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Sample records for blue straggler stars

  1. Variable blue straggler stars in NGC 5466

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nine variable blue stragglers have been found in the globular cluster NGC 5466. The six dwarf Cepheids in this cluster coexist in the instability strip with other nonvariable stars. The three eclipsing binaries are among the hottest of the blue stragglers. The hypothesis is discussed that all blue stragglers in this cluster have undergone mass transfer in close binaries. Under this hypothesis, rotation and spin-down play important roles in controlling the evolution of blue stragglers in old clusters and in affecting some of their observational properties. 14 refs

  2. Ecology of Blue Straggler Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Boffin, H M J; Beccari, G

    2014-01-01

    The existence of blue straggler stars (BSS), which appear younger, hotter, and more massive than their siblings, is at odds with a simple picture of stellar evolution, as such stars should have exhausted their nuclear fuel and evolved long ago to become cooling white dwarfs. As such, BSS could just be some quirks but in fact their understanding requires a deep knowledge of many different areas in astronomy, from stellar evolution through cluster dynamics, from chemical abundances to stellar populations. In November 2012, a workshop on this important topic took place at the ESO Chilean headquarters in Santiago. The many topics covered at this workshop were introduced by very comprehensive invited reviews, providing a unique and insightful view on the field. These reviews have now become chapters of the first ever book on BSS.

  3. Spinning like a Blue Straggler: the population of fast rotating Blue Straggler stars in Omega Centauri

    CERN Document Server

    Mucciarelli, A; Ferraro, F R; Dalessandro, E; Lanzoni, B; Monaco, L

    2014-01-01

    By using high-resolution spectra acquired with FLAMES-GIRAFFE at the ESO/VLT, we measured radial and rotational velocities for 110 Blue Straggler stars (BSSs) in Omega Centauri, the globular cluster-like stellar system harboring the largest known BSS population. According to their radial velocities, 109 BSSs are members of the system. The rotational velocity distribution is very broad, with the bulk of BSSs spinning at less than ~40 km/s (in agreement with the majority of such stars observed in other globular clusters) and a long tail reaching ~200 km/s. About 40% of the sample has vsini >40 km/s and about 20% has vsini >70 km/s. Such a large fraction is very similar to the percentage of of fast rotating BSSs observed in M4. Thus, Omega Centauri is the second stellar cluster, beyond M4, with a surprisingly high population of fast spinning BSSs. We found a hint of a radial behaviour of the fraction of fast rotating BSSs, with a mild peak within one core radius, and a possibile rise in the external regions (bey...

  4. Chemical abundances of blue straggler stars in Galactic Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Lovisi, L

    2014-01-01

    By using the high resolution spectrograph FLAMES@VLT we performed the first systematic campaign devoted to measure chemical abundances of blue straggler stars (BSSs). These stars, whose existence is not predicted by the canonical stellar evolutionary theory, are likely the product of the interactions between stars in the dense environment of Globular Clusters. Two main scenarios for BSS formation (mass transfer in binary systems and stellar collisions) have been proposed and hydrodynamical simulations predict different chemical patterns in the two cases, in particular C and O depletion for mass transfer BSSs. In this contribution, the main results for BSS samples in 6 Globular Clusters and their interpretation in terms of BSS formation processes are discussed. For the first time, evidence of radiative levitation in the shallow envelopes of BSSs hotter than $\\sim$8000 K has been found. C and O depletion for some BSSs has been detected in 47 Tucanae, M30 and $\\omega$ Centauri thus suggesting a mass transfer ori...

  5. Weighing stars: the identification of an Evolved Blue Straggler Star in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, F R; Mucciarelli, A; Lanzoni, B; Dalessandro, E; Pallanca, C; Massari, D

    2015-01-01

    Globular clusters are known to host peculiar objects, named Blue Straggler Stars (BSSs), significantly heavier than the normal stellar population. While these stars can be easily identified during their core hydrogen-burning phase, they are photometrically indistinguishable from their low-mass sisters in advanced stages of the subsequent evolution. A clear-cut identification of these objects would require the direct measurement of the stellar mass. We used the detailed comparison between chemical abundances derived from neutral and from ionized spectral lines as a powerful stellar "weighing device" to measure stellar mass and to identify an evolved BSS in 47 Tucanae. In particular, high-resolution spectra of three bright stars located slightly above the level of the "canonical" horizontal branch sequence in the color-magnitude diagram of 47 Tucanae, have been obtained with UVES spectrograph. The measurements of iron and titanium abundances performed separately from neutral and ionized lines reveal that two ta...

  6. The First Detection of Blue Straggler Stars in the Milky Way Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Clarkson, William I; Anderson, Jay; Rich, R Michael; Smith, T Ed; Brown, Thomas M; Bond, Howard E; Livio, Mario; Minniti, Dante; Renzini, Alvio; Zoccali, Manuela

    2011-01-01

    We report the first detections of Blue Straggler Stars (BSS) in the bulge of the Milky Way galaxy. Proper motions from extensive space-based observations along a single sight-line allow us to separate a sufficiently clean and well-characterized bulge sample that we are able to detect a small population of bulge objects in the region of the color-magnitude diagram commonly occupied young objects and blue strgglers. However, variability measurements of these objects clearly establish that a fraction of them are blue stragglers. Out of the 42 objects found in this region of the color-magnitude diagram, we estimate that at least 18 are genuine BSS. We normalize the BSS population by our estimate of the number of horizontal branch stars in the bulge in order to compare the bulge to other stellar systems. The BSS fraction is clearly discrepant from that found in stellar clusters. The blue straggler population of dwarf spheroidals remains a subject of debate; some authors claim an anticorrelation between the normali...

  7. Stellar Encounters with Multiple Star Systems and the Blue Straggler Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Leigh, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    We present a technique to identify the most probable dynamical formation scenario for an observed binary or triple system containing one or more merger products or, alternatively, to rule out the possibility of a dynamical origin. Our method relies on an analytic prescription for energy conservation during stellar encounters. With this, observations of the multiple star system containing the merger product(s) can be used to work backwards in order to constrain the initial orbital energies of any single, binary or triple systems that went into the encounter. The initial semi-major axes of the orbits provide an estimate for the collisional cross section and therefore the time-scale for the encounter to occur in its host cluster. We have applied our analytic prescription to observed binary and triple systems containing blue stragglers, in particular the triple system S1082 in M67 and the period distribution of the blue straggler binaries in NGC 188. We have shown that both S1082 and most of the blue straggler bi...

  8. Models of Individual Blue Stragglers

    CERN Document Server

    Sills, Alison

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes the current state of models of individual blue stragglers. Stellar collisions, binary mergers (or coalescence), and partial or ongoing mass transfer have all been studied in some detail. The products of stellar collisions retain memory of their parent stars and are not fully mixed. Very high initial rotation rates must be reduced by an unknown process to allow the stars to collapse to the main sequence. The more massive collision products have shorter lifetimes than normal stars of the same mass, while products between low mass stars are long-lived and look very much like normal stars of their mass. Mass transfer can result in a merger, or can produce another binary system with a blue straggler and the remnant of the original primary. The products of binary mass transfer cover a larger portion of the colour-magnitude diagram than collision products for two reasons: there are more possible configurations which produce blue stragglers, and there are differing contributions to the blended ...

  9. Models of Individual Blue Stragglers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, Alison

    This chapter describes the current state of models of individual blue stragglers. Stellar collisions, binary mergers (or coalescence), and partial or ongoing mass transfer have all been studied in some detail. The products of stellar collisions retain memory of their parent stars and are not fully mixed. Very high initial rotation rates must be reduced by an unknown process to allow the stars to collapse to the main sequence. The more massive collision products have shorter lifetimes than normal stars of the same mass, while products between low mass stars are long-lived and look very much like normal stars of their mass. Mass transfer can result in a merger, or can produce another binary system with a blue straggler and the remnant of the original primary. The products of binary mass transfer cover a larger portion of the colour-magnitude diagram than collision products for two reasons: there are more possible configurations which produce blue stragglers, and there are differing contributions to the blended light of the system. The effects of rotation may be substantial in both collision and merger products, and could result in significant mixing unless angular momentum is lost shortly after the formation event. Surface abundances may provide ways to distinguish between the formation mechanisms, but care must be taken to model the various mixing mechanisms properly before drawing strong conclusions. Avenues for future work are outlined.

  10. Weighing Stars: The Identification of an Evolved Blue Straggler Star in the Globular Cluster 47 Tucanae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, F. R.; Lapenna, E.; Mucciarelli, A.; Lanzoni, B.; Dalessandro, E.; Pallanca, C.; Massari, D.

    2016-01-01

    Globular clusters are known to host peculiar objects named blue straggler stars (BSSs), significantly heavier than the normal stellar population. While these stars can be easily identified during their core hydrogen-burning phase, they are photometrically indistinguishable from their low-mass sisters in advanced stages of the subsequent evolution. A clear-cut identification of these objects would require the direct measurement of the stellar mass. We used the detailed comparison between chemical abundances derived from neutral and from ionized spectral lines as a powerful stellar “weighing device” to measure stellar mass and to identify an evolved BSS in 47 Tucanae. In particular, high-resolution spectra of three bright stars, located slightly above the level of the “canonical” horizontal branch (HB) sequence in the color-magnitude diagram of 47 Tucanae, have been obtained with the UVES spectrograph. The measurements of iron and titanium abundances performed separately from neutral and ionized lines reveal that two targets have stellar parameters fully consistent with those expected for low-mass post-HB objects, while for the other target the elemental ionization balance is obtained only by assuming a mass of ˜ 1.4{M}⊙ , which is significantly larger than the main sequence turn-off mass of the cluster (˜ 0.85{M}⊙ ). The comparison with theoretical stellar tracks suggests that this is a BSS descendant possibly experiencing its core helium-burning phase. The large applicability of the proposed method to most of the globular clusters in our Galaxy opens the possibility to initiate systematic searches for evolved BSSs, thus giving access to still unexplored phases of their evolution. Based on UVES-FLAMES observations collected under Program 193.D-0232.

  11. Cannibals in the thick disk: the young $\\alpha-$rich stars as evolved blue stragglers

    CERN Document Server

    Jofre, P; Izzard, R G; Van Eck, S; Hawkins, K; Jorissen, A; Gilmore, G; Paladini, C

    2016-01-01

    Spectro-seismic measurements of red giant stars enabled the recent discovery of giant stars in the thick disk that are more massive than 1.4 M_sun (Martig et al 2015, Chiappini et al 2015). While it has been claimed that most of these stars are younger than the rest of the typical thick disk stars, we show evidence that they might be products of mass transfer in binary evolution, notably evolved blue stragglers. We took new measurements of the radial velocities in a sample of 26 stars from APOKASC, including 13 of the "young" stars of Martig et al (2015) and 13 "old" stars with similar stellar parameters but with masses below 1 M_sun and found that some stars are in binary systems, contrary to what has been claimed before. Furthermore, with a population synthesis of only low-mass stars but including binary evolution and mass transfer, we can reproduce the masses and the [C/N] ratios of the 26 stars. Our study shows how asteroseismology of solar-type red giants provides us with a unique opportunity to study th...

  12. Beryllium in Ultra-Lithium-Deficient Halo Stars - The Blue Straggler Connection

    CERN Document Server

    Boesgaard, Ann Merchant

    2007-01-01

    There are nine metal-deficient stars that have Li abundances well below the Li plateau that is defined by over 100 unevolved stars with temperatures above 5800 K and values of [Fe/H] $<$ $-$1.0. Abundances of Be have been determined for most of these ultra-Li-deficient stars in order to investigate the cause of the Li deficiencies. High-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra have been obtained in the Be II spectral region near 3130 \\AA for six ultra-Li-deficient stars with the Keck I telescope and its new uv-sensitive CCD on the upgraded HIRES. The spectrum synthesis technique has been used to determine Be abundances. All six stars are found to have Be deficiencies also. Two have measurable - but reduced - Be and four have only upper limits on Be. These results are consistent with the idea that these Li- and Be-deficient stars are analogous to blue stragglers. The stars have undergone mass transfer events (or mergers) which destroy or dilute both Li and Be. The findings cannot be matched by the models...

  13. MOCCA code for star cluster simulations - V. Initial globular cluster conditions influence on blue stragglers

    CERN Document Server

    Hypki, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of properties of populations of blue stragglers (BSs) in evolving globular clusters, based on numerical simulations done with the MOCCA code for various initial globular clusters conditions. We find that various populations of BSs strongly depend on the initial semi-major axes distributions. With a significant number of compact binaries, the number of evolutionary BSs can be also significant. In turn, for semi-major axes distributions preferring binaries with wider orbits, dynamical BSs are the dominant ones. Their formation scenario is very distinct: for wide binaries the number of dynamical interactions is significantly larger. Most interactions are weak and increase only slightly the eccentricities. However, due to a large number of such interactions, the eccentricities of a number of binaries finally get so large that the stars collide. We study how larger initial clusters' concentrations influence the BSs. Besides the expected increase of the number of dynamically created B...

  14. Cosmic-Lab: Chemical and kinematical properties of Blue Straggler stars in Galactic Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Lovisi, L

    2014-01-01

    Blue straggler stars (BSSs) are brighter and bluer than the main-sequence (MS) turnoff and more massive than MS stars.Two scenarios for their formation have been proposed: collision-induced stellar mergers (COL-BSSs),or mass-transfer in binary systems (MT-BSSs).Depleted surface abundances of C and O are expected for MT-BSSs,whereas no chemical anomalies are predicted for COL-BSSs. Both MT and COL-BSSs should rotate fast,but braking mechanisms may intervene with efficiencies and time-scales unknown,thus preventing a clear prediction of the expected rotational velocities. In this context,an extensive survey is ongoing by using FLAMES@VLT, with the aim to obtain abundance patterns and rotational velocities for representative samples of BSSs in Galactic GCs.A sub-population of CO-depleted BSSs has been identified in 47 Tuc,with only one fast rotating star detected (Ferraro et al.2006). For this PhD Thesis work I analyzed FLAMES spectra of more than 130 BSSs in 4 GCs:M4,NGC 6397,M30 and {\\omega}Centauri.This is th...

  15. Evidence for Blue Straggler Stars Rejuvenating the Integrated Spectra of Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenarro, A. Javier; Cervantes, J. L.; Beasley, Michael A.; Marín-Franch, Antonio; Vazdekis, Alexandre

    2008-12-01

    Integrated spectroscopy is the method of choice for deriving the ages of unresolved stellar systems. However, hot stellar evolutionary stages, such as hot horizontal branch stars and blue straggler stars (BSSs), can affect the integrated ages measured using Balmer lines. Such hot, "noncanonical" stars may lead to overestimation of the temperature of the main-sequence turnoff, and therefore underestimation of the integrated age of a stellar population. Using an optimized Hβ index in conjunction with HST WFPC2 color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), we show that Galactic globular clusters exhibit a large scatter in their apparent "spectroscopic" ages, which does not correspond to that in their CMD-derived ages. We find for the first time that the specific frequency of BSSs, defined within the same aperture as the integrated spectra, shows a clear correspondence with Hβ in the sense that, at fixed metallicity, higher BSS ratios lead to younger apparent spectroscopic ages. Thus, the specific frequency of BSSs in globular clusters sets a fundamental limit on the accuracy with which spectroscopic ages can be determined for globular clusters, and perhaps for other stellar systems such as galaxies. The observational implications of this result are discussed.

  16. MOCCA code for star cluster simulations - VI. Bimodal spatial distribution of blue stragglers

    CERN Document Server

    Hypki, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of formation mechanism and properties of spatial distributions of blue stragglers in evolving globular clusters, based on numerical simulations done with the MOCCA code. First, there are presented N-body and MOCCA simulations which try to reproduce the simulations presented by Ferraro (2012). Then, the agreement between N-body and the MOCCA code is shown. Finally, we discuss the formation process of the bimodal distribution. We report that so-called bimodal spatial distribution of blue stragglers is a very transient feature. It is formed for one snapshot in time and it can easily vanish in the next one. Moreover, we show that the radius of avoidance proposed by Ferraro (2012) goes out of sync with the apparent minimum of the bimodal distribution after about two half-mass relaxation times. This finding creates a real challenge for the dynamical clock, which uses this radius to determine the dynamical age of globular clusters. Additionally, the paper discusses a few important prob...

  17. Blue Straggler Stars a direct comparison of Star counts and population ratios in six Galactic Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, F R; Rood, R T; Paltrinieri, B; Buonanno, R; Ferraro, Francesco R.; Sills, Alison; Rood, Robert T.; Paltrinieri, Barbara; Buonanno, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    The central regions of six Galactic Globular Clusters (GGCs) (M3, M80, M10, M13, M92 and NGC 288) have been imaged using HST-WFPC2 and the ultraviolet (UV) filters (F255W, F336W). The selected sample covers a large range in both central density and metallicity ([Fe/H]). In this paper, we present a direct cluster-to-cluster comparison of the Blue Stragglers Stars (BSS) population as selected from (m_{255},m_{255}-m_{336}) Color Magnitude Diagrams (CMDs). We have found:(a) BSS in three of the clusters (M3, M80, M92) are much more concentrated toward the center of the cluster than the red giants; because of the smaller BSS samples for the other clusters we can only note that the BSS radial distributions are consistent with central concentration; (b) the specific frequency of BSS varies greatly from cluster to cluster. The most interesting result is that the two clusters with largest BSS specific frequency are at the central density extremes of our sample: NGC 288 (lowest central density) and M80 (highest). This ...

  18. Where the Blue Stragglers Roam: Searching for a Link Between Formation and Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Leigh, N; Knigge, C; Leigh, Nathan; Sills, Alison; Knigge, Christian

    2007-01-01

    The formation of blue stragglers is still not completely understood, particularly the relationship between formation environment and mechanism. We use a large, homogeneous sample of blue stragglers in the cores of 57 globular clusters to investigate the relationships between blue straggler populations and their environments. We use a consistent definition of ``blue straggler'' based on position in the color-magnitude diagram, and normalize the population relative to the number of red giant branch stars in the core. We find that the previously determined anti-correlation between blue straggler frequency and total cluster mass is present in the purely core population. We find some weak correlations with central velocity dispersion and with half-mass relaxation time. The blue straggler frequency does not show any trend with any other cluster parameter. Even though collisions may be expected to be a dominant blue straggler formation process in globular cluster cores, we find no correlation between the frequency o...

  19. The Frequency of Field Blue-Straggler Stars in the Thick Disk and Halo System of the Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Santucci, Rafael M; Rossi, Silvia; Beers, Timothy C; Reggiani, Henrique M; Lee, Young Sun; Xue, Xiang-Xiang; Carollo, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of a new, large sample of field blue-straggler stars (BSSs) in the thick disk and halo system of the Galaxy, based on stellar spectra obtained during the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE). Using estimates of stellar atmospheric parameters obtained from application of the SEGUE Stellar Parameter Pipeline, we obtain a sample of some 8000 BSSs, which are considered along with a previously selected sample of some 4800 blue horizontal-branch (BHB) stars. We derive the ratio of BSSs to BHB stars, F$_{\\rm BSS/BHB}$, as a function of Galactocentric distance and distance from the Galactic plane. The maximum value found for F$_{\\rm BSS/BHB}$ is $\\sim~$4.0 in the thick disk (at 3 kpc $<$ $|$Z$|$ $<$ 4 kpc), declining to on the order of $\\sim~1.5-2.0$ in the inner-halo region; this ratio continues to decline to $\\sim~$1.0 in the outer-halo region. We associate a minority of field BSSs with a likely extragalactic origin; ...

  20. The Frequency of Field Blue-Straggler Stars in the Thick Disk and Halo System of the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santucci, Rafael M.; Placco, Vinicius M.; Rossi, Silvia; Beers, Timothy C.; Reggiani, Henrique M.; Lee, Young Sun; Xue, Xiang-Xiang; Carollo, Daniela

    2015-03-01

    We present an analysis of a new, large sample of field blue-straggler stars (BSSs) in the thick disk and halo system of the Galaxy, based on stellar spectra obtained during the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE). Using estimates of stellar atmospheric parameters obtained from application of the SEGUE Stellar Parameter Pipeline, we obtain a sample of some 8000 BSSs, which are considered along with a previously selected sample of some 4800 blue horizontal-branch (BHB) stars. We derive the ratio of BSSs to BHB stars, FBSS/BHB, as a function of Galactocentric distance and distance from the Galactic plane. The maximum value found for FBSS/BHB is ∼ 4.0 in the thick disk (at 3 kpc\\lt |Z|\\lt 4 kpc), declining to on the order of ∼ 1.5-2.0 in the inner-halo region; this ratio continues to decline to ∼1.0 in the outer-halo region. We associate a minority of field BSSs with a likely extragalactic origin; at least 5% of the BSS sample exhibit radial velocities, positions, and distances commensurate with membership in the Sagittarius Stream.

  1. The ages of young star clusters, massive blue stragglers and the upper mass limit of stars: analysing age dependent stellar mass functions

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Fabian R N; de Mink, Selma E; Langer, Norbert; Stolte, Andrea; de Koter, Alex; Gvaramadze, Vasilii V; Hußmann, Benjamin; Liermann, Adriane; Sana, Hugues

    2013-01-01

    Massive stars rapidly change their masses through strong stellar winds and mass transfer in binary systems. We show that such mass changes leave characteristic signatures in stellar mass functions of young star clusters which can be used to infer their ages and to identify products of binary evolution. We model the observed present day mass functions of the young Galactic Arches and Quintuplet star clusters using our rapid binary evolution code. We find that shaping of the mass function by stellar wind mass loss allows us to determine the cluster ages to 3.5$\\pm$0.7 Myr and 4.8$\\pm$1.1 Myr, respectively. Exploiting the effects of binary mass exchange on the cluster mass function, we find that the most massive stars in both clusters are rejuvenated products of binary mass transfer, i.e. the massive counterpart of classical blue straggler stars. This resolves the problem of an apparent age spread among the most luminous stars exceeding the expected duration of star formation in these clusters. We perform Monte ...

  2. Blue straggler formation at core collapse

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Sambaran

    2016-01-01

    Among the most striking feature of blue straggler stars (BSS) is the presence of multiple sequences of BSSs in the colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of several globular clusters. It is often envisaged that such a multiple BSS sequence would arise due a recent core collapse of the host cluster, triggering a number of stellar collisions and binary mass transfers simultaneously over a brief episode of time. Here we examine this scenario using direct N-body computations of moderately massive star clusters (of order 10^4 Msun ). As a preliminary attempt, these models are initiated with approx. 8-10 Gyr old stellar population and King profiles of high concentrations, being "tuned" to undergo core collapse quickly. BSSs are indeed found to form in a "burst" at the onset of the core collapse and several of such BS-bursts occur during the post-core-collapse phase. In those models that include a few percent primordial binaries, both collisional and binary BSSs form after the onset of the (near) core-collapse. However, t...

  3. Blue Stragglers: Spectra of Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenarro, A. J.; Cervantes, J. L.; Beasley, M. A.; Marin-Franch, A.; Vazdekis, A.

    2010-04-01

    The integrated Balmer lines of unresolved stellar systems have been widely used as age indicators, since they are sensitive to the temperature of the main sequence turn-off. However, the existence of “non-canonical” stellar stages such as hot horizontal branch stars and blue straggler stars (BSSs) can lead to underestimations of the true stellar population ages. Using an optimized Hβ index in conjunction with HST/WFPC2 color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), we find that Galactic globular clusters of similar metallicity exhibit a large scatter in their Hβ strengths, which does not correlate with their CMD-derived ages. Instead, we demonstrate that the specific frequency of BSSs is responsible for the observed Hβ scatter at intermediate-to-high metallicity, in the sense that, at fixed metallicity, higher BSS ratios lead to larger integrated Hβ strengths. Therefore, the specific frequency of BSSs sets a fundamental limit on the accuracy for which integrated spectroscopic ages can be determined for globular clusters and, probably, other stellar systems like galaxies. The observational implications of this result are discussed.

  4. A MEGACAM SURVEY OF OUTER HALO SATELLITES. II. BLUE STRAGGLERS IN THE LOWEST STELLAR DENSITY SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Felipe A.; Munoz, Ricardo R. [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Geha, Marla [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Cote, Patrick; Stetson, Peter [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Simon, Joshua D. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Djorgovski, S. G., E-mail: fsantana@das.uchile.cl, E-mail: rmunoz@das.uchile.cl [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, 91125 (United States)

    2013-09-10

    We present a homogeneous study of blue straggler stars across 10 outer halo globular clusters, 3 classical dwarf spheroidal galaxies, and 9 ultra-faint galaxies based on deep and wide-field photometric data taken with MegaCam on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. We find blue straggler stars to be ubiquitous among these Milky Way satellites. Based on these data, we can test the importance of primordial binaries or multiple systems on blue straggler star formation in low-density environments. For the outer halo globular clusters, we find an anti-correlation between the specific frequency of blue stragglers and absolute magnitude, similar to that previously observed for inner halo clusters. When plotted against density and encounter rate, the frequency of blue stragglers is well fit by a single trend with a smooth transition between dwarf galaxies and globular clusters; this result points to a common origin for these satellites' blue stragglers. The fraction of blue stragglers stays constant and high in the low encounter rate regime spanned by our dwarf galaxies, and decreases with density and encounter rate in the range spanned by our globular clusters. We find that young stars can mimic blue stragglers in dwarf galaxies only if their ages are 2.5 {+-} 0.5 Gyr and they represent {approx}1%-7% of the total number of stars, which we deem highly unlikely. These results point to mass-transfer or mergers of primordial binaries or multiple systems as the dominant blue straggler formation mechanism in low-density systems.

  5. A Megacam Survey of Outer Halo Satellites. II. Blue Stragglers in the Lowest Stellar Density Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Santana, Felipe A; Geha, Marla; Cote, Patrick; Stetson, Peter; Simon, Joshua D; Djorgovski, S G

    2013-01-01

    We present a homogeneous study of blue straggler stars across ten outer halo globular clusters, three classical dwarf spheroidal and nine ultra-faint galaxies based on deep and wide-field photometric data taken with MegaCam on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. We find blue straggler stars to be ubiquitous among these Milky Way satellites. Based on these data, we can test the importance of primordial binaries or multiple systems on blue straggler star formation in low density environments. For the outer halo globular clusters we find an anti-correlation between the specific frequency of blue straggler and absolute magnitude, similar to that previously observed for inner halo clusters. When plotted against density and encounter rate, the frequency of blue stragglers are well fitted by single trends with smooth transitions between dwarf galaxies and globular clusters, which points to a common origin for their blue stragglers. The fraction of blue stragglers stays constant and high in the low encounter rate reg...

  6. Modeling blue stragglers in young clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Pin; Zhang, Xiao-Bin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a grid of the binary evolution models are calculated for the study of blue straggler (BS) population in intermediate age ($\\log Age$=7.85-8.95) star clusters. The BS formation via mass transfer and merging is studied systematically using our models. Both Case A and B close binary evolutionary tracks are calculated in a large range of parameters. The results show that BSs formed via Case B are generally bluer and even more luminous than those produced by Case A. Furthermore, the larger range in orbital separations of Case B models provide a probability of producing more BSs than Case A. Based on the grid of models, several Monte-Carlo simulations of BS populations in the clusters in the age range are carried out. The results show that BSs formed via different channels populate different areas in color magnitude diagram(CMD). The locations of BSs in CMD for a number of clusters are compared to our simulations as well. In order to investigate the influence of mass transfer efficiency in the models...

  7. Modeling blue stragglers in young clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pin Lu; Li-Cai Deng; Xiao-Bin Zhang

    2011-01-01

    A grid of binary evolution models are calculated for the study of a blue straggler (BS) population in intermediate age (log Age =7.85 - 8.95) star clusters.The BS formation via mass transfer and merging is studied systematically using our models.Both Case A and B close binary evolutionary tracks are calculated for a large range of parameters.The results show that BSs formed via Case B are generally bluer and even more luminous than those produced by Case A.Furthermore,the larger range in orbital separations of Case B models provides a probability of producing more BSs than in Case A.Based on the grid of models,several Monte-Carlo simulations of BS populations in the clusters in the age range are carried out.The results show that BSs formed via different channels populate different areas in the color magnitude diagram (CMD).The locations of BSs in CMD for a number of clusters are compared to our simulations as well.In order to investigate the influence of mass transfer efficiency in the models and simulations,a set of models is also calculated by implementing a constant mass transfer efficiency,β =0.5,during Roche lobe overflow (Case A binary evolution excluded).The result shows BSs can be formed via mass transfer at any given age in both cases.However,the distributions of the BS populations on CMD are different.

  8. Ages of young star clusters, massive blue stragglers, and the upper mass limit of stars: Analyzing age-dependent stellar mass functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massive stars rapidly change their masses through strong stellar winds and mass transfer in binary systems. The latter aspect is important for populations of massive stars as more than 70% of all O stars are expected to interact with a binary companion during their lifetime. We show that such mass changes leave characteristic signatures in stellar mass functions of young star clusters that can be used to infer their ages and to identify products of binary evolution. We model the observed present-day mass functions of the young Galactic Arches and Quintuplet star clusters using our rapid binary evolution code. We find that the shaping of the mass function by stellar wind mass loss allows us to determine the cluster ages as 3.5 ± 0.7 Myr and 4.8 ± 1.1 Myr, respectively. Exploiting the effects of binary mass exchange on the cluster mass function, we find that the most massive stars in both clusters are rejuvenated products of binary mass transfer, i.e., the massive counterpart of classical blue straggler stars. This resolves the problem of an apparent age spread among the most luminous stars exceeding the expected duration of star formation in these clusters. We perform Monte Carlo simulations to probe stochastic sampling, which support the idea of the most massive stars being rejuvenated binary products. We find that the most massive star is expected to be a binary product after 1.0 ± 0.7 Myr in Arches and after 1.7 ± 1.0 Myr in Quintuplet. Today, the most massive 9 ± 3 stars in Arches and 8 ± 3 in Quintuplet are expected to be such objects. Our findings have strong implications for the stellar upper mass limit and solve the discrepancy between the claimed 150 M ☉ limit and observations of four stars with initial masses of 165-320 M ☉ in R136 and of supernova 2007bi, which is thought to be a pair-instability supernova from an initial 250 M ☉ star. Using the stellar population of R136, we revise the upper mass limit to values in the range 200-500 M ☉.

  9. DETECTION OF WHITE DWARF COMPANIONS TO BLUE STRAGGLERS IN THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 188: DIRECT EVIDENCE FOR RECENT MASS TRANSFER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several possible formation pathways for blue straggler stars have been developed recently, but no one pathway has yet been observationally confirmed for a specific blue straggler. Here we report the first findings from a Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys/Solar Blind Channel far-UV photometric program to search for white dwarf companions to blue straggler stars. We find three hot and young white dwarf companions to blue straggler stars in the 7 Gyr open cluster NGC 188, indicating that mass transfer in these systems ended less than 300 Myr ago. These companions are direct and secure observational evidence that these blue straggler stars were formed through mass transfer in binary stars. Their existence in a well-studied cluster environment allows for observational constraints of both the current binary system and the progenitor binary system, mapping the entire mass transfer history

  10. DETECTION OF WHITE DWARF COMPANIONS TO BLUE STRAGGLERS IN THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 188: DIRECT EVIDENCE FOR RECENT MASS TRANSFER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosnell, Natalie M.; Mathieu, Robert D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 475 N. Charter St., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Geller, Aaron M. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Sills, Alison [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Leigh, Nathan [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, CCIS 4-183, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1 (Canada); Knigge, Christian, E-mail: gosnell@astro.wisc.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton, SO17 IBJ (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-01

    Several possible formation pathways for blue straggler stars have been developed recently, but no one pathway has yet been observationally confirmed for a specific blue straggler. Here we report the first findings from a Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys/Solar Blind Channel far-UV photometric program to search for white dwarf companions to blue straggler stars. We find three hot and young white dwarf companions to blue straggler stars in the 7 Gyr open cluster NGC 188, indicating that mass transfer in these systems ended less than 300 Myr ago. These companions are direct and secure observational evidence that these blue straggler stars were formed through mass transfer in binary stars. Their existence in a well-studied cluster environment allows for observational constraints of both the current binary system and the progenitor binary system, mapping the entire mass transfer history.

  11. Can physical stellar collisions explain the blue stragglers in the dwarf spheroidal galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, P.J.T.

    1993-01-01

    The hypothesis that the blue stragglers in the dwarf spheroidal galaxie have a collisional origin is considered. If all of the dark matter in these galaxies is in the form of low-mass stars and the binary frequency is [approx equal] 50%, then it is quite possible that [approx equal] 10% to 20% of their blue stragglers have been produced by physical stellar collisions.

  12. Hubble Space Telescope proper motion (HSTPROMO) catalogs of Galactic globular clusters. IV. Kinematic profiles and average masses of blue straggler stars

    CERN Document Server

    Baldwin, A T; van der Marel, R P; Bianchini, P; Bellini, A; Anderson, J

    2016-01-01

    We make use of the Hubble Space Telescope proper-motion catalogs derived by Bellini et al. (2014) to produce the first radial velocity-dispersion profiles sigma(R) for blue straggler stars (BSSs) in Galactic globular clusters (GCs), as well as the first dynamical estimates for the average mass of the entire BSS population. We show that BSSs typically have lower velocity dispersions than stars with mass equal to the main-sequence turnoff mass, as one would expect for a more massive population of stars. Since GCs are expected to experience some degree of energy equipartition, we use the relation sigma~M^-eta, where eta is related to the degree of energy equipartition, along with our velocity-dispersion profiles to estimate BSS masses. We estimate eta as a function of cluster relaxation from recent Monte Carlo cluster simulations by Bianchini et al. (2016b) and then derive an average mass ratio M_BSS /M_MSTO=1.50+/-0.14 and an average mass M_BSS=1.22+/-0.12 M_Sun from 598 BSSs across 19 GCs. The final error bars...

  13. Why Blue stragglers formed via collisions may not be rapid rotators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose that the blue stragglers formed via collisions may not be rapid rotators due to magnetic braking during a Hayashi phase as they approach the main sequence. It is conceivable that just the envelopes of the blue stragglers are spun down, while their cores remain rapidly rotating. This would greatly extend the main-sequence lifetimes of the blue stragglers produced by collisions

  14. Formation and Evolution of Blue Stragglers in 47 Tucanae

    CERN Document Server

    Parada, Javiera; Heyl, Jeremy; Kalirai, Jason; Goldsbury, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Blue stragglers (BSS) are stars whose position in the Color-Magnitude Diagram (CMD) places them above the main sequence turn-off (TO) point of a star cluster. Using data from the core of 47 Tuc in the ultraviolet (UV), we have identified various stellar populations in the CMD, and used their radial distributions to study the evolution and origin of BSS, and obtain a dynamical estimate of the mass of BSS systems. When we separate the BSS into two samples by their magnitude, we find that the bright BSS show a much more centrally concentrated radial distribution and thus higher mass estimate (over twice the TO mass for these BSS systems), suggesting an origin involving triple or multiple stellar systems. In contrast, the faint BSS are less concentrated, with a radial distribution similar to the main sequence (MS) binaries, pointing to the MS binaries as the likely progenitors of these BSS. Putting our data together with available photometric data in the visible and using MESA evolutionary models, we calculate th...

  15. Binary Evolution: Roche Lobe Overflow and Blue Stragglers

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanova, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    One of the principal mechanisms that is responsible for the origin of blue stragglers is mass transfer that takes place while one of the binary companions overfills its Roche lobe. In this Chapter, we overview the theoretical understanding of mass transfer via Roche lobe overflow: classification, how both the donor and of the accretor respond to the mass transfer on different timescales (adiabatic response, equilibrium response, superadiabatic response, time-dependent response) for different types of their envelopes (convective and radiative). These responses, as well as the assumption on how liberal the process is, are discussed in terms of the stability of the ensuing mass transfer. The predictions of the theory of mass transfer via Roche lobe overflow are then briefly compared with the observed mass-transferring systems with both degenerate and non-degenerate donors. We conclude with the discussion which cases of mass transfer and which primordial binaries could be responsible for blue stragglers formation...

  16. Blue Stragglers in Clusters and Integrated Spectral Properties of Stellar Populations

    CERN Document Server

    Xin, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Blue straggler stars are the most prominent bright objects in the colour-magnitude diagram of a star cluster that challenges the theory of stellar evolution. Star clusters are the closest counterparts of the theoretical concept of simple stellar populations (SSPs) in the Universe. SSPs are widely used as the basic building blocks to interpret stellar contents in galaxies. The concept of an SSP is a group of coeval stars which follows a given distribution in mass, and has the same chemical property and age. In practice, SSPs are more conveniently made by the latest stellar evolutionary models of single stars. In reality, however, stars can be more complicated than just single either at birth time or during the course of evolution in a typical environment. Observations of star clusters show that there are always exotic objects which do not follow the predictions of standard theory of stellar evolution. Blue straggler stars (BSSs), as discussed intensively in this book both observationally and theoretically, are...

  17. The blue plume population in dwarf spheroidal galaxies: young stellar population or genuine blue stragglers?

    CERN Document Server

    Momany, Y; Saviane, I; Zaggia, S; Rizzi, L; Gullieuszik, M

    2007-01-01

    In the context of dwarf spheroidal galaxies it is hard to firmly disentangle a genuine Blue Stragglers (BSS) population from a normal young main (MS) sequence. This difficulty is persistent. For a sample of 9 non-star forming Local Group dwarf galaxies we compute the ``BSS frequency'' and compare it with that found in the Milky Way globular/open clusters and halo. The comparison shows that the BSS-frequency in dwarf galaxies, at any given Mv, is always higher than that in globular clusters of similar luminosities. Moreover, the estimated BSS-frequency for the lowest luminosity dwarf galaxies is in excellent agreement with that observed in the Milky Way halo and open clusters. We conclude that the low density, almost collision-less environment, of our dwarf galaxy sample point to their very low dynamical evolution and consequent negligible production of collisional BSS.

  18. HIP 10725: The first solar twin/analogue field blue straggler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirbel, Lucas; Meléndez, Jorge; Karakas, Amanda I.; Ramírez, Iván; Castro, Matthieu; Faria, Marcos A.; Lugaro, Maria; Asplund, Martin; Tucci Maia, Marcelo; Yong, David; Howes, Louise; do Nascimento, José D.

    2015-12-01

    Context. Blue stragglers are easy to identify in globular clusters, but are much harder to identify in the field. Here we present the serendipitous discovery of one field blue straggler, HIP 10725, that closely matches the Sun in mass and age, but with a metallicity slightly lower than solar. Aims: We characterise the solar twin/analogue HIP 10725 to assess whether this star is a blue straggler. Methods: We employed spectra with high resolution (R ~ 105) and high signal-to-noise ratio (330) obtained with UVES at the VLT to perform a differential abundance analysis of the solar analogue HIP 10725. Radial velocities obtained by other instruments were also used to check for binarity. We also studied its chromospheric activity, age, and rotational velocity. Results: HIP 10725 is severely depleted in beryllium ([ Be/H ] ≤ -1.2 dex) for its stellar parameters and age. The abundances relative to solar of the elements with Z ≤ 30 show a correlation with condensation temperature, and the neutron capture elements produced by the s-process are greatly enhanced, while the r-process elements seem normal. We found its projected rotational velocity (vsini = 3.3 ± 0.1 km s-1) to be significantly higher than solar and incompatible with its isochrone-derived age. Radial velocity monitoring shows that the star has a binary companion. Conclusions: Based on the high s-process element enhancements and low beryllium abundance, we suggest that HIP 10725 has been polluted by mass transfer from an AGB star that probably had an initial mass of about 2 M⊙. The radial velocity variations suggest the presence of an unseen binary companion, probably the remnant of a former AGB star. Isochrones predict a solar-age star, but this disagrees with the high projected rotational velocity and high chromospheric activity. We conclude that HIP 10725 is a field blue straggler, rejuvenated by the mass-transfer process of its former AGB companion. Based on observations obtained at the European

  19. The WFPC2 ultraviolet survey: The blue straggler population in NGC 5824

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used a combination of high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 and wide-field ground-based observations, in ultraviolet and optical bands, to study the blue straggler star population of the massive outer halo globular cluster NGC 5824 over its entire radial extent. We have computed the center of the cluster and constructed the radial density profile from detailed star counts. The profile is well reproduced by a Wilson model with a small core (rc ≅ 4.''4) and a concentration parameter c ≅ 2.74. We also present the first age determination for this cluster. From a comparison with isochrones, we find t = 13 ± 0.5 Gyr. We discuss this result in the context of the observed age-metallicity relation of Galactic globular clusters. A total of 60 bright blue stragglers has been identified. Their radial distribution is found to be bimodal, with a central peak, a well-defined minimum at r ∼ 20'', and an upturn at large radii. In the framework of the dynamical clock recently defined by Ferraro et al., this feature suggests that NGC 5824 is a cluster of intermediate dynamical age.

  20. The WFPC2 ultraviolet survey: The blue straggler population in NGC 5824

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanna, N. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, largo Fermi 5, I-50127 Firenze (Italy); Dalessandro, E.; Ferraro, F. R.; Lanzoni, B.; Miocchi, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); O' Connell, R. W., E-mail: sanna@arcetri.astro.it [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    We have used a combination of high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 and wide-field ground-based observations, in ultraviolet and optical bands, to study the blue straggler star population of the massive outer halo globular cluster NGC 5824 over its entire radial extent. We have computed the center of the cluster and constructed the radial density profile from detailed star counts. The profile is well reproduced by a Wilson model with a small core (r{sub c} ≅ 4.''4) and a concentration parameter c ≅ 2.74. We also present the first age determination for this cluster. From a comparison with isochrones, we find t = 13 ± 0.5 Gyr. We discuss this result in the context of the observed age-metallicity relation of Galactic globular clusters. A total of 60 bright blue stragglers has been identified. Their radial distribution is found to be bimodal, with a central peak, a well-defined minimum at r ∼ 20'', and an upturn at large radii. In the framework of the dynamical clock recently defined by Ferraro et al., this feature suggests that NGC 5824 is a cluster of intermediate dynamical age.

  1. Blue stragglers as remnants of stellar mergers - The discovery of short-period eclipsing binaries in the globular cluster NGC 5466

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are reported from a search for short-period variables among blue stragglers in the central region of NGC 5466, based on analysis of 248 B and V CCD images obtained with the U.S. Naval Observatory 1-m, Palomar Observatory 1.5-m, and Steward Observatory 2.3-m telescopes during 1987-1989. The data are presented in extensive tables and graphs and characterized in detail. Nine variable blue stragglers are identified, of which three are eclipsing binaries with periods 0.298-0.511 d (two contact binaries of W UMa type and one detached or semidetached binary) and six are pulsating SX Phe stars. Theoretical models indicate that all of the noneclipsing blue stragglers could be merged close binaries, although other formation mechanisms cannot be completely ruled out. 111 refs

  2. Blue straggler evolution caught in the act in the Large Magellanic Cloud globular cluster Hodge 11

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chengyuan; Deng, Licai; Liu, Xiangkun

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution {\\sl Hubble Space Telescope} imaging observations show that the radial distribution of the field-decontaminated sample of 162 'blue straggler' stars (BSs) in the $11.7^{+0.2}_{-0.1}$ Gyr-old Large Magellanic Cloud cluster Hodge 11 exhibits a clear bimodality. In combination with their distinct loci in color--magnitude space, this offers new evidence in support of theoretical expectations that suggest different BS formation channels as a function of stellar density. In the cluster's color--magnitude diagram, the BSs in the inner 15$"$ (roughly corresponding to the cluster's core radius) are located more closely to the theoretical sequence resulting from stellar collisions, while those in the periphery (at radii between 85$"$ and 100$"$) are preferentially found in the region expected to contain objects formed through binary mass transfer or coalescence. In addition, the objects' distribution in color--magntiude space provides us with the rare opportunity in an extragalactic environment to quant...

  3. Barium Surface Abundances of Blue Stragglers in the Open Cluster NGC 6819

    CERN Document Server

    Milliman, Katelyn E; Schuler, Simon C

    2015-01-01

    We present the barium surface abundance of 12 blue stragglers (BSs) and 18 main-sequence (MS) stars in the intermediate-age open cluster NGC 6819 (2.5 Gyr) based on spectra obtained from the Hydra Multi-object Spectrograph on the WIYN 3.5 m telescope. For the MS stars we find [Fe/H] = $+$0.05 $\\pm$ 0.04 and [Ba/Fe] = $-$0.01 $\\pm$ 0.10. The majority of the BS stars are consistent with these values. We identify five BSs with significant barium enhancement. These stars most likely formed through mass transfer from an asymptotic giant branch star that polluted the surface of the BS with the nucleosynthesis products generated during thermal pulsations. This conclusion aligns with the results from the substantial work done on the BSs in old open cluster NGC 188 that identifies mass transfer as the dominant mechanism for BS formation in that open cluster. However, four of the BSs with enhanced barium show no radial-velocity evidence for a companion. The one star that is in a binary is a double-lined system, meaning...

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Catalogue of Blue Stragglers (Moretti+, 2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, A.; de Angeli, F.; Piotto, G.

    2008-03-01

    We present the Blue Stragglers (BSS) Catalogues extracted from the photometric data base of 74 Galactic GCs published by Piotto et al., 2002, Cat. . All the clusters were observed in the F439W and F555W photometric bands pointing the HST/WFPC2 camera to the central core. Candidates were selected according to their position in the colour magnitude diagrams. A detailed description of the selection process is given in the paper. We give for each cluster a list of blue straggler candidates together with their photometric data. (2 data files).

  5. Radial velocities of blue stragglers in the old open cluster NGC 7789

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NGC 7789 is a populous, old galactic cluster with a large number of blue stragglers. In an attempt to determine the stellar parameters of as many of these objects as possible in order to unravel their origin, the brighter blue stragglers of NGC 7789 were observed with the 4-meter echelle spectrograph at Kitt Peak and the 2.2-meter coude spectrograph at Calar Alto. This paper reports on the determination of radial velocities from these high resolution spectra. The results are compared with the previous radial velocity studies of Strom and Strom (1970) and Stryker and Hrivnak (1984). 5 references

  6. Radial velocities of blue stragglers in the old open cluster NGC 7789

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drilling, J. S.; Schoenberner, D.

    NGC 7789 is a populous, old galactic cluster with a large number of blue stragglers. In an attempt to determine the stellar parameters of as many of these objects as possible in order to unravel their origin, the brighter blue stragglers of NGC 7789 were observed with the 4-meter echelle spectrograph at Kitt Peak and the 2.2-meter coude spectrograph at Calar Alto. This paper reports on the determination of radial velocities from these high resolution spectra. The results are compared with the previous radial velocity studies of Strom and Strom (1970) and Stryker and Hrivnak (1984).

  7. DEEP MULTI-TELESCOPE PHOTOMETRY OF NGC 5466. I. BLUE STRAGGLERS AND BINARY SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a detailed investigation of the radial distribution of blue straggler star (BSS) and binary populations in the Galactic globular cluster NGC 5466, over the entire extension of the system. We used a combination of data acquired with the Advanced Camera for Survey on board the Hubble Space Telescope, the LBC-blue mounted on the Large Binocular Telescope, and MEGACAM on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. BSSs show a bimodal distribution with a mild central peak and a quite internal minimum. This feature is interpreted in terms of a relatively young dynamical age in the framework of the 'dynamical clock' concept proposed by Ferraro et al. The estimated fraction of binaries is ∼6%-7% in the central region (r 200''. Quite interestingly, the comparison with the results of Milone et al. suggests that binary systems may also display a bimodal radial distribution, with the position of the minimum consistent with that of BSSs. If confirmed, this feature would give additional support to the scenario where the radial distribution of objects more massive than the average cluster stars is primarily shaped by the effect of dynamical friction. Moreover, this would also be consistent with the idea that the unperturbed evolution of primordial binaries could be the dominant BSS formation process in low-density environments

  8. Double Blue Straggler sequences in GCs: the case of NGC 362

    CERN Document Server

    Dalessandro, E; Massari, D; Lanzoni, B; Miocchi, P; Beccari, G; Bellini, A; Sills, A; Sigurdsson, S; Mucciarelli, A; Lovisi, L

    2013-01-01

    We used high-quality images acquired with the WFC3 on board the HST to probe the blue straggler star (BSS) population of the Galactic globular cluster NGC 362. We have found two distinct sequences of BSS: this is the second case, after M 30, where such a feature has been observed. Indeed the BSS location, their extension in magnitude and color and their radial distribution within the cluster nicely resemble those observed in M 30, thus suggesting that the same interpretative scenario can be applied: the red BSS sub-population is generated by mass transfer binaries, the blue one by collisions. The discovery of four new W UMa stars, three of which lying along the red-BSS sequence, further supports this scenario. We also found that the inner portion of the density profile deviates from a King model and is well reproduced by either a mild power-law (\\alpha -0.2) or a double King profile. This feature supports the hypothesis that the cluster is currently undergoing the core collapse phase. Moreover, the BSS radial...

  9. The binary mass transfer origin of the red blue straggler sequence in M30

    CERN Document Server

    Xin, Y; Lu, P; Deng, L; Lanzoni, B; Dalessandro, E; Beccari, G

    2015-01-01

    Two separated sequences of blue straggler stars (BSSs) have been revealed by Ferraro et al. (2009) in the color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of the Milky Way globular cluster M30. Their presence has been suggested to be related to the two BSS formation channels (namely, collisions and mass-transfer in close binaries) operating within the same stellar system. The blue sequence was indeed found to be well reproduced by collisional BSS models. In contrast, no specific models for mass transfer BSSs were available for an old stellar system like M30. Here we present binary evolution models, including case-B mass transfer and binary merging, specifically calculated for this cluster. We discuss in detail the evolutionary track of a $0.9+0.5 M_\\odot$ binary, which spends approximately 4 Gyr in the BSS region of the CMD of a 13 Gyr old cluster. We also run Monte-Carlo simulations to study the distribution of mass transfer BSSs in the CMD and to compare it with the observational data. Our results show that: (1) the color and...

  10. THE CENTRAL BLUE STRAGGLER POPULATION IN FOUR OUTER-HALO GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beccari, Giacomo; Luetzgendorf, Nora [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, 85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Olczak, Christoph [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut (ARI), Zentrum fuer Astronomie Universitaet Heidelberg, Moenchhofstrasse 1214, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Ferraro, Francesco R.; Lanzoni, Barbara [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Carraro, Giovanni; Boffin, Henri M. J. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Santiago de Chile (Chile); Stetson, Peter B. [National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Sollima, Antonio [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova (Italy)

    2012-08-01

    Using Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 data, we have performed a comparative study of the Blue Straggler Star (BSS) populations in the central regions of the globular clusters (GCs) AM 1, Eridanus, Palomar 3, and Palomar 4. Located at distances R{sub GC} > 50 kpc from the Galactic center, these are (together with Palomar 14 and NGC 2419) the most distant clusters in the halo. We determine their color-magnitude diagrams and centers of gravity. The four clusters turn out to have similar ages (10.5-11 Gyr), significantly smaller than those of the inner-halo globulars, and similar metallicities. By exploiting wide-field ground-based data, we build the most extended radial density profiles from resolved star counts ever published for these systems. These are well reproduced by isotropic King models of relatively low concentration. BSSs appear to be significantly more centrally segregated than red giants in all GCs, in agreement with the estimated core and half-mass relaxation times which are smaller than the cluster ages. Assuming that this is a signature of mass segregation, we conclude that AM 1 and Eridanus are slightly dynamically more evolved than Pal 3 and Pal 4.

  11. HIP 10725: The First Solar Twin/Analogue Field Blue Straggler

    CERN Document Server

    Schirbel, Lucas; Karakas, Amanda I; Ramirez, Ivan; Castro, Matthieu; Faria, Marcos A; Lugaro, Maria; Asplund, Martin; Maia, Marcelo Tucci; Yong, David; Howes, Louise; Nascimento, J D do

    2015-01-01

    [Context]. Blue stragglers are easy to identify in globular clusters, but are much harder to identify in the field. Here we present the serendipitous discovery of one field blue straggler, HIP 10725, that closely matches the Sun in mass and age, but with a metallicity slightly lower than the Sun's. [Methods]. We employ high resolution (R $\\sim 10^5$) high S/N (330) VLT/UVES spectra to perform a differential abundance analysis of the solar analogue HIP 10725. Radial velocities obtained by other instruments were also used to check for binarity. We also study its chromospheric activity, age and rotational velocity. [Results]. We find that HIP 10725 is severely depleted in beryllium ([Be/H] <= -1.2 dex) for its stellar parameters and age. The abundances relative to solar of the elements with Z <= 30 show a correlation with condensation temperature and the neutron capture elements produced by the s-process are greatly enhanced, while the r-process elements seem normal. We found its projected rotational veloc...

  12. THE ACS LCID PROJECT. VII. THE BLUE STRAGGLERS POPULATION IN THE ISOLATED dSph GALAXIES CETUS AND TUCANA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the first investigation of the Blue Straggler star (BSS) population in two isolated dwarf spheroidal galaxies of the Local Group, Cetus and Tucana. Deep Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys photometry allowed us to identify samples of 940 and 1214 candidates, respectively. The analysis of the star formation histories of the two galaxies suggests that both host a population of BSSs. Specifically, if the BSS candidates are interpreted as young main sequence stars, they do not conform to their galaxy's age-metallicity relationship. The analysis of the luminosity function and the radial distributions supports this conclusion, and suggests a non-collisional mechanism for the BSS formation, from the evolution of primordial binaries. This scenario is also supported by the results of new dynamical simulations presented here. Both galaxies coincide with the relationship between the BSS frequency and the absolute visual magnitude MV found by Momany et al. If this relationship is confirmed by larger sample, then it could be a valuable tool to discriminate between the presence of BSSs and galaxies hosting truly young populations.

  13. Time-Series Photometry of M67 W UMa Systems, Blue Stragglers, and Related Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sandquist, E L; Sandquist, Eric L.; Shetrone, Matthew D.

    2003-01-01

    We present an analysis of over 2200 V images taken on 14 nights at the Mt. Laguna 1 m telescope of the open cluster M67. Our observations overlap but extend beyond the field analyzed by Gilliland et al. (1991), and complement data recently published by van den Berg et al. (2002) and Stassun et al. (2002). We show variability in the light curves of all 4 of the known W UMa variables on timescales ranging from a day to decades (for AH Cnc). We have modeled the light curve of AH Cnc, and the total eclipses allow us to determine q = 0.16 +0.03/-0.02 and i = 86 +4/-8 degrees. The position of this system near the turnoff of M67 makes it useful for constraining the turnoff mass for the cluster. We have also detected two unusual features in the light curve of AH Cnc that may be caused by prominences. We have also monitored cluster blue stragglers for variability, and we present evidence hinting at low level variations in the stragglers S752, S968, and S1263, and we place limits on the variability of a number of other...

  14. Census of blue stars in SDSS DR8

    CERN Document Server

    Scibelli, Samantha; Carlin, Jeffrey L; Yanny, Brian

    2014-01-01

    We present a census of the 12,060 spectra of blue objects ($(g-r)_0<-0.25$) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 (DR8). As part of the data release, all of the spectra were cross-correlated with 48 template spectra of stars, galaxies and QSOs to determine the best match. We compared the blue spectra by eye to the templates assigned in SDSS DR8. 10,856 of the objects matched their assigned template, 170 could not be classified due to low signal-to-noise (S/N), and 1034 were given new classifications. We identify 7458 DA white dwarfs, 1145 DB white dwarfs, 273 rarer white dwarfs (including carbon, DZ, DQ, and magnetic), 294 subdwarf O stars, 648 subdwarf B stars, 679 blue horizontal branch stars, 1026 blue stragglers, 13 cataclysmic variables, 129 white dwarf - M dwarf binaries, 36 objects with spectra similar to DO white dwarfs, 179 QSOs, and 10 galaxies. We provide two tables of these objects, sample spectra that match the templates, figures showing all of the spectra that were grouped by ...

  15. Today a Duo, But Once a Trio? The Double White Dwarf HS 2220$+$2146 May Be A Post-Blue Straggler Binary

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, Jeff J; Brown, Warren R; Gosnell, Natalie M; Gianninas, A; Kilic, Mukremin; Koester, Detlev

    2016-01-01

    For sufficiently wide orbital separations {\\it a}, the two members of a stellar binary evolve independently. This implies that in a wide double white dwarf (DWD), the more massive WD should always be produced first, when its more massive progenitor ends its main-sequence life, and should therefore be older and cooler than its companion. The bound, wide DWD HS 2220$+$2146 ($a\\approx500$ AU) does not conform to this picture: the more massive WD is the younger, hotter of the pair. We show that this discrepancy is unlikely to be due to past mass-transfer phases or to the presence of an unresolved companion. Instead, we propose that HS 2220$+$2146 formed through a new wide DWD evolutionary channel involving the merger of the inner binary in a hierarchical triple system. The resulting blue straggler and its wide companion then evolved independently, forming the WD pair seen today. Although we cannot rule out other scenarios, the most likely formation channel has the inner binary merging while both stars are still o...

  16. Black hole mergers and blue stragglers from hierarchical triples formed in globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Antonini, Fabio; Rodriguez, Carl L; Morscher, Meagan; Pattabiraman, Bharath; Kalogera, Vicky; Rasio, Frederic A

    2015-01-01

    Hierarchical triple-star systems are expected to form frequently via close binary-binary encounters in the dense cores of globular clusters. In a sufficiently inclined triple, gravitational interactions between the inner and outer binary can cause large-amplitude oscillations in the eccentricity of the inner orbit ("Lidov-Kozai cycles"), which can lead to a collision and merger of the two inner components. In this paper we use Monte Carlo models of dense star clusters to identify all triple systems formed dynamically and we compute their evolution using a highly accurate three-body integrator which incorporates relativistic and tidal effects. We find that a large fraction of these triples evolve through a non-secular dynamical phase which can drive the inner binary to higher eccentricities than predicted by the standard secular perturbation theory (even including octupole-order terms). We place constraints on the importance of Lidov-Kozai-induced mergers for producing: (i) gravitational wave sources detectabl...

  17. High-resolution spectroscopic observations of binary stars and yellow stragglers in three open clusters: NGC 2360, NGC 3680, and NGC 5822

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sales Silva, J. V.; Peña Suárez, V. J.; Katime Santrich, O. J.; Pereira, C. B.; Drake, N. A.; Roig, F., E-mail: joaovictor@on.br, E-mail: jearim@on.br, E-mail: osantrich@on.br, E-mail: claudio@on.br, E-mail: drake@on.br, E-mail: froig@on.br [Observatório Nacional/MCT, Rua Gen. José Cristino, 77, 20921-400 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2014-11-01

    Binary stars in open clusters are very useful targets in constraining the nucleosynthesis process. The luminosities of the stars are known because the distances of the clusters are also known, so chemical peculiarities can be linked directly to the evolutionary status of a star. In addition, binary stars offer the opportunity to verify a relationship between them and the straggler population in both globular and open clusters. We carried out a detailed spectroscopic analysis to derive the atmospheric parameters for 16 red giants in binary systems and the chemical composition of 11 of them in the open clusters NGC 2360, NGC 3680, and NGC 5822. We obtained abundances of C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Si, Ti, Ni, Cr, Y, Zr, La, Ce, and Nd. The atmospheric parameters of the studied stars and their chemical abundances were determined using high-resolution optical spectroscopy. We employ the local thermodynamic equilibrium model atmospheres of Kurucz and the spectral analysis code MOOG. The abundances of the light elements were derived using the spectral synthesis technique. We found that the stars NGC 2360-92 and 96, NGC 3680-34, and NGC 5822-4 and 312 are yellow straggler stars. We show that the spectra of NGC 5822-4 and 312 present evidence of contamination by an A-type star as a secondary star. For the other yellow stragglers, evidence of contamination is given by the broad wings of the Hα. Detection of yellow straggler stars is important because the observed number can be compared with the number predicted by simulations of binary stellar evolution in open clusters. We also found that the other binary stars are not s-process enriched, which may suggest that in these binaries the secondary star is probably a faint main-sequence object. The lack of any s-process enrichment is very useful in setting constraints for the number of white dwarfs in the open cluster, a subject that is related to the birthrate of these kinds of stars in open clusters and also to the age of a

  18. Blue Horizontal Branch Stars in M92

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, J G

    1997-01-01

    We have analyzed high dispersion and high precision spectra of 5 blue horizontal branch stars in the globular cluster M92 to establish that the projected rotational velocity for these stars ranges from 15 to 40 \\kms. This is larger than that expected based on the rotation of their main sequence progenitors, the spin down of rotation with age, and the conservation of angular momentum. Possible explanations include a rapidly rotating stellar core. An abundance analysis of these spectra of these blue HB stars in M92 yields the same results as have been obtained from the giants in this cluster. There is a hint of a trend of higher abundance as the projected surface rotational velocity increases, which could be chance and requires confirmation.

  19. Spectroscopic observations of 33 T Tau stars in the blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a description of about one hundred spectra of 33 T Tauri stars in the blue region (lambda/lambda/3600-5200). We have distinguished groups according to the emission features (H I, Ca II, Fe II) observed at the present dispersion and with the present material

  20. Super Star Clusters in the Blue Dwarf Galaxy UM 462

    OpenAIRE

    Vanzi, Leonardo

    2003-01-01

    I present optical observations of the Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxy UM 462. The images of this galaxy show several bright compact sources. A careful study of these sources has revealed their nature of young Super Star Clusters. The ages determined from the analysis of the stellar continuum and $H\\alpha$ are between few and few tens Myr. The total star formation taking place into the clusters is about 0.05 $\\mathrm{M_{\\odot}/yr}$. The clusters seem to be located at the edges of two large round-lik...

  1. Blue supergiants as descendants of magnetic main sequence stars

    CERN Document Server

    Petermann, I; Castro, N; Fossati, L

    2015-01-01

    About 10$\\%$ of the massive main sequence stars have recently been found to host a strong, large scale magnetic field. Both, the origin and the evolutionary consequences of these fields are largely unknown. We argue that these fields may be sufficiently strong in the deep interior of the stars to suppress convection near the outer edge of their convective core. We performed parametrised stellar evolution calculations and assumed a reduced size of the convective core for stars in the mass range 16 M$_{\\odot}$ to 28 M$_{\\odot}$ from the zero age main sequence until core carbon depletion. We find that such models avoid the coolest part of the main sequence band, which is usually filled by evolutionary models that include convective core overshooting. Furthermore, our `magnetic' models populate the blue supergiant region during core helium burning, i.e., the post-main sequence gap left by ordinary single star models, and some of them end their life in a position near that of the progenitor of Supernova 1987A in t...

  2. Revealing the nature of star forming blue early-type galaxies at low redshift

    CERN Document Server

    George, Koshy

    2015-01-01

    Context: Star forming early-type galaxies with blue optical colours at low redshift can be used to test our current understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. Aims: We want to reveal the fuel and triggering mechanism for star formation in these otherwise passively evolving red and dead stellar systems. Methods: We undertook an optical and ultraviolet study of 55 star forming blue early-type galaxies, searching for signatures of recent interactions that could be driving the molecular gas into the galaxy and potentially triggering the star formation. Results: We report here our results on star forming blue early-type galaxies with tidal trails and in close proximity to neighbouring galaxies that are evidence of ongoing or recent interactions between galaxies. There are 12 galaxies with close companions with similar redshifts, among which two galaxies are having ongoing interactions that potentially trigger the star formation. Two galaxies show a jet feature that could be due to the complete tidal disrupti...

  3. Tracing the star formation history of three Blue Compact galaxies through the analysis of their star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Adamo, Angela; Zackrisson, Erik; Hayes, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    We present preliminary results from a study of the compact star cluster populations in three local luminous blue compact galaxies: ESO 185-IG 013, ESO 350-IG 038 (a.k.a. Haro 11), and MRK 930. These systems show peculiar morphologies and the presence of hundreds of SCs that have been produced by the past, recent, and/or current starburst phases. We use a complete set of HST images ranging from the UV to IR for each galaxy. Deep images in V (WFPC2/f606w) and I (WFPC2/f814w) are used to capture most of the star cluster candidates up to the old ones (fainter) which have had, in the past, less possibility to be detected. The other bands are used in the SED fitting technique for constraining ages and masses. Our goals are to investigate the evolution of these three blue compact galaxies and the star cluster formation impact on their star formation history.

  4. BLUE LUMINOUS STARS IN NEARBY GALAXIES-UIT 005: A POSSIBLE LINK TO THE LUMINOUS BLUE VARIABLE STAGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed study of the blue supergiant UIT 005 (B2-2.5Ia+) in M 33 is presented. The results of our quantitative spectral analysis indicate that the star is a very luminous (log L/Lsun ∼ 5.9 dex) and massive (M ∼ 50 Msun) object, showing a very high nitrogen-to-oxygen ratio in its surface (N/O∼8, by mass). Based on the derived Mg and Si abundances, we argue that this high N/O ratio cannot be the result of an initial low O content due to its location on the disk of M 33, a galaxy known to present a steep metallicity gradient. In combination with the He abundance, the most plausible interpretation is that UIT 005 is in an advanced stage of evolution, showing in its surface N enrichment and O depletion resulting from mixing with CNO processed material from the stellar interior. A comparison with the predictions of current stellar evolutionary models indicates that there are significant discrepancies, in particular with regard to the degree of chemical processing, with the models predicting a much lower degree of O depletion than observed. At the same time, the mass-loss rate derived in our analysis is an order of magnitude lower than the values considered in the evolutionary calculations. Based on a study of the surrounding stellar population and the nearby cluster, NGC 588, using Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2 photometry, we suggest that UIT 005 could be in fact a runaway star from this cluster. Regardless of its origin, the derived parameters place the star in a region of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram where luminous blue variables (LBVs) are usually found, but we find no evidence supporting photometric or spectroscopic variability, except for small Hα changes, otherwise observed in Galactic B-type supergiants. Whether UIT 005 is an LBV in a dormant state or a regular blue supergiant could not be discerned in this study. Subsequent monitoring would help us to improve our knowledge of the more massive stars, bridging the gap between regular and more exotic

  5. The different star-formation histories of blue and red spiral and elliptical galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Tojeiro, Rita; Richards, Joshua; Percival, Will J; Bamford, Steven P; Maraston, Claudia; Nichol, Robert C; Skibba, Ramin; Thomas, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    [Abridged] We study the spectral properties of intermediate mass galaxies as a function of colour and morphology. We use Galaxy Zoo to define three morphological classes of galaxies, namely early-types (ellipticals), late-type (disk-dominated) face-on spirals and early-type (bulge-dominated) face-on spirals. We classify these galaxies as blue or red according to their SDSS g-r colour and use the spectral fitting code VESPA to calculate time-resolved star-formation histories, metallicity and total starlight dust extinction from their SDSS fibre spectra. We find that red late-type spirals show less star-formation in the last 500 Myr than blue late-type spirals by up to a factor of three, but share similar star-formation histories at earlier times. This decline in recent star-formation explains their redder colour: their chemical and dust content are the same. We postulate that red late-type spirals are recent descendants of blue late-type spirals, with their star-formation curtailed in the last 500 Myrs. The re...

  6. The Clusters AgeS Experiment (CASE). Variable stars in the field of the globular cluster NGC 3201

    CERN Document Server

    Kaluzny, J; Thompson, I B; Narloch, W; Mazur, B; Pych, W; Schwarzenberg-Czerny, A

    2016-01-01

    The field of the globular cluster NGC 3201 was monitored between 1998 and 2009 in a search for variable stars. $BV$ light curves were obtained for 152 periodic or likely periodic variables, 57 of which are new detections. Thirty-seven newly detected variables are proper motion members of the cluster. Among them we found seven detached or semi-detached eclipsing binaries, four contact binaries, and eight SX Phe pulsators. Four of the eclipsing binaries are located in the turnoff region, one on the lower main sequence and the remaining two slightly above the subgiant branch. Two contact systems are blue stragglers, and another two reside in the turnoff region. In the blue straggler region a total of 266 objects were found, of which 140 are proper motion (PM) members of NGC 3201, and another 19 are field stars. Seventy-eight of the remaining objects for which we do not have PM data are located within the half-light radius from the center of the cluster, and most of them are likely genuine blue stragglers. Four v...

  7. GAS MASS FRACTIONS AND STAR FORMATION IN BLUE-SEQUENCE E/S0 GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent work has identified a population of low-redshift E/S0 galaxies that lie on the blue sequence in color versus stellar mass parameter space, where spiral galaxies typically reside. While high-mass blue-sequence E/S0s often resemble young merger or interaction remnants likely to fade to the red sequence, we focus on blue-sequence E/S0s with lower stellar masses (M*10 Msun), which are characterized by fairly regular morphologies and low-density field environments where fresh gas infall is possible. This population may provide an evolutionary link between early-type galaxies and spirals through disk regrowth. Focusing on atomic gas reservoirs, we present new GBT H I data for 27 E/S0s on both sequences as well as a complete tabulation of archival H I data for other galaxies in the Nearby Field Galaxy Survey. Normalized to stellar mass, the atomic gas masses for 12 of the 14 blue-sequence E/S0s range from 0.1 to >1.0, demonstrating that morphological transformation is possible if the detected gas can be converted into stars. These gas-to-stellar mass ratios are comparable to those of spiral and irregular galaxies and have a similar dependence on stellar mass. Assuming that the H I is accessible for star formation, we find that many of our blue-sequence E/S0s can increase in stellar mass by 10%-60% in 3 Gyr in both of two limiting scenarios, exponentially declining star formation (i.e., closed box) and constant star formation (i.e., allowing gas infall). In a constant star formation scenario, about half of the blue-sequence E/S0s require fresh gas infall on a timescale of ∼<3 Gyr to avoid exhausting their atomic gas reservoirs and evolving to the red sequence. We present evidence that star formation in these galaxies is bursty and likely involves externally triggered gas inflows. Our analysis suggests that most blue-sequence E/S0s are indeed capable of substantial stellar disk growth on relatively short timescales.

  8. Spectroscopic observations of blue stars with infrared excesses in NGC 6611

    CERN Document Server

    Bonito, R; Guarcello, M G; Micela, G

    2013-01-01

    The young open cluster NGC 6611 includes among its candidate members a class of peculiar objects with interesting properties: blue stars with infrared IR excesses. These stars show excesses in IR bands, signature of the presence of a circumstellar disk, but optical colors typical of older field stars. In order to confirm their membership to the cluster, it is therefore important to use new spectroscopic observations, together with previous photometric data. We aim at confirming the membership of these objects and at investigating their physical properties to verify whether the observed colors are intrinsic or altered by the presence of the disk or by the accretion processes. We analyze the intermediate resolution spectroscopic data obtained for a subsample of blue stars in NGC 6611 with FLAMES. In particular, we focus on the study of: 1) the profile of the Ha emission line, to select stars with accretion and outflow activity; 2) the Li absorption line, used as a youth indicator; 3) the radial velocity. Using ...

  9. Late stages of the evolution of A-type stars on the main sequence: comparison between observed chemical abundances and diffusion models for 8 Am stars of the Praesepe cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Fossati, L; Monier, R; Khan, S A; Kochukhov, O; Landstreet, J; Wade, G; Weiss, W

    2007-01-01

    Aims. We aim to provide observational constraints on diffusion models that predict peculiar chemical abundances in the atmospheres of Am stars. We also intend to check if chemical peculiarities and slow rotation can be explained by the presence of a weak magnetic field. Methods. We have obtained high resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra of eight previously-classified Am stars, two normal A-type stars and one Blue Straggler, considered to be members of the Praesepe cluster. For all of these stars we have determined fundamental parameters and photospheric abundances for a large number of chemical elements, with a higher precision than was ever obtained before for this cluster. For seven of these stars we also obtained spectra in circular polarization and applied the LSD technique to constrain the longitudinal magnetic field. Results. No magnetic field was detected in any of the analysed stars. HD 73666, a Blue Straggler previously considered as an Ap (Si) star, turns out to have the abundances of a no...

  10. Chronography of the Milky Way's Halo System with Field Blue Horizontal-Branch Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Santucci, R M; Placco, V M; Carollo, D; Rossi, S; Lee, Y S; Denissenkov, P; Tumlinson, J; Tissera, P B

    2015-01-01

    In a pioneering effort, Preston et al. reported that the colors of blue horizontal-branch (BHB) stars in the halo of the Galaxy shift with distance, from regions near the Galactic center to about 12 kpc away, and interpreted this as a correlated variation in the ages of halo stars, from older to younger, spanning a range of a few Gyrs. We have applied this approach to a sample of some 4700 spectroscopically confirmed BHB stars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to produce the first "chronographic map" of the halo of the Galaxy. We demonstrate that the mean de-reddened g$-$r color, , increases outward in the Galaxy from $-$0.22 to $-$0.08 (over a color window spanning [$-$0.3:0.0]) from regions close to the Galactic center to ~40 kpc, independent of the metallicity of the stars. Models of the expected shift in the color of the field BHB stars based on modern stellar evolutionary codes confirm that this color gradient can be associated with an age difference of roughly 2-2.5 Gyrs, with the oldest stars ...

  11. Chemical Abundances and Rotation Velocities of Blue Horizontal-Branch Stars in Six Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Behr, B B

    2003-01-01

    High-resolution spectroscopic measurements of blue horizontal-branch stars in six metal-poor globular clusters -- M3, M13, M15, M68, M92, and NGC 288 -- reveal remarkable variations in photospheric composition and rotation velocity as a function of a star's position along the horizontal branch. For the cooler stars (Teff < 11200 K), the derived abundances are in good agreement with the canonical cluster metallicities, and we find a wide range of v sin i rotation velocities, some as high as 40 km/s. In the hotter stars, however, most metal species are strongly enhanced, by as much as 3 dex, relative to the expected cluster metallicity, while helium is depleted by 2 dex or more. In addition, the hot stars all rotate slowly, with v sin i < 8 km/s. The anomalous abundances appear to be due to atomic diffusion mechanisms -- gravitational settling of helium, and radiative levitation of metals -- in the non-convective atmospheres of these hot stars. We discuss the influence of these photospheric metal enhancem...

  12. Vertical stratification of iron in atmospheres of blue horizontal-branch stars

    CERN Document Server

    Khalack, V; Behr, B B

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to search for observational evidence of vertical iron stratification in the atmosphere of fourteen blue horizontal-branch (BHB) stars. We have found from our numerical simulations that five BHB stars: B22, B186 in the globular cluster NGC 288, WF2-820, WF2-2692 in M13 and B203 in M15 show clear signatures of the vertical stratification of iron whose abundance increases toward the lower atmosphere. Two other BHB stars (B334 in M15 and B176 in M92) also show possible iron stratification in their atmosphere. A dependence of the slope of iron stratification on the effective temperature was also discovered. It is found that the vertical stratification of iron is strongest in BHB stars with Teff around 11,500K. The slope of iron abundance decreases as Teff increases and becomes negligible for the BHB stars with Teff= 14,000K. These results support the hypothesis regarding the efficiency of atomic diffusion in the stellar atmospheres of BHB stars with Teff > 11,500K.

  13. FROM BLUE STAR-FORMING TO RED PASSIVE: GALAXIES IN TRANSITION IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vulcani, Benedetta [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8582 (Japan); Poggianti, Bianca M.; Fasano, Giovanni; Moretti, Alessia [INAF-Astronomical Observatory of Padova, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Fritz, Jacopo [Sterrenkundig Observatorium Vakgroep Fysica en Sterrenkunde Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281, S9 B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Calvi, Rosa; Paccagnella, Angela [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universitá degli Studi di Padova, vicolo Osservatorio 2, I-35122 Padova (Italy)

    2015-01-01

    Exploiting a mass-complete (M {sub *} > 10{sup 10.25} M {sub ☉}) sample at 0.03 star-formation activity and/or morphology: green galaxies, red passive late types, and blue star-forming early types. Color fractions depend on mass and only for M {sub *} < 10{sup 10.7} M {sub ☉} on environment. The incidence of red galaxies increases with increasing mass, and, for M {sub *} < 10{sup 10.7} M {sub ☉}, decreases toward the group outskirts and in binary and single galaxies. The relative abundance of green and blue galaxies is independent of environment and increases monotonically with galaxy mass. We also inspect galaxy structural parameters, star-formation properties, histories, and ages and propose an evolutionary scenario for the different subpopulations. Color transformations are due to a reduction and suppression of the star-formation rate in both bulges and disks that does not noticeably affect galaxy structure. Morphological transitions are linked to an enhanced bulge-to-disk ratio that is due to the removal of the disk, not to an increase of the bulge. Our modeling suggests that green colors might be due to star-formation histories declining with long timescales, as an alternative scenario to the classical ''quenching'' processes. Our results suggest that galaxy transformations in star-formation activity and morphology depend neither on the environment nor on being a satellite or the most massive galaxy of a halo. The only environmental dependence we find is the higher fast quenching efficiency in groups giving origin to poststarburst signatures.

  14. THE STELLAR POPULATION AND STAR FORMATION PROPERTIES OF BLUE COMPACT DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study stellar populations, star formation histories (SFHs), and star formation properties for a sample of blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs) selected by cross-correlating the Gil de Paz et al. sample with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 6. The sample includes 31 BCDs, which span a large range of galactic parameters. Using a stellar population synthesis method, we derive stellar populations and reconstruct SFHs for these BCDs. Our studies confirm that BCDs are not young systems experiencing their first star formation, but old systems undergoing a starburst activity. The stellar mass-weighted ages can be up to 10 Gyr, while the luminosity-weighted ages might be up to approximately three orders of magnitude younger (∼10 Myr) for most galaxies. Based on multiwavelength data, we also study the integrated star formation properties. The star formation rate (SFR) for our sample galaxies spans nearly three orders of magnitude, from a few 10-3 to ∼1 Msun yr-1, with a median value of ∼0.1 Msun yr-1. We find that about 90% of BCDs in our sample have their birthrate parameter (the ratio of the current SFR to the averaged past SFR) b>2-3. We further discuss correlations of the current SFR with the integrated galactic stellar mass and explore the connection between SFR and metallicity.

  15. The Stellar Population and Star Formation Properties of Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Yinghe; Gao, Yu

    2010-01-01

    We study the stellar populations, star formation histories and star formation properties for a sample of blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs) selected by cross-correlating the Gil de Paz et al. (2003) sample with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 6 (SDSS DR6). The sample includes 31 BCDs, which span a large range in galactic parameters. Using a stellar population synthesis method, we derive the stellar populations and reconstruct the star formation histories for these BCDs. Our studies confirm that BCDs are not young systems experiencing their first star formation but old systems undergoing a starburst activity. The stellar mass-weighted ages can be as old as 10 Gyr while the luminosity-weighted ages might be up to $\\sim 3$ orders of magnitude younger ($\\sim 10$ Myr) for most galaxies. Based on multi-wavelength data, we also study the integrated star formation properties. The SFR for our sample galaxies spans nearly 3 orders of magnitude, from a few $10^{-3}$ to $\\sim1\\,M_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$, with the medi...

  16. A possible formation channel for blue hook stars in globular cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Lei, Zhenxin; Zhang, Fenghui; Han, Zhanwen

    2015-01-01

    The formation mechanism for blue hook (BHk) stars in globular clusters (GCs) is still unclear. Following one of the possible scenario, named late hot flash scenario, we proposed that tidally enhanced stellar wind in binary evolution may provide the huge mass loss on the red giant branch (RGB) and produce BHk stars. Employing the detailed stellar evolution code, Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA), we investigated the contributions of tidally enhanced stellar wind as a possible formation channel for BHk stars in GCs. We evolved the primary stars with different initial orbital periods using the binary module in MESA (version 6208) from zero age main-sequence (ZAMS) to post horizontal branch (HB) stage, and obtained their evolution parameters which are compared with the observation. The results are consistent with observation in the color-magnitude diagram (CMD) and the logg-Teff plane for NGC 2808, which is an example GC hosting BHk stars. However, the helium abundance in the surface for our ...

  17. Spectroscopic analyses of the blue hook stars in NGC 2808:A more stringent test of the late hot flasher scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Moehler, S.; Sweigart, A. V.; Landsman, W. B.; Hammer, N. J.; Dreizler, S.

    2004-01-01

    Recent UV observations of the globular cluster NGC 2808 (Brown et al. 2001) show a significant population of hot stars fainter than the zero-age horizontal branch ("blue hook" stars), which cannot be explained by canonical stellar evolution. Their results suggest that stars which experience unusually large mass loss on the red giant branch and which subsequently undergo the helium core flash while descending the white dwarf cooling curve could populate this region. Theory predicts that these ...

  18. GRACES observations of young [α/Fe]-rich stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, David; Casagrande, Luca; Venn, Kim A.; Chené, André-Nicolas; Keown, Jared; Malo, Lison; Martioli, Eder; Alves-Brito, Alan; Asplund, Martin; Dotter, Aaron; Martell, Sarah L.; Meléndez, Jorge; Schlesinger, Katharine J.

    2016-06-01

    We measure chemical abundance ratios and radial velocities in four massive (i.e. young) [α/Fe]-rich red giant stars using high-resolution high-S/N spectra from ESPaDOnS fed by Gemini-GRACES. Our differential analysis ensures that our chemical abundances are on the same scale as the Alves-Brito et al. (2010) study of bulge, thin, and thick disc red giants. We confirm that the program stars have enhanced [α/Fe] ratios and are slightly metal poor. Aside from lithium enrichment in one object, the program stars exhibit no chemical abundance anomalies when compared to giant stars of similar metallicity throughout the Galaxy. This includes the elements Li, O, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Ni, Cu, Ba, La, and Eu. Therefore, there are no obvious chemical signatures that can help to reveal the origin of these unusual stars. While our new observations show that only one star (not the Li-rich object) exhibits a radial velocity variation, simulations indicate that we cannot exclude the possibility that all four could be binaries. In addition, we find that two (possibly three) stars show evidence for an infrared excess, indicative of a debris disc. This is consistent with these young [α/Fe]-rich stars being evolved blue stragglers, suggesting their apparent young age is a consequence of a merger or mass transfer. We would expect a binary fraction of ˜50 per cent or greater for the entire sample of these stars, but the signs of the circumbinary disc may have been lost since these features can have short time-scales. Radial velocity monitoring is needed to confirm the blue straggler origin.

  19. A search for pulsating blue stars in the vicinity of NGC 6791 using Kepler LC data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowicka Paulina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are 18 known pulsating subdwarf B stars in the field of view of the Kepler spacecraft during phase one. The majority of them were observed in the short cadence mode and have been successfully investigated via asteroseismic methods. Since these stars are important for the stellar evolution theory, we performed a search for blue stars in the vicinity of the open cluster NGC 6791, which was observed by the Kepler in the long cadence mode in the so-called super apertures. We used Q1-Q17 LC data and performed pixel analysis using PyKE and our customized scripts. We preliminary tagged 23 objects and we calculated amplitude spectra to look for periodic signal which exist in the data. We found four stars with significant signal in the amplitude spectra with none of them classified as gravity modes in pulsating hot subdwarfs. Likely, all four objects are binaries, though, spectroscopic observations are needed to sort out our hypothesis.

  20. Binary coalescence from case A evolution -- mergers and blue stragglers

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xuefei

    2007-01-01

    We constructed some main-sequence mergers from case A binary evolution and studied their characteristics via Eggleton's stellar evolution code. Both total mass and orbital angular momentum are conservative in our binary evolutions. Some mergers might be on the left of the ZAMS as defined by normal surface composition on a CMD because of enhanced surface helium content. The study also shows that central hydrogen content of the mergers is independent of mass. As a consequence, we fit the formula of magnitude and B-V of the mergers when they return back to thermal equilibrium with maximum error 0.29 and 0.037, respectively. Employing the consequences above, we performed Monte Carlo simulations to examine our models in NGC 2682 and NGC 2660. In NGC 2682, binary mergers from our models cover the region with high luminosity, but its importance is much less than that of AML. Our results are well-matched to the observations of NGC2660 if there is about 0.5Mo of mass loss in the merger process.

  1. Study of the luminous blue variable star candidate G26.47+0.02 and its environment

    OpenAIRE

    Paron, S.; Combi, J. A.; Petriella, A.; Giacani, E.

    2012-01-01

    The luminous blue variable (LBV) stars are peculiar very massive stars. The study of these stellar objects and their surroundings is important for understanding the evolution of massive stars and its effects on the interstellar medium. We study the LBV star candidate G26.47+0.02. Using several large-scale surveys in different frequencies we performed a multiwavelength study of G26.47+0.02 and its surroundings. We found a molecular shell (seen in the 13CO J=1-0 line) that partially surrounds t...

  2. Characterizing stellar halo populations II: The age gradient in blue horizontal-branch stars

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Payel; Binney, James

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of Milky Way halo blue horizontal-branch (BHB) stars is examined using action-based extended distribution functions (EDFs) that describe the locations of stars in phase space, metallicity, and age. The parameters of the EDFs are fitted using stars observed in the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration-II (SEGUE-II) survey that trace the phase-space kinematics and chemistry out to ~70 kpc. A maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) estimate method and a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method are applied, taking into account the selection function in positions, distance, and metallicity for the survey. The best-fit EDF declines with actions less steeply at actions characteristic of the inner halo than at the larger actions characteristic of the outer halo, and older ages are found at smaller actions than at larger actions. In real space, the radial density profile steepens smoothly from -2 at ~2 kpc to -4 in the outer halo, with an axis ratio ~0.7 throughout. There is no indication f...

  3. Vertical abundance stratification in the blue horizontal branch star HD135485

    CERN Document Server

    Khalack, V R; Bohlender, D A; Wade, G A; Behr, B B

    2007-01-01

    It is commonly believed that the observed overabundances of many chemical species relative to the expected cluster metallicity in blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars appear as a result of atomic diffusion in the photosphere. The slow rotation of BHB stars (with T_eff > 11,500K), typically v sin{i} < 10 km/s, is consistent with this idea. In this work we search for observational evidence of vertical chemical stratification in the atmosphere of HD135485. If this evidence exists, it will demonstrate the importance of atomic diffusion processes in the atmospheres of BHB stars. We undertake an extensive abundance stratification analysis of the atmosphere of HD135485, based on recently acquired high resolution and S/N CFHT ESPaDOnS spectra and a McDonald-CE spectrum. Our numerical simulations show that nitrogen and sulfur reveal signatures of vertical abundance stratification in the stellar atmosphere. It appears that the abundances of these elements increase toward the upper atmosphere. This fact cannot be expla...

  4. The supergiant B[e] star LHA 115-S 18 - binary and/or luminous blue variable?

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, J S; Coe, M J; Dorda, R; Haberl, F; Lamb, J B; Negueruela, I; Udalski, A

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism by which supergiant (sg)B[e] stars support cool, dense dusty discs/tori and their physical relationship with other evolved, massive stars such as luminous blue variables is uncertain. In order to investigate both issues we have analysed the long term behaviour of the canonical sgB[e] star LHA 115-S 18. We employed the OGLE II-IV lightcurve to search for (a-)periodic variability and supplemented these data with new and historic spectroscopy. In contrast to historical expectations for sgB[e] stars, S18 is both photometrically and spectroscopically highly variable. The lightcurve is characterised by rapid aperiodic `flaring' throughout the 16 years of observations. Changes in the high excitation emission line component of the spectrum imply evolution in the stellar temperature - as expected for luminous blue variables - although somewhat surprisingly, spectroscopic and photometric variability appears not to be correlated. Characterised by emission in low excitation metallic species, the cool circum...

  5. Chronography of the Milky Way's Halo System with Field Blue Horizontal-Branch Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, Timothy C.; Placco, Vinicius M.; Carollo, Daniela; Santucci, Rafael; Rossi, Siliva; Lee, Young Sun; Denissenkov, Pavel; Tumlinson, Jason; Tissera, Patricia; Lentner, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    In a pioneering effort, Preston et al. (1991, AJ 375, 121) reported that the colors of blue horizontal-branch (BHB) stars in the halo of the Galaxy shift with distance, from regions near the Galactic center to about 12 kpc away, and interpreted this as a correlated variation in the ages of halo stars, from older to younger, spanning a range of a few Gyrs. We have applied this approach to a sample of some 4700 spectroscopically confirmed BHB stars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to produce the first "chronographic map" of the halo of the Galaxy.We demonstrate that the mean de-reddened g-r color increases outward in the Galaxy from -0.22 to -0.08 (over a color window spanning [-0.3:0.0]) from regions close to the Galactic center to ~40 kpc, independent of the metallicity of the stars. Models of the expected shift in the color of the field BHB stars based on modern stellar evolutionary codes confirm that this color gradient can be associated with an age difference of roughly 2-2.5 Gyrs, with the oldest stars concentrated in the central ~15 kpc of the Galaxy. Within this centralregion, which we refer to as the Ancient Chronographic Sphere (ACS), the age difference spans a mean color range of about 0.05 mag (~0.8 Gyrs). Interestingly, the ACS extends far enough to include the Solar Neighborhood, suggesting that ancient metal-poor stars should be readily detectable in the vicinity of the Sun. Furthermore, we show that chronographic maps can be used to identify individual substructures, such as the Sagittarius Stream, and overdensities in the direction of Virgo and Monoceros, based on the observed contrast in their mean BHB colors with respect to the foreground/background field population.We acknowledge partial support from the grant PHY 14-30152; Physics Frontier Center/JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements (JINA-CEE), awarded by the US National Science Foundation.

  6. First results from the Edinburgh-Cape faint blue object survey - Normal stars at high galactic latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilkenny, D.; O'Donoghue, D.; Stobie, R. S.

    1991-02-01

    A simple analysis using low-dispersion Reticon spectroscopy and Stromgren photometry is presented for a sample of 20 apparently normal early-type stars detected in the Edinburgh-Cape faint blue object survey of high galactic latitudes. Four stars are not normal, showing high gravity or helium abundance anomalies; 12 stars appear to be at moderate distances from the galactic plane and four stars have derived z-distances greater than about 5 kpc. The sample was selected from 33 survey fields completed to B = 16.5 mag and indicates that the total galactic population of 'very high-z' B stars is only of the order 100-1000. The Dyson and Hartquist (1983) model for the formation of such objects by cloudlet-cloudlet collisions within high-velocity clouds cannot therefore be ruled out on the basis of star formation rates.

  7. Dust-to-gas ratio and star formation history of blue compact dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hirashita, H; Kamaya, H

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the origin of the observed large variety in dust-to-gas ratio among blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs). By applying our chemical evolution model, we find that the dust destruction can largely suppress the dust-to-gas ratio when the metallicity of a BCD reaches $12+\\log{\\rm (O/H)}\\sim 8$, i.e., a typical metallicity level of BCDs. We also show that dust-to-gas ratio is largely varied owing to the change of dust destruction efficiency that has two effects: (i) a significant contribution of Type Ia supernovae to total supernova rate; (ii) variation of gas mass contained in a star-forming region. While mass loss from BCDs was previously thought to be the major cause for the variance of dust-to-gas ratio, we suggest that the other two effects are also important. We finally discuss the intermittent star formation history, which naturally explains the large dispersion of dust-to-gas ratio among BCDs.

  8. SEARCH FOR BLUE COMPACT DWARF GALAXIES DURING QUIESCENCE. II. METALLICITIES OF GAS AND STARS, AGES, AND STAR FORMATION RATES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine the metallicity and age of a large set of Sloan Digital Sky Survey/Data Release 6 galaxies that may be blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxies during quiescence (QBCDs). The individual spectra are first classified and then averaged to reduce noise. The metallicity inferred from emission lines (tracing ionized gas) exceeds by ∼0.35 dex the metallicity inferred from absorption lines (tracing stars). Such a small difference is significant according to our error budget estimate. The same procedure was applied to a reference sample of BCDs, and in this case the two metallicities agree, being also consistent with the stellar metallicity in QBCDs. Chemical evolution models indicate that the gas metallicity of QBCDs is too high to be representative of the galaxy as a whole, but it can represent a small fraction of the galactic gas, self-enriched by previous starbursts. The luminosity-weighted stellar age of QBCDs spans the whole range between 1 and 10 Gyr, whereas it is always smaller than 1 Gyr for BCDs. Our stellar ages and metallicities rely on a single stellar population spectrum fitting procedure, which we have specifically developed for this work using the stellar library MILES.

  9. Characterizing stellar halo populations II: The age gradient in blue horizontal-branch stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Payel; Williams, Angus; Binney, James

    2016-08-01

    The distribution of Milky Way halo blue horizontal-branch (BHB) stars is examined using action-based extended distribution functions (EDFs) that describe the locations of stars in phase space, metallicity, and age. The parameters of the EDFs are fitted using stars observed in the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration-II (SEGUE-II) survey that trace the phase-space kinematics and chemistry out to ˜70 kpc. A maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) estimate method and a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method are applied, taking into account the selection function in positions, distance, and metallicity for the survey. The best-fit EDF declines with actions less steeply at actions characteristic of the inner halo than at the larger actions characteristic of the outer halo, and older ages are found at smaller actions than at larger actions. In real space, the radial density profile steepens smoothly from -2 at ˜2 kpc to -4 in the outer halo, with an axis ratio ˜0.7 throughout. There is no indication for rotation in the BHBs, although this is highly uncertain. A moderate level of radial anisotropy is detected, with βs varying from isotropic to between ˜0.1 and ˜0.3 in the outer halo depending on latitude. The BHB data are consistent with an age gradient of -0.03 Gyr kpc-1, with some uncertainty in the distribution of the larger ages. These results are consistent with a scenario in which older, larger systems contribute to the inner halo, whilst the outer halo is primarily comprised of younger, smaller systems.

  10. A LUMINOUS BLUE VARIABLE STAR INTERACTING WITH A NEARBY INFRARED DARK CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G79.29+0.46 is a nebula created by a luminous blue variable (LBV) star candidate characterized by two almost circular concentric shells. In order to investigate whether the shells are interacting with the infrared dark cloud (IRDC) G79.3+0.3 located at the southwestern border of the inner shell, we conducted Jansky Very Large Array observations of NH3(1, 1), (2, 2) and c-C3H2, and combined them with previous Effelsberg data. The overall NH3 emission consists of one main clump, named G79A, elongated following the shape of the IRDC, plus two fainter and smaller cores to the north, which spatially match the inner infrared shell. We analyzed the NH3 spectra at each position with detected emission and inferred linewidth, rotational temperature, column density, and abundance maps, and find that: (1) the linewidth of NH3(1, 1) in the northern cores is 0.5 km s–1, slightly larger than in their surroundings; (2) the NH3 abundance is enhanced by almost one order of magnitude toward the northwestern side of G79A; (3) there is one ''hot slab'' at the interface between the inner infrared shell and the NH3 peak of G79A; and (4) the western and southern edges of G79A present chemical differentiation, with c-C3H2 tracing more external layers than NH3, similar to what is found in photon-dominated regions. Overall, the kinematics and physical conditions of G79A are consistent with both shock-induced and UV radiation-induced chemistry driven by the LBV star. Therefore, the IRDC is not likely associated with the star-forming region DR15, but located farther away, near G79.29+0.46 at 1.4 kpc

  11. Luminous and variable stars in M31 and M33. II. Luminous blue variables, candidate LBVs, Fe II emission line stars, and other supergiants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphreys, Roberta M.; Davidson, Kris [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, 116 Church Street SE, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Weis, Kerstin; Bomans, D. J.; Burggraf, Birgitta, E-mail: roberta@umn.edu, E-mail: kweis@astro.rub.de [Astronomical Institute, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany)

    2014-07-20

    An increasing number of non-terminal eruptions are being found in the numerous surveys for optical transients. Very little is known about these giant eruptions, their progenitors and their evolutionary state. A greatly improved census of the likely progenitor class, including the most luminous evolved stars, the luminous blue variables (LBVs), and the warm and cool hypergiants is now needed for a complete picture of the final pre-supernova stages of very massive stars. We have begun a survey of the evolved and unstable luminous star populations in several nearby resolved galaxies. In this second paper on M31 and M33, we review the spectral characteristics, spectral energy distributions, circumstellar ejecta, and evidence for mass loss for 82 luminous and variable stars. We show that many of these stars have warm circumstellar dust including several of the Fe II emission line stars, but conclude that the confirmed LBVs in M31 and M33 do not. The confirmed LBVs have relatively low wind speeds even in their hot, quiescent or visual minimum state compared to the B-type supergiants and Of/WN stars which they spectroscopically resemble. The nature of the Fe II emission line stars and their relation to the LBV state remains uncertain, but some have properties in common with the warm hypergiants and the sgB[e] stars. Several individual stars are discussed in detail. We identify three possible candidate LBVs and three additional post-red supergiant candidates. We suggest that M33-013406.63 (UIT301,B416) is not an LBV/S Dor variable, but is a very luminous late O-type supergiant and one of the most luminous stars or pair of stars in M33.

  12. NDT services of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor PFBR - a contribution from Blue Star Ltd towards growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prototype fast breeder reactor is 500MWe sodium cooled reactor of pool type design. Three classes of steels namely austenitic stainless steel (304LN and 316LN), Ferritic steel (Modified 9Cr 1 Mo) and Carbon steel materials (A48P2) were used for manufacturing of different nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) components. The components are in different product forms such as castings, forgings, plates, rounds, Hollow bars, Seamless tubes and pipes for fitness-for- purpose applications. Due to the criticality of the design, stringent quality control measures were to be adopted for component integrity. The collaboration of Blue Star Ltd with major players of fabrication such as M/s. Larsen and Toubro Ltd (main and safety vessels, sodium tanks), Kirloskar Brothers (primary sodium pump forgings), Walchand Nagar Industries (grid plate assembly), Bharat Heavy Electricals (inner vessel and thermal baffle), MTAR Technologies (grid plate sleeves) and Omplas Systems (colmonoy hard facing of various core components) had witnessed many challenges in achieving the required quality. Different code based (RCCMR and ASME) approaches for acceptance criteria had to be adopted for evaluation of the components that are large in dimensions and quantities. This paper discusses the knowledge gained through different procedural developments for these critical components and provided suggestion of remedial measures in achieving the required quality. (author)

  13. Luminous blue variables are antisocial: their isolation implies that they are kicked mass gainers in binary evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan; Tombleson, Ryan

    2015-02-01

    Based on their relatively isolated environments, we argue that luminous blue variables (LBVs) must be primarily the product of binary evolution, challenging the traditional single-star view wherein LBVs mark a brief transition between massive O-type stars and Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars. If the latter were true, then LBVs should be concentrated in young massive clusters like early O-type stars. This is decidedly not the case. Examining locations of LBVs in our Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds reveals that, with only a few exceptions, LBVs systematically avoid clusters of O-type stars. In the Large Magellanic Cloud, LBVs are statistically much more isolated than O-type stars, and (perhaps most surprisingly) even more isolated than WR stars. This makes it impossible for LBVs to be single `massive stars in transition' to WR stars. Instead, we propose that massive stars and supernova (SN) subtypes are dominated by bifurcated evolutionary paths in interacting binaries, wherein most WR stars and Type Ibc supernovae (SNe Ibc) correspond to the mass donors, while LBVs (and their lower mass analogues like B[e] supergiants, which are even more isolated) are the mass gainers. In this view, LBVs are evolved massive blue stragglers. Through binary mass transfer, rejuvinated mass gainers get enriched, spun up, and sometimes kicked far from their clustered birth sites by their companion's SN. This scenario agrees better with LBVs exploding as SNe IIn in isolation, and it predicts that many massive runaway stars may be rapid rotators. Mergers or blue Thorne-Zytkow-like objects might also give rise to LBVs, but these scenarios may have a harder time explaining why LBVs avoid clusters.

  14. Luminous Blue Variables are Antisocial: Their Isolation Implies they are Kicked Mass Gainers in Binary Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombleson, Ryan; Smith, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Based on their relatively isolated environments, we argue that luminous blue variables (LBVs) must be primarily the product of binary evolution, challenging the traditional single-star view wherein LBVs mark a brief transition between massive O-type stars and Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars. If the latter were true, then LBVs should be concentrated in young massive clusters like early O-type stars. This is decidedly not the case. Examining locations of LBVs in our Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds reveals that, with few exceptions, LBVs systematically avoid clusters of O-type stars. In the Large Magellanic Cloud, LBVs are statistically much more isolated than O-type stars, and (perhaps most surprisingly) even more isolated than WR stars. This makes it impossible for LBVs to be single 'massive stars in transition' to WR stars. Instead, we propose that massive stars and supernova (SN) subtypes are dominated by bifurcated evolutionary paths in interacting binaries, wherein most WR stars and SNe Ibc correspond to the mass donors, while LBVs (and their lower-mass analogs like B[e] supergiants, which are even more isolated) are the mass gainers. In this view, LBVs are evolved massive blue stragglers. Through binary mass transfer, rejuvinated mass gainers get enriched, spun up, and sometimes kicked far from their clustered birthsites by their companion's SN. This scenario agrees better with LBVs exploding as Type IIn SNe in isolation, and it predicts that many massive runaway stars may be rapid rotators. Mergers or Thorne-Zykow objects might also give rise to LBVs, but these scenarios may have a harder time explaining why LBVs avoid clusters.

  15. Bending of Light Near a Star and Gravitational Red/Blue Shift Alternative Explanation Based on Refraction of Light

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, D R C

    2004-01-01

    Many of the general-relativity-tests such as bending of light near a star and gravitational red/blue shift are explained without general-relativity and without Newtonian-approach. The author first casts doubts on both, the Newtonian and the relativistic approach; and proposes a novel alternative-explanation. The new alternative-explanation is based on refraction-phenomenon of optics. It predicts that as the ray passes through/near the stars atmospheric-medium, it bends due to refraction-phenomenon towards star-core, like a ray bends while passing through a prism or water-drop. A semi-empirical estimation of the atmospheric-height and its refractive-index are made to find the refraction-results. The refraction-based theory also suggests new explanation for gravitational red/blue shift; it tells that frequency remains constant (as it is so in refraction-phenomenon) and the red/blue shift is due to change in wavelength due to change in velocity of light in the medium . Estimated results for bending of light and ...

  16. Luminous and Variable Stars in M31 and M33. II. Luminous Blue Variables, Candidate LBVs, Fe II Emission Line Stars, and Other Supergiants

    CERN Document Server

    Humphreys, Roberta M; Davidson, Kris; Bomans, D J; Burggraf, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of non-terminal eruptions are being found in the numerous surveys for optical transients. Very little is known about these giant eruptions, their progenitors and their evolutionary state. A greatly improved census of the likely progenitor class, including the most luminous evolved stars, the Luminous Blue Varaibles (LBVs), and the warm and cool hypergiants is now needed for a complete picture of the final pre-SN stages of very massive stars. We have begun a survey of the evolved and un stable luminous star populations in several nearby resolved galaxies. In this second paper on M31 and M33, we review the spectral characteristics, spectral energy distributions, circumstellar ejecta, and evidence for mass loss for 82 luminous and variable stars.We show that many of these stars have warm circumstellar dust including several of the Fe II emission line stars, but conclude that the confirmed LBVs in M31 and M33 do not. The confirmed LBVs have relatively low wind speeds even in their hot, quiesc...

  17. The Type IIn Supernova 2002kg: The Outburst of a Luminous Blue Variable Star in NGC 2403

    CERN Document Server

    Van Dyk, S D; Chornock, R; Filippenko, A V; Foley, R; Humphreys, R M; Li, W; Challis, Peter M.; Chornock, Ryan; Dyk, Schuyler D. Van; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Foley, Ryan; Humphreys, Roberta M.; Li, Weidong

    2006-01-01

    We show that Supernova (SN) 2002kg in NGC 2403, initially classified as Type II-narrow (IIn), has photometric and spectroscopic properties unlike those of normal SNe. Its behavior, instead, is more typical of highly massive stars which experience the short-lived luminous blue variable (LBV) phase toward the end of their lives. The star, in fact, most resembles the LBV S Doradus in outburst. The precursor of SN 2002kg is the irregular, bright blue variable star 37 (V37), catalogued by Tammann & Sandage in 1968. Using high-quality ground-based, multi-band images we can constrain the initial mass of V37 to be M_ini >~ 40 M_sun. We find that, although the spectra indicate a nitrogen enhancement, possibly revealing the products of CNO processing by V37 in the ejecta, the star lacks a substantial LBV nebula. The outburst from SN 2002kg/V37 is not nearly as energetic as the giant eruptions of the eta Carinae-like variables, such as SN 1954J/V12, also in NGC 2403. SN 2002kg/V37, however, is among a growing number...

  18. The Rise and Fall of Star Formation Histories of Blue Galaxies at Redshifts 0.2 < z < 1.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, Camilla; Kassin, Susan A.; Weiner, Benjamin; Charlot, Stephane; Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    Popular cosmological scenarios predict that galaxies form hierarchically from the merger of many progenitor, each with their own unique star formation history (SFH). We use the approach recently developed by Pacifici et al. to constrain the SFHs of 4517 blue (presumably star-forming) galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts in the range O.2 star formation and chemical enrichment histories, stellar population synthesis, nebular emission and attenuation by dust. We constrain the SFH of each galaxy in our sample by comparing the observed fluxes in the B, R,l and K(sub s) bands and rest-frame optical emission-line luminosities with those of one million model spectral energy distributions. We explore the dependence of the resulting SFH on galaxy stellar mass and redshift. We find that the average SFHs of high-mass galaxies rise and fall in a roughly symmetric bell-shaped manner, while those of low-mass galaxies rise progressively in time, consistent with the typically stronger activity of star formation in low-mass compared to high-mass galaxies. For galaxies of all masses, the star formation activity rises more rapidly at high than at low redshift. These findings imply that the standard approximation of exponentially declining SFHs wIdely used to interpret observed galaxy spectral energy distributions is not appropriate to constrain the physical parameters of star-forming galaxies at intermediate redshifts.

  19. The Progenitor Stars of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Woosley, S; Woosley, Stan; Heger, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Those massive stars that, during their deaths, give rise to gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) must be endowed with an unusually large amount of angular momentum in their inner regions, one to two orders of magnitude greater than the ones that make common pulsars. Yet the inclusion of mass loss and angular momentum transport by magnetic torques during the precollapse evolution is known to sap the core of the necessary rotation. Here we explore the evolution of very rapidly rotating, massive stars, including stripped down helium cores that might result from mergers or mass transfer in a binary, and single stars that rotate unusually rapidly on the main sequence. For the highest possible rotation rates (about 400 km/s), a novel sort of evolution is encountered in which single stars mix completely on the main sequence, never becoming red giants. Such stars, essentially massive "blue stragglers", produce helium-oxygen cores that rotate unusually rapidly. Such stars might comprise roughly 1% of all stars above 10 solar masse...

  20. Mapping the Galactic Halo with blue horizontal branch stars from the 2dF quasar redshift survey

    CERN Document Server

    De Propris, Roberto; Mares, Peter J; CTIO,; University, Cornell

    2010-01-01

    We use 666 blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars from the 2Qz redshift survey to map the Galactic halo in four dimensions (position, distance and velocity). We find that the halo extends to at least 100 kpc in Galactocentric distance, and obeys a single power-law density profile of index ~-2.5 in two different directions separated by 150 degrees on the sky. This suggests that the halo is spherical. Our map shows no large kinematically coherent structures (streams, clouds or plumes) and appears homogeneous. However, we find that at least 20% of the stars in the halo reside in substructures and that these substructures are dynamically young. The velocity dispersion profile of the halo appears to increase towards large radii while the stellar velocity distribution is non Gaussian beyond 60 kpc. We argue that the outer halo consists of a multitude of low luminosity overlapping tidal streams from recently accreted objects.

  1. MAPPING THE GALACTIC HALO WITH BLUE HORIZONTAL BRANCH STARS FROM THE TWO-DEGREE FIELD QUASAR REDSHIFT SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use 666 blue horizontal branch stars from the 2Qz Redshift Survey to map the Galactic halo in four dimensions (position, distance, and velocity). We find that the halo extends to at least 100 kpc in Galactocentric distance, and obeys a single power-law density profile of index ∼-2.5 in two different directions separated by about 1500 on the sky. This suggests that the halo is spherical. Our map shows no large kinematically coherent structures (streams, clouds, or plumes) and appears homogeneous. However, we find that at least 20% of the stars in the halo reside in substructures and that these substructures are dynamically young. The velocity dispersion profile of the halo appears to increase toward large radii while the stellar velocity distribution is non-Gaussian beyond 60 kpc. We argue that the outer halo consists of a multitude of low luminosity overlapping tidal streams from recently accreted objects.

  2. The Nature of Faint Blue Stars in the PHL and Ton Catalogues based on Digital Sky Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Andernach, H; W., W Copo Cordova; Santiago-Bautista, I del C

    2015-01-01

    We determined accurate positions for 3000 of the "faint blue stars" in the PHL (Palomar-Haro-Luyten) and Ton/TonS catalogues. These were published from 1957 to 1962, and, aimed at finding new white dwarfs, provide approximate positions for about 10750 blue stellar objects. Some of these "stars" had become known as quasars, a type of objects unheard-of before 1963. We derived subarcsec positions from a comparison of published finding charts with images from the first-epoch Digitized Sky Survey. Numerous objects are now well known, but unfortunately neither their PHL or Ton numbers, nor their discoverers, are recognized in current databases. A comparison with modern radio, IR, UV and X-ray surveys leads us to suggest that the fraction of extragalactic objects in the PHL and Ton catalogues is at least 15 per cent. However, because we failed to locate the original PHL plates or finding charts, it may be impossible to correctly identify the remaining 7726 PHL objects.

  3. Two bi-stability jumps in theoretical wind models for massive stars and the implications for Luminous Blue Variable supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, Blagovest; Gräfener, Götz

    2016-01-01

    Luminous Blue Variables have been suggested to be the direct progenitors of supernova types IIb and IIn, with enhanced mass loss prior to explosion. However, the mechanism of this mass loss is not yet known. Here, we investigate the qualitative behaviour of theoretical stellar wind mass-loss as a function of Teff across two bi-stability jumps in blue supergiant regime and also in proximity to the Eddington limit, relevant for LBVs. To investigate the physical ingredients that play a role in the radiative acceleration we calculate blue supergiant wind models with the CMFGEN non-LTE model atmosphere code over an effective temperature range between 30000 and 8800 K. Although our aim is not to provide new mass-loss rates for BA supergiants, we study and confirm the existence of two bi-stability jumps in mass-loss rates predicted by Vink, de Koter, & Lamers (1999). However, they are found to occur at somewhat lower Teff (20000 and 9000 K, respectively) than found previously, which would imply that stars may ev...

  4. A Survey of Local Group Galaxies Currently Forming Stars: III. A Search for Luminous Blue Variables and Other H-alpha Emission-Lined Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Massey, Philip; Olsen, K A G; Hodge, Paul W; Blaha, Cynthia; Jacoby, George H; Smith, R C; Strong, Shay B

    2007-01-01

    We describe a search for H-alpha emission-lined stars in M31, M33, and seven dwarfs in or near the Local Group (IC 10, NGC 6822, WLM, Sextans B, Sextans A, Pegasus and the Phoenix dwarf) using interference filter imaging with the KPNO and CTIO 4-m telescope and Mosaic cameras. The survey is aimed primarily at identifying new Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) from their spectroscopic similarity to known LBVs, avoiding the bias towards photometric variability, which may require centuries to manifest itself if LBVs go through long quiescent periods. Followup spectroscopy with WIYN confirms that our survey detected a wealth of stars whose spectra are similar to the known LBVs. We "classify" the spectra of known LBVs, and compare these to the spectra of the new LBV candidates. We demonstrate spectacular spectral variability for several of the new LBV candidates, such as AM2, previously classified as a Wolf-Rayet star, which now shows FeI, FeII and Balmer emission lines but neither the NIII 4634,42 nor HeII 4686 emiss...

  5. Chemical evolution of A- and B-type stars in open clusters: observed abundances vs. diffusion models. Am stars in the Praesepe cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, L.; Bagnulo, S.; Monier, R.; Khan, S. A.; Kochukhov, O.; Landstreet, J. D.; Wade, G. A.; Weiss, W. W.

    2008-04-01

    We have decided to address the problem of how abundances and peculiarities change during main sequence evolution. We have setup a program to measure the atmospheric abundance patterns from tens of A-type star members of clusters of different ages, and compare the results with theory predictions. In this paper we present the overall project and we focus on the results obtained for a sample of Am stars of the Praesepe cluster (log t= 8.85 ± 0.15; González-García et al., 2006). We have obtained spectra for eight Am stars, two normal A-type stars and one blue straggler, that are probable members of the Praesepe cluster. For all of these stars we have determined fundamental parameters and photospheric abundances for a large number of chemical elements. For seven stars we also obtained spectra in circular polarisation and applied the LSD technique to measure the mean longitudinal magnetic field. We have found good agreement between abundance predictions of diffusion models and measured abundances, except for Na and S. Li appears to be overabundant in three stars of our sample. No magnetic field was detected in any of the analysed stars.

  6. ARCHEOLOGY OF AN ANCIENT STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuhrmann, K.; Chini, R.; Haas, M.; Hackstein, M.; Ramolla, M. [Astronomisches Institut, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Universitaetsstrasse 150, D-44801 Bochum (Germany); Bernkopf, J., E-mail: klaus@ing.iac.es [University of Applied Sciences Augsburg, An der Hochschule 1, D-86161 Augsburg (Germany)

    2012-12-20

    We report on the bright and late F-type star HR 3138, which, with respect to its chemistry in the [Mg/H]-[Fe/Mg] abundance plane, we identify as an old Population II member. Evolutionary tracks are, however, in conflict with this finding and instead imply an age of only {tau} = 5.6{sup -1.8}{sub +{sub 2.2}} Gyr (2{sigma}) for HR 3138. We discuss this controversy in light of existing high-precision radial velocity surveys that mostly exclude the case of a blue straggler primary and a white dwarf secondary. While it is realized that a stellar merger can principally solve the issue and there is indeed observational evidence for mass accretion on HR 3138 from the absence of lithium in its photosphere, we also consider the interesting circumstance that HR 3138 lies in the direction to the 350 pc distant, young open cluster NGC 2516. We point to the possibility that the progenitor cloud of this cluster may likewise account for former mass accretion and we argue in particular for a dynamical friction with this cloud as a plausible cause for the strikingly common Galactic rotational velocity of the field star and open cluster.

  7. Herschel imaging and spectroscopy of the nebula around the luminous blue variable star WRAY 15-751

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamvatira-Nakou, C.; Hutsemékers, D.; Royer, P.; Nazé, Y.; Magain, P.; Exter, K.; Waelkens, C.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.

    2013-09-01

    We have obtained far-infrared Herschel-PACS imaging and spectroscopic observations of the nebular environment of the luminous blue variable (LBV) WRAY 15-751. The far-infrared images clearly show that the main, dusty nebula is a shell of radius 0.5 pc and width 0.35 pc extending outside the Hα nebula. Furthermore, these images reveal a second, bigger and fainter dust nebula that is observed for the first time. Both nebulae lie in an empty cavity, very likely the remnant of the O-star wind bubble formed when the star was on the main sequence. The kinematic ages of the nebulae are calculated to be about 2 × 104 and 8 × 104 years, and we estimated that each nebula contains ~0.05 M⊙ of dust. Modeling of the inner nebula indicates a Fe-rich dust. The far-infrared spectrum of the main nebula revealed forbidden emission lines coming from ionized and neutral gas. Our study shows that the main nebula consists of a shell of ionized gas surrounded by a thin photodissociation region illuminated by an "average" early-B star. We derive the abundance ratios N/O = 1.0 ± 0.4 and C/O = 0.4 ± 0.2, which indicate a mild N/O enrichment. From both the ionized and neutral gas components we estimate that the inner shell contains 1.7 ± 0.6 M⊙ of gas. Assuming a similar dust-to-gas ratio for the outer nebula, the total mass ejected by WRAY 15-751 amounts to 4 ± 2 M⊙. The measured abundances, masses and kinematic ages of the nebulae were used to constrain the evolution of the star and the epoch at which the nebulae were ejected. Our results point to an ejection of the nebulae during the red super-giant (RSG) evolutionary phase of an ~40 M⊙ star. The multiple shells around the star suggest that the mass-loss was not a continuous ejection but rather a series of episodes of extreme mass-loss. Our measurements are compatible with the recent evolutionary tracks computed for an ~40 M⊙ star with little rotation. They support the O-BSG-RSG-YSG-LBV filiation and the idea that high

  8. Blue Horizontal-Branch Stars The "Jump" in Strömgren u, Low Gravities, and Radiative Levitation of Metals

    CERN Document Server

    Grundahl, F; Landsman, W B; Stetson, P B; Andersen, M I

    1999-01-01

    We study the ``jump'' in the blue horizontal--branch (BHB) distribution first detected by Grundahl et al. (1998) in the Galactic globular cluster (GC) M13. On the basis of Stromgren photometry for a sample of fourteen GC's we show that: 1) The jump is best characterized as a systematic shift, on a (u, u-y) color-magnitude diagram, from canonical zero-age HB (ZAHB) models, in the sense that the stars appear brighter and/or hotter than the models; 2) the jump is a ubiquitous phenomenon, ocurring over the temperature range 11,500 < Teff < 20,000K; 3) An analogous feature is present in (log g, log Teff) diagrams -- indicating a common physical origin for the two phenomena; 4) The physical mechanism responsible for the jump phenomenon is most likely radiative levitation of iron and other

  9. A Deep X-ray look at a very massive star: HETGS spectroscopy of the blue hypergiant Cyg OB2-12 (HIP 101364)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huenemoerder, David; Oskinova, Lidia; Ignace, Richard; Hamann, Wolf-Rainer; Schulz, Norbert S.; neilson, hilding; Shenar, Tomer

    2016-04-01

    We have obtained a Chandra/HETGS spectrum of one of the most massive and luminous stars in the Galaxy: the blue hypergiant Cyg OB2-12 (HIP 101364, spectral type B3 Ia+). This is the first measurement at high resolution of X-ray spectral lines in a blue hypergiant and allows comparison of X-ray properties between massive stars at different but related evolutionary stages: O-type supergiants, luminous blue variables, Wolf-Rayet stars, and blue hypergiants stars. The new data provide a look at how the most massive stars shed mass during their pre-supernova evolution. We find that In Cyg OB2-12 the resolved Si and Mg lines are broadened by about 1000 km/s (FWHM). The lines, however, do not show appreciable centroid shifts (<100 km/s), which would be much larger for canonical moderately thick winds (~500 km/s). The He-like Mg XI lines show evidence of photo-excitation, implying a wind origin close to the UV-bright photosphere. The spectrum also indicates relatively high temperature plasma, up to 22 MK (1.9 keV), showing significant continuum and emission lines below 5A (above 2.5 keV). Hence, at first glance, the spectrum resembles neither an O-star thick wind, nor a magnetically confined (narrow-line) plasma. We will present more detailed wind models using both X-ray and UV spectra to constrain fundamental physical parameters of this star.

  10. Two bi-stability jumps in theoretical wind models for massive stars and the implications for luminous blue variable supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Blagovest; Vink, Jorick S.; Gräfener, Götz

    2016-05-01

    Luminous blue variables (LBVs) have been suggested to be the direct progenitors of supernova Types IIb and IIn, with enhanced mass loss prior to explosion. However, the mechanism of this mass loss is not yet known. Here, we investigate the qualitative behaviour of theoretical stellar wind mass loss as a function of Teff across two bi-stability jumps in blue supergiant regime and also in proximity to the Eddington limit, relevant for LBVs. To investigate the physical ingredients that play a role in the radiative acceleration we calculate blue supergiant wind models with the CMFGEN non-local thermodynamic equilibrium model atmosphere code over an effective temperature range between 30 000 and 8800 K. Although our aim is not to provide new mass-loss rates for BA supergiants, we study and confirm the existence of two bi-stability jumps in mass-loss rates predicted by Vink et al. However, they are found to occur at somewhat lower Teff (20 000 and 9000 K, respectively) than found previously, which would imply that stars may evolve towards lower Teff before strong mass loss is induced by the bi-stability jumps. When the combined effects of the second bi-stability jump and the proximity to Eddington limit are accounted for, we find a dramatic increase in the mass-loss rate by up to a factor of 30. Further investigation of both bi-stability jumps is expected to lead to a better understanding of discrepancies between empirical modelling and theoretical mass-loss rates reported in the literature, and to provide key inputs for the evolution of both normal AB supergiants and LBVs, as well as their subsequent supernova Type II explosions.

  11. The swift UVOT stars survey. I. Methods and test clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the motivations and background of a large survey of nearby stellar populations using the Ultraviolet Optical Telescope (UVOT) on board the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission. UVOT, with its wide field, near-UV sensitivity, and 2.″3 spatial resolution, is uniquely suited to studying nearby stellar populations and providing insight into the near-UV properties of hot stars and the contribution of those stars to the integrated light of more distant stellar populations. We review the state of UV stellar photometry, outline the survey, and address problems specific to wide- and crowded-field UVOT photometry. We present color–magnitude diagrams of the nearby open clusters M67, NGC 188, and NGC 2539, and the globular cluster M79. We demonstrate that UVOT can easily discern the young- and intermediate-age main sequences, blue stragglers, and hot white dwarfs, producing results consistent with previous studies. We also find that it characterizes the blue horizontal branch of M79 and easily identifies a known post-asymptotic giant branch star.

  12. Radio detection of nebulae around four luminous blue variable stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Agliozzo, C.; Umana, G.; Trigilio, C.; Buemi, C; Leto, P.; Ingallinera, A.; T. Franzen; Noriega-Crespo, A.

    2012-01-01

    The nebulae associated with four luminous blue variables (LBVs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) have been observed at 5.5 and 9 GHz using the Australia Telescope Compact Array, and radio emission has been detected for first time in sources R127, R143, S61 and S119. The radio maps of the nebulae have an angular resolution of ∼1.5 arcsec and a sensitivity of 1.5–3.0 × 10^(−2)  mJy  beam^(−1) and show a very similar morphology to that observed in Hα. This similarity permits us to assume that...

  13. Continuum and line emission of flares on red dwarf stars: origin of the blue continuum radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Morchenko, E S

    2016-01-01

    There are two types of models that explain the appearance of the blue continuum radiation during the impulsive phase of stellar flares. Grinin and Sobolev (Astrophysics, vol. 13, 348, 1977) argue that this component of the optical continuum is formed in "the transition layer between the chromosphere and the photosphere". Katsova et al. (Astrophysics, vol. 17, 156, 1981) have "raised" the source of the white-light continuum up to the dense region in the perturbed chromosphere. In the present contribution (the main paper was submitted to journal "Astrophysics"), we show that the statement by Katsova et al. is erroneous.

  14. A spectroscopic study of blue supergiant stars in the Sculptor galaxy NGC 55: chemical evolution and distance

    CERN Document Server

    Kudritzki, Rolf; Castro, Norberto; Ho, I-Ting; Bresolin, Fabio; Gieren, Wolfgang; Pietrzynski, Grzegorz; Przybilla, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Low resolution (4.5 to 5 Angstroem) spectra of 58 blue supergiant stars distributed over the disk of the Magellanic spiral galaxy NGC 55 in the Sculptor group are analyzed by means of non-LTE techniques to determine stellar temperatures, gravities and metallicities (from iron peak and alpha-elements). A metallicity gradient of -0.22 +/- 0.06$ dex/R_25 is detected. The central metallicity on a logarithmic scale relative to the Sun is [Z] = -0.37 +\\- 0.03. A chemical evolution model using the observed distribution of stellar and interstellar medium gas mass column densities reproduces the observed metallicity distribution well and reveals a recent history of strong galactic mass accretion and wind outflows with accretion and mass-loss rates of the order of the star formation rate. There is an indication of spatial inhomogeneity in metallicity. In addition, the relatively high central metallicity of the disk confirms that two extra-planar metal poor HII regions detected in previous work 1.13 to 2.22 kpc above th...

  15. The flux-weighted gravity-luminosity relationship of blue supergiant stars as a constraint for stellar evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Meynet, Georges; Georgy, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    (abridged) The flux-weighted gravity-luminosity relationship (FGLR) of blue supergiant stars (BSG) links their absolute magnitude to the spectroscopically determined flux-weighted gravity log g = Teff^4. BSG are the brightest stars in the universe at visual light and the application of the FGLR has become a powerful tool to determine extragalactic distances. Observationally, the FGLR is a tight relationship with only small scatter. It is, therefore, ideal to be used as a constraint for stellar evolution models. The goal of this work is to investigate whether stellar evolution can reproduce the observed FGLR and to develop an improved foundation of the FGLR as an extragalactic distance indicator. We use different grids of stellar models for initial masses between 9 and 40 Msun, for metallicities between Z = 0.002 and 0.014, with and without rotation, computed with various mass loss rates during the red supergiant phase. For each of these models we discuss the details of post-main sequence evolution and constru...

  16. Chemical and kinematical properties of BSSs and HB stars in NGC 6397

    CERN Document Server

    Lovisi, L; Lanzoni, B; Ferraro, F R; Gratton, R; Dalessandro, E; Ramos, R Contreras

    2012-01-01

    We used three sets of high-resolution spectra acquired with the multifiber facility FLAMES at the Very Large Telescope of the European Southern Observatory to investigate the chemical and kinematical properties of a sample of 42 horizontal branch (HB) stars, 18 Blue Straggler Stars (BSSs) and 86 main sequence turn-off and sub-giant branch stars in the nearby globular cluster NGC 6397. We measured rotational velocities and Fe, O and Mg abundances. All the unevolved stars in our sample turn out to have low rotational velocites (v sin i8200 K and T> 10500 K, respectively) also show significant deviations in their iron abundance with respect to the cluster metallicity (as traced by the unevolved stars, [Fe/H]=-2.12). While similar chemical patterns have been already observed in other hot HB stars, this is the first evidence ever collected for BSSs. We interprete these abundance anomalies as due to the metal radiative levitation, occurring in stars with shallow or no convective envelopes.

  17. Evolution of Mass Functions of Coeval Stars through Wind Mass Loss and Binary Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, F R N; Langer, N; de Mink, S E

    2015-01-01

    Accurate determinations of stellar mass functions and ages of stellar populations are crucial to much of astrophysics. We analyse the evolution of stellar mass functions of coeval main sequence stars including all relevant aspects of single- and binary-star evolution. We show that the slope of the upper part of the mass function in a stellar cluster can be quite different to the slope of the initial mass function. Wind mass loss from massive stars leads to an accumulation of stars which is visible as a peak at the high mass end of mass functions, thereby flattening the mass function slope. Mass accretion and mergers in close binary systems create a tail of rejuvenated binary products. These blue straggler stars extend the single star mass function by up to a factor of two in mass and can appear up to ten times younger than their parent stellar cluster. Cluster ages derived from their most massive stars that are close to the turn-off may thus be significantly biased. To overcome such difficulties, we propose t...

  18. FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTIES OF BLUE COMPACT AND HIGH SURFACE BRIGHTNESS STAR CLUSTERS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Talavera

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreground reddening values and ages are determined from integrated spectra for a sample of Key Words: g29 blue, compact and high surface brightness Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC clusters. Cluster reddening values were estimated by using both the template matching method and interstellar extinction maps, while cluster age s were derivedfrom template matching and equivalent width (EWs methods, respectively. In the this case, empirical age/metallicity calibrations were used together with diagnostic diagrams involving the sum of EWs of selected spectral lines. The derived cluster ages range from - 5 to 800 Myr. In general, a good agreement is found between the results obtained from the two methods. The present cluster sample omplements previous ones in an attempt to provide a spectral library for the LMC with several clusters per age interval.

  19. Multiplicity among F-type Stars. II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, K.; Chini, R.

    2015-08-01

    In continuation of our previous study we present an updated census of new companions and model atmosphere analyses for some 50 southern dwarfs, mostly in the mass range 0.90≤slant M≤slant 1.10 {M}⊙ . For the common-proper-motion companions μ Vir B, HR 2225 B, HD 67199 B, and HD 114853 B, we confirm their physical association from their radial velocities. We report the discovery of the F-type visual binary α For as a field blue straggler and confirm (ζ Ret, HR 5864) or identify (HD 67199, HR 4013, HR 8843) another five mass transfer systems or candidates. For the F stars {τ }1 Eri and 111 Tau, we present 10σ and 7σ cases for astrometric binaries by virtue of the very accurate van Leeuwen Hipparcos parallaxes. Following the work of Shaya & Olling, we suggest the F-type star ι Vir to be a wide (0.37 pc) hierarchical quadruple system. We confirm the visual binary NLTT 23781/2 as a common-proper-motion object to the very wide (0.54 pc) F star 40 Leo, but discard the G star HD 128987 as an ultra-wide (1.01 pc) physical companion to the α Lib quadruple system on account of a diverse metallicity. The improved statistics of our sample establishes the previously discovered positive correlation of stellar multiplicities with primary mass. For the F star multiplicity census in the mass range 1.10≤slant M≤slant 1.70 {M}⊙ , we find that at least a quarter consists of triple or higher level systems and at least two out of three F stars are non-single.

  20. KINEMATICS OF THE STELLAR HALO AND THE MASS DISTRIBUTION OF THE MILKY WAY USING BLUE HORIZONTAL BRANCH STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here, we present a kinematic study of the Galactic halo out to a radius of ∼60 kpc, using 4664 blue horizontal branch stars selected from the SDSS/SEGUE survey to determine key dynamical properties. Using a maximum likelihood analysis, we determine the velocity dispersion profiles in spherical coordinates (σr, σθ, σφ) and the anisotropy profile (β). The radial velocity dispersion profile (σr) is measured out to a galactocentric radius of r ∼ 60 kpc, but due to the lack of proper-motion information, σθ, σφ, and β could only be derived directly out to r ∼ 25 kpc. From a starting value of β ≈ 0.5 in the inner parts (9 circ) of the Galaxy out to r ∼ 25 kpc. The mass of the Galaxy within r ∼11 M☉, and with a three-component fit to vcirc(r), we determine the virial mass of the Milky Way dark matter halo to be Mvir = 0.9+0.4–0.3 × 1012 M☉ (Rvir = 249+34–31 kpc).

  1. Deep Imaging of Eridanus II and Its Lone Star Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crnojević, D.; Sand, D. J.; Zaritsky, D.; Spekkens, K.; Willman, B.; Hargis, J. R.

    2016-06-01

    We present deep imaging of the most distant dwarf discovered by the Dark Energy Survey, Eridanus II (Eri II). Our Magellan/Megacam stellar photometry reaches ∼3 mag deeper than previous work and allows us to confirm the presence of a stellar cluster whose position is consistent with Eri II’s center. This makes Eri II, at {M}V=-7.1, the least luminous galaxy known to host a (possibly central) cluster. The cluster is partially resolved, and at {M}V=-3.5 it accounts for ∼4% of Eri II’s luminosity. We derive updated structural parameters for Eri II, which has a half-light radius of ∼280 pc and is elongated (ɛ ∼ 0.48) at a measured distance of D ∼ 370 kpc. The color–magnitude diagram displays a blue, extended horizontal branch, as well as a less populated red horizontal branch. A central concentration of stars brighter than the old main-sequence turnoff hints at a possible intermediate-age (∼3 Gyr) population; alternatively, these sources could be blue straggler stars. A deep Green Bank Telescope observation of Eri II reveals no associated atomic gas. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  2. The optical gravitational lensing experiment variable stars in globular clusters; 1, fields 5139A-C in Omega Centauri

    CERN Document Server

    Kaluzny, J; Szymanski, M H; Udalski, A; Krzeminski, W; Mateo, M

    1996-01-01

    Three fields covering the central part of the globular cluster Omega Cen were surveyed in a search for variable stars. We present V-band light curves for 22 periodic variables: 9 SX~Phe stars, 7 contact binaries, 5 detached or semi-detached binaries, and one spotted variable (FK Com or RS CVn type star). Only 2 of these variables were previously known. All SX Phe stars and all contact binaries from our sample belong to blue stragglers. Observed properties of these stars are consistent with their cluster membership. Of particular interest is detection of two well detached binaries with periods P=1.50 day and P=2.47 day. Further study of these two binaries can provide direct information about properties of turnoff stars in Omega Cen. An uncomplete light curve of a Mira variable known as V2 was obtained. We present V vs. V-I color-magnitude diagrams for the monitored part of the cluster.

  3. Small is profitable: No support for the optimal foraging theory in sea stars Asterias rubens foraging on the blue edible mussel Mytilus edulis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Christiaan; Honkoop, Pieter; van der Meer, Jaap

    2011-07-01

    Doubt has been shed recently on the most popular optimal foraging theory stating that predators should maximize prey profitability, i.e., select that prey item that contains the highest energy content per handling time. We hypothesized that sea stars do not forage on blue mussels according to the classical optimal foraging theory but are actively avoiding damage that may be caused by e.g. capture of foraging on too-strong mussel shells, hence the sea stars will have a stronger preference for mussels that are smaller than the most profitable ones. Here we present experimental evidence of the sea star Asterias rubens as a predator that indeed chooses much smaller blue mussels Mytilus edulis to forage on than the most profitable ones. Hence this study does not support the optimal foraging theory. There may be other constraints involved in foraging than just optimizing energy intake, for example predators may also be concerned with preventing potential loss or damage of their foraging instruments.

  4. Postpartum Blues

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... baby blues). What are the baby blues? The word "blues" is not really correct since women with ... baby blues). What are the baby blues? The word "blues" is not really correct since women with ...

  5. 2,4-Dicyano-3-diethylamino-9,9-diethylfluorene Based Blue Light-emitting Star-shaped Compounds: Synthesis and Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN,Xiaohang; CHEN,Xiaopeng; ZHAO,Zujin; L(U),Ping; WANG,Yanguang

    2009-01-01

    Two new star-shaped molecules 1 and 2 containing a triphenylamine/benzene moiety as the central core and three 2,4-dicyano-3-diethylamino-9,9-diethylfluorene moieties as the peripheral functional groups were synthesized and characterized. Charge transfer properties for these compounds were observed in photophysical experiments due to their D-A molecular structure. Compound 1 presented dual fluorescence in high polar solvents. Moreover, these compounds exhibited moderate fluorescence and high thermal stabilities, indicating their potential application to blue light emitting materials.

  6. Discovery of a stripped red giant core in a bright eclipsing binary star

    CERN Document Server

    Maxted, P F L; Burleigh, M R; Collier-Cameron, A; Heber, U; Gänsicke, B T; Geier, S; Kupfer, T; Marsh, T R; Nelemans, G; O'Toole, S J; Østensen, R H; Smalley, B; West, R G; Bloemen, S

    2012-01-01

    We report the serendipitous discovery from WASP archive photometry of a binary star in which an apparently normal A-type star (J0247-25A) eclipses a smaller, hotter subdwarf star (J0247-25B). The kinematics of J0247-25A show that it is a blue-straggler member of the Galactic thick-disk. We present follow-up photometry and spectroscopy from which we derive approximate values for the mass, radius and luminosity for J0247-25B assuming that J0247-25A has the mass appropriate for a normal thick-disk star. We find that the properties of J0247-25B are well matched by models for a red giant stripped of its outer layers and currently in a shell hydrogen-burning stage. In this scenario, J0247-25B will go on to become a low mass white dwarf (M~0.25 solar masses) composed mostly of helium. J0247-25B can be studied in much greater detail than the handful of pre helium white dwarfs (pre-He-WD) identified to-date. These results have been published by Maxted et al., 2011. We also present a preliminary analysis of more recent...

  7. Discovery and Characterization of Luminous Blue Variables, Wolf-Rayet Stars, and Massive Supergiants and Their Shells Using Spitzer, WISE, and Herschel Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringfellow, Guy

    The extensive WISE all-sky 12 and 22 micron survey data, the Herschel PACS and SPIRE imaging archive (including the GTO and OT Key Programs), as well as the Spitzer IRAC 8 and MIPS 24 micron imaging archival data (GO, GTO, and Legacy Surveys) are being mined for the discovery of new shell and ring-nebulae. Combined with 2MASS data, the progenitor stars are also being identified, and optical and near-IR spectroscopy obtained to confirm their spectral types. Origin of the nebulae arise from a variety of progenitors that include very massive stars, with the vast majority not having been previously identified. Representative classes for the progenitor stars are Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs), Wolf-Rayet (WR), B[e], OB, and Supergiant stars. The discovery potential for these rare massive evolved stars from the mid-IR imaging archives is greater than any other technique utilized over the past several decades, including extensive broadband infrared photometry-color determinations (Hadfield et al. 2007), and near-IR narrowband methods (Shara et al. 2009). The statistics being provided on this new, previously hidden population of evolved stars may very well enable evolutionary pathways to be better delineated, thereby identifying the physics operating in these extreme stars. The data being collected will more tightly define the evolutionary models that apply to these stars, and that enter into modeling and interpretation of extragalactic massive star formation regions (starbursts). Multi-wavelength color-color maps wil be constructed and used to analyze the dust distribution, the energetics of the nebulae and its interaction with the ISM, and identification of nearby star formation perhaps being triggered by the massive stars and the nebulae they produce. As demonstrated in a recent publication presenting the discovery and analysis of two new candidate LBVs found in the early WISE data release (Gvaramadze et al. 2012), much discovery potential yet resides within the

  8. Massive Stars in Interactive Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    St.-Louis, Nicole; Moffat, Anthony F. J.

    Massive stars start their lives above a mass of ~8 time solar, finally exploding after a few million years as core-collapse or pair-production supernovae. Above ~15 solar masses, they also spend most of their lives driving especially strong, hot winds due to their extreme luminosities. All of these aspects dominate the ecology of the Universe, from element enrichment to stirring up and ionizing the interstellar medium. But when they occur in close pairs or groups separated by less than a parsec, the interaction of massive stars can lead to various exotic phenomena which would not be seen if there were no binaries. These depend on the actual separation, and going from wie to close including colliding winds (with non-thermal radio emission and Wolf-Rayet dust spirals), cluster dynamics, X-ray binaries, Roche-lobe overflow (with inverse mass-ratios and rapid spin up), collisions, merging, rejuventation and massive blue stragglers, black-hole formation, runaways and gamma-ray bursts. Also, one wonders whether the fact that a massive star is in a binary affects its parameters compared to its isolated equivalent. These proceedings deal with all of these phenomena, plus binary statistics and determination of general physical properties of massive stars, that would not be possible with their single cousins. The 77 articles published in these proceedings, all based on oral talks, vary from broad revies to the lates developments in the field. About a third of the time was spent in open discussion of all participants, both for ~5 minutes after each talk and 8 half-hour long general dialogues, all audio-recorded, transcribed and only moderately edited to yield a real flavour of the meeting. The candid information in these discussions is sometimes more revealing than the article(s) that preceded them and also provide entertaining reading. The book is suitable for researchers and graduate students interested in stellar astrophysics and in various physical processes involved when

  9. New very massive stars in Cygnus OB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negueruela, I.; Marco, A.; Herrero, A.; Clark, J. S.

    2008-08-01

    Context: The compact association Cygnus OB2 is known to contain a large population of massive stars, but its total mass is currently a matter of debate. While recent surveys have uncovered large numbers of OB stars in the area around Cyg OB2, detailed study of the optically brightest among them suggests that most are not part of the association. Aims: We observed an additional sample of optically faint OB star candidates, with the aim of checking if more obscured candidates are correspondingly more likely to be members of Cyg OB2. Methods: Low resolution spectra of 9 objects allow the rejection of one foreground star and the selection of four O-type stars, which were later observed at higher resolution. In a subsequent run, we observed three more stars in the classification region and three other stars in the far red. Results: We identify five (perhaps six) new evolved very massive stars and three main sequence O-type stars, all of which are likely to be members of Cyg OB2. The new findings allow a much better definition of the upper HR diagram, suggesting an age ~2.5 Myr for the association and hinting that the O3-5 supergiants in the association are blue stragglers, either younger or following a different evolutionary path from other cluster members. Though the bulk of the early stars seems to belong to an (approximately) single-age population, there is ample evidence for the presence of somewhat older stars at the same distance. Conclusions: Our results suggest that, even though Cyg OB2 is unlikely to contain as many as 100 O-type stars, it is indeed substantially more massive than was thought prior to recent infrared surveys. Figure [see full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full text] and Table [see full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full text] are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  10. SN 2015bh: NGC 2770's 4th supernova or a luminous blue variable on its way to a Wolf-Rayet star?

    CERN Document Server

    Thöne, C C; Leloudas, G; Gall, C; Cano, Z; Maeda, K; Schulze, S; Campana, S; Wiersema, K; Groh, J; de la Rosa, J; Bauer, F E; Malesani, D; Maund, J; Morrell, N; Beletsky, Y

    2016-01-01

    Very massive stars in the final phases of their lives often show unpredictable outbursts that can mimic supernovae, so-called, "SN impostors", but the distinction is not always straigthforward. Here we present observations of a luminous blue variable (LBV) in NGC 2770 in outburst over more than 20 years that experienced a possible terminal explosion as type IIn SN in 2015, named SN 2015bh. This possible SN or "main event" was preceded by a precursor peaking $\\sim$ 40 days before maximum. The total energy release of the main event is $\\sim$1.8$\\times$10$^{49}$ erg, which can be modeled by a $<$ 0.5 M$_\\odot$ shell plunging into a dense CSM. All emission lines show a single narrow P-Cygni profile during the LBV phase and a double P-Cygni profile post maximum suggesting an association of this second component with the possible SN. Since 1994 the star has been redder than during a typical S-Dor like outburst. SN 2015bh lies within a spiral arm of NGC 2770 next to a number of small star-forming regions with a m...

  11. Stellar envelope inflation near the Eddington limit. Implications for the radii of Wolf-Rayet stars and luminous blue variables

    CERN Document Server

    Gräfener, G; Vink, J S

    2011-01-01

    (shortened) It has been proposed that the envelopes of luminous stars may be subject to substantial radius inflation. The inflation effect has been discussed in relation to the radius problem of WR stars, but has yet failed to explain the large observed radii of Galactic WR stars. We wish to obtain a physical perspective of the inflation effect, and study the consequences for the radii of WR stars, and LBVs. For WR stars the observed radii are up to an order of magnitude larger than predicted by theory, whilst S Doradus-type LBVs are subject to humongous radius variations, which remain as yet ill-explained. We use a dual approach to investigate the envelope inflation, based on numerical models for stars near the Eddington limit, and a new analytic formalism to describe the effect. An additional new aspect is that we take the effect of density inhomogeneities (clumping) within the outer stellar envelopes into account. Due to the effect of clumping we are able to bring the observed WR radii in agreement with th...

  12. The role of stellar mass and environment for cluster blue fraction, AGN fraction and star formation indicators from a targeted analysis of Abell 1691

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimbblet, Kevin A.; Jensen, Peter C.

    2012-10-01

    We present an analysis of the galaxy population of the intermediate X-ray luminosity galaxy cluster, Abell 1691, from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and Galaxy Zoo data to elucidate the relationships between environment and galaxy stellar mass for a variety of observationally important cluster populations that include the Butcher-Oemler blue fraction, the active galactic nucleus (AGN) fraction and other spectroscopic classifications of galaxies. From 342 cluster members, we determine a cluster recession velocity of 21257 ± 54 km s-1 and velocity dispersion of 1009-36+40 km s-1 and show that although the cluster is fed by multiple filaments of galaxies it does not possess significant sub-structure in its core. We identify the AGN population of the cluster from a Baldwin, Phillips & Terlevich diagram and show that there is a mild increase in the AGN fraction with radius from the cluster centre that appears mainly driven by high-mass galaxies [log(stellar mass) > 10.8]. Although the cluster blue fraction follows the same radial trend, it is caused primarily by lower mass galaxies [log(stellar mass) < 10.8]. Significantly, the galaxies that have undergone recent starbursts or are presently starbursting but dust-shrouded [spectroscopic e(a) class galaxies] are also nearly exclusively driven by low-mass galaxies. We therefore suggest that the Butcher-Oemler effect may be a mass-dependent effect. We also examine red and passive spiral galaxies and show that the majority are massive galaxies, much like the rest of the red and spectroscopically passive cluster population. We further demonstrate that the velocity dispersion profiles of low- and high-mass cluster galaxies are different. Taken together, we infer that the duty cycle of high- and low-mass cluster galaxies is markedly different, with a significant departure in star formation and specific star formation rates observed beyond r200 and we discuss these findings.

  13. The Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment Variable Stars in Globular Clusters; 4, Fields 104A-E in 47 Tuc

    CERN Document Server

    Kaluzny, J; Szymanski, M H; Udalski, A; Krzeminski, W; Mateo, M; Stanek, K Z

    1997-01-01

    Five fields located close to the center of the globular cluster NGC 104=47 Tuc were surveyed in a search for variable stars. We present V-band light curves for 42 variables. This sample includes 13 RR Lyr stars -- 12 of them belong to the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) and 1 is a background object from the galactic halo. Twelve eclipsing binaries were identified -- 9 contact systems and 3 detached/semi-detached systems. Seven eclipsing binaries are located in the blue straggler region on the cluster color-magnitude diagram (CMD) and four binaries can be considered main-sequence systems. One binary is probably a member of the SMC. Eight contact binaries are likely members of the cluster and one is most probably a foreground star. We show that for the surveyed region of 47 Tuc, the relative frequency of contact binaries is very low as compared with other recently surveyed globular clusters. The sample of identified variables also includes 15 red variables with periods ranging from about 2 days to several weeks. A...

  14. Postpartum Blues

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blues The postpartum blues E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a ... blues: Talk to your partner or a good friend about how you feel Get plenty of rest ...

  15. The Spitzer View of Low-Metallicity Star Formation: II. Mrk 996, a Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxy with an Extremely Dense Nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Thuan, T X; Izotov, Yu I

    2008-01-01

    (abridged) We present new Spitzer, UKIRT and MMT observations of the blue compact dwarf galaxy (BCD) Mrk 996, with an oxygen abundance of 12+log(O/H)=8.0. This galaxy has the peculiarity of possessing an extraordinarily dense nuclear star-forming region, with a central density of ~10^6 cm^{-3}. The nuclear region of Mrk 996 is characterized by several unusual properties: a very red color J-K = 1.8, broad and narrow emission-line components, and ionizing radiation as hard as 54.9 eV, as implied by the presence of the OIV 25.89 micron line. The nucleus is located within an exponential disk with colors consistent with a single stellar population of age >1 Gyr. The infrared morphology of Mrk 996 changes with wavelength. The IRS spectrum shows strong narrow Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) emission, with narrow line widths and equivalent widths that are high for the metallicity of Mrk 996. Gaseous nebular fine-structure lines are also seen. A CLOUDY model requires that they originate in two distinct HII regio...

  16. Massive Stars in Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Crowther, P A

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the various post-main sequence phases of massive stars, focusing on Wolf-Rayet stars, Luminous Blue Variables, plus connections with other early-type and late-type supergiants. End states for massive stars are also investigated, emphasising connections between Supernovae originating from core-collapse massive stars and Gamma Ray Bursts.

  17. A Deep Catalog of Variable Stars in a 0.66deg^2 Lupus Field

    CERN Document Server

    Weldrake, David T F

    2007-01-01

    We have conducted a wide-field photometric survey in a single 52'x52' field towards the Lupus Galactic Plane in an effort to detect transiting Hot Jupiter planets. The planet Lupus-TR-3b was identified from this work. The dataset also led to the detection of 494 field variables, all of which are new discoveries. This paper presents an overview of the project, along with the total catalog of variables, which comprises 190 eclipsing binaries (of contact, semi-contact and detached configurations), 51 miscellaneous pulsators of various types, 237 long period variables (P>=2d), 11 delta Scuti stars, 4 field RR Lyrae (3 disk and 1 halo) and 1 irregular variable. Our survey provides a complete catalog of W UMa eclipsing binaries in the field to V=18.8, which display a Gaussian period distribution of 0.277+/-0.036d. Several binary systems are likely composed of equal mass M-dwarf components and others display evidence of mass transfer. We find 17 candidate blue stragglers and one binary that has the shortest period k...

  18. Close binary stars in the solar-age Galactic open cluster M67

    CERN Document Server

    Yakut, K; Kalomeni, B; Van Winckel, H; Waelkens, C; De Cat, P; Bauwens, E; Vuckovic, M; Saesen, S; Guillou, L Le; Parmaksizoglu, M; Uluc, K; Khamitov, I; Raskin, G; Aerts, C

    2009-01-01

    We present multi-colour time-series CCD photometry of the solar-age galactic open cluster M67 (NGC 2682). About 3600 frames spread over 28 nights were obtained with the 1.5 m Russian-Turkish and 1.2 m Mercator telescopes. High-precision observations of the close binary stars AH Cnc, EV Cnc, ES Cnc, the $\\delta$ Scuti type systems EX Cnc and EW Cnc, and some long-period variables belonging to M67 are presented. Three full multi-colour light curves of the overcontact binary AH Cnc were obtained during three observing seasons. Likewise we gathered three light curves of EV Cnc, an EB-type binary, and two light curves of ES Cnc, a blue straggler binary. Parts of the light change of long-term variables S1024, S1040, S1045, S1063, S1242, and S1264 are obtained. Period variation analysis of AH Cnc, EV Cnc, and ES Cnc were done using all times of mid-eclipse available in the literature and those obtained in this study. In addition, we analyzed multi-colour light curves of the close binaries and also determined new fre...

  19. Postpartum Blues

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Quality Collaboratives Launch Prematurity research centers What is team science? More than 75 years of solving problems ... delivery cause the postpartum blues. How can you manage the baby blues? The American College of Obstetricians ...

  20. Postpartum Blues

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    Full Text Available ... with this condition are happy most of the time. But compared to how she usually feels, the ... the "blues" usually lessens and goes away over time. What causes the baby blues? Medical experts believe ...

  1. Postpartum Blues

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    Full Text Available ... Postpartum care > The postpartum blues The postpartum blues E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a valid e-mail address. Your information: Your recipient's information: Your ...

  2. Postpartum Blues

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    Full Text Available ... usually lessens and goes away over time. What causes the baby blues? Medical experts believe that changes ... usually lessens and goes away over time. What causes the baby blues? Medical experts believe that changes ...

  3. Postpartum Blues

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    Full Text Available ... Feels sad Feels confused The postpartum blues peak three to five days after delivery. They usually end ... Feels sad Feels confused The postpartum blues peak three to five days after delivery. They usually end ...

  4. Postpartum Blues

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    Full Text Available ... postpartum blues Now playing: E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a ... blues: Talk to your partner or a good friend about how you feel Get plenty of rest ...

  5. Postpartum Blues

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  6. Postpartum Blues

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    Full Text Available ... of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that women do these things to help relieve the baby blues: Talk ... of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that women do these things to help relieve the baby blues: Talk ...

  7. Postpartum Blues

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    Full Text Available ... Medical experts believe that changes in the woman's hormones after delivery cause the postpartum blues. How can ... Medical experts believe that changes in the woman's hormones after delivery cause the postpartum blues. How can ...

  8. Postpartum Blues

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    Full Text Available ... can you manage the baby blues? The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that women do ... can you manage the baby blues? The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that women do ...

  9. Postpartum Blues

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    Full Text Available ... postpartum blues The postpartum blues E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter ... hear about breakthroughs for babies and families. Ask a question Our health experts can answer questions about ...

  10. Postpartum Blues

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    Full Text Available ... us on Twitter Instagram: behind the scenes Our research Research grants Prematurity research Birth defects research Infant ... postpartum blues are not pleasant, the woman can function normally. The feeling of the "blues" usually lessens ...

  11. A close hidden stellar companion to the SX Phe-type variable star DW Psc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DW Psc is a high-amplitude SX Phe-type variable with a period of pulsation of 0.05875 days. Using a few newly determined times of maximum light together with those collected from the literature, the changes in the observed-calculated (O-C) diagram are analyzed. It is discovered that the O-C curve of DW Psc shows a cyclic variation with a period of 6.08 years and a semi-amplitude of 0.0066 days. The periodic variation is analyzed for the light travel time effect, which is due to the presence of a stellar companion (M2sini∼0.45(±0.03) M⊙). The two-component stars in the binary system are orbiting each other in an eccentric orbit (e ∼ 0.4) at an orbital separation of about 2.7(±0.3) AU. The detection of a close stellar companion to an SX Phe-type star supports the idea that SX Phe-type pulsating stars are blue stragglers that were formed from the merging of close binaries. The stellar companion has played an important role in the merging of the original binary by removing angular momentum from the central binary during early dynamical interaction or/and late dynamical evolution. After the more massive component in DW Psc evolves into a red giant, the cool close companion should help to remove the giant envelope via possible critical Roche-lobe overflow, and the system may be a progenitor of a cataclysmic variable. The detection of a close stellar companion to DW Psc makes it a very interesting system to study in the future.

  12. A Close Hidden Stellar Companion to the SX Phe-Type Variable Star DW Psc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, S.-B.; Li, L.-J.; Wang, S.-M.; He, J.-J.; Zhou, X.; Jiang, L.-Q.

    2015-01-01

    DW Psc is a high-amplitude SX Phe-type variable with a period of pulsation of 0.05875 days. Using a few newly determined times of maximum light together with those collected from the literature, the changes in the observed-calculated (O-C) diagram are analyzed. It is discovered that the O-C curve of DW Psc shows a cyclic variation with a period of 6.08 years and a semi-amplitude of 0.0066 days. The periodic variation is analyzed for the light travel time effect, which is due to the presence of a stellar companion ({{M}2}sin i˜ 0.45(+/- 0.03) {{M}⊙ }). The two-component stars in the binary system are orbiting each other in an eccentric orbit (e ˜ 0.4) at an orbital separation of about 2.7(±0.3) AU. The detection of a close stellar companion to an SX Phe-type star supports the idea that SX Phe-type pulsating stars are blue stragglers that were formed from the merging of close binaries. The stellar companion has played an important role in the merging of the original binary by removing angular momentum from the central binary during early dynamical interaction or/and late dynamical evolution. After the more massive component in DW Psc evolves into a red giant, the cool close companion should help to remove the giant envelope via possible critical Roche-lobe overflow, and the system may be a progenitor of a cataclysmic variable. The detection of a close stellar companion to DW Psc makes it a very interesting system to study in the future.

  13. CARMA Survey Toward Infrared-bright Nearby Galaxies (STING) II: Molecular Gas Star Formation Law and Depletion Time Across the Blue Sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, Nurur; Xue, Rui; Wong, Tony; Leroy, Adam K; Walter, Fabian; Bigiel, Frank; Rosolowsky, Erik; Fisher, David B; Vogel, Stuart N; Blitz, Leo; West, Andrew A; Ott, Juergen

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of the relationship between molecular gas and current star formation rate surface density at sub-kpc and kpc scales in a sample of 14 nearby star-forming galaxies. Measuring the relationship in the bright, high molecular gas surface density ($\\Shtwo\\gtrsim$20 \\msunpc) regions of the disks to minimize the contribution from diffuse extended emission, we find an approximately linear relation between molecular gas and star formation rate surface density, $\

  14. 基于ITIL标准的移动变更与配置管理系统研究与实现%ITIL-Compliant Mobility Change and Configuration Management in BlueStar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘培妮; 刘亮; 陈杨; 王浩

    2009-01-01

    With the rapid growth of powerful mobile devices.to improve the speed and quality of customer service,mobilizing their workforce became more and more important tO many companies.Consequently,all kinds of enterprise applications,policies and data access ale enabled through mobile platforms.However,how to manage such various mobile types and mobile applications and to integrate them with existing enterprise IT infrastructure becomes a great challenge.In this paper,we propose a novel approach to manage the enterprise mobiles through IT service management by using standard ITIL processes.Motivated by real cases of insurance industry mobile solution,firstly,a system architecture named BlueStar iS designed which integrated ITIL-compliant mobile management and enterprise IT service management into a uniform platform.Secondly,typical ITIL processes and best practices:Change and configuration workflow ale introduced for mobility management.Thirdly,the BlueStar system included device management component is implemented and evaluated by the motivating cases.

  15. Postpartum Blues

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    Full Text Available ... leader Partner Spotlight Become a partner World Prematurity Day Your support helps babies We are determined to ... confused The postpartum blues peak three to five days after delivery. They usually end by the tenth ...

  16. Postpartum Blues

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    Full Text Available ... Saving Just a moment, please. You've saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . After ... blues" is not really correct since women with this condition are happy most of the time. But ...

  17. Postpartum Blues

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    Full Text Available ... dashboard . After the baby is born, many new mothers have the postpartum blues (also called the baby ... compared to how she usually feels, the new mother: Is more irritable Cries more easily Feels sad ...

  18. Postpartum Blues

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    Full Text Available ... articles March of Dimes Premature Birth Report Card Grades Cities, Counties; Focuses on Racial and Ethnic Disparities ... baby blues: Talk to your partner or a good friend about how you feel Get plenty of ...

  19. Postpartum Blues

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    Full Text Available ... leader Partner Spotlight Become a partner World Prematurity Day World Prematurity Your support helps babies We are ... confused The postpartum blues peak three to five days after delivery. They usually end by the tenth ...

  20. Postpartum Blues

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    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses New parents Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications ... your dashboard . After the baby is born, many new mothers have the postpartum blues (also called the ...

  1. CARMA SURVEY TOWARD INFRARED-BRIGHT NEARBY GALAXIES (STING). II. MOLECULAR GAS STAR FORMATION LAW AND DEPLETION TIME ACROSS THE BLUE SEQUENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an analysis of the relationship between molecular gas and current star formation rate surface density at sub-kiloparsec and kiloparsec scales in a sample of 14 nearby star-forming galaxies. Measuring the relationship in the bright, high molecular gas surface density (ΣH2∼>20 M☉ pc–2) regions of the disks to minimize the contribution from diffuse extended emission, we find an approximately linear relation between molecular gas and star formation rate surface density, Nmol ∼ 0.96 ± 0.16, with a molecular gas depletion time, τmoldep ∼ 2.30 ± 1.32 Gyr. We show that in the molecular regions of our galaxies there are no clear correlations between τmoldep and the free-fall and effective Jeans dynamical times throughout the sample. We do not find strong trends in the power-law index of the spatially resolved molecular gas star formation law or the molecular gas depletion time across the range of galactic stellar masses sampled (M* ∼ 109.7-1011.5 M☉). There is a trend, however, in global measurements that is particularly marked for low-mass galaxies. We suggest that this trend is probably due to the low surface brightness CO J = 1-0, and it is likely associated with changes in CO-to-H2 conversion factor.

  2. Our Blue Gene Experience

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jakl, Ondřej; Starý, Jiří

    Ostrava : Ústav geoniky AV ČR, 2009 - (Blaheta, R.; Starý, J.), s. 50-54 ISBN 978-80-86407-60-9. [SNA '09 - Seminar on numerical analysis: modelling and simulation of challenging engineering problems. Ostrava (CZ), 02.02.2009-06.02.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA105/09/1830 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : IBM Blue Gene/P * finite element solver * parallel scalability Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  3. Ionized Gas Kinematics at High Resolution V: [NeII], Multiple Clusters, High Efficiency Star Formation and Blue Flows in He 2-10

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, Sara C; Lacy, John; Greathouse, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We measured the $12.8\\mu$m [NeII] line in the dwarf starburst galaxy He 2-10 with the high-resolution spectrometer TeXeS on the NASA IRTF. The data cube has diffraction-limited spatial resolution $\\sim1^{\\prime\\prime}$ and total velocity resolution including thermal broadening of $\\sim5$km/s. This makes it possible to compare the kinematics of individual star-forming clumps and molecular clouds in the three dimensions of space and velocity, and allows us to determine star formation efficiencies. The kinematics of the ionized gas confirm that the starburst contains multiple dense clusters. From the $M/R$ of the clusters and the $\\simeq30-40$% star formation efficiencies the clusters are likely to be bound and long lived, like globulars. Non-gravitational features in the line profiles show how the ionized gas flows through the ambient molecular material, as well as a narrow velocity feature which we identify with the interface of the HII region and a cold dense clump. These data offer an unprecedented view of t...

  4. High velocity blue-shifted FeII absorption in the dwarf star-forming galaxy PHL293B: Evidence for a wind driven supershell?

    CERN Document Server

    Terlevich, R; Bosch, G; Diaz, A I; Hagele, G; Cardaci, M; Firpo, V

    2014-01-01

    X-shooter and ISIS WHT spectra of the starforming galaxy PHL 293B also known as A2228-00 and SDSS J223036.79-000636.9 are presented in this paper. We find broad (FWHM = 1000km/s) and very broad (FWZI = 4000km/s) components in the Balmer lines, narrow absorption components in the Balmer series blueshifted by 800km/s, previously undetected FeII multiplet (42) absorptions also blueshifted by 800km/s, IR CaII triplet stellar absorptions consistent with [Fe/H] < -2.0 and no broad components or blushifted absorptions in the HeI lines. Based on historical records, we found no optical variability at the 5 sigma level of 0.02 mag between 2005 and 2013 and no optical variability at the level of 0.1mag for the past 24 years. The lack of variability rules out transient phenomena like luminous blue variables or SN IIn as the origin of the blue shifted absorptions of HI and FeII. The evidence points to either a young and dense expanding supershell or a stationary cooling wind, in both cases driven by the young cluster w...

  5. The role of stellar mass and environment for cluster blue fraction, AGN fraction and star-formation indicators from a targeted analysis of Abell 1691

    CERN Document Server

    Pimbblet, Kevin A

    2012-01-01

    We present an analysis of the galaxy population of the intermediate X-ray luminosity galaxy cluster, Abell 1691, from SDSS and Galaxy Zoo data to elucidate the relationships between environment and galaxy stellar mass for a variety of observationally important cluster populations that include the Butcher-Oemler blue fraction, the active galactic nucleus (AGN) fraction and other spectroscopic classifications of galaxies. From 342 cluster members, we determine a cluster recession velocity of 21257+/-54 km/s and velocity dispersion of 1009^+40_-36 km/s and show that although the cluster is fed by multiple filaments of galaxies it does not possess significant sub-structure in its core. We identify the AGN population of the cluster from a BPT diagram and show that there is a mild increase in the AGN fraction with radius from the cluster centre that appears mainly driven by high mass galaxies (log(stellar mass)>10.8). Although the cluster blue fraction follows the same radial trend, it is caused primarily by lower ...

  6. Blue gods, blue oil, and blue people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, V F

    1994-09-01

    Studies of the composition of coal tar, which began in Prussia in 1834, profoundly affected the economies of Germany, Great Britain, India, and the rest of the world, as well as medicine and surgery. Such effects include the collapse of the profits of the British indigo monopoly, the growth in economic power of Germany based on coal tar chemistry, and an economic crisis in India that led to more humane tax laws and, ultimately, the independence of India and the end of the British Empire. Additional consequences were the development of antiseptic surgery and the synthesis of a wide variety of useful drugs that have eradicated infections and alleviated pain. Many of these drugs, particularly the commonly used analgesics, sulfonamides, sulfones, and local anesthetics, are derivatives of aniline, originally called "blue oil" or "kyanol." Some of these aniline derivatives, however, have also caused aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, and methemoglobinemia (that is, "blue people"). Exposure to aniline drugs, particularly when two or three aniline drugs are taken concurrently, seems to be the commonest cause of methemoglobinemia today. PMID:8065194

  7. Evolution of the remnants of stellar collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Glebbeek, E.

    2008-01-01

    Collisions between stars occur naturally in star clusters. The outcome of such collisions is a new single star that may have peculiar properties that affect its subsequent evolution. For low mass stars, such merger events are a possible formation channel for blue straggler stars, stars more massive than expected for a starcluster of a given age. For high mass stars, such a merger can result in the production of blue supergiants. If circumstances are right, repeated collisions between stars ma...

  8. Blue Nile

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Manuel João

    2000-01-01

    The Blue Nile, whose source lies in highland Ethiopia, is known as “Al-Bahr al- Azraq” in Arabic, and as “Abbay” in Amharic. Along with the Atbara, it contributes more than 80 per cent of the Nile’s total water supply, the remainder coming mainly from the White Nile that stretches down to the Great Lakes plateau in Central Africa.

  9. Double White Dwarfs as Probes of Single and Binary Star Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jeffrey John

    2016-01-01

    the more massive WD in this system evolved second. We construct an evolutionary formation scenario in which the system began as a hierarchical triple in which the inner binary merged (possibly due to Kozai-Lidov oscillations) forming a post-blue straggler binary. The system then evolved into the DWD we observe today. We further discuss the potential for identifying more wide DWDs, including peculiar systems like HS 2220+2146, in future surveys such as Gaia.

  10. Atmospheric NLTE-Models for the Spectroscopic Analysis of Blue Stars with Winds. III. X-ray emission from wind-embedded shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Carneiro, Luiz P; Sundqvist, J O; Hoffmann, T L

    2016-01-01

    X-rays/EUV radiation emitted from wind-embedded shocks in hot, massive stars can affect the ionization balance in their outer atmospheres, and can be the mechanism responsible for the production of highly ionized species. To allow for these processes in the context of spectral analysis, we have implemented such emission into our unified, NLTE model atmosphere/spectrum synthesis code FASTWIND. The shock structure and corresponding emission is calculated as a function of user-supplied parameters. We account for a temperature and density stratification inside the post-shock cooling zones, calculated for radiative and adiabatic cooling in the inner and outer wind, respectively. The high-energy absorption of the cool wind is considered by adding important K-shell opacities, and corresponding Auger ionization rates have been included into the NLTE network. We tested and verified our implementation carefully against corresponding results from various alternative model atmosphere codes, and studied the effects from s...

  11. Atmospheric NLTE models for the spectroscopic analysis of blue stars with winds. III. X-ray emission from wind-embedded shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, L. P.; Puls, J.; Sundqvist, J. O.; Hoffmann, T. L.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and X-ray radiation emitted from wind-embedded shocks in hot, massive stars can affect the ionization balance in their outer atmospheres and can be the mechanism responsible for producing highly ionized atomic species detected in stellar wind UV spectra. Aims: To allow for these processes in the context of spectral analysis, we have implemented the emission from wind-embedded shocks and related physics into our unified, NLTE model atmosphere/spectrum synthesis code FASTWIND. Methods: The shock structure and corresponding emission is calculated as a function of user-supplied parameters (volume filling factor, radial stratification of shock strength, and radial onset of emission). We account for a temperature and density stratification inside the postshock cooling zones, calculated for radiative and adiabatic cooling in the inner and outer wind, respectively. The high-energy absorption of the cool wind is considered by adding important K-shell opacities, and corresponding Auger ionization rates have been included in the NLTE network. To test our implementation and to check the resulting effects, we calculated a comprehensive model grid with a variety of X-ray emission parameters. Results: We tested and verified our implementation carefully against corresponding results from various alternative model atmosphere codes, and studied the effects from shock emission for important ions from He, C, N, O, Si, and P. Surprisingly, dielectronic recombination turned out to play an essential role for the ionization balance of O iv/O v (particularly in dwarfs with Teff~ 45 000 K). Finally, we investigated the frequency dependence and radial behavior of the mass absorption coefficient, κν(r), which is important in the context of X-ray line formation in massive star winds. Conclusions: In almost all of the cases considered, direct ionization is of major influence because of the enhanced EUV radiation field, and Auger ionization only affects N vi

  12. Posthuman blues

    CERN Document Server

    Tonnies, Mac

    2013-01-01

    Posthuman Blues, Vol. I is first volume of the edited version of the popular weblog maintained by author Mac Tonnies from 2003 until his tragic death in 2009. Tonnies' blog was a pastiche of his original fiction, reflections on his day-to-day life, trenchant observations of current events, and thoughts on an eclectic range of material he culled from the Internet. What resulted was a remarkably broad portrait of a thoughtful man and the complex times in which he lived, rendered with intellige...

  13. P Cygni: An Extraordinary Luminous Blue Variable

    OpenAIRE

    Israelian, G.; de Groot, M

    1999-01-01

    P Cygni is a prototype for understanding mass loss from massive stars. This textbook star is known first of all because of two great eruptions in the 17th century. In the first half of this century it has given its name to a class of stars which are characterized by spectral lines consisting of nearly undisplaced emissions accompanied by a blue-displaced absorption component. This characteristic P Cygni-type profile betrays the presence of a stellar wind, but P Cygni's wind is quite unlike th...

  14. Blue cures blue but be cautious

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranav Sikka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Methemoglobinemia is a disorder characterized by the presence of >1% methemoglobin (metHb in the blood. Spontaneous formation of methemoglobin is normally counteracted by protective enzyme systems, for example, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH methemoglobin reductase. Methemoglobinemia is treated with supplemental oxygen and methylene blue (1-2 mg/kg administered slow intravenously, which acts by providing an artificial electron acceptor for NADPH methemoglobin reductase. But known or suspected glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is a relative contraindication to the use of methylene blue because G6PD is the key enzyme in the formation of NADPH through pentose phosphate pathway and G6PD-deficient individuals generate insufficient NADPH to efficiently reduce methylene blue to leukomethylene blue, which is necessary for the activation of the NADPH-dependent methemoglobin reductase system. So, we should be careful using methylene blue in methemoglobinemia patient before G6PD levels.

  15. The evolution of circumstellar medium around rotating massive stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chita, S.M.; Marle, A.J.; Langer, N.; García-Segura, G.

    2007-01-01

    A rotating 12Mȯ star, after its main-sequence evolution, becomes a redsupergiant when it starts core He burning. During core helium burning, as consequence of a variation of the hydrogen shell burning efficiency, the star undergoes a so called ``blue loop'', i.e. it evolves into a blue supergiant st

  16. The Star Formation Camera

    OpenAIRE

    Scowen, Paul A.; Jansen, Rolf; Beasley, Matthew; Calzetti, Daniela; Desch, Steven; Fullerton, Alex; Gallagher, John; Lisman, Doug; Macenka, Steve; Malhotra, Sangeeta; McCaughrean, Mark; Nikzad, Shouleh; O'Connell, Robert; Oey, Sally; Padgett, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    The Star Formation Camera (SFC) is a wide-field (~15'x19, >280 arcmin^2), high-resolution (18x18 mas pixels) UV/optical dichroic camera designed for the Theia 4-m space-borne space telescope concept. SFC will deliver diffraction-limited images at lambda > 300 nm in both a blue (190-517nm) and a red (517-1075nm) channel simultaneously. Our aim is to conduct a comprehensive and systematic study of the astrophysical processes and environments relevant for the births and life cycles of stars and ...

  17. OBSERVATIONAL CONSTRAINTS ON RED AND BLUE HELIUM BURNING SEQUENCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We derive the optical luminosity, colors, and ratios of the blue and red helium burning (HeB) stellar populations from archival Hubble Space Telescope observations of nineteen starburst dwarf galaxies and compare them with theoretical isochrones from Padova stellar evolution models across metallicities from Z = 0.001 to 0.009. We find that the observational data and the theoretical isochrones for both blue and red HeB populations overlap in optical luminosities and colors and the observed and predicted blue to red HeB ratios agree for stars older than 50 Myr over the time bins studied. These findings confirm the usefulness of applying isochrones to interpret observations of HeB populations. However, there are significant differences, especially for the red HeB population. Specifically, we find (1) offsets in color between the observations and theoretical isochrones of order 0.15 mag (0.5 mag) for the blue (red) HeB populations brighter than MV ∼ -4 mag, which cannot be solely due to differential extinction; (2) blue HeB stars fainter than MV ∼ -3 mag are bluer than predicted; (3) the slope of the red HeB sequence is shallower than predicted by a factor of ∼3; and (4) the models overpredict the ratio of the most luminous blue to red HeB stars corresponding to ages ∼ 0.5 Zsun), the red HeB stars overlap with the red giant branch stars in the color-magnitude diagrams, thus reducing their usefulness as indicators of star formation for ages ∼> 100 Myr.

  18. Feeling blue? Blue phosphors for OLEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hungshin Fu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs has been revitalized, partly due to the debut of the OLED TV by SONY in 2008. While there is still plenty of room for improvement in efficiency, cost-effectiveness and longevity, it is timely to report on the advances of light emitting materials, the core of OLEDs, and their future perspectives. The focus of this account is primarily to chronicle the blue phosphors developed in our laboratory. Special attention is paid to the design strategy, synthetic novelty, and their OLED performance. The report also underscores the importance of the interplay between chemistry and photophysics en route to true-blue phosphors.

  19. Uncovering Blue Diffuse Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    James, Bethan L; Stark, Daniel P; Belokurov, Vasily; Pettini, Max; Olszewski, Edward W

    2014-01-01

    Extremely metal poor (XMP) galaxies are known to be very rare, despite the large numbers of low-mass galaxies predicted by the local galaxy luminosity function. This paper presents a sub-sample of galaxies that were selected via a morphology-based search on SDSS images with the aim of finding these elusive XMP galaxies. By using the recently discovered extremely metal-poor galaxy, Leo P, as a guide, we obtained a collection of faint, blue systems, each with isolated HII regions embedded in a diffuse continuum, that have remained undetected until now. Here we show the first results from optical spectroscopic follow-up observations of 12 of ~100 of these blue, diffuse dwarf (BDD) galaxies yielded by our search algorithm. Oxygen abundances were obtained via the direct method for eight galaxies, and found to be in the range 7.45<12+log(O/H)<8.0, with two galaxies being classified as XMPs. All BDDs were found to currently have a young star-forming population (<10 Myr) and relatively high ionisation parame...

  20. Blue-green algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lac Klamath, Anabaena, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Arthrospira maxima, Arthrospira platensis, BGA, Blue Green Algae, Blue-Green Micro-Algae, Cyanobacteria, Cyanobactérie, Cyanophycée, Dihe, Espirulina, Hawaiian Spirulina, Klamath, Klamath Lake Algae, Lyngbya wollei, Microcystis aeruginosa, ...

  1. Blue-green algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... unresponsive to other treatments, taking 500 mg of spirulina blue-green algae by mouth 3 times daily for 6 months ... was seen in undernourished children who were given spirulina blue-green algae with a combination of millet, soy and peanut ...

  2. Templated blue phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravnik, Miha; Fukuda, Jun-ichi

    2015-11-21

    Cholesteric blue phases of a chiral liquid crystal are interesting examples of self-organised three-dimensional nanostructures formed by soft matter. Recently it was demonstrated that a polymer matrix introduced by photopolymerization inside a bulk blue phase not only stabilises the host blue phase significantly, but also serves as a template for blue phase ordering. We show with numerical modelling that the transfer of the orientational order of the blue phase to the surfaces of the polymer matrix, together with the resulting surface anchoring, can account for the templating behaviour of the polymer matrix inducing the blue phase ordering of an achiral nematic liquid crystal. Furthermore, tailoring the anchoring conditions of the polymer matrix surfaces can bring about orientational ordering different from those of bulk blue phases, including an intertwined complex of the polymer matrix and topological line defects of orientational order. Optical Kerr response of templated blue phases is explored, finding large Kerr constants in the range of K = 2-10 × 10(-9) m V(-2) and notable dependence on the surface anchoring strength. More generally, the presented numerical approach is aimed to clarify the role and actions of templating polymer matrices in complex chiral nematic fluids, and further to help design novel template-based materials from chiral liquid crystals. PMID:26412643

  3. Star formation and the surface brightness of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The (blue) surface brightness of spiral galaxies is significantly correlated with their Hα linewidth. This can be most plausibly interpreted as a correlation of surface brightness with star formation rate. There is also a significant difference in surface brightness between galaxies forming stars in a grand design spiral pattern and those with floc star formation regions. (author)

  4. Blue ocean strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades. PMID:15559577

  5. New York Blue

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — New York Blue is used cooperatively by the Laboratory and Stony Brook University as part of the New York Center for Computation Sciences. Ranked as the 28th fastest...

  6. Code blue: seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerth, Matthew T; Drazkowski, Joseph F; Noe, Katherine H; Sirven, Joseph I

    2011-06-01

    Eyewitnesses frequently perceive seizures as life threatening. If an event occurs on the hospital premises, a "code blue" can be called which consumes considerable resources. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and characteristics of code blue calls for seizures and seizure mimickers. A retrospective review of a code blue log from 2001 through 2008 identified 50 seizure-like events, representing 5.3% of all codes. Twenty-eight (54%) occurred in inpatients; the other 22 (44%) events involved visitors or employees on the hospital premises. Eighty-six percent of the events were epileptic seizures. Seizure mimickers, particularly psychogenic nonepileptic seizures, were more common in the nonhospitalized group. Only five (17.9%) inpatients had a known diagnosis of epilepsy, compared with 17 (77.3%) of the nonhospitalized patients. This retrospective survey provides insights into how code blues are called on hospitalized versus nonhospitalized patients for seizure-like events. PMID:21546315

  7. The Blues of David Lynch

    OpenAIRE

    Roche, David

    2009-01-01

    This article is an attempt to elaborate a typology of the color blue in the color films of David Lynch up to and including Mulholland Drive (2001). The color blue is considered alternately as light, matter or verbal language. The author studies the use, function, value and meaning of blue lighting, divided into static and flashing light, and of the blue objects in Blue Velvet (1986) and Mulholland Drive. The author shows how Lynch appropriates connotations Western culture, under the influence...

  8. MESS (Mass-loss of Evolved StarS), a Herschel Key Program

    OpenAIRE

    Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Waelkens, C.; Barlow, M.J.; Kerschbaum, F.; Garcia-Lario, P.; Cernicharo, J.; Blommaert, J. A. D. L.; Bouwman, J.; M.Cohen; Cox, N.; Decin, L.; Exter, K.; Gear, W. K.; Gomez, H. L.; Hargrave, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    MESS (Mass-loss of Evolved StarS) is a Guaranteed Time Key Program that uses the PACS and SPIRE instruments on board the Herschel Space Observatory to observe a representative sample of evolved stars, that include asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and post-AGB stars, planetary nebulae and red supergiants, as well as luminous blue variables, Wolf-Rayet stars and supernova remnants. In total, of order 150 objects are observed in imaging and about 50 objects in spectroscopy. This paper describes the...

  9. Hot subluminous stars

    CERN Document Server

    Heber, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Hot subluminous stars of spectral type B and O are core helium-burning stars at the blue end of the horizontal branch or have evolved even beyond that stage. Strikingly, the distribution in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of He-rich vs. He-poor hot subdwarf stars of the globular clusters omega Cen and NGC~2808 differ from that of their field counterparts. The metal-abundance patterns of hot subdwarfs are typically characterized by strong deficiencies of some lighter elements as well as large enrichments of heavy elements. A large fraction of sdB stars are found in close binaries with white dwarf or very low-mass main sequence companions, which must have gone through a common-envelope phase of evolution.They provide a clean-cut laboratory to study this important but yet purely understood phase of stellar evolution. Substellar companions to sdB stars have also been found. For HW~Vir systems the companion mass distribution extends from the stellar into the brown dwarf regime. A giant planet to the pulsator V391 ...

  10. Stars and Star Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Oliver

    Myths and tales from around the world about constellations and facts about stars in the constellations are presented. Most of the stories are from Greek and Roman mythology; however, a few Chinese, Japanese, Polynesian, Arabian, Jewish, and American Indian tales are also included. Following an introduction, myths are presented for the following 32…

  11. Beyond Deep Blue

    CERN Document Server

    Newborn, Monty

    2011-01-01

    More than a decade has passed since IBM's Deep Blue computer stunned the world by defeating Garry Kasparov, the world chess champion at that time. Beyond Deep Blue tells the continuing story of the chess engine and its steady improvement. The book provides analysis of the games alongside a detailed examination of the remarkable technological progress made by the engines - asking which one is best, how good is it, and how much better can it get. Features: presents a total of 118 games, played by 17 different chess engines, collected together for the first time in a single reference; details the

  12. The Blue Collar Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eVan Orden

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue collar role compared to the white collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white collar role of synergies across the body's tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior.

  13. Stellar science from a blue wavelength range - A possible design for the blue arm of 4MOST

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, C J; Seifert, W; Koch, A; Xu, W; Caffau, E; Christlieb, N; Korn, A J; Lind, K; Sbordone, L; Ruchti, G; Feltzing, S; de Jong, R S; Barden, S; Schnurr, O

    2015-01-01

    From stellar spectra, a variety of physical properties of stars can be derived. In particular, the chemical composition of stellar atmospheres can be inferred from absorption line analyses. These provide key information on large scales, such as the formation of our Galaxy, down to the small-scale nucleosynthesis processes that take place in stars and supernovae. By extending the observed wavelength range toward bluer wavelengths, we optimize such studies to also include critical absorption lines in metal-poor stars, and allow for studies of heavy elements (Z>38) whose formation processes remain poorly constrained. In this context, spectrographs optimized for observing blue wavelength ranges are essential, since many absorption lines at redder wavelengths are too weak to be detected in metal-poor stars. This means that some elements cannot be studied in the visual-redder regions, and important scientific tracers and science cases are lost. The present era of large public surveys will target millions of stars. ...

  14. The "Blue Banana" Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faludi, A.K.F.

    2015-01-01

    This essay is about the “Blue Banana”. Banana is the name given subsequently by others to a Dorsale européenne (European backbone) identified empirically by Roger Brunet. In a background study to the Communication of the European Commission ‘Europe 2000’, Klaus Kunzmann and Michael Wegener put forwa

  15. Blue spectral inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Schunck, Franz E

    2008-01-01

    We reconsider the nonlinear second order Abel equation of Stewart and Lyth, which follows from a nonlinear second order slow-roll approximation. We find a new eigenvalue spectrum in the blue regime. Some of the discrete values of the spectral index n_s have consistent fits to the cumulative COBE data as well as to recent ground-base CMB experiments.

  16. RETROSPECTIVE ON "THE SEARCH FOR BLUE STARLIKE OBJECTS IN THE DIRECTION OF THE POLES OF THE GALAXY", BY HARO & LUYTEN (1962

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Peimbert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available I present a review of the paper by G. Haro and W. J. Luyten, 1962, BOTT, 3, 22, 37, on Faint Blue Stars in the Region near the South Galactic Pole. I discuss the work carried out by Haro, Luyten, and collaborators on the search for faint blue stars and mention some of its implications for the study of blue galaxies and quasars.

  17. The BlueTides Simulation: First Galaxies and Reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Yu; Croft, Rupert A; Bird, Simeon; Battaglia, Nicholas; Wilkins, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    We introduce the BlueTides simulation and report initial results for the luminosity functions of the first galaxies and AGN, and their contribution to reionization. BlueTides was run on the BlueWaters cluster at NCSA from $z=99$ to $z=8.0$ and includes 2$\\times$7040$^3$ particles in a $400$Mpc/h per side box, making it the largest hydrodynamic simulation ever performed at high redshift. BlueTides includes a pressure-entropy formulation of smoothed particle hydrodynamics, gas cooling, star formation (including molecular hydrogen), black hole growth and models for stellar and AGN feedback processes. The star formation rate density in the simulation is a good match to current observational data at $z\\sim 8-10$. We find good agreement between observations and the predicted galaxy luminosity function in the currently observable range $-18\\le M_{\\mathrm UV} \\le -22.5$ with some dust extinction required to match the abundance of brighter objects. BlueTides implements a patchy reionization model that produces a fluct...

  18. The Blue Comet: A Railroad's Astronomical Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumstay, Kenneth S.

    2009-01-01

    Between 1929 February 21 and 1941 September 27, the Central New Jersey Railroad operated a luxury passenger train between Jersey City and Atlantic City. Named The Blue Comet, the locomotive, tender, and coaches sported a unique royal blue paint scheme designed to evoke images of celestial bodies speeding through space. Inside each car were etched window panes and lampshades featuring stars and comets. And each coach sported the name of a famous comet on its side; these comets were of course named for their discoverers. Some of the astronomers honored in this unique fashion remain famous to this day, or at least their comets do. The names D'Arrest, Barnard, Encke, Faye, Giacobini, Halley, Olbers, Temple, Tuttle, and Westphal are familiar ones. But Biela, Brorsen, deVico, Spitaler, and Winnecke have now largely faded into obscurity; their stories are recounted here. Although more than sixty years have elapsed since its last run, The Blue Comet, perhaps the most famous passenger train in American history, lives on in the memories of millions of passengers and railfans. This famous train returned to the attention of millions of television viewers on the evening of 2007 June 3, in an episode of the HBO series The Sopranos. This work was supported by a faculty development grant from Valdosta State University.

  19. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  20. Star Formation in Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, S S

    2004-01-01

    HST is very well tailored for observations of extragalactic star clusters. One obvious reason is HST's high spatial resolution, but equally important is the wavelength range offered by the instruments on board HST, in particular the blue and near-UV coverage which is essential for age-dating young clusters. HST observations have helped establish the ubiquity of young massive clusters (YMCs) in a wide variety of star-forming environments, from dwarf galaxies and spiral disks to nuclear starbursts and mergers. These YMCs have masses and sizes similar to those of old globular clusters (GCs), and the two may be closely related. A large fraction of all stars seem to be born in clusters, but most clusters disrupt rapidly and the stars disperse to become part of the field population. In most cases studied to date the luminosity functions of young cluster systems are well fit by power-laws dN(L)/dL ~ L^-2, and the luminosity of the brightest cluster can (with few exceptions) be predicted from simple sampling statisti...

  1. Insight into star death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nineteen neutrinos, formed in the center of a supernova, became a theorist's dream. They came straight from the heart of supernova 1987A and landed in two big underground tanks of water. Suddenly a new chapter in observational astronomy opened as these two neutrino telescopes gave astronomers their first look ever into the core of a supernova explosion. But the theorists' dream almost turned into a nightmare. Observations of the presupernova star showed conclusively that the star was a blue supergiant, but theorists have long believed only red supergiant stars could explode as supernovae. Do astronomers understand supernovae better now than when supernova 1987A exploded in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) one year ago? Yes. The observations of neutrinos spectacularly confirmed a vital aspect of supernova theory. But the observed differences between 1987A and other supernovae have illuminated and advanced our perception of how supernovae form. By working together, observers and theorists are continuing to hone their ideas about how massive stars die and how the subsequent supernovae behave

  2. The Star Formation Camera

    CERN Document Server

    Scowen, Paul A; Beasley, Matthew; Calzetti, Daniela; Desch, Steven; Fullerton, Alex; Gallagher, John; Lisman, Doug; Macenka, Steve; Malhotra, Sangeeta; McCaughrean, Mark; Nikzad, Shouleh; O'Connell, Robert; Oey, Sally; Padgett, Deborah; Rhoads, James; Roberge, Aki; Siegmund, Oswald; Shaklan, Stuart; Smith, Nathan; Stern, Daniel; Tumlinson, Jason; Windhorst, Rogier; Woodruff, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The Star Formation Camera (SFC) is a wide-field (~15'x19, >280 arcmin^2), high-resolution (18x18 mas pixels) UV/optical dichroic camera designed for the Theia 4-m space-borne space telescope concept. SFC will deliver diffraction-limited images at lambda > 300 nm in both a blue (190-517nm) and a red (517-1075nm) channel simultaneously. Our aim is to conduct a comprehensive and systematic study of the astrophysical processes and environments relevant for the births and life cycles of stars and their planetary systems, and to investigate and understand the range of environments, feedback mechanisms, and other factors that most affect the outcome of the star and planet formation process. This program addresses the origins and evolution of stars, galaxies, and cosmic structure and has direct relevance for the formation and survival of planetary systems like our Solar System and planets like Earth. We present the design and performance specifications resulting from the implementation study of the camera, conducted ...

  3. The Blue Emu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descalzi, Doug; Gillett, John; Gordon, Carlton; Keener, ED; Novak, Ken; Puente, Laura

    1993-01-01

    The primary goal in designing the Blue Emu was to provide an airline with a cost efficient and profitable means of transporting passengers between the major cities in Aeroworld. The design attacks the market where a demand for inexpensive transportation exists and for this reason the Blue Emu is an attractive investment for any airline. In order to provide a profitable aircraft, special attention was paid to cost and economics. For example, in manufacturing, simplicity was stressed in structural design to reduce construction time and cost. Aerodynamic design employed a tapered wing which reduced the induced drag coefficient while also reducing the weight of the wing. Even the propulsion system was selected with cost effectiveness in mind, yet also to maintain the marketability of the aircraft. Thus, in every aspect of the design, consideration was given to economics and marketability of the final product.

  4. Synthesizing a Blue Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Vester, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this Master thesis was to determine how electronic musical instrument companies could utilize innovation strategies to add value to their products and create new business markets beyond their core. The theoretical framework was established by outlining competitive strategies suitable for adoption by electronic musical instrument companies. The Blue Ocean Strategy was compared to traditional competitive strategies such as Porter’s Five Forces, and subsequently chosen because of ...

  5. Infrared properties of Active OB stars in the Magellanic Clouds from the Spitzer SAGE Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Bonanos, A. Z.; Lennon, D.J.; Massa, D. L.; Sewilo, M.; Köhlinger, F.; Panagia, N.; van Loon, J. Th.; Evans, C. J.; Smith, L J; Meixner, M.; Gordon, K; teams, the SAGE

    2010-01-01

    We present a study of the infrared properties of 4922 spectroscopically confirmed massive stars in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, focusing on the active OB star population. Besides OB stars, our sample includes yellow and red supergiants, Wolf-Rayet stars, Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) and supergiant B[e] stars. We detect a distinct Be star sequence, displaced to the red, and find a higher fraction of Oe and Be stars among O and early-B stars in the SMC, respectively, when compared t...

  6. MESS (Mass-loss of Evolved StarS), a Herschel Key Program

    CERN Document Server

    Groenewegen, M A T; Barlow, M J; Kerschbaum, F; Garcia-Lario, P; Cernicharo, J; Blommaert, J A D L; Bouwman, J; Cohen, M; Cox, N; Decin, L; Exter, K; Gear, W K; Gomez, H L; Hargrave, P C; Henning, Th; Hutsemékers, D; Ivison, R J; Jorissen, A; Krause, O; Ladjal, D; Leeks, S J; Lim, T L; Matsuura, M; Nazé, Y; Olofsson, G; Ottensamer, R; Polehampton, E; Posch, T; Rauw, G; Royer, P; Sibthorpe, B; Swinyard, B M; Ueta, T; Vamvatira-Nakou, C; Vandenbussche, B; Van de Steene, G C; Van Eck, S; van Hoof, P A M; Van Winckel, H; Verdugo, E; Wesson, R

    2010-01-01

    MESS (Mass-loss of Evolved StarS) is a Guaranteed Time Key Program that uses the PACS and SPIRE instruments on board the Herschel Space Observatory to observe a representative sample of evolved stars, that include asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and post-AGB stars, planetary nebulae and red supergiants, as well as luminous blue variables, Wolf-Rayet stars and supernova remnants. In total, of order 150 objects are observed in imaging and about 50 objects in spectroscopy. This paper describes the target selection and target list, and the observing strategy. Key science projects are described, and illustrated using results obtained during Herschel's science demonstration phase. Aperture photometry is given for the 70 AGB and post-AGB stars observed up to October 17, 2010, which constitutes the largest single uniform database of far-IR and sub-mm fluxes for late-type stars.

  7. Classification of O Stars in the Yellow-Green: The Exciting Star VES 735

    OpenAIRE

    Kerton, C. R.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Martin, P. G.

    1999-01-01

    Acquiring data for spectral classification of heavily reddened stars using traditional criteria in the blue-violet region of the spectrum can be prohibitively time consuming using small to medium sized telescopes. One such star is the Vatican Observatory emission-line star VES 735, which we have found excites the HII region KR140. In order to classify VES 735, we have constructed an atlas of stellar spectra of O stars in the yellow-green (4800 - 5420 A). We calibrate spectral type versus the ...

  8. Estruturas fundamentais no blues

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Rafael Palmeira da

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: Esta pesquisa tem como objeto de estudo a aplicação e adaptação da teoria de Schenker como ferramenta analítica aplicada ao jazz, tendo em vista a possibilidade de encontrar estruturas fundamentais distintas na música popular. Tendo como base as análises feitas por Larson (1998; 2009), Forte (2011) e Stock (1993) a pesquisa abordará, em um primeiro momento, as origens do jazz (blues e ragtime) como parte essencial para sua abordagem analítica, através da ótica etno-schenkeriana propos...

  9. Star Formation and the Growth of Stellar Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Eric F; Papovich, Casey; Borch, Andrea; Wolf, Christian; Meisenheimer, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Recent observations have demonstrated a significant growth in the integrated stellar mass of the red sequence since z=1, dominated by a steadily increasing number of galaxies with stellar masses M* 3x10^10 M_sun blue galaxies would also be overproduced; i.e., most of the new stars formed in blue cloud galaxies are in the massive galaxies. We explore a simple truncation scenario in which these `extra' blue galaxies have their star formation suppressed by an unspecified mechanism or mechanisms; simple cessation of star formation in these extra blue galaxies is approximately sufficient to build up the red seq uence at M*<10^11 M_sun.

  10. Hot Subluminous Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, U.

    2016-08-01

    Hot subluminous stars of spectral type B and O are core helium-burning stars at the blue end of the horizontal branch or have evolved even beyond that stage. Most hot subdwarf stars are chemically highly peculiar and provide a laboratory to study diffusion processes that cause these anomalies. The most obvious anomaly lies with helium, which may be a trace element in the atmosphere of some stars (sdB, sdO) while it may be the dominant species in others (He-sdB, He-sdO). Strikingly, the distribution in the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram of He-rich versus He-poor hot subdwarf stars of the globular clusters ω Cen and NGC 2808 differ from that of their field counterparts. The metal-abundance patterns of hot subdwarfs are typically characterized by strong deficiencies of some lighter elements as well as large enrichments of heavy elements. A large fraction of sdB stars are found in close binaries with white dwarf or very low-mass main sequence companions, which must have gone through a common-envelope (CE) phase of evolution. Because the binaries are detached they provide a clean-cut laboratory to study this important but yet poorly understood phase of stellar evolution. Hot subdwarf binaries with sufficiently massive white dwarf companions are viable candidate progenitors of type Ia supernovae both in the double degenerate as well as in the single degenerate scenario as helium donors for double detonation supernovae. The hyper-velocity He-sdO star US 708 may be the surviving donor of such a double detonation supernova. Substellar companions to sdB stars have also been found. For HW Vir systems the companion mass distribution extends from the stellar into the brown dwarf regime. A giant planet to the acoustic-mode pulsator V391 Peg was the first discovery of a planet that survived the red giant evolution of its host star. Evidence for Earth-size planets to two pulsating sdB stars have been reported and circumbinary giant planets or brown dwarfs have been found around HW

  11. IN-SPIRALING CLUMPS IN BLUE COMPACT DWARF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM Research Division, T. J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Zhang Hongxin; Hunter, Deidre A., E-mail: bge@watson.ibm.com [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2012-03-10

    Giant star formation clumps in dwarf irregular galaxies can have masses exceeding a few percent of the galaxy mass enclosed inside their orbital radii. They can produce sufficient torques on dark matter halo particles, halo stars, and the surrounding disk to lose their angular momentum and spiral into the central region in 1 Gyr. Pairs of giant clumps with similarly large relative masses can interact and exchange angular momentum to the same degree. The result of this angular momentum loss is a growing central concentration of old stars, gas, and star formation that can produce a long-lived starburst in the inner region, identified with the blue compact dwarf (BCD) phase. This central concentration is proposed to be analogous to the bulge in a young spiral galaxy. Observations of star complexes in five local BCDs confirm the relatively large clump masses that are expected for this process. The observed clumps also seem to contain old field stars, even after background light subtraction, in which case the clumps may be long-lived. The two examples with clumps closest to the center have the largest relative clump masses and the greatest contributions from old stars. An additional indication that the dense central regions of BCDs are like bulges is the high ratio of the inner disk scale height to the scale length, which is comparable to 1 for four of the galaxies.

  12. Pre-supernova mass loss predictions for massive stars

    OpenAIRE

    Vink, Jorick S.; de Koter, Alex; Kotak, Rubina

    2006-01-01

    Massive stars and supernovae (SNe) have a huge impact on their environment. Despite their importance, a comprehensive knowledge of which massive stars produce which SNe is hitherto lacking. We use a Monte Carlo method to predict the mass-loss rates of massive stars in the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram (HRD) covering all phases from the OB main sequence, the unstable Luminous Blue Variable (LBV) stage, to the final Wolf-Rayet (WR) phase. Although WR produce their own metals, a strong dependence ...

  13. Visual Distortions Near a Neutron Star and Black Hole

    OpenAIRE

    Nemiroff, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    The visual distortion effects visible to an observer traveling around and descending to the surface of an extremely compact star are described. Specifically, trips to a ``normal" neutron star, a black hole, and an ultracompact neutron star with extremely high surface gravity, are described. Concepts such as multiple imaging, red- and blue-shifting, conservation of surface brightness, the photon sphere, and the existence of multiple Einstein rings are discussed in terms of what the viewer woul...

  14. Blue emitting undecaplatinum clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Indranath; Bhuin, Radha Gobinda; Bhat, Shridevi; Pradeep, T.

    2014-07-01

    A blue luminescent 11-atom platinum cluster showing step-like optical features and the absence of plasmon absorption was synthesized. The cluster was purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) suggest a composition, Pt11(BBS)8, which was confirmed by a range of other experimental tools. The cluster is highly stable and compatible with many organic solvents.A blue luminescent 11-atom platinum cluster showing step-like optical features and the absence of plasmon absorption was synthesized. The cluster was purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) suggest a composition, Pt11(BBS)8, which was confirmed by a range of other experimental tools. The cluster is highly stable and compatible with many organic solvents. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of experimental procedures, instrumentation, chromatogram of the crude cluster; SEM/EDAX, DLS, PXRD, TEM, FT-IR, and XPS of the isolated Pt11 cluster; UV/Vis, MALDI MS and SEM/EDAX of isolated 2 and 3; and 195Pt NMR of the K2PtCl6 standard. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02778g

  15. Blue ocean leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2014-05-01

    Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets. PMID:24956870

  16. Shooting stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurette, M.; Hammer, C.

    A shooting star passage -even a star shower- can be sometimes easily seen during moonless black night. They represent the partial volatilization in earth atmosphere of meteorites or micrometeorites reduced in cosmic dusts. Everywhere on earth, these star dusts are searched to be gathered. This research made one year ago on the Greenland ice-cap is the object of this article; orbit gathering projects are also presented.

  17. Blue tits are ultraviolet tits

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, S; Bennett, A.T.D.; Cuthill, I. C.; Griffiths, R.

    1998-01-01

    The blue tit (Parus caeruleus) has been classified as sexually monochromatic. This classification is based on human colour perception yet, unlike humans, most birds have four spectrally distinct classes of cone and are visually sensitive to wavelengths in the near-ultraviolet (300 to 400 nm). Reflectance spectrophotometry reveals that blue tit plumage shows considerable reflection of UV light. For example, the blue crest shows peak reflectance at wavelengths around 352 nm. Furthermore, the bl...

  18. Postpartum Blues and Postpartum Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Erdem Ö et al.

    2009-01-01

    Postpartum blues which is seen during the postpartum period is a transient psychological state. Most of the mothers experience maternity blues in postpartum period. It remains usually unrecognized by the others. Some sensitive families can misattribute these feelings as depression. In this article, we tried to review the characteristics of maternity blues and its differences from depression. We defined depression and presented the incidence and diagnostic criteria, of major depression as well...

  19. The Gaia Attitude Star Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, R. L.

    2016-04-01

    We describe the Attitude Star Catalog produced for the Gaia mission. This catalog is being used by Gaia for the first on-ground attitude reconstruction. Originally it was simply a subset of the Initial Gaia Source List but this subset did not meet the isolation requirements and it contained a significant number of double entries. As a result during the commissioning phase of Gaia a new generation of this catalog, that better fulfills the attitude reconstruction requirements, was requested. Here we describe the production and properties of this new Attitude Star Catalog. The Attitude Star Catalog was made by combining 7 all sky catalogs and selecting entries based on magnitude, isolation and astrometric precision criteria. The catalog has 8173331 entries with estimates of the positions at 2000, proper motions and magnitudes (Gaia G, Gaia Grvs, red RF & blue BJ) in the magnitude range 7.0 web-site.

  20. Nonradial pulsations of hot evolved stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are three classes of faint blue variable stars: the ZZ Ceti variables (DAV degenerate dwarfs), the DBV variables (DB degenerate dwarfs), and the GW Vir variables (DOV degenerate dwarfs). None of these classes of variable stars were known at the time of the last blue star meeting. Observational and theoretical studies of the ZZ Ceti variables, the DBV variables, and the GW Vir variables have shown them to be pulsating in nonradial g-modes. The cause of the pulsation has been determined for each class of variable star and, in all cases, also involves predictions of the stars envelope composition. The predictions are that the ZZ Ceti variables must have pure hydrogen surface layers, the DBV stars must have pure helium surface layers, and the GW Vir stars must have carbon and oxygen rich surface layers with less than 30% (by mass) of helium. Given these compositions, it is found that pulsation driving occurs as a result of the kappa and gamma effects operating in the partial ionization zones of either hydrogen or helium. In addition, a new driving mechanism, called convection blocking, also occurs in these variables. For the GW Vir variables, it is the kappa and gamma effects in the partial ionization regions of carbon and oxygen. 45 refs

  1. What are the Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies?

    CERN Document Server

    Pisano, D J; Guzmán, R; Gallego, J Perez; Castander, F J; Gruel, N

    2007-01-01

    Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies (LCBGs) are common at z~1, contributing significantly to the total star formation rate density. By z~0, they are a factor of ten rarer. While we know that LCBGs evolve rapidly, we do not know what drives their evolution nor into what types of galaxies they evolve. We present the results of a single-dish HI survey of local LCBGs undertaken to address these questions. Our results indicate that LCBGs have M(HI) and M(DYN) consistent with low-mass spirals, but typically exhaust their gas reservoirs in less than 2 Gyr. Overall, the properties of LCBGs are consistent with them evolving into high-mass dwarf elliptical or dwarf irregular galaxies or low-mass, late-type spiral galaxies.

  2. Hot Subluminous Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, U.

    2016-08-01

    Hot subluminous stars of spectral type B and O are core helium-burning stars at the blue end of the horizontal branch or have evolved even beyond that stage. Most hot subdwarf stars are chemically highly peculiar and provide a laboratory to study diffusion processes that cause these anomalies. The most obvious anomaly lies with helium, which may be a trace element in the atmosphere of some stars (sdB, sdO) while it may be the dominant species in others (He-sdB, He-sdO). Strikingly, the distribution in the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram of He-rich versus He-poor hot subdwarf stars of the globular clusters ω Cen and NGC 2808 differ from that of their field counterparts. The metal-abundance patterns of hot subdwarfs are typically characterized by strong deficiencies of some lighter elements as well as large enrichments of heavy elements. A large fraction of sdB stars are found in close binaries with white dwarf or very low-mass main sequence companions, which must have gone through a common-envelope (CE) phase of evolution. Because the binaries are detached they provide a clean-cut laboratory to study this important but yet poorly understood phase of stellar evolution. Hot subdwarf binaries with sufficiently massive white dwarf companions are viable candidate progenitors of type Ia supernovae both in the double degenerate as well as in the single degenerate scenario as helium donors for double detonation supernovae. The hyper-velocity He-sdO star US 708 may be the surviving donor of such a double detonation supernova. Substellar companions to sdB stars have also been found. For HW Vir systems the companion mass distribution extends from the stellar into the brown dwarf regime. A giant planet to the acoustic-mode pulsator V391 Peg was the first discovery of a planet that survived the red giant evolution of its host star. Evidence for Earth-size planets to two pulsating sdB stars have been reported and circumbinary giant planets or brown dwarfs have been found around HW

  3. Instant BlueStacks

    CERN Document Server

    Judge, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A fast-paced, example-based approach guide for learning BlueStacks.This book is for anyone with a Mac or PC who wants to run Android apps on their computer. Whether you want to play games that are freely available for Android but not your computer, or you want to try apps before you install them on a physical device or use it as a development tool, this book will show you how. No previous experience is needed as this is written in plain English

  4. Radio stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjellming, R M; Wade, C M

    1971-09-17

    Up to the present time six classes of radio stars have been established. The signals are almost always very faint and drastically variable. Hence their discovery has owed as much to serendipity as to the highly sophisticated equipment and techniques that have been used. When the variations are regular, as with the pulsars, this characteristic can be exploited very successfully in the search for new objects as well as in the detailed study of those that are already known. The detection of the most erratically variable radio stars, the flare stars and the x-ray stars, is primarily a matter of luck and patience. In the case of the novas, one at least knows where and oughly when to look for radio emission. A very sensitive interferometer is clearly the best instrument to use in the initial detection of a radio star. The fact that weak background sources are frequently present makes it essential to prove that the position of a radio source agrees with that of a star to within a few arc seconds. The potential of radio astronomy for the study of radio stars will not be realized until more powerful instruments than those that are available today can be utilized. So far, we have been able to see only the most luminous of the radio stars. PMID:17836594

  5. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....

  6. Star Imager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Buch; Jørgensen, John Leif; Thuesen, Gøsta; Paulsen, Thomas Eide

    1997-01-01

    The version of the star imager developed for Astrid II is described. All functions and features are described as well as the operations and the software protocol.......The version of the star imager developed for Astrid II is described. All functions and features are described as well as the operations and the software protocol....

  7. Star Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jing M; McKenzie, Thomas G; Fu, Qiang; Wong, Edgar H H; Xu, Jiangtao; An, Zesheng; Shanmugam, Sivaprakash; Davis, Thomas P; Boyer, Cyrille; Qiao, Greg G

    2016-06-22

    Recent advances in controlled/living polymerization techniques and highly efficient coupling chemistries have enabled the facile synthesis of complex polymer architectures with controlled dimensions and functionality. As an example, star polymers consist of many linear polymers fused at a central point with a large number of chain end functionalities. Owing to this exclusive structure, star polymers exhibit some remarkable characteristics and properties unattainable by simple linear polymers. Hence, they constitute a unique class of technologically important nanomaterials that have been utilized or are currently under audition for many applications in life sciences and nanotechnologies. This article first provides a comprehensive summary of synthetic strategies towards star polymers, then reviews the latest developments in the synthesis and characterization methods of star macromolecules, and lastly outlines emerging applications and current commercial use of star-shaped polymers. The aim of this work is to promote star polymer research, generate new avenues of scientific investigation, and provide contemporary perspectives on chemical innovation that may expedite the commercialization of new star nanomaterials. We envision in the not-too-distant future star polymers will play an increasingly important role in materials science and nanotechnology in both academic and industrial settings. PMID:27299693

  8. The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: The blue galaxy fraction and implications for the Butcher-Oemler effect

    CERN Document Server

    De Propris, R; Peacock, J; Couch, W; Driver, S; Balogh, M; Baldry, I K; Baugh, C; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Bridges, T J; Cannon, R; Cole, S; Collins, C; Cross, N; Dalton, G B; Efstathiou, G P; Ellis, R; Frenk, C; Glazebrook, K; Hawkins, E; Jackson, C; Lahav, O; Lewis, I; Lumsden, S; Maddox, S; Madgwick, D; Norberg, P; Percival, W; Peterson, B; Sutherland, W; Taylor, K; Propris, Roberto De; Colless, Matthew; Peacock, John; Couch, Warrick; Driver, Simon; Balogh, Michael; Baldry, Ivan; Baugh, Carlton; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Bridges, Terry; Cannon, Russell; Cole, Shaun; Collins, Chris; Cross, Nicholas; Dalton, Gavin; Efstathiou, George; Ellis, Richard; Frenk, Carlos; Glazebrook, Karl; Hawkins, Edward; Jackson, Carole; Lahav, Ofer; Lewis, Ian; Lumsden, Stuart; Maddox, Steve; Madgwick, Darren; Norberg, Peder; Percival, Will; Peterson, Bruce; Sutherland, Will; Taylor, Keith

    2004-01-01

    We derive the fraction of blue galaxies in a sample of clusters at z < 0.11 and the general field at the same redshift. The value of the blue fraction is observed to depend on the luminosity limit adopted, cluster-centric radius and, more generally, local galaxy density, but it does not depend on cluster properties. Changes in the blue fraction are due to variations in the relative proportions of red and blue galaxies but the star formation rate for these two galaxy groups remains unchanged. Our results are most consistent with a model where the star formation rate declines rapidly and the blue galaxies tend to be dwarfs and do not favour mechanisms where the Butcher-Oemler effect is caused by processes specific to the cluster environment.

  9. Radio continuum detection in blue early-type weak-emission-line galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paswan, A.; Omar, A.

    2016-06-01

    The star formation rates (SFRs) in weak-emission-line (WEL) galaxies in a volume-limited (0.02 formation activities. The median SFR for WEL galaxies is estimated as 0.23 ± 0.06 M⊙ yr-1, which is much less than SFRs (0.5-50 M⊙ yr-1) in purely star-forming blue ETGs. The SFRs in blue ETGs are found to be correlated with their stellar velocity dispersions (σ) and decreasing gradually beyond σ of ˜100 km s-1. This effect is most likely linked to the growth of a black hole and the suppression of star formation via active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback. The colour differences between star-forming and WEL subtypes of blue ETGs appear to be driven to a large extent by the level of current star formation activities. In a likely scenario of an evolutionary sequence between subtypes, the observed colour distribution in blue ETGs can be explained best in terms of fast evolution through AGN feedback.

  10. Bursts of star formation in computer simulations of dwarf galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comins, N.F.

    1984-09-01

    A three-dimensional Stochastic Self-Propagating Star Formation (SSPSF) model of compact galacies is presented. Two phases of gas, active and inactive, are present, and permanent depletion of gas in the form of long lived, low mass stars and remnants occurs. Similarly, global infall of gas from a galactic halo or through galactic cannibalism is permitted. We base our parameters on the observed properties of the compact blue galaxy I Zw 36. Our results are that bursts of star formation occur much more frequently in these runs than continuous nonbursting star formation, suggesting that the blue compact galaxies are probably undergoing bursts rather than continuous, nonbursting low-level star formation activity.

  11. Luminous Stars in Galaxies Beyond 3 Mpc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, B. C.; Wfc3 Science Oversight Committee

    2011-06-01

    I am mainly interested in the formation and destruction of young star clusters in nearby star forming galaxies such as the Antennae, M83, and M51. One of the first analysis steps is to throw out all those pesky stars that keep contaminating my young cluster samples. Recently, spurred on by our new Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) Early Release Science data of galaxies including M83, NGC 4214, M82, NGC 2841, and Cen A, we began taking a closer look at the stellar component. Questions we are addressing are: 1) what are the most luminous stars, 2) how can we use them to help study the destruction of star clusters and the population of the field, 3) what fraction of stars, at least the bright stars, are formed in the field, in associations, and in compact clusters. In this contribution we describe some of the beginning steps in this process. More specifically, we describe how we separate stars from clusters in our galaxies, and describe how candidate Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) and "Single Star" HII (SSHII) regions have been identified.

  12. An interferometric view of binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Boffin, Henri M J

    2016-01-01

    The study of binary stars is critical to apprehend many of the most interesting classes of stars. Moreover, quite often, the study of stars in binary systems is our only mean to constrain stellar properties, such as masses and radii. Unfortunately, a great fraction of the most interesting binaries are so compact that they can only be apprehended by high-resolution techniques, mostly by interferometry. I present some results highlighting the use of interferometry in the study of binary stars, from finding companions and deriving orbits, determining the mass and radius of stars, to studying mass transfer in symbiotic stars, and tackling luminous blue variables. In particular, I show how interferometric studies using the PIONIER instrument have allowed us to confirm a dichotomy within symbiotic stars, obtain masses of stars with a precision better than 1%, and help us find a new Eta Carinae-like system. I will also illustrate the benefits for the study of binary stars one would get from upgrading the VLT Interfe...

  13. Luminous Stars in Galaxies Beyond 3 Mpc

    CERN Document Server

    Whitmore, Bradley C

    2011-01-01

    I am mainly interested in the formation and destruction of young star clusters in nearby star forming galaxies such as the Antennae, M83, and M51. One of the first analysis steps is to throw out all those pesky stars that keep contaminating my young cluster samples. Recently, spurred on by our new WFC3 Early Release Science data of galaxies including M83, NGC 4214, M82, NGC 2841, and Cen A, we began taking a closer look at the stellar component. Questions we are addressing are: 1) what are the most luminous stars, 2) how can we use them to help study the destruction of star clusters and the population of the field, 3) what fraction of stars, at least the bright stars, are formed in the field, in associations, and in compact clusters. In this contribution we describe some of the beginning steps in this process. More specifically, we describe how we separate stars from clusters in our galaxies, and describe how candidate Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) and "Single Star" HII (SSHII) regions have been identified.

  14. Horndeski's Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Cisterna, Adolfo; Rinaldi, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    We consider the sector of Horndeski's gravity characterized by a coupling between the kinetic scalar field term and the Einstein tensor. Our goal is to find realistic neutron star configurations in this framework. We show that, in a certain limit, there exist solutions that are identical to the Schwarzschild metric outside the star but change considerably inside, where the scalar field is not trivial. We study numerically the equations and find the region of the parameter space where neutron stars exist. We determine their internal pressure and mass-radius relation, and we compare them with standard general relativity models.

  15. A Sparkling Spray of Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    The festive season has arrived for astronomers at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in the form of this dramatic new image. It shows the swirling gas around the region known as NGC 2264 -- an area of sky that includes the sparkling blue baubles of the Christmas Tree star cluster. Omega Centauri ESO PR Photo 48/08 NGC 2264 and the Christmas Tree cluster NGC 2264 lies about 2600 light-years from Earth in the obscure constellation of Monoceros, the Unicorn, not far from the more familiar figure of Orion, the Hunter. The image shows a region of space about 30 light-years across. William Herschel discovered this fascinating object during his great sky surveys in the late 18th century. He first noticed the bright cluster in January 1784 and the brightest part of the visually more elusive smudge of the glowing gas clouds at Christmas nearly two years later. The cluster is very bright and can easily be seen with binoculars. With a small telescope (whose lenses will turn the view upside down) the stars resemble the glittering lights on a Christmas tree. The dazzling star at the top is even bright enough to be seen with the unaided eye. It is a massive multiple star system that only emerged from the dust and gas a few million years ago. As well as the cluster there are many interesting and curious structures in the gas and dust. At the bottom of the frame, the dark triangular feature is the evocative Cone Nebula, a region of molecular gas flooded by the harsh light of the brightest cluster members. The region to the right of the brightest star has a curious, fur-like texture that has led to the name Fox Fur Nebula. Much of the image appears red because the huge gas clouds are glowing under the intense ultra-violet light coming from the energetic hot young stars. The stars themselves appear blue as they are hotter, younger and more massive than our own Sun. Some of this blue light is scattered by dust, as can be seen occurring in the upper part of the image. This

  16. Blue-sky thinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global environmental problems - such as the greenhouse effect, the depletion of natural resources and the accumulation of wastes - have been recognized as common international issues affecting humanity since the 1990s. Sustainable development on a global scale is now sought, for instance, with the establishment of the targets for greenhouse gas reduction in the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, and with the adoption of the Declaration on Sustainable Development at the 2002 Johannesburg Summit. Honda launched the slogan 'Blue Sky for Children' in the 1960s when environmental pollution became a highly visible issue. During that decade we started an aggressive approach aimed at substantial environmental improvement, and unveiled the Compound Vortex Controlled Combustion (CVCC) engine - which used unique low-emission technology - in the United States and Japan. Since then, we have developed the Variable Valve Timing and Lift Electric Control System (VTEC) and the i-VTEC series with innovative engine technology, permitting global production of vehicles that combine high performance with state-of-the-art low-emission technologies. And we continued to work to preserve the global environment by releasing a hybrid vehicle, the Insight, which achieved the most efficient fuel consumption in the world at the time of its introduction in 1998

  17. Rock Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国平

    2000-01-01

    Around the world young people are spending unbelievable sums of money to listen to rock music. Forbes Magazine reports that at least fifty rock stars have incomes between two million and six million dollars per year.

  18. Star counts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of stars counted along a particular line of sight depends on the spatial distribution of stars, the luminosity function, and the absorption. Thus star count programs designed to constrain or determine one or more of these functions. Early efforts to understand the structure of our Galaxy, including the fundamentals of stellar statistics, were largely based on work that involved star counts. Since then a growing appreciation has developed for the variety of forms the density function and the luminosity function can take, especially the recognition of different stellar populations, each with different density and luminosity functions. In the simplest formulation two distinct populations are considered: disk and halo. This suggests two distinct formation histories, but uncertainty in the picture remains. (Auth.)

  19. Star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical models of star formation are discussed beginning with the earliest stages and ending in the formation of rotating, self-gravitating disks or rings. First a model of the implosion of very diffuse gas clouds is presented which relies upon a shock at the edge of a galactic spiral arm to drive the implosion. Second, models are presented for the formation of a second generation of massive stars in such a cloud once a first generation has formed. These models rely on the ionizing radiation from massive stars or on the supernova shocks produced when these stars explode. Finally, calculations of the gravitational collapse of rotating clouds are discussed with special focus on the question of whether rotating disks or rings are the result of such a collapse. 65 references

  20. Carbon Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T. Lloyd Evans

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, the present state of knowledge of the carbon stars is discussed. Particular attention is given to issues of classification, evolution, variability, populations in our own and other galaxies, and circumstellar material.

  1. Blue Angel for green electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boettcher-Tiedemann, C.; Jacobs, B. [Federal Environmental Agency, Berlin (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The Blue Angel was the first eco-label worldwide. It has been in existence for 26 years. For the last 12 years, modern electronic office and communications equipment has been among the products that are eligible for award of the Blue Angel. The Blue Angel eco-label is an important element of integrated product policy and is aimed towards environmentally sound product design. In addition, health aspects are increasingly being taken into account in criteria development. The use of the label gives innovative companies better market opportunities for products so labelled. For consumers and for purchasers in businesses and public administrations, it gives valuable guidance for product purchase. (orig.)

  2. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg med bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg med bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  3. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....

  4. Fast Luminous Blue Transients from Newborn Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Kashiyama, Kazumi

    2015-01-01

    Newborn black holes in collapsing massive stars can be accompanied by a fallback disk. The accretion rate is typically super-Eddington and strong disk outflows are expected. Such outflows could be directly observed in some failed explosions of compact (blue supergiants or Wolf-Rayet stars) progenitors, and may be more common than long-duration gamma-ray bursts. Using an analytical model, we show that the fallback disk outflows produce blue UV-optical transients with a peak bolometric luminosity of ~10^(42-43) erg s^-1 (peak R-band absolute AB magnitudes of -16 to -18) and an emission duration of ~ a few to ~ 10 days. The spectra are likely dominated intermediate mass elements, but will lack much radioactive nuclei and iron-group elements. The above properties are broadly consistent with some of the rapid blue transients detected by Pan-STARRS and PTF. This scenario can be distinguished from alternative models using radio observations within a few years after the optical peak.

  5. Karner Blue Butterfly Recovery Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This recovery plan has been prepared by the Karner Blue Butterfly Recovery Team under the leadership of Dr. David Andow, University of Minnesota-St. Paul. Dr. John...

  6. Blue Ocean vs. Five Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Andrew; Stel, André; Thurik, Roy

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe article reports on the authors' research in the Netherlands which focused on a profit model in Dutch retail stores and a so-called blue-ocean approach which requires a new market that attracts consumers and increases profits. Topics include the competitive strategy approach to increasing profits. The authors conclude that the blue-ocean strategy or innovation approach is sustainable.

  7. Indications of Inflow Motions in Regions Forming Massive Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, J

    2003-01-01

    Observational evidence for inflowing motions in massive star forming regions has been extremely rare. We have made a spectroscopic survey of a sample of 28 massive star forming cores associated with water masers. An optically thick line of HCN (3-2) was used in combination with optically thin lines [H^{13}CN (3-2) or C^{34}S (5-4), (3-2), and (2-1)], to identify ``blue'' line profiles that can indicate inflow. Comparing intensities for 18 double-peaked line profiles yields 11 blue and 3 red profiles that are statistically significant. In the full sample of 28 sources, 12 show blue profiles and 6 show red profiles that are statistically significant based on the velocity offsets of lines that are optically thick from those that are optically thin. These results indicate that HCN (3-2) emission may trace inflow in regions forming high-mass stars.

  8. Gravitational Interactions of White Dwarf Double Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeough, James; Robinson, Chloe; Ortiz, Bridget; Hira, Ajit

    2016-03-01

    In the light of the possible role of White Dwarf stars as progenitors of Type Ia supernovas, we present computational simulations of some astrophysical phenomena associated with a study of gravitationally-bound binary stars, composed of at least one white dwarf star. Of particular interest to astrophysicists are the conditions inside a white dwarf star in the time frame leading up to its explosive end as a Type Ia supernova, for an understanding of the massive stellar explosions. In addition, the studies of the evolution of white dwarfs could serve as promising probes of theories of gravitation. We developed FORTRAN computer programs to implement our models for white dwarfs and other stars. These codes allow for different sizes and masses of stars. Simulations were done in the mass interval from 0.1 to 2.5 solar masses. Our goal was to obtain both atmospheric and orbital parameters. The computational results thus obtained are compared with relevant observational data. The data are further analyzed to identify trends in terms of sizes and masses of stars. We will extend our computational studies to blue giant and red giant stars in the future. Funding from National Science Foundation.

  9. MN112: a new Galactic candidate Luminous Blue Variable

    CERN Document Server

    Gvaramadze, V V; Fabrika, S; Sholukhova, O; Berdnikov, L N; Cherepashchuk, A M; Zharova, A V

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new Galactic candidate Luminous Blue Variable (cLBV) via detection of an infrared circular nebula and follow-up spectroscopy of its central star. The nebula, MN112, is one of many dozens of circular nebulae detected at 24 $\\mu$m the Spitzer Space Telescope archival data, whose morphology is similar to that of nebulae associated with known (c)LBVs and related evolved massive stars. Specifically, the core-halo morphology of MN112 bears a striking resemblance to the circumstellar nebula associated with the Galactic cLBV GAL 079.29+00.46, which suggests that both nebulae might have a similar origin and that the central star of MN112 is a LBV. The spectroscopy of the central star showed that its spectrum is almost identical to that of the bona fide LBV P Cygni, which also supports the LBV classification of the object. To further constrain the nature of MN112, we searched for signatures of possible high-amplitude ($\\ga 1$ mag) photometric variability of the central star using archival a...

  10. Observational Constraints on Red and Blue Helium Burning Sequences

    CERN Document Server

    McQuinn, Kristen B W; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Dolphin, Andrew E; Holtzman, Jon; Weisz, Daniel R; Williams, Benjamin F

    2011-01-01

    We derive the optical luminosity, colors, and ratios of the blue and red helium burning (HeB) stellar populations from archival Hubble Space Telescope observations of nineteen starburst dwarf galaxies and compare them with theoretical isochrones from Padova stellar evolution models across metallicities from Z=0.001 to 0.009. We find that the observational data and the theoretical isochrones for both blue and red HeB populations overlap in optical luminosities and colors and the observed and predicted blue to red HeB ratios agree for stars older than 50 Myr over the time bins studied. These findings confirm the usefulness of applying isochrones to interpret observations of HeB populations. However, there are significant differences, especially for the red HeB population. Specifically we find: (1) offsets in color between the observations and theoretical isochrones of order 0.15 mag (0.5 mag) for the blue (red) HeB populations brighter than M_V ~ -4 mag, which cannot be solely due to differential extinction; (2...

  11. Cold Gas in Blue-Sequence E/S0s: Galaxies in Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Lisa H; Vogel, Stuart N; Baker, Andrew J

    2009-01-01

    We examine the HI+H_2 content of blue-sequence E/S0s -- a recently identified population of galaxies that are morphologically early type, but reside alongside spiral galaxies in color vs. stellar mass space. We test the idea that the majority of low-to-intermediate mass blue-sequence E/S0s may be settled products of past mergers evolving toward later-type morphology via disk regrowth. We find that blue-sequence E/S0s with stellar masses 1.0, comparable to those of spiral galaxies. Preliminary CO(1-0) maps reveal disk-like rotation of molecular gas in the inner regions of several of our blue-sequence E/S0s, which suggests that they may have gas disks suitable for stellar disk regrowth. At the current rate of star formation, many of our blue-sequence E/S0s will exhaust their atomic gas reservoirs in <~ 3 Gyr. Over the same time period, most of these galaxies are capable of substantial growth in the stellar component. Star formation in blue-sequence E/S0s appears to be bursty, and likely involves inflow trig...

  12. The hot Gamma-Doradus and Maia stars

    CERN Document Server

    Balona, L A; Joshi, Yogesh C; Joshi, S; Sharma, K; Semenko, E; Pandey, G; Chakradhari, N K; Mkrtichian, David; Hema, B P; Nemec, J M

    2016-01-01

    The hot $\\gamma$~Doradus stars have multiple low frequencies characteristic of $\\gamma$~Dor or SPB variables, but are located between the red edge of the SPB and the blue edge of the $\\gamma$~Dor instability strips where all low-frequency modes are stable in current models of these stars. Though $\\delta$~Sct stars also have low frequencies, there is no sign of high frequencies in hot $\\gamma$~Dor stars. We obtained spectra to refine the locations of some of these stars in the H-R diagram and conclude that these are, indeed, anomalous pulsating stars. The Maia variables have multiple high frequencies characteristic of $\\beta$~Cep and $\\delta$~Sct stars, but lie between the red edge of the $\\beta$~Cep and the blue edge of the $\\delta$~Sct instability strips. We compile a list of all Maia candidates and obtain spectra of two of these stars. Again, it seems likely that these are anomalous pulsating stars which are currently not understood.

  13. Rainbow's Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Garattini, Remo

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, a growing interest on the equilibrium of compact astrophysical objects like white dwarf and neutron stars has been manifested. In particular, various modifications due to Planck scale energy effects have been considered. In this paper we analyze the modification induced by Gravity's Rainbow on the equilibrium configurations described by the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff (TOV) equation. Our purpose is to explore the possibility that the Rainbow Planck-scale deformation of space-time could support the existence of different compact stars.

  14. The Nebula around the Luminous Blue Variable WRAY 15-751 as seen by Herschel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamvatira-Nakou, C.; Hutsemekers, D.; Royer, P.; Naze, Y.; Magain, P.; Exter, K.; Waelkens, C.; Groenewegen, M.

    2013-06-01

    To understand the evolution of massive stars it is crucial to study the nebulae associated to Luminous Blue Variables which can reveal the star mass-loss history. We obtained far-infrared Herschel PACS imaging and spectroscopic observations of the nebula associated with the Luminous Blue Variable star WRAY 15-751. These images revealed a second nebula, bigger and cooler, lying in an empty cavity that probably delineates the remnant of the O-star bubble formed when the star was on the Main Sequence. The dust mass and temperature were derived from the modeling of the far-infrared SED. The analysis of the emission line spectrum revealed that the main nebula consists of a region of photoionised gas surrounded by a thin photodissociation region. Both regions are mixed with dust. The calculated C, N, O abundances, together with the estimated mass-loss rate, show that the nebula was ejected from the star during a Red Supergiant phase. This is compatible with the latest evolutionary tracks for a ~40 Mo star with little rotation.

  15. The brightest stars as distance indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The luminosities of the brightest early-type supergiants have a well known dependence on the luminosity of the galaxy. In addition, many of the brightest blue 'stars' are actually compact HII regions, clusters, and composite images. This is a serious problem in increasingly distant galaxies. Therefore, they are not recommended as distance indicators. The brightest M supergiants have an upper bound to their bolometric luminosities due to the stability limit of the most massive evolved stars, making the red supergiants potentially powerful distance indicators. 32 refs

  16. Pulsating stars

    CERN Document Server

    Catelan, M?rcio

    2014-01-01

    The most recent and comprehensive book on pulsating stars which ties the observations to our present understanding of stellar pulsation and evolution theory.  Written by experienced researchers and authors in the field, this book includes the latest observational results and is valuable reading for astronomers, graduate students, nuclear physicists and high energy physicists.

  17. Studies of luminous stars in nearby galaxies. I. Supergiants and O stars in the Milky Way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the fundamental properties of the brightest known stars in our Galaxy are determined for future comparison with results for the most luminous stars in other galaxies. The H-R diagrams (M/sub v/ versus spectral type and M/sub bol/ versus log T/sub e/), the luminosities of the brightest stars, and the ratios of blue to red supergiants are all discussed, and a catalog of over 1000 supergiants and O stars in associations and clusters is included at the end of the paper.The ''theoretical'' H-R diagram (M/sub bol/ versus log T/sub e/) reveals a group of superluminous O stars with M/sub bol/ between -12 mag, a lack of evolved supergiants at these very high luminosities, and an apparent upper limit to the luminosities of the later-type supergiants (>B5) near M/sub bol/=-9.5 mag.The most luminous red supergiants have a maximum visual luminosity near M/sub v/approx. =-8 mag, supporting the suggestion by Sandage and Tammann that they are good distance indicators. Excluding the superluminous star Cyg OB 2 No. 12 (M/sub v/approx. =-9.9 mag), the brightest blue stars are found at M/sub v/approx. =-8.5 mag.The variation of the ratio of blue to red supergiants with luminosity is discussed. There is also evidence for a gradient in this ratio with distance from the galactic center, although the results are limited by the incompleteness of the data

  18. Methylene blue related sterile endophthalmitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, A K E; Ulagantheran V, V; Siow, Y C; Lim, K S

    2008-08-01

    To report a case of methylene blue related endophthalmitis. Observational case report. Review of clinical record, photographs. A 60 year old man developed endophthalmitis after methylene blue was accidentally used to stain the anterior capsule during phacoemulsification of cataract. His left visual acuity deteriorated from 6/12 to 6/36 two weeks after the operation. Despite intensive treatment with topical and intravitreal antibiotics, his condition deteriorated. A vitrectomy and silicone oil injection eventually managed to control the progression of the disease and salvage the eye. However the visual outcome remained poor due to corneal decompensation and retinal ischemia. Both vitreous tap and vitreous biopsy were negative for any organism. Methylene blue is extremely toxic to ocular structures and should not be used intraocularly. PMID:19248701

  19. Why Do Proteins Glow Blue?

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Sohini; Hazra, Partha; Mandal, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    Recent literatures reported blue-green emission from amyloid fibril as exclusive signature of fibril formation. This unusual visible luminescence is regularly used to monitor fibril growth. Blue-green emission has also been observed in crystalline protein and in solution. However, the origin of this emission is not known exactly. Our spectroscopic study of serum proteins reveals that the blue-green emission is a property of protein monomer. Evidences suggest that semiconductor-like band structure of proteins with the optical band-gap in the visible region is possibly the origin of this phenomenon. We show here that the band structure of proteins is primarily the result of electron delocalization through the peptide chain, rather than through the hydrogen bond network in secondary structure.

  20. Bipolar Outflows and the Evolution of Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Adam

    1998-01-01

    Hypersonic bipolar outflows are a ubiquitous phenomena associated with both young and highly evolved stars. Observations of Planetary Nebulae, the nebulae surrounding Luminous Blue Variables such as $\\eta$ Carinae, Wolf Rayet bubbles, the circumstellar environment of SN 1987A and Young Stellar Objects all revealed high velocity outflows with a wide range of shapes. In this paper I review the current state of our theoretical understanding of these outflows. Beginning with Planetary Nebulae con...

  1. An Atlas of Spectrophotometric Landolt Standard Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Stritzinger, Maximilian; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Hamuy, Mario; Challis, Peter; Demarco, Ricardo; Germany, Lisa; Soderberg, A. M.

    2005-01-01

    We present CCD observations of 102 Landolt standard stars obtained with the R-C spectrograph on the CTIO 1.5 m telescope. Using stellar atmosphere models we have extended the flux points to our six spectrophotometric secondary standards, in both the blue and the red, allowing us to produce flux-calibrated spectra that span a wavelength range from 3050 \\AA to 1.1 \\micron. Mean differences between UBVRI spectrophotometry computed using Bessell's standard passbands and Landolt's published photom...

  2. The blue-collar brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body's tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

  3. Massive stars with mass loss: Evolution, nucleosynthesis, and astrophysical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evolution and nucleosynthesis of mass loss WR stars is studied, particularly evolution of stars with initial mass between 50 and 100 solar masses, during combustion of H and He. A semi-empirical mass loss formalism, the Roxburgh criterion for convection, and nuclear data are used. Composition of the stellar surface and ejecta (and ejecta contribution to cosmic ray composition) are derived. The contribution of these stars to s elements in our solar system is shown. Their production of 26Al is compared to the quantity in the galaxy. Gamma ray emission at 1.8 MeV from the decay of this radionuclide is estimated in galactic longitude. The stars evolve as 0 and 0f stars during H combustion and spend 20% of their He combustion period as WN stars and 80% as WC-W0. Evolution always occurs in the blue part of the HR diagram, and satisfies observational constraints on its upper part

  4. The nature of hypervelocity stars as inferred from their galactic trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Svensson, Karl M; Davies, Melvyn B

    2007-01-01

    We have computed the galactic trajectories of twelve hypervelocity stars (HVSs) under the assumption that they originated in the Galactic Centre. We show that eight of these twelve stars are bound to the Galaxy. We consider the subsequent trajectories of the bound stars to compute their characteristic orbital period, which is 2 Gyr. All eight bound stars are moving away from the centre of the Galaxy, which implies that the stars' lifetimes are less than 2 Gyr. We thus infer that the observed HVSs are massive main sequence stars, rather than blue horizontal branch stars. The observations suggest that blue HVSs are ejected from the Galactic Centre roughly every 15 Myr. This is consistent with the observed population of blue stars in extremely tight orbits round the central super-massive black hole (SMBH), the so-called S-stars, if we assume that the HVSs are produced by the breakup of binaries. One of the stars in such a binary is ejected at high velocities to form a HVS; the other remains bound to the SMBH as ...

  5. The blue supergiant MN18 and its bipolar circumstellar nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Gvaramadze, V V; Bestenlehner, J M; Bodensteiner, J; Langer, N; Greiner, J; Grebel, E K; Berdnikov, L N; Beletsky, Y

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of spectrophotometric observations of the massive star MN18 revealed via discovery of a bipolar nebula around it with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Using the optical spectrum obtained with the Southern African Large Telescope, we classify this star as B1 Ia. The evolved status of MN18 is supported by the detection of nitrogen overabundance in the nebula, which implies that it is composed of processed material ejected by the star. We analysed the spectrum of MN18 by using the code CMFGEN, obtaining a stellar effective temperature of \\approx 21 kK. The star is highly reddened, E(B-V)\\approx 2 mag. Adopting an absolute visual magnitude of M_V=-6.8\\pm0.5 (typical of B1 supergiants), MN18 has a luminosity of log L/Lsun \\approx 5.42\\pm0.30, a mass-loss rate of \\approx (2.8-4.5)\\times10^{-7} Msun/yr, and resides at a distance of \\approx 5.6^{+1.5} _{-1.2} kpc. We discuss the origin of the nebula around MN18 and compare it with similar nebulae produced by other blue supergiants in the Galaxy (She...

  6. Chemical Evolution of Blue Compact Galaxies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Shi; Xu Kong; Fu-Zhen Cheng

    2006-01-01

    Based on a sample of 72 Blue Compact Galaxies (BCGs) observed with the 2.16 m telescope of the National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC) and about 4000 strong emission line galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey,we analyzed their chemical evolution history using the revised chemical evolution model of Larsen et al. Our sample covers a much larger metallicity range (7.2<12+log(O/H) <9.0). We found that, in order to reproduce the observed abundance pattern and gas fraction over the whole metallicity range, a relatively continuous star formation history is needed for high metallicity galaxies, while assuming a series of instantaneous bursts with long quiescent periods (some Gyrs) for low metallicity galaxies. Model calculations also show that only the closed-box model is capable of reproducing the observational data over the whole metallicity range. Models that consider the ordinary winds and/or inflow can only fit the observations in the low metallicity range, and a model with enriched wind cannot fit the data in the whole metallicity range. This implies that the current adopted simple wind and inflow models are not applicable to massive galaxies, where the underlying physics of galactic winds or inflow could be more complicated.

  7. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter; Brorsen, Michael

    Nærværende rapport beskriver foreløbige hovedkonklusioner på modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star i perioden 13/9 2004 til 12/11 2004.......Nærværende rapport beskriver foreløbige hovedkonklusioner på modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star i perioden 13/9 2004 til 12/11 2004....

  8. Nobel Prize for blue LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2015-05-01

    A brief review of lighting technologies is presented. Unavoidable restrictions for incandescent light bulbs caused by the Planck distribution and properties of the human eye are illustrated. The efficiency and luminous efficacy of thermal radiation are calculated for various temperatures; the results clearly show the limitations for thermal radiators. The only way to overcome these limitations is using non-thermal radiators, such as fluorescent lamps and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Unique advantages of LEDs undoubtedly made a revolution in this field. A crucial element of this progress is the blue LEDs (Nobel Prize 2014). Some experiments with a blue and a green LED are described: (i) the luminescence triggered in a green-yellow phosphor inside a white LED by the blue LED; (ii) radiant spectra and ‘efficiency droop’ in the LEDs; (iii) modulation of the blue LED up to 4 MHz; and (iv) the h/e ratio from the turn-on voltage of the green LED. The experiments are suitable for undergraduate laboratories and usable as classroom demonstrations.

  9. Planck stars

    CERN Document Server

    Rovelli, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    A star that collapses gravitationally can reach a further stage of its life, where quantum-gravitational pressure counteracts weight. The duration of this stage is very short in the star proper time, yielding a bounce, but extremely long seen from the outside, because of the huge gravitational time dilation. Since the onset of quantum-gravitational effects is governed by energy density --not by size-- the star can be much larger than planckian in this phase. The object emerging at the end of the Hawking evaporation of a black hole can can then be larger than planckian by a factor $(m/m_{\\scriptscriptstyle P})^n$, where $m$ is the mass fallen into the hole, $m_{\\scriptscriptstyle P}$ is the Planck mass, and $n$ is positive. The existence of these objects alleviates the black-hole information paradox. More interestingly, these objects could have astrophysical and cosmological interest: they produce a detectable signal, of quantum gravitational origin, around the $10^{-14} cm$ wavelength.

  10. Unusually low heavy-element abundance found in the blue compact dwarf galaxy SBSO335-052

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blue compact dwarf galaxies are noted for their high star-formation activity and young age. They can therefore be used to verify models of galaxy formation, the chemical evolution of matter and the evolution of massive stars, for example. Here we report observations of the blue compact dwarf galaxy, SBS0335-052, which show that this galaxy has an extremely low heavy-element abundance; the oxygen abundance is 77-times lower than the solar value and 1.7-times lower than that found in another galaxy, I Zw 18, which was the most deficient in heavy elements. The electron temperature, 24,800 K, is very high which leads us to conclude that there are a significant number of stars with masses ∼100 solar mass and effective temperatures of ionizing stars of up to 8 x 104 K in the galaxy. Our observations imply that SBS0335-052 is very young. (author)

  11. The Neutral ISM in Nearby Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Garland, C A; Williams, J P; Guzmán, R; Castander, F J

    2003-01-01

    We observed 20 nearby Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies (LCBGs) in HI and CO(J=2-1) with the GBT and JCMT. These ~L^star galaxies are blue, high surface brightness, starbursting, high metallicity galaxies with an underlying older stellar population. They are common at z~1, but rare in the local Universe. It has been proposed that intermediate redshift LCBGs may be the progenitors of local dwarf ellipticals or low luminosity spirals, or that they may be more massive disks forming from the center outward to become L^star galaxies. To discriminate among various possible evolutionary scenarios, we have measured the dynamical masses and gas depletion time scales of this sample of nearby LCBGs. We find that local LCBGs span a wide range of dynamical masses, from 4 x 10^9 to 1 x 10^11 M_solar (measured within R_25). Molecular gas in local LCBGs is depleted quite quickly, in 30 to 200 million years. The molecular plus atomic gas is depleted in 30 million to 10 billion years; however, ~80% of the local LCBGs deplete thei...

  12. Flavour production of Stilton blue cheese microflora

    OpenAIRE

    Gkatzionis, Konstantinos

    2010-01-01

    In the blue cheese Stilton the starter mould Penicillium roqueforti grows and sporulates during the ripening period and is considered to be responsible for the unique blue cheese aroma. However, the sporulation of the mould, which results in the formation of blue veins, takes place in a fraction of the Stilton matrix which overall is very heterogeneous. Most blue cheeses develop a secondary microflora of yeasts which may affect their aroma. The aim of this study was to investigate the yeast f...

  13. Wet Disc Contraction to Galactic Blue Nuggets and Quenching to Red Nuggets

    CERN Document Server

    Dekel, Avishai

    2013-01-01

    We study the origin of high-z, compact, quenched spheroids (red nuggets) through the dissipative shrinkage of gas-rich disc galaxies into compact star-forming systems (blue nuggets). The discs, intensely fed by cold streams, undergo violent disc instability (VDI) that drives gas into the centre (in parallel with mergers). The inflow is dissipative when the timescale for inflow is shorter than the timescale for star formation. This implies a threshold of ~0.28 in the cold-to-total mass ratio within the disc radius. For the typical cold-to-baryonic mass ratio ~0.5 at z=2, this threshold can be traced back to a maximum spin parameter of ~0.05. It implies that about half the star-forming galaxies contract to blue nuggets, while the rest form extended stellar discs. Blue nuggets are expected to be much less abundant at low redshifts when the gas fraction is lower. The star-forming galaxies at high z are expected to show a corresponding bimodality in stellar surface density about a critical value ~10^9 Msun/kpc^2, ...

  14. Asteroseismology of the Open Clusters NGC 6791, NGC 6811, and NGC 6819 from 19 Months of Kepler Photometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corsaro, Enrico; Stello, Dennis; Huber, Daniel;

    2012-01-01

    We studied solar-like oscillations in 115 red giants in the three open clusters, NGC 6791, NGC 6811, and NGC 6819, based on photometric data covering more than 19 months with NASA's Kepler space telescope. We present the asteroseismic diagrams of the asymptotic parameters δν02, δν01, and ϵ, which......, including evolved blue stragglers and binaries, as well as stars in late He-core burning phases, which can be potentially interesting targets for detailed theoretical modeling....

  15. The Evolution of Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies: Disks or Spheroids?

    CERN Document Server

    Pisano, D J; Garland, C A; Guzman, R; Castander, F J; Perez-Gallego, J

    2011-01-01

    Luminous compact blue galaxies (LCBGs) are a diverse class of galaxies characterized by high luminosity, blue color, and high surface brightness that sit at the critical juncture of galaxies evolving from the blue to the red sequence. As part of our multi-wavelength survey of local LCBGs, we have been studying the HI content of these galaxies using both single-dish telescopes and interferometers. Our goals are to determine if single-dish HI observations represent a true measure of the dynamical mass of LCBGs and to look for signatures of recent interactions that may be triggering star formation in LCBGs. Our data show that while some LCBGs are undergoing interactions, many appear isolated. While all LCBGs contain HI and show signatures of rotation, the population does not lie on the Tully-Fisher relation nor can it evolve onto it. Furthermore, the HI maps of many LCBGs show signatures of dynamically hot components, suggesting that we are seeing the formation of a thick disk or spheroid in at least some LCBGs....

  16. Bright Variable Stars in NGC 6819 - An Open Cluster in the Kepler Field

    CERN Document Server

    Talamantes, Antonio; Clem, James L; Robb, Russell M; Balam, David D; Shetrone, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    We describe a variability study of the moderately old open cluster NGC 6819. We have detected 4 new detached eclipsing binaries near the cluster turnoff (one of which may be in a triple system). Several of these systems should be able to provide mass and radius information, and can therefore constrain the age of the cluster. We have also newly detected one possible detached binary member about 3.5 magnitudes below the turnoff. One EW-type binary (probably not a cluster member) shows unusually strong night-to-night light curve variations in sets of observations separated by 8 years. According to the best current information, the three brightest variables we detected (2 of them new) are cluster members, making them blue stragglers. One is a delta Scu pulsating variable, one is a close but detached binary, and the third contains a detached short period binary that shows total eclipses. In each case, however, there is evidence hinting that the system may have been produced through the interaction of more than two...

  17. Evolutionary status of UU Her-stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical composition for star UU Her - the prototype of a new group of variable F-supergiants at high galactic latitudes (FHGL) is investigated. The atmosphere parameters Tef=5500 K, lg g ∼ 0.4, metallicity (Fe/H)=-1.2, luminosity MV ∼ -8m, distance from the galactic plane z ∼ 16 kpk are determined and it is concluded that UU Her is an objct at the post asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) stage in the galactic halo. A comparison of the chemical abundance in the atmosphere of halo stars at the neighbouring evolution stages (red giant branch, blue horizontal branch and post-AGB) has not revealed evolutionary variations of chemical composition for UU Her-stars, i.e. the dredge-up of the s-process products on the surface of those objects, is not observed

  18. COLORFUL FIREWORKS FINALE CAPS A STAR'S LIFE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Glowing gaseous streamers of red, white, and blue -- as well as green and pink -- illuminate the heavens like Fourth of July fireworks. The colorful streamers that float across the sky in this photo taken by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope were created by one of the biggest firecrackers seen to go off in our galaxy in recorded history, the titanic supernova explosion of a massive star. The light from the exploding star reached Earth 320 years ago, nearly a century before our United States celebrated its birth with a bang. The dead star's shredded remains are called Cassiopeia A, or 'Cas A' for short. Cas A is the youngest known supernova remnant in our Milky Way Galaxy and resides 10,000 light-years away in the constellation Cassiopeia, so the star actually blew up 10,000 years before the light reached Earth in the late 1600s. This stunning Hubble image of Cas A is allowing astronomers to study the supernova's remains with great clarity, showing for the first time that the debris is arranged into thousands of small, cooling knots of gas. This material eventually will be recycled into building new generations of stars and planets. Our own Sun and planets are constructed from the debris of supernovae that exploded billions of years ago. This photo shows the upper rim of the supernova remnant's expanding shell. Near the top of the image are dozens of tiny clumps of matter. Each small clump, originally just a small fragment of the star, is tens of times larger than the diameter of our solar system. The colors highlight parts of the debris where chemical elements are glowing. The dark blue fragments, for example, are richest in oxygen; the red material is rich in sulfur. The star that created this colorful show was a big one, about 15 to 25 times more massive than our Sun. Massive stars like the one that created Cas A have short lives. They use up their supply of nuclear fuel in tens of millions of years, 1,000 times faster than our Sun. With their fuel exhausted, heavy

  19. SPITZER SAGE-SMC INFRARED PHOTOMETRY OF MASSIVE STARS IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a catalog of 5324 massive stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), with accurate spectral types compiled from the literature, and a photometric catalog for a subset of 3654 of these stars, with the goal of exploring their infrared properties. The photometric catalog consists of stars with infrared counterparts in the Spitzer SAGE-SMC survey database, for which we present uniform photometry from 0.3to24 μm in the UBVIJHKs +IRAC+MIPS24 bands. We compare the color-magnitude diagrams and color-color diagrams to those of stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), finding that the brightest infrared sources in the SMC are also the red supergiants, supergiant B[e] (sgB[e]) stars, luminous blue variables, and Wolf-Rayet stars, with the latter exhibiting less infrared excess, the red supergiants being less dusty and the sgB[e] stars being on average less luminous. Among the objects detected at 24 μm in the SMC are a few very luminous hypergiants, four B-type stars with peculiar, flat spectral energy distributions, and all three known luminous blue variables. We detect a distinct Be star sequence, displaced to the red, and suggest a novel method of confirming Be star candidates photometrically. We find a higher fraction of Oe and Be stars among O and early-B stars in our SMC catalog, respectively, when compared to the LMC catalog, and that the SMC Be stars occur at higher luminosities. We estimate mass-loss rates for the red supergiants, confirming the correlation with luminosity even at the metallicity of the SMC. Finally, we confirm the new class of stars displaying composite A and F type spectra, the sgB[e] nature of 2dFS1804 and find the F0 supergiant 2dFS3528 to be a candidate luminous blue variable with cold dust.

  20. Thermoluminescence (TL) of Egyptian Blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schvoerer, M.; Delavergne, M.-C.; Chapoulie, R.

    1988-01-01

    Egyptian Blue is a synthesized crystalline pictorial pigment with formula CaCuSi/sub 4/O/sub 10/. It has been used in Egypt and Mesopotamia from the 3rd millenium B.C. A preliminary experiment on a recently synthesized sample showed that this pigment is thermoluminescent after ..beta.. irradiation (/sup 90/Sr). As the signal intensity grows linearly with the administered dose within the temperature range commonly used in TL dating, we have been looking for this phenomenon from archaeological pigments. It was encountered with two samples found in excavation. From its intensity and stability we concluded that Egyptian Blue can be dated using TL. This first and positive result encouraged us to extend the method to other types of mineral pigments synthesized by early man, and to suggest that it may be used for direct dating of ancient murals.

  1. Status of Blue Ridge Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Blue Ridge Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports and data available, as well as interview with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies. Blue Ridge Reservoir is a single-purpose hydropower generating project. When consistent with this primary objective, the reservoir is also operated to benefit secondary objectives including water quality, recreation, fish and aquatic habitat, development of shoreline, aesthetic quality, and other public and private uses that support overall regional economic growth and development. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Food habits of blue grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R.E.

    1944-01-01

    The food habits of Blue Grouse vary from a simple winter diet that is made up predominantly of coniferous needles to a complex diet during the summer months, characterized by great variety of foods including green leaves, fruits and seeds, flowers, animal matter and coniferous needles. The spring and fall, which represent the transition periods between these two, are characterized by feeding habits that are generally intermediate. The diets of the two species of Blue Grouse, Dendrugapus obscurus and Dendragapus juliginosus, are quite similar as far as major types of food are concerned, but they differ considerably in the species that are taken. Such differences reflect differences in the vegetation within the ecologic and geographic ranges occupied by the two species.

  3. Tight LMC massive star clusters R 127 and R 128

    CERN Document Server

    Heydari-Malayeri, M; Walborn, N R; Walborn, Nolan R.

    2003-01-01

    We study the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) star clusters R 127 and R 128 using imaging and spectroscopy obtained at the ESO NTT telescope. An advanced image restoration technique allows us to resolve these two clusters into at least 14 and 33 stars respectively and obtain their photometry. In particular, we show that the core of R 127 is composed of at least four stars and identify the Luminous Blue Variable (LBV) component. The closest neighbor of the LBV (star #8) is 1".5 away. Moreover, from medium dispersion spectroscopy we determine the spectral types for 19 stars in and near both clusters, and in particular present the first spatially resolved observation of the second brightest component of the R 127 cluster (star #3) situated 3".3 from the LBV. By comparing with evolutionary models we also look into the stellar ages. The oldest stars of the cluster are ~ 6-8 Myr old, whereas the most massive star of the region (#7), formed ~ 3 Myr ago as an 80 solar mass star, has turned into an LBV, the ``R 127'' star...

  4. Peculiar early-type galaxies with central star formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chong Ge; Qiu-Sheng Gu

    2012-01-01

    Early-type galaxies (ETGs) are very important for understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies.Recent observations suggest that ETGs are not simply old stellar spheroids as we previously thought.Widespread recent star formation,cool gas and dust have been detected in a substantial fraction of ETGs.We make use of the radial profiles of g - r color and the concentration index from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey database to pick out 31 peculiar ETGs with central blue cores.By analyzing the photometric and spectroscopic data,we suggest that the blue cores are caused by star formation activities rather than the central weak active galactic nucleus.From the results of stellar population synthesis,we find that the stellar population of the blue cores is relatively young,spreading from several Myr to less than one Gyr.In 14 galaxies with H I observations,we find that the average gas fraction of these galaxies is about 0.55.The bluer galaxies show a higher gas fraction,and the total star formation rate (SFR) correlates very well with the H l gas mass.The star formation history of these ETGs is affected by the environment,e.g.in the denser environment the H 1 gas is less and the total SFR is lower.We also discuss the origin of the central star formation of these early-type galaxies.

  5. Inflation and alternatives with blue tensor spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the tilt of the primordial gravitational waves spectrum. A hint of blue tilt is shown from analyzing the BICEP2 and POLARBEAR data. Motivated by this, we explore the possibilities of blue tensor spectra from the very early universe cosmology models, including null energy condition violating inflation, inflation with general initial conditions, and string gas cosmology, etc. For the simplest G-inflation, blue tensor spectrum also implies blue scalar spectrum. In general, the inflation models with blue tensor spectra indicate large non-Gaussianities. On the other hand, string gas cosmology predicts blue tensor spectrum with highly Gaussian fluctuations. If further experiments do confirm the blue tensor spectrum, non-Gaussianity becomes a distinguishing test between inflation and alternatives

  6. Localized Eruptive Blue Nevi after Herpes Zoster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, Fany; Arrese, Jorge E.; Nikkels, Arjen F.

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old White man presented with a dozen small, well-restricted, punctiform, asymptomatic, blue-gray macules on the left shoulder. A few months earlier, he had been treated with oral acyclovir for herpes zoster (HZ) affecting the left C7–C8 dermatomes. All the blue macules appeared over a short period of time and then remained stable. The patient had not experienced any previous trauma or had tattooing in this anatomical region. The clinical diagnosis suggested blue nevi. Dermatoscopy revealed small, well-limited, dark-blue, compact, homogeneous areas evoking dermal blue nevi. An excisional biopsy was performed and the histological examination confirmed a blue nevus. As far as we are aware of, this is the first report of eruptive blue nevi following HZ, and it should be included in the differential diagnosis of zosteriform dermatoses responding to an isotopic pathway. In addition, a brief review concerning eruptive nevi is presented. PMID:27462219

  7. Environmental effects in galaxies Molecular Gas, Star Formation, and Activity

    CERN Document Server

    De Mello, D F; Maia, M A G; Mello, Duilia F. de; Wiklind, Tommy; Maia, Marcio A.G.

    2001-01-01

    In order to study whether there is any correlation between nuclear activities, gas content, and the environment where galaxies reside, we have obtained optical and millimetric spectra for a well-defined sample of intermediate Hubble type spirals in dense environments and in the field. We found that these spirals in dense environments have on average: less molecular gas per blue luminosity, higher atomic gas fraction, lower current star formation rate, and the same star formation efficiency as field galaxies. Although none of these results stand out as a single strong diagnostic, given their statistical significance, taken together they indicate a trend for diminished gas content and star formation activity in galaxies in high density environments. Our results suggest that galaxies in dense environments have either (i) consumed their molecular gas via star formation in the past or (ii) that dense environments leads to an inhibition of molecular gas from atomic phase. The similarities in star formation efficien...

  8. An Unwelcome Place for New Stars (artist concept)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version Suppression of Star Formation from Supermassive Black Holes This artist's concept depicts a supermassive black hole at the center of a galaxy. NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer found evidence that black holes -- once they grow to a critical size -- stifle the formation of new stars in elliptical galaxies. Black holes are thought to do this by heating up and blasting away the gas that fuels star formation. The blue color here represents radiation pouring out from material very close to the black hole. The grayish structure surrounding the black hole, called a torus, is made up of gas and dust. Beyond the torus, only the old red-colored stars that make up the galaxy can be seen. There are no new stars in the galaxy.

  9. Variable stars in the open cluster NGC 2141

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Yanping

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of a search for variable stars in the open cluster NGC 2141. Ten variable stars are detected, among which nine are new variable stars and they are classified as three short period W UMa type eclipsing binaries, two EA type eclipsing binaries, one EB type eclipsing binary, one very short period RS CVn type eclipsing binary, one d type RR Lyrae variable star, and one unknown type variable star. The membership and physical properties are discussed, based on their light curves, positions in the CMDs, spatial locations and periods. A known EB type eclipsing binary is also identified as a blue struggler candidate of the cluster. Furthermore, we find that all eclipsing contact binaries have prominently asymmetric eclipses and O Connell effect (O Connell 1951) which increases with the decrease of the orbital periods. This suggests that the O Connell effect is probably related to the evolution of the orbital period in short period eclipsing binary systems.

  10. Blue E/S0 galaxies: merger remnants or disk rebuilding galaxies?

    CERN Document Server

    López-Aguerri, J A; Tresse, L

    2009-01-01

    Morphological early-type galaxies residing in the blue cloud (\\emph{blue E/S0s}) could be nice laboratories to understand the physical processes that provoke galaxy migrations in the color-mas space. We define blue E/S0 galaxies as objects having a clear early-type morphology on the HST/ACS images but with a blue rest-frame color. We isolate this way 210 $I_{AB}10^{10}$ in the COSMOS field located in three redshift bins ($0.2blue E/S0 resemble to merger remnants probably migrating to the red-sequence in a time-scale of $\\sim 3$ Gyr. Below this mass, they seem to be closer to normal late-type galaxies as if they were the result of minor mergers which triggered the central star-formation or were rebuilding a disk from the surrounding gas in a much longer time-scale, suggesting that they are moving back or staying in the blue-cloud.

  11. Radio Continuum and HI study of Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ramya, S; Prabhu, T P

    2010-01-01

    The multifrequency radio continuum and 21cm HI observations of five blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxies, Mrk 104, Mrk 108, Mrk 1039, Mrk 1069 and I Zw 97 using the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT) are presented here. Radio continuum emission at 610 MHz and 325 MHz is detected from all the observed galaxies whereas only a few are detected at 240 MHz. In our sample, three galaxies are members of groups and two galaxies (Mrk 1069 and I Zw 97) are isolated galaxies. The radio emission from Mrk 104 and Mrk 108 is seen to encompass the entire optical galaxy whereas the radio emission from Mrk 1039, Mrk 1069, I Zw 97 is confined to massive HII regions. This, we suggest, indicates that the star formation in the latter group of galaxies has recently been triggered and that the environment in which the galaxy is evolving plays a role. Star formation rates (SFR) calculated from 610 MHz emission is in the range 0.01-0.1 M_sun/yr; this is similar to the SFR obtained for individual star forming regions in BCDs. The int...

  12. WIYN open cluster study. LIX. Radial velocity membership of the evolved population of the old open cluster NGC 6791

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The open cluster NGC 6791 has been the focus of much recent study due to its intriguing combination of old age and high metallicity (∼8 Gyr, [Fe/H] = +0.30), as well as its location within the Kepler field. As part of the WIYN Open Cluster Study, we present precise (σ = 0.38 km s–1) radial velocities for proper motion candidate members of NGC 6791 from Platais et al. Our survey, extending down to g' ∼ 16.8, is comprised of the evolved cluster population, including blue stragglers, giants, and horizontal branch stars. Of the 280 proper-motion-selected stars above our magnitude limit, 93% have at least one radial velocity measurement and 79% have three measurements over the course of at least 200 days, sufficient for secure radial-velocity-determined membership of non-velocity-variable stars. The Platais et al. proper motion catalog includes 12 anomalous horizontal branch candidates blueward of the red clump, of which we find only 4 to be cluster members. Three fall slightly blueward of the red clump and the fourth is consistent with being a blue straggler. The cleaned color-magnitude diagram shows a richly populated red giant branch and a blue straggler population. Half of the blue stragglers are in binaries. From our radial velocity measurement distribution, we find the cluster's radial velocity dispersion to be σ c = 0.62 ± 0.10 km s–1. This corresponds to a dynamical mass of ∼4600 M ☉.

  13. WIYN open cluster study. LIX. Radial velocity membership of the evolved population of the old open cluster NGC 6791

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tofflemire, Benjamin M.; Gosnell, Natalie M.; Mathieu, Robert D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Platais, Imants, E-mail: tofflemi@astro.wisc.edu, E-mail: imants@pha.jhu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The open cluster NGC 6791 has been the focus of much recent study due to its intriguing combination of old age and high metallicity (∼8 Gyr, [Fe/H] = +0.30), as well as its location within the Kepler field. As part of the WIYN Open Cluster Study, we present precise (σ = 0.38 km s{sup –1}) radial velocities for proper motion candidate members of NGC 6791 from Platais et al. Our survey, extending down to g' ∼ 16.8, is comprised of the evolved cluster population, including blue stragglers, giants, and horizontal branch stars. Of the 280 proper-motion-selected stars above our magnitude limit, 93% have at least one radial velocity measurement and 79% have three measurements over the course of at least 200 days, sufficient for secure radial-velocity-determined membership of non-velocity-variable stars. The Platais et al. proper motion catalog includes 12 anomalous horizontal branch candidates blueward of the red clump, of which we find only 4 to be cluster members. Three fall slightly blueward of the red clump and the fourth is consistent with being a blue straggler. The cleaned color-magnitude diagram shows a richly populated red giant branch and a blue straggler population. Half of the blue stragglers are in binaries. From our radial velocity measurement distribution, we find the cluster's radial velocity dispersion to be σ {sub c} = 0.62 ± 0.10 km s{sup –1}. This corresponds to a dynamical mass of ∼4600 M {sub ☉}.

  14. First full evolutionary computation of the He-flash induced mixing in Population II stars

    CERN Document Server

    Cassisi, S; Salaris, M; Weiss, A

    2003-01-01

    The core helium-flash in low-mass stars with extreme mass loss occurs after the tip of the RGB, when the H-rich envelope is very thin. The low efficiency of the H-shell source enables the He-flash driven convective zone to penetrate H-rich layers and trigger a thermonuclear runaway, resulting in a subsequent surface enrichment with He and C. In this work we present the first full computations of Population II low-mass stellar models through this phase. Models experiencing this dredge-up event are significantly hotter than their counterparts with H-rich envelopes, which makes them promising candidates for explaining the existence of stars observed beyond the canonical blue end of the horizontal branch ("blue hook stars"). Moreover, this temperature difference could explain the observed gap in M_V between extreme blue horizontal-branch and blue hook stars. A first comparison with spectroscopic observations of blue hook stars in the globular cluster omega Cen is also presented.

  15. UIT Detection of Hot Stars in the Globular Cluster NGC362

    CERN Document Server

    Dorman, B; O'Connell, R W; Landsman, W B; Rood, R T; Bohlin, R C; Neff, S G; Roberts, M S; Smith, A M; Stecher, T P; Dorman, Ben; Shah, Ronak Y.; Connell, Robert W. O'; Landsman, Wayne B.; Rood, Robert T.; Bohlin, Ralph C.; Neff, Susan G.; Roberts, Morton S.; Smith, Andrew M.; Stecher, Theodore P.

    1997-01-01

    We used the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope during the March 1995 Astro-2 mission to obtain a deep far-UV image of the globular cluster NGC 362, which was formerly thought to have an almost entirely red horizontal branch (HB). 84 hot (T_eff > 8500 K) stars were detected within a radius of 8'.25 of the cluster center. Of these, 43 have FUV magnitudes consistent with HB stars in NGC 362, and at least 34 are cluster members. The number of cluster members is made uncertain by background contamination from blue stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). There are six candidate supra-HB stars which have probably evolved from the HB. We discuss the implications of these results for the production of hot blue stars in stellar populations.

  16. Blue and UV Semiconductor Lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite many technological difficulties the group III nitrides: GaN, AlN and InN and their alloys are primary candidates for electro-optical coherent light sources. In the recent years the research and technology of the nitride based continuous wave (CW) laser diodes (LDs) led to creation of blue-violet coherent light sources of power up to 200 mW. The progress has been attained by using various ways to attack the main obstacles in the technology of these devices such as insufficient size of high quality lattice matched substrates, low p-doping efficiency of Mg acceptor, poor contact to p-type semiconductor and low efficiency of radiative recombination. The two different approaches were used to overcome the substrate problem: hetero-epitaxy and homoepitaxy. Homoepitaxy used high pressure GaN high quality crystals. Heteroepitaxy used sapphire, SiC or GaAs substrates and very sophisticated techniques of reduction of the dislocation density. The low p-doping efficiency by using Mg acceptor is related to creation of Mg - H complexes due to hydrogen presence during the growth of laser diode quantum structures. In addition, Mg acceptor has low efficiency due to its high energy. High Mg concentrations can be obtained by using either MOCVD or ammonia source MBE growth. An alternative route is to use hydrogen-free plasma activated MBE (PA-MBE) method. The recent advances and the prospects of both approaches will be discussed. Solid AlGaInN solution offers a possibility to cover wide spectral range, starting from near UV to blue, green and red. Arsenide based laser diodes (LDs) are efficient coherent red light sources. Therefore, nitride based LDs are considered to be devices of choice for green, blue and UV spectral range. So far only blue and violet laser has been realized. The progress toward green and UV lasers is far less spectacular. The results in all these areas and future prospects will be discussed. (author)

  17. Liquid biofuels from blue biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kádár, Zsófia; Jensen, Annette Eva; Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    Marine (blue) biomasses, such as macroalgaes, represent a huge unexploited amount of biomass. With their various chemical compositions, macroalgaes can be a potential substrate for food, feed, biomaterials, pharmaceuticals, health care products and also for bioenergy. Algae use seawater as a growth...... medium, light as energy source and they capture CO2 for the synthesis of new organic material, thus can grow on non-agricultural land, without increasing food prices, or using fresh water. Due to all these advantages in addition to very high biomass yield with high carbohydrate content, macroalgaes can...

  18. Spectroscopy of blue stellar objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, K. J.; Warnock, A., III; Nations, H. L.; Barden, S. C.

    1983-01-01

    Spectra have been obtained for the brightest objects from a list of blue stellar objects found in a Palomar Schmidt field centered on Kapteyn Selected Area 28. Four of the objects presented here comprise a complete sample of objects with UV excess and magnitudes brighter than or equal to B = 16.3 mag. The object with the largest UV excess is a previously undiscovered quasar of redshift 0.25 and cataloged B magnitude of 15.6 mag. The object shows some evidence of variability. Spectroscopy for one bright object in a companion field centered on Selected Area 29 is also presented.

  19. Triggered Star Formation by Massive Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hsu-Tai; Chen, W. P.

    2005-01-01

    We present our diagnosis of the role that massive stars play in the formation of low- and intermediate-mass stars in OB associations (the Lambda Ori region, Ori OB1, and Lac OB1 associations). We find that the classical T Tauri stars and Herbig Ae/Be stars tend to line up between luminous O stars and bright-rimmed or comet-shaped clouds; the closer to a cloud the progressively younger they are. Our positional and chronological study lends support to the validity of the radiation-driven implos...

  20. First supernova companion star found

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Supernova 1993J exploding hi-res Size hi-res: 222 kb Credits: ESA and Justyn R. Maund (University of Cambridge) Supernova 1993J exploding (artist’s impression) New observations with the Hubble Space Telescope allow a look into a supernova explosion under development. In this artist’s view the red supergiant supernova progenitor star (left) is exploding after having transferred about 10 solar masses of hydrogen gas to the blue companion star (right). This interaction process happened over about 250 years and affected the supernova explosion to such an extent that SN 1993J was later known as one of the most peculiar supernovae ever seen. Supernova 1993J exploding hi-res Size hi-res: 4200 kb Credits: ESA and Justyn R. Maund (University of Cambridge) The site of the Supernova 1993J explosion A virtual journey into one of the spiral arms of the grand spiral Messier 81 (imaged with the Isaac Newton Telescope on La Palma, left) reveals the superb razor-sharp imaging power of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (Hubble’s WFPC2 instrument, below). The close-up (with Hubble’s ACS, to the right) is centred on the newly discovered companion star to Supernova 1993J that itself is no longer visible. The quarter-circle around the supernova companion is a so-called light echo originating from sheets of dust in the galaxy reflecting light from the original supernova explosion. Supernova 1993J explosing site hi-res Size hi-res: 1502 kb Credits: ESA and Justyn R. Maund (University of Cambridge) Close-up of the Supernova 1993J explosion site (ACS/HRC image) This NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image shows the area in Messier 81 where Supernova 1993J exploded. The companion to the supernova ‘mother star’ that remains after the explosion is seen in the centre of the image. The image is taken with Hubble’s Advanced Camera for Surveys and is a combination of four exposures taken with ACS’ High Resolution Camera. The exposures were taken through two near-UV filters (250W

  1. Star Formation in Henize 206

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] IRA-MIPS Composite [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Visible [figure removed for brevity, see original site] IRAC [figure removed for brevity, see original site] MIPS The LMC is a small satellite galaxy gravitationally bound to our own Milky Way. Yet the gravitational effects are tearing the companion to shreds in a long-playing drama of 'intergalactic cannibalism.' These disruptions lead to a recurring cycle of star birth and star death. Astronomers are particularly interested in the LMC because its fractional content of heavy metals is two to five times lower than is seen in our solar neighborhood. [In this context, 'heavy elements' refer to those elements not present in the primordial universe. Such elements as carbon, oxygen and others are produced by nucleosynthesis and are ejected into the interstellar medium via mass loss by stars, including supernova explosions.] As such, the LMC provides a nearby cosmic laboratory that may resemble the distant universe in its chemical composition. The primary Spitzer image, showing the wispy filamentary structure of Henize 206, is a four-color composite mosaic created by combining data from an infrared array camera (IRAC) at near-infrared wavelengths and the mid-infrared data from a multiband imaging photometer (MIPS). Blue represents invisible infrared light at wavelengths of 3.6 and 4.5 microns. Note that most of the stars in the field of view radiate primarily at these short infrared wavelengths. Cyan denotes emission at 5.8 microns, green depicts the 8.0 micron light, and red is used to trace the thermal emission from dust at 24 microns. The separate instrument images are included as insets to the main composite. An inclined ring of emission dominates the central and upper regions of the image. This delineates a bubble of hot, x-ray emitting gas that was blown into space when a massive star died in a supernova explosion millions of years ago. The shock waves

  2. Lifestyles of the Stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cocoa Beach, FL. John F. Kennedy Space Center.

    Some general information on stars is provided in this National Aeronautics and Space Administration pamphlet. Topic areas briefly discussed are: (1) the birth of a star; (2) main sequence stars; (3) red giants; (4) white dwarfs; (5) neutron stars; (6) supernovae; (7) pulsars; and (8) black holes. (JN)

  3. Blue-sheet instability of Schwarzschild wormholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Schwarzschild wormhole geometry is found to be unstable against the gravitational effects of accumulated, blue-shifted matter and radiation, or ''blue sheets'', accreting along the past horizons. This is shown by constructing a simple model of a wormhole geometry featuring such blue sheets and manifesting their effects. In this model the blue sheets are treated as null delta-function surface layers, and we derive here general conditions for matching spacetime geometries across such null hypersurfaces of discontinuity. These junction conditions are then applied to the construction of the wormhole model. The wormhole evolution depicted in this model shows that the gravitational focussing produced by the blue-sheet mass-energy eventually encloses the blue sheets and past horizons within future horizons, leaving a black-hole geometry. These effects limit emission processes from the region of a wormhole's past singularity into the external universe, and severely restrict the possible role of wormholes in cosmological contexts. (author)

  4. Radio continuum detection in blue early-type weak emission line galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Paswan, A

    2016-01-01

    The star formation rates (SFRs) in weak emission line (WEL) galaxies in a volume-limited ($0.02 < z < 0.05$) sample of blue early-type galaxies (ETGs) identified from SDSS, are constrained here using 1.4 GHz radio continuum emission. The direct detection of 1.4 GHz radio continuum emission is made in 8 WEL galaxies and a median stacking is performed on 57 WEL galaxies using VLA FIRST images. The median stacked 1.4 GHz flux density and luminosity are estimated as 79 $\\pm$ 19 $\\mu$Jy and 0.20 $\\pm$ 0.05 $\\times$ 10$^{21}$ W Hz$^{-1}$ respectively. The radio far-infrared correlation in 4 WEL galaxies suggests that the radio continuum emission from WEL galaxies is most likely due to star formation activities. The median SFR for WEL galaxies is estimated as 0.23 $\\pm$ 0.06 M$_{\\odot}$yr$^{-1}$, which is much less compared to SFRs ($0.5 - 50$ M$_{\\odot}$yr$^{-1}$) in purely star forming blue ETGs. The SFRs in blue ETGs are found to be correlated with their stellar velocity dispersions ($\\sigma$) and decreasin...

  5. African Music: Source of the Blues

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, Konrad Sidney

    2010-01-01

    [Abstract] African music is the primary source for the blues. Scholars have supplied ample evidence to support this assertion. However, the African retentions still present in the blues are not immediately apparent. African music and the blues share many similarities, including the predominance of rhythm, the uses of music as social commentary and critique, types of instruments, and musical structure. Slaves brought their culture with them to the New World when they were forcibly taken from t...

  6. Geothermal Technologies Program Blue Ribbon Panel Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-06-17

    The Geothermal Technologies Program assembled a geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel on March 22-23, 2011 in Albuquerque, New Mexico for a guided discussion on the future of geothermal energy in the United States and the role of the DOE Program. The Geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel Report captures the discussions and recommendations of the experts. An addendum is available here: http://www.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/pdfs/gtp_blue_ribbon_panel_report_addendum10-2011.pdf

  7. The Red-Blue Transportation Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Vancroonenburg, Wim; Della Croce, Federico; Goossens, Dries; Spieksma, Frits

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the Red-Blue Transportation Problem (Red-Blue TP), a generalization of the transportation problem where supply nodes are partitioned into two sets and so-called exclusionary constraints are imposed. We encountered a special case of this problem in a hospital context, where patients need to be assigned to rooms. We establish the problem's complexity, and we compare two integer programming formulations. Furthermore, a maximization variant of Red-Blue TP is presented, for...

  8. Spectroscopy of Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies in Distant Clusters II. Physical Properties of dE Progenitor Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Crawford, S M; Bershady, M A; Randriamampandry, S M

    2015-01-01

    Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies (LCBGs) are an extreme star-bursting population of galaxies that were far more common at earlier epochs than today. Based on spectroscopic and photometric measurements of LCBGs in massive (M >10^15 M_sun), intermediate redshift (0.5 < z < 0.9) galaxy clusters, we present their rest-frame properties including star-formation rate, dynamical mass, size, luminosity, and metallicity. The appearance of these small, compact galaxies in clusters at intermediate redshift helps explain the observed redshift evolution in the size-luminosity relationship among cluster galaxies. In addition, we find the rest-frame properties of LCBGs appearing in galaxy clusters are indistinguishable from field LCBGs at the same redshift. Up to 35% of the LCBGs show significant discrepancies between optical and infrared indicators of star formation, suggesting that star formation occurs in obscured regions. Nonetheless, the star formation for LCBGs shows a decrease toward the center of the galaxy clust...

  9. Classification of O Stars in the Yellow-Green The Exciting Star VES 735

    CERN Document Server

    Kerton, C R; Martin, P G

    1999-01-01

    Acquiring data for spectral classification of heavily reddened stars using traditional criteria in the blue-violet region of the spectrum can be prohibitively time consuming using small to medium sized telescopes. One such star is the Vatican Observatory emission-line star VES 735, which we have found excites the HII region KR140. In order to classify VES 735, we have constructed an atlas of stellar spectra of O stars in the yellow-green (4800 - 5420 A). We calibrate spectral type versus the line ratio HeI 4922:HeII 5411, showing that this ratio should be useful for the classification of heavily reddened O stars associated with HII regions. Application to VES 735 shows that the spectral type is O8.5. The absolute magnitude suggests luminosity class V. Comparison of the rateof emission of ionizing photons and the bolometric luminosity of VES 735, inferred from radio and infrared measurements of the KR 140 region, to recent stellar models gives consistent evidence for a main sequence star of mass 25 M_sun and a...

  10. On the origins of enigmatic stellar populations in Local Group galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Leigh, Nathan W C; Stone, Nicholas C; Shara, Michael M; Merritt, David

    2016-01-01

    We consider the origins of enigmatic stellar populations in four Local Group galactic nuclei, specifically the Milky Way, M31, M32 and M33. These are centrally concentrated blue stars, found in three out of the four nuclear star clusters (NSCs) considered here. Their origins are unknown, but could include blue straggler (BS) stars, extended horizontal branch stars and young recently formed stars. Here, we calculate order-of-magnitude estimates for various collision rates, as a function of the host NSC environment and distance from the cluster centre. These rates are sufficiently high that BSs, formed via collisions between main sequence (MS) stars, could contribute non-negligibly ($\\sim$ 1-10% in mass) to every surface brightness profile, with the exception of the Milky Way. Stellar evolution models show that the envelopes of red giant branch (RGB) stars must be nearly completely stripped to significantly affect their photometric appearance, which requires multiple collisions. Hence, the collision rates for i...

  11. The Birth of Massive Stars and Star Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Jonathan C.

    2005-01-01

    In the present-day universe, it appears that most, and perhaps all, massive stars are born in star clusters. It also appears that all star clusters contain stars drawn from an approximately universal initial mass function, so that almost all rich young star clusters contain massive stars. In this review I discuss the physical processes associated with both massive star formation and with star cluster formation. First I summarize the observed properties of star-forming gas clumps, then address...

  12. The Colorful Demise of a Sun-like Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This image, taken by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, shows the colorful 'last hurrah' of a star like our Sun. The star is ending its life by casting off its outer layers of gas, which formed a cocoon around the star's remaining core. Ultraviolet light from the dying star makes the material glow. The burned-out star, called a white dwarf, is the white dot in the center. Our Sun will eventually burn out and shroud itself with stellar debris, but not for another 5 billion years. Our Milky Way Galaxy is littered with these stellar relics, called planetary nebulae. The objects have nothing to do with planets. Eighteenth- and nineteenth-century astronomers named them planetary nebulae because through small telescopes they resembled the disks of the distant planets Uranus and Neptune. The planetary nebula in this image is called NGC 2440. The white dwarf at the center of NGC 2440 is one of the hottest known, with a surface temperature of nearly 400,000 degrees Fahrenheit (200,000 degrees Celsius). The nebula's chaotic structure suggests that the star shed its mass episodically. During each outburst, the star expelled material in a different direction. This can be seen in the two bow tie-shaped lobes. The nebula also is rich in clouds of dust, some of which form long, dark streaks pointing away from the star. NGC 2440 lies about 4,000 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Puppis. The image was taken Feb. 6, 2007 with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. The colors correspond to material expelled by the star. Blue corresponds to helium; blue-green to oxygen; and red to nitrogen and hydrogen.

  13. The Cambridge Double Star Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEvoy, Bruce; Tirion, Wil

    2015-12-01

    Preface; What are double stars?; The binary orbit; Double star dynamics; Stellar mass and the binary life cycle; The double star population; Detecting double stars; Double star catalogs; Telescope optics; Preparing to observe; Helpful accessories; Viewing challenges; Next steps; Appendices: target list; Useful formulas; Double star orbits; Double star catalogs; The Greek alphabet.

  14. Discovery of Five New R. Coronae Borealis Stars in the MACHO Galactic Bulge Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaniewshi, A; Clayton, G C; Welch, D; Gordon, K D; Minniti, D; Cook, K

    2005-06-16

    We have identified five new R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars in the Galactic bulge using the MACHO Project photometry database, raising the total number of known Galactic RCB stars to about 40. We have obtained spectra to confirm the identifications. The fact that four out of the five newly identified RCB stars are ''cool'' (T{sub eff} < 6000 K) rather than ''warm'' (T{sub eff} > 6000 K) suggests that the preponderance of warm RCB stars among the existing sample is a selection bias. These cool RCB stars are redder and fainter than their warm counterparts and may have been missed in surveys done with blue plates. Based on the number of new RCB stars discovered in the MACHO bulge fields, there may be {approx}250 RCB stars in the reddened ''exclusion'' zone toward the bulge.

  15. THE NATURE OF STARBURSTS. III. THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF STAR FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We map the spatial distribution of recent star formation over a few × 100 Myr timescales in 15 starburst dwarf galaxies using the location of young blue helium burning stars identified from optically resolved stellar populations in archival Hubble Space Telescope observations. By comparing the star formation histories from both the high surface brightness central regions and the diffuse outer regions, we measure the degree to which the star formation has been centrally concentrated during the galaxies' starbursts, using three different metrics for the spatial concentration. We find that the galaxies span a full range in spatial concentration, from highly centralized to broadly distributed star formation. Since most starbursts have historically been identified by relatively short timescale star formation tracers (e.g., Hα emission), there could be a strong bias toward classifying only those galaxies with recent, centralized star formation as starbursts, while missing starbursts that are spatially distributed.

  16. THE NATURE OF STARBURSTS. III. THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF STAR FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, S.E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Williams, Benjamin F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Cannon, John M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Holtzman, Jon, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.umn.edu [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Box 30001-Department 4500, 1320 Frenger Street, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    We map the spatial distribution of recent star formation over a few Multiplication-Sign 100 Myr timescales in 15 starburst dwarf galaxies using the location of young blue helium burning stars identified from optically resolved stellar populations in archival Hubble Space Telescope observations. By comparing the star formation histories from both the high surface brightness central regions and the diffuse outer regions, we measure the degree to which the star formation has been centrally concentrated during the galaxies' starbursts, using three different metrics for the spatial concentration. We find that the galaxies span a full range in spatial concentration, from highly centralized to broadly distributed star formation. Since most starbursts have historically been identified by relatively short timescale star formation tracers (e.g., H{alpha} emission), there could be a strong bias toward classifying only those galaxies with recent, centralized star formation as starbursts, while missing starbursts that are spatially distributed.

  17. The Nature of Starbursts: III. The Spatial Distribution of Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    McQuinn, Kristen B W; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Cannon, John M; Dolphin, Andrew E; Holtzman, Jon; Weisz, Daniel R; Williams, Benjamin F

    2012-01-01

    We map the spatial distribution of recent star formation over a few x 100 Myr timescales in fifteen starburst dwarf galaxies using the location of young blue helium burning stars identified from optically resolved stellar populations in archival Hubble Space Telescope observations. By comparing the star formation histories from both the high surface brightness central regions and the diffuse outer regions, we measure the degree to which the star formation has been centrally concentrated during the galaxies' starbursts, using three different metrics for the spatial concentration. We find that the galaxies span a full range in spatial concentration, from highly centralized to broadly distributed star formation. Since most starbursts have historically been identified by relatively short timescale star formation tracers (e.g., Halpha emission), there could be a strong bias towards classifying only those galaxies with recent, centralized star formation as starbursts, while missing starbursts that are spatially dis...

  18. A New Luminous Blue Variable in M31

    CERN Document Server

    Humphreys, Roberta M; Gordon, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    We report the fifth confirmed Luminous Blue Variable/S Doradus variable in M31. In 2006, J004526.62+415006.3 had the spectrum of hot Fe II emission line star with strong P Cygni profiles in the Balmer lines. In 2010, its absorption line spectrum resembled an early A-type supergiant with H and Fe II emission lines with strong P Cygni profiles, and in 2013 the spectrum had fully transitioned to an F-type supergiant due to the formation of the optically thick, cool wind which characterizes LBVs at maximum light. The photometric record supports the LBV/S Dor nature of the variability. Its bolometric luminosity ~ -9.65 mag places it on the HR Diagram near the known LBVs, AE And, Var C in M33 and S Dor.

  19. The environment of nearby Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Sanchez, Angel R; van Eymeren, Janine; Esteban, Cesar; Popping, Attila; Hibbard, John

    2009-01-01

    We are obtaining deep multiwavelength data of a sample of nearby blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDGs) combining broad-band optical/NIR and H$\\alpha$ photometry, optical spectroscopy and 21-cm radio observations. Here we present HI results obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array for some BCDGs, all showing evident interaction features in their neutral gas component despite the environment in which they reside. Our analysis strongly suggests that interactions with or between low-luminosity dwarf galaxies or HI clouds are the main trigger mechanism of the star-forming bursts in BCDGs; however these dwarf objects are only detected when deep optical images and complementary HI observations are performed. Are therefore BCDGs real isolated systems?

  20. Choosing Stars to Search for Habitable Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    oxygen in the planetary atmosphere. This type of detection will only be feasible for low-mass dwarfs, however, due to the relative size of the star and the planet.An Ideal RangeStellar rotation period as a function of stellar mass. The blue shaded region shows the habitable zone as a function of stellar mass. For M dwarfs between ~0.25 and ~0.5 solar mass, the habitable-zone period overlaps with the stellar rotation period. [Newton et al. 2016]Newton and collaborators find that stars in the mass range of 0.25 to 0.5 solar mass (stellar class M1V-M4V) are non-ideal targets, because their stellar rotation periods (or a multiple thereof) coincide with the orbital periods of their habitable zones. In addition, atmospheric characterization will only be feasible in the near future for stars with mass less than ~0.25 solar mass.On the other hand, dwarfs with mass less than ~0.1 solar masses (stellar classes later than M6V) will retain their stellar activity and faster rotation rates throughout most of their lifetimes, making them non-ideal targets as well.When searching for habitable exoplanets, the best targets are therefore the mid M dwarfs in the mass range of 0.1 to 0.25 solar mass (stellar class M4V-M6V). Building a sample focused on these stars will reduce the likelihood that planets found in the stars habitable zones are false detections. This will hopefully produce a catalog of potentially habitable exoplanets that we can eventually follow up with atmospheric observations.CitationElisabeth R. Newton et al 2016 ApJ 821 L19. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/821/1/L19

  1. III-nitride blue microdisplays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prototype blue microdisplays have been fabricated from InGaN/GaN quantum wells. The device has a dimension of 0.5x0.5mm2 and consists of 10x10 pixels 12 μm in diameter. Emission properties such as electroluminescence spectra, output power versus forward current (L--I) characteristic, viewing angle, and uniformity have been measured. Due to the unique properties of III-nitride wide-band-gap semiconductors, microdisplays fabricated from III nitrides can potentially provide unsurpassed performance, including high-brightness/resolution/contrast, high-temperature/high-power operation, high shock resistance, wide viewing angles, full-color spectrum capability, long life, high speed, and low-power consumption, thus providing an enhancement and benefit to the present capabilities of miniature display systems

  2. Long-persistence blue phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, William M. (Inventor); Jia, Weiyi (Inventor); Lu, Lizhu (Inventor); Yuan, Huabiao (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    This invention relates to phosphors including long-persistence blue phosphors. Phosphors of the invention are represented by the general formula: MO . mAl.sub.2 O.sub.3 :Eu.sup.2+,R.sup.3+ wherein m is a number ranging from about 1.6 to about 2.2, M is Sr or a combination of Sr with Ca and Ba or both, R.sup.3+ is a trivalent metal ion or trivalent Bi or a mixture of these trivalent ions, Eu.sup.2+ is present at a level up to about 5 mol % of M, and R.sup.3+ is present at a level up to about 5 mol % of M. Phosphors of this invention include powders, ceramics, single crystals and single crystal fibers. A method of manufacturing improved phosphors and a method of manufacturing single crystal phosphors are also provided.

  3. Pulsars and quark stars

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, R

    2005-01-01

    Members of the family of pulsar-like stars are distinguished by their different manifestations observed, i.e., radio pulsars, accretion-driven X-ray pulsars, X-ray bursts, anomalous X-ray pulsars/soft gamma-ray repeaters, compact center objects, and dim thermal neutron stars. Though one may conventionally think that these stars are normal neutron stars, it is still an open issue whether they are actually neutron stars or quark stars, as no convincing work, either theoretical from first principles or observational, has confirmed Baade-Zwicky's original idea that supernovae produce neutron stars. After introducing briefly the history of pulsars and quark stars, the author summarizes the recent achievements in his pulsar group, including quark matter phenomenology at low temperature, starquakes of solid pulsars, low-mass quark stars, and the pulsar magnetospheric activities.

  4. Bimodal star formation - Constraints from galaxy colors at high redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Silk, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    The possibility that at early epochs the light from elliptical galaxies is dominated by stars with an initial mass function (IMF) which is deficient in low-mass stars, relative to the solar neighborhood is investigated. V-R colors for the optical counterparts of 3CR radio sources offer the most severe constraints on the models. Reasonable fits are obtained to both the blue, high-redshift colors and the redder, low-redshift colors with a model galaxy which forms with initially equal star formation rates in each of two IMF modes: one lacking low-mass stars, and one with stars of all masses. The net effect is that the time-integrated IMF has twice as many high-mass stars as the solar neighborhood IMF, relative to low mass stars. A conventional solar neighborhood IMF does not simultaneously account for both the range in colors at high redshift and the redness of nearby ellipticals, with any single star formation epoch. Models with a standard IMF require half the stellar population to be formed in a burst at low redshift z of about 1.

  5. Blue enhanced light sources: opportunities and risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Dieter

    2012-03-01

    Natural daylight is characterized by high proportions of blue light. By proof of a third type of photoreceptor in the human eye which is only sensitive in this spectral region and by subsequent studies it has become obvious that these blue proportions are essential for human health and well being. In various studies beneficial effects of indoor lighting with higher blue spectral proportions have been proven. On the other hand with increasing use of light sources having enhanced blue light for indoor illumination questions are arising about potential health risks attributed to blue light. Especially LED are showing distinct emission characteristics in the blue. Recently the French agency for food, environmental and occupational health & safety ANSES have raised the question on health issues related to LED light sources and have claimed to avoid use of LED for lighting in schools. In this paper parameters which are relevant for potential health risks will be shown and their contribution to risk factors will quantitatively be discussed. It will be shown how to differentiate between photometric parameters for assessment of beneficial as well as hazardous effects. Guidelines will be discussed how blue enhanced light sources can be used in applications to optimally support human health and well being and simultaneously avoid any risks attributed to blue light by a proper design of lighting parameters. In the conclusion it will be shown that no inherent health risks are related to LED lighting with a proper lighting design.

  6. Blue Skies, Coffee Creamer, and Rayleigh Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The first physical explanation of Earths blue sky was fashioned in 1871 by Lord Rayleigh. Many discussions of Rayleigh scattering and approaches to studying it both in and out of the classroom are available. Rayleigh scattering accounts for the blue color of the sky and the orange/red color of the Sun near sunset and sunrise, and a number of…

  7. Blue collection bag after ileal diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildreth, T A; Cass, A S

    1978-02-01

    Five children with ileal diversions have shown asymptomatic blue staining of the urine collection bags. A tryptophan derivative (indican) in the urine that oxidizes to indigo blue on exposure to air is thought to be the cause of this benign transient phenomenon. PMID:628994

  8. Pair Instability Supernovae of Very Massive Population III Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ke-Jung; Woosley, Stan; Almgren, Ann; Whalen, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Numerical studies of primordial star formation suggest that the first stars in the universe may have been very massive. Stellar models indicate that non-rotating Population III stars with initial masses of 140-260 Msun die as highly energetic pair-instability supernovae. We present new two-dimensional simulations of primordial pair-instability supernovae done with the CASTRO code. Our simulations begin at earlier times than previous multidimensional models, at the onset of core collapse, to capture any dynamical instabilities that may be seeded by collapse and explosive burning. Such instabilities could enhance explosive yields by mixing hot ash with fuel, thereby accelerating nuclear burning, and affect the spectra of the supernova by dredging up heavy elements from greater depths in the star at early times. Our grid of models includes both blue supergiants and red supergiants over the range in progenitor mass expected for these events. We find that fluid instabilities driven by oxygen and helium burning ari...

  9. Observing Faint Companions Close to Bright Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serabyn, Eugene

    2012-04-01

    Progress in a number of technical areas is enabling imaging and interferometric observations at both smaller angular separations from bright stars and at deeper relative contrast levels. Here we discuss recent progress in several ongoing projects at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. First, extreme adaptive optics wavefront correction has recently enabled the use of very short (i.e., blue) wavelengths to resolve close binaries. Second, phase-based coronagraphy has recently allowed observations of faint companions to within nearly one diffraction beam width of bright stars. Finally, rotating interferometers that can observe inside the diffraction beam of single aperture telescopes are being developed to detect close-in companions and bright exozodiacal dust. This paper presents a very brief summary of the techniques involved, along with some illustrative results.

  10. An Atlas of Spectrophotometric Landolt Standard Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Stritzinger, M; Hamuy, M; Challis, P M; Demarco, R; Germany, L; Soderberg, A M; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Hamuy, Mario; Challis, Peter; Demarco, Ricardo; Germany, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    We present CCD observations of 102 Landolt standard stars obtained with the R-C spectrograph on the CTIO 1.5 m telescope. Using stellar atmosphere models we have extended the flux points to our six spectrophotometric secondary standards, in both the blue and the red, allowing us to produce flux-calibrated spectra that span a wavelength range from 3050 \\AA to 1.1 \\micron. We find mean differences between $UBVRI$ spectrophotometry computed using Bessell's standard passbands and Landolt's published photometry to be 1% or less. Observers in both hemispheres will find these spectra useful for flux-calibrating spectra and through the use of accurately constructed instrumental passbands be able to compute accurate corrections to bring instrumental magnitudes to any desired standard photometric system (S-corrections). In addition, by combining empirical and modeled spectra of the Sun, Sirius and Vega, we calculate and compare synthetic photometry to observed photometry taken from the literature for these three stars.

  11. WS1: one more new Galactic bona fide luminous blue variable

    CERN Document Server

    Kniazev, A Y; Berdnikov, L N

    2015-01-01

    In this Letter, we report the results of spectroscopic and photometric monitoring of the candidate luminous blue variable (LBV) WS1, which was discovered in 2011 through the detection of a mid-infrared circular shell and follow-up optical spectroscopy of its central star. Our monitoring showed that WS1 brightened in the B, V and I bands by more than 1 mag during the last three years, while its spectrum revealed dramatic changes during the same time period, indicating that the star became much cooler. The light curve of WS1 demonstrates that the brightness of this star has reached maximum in 2013 December and then starts to decline. These findings unambiguously proved the LBV nature of WS1 and added one more member to the class of Galactic bona fide LBVs, bringing their number to sixteen (an updated census of these objects is provided).

  12. OB stars at the lowest Local Group metallicity: GTC-OSIRIS observations of Sextans A

    CERN Document Server

    Camacho, I; Herrero, A; Simón-Díaz, S

    2016-01-01

    Our aim is to find and classify OB stars in Sextans A, to later determine accurate stellar parameters of these blue massive stars in this low metallicity region $(Z \\sim 0.1 \\rm Z_{\\odot})$. Using UBV photometry, the reddening-free index Q and GALEX imaging, we built a list of blue massive star candidates in Sextans A. We obtained low resolution (R $\\sim$ 1000) GTC-OSIRIS spectra for a fraction of them and carried out spectral classification. For the confirmed O-stars we derive preliminary stellar parameters. The target selection criteria and observations were successful and have produced the first spectroscopic atlas of OB-type stars in Sextans A. From the whole sample of 18 observed stars, 12 were classified as early OB-types, including 5 O-stars. The radial velocities of all target stars are in agreement with their Sextans A membership, although three of them show significant deviations. We determined the stellar parameters of the O-type stars using the stellar atmosphere code FASTWIND, and revisited the s...

  13. Optically-passive spirals: The missing link in gradual star formation suppression upon cluster infall

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Christian; Balogh, Michael; Barden, Marco; Bell, Eric F; Gray, Meghan E; Peng, Chien Y; Bacon, David; Barazza, Fabio D; Böhm, Asmus; Caldwell, John A R; Gallazzi, Anna; ler, Boris Häu\\ss; Heymans, Catherine; Jahnke, Knud; Jogee, Shardha; van Kampen, Eelco; Lane, Kyle; McIntosh, Daniel H; Meisenheimer, Klaus; Papovich, Casey; Sánchez, Sebastian F; Taylor, Andy; Wisotzki, Lutz; Zheng, Xianzhong

    2009-01-01

    Galaxies migrate from the blue cloud to the red sequence when their star formation is quenched. Here, we report on galaxies quenched by environmental effects and not by mergers or strong AGN as often invoked: They form stars at a reduced rate which is optically even less conspicuous, and manifest a transition population of blue spirals evolving into S0 galaxies. These 'optically passive' or 'red spirals' are found in large numbers in the STAGES project (and by Galaxy Zoo) in the infall region of clusters and groups.

  14. Cooling compact stars and phase transitions in dense QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedrakian, Armen [J.W. Goethe University, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    We report new simulations of cooling of compact stars containing quark cores and updated fits to the Cas A fast cooling data. Our model is built on the assumption that the transient behaviour of the star in Cas A is due to a phase transition within the dense QCD matter in the core of the star. Specifically, the fast cooling is attributed to an enhancement in the neutrino emission triggered by a transition from a fully gapped, two-flavor, red-green color-superconducting quark condensate to a superconducting crystalline or an alternative gapless, color-superconducting phase. The blue-colored condensate is modeled as a Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS)-type color superconductor with spin-one pairing order parameter. We study the sensitivity of the fits to the phase transition temperature, the pairing gap of blue quarks and the timescale characterizing the phase transition (the latter modelled in terms of a width parameter). Relative variations in these parameter around their best-fit values larger than 10{sup -3} spoil the fit to the data. We confirm the previous finding that the cooling curves show significant variations as a function of compact star mass, which allows one to account for dispersion in the data on the surface temperatures of thermally emitting neutron stars. (orig.)

  15. The Na-O anticorrelation in horizontal branch stars. II. NGC1851

    CERN Document Server

    Gratton, R G; Carretta, E; Bragaglia, A; D'Orazi, V; Momany, Y Al; Sollima, A; Salaris, M; Cassisi, S

    2012-01-01

    We studied the Na-O anti-correlation from moderately high resolution spectra for 35 stars on the blue HB (BHB), one RR Lyrae, and 55 stars are on the red HB (RHB) of NGC1851. We also derived abundances for He and N in BHB stars, and Ba and upper limits for N in RHB stars. The RHB stars clearly separate into two groups: the vast majority are O-rich and Na-poor, while about 10-15% are Na-rich and moderately O-poor. Most Na-rich RHB stars are also Ba-rich and there is an overall correlation between Na and Ba abundances within the RHB. The group of Ba-rich RHB stars resides on the warmer edge and includes ~10% of the RHB stars. We propose that they are the descendant of the stars on the RGB sequence with very red v-y colour. This sequence is known also to consist of Ba and perhaps CNO-rich stars. However, the upper limit we obtain for N ([N/Fe]<1.55) for one of the Ba-rich stars coupled with the low C-abundances for RGB Ba-rich stars from the literature suggests that the total CNO might not be particularly hig...

  16. Asphericity and clumpiness in the winds of Luminous Blue Variables

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, B; Vink, J S; Davies, Ben; Oudmaijer, Rene D.; Vink, Jorick S.

    2005-01-01

    We present the first systematic spectropolarimetric study of Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) in the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds, in order to investigate the geometries of their winds. We find that at least half of our sample show changes in polarization across the strong H$\\alpha$ emission line, indicating that the light from the stars is intrinsically polarized and therefore that asphericity already exists at the base of the wind. Multi-epoch spectropolarimetry on four targets reveals variability in their intrinsic polarization. Three of these, AG Car, HR Car and P Cyg, show a position angle (PA) of polarization which appears random with time. Such behaviour can be explained by the presence of strong wind-inhomogeneities, or `clumps' within the wind. Only one star, R 127, shows variability at a constant PA, and hence evidence for axi-symmetry as well as clumpiness. However, if viewed at low inclination, and at limited temporal sampling, such a wind would produce a seemingly random polarization of the typ...

  17. Confirmation of the Luminous Blue Variable status of MWC 930

    CERN Document Server

    Miroshnichenko, A S; Zharikov, S V; Zsargo, J; Jimenez, J A Juarez; Groh, J H; Levato, H; Grosso, M; Rudy, R J; Laag, E A; Crawford, K B; Puetter, R C; Reichart, D E; Ivarsen, K M; Haislip, J B; Nysewander, M C; LaCluyze, A P

    2014-01-01

    We present spectroscopic and photometric observations of the emission-line star MWC 930 (V446 Sct) during its long-term optical brightening in 2006--2013. Based on our earlier data we suggested that the object has features found in Luminous Blue Variables (LBV), such as a high luminosity (~3 10^5 Lsun, a low wind terminal velocity (~ 140 km/s), and a tendency to show strong brightness variations (~1 mag over 20 years). For the last ~7 years it has been exhibiting a continuous optical and near-IR brightening along with a change of the emission-line spectrum appearance and cooling of the star's photosphere. We present the object's $V$--band light curve, analyze the spectral variations, and compare the observed properties with those of other recognized Galactic LBVs, such as AG Car and HR Car. Overall we conclude the MWC 930 is a bona fide Galactic LBV that is currently in the middle of an S Dor cycle.

  18. Star Formation in Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Topics addressed include: star formation; galactic infrared emission; molecular clouds; OB star luminosity; dust grains; IRAS observations; galactic disks; stellar formation in Magellanic clouds; irregular galaxies; spiral galaxies; starbursts; morphology of galactic centers; and far-infrared observations.

  19. ENERGY STAR Certified Boilers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Boilers that are effective as of October 1,...

  20. ENERGY STAR Certified Dehumidifiers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Dehumidifiers that are effective as of October...

  1. ENERGY STAR Certified Computers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 6.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Computers that are effective as of June 2,...

  2. ENERGY STAR Certified Displays

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 6.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Displays that are effective as of June 1, 2013....

  3. The unusual interacting S star binary HR 1105

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ake, Thomas B., III; Johnson, Hollis R.; Bopp, Bernard W.

    1994-01-01

    IUE observations of HR 1105 over its 596-day orbit show strong orbital modulation of both continuum and emission lines. These are most intense just before both conjunctions and nearly disappear near quadratures, the most intense phase being just before the hot component passes in front of the S star. High dispersion observations exhibit a blue-shifted absorption feature in Mg II, representing an outflow of material of about 55 km/s. These observations are consistent with the UV source being an optically thin gas stream between the components of the system, which is partially eclipsed when the S star is in front.

  4. The Evolved Pulsating CEMP Star HD 112869

    Science.gov (United States)

    Začs, Laimons; Sperauskas, Julius; Grankina, Aija; Deveikis, Viktoras; Kaminskyi, Bogdan; Pavlenko, Yakiv; Musaev, Faig A.

    2015-04-01

    Radial velocity measurements, BVRC photometry, and high-resolution spectroscopy in the wavelength region from blue to near-infrared are employed in order to clarify the evolutionary status of the carbon-enhanced metal-poor star HD 112869 with a unique ratio of carbon isotopes in the atmosphere. An LTE abundance analysis was carried out using the method of spectral synthesis and new self-consistent 1D atmospheric models. The radial velocity monitoring confirmed semiregular variations with a peak-to-peak amplitude of about 10 km {{s}-1} and a dominating period of about 115 days. The light, color, and radial velocity variations are typical of the evolved pulsating stars. The atmosphere of HD 112869 appears to be less metal-poor than reported before, [Fe/H] = -2.3 ± 0.2 dex. Carbon-to-oxygen and carbon isotope ratios are found to be extremely high, C/O ≃ 12.6 and12C/13C ≳ 1500, respectively. The s-process elements yttrium and barium are not enhanced, but neodymium appears to be overabundant. The magnesium abundance seems to be lower than the average found for CEMP stars, [Mg/Fe] < +0.4 dex. HD 112869 could be a single low-mass halo star in the stage of asymptotic giant branch evolution.

  5. Star bursts and giant HII regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massive star formation bursts occur in a variety of galactic environments and can temporarily dominate the light output of a galaxy even when a relatively small proportion of its mass is involved. Inferences about their ages, the IMF and its dependence on chemical composition are still somewhat wobbly owing to an excess of unknowns, but certain things can be deduced from emission spectra of associated H II regions when due regard is paid to the effects of chemical composition and ionization parameter: In particular, largest ionization parameters and effective temperatures of exciting stars, at any given oxygen abundance, are anti-correlated with the abundance, and the second effect suggests an increasing proportion of more massive stars at lower abundances, although this is not yet satisfactorily quantified. A new blue compact galaxies could be very young, but it is equally possible that there is an older population of low surface brightness. Some giant H II regions may be self-polluted with nitrogen and helium due to winds from massive stars in the associated burst. (orig.)

  6. Feedback of the HBe star IL Cep on nearby molecular cloud and star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Si-Ju; Wu, Yuefang; Li, Jin Zeng; Yuan, Jing-Hua; Liu, Hong-Li; Dong, Xiaoyi; Huang, Ya-Fang

    2016-06-01

    We present investigations of the feedback of a luminous Herbig Be star, IL Cep. We mapped the vicinity of IL Cep in the J = 1-0 transitions of 12CO, 13CO and C18O molecular lines with the Purple Mountain Observatory 13.7 m telescope. Archival data from Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer were also employed. A parsec-scale cavity that has probably been excavated by the dominant HBe star, IL Cep, is revealed. An expanding shell-like structure featured by 12CO(J = 1-0) emission was found surrounding the cavity, which embeds several 13CO(J = 1-0) molecular clumps. The density and velocity gradients imply strong stellar winds from exciting stars, this is consistent with the morphology of molecular cloud. The 12CO(J = 1-0) spectra show broad blue wings with a width of about 3.5 km s-1. We suggest that the broad blue wings could be emission from the molecular gas shocked by stellar winds, while the main narrow component may originate from pre-shocked gas. Several bright bow-shaped rims have been detected at 12 μm, which serve as the interface of the molecular cloud facing UV dissipation from the exciting stars. The rims all have an orientation facing IL Cep, this may indicate the pre-dominant effects of IL Cep on its surroundings. A very young star candidate (about 104.8 yr) was found in the head of one bright rim, but its triggered origin is uncertain. All results achieved in this paper suggest that IL Cep has violent effects on its surroundings.

  7. Metal-Poor Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Frebel, Anna

    2008-01-01

    The abundance patterns of metal-poor stars provide us a wealth of chemical information about various stages of the chemical evolution of the Galaxy. In particular, these stars allow us to study the formation and evolution of the elements and the involved nucleosynthesis processes. This knowledge is invaluable for our understanding of the cosmic chemical evolution and the onset of star- and galaxy formation. Metal-poor stars are the local equivalent of the high-redshift Universe, and offer cru...

  8. Autonomous Star Tracker Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif; Kilsgaard, Søren;

    1998-01-01

    Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances.......Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances....

  9. Cool Stars in Hot Places

    OpenAIRE

    Megeath, S. T.; Gaidos, E.; Hester, J. J.; Adams, F. C.; Bally, J.; Lee, J. -E.; Wolk, S.

    2007-01-01

    During the last three decades, evidence has mounted that star and planet formation is not an isolated process, but is influenced by current and previous generations of stars. Although cool stars form in a range of environments, from isolated globules to rich embedded clusters, the influences of other stars on cool star and planet formation may be most significant in embedded clusters, where hundreds to thousands of cool stars form in close proximity to OB stars. At the cool stars 14 meeting, ...

  10. Tapered photonic crystal fibers for blue-enhanced supercontinuum generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe; Sørensen, Simon Toft; Larsen, Casper;

    2012-01-01

    Tapering of photonic crystal fibers is an effective way of shifting the blue edge of a supercontinuum spectrum down in the deep-blue. We discuss the optimum taper profile for enhancing the power in the blue edge.......Tapering of photonic crystal fibers is an effective way of shifting the blue edge of a supercontinuum spectrum down in the deep-blue. We discuss the optimum taper profile for enhancing the power in the blue edge....

  11. Physical Parameters of Hot Horizontal-Branch Stars in NGC 6752: Deep Mixing and Radiative Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehler, S.; Sweigart, A. V.; Landsman, W. B.; Heber, U.; Catelan, M.

    1999-01-01

    Atmospheric parameters (T(sub eff), log g and log n(sub He)/n(sub H-dot)) are derived for 42 hot horizontal branch (HB) stars in the globular cluster NGC 6752. For 19 stars Mg II and Fe II lines are detected indicating an iron enrichment by a factor 50 on average with respect to the cluster abundance whereas the magnesium abundances are consistent with the cluster metallicity. This finding adds to the growing evidence that radiative levitation plays a significant role in determining the physical parameters of blue HB stars. Indeed, we find that iron enrichment can explain part, but not all, of the problem of anomalously low gravities along the blue HB. Thus the physical parameters of horizontal branch stars hotter than about 11,500 K in NGC 6752, as derived in this paper, are best explained by a combination of helium mixing and radiative levitation effects.

  12. Two Be stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud with B[e]-like properties

    CERN Document Server

    Mennickent, R E; Kolaczkowski, Z

    2008-01-01

    We present an analysis of UVES and MIKE (ground based) high resolution and Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer spectra of two novel and photometrically variable bright blue stars in the SMC; OGLE004336.91-732637.7 and the periodically occulted star OGLE004633.76-731204.3. The light curves of these stars exhibit multiple frequencies, and their spectra are similar. The latter are dominated by absorption/emission features produced in a circumstellar (CS) envelope whereas photospheric features are barely visible and forbidden emission lines are not visible. Modeling of spectral features indicates similar physical conditions for the CS envelope in both stars. An optically thick, slowly and thermally stratified disk. OGLE004633.76-731204.3 is noteworthy in showing blue discrete absorption components ("BACs") in their spectra possibly indicating the shock interaction between high velocity and low velocity material. Optical spectra from two spectra separated by 5 years show little change in the radial velocity ove...

  13. VARIABLE WINDS AND DUST FORMATION IN R CORONAE BOREALIS STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have observed P-Cygni and asymmetric, blue-shifted absorption profiles in the He I λ10830 lines of 12 R Coronae Borealis stars over short (1 month) and long (3 yr) timescales to look for variations linked to their dust-formation episodes. In almost all cases, the strengths and terminal velocities of the line vary significantly and are correlated with dust formation events. Strong absorption features with blue-shifted velocities ∼400 km s–1 appear during declines in visible brightness and persist for about 100 days after recovery to maximum brightness. Small residual winds of somewhat lower velocity are present outside of the decline and recovery periods. The correlations support models in which recently formed dust near the star is propelled outward at high speed by radiation pressure and drags the gas along with it.

  14. Quenching Star Formation: Can AGN Do the Trick?

    CERN Document Server

    Gabor, Jared M

    2009-01-01

    We post-process galaxy star formation histories in cosmological hydrodynamics simulations to test quenching mechanisms associated with AGN. By comparing simulation results to color-magnitude diagrams and luminosity functions of SDSS galaxies, we examine whether "quasar mode" or "radio mode" AGN feedback can yield a realistic red sequence. Both cases yield red sequences distinct from the blue cloud, decent matches to the luminosity function, and galaxies that are too blue by about 0.1 magnitudes in g-r. Our merger-based prescription for quasar mode feedback, however, yields a red sequence build-up inconsistent with observations: the luminosity function lacks a characteristic knee, and the brightest galaxies include a small number of young stars.

  15. Variable Winds and Dust Formation in R Coronae Borealis Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Clayton, Geoffrey C; Zhang, Wanshu

    2013-01-01

    We have observed P-Cygni and asymmetric, blue-shifted absorption profiles in the He I 10830 lines of twelve R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars over short (1 month) and long (3 year) timescales to look for variations linked to their dust-formation episodes. In almost all cases, the strengths and terminal velocities of the line vary significantly and are correlated with dust formation events. Strong absorption features with blue-shifted velocities ~400 km/s appear during declines in visible brightness and persist for about 100 days after recovery to maximum brightness. Small residual winds of somewhat lower velocity are present outside of the decline and recovery periods. The correlations support models in which recently formed dust near the star is propelled outward at high speed by radiation pressure and drags the gas along with it.

  16. Superfluid neutron stars

    OpenAIRE

    Langlois, David

    2001-01-01

    Neutron stars are believed to contain (neutron and proton) superfluids. I will give a summary of a macroscopic description of the interior of neutron stars, in a formulation which is general relativistic. I will also present recent results on the oscillations of neutron stars, with superfluidity explicitly taken into account, which leads in particular to the existence of a new class of modes.

  17. To rescue a star

    OpenAIRE

    Abada, As.; M.B. Gavela; Pène, O

    1996-01-01

    Massless neutrinos are exchanged in a neutron star, leading to long range interactions. Many body forces of this type follow and we resum them. Their net contribution to the total energy is negligible as compared to the star mass. The stability of the star is not in danger, contrary to recent assertions.

  18. The MONS Star Trackers

    CERN Document Server

    Bedding, T R; Bedding, Timothy R.; Kjeldsen, Hans

    2000-01-01

    The MONS satellite will have two Star Trackers to sense the spacecraft attitude, and we plan to use them as scientific instruments to perform high-precision photometry of thousands of stars. We briefly describe the current plans for the Star Trackers and their expected capabilities.

  19. Radiochromic blue tetrazolium film dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The colourless radiochromic chloride salt of blue tetrazolium (BT2+) is reduced radiolytically to the deep violet-coloured formazan. Dosimeter films of this radiation sensor can be produced by dissolving polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in a heated aqueous solution of the salt, and, upon cooling, by casting the solution on a horizontal glass plate. In the present development, the resulting flexible transparent film is readily stripped from the plate, with a thickness of 0.045 mm. Upon irradiation with gamma rays or electron beams, a permanent image is produced with a broad absorption band in the visible spectrum. The radiation response is approximately a linear function in terms of the increase in optical absorbance (ΔA) measured at λmax 552 nm wavelength versus absorbed dose (D) over the range 5 to 50 kGy. The radiochromic image has a relatively high spatial resolution and can be used to register dose distributions and beam profiles. The value of ΔA shows a gradual increase for the first 24 hours after irradiation but is stable thereafter. The variation of response with irradiation temperature is negligible over the temperature range -20 deg. C to +30 deg. C, but displays a pronounced positive temperature dependence at higher temperatures. The response to gamma radiation shows negligible dose-rate dependence as long as the radiochromic sensor concentration in the PVA matrix is sufficiently high (> 6 % by weight). (author)

  20. Blue jays nest in an unusual structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, Erin L.; Lyons, Curtis P.; Sedgwick, James A.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a successful Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata) nest in an unusual structure on the side of a building.  The nest was located near the edge of the species' range along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado.  The nest was completely obvious, suggesting that the structure itself provided adequate cover and sercurity for the jays.  Blue Jays appear to be declining in some areas of the United States such as the Southeast.  Structures such as the one we describe may be more useful in attracting Blue Jays than the nesting platforms available commercially.

  1. The oEA star TW Dra - a spectroscopic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, H.; Tkachenko, A.; Tsymbal, V.; Mkrtichian, D. E.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate a spectroscopic time series of the oscillating Algol-type star TW Dra to derive basic system and stellar parameters and to prepare for mode identification. From the orbital solution we derive precise masses and get disentangled spectra of the components by using KOREL. For the primary we derive about solar abundance. Computed LSD profiles show a puzzling picture of blue-to-red traveling bumps indicating a rich spectrum of nonradial pulsations. Three pulsation frequencies could ...

  2. Starbursts versus Truncated Star Formation in Nearby Clusters of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Rose, J A; Caldwell, N; Chaboyer, B; Rose, James A.; Gaba, Alejandro E.; Caldwell, Nelson; Chaboyer, Brian

    2001-01-01

    We present long-slit spectroscopy, B and R bandpass imaging, and 21 cm observations of a sample of early-type galaxies in nearby clusters which are known to be either in a star-forming phase or to have had star formation which recently terminated. From the long-slit spectra, obtained with the Blanco 4-m telescope, we find that emission lines in the star-forming cluster galaxies are significantly more centrally concentrated than in a sample of field galaxies. The broadband imaging reveals that two currently star-forming early-type galaxies in the Pegasus I cluster have blue nuclei, again indicating that recent star formation has been concentrated. In contrast, the two galaxies for which star formation has already ended show no central color gradient. The Pegasus I galaxy with the most evident signs of ongoing star formation (NGC7648), exhibits signatures of a tidal encounter. Neutral hydrogen observations of that galaxy with the Arecibo radiotelescope reveal the presence of ~4 x 10^8 solar masses of HI. Arecib...

  3. Revealing evolved massive stars with Spitzer, WISE and SALT

    CERN Document Server

    Kniazev, A

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of optical spectroscopic observations of 54 candidate evolved massive stars revealed through the detection of mid-infrared nebulae of various shapes surrounding them with the {\\it Spitzer Space Telescope} and {\\it Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer}. These observations, carried out with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) in 2010-2015, led to the discovery of about two dozens emission-line stars, of which 15 stars we classify as candidate luminous blue variables (cLBVs). Spectroscopic and photometric monitoring revealed significant changes in the spectra and brightness of four newly identified cLBVs, meaning that they are new members of the class of bona fide LBVs. We present an updated list of the Galactic bona fide LBVs. Currently, this list contains eighteen stars, of which more than 70 per cent are associated with circumstellar nebulae. We also discovered a very rare [WN] star - the central star of the planetary nebula Abell 48, and a WN3 star in a close, eccentric binary s...

  4. THE RECENT STAR FORMATION HISTORY OF NGC 5102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present Hubble Space Telescope photometry of young stars in NGC 5102, a nearby gas-rich post-starburst S0 galaxy with a bright young stellar nucleus. We use the IAC-pop/MinnIAC algorithm to derive the recent star formation history in three fields in the bulge and disk of NGC 5102. In the disk fields, the recent star formation rate has declined monotonically and is now barely detectable, but a starburst is still in progress in the bulge and has added about 2% to the mass of the bulge over the last 200 Myr. Other studies of star formation in NGC 5102 indicate that about 20% of its stellar mass was added over the past Gyr. If this is correct, then much of the stellar mass of the bulge may have formed over this period. It seems likely that this star formation was fueled by the accretion of a gas-rich system with H I mass of about 2 x 109 M sun, which has now been almost completely converted into stars. The large mass of recently formed stars and the blue colors of the bulge suggest that the current starburst, which is now fading, may have made a significant contribution to building the bulge of NGC 5102.

  5. Nuclear physics of stars

    CERN Document Server

    Iliadis, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Most elements are synthesized, or ""cooked"", by thermonuclear reactions in stars. The newly formed elements are released into the interstellar medium during a star's lifetime, and are subsequently incorporated into a new generation of stars, into the planets that form around the stars, and into the life forms that originate on the planets. Moreover, the energy we depend on for life originates from nuclear reactions that occur at the center of the Sun. Synthesis of the elements and nuclear energy production in stars are the topics of nuclear astrophysics, which is the subject of this book

  6. Rotating Stars in Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stergioulas Nikolaos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotating relativistic stars have been studied extensively in recent years, both theoretically and observationally, because of the information they might yield about the equation of state of matter at extremely high densities and because they are considered to be promising sources of gravitational waves. The latest theoretical understanding of rotating stars in relativity is reviewed in this updated article. The sections on the equilibrium properties and on the nonaxisymmetric instabilities in f-modes and r-modes have been updated and several new sections have been added on analytic solutions for the exterior spacetime, rotating stars in LMXBs, rotating strange stars, and on rotating stars in numerical relativity.

  7. Magnetic chemically peculiar stars

    CERN Document Server

    Schöller, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Chemically peculiar (CP) stars are main-sequence A and B stars with abnormally strong or weak lines for certain elements. They generally have magnetic fields and all observables tend to vary with the same period. Chemically peculiar stars provide a wealth of information; they are natural atomic and magnetic laboratories. After a brief historical overview, we discuss the general properties of the magnetic fields in CP stars, describe the oblique rotator model, explain the dependence of the magnetic field strength on the rotation, and concentrate at the end on HgMn stars.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Agglomerate of early-type Hipparcos stars (Caballero+, 2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, J. A.; Dinis, L.

    2009-01-01

    We study the spatial structure and sub-structure of regions rich in Hipparcos stars with blue BT-VT colours. These regions, which comprise large stellar complexes, OB associations, and young open clusters, are tracers of on-going star formation in the Galaxy. The DBSCAN (Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise) data clustering algorithm is used to look for spatial overdensities of early-type stars. Once an overdensity, "agglomerate", is identified, we carry out a data and bibliographic compilation of their star member candidates. The actual membership in agglomerate of each early-type star is studied based on its heliocentric distance, proper motion, and previous spectro-photometric information. We identify 35 agglomerates of early-type Hipparcos stars. Most of them are associated to previously known clusters and OB associations. The previously unknown P Puppis agglomerate is subject of a dedicated study with Virtual Observatory tools. (2 data files).

  9. Faint star studies in the magellanic clouds. II. Field regions 90 northeast of the large magellanic cloud bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photographic photometry is reported for 16 halo field regions. These fields lie 9.01 northeast of the LMC bar, surrounding the old globular cluster NGC 2257. Field color-magnitude diagrams show a red horizontal branch, a subgiant branch redder than that of the cluster, and a profusion of blue stars delineating a younger main-sequence. Possible sources of the blue stars are discussed. The field is significantly younger than the cluster, showing that star formation, even in the outer regions of the LMC where the gas density is presently minimal, proceeded long after the formation of the old clusters. It appears that the major portion of stars in the LMC is of intermediate age. That this is true of a region 9 kpc from the bar is of great importance to the eventual derivation of a global history of star formation in the LMC

  10. Discovery of blue companions to two southern Cepheids: WW Car and FN Vel

    CERN Document Server

    Kovtyukh, V; Chekhonadskikh, F; Lemasle, B; Belik, S

    2015-01-01

    A large number of high-dispersion spectra of classical Cepheids were obtained in the region of the CaII H+K spectral lines. The analysis of these spectra allowed us to detect the presence of a strong Balmer line, H$\\epsilon$, for several Cepheids, interpreted as the signature of a blue companion: the presence of a sufficiently bright blue companion to the Cepheid results in a discernible strengthening of the CaII H + Hepsilon line relative to the CaII K line. We investigated 103 Cepheids, including those with known hot companions (B5-B6 main-sequence stars) in order to test the method. We could confirm the presence of a companion to WW Car and FN Vel (the existence of the former was only suspected before) and we found that these companions are blue hot stars. The method remains efficient when the orbital velocity changes in a binary system cannot be revealed and other methods of binarity detection are not efficient.

  11. THE FIRST STARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Whalen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pop III stars are the key to the character of primeval galaxies, the first heavy elements, the onset of cosmological reionization, and the seeds of supermassive black holes. Unfortunately, in spite of their increasing sophistication, numerical models of Pop III star formation cannot yet predict the masses of the first stars. Because they also lie at the edge of the observable universe, individual Pop III stars will remain beyond the reach of observatories for decades to come, and so their properties are unknown. However, it will soon be possible to constrain their masses by direct detection of their supernovae, and by reconciling their nucleosynthetic yields to the chemical abundances measured in ancient metal-poor stars in the Galactic halo, some of which may bear the ashes of the first stars. Here, I review the state of the art in numerical simulations of primordial stars and attempts to directly and indirectly constrain their properties.

  12. Ponderable soliton stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hong-Yee

    1990-01-01

    The theory of Lee and Pang (1987), who obtained solutions for soliton stars composed of zero-temperature fermions and bosons, is applied here to quark soliton stars. Model soliton stars based on a simple physical model of the proton are computed, and the properties of the solitons are discussed, including the important problem of the existence of a limiting mass and thus the possible formation of black holes of primordial origin. It is shown that there is a definite mass limit for ponderable soliton stars, so that during cooling a soliton star might reach a stage beyond which no equilibrium configuration exists and the soliton star probably will collapse to become a black hole. The radiation of ponderable soliton stars may alter the short-wavelength character of the cosmic background radiation, and may be observed as highly redshifted objects at z of about 100,000.

  13. Blue emitting organic semiconductors under high pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knaapila, Matti; Guha, Suchismita

    2016-01-01

    This review describes essential optical and emerging structural experiments that use high GPa range hydrostatic pressure to probe physical phenomena in blue-emitting organic semiconductors including π-conjugated polyfluorene and related compounds. The work emphasizes molecular structure and...

  14. Triboelectric Nanogenerators for Blue Energy Harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Usman; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2016-07-26

    Blue energy in the form of ocean waves offers an enormous energy resource. However, it has yet to be fully exploited in order to make it available for the use of mankind. Blue energy harvesting is a challenging task as the kinetic energy from ocean waves is irregular in amplitude and is at low frequencies. Though electromagnetic generators (EMGs) are well-known for harvesting mechanical kinetic energies, they have a crucial limitation for blue energy conversion. Indeed, the output voltage of EMGs can be impractically low at the low frequencies of ocean waves. In contrast, triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) are highly suitable for blue energy harvesting as they can effectively harvest mechanical energies from low frequencies (distribution for commercial applications. PMID:27408982

  15. Properties of blue-stained wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Humar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Discoloration of wood is frequently caused by blue-stain fungi. Among them Aureobasidium pullulans and Sclerophoma pithyophila are reported as the most important staining organism. In previous researches, it was generally considered that blue-stain fungi do not influence mechanical properties. However, there were some opposite results published as well. In order to elucidate this issue, specimens made of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris sapwood were exposed to two blue stain fungi A. pullulans and S. pithyophila for periods between two and eight weeks. FTIR, weight, colour and non-destructive modulus of elasticity measurements were performed before and after exposure. The results showed that blue stain fungi, besides considerable discoloration, do not cause any significant damage to wood. Surprisingly the non-destructive MoE analysis showed that modulus of elasticity even slightly increase after fungal exposure.

  16. Blue Flag: a Symbol of Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Petroman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Blue Flag is a high standard symbol of environmental protection and it is awarded to the beaches and agreement ports by the Foundation of Education for the Environment. The beaches having been awarded this distinction warrant particular protection for their visitors, which is a particular point of tourism attractiveness: the result, they are preferred by tourists and, therefore, by tour operators selling tourism packages for the littoral. In 2009, Romanian beaches were not awarded any Blue Flags.

  17. Blue Ocean Strategy and marketing Icelandic fish

    OpenAIRE

    Sigrún Guðbjartsdóttir 1976

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to explore if practice of Blue Ocean Strategy, through value innovation, or certain tools and framework of the strategy can be useful for Icelandic fish marketing companies. Blue Ocean Strategy is an innovative strategy that pushes companies to look beyond conventional boundaries of an industry and discover new market space through value innovation and consequently make competition irrelevant. Data was gathered through qualitative research methods, interviews as we...

  18. Blue Whales Respond to Anthropogenic Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana L Melcón; Amanda J Cummins; Kerosky, Sara M; Lauren K Roche; Wiggins, Sean M.; John A. Hildebrand

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to...

  19. Blue space geographies: Enabling health in place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Ronan; Kistemann, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Drawing from research on therapeutic landscapes and relationships between environment, health and wellbeing, we propose the idea of 'healthy blue space' as an important new development Complementing research on healthy green space, blue space is defined as; 'health-enabling places and spaces, where water is at the centre of a range of environments with identifiable potential for the promotion of human wellbeing'. Using theoretical ideas from emotional and relational geographies and critical understandings of salutogenesis, the value of blue space to health and wellbeing is recognised and evaluated. Six individual papers from five different countries consider how health can be enabled in mixed blue space settings. Four sub-themes; embodiment, inter-subjectivity, activity and meaning, document multiple experiences within a range of healthy blue spaces. Finally, we suggest a considerable research agenda - theoretical, methodological and applied - for future work within different forms of blue space. All are suggested as having public health policy relevance in social and public space. PMID:26238330

  20. The Hottest Horizontal-Branch Stars in Omega Centauri: Late Hot Flasher vs. Helium Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehler, S.; Dreizler, S.; Lanz, T.; Bono, G.; Sweigart, A V.; Calamida, A.; Monelli, M.; Nonino, M.

    2007-01-01

    UV observations of some massive globular clusters uncovered a significant population of very hot stars below the hot end of the horizontal branch (HB), the so-called blue hook stars. This feature might be explained either by the late hot flasher scenario here stars experience the helium flash while on the white dwarf cooling curve or by the helium-rich sub-population recently postulated to exist in some clusters. Spectroscopic analyses of blue hook stars in omega Cen and NGC 2808 support the late hot flasher scenario, but the stars contain much less helium than expected and the predicted C, N enrichment could not be verified from existing data. We want to determine effective temperatures, surface gravities and abundances of He, C, N in blue hook and canonical extreme horizontal branch (EHB) star candidates. Moderately high resolution spectra of stars at the hot end of the blue horizontal branch in the globular cluster omega Cen were analysed for atmospheric parameters (T(sub eff), log g) and abundances using LTE and Non-LTE model atmospheres. In the temperature range 30,000 K to 50,000 K we find that 37% of our stars are helium-poor (log nHe/nH less than -2), 49% have solar helium abundance within a factor of 3 (-1.5 less than or equal to log nHe/nH less than or equal to -0.5) and 14% are helium rich (log nHe/nH greater than -0.4). We also find carbon enrichment in step with helium enrichment, with a maximum carbon enrichment of 3% by mass. At least 30% of the hottest HB stars in omega Centauri show helium abundances well above the predictions from the helium enrichment scenario (Y = 0.42 corresponding to log nHe/nH approximately equal to -0.74). In addition the most helium-rich stars show strong carbon enrichment as predicted by the late hot flasher scenario. We conclude that the helium-rich HB stars in omega Cen cannot be explained solely by the helium-enrichment scenario invoked to explain the blue main sequence.

  1. Kerr black hole parameters in terms of red/blue shifts of photons emitted by geodesic particles

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera-Aguilar, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    We are motivated by the recently reported dynamical evidence of stars with short orbital periods moving around the center of the Milky Way and the corresponding hypothesis about the existence of a supermassive black hole hosted at its center. In this paper we show how the mass and rotation parameters of a Kerr black hole (assuming that the putative supermassive black hole is of this type), as well as the distance that separates the black hole from the Earth, can be estimated in a relativistic way in terms of i) the red and blue shifts of photons that are emitted by geodesic massive particles (stars and galactic gas) and travel along null geodesics towards a distant observer, and ii) the radius of these star/gas orbits. As a concrete example and as a first step towards a full relativistic analysis of the above mentioned star orbits around the center of our galaxy, we consider stable equatorial circular orbits of stars and express their corresponding red/blue shifts in terms of the metric parameters (mass and a...

  2. Discovery of two new Galactic candidate luminous blue variables with WISE

    CERN Document Server

    Gvaramadze, V V; Miroshnichenko, A S; Berdnikov, L N; Langer, N; Stringfellow, G S; Todt, H; Hamann, W -R; Grebel, E K; Buckley, D; Crause, L; Crawford, S; Gulbis, A; Hettlage, C; Hooper, E; Husser, T -O; Kotze, P; Loaring, N; Nordsieck, K H; O'Donoghue, D; Pickering, T; Potter, S; Colmenero, E Romero; Vaisanen, P; Williams, T; Wolf, M; Reichart, D E; Ivarsen, K M; Haislip, J B; Nysewander, M C; LaCluyze, A P

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of two new Galactic candidate luminous blue variable (cLBV) stars via detection of circular shells (typical of known confirmed and cLBVs) and follow-up spectroscopy of their central stars. The shells were detected at 22 um in the archival data of the Mid-Infrared All Sky Survey carried out with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Follow-up optical spectroscopy of the central stars of the shells conducted with the renewed Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) showed that their spectra are very similar to those of the well-known LBVs P Cygni and AG Car, and the recently discovered cLBV MN112, which implies the LBV classification for these stars as well. The LBV classification of both stars is supported by detection of their significant photometric variability: one of them brightened in the R- and I-bands by 0.68\\pm0.10 mag and 0.61\\pm0.04 mag, respectively, during the last 13-18 years, while the second one (known as Hen 3-1383) varies its B,V,R,I and K_s brightnesses by \\si...

  3. Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Frebel, Anna

    2008-01-01

    The abundance patterns of metal-poor stars provide us a wealth of chemical information about various stages of the chemical evolution of the Galaxy. In particular, these stars allow us to study the formation and evolution of the elements and the involved nucleosynthesis processes. This knowledge is invaluable for our understanding of the cosmic chemical evolution and the onset of star- and galaxy formation. Metal-poor stars are the local equivalent of the high-redshift Universe, and offer crucial observational constraints on the nature of the first stars. This review presents the history of the first discoveries of metal-poor stars that laid the foundation to this field. Observed abundance trends at the lowest metallicities are described, as well as particular classes of metal-poor stars such as r-process and C-rich stars. Scenarios on the origins of the abundances of metal-poor stars and the application of large samples of metal-poor stars to cosmological questions are discussed.

  4. The Second Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Herwig, Falk

    2005-01-01

    The ejecta of the first probably very massive stars polluted the Big Bang primordial element mix with the first heavier elements. The resulting ultra metal-poor abundance distribution provided the initial conditions for the second stars of a wide range of initial masses reaching down to intermediate and low masses. The importance of these second stars for understanding the origin of the elements in the early universe are manifold. While the massive first stars have long vanished the second stars are still around and currently observed. They are the carriers of the information about the first stars, but they are also capable of nuclear production themselves. For example, in order to use ultra or extremely metal-poor stars as a probe for the r-process in the early universe a reliable model of the s-process in the second stars is needed. Eventually, the second stars may provide us with important clues on questions ranging from structure formation to how the stars actually make the elements, not only in the early...

  5. NoSOCS in SDSS. V. Red Disc and Blue Bulge Galaxies Across Different Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, P A A; Ribeiro, A L B; Nascimento, R S; Vajgel, B

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the typical environment and physical properties of "red discs" and "blue bulges", comparing those to the "normal" objects in the blue cloud and red sequence. Our sample is composed of cluster members and field galaxies at $z \\le 0.1$, so that we can assess the impact of the local and global environment. We find that disc galaxies display a strong dependence on environment, becoming redder for higher densities. This effect is more pronounced for objects within the virial radius, being also strong related to the stellar mass. We find that local and global environment affect galaxy properties, but the most effective parameter is stellar mass. We find evidence for a scenario where "blue discs" are transformed into "red discs" as they grow in mass and move to the inner parts of clusters. From the metallicity differences of red and blue discs, and the analysis of their star formation histories, we suggest the quenching process is slow. We estimate a quenching time scale of $\\sim $ 2$-$3 Gyr. We also...

  6. Forecasts for the WFIRST High Latitude Survey using the BlueTides Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Waters, Dacen; Feng, Yu; Wilkins, Stephen M; Croft, Rupert A C

    2016-01-01

    We use the BlueTides simulation to predict the properties of the high-$z$ galaxy and active galactic nuclei (AGN) populations for the planned 2200deg$^2$ Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope's (WFIRST)-AFTA High Latitude Survey (HLS). BlueTides is a cosmological hydrodynamic simulation, which incorporates a variety of baryon physics in a $(400h^{-1} \\mathrm{Mpc})^3$ volume evolved to $z=8$ with 0.7 trillion particles. The galaxy luminosity functions in the simulation show good agreement with all the current observational constraints (up to $z=11$) and predicts an enhanced number of UV bright galaxies. At the proposed depth of the HLS ($m < 26.75$), BlueTides predicts $10^6$ galaxies at $z=8$ with a few up to $z\\sim 15$ due to the enhanced bright end of the galaxy luminosity function. At $z=8$, galaxies in the mock HLS have specific star formation rates of $\\sim 10 {\\rm Gyr}^{-1}$ and ages of $\\sim 80 {\\rm Myr}$ (both evolving linearly with redshift) and a non-evolving mass-metallicity relation. BlueTides a...

  7. Dark stars: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Katherine; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Spolyar, Douglas; Valluri, Monica

    2016-06-01

    Dark stars are stellar objects made (almost entirely) of hydrogen and helium, but powered by the heat from dark matter annihilation, rather than by fusion. They are in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium, but with an unusual power source. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), among the best candidates for dark matter, can be their own antimatter and can annihilate inside the star, thereby providing a heat source. Although dark matter constitutes only ≲ 0.1% of the stellar mass, this amount is sufficient to power the star for millions to billions of years. Thus, the first phase of stellar evolution in the history of the Universe may have been dark stars. We review how dark stars come into existence, how they grow as long as dark matter fuel persists, and their stellar structure and evolution. The studies were done in two different ways, first assuming polytropic interiors and more recently using the MESA stellar evolution code; the basic results are the same. Dark stars are giant, puffy (∼10 AU) and cool (surface temperatures  ∼10 000 K) objects. We follow the evolution of dark stars from their inception at  ∼1{{M}ȯ} as they accrete mass from their surroundings to become supermassive stars, some even reaching masses  >{{10}6}{{M}ȯ} and luminosities  >{{10}10}{{L}ȯ} , making them detectable with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. Once the dark matter runs out and the dark star dies, it may collapse to a black hole; thus dark stars may provide seeds for the supermassive black holes observed throughout the Universe and at early times. Other sites for dark star formation may exist in the Universe today in regions of high dark matter density such as the centers of galaxies. The current review briefly discusses dark stars existing today, but focuses on the early generation of dark stars.

  8. Dark stars: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Katherine; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Spolyar, Douglas; Valluri, Monica

    2016-06-01

    Dark stars are stellar objects made (almost entirely) of hydrogen and helium, but powered by the heat from dark matter annihilation, rather than by fusion. They are in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium, but with an unusual power source. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), among the best candidates for dark matter, can be their own antimatter and can annihilate inside the star, thereby providing a heat source. Although dark matter constitutes only [Formula: see text]0.1% of the stellar mass, this amount is sufficient to power the star for millions to billions of years. Thus, the first phase of stellar evolution in the history of the Universe may have been dark stars. We review how dark stars come into existence, how they grow as long as dark matter fuel persists, and their stellar structure and evolution. The studies were done in two different ways, first assuming polytropic interiors and more recently using the MESA stellar evolution code; the basic results are the same. Dark stars are giant, puffy (∼10 AU) and cool (surface temperatures  ∼10 000 K) objects. We follow the evolution of dark stars from their inception at  ∼[Formula: see text] as they accrete mass from their surroundings to become supermassive stars, some even reaching masses  >[Formula: see text] and luminosities  >[Formula: see text], making them detectable with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. Once the dark matter runs out and the dark star dies, it may collapse to a black hole; thus dark stars may provide seeds for the supermassive black holes observed throughout the Universe and at early times. Other sites for dark star formation may exist in the Universe today in regions of high dark matter density such as the centers of galaxies. The current review briefly discusses dark stars existing today, but focuses on the early generation of dark stars. PMID:27214049

  9. THE STAR FORMATION MASS SEQUENCE OUT TO z = 2.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the star formation rate (SFR)-stellar mass (M*) relation in a self-consistent manner from 0 0.6*, and a constant observed scatter of 0.34 dex, independent of redshift and M*. However, if we select only blue galaxies we find a linear relation SFR∝M*, similar to previous results at z = 0 by Peng et al. This selection excludes red, dusty, star-forming galaxies with higher masses, which brings down the slope. By selecting on LIR/LUV (a proxy for dust obscuration) and the rest-frame U – V colors, we show that star-forming galaxies fall in three distinct regions of the log(SFR)-log(M*) plane: (1) actively star-forming galaxies with 'normal' dust obscuration and associated colors (54% for log (M*) > 10 at 1 < z < 1.5), (2) red star-forming galaxies with low levels of dust obscuration and low-specific SFRs (11%), and (3) dusty, blue star-forming galaxies with high-specific SFRs (7%). The remaining 28% comprises quiescent galaxies. Galaxies on the 'normal' star formation sequence show strong trends of increasing dust attenuation with stellar mass and a decreasing specific SFR, with an observed scatter of 0.25 dex. The dusty, blue galaxies reside in the upper envelope of the star formation sequence with remarkably similar spectral shapes at all masses, suggesting that the same physical process is dominating the stellar light. The red, low-dust star-forming galaxies may be in the process of shutting off and migrating to the quiescent population.

  10. Comparison of Alcian Blue, Trypan Blue, and Toluidine Blue for Visualization of the Primo Vascular System Floating in Lymph Ducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Un Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The primo vascular system (PVS, floating in lymph ducts, was too transparent to be observed by using a stereomicroscope. It was only detectable with the aid of staining dyes, for instance, Alcian blue, which was injected into the lymph nodes. Some dyes were absorbed preferentially by the PVS than the lymph wall. It remains a standing problem to know what dyes are absorbed better by the PVS than the lymph walls. Such information would be useful to unravel the biochemical properties of the PVS that are badly in need for obtaining large amount of PVS specimens. In the current work we tried two other familiar dyes which were used in PVS research before. We found that Trypan blue and toluidine blue did not visualize the PVS. Trypan blue was cleared by the natural washing. Toluidine blue did not stain the PVS, but it did leave stained spots in the lymph wall and its surrounding tissues, and it leaked out of the lymph wall to stain surrounding connective tissues. These completely different behaviors of the three dyes were found for the first time in the current work and provide valuable information to elucidate the mechanism through which some special dyes stained the PVS preferentially compared to the lymphatic wall.

  11. Comparison of Alcian Blue, Trypan Blue, and Toluidine Blue for Visualization of the Primo Vascular System Floating in Lymph Ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Da-Un; Han, Jae Won; Jung, Sharon Jiyoon; Lee, Seung Hwan; Cha, Richard; Chang, Byung-Soo; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2015-01-01

    The primo vascular system (PVS), floating in lymph ducts, was too transparent to be observed by using a stereomicroscope. It was only detectable with the aid of staining dyes, for instance, Alcian blue, which was injected into the lymph nodes. Some dyes were absorbed preferentially by the PVS than the lymph wall. It remains a standing problem to know what dyes are absorbed better by the PVS than the lymph walls. Such information would be useful to unravel the biochemical properties of the PVS that are badly in need for obtaining large amount of PVS specimens. In the current work we tried two other familiar dyes which were used in PVS research before. We found that Trypan blue and toluidine blue did not visualize the PVS. Trypan blue was cleared by the natural washing. Toluidine blue did not stain the PVS, but it did leave stained spots in the lymph wall and its surrounding tissues, and it leaked out of the lymph wall to stain surrounding connective tissues. These completely different behaviors of the three dyes were found for the first time in the current work and provide valuable information to elucidate the mechanism through which some special dyes stained the PVS preferentially compared to the lymphatic wall. PMID:26379749

  12. Hubble studies generations of star formation in neighbouring galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    this Hubble image. It is a subregion within a larger area of star formation called N11. N11 is the second largest star-forming region in LMC. It is only surpassed in the size and activity by ‘the king of stellar nurseries’, 30 Doradus, located at the opposite side of LMC. This image shows the full Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 frame. N11B Credits: NASA/ESA and Digitized Sky Survey 2 Ground-based view of N11B This is a ground-based view of the N11B in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The image spans a square of one degree and was constructed from two images from the Digitized Sky Survey 2 taken through infrared and red filters (shown as blue and red respectively). LMC Credits: Eckhard Slawik Ground-based view of the Large Magellanic Cloud This ground-based image of the Large Magellanic Cloud was taken by the German astrophotographer Eckhard Slawik. It spans 10 x 10 degrees. Just to the left of the middle of this image the largest star-forming region in the Local Group of galaxies, 30 Doradus, is seen as a red patch. N11B itself is seen in the upper right part of the LMC. The star-forming region, catalogued as N11B lies in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), located only 160 000 light-years from Earth. With its high resolution, the Hubble Space Telescope is able to view details of star formation in the LMC as easily as ground-based telescopes are able to observe stellar formation within our own Milky Way galaxy. One neighbouring galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), lies in the constellation of Dorado and contains a number of regions harbouring recent and ongoing star formation. One of these star-forming regions, N11B, is shown in this Hubble image. It is a subregion within a larger area of star formation called N11. N11 is the second largest star-forming region in LMC. It is only surpassed in the size and activity by ‘the king of stellar nurseries’, the Tarantula nebula (or 30 Doradus), located at the opposite side of LMC. The image illustrates a perfect example of

  13. Quaking Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Franco, L M; Epstein, R I; Franco, Lucia M.; Link, Bennett; Epstein, Richard I.

    1999-01-01

    Gravitational, magnetic and superfluid forces can stress the crust of an evolving neutron star. Fracture of the crust under these stresses could affect the star's spin evolution and generate high-energy emission. We study the growth of strain in the crust of a spinning down, magnetized neutron star and examine the initiation of crust cracking (a {\\em starquake}). In preliminary work (Link, Franco & Epstein 1998), we studied a homogeneous model of a neutron star. Here we extend this work by considering a more realistic model of a solid, homogeneous crust afloat on a liquid core. In the limits of astrophysical interest, our new results qualitatively agree with those from the simpler model: the stellar crust fractures under shear stress at the rotational equator, matter moves to higher latitudes and the star's oblateness is reduced. Magnetic stresses favor faults directed toward the magnetic poles. Thus our previous conclusions concerning the star's spin response still hold; namely, asymmetric redistribution...

  14. The (Un)Lonely Planet Guide: Formation and Evolution of Planetary Systems from a `Blue Dots' Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution I summarize some recent successes, and focus on remaining challenges, in understanding the formation and evolution of planetary systems in the context of the Blue Dots initiative. Because our understanding is incomplete, we cannot yet articulate a "design reference mission" engineering matrix suitable for an exploration mission where success is defined as obtaining a spectrum of a potentially habitable world around a nearby star. However, as progress accelerates, we can i...

  15. 2D radiaition-hydrodynamic simulations of supernova shock breakout in bipolar explosions of a blue supergiant progenitor

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Akihiro; Maeda, Keiichi; Shigeyama, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    A two-dimensional special relativistic radiation-hydrodynamics code is developed and applied to numerical simulations of supernova shock breakout in bipolar explosions of a blue supergiant. Our calculations successfully simulate the dynamical evolution of a blast wave in the star and its emergence from the surface. Results of the model with spherical energy deposition show a good agreement with previous simulations. Furthermore, we calculate several models with bipolar energy deposition and c...

  16. Signatures of inflow motion in cores of massive star formation: Potential collapse candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yuefang; Xue, Rui; Guan, Xin; Miller, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Using the IRAM 30 m telescope, a mapping survey in optically thick and thin lines was performed towards 46 high mass star-forming regions. The sample includes UC H{\\sc ii} precursors and UC H{\\sc ii} regions. Seventeen sources are found to show "blue profiles", the expected signature of collapsing cores. The excess of sources with blue over red profiles ([$N_{\\rm blue}$ -- $N_{\\rm red}$]/$N_{\\rm total}$) is 29% in the HCO$^+$ $J$=1--0 line, with a probability of 0.6% that this is caused by random fluctuations. UC H{\\sc ii} regions show a higher excess (58%) than UC H{\\sc ii} precursors (17%), indicating that material is still accreted after the onset of the UC H{\\sc ii} phase. Similar differences in the excess of blue profiles as a function of evolutionary state are not observed in low mass star-forming regions. Thus, if confirmed for high mass star-forming sites, this would point at a fundamental difference between low- and high-mass star formation. Possible explanations are inadequate thermalization, strong...

  17. Why Stars Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Ajay K. Agrawal; John McHale; Alex Oettl

    2014-01-01

    The growing peer effects literature pays particular attention to the role of stars. We decompose the causal effect of hiring a star in terms of the productivity impact on: 1) co-located incumbents and 2) new recruits. Using longitudinal university department-level data we report that hiring a star does not increase overall incumbent productivity, although this aggregate effect hides offsetting effects on related (positive) versus unrelated (negative) colleagues. However, the primary impact co...

  18. Evolution of massive stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of stars with masses larger than 15 sun masses is reviewed. These stars have large convective cores and lose a substantial fraction of their matter by stellar wind. The treatment of convection and the parameterisation of the stellar wind mass loss are analysed within the context of existing disagreements between theory and observation. The evolution of massive close binaries and the origin of Wolf-Rayet Stars and X-ray binaries is also sketched. (author)

  19. Intelligent Star Tracker

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Natalie; Furth, Paul; Horan, Steven

    2000-01-01

    We describe our Intelligent Star Tracker System. Our Intelligent Star Tracker System incorporates an adaptive optic catadioptric telescope in a silicon carbide housing. Leveraging off of our active optic technologies, the novel active pixel position sensors (APPS) enable wide dynamic range and allows simultaneous imagery of faint and bright stars in a single image. Moreover, the APPS, in conjunction with the adaptive optics technologies, offer unprecedented accuracy in altitude and navigation...

  20. Dust Around Herbig Ae Stars: Additional Constraints from their Photometric and Polarimetric Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivova, N. A.; Ilin, V. B.; Fischer, O.

    1996-01-01

    For the Herbig Ae stars with Algol-like minima (UX Ori, WW Vul, etc), the effects of circumstellar dust include: excess infrared emission, anomalous ultraviolet extinction, the 'blueing' of the stars in minima accompanying by an increase of intrinsic polarization. Using a Monte-Carlo code for polarized radiation transfer we have simulated these effects and compared the results obtained for different models with the observational data available. We found that the photometric and polarimetric behavior of the stars provided essential additional constraints on the circumstellar dust models. The models with spheroidal shell geometry and compact (non-fluffy) dust grains do not appear to be able to explain all the data.

  1. "Blue-Collar Blues" uurib töösuhteid uutes oludes / Janar Ala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ala, Janar, 1979-

    2009-01-01

    Tööproblemaatikat käsitlev näitus "Blue-Collar Blues" Tallinna Kunstihoones ja Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis 31. jaanuarini 2010, kuraator Anders Härm. Lähemalt belgia-mehhiko kunstniku Francis Alys'e videost, austria kunstniku Oliver Ressleri ning venetsueela-saksa politoloogi Dario Azzelini videost "Viis tehast. Tööliste kontroll Venezuelas"

  2. BRITE-Constellation: Nanosatellites for precision photometry of bright stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W. W.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Schwarzenberg-Czerny, A.; Koudelka, O. F.; Grant, C. C.; Zee, R. E.; Kuschnig, R.; Mochnacki, St.; Rucinski, S. M.; Matthews, J. M.; Orleański, P.; Pamyatnykh, A. A.; Pigulski, A.; Alves, J.; Guedel, M.; Handler, G.; Wade, G. A.; Scholtz, A. L.; Scholtz

    2014-02-01

    BRITE-Constellation (where BRITE stands for BRIght Target Explorer) is an international nanosatellite mission to monitor photometrically, in two colours, brightness and temperature variations of stars brighter than V ~ 4, with precision and time coverage not possible from the ground. The current mission design consists of three pairs of 7 kg nanosats (hence ``Constellation'') from Austria, Canada and Poland carrying optical telescopes (3 cm aperture) and CCDs. One instrument in each pair is equipped with a blue filter; the other, a red filter. The first two nanosats (funded by Austria) are UniBRITE, designed and built by UTIAS-SFL (University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies-Space Flight Laboratory) and its twin, BRITE-Austria, built by the Technical University Graz (TUG) with support of UTIAS-SFL. They were launched on 25 February 2013 by the Indian Space Agency, under contract to the Canadian Space Agency. Each BRITE instrument has a wide field of view (~ 24 degrees), so up to 15 bright stars can be observed simultaneously in 32 × 32 sub-rasters. Photometry (with reduced precision but thorough time sampling) of additional fainter targets will be possible through on-board data processing. A critical technical element of the BRITE mission is the three-axis attitude control system to stabilize a nanosat with very low inertia. The pointing stability is better than 1.5 arcminutes rms, a significant advance by UTIAS-SFL over any previous nanosatellite. BRITE-Constellation will primarily measure p- and g-mode pulsations to probe the interiors and ages of stars through asteroseismology. The BRITE sample of many of the brightest stars in the night sky is dominated by the most intrinsically luminous stars: massive stars seen at all evolutionary stages, and evolved medium-mass stars at the very end of their nuclear burning phases (cool giants and AGB stars). The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram for stars brighter than mag V=4 from which the BRITE-Constellation sample

  3. TIME-SERIES BVI PHOTOMETRY FOR THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 6981 {sup ,} {sup ,}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amigo, P.; Catelan, M.; Zoccali, M. [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Instituto de Astrofísica, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Stetson, P. B. [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Smith, H. A., E-mail: mcatelan@astro.puc.cl, E-mail: mzoccali@astro.puc.cl, E-mail: pia.amigo@dfa.uv.cl, E-mail: Peter.Stetson@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca, E-mail: smith@pa.msu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We present new BVI photometry of the globular cluster NGC 6981, based mostly on ground-based CCD archival images. We present a new color-magnitude diagram (CMD) that reaches almost four magnitudes below the turn-off level. We performed new derivations of metallicity and morphological parameters of the evolved sequences, in good agreement with the results of previous authors, and obtain a value of [Fe/H] ≅ –1.50 in the new UVES scale. We also identify the cluster's blue straggler population. Comparing the radial distribution of these stars with the red giant branch population, we find that the blue stragglers are more centrally concentrated, as found in previous studies of blue stragglers in globular clusters. Taking advantage of the large field of view covered by our study, we analyzed the surface density profile of the cluster, and find extratidal main sequence stars out to r ≈ 14.'1, or about twice the tidal radius. We speculate that the presence of these stars may be due to tidal disruption in the course of NGC 6981's orbit, in which case tidal tails associated with the cluster may exist. We also take a fresh look at the variable stars in the cluster, recovering all previously known variables, including three SX Phoenicis stars. We also add three previously unknown RR Lyrae (one c-type and two ab-type) to the total census. Finally, comparing our CMD with unpublished data for M3 (NGC 5272), a cluster with a similar metallicity and horizontal branch morphology, we found that both objects are essentially coeval.

  4. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jian-Ying; Ibragimov, Rashid

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting...... tree is isomorphic to T? We prove that in the general setting, CST is NP-complete, which implies that the tree edit distance considered here is also NP-hard, even when both input trees having diameters bounded by 10. We also show that, when the number of distinct stars is bounded by a constant k, CTS...

  5. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jiong; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting...... tree is isomorphic to T? We prove that in the general setting, CST is NP-complete, which implies that the tree edit distance considered here is also NP-hard, even when both input trees having diameters bounded by 10. We also show that, when the number of distinct stars is bounded by a constant k, CTS...

  6. ENERGY STAR Unit Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — These quarterly Federal Fiscal Year performance reports track the ENERGY STAR qualified HOME units that Participating Jurisdictions record in HUD's Integrated...

  7. Interacting binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sahade, Jorge; Ter Haar, D

    1978-01-01

    Interacting Binary Stars deals with the development, ideas, and problems in the study of interacting binary stars. The book consolidates the information that is scattered over many publications and papers and gives an account of important discoveries with relevant historical background. Chapters are devoted to the presentation and discussion of the different facets of the field, such as historical account of the development in the field of study of binary stars; the Roche equipotential surfaces; methods and techniques in space astronomy; and enumeration of binary star systems that are studied

  8. Massive soliton stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hong-Yee

    1990-01-01

    The structure of nontopological solutions of Einstein field equations as proposed by Friedberg, Lee, and Pang (1987) is examined. This analysis incorporates finite temperature effects and pair creation. Quarks are assumed to be the only species that exist in interior of soliton stars. The possibility of primordial creation of soliton stars in the incomplete decay of the degenerate vacuum in early universe is explored. Because of dominance of pair creation inside soliton stars, the luminosity of soliton stars is not determined by its radiative transfer characteristics, and the surface temperature of soliton stars can be the same as its interior temperature. It is possible that soliton stars are intense X-ray radiators at large distances. Soliton stars are nearly 100 percent efficient energy converters, converting the rest energy of baryons entering the interior into radiation. It is possible that a sizable number of baryons may also be trapped inside soliton stars during early epochs of the universe. In addition, if soliton stars exist they could assume the role played by massive black holes in galactic centers.

  9. A Stellar Population Gradient in VII Zw 403 Implications for the Formation of Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Schulte-Ladbeck, R E; Crone, M M; Greggio, L; Schulte-Ladbeck, Regina E.; Hopp, Ulrich; Crone, Mary M.; Greggio, Laura

    1999-01-01

    We present evidence for the existence of an old stellar halo in the Blue Compact Dwarf galaxy VII Zw 403. VII Zw 403 is the first Blue Compact Dwarf galaxy for which a clear spatial segregation of the resolved stellar content into a "core-halo" structure is detected. Multicolor HST/WFPC2 observations indicate that active star formation occurs in the central region, but is strikingly absent at large radii. Instead, a globular-cluster-like red giant branch suggests the presence of an old (> 10 Gyr) and metal poor (=-1.92) stellar population in the halo. While the vast majority of Blue Compact Dwarf galaxies has been recognized to possess halos of red color in ground-based surface photometry, our observations of VII Zw 403 establish for the first time a direct correspondence between a red halo color and the presence of old, red giant stars. If the halos of Blue Compact Dwarf galaxies are all home to such ancient stellar populations, then the fossil record conflicts with delayed-formation scenarios for dwarfs.

  10. "Blue and seven phenomena" among Japanese students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, M

    1999-10-01

    To investigate color and number preferences in Japan, 586 university undergraduates (239 men and 347 women; M age = 20.9 yr.) were asked to name a color (Question 1), to name their preferred color (Question 2), and to name their preferred number between zero and nine (Question 3). The results showed that Japanese students chose blue (33.5%) or red (26.0%) when asked to name a color but that red was not chosen as frequently as blue as a preferred color (red: 11.1%, blue: 37.1%). Sex differences were found on both Questions 1 and 2 by chi-squared test. Black was chosen more by men, while pink was selected more by women. 22.5% subjects also selected the number seven, supporting Simon's observation of the "blue-seven phenomenon." The reasons given for the choice showed that seven was "a lucky number" and "represented happiness" among Japanese students. Four colors (blue, red, white, and black) accounted for 76.8% and 65.1% of responses to Questions 1 and 2, respectively, and odd numbers 68.4% for Question 3. PMID:10597589

  11. Dyes adsorption blue vegetable and blue watercolor by natural zeolites modified with surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work was carried out the dyes removal blue vegetable and blue watercolor of aqueous solutions, to 20 C, at different times and using a zeolite mineral of Parral (Chihuahua, Mexico) modified with hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide or dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide. The zeolite was characterized before and after of its adaptation with NaCl and later with HDTMABr and DTMABr. For the materials characterization were used the scanning electron microscopy of high vacuum; elementary microanalysis by X-ray spectroscopy of dispersed energy and X-ray diffraction techniques. It was found that the surfactant type absorbed in the zeolite material influences on the adsorption process of the blue dye. Likewise, the chemical structure between the vegetable blue dye and the blue watercolor, determines the efficiency of the color removal of the water, by the zeolites modified with the surfactants. (Author)

  12. Horizontal Branch stars as AmFm/HgMn stars

    CERN Document Server

    Michaud, G

    2008-01-01

    Recent observations and models for horizontal branch stars are briefly described and compared to models for AmFm stars. The limitations of those models are emphasized by a comparison to observations and models for HgMn stars.

  13. Combinations of 148 navigation stars and the star tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, R.

    1980-01-01

    The angular separation of all star combinations for 148 nav star on the onboard software for space transportation system-3 flight and following missions is presented as well as the separation of each pair that satisfies the viewing constraints of using both star trackers simultaneously. Tables show (1) shuttle star catalog 1980 star position in M 1950 coordinates; (2) two star combination of 148 nav stars; and (3) summary of two star-combinations of the star tracker 5 deg filter. These 148 stars present 10,875 combinations. For the star tracker filters of plus or minus 5 deg, there are 875 combinations. Formalhaut (nav star 26) has the best number of combinations, which is 33.

  14. Binary interactions with high accretion rates onto main sequence stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiber, Sagiv; Schreier, Ron; Soker, Noam

    2016-07-01

    Energetic outflows from main sequence stars accreting mass at very high rates might account for the powering of some eruptive objects, such as merging main sequence stars, major eruptions of luminous blue variables, e.g., the Great Eruption of Eta Carinae, and other intermediate luminosity optical transients (ILOTs; red novae; red transients). These powerful outflows could potentially also supply the extra energy required in the common envelope process and in the grazing envelope evolution of binary systems. We propose that a massive outflow/jets mediated by magnetic fields might remove energy and angular momentum from the accretion disk to allow such high accretion rate flows. By examining the possible activity of the magnetic fields of accretion disks, we conclude that indeed main sequence stars might accrete mass at very high rates, up to ≈ 10‑2 M ⊙ yr‑1 for solar type stars, and up to ≈ 1 M ⊙ yr‑1 for very massive stars. We speculate that magnetic fields amplified in such extreme conditions might lead to the formation of massive bipolar outflows that can remove most of the disk's energy and angular momentum. It is this energy and angular momentum removal that allows the very high mass accretion rate onto main sequence stars.

  15. A revisit to agglomerates of early-type Hipparcos stars

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero, J A

    2008-01-01

    We study the spatial structure and sub-structure of regions rich in Hipparcos stars with blue B_T-V_T colours. These regions, which comprise large stellar complexes, OB associations, and young open clusters, are tracers of on-going star formation in the Galaxy. The DBSCAN (Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise) data clustering algorithm is used to look for spatial overdensities of early-type stars. Once an overdensity, "agglomerate", is identified, we carry out a data and bibliographic compilation of their star member candidates. The actual membership in agglomerate of each early-type star is studied based on its heliocentric distance, proper motion, and previous spectro-photometric information. We identify 35 agglomerates of early-type Hipparcos stars. Most of them are associated to previously known clusters and OB associations. The previously unknown P Puppis agglomerate is subject of a dedicated study with Virtual Observatory tools. It is actually a new, nearby, young open cluster (d ...

  16. Beryllium in the Ultra-Lithium-Deficient,Metal-Poor Halo Dwarf, G186-26

    CERN Document Server

    Boesgaard, A M; Boesgaard, Ann Merchant; Novicki, Megan C.

    2005-01-01

    The vast majority of low-metal halo dwarfs show a similar amount of Li; this has been attributed to the Li that was produced in the Big Bang. However, there are nine known halo stars with T $>$ 5900 K and [Fe/H] $<$ $-$1.0 that are ultra-Li-deficient. We have looked for Be in the very low metallicity star, G 186-26 at [Fe/H] = $-$2.71, which is one of the ultra-Li-deficient stars. This star is also ultra-Be deficient. Relative to Be in the Li-normal stars at [Fe/H] = $-$2.7, G 182-26 is down in Be by more than 0.8 dex. Of two potential causes for the Li-deficiency -- mass-transfer in a pre-blue straggler or extra rotationally-induced mixing in a star that was initially a very rapid rotator -- the absence of Be favors the blue-straggler hypothesis, but the rotation model cannot be ruled-out completely.

  17. Galaxies in SDSS and DEEP2: a quiet life on the blue sequence?

    OpenAIRE

    Blanton, Michael R.

    2005-01-01

    In the six billion years between redshifts z=1 and z=0.1, galaxies change due to the aging of their stellar populations, the formation of new stars, and mergers with other galaxies. Here I explore the relative importance of these various effects, finding that while mergers are likely to be important for the red galaxy sequence they are unlikely to affect more than 10% of the blue galaxy sequence. I compare the galaxy population at redshift z=0.1 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to that at z=...

  18. Radio continuum detection in blue early-type weak emission line galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Paswan, A.; Omar, A.

    2016-01-01

    The star formation rates (SFRs) in weak emission line (WEL) galaxies in a volume-limited ($0.02 < z < 0.05$) sample of blue early-type galaxies (ETGs) identified from SDSS, are constrained here using 1.4 GHz radio continuum emission. The direct detection of 1.4 GHz radio continuum emission is made in 8 WEL galaxies and a median stacking is performed on 57 WEL galaxies using VLA FIRST images. The median stacked 1.4 GHz flux density and luminosity are estimated as 79 $\\pm$ 19 $\\mu$Jy and 0.20 $...

  19. Making Stars … With a Little Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    Extremely high star formation rates have been observed in galaxies at high redshifts, posing somewhat of a mystery: how are these enormous rates achieved? A team of scientists has proposed that these high rates of star formation could be explained by feedback from active nuclei at the centers of the galaxies.Pressurized BubbleWe believe that star formation occurs in galaxies as a result of gas clumps that collapse under their own gravity, eventually becoming dense enough to launch nuclear fusion. Recently, theres been mounting evidence that the star formation rate is significantly higher in high-redshift galaxies, particularly those with active galactic nuclei (AGN). Could this simply be caused by a higher gas fraction at higher redshifts? Or is it possible that a different mechanism is at work in these galaxies, producing more efficient star formation?A team of authors led by Rebekka Bieri (Paris Institute of Astrophysics) has proposed that this enhanced star formation may be caused by positive feedback from the active nucleus of the galaxy. The team suggests that an outflow from the AGN could create an over-pressurized bubble around the galactic disk that pushes back on the disk, leading to a higher rate of star formation.Simulating a BoostThe authors test this toy model by simulating the scenario. They model a disk galaxy with roughly a tenth of the mass of the Milky Way, which starts in a relaxed state. The galaxy is then evolved either with or without an applied external pressure, representing the isotropic pressure from the bubble created by the AGN outflow. These models are tested in two different scenarios: one where the initial gas fraction is 10%, and one where the initial gas fraction is 50%.Star formation rates for the low-gas-fraction (left) and high-gas-fraction (right) simulated galaxies. The blue lines show the rates without external pressure; the red lines show the rates with external pressure applied. [Bieri et al. 2015]The simulations show that

  20. Brilliant Star in a Colourful Neighbourhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    A spectacular new image from ESO's Wide Field Imager at the La Silla Observatory in Chile shows the brilliant and unusual star WR 22 and its colourful surroundings. WR 22 is a very hot and bright star that is shedding its atmosphere into space at a rate many millions of times faster than the Sun. It lies in the outer part of the dramatic Carina Nebula from which it formed. Very massive stars live fast and die young. Some of these stellar beacons have such intense radiation passing through their thick atmospheres late in their lives that they shed material into space many millions of times more quickly than relatively sedate stars such as the Sun. These rare, very hot and massive objects are known as Wolf-Rayet stars [1], after the two French astronomers who first identified them in the mid-nineteenth century, and one of the most massive ones yet measured is known as WR 22. It appears at the centre of this picture, which was created from images taken through red, green and blue filters with the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile. WR 22 is a member of a double star system and has been measured to have a mass at least 70 times that of the Sun. WR 22 lies in the southern constellation of Carina, the keel of Jason's ship Argo in Greek mythology. Although the star lies over 5000 light-years from the Earth it is so bright that it can just be faintly seen with the unaided eye under good conditions. WR 22 is one of many exceptionally brilliant stars associated with the beautiful Carina Nebula (also known as NGC 3372) and the outer part of this huge region of star formation in the southern Milky Way forms the colourful backdrop to this image. The subtle colours of the rich background tapestry are a result of the interactions between the intense ultraviolet radiation coming from hot massive stars, including WR 22, and the vast gas clouds, mostly hydrogen, from which they formed. The central part of this enormous complex

  1. The Edinburgh-Cape Blue Object Survey - V. The end: Partial Zones 4-6; Galactic latitudes -50° > b > -90°

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilkenny, D.; Worters, H. L.; O'Donoghue, D.; Koen, C.; Koen, T.; Hambly, N.; MacGillivray, H.; Stobie, R. S.

    2016-07-01

    Results for the remaining zones of the Edinburgh-Cape (EC) Blue Object survey are presented. These are incomplete, but lie in that part of the South Galactic Cap between 50° and 90° from the Galactic plane and south of about -12.3° of declination. This part of the survey comprises 79 UK Schmidt Telescope fields covering about 2150 deg2, in which we find 536 blue objects - including hot subdwarfs (˜33 per cent), white dwarfs (˜30 per cent), binaries (˜12 per cent), cataclysmic variables (˜1.5 per cent) and some `star-like' galaxies (˜12 per cent). A further 254 stars observed in the survey, mainly low-metallicity F- and G-type stars, are also listed. Low-dispersion spectroscopic classification is given for all the hot objects and UBV photometry for most of them. Either spectroscopy or photometry is listed for the cooler types.

  2. Star Position Estimation Improvements for Accurate Star Tracker Attitude Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Delabie, Tjorven

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents several methods to improve the estimation of the star positions in a star tracker, using a Kalman Filter. The accuracy with which the star positions can be estimated greatly influences the accuracy of the star tracker attitude estimate. In this paper, a Kalman Filter with low computational complexity, that can be used to estimate the star positions based on star tracker centroiding data and gyroscope data is discussed. The performance of this Kalman Filter can be increased...

  3. GLOBAL STAR FORMATION REVISITED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general treatment of disk star formation is developed from a dissipative multiphase model, with the dominant dissipation due to cloud collisions. The Schmidt-Kennicutt (SK) law emerges naturally for star-forming disks and starbursts. We predict that there should be an inverse correlation between Tully-Fisher law and SK law residuals. The model is extended to include a multiphase treatment of supernova feedback that leads to a turbulent pressure-regulated generalization of the star formation law and is applicable to gas-rich starbursts. Enhanced pressure, as expected in merger-induced star formation, enhances star formation efficiency. An upper limit is derived for the disk star formation rate in starbursts that depends on the ratio of global ISM to cloud pressures. We extend these considerations to the case where the interstellar gas pressure in the inner galaxy is dominated by outflows from a central active galactic nucleus (AGN). During massive spheroid formation, AGN-driven winds trigger star formation, resulting in enhanced supernova feedback and outflows. The outflows are comparable to the AGN-boosted star formation rate and saturate in the super-Eddington limit. Downsizing of both SMBH and spheroids is a consequence of AGN-driven positive feedback. Bondi accretion feeds the central black hole with a specific accretion rate that is proportional to the black hole mass. AGN-enhanced star formation is mediated by turbulent pressure and relates spheroid star formation rate to black hole accretion rate. The relation between black hole mass and spheroid velocity dispersion has a coefficient (Salpeter time to gas consumption time ratio) that provides an arrow of time. Highly efficient, AGN-boosted star formation can occur at high redshift.

  4. A Stable Blue Organic Electroluminescent Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑新友; 吴有智; 等

    2002-01-01

    In order to compare two kinds of blue electroluminescent materials,we have investigated two kinds of blue OLEDs with the similar structure ITO/CuPc/NPB/JBEM:perylene/Alq/Mg:Ag[device(J)] and ITO/CuPc/NPB/DPVBi:perylene/Alq/Mg:Ag[device(D)].The difference of luminance and efficiency was not obvious for the two devices,However,there was remarkable difference for their lifetime.The device(J) achieved longer half lifetime of 1035h at initial luminance of 100 cd/m2,and that of device(D) was only255h,According to their energy level diagrams,the differentce of their stability may originate from different host materials in the two devices.It may be attributed to the better thermal stability of JBEM molecues than that of DPVBi.It is shown that JBEM may be a promising blue organic electroluminescent material with great stability.

  5. Chinese Jingdezhen blue and white imperial porcelain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Juan; LI Jiazhi; DENG Zequn; WANG Changsui

    2004-01-01

    Jingdezhen blue and white imperial porcelain specimens from the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties have been systematically analyzed using a nondestructive test method--?energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis (EDXRF). The derived data of major and trace element compositions have been treated by correspondence analysis. The variation laws of the composition patterns for Jingdezhen blue and white imperial porcelain in different historical periods owing to the change in raw materials, recipe and technology have been discussed, and a time model related to variation of element composition has been preliminarily established, It would be helpful for scientific dating of Jingdezhen blue and white imperial porcelain, and even for the studies on the whole field of identification of ancient ceramics.

  6. Stars and Flowers, Flowers and Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minti, Hari

    2012-12-01

    The author, a graduated from the Bucharest University (1964), actually living and working in Israel, concerns his book to variable stars and flowers, two domains of his interest. The analogies includes double stars, eclipsing double stars, eclipses, Big Bang. The book contains 34 chapters, each of which concerns various relations between astronomy and other sciences and pseudosciences such as Psychology, Religion, Geology, Computers and Astrology (to which the author is not an adherent). A special part of the book is dedicated to archeoastronomy and ethnoastronomy, as well as to history of astronomy. Between the main points of interest of these parts: ancient sanctuaries in Sarmizegetusa (Dacia), Stone Henge(UK) and other. The last chapter of the book is dedicated to flowers. The book is richly illustrated. It is designed for a wide circle of readers.

  7. Discovery of a new Galactic bona fide luminous blue variable with Spitzer

    CERN Document Server

    Gvaramadze, V V; Berdnikov, L N; Langer, N; Grebel, E K; Bestenlehner, J M

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of a circular mid-infrared shell around the emission-line star Wray 16-137 using archival data of the Spitzer Space Telescope. Follow-up optical spectroscopy of Wray 16-137 with the Southern African Large Telescope revealed a rich emission spectrum typical of the classical luminous blue variables (LBVs) like P Cygni. Subsequent spectroscopic and photometric observations showed drastic changes in the spectrum and brightness during the last three years, meaning that Wray 16-137 currently undergoes an S Dor-like outburst. Namely, we found that the star has brightened by \\approx 1 mag in the V and I_c bands, while its spectrum became dominated by Fe ii lines. Taken together, our observations unambiguously show that Wray 16-137 is a new member of the family of Galactic bona fide LBVs.

  8. Celestial Fireworks from Dying Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    This image of the nebula NGC 3582, which was captured by the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, shows giant loops of gas bearing a striking resemblance to solar prominences. These loops are thought to have been ejected by dying stars, but new stars are also being born within this stellar nursery. These energetic youngsters emit intense ultraviolet radiation that makes the gas in the nebula glow, producing the fiery display shown here. NGC 3582 is part of a large star-forming region in the Milky Way, called RCW 57. It lies close to the central plane of the Milky Way in the southern constellation of Carina (The Keel of Jason's ship, the Argo). John Herschel first saw this complex region of glowing gas and dark dust clouds in 1834, during his stay in South Africa. Some of the stars forming in regions like NGC 3582 are much heavier than the Sun. These monster stars emit energy at prodigious rates and have very short lives that end in explosions as supernovae. The material ejected from these dramatic events creates bubbles in the surrounding gas and dust. This is the probable cause of the loops visible in this picture. This image was taken through multiple filters. From the Wide Field Imager, data taken through a red filter are shown in green and red, and data taken through a filter that isolates the red glow characteristic of hydrogen are also shown in red. Additional infrared data from the Digitized Sky Survey are shown in blue. The image was processed by ESO using the observational data identified by Joe DePasquale, from the United States [1], who participated in ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition [2]. The competition was organised by ESO in October-November 2010, for everyone who enjoys making beautiful images of the night sky using astronomical data obtained using professional telescopes. Notes [1] Joe searched through ESO's archive and identified datasets that he used to compose his

  9. Neutron Stars: Formation and Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Kutschera, Marek

    1998-01-01

    A short introduction is given to astrophysics of neutron stars and to physics of dense matter in neutron stars. Observed properties of astrophysical objects containing neutron stars are discussed. Current scenarios regarding formation and evolution of neutron stars in those objects are presented. Physical principles governing the internal structure of neutron stars are considered with special emphasis on the possible spin ordering in the neutron star matter.

  10. Quark Neutron Layer Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Carinhas, P A

    1993-01-01

    Typical nuclear equations of state and a quark bag model, surprisingly, allow compact stars with alternate layers of neutrons and quarks. One can determine on the basis of the Gibbs free energy which phase, nuclear or quark, is energetically favorable. Using the nuclear equation of state of Wiringa, and a quark equation of state given by Freedman and McLerran, the allowed quark parameter space for such layer stars is searched. This paper differs from past work in that configurations are found in which quark matter is located exterior and interior to shells of nuclear matter, i.e., dependent on quark parameters, a star may contain several alternating layers of quark and nuclear matter. Given the uncertainty in the quark parameter space, one can estimate the probability for finding pure neutron stars, pure quark stars (strange stars), stars with a quark core and a nucleon exterior, or layer stars. Several layer models are presented. The physical characteristics, stability, and results of a thorough search of th...

  11. Neutrostriction in Neutron stars

    OpenAIRE

    Ignatovich, V. K.

    2003-01-01

    It is demonstrated that not only gravity, but also neutrostriction forces due to optical potential created by coherent elastic neutron-neutron scattering can hold a neutron star together. The latter forces can be stronger than gravitational ones. The effect of these forces on mass, radius and structure of the neutron star is estimated.

  12. Computerized Star Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shooman, Andrew

    1982-01-01

    A program written for the 16K Level II TRS-80 computer that prints a star map, using various mathematical formulas to compute positions of the stars and the moon and displays them on terminals, is discussed. Some relevant astronomical background and terminology are covered in order to aid understanding. (MP)

  13. The violent neutron star

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, Anna L.

    2012-01-01

    Neutron stars enable us to study both the highest densities and the highest magnetic fields in the known Universe. In this article I review what can be learned about such fundamental physics using magnetar bursts. Both the instability mechanisms that trigger the bursts, and the subsequent dynamical and radiative response of the star, can be used to explore stellar and magnetospheric structure and composition.

  14. Detailed photometric analysis of young star groups in the galaxy NGC 300

    CERN Document Server

    Jimena, Rodríguez María; Carlos, Feinstein

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to understand the global characteristics of the stellar populations in NGC 300. In particular, we focused our attention on searching young star groups and study their hierarchical organization. The research was conducted using archival point spread function fitting photometry measured from images in multiple bands obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys of the Hubble Space Telescope. Using the path linkage criterion, we cataloged young star groups and analyzed them from the observation of individual stars in the galaxy NGC 300. We also built stellar density maps from the bluest stars and applied the SExtractor code to identify overdensities. By plotting isocontours over the density maps and comparing the two methods, we could infer and delineate the hierarchical structure of the blue population in the galaxy. For each region of a detected young star group, we estimated the size and derived the radial surface density profiles for stellar populations of different color. A stati...

  15. Change in NO2 reveals Parade Blue is cleaner than APEC Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haoran; Liu, Cheng; Xie, Zhouqing; Xie, Pinhua; Xing, Chengzhi; Xu, Jin; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-04-01

    The spectacular Parade Blue (blue sky), and APEC Blue (blue sky) were renowned worldwide caused by the limiting discharge policy of the Chinese government. For evaluating the reduction of these two events, we analyzed the variation of NO2 columns Beijing by looking at a long-term monitoring using Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite observations from August 2014 to November 2015, covering Grand Military Parade (GMP, September 2015) and APEC (November 2014) period. We found that the NO2 columns abruptly decreased both GMP and APEC. However, change in the MAX-DOAS and the OMI NO2 during GMP was larger than during APEC via comparison with the same period in 2014, indicating Parade Blue is cleaner than APEC Blue. The spatial distribution of NO2 and backward trajectories together with meterological parameters suggested that GMP Blue may be due to the regional significant decreasing discharge in peripheral cities. No weekend effect during GMP further confirmed the role of controlling discharge. This study provides direct evidence that it is possible to clean air in China.

  16. Revised Anatomy of Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Dubin, M; Dubin, Maurice; Soberman, Robert K.

    1997-01-01

    Stars accrete near invisible hydrogen dominated agglomerates. This population, the `dark matter,' effects the nature of stars. Measurements show plasma streams impacting Earth, planets, Sun and stars. This mass-energy source contradicts nebula collapse model for stars. The visual derived model, to which later discoveries (e.g., fusion) were appended, is confounded and contradicted by new observations. Discovery of a quantity of beryllium 7 (53 day half-life) in the Earth's upper atmosphere, fusion produced, hence from the solar outer zone, proves core fusion wrong. Magnetically pinched plasmas from aggregates impact stars at hundreds of km/s, create impulsive conditions for nuclear explosions below the surface. Disks with planets aid cluster capture. Planets modulate the influx varying fusion, hence luminosity (e.g., solar cycle). This population, with no assumptions or ad hoc physics, explains mysterious phenomena, e.g., luminosity/wind variation, sunspots, high temperature corona, CMEs, etc. Standard explan...

  17. Producing Runaway Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    How are the hypervelocity stars weve observed in our galaxy produced? A recent study suggests that these escapees could be accelerated by a massive black hole in the center of the Large Magellanic Cloud.A Black Hole SlingshotSince their discovery in 2005, weve observed dozens of candidate hypervelocity stars stars whose velocity in the rest frame of our galaxy exceeds the local escape velocity of the Milky Way. These stars present a huge puzzle: how did they attain these enormous velocities?One potential explanation is known as the Hills mechanism. In this process, a stellar binary is disrupted by a close encounter with a massive black hole (like those thought to reside at the center of every galaxy). One member of the binary is flung out of the system as a result of the close encounter, potentially reaching very large velocities.A star-forming region known as LHA 120-N 11, located within the LMC. Some binary star systems within the LMC might experience close encounters with a possible massive black hole at the LMCs center. [ESA/NASA/Hubble]Blame the LMC?Usually, discussions of the Hills mechanism assume that Sagittarius A*, the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, is the object guilty of accelerating the hypervelocity stars weve observed. But what if the culprit isnt Sgr A*, but a massive black hole at the center of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), one of the Milky Ways satellite galaxies?Though we dont yet have evidence of a massive black hole at the center of the LMC, the dwarf galaxy is large enough to potentially host one as large as 100,000 solar masses. Assuming that it does, two scientists at the University of Cambridge, Douglas Boubert and Wyn Evans, have now modeled how this black hole might tear apart binary star systems and fling hypervelocity stars around the Milky Way.Models for AccelerationBoubert and Evans determined that the LMCs hypothetical black hole could easily eject stars at ~100 km/s, which is the escape velocity of the

  18. Neutron Stars and Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Werner

    2009-01-01

    Neutron stars are the most compact astronomical objects in the universe which are accessible by direct observation. Studying neutron stars means studying physics in regimes unattainable in any terrestrial laboratory. Understanding their observed complex phenomena requires a wide range of scientific disciplines, including the nuclear and condensed matter physics of very dense matter in neutron star interiors, plasma physics and quantum electrodynamics of magnetospheres, and the relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics of electron-positron pulsar winds interacting with some ambient medium. Not to mention the test bed neutron stars provide for general relativity theories, and their importance as potential sources of gravitational waves. It is this variety of disciplines which, among others, makes neutron star research so fascinating, not only for those who have been working in the field for many years but also for students and young scientists. The aim of this book is to serve as a reference work which not only review...

  19. How to Become a Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    because of the obscuring effect of dust particles in its interior. PR Photo 02b/01 is a false-colour composite based on a visible (here rendered as blue), a near-infrared (green) and an infrared (red) image. Since the light from stars behind the cloud is only visible at the longest (infrared) wavelengths, they appear red. In PR Photo 02c/01 , the central area of these two photos may be directly compared. Technical information about these photos is available below. At a distance of only 410 light-years, Barnard 68 is one of the nearest dark clouds. Its size is about 12,500 AU (= 2 million million km; 1 Astronomical Unit [AU] = 150 million km), or just about the same as the so-called "Oort Cloud" of long-period comets that surrounds the solar system. The temperature of Barnard 68 is 16 Kelvin (-257 °C) and the pressure at its boundary is 0.0025 nPa, or about 10 times higher than in the interstellar medium (but still 40,000 million million times less than the atmospheric pressure at the Earth's surface!). The total mass of the cloud is about twice that of the Sun. A new investigation of Barnard 68 was carried out by means of instruments at the 3.58-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) at La Silla and the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at Paranal. Long exposures revealed a total of about 3700 background stars (of which over 1000 can only be seen at infrared wavelengths), cf. PR Photos 02a-c/01 . Careful measurements of the colours of these stars and hence, the degree of obscuration, allowed the most finely sampled (in more than 1000 individual areas) and most accurate mapping of the dust distribution inside a dark cloud ever performed. In order to further increase the accuracy, the mean dust density was measured in concentric circles around the centre - this resulted in a very accurate determination of the change in dust density with the distance from the centre. It was found that this dependance is almost exactly as that predicted for a sphere in which the opposite forces of

  20. Star spot location estimation using Kalman filter for star tracker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-bo; Yang, Jian-kun; Wang, Jiong-qi; Tan, Ji-chun; Li, Xiu-jian

    2011-04-20

    Star pattern recognition and attitude determination accuracy is highly dependent on star spot location accuracy for the star tracker. A star spot location estimation approach with the Kalman filter for a star tracker has been proposed, which consists of three steps. In the proposed approach, the approximate locations of the star spots in successive frames are predicted first; then the measurement star spot locations are achieved by defining a series of small windows around each predictive star spot location. Finally, the star spot locations are updated by the designed Kalman filter. To confirm the proposed star spot location estimation approach, the simulations based on the orbit data of the CHAMP satellite and the real guide star catalog are performed. The simulation results indicate that the proposed approach can filter out noises from the measurements remarkably if the sampling frequency is sufficient. PMID:21509065

  1. Monte Carlo simulation of star/linear and star/star blends with chemically identical monomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of chain size and architectural asymmetry on the miscibility of blends with chemically identical monomers, differing only in their molecular weight and architecture, are studied via Monte Carlo simulation by using the bond fluctuation model. Namely, we consider blends composed of linear/linear, star/linear and star/star chains. We found that linear/linear blends are more miscible than the corresponding star/star mixtures. In star/linear blends, the increase in the volume fraction of the star chains increases the miscibility. For both star/linear and star/star blends, the miscibility decreases with the increase in star functionality. When we increase the molecular weight of linear chains of star/linear mixtures the miscibility decreases. Our findings are compared with recent analytical and experimental results

  2. Monte Carlo simulation of star/linear and star/star blends with chemically identical monomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodorakis, P E [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Avgeropoulos, A [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Freire, J J [Departamento de Ciencias y Tecnicas FisicoquImicas, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Facultad de Ciencias, Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Kosmas, M [Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Vlahos, C [Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece)

    2007-11-21

    The effects of chain size and architectural asymmetry on the miscibility of blends with chemically identical monomers, differing only in their molecular weight and architecture, are studied via Monte Carlo simulation by using the bond fluctuation model. Namely, we consider blends composed of linear/linear, star/linear and star/star chains. We found that linear/linear blends are more miscible than the corresponding star/star mixtures. In star/linear blends, the increase in the volume fraction of the star chains increases the miscibility. For both star/linear and star/star blends, the miscibility decreases with the increase in star functionality. When we increase the molecular weight of linear chains of star/linear mixtures the miscibility decreases. Our findings are compared with recent analytical and experimental results.

  3. Rotating Stars Can Help Planets Become Habitable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    ), average (green), or fast (blue). [Johnstone et al. 2015]Case A(Initial atmospheric mass of 10-4 Earth masses)Entire atmosphere evaporates quickly, regardless of the rotation speed of the host star.Case B(Initial atmospheric mass of 10-3 Earth masses)Entire atmosphere evaporates, but the timescale is much shorter if the stellar host is fast-rotating as opposed to slow-rotating.Case C(Initial atmospheric mass of 10-2 Earth masses)If the stellar host is fast-rotating, entire atmosphere evaporates on a short timescale. If the host is slow-rotating, very little of the atmosphere evaporates.Case D(Initial atmospheric mass of 10-1 Earth masses)Very little of the atmosphere evaporates, regardless of the rotation speed of the host star.These results demonstrate that the initial rotation rate of a host star not only determines whether a planet will lose its protoatmosphere, but also how long this process will take. Thus, the evolution of host stars rotation rates is an important component in our understanding of how planets might evolve to become habitable.CitationC. P. Johnstone et al 2015 ApJ 815 L12. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/815/1/L12

  4. MN48: a new Galactic bona fide luminous blue variable revealed by Spitzer and SALT

    CERN Document Server

    Kniazev, A Y; Berdnikov, L N

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report the results of spectroscopic and photometric observations of the candidate evolved massive star MN48 disclosed via detection of a mid-infrared circular shell around it with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Follow-up optical spectroscopy of MN48 with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) carried out in 2011--2015 revealed significant changes in the spectrum of this star, which are typical of luminous blue variables (LBVs). The LBV status of MN48 was further supported by photometric monitoring which shows that in 2009--2011 this star has brightened by approx 0.9 and 1 mag in the V and I_c bands, respectively, then faded by approx 1.1 and 1.6 mag during the next four years, and apparently started to brighten again recently. The detected changes in the spectrum and brightness of MN48 make this star the 18th known Galactic bona fide LBV and increase the percentage of LBVs associated with circumstellar nebulae to more than 70 per cent. We discuss the possible birth place of MN48 and sugge...

  5. Luminous blue variables: An imaging perspective on their binarity and near environment

    CERN Document Server

    Martayan, Christophe; Baade, Dietrich; Mehner, Andrea; Rivinius, Thomas; Boffin, H M J; Girard, Julien; Mawet, Dimitri; Montagnier, Guillaume; Blomme, Ronny; Kervella, Pierre; Sana, Hugues; Štefl, Stanislav; Zorec, Juan; Lacour, Sylvestre; Bouquin, Jean-Baptiste Le; Martins, Fabrice; Mérand, Antoine; Patru, Fabien; Selman, Fernando; Frémat, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Context. Luminous blue variables (LBVs) are rare massive stars with very high luminosity. They are characterized by strong photo-metric and spectroscopic variability related to transient eruptions. The mechanisms at the origin of these eruptions is not well known. In addition, their formation is still problematic and the presence of a companion could help to explain how they form. Aims. This article presents a study of seven LBVs (about 20% of the known Galactic population), some Wolf-Rayet stars, and massive binaries. We probe the environments that surround these massive stars with near-, mid-, and far-infrared images, investigating potential nebula/shells and the companion stars. Methods. To investigate large spatial scales, we used seeing-limited and near diffraction-limited adaptive optics images to obtain a differential diagnostic on the presence of circumstellar matter and to determine their extent. From those images, we also looked for the presence of binary companions on a wide orbit. Once a companion...

  6. HST observations of the blue compact dwarf SBS 0335-052 a probable young galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Thuan Trinh Xuan; Lipovetsky, V A; Thuan, Trinh X.; Izotov, Yu.I.

    1996-01-01

    We present HST WFPC2 V and I images and GHRS UV spectrophotometry of the spectral regions around Ly$_alpha$ and OI 1302 of the extremely metal-deficient (Z~Zsun/41) blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxy SBS 0335-052. All the star formation in the BCD occurs in six super-star clusters (SSC) with ages =< 3-4 Myr. Dust is clearly present and mixed spatially with the SSCs. There is a supershell of radius ~380 pc, delineating a large supernova cavity. The instantaneous star formation rate is ~0.4 Msun yr^-1. Strong narrow Ly$\\alpha$ emission is not observed. Rather there is low intensity broad (FWZI = 20 A) Ly$\\alpha$ emission superposed on even broader Ly$\\alpha$ absorption by the HI envelope. This broad low-intensity emission is probably caused by resonant scattering of Ly$\\alpha$ photons. The BCD appears to be a young galaxy, undergoing its very first burst of star formation. This conclusion is based on the following evidence: 1) the underlying extended low-surface-brightness component is very irregular and filame...

  7. Rotation and Macroturbulence in Metal-Poor Field Red Giant and Red Horizontal Branch Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Bruce W.; Gray, David F.; Yong, David; Latham, David W.; Manset, Nadine; Zelman, Rachel; Laird, John B.

    2008-03-01

    We report the results for rotational velocities, Vrot sin i, and macroturbulence dispersions, ζRT, for 12 metal-poor field red giant branch (RGB) stars and 7 metal-poor field red horizontal branch (RHB) stars. The results are based on Fourier transform analyses of absorption line profiles from high-resolution (R ≈ 120,000), high-S/N (≈215 per pixel; ≈345 per resolution element) spectra obtained with the Gecko spectrograph at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). The stars were selected from the authors' previous studies of 20 RHB and 116 RGB stars, based primarily on larger-than-average line-broadening values. We find that ζRT values for the metal-poor RGB stars are very similar to those for metal-rich disk giants studied earlier by Gray and his collaborators. Six of the RGB stars have small rotational values, less than 2.0 km s-1, while five show significant rotation/enhanced line broadening, over 3 km s-1. We confirm the rapid rotation rate for RHB star HD 195636, found earlier by Preston. This star's rotation is comparable to that of the fastest known rotating blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars, when allowance is made for differences in radii and moments of inertia. The other six RHB stars have somewhat lower rotation but show a trend to higher values at higher temperatures (lower radii). Comparing our results with those for BHB stars from Kinman et al., we find that the fraction of rapidly rotating RHB stars is somewhat lower than is found among BHB stars. The number of rapidly rotating RHB stars is also smaller than we would have expected from the observed rotation of the RGB stars. We devise two empirical methods to translate our earlier line-broadening results into Vrot sin i for all the RGB and RHB stars they studied. Binning the RGB stars by luminosity, we find that most metal-poor field RGB stars show no detectable sign, on average, of rotation, which is not surprising given the stars' large radii. However, the most luminous stars, with MV

  8. FUSE observations of the Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxy Mrk 59

    CERN Document Server

    Thuan, T X; Izotov, Yu I

    2001-01-01

    New FUSE far-UV spectroscopy of the nearby metal-deficient (Zsun/8) cometary Blue Compact Dwarf (BCD) galaxy Markarian (Mrk) 59 is discussed. The data are used to investigate element abundances in its interstellar medium. The H I absorption lines are characterized by narrow cores which are interstellar in origin and by broad wings which are stellar in origin. The mean interstellar H I column density is ~ 7x10E20 cm-2 in Mrk 59. No H2 lines are seen and N(H2) is < 10E15 cm-2 at the 10 sigma level. The lack of diffuse H2 is due to the combined effect of a strong UV radiation field which destroys the H2 molecules and a low metallicity which leads to a scarcity of dust grains necessary for H2 formation. P-Cygni profiles of the S VI 933.4, 944.5 A and O VI 1031.9, 1037.6 A lines are seen, indicating the presence of very hot O stars and a stellar wind terminal velocity of ~ 1000 km/s. By fitting the line profiles with multiple components having each a velocity dispersion b = 7 km/s and spanning a radial velocity...

  9. Chemical Evolution of Dwarf Spheroidal and Blue Compact Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lanfranchi, G A; Lanfranchi, Gustavo A.; Matteucci, Francesca

    2003-01-01

    We studied the chemical evolution of Dwarf Spheroidal (dSph) and Blue Compact Galaxies (BCGs) by means of comparison between the predictions of chemical evolution models and several observed abundance ratios. Detailed models with up to date nucleosynthesis taking into account the role played by supernovae of different types (II, Ia) were developed for both types of galaxies allowing us to follow the evolution of several chemical elements. The models are specified by the prescriptions of the star formation (SF) and galactic wind efficiencies chosen to reproduce the main features of these galaxies. We also investigated a possible connection in the evolution of dSph and BCGs and compared the predictions of the models to the abundance ratios observed in Damped Lyman alpha Systems (DLAs). The main conclusions are: i) the observed distribution of [alpha/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] in dSph is mainly a result of the SF rate coupled with the wind efficiency; ii) a low SF efficiency and a high wind efficiency are required to reprod...

  10. Slow blue nuclear hypervariables in PanSTARRS-1

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrence, A; MacLeod, C; Gezari, S; Elvis, M; Ward, M; Smartt, S J; Smith, K W; Wright, D; Fraser, M; Marshall, P; Kaiser, N; Burgett, W; Magnier, E; Tonry, J; Chambers, K; Wainscoat, R; Waters, C; Price, P; Metcalfe, N; Valenti, S; Kotak, R; Mead, A; Inserra, C; Chen, T W; Soderberg, A

    2016-01-01

    We discuss 76 large amplitude transients (Delta-m>1.5) occurring in the nuclei of galaxies, nearly all with no previously known AGN. They have been discovered as part of the Pan-STARRS1 3pi survey, by comparison with SDSS photometry a decade earlier, and then monitored with the Liverpool Telescope. We also have optical spectroscopy for 51/76 of the objects. Based on colours, light curve shape, and spectra, these transients seem to fall into four groups. Some (~13%) turned out to be misclassified stars or objects of unknown type. Of the remainder, some (~21%$) are red/fast transients and are known or likely nuclear supernovae of various types. A few (~9%) are either radio sources or erratic variables and so likely blazars. However the majority (~66%) are blue and evolve slowly, on a timescale of years. Spectroscopy shows that these objects are AGN at z~ 0.3 - 1.4, which must have brightened since the SDSS photometry by around an order of magnitude. It is likely that most of these objects were in fact AGN a dec...

  11. Search for Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies During Quiescence

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, J Sanchez; Amorin, R; Aguerri, J A; Sanchez-Janssen, R; Tenorio-Tagle, G

    2008-01-01

    Blue Compact Dwarf (BCD) galaxies are metal poor systems going through a major starburst that cannot last for long. We have identified galaxies which may be BCDs during quiescence (QBCD), i.e., before the characteristic starburst sets in or when it has faded away. These QBCD galaxies are assumed to be like the BCD host galaxies. The SDSS/DR6 database provides ~21500 QBCD candidates. We also select from SDSS/DR6 a complete sample of BCD galaxies to serve as reference. The properties of these two galaxy sets have been computed and compared. The QBCD candidates are thirty times more abundant than the BCDs, with their luminosity functions being very similar except for the scaling factor, and the expected luminosity dimming associated with the end of the starburst. QBCDs are redder than BCDs, and they have larger HII region based oxygen abundance. QBCDs also have lower surface brightness. The BCD candidates turn out to be the QBCD candidates with the largest specific star formation rate (actually, with the largest...

  12. DISCOVERY OF A LUMINOUS BLUE VARIABLE WITH AN EJECTION NEBULA NEAR THE QUINTUPLET CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the discovery of a luminous blue variable (LBV) lying ∼7 pc in projection from the Quintuplet cluster. This source, which we call LBV G0.120 - 0.048, was selected for spectroscopy owing to its detection as a strong source of Paschen-α (Pα) excess in a recent narrowband imaging survey of the Galactic center region with the Hubble Space Telescope/Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer. The K-band spectrum is similar to that of the Pistol Star and other known LBVs. The new LBV was previously cataloged as a photometric variable star, exhibiting brightness fluctuations of up to ∼1 mag between 1994 and 1997, with significant variability also occurring on month-to-month timescales. The luminosity of LBV G0.120 - 0.048, as derived from Two-Micron All Sky Survey photometry, is approximately equivalent to that of the Pistol Star. However, the time-averaged brightness of LBV G0.120 - 0.048 between 1994 and 1997 exceeded that of the Pistol Star; LBV G0.120 - 0.048 also suffers more extinction, which suggests that it was intrinsically more luminous in the infrared than the Pistol Star between 1994 and 1997. Pα images reveal a thin circular nebula centered on LBV G0.120 - 0.048 with a physical radius of ∼0.8 pc. We suggest that this nebula is a shell of ejected material launched from a discrete eruption that occurred between 5000 and 10,000 years ago. Because of the very short amount of time that evolved massive stars spend in the LBV phase, and the close proximity of LBV G0.120 - 0.048 to the Quintuplet cluster, we suggest that this object might be coeval with the cluster, and may have once resided within it.

  13. Catch a Star!

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    ESO and the European Association for Astronomy Education are launching today the 2007 edition of 'Catch a Star!', their international astronomy competition for school students. Now in its fifth year, the competition offers students the chance to win a once-in-a-lifetime trip to ESO's flagship observatory in Chile, as well as many other prizes. Students are invited to 'become astronomers' and embark on a journey to explore the Universe. ESO PR Photo 42/06 The competition includes separate categories - 'Catch a Star Researchers' and 'Catch a Star Adventurers' - to ensure that every student, whatever their level, has the chance to enter and win exciting prizes. For the artistically minded, 'Catch a Star!' also includes an artwork competition, 'Catch a Star Artists'. "'Catch a Star!' offers a unique opportunity for students to learn more about astronomy and about the methods scientists use to discover new things about the Universe", said Douglas Pierce-Price, Education Officer at ESO. In teams, students choose an astronomical topic to study and produce an in-depth report. An important part of the project for 'Catch a Star Researchers' is to think about how ESO's telescopes or a telescope of the future can contribute to their investigations of the subject. As well as the top prize - a trip to one of ESO's observatory sites in Chile - visits to observatories in Germany, Austria and Spain, and many other prizes are also available to be won. 'Catch a Star Researchers' winners will be chosen by an international jury, and 'Catch a Star Adventurers' will be awarded further prizes by lottery. Entries for 'Catch a Star Artists' will be displayed on the web and winners chosen with the help of a public online vote. The first editions of 'Catch a Star!' have attracted several hundred entries from more than 25 countries worldwide. Previous winning entries have included "Star clusters and the structure of the Milky Way" (Budapest, Hungary), "Vega" (Acqui Terme, Italy) and "Venus

  14. T's and Blues. Specialized Information Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do It Now Foundation, Phoenix, AZ.

    This compilation of journal articles provides basic information on abuse of Talwin, a mild prescription painkiller (T's), and Pyribenzamine, a nonprescription antihistimine (Blues). These two drugs, taken in combination, produce an effect similar to that produced by heroin. Stories from "Drug Survival News,""Emergency Medicine," and "FDA Consumer"…

  15. Visualising DNA in Classrooms Using Nile Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Christine; Roche, Scott; McKay, David

    2008-01-01

    Giving students the opportunity to extract, manipulate and visualise DNA molecules enhances a constructivist approach to learning about modern techniques in biology and biotechnology Visualisation usually requires agarose gel electrophoresis and staining. In this article, we report on an alternative DNA stain, Nile Blue A, that may be used in the…

  16. Nanotubes based on monolayer blue phosphorus

    KAUST Repository

    Montes, E.

    2016-07-08

    We demonstrate structural stability of monolayer zigzag and armchair blue phosphorus nanotubes by means of molecular dynamics simulations. The vibrational spectrum and electronic band structure are determined and analyzed as functions of the tube diameter and axial strain. The nanotubes are found to be semiconductors with a sensitive indirect band gap that allows flexible tuning.

  17. Blue whales respond to anthropogenic noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcón, Mariana L; Cummins, Amanda J; Kerosky, Sara M; Roche, Lauren K; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood. PMID:22393434

  18. Improper, Blue-Shifting Hydrogen Bond

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hobza, Pavel; Havlas, Zdeněk

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 108, - (2002), s. 325-334. ISSN 1432-881X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905; CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : improper, blue-shifting hydrogen bond * properties * nature Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.421, year: 2002

  19. Key Words in China Economic Blue Book

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tu Fei

    2009-01-01

    @@ With a fluctuating 2008 comes to an end,nOW new 2009 has approaehed to us.Recently、Analvsis and Forecast of China Economy in 2009(Blue Book of Ckina Economy),by the Economics Department or Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.

  20. Blue nano titania made in diffusion flames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teleki, Alexandra; Pratsinis, Sotiris E

    2009-05-21

    Blue titanium suboxide nanoparticles (including Magneli phases) were formed directly without any post-processing or addition of dopants by combustion of titanium-tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP) vapor at atmospheric pressure. Particle size, phase composition, rutile and anatase crystal sizes as well as the blue coloration were controlled by rapid quenching of the flame with a critical flow nozzle placed at various heights above the burner. The particles showed a broad absorption in the near-infrared region and retained their blue color upon storage in ambient atmosphere. A high concentration of paramagnetic Ti3+ centres was found in the substoichiometric particles by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Furthermore particles with controlled band gap energy from 3.2 to 3.6 eV were made by controlling the burner-nozzle-distance from 10 to 1 cm, respectively. The color robustness and extent of suboxidation could be further enhanced by co-oxidation of TTIP with hexamethyldisiloxane in the flame resulting in SiO2-coated titanium suboxide particles. The process is cost-effective and green while the particles produced can replace traditional blue colored, cobalt-containing pigments. PMID:19421486

  1. Blue whales respond to anthropogenic noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana L Melcón

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood.

  2. Another supernova with a blue progenitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SN 1984A in NGC 3169 showed strong Hα emission which appeared between 2.2 and 23 years before maximum light. The authors suggest that this was produced by sudden mass loss from a blue supergiant. From the intense circumstellar Hα emission at maximum light they estimate that at least 0.4 solar masses of gas had been suddenly expelled

  3. Making star teams out of star players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankins, Michael; Bird, Alan; Root, James

    2013-01-01

    Top talent is an invaluable asset: In highly specialized or creative work, for instance, "A" players are likely to be six times as productive as "B" players. So when your company has a crucial strategic project, why not multiply all that firepower and have a team of your best performers tackle it? Yet many companies hesitate to do this, believing that all-star teams don't work: Big egos will get in the way. The stars won't be able to work with one another. They'll drive the team Leader crazy. Mankins, Bird, and Root of Bain & Company believe it's time to set aside that thinking. They have seen all-star teams do extraordinary work. But there is a right way and a wrong way to organize them. Before you can even begin to assemble such a team, you need to have the right talent management practices, so you hire and develop the best people and know what they're capable of. You have to give the team appropriate incentives and leaders and support staffers who are stars in their own right. And projects that are ill-defined or small scale are not for all-star teams. Use them only for critical missions, and make sure their objectives are clear. Even with the right setup, things can still go wrong. The wise executive will take steps to manage egos, prune non-team-players, and prevent average coworkers from feeling completely undervalued. She will also invest a lot of time in choosing the right team Leader and will ask members for lots of feedback to monitor how that leader is doing. PMID:23390743

  4. Chemical Abundances in the Secondary Star of the Black Hole Binary V4641 Sagittarii (SAX J1819.3-2525)

    CERN Document Server

    Sadakane, K; Aoki, W; Arimoto, N; Takada-Hidai, M; Ohnishi, T; Tajitsu, A; Beers, T C; Iwamoto, N; Tominaga, N; Umeda, H; Maeda, K; Nomoto, K; Sadakane, Kozo; Arai, Akira; Aoki, Wako; Arimoto, Nobuo; Takada-Hidai, Masahide; Ohnishi, Takashi; Tajitsu, Akito; Beers, Timothy C.; Iwamoto, Nobuyuki; Tominaga, Nozomu; Umeda, Hideyuki; Maeda, Keiichi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2006-01-01

    We report on detailed spectroscopic studies performed for the secondary star in the black hole binary (micro-quasar) V4641 Sgr in order to examine its surface chemical composition and to see if its surface shows any signature of pollution by ejecta from a supernova explosion. High-resolution spectra of V4641 Sgr observed in the quiescent state in the blue-visual region are compared with those of the two bright well-studied B9 stars (14 Cyg and $\

  5. O(He) Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Rauch, T; Werner, K; Kruk, J W

    2008-01-01

    Spectral analyses of H-deficient post-AGB stars have shown that a small group of four extremely hot objects exists which have almost pure He absorption-line spectra in the optical. These are classified as O(He) stars. For their evolution there are two scenarios: They could be the long-sought hot successors of RCrB stars, which have not been identified up to now. If this turns out to be true, then a third post-AGB evolutionary sequence is revealed, which is probably the result of a double-degenerate merging process. An alternative explanation might be that O(He) stars are post early-AGB stars. These depart from the AGB just before they experience their first thermal pulse (TP) which will then occur as a late thermal pulse (LTP). This would be a link to the low-mass He-enriched sdO stars and low-mass, particularly He-rich PG1159 stars.

  6. Dense Axion Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Braaten, Eric; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    If the dark matter consists of axions, gravity can cause them to coalesce into axion stars, which are stable gravitationally bound Bose-Einstein condensates of axions. In the previously known axion stars, gravity and the attractive force between pairs of axions are balanced by the kinetic pressure.If the axion mass energy is $mc^2= 10^{-4}$ eV, these dilute axion stars have a maximum mass of about $10^{-14} M_\\odot$. We point out that there are also dense axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field pressure of the axion condensate. We study axion stars using the leading term in a systematically improvable approximation to the effective potential of the nonrelativistic effective field theory for axions. Using the Thomas-Fermi approximation in which the kinetic pressure is neglected, we find a sequence of new branches of axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field interaction energy of the axion condensate. If $mc^2 = 10^{-4}$ eV, the first branch of these dense axion stars has mas...

  7. Mass loss from stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses the different mass-loss processes of stars and how mass-loss rates determine the fate of stars in advanced stages of stellar evolution. Main sequence stars have their atmospheric structure dominated by radiation pressure. The pressure exerted by energetic photons is sufficient to drive gases off into space. This process can impact enormous turbulence to the local interstellar medium. Evolutionary effects keep these stars from fully evaporating, but the very course of their evolution is determined by this mass shedding process. Lower main sequence stars, like the sun, have a turbulent atmosphere enveloped in hot, thin coronal gas, blowing off a light stellar breeze. As the main sequence star evolves to a giant, its corona dissipates and the breeze turns into a strong stellar wind. Intermitten sputters combined with pulsational instabilities can lead to partial ejection of the atmosphere and envelope of a red giant, i.e. a planetary nebula results. The mass-loss from stars through planetary nebule combined with other mass-loss processes such as stellar winds returns a substantial amount of material to the interstellar environment. Mass-loss in binary systems is also discussed

  8. HUBBLE'S PANORAMIC PORTRAIT OF A VAST STAR-FORMING REGION

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has snapped a panoramic portrait of a vast, sculpted landscape of gas and dust where thousands of stars are being born. This fertile star-forming region, called the 30 Doradus Nebula, has a sparkling stellar centerpiece: the most spectacular cluster of massive stars in our cosmic neighborhood of about 25 galaxies. The mosaic picture shows that ultraviolet radiation and high-speed material unleashed by the stars in the cluster, called R136 [the large blue blob left of center], are weaving a tapestry of creation and destruction, triggering the collapse of looming gas and dust clouds and forming pillar-like structures that are incubators for nascent stars. The photo offers an unprecedented, detailed view of the entire inner region of 30 Doradus, measuring 200 light-years wide by 150 light-years high. The nebula resides in the Large Magellanic Cloud (a satellite galaxy of the Milky Way), 170,000 light-years from Earth. Nebulas like 30 Doradus are the 'signposts' of recent star birth. High-energy ultraviolet radiation from the young, hot, massive stars in R136 causes the surrounding gaseous material to glow. Previous Hubble telescope observations showed that R136 contains several dozen of the most massive stars known, each about 100 times the mass of the Sun and about 10 times as hot. These stellar behemoths all formed at the same time about 2 million years ago. The stars in R136 are producing intense 'stellar winds' (streams of material traveling at several million miles an hour), which are wreaking havoc on the gas and dust in the surrounding neighborhood. The winds are pushing the gas away from the cluster and compressing the inner regions of the surrounding gas and dust clouds [the pinkish material]. The intense pressure is triggering the collapse of parts of the clouds, producing a new generation of star formation around the central cluster. The new stellar nursery is about 30 to 50 light-years from R136. Most of the stars in the

  9. Approaches to blue light emitting polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blue-light emitting polymers are important for full colour displays. Blue- light emitting polymers, such as poly(fluorene)s have been reported, but tend to be soluble in the conjugated form. The aim of the project was to produce insoluble polymers, prepared via processible soluble precursor polymers, so that multilayer devices could be easily fabricated. Multilayer devices are often required for more efficient light emission. The target materials were derivatives of poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV), a green-yellow emitting polymer. To blue shift the emission of PPV, bulky substituents, namely chloro, phenyl and alkyl, were attached to the vinylic linkage. These bulky substituents were incorporated to introduce steric interactions between the side group and the backbone phenyl protons, to shorten the effective conjugation length and increase the HOMO-LUMO energy gap. Chloro substituents quenched the fluorescence. Phenyl substituents resulted in highly conjugated precursor polymers with low molecular weights, showing blue- green to green emission in the conjugated form. Alkyl substituted PPV derivatives, prepared via chloro or xanthate precursors, were blue-light emitting conjugated polymers, which were electroluminescent in ITO/polymer/AI devices. The PL quantum yields were found to be up to 38%. The incorporation of electron withdrawing groups into the polymers was attempted, to lower the barrier to electron injection. Chloro groups quenched fluorescence and methylsulfone substituents resulted in insoluble polymers, probably due to cross-linking. However a copolymer containing methylsulfone electron withdrawing groups could be prepared. Phenylsulfone substituents were found to give fluorescent polymers which were soluble in the precursor form. (author)

  10. Agonism and dominance in female blue monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klass, Keren; Cords, Marina

    2015-12-01

    Agonistic behavior features prominently in hypotheses that explain how social variation relates to ecological factors and phylogenetic constraints. Dominance systems vary along axes of despotism, tolerance, and nepotism, and comparative studies examine cross-species patterns in these classifications. To contribute to such studies, we present a comprehensive picture of agonistic behavior and dominance relationships in wild female blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis), an arboreal guenon, with data from 9 groups spanning 18 years. We assessed where blue monkeys fall along despotic, tolerant, and nepotistic spectra, how their dominance system compares to other primates, primarily cercopithecines, and whether their agonistic behavior matches socioecological model predictions. Blue monkeys showed low rates of mainly low-intensity agonism and little counter-aggression. Rates increased with rank and group size. Dominance asymmetry varied at different organizational levels, being more pronounced at the level of interactions than dyad or group. Hierarchies were quite stable, had moderate-to-high linearity and directional consistency and moderate steepness. There was clear maternal rank inheritance, but inconsistent adherence to Kawamura's rules. There was little between-group variation, although hierarchy metrics showed considerable variation across group-years. Overall, blue monkeys have moderately despotic, moderately tolerant, and nepotistic dominance hierarchies. They resemble other cercopithecines in having significantly linear and steep hierarchies with a generally stable, matriline-based structure, suggesting a phylogenetic basis to this aspect of their social system. Blue monkeys most closely match Sterck et al.'s [1997] Resident-Nepotistic-Tolerant dominance category, although they do not fully conform to predictions of any one socioecological model. Our results suggest that socioecological models might better predict variation within than across clades, thereby

  11. The Very Massive Star Content of the Nuclear Star Clusters in NGC 5253

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. J.; Crowther, P. A.; Calzetti, D.; Sidoli, F.

    2016-05-01

    The blue compact dwarf galaxy NGC 5253 hosts a very young starburst containing twin nuclear star clusters, separated by a projected distance of 5 pc. One cluster (#5) coincides with the peak of the Hα emission and the other (#11) with a massive ultracompact H ii region. A recent analysis of these clusters shows that they have a photometric age of 1 ± 1 Myr, in apparent contradiction with the age of 3–5 Myr inferred from the presence of Wolf-Rayet features in the cluster #5 spectrum. We examine Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet and Very Large Telescope optical spectroscopy of #5 and show that the stellar features arise from very massive stars (VMSs), with masses greater than 100 M ⊙, at an age of 1–2 Myr. We further show that the very high ionizing flux from the nuclear clusters can only be explained if VMSs are present. We investigate the origin of the observed nitrogen enrichment in the circumcluster ionized gas and find that the excess N can be produced by massive rotating stars within the first 1 Myr. We find similarities between the NGC 5253 cluster spectrum and those of metal-poor, high-redshift galaxies. We discuss the presence of VMSs in young, star-forming galaxies at high redshift; these should be detected in rest-frame UV spectra to be obtained with the James Webb Space Telescope. We emphasize that population synthesis models with upper mass cutoffs greater than 100 M ⊙ are crucial for future studies of young massive star clusters at all redshifts.

  12. Pianure Blues: From the Dialect of the Plains to the English of the Blues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Nadiani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors describe a joint performance project called Pianure Blues, in which poems in Romagnolo dialect are transposed into English and performed as blues songs, and in which songs from the Anglo-American blues/roots/folk tradition are transposed and performed as poems in Romagnolo dialect – a process they have called ‘trans-staging’. A process in which they are writers and performers and, especially, translators; translators of each other’s voices, stories, landscapes, rhythms and sounds as they look for the bond between places, languages and traditions that seem very distant from each other but which find a common mood and poetic language, a common aesthetic, in their performances. The authors reflect on the creative process involved and on the significance of establishing an intersemiotic dialogue between a ‘minority’ dialect such as Romagnolo and a ‘global’ language such as English, and the blues, have become.

  13. The multiplicity of massive stars: A high angular resolution survey with the HST fine guidance sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldoretta, E. J.; Gies, D. R.; Henry, T. J.; Jao, W.-C.; Norris, R. P., E-mail: emily@astro.umontreal.ca, E-mail: gies@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: thenry@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: jao@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: norris@chara.gsu.edu [Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, P. O. Box 5060, Atlanta, GA 30302-5060 (United States); and others

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of an all-sky survey made with the Fine Guidance Sensor on the Hubble Space Telescope to search for angularly resolved binary systems among massive stars. The sample of 224 stars is comprised mainly of Galactic O- and B-type stars and luminous blue variables, plus a few luminous stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The FGS TRANS mode observations are sensitive to the detection of companions with an angular separation between 0.″01 and 1.″0 and brighter than △m=5. The FGS observations resolved 52 binary and 6 triple star systems and detected partially resolved binaries in 7 additional targets (43 of these are new detections). These numbers yield a companion detection frequency of 29% for the FGS survey. We also gathered literature results on the numbers of close spectroscopic binaries and wider astrometric binaries among the sample, and we present estimates of the frequency of multiple systems and the companion frequency for subsets of stars residing in clusters and associations, field stars, and runaway stars. These results confirm the high multiplicity fraction, especially among massive stars in clusters and associations. We show that the period distribution is approximately flat in increments of logP. We identify a number of systems of potential interest for long-term orbital determinations, and we note the importance of some of these companions for the interpretation of the radial velocities and light curves of close binaries that have third companions.

  14. The multiplicity of massive stars: A high angular resolution survey with the HST fine guidance sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the results of an all-sky survey made with the Fine Guidance Sensor on the Hubble Space Telescope to search for angularly resolved binary systems among massive stars. The sample of 224 stars is comprised mainly of Galactic O- and B-type stars and luminous blue variables, plus a few luminous stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The FGS TRANS mode observations are sensitive to the detection of companions with an angular separation between 0.″01 and 1.″0 and brighter than △m=5. The FGS observations resolved 52 binary and 6 triple star systems and detected partially resolved binaries in 7 additional targets (43 of these are new detections). These numbers yield a companion detection frequency of 29% for the FGS survey. We also gathered literature results on the numbers of close spectroscopic binaries and wider astrometric binaries among the sample, and we present estimates of the frequency of multiple systems and the companion frequency for subsets of stars residing in clusters and associations, field stars, and runaway stars. These results confirm the high multiplicity fraction, especially among massive stars in clusters and associations. We show that the period distribution is approximately flat in increments of logP. We identify a number of systems of potential interest for long-term orbital determinations, and we note the importance of some of these companions for the interpretation of the radial velocities and light curves of close binaries that have third companions.

  15. Binary Popldation Synthcsis Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Zhanwen

    2011-01-01

    Binary population synthesis (BPS), an approach to evolving millions of stars (including binaries) simultaneously, plays a crucial role in our understanding of stellar physics, the structure and evolution of galaxies, and cosmology. We proposed and developed a BPS approach, and used it to investigate the formation of many peculiar stars such as hot subdwarf stars, progenitors of type la supernovae, barium stars, CH stars, planetary nebulae, double white dwarfs, blue stragglers, contact binaries, etc. We also established an evolution population synthesis (EPS) model, the Yunnan Model, which takes into account binary interactions for the first time. We applied our model for the origin of hot subdwarf stars in the study of elliptical galaxies and explained their far-UV radiation.

  16. A Novel Approach for Star Extraction from Star Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENGSheng; LIUJian; TIANJinwen; YANGRuijuan

    2005-01-01

    Star acquisition is one of the most timeconsuming routines in star tracker operation. One star Point spread function (PSF) forms a near Gaussian distribution in the star image, the star image can be regarded as 2-D intensity surface, and every pixel is the sampled point. The star cluster grouping is to find the highes tintensity pixel among the PSFs and collect the adjacent pixels and group them. The possible highest intensity pixels are the maximum extremum points of the 2-D intensity surface. To efficiently extract star from the star image, a novel star acquisition approach, which uses the simplified least squares support vector machines regression algorithm to find the optimal intensity surface function and predictthe maximum extremum points, is proposed. Comput erexperiments are carried out for the simulated star images.The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method has a lot of advantages, including the high efficiency and good robustness over a wide range of sensor noise.

  17. Hyperons in neutron stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Katayama

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Using the Dirac–Brueckner–Hartree–Fock approach, the properties of neutron-star matter including hyperons are investigated. In the calculation, we consider both time and space components of the vector self-energies of baryons as well as the scalar ones. Furthermore, the effect of negative-energy states of baryons is partly taken into account. We obtain the maximum neutron-star mass of 2.08M⊙, which is consistent with the recently observed, massive neutron stars. We discuss a universal, repulsive three-body force for hyperons in matter.

  18. Hyperons in neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Katayama, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Using the Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach, the properties of neutron-star matter including hyperons are investigated. In the calculation, we consider both time and space components of the vector self-energies of baryons as well as the scalar ones. Furthermore, the effect of negative-energy states of baryons is partly taken into account. We obtain the maximum neutron-star mass of $2.08\\,M_{\\odot}$, which is consistent with the recently observed, massive neutron stars. We discuss a universal, repulsive three-body force for hyperons in matter.

  19. Entropy Production of Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid M. Martyushev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The entropy production (inside the volume bounded by a photosphere of main-sequence stars, subgiants, giants, and supergiants is calculated based on B–V photometry data. A non-linear inverse relationship of thermodynamic fluxes and forces as well as an almost constant specific (per volume entropy production of main-sequence stars (for 95% of stars, this quantity lies within 0.5 to 2.2 of the corresponding solar magnitude is found. The obtained results are discussed from the perspective of known extreme principles related to entropy production.

  20. Neutrinos and the stars

    CERN Document Server

    Raffelt, Georg

    2012-01-01

    The role of neutrinos in stars is introduced for students with little prior astrophysical exposure. We begin with neutrinos as an energy-loss channel in ordinary stars and conversely, how stars provide information on neutrinos and possible other low-mass particles. Next we turn to the Sun as a measurable source of neutrinos and other particles. Finally we discuss supernova (SN) neutrinos, the SN 1987A measurements, and the quest for a high-statistics neutrino measurement from the next nearby SN. We also touch on the subject of neutrino oscillations in the high-density SN context.

  1. STARs in the CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrmann, Ingrid; Fort, Philippe; Elliott, David J

    2016-08-15

    STAR (signal transduction and activation of RNA) proteins regulate splicing of target genes that have roles in neural connectivity, survival and myelination in the vertebrate nervous system. These regulated splicing targets include mRNAs such as the Neurexins (Nrxn), SMN2 (survival of motor neuron) and MAG (myelin-associated glycoprotein). Recent work has made it possible to identify and validate STAR protein splicing targets in vivo by using genetically modified mouse models. In this review, we will discuss the importance of STAR protein splicing targets in the CNS (central nervous system). PMID:27528753

  2. Vidicon star tracker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, W H

    1966-04-01

    In many applications of star trackers, extremely short acquisition times, as well as accuracy and sensitivity, are required. Tracking systems employing the vidicon as a radiation sensor have been shown to provide the necessary speed of acquisition for such applications. This paper discusses the various theoretical and practical considerations involved in using the vidicon as a sensor in a star tracking system. A typical system configuration including telescope, sensor, and processing electronics is presented. The various optical and sensor parametric relationships required in the design of a vidicon star tracker are fully discussed and analyzed. PMID:20048884

  3. USA: Blue Rhino acquired by Ferrellgas; USA: Blue Rhino rachete par Ferrellgas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2004-04-15

    Blue Rhino, pioneer and leader in the United States for branded propane tank exchange service and a leading provider of complementary products and services to consumers through many of the world's leading retailers, is acquired by Ferrellgas. Terms of the merger agreement call for the payment of $17 in cash for each share of Blue Rhino, for a total of approximately $343 million. (authors)

  4. Evolution of blue E/S0 galaxies from z ~ 1: merger remnants or disk-rebuilding galaxies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas-Company, M.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Tresse, L.; Bolzonella, M.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Maier, C.

    2010-06-01

    Context. Studying outliers from the bimodal distribution of galaxies in the color-mass space, such as morphological early-type galaxies residing in the blue cloud (blue E/S0s), can help for better understanding the physical mechanisms that lead galaxy migrations in this space. Aims: In this paper we try to bring new clues to studying the evolution of the properties of a significant sample of blue E/S0 galaxies in the COSMOS field. Methods: We define blue E/S0 galaxies as objects having a clear early-type morphology on the HST/ACS images (according to our automated classification scheme galSVM) but with a blue rest-frame color (defined by using the SED best-fit template on the COSMOS primary photometric catalogs). Combining these two measurements with spectroscopic redshifts from the zCOSMOS 10k release, we isolated 210 IAB 1010 in three redshift bins (0.2 late type populations (bimodality mass) indicating that the abundance of blue E/S0 is another measure of the downsizing effect in the build-up of the red sequence. There seems to be a turn-over mass in the nature of blue E/S0 galaxies. Above log (M_*/M_⊙) ~ 10.8 blue E/S0 resemble to merger remnants probably migrating to the red sequence on a time scale of ˜3 Gyr. Below this mass, they seem to be closer to normal late-type galaxies, as if they were the result of minor mergers that triggered the central star formation and built a central bulge component or were (re)building a disk from the surrounding gas in a much longer time scale, suggesting that they are moving back or staying in the blue cloud. This turn-over mass does not seem to evolve significantly from z ~ 1 in contrast to the threshold mass and therefore does not seem to be linked with the relative abundance of blue E/S0s.

  5. The Role of Major Gas-rich Mergers on the Evolution of Galaxies from the Blue Cloud to the Red Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Hao, Cai-Na; Xia, X. Y.; Mao, Shude; Shi, Yong

    2016-07-01

    With the aim of exploring the fast evolutionary path from the blue cloud of star-forming galaxies to the red sequence of quiescent galaxies in the local universe, we select a local advanced merging infrared luminous and ultraluminous galaxy (adv-merger (U)LIRGs) sample and perform careful dust extinction corrections to investigate their positions in the star formation rate–M *, u ‑ r, and NUV ‑ r color–mass diagrams. The sample consists of 89 (U)LIRGs at the late merger stage, obtained from cross-correlating the Infrared Astronomical Satellite Point Source Catalog Redshift Survey and 1 Jy ULIRGs samples with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 database. Our results show that 74 % +/- 5 % of adv-merger (U)LIRGs are localized above the 1σ line of the local star-forming galaxy main sequence. We also find that all adv-merger (U)LIRGs are more massive than and as blue as the blue cloud galaxies after corrections for Galactic and internal dust extinctions, with 95 % +/- 2 % and 81 % +/- 4 % of them outside the blue cloud on the u ‑ r and NUV ‑ r color–mass diagrams, respectively. These results, combined with the short timescale for exhausting the molecular gas reservoir in adv-merger (U)LIRGs (3× {10}7 to 3× {10}8 years), imply that the adv-merger (U)LIRGs are likely at the starting point of the fast evolutionary track previously proposed by several groups. While the number density of adv-merger (U)LIRGs is only ∼ 0.1 % of the blue cloud star-forming galaxies in the local universe, this evolutionary track may play a more important role at high redshift.

  6. OB stars at the lowest Local Group metallicity. GTC-OSIRIS observations of Sextans A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, I.; Garcia, M.; Herrero, A.; Simón-Díaz, S.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Massive stars play an important role in the chemical and dynamical evolution of the Universe. The first metal-poor stars may have started the reionization of the Universe. To understand these early epochs it is necessary to know the behavior and the physical properties of massive stars in very metal-poor environments. We focus on the massive stellar content of the metal-poor irregular galaxy Sextans A. Aims: Our aim is to find and classify OB stars in Sextans A, so as to later determine accurate stellar parameters of these blue massive stars in this low-metallicity region (Z ~ 0.1 Z⊙). Methods: Using UBV photometry, the reddening-free index Q and GALEX imaging, we built a list of blue massive star candidates in Sextans A. We obtained low-resolution (R ~ 1000) GTC-OSIRIS spectra for a fraction of them and carried out spectral classification. For the confirmed O-stars, we derived preliminary stellar parameters. Results: The target selection criteria and observations were successful and have produced the first spectroscopic atlas of OB-type stars in Sextans A. From the whole sample of 18 observed stars, 12 were classified as early OB-types, including 5 O-stars. The radial velocities of all target stars are in agreement with their Sextans A membership, although three of them show significant deviations. We determined the stellar parameters of the O-type stars using the stellar atmosphere code FASTWIND and revisited the sub-SMC temperature scale. Two of the O-stars are consistent with relatively strong winds and enhanced helium abundances, although results are not conclusive. We discuss the position of the OB stars in the HRD. Initial stellar masses run from slightly below 20 up to 40 solar masses. Conclusions: The target selection method worked well for Sextans A. The stellar temperatures are consistent with findings in other galaxies. Some of the targets deserve follow-up spectroscopy because of indications of a runaway nature, an enhanced helium abundance

  7. Killing Star Formation in Satellite Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-08-01

    When a dwarf galaxy falls into the halo of a large galaxy like the Milky Way, how is star formation in the dwarf affected? A collaboration led by Andrew Wetzel (California Institute of Technology and Carnegie Observatories) recently set out to answer this question using observations of nearby galaxies and simulations of the infall process. Observed Quenching: Isolated dwarf galaxies tend to be gas-rich and very actively star-forming. In contrast, most dwarf galaxies within 300 kpc of us (the Milky Way's virial radius) contain little or no cold gas, and they're quiescent: there's not much star formation happening. And this isn't just true of the Milky Way; we observe the same difference in the satellite galaxies surrounding Andromeda galaxy. Once a dwarf galaxy has moved into the gravitational realm of a larger galaxy, the satellite's gas vanishes rapidly and its star formation is shut off — but how, and on what timescale? The known dwarf galaxies in the Local Group (out to 1.6 Mpc) are plotted by their distance from their host vs. their stellar mass. Blue stars indicate actively star-forming dwarfs and red circles indicate quiescent ones. Credit: Wetzel et al. 2015. Timescales for Quiescence: To answer these questions, the authors explored the process of galaxy infall using Exploring the Local Volume in Simulations (ELVIS), a suite of cosmological N-body simulations intended to explore the Local Group. They combined the infall times from the simulations with observational knowledge of the fraction of nearby galaxies that are currently quiescent, in order to determine what timescales are required for different processes to deplete the gas in the dwarf galaxies and quench star formation. Based on their results, two types of quenching culprits are at work: gas consumption (where a galaxy simply uses up its immediate gas supply and doesn't have access to more) and gas stripping (where external forces like ram pressure remove gas from the galaxy). These processes

  8. The red extended structure of IC10, the nearest blue compact galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Gerbrandt, Stephanie A N; Irwin, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The Local Group starburst galaxy IC10 is the closest example of a blue compact galaxy. Here, we use optical gi imaging from CFHT/MegaCam and near infra-red JHK imaging from UKIRT/WFCAM to conduct a comprehensive survey of the structure of IC10. We examine the spatial distribution of its resolved young, intermediate and old stellar populations to large radius and low effective surface brightness levels. Akin to other dwarfs with multiple populations of different ages, stellar populations of decreasing average age are increasingly concentrated in this galaxy. We find that the young, star-bursting population, and the AGB population, are both offset from the geometric center of the older RGB population by a few hundred parsecs, implying that the younger star formation occurred significantly away from the center of the galaxy. The RGB population traces an extended structure that is typical of blue compact galaxies, with an effective radius of ~5.75 arcmins (~1.25 kpc). These measurements show that IC10 is much mor...

  9. Large Magellanic Cloud helium-rich peculiar blue supergiants and SN 1987A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theoretical distribution of massive stars in the H-R diagram is compared to the revised data of Fitzpatrick and Garmany for the LMC. Preferred models of about 20 M solar masses undergo a thermal contraction at T(eff) about 35,000 K at the end of core hydrogen burning but reestablish thermal equilibrium to the red of the main sequence at T(eff) about 20,000 K after ignition of a hydrogen-burning shell. They then evolve on a nuclear time scale to T(eff) about 6000 K where they lose thermal equilibrium and jump to the Hayashi track. The theoretical and observed distributions agree with two significant exceptions: the blue thermal contraction gap is overpopulated compared to the theory, and there is a ledge crossing the center of the H-R diagram. The hypothesis that some of the observed stars in the blue gap are secondaries that have accreted helium-rich matter from deep within the hydrogen envelope of a red supergiant primary is explored. Some preliminary observational justification is given. 27 refs

  10. The Nature of Nearby Counterparts to Intermediate Redshift Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies II. CO Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Garland, C A; Pisano, D J; Guzmán, R; Castander, F J; Brinkmann, J

    2005-01-01

    We present the results of a single-dish beam-matched survey of the three lowest rotational transitions of CO in a sample of 20 local (D < 70 Mpc) Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies (LCBGs). These ~L*, blue, high surface brightness, starbursting galaxies were selected with the same criteria used to define LCBGs at higher redshifts. Our detection rate was 70%, with those galaxies having Lblue<7e9 Lsun no detected. We find the H2 masses of local LCBGs range from 6.6e6 to 2.7e9 Msun, assuming a Galactic CO-to-H2 conversion factor. Combining these results with our earlier HI survey of the same sample, we find that the ratio of molecular to atomic gas mass is low, typically 5-10%. Using a Large Velocity Gradient model, we find that the average gas conditions of the entire ISM in local LCBGs are similar to those found in the centers of star forming regions in our Galaxy, and nuclear regions of other galaxies. Star formation rates, determined from IRAS fluxes, are a few solar masses per year, much higher per unit d...

  11. Discovery of Extended Blue Horizontal Branches in Two Metal-Rich Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Rich, R M; Djorgovski, S G; Piotto, G; King, I R; Renzini, A; Phinney, E S; Dorman, B; Liebert, J; Meylan, G; Sosin, Craig; Piotto, Giampaolo; King, Ivan R.; Renzini, Alvio; Dorman, Ben; Liebert, James; Meylan, Georges

    1997-01-01

    We have used WFPC2 to construct B, V color-magnitude diagrams of four metal-rich globular clusters, NGC 104 (47 Tuc), NGC 5927, NGC 6388, and NGC 6441. All four clusters have well populated red horizontal branches (RHB), as expected for their metallicity. However, NGC 6388 and 6441 also exhibit a prominent blue HB (BHB) extension, including stars reaching as faint in V as the turnoff luminosity. This discovery demonstrates directly for the first time that a major population of hot HB stars can exist in old, metal-rich systems. This may have important implications for the interpretation of the integrated spectra of elliptical galaxies. The cause of the phenomenon remains uncertain. We examine the possibility that NGC 6388 and 6441 are older than the other clusters, but a simple difference in age may not be sufficient to produce the observed distributions along the HB. The high central densities in NGC 6388 and 6441 suggest that the existence of the blue HB (BHB) tails might be caused by stellar interactions in...

  12. On the conversion of neutron stars into quark stars

    CERN Document Server

    Pagliara, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The possible existence of two families of compact stars, neutron stars and quark stars, naturally leads to a scenario in which a conversion process between the two stellar objects occurs with a consequent release of energy of the order of $10^{53}$ erg. We discuss recent hydrodynamical simulations of the burning process and neutrino diffusion simulations of cooling of a newly formed strange star. We also briefly discuss this scenario in connection with recent measurements of masses and radii of compact stars.

  13. Blurred Star Image Processing for Star Sensors under Dynamic Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Guo; Weina Zhang; Wei Quan

    2012-01-01

    The precision of star point location is significant to identify the star map and to acquire the aircraft attitude for star sensors. Under dynamic conditions, star images are not only corrupted by various noises, but also blurred due to the angular rate of the star sensor. According to different angular rates under dynamic conditions, a novel method is proposed in this article, which includes a denoising method based on adaptive wavelet threshold and a restoration method based on the large ang...

  14. Developing the urban blue: Comparative health responses to blue and green urban open spaces in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völker, Sebastian; Kistemann, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Recently, new perspectives upon healthy urban open spaces propose that open spaces can be regarded as urban green or blue spaces. However, there has so far been very little research into blue environments and their benefits for mental well-being. Our article focuses on the effects of water in cities, "urban blue" (as compared to "urban green"), on human health and well-being. To assess the mental well-being of visitors, we conducted qualitative semi-standardised interviews (n=113), asking which differences in well-being occur when visiting urban green and blue spaces in high-density areas of the inner city in Dusseldorf and Cologne, Germany. Although we found many similarities, some health-enhancing effects for users turned out to be prominent for urban blue in the four conceptual therapeutic landscape dimensions: experienced, symbolic, social and activity space. These effects include enhanced contemplation, emotional bonding, participation, and physical activity. The results suggest that urban blue as a health-promoting factor needs more detailed and accurate determination and examination of its general and local health-enhancing effects. PMID:25475835

  15. Dance of the double stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theokas, A.

    1985-09-19

    The paper concerns pairs of stars orbiting one another. The evolutionary path model for close binary stars, involving a mass transfer of gases between the stars, is described. The life history of a single star; cataclysmic variables; the algol paradox, matter and lagranges' point; x-ray binaries and bursters; and pulsars; are all briefly discussed.

  16. The chemical compositions of RR Lyrae type c variable stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govea, Jose; Gomez, Thomas; Sneden, Christopher [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, The University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Preston, George W., E-mail: jgovea@utexas.edu, E-mail: chris@verdi.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: iii@ociw.edu [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2014-02-20

    We present a detailed chemical abundance study of eight RR Lyrae variable stars of subclass c (RRc). The target RRc stars chosen for study exhibit 'Blazhko-effect' period and amplitude modulations to their pulsational cycles. Data for this study were gathered with the echelle spectrograph of the 100 inch du Pont telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. Spectra were obtained throughout each star's pulsation cycle. Atmospheric parameters—effective temperature, surface gravity, microturbulent velocity, and metallicity—were derived at multiple phase points. We found metallicities and element abundance ratios to be constant within observational uncertainties over the pulsational cycles of all stars. Moreover, the α-element and Fe-group abundance ratios with respect to iron are consistent with other horizontal-branch members (RRab, blue and red non-variables). Finally, we have used the [Fe/H] values of these eight RRc stars to anchor the metallicity estimates of a large-sample RRc snapshot spectroscopic study being conducted with the same telescope and instrument combination employed here.

  17. Do zero metal intermediate mass stars experience thermal pulses?

    CERN Document Server

    Dominguez, I; Limongi, M; Chieffi, A

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the evolution of intermediate mass (M.ge.5Mo) zero metal (Z=0) stars with particular attention to the AGB phase. At variance with previous claims we find that these stars experience thermal instability (the so called thermal pulses). The critical quantity which controls the onset of a thermally pulsing phase is the amount of CNO in the envelope during the AGB. For these stars the central He burning starts in the blue side of the HR diagram and the 1^{st} dredge up does not take place. Then the envelope maintains its initial composition up to the beginning of the AGB phase. However, during the early AGB the 2^{nd} dredge-up occurs and fresh He and CNO elements are engulfed in the convective envelope. We find that in stars with M.ge.6Mo the resulting amount of ^{12}C is large enough to sustain a normal CNO burning within the H shell and consequently the star enters the usual thermal pulse phase. In the 5Mo model, owing to the lower ^{12}C enhancement in the envelope after the 2^{nd} dredge-up, t...

  18. RR Lyrae stars: Kinematics, orbits and z-distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Maintz, G; Maintz, Gisela; Boer, Klaas S.de

    2005-01-01

    RR Lyrae stars in the Milky Way are good tracers to study the kinematic behaviour and spatial distribution of older stellar populations. A recently established well documented sample of 217 RR Lyr stars with V0.4, and normalized maximum orbital z-distance >0.45. Of these stars roughly half have retrograde orbits. The z-distance probability distribution of this sample shows scale heights of 1.3 +-0.1 kpc for the disk component and 4.6 +-0.3 kpc for the halo component. With our orbit statistics method we found a (vertical) spatial distribution which, out to z=20 kpc, is similar to that found with other methods. This distribution is also compatible with the ones found for blue (HBA and sdB) halo stars. The circular velocity Theta, the orbit eccentricity, orbit z-extent and [Fe/H] are employed to look for possible correlations. If any, it is that the metal poor stars with [Fe/H] <1.0 have a wide symmetric distribution about Theta=0. We conclude that the Milky Way possesses a halo component of old and metal poo...

  19. HUNTING FOR YOUNG DISPERSING STAR CLUSTERS IN IC 2574

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissolving stellar groups are very difficult to detect using traditional surface photometry techniques. We have developed a method to find and characterize non-compact stellar systems in galaxies where the young stellar population can be spatially resolved. By carrying out photometry on individual stars, we are able to separate the luminous blue stellar population from the star field background. The locations of these stars are used to identify groups by applying the HOP algorithm, which are then characterized using color-magnitude and stellar density radial profiles to estimate age, size, density, and shape. We test the method on Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys archival images of IC 2574 and find 75 dispersed stellar groups. Of these, 20 highly dispersed groups are good candidates for dissolving systems. We find few compact systems with evidence of dissolution, potentially indicating that star formation in this galaxy occurs mostly in unbound clusters or groups. These systems indicate that the dispersion rate of groups and clusters in IC 2574 is at most 0.45 pc Myr–1. The location of the groups found with HOP correlate well with H I contour map features. However, they do not coincide with H I holes, suggesting that those holes were not created by star-forming regions.

  20. Surface pollution of main-sequence stars through encounters with AGB ejecta in omega Centauri

    CERN Document Server

    Tsujimoto, T; Suda, T; Tsujimoto, Takuji; Shigeyama, Toshikazu; Suda, Takuma

    2006-01-01

    The origin of a double main-sequence (MS) in omega Centauri is explored. We have shown from theoretical calculations on the stellar evolution that the colors of MS stars are shifted to those of the observed blue MS if the surface layers are polluted by He-rich materials with the mass of ~ 0.1 solar mass. Stars are supposed to be polluted through numerous encounters with the ejecta descended from massive asymptotic giant-branch (AGB) stars. Two populations of stars with different kinematics exceptionally observed in omega Cen indicate that kinematically cooler stars are more polluted through encounters with AGB ejecta than kinematically hotter ones because the accretion rate is inversely proportional to the cube of the relative velocity. We propose that both of these factors split the MS in omega Cen. This theoretical scheme explains why only omega Cen exhibit a double MS and matches the amount of He necessary to produce the blue MS with that supplied from massive AGB stars. Furthermore, we predict that even i...