthetic rates, different methods were used to analyse for a specific blue light effect which demonstrated that the relative amount of glycolate excretion was depressed by blue light compared with that by green and red. The greatest difference was observed around 460-480 nm. However, on statistical grounds it is not permitted to draw a difference spectrum which might indicate the absorption characteristics of pigment(s) involved. A hypothesis is discussed assuming that some glycolate is consumed in an oxidation process for supply of electrons to photosystem 1 when photosystem 2 is poorly excited in the blue region of the spectrum, which was the case for Anacystis used in the present investigation. (author)

  15. Microbial synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Streptomyces glaucus and Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time in Georgia a novel actinomycete strain Streptomyces glaucus 71 MD isolated from a soy rhizosphere has been used for microbial synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images revealed that most of the particles produced by these microorganisms from AgNO3 are spherical-like in shape with an average size of 13 nm. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) allowed one to observe extracellular synthesis of nanoparticles, which has many advantages from the point of view of applications. Production of silver nanoparticles proceeds extracellularly with the participation of another microorganism, blue-green microalgae Spirulina platensis. It is shown that the production rate of the nanoparticles depends not only on the initial concentration of AgNO3 but also varies with time in a no monotonic way

  16. A comparative study of blue, green and yellow light emitting diode structures grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaiah, Kodigala Subba; Su, Y. K.; Chang, S. J.; Chen, C. H.

    2006-02-01

    The blue, green and yellow light emitting diode (LED) structures have been fabricated by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), and characterized by using different techniques, in order to understand the mechanism between these LEDs. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis revealed that the surface roughness value and density of etch pits were different in the blue, green and yellow LEDs. The threading, misfit dislocations, interfacial dislocations, nano-pipe-like structures and quantum dot-like structures, which determine quality of the structures, were observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) in the LED structures. The reasons for their formation in the layers are now elucidated. The indium composition, period width such as well and barrier widths were determined by simulating experimental high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) spectra. The In composition obtained by HRXRD and photoluminescence (PL) measurements for the same LED structure was not one and the same due to several reasons. In fact, the InGaN quantum well emission peaks at 2.667 and 2.544 eV of the blue and green LEDs, respectively showed S-shaped character shift, whereas the quantum well peak at 2.219 eV of yellow LEDs did not show any shift in the PL spectra with decreasing temperature. The blue, green and yellow LEDs showed different activation energies.

  17. Study on Seawater-acclimation Spirulina%海水驯化螺旋藻研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关邵晨; 王璇; 李杰; 秦琅; 董仁杰; 朱毅

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to seek Spirulina culture methods with seawater. [Method] Spirulina was habituated culture progressively with prepared seawater-acclimation solution, moreover, the morphological changes of Spirulina were observed and its biochemical indicators were measured. [Result]The new algaes was obtained, it has better stability and average length was greater than Spirulina in fresh water, its chlorophyll content was substantially unchanged, and the concentration of phycocyanin increased by 62.8% compared with Spirulina in fresh water. [Conclusion] The method can save resources and cost, which lay the foundation for large scale production and processing of Spirulina.%[目的]探寻螺旋藻的海水培养方法.[方法]用配制的海水驯化培养液对螺旋藻进行逐级驯化培养,观察螺旋藻的形态学变化并测量其生化指标.[结果]得到了平均长度大于淡水螺旋藻且稳定性良好的藻种,其叶绿素含量基本不变,藻蓝蛋白浓度较淡水培养的螺旋藻增加了62.8%.[结论]该方法可节省资源和成本,为螺旋藻的规模化生产和加工奠定了基础.

  18. Blue, green, and red fluorescence emission signatures of green, etiolated, and white leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser-induced fluorescence emission of green terrestrial vegetation has become of high interest in remote LIDAR techniques in recent years. The remote sensing of blue and red fluorescence signatures appears to be a suitable future tool to determine the state of health of plants. In this contribution we report about major factors which determine the intensities of the UV-laser (337 nm) excited blue fluorescence near 450 nm and the red chlorophyll fluorescence between 650 nm and 800 nm as well as the ratio of the blue to the red fluorescence F450/F690. In contrast to green plants grown in a phytochamber or at low light intensities, plants grown in the field at a high photon flux density (PFD) showed high values for the ratio of the blue to the red fluorescence F450/F690, which was due to a relatively low intensity of the red chlorophyll fluorescence. The strongly increased ratio F450/F690 was primarily caused by a much reduced penetration depth of the exciting UV light into the leaf, which seemed to be due to substances absorbing in the epidermal layers. Etiolated wheat leaves exhibited a stronger blue fluorescence intensity than green leaves and showed also a small maximum around 530 nm (green fluorescence). White leaves of wheat treated with the bleaching herbicide norfluorazone (10−1 M) and leaves from which the photosynthetic pigments had been extracted by acetone showed a fourfold and tenfold increase of the blue fluorescence, respectively. Isolated chloroplasts and thylakoids did not exhibit a blue-green fluorescence. It is concluded that the blue fluorescence is mainly caused by phenolic plant substances located in the cell wall and / or vacuoles of leaves. Partial reabsorption of the emitted blue and red fluorescence by the photosynthetic pigments modifies the shape of the fluorescence spectra. (author)

  19. The Production of High Purity Phycocyanin by Spirulina platensis Using Light-Emitting Diodes Based Two-Stage Cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hyo; Lee, Ju Eun; Kim, Yoori; Lee, Seung-Yop

    2016-01-01

    Phycocyanin is a photosynthetic pigment found in photosynthetic cyanobacteria, cryptophytes, and red algae. In general, production of phycocyanin depends mainly on the light conditions during the cultivation period, and purification of phycocyanin requires expensive and complex procedures. In this study, we propose a new two-stage cultivation method to maximize the quantitative content and purity of phycocyanin obtained from Spirulina platensis using red and blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) under different light intensities. In the first stage, Spirulina was cultured under a combination of red and blue LEDs to obtain the fast growth rate until reaching an absorbance of 1.4-1.6 at 680 nm. Next, blue LEDs were used to enhance the concentration and purity of the phycocyanin in Spirulina. Two weeks of the two-stage cultivation of Spirulina yielded 1.28 mg mL(-1) phycocyanin with the purity of 2.7 (OD620/OD280). PMID:26433600

  20. BEBERAPA MARGA ALGA BENANG DAN HUBUNGANNYA DENGAN KEBERADAAN VEKTOR MALARIA DI BALI UTARA

    OpenAIRE

    I. G. Seregeg

    2012-01-01

    A study of filamentous algae and its relation to malaria vector control was conducted during the dry season in several lagoons at the north coast of Bali. Floating masses of these algae under the sunshine barricated the spread of solar-triton larvicide, reducing tremendously the effectiveness of the larvicide. Identification of the genera of these algae under the subphyllum of CYANOPHYTA (Blue Algae) in the family of Cyanophyceae were Oscillatoria, Spirulina, Phormidium, Rivularia, Nostoc, an...

  1. Bioinspired synthesis of a hollow metallic microspiral based on a spirulina bioscaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoliang; Yu, Mei; Liu, Jianhua; Li, Songmei

    2012-02-28

    Bioinspired synthesis approaches aim to take advantage of the morphology and structural features of biological materials for the development of functional micro/nanodevices. In this Letter, we report that a unicellular algae known as a Spirulina was applied as a bioscaffold for the synthesis of hollow metallic Cu microspirals with length of 200-300 μm. The electroless deposition method was employed to cover the spirulina forming the spiral. The nanomechanical properties of the spiral were investigated by using the nanoindentation technique. The results showed the hardness and elastic modulus of the spiral were 0.63-0.68 GPa and 12.35-12.63 GPa, respectively. Other metallic or alloy spirals could also be synthesized by using the spirulina as a bioscaffold with low cost and high reproducibility, and the obtained spirals could be promising materials as functional micro/nanodevices for microelectromechanical systems. PMID:22251414

  2. Tuning emission in violet, blue, green and red in cubic GaN/InGaN/GaN quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco Hinostroza, I. E.; Avalos-Borja, M.; Compeán García, V. D.; Zamora, C. Cuellar; Rodríguez, A. G.; López Luna, E.; Vidal, M. A.

    2016-02-01

    Light emission in the three primary colors was achieved in cubic GaN/InGaN/GaN heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy on MgO substrates in a single growth process. A heterostructure with four quantum wells with a width of 10 nm was grown; this quantum wells width decrease the segregation effect of In. Photoluminescence emission produced four different emission signals: violet, blue, green-yellow and red. Thus, we were able to tune energy transitions in the visible spectrum modifying the In concentration in cubic InxGa1-xN ternary alloy.

  3. Synthesis, structure, photophysical and electroluminescent properties of a blue-green self-host phosphorescent iridium(III) complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jing; Wang, Hua [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Xu, Huixia, E-mail: xuhuixiatyut@163.com [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Li, Jie; Wu, Yuling; Du, Xiaogang [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Xu, Bingshe, E-mail: xubs@tyut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China)

    2015-07-15

    A kind of blue-green self-host phosphorescent iridium(III) complex, (CzPhBI){sub 2}Ir(tfmptz) [CzPhBI = 9-(6-(2-phenyl-1-benzimidazolyl)hexyl)-9-carbazole; tfmptz = 2-(5-trifluoromethyl-1,2,4-triazolyl)pyridine], was designed and synthesized. The synthesized iridium(III) complex was characterized by {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 19}F NMR, FT-IR, elemental analysis and X-ray single-crystal diffraction, respectively. Its thermal properties, optical properties and electrochemical properties were also investigated. The host-free organic electroluminescent devices with the configuration of ITO/MoO{sub 3} (3 nm)/NPB (30 nm)/TAPC (15 nm)/(CzPhBI){sub 2}Ir(tfmptz) (30 nm)/TBPI (30 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (100 nm) had been fabricated. The devices exhibited excellent performance indicating that (CzPhBI){sub 2}Ir(tfmptz) was a promising phosphorescent material. - Highlights: • A blue-green self-host phosphorescent iridium(III) complex was synthesized. • The molecular structure, and photophysical properties were investigated. • Electroluminescent performance in host-free devices were discussed. • The maximum current efficiency 8.2 cd A{sup −1} and the maximum brightness 5420 cd m{sup −2} were achieved.

  4. Clinical results of a new high-phototherapeutic-efficiency blue-green lamp for the management of hyperbilirubinemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donzelli, Gian Paolo; Pratesi, Simone; Agati, Giovanni; Fusi, Franco; Pratesi, Riccardo

    1996-01-01

    We report a preliminary study on the introduction of a new, blue-green fluorescent lamp with high phototherapeutic efficiency in the treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. The lamp (New Lamp) has an emission spectrum, peaked at 490 nm and about 40 nm wide, that was not previously investigated in clinical trials. Our study demonstrates the significantly greater efficacy of the New Lamp in decreasing the bilirubin serum level, in comparison with the most commonly used blue fluorescent lamp. The rate of decline of bilirubin concentration with the New Lamp was twice that with Philips/BB light. The success of the blue-green PT is mainly due to the combined effects of the (1) increase from blue to green of the quantum yield for lumirubin, that is the bilirubin photoproduct rapidly excreted from the organism; (2) corresponding decrease of the configurational photoisomer, formed with high concentration but not excreted from the organism; (3) filtering effect of the skin, which attenuates more blue than green light. Our results represent the first significant improvement of phototherapy efficiency following the development and introduction of the special-blue lamp by Sisson in 1970. The phototherapy exposure time has now been reduced to less than 1-day in preterm infants, ensuring less stress to the infant and less interference with nursing care.

  5. Synthesis, structure, photophysical and electroluminescent properties of a blue-green self-host phosphorescent iridium(III) complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A kind of blue-green self-host phosphorescent iridium(III) complex, (CzPhBI)2Ir(tfmptz) [CzPhBI = 9-(6-(2-phenyl-1-benzimidazolyl)hexyl)-9-carbazole; tfmptz = 2-(5-trifluoromethyl-1,2,4-triazolyl)pyridine], was designed and synthesized. The synthesized iridium(III) complex was characterized by 1H NMR, 19F NMR, FT-IR, elemental analysis and X-ray single-crystal diffraction, respectively. Its thermal properties, optical properties and electrochemical properties were also investigated. The host-free organic electroluminescent devices with the configuration of ITO/MoO3 (3 nm)/NPB (30 nm)/TAPC (15 nm)/(CzPhBI)2Ir(tfmptz) (30 nm)/TBPI (30 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (100 nm) had been fabricated. The devices exhibited excellent performance indicating that (CzPhBI)2Ir(tfmptz) was a promising phosphorescent material. - Highlights: • A blue-green self-host phosphorescent iridium(III) complex was synthesized. • The molecular structure, and photophysical properties were investigated. • Electroluminescent performance in host-free devices were discussed. • The maximum current efficiency 8.2 cd A−1 and the maximum brightness 5420 cd m−2 were achieved

  6. Guidance values for microcystins in water and cyanobacterial supplement products (blue-green algal supplements): a reasonable or misguided approach?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reviews current scientific knowledge on the toxicity and carcinogenicity of microcystins and compares this to the guidance values proposed for microcystins in water by the World Health Organization, and for blue-green algal food supplements by the Oregon State Department of Health. The basis of the risk assessment underlying these guidance values is viewed as being critical due to overt deficiencies in the data used for its generation: (i) use of one microcystin congener only (microcystin-LR), while the other presently known nearly 80 congeners are largely disregarded, (ii) new knowledge regarding potential neuro and renal toxicity of microcystins in humans and (iii) the inadequacies of assessing realistic microcystin exposures in humans and especially in children via blue-green algal food supplements. In reiterating the state-of-the-art toxicology database on microcystins and in the light of new data on the high degree of toxin contamination of algal food supplements, this review clearly demonstrates the need for improved kinetic data of microcystins in humans and for discussion concerning uncertainty factors, which may result in a lowering of the present guidance values and an increased routine control of water bodies and food supplements for toxin contamination. Similar to the approach taken previously by authorities for dioxin or PCB risk assessment, the use of a toxin equivalent approach to the risk assessment of microcystins is proposed

  7. Floristic account of the marine benthic algae from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef, Line Islands, Central Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vroom, P.S.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The marine benthic algae from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef were identified from collections obtained from the Whippoorwill Expedition in 1924, the Itasca Expedition in 1935, the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Taney in 1938, the Smithsonian Institution’s Pacific Ocean Biological Survey Program in 1964 and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (RAMP in 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004 and 2006. A total of 124 species, representing 8 Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae, 82 Rhodophyta (red algae, 6 Heterokontophyta (brown algae and 28 Chlorophyta (green algae, are reported from both islands. Seventy-nine and 95 species of marine benthic algae are recorded from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef, respectively. Of the 124 species, 77 species or 62% (4 blue-green algae, 57 red algae, 2 brown algae and 14 green algae have never before been reported from the 11 remote reefs, atolls and low islands comprising the Line Islands in the Central Pacific.

  8. Biochar production from freshwater algae by slow pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanongkiat Kiatsiriroat

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A study on the feasibility of biochar production from 3 kinds of freshwateralgae, viz. Spirulina, Spirogyra and Cladophora, was undertaken. Using a slow pyrolysis process in a specially designed reactor, biochar could be generated at 550oC under nitrogen atmosphere. The yields of biochar were between 28-31% of the dry algae.

  9. Biochar production from freshwater algae by slow pyrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tanongkiat Kiatsiriroat

    2012-01-01

    A study on the feasibility of biochar production from 3 kinds of freshwateralgae, viz. Spirulina, Spirogyra and Cladophora, was undertaken. Using a slow pyrolysis process in a specially designed reactor, biochar could be generated at 550oC under nitrogen atmosphere. The yields of biochar were between 28-31% of the dry algae.

  10. Cytotoxicity of Algae Extracts on Normal and Malignant Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Liesveld; Karen Rosell; Jeremy Bechelli; Myra Coppage

    2011-01-01

    Algae preparations are commonly used in alternative medicine. We examined the effects of algae extracts on normal hematopoietic cells and leukemia cells. Ethanol extracts were prepared of Dunaliella salina (Dun), Astaxanthin (Ast), Spirulina platensis (Spir), and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA). Cell viability effects were completed by Annexin staining. Ast and AFA inhibited HL-60 and MV-4-11 whereas Dun and Spir had no effect. Primary AML blasts demonstrated increased apoptosis in AFA. Primar...

  11. Investigation into feed utilisation by fore-aged silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) using double-marked algae (14C and 51Cr)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The blue-green alga Microcystis firma and two green algae, Dunaliella viridis and Chlorella vulgaris, were double-marked with 14C and 51Cr. The 51Cr was used as an indicator to measure the assimilation efficiency of fore-aged silver carp for radiocarbon. The assimilation efficiency values obtained were 89.0 +- 5.43% for M. firma, 61.3 +- 15.28% for D. viridis and 91.3 +- 2.22% for C. vulgaris. (author)

  12. Biosorption of Heavy Metal Cu2+ and Cr2+ in Textile Wastewater by Using Immobilized Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Hadiyanto; Aris Bagus Pradana; Luqman Buchori; C Sri Budiyati

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to utilize microalgae Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp., as biosorption agents for heavy metals removal available in textile waste water. The biosorption of Cu and Cr ions from textile waste water solutions by immobilized algae (Chlorella and Spirulina) were tested under laboratory conditions as a function of waste concentration (15-50% dilution) and ratio of bead and waste water (1:1-1:3). Experimental results showed that the Langmuir adsorption models were s...

  13. Monochromatic blue-green and red emission of rare-earth ions in MgGa2O4 spinel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pr3+-activated blue-green phosphor and Eu3+-activated red phosphor hosted in MgGa2O4 spinel have been prepared by a gel-assisted high-temperature calcination process, respectively. Both anion and cation vacancies in the host were formed by decreasing the Mg concentration in the reaction source. The induced vacancies provide possibility of the accommodation of the doped rare-earth ions with larger atomic size in the highly symmetrical spinel structure. Due to the efficient energy transfer from the spinel host to the sole 4f sub-level of the doped rare earths, monochromatic emissions with high efficiency can be obtained to allow the phosphors to find applications in solid-state laser device and other phosphors excited under low energy. The corresponding spectroscopic transition mechanism has been proposed in this work.

  14. Aesthetically Pleasing Conjugated Polymer: Fullerene Blends for Blue-Green Solar Cells Via Roll-to-Roll Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amb, Chad M.; Craig, Michael R.; Koldemir, Unsal;

    2012-01-01

    cells OPVs not utilizing poly(3-hexylthiophene):(6,6)-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blends as a light absorbing layer. Through synthetic optimization, we show that strict protocols are necessary to yield polymers which achieve consistent photovoltaic behavior. We fabricated spin......-coated laboratory scale OPV devices with PGREEN: PCBM blends as active light absorbing layers, and compare performance to slot die-coated individual solar cells, and slot-die-coated solar modules consisting of many cells connected in series. We find that the optimum ratio of polymer to PCBM varies significantly...... as a thin-film deposition technique due its convenience. We report on the significant differences between the spin-coating of laboratory solar cells and slot-die coating of a blue-green colored, low bandgap polymer (PGREEN). This is one of the first demonstrations of slot-die-coated polymer solar...

  15. Study of Selecting on Light Source Used for Micro-algae Cultivation in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Weidang; Ai, Weidang; Guo, Shuang-Sheng; Gao, Feng; Tang, Yong-Kang; Qin, Li-Feng

    To select suitable light source for micro-algae cultivation in future space station, the selected Spirulina plastensis(No.7) were cultured under different lightening qualities, including six light sources that were made up of different combinations of red and blue light-emitting diode(LED). The growth, photosynthetic efficiency and nutrition quality of the Spirulina, were analyzed. From the experiments, the red light may promote the cumulation of biomass of the Spirulina, and the cumulating rate was the highest under all red light source, but the syntheses of protein, phycobiliprotein, β-carotene, VE and other nutrients needs a certain portion of blue light; yet, the complete blue light condition is not favorable to the growth of Spirulina, and may bring pollution by chlorella and other kinds of micro-algae. It is concluded that the LEDs can be used as the light resource of micro-algae cultivation. The normal growth and development of microalgae need two light sources of both red and blue LEDs. The comprehensive analyses of the various factors that affect the growth of Spirulina, such as nutrition quality and photosynthetic activities, etc., showed that the combination of 80% red and 20% blue LED is the optimum one among those tested combinations. Key word: light-emitting diode; micro-algae; controlled ecological life support system (CELSS); space cultivation

  16. Photosynthetic production of hydrogen by algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, H.

    1978-09-01

    Because hydrogen as a fuel is very attractive both in energy and ecological terms, the photosynthetic production of hydrogen by some algae is attracting considerable attention. In addition to the ordinary photosynthetic mechanisms, many algae have enzymes which can produce hydrogen: hydrogenation enzymes and nitrogen-fixation enzymes. Certain enzymes with the former begin to produce hydrogen after several hours in an anaerobic envirionment; the reason for the delay is that the hydrogen-producing enzymes must adjust to the anaerobic conditions. Eventually the production of hydrogen ceases because production of oxygen by the ordinary photosynthetic mechanism suppresses activity of the hydrogen-producing enzymes. Any use of these algae to produce hydrogen must involve alternating hydrogen production and rest. Nitrogen-fixing enzymes are found especially in the blue-green algae. These seem to produce hydrogen from organic compounds produced by the ordinary photosynthetic process. The nitrogen-fixation type of hydrogen-producing photosynthesis seems the more promising type for future exploitation.

  17. Adsorption of rare earth metal ion by algae. Sorui ni yoru kidorui ion no kyuchaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwabara, T.; Yazawa, A. (Miyagi National College of Technology, Miyagi (Japan))

    1994-02-25

    This paper reports the result of investigations on adsorption of rare earth metal ion by using algae, and adsorption of different metal ions by using egg white and soy bean protein. Rare earth metal ion is adsorbed at a considerably high rate with alga powder of different kinds. The adsorption has been judged to be cation exchange reactive adsorption, while with use of spirulina and chlorella a maximum value of adsorption rate has been observed at pH from 3 to 4.5. Therefore, selective adsorption and separation of metal ions other than rare earth metal ion has become possible. When the blue pigment extracted from spirulina, the spirulina blue, is used, the rare earth metal ion had its selective adsorption and separation performance improved higher than using spirulina itself at pH from 3 to 4.5. As a result of adsorption experiment using egg white and soy bean protein, it has been found that the metal ion adsorption behavior of the spirulina blue depends on coagulative action of protein structure to some extent. However, the sharp selective adsorption performance on rare earth metal ion due to particular pH strength has been found because of actions unique to the pigment structure of phycocyanin, a major component in the spirulina blue. 7 refs., 19 figs.

  18. Changes of the delayed fluorescence characteristics in Spirulina, Anabaena and Chlorella in response to chromatic adaptation and irradiance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efficiency of the energy transformation for CO2 fixation (E), and kinetics of the initial O-2-mediated electron transport of Spirulina platensis (Gem. ) Geitl, and Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck cells were measured after adaptation to various growth irradiances (I) by means of the delayed fluorescence (DF) induction curves. Maxima of the membrane potential expenses during induction period were observed at I half saturating oxygen evolution; they were shifted according to growth I remaining higher in Spirulina than in Chlorella. The alterations of absorbance and fluorescence spectra at 25 degrees C after adaptation to I demonstrated changes in composition of pigments of algae, created to compensate for the imbalance in radiation absorption between the two photosystems. For Spirulina cells, the value of E was higher after growing under low I, or under blue radiation absorbed mainly by photosystem (PS) 1 (400-500 nm) with excitation by yellow (570 nm) radiation. For Chlorella cells, it was also higher after growing under low I. Under such conditions the half-rise time for DP-phase of DF induction curve decreased, which reflected an acceleration of kinetics of the initial electron transport between photosystems. An opposite situation was observed with Spirulina cells grown under high I or yellow radiation, and Chlorella cells from high I. Enhancement of effective PS2/PS1 ratio associated with decrease of reaction centre (RC) 2/RC1 stoichiometry may because of the increase of E and high membrane energization under saturating I in algae adapted to low I

  19. Spectral characteristics and a possible topological assignment of blue green fluorescence excited by UV laser on leaves of untreated species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a number of years it has been known that a relatively strong fluorescence emission is produced by leaves when using UV radiation for excitation (Chappelle et al., 1984a); the apparent bandwidth is larger than 150 nm starting from 400 nm and includes several peaks; under excitation at 337 nm, their integrated energy is 6-11 times the energy released by chlorophyll (a) bands. The problem of bands assignment concerns relative contribution balance as several different emitters are located in chloroplasts, vacuoles, mitochondria, nuclei, cell wall, and epidermis. Within the sensitivity of a 4-lambda synchronous pulse amplified N2 laser photometer, and the experimental limits Of a continuous spectrofluorimeter, the conclusion we present here is that: a) The blue-green fluorescence emission comes mainly from other epidermal layers; b) it is transferable on a quartz lamina by quick dipping the leaves in organic solvents and subsequent solvent evaporation; c) it shows atypical diffusion controlled quenching of fluorescence intensity within a thermal window between 277 K (high fluorescence) and 310 K (low fluorescence); d) the fluorescence emissivity is not linked to short-term metabolic arrangements, but tends to follow long-term epidermis adaptations to drought, and excessive radiation

  20. Efficient harvesting of wet blue-green microalgal biomass by two-aminoclay [AC]-mixture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hye-Min; Lee, Hyun Uk; Kim, Eui Jin; Seo, Soonjoo; Kim, Bohwa; Lee, Go-Woon; Oh, You-Kwan; Kim, Jun Yeong; Huh, Yun Suk; Song, Hyun A; Lee, Young-Chul

    2016-07-01

    Blue-green microalgal blooms have been caused concerns about environmental problems and human-health dangers. For removal of such cyanobacteria, many mechanical and chemical treatments have been trialled. Among various technologies, the flocculation-based harvesting (precipitation) method can be an alternative if the problem of the low yield of recovered biomass at low concentrations of cyanobacteria is solved. In the present study, it was utilized mixtures of magnesium aminoclay [MgAC] and cerium aminoclay [CeAC] with different particle sizes to harvest cyanobacteria feedstocks with ∼100% efficiency within 1h by ten-fold lower loading of ACs compared with single treatments of [MgAC] or [CeAC]. This success was owed to the compact networks of the different-sized-ACs mixture for efficient bridging between microalgal cells. In order to determine the usage potential of biomass harvested with AC, the mass was heat treated under the reduction condition. This system is expected to be profitably utilizable in adsorbents and catalysts. PMID:27023387

  1. GaInN/GaN quantum well laser structures emitting in the blue-green spectral range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draeger, Daniel; Rossow, Uwe; Joenen, Holger; Hangleiter, Andreas [Institute of Applied Physics, Technical University of Braunschweig (Germany); Schenk, David; Duboz, Jean-Yves [CRHEA-CNRS, Valbonne (France)

    2008-07-01

    Presently, GaN-based laser diodes are limited to the violet-blue region of the spectrum. Our aim is to obtain laser emission in the blue-green spectral range. In order to study GaInN-based laser structures, low pressure MOVPE was used to grow such structures on a variety of substrates (freestanding GaN, GaN templates, and SiC). This allows investigations of the influence of the substrate related dislocation densities on gain, losses and carrier recombination. Our samples were investigated by optical gain spectroscopy using the variable stripe length method. In order to reach wavelengths longer than 450 nm an increase of the indium concentration to more than 25 % is needed. Such high In content requires careful optimization of the growth conditions in order to avoid damaging of the quantum wells by thermal stress. Combining the results of the gain measurement with a theoretical calculation of the gain spectra we determine the threshold power, carrier density and the carrier recombination times of the sample. On bulk GaN substrates we find threshold power levels as low as 20 kW/cm{sup 2}. Up to now we obtain optical gain up to a peak wavelength of 465 nm with losses of about 30 cm{sup -1}. Our next targets are a wavelength of 480 nm as well as a further reduction of the threshold power.

  2. Growth and properties of blue/green InGaN/GaN MQWs on Si(111) substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) were grown on highly tensile-strained GaN films on Si(111) substrate by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Due to the large difference of lattice constant and thermal expansion coefficient between GaN and Si, GaN growth on Si(111) substrate usually leads to an initially high dislocation density and cracks. We demonstrate low dislocation-density and crack-free GaN films grown on Si(111) substrate by introducing an AlN/GaN strain-compensation layer and SixNy dislocation masking layer. Blue/green-emitting InGaN/GaN MQW heterostructures have been successfully grown on Si(111) substrates. Two sets of InGaN/GaN MQWs with different In solid composition and number of pairs grown between 820 .deg. C and 900 .deg. C were studied by high-resolution X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The emission wavelengths of InGaN MQW structures were significantly dependent on growth temperature.

  3. Ba3(P1−MnO4)2 : Blue/green inorganic materials based on tetrahedral Mn(V)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sourav Laha; Rohit Sharma; S V Bhat; M L P Reddy; J Gopalakrishnan; S Natarajan

    2011-10-01

    We describe a blue/green inorganic material, Ba3(P1−MnO4)2 (I) based on tetrahedral MnO$^{3-}_{4}$ :32 chromophore. The solid solutions (I) which are sky-blue and turquoise-blue for ≤ 0.25 and dark green for ≥ 0.50, are readily synthesized in air from commonly available starting materials, stabilizing the MnO$^{3-}_{4}$ chromophore in an isostructural phosphate host. We suggest that the covalency/ionicity of P–O/Mn–O bonds in the solid solutions tunes the crystal field strength around Mn(V) such that a blue colour results for materials with small values of . The material could serve as a nontoxic blue/green inorganic pigment.

  4. Pão sem gluten enriquecido com a microalga Spirulina platensis Elaboration of gluten-free bread enriched with the microalgae Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe da Silva Figueira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de oferecer pão sem glúten para consumidores com síndrome celíaca, em razão da intolerância ao glúten, elaboraram-se produtos com farinha de arroz em substituição à farinha de trigo. Para aumentar o conteúdo proteico dos pães adicionou-se a microalga Spirulina platensis seca, na faixa de 2 a 5% (base farinha. Os pães foram avaliados pelo volume específico, dureza do miolo uma e 24h após o forneamento e a cor do miolo. Verificou-se que o volume específico e a dureza dos pães não sofreram alteração com a adição de até 4% da alga, porem mostraram redução de 22% nos valores de volume e aumento de 113% na dureza quando se adicionou-se 5% (em base de farinha. Quando comparados ao pão não enriquecido, a adição de Spiriulina platensis provocou uma melhoria da qualidade nutricional dos pães, confirmada pelo aumento significativo de 39,04% do conteúdo protéico, alem de vários aminoácidos essenciais (treonina, metionina, isoleucina e leucina. Com relação a cor, os pães com Spirulina apresentaram redução de luminosidade com o aumento de adição de microalga, sendo também observada tendência de aumento de tonalidade verde. Na avaliação sensorial, não se verificou diferença significativa quanto a preferência entre os pães adicionados com 3% e 5% de Spirulina na formulação.With the objective of offering a product for people with celiac disease, due to their gluten intolerance, gluten-free bread made with rice flour was elaborated, in substitution of the wheat flour. To increase the protein content of the bread, dried Spirulina platensis, a microalga, was added to the products in the range from 2 to 5% (flour basis. The bread samples were evaluated according to their specific volume (V/W, crumb hardness, measured with a texturometer, and the crumb color. It was shown that the specific volume and crumb hardness were not affected by the addition of up to 4% of alga, but a decrease of 22% in the

  5. Removal of Nitrate and Phosphate from Municipal Wastewater Sludge by Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina platensis and Scenedesmus quadricauda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal K.C.A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate and phosphorus in wastewater contribute to health and environmental threats as they are linked to illnesses as well as ecosystem disruption via algal blooms in contaminated water bodies. Based on above perspectives a comparative study was conducted on three local freshwater microalgae:Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina platensis and Scenedesmus quadricauda to evaluate their effects on nitrate and phosphorus removal from municipal wastewater sludge (MWS. Algae performance in removing nitrate and phosphorus was evaluated by measuring nitrate and phosphorus content of MWS incubated with the strains for 7 days. Instantaneous readings were taken every 48 hours to determine periodic levels of the nutrients phosphate and nitrate. BOD5 was also evaluated to identify the strain with the most robust growth that would demand for oxygen the most in the dark. Spirulina platensis was shown as the most efficient microalgae to reduce nitrate in MWS and the best-growing among the three strains, while Chlorella vulgaris removed phosphorus the most effectively. Thus Spirulina and Chlorella could be potential candidates by showing their intrinsic merit for the reduction of phosphate and nitrate in wastewater treatment.ABSTRAK: Nitrat dan fosforus dalam air sisa menggugat kesihatan dan mengancam alam sekitar memandangkan ia berkait dengan penyakit-penyakit serta gangguan terhadap ekosistem melalui pembiakan alga dalam air yang tercemar. Berdasarkan perspektif di atas, satu kajian perbandingan telah dijalankan terhadap tiga mikro alga air tawar tempatan : Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina platensis dan Scenedesmus quadricauda untuk dinilai kesannya terhadap penyingkiran nitrat dan fosforus dari enap cemar air sisa bandaran (municipal wastewater sludge (MWS. Kebolehan alga dalam penyingkiran nitrat dan fosforus dikaji dengan menyukat kandungan nitrat dan fosforus dalam MWS yang dieramkan dengan strain ini selama 7 hari. Bacaan serta-merta diambil setiap 48 jam untuk

  6. Blue-green eggshell coloration is not a sexually selected signal of female quality in an open-nesting polygynous passerine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honza, Marcel; Požgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr; Cherry, M. I.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 6 (2011), s. 493-499. ISSN 0028-1042 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930605; GA AV ČR IAA600930903; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Acrocephalus arundinaceus * Blue-green chroma * Egg colour * Female condition * Great reed warbler * Polygyny Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.278, year: 2011

  7. An Investigation of Color Memory as a Function of Hue, Saturation, Lightness and Observer Imagery Vividness for Blue, Green and Orange Test Hues

    OpenAIRE

    Laws, Eric L.

    2000-01-01

    Observer Imagery Vividness for Blue, Green and Orange Test Hues By Eric L. Laws Committee Chair: Dr. A. M. Prestrude Department of Psychology (Abstract) Fifty-two college-aged observers participated in an experiment assessing color memory via a PowerPoint '97 computer display program which varied one of the three dimensions of hue, saturation and lightness at a time. Consistent with previous research, errors were greater for the lightness conditions followed by saturation...

  8. Errors When Extracting Oil from Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, E.; Treat, R.; Ichiuji, T.

    2014-12-01

    Oil is in popular demand, but the worldwide amount of oil is decreasing and prices for it are steadily increasing. Leading scientists have been working to find a solution of attaining oil in an economically and environmentally friendly way. Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have determined that "a small mixture of algae and water can be turned into crude oil in less than an hour" (Sheehan, Duhahay, Benemann, Poessler). There are various ways of growing the algae, such as closed loop and open loop methods, as well as processes of extracting oil, such as hydrothermal liquefaction and the hexane-solvent method. Our objective was to grow the algae (C. reinhardtii) and extract oil from it using NaOH and HCl, because we had easy access to those specific chemicals. After two trials of attempted algae growth, we discovered that a bacteria was killing off the algae. This led us to further contemplation on how this dead algae and bacteria are affecting our environment, and the organisms within it. Eutrophication occurs when excess nutrients stimulate rapid growth of algae in an aquatic environment. This can clog waterways and create algal blooms in blue-green algae, as well as neurotoxic red tide phytoplankton. These microscopic algae die upon consumption of the nutrients in water and are degraded by bacteria. The bacteria respires and creates an acidic environment with the spontaneous conversion of carbon dioxide to carbonic acid in water. This process of degradation is exactly what occurred in our 250 mL flask. When the phytoplankton attacked our algae, it created a hypoxic environment, which eliminated any remaining amounts of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nutrients in the water, resulting in a miniature dead zone. These dead zones can occur almost anywhere where there are algae and bacteria, such as the ocean, and make it extremely difficult for any organism to survive. This experiment helped us realize the

  9. Biosorption of Heavy Metal Cu2+ and Cr2+ in Textile Wastewater by Using Immobilized Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiyanto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to utilize microalgae Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp., as biosorption agents for heavy metals removal available in textile waste water. The biosorption of Cu and Cr ions from textile waste water solutions by immobilized algae (Chlorella and Spirulina were tested under laboratory conditions as a function of waste concentration (15-50% dilution and ratio of bead and waste water (1:1-1:3. Experimental results showed that the Langmuir adsorption models were suitable for describing the short-term biosorption of by all algal species. The best ratio of bead: wastewater (v/v for removal heavy metal in textile wastewater was 1:3. The maximum Cu removed from the waste was 89% while Cr was removed with 90% by using Chlorella sp. The algae Spirulina showed a higher removal capacity of 90%. The maximum absorption capacity of Cu was achieved at 16.2 and 13.6 mg/g by using Chlorella and Spirulina, respectively, while the maximum sorption capacity for Cr was achieved at 1.95 and 1.45 mg/g for algae Chlorella and Spirulina, respectively.

  10. Recovery and treatment of spirulina platensis cells cultured in a continous photobioreactor to be used as food

    OpenAIRE

    Morist, A; Montesinos, J. L.; Cusidó Fàbregas, Joan Antoni; Godia, F

    2001-01-01

    The development of auto-regenerative biological life support systems for men in Space will be based on photosynthetic organisms, such as higher plants and algae, providing edible material. In this work, Spirulina platensis grown in a continuous photobioreactor was used to design a process for its recovery and further treatment to be used as food. Two different possibilities are studied (liquid or dry food). In each case, different steps are considered in the design of the process and further ...

  11. Effects of Chemical Parameters on Spirulina platensis Biomass Production: Optimized Method for Phycocyanin Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Vasanthi, B.; P. Soundarapandian

    2008-01-01

    The micro alga, Spirulina is a rich source of protein, which is used as a protein supplement for humans, chicks and also in aquaculture. Among the cultures, CS-1 registered maximum biomass production and S-20 showed highest biomass production among the local isolates. Optimum temperature of 35C was the best for maximum biomass production of S. platensis cultures. Among the cultures CS-1 culture, put forth maximum biomass production at 35C. The biomass production of all S. platensis cult...

  12. Use of blue-green and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements for differentiation between nitrogen deficiency and pathogen infection in winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürling, Kathrin; Hunsche, Mauricio; Noga, Georg

    2011-09-15

    In recent years, several sensor-based approaches have been established to early detect single plant stresses, but the challenge of discriminating between simultaneously occurring stressors still remains. Earlier studies on wheat plants strongly affected by pathogens and nitrogen deficiency indicated that chlorophyll fluorescence might be suited to distinguish between the two stressors. Nevertheless, there is lack of information on the pre-symptomatic detection of synchronized occurrence of slight N-deficiency and the early stages of pathogen infection. The usefulness of the blue, green, and yellow fluorescence signals in this context has not yet been explored. We hypothesized that differentiation between wheat plants' physiological reaction due to N-deficiency and leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) as well as N-deficiency and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici) might be accomplished by means of UV laser-induced fluorescence spectral measurements between 370 and 620nm in addition to chlorophyll fluorescence (640-800nm). Plants were provided with either a normal or a modified Hoagland nutrient solution in order to induce a slight N deficit. Pathogen inoculation was carried out on the second fully developed leaf. Four experimental groups were evaluated: (a) N-full-supply [N+]; (b) N-deficiency [N-]; (c) N-full-supply+pathogen [N+/LR] or [N+/PM]; (d) N-deficiency+pathogen [N-/LR] or [N-/PM]. The results revealed that, in addition to the amplitude ratio of R/FR fluorescence, B/G fluorescence also facilitated reliable and robust discrimination among the four experimental groups. The discrimination among the experimental groups was accomplished as early as one and two days after inoculation for powdery mildew and leaf rust infection, respectively. During the 3days evaluation period, the differences among the treatment groups became more evident. Moreover, several other amplitude ratios and half-bandwidth ratios proved to be suited to early detect fungal

  13. Changes of the laser-induced blue, green and red fluorescence signatures during greening of etiolated leaves of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UV-laser-induced blue, green and red fluorescence-emission spectra were used to characterize the pigment status of etiolated leaves of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) during a 48 h greening period under white light conditions. Upon UV-light excitation (337 nm) leaves not only show a fluorescence emission in the red spectral region between 650 and 800nm (chlorophyll fluorescence with maxima near 690nm and 735 nm), but also in the blue and green regions between 400 to 570 nm with maxima or shoulders near 450 nm (blue) and 530 nm (green). During greening of etiolated leaves the chlorophyll-fluorescence ratio F690/F735 strongly correlated with the total chlorophyll content and the ratio of the chlorophylls to the carotenoids (a+b/x+c). The ratio of the blue to the green fluorescence F450/F530 was also correlated with the total chlorophyll content and the ratio of chlorophylls to total carotenoids (a+b/x+c). Consequently, there also existed a correlation between the chlorophyll-fluorescence ratio F690/F735 and the ratio of the blue to green fluorescence F450/F530. In contrast, the ratios of the blue to red fluorescences F450/F690 and F450/F735 did not show clear relations to the pigment content of the investigated plants. The particular shape of the UV-laser-induced-fluorescence emission spectra of wheat leaves as well as the dependencies of the fluorescence ratios on the pigment content are due to a partial and differential reabsorption of the emitted fluorescences by the photosynthetic pigments

  14. Study on irradiation sterilization of spirulina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of irradiation on spirulina were studied in this paper. Investigation shows that 7 kGy irradiation can reduce the total microorganism population in spirulina product from 105 to 102 CFU/g, and keep sanitation quality well in four-month storage. The microorganism in the samples with water activity 0.81 grow more rapidly than in those with 0.72 and 0.66, which indicate that water activity is a important factor in the storage. (authors)

  15. Bioremoval of toxic elements with aquatic plants and algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T.C.; Ramesh, G. [Harbor Branch Oceanographic Inst., Fort Pierce, FL (United States); Weissman, J.C.; Varadarajan, R. [Microbial Products, Inc., Vero Beach, FL (United States); Benemann, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Aquatic plants were screened to evaluate their ability to adsorb dissolved metals. The plants screened included those that are naturally immobilized (attached algae and rooted plants) and those that could be easily separated from suspension (filamentous microalgae, macroalgae, and floating plants). Two plants were observed to have high adsorption capabilities for cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) removal: one blue green filamentous alga of the genus Phormidium and one aquatic rooted plant, water milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum). These plants could also reduce the residual metal concentration to 0.1 mg/L or less. Both plants also exhibited high specific adsorption for other metals (Pb, Ni, and Cu) both individually and in combination. Metal concentrations were analyzed with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS).

  16. Effect of oxygen and temperature on the efficiency of photosynthetic carbon assimilation in two microscopic algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, J R; Colman, B

    1980-05-01

    The CO(2) compensation points of Coccochloris peniocystis, a blue-green alga and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a green alga, were determined at pH 8.0 in a closed system by a gas chromatographic technique. The compensation point of Chlamydomonas increased markedly with temperature, rising from 0.79 microliter per liter CO(2) at 15 C to 2.5 microliters per liter CO(2) at 35 C. In contrast, the compensation point of Coccochloris at 20 C was 0.71 microliter per liter CO(2) and rose to only 0.95 microliter per liter CO(2) at 40 C.The compensation point of the green alga was significantly reduced at low O(2) concentrations (1 to 2%) when measured over the temperature range of 15 to 35 C. The compensation point of the blue-green alga, over the temperature range of 20 to 40 C, was unaffected by lowering the O(2) concentration.The whole cell CO(2) affinity of Chlamydomonas decreased substantially with increasing temperature at 21% O(2) whereas little change was observed over the same temperature regime when the CO(2) affinity was determined at O(2) concentrations of 1 to 2%. The CO(2) affinity of Coccochloris did not decrease significantly with either increasing temperature or O(2) concentration.These results suggest that while photorespiration is undetectable in Coccochloris some photorespiratory CO(2) release occurs in Chlamydomonas. PMID:16661319

  17. Health aspects of Spirulina (Arthrospira) microalga food supplement

    OpenAIRE

    Sotiroudis Theodore G.; Sotiroudis Georgios T.

    2013-01-01

    Spirulina, now named Arthrospira, is a microscopic and filamentous cyanobacterium that has a long history of use as a safe food lacking toxicity. It is commercially produced in large outdoor ponds under controlled conditions. The aim of this review article is to summarize available recent information concerning human clinical potential and applications of Spirulina, as well as clinical data related to the safety and side effects of Spirulina. Potential health benefits of Spirulina are m...

  18. Caracterização ácido-base da superfície de espécies mistas da alga Spirulina através de titulação potenciométrica e modelo de distribuição de sítios discretos Acid base characterization of the surface of mixed species of algae Spirulin by potentiometric titration and discrete site distribution model

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabete C. de Lima; Jorge C. Masini

    1999-01-01

    Acid base properties of mixed species of the microalgae Spirulina were studied by potentiometric titration in medium of 0.01 and 0.10 mols L-1 NaNO3 at 25.0±0.10 C using modified Gran functions or nonlinear regression techniques for data fitting. The discrete site distribution model was used, permitting the characterization of five classes of ionizable sites in both ionic media. This fact suggests that the chemical heterogeneity of the ionizable sites on the cell surface plays a major role on...

  19. De novo quence analysis and intact mass measurements for characterization of phycocyanin subunit isoforms from the blue-green alga Aphanizomenon flos-aquae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinalducci, Sara; Roepstorff, Peter; Zolla, Lello

    2009-01-01

    phycocyanin subunits was also revealed; subsequently Intact Mass Measurements (IMMs) by both MALDI- and ESI-MS supported the detection of these protein isoforms. Finally, we discuss the evolutionary importance of phycocyanin isoforms in cyanobacteria, suggesting the possible use of the phycocyanin operon for...

  20. Effect of light on the content of photosynthetically active pigments in plants. Pt. 4. Chromatic adaption in blue-green algae Anabaena cylindrica and A. variabilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czeczuga, B.

    1986-07-15

    The photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, carotenoids and phycobiliprotein pigments) of two species of the genus Anabaena grown in white, red, yellow, green and blue light were examined. The highest concentration of the cells was observed in the sample with red light in case of the both species, and the smallest with blue light. The biggest amounts of chlorophyll a and carotenoids were included in the cells of samples with the yellow and the smallest in case of the red light. The ratio of two phycobiliproteins is as follows: - in Anabaena cylindrica: the highest amount of C-phycocyanin in the cells was observed in the case of the red light, and C-phycoerytherin was found in the blue light; - in Anabaena variabiles: the highest amount of C-phycocyanien in the cells was found in case of the yellow light, and allophycocyanin was found in the blue light.

  1. Characterization of Spirulina biomass for CELSS diet potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadros, Mahasin G.

    1993-01-01

    Cyanobacteria, Spirulina maxima as a biogenerative photosynthetic and an edible alga for the space craft crew in a CELSS, was evaluated in an effort to increase the growth rate, biomass, yield, and chemical analysis in continuous cultures. The cell characteristics were determined for cultures maintained at steady state with respect to the substrate concentration. The productivity increased in experiments exposed to low light (30 uE m(exp -2)s(exp -1). Oxygen evolved and protein production were higher in cultures exposed to low light intensity. There was a relationship between nitrate concentration and the yield of the culture. Increasing the concentration of nitrate in the growth medium up to 20 mM was enough to produce a culture having the same chemical composition as that of complete medium. High light was inhibiting the yield of the culture. Increasing the concentration of phosphate beyond 1 mM did not improve the yield of the culture. Increasing the concentration of sodium chloride in the growth medium did not affect the growth of the alga up to 0.1 M but beyond that the culture started to be stressed. The response to stress appeared in high production of total carbohydrate on the expense of protein production. The oxygen production was also higher in cultures stressed with sodium chloride.

  2. Enhancement of Immune Activation Activities of Spirulina maxima Grown in Deep-Sea Water

    OpenAIRE

    Hyeon Yong Lee; Woon Yong Choi; Do Hyung Kang

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the immuno-modulatory and anticancer activities of marine algae, Spirulina maxima grown in deep-sea water (DSW), were investigated. It was found that the extract of S. maxima, cultured in DSW, effectively suppressed the expression of Bcl2 in A549 cells as well as inhibiting various human cancer cells with concentration dependency, which possibly implies that the extracts may play more important roles in controlling cancer cell growth. The secretion of cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α f...

  3. Hydrothermal liquefaction of Spirulina and Nannochloropsis salina under subcritical and supercritical water conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, Saqib S; Reddy, Harvind; Deng, Shuguang; Hoffmann, Jessica; Spangsmark, Dorte; Madsen, Linda B; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Rosendahl, Lasse A

    2013-03-01

    Six hydrothermal liquefaction experiments on Nannochloropsis salina and Spirulina platensis at subcritical and supercritical water conditions (220–375 °C, 20–255 bar) were carried out to explore the feasibility of extracting lipids from wet algae, preserving nutrients in lipid-extracted algae solid residue, and recycling process water for algae cultivation. GC–MS, elemental analyzer, FT-IR, calorimeter and nutrient analysis were used to analyze bio-crude, lipid-extracted algae and water samples produced in the hydrothermal liquefaction process. The highest bio-crude yield of 46% was obtained on N. salina at 350 °C and 175 bar. For S. platensis algae sample, the optimal hydrothermal liquefaction condition appears to be at 310 °C and 115 bar, while the optimal condition for N. salina is at 350 °C and 175 bar. Preliminary data also indicate that a lipid-extracted algae solid residue sample obtained in the hydrothermal liquefaction process contains a high level of proteins. PMID:23376205

  4. Monolithic integration of InGaN segments emitting in the blue, green, and red spectral range in single ordered nanocolumns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, S.; Bengoechea-Encabo, A.; Sanchez-Garcia, M. A.; Calleja, E. [ISOM and Dept. Ingenieria Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Kong, X.; Trampert, A. [Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoeperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-05-06

    This work reports on the selective area growth by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and characterization of InGaN/GaN nanocolumnar heterostructures. The optimization of the In/Ga and total III/V ratios, as well as the growth temperature, provides control on the emission wavelength, either in the blue, green, or red spectral range. An adequate structure tailoring and monolithic integration in a single nanocolumnar heterostructure of three InGaN portions emitting in the red-green-blue colors lead to white light emission.

  5. EQUILIBRIUM MODELLING AND SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES FOR THE BIOSORPTION OF ZN+2 IONS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION USING IMMOBILIZED SPIRULINA PLATENSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Gaur ، R. Dehankhar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosorption equilibrium of zinc ions to Spirulina platensis both in free and immobilized forms were studied in batch system with respect to pH, metal ion concentration, algal dosages and time. The maximum adsorption was observed at pH=8, optimum metal ion concentration and algal dose were 100 mg/L and 1g/100mL, respectively. Biosorption equilibrium was established in 90 minutes. The maximum attainable biosorption was found to be 97.1% for Spirulina platensis. The equilibrium adsorption capacities of adsorbents used for zinc ions were measured and extrapolated using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms models. Langmuir model was found to be in better correlation with experimental data. The maximum Langmuir constants Q◦ (mg/g and b were 92.93 and 0.0012, respectively for Spirulina platensis embedded in calcium alginate matrix. The immobilized Spirulina platensis in calcium of alginate matrix was the best biosorbent. 0.1 M EDTA was used as an eluant, which allowed the reuse of biomass in three biosorption-desorption cycles without considerable loss in biosorption capacity. 89-95 % zinc ions were desorbed with EDTA. The functional groups involved in zinc biosorption were identified by using Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy. Spectroscopic analysis of algae revealed the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl, amino, amide and imine groups, which were responsible for biosorption of zinc ions.

  6. FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERS EVALUATION OF BISCUITS SUBLIMATED WITH PURE PHYCOCYANIN ISOLATED FROM SPIRULINA AND SPIRULINA BIOMASS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Baky, Hanaa H; El Baroty, Gamal S; Ibrahem, Eman A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the effect of incorporation of biomass and phycocyanin extracts of Spirulina platensis growing in define media at large scales (300 liters, limited in nitrogen and high salinity) to traditional butter biscuits in order to increase general mental health as functional products, FPs). The FP were manufactured at a pilot scale formulated by adding algal biomass (0.3, 0.6 and 0.9%) and S. platensis phycocyanin (at 0.3%) to wheat flour and stored for one month at room temperature, protected from light and air. The approximate and nutrition composition of S. platensis biomass showed high quantity (% dry weight, dw.) of phycocyanin (13.51%, natural food colorant), tocopherols (0.43%), carotenoids (2.65%), vitamins C (1.25%), -6, -3 fatty acids, essential elements (Fe, Zn, Cr, Se, and others) and antioxidant compounds includes: total phenolic (1.73%), flavonoids (0.87%) and glutathione (0.245 mM). FPs showed a high oxidative stability during storage (30 days) periods (as assessed by antiradical scavenging activity of DPPH and TBA test), compared with that in untreated food products (control). Data of sensory evaluation revealed that FPs containing S. platensis biomass or algae extracts were significantly acceptable as control for main sensory characteristics (colour, odour/ aroma, flavor, texture, the global appreciation and overall acceptability). S. platensis FPs presented an accentuated green tonality, which increase with the quantity of added biomass. Thus, it could be concluded that functional biscuits had good sensory and nutritional profiles and can be developed as new niche food market. PMID:26262722

  7. The Study of Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushforth, Samuel R.

    1977-01-01

    Included in this introduction to the study of algae are drawings of commonly encountered freshwater algae, a summary of the importance of algae, descriptions of the seven major groups of algae, and techniques for collection and study of algae. (CS)

  8. System responses to equal doses of photosynthetically usable radiation of blue, green, and red light in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Collier Valle

    Full Text Available Due to the selective attenuation of solar light and the absorption properties of seawater and seawater constituents, free-floating photosynthetic organisms have to cope with rapid and unpredictable changes in both intensity and spectral quality. We have studied the transcriptional, metabolic and photo-physiological responses to light of different spectral quality in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum through time-series studies of cultures exposed to equal doses of photosynthetically usable radiation of blue, green and red light. The experiments showed that short-term differences in gene expression and profiles are mainly light quality-dependent. Transcription of photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes was activated mainly through a light quality-independent mechanism likely to rely on chloroplast-to-nucleus signaling. In contrast, genes encoding proteins important for photoprotection and PSII repair were highly dependent on a blue light receptor-mediated signal. Changes in energy transfer efficiency by light-harvesting pigments were spectrally dependent; furthermore, a declining trend in photosynthetic efficiency was observed in red light. The combined results suggest that diatoms possess a light quality-dependent ability to activate photoprotection and efficient repair of photodamaged PSII. In spite of approximately equal numbers of PSII-absorbed quanta in blue, green and red light, the spectral quality of light is important for diatom responses to ambient light conditions.

  9. Thickness and annealing effects on thermally evaporated InZnO thin films for gas sensors and blue, green and yellow emissive optical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugumaran, Sathish; Jamlos, Mohd Faizal; Ahmad, Mohd Noor; Bellan, Chandar Shekar; Sivaraj, Manoj

    2016-08-01

    Indium zinc oxide (InZnO) thin films with thicknesses of 100 nm and 200 nm were deposited on glass plate by thermal evaporation technique. Fourier transform infrared spectra showed a strong metal-oxide bond. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed amorphous nature for as-deposited film whereas polycrystalline structure for annealed films. Scanning electron microscope images showed a uniform distribution of spherical shape grains. Grain size was found to be higher for 200 nm film than 100 nm film. The presence of elements (In, Zn and O) was confirmed from energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Photoluminescence study of 200 nm film showed a blue, blue-green and blue-yellow emission whereas 100 nm film showed a broad green and green-yellow emissions. Both 100 nm and 200 nm films showed good oxygen sensitivity from room temperature to 400 °C. The observed optical and sensor results indicated that the prepared InZnO films are highly potential for room temperature gas sensor and blue, green and yellow emissive opto-electronic devices.

  10. Biosorption of cadmium and lead from aqueous solution by fresh water alga Anabaena sphaerica biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel -Aty, Azza M.; Ammar, Nabila S.; Hany H. Abdel Ghafar; Ali, Rizka K.

    2013-01-01

    The present work represents the biosorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solution onto the biomass of the blue green alga Anabaena sphaerica as a function of pH, biosorbent dosage, contact time, and initial metal ion concentrations. Freundlich, Langmuir, and Dubinin–Radushkevich (D–R) models were applied to describe the biosorption isotherm of both metals by A. sphaerica biomass. The biosorption isotherms studies indicated that the biosorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) follows the Langmuir an...

  11. Kinetics and uptake mechanisms for monomethylmercury between freshwater algae and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moye, H Anson; Miles, Carl J; Phlips, Edward J; Sargent, Bethany; Merritt, Kristen K

    2002-08-15

    Uptake kinetics of monomethylmercury chloride (MeHgCl) were measured for two species of green algae (Selenastrum capricomutum and Cosmarium botrytis), one blue-green algae (Schizothrix calcicola), and one diatom (Thalassiosira weissflogii), algal species that are commonly found in natural surface waters. Species differences were found with the two green algae giving the highest uptake rates, and one of them (Cosmarium) showing differences between cultures having widely different cell age (exponential versus stationary), where increases in uptake rate for cells 30 days old were about 25 times greater than cells only 3 days old when weights of cells were considered. Both Schizothrix and Thalassiosira exhibited nearly the same lower uptake rates, approximately 20 times lower than the two green algal species. Experiments with photosystem inhibitors, uncouplers, gamma-radiation, light deprivation, and extended range uptake all point to an active transport mechanism for MeHgCl. PMID:12214648

  12. Toxin content and cytotoxicity of algal dietary supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Heussner, Alexandra H.; Mazija, Lorena; Fastner, Jutta; Dietrich, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    Blue-green algae (Spirulina sp., Aphanizomenon flos-aquae) and Chlorella sp. are commercially distributed as organic algae dietary supplements. Cyanobacterial dietary products in particular have raised serious concerns, as they appeared to be contaminated with toxins e.g. microcystins (MCs) and consumers repeatedly reported adverse health effects following consumption of these products. The aim of this study was to determine the toxin contamination and the in vitro cytotoxicity of algae dieta...

  13. Investigation into feed utilization by fore-aged silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) using double-marked algae (/sup 14/C and /sup 51/Cr)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessel, B.; Spittler, P.; Heerkloss, R. (Rostock Univ. (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Biologie)

    1982-01-01

    The blue-green alga Microcystis firma and two green algae, Dunaliella viridis and Chlorella vulgaris, were double-marked with /sup 14/C and /sup 51/Cr. The /sup 51/Cr was used as an indicator to measure the assimilation efficiency of fore-aged silver carp for radiocarbon. The assimilation efficiency values obtained were 89.0 +- 5.43% for M. firma, 61.3 +- 15.28% for D. viridis and 91.3 +- 2.22% for C. vulgaris.

  14. Monochromatic blue-green and red emission of rare-earth ions in MgGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Yangxian, E-mail: admat@jsmail.hebut.edu.c [School of Material Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Niu Pingjuan [Information and Communication Engineering School, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300160 (China); Hu Long; Xu Xuewen; Tang Cencun [School of Material Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China)

    2009-10-15

    Pr{sup 3+}-activated blue-green phosphor and Eu{sup 3+}-activated red phosphor hosted in MgGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel have been prepared by a gel-assisted high-temperature calcination process, respectively. Both anion and cation vacancies in the host were formed by decreasing the Mg concentration in the reaction source. The induced vacancies provide possibility of the accommodation of the doped rare-earth ions with larger atomic size in the highly symmetrical spinel structure. Due to the efficient energy transfer from the spinel host to the sole 4f sub-level of the doped rare earths, monochromatic emissions with high efficiency can be obtained to allow the phosphors to find applications in solid-state laser device and other phosphors excited under low energy. The corresponding spectroscopic transition mechanism has been proposed in this work.

  15. Blue-green-red luminescence from CeCl3- and MnCl2-doped hafnium oxide layers prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafnium oxide films doped with CeCl3 and/or MnCl2, and deposited at 300 deg. C by an ultrasonic spray pyrolysis process, were characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive spectroscopy and photoluminescence. The XRD results revealed that the films are predominantly amorphous. The weak green-red emission of Mn2+ is enhanced through an efficient energy transfer from Ce3+ to Mn2+ ions. Spectroscopic data revealed that the energy transfer is nonradiative in nature and it could occur in Ce3+ and Mn2+ clusters through a short-range interaction mechanism. The efficiency of this transfer increases with the Mn2+ ion concentration, so that an efficiency of about 78% is attained for a 5 at.% of MnCl2 concentration, which makes these films interesting phosphors for the design of luminescent layers with blue, green and red emissions

  16. Spirulina is an effective dietary source of zeaxanthin to humans

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Bolan; Jie WANG; Suter, Paolo M.; Russell, Robert M.; Grusak, Michael A.; Wang, Yin; Wang, Zhixu; Yin, Shian; Tang, Guangwen

    2012-01-01

    Zeaxanthin is a predominant xanthophyll in human eyes and may reduce the risk of cataracts and age-related macular degeneration. Spirulina is an algal food that contains a high concentration of zeaxanthin. In order to determine the zeaxanthin bioavailability of spirulina for dietary supplementation in humans, spirulina was grown in nutrient solution with 2H2O for carotenoid labelling. Single servings of 2H-labelled spirulina (4·0-5·0 g) containing 2·6-3·7 mg zeaxanthin were consumed by fourte...

  17. Formulation of Red Seaweed and Spirulina platensis Based Jelly Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wini Trilaksani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Generally, jelly drinks in the market contain synthetic sweeteners, coloring and flavoring agents, as well as low in nutrients content, therefore it needs to be developed in order to obtain more healthy product by adding seaweed and Spirulina. The aims of this research were to determine the best formula of jelly drinks with seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii and Spirulina platensis and to compare the characteristics (nutrients and antioxidant activity of jelly drinks made from culture-based Spirulina and from commercial Spirulina. Jelly drinks made from commercial Spirulina (0.2%; 0.4%; and 0.6% had protein content 1.218-2.750% (db and the IC50 value was 3363.5-6070 ppm. Bayes test showed that jelly drink with commercial Spirulina 0.4% was the selected product and was used as the reference formula on this research. Types of Spirulina (commercial and culture gave no significant effect (p>0.05 to the hedonic test results and antioxidant activity however affected significantly on protein content (p<0.05. Jelly drink supplemented with 0.4% of culture-based Spirulina produced 92 kcal of energy; meanwhile the jelly drink with 0.4% of commercial Spirulina produced 79 kcal of energy.

  18. Caracterização ácido-base da superfície de espécies mistas da alga Spirulina através de titulação potenciométrica e modelo de distribuição de sítios discretos Acid base characterization of the surface of mixed species of algae Spirulin by potentiometric titration and discrete site distribution model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabete C. de Lima

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Acid base properties of mixed species of the microalgae Spirulina were studied by potentiometric titration in medium of 0.01 and 0.10 mols L-1 NaNO3 at 25.0±0.10 C using modified Gran functions or nonlinear regression techniques for data fitting. The discrete site distribution model was used, permitting the characterization of five classes of ionizable sites in both ionic media. This fact suggests that the chemical heterogeneity of the ionizable sites on the cell surface plays a major role on the acid-base properties of the suspension in comparison to electrostatic effects due to charge-charge interactions. The total of ionizable sites were 1.75±0.10 and 1.86±0.20 mmolsg-1 in ionic media of 0.01 and 0.10 mols L-1 NaNO3, respectively. A major contribution of carboxylic groups was observed with an average 34 and 22% of ionizable sites being titrated with conditional pcKa of 4.0 and 5.4, respectively. The remaining 44% of ionizable sites were divided in three classes with averaged conditional pcKa of 6.9, 8.7 and 10.12, which may be assigned respectively to imidazolic, aminic, and phenolic functionalities.

  19. Algae Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae are highly efficient at producing biomass, and they can be found all over the planet. Many use sunlight and nutrients to create biomass, which contain key components—including lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates— that can be converted and upgraded to a variety of biofuels and products. A functional algal biofuels production system requires resources such as suitable land and climate, sustainable management of water resources, a supplemental carbon dioxide (CO2) supply, and other nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus). Algae can be an attractive feedstock for many locations in the United States because their diversity allows for highpotential biomass yields in a variety of climates and environments. Depending on the strain, algae can grow by using fresh, saline, or brackish water from surface water sources, groundwater, or seawater. Additionally, they can grow in water from second-use sources such as treated industrial wastewater; municipal, agricultural, or aquaculture wastewater; or produced water generated from oil and gas drilling operations.

  20. Highly efficient blue-green quantum dot light-emitting diodes using stable low-cadmium quaternary-alloy ZnCdSSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huaibin; Wang, Sheng; Wang, Hongzhe; Niu, Jinzhong; Qian, Lei; Yang, Yixing; Titov, Alexandre; Hyvonen, Jake; Zheng, Ying; Li, Lin Song

    2013-05-22

    High-quality blue-green emitting ZnxCd(1-x)S(1-y)Se(y)/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) have been synthesized by a phosphine-free method. The quantum yields of as-synthesized ZnxCd(1-x)S(1-y)Se(y)/ZnS core/shell QDs can reach 50-75% with emissions between 450 and 550 nm. The emissions of such core/shell QDs are not susceptible to ligand loss through the photostability test. Blue-green light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based on the low-cadmium ZnxCd(1-x)S(1-y)Se(y)/ZnS core/shell QDs have been successfully demonstrated. Composite films of poly[9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-N-[4-(3-methylpropyl)]-diphenylamine] (TFB) and ZnO nanoparticle layers were chosen as the hole-transporting and the electron-transporting layers, respectively. Highly bright blue-green QD-based light-emitting devices (QD-LEDs) showing maximum luminance up to 10000 cd/m(2), in particular, the blue QD-LEDs show an unprecedentedly high brightness over 4700 cd/m(2) and peak external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 0.8%, which is the highest value ever reported. These results signify a remarkable progress in QD-LEDs and offer a practicable platform for the realization of QD-based blue-green display and lighting. PMID:23633527

  1. Teores de β-caroteno em suplementos e biomassa de Spirulina Contents of β-carotene in supplements and biomass of Spirulina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Barroso de Alencar

    2011-04-01

    /v delivered at 2 mL min-1 and chromatograms registered at 450 nm absorbance. Food supplement made with Spirulina presented low content of β-carotene. The highest content of β-carotene was detected in S. platensis cultivated under 24º C with photoperiod of 16 h light and 8 h dark. Considering its pro-vitamin activity, retinol equivalent (RE was calculated from β-carotene to determine whether alga material could be claimed as an useful or an excellent source of the vitamins A.

  2. Air impingement drying of Spirulina Platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Yamsaengsung

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina is a cyanobacteria filled with therapeutic and nutritive properties that can be easily digested. It contains71% protein by weight and a higher percentage of GLA (Gamma-Linolenic Acid than any other plant. GLA has contributingproperties of reducing blood pressure and blood cholesterol. After harvesting, the Spirulina is drained, sun-dried and driedin a convective oven. During the prolonged rainy season in Southern Thailand, convective drying alone can be very slowand energy consuming. Thus, this research investigated the effect of air-impingement technique on thin-layer drying ofSpirulina. First, the effects of temperature (40, 50, and 60°C and film thickness (2 and 4 mm on the drying rate wereobtained using a lab-scale dryer with a product capacity of 600 g. For an air velocity of 1 m/s, an increase in temperature up to 60°C resulted in an increase of the drying rate, while increasing the film thickness to 4 mm increased the drying time by 50%. In the second part of the study, a pilot-scale impingement dryer (1.2 m x 1.2 m x 1 m was designed and constructed. The dryer consisted of 3 levels and can handle up 2.8 kg of fresh Spirulina per batch when arranged in a 2 mm layer film. The temperature distribution inside the dryer and the effect of air velocity (1.3 and 2.6 m/s on the drying rate were investigated. From thermocouple measurements, the temperature deviation was less than 10% from top level to bottom level when compared to the average value. Moreover, using the specific moisture evaporation rate as the performance indicator, it was found that an air velocity of 2.6 m/s was more efficient than one of 1.3 m/s.

  3. Algae mediated synthesis of cadmium sulphide nanoparticles and their application in bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad Mandal, Ranju; Sekh, Sanoyaz; Sarkar, Neera Sen; Chattopadhyay, Dipankar; De, Swati

    2016-05-01

    The present work is a study on the biological synthesis of cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanoparticles using blue-green algae that is popularly used as a food supplement. This synthesis is unique in the sense that no external sulphur precursor is required, the CdS nanoparticles are synthesized in situ in the algal medium. The CdS nanoparticles thus synthesized are photoluminescent and can act as highly efficient photocatalysts for degradation of the dye pollutant malachite green. Thus the CdS nanoparticles synthesized in situ in the algae conform to the desired criteria of waste water treatment i.e. biosorption of the pollutant and its subsequent degradation. The novelty of this work also lies in its potential for use in bioremediation by conversion of the toxic Cd(II) ion to less toxic CdS nanoparticles within the algal framework.

  4. Formulation of a low-cost medium for mass production of Spirulina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new medium was formulated for mass production of Spirulina sp. by incorporating selected nutrients of the standard Zarrouk's medium (SM) and other cost-effective alternative chemicals. This newly formulated medium (RM6) contains single super phosphate (1.25 g l-1), sodium nitrate (2.50 g l-1), muriate of potash (0.98 g l-1), sodium chloride (0.5 g l-1), magnesium sulphate (0.15 g l-1), calcium chloride (0.04 g l-1), and sodium bicarbonate (commercial grade) 8 g l-1. The alga was grown in an illuminated (50 μmol photons m-2 s-1 white light) growth room at 30±1 oC. Maximum growth rate in terms of dry biomass, chlorophyll and proteins in SM was recorded between 6 and 9 days of growth and values were 0.114, 0.003 and 0.068 as compared to 0.112, 0.003 and 0.069 mg ml-1 d-1 in RM6,. No significant differences were observed in the protein profiles of Spirulina sp. grown in both the media. From the scale up point of view, the revised medium was found to be highly economical, since it is five times cheaper than Zarrouk's medium

  5. Formulation of a low-cost medium for mass production of Spirulina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raoof, Basirath [Division of Microbiology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110 012 (India); Kaushik, B.D. [Division of Microbiology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110 012 (India)]. E-mail: bdkaushik@hotmail.com; Prasanna, Radha [Centre for Conservation and Utilization of Blue-Green Algae, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, 110 012 (India)

    2006-06-15

    A new medium was formulated for mass production of Spirulina sp. by incorporating selected nutrients of the standard Zarrouk's medium (SM) and other cost-effective alternative chemicals. This newly formulated medium (RM{sub 6}) contains single super phosphate (1.25 g l{sup -1}), sodium nitrate (2.50 g l{sup -1}), muriate of potash (0.98 g l{sup -1}), sodium chloride (0.5 g l{sup -1}), magnesium sulphate (0.15 g l{sup -1}), calcium chloride (0.04 g l{sup -1}), and sodium bicarbonate (commercial grade) 8 g l{sup -1}. The alga was grown in an illuminated (50 {mu}mol photons m{sup -2} s{sup -1} white light) growth room at 30{+-}1 {sup o}C. Maximum growth rate in terms of dry biomass, chlorophyll and proteins in SM was recorded between 6 and 9 days of growth and values were 0.114, 0.003 and 0.068 as compared to 0.112, 0.003 and 0.069 mg ml{sup -1} d{sup -1} in RM{sub 6},. No significant differences were observed in the protein profiles of Spirulina sp. grown in both the media. From the scale up point of view, the revised medium was found to be highly economical, since it is five times cheaper than Zarrouk's medium.

  6. Light adaptability of tow strains of Spirulina (Arthrospra) platensis%两族群钝顶螺旋藻Spirulina (Arthrospra) platensis光强适应性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高凌岩; 高锦; 王林和

    2011-01-01

    螺旋藻光强适应性与其族群、培养时间等条件相关。为了探明分布在鄂尔多斯高原沙区碱湖的钝顶螺旋藻Spirulina(Arthrospra)platensis的光强适应性,采用比色法、生物量法实地、长期观测了其光强适应性,并与乍得湖引进的钝顶螺旋藻进行了比较。结果表明:24℃、连续7天荧光灯的照射下,国内族群的光补偿点约为0.58μmol·m^-2·s^-1;光饱和点约为82.1μmol·m^-2·s^-1;光抑制点约为129.6μmol·m^-2·s^-1;光分解点为230μmol·m^-2·s^-1。129.6μmol·m^-2·s^-1的连续光能够使两族群的很多藻丝体完全压紧。超过230μmol·m^-2·s^-1使国内族群以多个藻丝体纠结成团的方式避免高光强;而引进族群的藻丝体则不能。无论是液相或是固相螺旋藻都能够被光分解。两族群的藻丝体都需要暗的修复期。藻丝体有趋光性。%Light adaptability of Spirulina has relationship with its strains,cultural time and etc..The Spirulina that came from Erdos Plateau sand area's alkaline lakes was tested by the methods of color comparison,production,observation at the lake and lab for long time to study it's light adaptability,and the Spirulina came from Chad lake was use to compare with the strain.The results indicated that the native strain of Spirulina 's compensation point of light is 0.58μmol·m^-2s^-1,sturation of light is 82.1 μmol·m^-2s^-1,stress point of light is 129.6μmol·m-2s-1,decomposing point of light is 230μmol·m^-2s^-1 for the single alga.The native strain can make a ball in several algae to escape from strong light.But the intruduced strain can't do in this way and it can be decomposed on 230μmol·m^-2s^-1 continuous light when OD560 is 0.06.The continuous 129.6μmol·m^-2s^-1 light make many algae no helix space for both strains.Spirulina can be decomposed by light wathever in liquid or on soild.The both strains are much more healthy under the rhythm with light and dark than the

  7. Water soluble polysaccharides from Spirulina platensis: extraction and in vitro anti-cancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurd, Forouzan; Samavati, Vahid

    2015-03-01

    Polysaccharides from Spirulina platensis algae (SP) were extracted by ultrasound-assisted extraction procedure. The optimal conditions for ultrasonic extraction of SP were determined by response surface methodology. The four parameters were, extraction time (X1), extraction temperature (X2), ultrasonic power (X3) and the ratio of water to raw material (X4), respectively. The experimental data obtained were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation. The optimum conditions were extraction time of 25 min, extraction temperature 85°C, ultrasonic power 90 W and ratio of water to raw material 20 mL/g. Under these optimal conditions, the experimental yield was 13.583±0.51%, well matched with the predicted models with the coefficients of determination (R2) of 0.9971. Then, we demonstrated that SP polysaccharides had strong scavenging activities in vitro on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals. Overall, SP may have potential applications in the medical and food industries. PMID:25583023

  8. Solvothermal synthesis and characterization of blue, green and red emitting Y2O3:Ln3+ (Ln3+ = Tm3+, Tb3+ and Eu3+) nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanthanide ions (Tm3+, Tb3+ and Eu3+) doped Y2O3 nanocrystals were prepared via solvothermal refluxing calcination method. Yttrium chloride hexahydrate and rare earth chloride (TmCl3, TbCl3 and EuCl3) were used as starting materials for the preparation of co-precipitated gel. The organic solvents such as ethylene glycol and polyethylene glycol (200) were used to reflux co-precipitated gel and solvothermal refluxing reaction was carried out at 180 deg. C (ethylene glycol) and 240 deg. C (polyethylene glycol 200) for 4 h. The samples were calcined at 800 deg. C and 1000 deg. C for 5 h to convert precursor materials into Y2O3 nanocrystals. The structure, morphology and thermal stability were characterized by XRD, TEM, FESEM, and TG-DTA analysis. The as prepared materials exhibited agglomerated and sphere like morphology with 20-30 nm in diameter depending on refluxing solvents used in the synthesis. The calcined samples after solvothermal reaction in polyethylene glycol exhibited sphere morphology with 30-80 nm in diameter. The photoluminescence results of Tm3+, Tb3+ and Eu3+ doped Y2O3 nanocrystals showed strong blue, green and red emission around 450, 540 and 610 nm under the excitation wavelength of 360, 304 and 254 nm respectively. The PL results were compared with reference sample prepared via co-precipitated calcination method.

  9. Blue-green fluorescence and visible-infrared reflectance of corn (Zea mays L.) grain for in situ field detection of nitrogen supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensing of spectral attributes of corn (Zea mays L.) grain from site specific areas of the field during the harvest process may be useful in managing agronomic inputs and production practices on those areas of the field in subsequent growing seasons. Eight levels of nitrogen (N) fertilization were applied to field grown corn at Beltsville, Maryland. These N treatments produced a range of chlorophyll levels, biomass and physiological condition in the live plant canopies. After harvest, spectra were obtained in the laboratory on whole grain samples. Fluorescence emissions were acquired from 400 to 600 nm and percent reflectance were measured in the visible (VIS) near infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) regions from 400 nm to 2400 nm. A ultraviolet (UV) excitation band centered at 385 nm was the most effective in producing fluorescence emission differences in the blue-green region of the fluorescence spectrum with maxima centered from 430-470nm in the blue and with an intense shoulder centered at around 530-560 nm in the green region. Reflectance showed the most spectral differences in the NIR and MIR (970-2330 nm) regions

  10. Synthesis of Blue-Green Phosphors Sr4Si3O8Cl4:Eu2+ by Gel-Combustion Method and Their Luminescent Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Qing Zhai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sr4Si3O8Cl4:Eu2+ blue-green phosphors were synthesized by the gel-combustion method. The as-synthesized phosphors were analyzed and characterized by X-ray diffraction and fluorescence spectrophotometer. The results indicate that orthorhombic phase Sr4Si3O8Cl4:Eu2+ has been formed after the precursor calcined at 900°C reductive temperature. The excitation spectrum of Sr4Si3O8Cl4:Eu2+ is a broad band in the range of 250 ~ 450 nm and the main peak at 324 nm. The emission spectrum is also a broad band with the main emission peak at about 484 nm, which is ascribed to the typical 4f5d1 to 4f7 transition of Eu2+. Moreover, the effects of the concentration of Eu2+, the reductive temperature, and the doping amount of Mg2+ on luminescent properties were discussed.

  11. Efficient blue-green and green electroluminescent devices obtained by doping iridium complexes into hole-block material as supplementary light-emitting layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, organic electroluminescent (EL) devices with dominant and supplementary light-emitting layers (EMLs) were designed to further improve the EL performances of two iridiumIII-based phosphorescent complexes, which have been reported to provide EL devices with slow EL efficiency roll-off. The widely used hole-block material 2,2′,2''-(1,3,5-Benzinetriyl)-tris(1-phenyl-1-H-benzimidazole) (TPBi) was selected as host material to construct the supplementary EML. Compared with single-EML devices, double-EMLs devices showed higher EL efficiencies, higher brightness, and lower operation voltage attributed to wider recombination zone and better balance of carriers. In addition, the insertion of supplementary EML is instrumental in facilitating carriers trapping, thus improving the color purity. Finally, high performance blue-green and green EL devices with maximum current efficiencies of 35.22 and 90.68 cd/A, maximum power efficiencies of 26.36 and 98.18 lm/W, and maximum brightness of 56,678 and 112,352 cd/m2, respectively, were obtained by optimizing the doping concentrations. Such a device design strategy extends the application of a double EML device structure and provides a chance to simplify device fabrication processes. -- Highlights: • Electroluminescent devices with supplementary light-emitting layer were fabricated. • Doping concentrations and thicknesses were optimized. • Better balance of holes and electrons causes the enhanced efficiency. • Improved carrier trapping suppresses the emission of host material

  12. Health aspects of Spirulina (Arthrospira microalga food supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiroudis Theodore G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina, now named Arthrospira, is a microscopic and filamentous cyanobacterium that has a long history of use as a safe food lacking toxicity. It is commercially produced in large outdoor ponds under controlled conditions. The aim of this review article is to summarize available recent information concerning human clinical potential and applications of Spirulina, as well as clinical data related to the safety and side effects of Spirulina. Potential health benefits of Spirulina are mainly due to its chemical composition, which includes proteins (the highest protein content of any natural food, 55%-70%, carbohydrates, essential amino acids, minerals (especially iron, essential fatty acids, vitamins, and pigments. In this respect, three major bioactive components of Spirulina, the protein phycocyanin (a biliprotein pigment, sulfated polysaccharides and gamma linolenic acid seem to play significant role in imparting improved human body functions. Furthermore, new experimental evidence supports the immunomodulation and antiviral effects of Spirulina supplementation. According to the Dietary Supplements Information Expert Committee of United States Pharmacopeial Convention the available clinical evidence does not indicate a serious risk to health or other public health concerns for Spirulina. However, a few cases of severe side-effects have been reported.

  13. Electron beam irradiation for biological decontamination of Spirulina platensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasoveanu, Mirela [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Department of Electron Accelerators, 409 Atomistilor Street, P.O. Box MG-36, RO 76 900 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)]. E-mail: mirela@infim.ro; Nemtanu, Monica [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Department of Electron Accelerators, 409 Atomistilor Street, P.O. Box MG-36, RO 76 900 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Minea, R. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Department of Electron Accelerators, 409 Atomistilor Street, P.O. Box MG-36, RO 76 900 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Grecu, Maria Nicoleta [National Institute for Materials Physics, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Mazilu, Elena [Hofigal SA (Romania); Radulescu, Nora [Hofigal SA (Romania)

    2005-10-15

    The Cyanobacterium Spirulina is commercialized for its use in health foods and for therapeutic purposes due to its valuable constituents particularly proteins and vitamins. The aim of the paper is to study the Spirulina platensis behaviour when it is electron beam irradiated for biological decontamination. Microbial load, antioxidant activity, enzymatic inhibition, electron spin resonance (ESR) and UV-Vis spectra were measured for doses up to 80 kGy. The results were correlated with doses in order to find where decontamination is efficient, keeping the Spirulina qualities.

  14. Efficient blue-green and green electroluminescent devices obtained by doping iridium complexes into hole-block material as supplementary light-emitting layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Liang [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Zheng, Youxuan, E-mail: yxzheng@mail.nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Deng, Ruiping; Feng, Jing; Song, Mingxing; Hao, Zhaomin [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Zhang, Hongjie, E-mail: hongjie@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Zuo, Jinglin; You, Xiaozeng [State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-04-15

    In this work, organic electroluminescent (EL) devices with dominant and supplementary light-emitting layers (EMLs) were designed to further improve the EL performances of two iridium{sup III}-based phosphorescent complexes, which have been reported to provide EL devices with slow EL efficiency roll-off. The widely used hole-block material 2,2′,2''-(1,3,5-Benzinetriyl)-tris(1-phenyl-1-H-benzimidazole) (TPBi) was selected as host material to construct the supplementary EML. Compared with single-EML devices, double-EMLs devices showed higher EL efficiencies, higher brightness, and lower operation voltage attributed to wider recombination zone and better balance of carriers. In addition, the insertion of supplementary EML is instrumental in facilitating carriers trapping, thus improving the color purity. Finally, high performance blue-green and green EL devices with maximum current efficiencies of 35.22 and 90.68 cd/A, maximum power efficiencies of 26.36 and 98.18 lm/W, and maximum brightness of 56,678 and 112,352 cd/m{sup 2}, respectively, were obtained by optimizing the doping concentrations. Such a device design strategy extends the application of a double EML device structure and provides a chance to simplify device fabrication processes. -- Highlights: • Electroluminescent devices with supplementary light-emitting layer were fabricated. • Doping concentrations and thicknesses were optimized. • Better balance of holes and electrons causes the enhanced efficiency. • Improved carrier trapping suppresses the emission of host material.

  15. Biofunctionalized Nanofibers Using Arthrospira (Spirulina Biomass and Biopolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Greque de Morais

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrospun nanofibers composed of polymers have been extensively researched because of their scientific and technical applications. Commercially available polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB and polyhydroxybutyrate-co-valerate (PHB-HV copolymers are good choices for such nanofibers. We used a highly integrated method, by adjusting the properties of the spinning solutions, where the cyanophyte Arthrospira (formally Spirulina was the single source for nanofiber biofunctionalization. We investigated nanofibers using PHB extracted from Spirulina and the bacteria Cupriavidus necator and compared the nanofibers to those made from commercially available PHB and PHB-HV. Our study assessed nanofiber formation and their selected thermal, mechanical, and optical properties. We found that nanofibers produced from Spirulina PHB and biofunctionalized with Spirulina biomass exhibited properties which were equal to or better than nanofibers made with commercially available PHB or PHB-HV. Our methodology is highly promising for nanofiber production and biofunctionalization and can be used in many industrial and life science applications.

  16. Production of Spirulina in semicontinuous cultivation using medium recycle

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Priscila Centeno da Rosa; Thaisa Duarte Santos

    2015-01-01

    The biomass of cyanobacteria Spirulina is rich in bioactive compounds, with main applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of nutrient consumption on the growth kinetics of Spirulina sp. LEB 18 grown in semicontinuous cultivation in raceway bioreactor. Zarrouk medium was used, maintaining the original concentrations of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, while the other nutrients varied by 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. Chemica...

  17. Formulation of Red Seaweed and Spirulina platensis Based Jelly Drinks

    OpenAIRE

    Wini Trilaksani; Iriani Setyaningsih; Dita Masluha

    2015-01-01

    Generally, jelly drinks in the market contain synthetic sweeteners, coloring and flavoring agents, as well as low in nutrients content, therefore it needs to be developed in order to obtain more healthy product by adding seaweed and Spirulina. The aims of this research were to determine the best formula of jelly drinks with seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii) and Spirulina platensis and to compare the characteristics (nutrients and antioxidant activity) of jelly drinks made from culture-based Spiruli...

  18. Extraction and In Vitro Antimalarial Activity Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis

    OpenAIRE

    Diah Anggraini; Iriani Setyaningsih; Puji Budi Setia Asih

    2016-01-01

    Phycocyanin is biopigment found only in a conductor such as Spirulina platensis. Phycocyanin from Nostoc can inhibit Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 8.4 μg/mL so that phycocyanin from S. platensis also can inhibit P. falciparum like Nostoc. The aim of this study was to determine the best method for phycocyanin extraction using three solvents. They were phosphate buffer, water, and aseton. Spirulina were cultured in the conditions intensity of light 3000 Lux, salinity 15 ppt, dark-...

  19. OPTIMALISASI EKSTRAKSI DAN UJI STABILITAS PHYCOCYANIN DARI MIKROALGA Spirulina platensis

    OpenAIRE

    Bakti Jos; Prayudi Eko Setyawan; Yudha Satria

    2012-01-01

    The growing awareness of the importance of natural colours especially food and cosmetic colorants has placedgreat demand on biological sources of natural colours. It is for this reason that the phycobiliproteins inSpirulina platensis is gaining increasing attention as an alternative colour for these products. Numerousscientific reports confirm the fact that Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis, is not only an effective naturalblue colorant, but also a compound that is beneficial to the health...

  20. Producción artesanal del rotífero Philodina sp. y de algas para la alimentación de post-larvas de bocachico Artisan production of rotifero and algaes for bocachico post-larva feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Eugenia Quintero P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de algas mixtas se realizó en el Instituto de Piscicultura Tropical de la Corporación Autónoma Regional del Valle del Cauca (Buga 25 ºC y 969 m.s.n.m. utilizando fertilizantes inorgánicos en baldes plásticos, se produjeron en promedio 386 x 10³ células/ml de cultivo. En el cultivo de Philodina en frascos de vidrio alimentado con algas y levadura, se obtuvieron 410 rotíferos/ml de cultivo. Se evaluaron tres tratamientos: rotíferos enriquecidos con aceite de pescado; rotíferos más algas (Chlorella, Scenedesmus, Pediastrum, Spyrogira y Anabaena y Artemia salina + Spirulina, usando 100 post-larvas de bocachico/acuario, alimentadas dos veces al día según biomasa sembrada. El mayor porcentaje de sobrevivencia, peso y talla se obtuvo con el alimento constituido por rotíferos enriquecidos con aceite de pescado (93 %,3.2mg, 6.86mm, seguido de rotíferos + algas (80.67 %,2 mg, 6.1mm y Artemia+ Spirulina (60.6 %,1.6mg, 6.06mm respectivamenteIn the Tropical Piscicultural Institute of the Regional Autonomous Corporation of Buga, Cauca, Valley, Colombia (25ºC temperature, 969 m a s l, a research was carried out with the objective to produce and use algaes and rotifers (living food cultures to feed bocachico post-larvas (Prochilodus reticulatus magdalenae. A complete random design with three treatments and three repetitions was established. 100 bocachico/aquarium post larva were used and fed twice a day according to sown biomass. The cultures of mixed algaes were established by using inorganic fertilizers produced in plastic pails and obtaining an average of 386 x 10³ cells/ml of culture. On the other hand, the cultures of Philodina rotifers were established in glass bottles and feeding them with algaes and yeast. An average of 410 rotifers/ml of culturing was obtained . To evaluate the highest rate of survival, growing and weight of bocachico post-larvas, three kind of food were used: Rotifers enriched with fish oil; rotifers plus

  1. Analysis of Solid and Aqueous Phase Products from Hydrothermal Carbonization of Whole and Lipid-Extracted Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Amber Broch; Umakanta Jena; S. Kent Hoekman; Joel Langford

    2013-01-01

    Microalgae have tremendous potential as a feedstock for production of liquid biofuels, particularly biodiesel fuel via transesterification of algal lipids. However, biodiesel production results in significant amounts of algal residues, or “lipid extracted algae†(LEA). Suitable utilization of the LEA residue will improve the economics of algal biodiesel. In the present study, we evaluate the hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of whole and lipid extracted algal ( Spirulina maxima ) feedstocks...

  2. Study of bio-oil and bio-char production from algae by slow pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examined bio-oil and bio-char fuel produced from Spirulina Sp. by slow pyrolysis. A thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) was used to investigate the pyrolytic characteristics and essential components of algae. It was found that the temperature for the maximum degradation, 322 °C, is lower than that of other biomass. With our fixed-bed reactor, 125 g of dried Spirulina Sp. algae was fed under a nitrogen atmosphere until the temperature reached a set temperature between 450 and 600 °C. It was found that the suitable temperature to obtain bio-char and bio-oil were at approximately 500 and 550 °C respectively. The bio-oil components were identified by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The saturated functional carbon of the bio-oil was in a range of heavy naphtha, kerosene and diesel oil. The energy consumption ratio (ECR) of bio-oil and bio-char was calculated, and the net energy output was positive. The ECR had an average value of 0.49. -- Highlights: •Bio-oil and bio-char fuel produced from Spirulina Sp. by slow pyrolysis. •Suitable temperature to obtained bio-oil and bio-char were at about 550 and 500 °C. •Saturated functional carbon of bio-oil was heavy naphtha, kerosene, diesel oil. •ECR had an average value of 0.49

  3. BEBERAPA MARGA ALGA BENANG DAN HUBUNGANNYA DENGAN KEBERADAAN VEKTOR MALARIA DI BALI UTARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Seregeg

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A study of filamentous algae and its relation to malaria vector control was conducted during the dry season in several lagoons at the north coast of Bali. Floating masses of these algae under the sunshine barricated the spread of solar-triton larvicide, reducing tremendously the effectiveness of the larvicide. Identification of the genera of these algae under the subphyllum of CYANOPHYTA (Blue Algae in the family of Cyanophyceae were Oscillatoria, Spirulina, Phormidium, Rivularia, Nostoc, and Anabaena; under the subphyllum of CHLOROPHYTA (Green Algae in the family of Chlorophyceae were Enteromorpha, Spirogyra, Mougeotia, Zygnema, and Oedogonium. The surface of water in between the floating masses of algae were an exellent breeding place of mosquitoes mainly Anopheles sundaicus. The density of Enteromorpha, the main attractant of An sundaicus compared to other filamantous algae, has no direct relation on the density of An. sundaicus larva. Hence Enteromorpha could only be considered as the indicator of the presence of larvae and not as the indicator of population densities of larvae Lagoons surrounded with mangrove plantations did not harbour filamentous algae and larvae of An. sundaicus were not found.

  4. Accumulation of hexabromocyclododecane diastereomers and enantiomers in two microalgae, Spirulina subsalsa and Scenedesmus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanwei; Sun, Hongwen; Zhu, Hongkai; Ruan, Yuefei; Liu, Fang; Liu, Xiaowei

    2014-06-01

    Selective accumulation and bioisomerization of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) diastereomers and their enantiomers have been reported in several aquatic organisms; however, these processes have not been evaluated in algae. In the present study, the accumulation of three HBCD diastereomers (α-, β- and γ-HBCD) was studied using two microalgae, Spirulina subsalsa and Scenedesmus obliquus, in the plateau phase for seven days. The accumulation ability of S. obliquus was greater than that of S. subsalsa, with steady state BCF values in the range of 390-469 and 174-350, respectively. For the three diastereomers, the accumulation trend of α-HBCD>β-HBCD>γ-HBCD was observed in S. subsalsa, whereas the accumulation trend of β-HBCD>α-HBCD>γ-HBCD was observed in S. obliquus. Contrary to the process typically occurring in fish, the bioisomerization from β- or γ-HBCD to α-HBCD was not observed in algae. α-HBCD exhibited selective enrichment of (+)enantiomer in S. subsalsa and (-)enantiomer in S. obliquus. No significant enantioselectivity was observed for β- and γ-HBCD. New metabolites, tetrabromocyclododecadiene (TBCDi) and tribromocyclododecatriene (TriBCDie), were observed in S. subsalsa for the first time, but these were not observed in S. obliquus. PMID:24675442

  5. Spirulina platensis: process optimization to obtain biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iracema de Oliveira Moraes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina platensis is a photoautotrophic mesophilic cyanobacterium. Its main sources of nutrients are nitrate, urea, and ammonium salts. Spirulina cultivation requires temperature, light intensity, and nutrient content control. This microalgae has been studied and used commercially due to its therapeutic and antioxidant potential. In addition, several studies have reported its ability to use CO2, its immune activity, and use as an adjuvant nutritive factor in the treatment of obesity. The objective of this study is the production of biomass of S. platensis using different rates of stirring, nitrogen source, amount of micronutrients, and luminosity. A 2(4 experimental design with the following factors: stirring (120 and 140 RPM, amount of nitrogen (1.5 and 2.5 g/L, amount of micronutrients (0,25 and 0,75 mL/L (11 and 15 W, and luminosity was used. Fermentation was performed in a 500 mL conical flask with 250 mL of culture medium and 10% inoculum in an incubator with controlled stirring and luminosity. Fermentation was monitored using a spectrophotometer (560 nm, and each fermentation lasted 15 days. Of the parameters studied, luminosity is the one with the highest significance, followed by the amount of nitrogen and the interaction between stirring and micronutrients. Maximum production of biomass for 15 days was 2.70 g/L under the following conditions: luminosity15W; stirring, 120 RPM; source of nitrogen, 1.5 g/L; and micronutrients, 0.75 mL/L.

  6. Next generation paradigm for urban pluvial flood modelling, prediction, management and vulnerability reduction - Interaction between RainGain and Blue Green Dream projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimovic, C.

    2012-04-01

    The effects of climate change and increasing urbanisation call for a new paradigm for efficient planning, management and retrofitting of urban developments to increase resilience to climate change and to maximize ecosystem services. Improved management of urban floods from all sources in required. Time scale for well documented fluvial and coastal floods allows for timely response but surface (pluvial) flooding caused by intense local storms had not been given appropriate attention, Pitt Review (UK). Urban surface floods predictions require fine scale data and model resolutions. They have to be tackled locally by combining central inputs (meteorological services) with the efforts of the local entities. Although significant breakthrough in modelling of pluvial flooding was made there is a need to further enhance short term prediction of both rainfall and surface flooding. These issues are dealt with in the EU Iterreg project Rain Gain (RG). Breakthrough in urban flood mitigation can only be achieved by combined effects of advanced planning design, construction and management of urban water (blue) assets in interaction with urban vegetated areas' (green) assets. Changes in design and operation of blue and green assets, currently operating as two separate systems, is urgently required. Gaps in knowledge and technology will be introduced by EIT's Climate-KIC Blue Green Dream (BGD) project. The RG and BGD projects provide synergy of the "decoupled" blue and green systems to enhance multiple benefits to: urban amenity, flood management, heat island, biodiversity, resilience to drought thus energy requirements, thus increased quality of urban life at lower costs. Urban pluvial flood management will address two priority areas: Short Term rainfall Forecast and Short term flood surface forecast. Spatial resolution of short term rainfall forecast below 0.5 km2 and lead time of a few hours are needed. Improvements are achievable by combining data sources of raingauge networks

  7. CO2 bio-sequestration by Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis in response to different levels of salinity and CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shabani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The limitation of fresh water and the exorbitant cost of land to grow such plants, algae are the most optimum organisms for CO2 bio-sequestration and also microalgae cultures avail many characteristics that make them an arguable option for higher productivities as compared to higher plants. The aim of this study was the sequestrate CO2 by Spirulina platensis and Chlorella vulgaris under the different levels of salinity and CO2. The highest growth rate obtained during the first 4 days and higher biomass concentration at CO2 concentration from 0.03% to 10% respectively. The significant (p<0.05 biomass productivity, growth rate and CO2 sequestration rate under different level of CO2 and EC between Spirulina platensis and Chlorella vulgaris were detected. The ultimate CO2 sequestration rate of Spirulina platensis and Chlorella vulgaris were 0.49 and 0.152 g/L/d in natural water respectively, although in artificial sea water 0.419 and 0.097 g/L/d were recorded at 10% CO2 concentrations respectively.

  8. Combustion synthesis and photoluminescence properties of a novel blue-green-emitting Er{sup 3+} and Li{sup +} co-doped LaNbTiO{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xingshuang [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Zhou, Guangjun, E-mail: gjzhou@sdu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Zhou, Juan [Center for Disease Prevention and Control of Jinan Military Command, Jinan 250014 (China); Zhou, Haifeng; Kong, Peng; Yu, Zhichao [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Novel LaNbTiO{sub 6}: Er{sup 3+}, Li{sup +} phosphor was synthesized by sol–gel combustion method. • The LaNbTiO{sub 6}: Er{sup 3+}, Li{sup +} phosphor exhibits blue-green emission under UV excitation. • The optimal Er{sup 3+} and Li{sup +} concentration are 3% and 1.5%, respectively. • Li{sup +}-doping could induce a remarkable increase of photoluminescence intensity. - Abstract: A single-phase blue-green light emitting phosphor, LaNbTiO{sub 6}: Er{sup 3+}, Li{sup +}, was synthesized by using a simple and facile sol–gel combustion approach. Its structure and photoluminescence (PL) properties were investigated as a function of Er{sup 3+} and Li{sup +} ion concentration. The luminous mechanisms of the Er{sup 3+} doping and Er{sup 3+}/Li{sup +} co-doping in the LaNbTiO{sub 6} host were also discussed, including the intra-4f-transitions of Er{sup 3+} and the charge compensation of Li{sup +}. The incorporation of Li{sup +} ions into LaNbTiO{sub 6} lattice further altered the local structure and symmetry of the crystals field around Er{sup 3+}. Concentration quenching occurred when Er{sup 3+} and Li{sup +} reached certain levels. Furthermore, the critical transfer distance of Er{sup 3+} → Er{sup 3+} in the phosphor was calculated. The absolute quantum efficiencies and the fluorescence decay time of the phosphors were studied. The phosphor produced blue-green light, presenting CIE chromaticity coordinates of (0.211, 0.277) and (0.214, 0.320)

  9. Fed-batch strategy for enhancing cell growth and C-phycocyanin production of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis under phototrophic cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Youping; Jin, Yiwen; Zeng, Xianhai; Chen, Jianfeng; Lu, Yinghua; Jing, Keju

    2015-03-01

    The C-phycocyanin generated in blue-green algae Arthrospira platensis is gaining commercial interest due to its nutrition and healthcare value. In this study, the light intensity and initial biomass concentration were manipulated to improve cell growth and C-phycocyanin production of A.platensis in batch cultivation. The results show that low light intensity and high initial biomass concentration led to increased C-phycocyanin accumulation. The best C-phycocyanin productivity occurred when light intensity and initial biomass concentration were 300μmol/m(2)/s and 0.24g/L, respectively. The fed-batch cultivation proved to be an effective strategy to further enhance C-phycocyanin production of A.platensis. The results indicate that C-phycocyanin accumulation not only requires nitrogen-sufficient condition, but also needs other nutrients. The highest C-phycocyanin content (16.1%), production (1034mg/L) and productivity (94.8mg/L/d) were obtained when using fed-batch strategy with 5mM medium feeding. PMID:25618497

  10. Neutron Activation Analysis of Biological Materials by Means of Neutron Multiplicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the possibilities of instrumental neutron activation analysis of freeze-dried biological materials performed with neutron multiplicator of average power (subcritical assembly PS-1). Neutron flux in the vertical channel amounts to 2.3*106n/cm2sec, concentrations of Na, Al and Mn were determined in freeze-dried samples of blue-green alga Spirulina platensis (S.platensis) (author)

  11. Evaluation of Cataract Preventive Action of Phycocyanin

    OpenAIRE

    Kothadia AD; AM Shenoy; Shabaraya AR; Rajan MS; UM Viradia; Patel NH

    2011-01-01

    Phycocyanin is a biliprotein pigment found in blue-green algae Spirulina platensis, which have attracted attention because of their nutritional value and medicinal properties. This pigment has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activity in different experimental models. This data supports the view that phycocyanin may prevent cataract progression. Cataract preventive action of phycocyanin was evaluated against naphthalene and galactose induced cataract experimental models in ...

  12. Cultivation of Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis using confectionary wastes for aquaculture feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Y. El-Kassas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The microalga biomass production from confectionary effluent is a possible solution for the urgent need for a live food in aquaculture. Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis was the dominant alga in effluent of “Biscomisr a confectionary factory”, in Alexandria–Egypt. Therefore, it was isolated from the effluent samples and used throughout the study. The cyanobacterium, A. platensis was grown on the effluent using 22 Central Composite Design (22 CCD. This work addresses the best effluent dilution (WC, % as well as sodium bicarbonate concentration (SBC on the alga growth and biochemical composition. Total protein, carbohydrate, lipid contents and fatty acid profiles of the produced algal biomass were highly improved. The statistical analyses suggested that the main effect of (WC, % is significant negative influences on the algal contents of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates (p > 0.01. Although it had a significant positive influence on chlorophyll (p > 0.01, no significant effect on algal β carotenes (p > 0.05 had been reported. The inter action effect of SBC together with WC, % exerted a significant negative influence on the algal proteins (p > 0.01 and no significant effect on the other responses (p > 0.05. The produced alga biomass was used for feeding the rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis for further application in aquaculture. Growth rate, reproductive rate and fecundity attributes, fatty acid content of B. plicatilis were amended. The Pearson correlation test indicated that β carotenes displayed a highly positive significant correlation with the growth rate of B. plicatilis (r = 0.733, p < 0.01 and the carbohydrates showed significant positive correlations with Egg % (r = 0.657, p < 0.05.

  13. Algae associated with mangroves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.

    The algae associated with mangroves is described. Substrate plays very important role in algal establishment in intertidal and subtidal areas. Algae colonising the mud surface are seasonal because of the unstable conditions causEd. by the erosion...

  14. Magnetic separation of algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Pulak; Twary, Scott N.

    2016-04-26

    Described herein are methods and systems for harvesting, collecting, separating and/or dewatering algae using iron based salts combined with a magnetic field gradient to separate algae from an aqueous solution.

  15. Hydrogen production employing Spirulina maxima 2342: A chemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juantorena, A.U.; Santoyo, E.; Gamboa, S.A.; Lastres, O.D. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, UNAM, Temixco 62580, Morelos (Mexico); Sebastian, P.J. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, UNAM, Temixco 62580, Morelos (Mexico); Cuerpo Academico de Energia, UP Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico); Sanchez-Escamilla, D. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Bustos, A. [Centro de Ciencias Fisicas, UNAM, Ave. Universidad, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Eapen, D. [Investigacion y Desarrollo en Agroindustria, UP Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico)

    2007-10-15

    The biomass of the cyanobacteria, Spirulina maxima 2342, was autotrophically obtained in a 20 l bioreactor under illumination and air bubbling and analyzed for its photobiological hydrogen production capability. A volume of 250 ml of Spirulina sp. taken from the reactor was used as culture sample for performing the experiments. An illumination-agitation process was employed to induce the hydrogen photoproduction reaction. The hydrogen produced in this process was quantified by gas chromatography technique using Molesieve 5 A(16ft x (1)/(8)in) column and a thermal conductivity detector (with a detector temperature of 110{sup o}C and a column temperature of 60{sup o}C). The culture samples were finally observed in an electron microscope to evaluate the effect of vacuum on the Spirulina sp. cells. (author)

  16. Extraction and In Vitro Antimalarial Activity Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Anggraini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Phycocyanin is biopigment found only in a conductor such as Spirulina platensis. Phycocyanin from Nostoc can inhibit Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 8.4 μg/mL so that phycocyanin from S. platensis also can inhibit P. falciparum like Nostoc. The aim of this study was to determine the best method for phycocyanin extraction using three solvents. They were phosphate buffer, water, and aseton. Spirulina were cultured in the conditions intensity of light 3000 Lux, salinity 15 ppt, dark-light 8-16 hours. The response parameters of this study were C-phycocyanin (C-PC content, yield, and protein content. Yield biomass of Spirulina which cultivated using toplest was higher than the aquarium. The best solvent for phycocyanin extraction was a phosphate buffer with C-PC content, yield, and protein content 8 mg/mL, 202.26 mg/g, and 1.88%.

  17. [Determination of micro-elements in natural spirulina using FAAS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, M; Ma, W X; Li, L; Sun, X T

    2001-12-01

    The analytic results show that the spirulina powder have a plenty of microelements(K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn). Compared with that of rice, wheat flour, maize and soybean, the content of K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe and Zn of it is respectively as from 4 to 10 times, from 10 to 80 times, from 25 to 70 times, from 3 to 15 times, from 4 to 36 times and from 4 to 24 times as theirs. The content of microelements of it compared with vegetable is much higher. The spirulina has a certain inhibition from cancer, high blood pressure, sugar diabetes and hasten body to absorb Se and Mo, and is of benefit to cardiac muscle. The experimental result indicated that spirulina was good health care food with value of nourish and medicinal. PMID:12958919

  18. The feasibility of using complex wastewater from a monosodium glutamate factory to cultivate Spirulina subsalsa and accumulate biochemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liqun; Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong; Ji, Yan; Han, Lin; Ma, Guixia

    2015-03-01

    This paper is mainly observations on the growth and biomass accumulation of Spirulina subsalsa in modified Zarrouk medium supplemented with complex wastewater (CW, from a monosodium glutamate factory) in different concentrations. High ammonia in 75% and 100% CW inhibits algae growth, but maximum biomass production (2.86mgL(-1)) was obtained in 25% CW (concentration of CW in medium was 25%). Different CW concentration promoted biomass composition accumulation at different degrees, 41% of protein content in 25% CW and 18% of carbohydrate in 50% CW. In terms of economy, a concentration of 25% CW was suitable for protein production and 50% for lipid and carbohydrate production. These results suggested that CW is a feasible replacement in part for cultivation of S. subsalsa to economize input of water and nutrients. PMID:25621725

  19. A light-harvesting siphonaxanthin-chlorophyll a/b-protein complex of marine green alga,Bryopsis corticulans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hui; SHEN Shihua; HE Junfang; LENG Jing; LI Liangbi; KUANG Tingyun

    2004-01-01

    A light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-protein complex (LHCP) was isolated directly from thylakoid membranes of marine green alga, Bryopsis corticulans, by two consecutive runs of liquid chromatography. The trimeric form of the light-harvesting complex has been obtained by sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation. The result of SDSPAGE shows that the light-harvesting complex is composed of at least five apoproteins in which a protein with apparent molecular weight of about 31 kD was never found in the major light-harvesting complex (LHC Ⅱ) from higher plants.The isolated Bryopsis corticulans light-harvesting complex contains a specific carotenoid, siphonaxanthin, as well as chlorophyll (Chl) a, Chl b, neoxanthin and violaxanthin. Siphonaxanthin which is present in the light-harvesting siphonaxanthin-chlorophyll a/b-protein complex of Bryopsis corticulans is responsible for enhanced absorption in the blue-green region (530 nm). Efficient energy transfer from both siphonaxanthin and Chl b to Chl a in Bryopsis corticulans LHCP, which has similar absorption and fluorescence emission spectra to those of the lutein-chlorophyll a/b-protein of higher plants, proved that molecular arrangement of the light-harvesting pigments was highly ordered in the Bryopsis corticulans LHCP. The siphonaxanthin-chlorophyll a/b-proteins allow enhanced absorption of blue-green light, the predominant light available in deep ocean waters or shaded subtidal marine habitats.

  20. Spirulina (Arthrospira): An Important Source of Nutritional and Medicinal Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulmumin A. Nuhu

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are aquatic and photosynthetic organisms known for their rich pigments. They are extensively employed as food supplements due to their rich contents of proteins. While many species, such as Anabaena sp., produce hepatotoxins (e.g., microcystins and nodularins) and neurotoxins (such as anatoxin a), Spirulina (Arthrospira) displays anticancer and antimicrobial (antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral) activities via the production of phycocyanin, phycocyanobilin, allophycocyanin,...

  1. Cytotoxicity of algae extracts on normal and malignant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechelli, Jeremy; Coppage, Myra; Rosell, Karen; Liesveld, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Algae preparations are commonly used in alternative medicine. We examined the effects of algae extracts on normal hematopoietic cells and leukemia cells. Ethanol extracts were prepared of Dunaliella salina (Dun), Astaxanthin (Ast), Spirulina platensis (Spir), and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA). Cell viability effects were completed by Annexin staining. Ast and AFA inhibited HL-60 and MV-4-11 whereas Dun and Spir had no effect. Primary AML blasts demonstrated increased apoptosis in AFA. Primary CLL cells showed apoptosis at 24 hours after exposure to Dun, Ast, Spir, and AFA. High AFA concentrations decreased viability of normal marrow cells. Normal CD34+ viability was inhibited by Dun. Dun and AFA inhibited BFU-E, but all extracts inhibited CFU-GM. Cell-cycle analysis of AML cell lines showed G0/G1 arrest in the presence of AFA. These data suggest that algae extracts may inhibit AML cell lines and leukemia blasts, but they may also have potential inhibitory effects on normal hematopoiesis. PMID:23213541

  2. Alkaloids in Marine Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Ekrem Sezik; Aline Percot; Kasım Cemal Güven

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the alkaloids found in green, brown and red marine algae. Algal chemistry has interested many researchers in order to develop new drugs, as algae include compounds with functional groups which are characteristic from this particular source. Among these compounds, alkaloids present special interest because of their pharmacological activities. Alkaloid chemistry has been widely studied in terrestrial plants, but the number of studies in algae is insignificant. In this review...

  3. Effect of simple shear flow on photosynthesis rate and morphology of micro algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuhashi, S.; Fujimoto, M.; Muramatsu, H.; Tanishita, K.

    The convective motion of micro algal suspension gives an advantageous effect on the photosynthetic rate in the bioreactor, however, the nature of convective effect on the photosynthesis has not been fully understood. The propose of this study concerns the nature of photosynthetic rate in a well-defined hydrodynamic shear flow of Spirulina platensis suspension, generated in a double rotating coaxial cylinders. The double rotating coaxial cylinders was installed in the incubator chamber with the controlled illumination intensity and temperature. Two kind of experiments, short and long term experiments, were performed to evaluate the direct effect of shear flow on the photosynthetic rate. The short term experiment indicates that the simple shear flow enables to augment the photosynthesis of Spirulina suspension and simultaneously causes the cell destruction due to the excessive shear stress. The long term experiment for 100 hours reveals that the growth rate and the morphology of Spirulina is sensitive to the external fluid mechanical stimulus. The long term application of mechanical stress on the algae may result in the adaptation of the photosynthetic function and morphology.

  4. Algae liquefaction / Hope Baloyi

    OpenAIRE

    Baloyi, Hope

    2012-01-01

    The liquefaction of algae for the recovery of bio–oil was studied. Algae oil is a non–edible feedstock and has minimal impact on food security and food prices; furthermore, it has been identified as a favourable feedstock for the production of biodiesel and this is attributed to its high oil yield per hectare. Algae oil can be potentially used for fuel blending for conventional diesel. The recovery step for algae oil for the production of biodiesel is costly and demands a lot of energy due to...

  5. The effect of spirulina (fresh and dry) on some biological factors in Penaeus semisulcatus larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaeni, Mansoureh

    2009-01-01

    Spirulina is a filamentous cyanobacteria with many applications in food and drug industries, as a food in human, aquaculture, vet and poultry industries… . Semi and mass culture of Spirulina carries out in different countries. This study was carried out in five phases in order to produce this microalga in Iran. The first phase, Spirulina pure stock was imported from Indonesia. After identification of species, it was cultured in laboratory until we took 20 liters of biomass. The se...

  6. A randomized study to establish the effects of spirulina in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eun Hee; Park, Ji-Eun; Choi, Young-Ju; Huh, Kap-Bum; Kim, Wha-Young

    2008-01-01

    Spirulina is a microscopic and filamentous cyanobacterium that contains essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and anti-oxidative components. The purpose of this study was to examine effects of spirulina intervention in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes. The subjects were 37 type 2 diabetic patients who visited a diabetic clinic in Seoul and randomly assigned into spirulina (8 g/day) or control group. During the intervention period of 12 weeks, subjects were asked...

  7. Enhancement of Immune Activation Activities of Spirulina maxima Grown in Deep-Sea Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Yong Lee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the immuno-modulatory and anticancer activities of marine algae, Spirulina maxima grown in deep-sea water (DSW, were investigated. It was found that the extract of S. maxima, cultured in DSW, effectively suppressed the expression of Bcl2 in A549 cells as well as inhibiting various human cancer cells with concentration dependency, which possibly implies that the extracts may play more important roles in controlling cancer cell growth. The secretion of cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α from human B cells was also greatly increased, compared to those of the extract grown in conventional sea-water. The growth of Human Natural Killer (NK cells in the presence of the extracts from DSW was significantly higher (12.2 × 104 viable cells/mL when compared to the control (1.1 × 104 viable cells/mL. Based on HPLC analysis, the increase in the biological activities of the extracts from DSW was caused by considerably high amounts of β-carotene and ascorbic acid because the DSW contained high concentrations and good ratios of several key minerals for biosynthesizing β-carotene and ascorbic acid, as well as maintaining high cell growth.

  8. Inhibition of Fusarium graminearum growth and mycotoxin production by phenolic extract from Spirulina sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnussatt, Fernanda Arnhold; Del Ponte, Emerson Medeiros; Garda-Buffon, Jaqueline; Badiale-Furlong, Eliana

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a fungal species complex pathogenic occurring worldwide, mainly associated with cereal crops. The most important Fusarium mycotoxins are fumonisins, zearalenone and trichothecenes. The availability of efficient control measures that are less harmful to both the environment and the consumers is urgent. For such, phenolic acids (PAs) from natural sources are known to reduce fungal contaminations. This work aimed to identify the PAs present in a culture extract of Spirulina algae (strain LEB-18) and evaluate its effect on mycelial growth rate, glucosamine level, amylase activity and mycotoxin production by four strains of two lineages of F. graminearum. Results showed that amendment of potato dextrose media with LEB-18 extract (3% w/v), which was mainly composed by gallic acid, greatly reduced radial growth of fungal colonies compared to media containing a single PA and the control. Also, average reductions of 40% and 62% in the glucosamine levels and the amylase activity were observed. In general, the LEB-18 extract and the PAs reduced mycotoxin concentration, with an average reduction of 68% for the trichothecene mycotoxins deoxynivalenol and nivalenol. PMID:24485311

  9. Enhancement of immune activation activities of Spirulina maxima grown in deep-sea water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woon Yong; Kang, Do Hyung; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the immuno-modulatory and anticancer activities of marine algae, Spirulina maxima grown in deep-sea water (DSW), were investigated. It was found that the extract of S. maxima, cultured in DSW, effectively suppressed the expression of Bcl2 in A549 cells as well as inhibiting various human cancer cells with concentration dependency, which possibly implies that the extracts may play more important roles in controlling cancer cell growth. The secretion of cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α from human B cells was also greatly increased, compared to those of the extract grown in conventional sea-water. The growth of Human Natural Killer (NK) cells in the presence of the extracts from DSW was significantly higher (12.2 × 104 viable cells/mL) when compared to the control (1.1 × 104 viable cells/mL). Based on HPLC analysis, the increase in the biological activities of the extracts from DSW was caused by considerably high amounts of β-carotene and ascorbic acid because the DSW contained high concentrations and good ratios of several key minerals for biosynthesizing β-carotene and ascorbic acid, as well as maintaining high cell growth. PMID:23743830

  10. Impact of ammonia concentration on Spirulina platensis growth in an airlift photobioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xin; Kumar, Amit; Sahu, Ashish K; Ergas, Sarina J

    2011-02-01

    Spirulina platensis was cultivated in a bench-scale airlift photobioreactor using synthetic wastewater (total nitrogen 412 mg L(-1), total phosphorous 90 mg L(-1), pH 9-10) with varying ammonia/total nitrogen ratios (50-100% ammonia with balance nitrate) and hydraulic residence times (15-25 d). High average biomass density (3500-3800 mg L(-1)) and productivity (5.1 g m(-2) d(-1)) were achieved when ammonia was maintained at 50% of the total nitrogen. Both high ammonia concentrations and mutual self-shading, which resulted from the high biomass density in the airlift reactor, were found to partially inhibit the growth of S. platensis. The performance of the airlift bioreactor used in this study compared favorably with other published studies. The system has good potential for treatment of high strength wastewater combined with production of algae for biofuels or other products, such as human and animal food, food supplements or pharmaceuticals. PMID:21112776

  11. Quantification of the hydrogen produced by Spirulina maxima using a PEMFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juantorena, U.A.; Gamboa, S.A. [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Morelos (Mexico). Centro de Investigacion en Energia; Sebastian, P.J. [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Morelos (Mexico). Centro de Investigacion en Energia]|[Univ. Politecnica de Chiapas (Mexico); Bustos, G.A. [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Morelos (Mexico). Centro de Ciencias Fisicas

    2006-07-01

    This paper addressed the challenges associated with producing hydrogen through biological methods, and the potential for biotechnology to resolve them. It has been shown that cyanobacteria can produce hydrogen through auto-fermentation under anaerobic conditions in the dark. In this study, the amount of hydrogen produced by the photosynthetic micro-algae Spirulina maxima 2342 under different experimental conditions was quantified. The produced hydrogen was then fed into a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and was quantified from the electricity generated in the fuel cell. The Faraday efficiency was calculated by substituting the current density in the regression equation. The hydrogen flow into the cell was calculated in terms of its relation to the hydrogen produced by the bioreactor. It was shown that higher potential values, hydrogen flow and Faraday efficiency correspond to higher light intensity values. It was concluded that a PEMFC can be used to quantify the hydrogen produced by a photosynthetic micro-algal system. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  12. Epithermal neutron activation analysis of Spirulina platensis biomass and extracted C-phycocianin and DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) was used for study the biomass of Spirulina platensis. The background levels of concentration 27 macro-, micro- and trace elements ranging from 10-3 to 104 ppm was determined. It was found that the biomass of Spirulina does not contain toxic element concentrations above the tolerance level and can be utilized as a matrix of pharmaceuticals. The concentrations of basic elements in C-phycocianin and DNA extracted from Spirulina platensis were determined by ENAA. A comparison of the element content of a whole Spirulina biomass with that of a refined C-phycocianin preparation was made. (author)

  13. Luminescent properties of blue green Sr3Al2O5Cl2:Pr3+ and orange red Sr3Al2O5Cl2:Eu2+, Pr3+ afterglow phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sr3Al2O5Cl2:Eu2+, Pr3+ phosphor has been synthesized via high temperature solid state reaction. The X-ray powder diffraction confirms that the obtained samples are pure orthorhombic Sr3Al2O5Cl2 phases, with a space group of D24-P212121. Blue green emission is observed when the sample is doped with Pr3+ ions and an orange red emission with Eu2+ ions doping. Both of the samples show obvious afterglow emission. The intensity and lifetime of such afterglow can be substantially enhanced in the case of Pr3+-Eu2+ co-doped, whose afterglow can last for approximately 300 min in the dark and the intensity is five times higher than the sample single doped with Eu2+. According to the thermoluminescence glow curves, the trap depth of these double-doped samples is about 0.95 eV, which is suitable for the generation of afterglow luminescence. And Pr3+ ions help to enhance the traps concentrations and modify the trap depth, which contributes to prolong the afterglow duration and increase the afterglow intensity of the phosphors. Finally, a feasible explanation of this afterglow generation is also discussed in this work. - Highlights: • The phosphors were synthesized via the solid state reaction at 800 °C. • Sr3Al2O5Cl2:Pr3+ phosphor gives a blue green afterglow luminescence. • Sr3Al2O5Cl2:Eu2+, Pr3+ phosphor present an orange red afterglow luminescence, lasting for 300 min

  14. Algae Derived Biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahan, Kauser [Rowan Univ., Glassboro, NJ (United States)

    2015-03-31

    One of the most promising fuel alternatives is algae biodiesel. Algae reproduce quickly, produce oils more efficiently than crop plants, and require relatively few nutrients for growth. These nutrients can potentially be derived from inexpensive waste sources such as flue gas and wastewater, providing a mutual benefit of helping to mitigate carbon dioxide waste. Algae can also be grown on land unsuitable for agricultural purposes, eliminating competition with food sources. This project focused on cultivating select algae species under various environmental conditions to optimize oil yield. Membrane studies were also conducted to transfer carbon di-oxide more efficiently. An LCA study was also conducted to investigate the energy intensive steps in algae cultivation.

  15. Co-liquefaction of micro algae with coal. 2; Bisai sorui to sekitan no kyoekika hanno. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, C.; Matsui, T.; Otsuki, M.; Ikenaga, N.; Suzuki, T. [Kansai University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    For the removal and recycle of CO2, a global warming gas, utilization of photosynthesis by micro algae is investigated. Formed micro algae are decomposed into CO2, H2O and CH4 again, which does not result in the permanent fixation. For the effective utilization of these micro algae, creation of petroleum alternate energy was tried through the co-liquefaction of micro algae with coal. Were investigated influences of the reaction temperature during the co-liquefaction and influences of catalysts, such as Fe(CO)5-S, Ru(CO)12, and Mo(CO)6-S, which are effective for the coal liquefaction. Micro algae, such as chlorella, spirulina, and littorale, and Yallourn brown coal were tested. It was found that co-liquefaction of micro algae with coal can be successfully proceeded under the same conditions as the liquefaction of coal. The oil yield obtained from the co-liquefaction in the presence of Fe(CO)5-S, an effective catalyst for coal liquefaction, agreed appropriately with the arithmetical mean value from separate liquefaction of coal and micro algae. It was suggested that pyrrhotite, an active species for coal liquefaction, was sufficiently formed by increasing the addition of sulfur. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  16. The antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory activities of Spirulina: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinghua; Liu, Lian; Miron, Anca; Klímová, Blanka; Wan, Dan; Kuča, Kamil

    2016-08-01

    Spirulina is a species of filamentous cyanobacteria that has long been used as a food supplement. In particular, Spirulina platensis and Spirulina maxima are the most important. Thanks to a high protein and vitamin content, Spirulina is used as a nutraceutical food supplement, although its other potential health benefits have attracted much attention. Oxidative stress and dysfunctional immunity cause many diseases in humans, including atherosclerosis, cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure, and hypertension. Thus, the antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory activities of these microalgae may play an important role in human health. Here, we discuss the antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory activities of Spirulina in both animals and humans, along with the underlying mechanisms. In addition, its commercial and regulatory status in different countries is discussed as well. Spirulina activates cellular antioxidant enzymes, inhibits lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, scavenges free radicals, and increases the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Notably, there appears to be a threshold level above which Spirulina will taper off the antioxidant activity. Clinical trials show that Spirulina prevents skeletal muscle damage under conditions of exercise-induced oxidative stress and can stimulate the production of antibodies and up- or downregulate the expression of cytokine-encoding genes to induce immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory responses. The molecular mechanism(s) by which Spirulina induces these activities is unclear, but phycocyanin and β-carotene are important molecules. Moreover, Spirulina effectively regulates the ERK1/2, JNK, p38, and IκB pathways. This review provides new insight into the potential therapeutic applications of Spirulina and may provide new ideas for future studies. PMID:27259333

  17. Evaluation of Spirulina Supplementation on Intermittent Binge Ethanol - Induced Neurotoxicity in Dentate Gyrus of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Asari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Spirulina is a widely used nutritional supplement which is rich in antioxidants and proteins.  Studies have shown that intermittent binge-like ethanol consumption during adolescent period caused neuronal damage in specific parts of the brain, including the dentate gyrus. It has been suggested that antioxidant therapy may provide some level of protection against neurotoxicity of ethanol at cellular level. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the preventive effects of spirulina supplementation on ethanol-induced neurotoxicity in the dentate gyrus of adolescent rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given ethanol (10 g/kg/day, intermittent binge model, or spirulina platensis (1000 mg/kg/day or both from postnatal day 30 for two weeks duration. The cerebral hemispheres were processed for routine histological staining and immunohistochemistry with anti-GFAP antibody.  Ethanol-treated group showed significant deficit in the numbers of granule cells and hilar neurons of the dentate gyrus when compared to the control group. Spirulina supplementation failed to provide protection against ethanol-induced neuronal loss. Spirulina supplementation also failed to alter increased expression of GFAP immunoreactivity induced by ethanol exposure. In conclusion, these findings indicate that spirulina supplementation is not effective in reducing the ethanol-induced neurotoxicity in the dentate gyrus of adolescent rats. Industrial Relevance. Spirulina is one of the widely used nutritional supplements particularly in Asian population. Being a strong antioxidant, spirulina has been shown to have many therapeutic effects in human. However, the question of whether spirulina supplementation is able to mitigate the effect of ethanol neurotoxicity is largely unknown. Therefore, the study was undertaken to investigate the possibility that spirulina supplementation is able to provide some protection against ethanol-induced neurotoxicity in a rat model

  18. Antihyperglycemic effect of crude extracts of some Egyptian plants and algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbouZid, Sameh Fekry; Ahmed, Osama Mohamed; Ahmed, Rasha Rashad; Mahmoud, Ayman; Abdella, Ehab; Ashour, Mohamed Badr

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major global health problem. Various plant extracts have proven antidiabetic activity and are considered as promising substitution for antidiabetic drugs. The antihyperglycemic effect of 16 plants and 4 algae, commonly used in Egypt for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, was investigated. A diabetes model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide (120 mg/kg body weight [b.wt.]), then streptozotocin (200 mg/kg b.wt.) after 15 min. Hydroethanolic extracts (80%) of the plants and algae under investigation were prepared. The extracts were orally administered to nicotinamide-streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice by a gastric tube at doses 10 or 50 mg/kg b.wt. for 1 week. The antidiabetic activity was assessed by detection of serum glucose concentrations at the fasting state and after 2 h of oral glucose loading (4.2 mg/kg b.wt.). Extracts prepared from Cassia acutifolia, Fraxinus ornus, Salix aegyptiaca, Cichorium intybus, and Eucalyptus globulus showed the highest antihyperglycemic activity among the tested plants. Extracts prepared from Sonchus oleraceus, Bougainvillea spectabilis (leaves), Plantago psyllium (seeds), Morus nigra (leaves), and Serena repens (fruits) were found to have antihyperglycemic potentials. Extracts prepared from Caulerpa lentillifera and Spirulina versicolor showed the most potent antihyperglycemic activity among the tested algae. However, some of the tested plants have insulinotropic effects, all assessed algae have not. Identification of lead compounds from these plants and algae for novel antidiabetic drug development is recommended. PMID:24404976

  19. Equilibrium and thermodynamics of azo dyes biosorption onto Spirulina platensis

    OpenAIRE

    G. L. Dotto; M. L. G. Vieira; V. M. Esquerdo; L. A. A. PINTO

    2013-01-01

    The equilibrium and thermodynamics of azo dye (tartrazine and allura red) biosorption onto Spirulina platensis biomass were investigated. The equilibrium curves were obtained at 298, 308, 318 and 328 K, and four isotherm models were fitted the experimental data. Biosorption thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ΔH and ΔS) were estimated. The results showed that the biosorption was favored by a temperature decrease. For both dyes, the Sips model was the best to represent the equilibrium...

  20. Biofunctionalized Nanofibers Using Arthrospira (Spirulina) Biomass and Biopolymer

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Greque de Morais; Christopher Stillings; Roland Dersch; Markus Rudisile; Patrícia Pranke; Jorge Alberto Vieira Costa; Joachim Wendorff

    2015-01-01

    Electrospun nanofibers composed of polymers have been extensively researched because of their scientific and technical applications. Commercially available polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and polyhydroxybutyrate-co-valerate (PHB-HV) copolymers are good choices for such nanofibers. We used a highly integrated method, by adjusting the properties of the spinning solutions, where the cyanophyte Arthrospira (formally Spirulina) was the single source for nanofiber biofunctionalization. We investigated na...

  1. C-phycocyanin extraction from Spirulina platensis wet biomass

    OpenAIRE

    C. C. Moraes; Luisa Sala; G. P. Cerveira; S. J. Kalil

    2011-01-01

    C-Phycocyanin is a natural blue dye used in food and pharmaceutical industry. In the present study, a simple and efficient method to extract C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis wet biomass is reported. The extractions were carried out using six different methods, including chemical (organic and inorganic acid treatment), physical (freezing and thawing, sonication, homogenization) and enzymatic (lysozyme treatment) methods. The extraction using ultrasonic bath in the presence of glass pearl...

  2. A study on the marine algae at the coast of Kori nuclear power plant: pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of thermal effluents on the marine algal communities were investigated with the quadrat method during June, 1977 - December, 1978, at the intertidal zone of Kori nuclear power plant, southeast coast of Korea. As a result, both the number of algal species occurred in quadrat (50x50 cm) and the total coverage were observed to be decreased in June, 1978, at three sites near the discharge point compared with those of previous year but being recovered afterwards. The representative dominant species at the cost of Kori nuclear power plant were, on the whole, Corallina pilulifera, Pachymeniopsis elliptica, and Chondrus ocellatus. Among the species, the coverage of Corallina pilulifera appeared to be rather increased, while the vegetation of Chondria crassicaulis was found to be decreased particularly in 1978. Total 102 species (3 blue-green, 16 green, 30 brown, and 53 red algae) of marine algae were identified in this study. Among them 71 species were common to 133 species reported by previous investigators during 1969-1970. (author)

  3. Spirulina as a protein source in the nutritional recovery of Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Muniz Moreira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of Spirulina (Arthrospira as a protein source in the nutritional recovery of rats subjected to protein malnutrition. In order to understand such effects, responses of the developing body, serum biochemical profile, and blood count of animals were analyzed. A total of, 23 Wistar Rattus norvegicus were given a proteic diet (AIN-93G adapted in malnutrition phase (phase I for 10 days. After this period, the rats were separated into four groups according to the protein source (recovery phase: Control (C, casein 12%; Spirulina level I (S1, Spirulina 8.8% + casein 5.0%; Spirulina level II (S2, Spirulina 17.6% + casein 0.15%, and Spirulina level III (S3, Spirulina 26.4%. Recovery phase (phase II lasted 30 days. In both the phases, the consumption and body weight of the rats were monitored daily and weekly, respectively. The S1 treatment showed the highest values of Feed Efficiency Ratio (FER and Quotient of Protein Efficiency Ratio (QPE (p<0.05. Significant differences among the treatments were found mainly in the levels of serum lipids, and S2 diet caused an increase in such responses (p<0.05. These results demonstrated that the nutritional recovery of animals was enabled by different concentrations of Spirulina.

  4. Molecular diversity of bacteria in commercially available "Spirulina" food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardaka, Elisabeth; Kormas, Konstantinos A; Katsiapi, Matina; Genitsaris, Savvas; Moustaka-Gouni, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Arthrospira is among the most well-known food supplements worldwide known as "Spirulina." While it is a widely recognized health-promoting natural product, there are no reports on the molecular diversity of commercially available brands of "Spirulina" supplements and the occurrence of other cyanobacterial and heterotrophic bacterial microorganisms in these products. In this study, 454-pyrosequencing analysis of the total bacterial occurrence in 31 brands of "Spirulina" dietary supplements from the Greek market was applied for the first time. In all samples, operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of Arthrospira platensis were the predominant cyanobacteria. Some products contained additional cyanobacterial OTUs including a few known potentially toxic taxa. Moreover, 469 OTUs were detected in all 31 products collectively, with most of them being related to the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia. All samples included heterotrophic bacterial OTUs, ranging from 9-157 per product. Among the most common OTUs were ones closely related to taxa known for causing health issues (i.e., Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Vibrio, Aeromonas, Clostridium, Bacillus, Fusobacterium, Enterococcus). The observed high cyanobacterial and heterotrophic bacterial OTUs richness in the final product is a point for further research on the growth and processing of Arthrospira biomass for commercial purposes. PMID:26819852

  5. Catalytic hydrothermal gasification of algae for hydrogen production: composition of reaction products and potential for nutrient recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwudili, Jude A; Lea-Langton, Amanda R; Ross, Andrew B; Williams, Paul T

    2013-01-01

    Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina platensis and Saccharina latissima were processed under supercritical water gasification conditions at 500 °C, 36 MPa in an Inconel batch reactor for 30 min in the presence/absence of NaOH and/or Ni-Al(2)O(3). Hydrogen gas yields were more than two times higher in the presence of NaOH than in its absence and tar yields were reduced by up to 71%. Saccharina, a carbohydrate-rich macro-alga, gave the highest hydrogen gas yields of 15.1 mol/kg. The tars from all three algae contained aromatic compounds, including phenols, alkyl benzenes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as well as heterocyclic nitrogen compounds. Tars from Chlorella and Spirulina contained high yields of pyridines, pyrroles, indoles and pyrimidines. Up to 97% TOC removal were achieved in the process waters from the gasification of the algae. Analyses for specific nutrients in the process waters indicated that the process waters from Saccharina could potentially be used for microalgae cultivation. PMID:23131625

  6. A randomized study to establish the effects of spirulina in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Hee; Park, Ji-Eun; Choi, Young-Ju; Huh, Kap-Bum; Kim, Wha-Young

    2008-01-01

    Spirulina is a microscopic and filamentous cyanobacterium that contains essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and anti-oxidative components. The purpose of this study was to examine effects of spirulina intervention in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes. The subjects were 37 type 2 diabetic patients who visited a diabetic clinic in Seoul and randomly assigned into spirulina (8 g/day) or control group. During the intervention period of 12 weeks, subjects were asked to keep usual diet and prohibited to take any functional foods or dietary supplements. Spirulina supplementation for 12 weeks did not affect anthropometric parameters, however, lowered plasma triglycerides level significantly (pdiabetes. The results suggest that spirulina is a promising agent as a functional food for diabetes management. PMID:20016733

  7. Development of cassava doughnuts enriched with Spirulina platensis biomass Desenvolvimento de 'sonho de mandioca' enriquecido com biomassa de Spirulina platensis

    OpenAIRE

    Samantha Ferreira Rabelo; Ailton Cesar Lemes; Katiuchia Pereira Takeuchi; Marcela Tostes Frata; João Carlos Monteiro de Carvalho; Eliane Dalva Godoy Danesi

    2013-01-01

    The cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis has been cultivated in a fed batch process with urea as the nitrogen source, in order to obtain dehydrated biomass for incorporation into food, aiming at nutritional enrichment and the production of a functional character, due to the amount of proteins, vitamins and several bioactive compounds found in this cyanobacterium. In this study, response surface methodology was used to analyze the substitution of wheat flour by cassava in the development of dough...

  8. Increase in the carbohydrate content of the microalgae Spirulina in culture by nutrient starvation and the addition of residues of whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Salla, Ana Cláudia; Margarites, Ana Cláudia; Seibel, Fábio Ivan; Holz, Luiz Carlos; Brião, Vandré Barbosa; Bertolin, Telma Elita; Colla, Luciane Maria; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2016-06-01

    Non-renewable sources that will end with time are the largest part of world energy consumption, which emphasizes the necessity to develop renewable sources of energy. This necessity has created opportunities for the use of microalgae as a biofuel. The use of microalgae as a feedstock source for bioethanol production requires high yields of both biomass and carbohydrates. With mixotrophic cultures, wastewater can be used to culture algae. The aim of the study was to increase the carbohydrate content in the microalgae Spirulina with the additions of residues from the ultra and nanofiltration of whey protein. The nutrient deficit in the Zarrouk medium diluted to 20% and the addition of 2.5% of both residue types led to high carbohydrate productivity (60 mg L(-1) d(-1)). With these culture conditions, the increase in carbohydrate production in Spirulina indicated that the conditions were appropriate for use with microalgae as a feedstock in the production of bioethanol. PMID:26967336

  9. Wastewater treatment with algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong Yukshan [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Kowloon (China). Research Centre; Tam, N.F.Y. [eds.] [City Univ. of Hong Kong, Kowloon (China). Dept. of Biology and Chemistry

    1998-05-01

    Immobilized algal technology for wastewater treatment purposes. Removal of copper by free and immobilized microalga, Chlorella vulgaris. Biosorption of heavy metals by microalgae in batch and continuous systems. Microalgal removal of organic and inorganic metal species from aqueous solution. Bioaccumulation and biotransformation of arsenic, antimony and bismuth compounds by freshwater algae. Metal ion binding by biomass derived from nonliving algae, lichens, water hyacinth root and spagnum moss. Metal resistance and accumulation in cyanobacteria. (orig.)

  10. Spirulina platensis: process optimization to obtain biomass Spirulina platensis: otimização de processo para a obtenção de biomassa

    OpenAIRE

    Iracema de Oliveira Moraes; Regina de Oliveira Moraes Arruda; Natália Rocha Maresca; Aline de Oliveira Antunes; Rodrigo de Oliveira Moraes

    2013-01-01

    Spirulina platensis is a photoautotrophic mesophilic cyanobacterium. Its main sources of nutrients are nitrate, urea, and ammonium salts. Spirulina cultivation requires temperature, light intensity, and nutrient content control. This microalgae has been studied and used commercially due to its therapeutic and antioxidant potential. In addition, several studies have reported its ability to use CO2, its immune activity, and use as an adjuvant nutritive factor in the treatment of obesity. The ob...

  11. Effect of dietary Ulva and Spirulina on weight loss and body composition of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), during a starvation period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güroy, D; Güroy, B; Merrifield, D L; Ergün, S; Tekinay, A A; Yiğit, M

    2011-06-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary algal supplementation on weight loss and proximate composition in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, during starvation. An algae-free control diet (C) and four experimental diets, including varying levels of raw Ulva meal (5% = U5; 10% = U10) and Spirulina meal (5% = S5; 10% = S10) were formulated. Fish were fed to satiation for 12 weeks and then subjected to a 3-week starvation period. Body weight, viscerosomatic index (VSI, %), hepatosomatic index (HSI, %), dress-out (DO, %) and chemical composition of carcass were analysed at the end of each starvation week. The accumulated weight loss of the fish fed dietary algae was almost 50% less than the control group (p algae in aquafeeds may have economical advantages in terms of reducing weight loss in fish when subjected to a short-term fasting period, that sometimes is necessary after a heavy rainfall or when fish stocks are held back to meet market demand. PMID:20880289

  12. Growth response of Spirulina platensis PCC9108 to elevated CO2 levels and flue gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedmahdi Hoseini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Because their ability to capture CO2, photosynthetical microorganisms have some advantages to CO2 mitigation from high CO2 streams such as flue gases and they can use CO2 as carbon source. Recently, experts have made efforts to exploit microorganisms intended for recovering CO2 from power plants. Materials and methods: To achieve this purpose, we studied the growth response of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis PCC9108 under different concentrations of carbon dioxide (ranging from 0.036% to 10% and flue gas in a bench-scale system. Preparation of different concentrations of CO2 and injection into Erlenmeyer flasks was performed by a system including air compressor, CO2 capsule, pressure gauge and flow meter. Results: The main goal of studying this paper is a survey of organism's potential to grow by generated CO2 from flue gas of power plant. It already had the potential and highest biomass production recorded at 8% CO2 (v/v. Also we proved that S.platensis PCC9108 can be grown under flue gas, although biomass production decreased fairly. Total lipid content of algae interestingly enhanced with elevated CO2 levels from ambient air to 4% and 6% which ranged from 14.5 to 15.8 and 16 dry weight (wt. % respectively. In contrast, total protein content illustrated no difference between all treatment and its value was about 46 wt.%. Discussion and conclusion: The results of present study suggested that understudied S.platensis PCC9108 is appropriate for mitigating CO2 because of its carbon fixation ability. Also due to its high protein content, this cyanobacterium is a good candidate to produce SCP (single cell protein.

  13. Chemical and biological characterization of wastewater generated from hydrothermal liquefaction of Spirulina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Mai; Schideman, Lance; Scott, John; Rajagopalan, Nandakishore; Plewa, Michael J

    2013-02-19

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is an attractive method for converting wet biomass into petroleum-like biocrude oil that can be refined to make petroleum products. This approach is advantageous for conversion of low-lipid algae, which are promising feedstocks for sustainable large-scale biofuel production. As with natural petroleum formation, the water in contact with the produced oil contains toxic compounds. The objectives of this research were to: (1) identify nitrogenous organic compounds (NOCs) in wastewater from HTL conversion of Spirulina; (2) characterize mammalian cell cytotoxicity of specific NOCs, NOC mixture, and the complete HTL wastewater (HTL-WW) matrix; and (3) investigate mitigation measures to reduce toxicity in HTL-WW. Liquid-liquid extraction and nitrogen-phosphorus detection was used in conjunction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), which detected hundreds of NOCs in HTL-WW. Reference materials for nine of the most prevalent NOCs were used to identify and quantify their concentrations in HTL-WW. Mammalian cell cytotoxicity of the nine NOCs was quantified using a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell assay, and the descending rank order for cytotoxicity was 3-dimethylamino-phenol > 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone > 2,6-dimethyl-3-pyridinol > 2-picoline > pyridine > 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone > σ-valerolactam > 2-pyrrolidinone > ε-caprolactam. The organic mixture extracted from HTL-WW expressed potent CHO cell cytotoxic activity, with a LC(50) at 7.5% of HTL-WW. Although the toxicity of HTL-WW was substantial, 30% of the toxicity was removed biologically by recycling HTL-WW back into algal cultivation. The remaining toxicity of HTL-WW was mostly eliminated by subsequent treatment with granular activated carbon. PMID:23305492

  14. Effects of Chemical Parameters on Spirulina platensis Biomass Production: Optimized Method for Phycocyanin Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Vasanthi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The micro alga, Spirulina is a rich source of protein, which is used as a protein supplement for humans, chicks and also in aquaculture. Among the cultures, CS-1 registered maximum biomass production and S-20 showed highest biomass production among the local isolates. Optimum temperature of 35C was the best for maximum biomass production of S. platensis cultures. Among the cultures CS-1 culture, put forth maximum biomass production at 35C. The biomass production of all S. platensis cultures was maximum at pH 10.0. Among the cultures, CS-1 recorded maximum biomass at pH 10.0. S. platensis culture S-20 showed highest biomass production among the local isolates. S. platensis cultures were grown under different light wave lengths ranging from 340-700 nm and observed that it grows best in red light but later on there was no significant difference between the biomass produced under red and normal white lights. S. platensis culture CS-1 has shown the highest chlorophyll, carotenoids and phycocyanin and protein contents. When the extracted protein was resolved on a 15% SDS-PAGE gel, the cultures have polypeptide subunits ranging from the molecular weights 20 to 95 kDa. The liquid nitrogen method was found to be the best by extraction higher quantity of phycocyanin from all S. platensis cultures. Among the cultures, S. platensis culture CS-1 recorded the highest phycocyanin content and among the local isolates SM-2 showed the highest pigment content. SDS-PAGE analysis of phycocyanin pigment revealed two characteristic bands with a molecular weights of 14.3 and 20.1 kDa approximately for a and subunits.

  15. Assessment of pharmacokinetic interaction of spirulina with glitazone in a type 2 diabetes rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Annu; Nair, Anroop; Kumria, Rachna; Al-Dhubiab, Bandar-E; Chattopadhyaya, Ipshita; Gupta, Sumeet

    2013-12-01

    The objective of the current study was to assess the possible pharmacokinetic interactions of spirulina with glitazones in an insulin resistance rat model. Wistar male albino rats were equally divided into five groups: insulin resistant rats+spirulina (500 mg/kg)+pioglitazone (10 mg/kg), insulin resistant rats+pioglitazone (10 mg/kg), insulin resistant rats+spirulina (500 mg/kg)+rosiglitazone (10 mg/kg), insulin resistant rats+rosiglitazone (10 mg/kg), and insulin resistant rats+spirulina (500 mg/kg). Described doses of pioglitazone, rosiglitazone, or spirulina were per orally administered and the plasma drug concentrations were determined. The pharmacokinetic parameters such as Tmax, Cmax, AUC(0-α), t1/2, and Kel were determined by plotting the drug concentration as a function of time. The data observed in this acute study indicated that there was no statistically significant difference in any of the pharmacokinetic parameters (Tmax, Cmax, AUC(0-α), t1/2, and Kel) of glitazones (pioglitazone, rosiglitazone) or spirulina, when they were coadministered. Given the promising results, this study concludes that the coadministration of spirulina does not influence the pharmacokinetics of glitazones in a type 2 diabetes rat model. Further chronic in vivo studies are recommended to assess the real time effect. PMID:24328701

  16. Application of tracer packet technique to the study of the bio-sorption of heavy and toxic metal radionuclides by algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bio-sorption of heavy and toxic radionuclides by three genera of algae from different taxonomic groups was studied employing the recently developed 'Tracer Packet' technique. The 'tracer packet of heavy and toxic metals' contained 197Hg, 198,199,200,201Tl, 199,200,201Pb, 204Bi and 204,205Po radionuclides in carrier-free state and was produced by irradiating a gold metal foil with medium energy 7Li and 12C beams successively in a 12 MV Pelletron. Three genera, Spirulina from Cyanophyceae, Oedogonium from Chlorophyceae and Catenella from Rhodophyceae were cultured in laboratory condition and were used in the experiment. The radionuclide accumulation varied according to different genera at different pH levels. At basic pH Spirulina showed a maximum radionuclide accumulation in comparison to other genera. (author)

  17. Accumulation of selenium and chromium in Spirulina platensis cells in the dynamics of growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The findings of the epithermal neutron activation analysis investigation of the dynamics of Se(IV) and Cr(III) accumulation in Spirulina platensis cells are discussed. The effects of selenium and chromium on some biochemical properties of the Spirulina platensis biomass are studied. An antagonistic behaviour of the interaction between Se(IV) and Cr(III) accompanied with suppression of Se(IV)accumulation during the cultivation of Spirulina platensis in the condition of Se(IV)- and Cr(III) combined loading is established

  18. Spirulina (Arthrospira: An Important Source of Nutritional and Medicinal Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmumin A. Nuhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are aquatic and photosynthetic organisms known for their rich pigments. They are extensively employed as food supplements due to their rich contents of proteins. While many species, such as Anabaena sp., produce hepatotoxins (e.g., microcystins and nodularins and neurotoxins (such as anatoxin a, Spirulina (Arthrospira displays anticancer and antimicrobial (antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activities via the production of phycocyanin, phycocyanobilin, allophycocyanin, and other valuable products. This paper is an effort to collect these nutritional and medicinal applications of Arthrospira in an easily accessible essay from the vast literature on cyanobacteria.

  19. Propriedades de saúde de Spirulina spp.

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Ambrosi; C. O. Reinehr; T. E. BERTOLIN; J. A.V. COSTA; L. M. COLLA

    2009-01-01

    Espécies de Spirulina têm sido utilizadas mundialmente na alimentação humana e animal, assim como na obtenção de aditivos utilizados em formas farmacêuticas e alimentos. Esta bactéria é uma fonte rica em proteínas, vitaminas, aminoácidos essenciais, minerais, ácidos graxos poliinsaturados e outros nutrientes, sendo seu principal uso como suplemento alimentar. As prop...

  20. Uso tradicional y actual de spirulina sp. (Arthrospira sp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Ramírez- Moreno; Roxana Olvera-Ramírez

    2006-01-01

    Spirulina sp. (Arthrospira sp.) es una cianobacteria filamentosa no diferenciada, habitante de lagos alcalinos, que se cultiva para consumo humano debido a su contenido nutricional. En México, el consumo de esta cianobacteria se remonta a tiempos prehispánicos, cuando era conocida como tecuitlatl, siendo conocida como dihé por las tribus nativas de la región del lago de Chad, en África. En los últimos años se le han atribuido diversos efectos positivos en el tratamiento de algunos tipos de al...

  1. Co-liquefaction of micro algae with coal using coal liquefaction catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikenaga, N.; Ueda, C.; Matsui, T.; Ohtsuki, M.; Suzuki, T. [Kansai University, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering

    2001-04-01

    Co-liquefaction of micro algae (Chlorella, Spirulina and Littorale) with coal (Australian Yallourn brown coal and Illinois No. 6 coal) was carried out under pressurized H{sub 2} in 1-methylnaphthalene at 350-400{degree}C for 60 min with various catalysts. Co-liquefaction of Chlorella with Yallourn coal was successfully achieved with excess sulfur to iron (S/Fe = 4), where sufficient amount of Fe{sub 1-x}S, which is believed to be the active species in the coal liquefaction, was produced. The conversion and the yield of the hexane-soluble fraction were close to the values calculated from the additivity of the product yields of the respective homo-reactions. In the reaction with a one-to-one mixture of Chlorella and Yallourn coal, 99.8% of conversion and 65.5% of hexane-soluble fraction were obtained at 400{degree}C with Fe (CO){sub 5} at S/Fe = 4. When Littorale and Spirulina were used as micro algae, a similar tendency was observed with the iron catalyst. On the other hand, in the co-liquefaction with Illinois No. 6 coal, which is known to contain a large amount of sulfur in the form of catalytically active pyrite, the oil yield in the co-liquefaction was close to the additivity of the respective reaction with Fe(CO){sub 5}-S, even at SFe = 2. Ru{sub 3}(CO){sub 12} was also effective for the co-liquefaction of micro algae with coal. 26 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Cyanophyta recorded in Erbil ,Kurdistan region of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janan Jabbar Toma

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred fourty four species of blue green algae have been listed and recorded in this investigation. The listed species belong to five main groups of cyanophyta, making up all together fourty six genus. It was found that blue green algae in Erbil represented (54% of Iraqi blue green algae, and (11% of all known algae in Iraq so far

  3. Development of cassava doughnuts enriched with Spirulina platensis biomass Desenvolvimento de 'sonho de mandioca' enriquecido com biomassa de Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Ferreira Rabelo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis has been cultivated in a fed batch process with urea as the nitrogen source, in order to obtain dehydrated biomass for incorporation into food, aiming at nutritional enrichment and the production of a functional character, due to the amount of proteins, vitamins and several bioactive compounds found in this cyanobacterium. In this study, response surface methodology was used to analyze the substitution of wheat flour by cassava in the development of doughnuts with added Spirulina platensis biomass and inverted sugar, in order to increase the rate of the Maillard's reaction and mask the green colour of the biomass. The formulations were evaluated in relation to their proximate, sensory and technological compositions, which, when compared to the standard formulation, without the addition of S. platensis biomass and inverted sugar, showed the feasibility of adding the biomass to bestow nutritional enrichment without significantly affecting the sensory acceptance of the product or its typical characteristics.Cultivos da cianobactéria Spirulina platensis vêm sendo conduzidos utilizando-se ureia como fonte de nitrogênio, em processo descontínuo alimentado, para obtenção de biomassa desidratada para ser incorporada em alimentos visando enriquecimento nutricional e conferir caráter funcional em virtude da composição rica em proteínas, vitaminas e diversos componentes bioativos. Neste trabalho, foi estudada a substituição da farinha de trigo pela mandioca, além da adição de biomassa de Spirulina platensis e açúcar invertido, para desenvolver um 'sonho' com elevada taxa da Reação de Maillard para mascarar a coloração verde da biomassa, por meio da metodologia de superfície de resposta. As formulações foram avaliadas em relação aos aspectos de composição centesimal, sensoriais e tecnológicos que, quando comparados com o padrão, sem adição de biomassa de S. platensis e açúcar invertido

  4. Microbubbles for algae cultivation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav

    Santa Fe: ELSEVIER Global Conferences, 2014, 0120. [International Conference on Algal Biomass, Biofuels and Bioproducts /4./. Santa Fe (US), 15.06.2014-18.06.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-23046S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : microbubbles * algae * carbon dioxide Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  5. OPTIMALISASI EKSTRAKSI DAN UJI STABILITAS PHYCOCYANIN DARI MIKROALGA Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakti Jos

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing awareness of the importance of natural colours especially food and cosmetic colorants has placedgreat demand on biological sources of natural colours. It is for this reason that the phycobiliproteins inSpirulina platensis is gaining increasing attention as an alternative colour for these products. Numerousscientific reports confirm the fact that Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis, is not only an effective naturalblue colorant, but also a compound that is beneficial to the health of the consumer. The aim of this research is toconduct evaluation studies phycocyanin production by extraction with polar solvents at various concentrationsto obtain extracts for maximum yield. The methods in this study has several stages, namely preparation ofmaterials, extraction, solubility studies of phycocyanin, phycocyanin’s stability test. Changing variables in thisstudy are water, acetic acid 70%, 75%, 80%, ammonium sulphate 50%, 55%, 60%. The analysis of the extractsof phycocyanin’s content using spectrophotometric methods. The observations produces a blue pigment whichhas the highest color intensity with maximum absorbance of 620 nm. Acetic acid 80% is the most effectivesolvent to extract the blue pigment phycocyanin than water and ammonium sulfate. Extraction is influenced bythe pH of the increase in absorption (absorbance with increasing pH and was not influenced by storagetemperature and time

  6. Radionuclides in Bentic Algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentic micro-algae (mainly consisting of diatoms) were taken from 4 sites in the discharge area of the Forsmark Nuclear Power Station (Sweden) and from 1 site in the cooling water intake channel of the power station. Samples were taken every third week during 1984. The micro-algae were brushed of a 0.1-0.15 m2 area on stones collected from the hydrolittoral zone. Radionuclide concentration was measured as gamma radiation with a Ge-detector. Fission products from the power plant cooling water can easily be detected in the micro-algae. We show that benthic diatom assemblages are good indicators for radionuclides; good correlations were found between radionuclide concentration in the algae and the discharge from the power plant. The best correlations were obtained if the accumulated discharge for the 15 days before sampling was used in the calculations. Of the investigated radionuclides, Co-60 and Zn-65 show significant relationships between concentration in the algae and discharge for 2 site, Ag-110m for 3 sites and Mn-54 for 1 site. No correlations were found for the site in the intake channel. The results show differences which depend on whether calculations were done for total, particulate or dissolved fractions of the radionuclides. There are indications that there is considerable recirculation of the radionuclides within the algal assemblages, and the recirculation from the outlet of the Biotest basin to the intake channel is of about 10%. In this report we also present a budget for the total amount of radionuclides in the Biotest Basin for 1984. The highest amounts of radionuclides in diatoms were found during late winter and early spring, associated with the large diatom blooms at that time of the year in the basin. (authors)

  7. 棱镜色散腔XeF(C-A)蓝绿激光线宽压缩%Spectral narrowing of XeF(C-A) blue-green lasers using prism dispersive resonator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱峰; 沈炎龙; 于力; 唐影; 易爱平; 安晓霞; 黄超

    2013-01-01

    XeF(C-A)蓝绿激光的增益系数较低,仅为0.003 cm-1,要获得高能量窄线宽激光输出有一定难度.利用色散元件棱镜开展了高单脉冲能量窄线宽激光输出实验研究,结果表明:采用凹面输出镜的情况下,激光线宽可以压缩到约2.5 nm,激光输出能量最大为3.47J;采用平面输出镜,激光线宽压缩到约0.7 nm,激光输出能量最大为2.93J,激光光谱调谐范围最大可达到60 nm,在460~520 nm之间.%As the gain coefficient of XeF(C-A) blue-green lasers is low, it is difficult to obtain a laser pulse with both high energy and narrow spectrum. In this paper, a dispersive prism is used in the resonator to compress the laser spectrum and to get high laser pulse energy. The experimental results show that, using a concave output mirror, the laser spectrum can be compressed to about 2. 5 nm and the maximal laser energy is 3. 47 J. As a comparison, using a plane output mirror, the laser spectrum can be compressed to about 0. 7 nm with the laser pulse energy of 2. 93 J. In the expriment, the laser spectrum can be tunable between 460 nm and 520 nm and the tunable width is about 60 nm.

  8. Biosorption characteristics of Spirulina and Chlorella cells to accumulate heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    Kőnig-Péter Anikó; Kilár Ferenc; Felinger Attila; Pernyeszi Tímea

    2015-01-01

    The heavy metal biosorption of dried Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis-Spirulina maxima cells was studied under various experimental conditions. The effect of biosorbent dosage, pH, adsorption time, temperature, initial metal concentration on biosorption was studied. Biosorption process can be divided into two parts: the first part follows zero-order, the second part pseudo second-order kinetics. Characterization of biosorption equilibrium was eval...

  9. Biological Effects of Spirulina (Arthrospira) Biopolymers and Biomass in the Development of Nanostructured Scaffolds

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Greque de Morais; Bruna da Silva Vaz; Etiele Greque de Morais; Jorge Alberto Vieira Costa

    2014-01-01

    Spirulina is produced from pure cultures of the photosynthetic prokaryotic cyanobacteria Arthrospira. For many years research centers throughout the world have studied its application in various scientific fields, especially in foods and medicine. The biomass produced from Spirulina cultivation contains a variety of biocompounds, including biopeptides, biopolymers, carbohydrates, essential fatty acids, minerals, oligoelements, and sterols. Some of these compounds are bioactive and have anti-i...

  10. Biomass of Spirulina maxima enriched by biosorption process as a new feed supplement for swine

    OpenAIRE

    Saeid, A.; Chojnacka, K.; Korczyński, M.; Korniewicz, D.; Dobrzański, Z.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the new mineral feed additives with Cu produced in a biosorption process from a semi-technical scale. The natural biomass of edible microalga Spirulina sp. was enriched with Cu(II) and then used as a mineral supplement in feeding experiments on swine to assess its nutrition properties. A total of 24 piglets divided into two groups (control and experimental) were used to determine the bioavailability of a new generation of mineral feed additives based on Spirulina maxima....

  11. DESEMPENHO DE CORDEIROS SANTA INÊS SUBMETIDOS A ALEITAMENTO ARTIFICIAL ENRIQUECIDO COM Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilson Rocha Bezerr a

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out in Maria Paz Ranch/SheepProduction Department, in São José de Espinharas, PB. Analyseswere performed in the Laboratory of Animal Nutrition/Centrode Saúde e Tecnologia Rural/Universidade Federal de CampinaGrande. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectof the supplementation with cow milk enriched with Spirulinaplatensis (Sp on lamb performance submitted to creep feeding,and determine the most adequate period to suplemet nursinglambs with Spirulina platensis. Data on dry matter (DMC andcrude protein (CPC consumptions, body weight (BW, and meandaily body weight gain (MDBWG were colleted. The three levelsof Spirulina supplementation were assigned to 30 lambs (plotsaccording to a randomized block (lamb weight design with 10replications. Data were collected in four consecutive periods,characterizing a split plot in time. DM and CP consumptions werenot affected by spirulina level x period interaction, and increasedwith periods (animal age. BW and MDBWG were affected bythe spirulina level x period interaction. Spirulina levels affectedMDBWG only from day 0 to day 15, when the MDBWG (300gwas higher at level 10g than at level zero of Spirulina that resulted in 205g in MDBWG. Live body weight at the end of each periodwas also higher when the lambs were supplemented with 10 g ofSpirulina (12.00 17.02, 19.71 and 25.30kg, respectively, for thefour consecutive periods. The dilution of Spirulina platensis incow milk showed to be efficient on the daily performance of lambswhen utilized in concentration of 10g/day and from period 15 to30 days of age.

  12. The fifth dimension of the taste in Spirulina platensis feed. Study on the influence of monosodium glutamate in the development and composition of the Spirulina platensis algae

    OpenAIRE

    Ştefan MANEA; Gabriela VLĂSCEANU; Gabriela IORDĂCHESCU; Alina DUNE

    2010-01-01

    Food additives have become a way of life, creating pleasure and food request. But from the point of view of health promotion, it is necessary to demonstrate the risks and find out new possibilities for a good sensorial aspect of the food. This would apply especially in the case of long-term consumption, or in some particular conditions (allergies to different ingredients which appear more often to consumers). Cheap products are manufactured by using E-dangerous. The explanation is simple: the...

  13. Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis of Spirulina platensis Biomass, of the C-Phycocianin and of DNA Extracted from It

    CERN Document Server

    Mosulishvili, L M; Belokobylsky, A I; Kirkesali, E I; Khizanishvili, A I; Pomyakushina, E V

    2002-01-01

    The epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) was used for study of the biomass of Spirulina platensis. The background levels of concentration 27 macro-, micro- and trace elements ranging from 10^{-3} up to 10^{4} ppm were determined. It was found that the biomass of spirulina does not contain toxic elements above the tolerance levels and can be utilized as a matrix of pharmaceuticals based on it. The concentrations of basic elements in C-phycocianin and DNA extracted from Spirulina platensis were determined by ENAA. A comparison of the element content of a whole spirulina biomass with that of a refined C-phycocianin preparation was made.

  14. Alterations in beta-islets of Langerhans in alloxan-induced diabetic rats by marine Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuraman, P; Senthilkumar, R; Srikumar, K

    2009-12-01

    Marine Spirulina platensis may potentially influence the metabolic process in animal cells, and the effect of marine Spirulina platensis in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats was therefore investigated. Normal and diabetic rats (albino Wistar strain) were orally administered marine Spirulina platensis for 30 days and their blood levels of glucose and insulin and body weight changes were determined. Pancreatic histopathology was also noted. Treatment with marine Spirulina platensis caused significant alterations in the content of these indicators and therefore in the antidiabetic capacity of the treated animals compared to control rats. PMID:19912059

  15. Epithermal neutron activation analysis of Spirulina platensis biomass, of the C-phycocianin and of DNA extracted from it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) was used for study of the biomass of Spirulina platensis. The background levels of concentration of 27 macro-, micro- and trace elements ranging from 10-3 up to 104 ppm were determined. It was found that the biomass of Spirulina does not contain toxic elements above the tolerance levels and can be utilized as a matrix of pharmaceuticals based on it. The concentrations of basic elements in C-phycocianin and DNA extracted from Spirulina platensis were determined by ENAA. A comparison of the element content of a whole Spirulina biomass with that of a refined C-phycocianin preparation was made

  16. Well-tolerated Spirulina extract inhibits influenza virus replication and reduces virus-induced mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Hsiang; Chang, Gi-Kung; Kuo, Shu-Ming; Huang, Sheng-Yu; Hu, I-Chen; Lo, Yu-Lun; Shih, Shin-Ru

    2016-01-01

    Influenza is one of the most common human respiratory diseases, and represents a serious public health concern. However, the high mutability of influenza viruses has hampered vaccine development, and resistant strains to existing anti-viral drugs have also emerged. Novel anti-influenza therapies are urgently needed, and in this study, we describe the anti-viral properties of a Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) cold water extract. Anti-viral effects have previously been reported for extracts and specific substances derived from Spirulina, and here we show that this Spirulina cold water extract has low cellular toxicity, and is well-tolerated in animal models at one dose as high as 5,000 mg/kg, or 3,000 mg/kg/day for 14 successive days. Anti-flu efficacy studies revealed that the Spirulina extract inhibited viral plaque formation in a broad range of influenza viruses, including oseltamivir-resistant strains. Spirulina extract was found to act at an early stage of infection to reduce virus yields in cells and improve survival in influenza-infected mice, with inhibition of influenza hemagglutination identified as one of the mechanisms involved. Together, these results suggest that the cold water extract of Spirulina might serve as a safe and effective therapeutic agent to manage influenza outbreaks, and further clinical investigation may be warranted. PMID:27067133

  17. Exercise and spirulina control non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis and lipid profile in diabetic Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Gláucio A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus is associated with metabolic dysfunctions, including alterations in circulating lipid levels and fat tissue accumulation, which causes, among other pathologies, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Aim of the study The objective of this study was to analyse the effects of physical exercise and spirulina intake on the control of NAFLD in diabetic Wistar rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in the animals through intravenous administration of alloxan. The rats were divided into four groups: Diabetic Control (DC - diabetic rats fed with a control diet and no physical exercise; Diabetic Spirulina (DS - diabetic rats fed with a diet that included spirulina; Diabetic Spirulina and Exercise (DSE - diabetic rats fed with a diet that included Spirulina and that exercised; and Diabetic Exercise (DE - diabetic rats fed with a control diet and that exercised. Results The groups DS, DSE, and DE presented lower plasma concentrations of LDL cholesterol than DC, as well as lower levels of total liver lipids in groups DS, DSE, and DE in comparison to DC. Conclusion Thus, spirulina appears to be effective in reducing total circulating levels of LDL-cholesterol and hepatic lipids, alone or in conjunction with physical exercise in diabetic rats.

  18. Biosorption of cadmium and lead from aqueous solution by fresh water alga Anabaena sphaerica biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza M. Abdel -Aty

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present work represents the biosorption of Cd(II and Pb(II from aqueous solution onto the biomass of the blue green alga Anabaena sphaerica as a function of pH, biosorbent dosage, contact time, and initial metal ion concentrations. Freundlich, Langmuir, and Dubinin–Radushkevich (D–R models were applied to describe the biosorption isotherm of both metals by A. sphaerica biomass. The biosorption isotherms studies indicated that the biosorption of Cd(II and Pb(II follows the Langmuir and Freundlish models. The maximum biosorption capacities (qmax were 111.1 and 121.95 mg/g, respectively, at the optimum conditions for each metal. From the D–R isotherm model, the mean free energy was calculated to be 11.7 and 14.3 kJ/mol indicating that the biosorption mechanism of Cd(II and Pb(II by A. sphaerica was chemisorption. The FTIR analysis for surface function group of algal biomass revealed the existence of amino, carboxyl, hydroxyl, and carbonyl groups, which are responsible for the biosorption of Cd(II and Pb(II. The results suggested that the biomass of A. sphaerica is an extremely efficient biosorbent for the removal of Cd(II and Pb(II from aqueous solutions.

  19. Light adaptation of the unicellular red alga, Cyanidioschyzon merolae, probed by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Yoshifumi; Aikawa, Shimpei; Kondo, Akihiko; Akimoto, Seiji

    2015-08-01

    Photosynthetic organisms change the quantity and/or quality of their pigment-protein complexes and the interactions among these complexes in response to light conditions. In the present study, we analyzed light adaptation of the unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae, whose pigment composition is similar to that of cyanobacteria because its phycobilisomes (PBS) lack phycoerythrin. C. merolae were grown under different light qualities, and their responses were measured by steady-state absorption, steady-state fluorescence, and picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopies. Cells were cultivated under four monochromatic light-emitting diodes (blue, green, yellow, and red), and changes in pigment composition and energy transfer were observed. Cells grown under blue and green light increased their relative phycocyanin levels compared with cells cultured under white light. Energy-transfer processes to photosystem I (PSI) were sensitive to yellow and red light. The contribution of direct energy transfer from PBS to PSI increased only under yellow light, while red light induced a reduction in energy transfer from photosystem II to PSI and an increase in energy transfer from light-harvesting chlorophyll protein complex I to PSI. Differences in pigment composition, growth, and energy transfer under different light qualities are discussed. PMID:25577254

  20. Algae Review Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae-based biofuels and bioproducts offer great promise in contributing to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office’s (BETO’s) vision of a thriving and sustainable bioeconomy fueled by innovative technologies. The state of technology for producing algal biofuels continues to mature with ongoing investment by DOE and the private sector, but additional research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) is needed to achieve widespread deployment of affordable, scalable, and sustainable algal biofuels.

  1. Teores de β-caroteno em suplementos e biomassa de Spirulina Contents of β-carotene in supplements and biomass of Spirulina

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Barroso Alencar; Kelma Maria dos Santos Pires-Cavalcante; Jefferson Pablo de Souza Saboya; Márcia Barbosa de Sousa; Wladimir Ronald Lobo Farias; Silvana Saker-Sampaio

    2011-01-01

    A cianobactéria Spirulina tem sido utilizada há séculos, tendo em vista suas propriedades nutricionais e medicinais. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se analisar os teores de β-caroteno tanto em suplementos alimentares a base de Spirulina comercializados em estabelecimentos de produtos naturais no mercado varejista, quanto em S. platensis cultivada em laboratório. Alguns pigmentos carotenóides possuem atividade de vitamina A e, dentre eles, o β-caroteno é o que apresenta maior atividade bi...

  2. Blue-green laser diode research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    Twenty-four heteroepitaxial ZnSe films were grown on GaAs in the St. Paul laboratory during the reporting period. A range of ratios of the Zn beam pressure to the Se beam pressure during growth (the BPR), and a range of substrate temperatures during growth, were investigated to determine the set of growth conditions giving the best intrinsic films, i.e., the largest near-band-edge emission observed in photoluminescence, combined with the highest peak mobility, lowest room temperature carrier density, and lowest total concentration of ionized impurities. While the series of films has not yet been completed, it appears that a BPR of 1:1 and a substrate temperature of 350 C give the best intrinsic films. Preliminary evidence suggests that the surface quality of the films begins to degrade after exposure to room ambience for about two weeks. The six-month report for this project described the first attempts to grow ZnSe epitaxially on Ge substrates. This work has been expanded to include an epitaxial buffer layer of Ge between the ZnSe layer and the Ge substrate. This was done to provide a smoother substrate for the ZnSe growth. RHEED patterns indicate that ZnSe films grown on the Ge buffer layer are indeed smoother on the atomic scale. Photoluminescence results show that the near-band-edge emission is much stronger than for films without a buffer layer.

  3. Fresh pasta production enriched with Spirulina platensis biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Cesar Lemes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the enrichment of Spirulina platensis in wheat flour to prepare fresh pasta to evaluate the green color and nutritional enrichment in addition to functional properties due to the presence of the bioactive compounds in the cyanobacterium. The pastas were evaluated for the centesimal composition, microbiological contamination, sensorial acceptance and technological characteristics such as cooking time, water absorption, volume displacement and loss of solids. The superior protein contents and the satisfactory technological and sensorial attributes compared with the control with no cyanobacterium showed the usefulness of incorporating S. platensis biomass in the fresh pastas. The microbiological quality was in compliance with the legislation in force. The sensorial quality was considered satisfactory (“liked very much” and purchase intention high (“probably would buy”.

  4. C-phycocyanin extraction from Spirulina platensis wet biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Moraes

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available C-Phycocyanin is a natural blue dye used in food and pharmaceutical industry. In the present study, a simple and efficient method to extract C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis wet biomass is reported. The extractions were carried out using six different methods, including chemical (organic and inorganic acid treatment, physical (freezing and thawing, sonication, homogenization and enzymatic (lysozyme treatment methods. The extraction using ultrasonic bath in the presence of glass pearls in the biomass proved to be the most efficient method, 56% higher than using freezing and thawing (the method most frequently used, and presented a extraction yield of 43.75 mg.g-1 and a C-phycocyanin concentration of 0.21 mg.mL-1.

  5. Effect of functional oils and algae on the performance of finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. Dendena

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters because of the problems arising from this use, especially bacterial resistance and residues in animal products, he led the search for new alternatives that stood out the use of additives with natural components, who presented economically viable and beneficial. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of functional oils and algae on the weight gain of variables (WG, feed intake (FI, feed conversion (FC, feed cost per kilogram of animals produced and consistency of stool finishing pigs. Was used 18 animals distributed in a completely randomized design with two treatments (T1 - T2 and control treatment - Treatment with additives, three repetitions and three animals each. Performance data were submitted to analysis of variance, the difference between the averages verified by test F. The additive used is a mark consisting of castor oil, cashew nut oil, meal oyster shell, vermiculite and gender algae Spirulina.The daily feed intake was not affected by treatments (P> 0.05 and no significant differences were in fecal score of pigs. But the average daily gain and feed conversion were influenced significantly (P <0.05 by the treatments, and the additive treatment obtained the best results for both variables. It can be concluded that the use of functional oils and algae improved the productive and economic performance of pigs

  6. Use of Spring-Coiled Shaped Green Algae for Determination of 137Cs and Potassium Bioaccumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the useful technologies for removing pollutants from the environment is phyto remediation. By this method, living or dead plants (including various algae and cyanobacteria) are used to concentrate pollutants from soil or from water sources by biologically active or by passive processes. We isolated from one of the water pools in the Negev green filamentous algae. They exhibited a regular spring-coiled shape typical to Spirulina filaments, but lacked the beaded filaments seen in Anabaena which belongs also to the cyanobacteria. The easily growing algae at the high temperatures of the Negev summers (35-45 degrees C) and under extremely alkaline conditions (pH=9-11), were used to test their potential to accumulate radio-isotopes. We performed our investigations by using 137Cs, which is a fission product and is regarded as an environmental contaminant. Cesium, Rubidium, Lithium and Sodium follow the uptake route of the macro nutrient potassium and appear to share the K+ transport carrier, therefore they are easily transported into plant cells. Potassium is generally considered as an effective inhibitor for radio-cesium uptake by plant roots. It was also shown that C.a. and Mag depressed the Cs uptake). Bioaccumulation factors were used to predict radionuclide concentrations in whole organisms or their tissues

  7. Influence of Spirulina platensis powder on the microflora of yoghurt and acidophilus milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Guldas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to monitor the influence of the powdered Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis addition to plain yoghurt and the yoghurt containing Lactobacillus acidophiluson survival of the microbiota during the refrigerated storage. The cell viability of yoghurt starter cultures (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus acidophilus under refrigeration conditions in yoghurts prepared with (0.5 or 1.0 (w/w % and without the addition of Spirulina powder was investigated. The yoghurts were prepared under hygienic laboratory conditions and their pH and acidity were controlled during the process. The samples of yoghurts were stored at 4 °C and investigated on days 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30. Viable counts of the lactic acid bacteria were above 6 cfu g-1of all “spirulina powder” added samples whereas control yoghurt samples contained lower lactic acid bacteria count at the end of the storage period. Addition of 1 % Spirulina platensis powder into the yoghurts did not cause significant differences on the viable lactic acid bacteria (p≤0.05. The results showed the positive effect of S. platensis powder on the survival of the lactic acid bacteria during storage of yoghurt (P≤0.05. The sensory analysis was also performed for the yoghurt samples. Sensory scores of 0.5 % spirulina powder added yoghurt samples were better than 1 % spirulina powder added ones. It was determined that spirulina powder added yoghurt is a good medium of lactic acid bacteria during the 30 days of refrigerated storage.

  8. Dietary algae and HIV/AIDS: proof of concept clinical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teas, J; Irhimeh, M R

    2012-06-01

    Dietary algae have been reported to decrease HIV viral fusion/entry and replication and increase immune response, suggesting that regular consumption of algae by people in Japan, Korea, and Chad could be an important factor in their relatively low HIV/AIDS rates. Five antiretroviral-naïve people with HIV (three females, two males; five African Americans) living in Columbia SC participated in the phase I study of acute toxicity. Subjects were randomly assigned to 5 g day(-1) brown seaweed (Undaria pinnatifida), Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis), or a combination of both. Endpoints included HIV viral load, complete blood count (CBC), metabolic and lipid panel, and quality of life questionnaire data. When no short-term toxicities were observed, six additional subjects (four females, two males; five African Americans, one Latina) were recruited to further evaluate short- and long-term toxicities (phase II). No adverse effects were observed for the 11 subjects in the phase I trial, and quality of life indicators improved at 3 weeks. No significant changes were observed in CBC, metabolic or lipid panel analyses. CD4 cells (milliliters) and HIV-1 viral load remained stable over the first 3-month phase II study period. One subject continued in the study for 13 months and had clinically significant improvement in CD4 (>100 cells mL(-1)) and decreased HIV viral load of 0.5 log(10). Our pilot data suggest that Undaria, Spirulina, and a combination of both were nontoxic and over time may improve clinical endpoints of HIV/AIDS. PMID:22661829

  9. Effect of light intensity on respiration rate of Spirulina plantensis; Spirulina no kokyu sokudo no oyobosu shodo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohira, Y.; Obata, E.; Kuga, Y.; Ando, K. [Muroran Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1997-07-10

    Effects of light intensity and irradiation time on respiration rate in the dark period after irradiating are discussed. The specific respiration rate of S. platensis in the dark is a constant value Q1, up to 15-30 minutes, and then rapidly decreases to Q2 after 30 minutes. The specific respiration rate Q1 increases with light intensity. No significant effect of Q1 on irradiation time and Q2 on light intensity is observed. The respiration rate for a long dark time, Q0(=1.2 mg-O2{center_dot}kg-Spirulina{sup -1}centre dots{sup -1}), is almost the same as Q2. The effect of the logarithmic mean light intensity I{sub 1m}[klx] on Q1 is described by the following equation. Q1-Q0 = 13 and I{sub 1m}/(15+I{sub 1m}) 12 refs., 11 figs.

  10. ECOLOGICAL FEATURES OF ALGAE COMMUNITIES IN FOREST FLOOR OF PINE PLANTATIONS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF LANDSCAPES IN STEPPE AREA OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltsev Yevhen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The steppe zone of Ukraine features a large variety of types of natural landscapes that together significantly differ in microclimatic, soil, hydrological and geobotanic conditions. Such a diversity of forest conditions affects not only the trees, but also on all biotic components of forest ecosystems including algae. Purpose of the study was establish systematic position of species, dominant and subdominant, leading families of algae for plantings in forest floor of pine plantations of the valley-terrace and inundable-terrace landscapes in steppe area of Ukraine. In general, in the forest floor of Samara pine forest marked 34 species of algae with 4 divisions, most of which related to green: Chlorophyta – 22 (65%, Xanthophyta – 8 (23%, Bacillariophyta – 2 (6% and Eustigmatophyta – 2 (6%. Among the leading families of the greatest number of species belonged to: Pleurochloridaceae (7 species, Chlorococcaceae (5, Chlamydomonadaceae (4. During all studied seasons in base of algae communities were species resistant to extreme values of all climatic conditions. Total in forest floor of pine forest in Altagir forest marked 42 species of algae with 5 divisions: Chlorophyta - 23 (55 %, Xanthophyta - 9 (21 %, Cyanophyta - 5 (12 %, Bacillariophyta - 3 (7% and Eustigmatophyta – 2 (5%. Systematic structure of list species determine three family, which have the number of species in excess of the average number (2: Pleurochloridaceae, Chlamydomonadaceae and Myrmeciaceae. The base of algae community are moisture-loving and shade-tolerant species, which may be the result of favorable moisture regime. In the forest floor of pine plantings in forest floor of pine plantations of the valley-terrace (Samara pine forest and inundable-terrace (Altagir forest landscapes found 64 species of algae with 5 divisions, which are dominated by green algae - 37 species (58%, that exceed xanthophytes - 15 (23%, blue-green 5 (8 %, eustigmatofites 4 (6% and diatoms 3 (5

  11. Cloning,Sequencing and Phylogenetic Study of rbcL Gene from Cyanobacteria Arthrospira and Spirulina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jinjie(刘金姐); Zhang Xuecheng; Sui Zhenghong; Mao Yunxiang; Sun Xue

    2004-01-01

    Large subunit gene of rubisco (rbcL) of cyanobacteria Arthrospira platensis FACHB341, A. Platensis FACHB439, A. Maxima OUQDSM and Spirulina sp. FACHB440 is cloned, sequenced and characterized. Results show that GC content of the gene in strain Spirulina sp. FACHB440 is higher than that in the others. The alignments based on deduced amino acid sequences indicate that Spirulina sp. FACHB440 is different from that in other three samples of Arthrospira, though they have the same conserved functional sites (95, 98, 121, 124, 221, 257). The nucleotide sequence similarity among the three strains of the genus of Arthrospira (96.5~99.6%) is higher than that between Arthrospira and Spirulina (78.1~78.5%). By comparison of the corresponding sequence of other cyanobacteria, a phylogenetic tree with two clusters is constructed. A. Platensis FACHB341, A. Maxima OUQDSM and A. Platensis FACHB439 form the monophyletic linage, which is fully supported by bootstrap values (1000), while Spirulina sp. FACHB440 and Anabaena sp. PCC7120 cluster in another linage with the bootstrap value of 909.

  12. Inhibitory effects of Spirulina in zymosan-induced arthritis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diadelis Remirez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory effect of microalgae Spirulina was studied in zymosan-induced arthritis in mice. Four days after the intra-articular injection of zymosan (15 mg/ml, Spirulina (100 and 400 mg/kg per-orally was administered to animals for 8 days. The mice were than killed and β-glucuronidase was measured in the synovial fluid. Each knee joint was totally removed for histopathological studies. Spirulina significantly reduced the levels of β-glucuronidase that had been increased by zymosan. Histopathological and ultrastructural studies showed inhibition of the inflammatory reaction, whereas no destruction of cartilage, well-preserved chondrocytes, and normal rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria were seen. The anti-arthritic effect exerted by Spirulina as shown in this model may be at least partly due to the previously reported anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties of its constituent, phycocyanin. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the anti-inflammatory effect of Spirulina in an experimental model of arthritis.

  13. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF SPIRULINA ON ETHYLENE GLYCOL INDUCED UROLITHIASIS IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Sunitha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our present study is to assess the effects of spirulina as a preventive agent in experimentally induced urolithiasis model in rats. Rats were induced to produce kidney stone by providing drinking water containing 0.75% ethylene glycol (v/v (EG for 6 weeks. In additiion to this, spirulina extract 20mg/kg, were administered along with ethylene glycol for 6 weeks. On 24 hours after 6 weeks, the blood was collected from individual rats and used for the estimation of sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorus, urea and creatinine. The ethylene glycol feeding resulted in an increased level of serum sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, urea and creatinine, with a decreased level of phosphorus, compared to normal rats. All these conditions were reversed on spirulina treatment. Histopathological analysis also showed that rats treated with ethylene glycol had large deposits of calcium oxalate crystals, and that deposits were reduced in rats treated with spirulina. These data suggest that spirulina has a protective activity against urolithiasis.

  14. INDUCES OF ANTIOXIDANT COMPOUNDS AND SALT TOLERANCE IN WHEAT PLANT, IRRIGATED WITH SEAWATER AS RESPONSE TO APPLICATION OF MICROALGAE SPRAY

    OpenAIRE

    Hanaa H. Abd El Baky; Hussein, M. M.; Gamal S. El-Baroty

    2014-01-01

    Wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Giza 168) irrigated with either 10 or 20% of Seawater (SW) were treated with aqueous extracts of green microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus and blue green algae Spirulina platensis (AESO and AESP 20 g (dry weight)/L) in order to increase wheat salt tolerance. Treated plants showed higher ability to tolerate salt stress (10 or 20% SW) by significant (p>0.5%) increasing of photosynthetic pigments (chl...

  15. Cellular Auxin Transport in Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suyun; van Duijn, Bert

    2014-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin is one of the main directors of plant growth and development. In higher plants, auxin is generated in apical plant parts and transported from cell-to-cell in a polar fashion. Auxin is present in all plant phyla, and the existence of polar auxin transport (PAT) is well established in land plants. Algae are a group of relatively simple, autotrophic, photosynthetic organisms that share many features with land plants. In particular, Charophyceae (a taxon of green algae) are closest ancestors of land plants. In the study of auxin function, transport and its evolution, the algae form an interesting research target. Recently, proof for polar auxin transport in Chara species was published and auxin related research in algae gained more attention. In this review we discuss auxin transport in algae with respect to land plants and suggest directions for future studies.

  16. Microbiological decontamination of Spirulina Platensis and green coffee using accelerated electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological raw materials can be contaminated with microorganisms and to make them suitable for commercialization, the quality relative to microbial content is necessary to be achieved. Irradiation is a decontamination method for numerous foodstuffs, being a feasible, very effective and environment friendly procedure. The aim of the paper is to evaluate the possibility to apply the electron beam treatment on Spirulina Platensis and green coffee for biological decontamination. The cyanobacterium Spirulina and green coffee have been irradiated with electron beams up to 40 kGy. To determine the microbial load, antioxidant activity, and rheological behaviour the techniques of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and absorption spectroscopy have been applied. The results showed that accelerated electron beams could be efficient to decontaminate Spirulina as well as green coffee without significant changes in their properties. (authors)

  17. Modification of algae with zinc, copper and silver ions for usage as natural composite for antibacterial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahltig, B; Soltmann, U; Haase, H

    2013-03-01

    Nanometer sized metal particles are used in many applications as antimicrobial materials. However in public discussion nanoparticular materials are a matter of concern due to potential health risks. Hence there is a certain demand for alternative antimicrobial acting materials. For this, the aim of this work is to realize an antimicrobial active material based on the release of metal ions from a natural depot. By this, the use of elemental metal particles or metal oxide particles in nanometer or micrometer scale is avoided. As natural depot four different algae materials (gained from Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesicolosus, Spirulina platensis and Nannochloropsis) are used and loaded by bioabsorption with metal ions Ag(+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+). The amount of metal bound by biosorption differs strongly in the range of 0.8 to 5.4 mg/g and depends on type of investigated algae material and type of metal ion. For most samples a smaller release of biosorbed Ag(+) and Cu(2+) is observed compared to a strong release of Zn(2+). The antibacterial activity of the prepared composites is investigated with Escherichia coli. Algae material without biosorbed metal has only a small effect on E. coli. Also by modification of algae with Zn(2+) only a small antibacterial property can be observed. Only with biosorption of Ag(+), the algae materials gain a strong bactericidal effect, even in case of a small amount of released silver ions. These silver modified algae materials can be used as highly effective bactericidal composites which may be used in future applications for the production of antimicrobial textiles, papers or polymer materials. PMID:25427514

  18. Role of Spirulina in the Control of Glycemia and Lipidemia in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Panam; Mani, Uliyar; Iyer, Uma

    2001-01-01

    Spirulina, with its high concentration of functional nutrients, is emerging as an important therapeutic food. This study aimed to evaluate the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic role of Spirulina. Twenty-five subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly assigned to receive Spirulina (study group) or to form the control group. At baseline, the control and study groups were matched for various variables. The efficacy of Spirulina supplementation (2 g/day for 2 months) was determined using the preintervention and postintervention blood glucose levels, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) levels, and lipid profiles of the diabetic subjects. Two-month supplementation with Spirulina resulted in an appreciable lowering of fasting blood glucose and postprandial blood glucose levels. A significant reduction in the HbA(1c) level was also observed, indicating improved long-term glucose regulation. With regard to lipids, triglyceride levels were significantly lowered. Total cholesterol (TC) and its fraction, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), exhibited a fall coupled with a marginal increase in the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). As a result, a significant reduction in the atherogenic indices, TC:HDL-C and LDL-C: HDL-C, was observed. The level of apolipoprotein B registered a significant fall together with a significant increment in the level of apolipoprotein A1. Therefore, a significant and favorable increase in the ratio of A1:B was also noted. These findings suggest the beneficial effect of Spirulina supplementation in controlling blood glucose levels and in improving the lipid profile of subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:12639401

  19. Effect of lead on the growth of Spirulina maxima (Arthrospira)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez- Villagran, D.; Torres-Munoz, J. A.; Rios-Leal, E.; Aguilar-Lopez, R.; Dominguez-Bocanegra, A. R.

    2009-07-01

    The pollution of aquatic ecosystems caused by heavy metals from industrial and domestic sources leads to the bioaccumulation of these toxicants in cyanobacteria and microalgae with damage or inhibition of specific enzymes and transfer of metals through the food web (He et al., 1998). Moreover, even through ions of some metals, such as zinc, are involved in the metabolism of algae. (Author)

  20. Effect of lead on the growth of Spirulina maxima (Arthrospira)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pollution of aquatic ecosystems caused by heavy metals from industrial and domestic sources leads to the bioaccumulation of these toxicants in cyanobacteria and microalgae with damage or inhibition of specific enzymes and transfer of metals through the food web (He et al., 1998). Moreover, even through ions of some metals, such as zinc, are involved in the metabolism of algae. (Author)

  1. Biosorption of Ag(I)-Spirulina platensis for different pH

    OpenAIRE

    Gelagutashvili, E.; Ginturi, E.; Kuchava, N.; Bagdavadze, N.; Rcheulishvili, A.

    2011-01-01

    Biosorption of Ag(I)-Spirulina platensis for different pH were investigated using dialysis and Atomic-absorbtion analysis. It was shown, that the biosorption constant for Ag(I) Spirulina platensis complex and the capacity depend on the change of pH. In particular, with the increase of pH (pH=5.5. and pH=8.6 cases), the biosorption constant increase and the capacity decreases. The nature of interaction is also changed. In case of neutral pH, the interaction Ag(I)-S. platensis is of cooperative...

  2. Culture of Spirulina platensis in human urine for biomass production and O2 evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Dao-lun; WU Zu-cheng

    2006-01-01

    Attempts were made to culture Spirulina platensis in human urine directly to achieve biomass production and O2 evolution, for potential application to nutrient regeneration and air revitalization in life support system. The culture results showed that Spirulinaplatensis grows successfully in diluted human urine, and yields maximal biomass at urine dilution ratios of 140~240.Accumulation of lipid and decreasing of protein occurred due to N deficiency. O2 release rate of Spirulina platensis in diluted human urine was higher than that in Zarrouk medium.

  3. Hepato protective effect of Spirulina Against Gamma Radiation and Carbon Tetrachloride induced Liver Injury in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vast biodiversity of nature provides bioactive compounds that may be useful in the fight against chronic diseases. Although there are a number of drugs available in the market, long time use may cause a number of side effects. Spirulina is a microscopic and filamentous cyanobacterium that contains essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and anti-oxidative components. In the present study, Spirulina platensis has been investigated as a possible modifier of radiation and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in albino rats. In the experiment, a total of 60 rats were used and divided into six groups of ten rats each: group 1, normal untreated rats; group 2, animals received only Spirulina (10 mg/kg) for 30 consecutive days; group 3, animals were exposed to 4 Gy whole body gamma radiation as a single shot dose; group 4, animals were injected intraperitoneally with CCl4 in olive oil (5 ml/kg i.p.) twice a week for four weeks ; group 5, rats were given orally Spirulina (10 mg/kg) for 30 days then exposed to 4 Gy gamma radiation as a single shot dose; and group 6, rats were given orally Spirulina (10 mg/kg) for 30 days and injected intraperitoneally with CCl4 in olive oil (5 ml/kg i.p.) twice a week for four weeks. The results revealed that animals treated with CCl4 or exposed to gamma radiation showed significant increase in the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β). Also, a marked increase in the liver tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was observed. On the other hand, decrease in glutathione (GSH), glutathione transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) was observed in liver tissues of animal treated with CCl4 or exposed to gamma radiation. Oral pretreatment of rats with aqueous extract of Spirulina counteracted the radiation or CCl4 -induced lipid

  4. Enhancement in Production of Phenolic Compounds (AntiOxidants) in Spirulina Plantensis under Different IAA Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Munawer Khan Mohammed,; Mazharuddin Khan Mohd

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidants phenolic compounds synthesis in spirulina platennsis was studied in vitro under the influence of the Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) regime. Spirulina platensis is grown in Zarrouks medium supplemented with different concentration of Indole Acetic Acid ( 1μg/ml–10μg/ml ). The gradual increase in the total phenolic content was recorded from 1- 6 μg/ml of IAA. Inhibition in the synthesis of phenolic compounds was noticed from 7μg/ml-10μg/ml the similar trend was also observed with chl...

  5. Production of biomass by Spirulina at different groundwater type. Case of Ouargla-Southeast Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggaï, Ali; Dadamoussa, Belkheir; Djaghoubi, Afaf; Bissati, Samia

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, Spirulina platensis was cultivated to estimate the biomass production with different groundwater type in Ouargla. Growth experiments were undertaken in flasks under shelter in outdoor condition. For this, the temperature, pH and salinity value was recorded between two days of growth. Biomass concentration in the culture media was calculated by measuring the DO625. The combination of the Mioplocen water with the nutriments gave the highest values of biomass concentration with avenge of 1.78 ±0.91g/l. All the three-type water supported the growth of Spirulina that appeared as good as a culture media.

  6. Cultivo del nematodo Panagrellus redivivus (Goodey, 1945) en un medio de avena enriquecida con Spirulina sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramón de Lara; Thalía Castro; Jorge Castro; Germán Castro

    2007-01-01

    El nematodo Panagrellus redivivus se cultivó en dos medios: uno con hojuelas de avena y otro con hojuelas de avena enriquecido con Spirulina sp., en recipientes de plástico de 15x15x5 cm de altura con 200 g de hojuela de avena y 300 mL de agua purificada. Se utilizaron 5 g de Spirulina en el medio. Se utilizó el programa SYSTAT versión 10.2 para el análisis estadístico; para determinar las diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos, se usó un análisis de varianza unidireccional (ANDEVA...

  7. Hydrogen ions directly regulating the oligomerization state of Photosystem I in intact Spirulina platensis cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    H+ concentration induced-monomerization or trimerization of photosystem I (PSI) in cyanobacteria has never been directly observed. In this work, taking characteristic spectra for the trimers and monomers as the indicators, it was experimentally demonstrated that H+ could induce the oligomeric changes of PSI reaction centers in the intact Spirulina ,platensis cells and also in the isolated thylakoid membrane complexes. Especially, the higher concentration of H+ would induce the monomerization while the lower the trimerization, suggesting the electrostatic interaction should be mainly responsible forchanges in the oligomeric state of PSI in Spirulina platensis.

  8. Biosorption of phenanthrene by pure algae and field-collected planktons and their fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dainan; Ran, Chenyang; Yang, Yu; Ran, Yong

    2013-09-01

    The biosorption isotherms for phenanthrene (Phen) by cultured algae, field-collected plankton, and market algae samples (OSs) and their fractions (lipid-LP, lipid free carbon-LF, alkaline nonhydrolyzable carbon-ANHC, and acid nonhydrolyzable carbon-NHC) were established. All the biosorption isotherms are well fitted by the Freundlich model. The biosorption isotherms for the ANHC and NHC fractions are nonlinear and for the other fractions are linear. It was found that the NHC fractions are chemically and structurally different from other fractions by using elemental analysis and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), consisting mainly of aliphatic polymethylene carbon. The average KOC values for Phen at Ce=0.005Sw are 10706±2768mLg(-1) and 95843±55817mLg(-1) for the bulk market algal samples and their NHC isolates, respectively. As the NHC fraction for Porphyra contains higher polymethylene carbon than that for Seaweed or Spirulina, it exhibits higher biosorption capacity. Moreover, the logKOC values are significantly higher for the field-collected samples than for the market algae and cultured algae samples. The multivariate correlation shows that the logKOC values are positively related to the LP contents, and negatively to the C/N ratios for the original algal samples. Furthermore, the logKOC values are negatively related to the polarity indices (O/C and O+N/C) for the original samples and their fractions excluding LP fractions. These observations help to understand the role of polarity, LP and NHC fractions, and aliphatic structures in the biosorption of Phen, which requires more attention in the examination of sorption processes in the natural environment. PMID:23714149

  9. Evaluation of the Influence of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Nutrients in the Culture and Production ofbiosurfactants by MicroalgaSpirulina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Fernandes De Carvalho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the influence of phosphorus and nitrogen nutrients in the culture and production of biosurfactants by Spirulina platensis LEB 52,Spirulina platensisParacas and Spirulina sp. LEB 18. For this, experiments were performed using Full Factorial Design 22 to evaluate the influence of phosphorus and nitrogen nutrients on the maximum biomass concentration and maximum productivity in the cultures, as well as in production biosurfactant by extracts derived from microalgae through surface tension measurements. The Spirulina platensis LEB 52 provided higher biomass production when compared with the Spirulina platensis LEB 52 andSpirulina platensisParacas, but the phosphorus and nitrogen variables showed no significant influence on the maximum biomass concentration and maximum productivity. The resultds showed that Spirulina sp. LEB 18 was more favorable for the production of biosurfactants in relation to the others strains, because it presented an extract with a surface tension measurement of 31.2 mN.m-1 in a culture performed with higher concentrations of nitrogen (412 mg.L-1 and without the addition of phosphorus.

  10. Attached cultivation for improving the biomass productivity of Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lanlan; Chen, Lin; Wang, Junfeng; Chen, Yu; Gao, Xin; Zhang, Zhaohui; Liu, Tianzhong

    2015-04-01

    To improve cultivation efficiency for microalgae Spirulina platensis is related to increase its potential use as food source and as an effective alternative for CO2 fixation. The present work attempted to establish a technique, namely attached cultivation, for S. platensis. Laboratory experiments were made firstly to investigate optimal conditions on attached cultivation. The optimal conditions were found: 25 g m(-2) for initial inoculum density using electrostatic flocking cloth as substrata, light intensity lower than 200 μmol m(-2) s(-1), CO2 enriched air flow (0.5%) at a superficial aeration rate of 0.0056 m s(-1) in a NaHCO3-free Zarrouk medium. An outdoor attached cultivation bench-scale bioreactor was built and a 10d culture of S. platensis was carried out with daily harvesting. A high footprint areal biomass productivity of 60 g m(-2) d(-1) was obtained. The nutrition of S. platensis with attached cultivation is identical to that with conventional liquid cultivation. PMID:25647023

  11. Medical Application of Spirulina platensis Derived C-Phycocyanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Huang, Yinghong; Zhang, Ronghua; Cai, Tiange; Cai, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Along with the development of marine biological pharmaceutical research, high-effective and low-toxic drugs and functional foods isolated from marine organisms have become a new field of pharmacy and bromatology. The pharmacological actions, such as anti-inflammation, antioxidation, antitumor, immunological enhancement, and hepatorenal protection of C-phycocyanin (C-PC) from Spirulina platensis, have been reported, and C-PC has important value of development and utilization either as drug or as functional food. There are many researches about the various pharmacological actions and mechanisms of C-PC, but related reports are only to some extent integrated deeply and accurately enough, which put some limitations to the further application of C-PC in medicine. Particularly, with the improvement of living standards and attention to health issues, C-PC being a functional food is preferred by more and more people. C-PC is easy to get, safe, and nontoxic; thus, it has a great potential of research and development as a drug or functional food. Here, the separation and purification, physicochemical properties, physiological and pharmacological activities, safety, and some applications are reviewed to provide relevant basis for the development of natural medicine and applied products. PMID:27293463

  12. Production and characterization of antimicrobial active substance from Spirulina platensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa M El-Sheekh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out to investigate the ability of Spirulina platensis to produce antimicrobial substance against bacteria and fungi.The cells of the cyanobacterium were subjected to different extractions and the purified antagonistic compound proved to be effective against broad spectrum of bacteria and fungi. The antagonistic compound was purified using thin layer chromatography.The results indicated that the IR spectrum showed bands at 1269 cm(-1, 1414 cm(-1 (C-O-C, 1643 cm(-1 (CO of amide,1563 cm(-1 (C = C and broad band 3441 cm(-1 (of OH and NH., (1HNMR showed δ 0.8 (-CH3, δ 1.2 (-CH2, δ 4.2(-OH, δ 7.2(-NH, δ 7.4 and δ 7.7 (aromatic CH., Mass spectrum showed molecular ion beak at m/z = 341 (abundance (0.03%. Also, the elemental analysis gave molecular formula,C15H18NO8.The purified antimicrobial compound produced by S. platensis was more active against Gram positive, Gram negative bacteria and unicellular fungi, C. albicans. The highest biological activity was recorded against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger. The results of this investigation proved that cyanobacteria could be a good source for production of antimicrobial agents which could be effective when compared with contemporary antimicrobial compounds.

  13. Medical Application of Spirulina platensis Derived C-Phycocyanin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the development of marine biological pharmaceutical research, high-effective and low-toxic drugs and functional foods isolated from marine organisms have become a new field of pharmacy and bromatology. The pharmacological actions, such as anti-inflammation, antioxidation, antitumor, immunological enhancement, and hepatorenal protection of C-phycocyanin (C-PC from Spirulina platensis, have been reported, and C-PC has important value of development and utilization either as drug or as functional food. There are many researches about the various pharmacological actions and mechanisms of C-PC, but related reports are only to some extent integrated deeply and accurately enough, which put some limitations to the further application of C-PC in medicine. Particularly, with the improvement of living standards and attention to health issues, C-PC being a functional food is preferred by more and more people. C-PC is easy to get, safe, and nontoxic; thus, it has a great potential of research and development as a drug or functional food. Here, the separation and purification, physicochemical properties, physiological and pharmacological activities, safety, and some applications are reviewed to provide relevant basis for the development of natural medicine and applied products.

  14. Fuel From Algae: Scaling and Commercialization of Algae Harvesting Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-01-15

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Led by CEO Ross Youngs, AVS has patented a cost-effective dewatering technology that separates micro-solids (algae) from water. Separating micro-solids from water traditionally requires a centrifuge, which uses significant energy to spin the water mass and force materials of different densities to separate from one another. In a comparative analysis, dewatering 1 ton of algae in a centrifuge costs around $3,400. AVS’s Solid-Liquid Separation (SLS) system is less energy-intensive and less expensive, costing $1.92 to process 1 ton of algae. The SLS technology uses capillary dewatering with filter media to gently facilitate water separation, leaving behind dewatered algae which can then be used as a source for biofuels and bio-products. The biomimicry of the SLS technology emulates the way plants absorb and spread water to their capillaries.

  15. Transgenic algae engineered for higher performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, Pat J; Anderson, Penelope S; Knight, Thomas J

    2014-10-21

    The present disclosure relates to transgenic algae having increased growth characteristics, and methods of increasing growth characteristics of algae. In particular, the disclosure relates to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and a glutamine synthetase.

  16. Extraction, purification and nanoformulation of natural phycocyanin (from Klamath algae) for dermal and deeper soft tissue delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caddeo, Carla; Chessa, Maura; Vassallo, Antonio; Pons, Ramon; Diez-Sales, Octavio; Fadda, Anna Maria; Manconi, Maria

    2013-11-01

    This study focuses on the extraction and isolation of a natural anti-inflammatory phycocyanin and its nanoformulation in innovative and efficient vesicular carriers able to improve its delivery to the skin. C-phycocyanin was successfully isolated from a commercial dry extract (AfaMax) of blue-green Klamath algae. Protein extraction and purity were confirmed by gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE), MALDI top-down sequencing, Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry, and UV absorption. Purified C-phycocyanin was then encapsulated in different phospholipid vesicles: liposomes, ethosomes and Penetration Enhancer containing Vesicles (PEVs), the latter containing the penetration enhancer propylene glycol or Transcutol P. The main colloidal characteristics of the systems were assessed, showing spherical vesicles around 100 nm, negatively charged, with different lamellarity depending on the formulation composition. An in depth investigation on vesicle geometrical properties and morphology was carried out by Small and Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering. Further, the ability of rhodamine-labelled vesicles to allow fluorescent phycocyanin penetration and distribution through human skin was evaluated by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, while a complete picture of vesicle-treated skin architecture was gained using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Results indicate that PEVs, especially propylene glycol containing vesicles, are promising carriers for the delivery of the high molecular weight protein phycocyanin to the deep skin layers. PMID:24059092

  17. Elongation of lifetime of photosynthetic biofuel-cells containing immobilized algae; Koteika aiso wo mochiita kogosei biseibutsu denchi no chojumyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagishita, T.; Sawayama, S.; Inoue, S.; Ogi, T. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1994-12-08

    An experimental study is performed for elongation of lifetime of photosynthetic biofuel-cells using the living blue-green algae and a mediator. In the experiment, correlation between a current generated from cultured Anabaena and the life of the cells is investigated. Anabaena is recovered from the cells after the cells are operated for 10 hours in the dark and is cultured for 10 hours under irradiation with a Xe lamp and ventilation of 3 % CO2. Thereafter, immobilized Anabaena is returned into the cells and the cells are again actuated in repetition. Three load resistances 1 K ohm, 700 ohm, 400 ohm are employed and operation time of the current is lengthened under any conditions compared with the case where the cells are continuously operated. Further, provided a generated current is limited to 0.6 mA or lower, the current is not lowered even if the cells are operated for 90 hours. It is concluded that provided Anabaena is cultured after the electricity of 6.4 mA/h per the amount of chlorophyl in Anabaena is taken out, an output of the cells is kept unchanged for a long time. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Photosynthesis and photorespiration in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, N D; Canvin, D T; Culver, D A

    1977-05-01

    The CO(2) exchange of several species of fresh water and marine algae was measured in the laboratory to determine whether photorespiration occurs in these organisms. The algae were positioned as thin layers on filter paper and the CO(2) exchange determined in an open gas exchange system. In either 21 or 1% O(2) there was little difference between (14)CO(2) and (12)CO(2) uptake. Apparent photosynthesis was the same in 2, 21, or 50% O(2). The compensation points of all algae were less than 10 mul 1(-1). CO(2) or (14)CO(2) evolution into CO(2)-free air in the light was always less than the corresponding evolution in darkness. These observations are inconsistent with the proposal that photorespiration exists in these algae. PMID:16659972

  19. Cryopreservation of eukaryotic soil algae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukešová, Alena; Worland, M. R.; Hrouzek, Pavel

    Coimbra: Society for Cryobiology, 2003. s. 32. [Cryobiomol 2003 - Low Temperature Biology. 14.09.2003-18.09.2003, Coimbra] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : cryopreservation * eukaryotic soil algae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  20. MONOTERPENE BIOSYNTHESIS IN MARINE ALGAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine algae produce a variety of secondary metabolites involved in chemical defense. Among these the monoterpenes present several highly unusual characteristics relative to their terrestrial counterparts. The monoterpenes produced by these marine organisms are nearly always halogenated and posses...

  1. Carotenoids in Algae: Distributions, Biosyntheses and Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Shinichi Takaichi

    2011-01-01

    For photosynthesis, phototrophic organisms necessarily synthesize not only chlorophylls but also carotenoids. Many kinds of carotenoids are found in algae and, recently, taxonomic studies of algae have been developed. In this review, the relationship between the distribution of carotenoids and the phylogeny of oxygenic phototrophs in sea and fresh water, including cyanobacteria, red algae, brown algae and green algae, is summarized. These phototrophs contain division- or class-specific carote...

  2. Scenario studies for algae production

    OpenAIRE

    Slegers, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae are a promising biomass for the biobased economy to produce food, feed, fuel, chemicals and materials. So far, large-scale production of algae is limited and as a result estimates on the performance of such large systems are scarce. There is a need to estimate large-scale biomass productivity and energy consumption, while considering the uncertainty and complexity in such large-scale systems. In this thesis frameworks are developed to assess 1) the productivity during algae cultiva...

  3. Neuroprotective Effects of Marine Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Se-Kwon Kim; Ratih Pangestuti

    2011-01-01

    The marine environment is known as a rich source of chemical structures with numerous beneficial health effects. Among marine organisms, marine algae have been identified as an under-exploited plant resource, although they have long been recognized as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Presently, several lines of studies have provided insight into biological activities and neuroprotective effects of marine algae including antioxidant, anti-neuroinflammatory, choline...

  4. Biological Effects of Spirulina (Arthrospira Biopolymers and Biomass in the Development of Nanostructured Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Greque de Morais

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina is produced from pure cultures of the photosynthetic prokaryotic cyanobacteria Arthrospira. For many years research centers throughout the world have studied its application in various scientific fields, especially in foods and medicine. The biomass produced from Spirulina cultivation contains a variety of biocompounds, including biopeptides, biopolymers, carbohydrates, essential fatty acids, minerals, oligoelements, and sterols. Some of these compounds are bioactive and have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, and antifungal properties. These compounds can be used in tissue engineering, the interdisciplinary field that combines techniques from cell science, engineering, and materials science and which has grown in importance over the past few decades. Spirulina biomass can be used to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs, biopolymers that can substitute synthetic polymers in the construction of engineered extracellular matrices (scaffolds for use in tissue cultures or bioactive molecule construction. This review describes the development of nanostructured scaffolds based on biopolymers extracted from microalgae and biomass from Spirulina production. These scaffolds have the potential to encourage cell growth while reducing the risk of organ or tissue rejection.

  5. 78 FR 68713 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Spirulina Extract; Confirmation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... the safe use of spirulina extract made from the dried biomass of the cyanobacteria Arthrospira... final rule published August 13, 2013 (78 FR 49117), is confirmed as September 13, 2013. FOR FURTHER... the Federal Register of August 13, 2013 (78 FR 49117), we amended the color additive regulations...

  6. Wool quality traits of purebred and crossbred Merino lambs orally drenched with Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W.B. Holman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Spirulina supplementation, sire breed and sex on the wool characteristics of purebred and crossbred Merino weaned lambs under a single pasture-based management system. Lambs sired by Merino, White Suffolk, Dorset, Black Suffolk breeds were randomly allocated into 3 treatments – the control group grazing without Spirulina (0 mL, low (100 mL and high (200 mL Spirulina groups. All lambs were kept as a single mob in paddocks, grazed for 9 weeks and wool samples analysed. Differences in wool quality between the control and supplemented groups were not significant (P>0.05. However, sire breed significantly (P<0.001 influenced fibre diameter, spinning fineness, comfort factor and fibre curvature with purebred Merinos having superior wool quality than crossbreds. Wethers grew higher quality wool than ewes. Spirulina has a potential as an alternative supplementary bioresource in dual-purpose sheep feeding because it does not compromise wool quality in supplemented weaner lambs.

  7. 78 FR 49117 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Spirulina Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... safe use of spirulina extract made from the dried biomass of the cyanobacteria Arthrospira platensis (A... of January 20, 2012 (77 FR 2935), we announced that Mars, Inc., c/o Keller and Heckman LLP, 1001 G... information on a GRAS self- determination to us for review through our GRAS notification program (see 62...

  8. Effect of Supplementing Spirulina on Live Performance, Carcass Composition and Meat Quality of Japanese Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Swee Weng CHEONG

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis inclusion in feed on live performance, carcass composition and meat quality of Japanese quails during growing stage to identify the best inclusion range for Japanese quails without affecting the growth and carcass parameters. Three hundred Japanese quails of 15 days of age were used in this experiment, randomly divided into 5 groups with 3 replication comprised of 30 males and 30 females. The quails were fed with a basal diet as a control and 4 levels of Spirulina inclusion diet 1, 2, 4 and 8 %. Diets were fed to birds from 15 days to 35 days of age. Body weight gain (BWG, Feed intake (FI, Feed conversion ratio (FCR and Mortality rate (MR were recorded weekly during the experiment. Carcass composition and meat quality tests were done after slaughtering. BWG, FI, FCR and MR were significantly different (p < 0.05 in the experiment. Carcass composition was found to be significantly different in the leg percentage (p < 0.05. Meat color and meat shear force value were also found to differ significantly (p < 0.05 with the Spirulina inclusion diet showing a better result than the control. Therefore, the result of this experiment suggests that diets up to 4 % of Spirulina achieve the best live performance, carcass composition and meat quality.

  9. Technological and nutritional assessment of dry pasta with oatmeal and the microalga Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Arnhold Pagnussatt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat flour is the most important raw material in the production of pasta. The production process consists of mixing water and flour, kneading, extrusion and drying. Oats and the microalga Spirulina platensis play a physiological role in the growth, development and maintenance of the human organism due to their high nutritional value. The aim of this study was to assess the technological and nutritional properties of dry pasta prepared with the addition of oatmeal and Spirulina platensis. The wheat flour was characterized and the effect of partial replacement by oatmeal and Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis was evaluated using response surface methodology (RSM. The mixtures were analysed for moisture, protein, ash, colour, particle size, falling number and alveography. The formulated pastas were dried and evaluated for moisture, colour, cooking test, acidity, proximate composition and amino acids. Generally, the addition of Spirulina platensis influenced the soluble solids content and colour of the pasta, while the oatmeal mainly affected the acid content. The oatmeal increased the values of crude protein and total dietary fibre (13.06% when compared with the commercial pasta (2.40% and may be considered as a source of fibre.

  10. Effect of polysaccharides from spirulina platensis on immunological function of mice exposed to γ-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The polysaccharide from spirulina platensis (PSP) was further purified by sephadex G-100. PSP contained about 77.63% of sugar. The effect of PSP on immunological function of irradiated mice were studied. The results showed that PSP significantly improved organ weight, lymphocyte number and lymphocyte transformation in spleen of mice irradiated by 5 Gy

  11. The effects of ionizing radiations on the main beneficial free radical in Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methods of mass spectrometry, gas chromatography - mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography were used in the analytical studies performed in order to establish the effects of ionizing radiation on the main beneficial free radical (C Phycocyanin, a-chlorophylls, b-chlorophylls, carotenoids and unsaturated fatty acids) in Spirulina platensis biomass. (author)

  12. Stable bio-oil production from proteinaceous cyanobacteria: tail gas reactive pyrolysis of spirulina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrolysis of Spirulina, a cyanobacteria with high levels of protein (74 wt %) and low levels of lipid (0.8 wt %) content, has the potential to produce fuels and platform chemicals that differ from those produced from lignocellulosic materials. The yields and product distribution from fluidized-bed p...

  13. Efecto de la Spirulina platensis en la toxicidad producida por acrilamida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Sánchez

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available La Spirulina platensis es una microalga verde-azul con alto valor nutritivo y con propiedades farmacológicas de interés. Se realizaron dos experimentos, en uno se determinó la letalidad: DL10, DL50 y DL90, de acrilamida en ratones y para ello se utilizaron 1 000 mg/kg por vía oral de Spirulina 1 hora o 5 días antes de la administración de acrilamida. En el otro, se suministró la Spirulina en dosis de 500 mg/kg por vía oral, diariamente durante 3 semanas previas a la administración de100 mg/kg de acrilamida por vía intraperitoneal durante 5 días. Se emplearon el método de Litchfield y Wilcoxon y la Probabilidad Exacta de Fischer con una p Spirulina platensis is a green-blue microalga with a high nutritional value and with pharmacological properties of interest. 2 experiments were made. In one of them the lethality of DL10, DL50 and DL90 of acrylamide in mice was determined. To this end, 1000 mg/kg of Spirulina were administered by oral route 1 hour or 5 days before the administration of acrylamide. In the other experiment, Spirulina was administered at doses of 500 mg/kg daily by oral route during 3 weeks previous to the administration of 100 mg/kg of acrylamide by intraperitoneal route during 5 days. Litchfield and Wilcoxon's methods as well as Fischer's Exact Probability were used with a p< 0,05. In no case Spirulina prevented the mortality produced by acrylamide even when it was well used at unique doses or repeatedly for a short period of time. The previous result discarded an antagonism of pathological character and gave the possibility to study the influence of this microalga on axonal neuropathy induced by the prolonged administration of acrylamide.

  14. Spirulina platensis Extract Supplementation Attenuates Diabetic Complication in Gamma Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder, is becoming a major health problem. Although there are a number of drugs available on the market, long time use may cause a number of side effects. Spirulina is a microscopic and filamentous cyanobacterium that contains essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and anti-oxidative components. The objective of this study was to analyze the possible hypo glycemic and hypolipidaemic effects of Spirulina intake against streptozotocin and/or radiation induced diabetes in male albino rats. In the experiment, a total of 60 rats were used and the rats were divided into six groups of ten rats each: group I, normal untreated rats (control) ; group II, animals of this group received only Spirulina (15 mg/kg) for 30 consecutive days; group III, animals were injected intraperitoneally with a freshly prepared solution of streptozotocin(STZ) (45 mg/kg i.p.) in 0.1 M citrate buffer, ph 4.5 for 30 consecutive days ; group IV, as group II then given Spirulina for 30 days , group V, same as group III then exposed to 6 Gy gamma radiation as a single dose shot ; and group VI, Spirulina + diabetic irradiated group, rats were given orally Spirulina (15 mg/kg) then injected in - traperitoneally with (STZ) followed by irradiation at a dose level of 6 Gy as a single dose shot. The results revealed that animal treated with STZ or/and exposed to gamma radiation showed an increase in fasting blood sugar (FBS), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (Tg), low density lipoprotein (LDL), plasma insulin and C- peptide in compared to control. Also, a marked increase in the liver tissue of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and a decrease in glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) was observed. Oral pretreatment of rats with aqueous extract of Spirulina (SPE) counteracted STZ or/and radiation induced lipid peroxidation and encouraging hypoglycemic and hypolipidaemic properties of the treated

  15. Spirulina promotes stem cell genesis and protects against LPS induced declines in neural stem cell proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam D Bachstetter

    Full Text Available Adult stem cells are present in many tissues including, skin, muscle, adipose, bone marrow, and in the brain. Neuroinflammation has been shown to be a potent negative regulator of stem cell and progenitor cell proliferation in the neurogenic regions of the brain. Recently we demonstrated that decreasing a key neuroinflammatory cytokine IL-1beta in the hippocampus of aged rats reversed the age-related cognitive decline and increased neurogenesis in the age rats. We also have found that nutraceuticals have the potential to reduce neuroinflammation, and decrease oxidative stress. The objectives of this study were to determine if spirulina could protect the proliferative potential of hippocampal neural progenitor cells from an acute systemic inflammatory insult of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. To this end, young rats were fed for 30 days a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.1% spirulina. On day 28 the rats were given a single i.p. injection of LPS (1 mg/kg. The following day the rats were injected with BrdU (50 mg/kg b.i.d. i.p. and were sacrificed 24 hours after the first injection of BrdU. Quantification of the BrdU positive cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus demonstrated a decrease in proliferation of the stem/progenitor cells in the hippocampus as a result of the LPS insult. Furthermore, the diet supplemented with spirulina was able to negate the LPS induced decrease in stem/progenitor cell proliferation. In a second set of studies we examined the effects of spirulina either alone or in combination with a proprietary formulation (NT-020 of blueberry, green tea, vitamin D3 and carnosine on the function of bone marrow and CD34+ cells in vitro. Spirulina had small effects on its own and more than additive effects in combination with NT-020 to promote mitochondrial respiration and/or proliferation of these cells in culture. When examined on neural stem cells in culture spirulina increased proliferation at baseline and protected

  16. The design and optimization for light-algae bioreactor controller based on Artificial Neural Network-Model Predictive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dawei; Liu, Hong; Yang, Chenliang; Hu, Enzhu

    As a subsystem of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS), light-algae bioreactor (LABR) has properties of high reaction rate, efficiently synthesizing microalgal biomass, absorbing CO2 and releasing O2, so it is significant for BLSS to provide food and maintain gas balance. In order to manipulate the LABR properly, it has been designed as a closed-loop control system, and technology of Artificial Neural Network-Model Predictive Control (ANN-MPC) is applied to design the controller for LABR in which green microalgae, Spirulina platensis is cultivated continuously. The conclusion is drawn by computer simulation that ANN-MPC controller can intelligently learn the complicated dynamic performances of LABR, and automatically, robustly and self-adaptively regulate the light intensity illuminating on the LABR, hence make the growth of microalgae in the LABR be changed in line with the references, meanwhile provide appropriate damping to improve markedly the transient response performance of LABR.

  17. The leaves of green plants as well as a cyanobacterium, a red alga, and fungi contain insulin-like antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.B. Silva

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the detection of insulin-like antigens in a large range of species utilizing a modified ELISA plate assay and Western blotting. We tested the leaves or aerial parts of species of Rhodophyta (red alga, Bryophyta (mosses, Psilophyta (whisk ferns, Lycopodophyta (club mosses, Sphenopsida (horsetails, gymnosperms, and angiosperms, including monocots and dicots. We also studied species of fungi and a cyanobacterium, Spirulina maxima. The wide distribution of insulin-like antigens, which in some cases present the same electrophoretic mobility as bovine insulin, together with results recently published by us on the amino acid sequence of an insulin isolated from the seed coat of jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis and from the developing fruits of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, suggests that pathways depending on this hormone have been conserved through evolution.

  18. Adsorptive removal of cadmium ions by Spirulina platensis dry biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Homaidan, Ali A; Alabdullatif, Jamila A; Al-Hazzani, Amal A; Al-Ghanayem, Abdullah A; Alabbad, Aljawharah F

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium is one of the most toxic substances found in aquatic ecosystems. This metal tends to accumulate in photosynthetic plants and fish and is transferred to humans causing many diseases. It has to be removed from our environment to reduce any health risks. Dry biomass of the microalga (cyanobacterium) Spirulina platensis was used as biosorbent for the removal of cadmium ions (Cd(2+)) from aqueous solutions. The effects of different levels of pH (3-9), biomass concentration (0.25-2 g), temperature (18-46 °C), metal concentration (40-200 mg/l) and contact time (30-120 min) were tested. Batch cultures were carried out in triplicate in an orbital shaker at 150 rpm. After centrifuging the biomass, the remaining levels of cadmium ions were measured in the supernatant by Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. Very high levels of removal, reaching up to 87.69% were obtained. The highest percentage of removal was reached at pH 8, 2 g of biosorbent, 26 °C, and 60 mg/l of cadmium concentration after 90 min of contact time. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to describe the adsorption isotherm of the metal ions by S. platensis. Langmuir model was found to be in better correlation with experimental data (R (2) = 0.92). Results of this study indicated that S. platensis is a very good candidate for the removal of heavy metals from aquatic environments. The process is feasible, reliable and eco-friendly. PMID:26587009

  19. Binding characteristics of copper and cadmium by cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang Linchuan [State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zhou Chen; Cai Peng [Key Laboratory of Subtropical Agricultural Resources and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Chen Wenli [State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Rong Xingmin; Dai Ke; Liang Wei [Key Laboratory of Subtropical Agricultural Resources and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Gu Jidong [Department of Ecology and Biodiversity, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Huang Qiaoyun, E-mail: qyhuang@mail.hzau.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Key Laboratory of Subtropical Agricultural Resources and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} The carboxyl groups play a vital role in the binding of Cu(II) and Cd(II) to S. platensis cells. {yields} Ion exchange and complexation are the dominating mechanism for Cu(II) and Cd(II) adsorption. {yields} XAFS analysis provided evidence for the inner-sphere complexation of Cu by carboxyl ligands and showed that Cu is complexed by two 5-membered chelate rings on S. platensis surface. - Abstract: Cyanobacteria are promising biosorbent for heavy metals in bioremediation. Although sequestration of metals by cyanobacteria is known, the actual mechanisms and ligands involved are not very well understood. The binding characteristics of Cu(II) and Cd(II) by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis were investigated using a combination of chemical modifications, batch adsorption experiments, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. A significant increase in Cu(II) and Cd(II) binding was observed in the range of pH 3.5-5.0. Dramatical decrease in adsorption of Cu(II) and Cd(II) was observed after methanol esterification of the nonliving cells demonstrating that carboxyl functional groups play an important role in the binding of metals by S. platensis. The desorption rate of Cu(II) and Cd(II) from S. platensis surface was 72.7-80.7% and 53.7-58.0% by EDTA and NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}, respectively, indicating that ion exchange and complexation are the dominating mechanisms for Cu(II) and Cd(II) adsorption. XAFS analysis provided further evidence on the inner-sphere complexation of Cu by carboxyl ligands and showed that Cu is complexed by two 5-membered chelate rings on S. platensis surface.

  20. Binding characteristics of copper and cadmium by cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → The carboxyl groups play a vital role in the binding of Cu(II) and Cd(II) to S. platensis cells. → Ion exchange and complexation are the dominating mechanism for Cu(II) and Cd(II) adsorption. → XAFS analysis provided evidence for the inner-sphere complexation of Cu by carboxyl ligands and showed that Cu is complexed by two 5-membered chelate rings on S. platensis surface. - Abstract: Cyanobacteria are promising biosorbent for heavy metals in bioremediation. Although sequestration of metals by cyanobacteria is known, the actual mechanisms and ligands involved are not very well understood. The binding characteristics of Cu(II) and Cd(II) by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis were investigated using a combination of chemical modifications, batch adsorption experiments, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. A significant increase in Cu(II) and Cd(II) binding was observed in the range of pH 3.5-5.0. Dramatical decrease in adsorption of Cu(II) and Cd(II) was observed after methanol esterification of the nonliving cells demonstrating that carboxyl functional groups play an important role in the binding of metals by S. platensis. The desorption rate of Cu(II) and Cd(II) from S. platensis surface was 72.7-80.7% and 53.7-58.0% by EDTA and NH4NO3, respectively, indicating that ion exchange and complexation are the dominating mechanisms for Cu(II) and Cd(II) adsorption. XAFS analysis provided further evidence on the inner-sphere complexation of Cu by carboxyl ligands and showed that Cu is complexed by two 5-membered chelate rings on S. platensis surface.

  1. Chemomodulation of carcinogen metabolising enzymes, antioxidant profiles and skin and forestomach papillomagenesis by Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, T; Banejee, S; Yadav, P K; Rao, A R

    2001-10-01

    Numerous reports have revealed an inverse association between consumption of some selective natural products and risk of developing cancer. In the present study the effect of 250 and 500 mg/kg body wt. of Spirulina was examined on drug metabolising phase I and phase II enzymes, antioxidant enzymes, glutathione content, lactate dehydrogenase and lipid peroxidation in the liver of 7-week-old Swiss albino mice. The implications of these biochemical alterations have been further evaluated adopting the protocol of benzo(a)pyrene induced forestomach and 7,12 dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) initiated and croton oil promoted skin papillomagenesis. Our primary findings reveal the 'Monofunctional' nature of Spirulina as deduced from its potential to induce only the phase II enzyme activities associated mainly with carcinogen detoxification. The glutathione S-transferase and DT-diaphorase specific activities were induced in hepatic and all the extrahepatic organs examined (lung, kidney and forestomach) by Spirulina pretreatment (significance level being from p < 0.05 to p < 0.005) except for the low dose treatment in forestomach. With reference to antioxidant enzymes viz., superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione were increased significantly by both the chosen doses of Spirulina from p < 0.01 to p < 0.005. Chemopreventive response was quantitated by the average number of papillomas per effective mouse (tumor burden) as well as percentage of tumor bearing animals. There was a significant inhibition of tumor burden as well as tumor incidence in both the tumor model systems studied. In the skin tumor studies tumor burden was reduced from 4.86 to 1.20 and 1.15 by the low and high dose treatment respectively. In stomach tumor studies tumor burden was 2.05 and 1.73 by the low and high doses of Spirulina treatment against 3.73 that of control. PMID:11768236

  2. Effect of Spirulina maxima Supplementation on Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, and Zinc Status in Obese Patients with Treated Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliburska, J; Szulińska, M; Tinkov, A A; Bogdański, P

    2016-09-01

    The effects of Spirulina maxima supplementation on calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc status were studied in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial of 50 obese subjects with treated hypertension, each randomized to receive 2 g of spirulina or a placebo daily for 3 months. At baseline and after treatment, the calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc concentration in plasma was assessed. It was found that 3 months of S. maxima supplementation resulted in a significant decrease in the iron level in the plasma of obese patients. In conclusion, this is the first clinical study on the influence of spirulina supplementation on mineral status in obese patients with hypertension. Spirulina supplementation affects the iron status of obese Caucasians with well-treated hypertension. PMID:26779620

  3. Effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on growth, protein and chlorophyll-a content of Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygideger, Saadet Demirors; Okkay, Ozlem

    2008-03-01

    In this study, effect of different 2,4 -dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) concentrations (0.0, 9.10(-5), 9.10(-4), 9.10(-3) and 9.10(-2) mM) on growth rate, content of protein and chlorophyll-a in Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis cells was investigated. The most stimulatory effect on growth rate, protein and pigment ratio of C. vulgaris and S. platensis was observed at 9.10(-4) mM concentrations of 2,4-D. The results show that low concentrations of 2,4-D have hormonal effect due to being a synthetic auxin. Cell number protein and pigment rates were inhibited at 9.10(-2) mM concentration in C. vulgaris. Such parameters were inhibited in S. platensis, both at 9.10(-3) and 9.10(-2) mM 2,4-D concentrations. This is due to herbicidal effect of high concentrations of 2,4-D. S. platensis was found to be more sensitive than S. vulgaris to 2,4-D applications. The use of algae as bio-indicators in herbicide contaminated fresh water habitats, was discussed. PMID:18831369

  4. 77 FR 54862 - GNT USA, Inc.; Filing of Color Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of spirulina concentrate, made from the edible blue-green cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis (also known as Spirulina platensis) as a color additive...-green cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis (also known as Spirulina platensis) as a color additive...

  5. Effect of Replacing Fishmeal with Spirulina on Growth, Carcass Composition and Pigment of the Mekong Giant Catfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudaporn Tongsiri

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina has been commercially cultivated because of its high nutritional content. It can be considered a nutritional supplement for humans with various health benefits, and a feed supplement for animals having economic benefits. In aquaculture, Spirulina has been used to improve the immune system and increase the survival rate in juvenile commercial fish, as well as to increase their flesh pigment. From these applications, Spirulina could be used to replace high protein feed ingredient such as fishmeal and soybean meal to save the costs of feed. The M ekong Giant Catfish (Pla Buk, Pangasianodon gigas Chevey, is one of the largest species of freshwater catfish in the world. This fish is an endemic species in the Mekong River and its branches. At present, Thailand could culture this fish on a commercial scale. This study was conducted to investigate replacing fishmeal with Spirulina, at 0, 15, 30 and 100%, and to evaluate growth, feed utilization and pigment in flesh of fish. The results showed that the proximate composition of the various feeds (4 formulas had similar nutritional value. Average daily gain, specific growth rate and feed conversion rate were not significantly different. However total biomass increase of fish fed with Spirulina 0% was significantly lower than fish fed with Spirulina 15, 30 and 100% (p<0.05. The standard length of the fish and weight in terms of flesh, gut and stomach were not significantly different. As well, flesh pigment and carotenoids were not significantly different.

  6. Neuroprotective Effects of Marine Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se-Kwon Kim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment is known as a rich source of chemical structures with numerous beneficial health effects. Among marine organisms, marine algae have been identified as an under-exploited plant resource, although they have long been recognized as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Presently, several lines of studies have provided insight into biological activities and neuroprotective effects of marine algae including antioxidant, anti-neuroinflammatory, cholinesterase inhibitory activity and the inhibition of neuronal death. Hence, marine algae have great potential to be used for neuroprotection as part of pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and functional foods. This contribution presents an overview of marine algal neuroprotective effects and their potential application in neuroprotection.

  7. Enhancement of biodiesel production from different species of algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Moneim M. R. Afify, Abd

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Eight algal species (4 Rhodo, 1 chloro and 1 phaeophycean macroalgae, 1 cyanobacterium and 1 green microalga were used for the production of biodiesel using two extraction solvent systems (Hexane/ether (1:1, v/v and (Chloroform/ methanol (2:1, v/v. Biochemical evaluations of algal species were carried out by estimating biomass, lipid, biodiesel and sediment (glycerin and pigments percentages. Hexane/ ether (1:1, v/v extraction solvent system resulted in low lipid recoveries (2.3-3.5% dry weight while; chloroform/methanol (2: 1, v/v extraction solvent system was proved to be more efficient for lipid and biodiesel extraction (2.5 – 12.5% dry weight depending on algal species. The green microalga Dictyochloropsis splendida extract produced the highest lipid and biodiesel yield (12.5 and 8.75% respectively followed by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (9.2 and 7.5 % respectively. On the other hand, the macroalgae (red, brown and green produced the lowest biodiesel yield. The fatty acids of Dictyochloropsis splendida Geitler biodiesel were determined using gas liquid chromatography. Lipids, biodiesel and glycerol production of Dictyochloropsis splendida Geitler (the promising alga were markedly enhanced by either increasing salt concentration or by nitrogen deficiency with maximum production of (26.8, 18.9 and 7.9 % respectively at nitrogen starvation condition.

    Ocho especies de algas (4 Rhodo, 1 cloro y 1 macroalgas phaeophycean, 1 cianobacteria y 1 microalga verde fueron utilizados para la producción de biodiesel utilizando dos sistemas de extracción con disolventes (hexano/éter (1:1, v/v y (Cloroformo / metanol (2:1, v/v. La evaluación bioquímica de las especies de algas se llevó a cabo mediante la estimación de los porcentajes de biomasa, de lípidos, de biodiesel y de sedimento (glicerina y pigmentos. El sistema extracción con el disolvente hexano/éter (1:1, v

  8. Algae Bloom in a Lake

    OpenAIRE

    David Sanabria

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine the likelihood of an algae bloom in a particular lake located in upstate New York. The growth of algae in this lake is caused by a high concentration of phosphorous that diffuses to the surface of the lake. Our calculations, based on Fick's Law, are used to create a mathematical model of the driving force of diffusion for phosphorous. Empirical observations are also used to predict whether the concentration of phosphorous will diffuse to the surface...

  9. Algae Bloom in a Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sanabria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the likelihood of an algae bloom in a particular lake located in upstate New York. The growth of algae in this lake is caused by a high concentration of phosphorous that diffuses to the surface of the lake. Our calculations, based on Fick's Law, are used to create a mathematical model of the driving force of diffusion for phosphorous. Empirical observations are also used to predict whether the concentration of phosphorous will diffuse to the surface of this lake within a specified time and under specified conditions.

  10. Equilibrium and kinetic studies of lead biosorption by three Spirulina (Arthrospira species in open raceway ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Kiran RR

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The present investigation deals with the biosorption of lead from aqueous solutions in open race way pond using edible and live Spirulina (Arthospira maxima, Spirulina (Arthospira indica, Spirulina (Arthospira platensis. Studies on various initial lead (II ion concentrations, biosorbent dosage, pH and bioaccumulation potential were evaluated. The organisms are tolerant up to 4 mg/l and after that slight growth inhibition was found. Spirulina (Arthospira indica showed more tolerance when compared with Spirulina (Arthospira maxima and Spirulina (Arthospira plantensis. The adsorption rate data was fitted to pseudo second order kinetics. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were applied to the experimental data and their equilibrium parameters were determined. Further optimization of initial lead (II ion concentration, solution pH, agitation speed and biosorbent dosage were done using Box-Behnken experimental design coupled with artificial neural networks. This study provides a deep insight for exploring potential of using algal open race way ponds for biosorption of heavy metals. The diversity of the results can be expanded still further for other algal species and heavy metals. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  11. Formation of algae growth constitutive relations for improved algae modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Drewry, Jessica L.

    2013-01-01

    This SAND report summarizes research conducted as a part of a two year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to improve our abilities to model algal cultivation. Algae-based biofuels have generated much excitement due to their potentially large oil yield from relatively small land use and without interfering with the food or water supply. Algae mitigate atmospheric CO2 through metabolism. Efficient production of algal biofuels could reduce dependence on foreign oil by providing a domestic renewable energy source. Important factors controlling algal productivity include temperature, nutrient concentrations, salinity, pH, and the light-to-biomass conversion rate. Computational models allow for inexpensive predictions of algae growth kinetics in these non-ideal conditions for various bioreactor sizes and geometries without the need for multiple expensive measurement setups. However, these models need to be calibrated for each algal strain. In this work, we conduct a parametric study of key marine algae strains and apply the findings to a computational model.

  12. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  14. Scenario studies for algae production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slegers, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae are a promising biomass for the biobased economy to produce food, feed, fuel, chemicals and materials. So far, large-scale production of algae is limited and as a result estimates on the performance of such large systems are scarce. There is a need to estimate large-scale biomass producti

  15. Algae. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    The plants and plantlike organisms informally grouped together as algae show great diversity of form and size and occur in a wide variety of habitats. These extremely important photosynthesizers are also economically significant. For example, some species contaminate water supplies; others provide food for aquatic animals and for man; still others…

  16. Anaerobic digestion of the microalga Spirulina at extreme alkaline conditions: biogas production, metagenome and metatranscriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimac Nolla-Ardevol

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A haloalkaline anaerobic microbial community obtained from soda lake sediments was used to inoculate anaerobic reactors for the production of methane rich biogas. The microalga Spirulina was successfully digested by the haloalkaline microbial consortium at alkaline conditions (pH 10, 2.0 M Na+. Continuous biogas production was observed and the obtained biogas was rich in methane, up to 96 %. Alkaline medium acted as a CO2 scrubber which resulted in low amounts of CO2 and no traces of H2S in the produced biogas. A hydraulic retention time of 15 days and 0.25 g Spirulina L-1 day-1 organic loading rate were identified as the optimal operational parameters. Metagenomics and metatranscriptomics analysis showed that the hydrolysis of the supplied substrate was mainly carried out by Bacteroidetes of the ML635J-40 aquatic group while the hydrogenotrophic pathway was the main producer of methane in a methanogenic community dominated by Methanocalculus.

  17. Production of Generation-2 Mekong giant catfish (Pangasinodon gigas cultured with Spirulina sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriangsak Meng-umphan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the treatment of Spirulina-supplemented pellet feed to 5-year-old F1 groups of Mekong giant catfish (Pangasinodon gigas from the brood stock and intended for use as breeders. The effects on their growth and maturation when cultured in an earthen pond were observed. Results revealed that, compared to control, there was more gain in weight while the feed conversion ratio was lower. The number of red blood cells was also higher while that of white blood cells was lower, compared to control. Out of 18 treated fish (9 males and 9 females, 6 males and 2 females gave sperms and eggs while none from control group did. It was concluded that Spirulina supplemented in pellet feed can improve growth and maturation performance to the brood stock of Mekong giant catfish.

  18. Biosorption of Ag(I)-Spirulina platensis for different pH

    CERN Document Server

    Gelagutashvili, E; Kuchava, N; Bagdavadze, N; Rcheulishvili, A

    2011-01-01

    Biosorption of Ag(I)-Spirulina platensis for different pH were investigated using dialysis and Atomic-absorbtion analysis. It was shown, that the biosorption constant for Ag(I) Spirulina platensis complex and the capacity depend on the change of pH. In particular, with the increase of pH (pH=5.5. and pH=8.6 cases), the biosorption constant increase and the capacity decreases. The nature of interaction is also changed. In case of neutral pH, the interaction Ag(I)-S. platensis is of cooperative character and maximum metal biosorption by S. platensis biomass was observed at pH 7.0.

  19. The Role of Gamma Irradiation on Growth and Some Metabolic Activities of Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spirulina platensis cells were exposed to different doses of gamma irradiation 0.0; (control), 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 Kilo Gray (kGy) using Co60 as a gamma source at the Cyclotron Unit, Nuclear Research Center, Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority. After which, the cells were cultivated on Zarrouk medium for 14 days (the exponential phase of growth). The optimum growth of Spirulina platensis was recorded at 2.0 kGy as compared to the control after the 14th day of incubation. All of the following analyses were done after 10 days of growth. The results of pigments analysis revealed that the chlorophyll a and carotenoid contents of Spirulina platensis were reached their maximum rate at a dose of 2.0 kGy, Which induces the same trend for phycobiliproteins fractions. The photosynthetic activity and total carbohydrate content of the irradiated Spirulina cells increased with elevating the doses of gamma irradiation and reached a maximum value at a dose of 2.0 kGy as compared to the control. The activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate-carboxylase/oxygenase (RUBISCO) was increased up to irradiation dose of 2.0 kGy. whereas, the maximum activity of the phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase (PEPCASE) was recorded at the irradiation dose of 1.0 kGy Spirulina platensis cells were exposed to different doses of gamma irradiation 0.0; (control), 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 Kilo Gray (kGy) using Co60 as a gamma source at the Cyclotron Unit, Nuclear Research Center, Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority. After which, the cells were cultivated on Zarrouk medium for 14 days (the exponential phase of growth). The optimum growth of Spirulina platensis was recorded at 2.0 kGy as compared to the control after the 14th day of incubation. All of the following analyses were done after 10 days of growth. The results of pigments analysis revealed that the chlorophyll a and carotenoid contents of Spirulina platensis were reached their maximum rate at a dose of 2.0 kGy, Which induces the same trend

  20. Cultivo mixotrófico da microalga Spirulina platensis em batelada alimentada Mixotrophic growth of Spirulina platensis in fed-batch mode

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Muliterno; Patrícia Correa Mosele; Jorge Alberto Vieira Costa; Marcelo Hemkemeier; Telma Elita Bertolin; Luciane Maria Colla

    2005-01-01

    A Spirulina platensis tem sido estudada devido a seu alto valor protéico, digestibilidade e por apresentar quantidades significativas de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados, vitaminas, fenólicos e ficocianina, podendo ser utilizada na alimentação humana. A utilização de nutrientes de baixo custo é um fator importante na produção da cianobactéria por possibilitar a redução de custos de processo. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar o cultivo mixotrófico da S. platensis por meio da adição de uma fo...

  1. Growth response of Spirulina platensis PCC9108 to elevated CO2 levels and flue gas

    OpenAIRE

    Seyedmahdi Hoseini; Abbas Almodares; Saeed Afsharzadeh; Mohamad Sadegh Hatamipur; Fatemeh Montazeri

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Because their ability to capture CO2, photosynthetical microorganisms have some advantages to CO2 mitigation from high CO2 streams such as flue gases and they can use CO2 as carbon source. Recently, experts have made efforts to exploit microorganisms intended for recovering CO2 from power plants. Materials and methods: To achieve this purpose, we studied the growth response of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis PCC9108 under different concentrations of carbon dioxide (ra...

  2. Well-tolerated Spirulina extract inhibits influenza virus replication and reduces virus-induced mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Hsiang Chen; Gi-Kung Chang; Shu-Ming Kuo; Sheng-Yu Huang; I-Chen Hu; Yu-Lun Lo; Shin-Ru Shih

    2016-01-01

    Influenza is one of the most common human respiratory diseases, and represents a serious public health concern. However, the high mutability of influenza viruses has hampered vaccine development, and resistant strains to existing anti-viral drugs have also emerged. Novel anti-influenza therapies are urgently needed, and in this study, we describe the anti-viral properties of a Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) cold water extract. Anti-viral effects have previously been reported for extracts a...

  3. Study of phycocyanin production from Spirulina platensis under different light spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo Walter; Júlio Cesar de Carvalho; Vanete Thomaz Soccol; Ana Bárbara Bisinella de Faria; Vanessa Ghiggi; Carlos Ricardo Soccol

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the production of phycocyanin by Spirulina platensis under different spectra of light. The dependent variables evaluated were the amount of phycocyanin obtained and its purity, demonstrating that there might be a restructuring of phycobilisomes, especially when the culture was subjected to red light, which increased the purity level up to 33% with a reduction of 16% in phycocyanin content, but with higher photosynthetic efficiency compared to natural li...

  4. Kinetics and adsorption isotherm of C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis on ion-exchange resins

    OpenAIRE

    Sala, L; F. S. Figueira; G. P. Cerveira; C. C. Moraes; S. J. Kalil

    2014-01-01

    C-phycocyanin is a natural blue dye extracted from Spirulina platensis, which has many applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this paper the effect of pH and temperature on the adsorption of C-phycocyanin onto two different ion exchange resins (Streamline DEAE and Streamline Q XL) for expanded bed adsorption chromatography was investigated. Moreover, the kinetics and adsorption isotherm were evaluated. The equilibrium for the Q XL matrix was reached after 60 min, while for...

  5. Decontaminative effect of irradiation on spirulina powder and its active components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decontaminative effects of 60Co γ-rays, irradiation on spirulina powder and its main active components, such as mineral, vitamin, amino acid and activities of SOD and POD were studied. The results showed that the irradiation treatment was very effective on eliminating microorganism in spirulina powder, and the components varied with the irradiation dose. In the range of 4.0-8.0 kGy, the higher the irradiation dose is, the more the content of polysaccharide is. On the contrary, contents of phycobiliprotein, phycocyanins, vitamin and activities of SOD, POD decrease with the increase of dose. The number of microorganism in spirulina powder was controlled the national standard when irradiation dose was 6.0 kGy. Compared with CK, the ranges of all components in irradiated Spirulinal powder are just like that there was 27.2% increase in the content of polysaccharide if irradiation dose was 8 kGy, and the contents of Phycobiliprotein and Phycocyanins decreased significantly if dose was more than 6.0 kGy. When dose ranged from 4 kGy to 8 kGy, decrease ratios to contents of Vc are 40.6%, 62.8%, 14.1%, contents of VA are 36.3%, 17.6%, 17.0%, contents of VE are 25.8%, 61.7%, 52.6%. On the base of these results, we conclude that the optimal doses for Spirulina powder irradiation is in the range of 4.0-6.0 kGy for the sake of various quality factors. (authors)

  6. Study of phycocyanin production from Spirulina platensis under different light spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Walter

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the production of phycocyanin by Spirulina platensis under different spectra of light. The dependent variables evaluated were the amount of phycocyanin obtained and its purity, demonstrating that there might be a restructuring of phycobilisomes, especially when the culture was subjected to red light, which increased the purity level up to 33% with a reduction of 16% in phycocyanin content, but with higher photosynthetic efficiency compared to natural light.

  7. Stable Isolation of Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis Associated with High-Pressure Extraction Process

    OpenAIRE

    Kyung-Hwan Jung; Jin Oh Park; Jong Ho Park; Woo Seok Choi; Yong Chang Seo; Hyeon Yong Lee

    2013-01-01

    A method for stably purifying a functional dye, phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis was developed by a hexane extraction process combined with high pressure. This was necessary because this dye is known to be very unstable during normal extraction processes. The purification yield of this method was estimated as 10.2%, whose value is 3%–5% higher than is the case from another conventional separation method using phosphate buffer. The isolated phycocyanin from this process also show...

  8. Exercise and spirulina control non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis and lipid profile in diabetic Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Gláucio A; Ghezzi Ana; Teixeira Inaian P; Beck Wladimir R; Puga Guilherme M; Moura Leandro P; de Mello Maria Alice R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus is associated with metabolic dysfunctions, including alterations in circulating lipid levels and fat tissue accumulation, which causes, among other pathologies, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Aim of the study The objective of this study was to analyse the effects of physical exercise and spirulina intake on the control of NAFLD in diabetic Wistar rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in the animals through intravenous administration of alloxan. T...

  9. Neuroprotective effect of Spirulina fusiform and amantadine in the 6-OHDA induced Parkinsonism in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Chattopadhyaya, I.; Gupta, Sumeet; Mohammed, Asad; Mushtaq, N.; Chauhan, S.; Ghosh, Saikant

    2015-01-01

    Background Multi-factorial etiology exists in pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases. The imbalance of anti-oxidant enzymes and dopamine level leads to Parkinsonism. The objective of this study was to assess the protective effect of Spirulina fusiform alone and in combination with amantadine against Parkinsonism effect in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced rat model. Methods S. fusiform was administered in different groups (500 mg/kg, once daily and twice daily) and a combination of sp...

  10. Fusarium graminearum growth inhibition mechanism using phenolic compounds from Spirulina sp

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Arnhold Pagnussatt; Larine Kupski; Francine Toralles Darley; Paula Freitas Filoda; Émerson Medeiros Del Ponte; Jaqueline Garda-Buffon; Eliana Badiale-Furlong

    2013-01-01

    The application of natural antifungal substances is motivated by the need for alternatives to existing methods that are not always applicable, efficient, or that do not pose risk to consumers or the environment. Furthermore, studies on the behaviour of toxigenic species in the presence of natural fungicides have enabled their safe application in the food chain In this study, Spirulina LEB-18 phenolic extract was assessed for its antifungal activity on 12 toxigenic strains of Fusarium graminea...

  11. Protective effect of Spirulina against paracetamol-induced hepatic injury in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mona N M Sharoud

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was designed to examine the possible potentials of Spirulina against hepatic intoxication induced by paracetamol in adult male rats. This study was conducted as an attempt to understand the mechanism of action, which may pave the way for the possibility to use it for therapeutic application. Oral administration of paracetamol (2g/kg.b.w.) induced liver damage in rats as an evidenced by the significant elevation in enzyme activities (AST, ALT and ALP), ser...

  12. Optimization of medium components using orthogonal arrays for Linolenic acid production by Spirulina platensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work describes the medium optimization of '-Linolenic acid (GLA) production by Spirulina platensis using one-factor and orthogonal array design methods. In the one-factor experiments, NaHCO3 (9 mg L-1), NaNO3 (13.5 mg L-1) and MgSO4•7H2O (11.85 mg L-1) proved to be the best components for GLA p...

  13. Macro algae as substrate for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik; Sarker, Shiplu; Gautam, Dhan Prasad;

    Algae as a substrate for biogas is superior to other crops since it has a much higher yield of biomass per unit area and since algae grows in the seawater there will be no competition with food production on agricultural lands. So far, the progress in treating different groups of algae as a source...... of energy is promising. In this study 5 different algae types were tested for biogas potential and two algae were subsequent used for co-digestion with manure. Green seaweed, Ulva lactuca and brown seaweed Laminaria digitata was co-digested with cattle manure at mesophilic and thermophilic condition...

  14. Inf luence of Spirulina platensis exudates on the endocrine and nervous systems of a mammalian model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samah; Mamdouh; Mohamed; Fathy; Ashraf; Mohamed; Mohamed; Essa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the ef ect of intra-peritoneal injection of purii ed exudates of axenic Spirulina platensis on the mammalian endocrine and nervous systems. Methods: The intra-peritoneal injection of the cyanobacterial exudates in mice was applied. Sex hormonal levels of testosterone and progesterone were measured using radioimmunoassay while the follicular stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone were evaluated by direct chemiluminescence. In addition, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were monitored in the hippocampus region using spectrophotometric method. The levels of the hippocampal monoamines, dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography while the acetyl choline neurotransmitter was measured by colorimetric method using choline/acetylcholine assay kit. Results: A sharp disruption in the sex hormones levels of testosterone, progesterone, follicular stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone was demonstrated in the serum of the treated mice. At the same time, a signii cant reduction in the endogenous antioxidant defense enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase was observed in the hippocampus region of the injected mice. Moreover, levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin and acetyl choline neurotransmitter in the same region were signii cantly af ected as a result of the treatment with Spirulina i ltrate. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometer and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis showed the presence of some sterol-like compounds in the cyanobacterial i ltrate. Conclusions: This study demonstrated the capability of Spirulina to release detrimental bioactive metabolites into their surrounding that can disrupt the mammalian endocrine and nervous systems.

  15. Spirulina sp. LEB-18 culture using effluent from the anaerobic digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Borges

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The carbon source is the most expensive nutrient for Spirulina production; effluents from anaerobic digestion contain this nutrient in the form of HCO3-. The aim of this study was to assess the growth kinetics, composition and fatty acid profile of Spirulina sp. LEB-18 grown in standard Zarrouk medium (NaHCO3 16.8 g L-1 and in Zarrouk medium replaced with 20% (v/v effluent with reduced concentrations of NaHCO3 (5.3 and 2.8 g L-1. The use of effluent and lower concentrations of HCO3 was found to be an alternative to reduce the costs of Spirulina production, because there were no significant differences in growth parameters (µmax 0.324 - 0.354 d-1; Pmax 0.280 - 0.297 g L-1 d-1, in the different culture medium used. Lipids ranged between 4.9 and 5.0%; the media with effluent had higher levels of linoleic acid compared to the standard medium.

  16. Spirulina platensis feeding inhibited the anemia- and leucopenia-induced lead and cadmium in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present investigation, the effect of Spirulina platensis (Sp) was undertaken on rats fed with lead and cadmium including diet by using physiological, enzymehistochemical and stereological methods. For this aim, 50 rats were equally divided into five groups as control (C), lead (Pb), Spirulina + lead (Sp + Pb), cadmium (Cd), and Spirulina + cadmium (Sp + Cd). Red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts, packed cell volume (PCV), and haemoglobine (Hb) concentrations were determined by haemocytometric methods in blood samples collected on 30th day. Population of T lymphocyte was counted by the α-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE) staining method, and reticulocytes were counted by stereological method. The counts of RBC, WBC, and ANAE positive T lymphocyte, and the values of Hb, PCV, and MCHC were decreased in the Pb and Cd groups compared to control group. Also, the number of reticulocytes (polychromatofilic erythrocyte) increased in the Pb groups, whereas it decreased in the Cd group. On the other hand, these values were ceased by S. platensis in the treated groups. These results suggest that S. platensis supplementation may be useful in adjuvant treatment of leukemia and anemia caused by lead and cadmium toxication.

  17. Biosorption characteristics of Spirulina and Chlorella cells to accumulate heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kőnig-Péter Anikó

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The heavy metal biosorption of dried Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis-Spirulina maxima cells was studied under various experimental conditions. The effect of biosorbent dosage, pH, adsorption time, temperature, initial metal concentration on biosorption was studied. Biosorption process can be divided into two parts: the first part follows zero-order, the second part pseudo second-order kinetics. Characterization of biosorption equilibrium was evaluated with Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich models using non-linear regression. The optimum pH range was found to be 5.0 − 6.0 for Pb(II and 4.0 − 6.0 for Cu(II and Cd(II adsorption. The maximum adsorption capacities for Pb(II, Cd(II and Cu(II were 144, 161 and 138 mg g-1 by Chlorella cells and 370, 201 and 165 by Spirulina cells, based on the experimental data. The same values for activated carbon were 86, 134 and 43 mg g-1, respectively.

  18. Protective Role of Spirulina on Gamma Rays Induced Haematological and Biochemical Disorders in Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study reports the haematological and biochemical protective effect of Salipriina on Swiss albino mice exposed to gamma radiation. Swiss albino mice (8 weeks old) were administered intraperitoneally Sanepil (800 mg/kg b.wt.) prior to whole body gamma-irradiation (7.5 Gy). Radiation exposure resulted in a significant decline in different bone marrow cells (pro-and normoblasts) and blood constituents (erythrocytes, leukocytes, differential leukocyte count, haematocrit,haemoglobin and erythrocyte sedimentation rate). Pro- and normoblasts, erythrocytes, leukocytes, haematocrit and haemoglobin values showed a significant (p<0.05) decline during the first 3 days, followed by a gradual recovery starting from day 7, but normal values were not recorded until 14 days post-exposure. Treatment of mice with Spirulina also caused a significant decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) formation in the liver, suggesting its role in protection against radiation induced membrane and cellular damage. Similarly, pretreatment of mice with Spirulina caused a significant increase in serum glutathione (GSH) level in comparison with that of irradiated animals. Results suggest that Spirulina modulate the radiation induced hematological and biochemical alterations in Swiss albino mice

  19. Protective effect of Spirulina against paracetamol-induced hepatic injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona N M Sharoud

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was designed to examine the possible potentials of Spirulina against hepatic intoxication induced by paracetamol in adult male rats. This study was conducted as an attempt to understand the mechanism of action, which may pave the way for the possibility to use it for therapeutic application. Oral administration of paracetamol (2g/kg.b.w. induced liver damage in rats as an evidenced by the significant elevation in enzyme activities (AST, ALT and ALP, serum total lipids, total cholesterol, creatinine, total bilirubin and liver MDA, LDH. While a significant decrease in the levels of serum total protein and albumin and liver Pr-SHs, GSH, GST, GPx, SOD was recorded. Pre oral administration d of rats with Spirulina (500 mg/kg b.w. daily for 21 days succeeded to modulate the effect of observed abnormalities caused by paracetamol, this fact was established by investigating biochemical and antioxidant parameters. These results substantiated the potential hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Spirulina.

  20. Spirulina platensis feeding inhibited the anemia- and leucopenia-induced lead and cadmium in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simsek, Nejdet [University of Atatuerk, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, 25700 Erzurum (Turkey); Karadeniz, Ali, E-mail: karadenizali@gmail.com [University of Atatuerk, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Physiology, 25700 Erzurum (Turkey); Kalkan, Yildiray; Keles, Osman N.; Unal, Buenyami [University of Atatuerk, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2009-05-30

    In the present investigation, the effect of Spirulina platensis (Sp) was undertaken on rats fed with lead and cadmium including diet by using physiological, enzymehistochemical and stereological methods. For this aim, 50 rats were equally divided into five groups as control (C), lead (Pb), Spirulina + lead (Sp + Pb), cadmium (Cd), and Spirulina + cadmium (Sp + Cd). Red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts, packed cell volume (PCV), and haemoglobine (Hb) concentrations were determined by haemocytometric methods in blood samples collected on 30th day. Population of T lymphocyte was counted by the {alpha}-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE) staining method, and reticulocytes were counted by stereological method. The counts of RBC, WBC, and ANAE positive T lymphocyte, and the values of Hb, PCV, and MCHC were decreased in the Pb and Cd groups compared to control group. Also, the number of reticulocytes (polychromatofilic erythrocyte) increased in the Pb groups, whereas it decreased in the Cd group. On the other hand, these values were ceased by S. platensis in the treated groups. These results suggest that S. platensis supplementation may be useful in adjuvant treatment of leukemia and anemia caused by lead and cadmium toxication.

  1. Allelopatrhic effect of Acorus tatarinowii upon algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Besides competing with algae for light and mineralnutrients (i.e. N, P, etc.), the root system of Acorus tatarinowii excretes some chemical substances, which injure and eliminate alga cells, to inhibit the growth of the algae. When the algae cells were treated in "A. tatarinowii water", some of the chlorophyll a were destroyed and the photosynthetic rate of algae decreased markedly and the ability of alga cells to deoxidize triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) reduced greatly. Then alga cells turned from bright red to bluish green under fluorescence microscope. These showed that the allelopathic effects of A.tatarinowii on algae were obvious and planting A. tatarinowii can control some green algae. The experiment on the extractions of the secretions of the root system showed that the inhibitory effect had a concentration effect. If the concentration of the root secretion was below 30 /disc, the inhibitory rate was negative; if it was over 45 /disc, the inhibitory rate was positive. This proved that the influence of the root secretion on the same acceptor was a kind of concentration effect. When the concentration of the root secretion was low, it promoted the growth of algae; when the concentration reached a definite threshold value, it restrained the growth of algae. In present case, the threshold value was between 30 /disc and 45 u?disc.

  2. Macro algae as substrate for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik; Sarker, Shiplu; Gautam, Dhan Prasad;

    Algae as a substrate for biogas is superior to other crops since it has a much higher yield of biomass per unit area and since algae grows in the seawater there will be no competition with food production on agricultural lands. So far, the progress in treating different groups of algae as a source...... of energy is promising. In this study 5 different algae types were tested for biogas potential and two algae were subsequent used for co-digestion with manure. Green seaweed, Ulva lactuca and brown seaweed Laminaria digitata was co-digested with cattle manure at mesophilic and thermophilic condition...... thermophilic treatment of Laminaria produced an average of 142 L CH4/kgVS, Ulva yielded around 122 L/kgVS. Overall, it was found that algae are promising substrates for co-digestion with cattle manure and besides producing energy algae can remove substantial amounts of nutrients from the water environment that...

  3. Propriedades de saúde de Spirulina spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. AMBROSI

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Espécies de Spirulina têm sido utilizadas mundialmente na alimentação humana e animal, assim como na obtenção de aditivos utilizados em formas farmacêuticas e alimentos. Esta bactéria é uma fonte rica em proteínas, vitaminas, aminoácidos essenciais, minerais, ácidos graxos poliinsaturados e outros nutrientes, sendo seu principal uso como suplemento alimentar. As propriedades nutricionais de Spirulina spp. têm sido relacionadas com possíveis atividades terapêuticas, caracterizando o microrganismo no âmbito dos alimentos funcionais e nutracêuticos. A ação de Spirulina spp. é comprovada a nível experimental ‘in vivo’ e ‘in vitro’, verificandose sua efetividade na inibição da replicação de alguns vírus, na ação citostática e citotóxica no tratamento de câncer, na diminuição dos lipídios e da glicose no sangue e da pressão sangüínea, na redução de peso em obesos, no aumento da população de microrganismos da flora intestinal, na melhoria da resposta imunológica, na proteção renal contra metais pesados e fármacos, além de apresentar atividade rádio - protetora e de ser eficiente na desnutrição, aumentando a absorção de minerais. Dados da literatura permitem concluir que biomassa de Spirulina spp., além de ser um excelente suplemento alimentar, é uma fonte potencial no tratamento de diversas enfermidades, constituindo uma alternativa eficiente para o desenvolvimento de produtos nutracêuticos. Palavras-chave: Spirulina spp.; nutracêutico; câncer; hiperlipidemia; diabetes; desnutrição.

  4. PPR proteins of green algae

    OpenAIRE

    Tourasse, Nicolas J; Choquet, Yves; Vallon, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Using the repeat finding algorithm FT-Rep, we have identified 154 pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins in nine fully sequenced genomes from green algae (with a total of 1201 repeats) and grouped them in 47 orthologous groups. All data are available in a database, PPRdb, accessible online at http://giavap-genomes.ibpc.fr/ppr. Based on phylogenetic trees generated from the repeats, we propose evolutionary scenarios for PPR proteins. Two PPRs are clearly conserved in the entire green lineage:...

  5. Parasites in algae mass culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd William Lane

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasites are now known to be ubiquitous across biological systems and can play an important role in modulating algal populations. However, there is a lack of extensive information on their role in artificial ecosystems such as algal production ponds and photobioreactors. Parasites have been implicated in the demise of algal blooms. Because individual mass culture systems often tend to be unialgal and a select few algal species are in wide scale application, there is an increased potential for parasites to have a devastating effect on commercial scale monoculture. As commercial algal production continues to expand with a widening variety of applications, including biofuel, food and pharmaceuticals, the parasites associated with algae will become of greater interest and potential economic impact. A number of important algal parasites have been identified in algal mass culture systems in the last few years and this number is sure to grow as the number of commercial algae ventures increases. Here, we review the research that has identified and characterized parasites infecting mass cultivated algae, the techniques being proposed and or developed to control them, and the potential impact of parasites on the future of the algal biomass industry.

  6. Halogenated Compounds from Marine Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélia Pilar Rauter

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine algae produce a cocktail of halogenated metabolites with potential commercial value. Structures exhibited by these compounds go from acyclic entities with a linear chain to complex polycyclic molecules. Their medical and pharmaceutical application has been investigated for a few decades, however other properties, such as antifouling, are not to be discarded. Many compounds were discovered in the last years, although the need for new drugs keeps this field open as many algal species are poorly screened. The ecological role of marine algal halogenated metabolites has somehow been overlooked. This new research field will provide valuable and novel insight into the marine ecosystem dynamics as well as a new approach to comprehending biodiversity. Furthermore, understanding interactions between halogenated compound production by algae and the environment, including anthropogenic or global climate changes, is a challenging target for the coming years. Research of halogenated metabolites has been more focused on macroalgae than on phytoplankton. However, phytoplankton could be a very promising material since it is the base of the marine food chain with quick adaptation to environmental changes, which undoubtedly has consequences on secondary metabolism. This paper reviews recent progress on this field and presents trends on the role of marine algae as producers of halogenated compounds.

  7. Bio diesel production from algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algae appear to be an emerging source of biomass for bio diesel that has the potential to completely displace fossil fuel. Two thirds of earth's surface is covered with water, thus alga e would truly be renewable option of great potential for global energy needs. This study discusses specific and comparative bio diesel quantitative potential of Cladophora sp., also highlighting its biomass (after oil extraction), pH and sediments (glycerine, water and pigments) quantitative properties. Comparison of Cladophora sp., with Oedogonium sp., and Spirogyra sp., (Hossain et al., 2008) shows that Cladophora sp., produce higher quantity of bio diesel than Spirogyra sp., whereas biomass and sediments were higher than the both algal specimens in comparison to the results obtained by earlier workers. No prominent difference in pH of bio diesel was found. In Pakistan this is a first step towards bio diesel production from algae. Results indicate that Cladophora sp., provide a reasonable quantity of bio diesel, its greater biomass after oil extraction and sediments make it a better option for bio diesel production than the comparing species. (author)

  8. Analysis of Solid and Aqueous Phase Products from Hydrothermal Carbonization of Whole and Lipid-Extracted Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Broch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae have tremendous potential as a feedstock for production of liquid biofuels, particularly biodiesel fuel via transesterification of algal lipids. However, biodiesel production results in significant amounts of algal residues, or “lipid extracted algae” (LEA. Suitable utilization of the LEA residue will improve the economics of algal biodiesel. In the present study, we evaluate the hydrothermal carbonization (HTC of whole and lipid extracted algal (Spirulina maxima feedstocks in order to produce a solid biofuel (hydrochar and value-added co-products in the aqueous phase. HTC experiments were performed using a 2-L Parr reactor (batch type at 175–215 °C with a 30-min holding time. Solid, aqueous and gaseous products were analyzed using various laboratory methods to evaluate the mass and carbon balances, and investigate the existence of high value chemicals in the aqueous phase. The HTC method is effective in creating an energy dense, solid hydrochar from both whole algae and LEA at lower temperatures as compared to lignocellulosic feedstocks, and is effective at reducing the ash content in the resulting hydrochar. However, under the treatment temperatures investigated, less than 1% of the starting dry algae mass was recovered as an identified high-value chemical in the aqueous phase.

  9. Assessment of the antifungal activity of Spirulina platensis phenolic extract against Aspergillus flavus Avaliação da atividade antifúngica de extrato fenólico de Spirulina platensis contra Aspergillus flavus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Moraes de Souza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of safe food has stimulated the search for natural substances that possess antifungal activity. The indirect methods of estimating fungal biomass are based on the measurement of glucosamine, ergosterol and protein - typical compounds produced during the development of biomass. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of the phenolic extract from Spirulina platensis on the production of structural compounds in Aspergillus flavus, in order to identify its action on fungal inhibition. The Spirulina platensis methanolic extracts presented 1.15 mg phenolic compound/g Spirulina platensis, which showed an antifungal effect against Aspergillus flavus, inhibiting the glucosamine production up to 56%. Therefore, it may be employed as natural defense when food protection is necessary.A produção de alimentos seguros tem estimulado a busca por substâncias naturais que possuem atividade antifúngica. Os métodos indiretos de estimativa de biomassa fúngica são baseados na medição de glucosamina, ergosterol e proteína - compostos típicos produzidos durante o desenvolvimento da biomassa. Neste estudo, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do extrato fenólico de Spirulina platensis na produção de componentes estruturais em Aspergillus flavus, a fim de identificar seu mecanismo de ação dos fenóis na inibição fúngica. O extrato metanólico de Spirulina platensis apresentou 1,15 mg de compostos fenólicos/g Spirulina platensis, apresentando um efeito antifúngico contra Aspergillus flavus, inibindo a produção de glucosamina em até 56%. Portanto, pode ser empregado como antifúngico natural quando for necessária a proteção de alimentos.

  10. Red algae and their use in papermaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yung-Bum; Lee, Youn-Woo; Lee, Chun-Han; You, Hack-Chul

    2010-04-01

    Gelidialian red algae, that contain rhizoidal filaments, except the family Gelidiellaceae were processed to make bleached pulps, which can be used as raw materials for papermaking. Red algae consist of rhizoidal filaments, cortical cells usually reddish in color, and medullary cells filled with mucilaginous carbohydrates. Red algae pulp consists of mostly rhizoidal filaments. Red algae pulp of high brightness can be produced by extracting mucilaginous carbohydrates after heating the algae in an aqueous medium and subsequently treating the extracted with bleaching chemicals. In this study, we prepared paper samples from bleached pulps obtained from two red algae species (Gelidium amansii and Gelidium corneum) and compared their properties to those of bleached wood chemical pulps. PMID:20022488

  11. BISCOITOS DE CHOCOLATE ENRIQUECIDOS COM Spirulina platensis: CARACTERÍSTICAS FÍSICOQUÍMICAS, SENSORIAIS E DIGESTIBILIDADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. MORAIS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    As microalgas, como Spirulina, podem ser fonte de proteínas para alimentação humana, com a possibilidade de obter outros produtos como biopigmentos, vitaminas e lipídios. A biomassa obtida pode ser introduzida diretamente na dieta podendo auxiliar em casos de desnutrição. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características físico-química, sensorial e digestibilidade de biscoitos de chocolate enriquecidos com a microalga Spirulina platensis. Foram elaborados quatro biscoitos de chocolate: controle (sem Spirulina e biscoitos contendo 1,0; 3,0 e 5,0% de Spirulina platensis. O biscoito com adição de 5,0% de Spirulina platensis apresentou o conteúdo protéico 7,7% maior que o controle. Os biscoitos com adição de 1,0% de S. platensis apresentaram maior digestibilidade (86,9% que os demais. Volume específico, espessura e fator de expansão não foram alterados pela adição de Spirulina. Não houve diferença significativa entre o biscoito controle e os biscoitos com adição de 5,0% nos atributos cor, crocância, mastigabilidade e maciez. Na avaliação questionamento de intenção de compra, comparando os biscoitos com adição de S. platensis, a amostra com maior aceitação pelos julgadores foi com 1,0% de S. platensis.

  12. Effect of microalga Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis on hippocampus lipoperoxidation and lipid profile in rats with induced hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Elita Bertolin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies have been conducted on microalga Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis due to its therapeutic potential in several areas, including the capacity for preventing and decreasing the damages caused by hyperlipidemia and the antioxidant activity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of microalga Spirulina platensis on hippocampus lipoperoxidation and lipid profile in rats with induced hypercholesterolemia during 60 days. The measurement of hippocampus lipoperoxidation did not demonstrate significant difference (p>0.05 when Spirulina platensis was added to hypercholesterolemic diet. The evaluation of lipid profile showed that the administration of the microalga in therapeutic and preventive ways led to a significant protective effect (pA microalga Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis vem sendo fonte de pesquisas devido a evidências de seu potencial terapêutico em diversas áreas, dentre elas a capacidade de prevenção e diminuição dos danos causados por dislipidemias e sua atividade antioxidante. Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da microalga Spirulina platensis sobre a lipoperoxidação no hipocampo e perfil lipídico sérico em ratos com hipercolesterolemia induzida durante 60 dias. A dosagem da lipoperoxidação no hipocampo não demonstrou diferença significativa (p>0,05 quando Spirulina platensis foi adicionada na dieta hipercolêsterolemica. A avaliação do perfil lipídico demonstrou que a administração da microlaga de forma terapêutica e preventiva demonstrou efeito significativo (p<0,05 na proteção do desenvolvimento de hipercolesterolemia.

  13. Molecular replacement studies on crystal structure of allophycocyanin from red algae Porphyra yezoensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Using the crystal structure of allophycocyanin from cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (APC-SP) as a search model,the crystal structure of allophycocyanin from red algae Porphyra yezoensis (APC-PY) has been studied by molecular replacement methods.The APC-PY crystals (Form 3) belong to the space group of R32,cell dimensions a=b= 10.53 nm,c=18.94 nm,α= β= 90°,γ=120°;there is one αβ monomer in each crystallographic asymmetric unit in the cell.The translation function search gave a unique peak with a correlation coefficient (Cc) of 67.0% and an R-factor of 36.1% for reflection data from 1.0 to 0.4 nm.Using the results by molecular replacement,the initial model of APC-PY was built,and the coincidence of the chromophore in APC-PY initial model with its 2Fo-Fc OMIT map further confirms the results by molecular replacement.

  14. Molecular replacement studies on crystal structure of allophycocyanin from red algae Porphyra yezoensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘锦玉; 江涛; 张季平; 常文瑞; 梁栋材

    2000-01-01

    Using the crystal structure of allophycocyanin from cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (APC-SP) as a search model, the crystal structure of allophycocyanin from red algae Porphyra yezoensis (APC-PY) has been studied by molecular replacement methods. The APC-PY crystals (Form 3) belong to the space group of R32, cell dimensions a = b = 10.53 nm, c = 18.94 nm, α =β = 90°, γ= 120°; there is one αβ monomer in each crystallographic asymmetric unit in the cell. The translation function search gave a unique peak with a correlation coefficient (Cc) of 67.0% and an R-factor of 36.1 % for reflection data from 1.0 to 0.4 nm. Using the results by molecular replacement, the initial model of APC-PY was built, and the coincidence of the chromophore in APC-PY initial model with its 2Fo-FC OMIT map further confirms the results by molecular replacement.

  15. Fermentation metabolism and its evolution in algae

    OpenAIRE

    Catalanotti, Claudia; Yang, Wenqiang; Posewitz, Matthew C.; Grossman, Arthur R.

    2013-01-01

    Fermentation or anoxic metabolism allows unicellular organisms to colonize environments that become anoxic. Free-living unicellular algae capable of a photoautotrophic lifestyle can also use a range of metabolic circuitry associated with different branches of fermentation metabolism. While algae that perform mixed-acid fermentation are widespread, the use of anaerobic respiration is more typical of eukaryotic heterotrophs. The occurrence of a core set of fermentation pathways among the algae ...

  16. Bacterial Enhancement of Vinyl Fouling by Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Paul E.

    1986-01-01

    The role of bacteria in the development of algae on low-density vinyl was investigated. Unidentified bacterial contaminants in unialgal stock cultures of Phormidium faveolarum and Pleurochloris pyrenoidosa enhanced, by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude, colonization of vinyl by these algae, as determined by epifluorescence microscopy counts and chlorophyll a in extracts of colonized vinyl. Colonization by bacteria always preceded that by algae. Scanning electron microscopy of the colonized Phormidiu...

  17. The anti-allergic activity of polyphenol extracted from five marine algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Lin, Hong; Li, Zhenxing; Mou, Quangui

    2015-08-01

    Natural polyphenol has been widely believed to be effective in allergy remission. Currently, most of the natural polyphenol products come from terrestrial sources such as tea, grape seeds among others, and few polyphenols have been developed from algae for their anti-allergic activity. The aim of the study was to screen some commercial seaweed for natural extracts with anti-allergic activity. Five algae including Laminaria japonica, Porphyra sp., Spirulina platensis, Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Scytosiphon sp. were extracted with ethanol, and the extracts were evaluated for total polyphenol contents and anti-allergic activity with the hyaluronidase inhibition assay. Results showed that the total polyphenol contents in the ethanol extracts ranged from 1.67% to 8.47%, while the highest was found in the extract from Scytosiphon sp. Hyaluronidase inhibition assay showed that the extracts from Scytosiphon sp. had the lowest IC50, 0.67 mg mL-1, while Chlorella pyrenoidosa extract had the highest IC50, 15.07 mg mL-1. The anti-allergic activity of Scytosiphon sp. extract was even higher than the typical anti-allergic drug Disodium Cromoglycate (DSCG) (IC50 = 1.13 mg mL-1), and was similar with natural polyphenol from Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) (IC50 = 0.56 mg mL-1). These results indicated that the ethanol extract of Scytosiphon sp. contains a high concentration of polyphenol with high anti-allergic activity. Potentially Scytosiphon sp. can be developed to a natural anti-allergic compound for allergy remission.

  18. Evaluation of Spirulina platensis extract as natural antivirus against foot and mouth disease virus strains (A, O, SAT2)

    OpenAIRE

    Hind M. Daoud; Soliman, Eman M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This work was aimed to document the antiviral activates of Spirulina platensis extract against foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) different types to evaluate its replication in Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK) cell culture and in baby mice. Materials and Methods: Cytotoxicity assay studied for S. platensis extract on BHK cells to determine the non-toxic dose. The non-toxic dose of Spirulina extract was mixed with each type of FMDV (A, O, SAT2). Then 10-fold dilutions from each mixture were don...

  19. EQUILIBRIUM MODELLING AND SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES FOR THE BIOSORPTION OF ZN+2 IONS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION USING IMMOBILIZED SPIRULINA PLATENSIS

    OpenAIRE

    N. Gaur ، R. Dehankhar

    2009-01-01

    Biosorption equilibrium of zinc ions to Spirulina platensis both in free and immobilized forms were studied in batch system with respect to pH, metal ion concentration, algal dosages and time. The maximum adsorption was observed at pH=8, optimum metal ion concentration and algal dose were 100 mg/L and 1g/100mL, respectively. Biosorption equilibrium was established in 90 minutes. The maximum attainable biosorption was found to be 97.1% for Spirulina platensis. The equilibrium adsorption capaci...

  20. Synthesis of CdSe nanoparticles and their effect on the antioxidant activity of Spirulina platensis and Porphyridium cruentum cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single-crystalline cadmium selenide nanoparticles were obtained using high-temperature solution phase synthesis (HTSPS) synthesis. X-Ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to confirm the crystallinity and morphology of the resulting nanoparticles. To study the action of CdSe on antioxidant activity, we selected two biotechnological important strains of microalgae: cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis and red microalgae Porphyridium cruentum. In the case of Porphyridium cruentum, the obtained results demonstrated an increase in the productivity. For Spirulina platensis, the presence of the compound in the cultivating medium decreased the productivity of cyanobacteria.