WorldWideScience

Sample records for blue galaxy intrinsic

  1. Galaxies on the Blue Edge

    OpenAIRE

    Cabanela, J. E.; Dickey, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    We have successfully constructed a catalog of HI-rich galaxies selected from the Minnesota Automated Plate Scanner Catalog of the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (POSS I) based solely on optical criteria. We identify HI-rich candidates by selecting the bluest galaxies at a given apparent magnitude, those galaxies on the "blue edge" of POSS I color-magnitude parameter space. Subsequent 21-cm observations on the upgraded Arecibo 305m dish detected over 50% of the observed candidates. The detecte...

  2. The Intrinsic Shape of Galaxies in SDSS/Galaxy Zoo

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Silvio; Padilla, Nelson D.

    2013-01-01

    By modelling the axis ratio distribution of SDSS DR8 galaxies we find the intrinsic 3D shapes of spirals and ellipticals. We use morphological information from the Galaxy Zoo project and assume a non-parametric distribution intrinsic of shapes, while taking into account dust extinction. We measure the dust extinction of the full sample of spiral galaxies and find a smaller value than previous estimations, with an edge-on extinction of $E_0 = 0.284^{+0.015}_{-0.026}$ in the SDSS r band. We als...

  3. The intrinsic shape of galaxies in SDSS/Galaxy Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Silvio; Padilla, Nelson D.

    2013-09-01

    By modelling the axis ratio distribution of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 galaxies, we find the intrinsic 3D shapes of spirals and ellipticals. We use morphological information from the Galaxy Zoo project and assume a non-parametric distribution intrinsic of shapes, while taking into account dust extinction. We measure the dust extinction of the full sample of spiral galaxies and find a smaller value than previous estimations, with an edge-on extinction of E_0 = 0.284^{+0.015}_{-0.026} in the SDSS r band. We also find that the distribution of minor to major axis ratio has a mean value of 0.267 ± 0.009, slightly larger than previous estimates mainly due to the lower extinction used; the same affects the circularity of galactic discs, which are found to be less round in shape than in previous studies, with a mean ellipticity of 0.215 ± 0.013. For elliptical galaxies, we find that the minor to major axis ratio, with a mean value of 0.584 ± 0.006, is larger than previous estimations due to the removal of spiral interlopers present in samples with morphological information from photometric profiles. These interlopers are removed when selecting ellipticals using Galaxy Zoo data. We find that the intrinsic shapes of galaxies and their dust extinction vary with absolute magnitude, colour and physical size. We find that bright elliptical galaxies are more spherical than faint ones, a trend that is also present with galaxy size, and that there is no dependence of elliptical galaxy shape with colour. For spiral galaxies, we find that the reddest ones have higher dust extinction as expected, due to the fact that this reddening is mainly due to dust. We also find that the thickness of discs increases with luminosity and size, and that brighter, smaller and redder galaxies have less round discs.

  4. The Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxy IZw18

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musella, I.; Marconi, M.; Fiorentino, G.; Clementini, G.; Aloisi, A.; Annibali, F.; Contreras, R.; Saha, A.; Tosi, M.; van der Marel, R. P.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results obtained for the Blue compact galaxy IZw18 on the basis of ACS HST data obtained from our group. In particular, we discuss the stellar population and the variable stars content of this galaxy to get information about its star formation history and distance.

  5. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): blue spheroids within 87 Mpc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Smriti; Drinkwater, Michael J.; Driver, S.; Hopkins, A. M.; Graham, Alister W.; Brough, S.; Brown, Michael J. I.; Holwerda, B. W.; Owers, Matt S.; Pimbblet, Kevin A.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we test if nearby blue spheroid (BSph) galaxies may become the progenitors of star-forming spiral galaxies or passively evolving elliptical galaxies. Our sample comprises 428 galaxies of various morphologies in the redshift range 0.002 well as spirals in the multidimensional space mapped by luminosity-weighted age, metallicity, dust mass, and specific star formation rate. We use H I data to reveal that some of the BSphs are (further) developing their discs, hence their blue colours. They may eventually become spiral galaxies - if sufficient gas accretion occurs - or more likely fade into low-mass red galaxies.

  6. Kinematical tests for the intrinsic shapes of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capaccioli, M.; Fasano, G.

    1984-01-01

    Determining the intrinsic shape of elliptical galaxies has been an illusive enterprise, but one fundamental to the understanding of their internal dynamics and formation. Here the problem is approached dynamically; noting that the velocity dispersion is largest when sighted down the longest axis, the correlations are derived of velocity dispersion with observed eccentricity expected, after the known trend of velocity dispersion with luminosity is removed. Using a compilation of published data, the relation between luminosity and velocity dispersion is determined more accurately. The residuals are examined as a function of axis ratio in order to construct a test for the intrinsic shape of galaxies. The effects of projection are modelled and possible intrinsic variations are examined. (author)

  7. Intrinsic Spectra of Hyperluminous Infrared Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke, George; Hines, Dean

    2004-09-01

    We will use the low and high spectral resolution capabilities of the IRS aboard SIRTF to obtain high signal-to-noise mid-infrared spectra of a small sample of the most luminous Active Galactic Nuclei, which are characterized by their "warm" far-infrared spectral energy distributions as obtained by IRAS (the so called Hyperluminous Infrared Galaxies or HIGs). The sample consists of both Type 2 and Type 1 AGNs. The Type 1 objects present a relatively unobscured view of the central engine, and also have a polarized (scattered) component that is completely unobscured. The Type 2 objects have Type 1 polarized spectra, but this scattered light is highly extinguished indicating some obscuration even along the line of sight to the scattering region. The sample will allow us to compare the properties of the Type 1s and Type 2s, thus providing a check on the orientation and providing strong constraints on the geometry and internal structure of all four objects.

  8. Spectroscopic Studies of Starburst Galaxies; the Dynamical Structure of Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxy Haro 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mun-Suk Chun

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available We carried out photometric and spectroscopic observations of the blue compact dwarf galaxy Haro 6 in the Virgo Cluster of Galaxies. The long-slit spectroscopy was employed at three position angles, ϕ = 0°, ϕ = 30°, and ϕ = 120° CCD camera mounted on the Cassegrain Spectrograph. Based on the mean intrinsic axial ratio q0=0.3, we derived inclination i of the system as 44° our composite V-band CCD image. Careful analysis on the velocity field of the system chows an asymptotically flat rotation curve with the maximum rotational velocity V(rmax reaches about 12 km/sec. The calculation of the dynamical mass of Haro 6 with a simple mass model is briefly discussed with emphasis on the mass to luminosity ratio. From the IRAS Point Source Catalogue, we derived dust-to-gas ratio which indicates relatively low dust content, thus tempting us to conjecture the youth of the system.

  9. An intrinsically asymmetric radio galaxy: 0500+630?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, D. J.; Thomasson, P.; Jackson, N.; Salter, C. J.; Junor, W.

    1996-10-01

    As part of a search for high-luminosity radio galaxies with one-sided structures, the radio galaxy 0500+630 has been imaged with both the VLA and MERLIN and its optical spectrum determined using the Isaac Newton Telescope on La Palma. The galaxy is found to have a redshift of 0.290+/-0.004. The radio observations show the source to be highly asymmetric, with an overall structure which cannot be understood easily by ascribing it either to orientation and relativistic beaming effects or to an asymmetric distribution of gas in the central region. A comparison of this source with objects of similar luminosity suggests that it is one of the best examples yet of a source with possibly an intrinsic asymmetry in either the collimation of its jets or the supply of energy from the central engine to opposite sides.

  10. The Subaru FMOS galaxy redshift survey (FastSound). V. Intrinsic alignments of emission-line galaxies at z ˜ 1.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonegawa, Motonari; Okumura, Teppei; Totani, Tomonori; Dalton, Gavin; Glazebrook, Karl; Yabe, Kiyoto

    2018-04-01

    Intrinsic alignments (IA), the coherent alignment of intrinsic galaxy orientations, can be a source of a systematic error of weak lensing surveys. The redshift evolution of IA also contains information about the physics of galaxy formation and evolution. This paper presents the first measurement of IA at high redshift, z ˜ 1.4, using the spectroscopic catalog of blue star-forming galaxies of the FastSound redshift survey, with the galaxy shape information from the Canada-Hawaii-France telescope lensing survey. The IA signal is consistent with zero with power-law amplitudes fitted to the projected correlation functions for density-shape and shape-shape correlation components, Aδ+ = -0.0071 ± 0.1340 and A++ = -0.0505 ± 0.0848, respectively. These results are consistent with those obtained from blue galaxies at lower redshifts (e.g., A _{δ +}=0.0035_{-0.0389}^{+0.0387} and A_{++}=0.0045_{-0.0168}^{+0.0166} at z = 0.51 from the WiggleZ survey). The upper limit of the constrained IA amplitude corresponds to a few percent contamination to the weak-lensing shear power spectrum, resulting in systematic uncertainties on the cosmological parameter estimations by -0.052 < Δσ8 < 0.039 and -0.039 < ΔΩm < 0.030.

  11. DISTRIBUTION AND MOTIONS OF ATOMIC-HYDROGEN IN LENTICULAR GALAXIES .10. THE BLUE S0-GALAXY NGC-5102

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANWOERDEN, H; VANDRIEL, W; BRAUN, R; ROTS, AH

    We have mapped the blue gas-rich S0 galaxy NGC 5102 in the 21-cm HI line with a spatial resolution of 34'' x 37'' (DELTAalpha x DELTAdelta) and a velocity resolution of 12 km s-1. Optically NGC 5102 is a peculiar S0 galaxy, in the sense that it has unusually blue colours, and shows evidence for a

  12. Ultracompact Blue Dwarfs: Galaxy Formation in the Local Universe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Michael

    2004-07-01

    Recent observations suggest that very low-mass galaxies in the local universe are still in the process of formation. To investigate this issue we propose to obtain deep ACS HRC images in the U, V and I bands of a sample of 11 "ultracompact" blue dwarf galaxies {UCBDs} identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. These objects are nearby {z small angular and physical sizes {d POX 186, reveal this tiny object to have a highly disturbed morphlogy indicative of a recent {within 10^8 yr} collision between two small { 100 pc} clumps of stars that could represent the long-sought building blocks predicted by the Press-Schechter model of hierarchical galaxy formation. This collision has also triggered the formation of a "super" star cluster {SSC} at the object's core that may be the progenitor of a globular cluster. POX 186 thus appears to be a very small dwarf galaxy in the process of formation. This exciting discovery strongly motivates HST imaging of a full sample of UCBDs in order to determine if they have morphologies similar to POX 186. HST images are essential for resolving the structure of these objects, including establishing the presence of SSCs. HST also offers the only way to determine their morphologies in the near UV. The spectra of the objects available from the SDSS will also allow us to measure their star formation rates, dust content and metallicities. In addition to potentially providing the first direct evidence of Press-Schechter building blocks, these data could yield insight into the relationship between galaxy and globular cluster formation, and will serve as a test of the recent "downsizing" model of galaxy formation in which the least massive objects are the last to form.

  13. Are dusty galaxies blue? Insights on UV attenuation from dust-selected galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, C. M.; Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Scoville, N. Z. [California Institute of Technology, 1216 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sanders, D. B.; Lee, N. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai' i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Finkelstein, S. L. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Capak, P. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Conley, A. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy 389-UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); De Zotti, G. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 2, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Farrah, D. [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Fu, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Le Floc' h, E. [CEA-Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, bât. 709, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Ilbert, O. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de marseille, UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Ivison, R. J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Takeuchi, T. T. [Nagoya University, Division of Particle and Astrophysical Science, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2014-12-01

    Galaxies' rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) properties are often used to directly infer the degree to which dust obscuration affects the measurement of star formation rates (SFRs). While much recent work has focused on calibrating dust attenuation in galaxies selected at rest-frame ultraviolet wavelengths, locally and at high-z, here we investigate attenuation in dusty, star forming galaxies (DSFGs) selected at far-infrared wavelengths. By combining multiwavelength coverage across 0.15-500 μm in the COSMOS field, in particular making use of Herschel imaging, and a rich data set on local galaxies, we find an empirical variation in the relationship between the rest-frame UV slope (β) and the ratio of infrared-to-ultraviolet emission (L {sub IR}/L {sub UV} ≡ IRX) as a function of infrared luminosity, or total SFR. Both locally and at high-z, galaxies above SFR ≳ 50 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} deviate from the nominal IRX-β relation toward bluer colors by a factor proportional to their increasing IR luminosity. We also estimate contamination rates of DSFGs on high-z dropout searches of <<1% at z ≲ 4-10, providing independent verification that contamination from very dusty foreground galaxies is low in Lyman-break galaxy searches. Overall, our results are consistent with the physical interpretation that DSFGs, e.g., galaxies with >50 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, are dominated at all epochs by short-lived, extreme burst events, producing many young O and B stars that are primarily, yet not entirely, enshrouded in thick dust cocoons. The blue rest-frame UV slopes of DSFGs are inconsistent with the suggestion that most DSFGs at z ∼ 2 exhibit steady-state star formation in secular disks.

  14. The properties of the first galaxies in the BlueTides simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Stephen M.; Feng, Yu; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Croft, Rupert; Lovell, Christopher C.; Waters, Dacen

    2017-08-01

    We employ the very large cosmological hydrodynamical simulation BlueTides to investigate the predicted properties of the galaxy population during the epoch of reionization (z > 8). BlueTides has a resolution and volume ((400/h ≈ 577)3 cMpc3) providing a population of galaxies that is well matched to depth and area of current observational surveys targeting the high-redshift Universe. At z = 8, BlueTides includes almost 160 000 galaxies with stellar masses >108 M⊙. The population of galaxies predicted by BlueTides closely matches observational constraints on both the galaxy stellar mass function and far-UV (150 nm) luminosity function. Galaxies in BlueTides are characterized by rapidly increasing star formation histories. Specific star formation rates decrease with redshift though remain largely insensitive to stellar mass. As a result of the enhanced surface density of metals, more massive galaxies are predicted to have higher dust attenuation resulting in a significant steepening of the observed far-UV luminosity function at high luminosities. The contribution of active supermassive black holes (SMBHs) to the UV luminosities of galaxies with stellar masses 109-10 M⊙ is around 3 per cent on average. Approximately 25 per cent of galaxies with M* ≈ 1010 M⊙ are predicted to have active SMBHs that contribute >10 per cent of the total UV luminosity.

  15. THE ENVIRONMENTAL DEPENDENCE OF THE FRACTION OF 'UNCONVENTIONAL' GALAXIES: RED LATE TYPES AND BLUE EARLY TYPES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Xinfa; He Jizhou; Wu Ping; Ding Yingping

    2009-01-01

    From the Main galaxy sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 6, we construct two volume-limited samples with the luminosity -20.0 ≤ M r ≤ -18.5 and -22.40 ≤ M r ≤ -20.16, respectively, to explore the environmental dependence of the fraction of 'unconventional' galaxies: red late types and blue early types. We use the density estimator within the distance to the fifth nearest neighbor, and construct two samples at both extremes of density and perform comparative studies between them for each volume-limited sample. Results of two volume-limited samples show the same conclusions: the fraction of red late-type galaxies rises considerably with increasing local density, and that one of the blue early-type galaxies declines substantially with increasing local density. In addition, we note that bluer galaxies preferentially are late types, but the red galaxies are not dominated by early types.

  16. Photographic photometry of 16000 galaxies on ESO blue and red survey plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauberts, A.; Valentijn, E. A.

    1985-01-01

    An ongoing photometric survey of 16,000 galaxies on ESO red and blue plates is described. The galaxies of the ESO/Uppsala Catalog (Lauberts, 1982) are being PDS scanned, and the results are combined with existing photometry and supplementary observational data obtained at the 1-m ESO telescope to

  17. INTRINSIC ALIGNMENT OF CLUSTER GALAXIES: THE REDSHIFT EVOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Jiangang; Kubo, Jeffrey M.; Feldmann, Robert; Annis, James; Johnston, David E.; Lin Huan; McKay, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    We present measurements of two types of cluster galaxy alignments based on a volume limited and highly pure (≥90%) sample of clusters from the GMBCG catalog derived from Data Release 7 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS DR7). We detect a clear brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) alignment (the alignment of major axis of the BCG toward the distribution of cluster satellite galaxies). We find that the BCG alignment signal becomes stronger as the redshift and BCG absolute magnitude decrease and becomes weaker as BCG stellar mass decreases. No dependence of the BCG alignment on cluster richness is found. We can detect a statistically significant (≥3σ) satellite alignment (the alignment of the major axes of the cluster satellite galaxies toward the BCG) only when we use the isophotal fit position angles (P.A.s), and the satellite alignment depends on the apparent magnitudes rather than the absolute magnitudes of the BCGs. This suggests that the detected satellite alignment based on isophotal P.A.s from the SDSS pipeline is possibly due to the contamination from the diffuse light of nearby BCGs. We caution that this should not be simply interpreted as non-existence of the satellite alignment, but rather that we cannot detect them with our current photometric SDSS data. We perform our measurements on both SDSS r-band and i-band data, but do not observe a passband dependence of the alignments.

  18. First results on the cluster galaxy population from the Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam survey. II. Faint end color-magnitude diagrams and radial profiles of red and blue galaxies at 0.1 < z < 1.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Atsushi J.; Oguri, Masamune; Oogi, Taira; More, Surhud; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Nagashima, Masahiro; Lin, Yen-Ting; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Takada, Masahiro; Bahcall, Neta; Coupon, Jean; Huang, Song; Jian, Hung-Yu; Komiyama, Yutaka; Leauthaud, Alexie; Lin, Lihwai; Miyatake, Hironao; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Masayuki

    2018-01-01

    We present a statistical study of the redshift evolution of the cluster galaxy population over a wide redshift range from 0.1 to 1.1, using ˜1900 optically-selected CAMIRA clusters from ˜232 deg2 of the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) Wide S16A data. Our stacking technique with a statistical background subtraction reveals color-magnitude diagrams of red-sequence and blue cluster galaxies down to faint magnitudes of mz ˜ 24. We find that the linear relation of red-sequence galaxies in the color-magnitude diagram extends down to the faintest magnitudes we explore with a small intrinsic scatter σint(g - r) < 0.1. The scatter does not evolve significantly with redshift. The stacked color-magnitude diagrams are used to define red and blue galaxies in clusters in order to study their radial number density profiles without resorting to photometric redshifts of individual galaxies. We find that red galaxies are significantly more concentrated toward cluster centers and blue galaxies dominate the outskirts of clusters. We explore the fraction of red galaxies in clusters as a function of redshift, and find that the red fraction decreases with increasing distances from cluster centers. The red fraction exhibits a moderate decrease with increasing redshift. The radial number density profiles of cluster member galaxies are also used to infer the location of the steepest slope in the three-dimensional galaxy density profiles. For a fixed threshold in richness, we find little redshift evolution in this location.

  19. The different star formation histories of blue and red spiral and elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tojeiro, Rita; Masters, Karen L.; Richards, Joshua; Percival, Will J.; Bamford, Steven P.; Maraston, Claudia; Nichol, Robert C.; Skibba, Ramin; Thomas, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    We study the spectral properties of intermediate mass galaxies (M* ˜ 1010.7 M⊙) as a function of colour and morphology. We use Galaxy Zoo to define three morphological classes of galaxies, namely early types (ellipticals), late-type (disc-dominated) face-on spirals and early-type (bulge-dominated) face-on spirals. We classify these galaxies as blue or red according to their Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) g - r colour and use the spectral fitting code Versatile Spectral Analyses to calculate time-resolved star formation histories, metallicity and total starlight dust extinction from their SDSS fibre spectra. We find that red late-type spirals show less star formation in the last 500 Myr than blue late-type spirals by up to a factor of 3, but share similar star formation histories at earlier times. This decline in recent star formation explains their redder colour: their chemical and dust content are the same. We postulate that red late-type spirals are recent descendants of blue late-type spirals, with their star formation curtailed in the last 500 Myr. The red late-type spirals are however still forming stars ≃17 times faster than red ellipticals over the same period. Red early-type spirals lie between red late-type spirals and red ellipticals in terms of recent-to-intermediate star formation and dust content. Therefore, it is plausible that these galaxies represent an evolutionary link between these two populations. They are more likely to evolve directly into red ellipticals than red late-type spirals, which show star formation histories and dust content closer to blue late-type spirals. Blue ellipticals show similar star formation histories as blue spirals (regardless of type), except that they have formed less stars in the last 100 Myr. However, blue ellipticals have different dust content, which peaks at lower extinction values than all spiral galaxies. Therefore, many blue ellipticals are unlikely to be descendants of blue spirals, suggesting there may

  20. Constraining the Stellar Populations and Star Formation Histories of Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies with SED Fits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janowiecki, Steven [International Center for Radio Astronomy Research, M468, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Western Australia, 6009 (Australia); Salzer, John J.; Zee, Liese van [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 East Third Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Rosenberg, Jessica L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Skillman, Evan, E-mail: steven.janowiecki@uwa.edu.au [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street, SE Minneapolis, MN, 55455 (United States)

    2017-02-10

    We discuss and test possible evolutionary connections between blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs) and other types of dwarf galaxies. BCDs provide ideal laboratories to study intense star formation episodes in low-mass dwarf galaxies, and have sometimes been considered a short-lived evolutionary stage between types of dwarf galaxies. To test these connections, we consider a sample of BCDs as well as a comparison sample of nearby galaxies from the Local Volume Legacy (LVL) survey for context. We fit the multi-wavelength spectral energy distributions (SED, far-ultra-violet to far-infrared) of each galaxy with a grid of theoretical models to determine their stellar masses and star formation properties. We compare our results for BCDs with the LVL galaxies to put BCDs in the context of normal galaxy evolution. The SED fits demonstrate that the star formation events currently underway in BCDs are at the extreme of the continuum of normal dwarf galaxies, both in terms of the relative mass involved and in the relative increase over previous star formation rates. Today’s BCDs are distinctive objects in a state of extreme star formation that is rapidly transforming them. This study also suggests ways to identify former BCDs whose star formation episodes have since faded.

  1. DISK GALAXY SCALING RELATIONS IN THE SFI++: INTRINSIC SCATTER AND APPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saintonge, Amelie; Spekkens, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    We study the scaling relations between the luminosities, sizes, and rotation velocities of disk galaxies in the SFI++, with a focus on the size-luminosity (RL) and size-rotation velocity (RV) relations. Using isophotal radii instead of disk scale lengths as a size indicator, we find relations that are significantly tighter than previously reported: the correlation coefficients of the template RL and RV relations are r = 0.97 and r= 0.85, respectively, which rival that of the more widely studied LV (Tully-Fisher) relation. The scatter in the SFI++ RL relation is 2.5-4 times smaller than previously reported for various samples, which we attribute to the reliability of isophotal radii relative to disk scale lengths. After carefully accounting for all measurement errors, our scaling relation error budgets are consistent with a constant intrinsic scatter in the LV and RV relations for velocity widths log W ∼> 2.4, with evidence for increasing intrinsic scatter below this threshold. The scatter in the RL relation is consistent with constant intrinsic scatter that is biased by incompleteness at the low-L end. Possible applications of the unprecedentedly tight SFI++ RV and RL relations are investigated. Just like the Tully-Fisher relation, the RV relation can be used as a distance indicator: we derive distances to galaxies with primary Cepheid distances that are accurate to 25%, and reverse the problem to measure a Hubble constant H 0 = 72 ± 7 km s -1 Mpc -1 . Combining the small intrinsic scatter of our RL relation (ε int = 0.034 ± 0.001log [h -1 kpc]) with a simple model for disk galaxy formation, we find an upper limit in the range of disk spin parameters that is a factor of ∼7 smaller than that of the halo spin parameters predicted by cosmological simulations. This likely implies that the halos hosting Sc galaxies have a much narrower distribution of spin parameters than previously thought.

  2. The blue host galaxy of the red GRB 000418

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorosabel, J.; Klose, S.; Christensen, L.

    2003-01-01

    We report on multi-band (UBVRIZJ(s)K(s)) observations of the host galaxy of the April 18, 2000 gamma-ray burst. The Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) is analysed by fitting empirical and synthetic spectral templates. We find that: (i) the best SED fit is obtained with a starburst template, (ii...... (A(V) = 0.4-0.9 mag), suggesting a homogeneous distribution of the interstellar medium (ISM) in the host galaxy. These findings are supplemented by morphological information from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging: the surface brightness profile is smooth, symmetric and compact with no underlying...

  3. The unique structural parameters of the underlying host galaxies in blue compact dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janowiecki, Steven; Salzer, John J.

    2014-01-01

    The nature of possible evolutionary pathways between various types of dwarf galaxies is still not fully understood. Blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs) provide a unique window into dwarf galaxy formation and evolution and are often thought of as an evolutionary stage between different classes of dwarf galaxies. In this study we use deep optical and near-infrared observations of the underlying hosts of BCDs in order to study the structural differences between different types of dwarf galaxies. When compared with dwarf irregular galaxies of similar luminosities, we find that the underlying hosts of BCDs have significantly more concentrated light distributions, with smaller scale lengths and brighter central surface brightnesses. We demonstrate here that the underlying hosts of BCDs are distinct from the broad continuum of typical dwarf irregular galaxies, and that it is unlikely that most dwarf irregular galaxies can transform into a BCD or vice versa. Furthermore, we find that the starburst in a BCD only brightens it on average by ∼0.8 mag (factor of two), in agreement with other studies. It appears that a BCD is a long-lived and distinct type of dwarf galaxy that exhibits an exceptionally concentrated matter distribution. We suggest that it is this compact mass distribution that enables the strong star formation events that characterize this class of dwarf galaxy, that the compactness of the underlying host can be used as a distinguishing parameter between BCDs and other dwarf galaxies, and that it can also be used to identify BCDs which are not currently experiencing an intense starburst event.

  4. INTRINSIC ELLIPTICITY CORRELATION OF SDSS LUMINOUS RED GALAXIES AND MISALIGNMENT WITH THEIR HOST DARK MATTER HALOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Teppei; Jing, Y. P.; Li Cheng

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the orientation correlation of giant elliptical galaxies by measuring the intrinsic ellipticity correlation function of 83,773 luminous red galaxies (LRGs) at redshifts 0.16-0.47 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We have accurately determined the correlation up to 30 h -1 Mpc. Luminosity dependence of the ellipticity correlation is also detected although the error bars are large, while no evidence is found for its redshift evolution between z = 0.2 and z = 0.4. Then we use a cosmological N-body simulation to examine misalignment between the central LRGs and their parent dark matter halos. Central and satellite galaxies are assigned to simulated halos by employing a halo occupation distribution model for the LRGs. The ellipticity correlation is predicted to have the same shape as, but an amplitude about four times higher than, our observation if the central LRGs are perfectly aligned with their host halos. This indicates that the central LRG galaxies are preferentially but not perfectly aligned with their host halos. With the assumption that there is a misalignment angle between a central LRG and its host halo which follows a Gaussian distribution with a zero mean and a width σ θ , we obtain a tight constraint on the misalignment parameter, σ θ = 35.4 +4.0 -3.3 deg. This type of intrinsic ellipticity correlation, if not corrected, can lead to contamination at 5% level to the shear power spectrum in weak lensing surveys of limiting magnitude R AB = 24.5 if the source central galaxies follow the same misalignment distribution as the LRGs.

  5. Luminous compact blue galaxies in the local Universe: A key reference for high-redshift studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Gallego, J.; Guzmán, R.; Castander, F. J.; Garland, C. A.; Pisano, D. J.

    2005-05-01

    Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies (LCBGs) are high surface brightness starburst galaxies, bluer than a typical Sbc and brighter than ˜0.25Lstar. LCBGs have evolved more than any other galaxy class in the last ˜8 Gyr, and are a major contributor to the observed enhancement of the UV luminosity density of the Universe at z≤1. Despite the key role LCBGs may play in galaxy evolution, their statistical properties are still largely unknown. We have selected a complete sample of ˜25 LCBGs within 100 Mpc, after investigating over 106 nearby galaxies from the DR1 of the SDSS database. This sample, although small, provides an excellent reference for comparison with current and future surveys of similar galaxies at high redshift, including the population of Lyman-break galaxies. We present preliminary results of this study using 3D spectroscopic observations obtained over a very wide range in wavelength, using WIYN/DENSEPAK in the optical, FISICA in the infrared, and the VLA at cm wavelengths.

  6. The variation of dust content with intrinsic galaxy properties: revealing strong dust biases in many commonly-used galaxy property measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devour, Brian; Bell, Eric F.

    2018-01-01

    Dust strongly affects many observations of galaxy properties, and quantifying galaxy dust content and correcting for its effects is a delicate and often uncertain task. In particular, both the impact of dust on commonly-used metrics of galaxy structure and the variation of dust content with intrinsic galaxy properties are poorly quantified. The inclination dependence of dust attenuation is a powerful tool to quantify dust amounts and the effects of dust on galaxy property measurements; this requires the construction of dust and inclination-independent selection techniques to isolate samples of intrinsically similar galaxies for study. To this end we construct dust and inclination-independent measurements of galaxy mass and star formation rate using dust-penetrated infrared datasets, and we develop novel dust and inclination-independent galaxy ‘linear’ size and concentration measurements by collapsing the light distribution in the near-infrared onto the major axis. With these new metrics we select a sample of Milky Way analog galaxies with similar stellar masses, star formation rates, and linear sizes and concentrations. These galaxies - identical save for their orientation - show strong systematic dust and inclination dependence in their Sérsic index, concentration, half-light radius, luminosity, (dust-corrected!) star formation rate and metallicitity, and spectral classification. We use these new metrics to study the variation in relative face-on to edge-on attenuation as a function of intrinsic stellar mass, star formation rate, and linear size and concentration. We find that, if one accounts for geometric and radiative transfer effects, the complex patterns of variation in relative attenuation can be reproduced by simple scaling relation-based dust density models in which dust optical depth is set primarily by gas density and metallicity.

  7. What drives the evolution of Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies in Clusters vs. the Field?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Gregory

    2017-08-01

    Present-day galaxy clusters consist chiefly of low-mass dwarf elliptical galaxies, but the progenitors of this dominant population remain unclear. A prime candidate is the class of objects known as Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies, common in intermediate-reshift clusters but virtually extinct today. Recent cosmological simulations suggest that the present-day dwarfs galaxies begin as irregular field galaxies, undergo an environmentally-driven starburst phase as they enter the cluster, and stop forming stars earlier than their counterparts in the field. This model predicts that cluster dwarfs should have lower stellar mass per unit dynamical mass than their counterparts in the field. We propose a two-pronged archival research program to test this key prediction using the combination of precision photometry from space and high-quality spectroscopy. First, we will combine optical HST/ACS imaging of five z=0.55 clusters (including two HST Frontier Fields) with Spitzer IR imaging and publicly-released Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy to measure stellar-to-dynamical-mass ratios for a large sample of cluster LCBGs. Second, we will exploit a new catalog of LCBGs in the COSMOS field to gather corresponding data for a significant sample of field LCBGs. By comparing mass ratios from these datasets, we will test theoretical predictions and determine the primary physical driver of cluster dwarf-galaxy evolution.

  8. The Rise and Fall of Star Formation Histories of Blue Galaxies at Redshifts 0.2 < z < 1.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, Camilla; Kassin, Susan A.; Weiner, Benjamin; Charlot, Stephane; Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    Popular cosmological scenarios predict that galaxies form hierarchically from the merger of many progenitor, each with their own unique star formation history (SFH). We use the approach recently developed by Pacifici et al. to constrain the SFHs of 4517 blue (presumably star-forming) galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts in the range O.2 galaxies rise and fall in a roughly symmetric bell-shaped manner, while those of low-mass galaxies rise progressively in time, consistent with the typically stronger activity of star formation in low-mass compared to high-mass galaxies. For galaxies of all masses, the star formation activity rises more rapidly at high than at low redshift. These findings imply that the standard approximation of exponentially declining SFHs wIdely used to interpret observed galaxy spectral energy distributions is not appropriate to constrain the physical parameters of star-forming galaxies at intermediate redshifts.

  9. On the Intrinsic Alignments of the Late-type Spiral Galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jounghun

    2011-05-01

    A robust detection of the tidally induced intrinsic alignments of the late-type spiral galaxies with high statistical significance is reported. From the spectroscopic galaxy sample of Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 compiled by Huertas-Company et al., which lists each galaxy's probabilities of being in five Hubble types, P(E), P(Ell), P(S0), P(Sab), P(Scd), we select the nearby large late-type spiral galaxies which have redshifts of 0 = 0.5, and angular sizes of D >= 7.92 arcsec. The spin axes of the selected nearby large late-type spiral galaxies are determined up to the two-fold ambiguity with the help of the circular thin-disk approximation, and their spatial correlations are measured as a function of the separation distance r. A clear signal of the intrinsic correlation as high as 3.4σ and 2.4σ is found at the separation distance of r ≈ 1 h -1 Mpc and r ≈ 2 h -1 Mpc, respectively. The comparison of this observational results with the analytic model based on the tidal torque theory reveals that the spin correlation function for the late-type spiral galaxies follows the quadratic scaling of the linear density correlation and that the intrinsic correlations of the galaxy spin axes are stronger than that of the underlying dark halos. We investigate a local density dependence of the galaxy spin correlations and found that the correlations are stronger for the galaxies located in dense regions having more than 10 neighbors within 2 h -1 Mpc. We also attempt to measure a luminosity dependence of the galaxy spin correlations, but find that it is impossible with our magnitude-split samples to disentangle a luminosity from a redshift dependence. We provide the physical explanations for these observational results and also discuss the effects of possible residual systematics on the results.

  10. Faint blue counts from formation of dwarf galaxies at z approximately equals 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babul, Arif; Rees, Martin J.

    1993-01-01

    The nature of faint blue objects (FBO's) has been a source of much speculation since their detection in deep CCD images of the sky. Their high surface density argues against them being progenitors of present-day bright galaxies and since they are only weakly clustered on small scales, they cannot be entities that merged together to form present-day galaxies. Babul & Rees (1992) have suggested that the observed faint blue counts may be due to dwarf elliptical galaxies undergoing their initial starburst at z is approximately equal to 1. In generic hierarchical clustering scenarios, however, dwarf galaxy halos (M is approximately 10(exp 9) solar mass) are expected to form at an earlier epoch; for example, typical 10(exp 9) solar mass halos will virialize at z is approximately equal to 2.3 if the power-spectrum for the density fluctuations is that of the standard b = 2 cold dark matter (CDM) model. Under 'ordinary conditions' the gas would rapidly cool, collect in the cores, and undergo star-formation. Conditions at high redshifts are far from 'ordinary'. The intense UV background will prevent the gas in the dwarf halos from cooling, the halos being released from their suspended state only when the UV flux has diminished sufficiently.

  11. Tidal interaction, star formation and chemical evolution in blue compact dwarf galaxy Mrk 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paswan, A.; Omar, A.; Jaiswal, S.

    2018-02-01

    The optical spectroscopic and radio interferometric H I 21 cm-line observations of the blue compact dwarf galaxy Mrk 22 are presented. The Wolf-Rayet (WR) emission-line features corresponding to high ionization lines of He II λ4686 and C IV λ5808 from young massive stars are detected. The ages of two prominent star-forming regions in the galaxy are estimated as ∼10 and ∼ 4 Myr. The galaxy has non-thermal radio deficiency, which also indicates a young starburst and lack of supernovae events from the current star formation activities, consistent with the detection of WR emission-line features. A significant N/O enrichment is seen in the fainter star-forming region. The gas-phase metallicities [12 + log(O/H)] for the bright and faint regions are estimated as 7.98±0.07 and 7.46±0.09, respectively. The galaxy has a large diffuse H I envelop. The H I images reveal disturbed gas kinematics and H I clouds outside the optical extent of the galaxy, indicating recent tidal interaction or merger in the system. The results strongly indicate that Mrk 22 is undergoing a chemical and morphological evolution due to ongoing star formation, most likely triggered by a merger.

  12. Quantitative spectroscopy of blue supergiants in metal-poor dwarf galaxy NGC 3109

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosek, Matthew W. Jr.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Bresolin, Fabio; Urbaneja, Miguel A.; Przybilla, Norbert; Evans, Christopher J.; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Gieren, Wolfgang; Carraro, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of the low-resolution (∼4.5 Å) spectra of 12 late-B and early-A blue supergiants (BSGs) in the metal-poor dwarf galaxy NGC 3109. A modified method of analysis is presented which does not require use of the Balmer jump as an independent T eff indicator, as used in previous studies. We determine stellar effective temperatures, gravities, metallicities, reddening, and luminosities, and combine our sample with the early-B-type BSGs analyzed by Evans et al. to derive the distance to NGC 3109 using the flux-weighted gravity-luminosity relation (FGLR). Using primarily Fe-group elements, we find an average metallicity of [ Z-bar ] = –0.67 ± 0.13, and no evidence of a metallicity gradient in the galaxy. Our metallicities are higher than those found by Evans et al. based on the oxygen abundances of early-B supergiants ([ Z-bar ] = –0.93 ± 0.07), suggesting a low α/Fe ratio for the galaxy. We adjust the position of NGC 3109 on the BSG-determined galaxy mass-metallicity relation accordingly and compare it to metallicity studies of H II regions in star-forming galaxies. We derive an FGLR distance modulus of 25.55 ± 0.09 (1.27 Mpc) that compares well with Cepheid and tip of the red giant branch distances. The FGLR itself is consistent with those found in other galaxies, demonstrating the reliability of this method as a measure of extragalactic distances.

  13. Quantitative spectroscopy of blue supergiants in metal-poor dwarf galaxy NGC 3109

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosek, Matthew W. Jr.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Bresolin, Fabio [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Urbaneja, Miguel A.; Przybilla, Norbert [Institute for Astro and Particle Physics, A-6020 Innsbruck University (Austria); Evans, Christopher J. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Gieren, Wolfgang [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Carraro, Giovanni, E-mail: mwhosek@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: kud@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: bresolin@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: Miguel.Urbaneja-Perez@uibk.ac.at, E-mail: Norbert.Przybilla@uibk.ac.at, E-mail: chris.evans@stfc.ac.uk, E-mail: pietrzyn@astrouw.edu.pl, E-mail: wgieren@astro-udec.cl, E-mail: gcarraro@eso.org [European Southern Observatory, La Silla Paranal Observatory (Chile)

    2014-04-20

    We present a quantitative analysis of the low-resolution (∼4.5 Å) spectra of 12 late-B and early-A blue supergiants (BSGs) in the metal-poor dwarf galaxy NGC 3109. A modified method of analysis is presented which does not require use of the Balmer jump as an independent T {sub eff} indicator, as used in previous studies. We determine stellar effective temperatures, gravities, metallicities, reddening, and luminosities, and combine our sample with the early-B-type BSGs analyzed by Evans et al. to derive the distance to NGC 3109 using the flux-weighted gravity-luminosity relation (FGLR). Using primarily Fe-group elements, we find an average metallicity of [ Z-bar ] = –0.67 ± 0.13, and no evidence of a metallicity gradient in the galaxy. Our metallicities are higher than those found by Evans et al. based on the oxygen abundances of early-B supergiants ([ Z-bar ] = –0.93 ± 0.07), suggesting a low α/Fe ratio for the galaxy. We adjust the position of NGC 3109 on the BSG-determined galaxy mass-metallicity relation accordingly and compare it to metallicity studies of H II regions in star-forming galaxies. We derive an FGLR distance modulus of 25.55 ± 0.09 (1.27 Mpc) that compares well with Cepheid and tip of the red giant branch distances. The FGLR itself is consistent with those found in other galaxies, demonstrating the reliability of this method as a measure of extragalactic distances.

  14. The Evolution of Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies in the COSMOS Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Lucas; Pisano, D. J.; Bershady, Matthew; Crawford, Steve

    2018-01-01

    Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies (LCBGs) are a class of compact star forming galaxies that are common at z=1 and rare in the local universe. The rapid increase in LCBG number density between z=0.0-1.0 roughly follows the increase in the star formation rate density of the universe over the same redshift range. We present the first study of the evolution of the number density LCBGs using a single data set covering redshifts from z=0.0-1.0. We do this by generating the luminosity function of LCBGs using a reanalysis of COSMOS photometry and spectroscopic redshift information generated by the Galaxy and Mass Assembly team. We find that M* increases by ~0.7 mag, φ* increases by a factor of 6, and the number density of LCBGs increases by a factor of ~10 between z=0.0-10 roughly matching previous studies using small samples over narrow redshift ranges. We find that LCBGs make up ~62% of galaxies brighter than MB=-18.5 at z=0.9 and only ~10% at z=0.1.

  15. Spectroscopy of Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies in Distant Clusters. I. Spectroscopic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Steven M.; Wirth, Gregory D.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Hon, Kimo

    2011-11-01

    We used the DEIMOS spectrograph on the Keck II Telescope to obtain spectra of galaxies in the fields of five distant, rich galaxy clusters over the redshift range 0.5 reported in the literature, except for 11 targets which we believe were previously in error. Within our sample, we confirm the presence of 53 LCBGs in the five galaxy clusters. The clusters all stand out as distinct peaks in the redshift distribution of LCBGs with the average number density of LCBGs ranging from 1.65 ± 0.25 Mpc-3 at z = 0.55 to 3.13 ± 0.65 Mpc-3 at z = 0.8. The number density of LCBGs in clusters exceeds the field density by a factor of 749 ± 116 at z = 0.55; at z = 0.8, the corresponding ratio is E = 416 ± 95. At z = 0.55, this enhancement is well above that seen for blue galaxies or the overall cluster population, indicating that LCBGs are preferentially triggered in high-density environments at intermediate redshifts. Based in part on data obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA, and was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  16. HOT DUST OBSCURED GALAXIES WITH EXCESS BLUE LIGHT: DUAL AGN OR SINGLE AGN UNDER EXTREME CONDITIONS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assef, R. J.; Diaz-Santos, T. [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Walton, D. J.; Brightman, M. [Space Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stern, D.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Tsai, C.-W. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 169-236, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Alexander, D. [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Bauer, F. [Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Blain, A. W. [Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, 1 University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Finkelstein, S. L. [The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Hickox, R. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Wu, J. W., E-mail: roberto.assef@mail.udp.cl [UCLA Astronomy, P.O. Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

    2016-03-10

    Hot dust-obscured galaxies (Hot DOGs) are a population of hyper-luminous infrared galaxies identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission from their very red mid-IR colors, and characterized by hot dust temperatures (T > 60 K). Several studies have shown clear evidence that the IR emission in these objects is powered by a highly dust-obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN) that shows close to Compton-thick absorption at X-ray wavelengths. Thanks to the high AGN obscuration, the host galaxy is easily observable, and has UV/optical colors usually consistent with those of a normal galaxy. Here we discuss a sub-population of eight Hot DOGs that show enhanced rest-frame UV/optical emission. We discuss three scenarios that might explain the excess UV emission: (i) unobscured light leaked from the AGN by reflection over the dust or by partial coverage of the accretion disk; (ii) a second unobscured AGN in the system; or (iii) a luminous young starburst. X-ray observations can help discriminate between these scenarios. We study in detail the blue excess Hot DOG WISE J020446.13–050640.8, which was serendipitously observed by Chandra/ACIS-I for 174.5 ks. The X-ray spectrum is consistent with a single, hyper-luminous, highly absorbed AGN, and is strongly inconsistent with the presence of a secondary unobscured AGN. Based on this, we argue that the excess blue emission in this object is most likely either due to reflection or a co-eval starburst. We favor the reflection scenario as the unobscured star formation rate needed to power the UV/optical emission would be ≳1000 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. Deep polarimetry observations could confirm the reflection hypothesis.

  17. ON THE INTRINSIC ALIGNMENTS OF THE LATE-TYPE SPIRAL GALAXIES FROM THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY DATA RELEASE 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jounghun

    2011-01-01

    A robust detection of the tidally induced intrinsic alignments of the late-type spiral galaxies with high statistical significance is reported. From the spectroscopic galaxy sample of Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 compiled by Huertas-Company et al., which lists each galaxy's probabilities of being in five Hubble types, P(E), P(Ell), P(S0), P(Sab), P(Scd), we select the nearby large late-type spiral galaxies which have redshifts of 0 ≤ z ≤ 0.02, probabilities of P(Scd) ≥ 0.5, and angular sizes of D ≥ 7.92 arcsec. The spin axes of the selected nearby large late-type spiral galaxies are determined up to the two-fold ambiguity with the help of the circular thin-disk approximation, and their spatial correlations are measured as a function of the separation distance r. A clear signal of the intrinsic correlation as high as 3.4σ and 2.4σ is found at the separation distance of r ∼ 1 h -1 Mpc and r ∼ 2 h -1 Mpc, respectively. The comparison of this observational results with the analytic model based on the tidal torque theory reveals that the spin correlation function for the late-type spiral galaxies follows the quadratic scaling of the linear density correlation and that the intrinsic correlations of the galaxy spin axes are stronger than that of the underlying dark halos. We investigate a local density dependence of the galaxy spin correlations and found that the correlations are stronger for the galaxies located in dense regions having more than 10 neighbors within 2 h -1 Mpc. We also attempt to measure a luminosity dependence of the galaxy spin correlations, but find that it is impossible with our magnitude-split samples to disentangle a luminosity from a redshift dependence. We provide the physical explanations for these observational results and also discuss the effects of possible residual systematics on the results.

  18. THE STELLAR POPULATION AND STAR FORMATION PROPERTIES OF BLUE COMPACT DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yinghe; Gao Yu; Gu Qiusheng

    2011-01-01

    We study stellar populations, star formation histories (SFHs), and star formation properties for a sample of blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs) selected by cross-correlating the Gil de Paz et al. sample with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 6. The sample includes 31 BCDs, which span a large range of galactic parameters. Using a stellar population synthesis method, we derive stellar populations and reconstruct SFHs for these BCDs. Our studies confirm that BCDs are not young systems experiencing their first star formation, but old systems undergoing a starburst activity. The stellar mass-weighted ages can be up to 10 Gyr, while the luminosity-weighted ages might be up to approximately three orders of magnitude younger (∼10 Myr) for most galaxies. Based on multiwavelength data, we also study the integrated star formation properties. The star formation rate (SFR) for our sample galaxies spans nearly three orders of magnitude, from a few 10 -3 to ∼1 M sun yr -1 , with a median value of ∼0.1 M sun yr -1 . We find that about 90% of BCDs in our sample have their birthrate parameter (the ratio of the current SFR to the averaged past SFR) b>2-3. We further discuss correlations of the current SFR with the integrated galactic stellar mass and explore the connection between SFR and metallicity.

  19. The H I content of extremely metal-deficient blue compact dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuan, T. X.; Goehring, K. M.; Hibbard, J. E.; Izotov, Y. I.; Hunt, L. K.

    2016-12-01

    We have obtained new H I observations with the 100 m Green Bank Telescope (GBT) for a sample of 29 extremely metal-deficient star-forming blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxies, selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectral data base to be extremely metal-deficient (12 + log O/H ≤ 7.6). Neutral hydrogen was detected in 28 galaxies, a 97 per cent detection rate. Combining the H I data with SDSS optical spectra for the BCD sample and adding complementary galaxy samples from the literature to extend the metallicity and mass ranges, we have studied how the H I content of a galaxy varies with various global galaxian properties. There is a clear trend of increasing gas mass fraction with decreasing metallicity, mass and luminosity. We obtain the relation M(H I)/Lg∝ L_g^{-0.3}, in agreement with previous studies based on samples with a smaller luminosity range. The median gas mass fraction fgas for the GBT sample is equal to 0.94 while the mean gas mass fraction is 0.90±0.15, with a lower limit of ˜0.65. The H I depletion time is independent of metallicity, with a large scatter around the median value of 3.4 Gyr. The ratio of the baryonic mass to the dynamical mass of the metal-deficient BCDs varies from 0.05 to 0.80, with a median value of ˜0.2. About 65 per cent of the BCDs in our sample have an effective yield larger than the true yield, implying that the neutral gas envelope in BCDs is more metal-deficient by a factor of 1.5-20, as compared to the ionized gas.

  20. FORMATION OF ULTRA-COMPACT BLUE DWARF GALAXIES AND THEIR EVOLUTION INTO NUCLEATED DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekki, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    We propose that there is an evolutionary link between ultra-compact blue dwarf galaxies (UCBDs) with active star formation and nucleated dwarfs based on the results of numerical simulations of dwarf–dwarf merging. We consider the observational fact that low-mass dwarfs can be very gas-rich, and thereby investigate the dynamical and chemical evolution of very gas-rich, dissipative dwarf–dwarf mergers. We find that the remnants of dwarf–dwarf mergers can be dominated by new stellar populations formed from the triggered starbursts and consequently can have blue colors and higher metallicities (Z ∼ [0.2–1]Z ⊙ ). We also find that the remnants of these mergers can have rather high mass densities (10 4 M ⊙ pc −3 ) within the central 10 pc and small half-light radii (40−100 pc). The radial stellar structures of some merger remnants are similar to those of nucleated dwarfs. Star formation can continue in nuclear gas disks (R < 100 pc) surrounding stellar galactic nuclei (SGNs) so that the SGNs can finally have multiple stellar populations with different ages and metallicities. These very compact blue remnants can be identified as UCBDs soon after merging and as nucleated dwarfs after the young stars fade. We discuss these results in the context of the origins of metal-rich ultra-compact dwarfs and SGNs

  1. Probing star formation and feedback in dwarf galaxies. Integral field view of the blue compact galaxy Tololo 1937-423

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairós, L. M.; González-Pérez, J. N.

    2017-12-01

    Context. Blue compact galaxies (BCG) are gas-rich, low-mass, small systems that form stars at unusually high rates. This makes them excellent laboratories for investigating the process of star-formation (SF) at galactic scales and the effects of massive stellar feedback on the interstellar (and intergalactic) medium. Aims: We analyzed the BCG Tololo 1937-423 using optical integral field spectroscopy to probe its morphology, stellar content, nebular excitation and ionization properties, and the kinematics of its warm ionized gas. Methods: Tololo 1937-423 was observed with the Visible Multi-Object Spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope. We took data in the wavelength range 4150-7400 Å, covering a field of view of 27″× 27″ on the sky with a spatial sampling of 0.̋67. From these data we built maps in the continuum and brighter emission lines, diagnostic line ratio maps, and velocity dispersion fields. We also generated the integrated spectrum of the main H II regions and young stellar clusters to determine reliable physical parameters and oxygen abundances. Results: We found that Tololo 1937-423 is currently undergoing an extended starburst. In the Hα maps we identified nine major clumps, aligned mostly northeast-southwest, and stretching to galactocentric distances ≥2 kpc. The galaxy presents a single continuum peak that is not cospatial with any knot in emission lines, indicating at least two relatively recent episodes of SF. The inhomogeneous dust distribution reachs its maximum (E(B-V) 0.97) roughly at the position of the continuum peak. We found shocked regions in the galaxy outer regions and at the edges of the SF knots. The oxygen abundance, 12 + log(O/H) 8.20 ± 0.1, is similar in all the SF regions, suggesting a chemically homogeneous ionized interstellar medium over spatial scales of several kpc. The ionized gas kinematics displays an overall regular rotation around a northwest-southeast axis, with a maximum velocity of 70 ± 7 km s-1. Conclusions

  2. Full-sky Ray-tracing Simulation of Weak Lensing Using ELUCID Simulations: Exploring Galaxy Intrinsic Alignment and Cosmic Shear Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chengliang; Li, Guoliang; Kang, Xi; Luo, Yu; Xia, Qianli; Wang, Peng; Yang, Xiaohu; Wang, Huiyuan; Jing, Yipeng; Mo, Houjun; Lin, Weipeng; Wang, Yang; Li, Shijie; Lu, Yi; Zhang, Youcai; Lim, S. H.; Tweed, Dylan; Cui, Weiguang

    2018-01-01

    The intrinsic alignment of galaxies is an important systematic effect in weak-lensing surveys, which can affect the derived cosmological parameters. One direct way to distinguish different alignment models and quantify their effects on the measurement is to produce mock weak-lensing surveys. In this work, we use the full-sky ray-tracing technique to produce mock images of galaxies from the ELUCID N-body simulation run with WMAP9 cosmology. In our model, we assume that the shape of the central elliptical galaxy follows that of the dark matter halo, and that of the spiral galaxy follows the halo spin. Using the mock galaxy images, a combination of galaxy intrinsic shape and the gravitational shear, we compare the predicted tomographic shear correlations to the results of the Kilo-Degree Survey (KiDS) and Deep Lens Survey (DLS). We find that our predictions stay between the KiDS and DLS results. We rule out a model in which the satellite galaxies are radially aligned with the center galaxy; otherwise, the shear correlations on small scales are too high. Most importantly, we find that although the intrinsic alignment of spiral galaxies is very weak, they induce a positive correlation between the gravitational shear signal and the intrinsic galaxy orientation (GI). This is because the spiral galaxy is tangentially aligned with the nearby large-scale overdensity, contrary to the radial alignment of the elliptical galaxy. Our results explain the origin of the detected positive GI term in the weak-lensing surveys. We conclude that in future analyses, the GI model must include the dependence on galaxy types in more detail.

  3. Ultracompact Blue Dwarf Galaxies: Hubble Space Telescope Imaging and Stellar Population Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Michael R.; Vacca, William D.; Cid Fernandes, Roberto; Hibbard, John E.; Somerville, Rachel S.; Windhorst, Rogier A.

    2006-11-01

    We present deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys/High Resolution Channel U-, narrow-V-, and I-band images of nine ``ultracompact'' blue dwarf galaxies (UCBDs) selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We define UCBDs as local (zPOX 186, but the structure of several of them suggests that their current star formation has been triggered by the collisions/mergers of smaller clumps of stars. In one case, HS 0822+3542, the images resolve what may be two small (~100 pc) components that have recently collided, supporting this interpretation. In six of the objects much of the star formation is concentrated in young massive clusters, contributing to their compactness in ground-based images. The evidence that the galaxies consist mainly of ~10 Gyr old stars establishes that they are not protogalaxies, forming their first generation of stars. Their low metallicities are more likely to be the result of the escape of supernova ejecta, rather than youth.

  4. Multi-spectral study of a new sample of blue compact dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Doublier, V; Comte, G

    1999-01-01

    For pt.I see ibid., vol.124, no.3, p.405-24 (1997). We present the results of surface photometry on a new sample of blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDGs), in continuation to a previous paper (Doublier et al. 1997). The 22 galaxies $9 (plus two companions) discussed in the present paper have been selected in the Southern Hemisphere, from several lists. An atlas containing isophotal maps, surface brightnesses and B-R color profiles of the sample is given, together $9 with the tables containing the photometric parameters. The results are consistent with those for objects selected from the Byurakan surveys in the Northern Hemisphere. Similarly, we find about one fourth of the BCDGs showing a $9 dominant r/sup 1/4/ brightness distribution component, one fourth of the BCDGs showing a dominant exponential surface brightness profile, and about half of them show composite brightness distributions. Integrated properties, colors, $9 mean surface brightnesses and luminosity-radius relations are investigated and discussed f...

  5. Angular spectra of the intrinsic galaxy ellipticity field, their observability and their impact on lensing in tomographic surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Björn Malte; Merkel, Philipp M.

    2017-09-01

    This paper describes intrinsic ellipticity correlations between galaxies, their statistical properties, their observability with future surveys and their interference with weak gravitational lensing measurements. Using an angular-momentum-based, quadratic intrinsic alignment model we derive correlation functions of the ellipticity components and project them to yield the four non-zero angular ellipticity spectra C^ɛ _E(ℓ), C^ɛ _B(ℓ), C^ɛ _C(ℓ) and C^ɛ _S(ℓ) in their generalization to tomographic surveys. For a Euclid-like survey, these spectra would have amplitudes smaller than the weak lensing effect on non-linear structures, but would constitute an important systematics. Computing estimation biases for cosmological parameters derived from an alignment-contaminated survey suggests biases of +5σw for the dark energy equation of state parameter w, -20σ _{Ω _m} for the matter density Ωm and -12σ _{σ _8} for the spectrum normalization σ8. Intrinsic alignments yield a signal that is easily observable with a survey similar to Euclid: while not independent, significances for estimates of each of the four spectra reach values of tens of σ if weak lensing and shape noise are considered as noise sources, which suggests relative uncertainties on alignment parameters at the percent level, implying that galaxy alignment mechanisms can be investigated by future surveys.

  6. Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Normal galaxies, radio galaxies, and Seyfert galaxies are considered. The large magellanic cloud and the great galaxy in Andromedia are highlighted. Quasars and BL lacertae objects are also discussed and a review of the spectral observations of all of these galaxies and celestial objects is presented

  7. Semi-analytic models for the CANDELS survey: comparison of predictions for intrinsic galaxy properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yu; Wechsler, Risa H.; Somerville, Rachel S.; Croton, Darren; Porter, Lauren; Primack, Joel; Moody, Chris; Behroozi, Peter S.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koo, David C.; Guo, Yicheng; Safarzadeh, Mohammadtaher; White, Catherine E.; Finlator, Kristian; Castellano, Marco; Sommariva, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    We compare the predictions of three independently developed semi-analytic galaxy formation models (SAMs) that are being used to aid in the interpretation of results from the CANDELS survey. These models are each applied to the same set of halo merger trees extracted from the 'Bolshoi' high-resolution cosmological N-body simulation and are carefully tuned to match the local galaxy stellar mass function using the powerful method of Bayesian Inference coupled with Markov Chain Monte Carlo or by hand. The comparisons reveal that in spite of the significantly different parameterizations for star formation and feedback processes, the three models yield qualitatively similar predictions for the assembly histories of galaxy stellar mass and star formation over cosmic time. Comparing SAM predictions with existing estimates of the stellar mass function from z = 0-8, we show that the SAMs generally require strong outflows to suppress star formation in low-mass halos to match the present-day stellar mass function, as is the present common wisdom. However, all of the models considered produce predictions for the star formation rates (SFRs) and metallicities of low-mass galaxies that are inconsistent with existing data. The predictions for metallicity-stellar mass relations and their evolution clearly diverge between the models. We suggest that large differences in the metallicity relations and small differences in the stellar mass assembly histories of model galaxies stem from different assumptions for the outflow mass-loading factor produced by feedback. Importantly, while more accurate observational measurements for stellar mass, SFR and metallicity of galaxies at 1 < z < 5 will discriminate between models, the discrepancies between the constrained models and existing data of these observables have already revealed challenging problems in understanding star formation and its feedback in galaxy formation. The three sets of models are being used to construct catalogs

  8. Semi-analytic models for the CANDELS survey: comparison of predictions for intrinsic galaxy properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yu; Wechsler, Risa H. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Physics Department, and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Somerville, Rachel S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Croton, Darren [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Porter, Lauren; Primack, Joel; Moody, Chris [Department of Physics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Behroozi, Peter S.; Ferguson, Henry C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Koo, David C.; Guo, Yicheng [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Safarzadeh, Mohammadtaher; White, Catherine E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Finlator, Kristian [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Castellano, Marco; Sommariva, Veronica, E-mail: luyu@stanford.edu, E-mail: rwechsler@stanford.edu [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio (Italy)

    2014-11-10

    We compare the predictions of three independently developed semi-analytic galaxy formation models (SAMs) that are being used to aid in the interpretation of results from the CANDELS survey. These models are each applied to the same set of halo merger trees extracted from the 'Bolshoi' high-resolution cosmological N-body simulation and are carefully tuned to match the local galaxy stellar mass function using the powerful method of Bayesian Inference coupled with Markov Chain Monte Carlo or by hand. The comparisons reveal that in spite of the significantly different parameterizations for star formation and feedback processes, the three models yield qualitatively similar predictions for the assembly histories of galaxy stellar mass and star formation over cosmic time. Comparing SAM predictions with existing estimates of the stellar mass function from z = 0-8, we show that the SAMs generally require strong outflows to suppress star formation in low-mass halos to match the present-day stellar mass function, as is the present common wisdom. However, all of the models considered produce predictions for the star formation rates (SFRs) and metallicities of low-mass galaxies that are inconsistent with existing data. The predictions for metallicity-stellar mass relations and their evolution clearly diverge between the models. We suggest that large differences in the metallicity relations and small differences in the stellar mass assembly histories of model galaxies stem from different assumptions for the outflow mass-loading factor produced by feedback. Importantly, while more accurate observational measurements for stellar mass, SFR and metallicity of galaxies at 1 < z < 5 will discriminate between models, the discrepancies between the constrained models and existing data of these observables have already revealed challenging problems in understanding star formation and its feedback in galaxy formation. The three sets of models are being used to construct catalogs

  9. Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The size and nature of any large-scale anisotropy in the three-dimensional distribution of galaxies is still little understood. Recent studies have indicated that large fluctuations in the matter distribution on a scale from tens up to several hundreds of megaparsecs may exist. Work at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) in recent years has made major contributions to studies of the large scale distribution of galaxies, as well as to solving the problems of the galactic and extragalactic distance scale. Other studies of galaxies undertaken at SAAO include: quasars in the fields of nearby galaxies; dwarf irregular galaxies; IRAS galaxies; Seyfert galaxies; 'hot spot' galaxies; supernovae in NGC 5128 and NGC 1559 and superclusters. 4 figs

  10. Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    In studies of the large scale structure of the universe there is a continuing need for extensive galaxy redshift determinations. Optically selected redshift surveys are of particular importance, since flux-limited samples record much higher space densities of galaxies than samples of similar size selected in other wavebands. A considerable amount of the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) observing time is currently being devoted to carrying out a large southern galaxy redshift survey. A recently completed study, the Durham-SAAO redshift survey suggests that the mean density of matter is well below the critical limit for a closed universe and also that the universe may be homogenous at very large scales. Other research conducted by the SAAO include studies on: the distribution of galaxies; Seyfert galaxies; starburst and IRAS galaxies; interacting and compact galaxies; a re-evaluation of the Cepheid distance to NGC 300, and a search for quasars behind galaxies. 1 fig

  11. The relation between galaxy morphology and colour in the EAGLE simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Camila A.; Schaye, Joop; Clauwens, Bart; Bower, Richard G.; Crain, Robert A.; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom; Thob, Adrien C. R.

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the relation between kinematic morphology, intrinsic colour and stellar mass of galaxies in the EAGLE cosmological hydrodynamical simulation. We calculate the intrinsic u - r colours and measure the fraction of kinetic energy invested in ordered corotation of 3562 galaxies at z = 0 with stellar masses larger than 1010 M⊙. Inspection of gri-composite images suggests that the kinematic morphology is a useful proxy for visual morphology. EAGLE produces a galaxy population for which morphology is tightly correlated with the location in the colour-mass diagram, with the red sequence mostly populated by elliptical galaxies and the blue cloud by disc galaxies. Satellite galaxies are more likely to be on the red sequence than centrals, and for satellites the red sequence is morphologically more diverse. These results show that the connection between mass, intrinsic colour and morphology arises from galaxy-formation models that reproduce the observed galaxy mass function and sizes.

  12. THE RISE AND FALL OF THE STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF BLUE GALAXIES AT REDSHIFTS 0.2 < z < 1.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacifici, Camilla; Kassin, Susan A.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Weiner, Benjamin; Charlot, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    Popular cosmological scenarios predict that galaxies form hierarchically from the merger of many progenitors, each with their own unique star formation history (SFH). We use a sophisticated approach to constrain the SFHs of 4517 blue (presumably star-forming) galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts in the range 0.2 s bands and rest-frame optical emission-line luminosities with those of one million model spectral energy distributions. We explore the dependence of the resulting SFHs on galaxy stellar mass and redshift. We find that the average SFHs of high-mass galaxies rise and fall in a roughly symmetric bell-shaped manner, while those of low-mass galaxies rise progressively in time, consistent with the typically stronger activity of star formation in low-mass compared to high-mass galaxies. For galaxies of all masses, the star formation activity rises more rapidly at high than at low redshift. These findings imply that the standard approximation of exponentially declining SFHs widely used to interpret observed galaxy spectral energy distributions may not be appropriate to constrain the physical parameters of star-forming galaxies at intermediate redshifts.

  13. H I IMAGING OBSERVATIONS OF SUPERTHIN GALAXIES. II. IC 2233 AND THE BLUE COMPACT DWARF NGC 2537

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, Lynn D.; Uson, Juan M.

    2008-01-01

    We have used the Very Large Array to image the H I 21 cm line emission in the edge-on Sd galaxy IC 2233 and the blue compact dwarf NGC 2537. We also present new optical B, R, and Hα imaging of IC 2233 obtained with the WIYN telescope. Despite evidence of localized massive star formation in the form of prominent H II regions and shells, supergiant stars, and a blue integrated color, IC 2233 is a low surface brightness system with a very low global star formation rate (∼ sun yr -1 ), and we detect no significant 21 cm radio continuum emission from the galaxy. The H I and ionized gas disks of IC 2233 are clumpy and vertically distended, with scale heights comparable to that of the young stellar disk. Both the stellar and H I disks of IC 2233 appear flared, and we also find a vertically extended, rotationally anomalous component of H I extending to ∼ 2.4d 10 kpc from the midplane. The H I disk exhibits a mild lopsidedness as well as a global corrugation pattern with a period of ∼7d 10 kpc and an amplitude of ∼150d 10 pc. To our knowledge, this is the first time corrugations of the gas disk have been reported in an external galaxy; these undulations may be linked to bending instabilities or to underlying spiral structure and suggest that the disk is largely self-gravitating. Lying at a projected distance of 16'.7 from IC 2233, NGC 2537 has an H I disk with a bright, tilted inner ring and a flocculent, dynamically cold outer region that extends to ∼3.5 times the extent of the stellar light (D 25 ). Although NGC 2537 is rotationally-dominated, we measure H I velocity dispersions as high as σ V.HI ∼25 km s -1 near its center, indicative of significant turbulent motions. The inner rotation curve rises steeply, implying a strong central mass concentration. Our data indicate that IC 2233 and NGC 2537 do not constitute a bound pair and most likely lie at different distances. We also find no compelling evidence of a recent minor merger in either IC 2233 or NGC

  14. Resolved H I Observations of Local Analogs to z ∼ 1 Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies: Evidence for Rotation-supported Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabidoux, Katie; Pisano, D. J.; Garland, C. A.; Guzmán, Rafael; Castander, Francisco J.; Wolfe, Spencer A.

    2018-01-01

    While bright, blue, compact galaxies are common at z∼ 1, they are relatively rare in the local universe, and their evolutionary paths are uncertain. We have obtained resolved H I observations of nine z∼ 0 luminous compact blue galaxies (LCBGs) using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope and Very Large Array in order to measure their kinematic and dynamical properties and better constrain their evolutionary possibilities. We find that the LCBGs in our sample are rotating galaxies that tend to have nearby companions, relatively high central velocity dispersions, and can have disturbed velocity fields. We calculate rotation velocities for each galaxy by measuring half of the velocity gradient along their major axes and correcting for inclination using axis ratios derived from SDSS images of each galaxy. We compare our measurements to those previously made with single dishes and find that single-dish measurements tend to overestimate LCBGs’ rotation velocities and H I masses. We also compare the ratio of LCBGs’ rotation velocities and velocity dispersions to those of other types of galaxies and find that LCBGs are strongly rotationally supported at large radii, similar to other disk galaxies, though within their half-light radii the {V}{rot}/σ values of their H I are comparable to stellar {V}{rot}/σ values of dwarf elliptical galaxies. We find that LCBGs’ disks on average are gravitationally stable, though conditions may be conducive to local gravitational instabilities at the largest radii. Such instabilities could lead to the formation of star-forming gas clumps in the disk, resulting eventually in a small central bulge or bar.

  15. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Downsizing of the blue cloud and the influence of galaxy size on mass quenching over the last eight billion years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, C. P.; Iovino, A.; Krywult, J.; Guzzo, L.; Davidzon, I.; Bolzonella, M.; Garilli, B.; Scodeggio, M.; Granett, B. R.; de la Torre, S.; De Lucia, G.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cucciati, O.; Franzetti, P.; Fritz, A.; Gargiulo, A.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; Moutard, T.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Zamorani, G.; Bel, J.; Branchini, E.; Coupon, J.; Ilbert, O.; Moscardini, L.; Peacock, J. A.; Siudek, M.

    2017-08-01

    We use the full VIPERS redshift survey in combination with SDSS-DR7 to explore the relationships between star-formation history (using d4000), stellar mass and galaxy structure, and how these relationships have evolved since z 1. We trace the extents and evolutions of both the blue cloud and red sequence by fitting double Gaussians to the d4000 distribution of galaxies in narrow stellar mass bins, for four redshift intervals over 0 1011M⊙, d4000 parallel, their structures change, showing higher Sérsic indices and central stellar mass densities. For these galaxies, bulge growth is required for them to reach the high-mass limit of the blue cloud and be quenched by internal mechanisms. The blue-cloud galaxies that are being quenched at z 0.8 lie along the same size-mass relation as present day quiescent galaxies and seem the likely progenitors of today's S0s. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Cerro Paranal, Chile, using the Very Large Telescope under programs 182.A-0886 and partly 070.A-9007. Also based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at TERAPIX and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. The VIPERS web site is http://www.vipers.inaf.it/

  16. Metal enrichment of the neutral gas of blue compact dwarf galaxies: the compelling case of Pox 36

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebouteiller, V.; Kunth, D.; Thuan, T. X.; Désert, J. M.

    2009-02-01

    Context: Evidence has grown over the past few years that the neutral phase of blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxies may be metal-deficient as compared to the ionized gas of their H ii regions. These results have strong implications for our understanding of the chemical evolution of galaxies, and it is essential to strengthen the method, as well as to find possible explanations. Aims: We present the analysis of the interstellar spectrum of Pox 36 with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE). Pox 36 was selected because of the relatively low foreground gas content that makes it possible to detect absorption-lines weak enough that unseen components should not be saturated. Methods: Interstellar lines of H i, N i, O i, Si ii, P ii, Ar i, and Fe ii are detected. Column densities are derived directly from the observed line profiles except for H i, whose lines are contaminated by stellar absorption, thus needing the stellar continuum to be removed. We used the TLUSTY models to remove the stellar continuum and isolate the interstellar component. The best fit indicates that the dominant stellar population is B0. The observed far-UV flux agrees with an equivalent number of ~300 B0 stars. The fit of the interstellar H i line gives a column density of 1020.3±0.4 cm-2. Chemical abundances were then computed from the column densities using the dominant ionization stage in the neutral gas. Our abundances are compared to those measured from emission-line spectra in the optical, probing the ionized gas of the H ii regions. Results: Our results suggest that the neutral gas of Pox 36 is metal-deficient by a factor ~7 as compared to the ionized gas, and they agree with a metallicity of ≈1/35 Z_⊙. Elemental depletion is not problematic because of the low dust content along the selected lines of sight. In contrast, the ionized gas shows a clear depletion pattern, with iron being strongly depleted. Conclusions: The abundance discontinuity between the neutral and ionized phases

  17. Intense blue upconversion emission and intrinsic optical bistability in Tm3+/Yb3+/Zn2+ tridoped YVO4 phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Manglesh; Mondal, Manisha; Mukhopadhyay, Lakshmi; Rai, Vineet Kumar

    2018-04-01

    Tm3+/Yb3+/Zn2+:yttrium metavanadate (YVO4) phosphors prepared through chemical coprecipitation and the solid state reaction method have been structurally characterized by an x-ray diffraction (XRD) study. Photoluminescence study of the developed phosphors under ultraviolet (UV) and near infrared (NIR) excitation has been performed. The excitation spectrum of the tetragonal zircon type YVO4 phosphors corresponding to the emission at ∼476 nm exhibits a broad excitation peak in the 250–350 nm region, which is due to charge distribution in the {{{{VO}}}4}3- group. Under 980 nm CW diode laser excitation, enhancements of about ∼3000 times and ∼40 times have been observed for the blue band in the tridoped Tm3+Yb3+Zn2+:YVO4 phosphors compared to those of the Tm3+:YVO4 singly and Tm3+/Yb3+:YVO4 codoped phosphors, respectively. A downconversion (DC) emission study shows an enhancement of about ∼50 times for the blue band in the tridoped phosphors compared to that of the singly doped phosphors. Optical bistability (OB) behavior of the developed phosphors has been also investigated upon 980 nm excitation. The calculated Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage (CIE) color coordinates lie in the blue region with 96.5% color purity under 980 nm excitation, having a color temperature of ∼3400 K. Our observations show that the developed phosphors may be suitably used in dual mode luminescence spectroscopy, display devices, and UV LED chips.

  18. Galaxies: The Long Wavelength View

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fischer, J

    2000-01-01

    ... (more than 2 orders of magnitude) in the [C II]/FIR ratios in galaxies extending from blue compact dwarfs, to normal and starburst galaxies, down to elliptical and ultraluminous galaxies (ULICs...

  19. THE GRAVITATIONAL SHEAR-INTRINSIC ELLIPTICITY CORRELATION FUNCTIONS OF LUMINOUS RED GALAXIES IN OBSERVATION AND IN THE ΛCDM MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Teppei; Jing, Y. P.

    2009-01-01

    We examine whether the gravitational shear-intrinsic ellipticity (GI) correlation function of the luminous red galaxies (LRGs) can be modeled with the distribution function of a misalignment angle advocated recently by Okumura et al. For this purpose, we have accurately measured the GI correlation for the LRGs in the Data Release 6 (DR6) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), which confirms the results of Hirata et al. who used the DR4 data. By comparing the GI correlation functions in the simulation and in the observation, we find that the GI correlation can be modeled in the current ΛCDM model if the misalignment follows a Gaussian distribution with a zero mean and a typical misalignment angle σ θ = 34.9 +1.9 -2.1 degrees. We also find a correlation between the axis ratios and intrinsic alignments of LRGs. This effect should be taken into account in theoretical modeling of the GI and intrinsic ellipticity-ellipticity correlations for weak lensing surveys.

  20. HI properties and star formation history of a fly-by pair of blue compact dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhyub; Chung, Aeree; Wong, O. Ivy; Lee, Bumhyun; Sung, Eon-Chang; Staveley-Smith, Lister

    2017-09-01

    A fly-by interaction has been suggested to be one of the major explanations for enhanced star formation in blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxies, yet no direct evidence for this scenario has been found to date. In the Hi Parkes all-sky survey (HIPASS), ESO 435-IG 020 and ESO 435-G 016, a BCD pair were found in a common, extended gas envelope of atomic hydrogen, providing an ideal case to test the hypothesis that the starburst in BCDs can be indeed triggered by a fly-by interaction. Using high-resolution data from the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), we investigated Hi properties and the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the BCD pair to study their interaction and star formation histories. The high-resolution Hi data of both BCDs reveal a number of peculiarities, which are suggestive of tidal perturbation. Meanwhile, 40% of the HIPASS flux is not accounted for in the ATCA observations with no Hi gas bridge found between the two BCDs. Intriguingly, in the residual of the HIPASS and the ATCA data, 10% of the missing flux appears to be located between the two BCDs. While the SED-based age of the most dominant young stellar population is old enough to have originated from the interaction with any neighbors (including the other of the two BCDs), the most recent star formation activity traced by strong Hα emission in ESO 435-IG 020 and the shear motion of gas in ESO 435-G 016, suggest a more recent or current tidal interaction. Based on these and the residual emission between the HIPASS and the ATCA data, we propose an interaction between the two BCDs as the origin of their recently enhanced star formation activity. The shear motion on the gas disk, potentially with re-accretion of the stripped gas, could be responsible for the active star formation in this BCD pair. The reduced datacube (FITS file) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/605/A54

  1. Dark matter halo properties from galaxy-galaxy lensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brimioulle, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    The scientific results over the past years have shown that the Universe is by far not only composed of baryonic matter. In fact the major energy content of 72% of the Universe appears to be represented by so-called dark energy, while even from the remaining components only about one fifth is of baryonic origin, whereas 80% have to be attributed to dark matter. Originally appearing in observations of spiral galaxy rotation curves, the need for dark matter has also been verified investigating elliptical galaxies and galaxy clusters. In fact, it appears that dark matter played a major role during structure formation in the early Universe. Shortly after the Big Bang, when the matter distribution was almost homogeneous, initially very small inhomogeneities in the matter distribution formed the seeds for the gravitational collapse of the matter structures. Numerical n-body simulations, for instance, clearly indicate that the presently observable evolutionary state and complexity of the matter structure in the Universe would not have been possible without dark matter, which significantly accelerated the structure collapse due to its gravitational interaction. As dark matter does not interact electromagnetically and therefore is non-luminous but only interacts gravitationally, the gravitational lens effect provides an excellent opportunity for its detection and estimation of its amount. Weak gravitational lensing is a technique that makes use of the random orientation of the intrinsic galaxy ellipticities and thus their uniform distribution. Gravitational tidal forces introduce a coherent distortion of the background object shapes, leading to a deviation from the uniform distribution which depends on the lens galaxy properties and therefore can be used to study them. This thesis describes the galaxy-galaxy lensing analysis of 89deg 2 of optical data, observed within the CFHTLS-WIDE survey. In the framework of this thesis the data were used in order to create photometric

  2. Transition of an X-ray binary to the hard ultraluminous state in the blue compact dwarf galaxy VII Zw 403

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brorby, M.; Kaaret, P.; Feng, H.

    2015-04-01

    We examine the X-ray spectra of VII Zw 403, a nearby low-metallicity blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxy. The galaxy has been observed to contain an X-ray source, likely a high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB), with a luminosity of 1.3-23 × 1038 erg s-1 in the 0.3-8 keV energy range. A new Suzaku observation shows a transition to a luminosity of 1.7 × 1040 erg s-1 [0.3-8 keV], higher by a factor of 7-130. The spectra from the high-flux state are hard, best described by a disc plus Comptonization model, and exhibit curvature at energies above 5 keV. This is consistent with many high-quality ultraluminous X-ray source spectra which have been interpreted as stellar mass black holes accreting at super-Eddington rates. However, this lies in contrast to another HMXB in a low-metallicity BCD, I Zw 18, that exhibits a soft spectrum at high flux, similar to Galactic black hole binaries and has been interpreted as a possible intermediate-mass black hole. Determining the spectral properties of HMXBs in BCDs has important implications for models of the Epoch of Reionization. It is thought that the main component of X-ray heating in the early Universe was dominated by HMXBs within the first galaxies. Early galaxies were small, metal-deficient, star-forming galaxies with large H I mass fractions - properties shared by local BCDs we see today. Understanding the spectral evolution of HMXBs in early Universe analogue galaxies, such as BCDs, is an important step in estimating their contribution to the heating of the intergalactic medium during the Epoch of Reionization. The strong contrast between the properties of the only two spectroscopically studied HMXBs within BCDs motivates further study on larger samples of HMXBs in low-metallicity environments in order to properly estimate the X-ray heating in the early Universe.

  3. A deep redshift survey of field galaxies. Comments on the reality of the Butcher-Oemler effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, David C.; Kron, Richard G.

    1987-01-01

    A spectroscopic survey of over 400 field galaxies has been completed in three fields for which we have deep UBVI photographic photometry. The galaxies typically range from B=20 to 22 and possess redshifts z from 0.1 to 0.5 that are often quite spiky in distribution. Little, if any, luminosity evolution is observed up to redshifts z approx 0.5. By such redshifts, however, an unexpectedly large fraction of luminous galaxies has very blue intrinsic colors that suggest extensive star formation; in contrast, the reddest galaxies still have colors that match those of present-day ellipticals.

  4. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). An unbiased estimate of the growth rate of structure at ⟨z⟩ = 0.85 using the clustering of luminous blue galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, F. G.; Granett, B. R.; Guzzo, L.; Bel, J.; Branchini, E.; de la Torre, S.; Moscardini, L.; Peacock, J. A.; Bolzonella, M.; Garilli, B.; Scodeggio, M.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cucciati, O.; Davidzon, I.; Franzetti, P.; Fritz, A.; Iovino, A.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Arnouts, S.; Coupon, J.; De Lucia, G.; Ilbert, O.; Moutard, T.

    2018-02-01

    We used the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) final data release (PDR-2) to investigate the performance of colour-selected populations of galaxies as tracers of linear large-scale motions. We empirically selected volume-limited samples of blue and red galaxies as to minimise the systematic error on the estimate of the growth rate of structure fσ8 from the anisotropy of the two-point correlation function. To this end, rather than rigidly splitting the sample into two colour classes we defined the red or blue fractional contribution of each object through a weight based on the (U - V ) colour distribution. Using mock surveys that are designed to reproduce the observed properties of VIPERS galaxies, we find the systematic error in recovering the fiducial value of fσ8 to be minimised when using a volume-limited sample of luminous blue galaxies. We modelled non-linear corrections via the Scoccimarro extension of the Kaiser model (with updated fitting formulae for the velocity power spectra), finding systematic errors on fσ8 of below 1-2%, using scales as small as 5 h-1 Mpc. We interpret this result as indicating that selection of luminous blue galaxies maximises the fraction that are central objects in their dark matter haloes; this in turn minimises the contribution to the measured ξ(rp,π) from the 1-halo term, which is dominated by non-linear motions. The gain is inferior if one uses the full magnitude-limited sample of blue objects, consistent with the presence of a significant fraction of blue, fainter satellites dominated by non-streaming, orbital velocities. We measured a value of fσ8 = 0.45 ± 0.11 over the single redshift range 0.6 ≤ z ≤ 1.0, corresponding to an effective redshift for the blue galaxies ⟨z⟩=0.85. Including in the likelihood the potential extra information contained in the blue-red galaxy cross-correlation function does not lead to an appreciable improvement in the error bars, while it increases the systematic error

  5. GREEN GALAXIES IN THE COSMOS FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Zhizheng; Kong, Xu; Fan, Lulu, E-mail: panzz@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: xkong@ustc.edu.cn [Center of Astrophysics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2013-10-10

    We present research on the morphologies, spectra, and environments of ≈2350 'green valley' galaxies at 0.2 < z < 1.0 in the COSMOS field. The bimodality of dust-corrected NUV–r {sup +} color is used to define 'green valley'; it removes dusty star-forming galaxies from galaxies that are truly transitioning between the blue cloud and the red sequence. Morphological parameters of green galaxies are intermediate between those of blue and red galaxy populations, both on the Gini-asymmetry and the Gini-M{sub 20} planes. Approximately 60%-70% of green disk galaxies have intermediate or big bulges, and only 5%-10% are pure disk systems, based on morphological classification using the Zurich Estimator of Structural Types. The obtained average spectra of green galaxies are intermediate between blue and red ones in terms of [O II], Hα, and Hβ emission lines. Stellar population synthesis on the average spectra shows that green galaxies are on average older than blue galaxies but younger than red galaxies. Green galaxies and blue galaxies have similar projected galaxy density (Σ{sub 10}) distributions at z > 0.7. At z < 0.7, the fractions of M{sub *} < 10{sup 10.0} M{sub ☉} green galaxies located in a dense environment are found to be significantly larger than those of blue galaxies. The morphological and spectral properties of green galaxies are consistent with the transitioning population between the blue cloud and the red sequence. The possible mechanisms for quenching star formation activities in green galaxies are discussed. The importance of active galactic nucleus feedback cannot be well constrained in our study. Finally, our findings suggest that environmental conditions, most likely starvation and harassment, significantly affect the transformation of M{sub *} < 10{sup 10.0} M{sub ☉} blue galaxies into red galaxies, especially at z < 0.5.

  6. NuSTAR reveals an intrinsically x-ray weak broad absorption line quasar in the ultraluminous infrared galaxy Markarian 231

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Brandt, W. N.; Harrison, F. A.

    2014-01-01

    We present high-energy (3-30 keV) NuSTAR observations of the nearest quasar, the ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) Markarian 231 (Mrk 231), supplemented with new and simultaneous low-energy (0.5-8 keV) data from Chandra. The source was detected, though at much fainter levels than previously...

  7. Retinal pigmented epithelial cells cytotoxicity and apoptosis through activation of the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway: role of indocyanine green, brilliant blue and implications for chromovitrectomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando M Penha

    Full Text Available To investigate the in vitro effect of four vital dyes on toxicity and apoptosis in a human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cell line.ARPE-19 cells were exposed to brilliant blue (BriB, methyl blue (MetB, acid violet (AcV and indocyanine green (ICG. Balanced salt solution was used as control. Five different concentrations of each dye (1, 0.5, 0.25, 0.05 and 0.005 mg/mL and two exposure times (3 and 30 min were tested. Cell viability was determined by cell count and MTS assay and cell toxicity by LDH assay. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to access the apoptosis process.ICG significantly reduced cell viability after 3 minutes of exposure at all concentrations (p<0.01. BriB was safe at concentrations up to 0.25 mg/mL and MetB at concentrations up to 0.5 mg/mL, while AcV was safe up to 0.05 mg/ml, after 3 minutes of exposure. Toxicity was higher, when the cells were treated for 30 minutes. Expression of Bax, cytochrome c and caspase-9 was upregulated at the mRNA and protein level after ICG exposure, while Bcl-2 was downregulated. AcV and MetB were similar to control. However, BriB resulted in upregulation of Bcl-2, an antiapoptotic protein.The safest dye used on RPE cells was MetB followed by BriB and AcV. ICG was toxic at all concentrations and exposure times tested. Moreover, ICG was the only dye that induced apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells. BriB significantly increased Bcl-2 protein levels, which might protect against the apoptosis process.

  8. Retinal Pigmented Epithelial Cells Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis through Activation of the Mitochondrial Intrinsic Pathway: Role Of Indocyanine Green, Brilliant Blue and Implications for Chromovitrectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penha, Fernando M.; Pons, Marianne; Costa, Elaine Fiod; Barros, Nilana Meza Tenório; Rodrigues, Eduardo B.; Cardoso, Emmerson Badaró; Dib, Eduardo; Maia, Mauricio; Marin-Castaño, Maria E.; Farah, Michel Eid

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the in vitro effect of four vital dyes on toxicity and apoptosis in a human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell line. Methods ARPE-19 cells were exposed to brilliant blue (BriB), methyl blue (MetB), acid violet (AcV) and indocyanine green (ICG). Balanced salt solution was used as control. Five different concentrations of each dye (1, 0.5, 0.25, 0.05 and 0.005 mg/mL) and two exposure times (3 and 30 min) were tested. Cell viability was determined by cell count and MTS assay and cell toxicity by LDH assay. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to access the apoptosis process. Results ICG significantly reduced cell viability after 3 minutes of exposure at all concentrations (p<0.01). BriB was safe at concentrations up to 0.25 mg/mL and MetB at concentrations up to 0.5 mg/mL, while AcV was safe up to 0.05 mg/ml, after 3 minutes of exposure. Toxicity was higher, when the cells were treated for 30 minutes. Expression of Bax, cytochrome c and caspase-9 was upregulated at the mRNA and protein level after ICG exposure, while Bcl-2 was downregulated. AcV and MetB were similar to control. However, BriB resulted in upregulation of Bcl-2, an antiapoptotic protein. Conclusions The safest dye used on RPE cells was MetB followed by BriB and AcV. ICG was toxic at all concentrations and exposure times tested. Moreover, ICG was the only dye that induced apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells. BriB significantly increased Bcl-2 protein levels, which might protect against the apoptosis process. PMID:23675521

  9. Amazing Andromeda Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The many 'personalities' of our great galactic neighbor, the Andromeda galaxy, are exposed in this new composite image from NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer and the Spitzer Space Telescope. The wide, ultraviolet eyes of Galaxy Evolution Explorer reveal Andromeda's 'fiery' nature -- hotter regions brimming with young and old stars. In contrast, Spitzer's super-sensitive infrared eyes show Andromeda's relatively 'cool' side, which includes embryonic stars hidden in their dusty cocoons. Galaxy Evolution Explorer detected young, hot, high-mass stars, which are represented in blue, while populations of relatively older stars are shown as green dots. The bright yellow spot at the galaxy's center depicts a particularly dense population of old stars. Swaths of red in the galaxy's disk indicate areas where Spitzer found cool, dusty regions where stars are forming. These stars are still shrouded by the cosmic clouds of dust and gas that collapsed to form them. Together, Galaxy Evolution Explorer and Spitzer complete the picture of Andromeda's swirling spiral arms. Hints of pinkish purple depict regions where the galaxy's populations of hot, high-mass stars and cooler, dust-enshrouded stars co-exist. Located 2.5 million light-years away, the Andromeda is our largest nearby galactic neighbor. The galaxy's entire disk spans about 260,000 light-years, which means that a light beam would take 260,000 years to travel from one end of the galaxy to the other. By comparison, our Milky Way galaxy's disk is about 100,000 light-years across. This image is a false color composite comprised of data from Galaxy Evolution Explorer's far-ultraviolet detector (blue), near-ultraviolet detector (green), and Spitzer's multiband imaging photometer at 24 microns (red).

  10. Seeing Baby Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Visible/DSS Click on image for larger version Ultraviolet/GALEX Click on image for larger version Poster Version Click on image for larger version The unique ultraviolet vision of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer reveals, for the first time, dwarf galaxies forming out of nothing more than pristine gas likely leftover from the early universe. Dwarf galaxies are relatively small collections of stars that often orbit around larger galaxies like our Milky Way. The forming dwarf galaxies shine in the far ultraviolet spectrum, rendered as blue in the call-out on the right hand side of this image. Near ultraviolet light, also obtained by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, is displayed in green, and visible light from the blue part of the spectrum here is represented by red. The clumps (in circles) are distinctively blue, indicating they are primarily detected in far ultraviolet light. The faint blue overlay traces the outline of the Leo Ring, a huge cloud of hydrogen and helium that orbits around two massive galaxies in the constellation Leo (left panel). The cloud is thought likely to be a primordial object, an ancient remnant of material that has remained relatively unchanged since the very earliest days of the universe. Identified about 25 years ago by radio waves, the ring cannot be seen in visible light. Only a portion of the Leo Ring has been imaged in the ultraviolet, but this section contains the telltale ultraviolet signature of recent massive star formation within this ring of pristine gas. Astronomers have previously only seen dwarf galaxies form out of gas that has already been cycled through a galaxy and enriched with metals elements heavier than helium produced as stars evolve. The visible data come from the Digitized Sky Survey of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Md. The Leo Ring visible image (left

  11. Intrinsic Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    the activity. There has been very little research and theorizing which considers the topic of intrinsic motivation , yet there is a substantial amount...reported within the framework of intrinsic motivation , yet the paper reinterprets the work within that framework. It considers several approaches of

  12. Galaxy number counts: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalfe, N.; Shanks, T.; Fong, R.; Jones, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    Using the Prime Focus CCD Camera at the Isaac Newton Telescope we have determined the form of the B and R galaxy number-magnitude count relations in 12 independent fields for 21 m ccd m and 19 m ccd m 5. The average galaxy count relations lie in the middle of the wide range previously encompassed by photographic data. The field-to-field variation of the counts is small enough to define the faint (B m 5) galaxy count to ±10 per cent and this variation is consistent with that expected from galaxy clustering considerations. Our new data confirm that the B, and also the R, galaxy counts show evidence for strong galaxy luminosity evolution, and that the majority of the evolving galaxies are of moderately blue colour. (author)

  13. Neutral gas heating by X-rays in primitive galaxies: Infrared observations of the blue compact dwarf I Zw 18 with Herschel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebouteiller, V.; Péquignot, D.; Cormier, D.; Madden, S.; Pakull, M. W.; Kunth, D.; Galliano, F.; Chevance, M.; Heap, S. R.; Lee, M.-Y.; Polles, F. L.

    2017-06-01

    Context. The neutral interstellar medium of galaxies acts as a reservoir to fuel star formation. The dominant heating and cooling mechanisms in this phase are uncertain in extremely metal-poor star-forming galaxies. The low dust-to-gas mass ratio and low polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon abundance in such objects suggest that the traditional photoelectric effect heating may not be effective. Aims: Our objective is to identify the dominant thermal mechanisms in one such galaxy, I Zw 18 (1/30Z⊙), assess the diagnostic value of fine-structure cooling lines, and estimate the molecular gas content. Even though molecular gas is an important catalyst and tracer of star formation, constraints on the molecular gas mass remain elusive in the most metal-poor galaxies. Methods: Building on a previous photoionization model describing the giant H II region of I Zw 18-NW within a multi-sector topology, we provide additional constraints using, in particular, the [C II] 157 μm and [O I] 63 μm lines and the dust mass recently measured with the Herschel Space Telescope. Results: The heating of the H I region appears to be mainly due to photoionization by radiation from a bright X-ray binary source, while the photoelectric effect is negligible. Significant cosmic ray heating is not excluded. Inasmuch as X-ray heating dominates in the H I gas, the infrared fine-structure lines provide an average X-ray luminosity of order 4 × 1040 erg s-1 over the last few 104 yr in the galaxy. The upper limits to the [Ne v] lines provide strong constraints on the soft X-ray flux arising from the binary. A negligible mass of H2 is predicted. Nonetheless, up to 107 M⊙ of H2 may be hidden in a few sufficiently dense clouds of order ≲5 pc (≲0.05'') in size. Regardless of the presence of significant amounts of H2 gas, [C II] and [O I] do not trace the so-called "CO-dark gas", but they trace the almost purely atomic medium. Although the [C II]+[O I] to total infrared ratio in I Zw 18 is similar to

  14. Galaxy luminosity function: evolution at high redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinet, N.; Durret, F.; Guennou, L.; Adami, C.

    2014-12-01

    There are some disagreements about the abundance of faint galaxies in high redshift clusters. DAFT/FADA (Dark energy American French Team) is a medium redshift (0.4bands. We show that completeness is a key parameter to understand the different observed behaviors when fitting the GLFs. We also investigate the evolution of GLFs with redshift for red and blue galaxy populations separately. We find a drop of the faint end of red GLFs which is more important at higher redshift while the blue GLF faint end remains flat in our redshift range. These results can be interpreted in terms of galaxy quenching. Faint blue galaxies transform into red ones which enrich the red sequence from high to low redshifts in clusters while some blue galaxies are still accreted from the environment, compensating for this evolution so that the global GLF does not seem to evolve.

  15. Dwarf elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Henry C.; Binggeli, Bruno

    1994-01-01

    Dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxies, with blue absolute magnitudes typically fainter than M(sub B) = -16, are the most numerous type of galaxy in the nearby universe. Tremendous advances have been made over the past several years in delineating the properties of both Local Group satellite dE's and the large dE populations of nearby clusters. We review some of these advances, with particular attention to how well currently availiable data can constrain (a) models for the formation of dE's, (b) the physical and evolutionary connections between different types of galaxies that overlap in the same portion of the mass-spectrum of galaxies, (c) the contribution of dE's to the galaxy luminosity functions in clusters and the field, (d) the star-forming histories of dE's and their possible contribution to faint galaxy counts, and (e) the clustering properties of dE's. In addressing these issues, we highlight the extent to which selection effects temper these constraints, and outline areas where new data would be particularly valuable.

  16. Supernova rates, galaxy emission, and Hubble type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Den Bergh, S.

    1991-01-01

    Supernova discovery frequency is found to correlate with emission-line (H-alpha + forbidden N II line) equivalent width, except for the most active galaxies in which some supernovae might be hidden by dust. SNII occur preferentially in active galaxies with emission-line EW not less than 20 A, whereas SNIa favor less active galaxies with EW less than 20 A. The intrinsic frequency of supernovae is found to be an order of magnitude higher in Sc galaxies than it is in early type spirals. The relatively high frequency of SNIa in late-type galaxies suggests that not all such objects have old progenitors. 13 refs

  17. LUMINOUS BURIED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AS A FUNCTION OF GALAXY INFRARED LUMINOSITY REVEALED THROUGH SPITZER LOW-RESOLUTION INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanishi, Masatoshi

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph 5-35 μm low-resolution spectroscopic energy diagnostics of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) at z> 0.15, classified optically as non-Seyferts. Based on the equivalent widths of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission and the optical depths of silicate dust absorption features, we searched for signatures of intrinsically luminous, but optically elusive, buried active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in these optically non-Seyfert ULIRGs. We then combined the results with those of non-Seyfert ULIRGs at z IR 12 L sun . We found that the energetic importance of buried AGNs clearly increases with galaxy infrared luminosity, becoming suddenly discernible in ULIRGs with L IR > 10 12 L sun . For ULIRGs with buried AGN signatures, a significant fraction of infrared luminosities can be accounted for by the detected buried AGN and modestly obscured (A V < 20 mag) starburst activity. The implied masses of spheroidal stellar components in galaxies for which buried AGNs become important roughly correspond to the value separating red massive and blue less-massive galaxies in the local universe. Our results may support the widely proposed AGN-feedback scenario as the origin of galaxy downsizing phenomena, where galaxies with currently larger stellar masses previously had higher AGN energetic contributions and star formation originating infrared luminosities, and have finished their major star formation more quickly, due to stronger AGN feedback.

  18. Isolated galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einasto, Maret

    1990-01-01

    To test for the possible presence of really isolated galaxies, which form a randomly distributed population in voids, we compare the distribution of most isolated galaxies in an observed sample with distributions of the same number of random points using the nearest neighbour test. The results show that the random population of really isolated galaxies does not exist - even the most isolated galaxies are connected with systems of galaxies, forming their outlying parts. (author)

  19. Star formation histories of irregular galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, J.S. III; Hunter, D.A.; Tutukov, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    We explore the star formation histories of a selection of irregular and spiral galaxies by using three parameters that sample the star formation rate (SFR) at different epochs: (1) the mass of a galaxy in the form of stars measures the SFR integrated over a galaxy's lifetime; (2) the blue luminosity is dominated primarily by stars formed over the past few billion years; and (3) Lyman continuum photon fluxes derived from Hα luminosities give the current ( 8 yr) SFR

  20. CCD photometry of apparent dwarf galaxies in Fornax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Grimley, P.L.; Disney, M.J.; Cawson, M.G.M.; Kibblewhite, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    Blue and red CCD surface photometry of two apparent dwarf galaxies in the Fornax cluster region is presented. Luminosity profiles are derived and their form discussed. The fainter galaxy resembles an archetypal diffuse dwarf elliptical but the brighter of the pair is either an unusual red dwarf or a background galaxy in chance juxtaposition. (author)

  1. The intrinsic shape of bulges in the CALIFA survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantin, L.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Corsini, E. M.; Eliche-Moral, M. C.; Tapia, T.; Morelli, L.; Dalla Bontà, E.; Pizzella, A.

    2018-02-01

    Context. The intrinsic shape of galactic bulges in nearby galaxies provides crucial information to separate bulge types. Aims: We aim to derive accurate constraints to the intrinsic shape of bulges to provide new clues on their formation mechanisms and set new limitations for future simulations. Methods: We retrieved the intrinsic shape of a sample of CALIFA bulges using a statistical approach. Taking advantage of GalMer numerical simulations of binary mergers we estimated the reliability of the procedure. Analyzing the i-band mock images of resulting lenticular remnants, we studied the intrinsic shape of their bulges at different galaxy inclinations. Finally, we introduced a new (B/A, C/A) diagram to analyze possible correlations between the intrinsic shape and the properties of bulges. Results: We tested the method on simulated lenticular remnants, finding that for galaxies with inclinations of 25° ≤ θ ≤ 65° we can safely derive the intrinsic shape of their bulges. We found that our CALIFA bulges tend to be nearly oblate systems (66%), with a smaller fraction of prolate spheroids (19%), and triaxial ellipsoids (15%). The majority of triaxial bulges are in barred galaxies (75%). Moreover, we found that bulges with low Sérsic indices or in galaxies with low bulge-to-total luminosity ratios form a heterogeneous class of objects; additionally, bulges in late-type galaxies or in less massive galaxies have no preference for being oblate, prolate, or triaxial. On the contrary, bulges with high Sérsic index, in early-type galaxies, or in more massive galaxies are mostly oblate systems. Conclusions: We concluded that various evolutionary pathways may coexist in galaxies, with merging events and dissipative collapse being the main mechanisms driving the formation of the most massive oblate bulges and bar evolution reshaping the less massive triaxial bulges.

  2. Galaxies at High Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, F. E.

    2014-10-01

    Recent years have seen tremendous progress in finding and charactering star-forming galaxies at high redshifts across the electromagnetic spectrum, giving us a more complete picture of how galaxies evolve, both in terms of their stellar and gas content, as well as the growth of their central supermassive black holes. A wealth of studies now demonstrate that star formation peaked at roughly half the age of the Universe and drops precariously as we look back to very early times, and that their central monsters apparently growth with them. At the highest-redshifts, we are pushing the boundaries via deep surveys at optical, X-ray, radio wavelengths, and more recently using gamma-ray bursts. I will review some of our accomplishments and failures. Telescope have enabled Lyman break galaxies to be robustly identified, but the UV luminosity function and star formation rate density of this population at z = 6 - 8 seems to be much lower than at z = 2 - 4. High escape fractions and a large contribution from faint galaxies below our current detection limits would be required for star-forming galaxies to reionize the Universe. We have also found that these galaxies have blue rest-frame UV colours, which might indicate lower dust extinction at z > 5. There has been some spectroscopic confirmation of these Lyman break galaxies through Lyman-α emission, but the fraction of galaxies where we see this line drops at z > 7, perhaps due to the onset of the Gunn-Peterson effect (where the IGM is opaque to Lyman-α).

  3. Galaxy mergers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, N.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis contains a series of four papers dealing with the effects of interactions among galaxies during the epoch of cluster formation. Galaxy interactions are investigated and the results incorporated in numerical simulations of the formation of groups and clusters of galaxies. The role of galaxy interactions is analysed in the more general context of simulations of an expanding universe. The evolution of galaxies in rich clusters is discussed. The results of the investigations are presented and their relation to other work done in the field are briefly reviewed and an attempt is made to link galaxy mergers to the occurrence of activity in galactic nuclei. (Auth.)

  4. Ecology of blue straggler stars

    CERN Document Server

    Carraro, Giovanni; Beccari, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    The existence of blue straggler stars, which appear younger, hotter, and more massive than their siblings, is at odds with a simple picture of stellar evolution. Such stars should have exhausted their nuclear fuel and evolved long ago to become cooling white dwarfs. They are found to exist in globular clusters, open clusters, dwarf spheroidal galaxies of the Local Group, OB associations and as field stars. This book summarises the many advances in observational and theoretical work dedicated to blue straggler stars. Carefully edited extended contributions by well-known experts in the field cover all the relevant aspects of blue straggler stars research: Observations of blue straggler stars in their various environments; Binary stars and formation channels; Dynamics of globular clusters; Interpretation of observational data and comparison with models. The book also offers an introductory chapter on stellar evolution written by the editors of the book.

  5. Blue lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Caterina; Scope, Alon; Lallas, Aimilios; Zalaudek, Iris; Moscarella, Elvira; Gardini, Stefano; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Pellacani, Giovanni

    2013-10-01

    Blue color is found in a wide range of malignant and benign melanocytic and nonmelanocytic lesions and in lesions that result from penetration of exogenous materials, such as radiation or amalgam tattoo or traumatic penetration of particles. Discriminating between different diagnostic entities that display blue color relies on careful patient examination and lesion assessment. Dermoscopically, the extent, distribution, and patterns created by blue color can help diagnose lesions with specificity and differentiate between benign and malignant entities. This article provides an overview of the main diagnoses whereby blue color can be found, providing simple management rules for these lesions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A PARAMETERIZED GALAXY CATALOG SIMULATOR FOR TESTING CLUSTER FINDING, MASS ESTIMATION, AND PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFT ESTIMATION IN OPTICAL AND NEAR-INFRARED SURVEYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jeeseon; Mohr, Joseph J.; Barkhouse, Wayne A.; Rude, Cody; Warren, Michael S.; Dolag, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    We present a galaxy catalog simulator that converts N-body simulations with halo and subhalo catalogs into mock, multiband photometric catalogs. The simulator assigns galaxy properties to each subhalo in a way that reproduces the observed cluster galaxy halo occupation distribution, the radial and mass-dependent variation in fractions of blue galaxies, the luminosity functions in the cluster and the field, and the color-magnitude relation in clusters. Moreover, the evolution of these parameters is tuned to match existing observational constraints. Parameterizing an ensemble of cluster galaxy properties enables us to create mock catalogs with variations in those properties, which in turn allows us to quantify the sensitivity of cluster finding to current observational uncertainties in these properties. Field galaxies are sampled from existing multiband photometric surveys of similar depth. We present an application of the catalog simulator to characterize the selection function and contamination of a galaxy cluster finder that utilizes the cluster red sequence together with galaxy clustering on the sky. We estimate systematic uncertainties in the selection to be at the ≤15% level with current observational constraints on cluster galaxy populations and their evolution. We find the contamination in this cluster finder to be ∼35% to redshift z ∼ 0.6. In addition, we use the mock galaxy catalogs to test the optical mass indicator B gc and a red-sequence redshift estimator. We measure the intrinsic scatter of the B gc -mass relation to be approximately log normal with σ log10M ∼0.25 and we demonstrate photometric redshift accuracies for massive clusters at the ∼3% level out to z ∼ 0.7.

  7. Active Galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilerci Eser, Ece

    Galaxy formation and evolution is one of the main research themes of modern astronomy. Active galaxies such as Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) are important evolutionary stages of galaxies. The ULIRG stage is mostly associated with galaxy mergers...... and interactions. During the interactions of gas-rich galaxies, the gas inflows towards the centers of the galaxies and can trigger both star formation and AGN activity. The ULIRG stage includes rapid star formation activity and fast black hole growth that is enshrouded by dust. Once the AGN emission...... one is related to the mass estimates of supermassive black holes (SMBHs). Mass estimates of SMBHs are important to understand the formation and evolution of SMBHs and their host galaxies. Black hole masses in Type 1 AGN are measured with the reverberation mapping (RM) technique. Reverberation mapping...

  8. Galaxy Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Martin

    Galaxy formation is an enormously complex discipline due to the many physical processes that play a role in shaping galaxies. The objective of this thesis is to study galaxy formation with two different approaches: First, numerical simulations are used to study the structure of dark matter and how...... galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof...... is important, since it helps constraining chemical evolution models at high redshift. A new project studying how the population of galaxies hosting GRBs relate to other galaxy population is outlined in the conclusion of this thesis. The core of this project will be to quantify how the stellar mass function...

  9. Tidal alignment of galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazek, Jonathan; Vlah, Zvonimir; Seljak, Uroš

    2015-08-01

    We develop an analytic model for galaxy intrinsic alignments (IA) based on the theory of tidal alignment. We calculate all relevant nonlinear corrections at one-loop order, including effects from nonlinear density evolution, galaxy biasing, and source density weighting. Contributions from density weighting are found to be particularly important and lead to bias dependence of the IA amplitude, even on large scales. This effect may be responsible for much of the luminosity dependence in IA observations. The increase in IA amplitude for more highly biased galaxies reflects their locations in regions with large tidal fields. We also consider the impact of smoothing the tidal field on halo scales. We compare the performance of this consistent nonlinear model in describing the observed alignment of luminous red galaxies with the linear model as well as the frequently used "nonlinear alignment model," finding a significant improvement on small and intermediate scales. We also show that the cross-correlation between density and IA (the "GI" term) can be effectively separated into source alignment and source clustering, and we accurately model the observed alignment down to the one-halo regime using the tidal field from the fully nonlinear halo-matter cross correlation. Inside the one-halo regime, the average alignment of galaxies with density tracers no longer follows the tidal alignment prediction, likely reflecting nonlinear processes that must be considered when modeling IA on these scales. Finally, we discuss tidal alignment in the context of cosmic shear measurements.

  10. Ultraviolet Extinction in Backlit Galaxies - from Galaxy Zoo to GALEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, William C.; Manning, A.; Holwerda, B. W.; Lintott, C.; Schawinski, K.; Galaxy Zoo Team

    2012-01-01

    We examine the ultraviolet extinction of galaxies on large scales, combining optical and GALEX UV data on backlit galaxies (most found in the Galaxy Zoo citizen-science project). We analyze the images in matching ways, modelling both foreground and background galaxies by symmetry or elliptical isophote families as appropriate, and using the non-overlapping regions of the galaxies to estimate errors in the derived transmission T=e-κ. Spirals appear less symmetric in the UV, as star-forming regions become more dominant, so that our most reliable results are mean values across multiple regions and multiple galaxies. Our mean effective extinction curve is dominated by the contribution of luminous spirals,and shows a fairly flat gray" extinction law into the ultraviolet. For example, the median of κNUV/κB in spiral arms is only 1.3. Along with previous high-resolution HST studies of a few nearby backlit galaxies, this suggests that on kpc scales the effective extinction is dominated by the dust clumping rather than the intrinsic reddening law. This implies that extrapolation of local properties to short wavelengths, a step toward the history of dust in galaxies through comparison of local properties with a similar analysis in deep HST fields, can be done without introducing much additional error. This work was supported by NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX10AD54G.

  11. Low surface brightness spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanishin, W.

    1980-01-01

    This dissertation presents an observational overview of a sample of low surface brightness (LSB) spiral galaxies. The sample galaxies were chosen to have low surface brightness disks and indications of spiral structure visible on the Palomar Sky Survey. They are of sufficient angular size (diameter > 2.5 arcmin), to allow detailed surface photometry using Mayall 4-m prime focus plates. The major findings of this dissertation are: (1) The average disk central surface brightness of the LSB galaxies is 22.88 magnitude/arcsec 2 in the B passband. (2) From broadband color measurements of the old stellar population, we infer a low average stellar metallicity, on the order of 1/5 solar. (3) The spectra and optical colors of the HII regions in the LSB galaxies indicate a lack of hot ionizing stars compared to HII regions in other late-type galaxies. (4) The average surface mass density, measured within the radius containing half the total mass, is less than half that of a sample of normal late-type spirals. (5) The average LSB galaxy neutral hydrogen mass to blue luminosity ratio is about 0.6, significantly higher than in a sample of normal late-type galaxies. (6) We find no conclusive evidence of an abnormal mass-to-light ratio in the LSB galaxies. (7) Some of the LSB galaxies exhibit well-developed density wave patterns. (8) A very crude calculation shows the lower metallicity of the LSB galaxies compared with normal late-type spirals might be explained simply by the deficiency of massive stars in the LSB galaxies

  12. Matching Supernovae to Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-12-01

    One of the major challenges for modern supernova surveys is identifying the galaxy that hosted each explosion. Is there an accurate and efficient way to do this that avoids investing significant human resources?Why Identify Hosts?One problem in host galaxy identification. Here, the supernova lies between two galaxies but though the centroid of the galaxy on the right is closer in angular separation, this may be a distant background galaxy that is not actually near the supernova. [Gupta et al. 2016]Supernovae are a critical tool for making cosmological predictions that help us to understand our universe. But supernova cosmology relies on accurately identifying the properties of the supernovae including their redshifts. Since spectroscopic followup of supernova detections often isnt possible, we rely on observations of the supernova host galaxies to obtain redshifts.But how do we identify which galaxy hosted a supernova? This seems like a simple problem, but there are many complicating factors a seemingly nearby galaxy could be a distant background galaxy, for instance, or a supernovas host could be too faint to spot.The authors algorithm takes into account confusion, a measure of how likely the supernova is to be mismatched. In these illustrations of low (left) and high (right) confusion, the supernova is represented by a blue star, and the green circles represent possible host galaxies. [Gupta et al. 2016]Turning to AutomationBefore the era of large supernovae surveys, searching for host galaxies was done primarily by visual inspection. But current projects like the Dark Energy Surveys Supernova Program is finding supernovae by the thousands, and the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope will likely discover hundreds of thousands. Visual inspection will not be possible in the face of this volume of data so an accurate and efficient automated method is clearly needed!To this end, a team of scientists led by Ravi Gupta (Argonne National Laboratory) has recently

  13. Globular clusters as tracers of stellar bimodality in elliptical galaxies: the case of NGC 1399

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Juan C.; Faifer, Favio; Geisler, Doug

    2005-02-01

    Globular cluster systems (GCSs) frequently show a bimodal distribution of cluster integrated colours. This work explores the arguments to support the idea that the same feature is shared by the diffuse stellar population of the galaxy they are associated with. The particular case of NGC 1399, one of the dominant central galaxies in the Fornax cluster, for which a new B surface brightness profile and (B-RKC) colours are presented, is discussed taking advantage of a recently published wide-field study of its GCS. The results show that the galaxy brightness profile and colour gradient, as well as the behaviour of the cumulative globular cluster specific frequency, are compatible with the presence of two dominant stellar populations, associated with the so-called `blue' and `red' globular cluster families. These globular families are characterized by different intrinsic specific frequencies (defined in terms of each stellar population): Sn= 3.3 +/- 0.3 in the case of the red globulars and Sn= 14.3 +/- 2.5 for the blue ones. We stress that this result does not necessarily conflict with recent works that point out a clear difference between the metallicity distribution of (resolved) halo stars and globulars when comparing their number statistics. The region within 0.5arcmin of the centre shows a deviation from the model profile (in both surface brightness and colour) that may be explained in terms of the presence of a bulge-like high-metallicity component. Otherwise, the model gives an excellent fit up to 12arcmin (or 66.5Kpc) from the centre, the galactocentric limit of our blue brightness profile. The inferred specific frequencies imply that, in terms of their associated stellar populations, the formation of the blue globulars took place with an efficiency about six times higher than that corresponding to their red counterparts. The similarity of the spatial distribution of the blue globulars with that inferred for dark matter, as well as with that of the X

  14. Galaxies and clusters of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salpeter, E.E.

    1982-01-01

    Stellar populations and massive halos, the properties of individual galaxies, and the clusters of galaxies are discussed. Baade's concept of the two stellar populations in our Galaxy had an important influence on the theories of stellar evolution. In Baade's day, there were two puzzling questions. Population II stars manage to form more rapidly than population I stars. Population II has lower rotational velocity than population I. This story is affected by the presence of an extended, massive halo which was not known in Baade's day. It is known from galaxy rotation curves that massive halos extend much further out. The most striking feature about the variation amongst galaxies is the separation between elliptical and spiral galaxies, with SO-galaxies occupying an intermediate position. The absolute luminosity L of a galaxy provides the second parameter in a two-dimensional classification scheme. In many ways, elliptical galaxies bear the same relationship to late-type spirals as does our stellar population II to population I. Most galaxies occur in some kind of groupings, ranging from a small group such as Local Group to a rich and dense cluster such as the Coma cluster. The formation of galaxies is connected with the formation of clusters. Various models are presented and discussed. (Kato, T.)

  15. The blue anbd visual absolute magnitude distributions of Type IA supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Thomas E.; Branch, David; Miller, Douglas L.; Perlmutter, Saul

    1995-02-01

    Tully-Fisher (TF), surface brightness fluctuation (SBF), and Hubble law distances to the parent galaxies of Type Ia supernovae (SNs Ia) are used in order to study the SN Ia blue and visual peak absolute magnitude (MB and MV) distributions. We propose two objective cuts, each of which produces a subsample with small intrinsic dispersion in M. One cut, which can be applied to either band, distinguishes between a subsample of bright events and a smaller subsample of dim events, some of which were extinquished in the parent galaxy and some of which were intrinsically subluminous. The bright events are found to be distributed with an observed dispersions of 0.3 less than or approximately = Sigmaobs less than or approximately = 0.4 about a mean absolut magnitude (M-barB or M-barV). Each of the dim SNs was spectroscopically peculiar and/or had a red B-V color; this motivates the adoption of an alternative cut that is based on B-V rather than on M. To wit, SNs Ia that are both known to have -0.25 less than B-V less than + 0.25 and not known to be spectroscopically peculiar show observational dispersion of only Sigmaobs(MB) = Sigmaobs(MV) = 0.3. Because characteristics observational errors produce Sigmaerr(M) greater than 0.2,the intrinsic dispersion among such SNs Ia is Sigmaint(M) less than or approximately = 0.2. The small observational dispersion indicates that SNs Ia, the TF relation, and SBFs all good relative distances to those galaxies that produce SNs Ia. The conflict between those who use SNs Ia in order to determine the value of the Hubble constant (H0) and those who use TF and SBF distances to determine H0 results from discrepant calibrations.

  16. Spatial and kinematic distributions of transition populations in intermediate redshift galaxy clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, Steven M.; Wirth, Gregory D.; Bershady, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the spatial and velocity distributions of confirmed members in five massive clusters of galaxies at intermediate redshift (0.5 < z < 0.9) to investigate the physical processes driving galaxy evolution. Based on spectral classifications derived from broad- and narrow-band photometry, we define four distinct galaxy populations representing different evolutionary stages: red sequence (RS) galaxies, blue cloud (BC) galaxies, green valley (GV) galaxies, and luminous compact blue galaxies (LCBGs). For each galaxy class, we derive the projected spatial and velocity distribution and characterize the degree of subclustering. We find that RS, BC, and GV galaxies in these clusters have similar velocity distributions, but that BC and GV galaxies tend to avoid the core of the two z ≈ 0.55 clusters. GV galaxies exhibit subclustering properties similar to RS galaxies, but their radial velocity distribution is significantly platykurtic compared to the RS galaxies. The absence of GV galaxies in the cluster cores may explain their somewhat prolonged star-formation history. The LCBGs appear to have recently fallen into the cluster based on their larger velocity dispersion, absence from the cores of the clusters, and different radial velocity distribution than the RS galaxies. Both LCBG and BC galaxies show a high degree of subclustering on the smallest scales, leading us to conclude that star formation is likely triggered by galaxy-galaxy interactions during infall into the cluster.

  17. Galaxy Selection and the Surface Brightness Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaugh, Stacy S.; Bothun, Gregory D.; Schombert, James M.

    1995-08-01

    Optical surveys for galaxies are biased against the inclusion of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. Disney [Nature, 263,573(1976)] suggested that the constancy of disk central surface brightness noticed by Freeman [ApJ, 160,811(1970)] was not a physical result, but instead was an artifact of sample selection. Since LSB galaxies do exist, the pertinent and still controversial issue is if these newly discovered galaxies constitute a significant percentage of the general galaxy population. In this paper, we address this issue by determining the space density of galaxies as a function of disk central surface brightness. Using the physically reasonable assumption (which is motivated by the data) that central surface brightness is independent of disk scale length, we arrive at a distribution which is roughly flat (i.e., approximately equal numbers of galaxies at each surface brightness) faintwards of the Freeman (1970) value. Brightwards of this, we find a sharp decline in the distribution which is analogous to the turn down in the luminosity function at L^*^. An intrinsically sharply peaked "Freeman law" distribution can be completely ruled out, and no Gaussian distribution can fit the data. Low surface brightness galaxies (those with central surface brightness fainter than 22 B mag arcsec^-2^) comprise >~ 1/2 the general galaxy population, so a representative sample of galaxies at z = 0 does not really exist at present since past surveys have been insensitive to this component of the general galaxy population.

  18. THE GALAXY OPTICAL LUMINOSITY FUNCTION FROM THE AGN AND GALAXY EVOLUTION SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cool, Richard J.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Brown, Michael J. I.; Caldwell, Nelson; Forman, William R.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Jones, Christine; Murray, Stephen S.; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Moustakas, John

    2012-01-01

    We present the galaxy optical luminosity function for the redshift range 0.05 2 in the Boötes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. Our statistical sample is composed of 12,473 galaxies with known redshifts down to I = 20.4 (AB). Our results at low redshift are consistent with those from Sloan Digital Sky Survey; at higher redshift, we find strong evidence for evolution in the luminosity function, including differential evolution between blue and red galaxies. We find that the luminosity density evolves as (1 + z) (0.54±0.64) for red galaxies and (1 + z) (1.64±0.39) for blue galaxies.

  19. The visibility of high-redshift galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Davies, J.I.; Disney, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    The most visible galaxies - that is, those which have the largest apparent sizes and isophotal luminosities when seen at a given distance - are those with a particular observed surface brightness. Extending this argument to high-redshift galaxies, it is clear that this optimum surface brightness moves progressively to brighter intrinsic surface brightnesses, so as to counteract the effect of K-corrections and cosmological dimming. Thus the galaxies appearing in faint surveys will be from a population distinctly different from those 'normal' galaxies observed nearby. Galaxies in deep surveys are more likely to be spirals and to be of high surface brightness. This has very important implications for observational studies of galaxy evolution. (author)

  20. ECO and RESOLVE: Galaxy Disk Growth in Environmental Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffett, Amanda J.; Kannappan, Sheila J.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Eckert, Kathleen D.; Stark, David V.; Hendel, David; Norris, Mark A.; Grogin, Norman A.

    2015-10-01

    We study the relationships between galaxy environments and galaxy properties related to disk (re)growth, considering two highly complete samples that are approximately baryonic mass limited into the high-mass dwarf galaxy regime, the Environmental COntext catalog (data release herein) and the B-semester region of the REsolved Spectroscopy Of a Local VolumE survey. We quantify galaxy environments using both group identification and smoothed galaxy density field methods. We use by-eye and quantitative morphological classifications plus atomic gas content measurements and estimates. We find that blue early-type (E/S0) galaxies, gas-dominated galaxies, and UV-bright disk host galaxies all become distinctly more common below group halo mass ˜ {10}11.5 {M}⊙ , implying that this low group halo mass regime may be a preferred regime for significant disk growth activity. We also find that blue early-type and blue late-type galaxies inhabit environments of similar group halo mass at fixed baryonic mass, consistent with a scenario in which blue early-types can regrow late-type disks. In fact, we find that the only significant difference in the typical group halo mass inhabited by different galaxy classes is for satellite galaxies with different colors, where at fixed baryonic mass red early- and late-types have higher typical group halo masses than blue early- and late-types. More generally, we argue that the traditional morphology-environment relation (i.e., that denser environments tend to have more early-types) can be largely attributed to the morphology-galaxy mass relation for centrals and the color-environment relation for satellites.

  1. The Dependence of galaxy colors on luminosity and environment at z~0.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, H.K.C.; /Toronto U., Astron. Dept.; Hsieh, B.C.; /Taiwan, Natl. Central U. /Taipei, Inst. Astron. Astrophys.; Lin, Huan; /Fermilab; Gladders, M.D.; /Carnegie Inst.

    2005-08-01

    The authors analyze the B-R{sub c} colors of galaxies as functions of luminosity and local galaxy density using a large photometric redshift catalog based on the Red-Sequence Cluster Survey. They select two samples of galaxies with a magnitude limit of M{sub R{sub e}} < -18.5 and redshift ranges of 0.2 {le} z < 0.4 and 0.4 {le} x < 0.6 containing 10{sup 5} galaxies each. they model the color distributions of subsamples of galaxies and derive the red galaxy fraction and peak colors of red and blue galaxies as functions of galaxy luminosity and environment. The evolution of these relationships over the redshift range of x {approx} 0.5 to z {approx} 0.05 is analyzed in combination with published results from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. They find that there is a strong evolution in the restframe peak color of bright blue galaxies in that they become redder with decreasing redshift, while the colors of faint blue galaxies remain approximately constant. This effect supports the ''downsizing'' scenario of star formation in galaxies. While the general dependence of the galaxy color distributions on the environment is small, they find that the change of red galaxy fraction with epoch is a function of the local galaxy density, suggesting that the downsizing effect may operate with different timescales in regions of different galaxy densities.

  2. Galaxy Disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kruit, P. C.; Freeman, K. C.

    The disks of disk galaxies contain a substantial fraction of their baryonic matter and angular momentum, and much of the evolutionary activity in these galaxies, such as the formation of stars, spiral arms, bars and rings, and the various forms of secular evolution, takes place in their disks. The

  3. Blue gods, blue oil, and blue people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, V F

    1994-09-01

    Studies of the composition of coal tar, which began in Prussia in 1834, profoundly affected the economies of Germany, Great Britain, India, and the rest of the world, as well as medicine and surgery. Such effects include the collapse of the profits of the British indigo monopoly, the growth in economic power of Germany based on coal tar chemistry, and an economic crisis in India that led to more humane tax laws and, ultimately, the independence of India and the end of the British Empire. Additional consequences were the development of antiseptic surgery and the synthesis of a wide variety of useful drugs that have eradicated infections and alleviated pain. Many of these drugs, particularly the commonly used analgesics, sulfonamides, sulfones, and local anesthetics, are derivatives of aniline, originally called "blue oil" or "kyanol." Some of these aniline derivatives, however, have also caused aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, and methemoglobinemia (that is, "blue people"). Exposure to aniline drugs, particularly when two or three aniline drugs are taken concurrently, seems to be the commonest cause of methemoglobinemia today.

  4. Hubble's View of Little Blue Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-02-01

    The recent discovery of a new type of tiny, star-forming galaxy is the latest in a zoo of detections shedding light on our early universe. What can we learn from the unique little blue dots found in archival Hubble data?Peas, Berries, and DotsGreen pea galaxies identified by citizen scientists with Galaxy Zoo. [Richard Nowell Carolin Cardamone]As telescope capabilities improve and we develop increasingly deeper large-scale surveys of our universe, we continue to learn more about small, faraway galaxies. In recent years, increasing sensitivity first enabled the detection of green peas luminous, compact, low-mass (10 billion solar masses; compare this to the Milky Ways 1 trillion solar masses!) galaxies with high rates of star formation.Not long thereafter, we discovered galaxies that form stars similarly rapidly, but are even smaller only 330 million solar masses, spanning less than 3,000 light-years in size. These tiny powerhouses were termed blueberries for their distinctive color.Now, scientists Debra and Bruce Elmegreen (of Vassar College and IBM Research Division, respectively) report the discovery of galaxies that have even higher star formation rates and even lower masses: little blue dots.Exploring Tiny Star FactoriesThe Elmegreens discovered these unique galaxies by exploring archival Hubble data. The Hubble Frontier Fields data consist of deep images of six distant galaxy clusters and the parallel fields next to them. It was in the archival data for two Frontier Field Parallels, those for clusters Abell 2744 and MAS J0416.1-2403, that the authors noticed several galaxies that stand out as tiny, bright, blue objects that are nearly point sources.Top: a few examples of the little blue dots recently identified in two Hubble Frontier Field Parallels. Bottom: stacked images for three different groups of little blue dots. [Elmegreen Elmegreen 2017]The authors performed a search through the two Frontier Field Parallels, discovering a total of 55 little blue dots

  5. 150 southern compact and bright-nucleus galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairall, A.P.

    1977-01-01

    Galaxies having regions of exceptionally high surface brightness have been selected from the ESO Quick Blue Survey and investigated by 'grating photography' -direct photography plus low-dispersion slitless spectroscopy. Two new Seyfert galaxies and a peculiar multiple system have been discovered. Differences in red continua are also noted. (author)

  6. Star formation and the surface brightness of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.

    1985-01-01

    The (blue) surface brightness of spiral galaxies is significantly correlated with their Hα linewidth. This can be most plausibly interpreted as a correlation of surface brightness with star formation rate. There is also a significant difference in surface brightness between galaxies forming stars in a grand design spiral pattern and those with floc star formation regions. (author)

  7. The surface brightness of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, M.; Phillipps, S.

    1985-01-01

    The intrinsic surface brightness Ssub(e) of 500 disc galaxies (0<=T<=9) drawn from the Second Reference Catalogue is computed and it is shown that Ssub(e) does not correlate significantly with Msub(B), (B-V) or type. This is consistent with the notion that there is a heavy selection bias in favour of disc galaxies with that particular surface brightness which allows inclusion in the catalogue over the largest volume of space. (author)

  8. Investigation of morphological features of six interacting galaxies. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koroviakovskaia, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    The morphology of six groups of interacting galaxies in Vorontsov-Vel'iaminov's atlas is investigated by digital filtering methods using large-scale photographs obtained with the 6-m telescope. It is shown that of five groups of galaxies that might appear as chains in direct photographs, only one is probably a real chain. In the group VV 551, which was previously classified as a blue nest consisting of four or five members, only two spiral galaxies have been found

  9. Deficiency of normal galaxies among Markaryan galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyeveer, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    Comparison of the morphological types of Markaryan galaxies and other galaxies in the Uppsala catalog indicates a strong deficiency of normal ellipticals among the Markaryan galaxies, for which the fraction of type E galaxies is ≤ 1% against 10% among the remaining galaxies. Among the Markaryan galaxies, an excess of barred galaxies is observed - among the Markaryan galaxies with types Sa-Scd, approximately half or more have bars, whereas among the remaining galaxies of the same types bars are found in about 1/3

  10. Genesis of dwarf galaxies in interacting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duc, Pierre-Alain

    1995-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of interacting and merging galaxies, and more particularly the associated stellar formation episodes. The author first reports an analysis of the central regions of these objects by studying a specific class among them, i.e. galaxies discovered by the IRAS satellite which are ultra-luminous in the far infrared. The author presents results obtained by optical and infrared imagery and spectroscopy of a complete sample of objects located in the southern hemisphere. In the second part, the author focusses on outside regions of interacting galaxies, discusses the observation of filaments formed under the influence of tidal forces acting during galactic collisions, and of condensations which are as luminous as dwarf galaxies. Then a multi-wavelength study of several neighbouring systems revealed the existence of a specific class of objects, the tidal dwarf galaxies, which are formed from stellar and gaseous material snatched from the disk of interacting galaxies. Gas-rich tidal dwarf galaxies contain, like dwarf irregular galaxies or blue compact galaxies, newly formed stars. But, in opposition with these ones, they are richer in heavy elements: this is one of the consequences of a specific mode of galactic formation based on a cosmic recycling [fr

  11. Searches for High Redshift Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, R.

    In recent years, the technique of Lyman break imaging has proven very effective at identifying large numbers of galaxies at high redshifts through deep multicolour imaging (Steidel et al 1996b; Steidel et al 1999). The combination of an intrinsic break in the spectra of star-forming galaxies below the rest-frame wavelength of Lyman-alpha and attenuation by intervening HI systems on the line of sight to high redshifts makes for a pronounced drop in the flux of high redshift galaxies between 912 Å and 1216 Å in the rest-frame. At redshifts z> 3, the break is shifted sufficiently far into the optical window accessible to ground-based telescopes for galaxies at such redshift to be distinguished from the foreground galaxy population through photometry alone. Through modelling of the expected colours of a wide range of galaxy types, ages and redshifts, taking into account the effects of reddening (Calzetti, Kinney and Storchi-Bergmann 1994) and intergalactic attenuation (Madau 1995), we assess the likely colours of high redshift galaxies and determine the redshift ranges most effectively probed by the imaging filters. We obtain multicolour imaging of the fields of four high redshift radio galaxies, covering around 40 arcmin2 in each, allowing us to attempt to find ordinary galaxies at similar redshifts to the central radio galaxies through photometric colour selection techniques. Some idea as to the effectiveness comes through additional colour and morphological information obtained from high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope images and from data taken in the near infra-red. While we do not have spectroscopic evidence for the redshifts of our candidates, given the available evidence we conclude that the number densities of Lyman break galaxies in the radio galaxy fields are in broad agreement with the data of Steidel et al (1999). Finally, we assess the prospects for future studies of the high redshift Universe, in particular the potential of the Oxford Deep Wide Field

  12. Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Longair, Malcolm S

    2008-01-01

    This second edition of Galaxy Formation is an up-to-date text on astrophysical cosmology, expounding the structure of the classical cosmological models from a contemporary viewpoint. This forms the background to a detailed study of the origin of structure and galaxies in the Universe. The derivations of many of the most important results are derived by simple physical arguments which illuminate the results of more advanced treatments. A very wide range of observational data is brought to bear upon these problems, including the most recent results from WMAP, the Hubble Space Telescope, galaxy surveys like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey, studies of Type 1a supernovae, and many other observations.

  13. High-resolution spectra of distant compact narrow emission line galaxies: Progrenitors of spheroidal galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, David C.; Guzman, Rafael; Faber, S. M.; Illingworth, Garth D.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Kron, Richard G.; Takamiya, Marianne

    1995-01-01

    Emission-line velocity widths have been determined for 17 faint (B approximately 20-23) very blue, compact galaxies whose redshifts range from z = 0.095 to 0.66. The spectra have a resolution of 8 Km/s and were taken with the HIRES echelle spectrograph of the Keck 10 m telescope. The galaxies are luminous with all but two within 1 mag of M(sub B) approximately -21. Yet they exhibit narrow velocity widths between sigma = 28-157 km/s, more consistent with typical values of extreme star-forming galaxies than with those of nearby spiral galaxies of similar luminosity. In particular, objects with sigma is less than or equal to 65 km/s follow the same correlations between sigma and both blue and H beta luminosities as those of nearby H II galaxies. These results strengthen the identification of H II glaxies as thier local counterparts. The blue colors and strong emission lines suggest these compact galaxies are undergoing a recent, strong burst of star formation. Like those which characterize some H II galaxies, this burst could be a nuclear star-forming event within a much larger, older stellar population. If the burst is instead a major episode in the total star-forming history, these distant galaxies could fade enough to match the low luminosities and surface brightnesses typical of nearby spheroidals like NGC 185 or NGC 205. Together with evidence for recent star formation, exponential light profiles, and subsolar metallicities, the postfading correlations between luminosity and velocity width and bewtween luminosity and surface brightness suggest that among the low-sigma galaxies, we may be witnessing, in situ, the progenitors of today's spheroidal galaxies.

  14. Low-amplitude clustering in low-redshift 21-cm intensity maps cross-correlated with 2dF galaxy densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C. J.; Luciw, N. J.; Li, Y.-C.; Kuo, C. Y.; Yadav, J.; Masui, K. W.; Chang, T.-C.; Chen, X.; Oppermann, N.; Liao, Y.-W.; Pen, U.-L.; Price, D. C.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Switzer, E. R.; Timbie, P. T.; Wolz, L.

    2018-05-01

    We report results from 21-cm intensity maps acquired from the Parkes radio telescope and cross-correlated with galaxy maps from the 2dF galaxy survey. The data span the redshift range 0.057 galaxies and H I, or some combination of the two. Separating 2dF into red and blue galaxies, we find that red galaxies are much more weakly correlated with H I on k ˜ 1.5 h Mpc-1 scales, suggesting that H I is more associated with blue star-forming galaxies and tends to avoid red galaxies.

  15. Starburst Galaxy NGC 3310

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Scientists using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope are studying the colors of star clusters to determine the age and history of starburst galaxies, a technique somewhat similar to the process of learning the age of a tree by counting its rings. This month's Hubble Heritage image showcases the galaxy NGC 3310. It is one of several starburst galaxies, which are hotbeds of star formation, being studied by Dr. Gerhardt Meurer and a team of scientists at Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, Md. The picture, taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, is online at http://heritage.stsci.edu and http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/2001/26 and http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . The camera was designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Most galaxies form new stars at a fairly slow rate, but starburst galaxies blaze with extremely active star formation. Measuring the clusters' colors yields information about stellar temperatures. Since young stars are blue and older stars redder, the colors relate to their ages. NGC 3310 is forming clusters of new stars at a prodigious rate. The new image shows several hundred star clusters, visible as the bright blue, diffuse objects that trace the galaxy's spiral arms. Each of these star clusters represents the formation of up to about a million stars, a process that takes less than 100,000 years. In addition, hundreds of individual young, luminous stars can be seen throughout the galaxy. The star clusters become redder with age as the most massive and bluest stars exhaust their fuel and burn out. Measurements in this image of the wide range of cluster colors show their ages range between about one million and more than one hundred million years. This suggests that the starburst 'turned on' more than 100 million years ago. It may have been triggered when NGC 3310 collided with a companion galaxy. These observations may change astronomers' view of starbursts. Starbursts were once thought to be brief

  16. GALAXY CLUSTERING TOPOLOGY IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY MAIN GALAXY SAMPLE: A TEST FOR GALAXY FORMATION MODELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yun-Young; Kim, Juhan; Kim, Sungsoo S.; Park, Changbom; Gott, J. Richard; Weinberg, David H.; Vogeley, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    We measure the topology of the main galaxy distribution using the Seventh Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, examining the dependence of galaxy clustering topology on galaxy properties. The observational results are used to test galaxy formation models. A volume-limited sample defined by M r -1 Mpc smoothing scale, with 4.8% uncertainty including all systematics and cosmic variance. The clustering topology over the smoothing length interval from 6 to 10 h -1 Mpc reveals a mild scale dependence for the shift (Δν) and void abundance (A V ) parameters of the genus curve. We find substantial bias in the topology of galaxy clustering with respect to the predicted topology of the matter distribution, which varies with luminosity, morphology, color, and the smoothing scale of the density field. The distribution of relatively brighter galaxies shows a greater prevalence of isolated clusters and more percolated voids. Even though early (late)-type galaxies show topology similar to that of red (blue) galaxies, the morphology dependence of topology is not identical to the color dependence. In particular, the void abundance parameter A V depends on morphology more strongly than on color. We test five galaxy assignment schemes applied to cosmological N-body simulations of a ΛCDM universe to generate mock galaxies: the halo-galaxy one-to-one correspondence model, the halo occupation distribution model, and three implementations of semi-analytic models (SAMs). None of the models reproduces all aspects of the observed clustering topology; the deviations vary from one model to another but include statistically significant discrepancies in the abundance of isolated voids or isolated clusters and the amplitude and overall shift of the genus curve. SAM predictions of the topology color dependence are usually correct in sign but incorrect in magnitude. Our topology tests indicate that, in these models, voids should be emptier and more connected and the threshold for

  17. Posthuman blues

    CERN Document Server

    Tonnies, Mac

    2013-01-01

    Posthuman Blues, Vol. I is first volume of the edited version of the popular weblog maintained by author Mac Tonnies from 2003 until his tragic death in 2009. Tonnies' blog was a pastiche of his original fiction, reflections on his day-to-day life, trenchant observations of current events, and thoughts on an eclectic range of material he culled from the Internet. What resulted was a remarkably broad portrait of a thoughtful man and the complex times in which he lived, rendered with intellige...

  18. Dwarf Galaxies Swimming in Tidal Tails

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This false-color infrared image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows little 'dwarf galaxies' forming in the 'tails' of two larger galaxies that are colliding together. The big galaxies are at the center of the picture, while the dwarfs can be seen as red dots in the red streamers, or tidal tails. The two blue dots above the big galaxies are stars in the foreground. Galaxy mergers are common occurrences in the universe; for example, our own Milky Way galaxy will eventually smash into the nearby Andromeda galaxy. When two galaxies meet, they tend to rip each other apart, leaving a trail, called a tidal tail, of gas and dust in their wake. It is out of this galactic debris that new dwarf galaxies are born. The new Spitzer picture demonstrates that these particular dwarfs are actively forming stars. The red color indicates the presence of dust produced in star-forming regions, including organic molecules called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These carbon-containing molecules are also found on Earth, in car exhaust and on burnt toast, among other places. Here, the molecules are being heated up by the young stars, and, as a result, shine in infrared light. This image was taken by the infrared array camera on Spitzer. It is a 4-color composite of infrared light, showing emissions from wavelengths of 3.6 microns (blue), 4.5 microns (green), 5.8 microns (orange), and 8.0 microns (red). Starlight has been subtracted from the orange and red channels in order to enhance the dust features.

  19. Recovering dark-matter clustering from galaxies with Gaussianization

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullagh, Nuala; Neyrinck, Mark; Norberg, Peder; Cole, Shaun

    2016-04-01

    The Gaussianization transform has been proposed as a method to remove the issues of scale-dependent galaxy bias and non-linearity from galaxy clustering statistics, but these benefits have yet to be thoroughly tested for realistic galaxy samples. In this paper, we test the effectiveness of the Gaussianization transform for different galaxy types by applying it to realistic simulated blue and red galaxy samples. We show that in real space, the shapes of the Gaussianized power spectra of both red and blue galaxies agree with that of the underlying dark matter, with the initial power spectrum, and with each other to smaller scales than do the statistics of the usual (untransformed) density field. However, we find that the agreement in the Gaussianized statistics breaks down in redshift space. We attribute this to the fact that red and blue galaxies exhibit very different fingers of god in redshift space. After applying a finger-of-god compression, the agreement on small scales between the Gaussianized power spectra is restored. We also compare the Gaussianization transform to the clipped galaxy density field and find that while both methods are effective in real space, they have more complicated behaviour in redshift space. Overall, we find that Gaussianization can be useful in recovering the shape of the underlying dark-matter power spectrum to k ˜ 0.5 h Mpc-1 and of the initial power spectrum to k ˜ 0.4 h Mpc-1 in certain cases at z = 0.

  20. Are We Really Missing Small Galaxies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-02-01

    dark matter, however, the team included baryons in their simulations. They then produced mock observations of the resulting galaxy velocities to see what an observed velocity function would look like for their simulated galaxies.No Problem After All?Comparison of theoretical velocity functions to observations. The black dashed line shows the original, dark-matter-only model predictions; the black solid line includes the effects of detectability. Blue lines show the authors new model, including the effects of detectability and inclusion of baryons. The red and teal data points from observations match this corrected model well. [Brooks et al. 2017]Based on their baryon-inclusive simulations, Brooks and collaborators argue that there are two main factors that have contributed to the seeming theory/observation mismatch of the missing dwarf problem:Galaxies with low velocities arent detectable by our current surveys.The authors found that the detectable fraction of their simulated galaxies plunges as soon as galaxy velocity drops below 35 km/s. They conclude that were probably unable to see a large fraction of the smallest galaxies.Were not correctly inferring the circular velocity of the galaxies.Circular velocity is usually measured by looking at the line width of a gas tracer like HI. The authors find that this doesnt trace the full potential wells of the dwarf galaxies, however, resulting in an incorrect interpretation of their velocities.The authors show that the inclusion of these effects in the theoretical model significantly changes the predicted shape of the galaxy velocity function. This new function beautifully matches observations, neatly eliminating the missing dwarf problem. Perhaps this long-standing mystery has been a problem of interpretation all along!CitationAlyson M. Brooks et al 2017 ApJ 850 97. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa9576

  1. ENVIRONMENTALLY DRIVEN GLOBAL EVOLUTION OF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cen Renyue

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing high-resolution large-scale galaxy formation simulations of the standard cold dark matter model, we examine global trends in the evolution of galaxies due to gravitational shock heating by collapse of large halos and large-scale structure. We find two major global trends. (1) The mean specific star formation rate (sSFR) at a given galaxy mass is a monotonically increasing function with increasing redshift. (2) The mean sSFR at a given redshift is a monotonically increasing function of decreasing galaxy mass that steepens with decreasing redshift. The general dimming trend with time merely reflects the general decline of gas inflow rate with increasing time. The differential evolution of galaxies of different masses with redshift is a result of gravitational shock heating of gas due to formation of large halos (groups and clusters) and large-scale structure that moves a progressively larger fraction of galaxies and their satellites into environments where gas has too high an entropy to cool to continue feeding resident galaxies. Overdense regions where larger halos are preferentially located begin to be heated earlier and have higher temperatures than lower density regions at any given time, causing sSFR of larger galaxies to fall below the general dimming trend at higher redshift than less massive galaxies and galaxies with high sSFR to gradually shift to lower density environments at lower redshift. We find that several noted cosmic downsizing phenomena are different manifestations of these general trends. We also find that the great migration of galaxies from blue cloud to red sequence as well as color-density relation, among others, may arise naturally in this picture.

  2. S0 galaxies in Formax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedregal...[], A. G.; Aragón-Salamanca, A.; Merrifield, M. R.

    2006-01-01

    Galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD: galaxies: kinematics and dynamics Udgivelsesdato: Oct.1......Galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD: galaxies: kinematics and dynamics Udgivelsesdato: Oct.1...

  3. Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cell function in relation to age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Kristina; Sander, Birgit; Lund-Andersen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The activity of melanopsin containing intrinsically photosensitive ganglion retinal cells (ipRGC) can be assessed by a means of pupil responses to bright blue (appr.480 nm) light. Due to age related factors in the eye, particularly, structural changes of the lens, less light reaches retina. The aim...... of this study was to examine how age and in vivo measured lens transmission of blue light might affect pupil light responses, in particular, mediated by the ipRGC....

  4. Analysis of 'Coma strip' galaxy redshift catalog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klypin, A.A.; Karachentsev, I.D.; Lebedev, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    We present results of the analysis of a galaxy redshift catalog made at the 6-m telescope by Karachentsev and Kopylov (1990. Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc., 243, 390). The catalog covers a long narrow strip on the sky (10 arcmin by 63 0 ) and lists 283 galaxies up to limiting blue magnitude m B = 17.6. The strip goes through the core of Coma cluster and this is called the 'Coma strip' catalog. The catalog is almost two times deeper than the CfA redshift survey and creates the possibility of studying the galaxy distribution on scales of 100-250 Mpc. Due to the small number of galaxies in the catalog, we were able to estimate only very general and stable parameters of the distribution. (author)

  5. Clustering of galaxies around AGNs in the HSC Wide survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, Yuji; Akiyama, Masayuki; Nagao, Tohru; Toba, Yoshiki; He, Wanqiu; Ohishi, Masatoshi; Mizumoto, Yoshihiko; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Nishizawa, Atsushi J.; Usuda, Tomonori

    2018-01-01

    We have measured the clustering of galaxies around active galactic nuclei (AGNs) for which single-epoch virial masses of the super-massive black hole (SMBH) are available to investigate the relation between the large-scale environment of AGNs and the evolution of SMBHs. The AGN samples used in this work were derived from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) observations and the galaxy samples were from the 240 deg2 S15b data of the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program (HSC-SSP). The investigated redshift range is 0.6-3.0, and the masses of the SMBHs lie in the range 107.5-1010 M⊙. The absolute magnitude of the galaxy samples reaches to Mλ310 ˜ -18 at rest-frame wavelength 310 nm for the low-redshift end of the samples. More than 70% of the galaxies in the analysis are blue. We found a significant dependence of the cross-correlation length on redshift, which primarily reflects the brightness-dependence of the galaxy clustering. At the lowest redshifts the cross-correlation length increases from 7 h-1 Mpc around Mλ310 = -19 mag to >10 h-1 Mpc beyond Mλ310 = -20 mag. No significant dependence of the cross-correlation length on BH mass was found for whole galaxy samples dominated by blue galaxies, while there was an indication of BH mass dependence in the cross-correlation with red galaxies. These results provides a picture of the environment of AGNs studied in this paper being enriched with blue star-forming galaxies, and a fraction of the galaxies are evolving into red galaxies along with the evolution of SMBHs in that system.

  6. THE SINS/zC-SINF SURVEY OF z {approx} 2GALAXY KINEMATICS: THE NATURE OF DISPERSION-DOMINATED GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Sarah F.; Genzel, Reinhard [Department of Astronomy, Campbell Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Foerster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Buschkamp, Peter; Davies, Ric; Eisenhauer, Frank; Kurk, Jaron; Lutz, Dieter [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Giessenbachstr. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Shapiro Griffin, Kristen [Space Sciences Research Group, Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 (United States); Mancini, Chiara; Renzini, Alvio [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, Padova I-35122 (Italy); Lilly, Simon J.; Carollo, C. Marcella; Peng, Yingjie [Institute of Astronomy, Department of Physics, Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, ETH Zuerich CH-8093 (Switzerland); Bouche, Nicolas [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Burkert, Andreas [Universitaets-Sternwarte Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (USM), Scheinerstr. 1, Muenchen D-81679 (Germany); Cresci, Giovanni [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica Osservatorio Astronomico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Genel, Shy [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hicks, Erin K. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Naab, Thorsten, E-mail: sfnewman@berkeley.edu [Max-Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Karl Schwarzschildstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); and others

    2013-04-20

    We analyze the spectra, spatial distributions, and kinematics of H{alpha}, [N II], and [S II] emission in a sample of 38, z {approx} 2.2 UV/optically selected star-forming galaxies (SFGs) from the SINS and zC-SINF surveys, 34 of which were observed in the adaptive optics mode of SINFONI and 30 of those contain data presented for the first time here. This is supplemented by kinematic data from 43 z {approx} 1-2.5 galaxies from the literature. None of these 81 galaxies is an obvious major merger. We find that the kinematic classification of high-z SFGs as ''dispersion dominated'' or ''rotation dominated'' correlates most strongly with their intrinsic sizes. Smaller galaxies are more likely ''dispersion-dominated'' for two main reasons: (1) the rotation velocity scales linearly with galaxy size but intrinsic velocity dispersion does not depend on size or may even increase in smaller galaxies, and as such, their ratio is systematically lower for smaller galaxies, and (2) beam smearing strongly decreases large-scale velocity gradients and increases observed dispersion much more for galaxies with sizes at or below the resolution. Dispersion-dominated SFGs may thus have intrinsic properties similar to ''rotation-dominated'' SFGs, but are primarily more compact, lower mass, less metal enriched, and may have higher gas fractions, plausibly because they represent an earlier evolutionary state.

  7. Faint Galaxies: Merging Model of E/SO Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen; Yu, Yunqiang

    1995-04-01

    We study a model of mergers affecting only the progenitors of present E/SO. We adopt the standard scenarios of star formation as prescribed by Guiderdoni & Rocca-Volmerange. The merging process is parametrized under the assumptions of(1) self-similarity of the Schechter MF and(2) mass conservation. Nine models are discussed. The predictions are compared with counts ofB J ,U +,F +,N + bands. E/SO mergers account for the excess of the faintest blue galaxies without causing excess in redder bands. However, as we no longer have enough mergers at brighter magnitudes, a plain E/SO merging model fits less tightly for the redshift and the colour distributions. Detection effect, a steeper slope of LF may be ways to improve. Our models predict acceptable merger frequencies atz = 0.5 although some models predict more interacting galaxies than observation atz = 0.

  8. Crashing galaxies, cosmic fireworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keel, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    The study of binary systems is reviewed. The history of the study of interacting galaxies, the behavior of gas in binary systems, studies to identify the processes that occur when galaxies interact, and the relationship of Seyfert galaxies and quasars to binary systems are discussed. The development of an atlas of peculiar galaxies (Arp, 1966) and methods for modeling galaxy interactions are examined

  9. Dependence between the colour of galaxies in pairs (Holmberg effect)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demin, V.V.; Zasov, A.V.; Dibaj, Eh.A.; Tomov, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Proceeding from the data of photoelectric photometpy by Tomov, the colours of galaxies in double systems are studied For the most of the paips formed by elliptical (EE) or by spiral (SS) galaxies, the difference between the corrected colour indices (B-V)sub(T)sup(0) of components does not exceed 0.10 and does not depend on the difference ΔT of their morphological types The correlation between the colours of galaxies in EE-pairs can be explained by the similaritins of element abundances but not of the luminosities of galaxies. The elliptical and SO-galaxies in pairs with the spiral galaxies ape noticeably bluep on the avepage. The relation between the colours of galaxies in ES-pairs is possible. The colours of early-type spiral galaxies (T < 4) in most of the SS-systems are more blue as compared to the mean colours of galaxies of the same type T. A similarity of the colours of the galaxies in many of the SS-pairs can be a result of the periodically repeated bursts of star formation which take place in both galaxies simultaneously

  10. The Contribution of Normal, Dim, and Dwarf Galaxies to the Local Luminosity Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver

    1999-12-01

    From the Hubble Deep Field catalog recently presented by Driver et al., we derive the local (0.3galaxies within a 326 Mpc3 volume-limited sample. The sample contains 47 galaxies which uniformly sample the underlying galaxy population within the specified redshift, magnitude, and surface brightness limits (0.3galaxies account for less than 10% of the L* population, and (3) low-luminosity low surface brightness galaxies outnumber Hubble types by a factor of approximately 1.4; however, their space density is not sufficient to explain the faint blue excess either by themselves or as faded remnants. In terms of the local luminosity density and galaxy dynamical mass budget, normal galaxies (i.e., the Hubble tuning fork) contribute 88% and 72%, respectively. This compares to 7% and 12% for dim galaxies and 5% and 16% for dwarf galaxies (within the above specified limits).

  11. Synthetic properties of starburst galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitherer, Claus; Heckman, Timothy M.

    1995-01-01

    We present the results of an extensive grid of evolutionary synthesis models for populations of massive stars. The parameter space has been chosen to correspond to conditions typically found in objects like giant H II regions, H II galaxies, blue compact dwarf galaxies, nuclear starbursts, and infrared luminous starburst galaxies. The models are based on the most up-to-date input physics for the theory of stellar atmospheres, stellar winds, and stellar evolution. A population of massive stars is not only important in terms of its output of radiation but also via its deposition of mechanical energy. The output of radiative and mechanical luminosity is compared at various starburst epochs. In a supernova dominated instantaneous starburst, the mechanical luminosity can be as large as almost 10% of the total radiative luminosity. This occurs when most massive O stars have disappeared, and the synthetic spectrum in the optical and near-ultraviolet is dominated by B and A stars. During this epoch, the output of ionizing radiation below 912 A becomes very small, as indicated by a very large Lyman discontinuity and a very small ratio of ionizing over mechanical luminosity. We discuss the relevance of these results for the interpretation of starburst galaxies, active galactic nuclei, and the energetics of the interstellar medium.

  12. AEGIS: THE MORPHOLOGIES OF GREEN GALAXIES AT 0.4 < z < 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez, Alexander J.; Coil, Alison L.; Moustakas, John; Lotz, Jennifer; Salim, Samir; Simard, Luc

    2011-01-01

    We present quantitative morphologies of ∼300 galaxies in the optically defined green valley at 0.4 20 . We find that the green galaxy population is intermediate between the red and blue galaxy populations in terms of concentration, asymmetry, and morphological type and merger fraction estimated using Gini/M 20 . We find that most green galaxies are not classified as mergers; in fact, the merger fraction in the green valley is lower than in the blue cloud. We show that at a given stellar mass, green galaxies have higher concentration values than blue galaxies and lower concentration values than red galaxies. Additionally, we find that 12% of green galaxies have B/T = 0 and 21% have B/T ≤ 0.05. Our results show that green galaxies are generally massive (M * ∼ 10 10.5 M sun ) disk galaxies with high concentrations. We conclude that major mergers are likely not the sole mechanism responsible for quenching star formation in this population and that either other external processes or internal secular processes play an important role both in driving gas toward the center of these galaxies and in quenching star formation.

  13. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: first 1000 galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. T.

    2015-02-01

    The Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) Galaxy Survey is an ongoing project to obtain integral field spectroscopic observations of ~3400 galaxies by mid-2016. Including the pilot survey, a total of ~1000 galaxies have been observed to date, making the SAMI Galaxy Survey the largest of its kind in existence. This unique dataset allows a wide range of investigations into different aspects of galaxy evolution. The first public data from the SAMI Galaxy Survey, consisting of 107 galaxies drawn from the full sample, has now been released. By giving early access to SAMI data for the entire research community, we aim to stimulate research across a broad range of topics in galaxy evolution. As the sample continues to grow, the survey will open up a new and unique parameter space for galaxy evolution studies.

  14. Cosmic Collisions The Hubble Atlas of Merging Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, Lars Lindberg; Martin, Davide

    2009-01-01

    Lars Lindberg Christensen, Raquel Yumi Shida & Davide De Martin Cosmic Collisions: The Hubble Atlas of Merging Galaxies Like majestic ships in the grandest night, galaxies can slip ever closer until their mutual gravitational interaction begins to mold them into intricate figures that are finally, and irreversibly, woven together. It is an immense cosmic dance, choreographed by gravity. Cosmic Collisions contains a hundred new, many thus far unpublished, images of colliding galaxies from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. It is believed that many present-day galaxies, including the Milky Way, were assembled from such a coalescence of smaller galaxies, occurring over billions of years. Triggered by the colossal and violent interaction between the galaxies, stars form from large clouds of gas in firework bursts, creating brilliant blue star clusters. The importance of these cosmic encounters reaches far beyond the stunning Hubble images. They may, in fact, be among the most important processes that shape ...

  15. Do Galaxies Follow Darwinian Evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    , France, who coordinates the VIMOS VLT Deep Survey team that made the discovery. "They suggest that galaxies as we see them today are the product of their inherent genetic information, evolved over time, as well as complex interactions with their environments, such as mergers." Scientists have known for several decades that galaxies in the Universe's past look different to those in the present-day Universe, local to the Milky Way [3]. Today, galaxies can be roughly classified as red, when few or no new stars are being born, or blue, where star formation is still ongoing. Moreover, a strong correlation exists between a galaxy's colour and the environment it resides in: the more sociable types found in dense clusters are more likely to be red than the more isolated ones. By looking back at a wide range of galaxies of a variety of ages, the astronomers were aiming to study how this peculiar correlation has evolved over time. "Using VIMOS, we were able to use the largest sample of galaxies currently available for this type of study, and because of the instrument's ability to study many objects at a time we obtained many more measurements than previously possible," said Angela Iovino, from the Brera Astronomical Observatory, Italy, another member of the team. The team's discovery of a marked variation in the 'colour-density' relationship, depending on whether a galaxy is found in a cluster or alone, and on its luminosity, has many potential implications. The findings suggest for example that being located in a cluster quenches a galaxy's ability to form stars more quickly compared with those in isolation. Luminous galaxies also run out of star-forming material at an earlier time than fainter ones. They conclude that the connection between galaxies' colour, luminosity and their local environment is not merely a result of primordial conditions 'imprinted' during their formation - but just as for humans, galaxies' relationship and interactions can have a profound impact on their

  16. Observing Galaxy Mergers in Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    I will describe results on mergers and morphology of distant galaxies. By mock-observing 3D cosmological simulations, we aim to contrast theory with data, design better diagnostics of physical processes, and examine unexpected signatures of galaxy formation. Recently, we conducted mock surveys of the Illustris Simulations to learn how mergers would appear in deep HST and JWST surveys. With this approach, we reconciled merger rates estimated using observed close galaxy pairs with intrinsic merger rates predicted by theory. This implies that the merger-pair observability time is probably shorter in the early universe, and therefore that major mergers are more common than implied by the simplest arguments. Further, we show that disturbance-based diagnostics of late-stage mergers can be improved significantly by combining multi-dimensional image information with simulated merger identifications to train automated classifiers. We then apply these classifiers to real measurements from the CANDELS fields, recovering a merger fraction increasing with redshift in broad agreement with pair fractions and simulations, and with statistical errors smaller by a factor of two than classical morphology estimators. This emphasizes the importance of using robust training sets, including cosmological simulations and multidimensional data, for interpreting observed processes in galaxy evolution.

  17. Dwarf spheroidal galaxies: Keystones of galaxy evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, John S., III; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    1994-01-01

    Dwarf spheroidal galaxies are the most insignificant extragalactic stellar systems in terms of their visibility, but potentially very significant in terms of their role in the formation and evolution of much more luminous galaxies. We discuss the present observational data and their implications for theories of the formation and evolution of both dwarf and giant galaxies. The putative dark-matter content of these low-surface-brightness systems is of particular interest, as is their chemical evolution. Surveys for new dwarf spheroidals hidden behind the stars of our Galaxy and those which are not bound to giant galaxies may give new clues as to the origins of this unique class of galaxy.

  18. [Anaphylaxis to blue dyes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner-Viviani, F; Chappuis, S; Bergmann, M M; Ribi, C

    2014-04-16

    In medicine, vital blue dyes are mainly used for the evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes in oncologic surgery. Perioperative anaphylaxis to blue dyes is a rare but significant complication. Allergic reactions to blue dyes are supposedly IgE-mediated and mainly caused by triarylmethanes (patent blue and isosulfane blue) and less frequently by methylene blue. These substances usually do not feature on the anesthesia record and should not be omitted from the list of suspects having caused the perioperative reaction, in the same manner as latex and chlorhexidine. The diagnosis of hypersensitivity to vital blue dyes can be established by skin test. We illustrate this topic with three clinical cases.

  19. Chemical evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigroux, Laurent

    1979-01-01

    This research thesis addresses theories on the chemical evolution of galaxies which aim at explaining abundances of different elements in galaxies, and more particularly aims at improving the model by modifying hypotheses. After a description of the simple model and of its uncertainties, the author shows how it is possible to understand the evolution of the main elements. Predictions obtained with this model are then compared with the present knowledge on galaxies by considering them according to an increasing complexity: Sun's neighbourhood, our galaxy, other spiral galaxies, elliptical galaxies, and finally galaxy clusters. A specific attention is given to irregular galaxies which are the simplest systems [fr

  20. LEDA 074886: A REMARKABLE RECTANGULAR-LOOKING GALAXY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, Alister W.; Spitler, Lee R.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Lisker, Thorsten; Janz, Joachim; Moore, Ben

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of an interesting and rare rectangular-shaped galaxy. At a distance of 21 Mpc, the dwarf galaxy LEDA 074886 has an absolute R-band magnitude of –17.3 mag. Adding to this galaxy's intrigue is the presence of an embedded, edge-on stellar disk (of extent 2 R e,disk = 12'' = 1.2 kpc) for which Forbes et al. reported v rot /σ ≈ 1.4. We speculate that this galaxy may be the remnant of two (nearly edge-on) merged disk galaxies in which the initial gas was driven inward and subsequently formed the inner disk, while the stars at larger radii effectively experienced a dissipationless merger event resulting in this 'emerald cut galaxy' having very boxy isophotes with a 4 /a = –0.05 to –0.08 from 3 to 5 kpc. This galaxy suggests that knowledge from simulations of both 'wet' and 'dry' galaxy mergers may need to be combined to properly understand the various paths that galaxy evolution can take, with a particular relevance to blue elliptical galaxies.

  1. POX 186: A Dwarf Galaxy Under Construction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, M. R.; Vacca, W. D.

    2000-12-01

    We have obtained deep images of the ultracompact ( ~ 3'') blue compact dwarf galaxy POX 186 in the F336W, F555W, and F814W filters of the Planetary Camera of the Hubble Space Telescope. We have additionally obtained a low-resolution near ultraviolet spectrum of the object with STIS and combine this with a ground-based spectrum covering the visible continuum and emission lines. Our images confirm this object to be highly compact, with a maximum projected size of only ~ 240 pc, making it one of the smallest galaxies known. We also confirm that the outer regions of the galaxy consist of an evolved stellar population, ruling out earlier speculations that POX 186 is a protogalaxy. However, the PC images reveal the galaxy to have a highly irregular morphology, with a pronounced tidal arm on its western side. This morphology is strongly suggestive of a recent collision between two smaller components which has in turn triggered the central starburst. The F336W image also shows that the material in this tidal stream is actively star forming. Given the very small ( ~ 100 pc) sizes of the colliding components, POX 186 may be a dwarf galaxy in the early stages of formation, which would be consistent with current ``downsizing'' models of galaxy formation in which the least massive objects are the last to form. This work is supported by NASA and the Space Telescope Science Institute.

  2. Census of the Local Universe (CLU) Hα Galaxy Survey: Characterization of Galaxy Catalogs from Preliminary Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David O.; Kasliwal, Mansi; Van Sistine, Anglea; Kaplan, David; iPTF

    2018-01-01

    In this talk I introduce the Census of the Local Universe (CLU) galaxy survey. The survey uses 4 wavelength-adjacent, narrowband filters to search for emission-line (Hα) sources across ~3π (26,470 deg2) of the sky and out to distance of 200 Mpc. I will present an analysis of galaxy candidates in 14 preliminary fields (out of 3626) to assess the limits of the survey and the potential for finding new galaxies in the local Universe. We anticipate finding tens-of-thousands of new galaxies in the full ~3π survey. In addition, I present some interesting galaxies found in these fields, which include: newly discovered blue compact dwarfs (e.g., blueberries), 1 new green pea, 1 new QSO, and a known planetary nebula. The majority of the CLU galaxies show properties similar to normal star-forming galaxies; however, the newly discovered blueberries tend to have high star formation rates for their given stellar mass.

  3. Blue cures blue but be cautious

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranav Sikka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Methemoglobinemia is a disorder characterized by the presence of >1% methemoglobin (metHb in the blood. Spontaneous formation of methemoglobin is normally counteracted by protective enzyme systems, for example, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH methemoglobin reductase. Methemoglobinemia is treated with supplemental oxygen and methylene blue (1-2 mg/kg administered slow intravenously, which acts by providing an artificial electron acceptor for NADPH methemoglobin reductase. But known or suspected glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is a relative contraindication to the use of methylene blue because G6PD is the key enzyme in the formation of NADPH through pentose phosphate pathway and G6PD-deficient individuals generate insufficient NADPH to efficiently reduce methylene blue to leukomethylene blue, which is necessary for the activation of the NADPH-dependent methemoglobin reductase system. So, we should be careful using methylene blue in methemoglobinemia patient before G6PD levels.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Surface Photometry of ESO-Uppsala Galaxies (Lauberts+ 1989)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauberts, A.; Valentijn, E. A.

    2006-01-01

    The 15467 southern galaxies in this catalog were scanned from 407 blue and 407 red original ESO-Schmidt plates using a PDS microdensitometer. The galaxies were selected from the ESO-Uppsala Catalogue (VII/34). The original selection criterion was a minimum visual angular diameter of 1arcmin. The

  5. DO QUIESCENT AND ACTIVE GALAXIES HAVE DIFFERENT MBH-σ* RELATIONS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Jong-Hak; Park, Daeseong; Kang, Wol-Rang; Schulze, Andreas; Kim, Sang Chul; Riechers, Dominik A.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the validity of the assumption that quiescent galaxies and active galaxies follow the same black hole mass (M BH )-stellar velocity dispersion (σ * ) relation, as required for the calibration of M BH estimators for broad line active galactic nuclei (AGNs), we determine and compare the M BH -σ * relations, respectively, for quiescent and active galaxies. For the quiescent galaxy sample, composed of 72 dynamical M BH measurements, we update σ * for 28 galaxies using homogeneous H-band measurements that are corrected for galaxy rotation. For active galaxies, we collect 25 reverberation-mapped AGNs and improve σ * measurement for two objects. Combining the two samples, we determine the virial factor f, first by scaling the active galaxy sample to the M BH -σ * relation of quiescent galaxies, and second by simultaneously fitting the quiescent and active galaxy samples, as f=5.1 -1.1 +1.5 and f=5.9 -1.5 +2.1 , respectively. The M BH -σ * relation of active galaxies appears to be shallower than that of quiescent galaxies. However, the discrepancy is caused by a difference in the accessible M BH distribution at given σ * , primarily due to the difficulty of measuring reliable stellar velocity dispersion for the host galaxies of luminous AGNs. Accounting for the selection effects, we find that active and quiescent galaxies are consistent with following intrinsically the same M BH -σ * relation

  6. Blue-Green Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people with hepatitis C or hepatitis B. HIV/AIDS. Research on the effects of blue-green algae in people with HIV/AIDS has been inconsistent. Some early research shows that taking 5 grams of blue-green ...

  7. Color correlations between paired galaxies - The Holmberg effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demin, V. V.; Zasov, A. V.; Dibaj, E. A.; Tomov, A. N.

    1984-08-01

    The colors of paired galaxies are analyzed, using the U, B, V photometry of Tomov (1973). It is shown that in most of the double elliptical (EE) and spiral (SS) galaxies, the components have integrated corrected color indices with a color differential of no less than 0.10 from B to V. A similarity in metal abundances is used to explain the observed blue color match of EE components. It is suggested that the colors of ES pairs may be correlated, and that the color match observed in most SS galaxies may be the result of periodic bursts of star formation occurring simultaneously in both components.

  8. A mathematical model of star formation in the Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Sharaf

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is generally concerned with star formation in the Galaxy, especially blue stars. Blue stars are the most luminous, massive and the largest in radius. A simple mathematical model of the formation of the stars is established and put in computational algorithm. This algorithm enables us to know more about the formation of the star. Some real and artificial examples had been used to justify this model.

  9. On Density Waves in Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosbol, P.; Patsis, P. A.

    The spiral structure of five ordinary spiral galaxies was studied using deep BVIK' surface photometry maps obtained at the 2.2m ESO/MPI telescope. The detailed shape of the arms was analyzed in terms of the spiral density wave theory. Grand design spirals were found on the K' maps in all five galaxies although at least two would be classified as flocculent on the blue images. In several of the galaxies, bulges with weak oval distortion (~10%) were observed. Dust spirals also continue, in some cases, inside the ILR where the stellar arms terminate. This emphasizes the strong bias of morphological classifications of spiral galaxies based on blue image due to dust and young stars. The 2--armed spirals were systematically found to be wound tighter on I than on K' maps suggesting the existence of a density wave. Locations of the ILR and the 4/1 resonance were estimated based on the arm morphology and the amplitude ratio between the m = 2,4 Fourier components. The wavenumber of the stellar 2--armed pattern is increasing towards the ILR which could suggest that the density wave is associated to the long waved branch of the dispersion relation. A possible scenario is discussed.

  10. Intrinsic contractures of the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paksima, Nader; Besh, Basil R

    2012-02-01

    Contractures of the intrinsic muscles of the fingers disrupt the delicate and complex balance of intrinsic and extrinsic muscles, which allows the hand to be so versatile and functional. The loss of muscle function primarily affects the interphalangeal joints but also may affect etacarpophalangeal joints. The resulting clinical picture is often termed, intrinsic contracture or intrinsic-plus hand. Disruption of the balance between intrinsic and extrinsic muscles has many causes and may be secondary to changes within the intrinsic musculature or the tendon unit. This article reviews diagnosis, etiology, and treatment algorithms in the management of intrinsic contractures of the fingers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. STScI-PRC02-11a FARAWAY GALAXIES PROVIDE A STUNNING 'WALLPAPER' BACKDROP FOR A RUNAWAY GALAXY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Against a stunning backdrop of thousands of galaxies, this odd-looking galaxy with the long streamer of stars appears to be racing through space, like a runaway pinwheel firework. This picture of the galaxy UGC 10214 was taken by the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), which was installed aboard NASA's Hubble Space Telescope in March during Servicing Mission 3B. Dubbed the 'Tadpole,' this spiral galaxy is unlike the textbook images of stately galaxies. Its distorted shape was caused by a small interloper, a very blue, compact galaxy visible in the upper left corner of the more massive Tadpole. The Tadpole resides about 420 million light-years away in the constellation Draco. Seen shining through the Tadpole's disk, the tiny intruder is likely a hit-and-run galaxy that is now leaving the scene of the accident. Strong gravitational forces from the interaction created the long tail of debris, consisting of stars and gas that stretch out more than 280,000 light-years. Numerous young blue stars and star clusters, spawned by the galaxy collision, are seen in the spiral arms, as well as in the long 'tidal' tail of stars. Each of these clusters represents the formation of up to about a million stars. Their color is blue because they contain very massive stars, which are 10 times hotter and 1 million times brighter than our Sun. Once formed, the star clusters become redder with age as the most massive and bluest stars exhaust their fuel and burn out. These clusters will eventually become old globular clusters similar to those found in essentially all halos of galaxies, including our own Milky Way. Two prominent clumps of young bright blue stars in the long tail are separated by a 'gap' -- a section that is fainter than the rest of the tail. These clumps of stars will likely become dwarf galaxies that orbit in the Tadpole's halo. The galactic carnage and torrent of star birth are playing out against a spectacular backdrop: a 'wallpaper pattern' of 6,000 galaxies. These

  12. Classifying the Optical Morphology of Shocked POststarburst Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Tess; SPOGs Team

    2018-01-01

    The Shocked POststarburst Galaxy Survey (SPOGS) is a sample of galaxies in transition from blue, star forming spirals to red, inactive ellipticals. These galaxies are earlier in the transition than classical poststarburst samples. We have classified the physical characteristics of the full sample of 1067 SPOGs in 7 categories, covering (1) their shape; (2) the relative prominence of their nuclei; (3) the uniformity of their optical color; (4) whether the outskirts of the galaxy were indicative of on-going star formation; (5) whether they are engaged in interactions with other galaxies, and if so, (6) the kinds of galaxies with which they are interacting; and (7) the presence of asymmetrical features, possibly indicative of recent interactions. We determined that a plurality of SPOGs are in elliptical galaxies, indicating morphological transformations may tend to conclude before other indicators of transitions have faded. Further, early-type SPOGs also tend to have the brightest optical nuclei. Most galaxies do not show signs of current or recent interactions. We used these classifications to search for correlations between qualitative and quantitative characteristics of SPOGs using Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer magnitudes. We find that relative optical nuclear brightness is not a good indicator of the presence of an active galactic nuclei and that galaxies with visible indications of active star formation also cluster in optical color and diagnostic line ratios.

  13. The Intrinsic Far-infrared Continua of Type-1 Quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyu, Jianwei; Rieke, George H., E-mail: jianwei@email.arizona.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The range of currently proposed active galactic nucleus (AGN) far-infrared templates results in uncertainties in retrieving host galaxy information from infrared observations and also undermines constraints on the outer part of the AGN torus. We discuss how to test and reconcile these templates. Physically, the fraction of the intrinsic AGN IR-processed luminosity compared with that from the central engine should be consistent with the dust-covering factor. In addition, besides reproducing the composite spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of quasars, a correct AGN IR template combined with an accurate library of star-forming galaxy templates should be able to reproduce the IR properties of the host galaxies, such as the luminosity-dependent SED shapes and aromatic feature strengths. We develop tests based on these expected behaviors and find that the shape of the AGN intrinsic far-IR emission drops off rapidly starting at ∼20 μ m and can be matched by an Elvis et al.-like template with a minor modification. Despite the variations in the near- to mid-IR bands, AGNs in quasars and Seyfert galaxies have remarkably similar intrinsic far-IR SEDs at λ ∼ 20–100 μ m, suggesting a similar emission character of the outermost region of the circumnuclear torus. The variations of the intrinsic AGN IR SEDs among the type-1 quasar population can be explained by the changing relative strengths of four major dust components with similar characteristic temperatures, and there is evidence for compact AGN-heated dusty structures at sub-kiloparsec scales in the far-IR.

  14. Predicting Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Rob; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation can be predicted from participants' perceptions of the social environment and the task environment (Ryan & Deci, 2000)in terms of control, relatedness and competence. To determine the degree of independence of these factors 251 students in higher vocational education (physiotherapy and hotel management) indicated the…

  15. The Evolution of Galaxies Through the Spatial Distribution of Their Globular Clusters: the Brightest Galaxies in Fornax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegeye, David W.

    2018-01-01

    We present a study of the evolution of the 10 brightest galaxies in the Fornax Cluster, as reconstructed through their Globular Cluster (GC) populations. GCs can be characterized by their projected two-dimensional (2D) spatial distribution. Over- or under-densities in the GC distribution, can be linked to events in the host galaxy assembly history, and used to constrain the properties of their progenitors. With HST/ACS imaging, we identified significant structures in the GC distribution of the 10 galaxies investigated, with some of the galaxies possessing structures with >10-sigma significance. GC over-densities have been found within the galaxies, with significant differences between the red and blue GC population. For elongated galaxies, structures are preferentially to be aligned along the major axis. Fornax Cluster galaxies appear to be more dynamically relaxed than the Virgo Cluster galaxies previously investigated with the same methodology by D'Abrusco et al. (2016). However, from these observations, the evident imprints left in the spatial distribution of GCs in these galaxies suggest a similarly intense history of interactions.The SAO REU program is funded by the National Science Foundation REU and Department of Defense ASSURE programs under NSF Grant AST-1659473, and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  16. Extrinsic photoresponse enhancement under additional intrinsic photoexcitation in organic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kounavis, P., E-mail: pkounavis@upatras.gr [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece)

    2016-06-28

    Dual light beam photoresponse experiments are employed to explore the photoresponse under simultaneous extrinsic and intrinsic photoexcitation of organic semiconductors. The photoresponse of a red modulated light extrinsic photoexcitation is found that can be significantly enhanced under an additional blue bias-light intrinsic photoexcitation in two terminal pentacene films on glass substrates. From the frequency resolved photoresponse, it is deduced that the phenomenon of photoresponse enhancement can be attributed to an increase in the extrinsic photogeneration rate of the red modulated light and/or an improvement of the drift velocity of carriers under an additional blue light intrinsic photoexcitation. The possible predominant extrinsic photogeneration mechanism, which can be compatible with the observed dependence of the photoresponse enhancement on the frequency and on the light intensities of the red and blue light excitation, is the singlet exciton dissociation through electron transfer to acceptor-like traps. Moreover, an improvement in the drift velocity of carriers traversing grain boundaries with potential energy barriers, which may be reduced by trapping of minority carriers created from the intrinsic photoexcitation, may partly contribute to the photoresponse enhancement.

  17. A Portrait of One Hundred Thousand and One Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-01

    about 2000 light-years in diameter, thus dwarfing even the enormous Tarantula Nebula in the LMC, also photographed with the WFI (cf. ESO PR Photos 14a-g/02 ). The largest versions ("normal" or "full-res") of this and the following photos are shown with their original pixel size, demonstrating the incredible amount of detail visible on one WFI image. Technical information about this photo is available below. In 1999, Wolfgang Gieren (Universidad de Concepcion, Chile) and his colleagues started a search for Cepheid-type variable stars in NGC 300. These stars constitute a key element in the measurement of distances in the Universe. It has been known since many years that the pulsation period of a Cepheid-type star depends on its intrinsic brightness (its "luminosity"). Thus, once its period has been measured, the astronomers can calculate its luminosity. By comparing this to the star's apparent brightness in the sky, and applying the well-known diminution of light with the second power of the distance, they can obtain the distance to the star. This fundamental method has allowed some of the most reliable measurements of distances in the Universe and has been essential for all kinds of astrophysics, from the closest stars to the remotest galaxies. Previous to Gieren's new project, only about a dozen Cepheids were known in NGC 300. However, by regularly obtaining wide-field WFI exposures of NGC 300 from July 1999 through January 2000 and carefully monitoring the apparent brightness of its brighter stars during that period, the astronomers detected more than 100 additional Cepheids . The brightness variations (in astronomical terminology: "light curves") could be determined with excellent precision from the WFI data. They showed that the pulsation periods of these Cepheids range from about 5 to 115 days. Some of these Cepheids are identified on PR Photo 18b/02 , in the middle of a very crowded field in NGC 300. When fully studied, these unique observational data will yield a

  18. The Void Galaxy Survey: Galaxy Evolution and Gas Accretion in Voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreckel, Kathryn; van Gorkom, Jacqueline H.; Beygu, Burcu; van de Weygaert, Rien; van der Hulst, J. M.; Aragon-Calvo, Miguel A.; Peletier, Reynier F.

    2016-10-01

    Voids represent a unique environment for the study of galaxy evolution, as the lower density environment is expected to result in shorter merger histories and slower evolution of galaxies. This provides an ideal opportunity to test theories of galaxy formation and evolution. Imaging of the neutral hydrogen, central in both driving and regulating star formation, directly traces the gas reservoir and can reveal interactions and signs of cold gas accretion. For a new Void Galaxy Survey (VGS), we have carefully selected a sample of 59 galaxies that reside in the deepest underdensities of geometrically identified voids within the SDSS at distances of ~100 Mpc, and pursued deep UV, optical, Hα, IR, and HI imaging to study in detail the morphology and kinematics of both the stellar and gaseous components. This sample allows us to not only examine the global statistical properties of void galaxies, but also to explore the details of the dynamical properties. We present an overview of the VGS, and highlight key results on the HI content and individually interesting systems. In general, we find that the void galaxies are gas rich, low luminosity, blue disk galaxies, with optical and HI properties that are not unusual for their luminosity and morphology. We see evidence of both ongoing assembly, through the gas dynamics between interacting systems, and significant gas accretion, seen in extended gas disks and kinematic misalignments. The VGS establishes a local reference sample to be used in future HI surveys (CHILES, DINGO, LADUMA) that will directly observe the HI evolution of void galaxies over cosmic time.

  19. Polar ring galaxies in the Galaxy Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, Ido; Funes, José G.; Brosch, Noah

    2012-05-01

    We report observations of 16 candidate polar-ring galaxies (PRGs) identified by the Galaxy Zoo project in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data base. Deep images of five galaxies are available in the SDSS Stripe82 data base, while to reach similar depth we observed the remaining galaxies with the 1.8-m Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope. We derive integrated magnitudes and u-r colours for the host and ring components and show continuum-subtracted Hα+[N II] images for seven objects. We present a basic morphological and environmental analysis of the galaxies and discuss their properties in comparison with other types of early-type galaxies. Follow-up photometric and spectroscopic observations will allow a kinematic confirmation of the nature of these systems and a more detailed analysis of their stellar populations.

  20. Combining Galaxy-Galaxy Lensing and Galaxy Clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Youngsoo [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Krause, Elisabeth [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Dodelson, Scott [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Jain, Bhuvnesh [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Amara, Adam [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Becker, Matt [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Bridle, Sarah [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Clampitt, Joseph [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Crocce, Martin [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Honscheid, Klaus [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Gaztanaga, Enrique [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Sanchez, Carles [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Wechsler, Risa [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Combining galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clustering is a promising method for inferring the growth rate of large scale structure, a quantity that will shed light on the mechanism driving the acceleration of the Universe. The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is a prime candidate for such an analysis, with its measurements of both the distribution of galaxies on the sky and the tangential shears of background galaxies induced by these foreground lenses. By constructing an end-to-end analysis that combines large-scale galaxy clustering and small-scale galaxy-galaxy lensing, we also forecast the potential of a combined probes analysis on DES datasets. In particular, we develop a practical approach to a DES combined probes analysis by jointly modeling the assumptions and systematics affecting the different components of the data vector, employing a shared halo model, HOD parametrization, photometric redshift errors, and shear measurement errors. Furthermore, we study the effect of external priors on different subsets of these parameters. We conclude that DES data will provide powerful constraints on the evolution of structure growth in the universe, conservatively/ optimistically constraining the growth function to 8%/4.9% with its first-year data covering 1000 square degrees, and to 4%/2.3% with its full five-year data covering 5000 square degrees.

  1. Morphology of Seyfert Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yen-Chen; Hwang, Chorng-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    We probed the relation between properties of Seyfert nuclei and morphology of their host galaxies. We selected Seyfert galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey with redshifts less 0.2 identified by the V\\'{e}ron Catalog (13th). We used the "{\\it{FracDev}}" parameter from SDSS galaxy fitting models to represent the bulge fractions of the Seyfert host galaxies. We found that the host galaxies of Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 are dominated by large bulge fractions, and Seyfert 2 galaxies are more li...

  2. Galaxy Structure, Dark Matter, and Galaxy Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Weinberg, David H.

    1996-01-01

    The structure of galaxies, the nature of dark matter, and the physics of galaxy formation were the interlocking themes of DM 1996: Dark and Visible Matter in Galaxies and Cosmological Implications. In this conference summary report, I review recent observational and theoretical advances in these areas, then describe highlights of the meeting and discuss their implications. I include as an appendix the lyrics of The Dark Matter Rap: A Cosmological History for the MTV Generation.

  3. The influence of environment on galaxy evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, Dennis William

    We study the influence of environment on galaxy evolution by focusing on two galaxy types known for their connection to dense environments, S0s and Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs). Our goal is to identify the mechanisms responsible for the properties of galaxies in groups and clusters. We first examine the effects of environment on S0 formation over the past ~7 Gyr by tracing the increasing S0 fraction in clusters at two mass scales. We find the build-up of S0s driven by groups/clusters with velocity dispersions of σ less-massive halos identified as the site for S0 formation, we test whether another route to S0 formation exists, not in isolated groups but rather in a system of four merging groups (SG1120). We place limits on how recent the S0s in that system could have formed, and finding no star formation, conclude they formed > 1 Gyr prior to SG1120's current configuration, when they were in more isolated groups. We next explore cluster outskirts to constrain the number of infalling galaxies that need to be transformed and whether that process has already begun. We find the red fraction of infalling galaxies is elevated relative to the field, and that red galaxies are more clustered than blue ones, a signature of "pre-processing". We disentangle the relative strength of global versus local environment on galaxy transformation by comparing the correlation of red fraction with radius and local density. We find that both parameters are connected with the red fraction of galaxies. Finally, we measure the frequency of galaxies falling into the cluster that are bright enough to supplant the current BCG and compare the results to models. We find in ~85% of our clusters that the BCG is secure and remains in its priviledged state until z ~ 0. From these analyses, we find that intermediate density environments (groups and cluster outskirts) are the key site to forming S0 galaxies, and that BCGs, while not exclusively a cluster phenomenon, are well established by the

  4. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: gas content and interaction as the drivers of kinematic asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, J. V.; Croom, S. M.; Bryant, J. J.; Schaefer, A. L.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brough, S.; Callingham, J.; Cortese, L.; Federrath, C.; Scott, N.; van de Sande, J.; D'Eugenio, F.; Sweet, S.; Tonini, C.; Allen, J. T.; Goodwin, M.; Green, A. W.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Lawrence, J.; Lorente, N.; Medling, A. M.; Owers, M. S.; Richards, S. N.; Sharp, R.

    2018-05-01

    In order to determine the causes of kinematic asymmetry in the Hα gas in the SAMI (Sydney-AAO Multi-object IFS) Galaxy Survey sample, we investigate the comparative influences of environment and intrinsic properties of galaxies on perturbation. We use spatially resolved Hα velocity fields from the SAMI Galaxy Survey to quantify kinematic asymmetry (\\overline{v_asym}) in nearby galaxies and environmental and stellar mass data from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly survey. We find that local environment, measured as distance to nearest neighbour, is inversely correlated with kinematic asymmetry for galaxies with log (M*/M⊙) > 10.0, but there is no significant correlation for galaxies with log (M*/M⊙) galaxies [log (M*/M⊙) galaxies. We propose that secular effects derived from gas fraction and gas mass may be the primary causes of asymmetry in low-mass galaxies. High gas fraction is linked to high σ _m/V (where σm is Hα velocity dispersion and V the rotation velocity), which is strongly correlated with \\overline{v_asym}, and galaxies with log (M*/M⊙) galaxies with log (M*/M⊙) galaxies may lead to asymmetric distribution of gas clouds, leading to increased relative turbulence.

  5. Deep spectroscopy of nearby galaxy clusters: IV The quench of the star formation in galaxies in the infall region of Abell 85

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguerri, J. A. L.; Agulli, I.; Méndez-Abreu, J.

    2018-03-01

    Our aim is to understand the role of the environment in the quenching of star formation of galaxies located in the infall cluster region of Abell 85 (A 85). This is achieved by studying the post-starburst galaxy population as tracer of recent quenching. By measuring the equivalent width (EW) of the [OII] and Hδ spectral lines, we classify the galaxies in three groups: passive (PAS), emission line (EL), and post-starburst (PSB) galaxies. The PSB galaxy population represents ˜4.5% of the full sample. Dwarf galaxies (Mr > -18.0) account for ˜70 - 80% of PSBs, which indicates that most of the galaxies undergoing recent quenching are low-mass objects. Independently of the environment, PSB galaxies are disk-like objects with g - r colour between the blue ELs and the red PAS ones. The PSB and EL galaxies in low-density environments show similar luminosities and local galaxy densities. The dynamics and local galaxy density of the PSB population in high density environments are shared with PAS galaxies. However, PSB galaxies inside A 85 are at shorter clustercentric radius than PAS and EL ones. The value of the EW(Hδ) is larger for those PSBs closer to the cluster centre. We propose two different physical mechanisms producing PSB galaxies depending on the environment. In low density environments, gas-rich minor mergers or accretions could produce the PSB galaxies. For high density environments like A 85, PSBs would be produced by the removal of the gas reservoirs of EL galaxies by ram-pressure stripping when they pass near to the cluster centre.

  6. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Roland Bénabou; Jean Tirole

    2003-01-01

    A central tenet of economics is that individuals respond to incentives. For psychologists and sociologists, in contrast, rewards and punishments are often counterproductive, because they undermine "intrinsic motivation". We reconcile these two views, showing how performance incentives offered by an informed principal (manager, teacher, parent) can adversely impact an agent's (worker, child) perception of the task, or of his own abilities. Incentives are then only weak reinforcers in the short...

  7. Red Misfits in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: Properties of Star-Forming Red Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Fraser A.; Parker, Laura C.; Roberts, Ian D.

    2018-03-01

    We study Red Misfits, a population of red, star-forming galaxies in the local Universe. We classify galaxies based on inclination-corrected optical colours and specific star formation rates derived from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. Although the majority of blue galaxies are star-forming and most red galaxies exhibit little to no ongoing star formation, a small but significant population of galaxies (˜11 per cent at all stellar masses) are classified as red in colour yet actively star-forming. We explore a number of properties of these galaxies and demonstrate that Red Misfits are not simply dusty or highly-inclined blue cloud galaxies or quiescent red galaxies with poorly-constrained star formation. The proportion of Red Misfits is nearly independent of environment and this population exhibits both intermediate morphologies and an enhanced likelihood of hosting an AGN. We conclude that Red Misfits are a transition population, gradually quenching on their way to the red sequence and this quenching is dominated by internal processes rather than environmentally-driven processes. We discuss the connection between Red Misfits and other transition galaxy populations, namely S0's, red spirals and green valley galaxies.

  8. THE SLOAN GREAT WALL. MORPHOLOGY AND GALAXY CONTENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einasto, M.; Liivamaegi, L. J.; Tempel, E.; Saar, E.; Tago, E.; Einasto, P.; Enkvist, I.; Einasto, J.; MartInez, V. J.; Heinaemaeki, P.; Nurmi, P.

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a study of the morphology and galaxy content of the Sloan Great Wall (SGW), the richest galaxy system in the nearby universe. We use the luminosity density field to determine superclusters in the SGW, and the fourth Minkowski functional V 3 and the morphological signature (the K 1 -K 2 shapefinder curve) to show the different morphologies of the SGW, from a single filament to a multibranching, clumpy planar system. We show that the richest supercluster in the SGW, SCl 126, and especially its core, resembles a very rich filament, while another rich supercluster in the SGW, SCl 111, resembles a 'multispider'-an assembly of high-density regions connected by chains of galaxies. We study the substructure of individual galaxy populations determined by their color in these superclusters using Minkowski functionals and find that in the high-density core of the SGW the clumpiness of red and blue galaxies is similar, but in the outskirts of superclusters the distribution of red galaxies is clumpier than that of blue galaxies. At intermediate densities, the systems of blue galaxies have tunnels through them. We assess the statistical significance of our results using the halo model and smoothed bootstrap. We study the galaxy content and the properties of groups of galaxies in the two richest superclusters of the SGW, paying special attention to bright red galaxies (BRGs) and the first ranked (the most luminous) galaxies in SGW groups. The BRGs are the nearby luminous red galaxies; they are mostly bright and red and typically reside in groups (several groups host five or more BRGs). About one-third of the BRGs are spirals. The scatter of colors of elliptical BRGs is smaller than that of spiral BRGs. About half of the BRGs and of first ranked galaxies in groups have large peculiar velocities. Groups with elliptical BRGs as their first ranked galaxies populate superclusters more uniformly than the groups that have a spiral BRG as their first ranked

  9. IMPACT OF BARYONIC PHYSICS ON INTRINSIC ALIGNMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenneti, Ananth; Gnedin, Nickolay Y. [Particle Astrophysics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Feng, Yu, E-mail: vat@andrew.cmu.edu [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, Department of Physics, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2017-01-10

    We explore the effects of specific assumptions in the subgrid models of star formation and stellar and active galactic nucleus feedback on intrinsic alignments of galaxies in cosmological simulations of the “MassiveBlack-II” family. Using smaller-volume simulations, we explore the parameter space of the subgrid star formation and feedback model and find remarkable robustness of the observable statistical measures to the details of subgrid physics. The one observational probe most sensitive to modeling details is the distribution of misalignment angles. We hypothesize that the amount of angular momentum carried away by the galactic wind is the primary physical quantity that controls the orientation of the stellar distribution. Our results are also consistent with a similar study by the EAGLE simulation team.

  10. EXTREMELY METAL-POOR GALAXIES: THE ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, M. E. [Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria–Universidad de La Laguna, CIE Canarias: Tri-Continental Atlantic Campus, Canary Islands (Spain); Almeida, J. Sánchez; Muñoz-Tuñón, C. [Instituto Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Nuza, S. E.; Kitaura, F.; Heß, S., E-mail: mfilho@astro.up.pt [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    We have analyzed bibliographical observational data and theoretical predictions, in order to probe the environment in which extremely metal-poor dwarf galaxies (XMPs) reside. We have assessed the H i component and its relation to the optical galaxy, the cosmic web type (voids, sheets, filaments and knots), the overdensity parameter and analyzed the nearest galaxy neighbors. The aim is to understand the role of interactions and cosmological accretion flows in the XMP observational properties, particularly the triggering and feeding of the star formation. We find that XMPs behave similarly to Blue Compact Dwarfs; they preferably populate low-density environments in the local universe: ∼60% occupy underdense regions, and ∼75% reside in voids and sheets. This is more extreme than the distribution of irregular galaxies, and in contrast to those regions preferred by elliptical galaxies (knots and filaments). We further find results consistent with previous observations; while the environment does determine the fraction of a certain galaxy type, it does not determine the overall observational properties. With the exception of five documented cases (four sources with companions and one recent merger), XMPs do not generally show signatures of major mergers and interactions; we find only one XMP with a companion galaxy within a distance of 100 kpc, and the H i gas in XMPs is typically well-behaved, demonstrating asymmetries mostly in the outskirts. We conclude that metal-poor accretion flows may be driving the XMP evolution. Such cosmological accretion could explain all the major XMP observational properties: isolation, lack of interaction/merger signatures, asymmetric optical morphology, large amounts of unsettled, metal-poor H i gas, metallicity inhomogeneities, and large specific star formation.

  11. Cosmology and galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    Implications of the massive halos and ''missing mass'' for galaxy formation are addressed; it is suggested that this mass consists of ''Population III'' stars that formed before the galaxies did. 19 references

  12. Intrinsic and extrinsic mortality reunited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koopman, Jacob J E; Wensink, Maarten J; Rozing, Maarten P

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic and extrinsic mortality are often separated in order to understand and measure aging. Intrinsic mortality is assumed to be a result of aging and to increase over age, whereas extrinsic mortality is assumed to be a result of environmental hazards and be constant over age. However......, allegedly intrinsic and extrinsic mortality have an exponentially increasing age pattern in common. Theories of aging assert that a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic stressors underlies the increasing risk of death. Epidemiological and biological data support that the control of intrinsic as well...... as extrinsic stressors can alleviate the aging process. We argue that aging and death can be better explained by the interaction of intrinsic and extrinsic stressors than by classifying mortality itself as being either intrinsic or extrinsic. Recognition of the tight interaction between intrinsic and extrinsic...

  13. Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibata, R.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Sagittarius DWARF GALAXY is the closest member of the Milky Way's entourage of satellite galaxies. Discovered by chance in 1994, its presence had previously been overlooked because it is largely hidden by the most crowded regions of our own Galaxy with which it is merging....

  14. Accretion by the Galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binney, J.; Fraternali, F.; Reylé, C.; Robin, A.; Schultheis, M.

    Cosmology requires at least half of the baryons in the Universe to be in the intergalactic medium, much of which is believed to form hot coronae around galaxies. Star-forming galaxies must be accreting from their coronae. Hi observations of external galaxies show that they have Hi halos associated

  15. Evolution of stars and galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baade, W.

    1975-01-01

    Transcriptions of recorded lectures given by the author have been edited into book form. Topics covered include: historical introduction, classification of galaxies; observation of galaxies; photography of galaxies; the andromeda nebula, spiral structure; dust and gas in galaxies; outline of stellar evolution; the distances to the galaxies; galactic clusters; stellar associations; the T Tauri stars; globular clusters: color-magnitude diagrams; spectra of population II stars; variable stars in globular clusters; elliptical galaxies; irregular galaxies and star formation; the magellanic clouds; the andromeda nebula, photometry; evolution of galaxies; the structure of the galaxy; the galactic nucleus; the galactic disk; and kinematics and evolution of the galaxy. 27 tables, 26 figures

  16. Galaxy evolution and faint counts in the near-infrared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca-Volmerange, B.; Fioc, M.

    The contribution of distant galaxies to the diffuse near-infrared and submillimetric extragalactic backgrounds can be predicted with the help of a multispectral modelling of the faint galaxy counts. In particular, star-forming galaxies have to be taken into account as well as old evolved galaxies implying a coherent simulation of the stellar emission from the blue to the near-infrared with gas and dust contributions. For this reason, an extension of previous UV and visible models is worked out with a detailed synthesis population model for strong, short timescale starbursts in a dusty medium in the near IR (Lançon and Rocca-Volmerange, 1995) by using a spectral library of stars from 1.4 to 2.5 μm observed with the FTS instrument at the 3.60-m/CFHT and fitted on starburst spectra observed with the instrument. Then an extension of the authors' atlas of synthetic galaxies was carried out, the near-IR emission (K band) being carefully normalised to the blue (B, V or J+ bands) emission. Galaxy counts in the K band are modelled in various cosmologies. The comparison with observations raises questions to be discussed with results from visible counts.

  17. The global and local stellar mass assembly histories of galaxies from the MaNGA survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Medel, Hétor J.; Sánchez,, Sebastián F.; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Hernández-Toledo, Héctor M., J.; González, J. Jesús; Drory, Niv; Bundy, Kevin; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Cano-Díaz, Mariana; Malanushenko, Elena; Pan, Kaike; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Thomas, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    By means of the fossil record method implemented through Pipe3D we reconstruct the global and radial stellar mass growth histories (MGHs) of a large sample of galaxies in the mass range 10^{8.5}M⊙-10^{11.5}M⊙ from the MaNGA survey. We find that: (1) The main driver of the global MGHs is mass, with more massive galaxies assembling their masses earlier (downsizing). (2) For most galaxies in their late evolutionary stages, the innermost regions formed earlier than the outermost ones (inside-out). This behaviour is stronger for blue/late-type galaxies.

  18. Galaxy Formation and Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Spinrad, Hyron

    2005-01-01

    The evolution in the form and structure of galaxies which has taken place since the universe was in its infancy is one of the most closely studied by astrophysicists and cosmologists today. It has profound implications for our understanding of how the universe itself has evolved over the past 12 billion years or so. This book will discuss the evolution of galaxies in detail, emphasising the boundaries of our knowledge about the most distant galaxies, but demonstrating how it is possible to make important comparisons between nearby galaxies and the most distant current observed. The author will also review galaxy morphology and its likely (but as yet unproven) history.

  19. Frustration and curvature - Glasses and the cholesteric blue phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethna, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    An analogy is drawn between continuum elastic theories of the blue phase of cholesteric liquid crystals and recent theories of frustration in configurational glasses. Both involve the introduction of a lattice of disclination lines to relieve frustration; the frustration is due to an intrinsic curvature in the natural form of parallel transport. A continuum theory of configurational glasses is proposed.

  20. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: gas content and interaction as the drivers of kinematic asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, J. V.; Croom, S. M.; Bryant, J. J.; Schaefer, A. L.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brough, S.; Callingham, J.; Cortese, L.; Federrath, C.; Scott, N.; Sande, J. van de; D'Eugenio, F.; Sweet, S.; Tonini, C.; Allen, J. T.; Goodwin, M.; Green, A. W.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Lawrence, J.; Lorente, N.; Medling, A. M.; Owers, M. S.; Richards, S. N.; Sharp, R.

    2018-02-01

    In order to determine the causes of kinematic asymmetry in the Hα gas in the SAMI Galaxy Survey sample, we investigate the comparative influences of environment and intrinsic properties of galaxies on perturbation. We use spatially resolved Hα velocity fields from the SAMI Galaxy Survey to quantify kinematic asymmetry (\\overline{v_{asym}}) in nearby galaxies and environmental and stellar mass data from the GAMA survey. We find that local environment, measured as distance to nearest neighbour, is inversely correlated with kinematic asymmetry for galaxies with log (M_*/M_⊙ )>10.0, but there is no significant correlation for galaxies with log (M_*/M_⊙ )galaxies (log (M_*/M_⊙ )galaxies. We propose that secular effects derived from gas fraction and gas mass may be the primary causes of asymmetry in low mass galaxies. High gas fraction is linked to high σ m/V (where σm is Hα velocity dispersion and V the rotation velocity), which is strongly correlated with \\overline{v_{asym}}, and galaxies with log (M*/M⊙) galaxies with log (M*/M⊙) dwarf galaxies may lead to asymmetric distribution of gas clouds, leading to increased relative turbulence.

  1. The RSA survey of dwarf galaxies, 1: Optical photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vader, J. Patricia; Chaboyer, Brian

    1994-01-01

    We present detailed surface photometry, based on broad B-band charge coupled device (CCD) images, of about 80 dwarf galaxies. Our sample represents approximately 10% of all dwarf galaxies identified in the vicinity of Revised Shapley-Ames (RSA) galaxies on high resolution blue photographic plates, referred to as the RSA survey of dwarf galaxies. We derive global properties and radial surface brightness profiles, and examine the morphologies. The radial surface brightness profiles of dwarf galaxies, whether early or late type, display the same varieties in shape and complexity as those of classical giant galaxies. Only a few are well described by a pure r(exp 1/4) law. Exponential profiles prevail. Features typical of giant disk galaxies, such as exponential profiles with a central depression, lenses, and even, in one case (IC 2041), a relatively prominent bulge are also found in dwarf galaxies. Our data suggest that the central region evolves from being bulge-like, with an r(exp 1/4) law profile, in bright galaxies to a lens-like structure in dwarf galaxies. We prove detailed surface photometry to be a helpful if not always sufficient tool in investigating the structure of dwarf galaxies. In many cases kinematic information is needed to complete the picture. We find the shapes of the surface brightness profiles to be loosely associated with morphological type. Our sample contains several new galaxies with properties intermediate between those of giant and dwarf ellipticals (but no M32-like objects). This shows that such intermediate galaxies exist so that at least a fraction of early-type dwarf ellipticals is structurally related to early-type giants instead of belonging to a totally unrelated, disjunct family. This supports an origin of early-type dwarf galaxies as originally more massive systems that acquired their current morphology as a result of substantial, presumable supernova-driven, mass loss. On the other hand, several early-type dwarfs in our sample are

  2. Blue light for infectious diseases: Propionibacterium acnes, Helicobacter pylori, and beyond?

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Tianhong; Gupta, Asheesh; Murray, Clinton K.; Vrahas, Mark S.; Tegos, George P.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Blue light, particularly in the wavelength range of 405–470 nm, has attracted increasing attention due to its intrinsic antimicrobial effect without the addition of exogenous photosensitizers. In addition, it is commonly accepted that blue light is much less detrimental to mammalian cells than ultraviolet irradiation, which is another light-based antimicrobial approach being investigated. In this review, we discussed the blue light sensing systems in microbial cells, antimicrobial efficacy of...

  3. Chemical evolution of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Matteucci, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    The term “chemical evolution of galaxies” refers to the evolution of abundances of chemical species in galaxies, which is due to nuclear processes occurring in stars and to gas flows into and out of galaxies. This book deals with the chemical evolution of galaxies of all morphological types (ellipticals, spirals and irregulars) and stresses the importance of the star formation histories in determining the properties of stellar populations in different galaxies. The topic is approached in a didactical and logical manner via galaxy evolution models which are compared with observational results obtained in the last two decades: The reader is given an introduction to the concept of chemical abundances and learns about the main stellar populations in our Galaxy as well as about the classification of galaxy types and their main observables. In the core of the book, the construction and solution of chemical evolution models are discussed in detail, followed by descriptions and interpretations of observations of ...

  4. CENSUS OF BLUE STARS IN SDSS DR8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scibelli, Samantha; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Yanny, Brian

    2014-01-01

    We present a census of the 12,060 spectra of blue objects ((g – r) 0 < –0.25) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 (DR8). As part of the data release, all of the spectra were cross-correlated with 48 template spectra of stars, galaxies, and QSOs to determine the best match. We compared the blue spectra by eye to the templates assigned in SDSS DR8. 10,856 of the objects matched their assigned template, 170 could not be classified due to low signal-to-noise ratio, and 1034 were given new classifications. We identify 7458 DA white dwarfs, 1145 DB white dwarfs, 273 rarer white dwarfs (including carbon, DZ, DQ, and magnetic), 294 subdwarf O stars, 648 subdwarf B stars, 679 blue horizontal branch stars, 1026 blue stragglers, 13 cataclysmic variables, 129 white dwarf-M dwarf binaries, 36 objects with spectra similar to DO white dwarfs, 179, quasi-stellar objects (QSOs), and 10 galaxies. We provide two tables of these objects, sample spectra that match the templates, figures showing all of the spectra that were grouped by eye, and diagnostic plots that show the positions, colors, apparent magnitudes, proper motions, etc., for each classification. Future surveys will be able to use templates similar to stars in each of the classes we identify to automatically classify blue stars, including rare types

  5. Blue Ocean Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, Donna

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a concept called the "blue ocean thinking strategy," developed by W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne, professors at INSEAD, an international graduate school of business in France. The "blue ocean" thinking strategy considers opportunities to create new markets for services, rather than focusing solely on…

  6. Enhanced X-ray Emission from Early Universe Analog Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brorby, Matthew; Kaaret, Philip; Prestwich, Andrea H.; Mirabel, I. Felix; Feng, Hua

    2016-04-01

    X-rays from binaries containing compact objects may have played an important role in heating the early Universe. Here we discuss our findings from X-ray studies of blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs), Lyman break analogs (LBAs), and Green Pea galaxies (GP), all of which are considered local analogs to high redshift galaxies. We find enhanced X-ray emission per unit star-formation rate which strongly correlates with decreasing metallicity. We find evidence for the existence of a L_X-SFR-Metallicity plane for star-forming galaxies. The exact properties of X-ray emission in the early Universe affects the timing and morphology of reionization, both being observable properties of current and future radio observations of the redshifted 21cm signal from neutral hydrogen.

  7. The visibility of galaxies as a function of central surface brightness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, M.; Phillipps, S.

    1983-01-01

    The likelihood of a galaxy with given intrinsic profile appearing in a photograph catalogue with limiting criteria on apparent magnitude and angular size will depend on the maximum distance at which such a galaxy can lie and still obey both criteria. It is demonstrated that the corresponding volume in which the galaxy will be visible is a sensitive function of the galaxy's central surface brightness as well as its absolute magnitude. Before the observed concentrations around preferred values of surface brightness can be regarded as real, it will be necessary to make allowance for this selection effect. (author)

  8. A ROSAT survey of Wolf-Rayet galaxies - II. The extended sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Ian R.; Strickland, David K.

    1998-11-01

    We present results from an ongoing X-ray survey of Wolf-Rayet (WR) galaxies, a class of objects believed to be very young starbursts. This paper extends the first X-ray survey of WR galaxies by Stevens & Strickland by studying WR galaxies identified subsequent to the original WR galaxy catalogue of Conti. Out of a sample of 40 new WR galaxies a total of 10 have been observed with the ROSAT PSPC, and of these seven have been detected (NGC 1365, NGC 1569, I Zw 18, NGC 3353, NGC 4449, NGC 5408 and a marginal detection of NGC 2366). Of these, all are dwarf starbursts except for NGC 1365, which is a barred spiral galaxy possibly with an active nucleus. We also report on observations of the related emission-line galaxy IRAS 0833+6517. The X-ray properties of these galaxies are broadly in line with those found for the original sample; they are X-ray overluminous compared with their blue luminosity and have thermal spectra with typically kT~0.4-1.0keV. There are some oddities: NGC 5408 is very overluminous in X-rays, even compared with other WR galaxies; I Zw 18 has a harder X-ray spectrum; NGC 1365, although thought to contain an active nucleus, has X-ray properties that are broadly similar to other WR galaxies, and we suggest that the X-ray emission from NGC 1365 is due to starburst activity. A good correlation between X-ray and blue luminosity is found for the WR galaxy sample as a whole. However, when just dwarf galaxies are considered there is little evidence of correlation. We discuss the implications of these results on our understanding of the X-ray emission from WR galaxies and suggest that the best explanation for the X-ray activity is starburst activity from a young starburst region.

  9. Galaxy Zoo: dust in spiral galaxies star

    OpenAIRE

    Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert; Bamford, Steven; Mosleh, Moein; Lintott, Chris J.; Andreescu, Dan; Edmondson, Edward M.; Keel, William C.; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M. Jordan; Schawinski, Kevin; Slosar, Anze; Szalay, Alexander S.; Thomas, Daniel; Vandenberg, Jan

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the effect of dust on spiral galaxies by measuring the inclination dependence of optical colours for 24 276 well-resolved Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies visually classified via the Galaxy Zoo project. We find clear trends of reddening with inclination which imply a total extinction from face-on to edge-on of 0.7, 0.6, 0.5 and 0.4 mag for the ugri passbands (estimating 0.3 mag of extinction in z band). We split the sample into ‘bulgy’ (early-type) and ‘discy’ (late-typ...

  10. Alignment between galaxies and large-scale structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltenbacher, A.; Li Cheng; White, Simon D. M.; Jing, Yi-Peng; Mao Shude; Wang Jie

    2009-01-01

    Based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR6 (SDSS) and the Millennium Simulation (MS), we investigate the alignment between galaxies and large-scale structure. For this purpose, we develop two new statistical tools, namely the alignment correlation function and the cos(2θ)-statistic. The former is a two-dimensional extension of the traditional two-point correlation function and the latter is related to the ellipticity correlation function used for cosmic shear measurements. Both are based on the cross correlation between a sample of galaxies with orientations and a reference sample which represents the large-scale structure. We apply the new statistics to the SDSS galaxy catalog. The alignment correlation function reveals an overabundance of reference galaxies along the major axes of red, luminous (L ∼ * ) galaxies out to projected separations of 60 h- 1 Mpc. The signal increases with central galaxy luminosity. No alignment signal is detected for blue galaxies. The cos(2θ)-statistic yields very similar results. Starting from a MS semi-analytic galaxy catalog, we assign an orientation to each red, luminous and central galaxy, based on that of the central region of the host halo (with size similar to that of the stellar galaxy). As an alternative, we use the orientation of the host halo itself. We find a mean projected misalignment between a halo and its central region of ∼ 25 deg. The misalignment decreases slightly with increasing luminosity of the central galaxy. Using the orientations and luminosities of the semi-analytic galaxies, we repeat our alignment analysis on mock surveys of the MS. Agreement with the SDSS results is good if the central orientations are used. Predictions using the halo orientations as proxies for central galaxy orientations overestimate the observed alignment by more than a factor of 2. Finally, the large volume of the MS allows us to generate a two-dimensional map of the alignment correlation function, which shows the reference

  11. Companions of Bright Barred Shapley Ames Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Barreto, J. Antonio; Carrillo, Rene; Vera-Villamizar, Nelson

    2003-01-01

    Companion galaxy environment for a subset of 78 bright and nearby barred galaxies from the Shapley Ames Catalog is presented. Among spiral barred galaxies there are Seyfert galaxies, galaxies with circumnuclear structures, galaxies not associated with any large scale galaxy cloud structure, galaxies with peculiar disk morphology (crooked arms) and galaxies with normal disk morphology; the list includes all Hubble types. The companion galaxy list includes number of companion galaxies within 20...

  12. Cosmic evolution and metal aversion in superluminous supernova host galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, S.; Krühler, T.; Leloudas, G.; Gorosabel, J.; Mehner, A.; Buchner, J.; Kim, S.; Ibar, E.; Amorín, R.; Herrero-Illana, R.; Anderson, J. P.; Bauer, F. E.; Christensen, L.; de Pasquale, M.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Gallazzi, A.; Hjorth, J.; Morrell, N.; Malesani, D.; Sparre, M.; Stalder, B.; Stark, A. A.; Thöne, C. C.; Wheeler, J. C.

    2018-01-01

    The SUperluminous Supernova Host galaxIES survey aims to provide strong new constraints on the progenitors of superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) by understanding the relationship to their host galaxies. We present the photometric properties of 53 H-poor and 16 H-rich SLSN host galaxies out to z ∼ 4. We model their spectral energy distributions to derive physical properties, which we compare with other galaxy populations. At low redshift, H-poor SLSNe are preferentially found in very blue, low-mass galaxies with high average specific star formation rates. As redshift increases, the host population follows the general evolution of star-forming galaxies towards more luminous galaxies. After accounting for secular evolution, we find evidence for differential evolution in galaxy mass, but not in the B band and the far-ultraviolet luminosity (3σ confidence). Most remarkable is the scarcity of hosts with stellar masses above 1010 M⊙ for both classes of SLSNe. In case of H-poor SLSNe, we attribute this to a stifled production efficiency above ∼0.4 solar metallicity. However, we argue that, in addition to low metallicity, a short-lived stellar population is also required to regulate the SLSN production. H-rich SLSNe are found in a very diverse population of star-forming galaxies. Still, the scarcity of massive hosts suggests a stifled production efficiency above ∼0.8 solar metallicity. The large dispersion of the H-rich SLSNe host properties is in stark contrast to those of gamma-ray burst, regular core-collapse SN, and H-poor SLSNe host galaxies. We propose that multiple progenitor channels give rise to this subclass.

  13. Isolated galaxies, pairs, and groups of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuneva, I.; Kalinkov, M.

    1990-01-01

    The authors searched for isolated galaxies, pairs and groups of galaxies in the CfA survey (Huchra et al. 1983). It was assumed that the distances to galaxies are given by R = V/H sub o, where H sub o = 100 km s(exp -1) Mpc(exp -1) and R greater than 6 Mpc. The searching procedure is close to those, applied to find superclusters of galaxies (Kalinkov and Kuneva 1985, 1986). A sphere with fixed radius r (asterisk) is described around each galaxy. The mean spatial density in the sphere is m. Let G 1 be any galaxy and G 2 be its nearest neighbor at a distance R 2 . If R sub 2 exceeds the 95 percent quintile in the distribution of the distances of the second neighbors, then G 1 is an isolated galaxy. Let the midpoint of G 1 and G 2 be O 2 and r 2 =R 2 2. For the volume V 2 , defined with the radius r 2 , the density D 2 less than k mu, the galaxy G 2 is a single one and the procedure for searching for pairs and groups, beginning with this object is over and we have to pass to another object. Here the authors present the groups - isolated and nonisolated - with n greater than 3, found in the CfA survey in the Northern galactic hemisphere. The parameters used are k = 10 and r (asterisk) = 5 Mpc. Table 1 contains: (1) the group number, (2) the galaxy, nearest to the multiplet center, (3) multiplicity n, (4) the brightest galaxy if it is not listed in (2); (5) and (6) are R.A. and Dec. (1950), (7) - mean distance D in Mpc. Further there are the mean density rho (8) of the multiplet (galaxies Mpc (exp -3)), (9) the density rho (asterisk) for r (asterisk) = 5 Mpc and (10) the density rho sub g for the group with its nearest neighbor. The parenthesized digits for densities in the last three columns are powers of ten

  14. Blue ocean strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades.

  15. H I observations of nearby galaxies. III. More dwarf galaxies in the northern sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karachentsev, I. D.; Karachentseva, V. E.; Huchtmeier, W. K.

    2001-02-01

    We carried out a systematic search for nearby dwarf galaxies in the northern sky based on POSS-II film copies. As a result we present a list of 101 nearby dwarf galaxy candidates mainly of low surface brightness which have angular diameters a>~ 0farcm5 . About two thirds of the objects are new discoveries. This sample is considered as a supplement to the 163 northern dwarf galaxy candidates (A&AS, 1998, 127, 409) which have been detected in the same declination range around the known Local Volume galaxies and to the 78 dwarf galaxy candidates (A&AS, 1999, 135, 221) in the Local Void region. All the galaxies were observed in {H I with the 100-m Effelsberg radio telescope with a detection rate of 46%. The sample of detected galaxies has the following median parameters: radial velocity V_LG = +770 km s-1, {H I line width W50 = 46 km s-1, absolute blue magnitude M_B = -13.8 mag, linear diameter A0 = 2.7 kpc, hydrogen mass-to-luminosity ratio M_HI/L_B = 1.2\\ Msun/Lsun, and the HI mass-to-total mass ratio Mion {H i}/M_t=0.28. Tables~1 and~2 are also available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5)} or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/366/428 Figure~1 is only available at http://www.edpsciences.org

  16. Thermodynamically stable blue phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castles, F; Morris, S M; Terentjev, E M; Coles, H J

    2010-04-16

    We show theoretically that flexoelectricity stabilizes blue phases in chiral liquid crystals. Induced internal polarization reduces the elastic energy cost of splay and bend deformations surrounding singular lines in the director field. The energy of regions of double twist is unchanged. This in turn reduces the free energy of the blue phase with respect to that of the chiral nematic phase, leading to stability over a wider temperature range. The theory explains the discovery of large temperature range blue phases in highly flexoelectric "bimesogenic" and "bent-core" materials, and predicts how this range may be increased further.

  17. Galaxy formation and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Mo, Houjun; White, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of galaxy formation lies at the interface between astronomy, particle physics, and cosmology. Covering diverse topics from these disciplines, all of which are needed to understand how galaxies form and evolve, this book is ideal for researchers entering the field. Individual chapters explore the evolution of the Universe as a whole and its particle and radiation content; linear and nonlinear growth of cosmic structure; processes affecting the gaseous and dark matter components of galaxies and their stellar populations; the formation of spiral and elliptical galaxies; central supermassive black holes and the activity associated with them; galaxy interactions; and the intergalactic medium. Emphasizing both observational and theoretical aspects, this book provides a coherent introduction for astronomers, cosmologists, and astroparticle physicists to the broad range of science underlying the formation and evolution of galaxies.

  18. Diversity among galaxy clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struble, M.F.; Rood, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    The classification of galaxy clusters is discussed. Consideration is given to the classification scheme of Abell (1950's), Zwicky (1950's), Morgan, Matthews, and Schmidt (1964), and Morgan-Bautz (1970). Galaxies can be classified based on morphology, chemical composition, spatial distribution, and motion. The correlation between a galaxy's environment and morphology is examined. The classification scheme of Rood-Sastry (1971), which is based on clusters's morphology and galaxy population, is described. The six types of clusters they define include: (1) a cD-cluster dominated by a single large galaxy, (2) a cluster dominated by a binary, (3) a core-halo cluster, (4) a cluster dominated by several bright galaxies, (5) a cluster appearing flattened, and (6) an irregularly shaped cluster. Attention is also given to the evolution of cluster structures, which is related to initial density and cluster motion

  19. Intrinsic Chevrolets at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.; Collins, J.C.; Ellis, S.D.; Gunion, J.F.; Mueller, A.H.

    1984-01-01

    The possibility of the production at high energy of heavy quarks, supersymmetric particles and other large mass colored systems via the intrinsic twist-six components in the proton wave function is discussed. While the existing data do not rule out the possible relevance of intrinsic charm production at present energies, the extrapolation of such intrinsic contributions to very high masses and energies suggests that they will not play an important role at the SSC

  20. The origin of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    The existence of galaxies implies that the early Universe must have contained initial density fluctuations. Overdense regions would then expand more slowly than the background and eventually - providing the fluctuations were not damped out first - they would stop expanding altogether and collapse to form bound objects. To understand how galaxies form we therefore need to know: how the initial density fluctuations arise, under what circumstances they evolve into bound objects, and how the bound objects develop the observed characteristics of galaxies. (author)

  1. HI in elliptical galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Sadler, Elaine M.; Oosterloo, Tom; Morganti, Raffaella

    2002-01-01

    Neutral hydrogen is an important component of the interstellar medium in elliptical galaxies as well as a potentially valuable mass tracer. Until recently, HI surveys of early-type galaxies have been sparse and inhomogeneous but this has changed with the advent of the HI Parkes All-Sky Survey (HIPASS; Barnes et al. 2001). We discuss HIPASS observations of a sample of ~2500 nearby E/S0 galaxies, as well as detailed HI imaging of a range of individual objects.

  2. Galaxy evolution. Galactic paleontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstoy, Eline

    2011-07-08

    Individual low-mass stars have very long lives, comparable to the age of the universe, and can thus be used to probe ancient star formation. At present, such stars can be identified and studied only in the Milky Way and in the very closest of our neighboring galaxies, which are predominantly small dwarf galaxies. These nearby ancient stars are a fossil record that can provide detailed information about the physical processes that dominated the epoch of galaxy formation and subsequent evolution.

  3. Cosmological measurements with general relativistic galaxy correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raccanelli, Alvise [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Montanari, Francesco; Durrer, Ruth [Département de Physique Théorique, Université de Genève, 24 quai Ernest Ansermet, 1211 Genève 4 (Switzerland); Bertacca, Daniele [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Doré, Olivier, E-mail: alvise@jhu.edu, E-mail: francesco.montanari@helsinki.fi, E-mail: daniele.bertacca@gmail.com, E-mail: Olivier.P.Dore@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: ruth.durrer@unige.ch [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the cosmological dependence and the constraining power of large-scale galaxy correlations, including all redshift-distortions, wide-angle, lensing and gravitational potential effects on linear scales. We analyze the cosmological information present in the lensing convergence and in the gravitational potential terms describing the so-called ''relativistic effects'', and we find that, while smaller than the information contained in intrinsic galaxy clustering, it is not negligible. We investigate how neglecting them does bias cosmological measurements performed by future spectroscopic and photometric large-scale surveys such as SKA and Euclid. We perform a Fisher analysis using the CLASS code, modified to include scale-dependent galaxy bias and redshift-dependent magnification and evolution bias. Our results show that neglecting relativistic terms, especially lensing convergence, introduces an error in the forecasted precision in measuring cosmological parameters of the order of a few tens of percent, in particular when measuring the matter content of the Universe and primordial non-Gaussianity parameters. The analysis suggests a possible substantial systematic error in cosmological parameter constraints. Therefore, we argue that radial correlations and integrated relativistic terms need to be taken into account when forecasting the constraining power of future large-scale number counts of galaxy surveys.

  4. Galaxy Zoo: dust in spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert; Bamford, Steven; Mosleh, Moein; Lintott, Chris J.; Andreescu, Dan; Edmondson, Edward M.; Keel, William C.; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M. Jordan; Schawinski, Kevin; Slosar, Anže; Szalay, Alexander S.; Thomas, Daniel; Vandenberg, Jan

    2010-05-01

    We investigate the effect of dust on spiral galaxies by measuring the inclination dependence of optical colours for 24276 well-resolved Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies visually classified via the Galaxy Zoo project. We find clear trends of reddening with inclination which imply a total extinction from face-on to edge-on of 0.7, 0.6, 0.5 and 0.4mag for the ugri passbands (estimating 0.3mag of extinction in z band). We split the sample into `bulgy' (early-type) and `discy' (late-type) spirals using the SDSS fracdeV (or fDeV) parameter and show that the average face-on colour of `bulgy' spirals is redder than the average edge-on colour of `discy' spirals. This shows that the observed optical colour of a spiral galaxy is determined almost equally by the spiral type (via the bulge-disc ratio and stellar populations), and reddening due to dust. We find that both luminosity and spiral type affect the total amount of extinction, with discy spirals at Mr ~ -21.5mag having the most reddening - more than twice as much as both the lowest luminosity and most massive, bulge-dominated spirals. An increase in dust content is well known for more luminous galaxies, but the decrease of the trend for the most luminous has not been observed before and may be related to their lower levels of recent star formation. We compare our results with the latest dust attenuation models of Tuffs et al. We find that the model reproduces the observed trends reasonably well but overpredicts the amount of u-band attenuation in edge-on galaxies. This could be an inadequacy in the Milky Way extinction law (when applied to external galaxies), but more likely indicates the need for a wider range of dust-star geometries. We end by discussing the effects of dust on large galaxy surveys and emphasize that these effects will become important as we push to higher precision measurements of galaxy properties and their clustering. This publication has been made possible by the participation of more than

  5. Evolutionary phenomena in galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, J.E.; Pagel, B.E.J.

    1989-01-01

    This book reviews the subject of evolutionary phenomena in galaxies, bringing together contributions by experts on all the relevant physics and astrophysics necessary to understand galaxies and how they work. The book is based on the proceedings of a conference held in July 1988 in Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife which was timed to coincide with the first year of operation of the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope. The broad topics covered include formation of galaxies and their ages, stellar dynamics, galactic scale gas and its role in star formation and the production and distribution of the chemical elements within galaxies. (author)

  6. Star Formation in Merging Clusters of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansheim, Alison Seiler

    This thesis straddles two areas of cosmology, each of which are active, rich and plagued by controversy in their own right: merging clusters and the environmental dependence of galaxy evolution. While the greater context of this thesis is major cluster mergers, our individual subjects are galaxies, and we apply techniques traditionally used to study the differential evolution of galaxies with environment. The body of this thesis is drawn from two papers: Mansheim et al. 2016a and Mansheim et al. 2016b, one on each system. Both projects benefited from exquisite data sets assembled as part of the Merging Cluster Collaboration (MC2), and Observations of Redshift Evolution in Large Scale Environments (ORELSE) survey, allowing us to scrutinize the evolutionary states of galaxy populations in multiple lights. Multi-band optical and near-infrared imaging was available for both systems, allowing us to calculate photometric redshifts for completeness corrections, colors (red vs. blue) and stellar masses to view the ensemble properties of the populations in and around each merger. High-resolution spectroscopy was also available for both systems, allowing us to confirm cluster members by measuring spectroscopic redshifts, which are unparalleled in accuracy, and gauge star formation rates and histories by measuring the strengths of certain spectral features. We had the luxury of HST imaging for Musket Ball, allowing us to use galaxy morphology as an additional diagnostic. For Cl J0910, 24 mum imaging allowed us to defeat a most pernicious source of uncertainty. Details on the acquisition and reduction of multi-wavelength data for each system are found within each respective chapter. It is important to note that the research presented in Chapter 3 is based on a letter which had significant space restrictions, so much of the observational details are outsourced to papers written by ORELSE collaboration members. Below is a free-standing summary of each project, drawn from the

  7. Blue Ribbon Panel Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog by the NCI acting director thanking the cancer community for contributing to the Cancer Moonshot Blue Ribbon Panel report, which was presented to the National Cancer Advisory Board on September 7.

  8. New York Blue

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — New York Blue is used cooperatively by the Laboratory and Stony Brook University as part of the New York Center for Computation Sciences. Ranked as the 28th fastest...

  9. The galaxy population of Abell 1367: the stellar mass-metallicity relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouhcine, M.; Kriwattanawong, W.; James, P. A.

    2011-04-01

    Using wide baseline broad-band photometry, we analyse the stellar population properties of a sample of 72 galaxies, spanning a wide range of stellar masses and morphological types, in the nearby spiral-rich and dynamically young galaxy cluster Abell 1367. The sample galaxies are distributed from the cluster centre out to approximately half the cluster Abell radius. The optical/near-infrared colours are compared with simple stellar population synthesis models from which the luminosity-weighted stellar population ages and metallicities are determined. The locus of the colours of elliptical galaxies traces a sequence of varying metallicity at a narrow range of luminosity-weighted stellar ages. Lenticular galaxies in the red sequence, however, exhibit a substantial spread of luminosity-weighted stellar metallicities and ages. For red-sequence lenticular galaxies and blue cloud galaxies, low-mass galaxies tend to be on average dominated by stellar populations of younger luminosity-weighted ages. Sample galaxies exhibit a strong correlation between integrated stellar mass and luminosity-weighted stellar metallicity. Galaxies with signs of morphological disturbance and ongoing star formation activity, tend to be underabundant with respect to passive galaxies in the red sequence of comparable stellar masses. We argue that this could be due to tidally driven gas flows towards the star-forming regions, carrying less enriched gas and diluting the pre-existing gas to produce younger stellar populations with lower metallicities than would be obtained prior to the interaction. Finally, we find no statistically significant evidence for changes in the luminosity-weighted ages and metallicities for either red-sequence or blue-cloud galaxies, at fixed stellar mass, with location within the cluster. We dedicate this work to the memory of our friend and colleague C. Moss who died suddenly recently.

  10. Antimicrobial blue light inactivation of pathogenic microbes: State of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yucheng; Wang, Ying; Wang, Yuguang; Murray, Clinton K; Hamblin, Michael R; Hooper, David C; Dai, Tianhong

    2017-11-01

    As an innovative non-antibiotic approach, antimicrobial blue light in the spectrum of 400-470nm has demonstrated its intrinsic antimicrobial properties resulting from the presence of endogenous photosensitizing chromophores in pathogenic microbes and, subsequently, its promise as a counteracter of antibiotic resistance. Since we published our last review of antimicrobial blue light in 2012, there have been a substantial number of new studies reported in this area. Here we provide an updated overview of the findings from the new studies over the past 5 years, including the efficacy of antimicrobial blue light inactivation of different microbes, its mechanism of action, synergism of antimicrobial blue light with other angents, its effect on host cells and tissues, the potential development of resistance to antimicrobial blue light by microbes, and a novel interstitial delivery approach of antimicrobial blue light. The potential new applications of antimicrobial blue light are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Intrinsically dynamic population models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Schoen

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsically dynamic models (IDMs depict populations whose cumulative growth rate over a number of intervals equals the product of the long term growth rates (that is the dominant roots or dominant eigenvalues associated with each of those intervals. Here the focus is on the birth trajectory produced by a sequence of population projection (Leslie matrices. The elements of a Leslie matrix are represented as straightforward functions of the roots of the matrix, and new relationships are presented linking the roots of a matrix to its Net Reproduction Rate and stable mean age of childbearing. Incorporating mortality changes in the rates of reproduction yields an IDM when the subordinate roots are held constant over time. In IDMs, the birth trajectory generated by any specified sequence of Leslie matrices can be found analytically. In the Leslie model with 15 year age groups, the constant subordinate root assumption leads to reasonable changes in the age pattern of fertility, and equations (27 and (30 provide the population size and structure that result from changing levels of net reproduction. IDMs generalize the fixed rate stable population model. They can characterize any observed population, and can provide new insights into dynamic demographic behavior, including the momentum associated with gradual or irregular paths to zero growth.

  12. The Morphological Evolution, AGN Fractions, Dust Content, Environments, and Downsizing of Massive Green Valley Galaxies at 0.5 < z < 2.5 in 3D-HST/CANDELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yizhou; Fang, Guanwen; Yuan, Qirong; Cai, Zhenyi; Wang, Tao

    2018-03-01

    To explore the evolutionary connection among red, green, and blue galaxy populations, based on a sample of massive ({M}* > {10}10 {M}ȯ ) galaxies at 0.5 environments of these three populations. Green valley galaxies are found to have intermediate dust attenuation and reside in the middle of the regions occupied by quiescent and star-forming galaxies in the UVJ diagram. Compared with blue and red galaxy populations at z 2. A significant environmental difference is found between green and red galaxies at z 0.5 seem to have similar local density distributions, suggesting that environment quenching is not the major mechanism to cease star formation at z > 0.5. The fractions of three populations as functions of mass support a “downsizing” quenching picture that the bulk of star formation in more massive galaxies is completed earlier than that of lower-mass galaxies.

  13. A single population of red globular clusters around the massive compact galaxy NGC 1277

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Michael A.; Trujillo, Ignacio; Leaman, Ryan; Montes, Mireia

    2018-03-01

    Massive galaxies are thought to form in two phases: an initial collapse of gas and giant burst of central star formation, followed by the later accretion of material that builds up their stellar and dark-matter haloes. The systems of globular clusters within such galaxies are believed to form in a similar manner. The initial central burst forms metal-rich (spectrally red) clusters, whereas more metal-poor (spectrally blue) clusters are brought in by the later accretion of less-massive satellites. This formation process is thought to result in the multimodal optical colour distributions that are seen in the globular cluster systems of massive galaxies. Here we report optical observations of the massive relic-galaxy candidate NGC 1277—a nearby, un-evolved example of a high-redshift ‘red nugget’ galaxy. We find that the optical colour distribution of the cluster system of NGC 1277 is unimodal and entirely red. This finding is in strong contrast to other galaxies of similar and larger stellar mass, the cluster systems of which always exhibit (and are generally dominated by) blue clusters. We argue that the colour distribution of the cluster system of NGC 1277 indicates that the galaxy has undergone little (if any) mass accretion after its initial collapse, and use simulations of possible merger histories to show that the stellar mass due to accretion is probably at most ten per cent of the total stellar mass of the galaxy. These results confirm that NGC 1277 is a genuine relic galaxy and demonstrate that blue clusters constitute an accreted population in present-day massive galaxies.

  14. Optical Spectroscopy of Obscured Active Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Lopes, Vivian Cristina; Steiner, Joao Evangelista

    1998-02-01

    We present in this work a study of obscured Active Galaxies which were identified by Sofia Kirhakos in 1990. She verified that surveys at the optical part of the spectrum are not efficient to identify Seyfert nuclei in galaxies observed edge-on. To overcome this difficulty she proposed a selection criterion in which sources identified by the IRAS satellite that were simultaneously X-rays sources in the HEAO-1 catalog were the primary targets for subsequent observations. Optical spectroscopy of these non-identified sources done by Kirhakos revelead that there is an excess of face-on objects among Seyfert 1 galaxies while the Seyfert 2 galaxies were preferencially edge-on objects. The proposed interpretation was was that the Seyfert 2 nuclei are obscured Seyfert 1 nuclei. However, the spectral region covered by Kirhakos was in the blue, quite sensitive to redenning effects. Moreover, the signal-to-noise ratio was poor to classify accuratelya number of fainter objects. In our work, objects previously classified as AGN and Transition Objects were observed at the Laboratorio Nacional de Astrofisica- Brazil, using the 1,6 m telescope in the region 6000-10000 Angtrons. Diagnostics based on line emission ratios and FWHM of the lines permited us to better classify the observed objects. We verify that the Transition Objects show characteristics of H II regions and the AGN. We also studied the far infrared luminosities and hard X-rays luminosities, and found that they correlate positively, but only until a saturation value. This may indicate the presence of a barrier trapping the IR radiation. We conclude that selection effects play a role to define the classification of some objects, but not all, with the different classes of AGN presenting intrinsically different properties. We also verified that the present classification criteria are not efficient enough to positively define all classes of Active Galactic Nuclei. Apresentamos neste trabalho o estudo de Galáxias Ativas

  15. The Fundamental Relations of Elliptical Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, R.; Lucey, J. R.; Bower, R. G.

    1993-12-01

    We investigate the basic laws that determine the global structure and metal abundance of elliptical galaxies. The existence of the Fundamental Plane has been considered to imply that the virial theorem is the only structural constraint for giant ellipticals. However, we show that giant ellipticals do not uniformly cover the Fundamental Plane, but are located in a band which is not the result of selection effects. This `Fundamental Band' implies a second constraint between scalelength and galaxy mass. On the basis of this result, we present a new framework in which the structure and metal abundance of giant ellipticals are determined by only three fundamental relations: M is proportional to R, M is proportional to Rzeta^ and Z is proportional to xi where M is the galaxy mass, R is the half-mass radius, is the mean square speed of the system's stars and Z is the average metallicity of the stellar population; ζ and ξ are constants. ξ is uniquely determined from the observations. The value of ζ, however, depends on the assumed scaling laws that relate M and R to the observed luminosity and half-light radius. We assume M/L is proportional to Meta^ and R/R_e_ is proportional to Mlambda^. The two constants η and λ are mutually constrained by observations, but their values are not uniquely determined. All the wide variety of observed global correlations can be derived as simple combinations of these fundamental relations. This simple framework provides new insights into the intrinsic differences between giant and dwarf ellipticals. The observed universality of the luminosity- and metallicity-velocity dispersion correlations strongly suggests a simple solution within our framework in which ξ, ζ and η adopt the same values for both dwarf and giant ellipticals. In this case, we show that the dependence of R/R_e_ on galaxy mass is the only difference between the two galaxy families. We compare this framework with a theoretical scenario of galaxy formation that

  16. GLOBULAR CLUSTERS INDICATE THAT ULTRA-DIFFUSE GALAXIES ARE DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beasley, Michael A.; Trujillo, Ignacio, E-mail: beasley@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Calle Via Láctea, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2016-10-10

    We present an analysis of archival HST /ACS imaging in the F475W ( g {sub 475}), F606W ( V {sub 606}), and F814W ( I {sub 814}) bands of the globular cluster (GC) system of a large (3.4 kpc effective radius) ultra-diffuse galaxy (DF17) believed to be located in the Coma Cluster of galaxies. We detect 11 GCs down to the 5 σ completeness limit of the imaging ( I {sub 814} = 27 mag). Correcting for background and our detection limits yields a total population of GCs in this galaxy of 27 ± 5 and a V -band specific frequency S {sub N} = 28 ± 5. Based on comparisons to the GC systems of local galaxies, we show that both the absolute number and the colors of the GC system of DF17 are consistent with the GC system of a dark-matter-dominated dwarf galaxy with virial mass ∼9.0 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ⊙} and a dark-to-stellar mass ratio M {sub vir}/ M {sub star} ∼ 1000. Based on the stellar mass growth of the Milky Way, we show that DF17 cannot be understood as a failed Milky-Way-like system, but is more similar to quenched Large-Magellanic-Cloud-like systems. We find that the mean color of the GC population, g {sub 475}– I {sub 814} = 0.91 ± 0.05 mag, coincides with the peak of the color distribution of intracluster GCs and is also similar to those of the blue GCs in the outer regions of massive galaxies. We suggest that both the intracluster GC population in Coma and the blue peak in the GC populations of massive galaxies may be fed—at least in part—by the disrupted equivalents of systems such as DF17.

  17. Globular Clusters Indicate That Ultra-diffuse Galaxies Are Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Michael A.; Trujillo, Ignacio

    2016-10-01

    We present an analysis of archival HST/ACS imaging in the F475W (g 475), F606W (V 606), and F814W (I 814) bands of the globular cluster (GC) system of a large (3.4 kpc effective radius) ultra-diffuse galaxy (DF17) believed to be located in the Coma Cluster of galaxies. We detect 11 GCs down to the 5σ completeness limit of the imaging (I 814 = 27 mag). Correcting for background and our detection limits yields a total population of GCs in this galaxy of 27 ± 5 and a V-band specific frequency S N = 28 ± 5. Based on comparisons to the GC systems of local galaxies, we show that both the absolute number and the colors of the GC system of DF17 are consistent with the GC system of a dark-matter-dominated dwarf galaxy with virial mass ˜9.0 × 1010 M ⊙ and a dark-to-stellar mass ratio M vir/M star ˜ 1000. Based on the stellar mass growth of the Milky Way, we show that DF17 cannot be understood as a failed Milky-Way-like system, but is more similar to quenched Large-Magellanic-Cloud-like systems. We find that the mean color of the GC population, g 475-I 814 = 0.91 ± 0.05 mag, coincides with the peak of the color distribution of intracluster GCs and is also similar to those of the blue GCs in the outer regions of massive galaxies. We suggest that both the intracluster GC population in Coma and the blue peak in the GC populations of massive galaxies may be fed—at least in part—by the disrupted equivalents of systems such as DF17.

  18. HUBBLE PHOTOGRAPHS WARPED GALAXY AS CAMERA PASSES MILESTONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has captured an image of an unusual edge-on galaxy, revealing remarkable details of its warped dusty disk and showing how colliding galaxies spawn the formation of new generations of stars. The dust and spiral arms of normal spiral galaxies, like our own Milky Way, appear flat when viewed edge-on. This month's Hubble Heritage image of ESO 510-G13 shows a galaxy that, by contrast, has an unusual twisted disk structure, first seen in ground-based photographs obtained at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in Chile. ESO 510-G13 lies in the southern constellation Hydra, roughly 150 million light-years from Earth. Details of the structure of ESO 510-G13 are visible because the interstellar dust clouds that trace its disk are silhouetted from behind by light from the galaxy's bright, smooth central bulge. The strong warping of the disk indicates that ESO 510-G13 has recently undergone a collision with a nearby galaxy and is in the process of swallowing it. Gravitational forces distort the structures of the galaxies as their stars, gas, and dust merge together in a process that takes millions of years. Eventually the disturbances will die out, and ESO 510-G13 will become a normal-appearing single galaxy. In the outer regions of ESO 510-G13, especially on the right-hand side of the image, we see that the twisted disk contains not only dark dust, but also bright clouds of blue stars. This shows that hot, young stars are being formed in the disk. Astronomers believe that the formation of new stars may be triggered by collisions between galaxies, as their interstellar clouds smash together and are compressed. The Heritage Team used Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) to observe ESO 510-G13 in April 2001. Pictures obtained through blue, green, and red filters were combined to make this color-composite image, which emphasizes the contrast between the dusty spiral arms, the bright bulge, and the blue star-forming regions. During the

  19. The Evolution of Galaxies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palouš, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 17, - (2007), s. 34-40 ISSN 1220-5168. [Heliospere and galaxy. Sinaia, 03.05.2007-05.05.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : ISM structure * stars formation * evolution of galaxies Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  20. Hubble's Menagerie of Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 3. Hubble's Managerie of Galaxies. Biman Nath. General Article Volume 14 Issue 3 March 2009 pp 226-235. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/014/03/0226-0235. Keywords. Galaxies ...

  1. Our galaxy is exploding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Closets, Francois de.

    1977-01-01

    Improvements made in radioastronomy, and infrared, X and γ emission studies of the Galaxy have allowed to study the galactic nucleus, which is characterized by an intense activity. The most recent hypotheses made to explain this activity and replace it in the general context of the evolution of the galaxies are presented [fr

  2. Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, N.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXIES were first identified by Shapley, who had noticed two very diffuse collections of stars on Harvard patrol plates. Although these systems had about as many stars as a GLOBULAR CLUSTER, they were of much lower density, and hence much larger radius, and thus were considered distinct galaxies. These two, named Fornax and Sculptor after the constellations in which they ap...

  3. Hubble's Menagerie of Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    astronom ers have even w ondered ifH ubble's galaxy typ es form an evolutionary sequence: does one type of galaxy evolve into another? 1. T he D iscovery of G alaxies. A stronom ers began to ponder these issues only after they discovered w hat ...

  4. Visibility of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that counts of galaxies could be seriously biased by selection effects, largely influenced by the brightness of the night sky. To illustrate this suppose the Earth were situated near the center of a giant elliptical galaxy. The mean surface brightness of the sky would then appear some 8 to 9 mag. brighter than is observed from our position in the Galaxy. Extragalactic space would then appear to be empty void; spiral and irregular galaxies would be invisible, and all that could be easily detected would be the core regions of galaxy ellipticals very similar to our own. Much of the Universe would be blinded by the surface brightness of the parent galaxy. This blinding, however, is a relative matter and the question arises as to what extent we are blinded by the spiral galaxy in which we exist. Strong indirect evidence exists that our knowledge of galaxies is heavily biased by the sky background, and the true population of extragalactic space may be very different from that seen. Other relevant work is also discussed, and further investigational work is indicated. (U.K.)

  5. Jets in Active Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jets in active galaxies are signatures of energy supply via collimatedbeams of plasma from the galactic nucleus to the extendedregions of emission. These jets, which occur acrossthe electromagnetic spectrum, are powered by supermassiveblack holes in the centres of the host galaxies. Jets are seenon the scale of parsecs ...

  6. The Mutable Galaxies -10 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of spectacular explosions, called supernovae. The next generation stars which ... nova explosion of massive stars. Galaxies then must go throug;h this 'chemical' evolution, slowly changing the abundance of heavy elements in its gas and in stars. A spectacular .... small, which is the case in our galaxy. One finds that p is of ...

  7. Gas accretion onto galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Davé, Romeel

    2017-01-01

    This edited volume presents the current state of gas accretion studies from both observational and theoretical perspectives, and charts our progress towards answering the fundamental yet elusive question of how galaxies get their gas. Understanding how galaxies form and evolve has been a central focus in astronomy for over a century. These studies have accelerated in the new millennium, driven by two key advances: the establishment of a firm concordance cosmological model that provides the backbone on which galaxies form and grow, and the recognition that galaxies grow not in isolation but within a “cosmic ecosystem” that includes the vast reservoir of gas filling intergalactic space. This latter aspect in which galaxies continually exchange matter with the intergalactic medium via inflows and outflows has been dubbed the “baryon cycle”. The topic of this book is directly related to the baryon cycle, in particular its least well constrained aspect, namely gas accretion. Accretion is a rare area of ast...

  8. Starbursts and IRAS galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belfort, P.

    1987-01-01

    Several observational hints suggest that most of the IRAS galaxies are undergoing bursts of star formation. A simple photometric model of starburst galaxy was developed in order to check whether starburst events are really able to account for the far-infrared and optical properties of all the IRAS galaxies with HII region-like spectra. FIR activities up to a few hundred are actually easily reached with rather small bursts in red host-galaxies, and L IR /L B , EW(Hα) and U-B) versus (B-V) diagrams can be used to estimate burst strength and extinction. But more observations are required to conclude about the most extreme cases. Four typical infrared-selected IRAS galaxies are presented and their burst strength and extinction estimated

  9. MULTIPLE GALAXY COLLISIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Here is a sampling of 15 ultraluminous infrared galaxies viewed by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Hubble's sharp vision reveals more complexity within these galaxies, which astronomers are interpreting as evidence of a multiple-galaxy pileup. These images, taken by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, are part of a three-year study of 123 galaxies within 3 billion light-years of Earth. The study was conducted in 1996, 1997, and 1999. False colors were assigned to these photos to enhance fine details within these coalescing galaxies. Credits: NASA, Kirk Borne (Raytheon and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.), Luis Colina (Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, Spain), and Howard Bushouse and Ray Lucas (Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md.)

  10. A Multiband Study of the Galaxy Populations of the First Four Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect Selected Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenteno, A.; Song, J.; Desai, S.; Armstrong, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Ngeow, C.-C.; Barkhouse, W. A.; Allam, S. S.; Andersson, K.; Bazin, G.; Benson, B. A.; Bertin, E.; Brodwin, M.; Buckley-Geer, E. J.; Hansen, S. M.; High, F. W.; Lin, H.; Lin, Y.-T.; Liu, J.; Rest, A.; Smith, R. C.; Stalder, B.; Stark, A. A.; Tucker, D. L.; Yang, Y.

    2011-06-01

    We present first results of an examination of the optical properties of the galaxy populations in Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect (SZE) selected galaxy clusters. Using clusters selected by the South Pole Telescope survey and deep multiband optical data from the Blanco Cosmology Survey, we measure the radial profile, the luminosity function (LF), the blue fraction, and the halo occupation number (HON) of the galaxy populations of these four clusters with redshifts ranging from 0.3 to 1. Our goal is to understand whether there are differences among the galaxy populations of these SZE-selected clusters and previously studied clusters selected in the optical and the X-ray. The radial distributions of galaxies in the four systems are consistent with Navarro-Frenk-White profiles with a galaxy concentration of 3 to 6. We show that the characteristic luminosities in griz bands are consistent with passively evolving populations emerging from a single burst at redshift z = 3. The faint-end power-law slope of the LF is found to be on average α ≈ -1.2 in griz. HONs (to m* + 2) for these systems appear to be consistent with those based on X-ray-selected clusters. The blue fraction estimated to 0.36 L*, for the three lower redshift systems, suggests an increase with redshift, although with the current sample the uncertainties are still large. Overall, this pilot study of the first four clusters provides no evidence that the galaxy populations in these systems differ significantly from those in previously studied cluster populations selected in the X-ray or the optical.

  11. The mass-temperature relation for clusters of galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, J.; Oukbir, J.; van Kampen, E.

    1998-01-01

    A tight mass-temperature relation, M(r)/r proportional to T-x, is expected in most cosmological models if clusters of galaxies are homologous and the intracluster gas is in global equilibrium with the dark matter. We here calibrate this relation using eight clusters with well-defined global...... with wide-held HST imaging could provide a sensitive test of the normalization and intrinsic scatter of the relation, resulting in a powerful and expedient way of measuring masses of clusters of galaxies. In addition, as M(r)/r las derived from lensing) is dependent on the cosmological model at high...

  12. A NuSTAR survey of nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Rigby, Jane R.; Stern, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We present a Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), Chandra, and XMM-Newton survey of nine of the nearest ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). The unprecedented sensitivity of NuSTAR at energies above 10 keV enables spectral modeling with far better precision than was previously......] line luminosity than do Seyfert 1 galaxies. We identify IRAS 08572+3915 as another candidate intrinsically X-ray weak source, similar to Mrk 231. We speculate that the X-ray weakness of IRAS 08572+3915 is related to its powerful outflow observed at other wavelengths....

  13. GREEN PEA GALAXIES AND COHORTS: LUMINOUS COMPACT EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izotov, Yuri I.; Guseva, Natalia G.; Thuan, Trinh X.

    2011-01-01

    We present a large sample of 803 star-forming luminous compact galaxies (LCGs) in the redshift range z = 0.02-0.63, selected from Data Release 7 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The global properties of these galaxies are similar to those of the so-called green pea star-forming galaxies in the redshift range z = 0.112-0.360 and selected from the SDSS on the basis of their green color and compact structure. In contrast to green pea galaxies, our LCGs are selected on the basis of both their spectroscopic and photometric properties, resulting in a ∼10 times larger sample, with galaxies spanning a redshift range ∼>2 times larger. We find that the oxygen abundances and the heavy element abundance ratios in LCGs do not differ from those of nearby low-metallicity blue compact dwarf galaxies. The median stellar mass of LCGs is ∼10 9 M sun . However, for galaxies with high EW(Hβ), ≥ 100 A, it is only ∼7 x 10 8 M sun . The star formation rate in LCGs varies in the large range of 0.7-60 M sun yr -1 , with a median value of ∼4 M sun yr -1 , a factor of ∼3 lower than in high-redshift star-forming galaxies at z ∼> 3. The specific star formation rates in LCGs are extremely high and vary in the range ∼10 -9 -10 -7 yr -1 , comparable to those derived in high-redshift galaxies.

  14. The galaxy ancestor problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, M. J.; Lang, R. H.

    2012-11-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) findsgalaxies whose Tolman dimming exceeds 10 mag. Could evolution alone explain these as our ancestor galaxies or could they be representatives of quite a different dynasty whose descendants are no longer prominent today? We explore the latter hypothesis and argue that surface brightness selection effects naturally bring into focus quite different dynasties from different redshifts. Thus, the HST z = 7 galaxies could be examples of galaxies whose descendants are both too small and too choked with dust to be recognizable in our neighbourhood easily today. Conversely, the ancestors of the Milky Way and its obvious neighbours would have completely sunk below the sky at z > 1.2, unless they were more luminous in the past, although their diffused light could account for the missing re-ionization flux. This Succeeding Prominent Dynasties Hypothesis (SPDH) fits the existing observations both naturally and well even without evolution, including the bizarre distributions of galaxy surface brightness found in deep fields, the angular size ˜(1 + z)-1 law, 'downsizing' which turns out to be an 'illusion' in the sense that it does not imply evolution, 'infant mortality', that is, the discrepancy between stars born and stars seen, the existence of 'red nuggets', and finally the recently discovered and unexpected excess of quasar absorption line damped Lyα systems at high redshift. If galaxies were not significantly brighter in the past and the SPDH were true, then a large proportion of galaxies could remain sunk from sight, possibly at all redshifts, and these sunken galaxies could supply the missing re-ionization flux. We show that fishing these sunken galaxies out of the sky by their optical emissions alone is practically impossible, even when they are nearby. More ingenious methods are needed to detect them. It follows that disentangling galaxy evolution through studying ever higher redshift galaxies may be a forlorn hope because one could

  15. The evolution of early-type galaxies in distant clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanford, S.A.; Eisenhardt, P.R.; Dickinson, M.

    1998-01-01

    We present results from an optical-infrared photometric study of early-type (E+S0) galaxies in 19 galaxy clusters out to z=0.9. The galaxy sample is selected on the basis of morphologies determined from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFPC2 images and is photometrically defined in the K band in order to minimize redshift-dependent selection biases. Using new ground-based photometry in five optical and infrared bands for each cluster, we examine the evolution of the color-magnitude relation for early-type cluster galaxies, considering its slope, intercept, and color scatter around the mean relation. New multiwavelength photometry of galaxies in the Coma Cluster is used to provide a baseline sample at z∼0 with which to compare the distant clusters. The optical - IR colors of the early-type cluster galaxies become bluer with increasing redshift in a manner consistent with the passive evolution of an old stellar population formed at an early cosmic epoch. The degree of color evolution is similar for clusters at similar redshift and does not depend strongly on the optical richness or X-ray luminosity of the cluster, which suggests that the history of early-type galaxies is relatively insensitive to environment, at least above a certain density threshold. The slope of the color-magnitude relationship shows no significant change out to z=0.9, which provides evidence that it arises from a correlation between galaxy mass and metallicity, not age. Finally, the intrinsic scatter in the optical - IR colors of the galaxies is small and nearly constant with redshift, which indicates that the majority of giant, early-type galaxies in clusters share a common star formation history, with little perturbation due to uncorrelated episodes of later star formation. Taken together, our results are consistent with models in which most early-type galaxies in rich clusters are old, formed the majority of their stars at high redshift in a well-synchronized fashion, and evolved quiescently

  16. Galaxies in the First Billion Years After the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Daniel P.

    2016-09-01

    In the past five years, deep imaging campaigns conducted with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based observatories have delivered large samples of galaxies at 6.5space density of luminous galaxies has been shown to decrease by 15-20× over 4Space Telescope demonstrates that z>6 UV-selected galaxies are relatively compact with blue UV continuum slopes, low stellar masses, and large specific star formation rates. In the last year, ALMA (the Atacama Large Millimeter Array) and ground-based infrared spectrographs have begun to complement this picture, revealing minimal dust obscuration and hard radiation fields, and providing evidence for metal-poor ionized gas. Weak low-ionization absorption lines suggest a patchy distribution of neutral gas surrounds O and B stars, possibly aiding in the escape of ionizing radiation. Gamma ray burst afterglows and Lyman-α surveys have provided evidence that the intergalactic medium (IGM) evolves from mostly ionized at z≃6-6.5 ([Formula: see text]) to considerably neutral at z≃7-8 ([Formula: see text]). The reionization history that emerges from considering the UV output of galaxies over 6galaxies can complete reionization by z≃6 and reproduce the Thomson scattering optical depth faced by cosmic microwave background photons if the luminosity function extends ≃4 mag below current surveys and a moderate fraction ([Formula: see text]) of ionizing radiation escapes from galaxies.

  17. Searching for Variability of NV Intrinsic Narrow Absorption Line Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodruck, Michael; Charlton, Jane; Ganguly, Rajib

    2018-01-01

    The majority of quasar absorption line systems with NV detected are found within the associated region (within 5000 km/s of the quasar redshift) and many/most are believed to be related to the quasar accretion disk wind or outflows. The most definite evidence that these NV absorbers are "intrinsic" is partial covering of the quasar continuum source and/or broad line region. Over 75 quasars containing NV narrow absorption lines have observations obtained at different times with the Keck/HIRES and the VLT/UVES spectrographs at high resolution. The interval between these observations range from months to a decade in the quasar rest frame. While variability is common for intrinsic broad and mini-broad absorption lines, intrinsic narrow absorption lines have been found to be less likely to vary, though systematic studies with large, high quality datasets have been limited. The variability timescales are useful for deriving gas densities and thus the distances from the central engines. This is important in mapping the quasar surroundings, understanding the accretion disk wind mechanism, and assessing the effect the wind has on the galaxy surroundings. We report on the results of a systematic study of variability of NV NALs, exploiting the overlap of targets for observations in the archives of Keck and VLT, and discuss the consequences for interpretation of the origin of intrinsic narrow absorption lines.

  18. SDSS-IV MaNGA: Stellar angular momentum of about 2300 galaxies: unveiling the bimodality of massive galaxy properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Mark T.; Cappellari, Michele; Li, Hongyu; Mao, Shude; Bershady, Matthew; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brinkmann, Jonathan; Brownstein, Joel R.; Bundy, Kevin; Drory, Niv; Law, David R.; Pan, Kaike; Thomas, Daniel; Wake, David A.; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Westfall, Kyle B.; Yan, Renbin

    2018-03-01

    We measure λ _{R_e}, a proxy for galaxy specific stellar angular momentum within one effective radius, and the ellipticity, ɛ, for about 2300 galaxies of all morphological types observed with integral field spectroscopy as part of the MaNGA survey, the largest such sample to date. We use the (λ _{R_e}, ɛ ) diagram to separate early-type galaxies into fast and slow rotators. We also visually classify each galaxy according to its optical morphology and two-dimensional stellar velocity field. Comparing these classifications to quantitative λ _{R_e} measurements reveals tight relationships between angular momentum and galaxy structure. In order to account for atmospheric seeing, we use realistic models of galaxy kinematics to derive a general approximate analytic correction for λ _{R_e}. Thanks to the size of the sample and the large number of massive galaxies, we unambiguously detect a clear bimodality in the (λ _{R_e}, ɛ ) diagram which may result from fundamental differences in galaxy assembly history. There is a sharp secondary density peak inside the region of the diagram with low λ _{R_e} and ɛ definition for slow rotators. Most of these galaxies are visually classified as non-regular rotators and have high velocity dispersion. The intrinsic bimodality must be stronger, as it tends to be smoothed by noise and inclination. The large sample of slow rotators allows us for the first time to unveil a secondary peak at ±90○ in their distribution of the misalignments between the photometric and kinematic position angles. We confirm that genuine slow rotators start appearing above M ≥ 2 × 1011M⊙ where a significant number of high-mass fast rotators also exist.

  19. Natural Blue Food Colour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roda-Serrat, Maria Cinta

    In recent years, there has been a growing tendency to avoid the use of artificial colorants and additives in food products, especially after some studies linked their consumption with behavioural changes in children. However, the incorporation of colorants from natural origin remains a challenge...... for food technologists, as these are typically less vivid and less stable than their synthetic alternatives. Regarding blue colorants, phycocyanins from cyanobacteria are currently in the spotlight as promising new natural blue colorants. Phycocyanins are proteins which blue colour results from...... the presence of the chromophore phycocyanobilin (PCB), a covalently attached linear tetrapyrrole. The applications of phycocyanins as food colorants are however limited, as they show poor stability in certain conditions of pH, light and temperature. Cleavage of PCB from the protein followed by careful product...

  20. Are spiral galaxies heavy smokers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.; Disney, M.; Phillipps, S

    1990-01-01

    The dustiness of spiral galaxies is discussed. Starburst galaxies and the shortage of truly bright spiral galaxies is cited as evidence that spiral galaxies are far dustier than has been thought. The possibility is considered that the dust may be hiding missing mass

  1. Bursts of star formation in computer simulations of dwarf galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comins, N.F.

    1984-01-01

    A three-dimensional Stochastic Self-Propagating Star Formation (SSPSF) model of compact galacies is presented. Two phases of gas, active and inactive, are present, and permanent depletion of gas in the form of long lived, low mass stars and remnants occurs. Similarly, global infall of gas from a galactic halo or through galactic cannibalism is permitted. We base our parameters on the observed properties of the compact blue galaxy I Zw 36. Our results are that bursts of star formation occur much more frequently in these runs than continuous nonbursting star formation, suggesting that the blue compact galaxies are probably undergoing bursts rather than continuous, nonbursting low-level star formation activity

  2. The Influence of Galaxy Environment on the Stellar Initial Mass Function of Early-Type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosani, Giulio; Pasquali, Anna; La Barbera, Francesco; Ferreras, Ignacio; Vazdekis, Alexandre

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we investigate whether the stellar initial mass function of early-type galaxies depends on their host environment. To this purpose, we have selected a sample of early-type galaxies from the SPIDER catalogue, characterized their environment through the group catalogue of Wang et al. and used their optical SDSS spectra to constrain the IMF slope, through the analysis of IMF-sensitive spectral indices. To reach a high enough signal-to-noise ratio, we have stacked spectra in velocity dispersion (σ0) bins, on top of separating the sample by galaxy hierarchy and host halo mass, as proxies for galaxy environment. In order to constrain the IMF, we have compared observed line strengths to predictions of MIUSCAT/EMILES synthetic stellar population models, with varying age, metallicity, and "bimodal" (low-mass tapered) IMF slope (Γ _b). Consistent with previous studies, we find that Γ _b increases with σ0, becoming bottom-heavy (i.e. an excess of low-mass stars with respect to the Milky-Way-like IMF) at high σ0. We find that this result is robust against the set of isochrones used in the stellar population models, as well as the way the effect of elemental abundance ratios is taken into account. We thus conclude that it is possible to use currently state-of-the-art stellar population models and intermediate resolution spectra to consistently probe IMF variations. For the first time, we show that there is no dependence of Γb on environment or galaxy hierarchy, as measured within the 3″ SDSS fibre, thus leaving the IMF as an intrinsic galaxy property, possibly set already at high redshift.

  3. A Blue Lagoon Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    2007-01-01

    We consider a specific function of two variables whose graph surface resembles a blue lagoon. The function has a saddle point $p$, but when the function is restricted to any given straight line through $p$ it has a {\\em{strict local minimum}} along that line at $p$.......We consider a specific function of two variables whose graph surface resembles a blue lagoon. The function has a saddle point $p$, but when the function is restricted to any given straight line through $p$ it has a {\\em{strict local minimum}} along that line at $p$....

  4. Dwarf galaxies : Important clues to galaxy formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolstoy, E

    2003-01-01

    The smallest dwarf galaxies are the most straight forward objects in which to study star formation processes on a galactic scale. They are typically single cell star forming entities, and as small potentials in orbit around a much larger one they are unlikely to accrete much (if any) extraneous

  5. Accretion by the Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binney J.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cosmology requires at least half of the baryons in the Universe to be in the intergalactic medium, much of which is believed to form hot coronae around galaxies. Star-forming galaxies must be accreting from their coronae. Hi observations of external galaxies show that they have Hi halos associated with star formation. These halos are naturally modelled as ensembles of clouds driven up by supernova bubbles. These models can fit the data successfully only if clouds exchange mass and momentum with the corona. As a cloud orbits, it is ablated and forms a turbulent wake where cold high-metallicity gas mixes with hot coronal gas causing the prompt cooling of the latter. As a consequence the total mass of Hi increases. This model has recently been used to model the Leiden-Argentina-Bonn survey of Galactic Hi. The values of the model’s parameters that are required to model NGC 891, NGC 2403 and our Galaxy show a remarkable degree of consistency, despite the very different natures of the two external galaxies and the dramatic difference in the nature of the data for our Galaxy and the external galaxies. The parameter values are also consistent with hydrodynamical simulations of the ablation of individual clouds. The model predicts that a galaxy that loses its cool-gas disc for instance through a major merger cannot reform it from its corona; it can return to steady star formation only if it can capture a large body of cool gas, for example by accreting a gas-rich dwarf. Thus the model explains how major mergers can make galaxies “red and dead.”

  6. Intrinsically Passive Handling and Grasping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stramigioli, Stefano; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.; Khodabandehloo, Koorosh

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents a control philosophy called Intrinsically Passive Control, which has the feature to properly behave during interaction with any passive objects. The controlled robot will never become unstable due to the physical structure of the controller.

  7. Modelling chemical abundance distributions for dwarf galaxies in the Local Group: the impact of turbulent metal diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escala, Ivanna; Wetzel, Andrew; Kirby, Evan N.; Hopkins, Philip F.; Ma, Xiangcheng; Wheeler, Coral; Kereš, Dušan; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Quataert, Eliot

    2018-02-01

    We investigate stellar metallicity distribution functions (MDFs), including Fe and α-element abundances, in dwarf galaxies from the Feedback in Realistic Environment (FIRE) project. We examine both isolated dwarf galaxies and those that are satellites of a Milky Way-mass galaxy. In particular, we study the effects of including a sub-grid turbulent model for the diffusion of metals in gas. Simulations that include diffusion have narrower MDFs and abundance ratio distributions, because diffusion drives individual gas and star particles towards the average metallicity. This effect provides significantly better agreement with observed abundance distributions in dwarf galaxies in the Local Group, including small intrinsic scatter in [α/Fe] versus [Fe/H] of ≲0.1 dex. This small intrinsic scatter arises in our simulations because the interstellar medium in dwarf galaxies is well mixed at nearly all cosmic times, such that stars that form at a given time have similar abundances to ≲0.1 dex. Thus, most of the scatter in abundances at z = 0 arises from redshift evolution and not from instantaneous scatter in the ISM. We find similar MDF widths and intrinsic scatter for satellite and isolated dwarf galaxies, which suggests that environmental effects play a minor role compared with internal chemical evolution in our simulations. Overall, with the inclusion of metal diffusion, our simulations reproduce abundance distribution widths of observed low-mass galaxies, enabling detailed studies of chemical evolution in galaxy formation.

  8. Galaxy Evolution Insights from Spectral Modeling of Large Data Sets from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoversten, Erik A. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2007-10-01

    This thesis centers on the use of spectral modeling techniques on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to gain new insights into current questions in galaxy evolution. The SDSS provides a large, uniform, high quality data set which can be exploited in a number of ways. One avenue pursued here is to use the large sample size to measure precisely the mean properties of galaxies of increasingly narrow parameter ranges. The other route taken is to look for rare objects which open up for exploration new areas in galaxy parameter space. The crux of this thesis is revisiting the classical Kennicutt method for inferring the stellar initial mass function (IMF) from the integrated light properties of galaxies. A large data set (~ 105 galaxies) from the SDSS DR4 is combined with more in-depth modeling and quantitative statistical analysis to search for systematic IMF variations as a function of galaxy luminosity. Galaxy Hα equivalent widths are compared to a broadband color index to constrain the IMF. It is found that for the sample as a whole the best fitting IMF power law slope above 0.5 M is Γ = 1.5 ± 0.1 with the error dominated by systematics. Galaxies brighter than around Mr,0.1 = -20 (including galaxies like the Milky Way which has Mr,0.1 ~ -21) are well fit by a universal Γ ~ 1.4 IMF, similar to the classical Salpeter slope, and smooth, exponential star formation histories (SFH). Fainter galaxies prefer steeper IMFs and the quality of the fits reveal that for these galaxies a universal IMF with smooth SFHs is actually a poor assumption. Related projects are also pursued. A targeted photometric search is conducted for strongly lensed Lyman break galaxies (LBG) similar to MS1512-cB58. The evolution of the photometric selection technique is described as are the results of spectroscopic follow-up of the best targets. The serendipitous discovery of two interesting blue compact dwarf galaxies is reported. These

  9. CLASH: EXTREME EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES AND THEIR IMPLICATION ON SELECTION OF HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xingxing; Wang, Junxian; Shu, Xinwen; Zheng, Wei; Ford, Holland; Lemze, Doron; Moustakas, John; Van der Wel, Arjen; Zitrin, Adi; Frye, Brenda L.; Postman, Marc; Bradley, Larry; Coe, Dan; Bartelmann, Matthias; Benítez, Narciso; Broadhurst, Tom; Donahue, Megan; Infante, Leopoldo

    2015-01-01

    We utilize the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble observations of 25 clusters to search for extreme emission-line galaxies (EELGs). The selections are carried out in two central bands: F105W (Y 105 ) and F125W (J 125 ), as the flux of the central bands could be enhanced by the presence of [O III] λλ4959, 5007 at redshifts of ∼0.93-1.14 and 1.57-1.79, respectively. The multiband observations help to constrain the equivalent widths (EWs) of emission lines. Thanks to cluster lensing, we are able to identify 52 candidates down to an intrinsic limiting magnitude of 28.5 and to a rest-frame [O III] λλ4959, 5007 EW of ≅ 3700 Å. Our samples include a number of EELGs at lower luminosities that are missed in other surveys, and the extremely high EW can only be found in such faint galaxies. These EELGs can mimic a dropout feature similar to that of high-redshift galaxies and contaminate the color-color selection of high-redshift galaxies when the signal-to-noise ratio is limited or the band coverage is incomplete

  10. CLASH: EXTREME EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES AND THEIR IMPLICATION ON SELECTION OF HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xingxing; Wang, Junxian; Shu, Xinwen [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zheng, Wei; Ford, Holland; Lemze, Doron [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Moustakas, John [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Siena College, 515 Loudon Road, Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States); Van der Wel, Arjen [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Zitrin, Adi [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Frye, Brenda L. [Steward Observatory/Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Postman, Marc; Bradley, Larry; Coe, Dan [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21208 (United States); Bartelmann, Matthias [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P. O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Benítez, Narciso [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), C/Camino Bajo de Huétor 24, Granada E-18008 (Spain); Broadhurst, Tom [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Basque Country UPV/EHU E-Bilbao (Spain); Donahue, Megan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Infante, Leopoldo, E-mail: hxx@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Departamento de Astronoía y Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, V. Mackenna 4860 Santiago 22 (Chile); and others

    2015-03-01

    We utilize the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble observations of 25 clusters to search for extreme emission-line galaxies (EELGs). The selections are carried out in two central bands: F105W (Y {sub 105}) and F125W (J {sub 125}), as the flux of the central bands could be enhanced by the presence of [O III] λλ4959, 5007 at redshifts of ∼0.93-1.14 and 1.57-1.79, respectively. The multiband observations help to constrain the equivalent widths (EWs) of emission lines. Thanks to cluster lensing, we are able to identify 52 candidates down to an intrinsic limiting magnitude of 28.5 and to a rest-frame [O III] λλ4959, 5007 EW of ≅ 3700 Å. Our samples include a number of EELGs at lower luminosities that are missed in other surveys, and the extremely high EW can only be found in such faint galaxies. These EELGs can mimic a dropout feature similar to that of high-redshift galaxies and contaminate the color-color selection of high-redshift galaxies when the signal-to-noise ratio is limited or the band coverage is incomplete.

  11. Distribution Of Maximal Luminosity Of Galaxies In The Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Regós, E; Rácz, Z; Taghizadeh, M; Ozogany, K

    2010-01-01

    Extreme value statistics (EVS) is applied to the pixelized distribution of galaxy luminosities in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We analyze the DR6 Main Galaxy Sample (MGS), divided into red and blue subsamples, as well as the Luminous Red Galaxy Sample (LRGS). A non-parametric comparison of the EVS of the luminosities with the Fisher-Tippett-Gumbel distribution (limit distribution for independent variables distributed by the Press-Schechter law) indicates a good agreement provided uncertainties arising both from the finite size of the samples and from the sample size distribution are accounted for.

  12. ISO far-infrared observations of rich galaxy clusters I. Abell 2670

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lene; Jorgensen, H.E.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik

    1999-01-01

    As part of an investigation of far-infrared emission from rich galaxy clusters the central part of Abell 2670 has been mapped with ISO at 60 mu m, 100 mu m, 135 mu m, and 200 mu m using the PHT-C camera. Point sources detected in the field have infrared fluxes comparable to normal spirals...... at the cluster distance. Probable optical counterparts are cluster galaxies with various characteristics such as blue colour, Ha emission, or double nuclei. One source is extended which could possibly be emission from intracluster dust in debris from spiral galaxies....

  13. The "Blue Banana" Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faludi, A.K.F.

    2015-01-01

    This essay is about the “Blue Banana”. Banana is the name given subsequently by others to a Dorsale européenne (European backbone) identified empirically by Roger Brunet. In a background study to the Communication of the European Commission ‘Europe 2000’, Klaus Kunzmann and Michael Wegener put

  14. The Blue Baby Syndrome

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 10. The Blue Baby Syndrome - Nitrate Poisoning in Humans. Deepanjan Majumdar. General Article Volume 8 Issue 10 October 2003 pp 20-30. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  15. Growing Galaxies Gently

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    New observations from ESO's Very Large Telescope have, for the first time, provided direct evidence that young galaxies can grow by sucking in the cool gas around them and using it as fuel for the formation of many new stars. In the first few billion years after the Big Bang the mass of a typical galaxy increased dramatically and understanding why this happened is one of the hottest problems in modern astrophysics. The results appear in the 14 October issue of the journal Nature. The first galaxies formed well before the Universe was one billion years old and were much smaller than the giant systems - including the Milky Way - that we see today. So somehow the average galaxy size has increased as the Universe has evolved. Galaxies often collide and then merge to form larger systems and this process is certainly an important growth mechanism. However, an additional, gentler way has been proposed. A European team of astronomers has used ESO's Very Large Telescope to test this very different idea - that young galaxies can also grow by sucking in cool streams of the hydrogen and helium gas that filled the early Universe and forming new stars from this primitive material. Just as a commercial company can expand either by merging with other companies, or by hiring more staff, young galaxies could perhaps also grow in two different ways - by merging with other galaxies or by accreting material. The team leader, Giovanni Cresci (Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri) says: "The new results from the VLT are the first direct evidence that the accretion of pristine gas really happened and was enough to fuel vigorous star formation and the growth of massive galaxies in the young Universe." The discovery will have a major impact on our understanding of the evolution of the Universe from the Big Bang to the present day. Theories of galaxy formation and evolution may have to be re-written. The group began by selecting three very distant galaxies to see if they could find evidence

  16. Spectroscopy of dwarf elliptical galaxies in the Fornax cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Enrico V.; Mould, Jeremy R.

    1994-01-01

    We present the results of spectroscopic observations of 10 nucleated dwarf elliptical galaxies (dE's) in the Fornax cluster. The blue spectra of Fornax dE galaxies indicate a wide range of metallicities at a given luminosity, similar to those of intermediate to metal-rich globular clusters. Metal abundances derived in this paper are well correlated with optical colors and agree with previous spectroscopic results. A discrepancy with metallicities inferred from infrared colors is evident; possible causes include an intermediate age population and dilution of spectral features by a blue light excess. Dwarf ellipticals exhibit a wide variation of hydrogen line strength which points to a complex star formation history. Prominent Balmer absorption lines are the signature of a young stellar population in the nuclei of some (but not all) dE's, while moderately strong Balmer lines in relatively metal-rich dE's are more consistent with an extended main sequence. In a few metal-poor dE galaxies, the hydrogen lines are consisent with, or perhaps weaker than, those found in Galactic globulars of similar metallicity. In the limited magnitude range of this sample, there is no apparent correlation of metallicity either with effective and central surface brightness, or with total and nuclear magnitudes. The velocity distribution of the Fornax dwarfs is flatter than that of brighter galaxies at the 75% confidence level, possibly indicating a difference in the kinematics of the two samples.

  17. Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin Lecture: Galaxy Evolution over the Latter Half of Cosmic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Sandra

    2004-05-01

    Several experiments are now gathering data in statistically valid numbers for intermediate-redshift galaxies out to z = 1 for the first time. The speaker will review results from DEEP2 and other surveys to sketch the current picture of the final stages of galaxy evolution. Galaxies are found to be divided into red and blue classes (ellipticals and spirals) as early as z = 1.2, but strong evolution seems to be occurring within each class. Morphologies of spiral-type precursors are highly irregular at z = 1, and the zero point and possibly the slope of the TF relation have changed. The total stellar mass in E/S0s has roughly doubled since that epoch. The processes whereby these events are occurring are not understood, and toy models for galaxy evolution do not fit the data. The key to understanding the Hubble sequence apparently lies in the properties of these galaxies at intermediate redshifts.

  18. Clustering of galaxies near damped Lyman-alpha systems with (z) = 2.6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, A. M

    1993-01-01

    The galaxy two-point correlation function, xi, at (z) = 2.6 is determined by comparing the number of Ly-alpha-emitting galaxies in narrowband CCD fields selected for the presence of damped L-alpha absorption to their number in randomly selected control fields. Comparisons between the presented determination of (xi), a density-weighted volume average of xi, and model predictions for (xi) at large redshifts show that models in which the clustering pattern is fixed in proper coordinates are highly unlikely, while better agreement is obtained if the clustering pattern is fixed in comoving coordinates. Therefore, clustering of Ly-alpha-emitting galaxies around damped Ly-alpha systems at large redshifts is strong. It is concluded that the faint blue galaxies are drawn from a parent population different from normal galaxies, the presumed offspring of damped Ly-alpha systems.

  19. DETERMINING THE LARGE-SCALE ENVIRONMENTAL DEPENDENCE OF GAS-PHASE METALLICITY IN DWARF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglass, Kelly A.; Vogeley, Michael S., E-mail: kelly.a.douglass@drexel.edu [Department of Physics, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2017-01-10

    We study how the cosmic environment affects galaxy evolution in the universe by comparing the metallicities of dwarf galaxies in voids with dwarf galaxies in more dense regions. Ratios of the fluxes of emission lines, particularly those of the forbidden [O iii] and [S ii] transitions, provide estimates of a region’s electron temperature and number density. From these two quantities and the emission line fluxes [O ii] λ 3727, [O iii] λ 4363, and [O iii] λλ 4959, 5007, we estimate the abundance of oxygen with the direct T{sub e}  method. We estimate the metallicity of 42 blue, star-forming void dwarf galaxies and 89 blue, star-forming dwarf galaxies in more dense regions using spectroscopic observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, as reprocessed in the MPA-JHU value-added catalog. We find very little difference between the two sets of galaxies, indicating little influence from the large-scale environment on their chemical evolution. Of particular interest are a number of extremely metal-poor dwarf galaxies that are less prevalent in voids than in the denser regions.

  20. The Geometry and Origin of Ultra-diffuse Ghost Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkert, A.

    2017-04-01

    The geometry and intrinsic ellipticity distribution of ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDG) is determined from the line-of-sight distribution of axial ratios q of a large sample of UDGs, detected by Koda et al. in the Coma cluster. With high significance, the data rules out an oblate, disk-like geometry, characterized by major axes a = b > c. The data is, however, in good agreement with prolate shapes, corresponding to a = b cigar- or bar-like structures, similar to the prolate dwarf spheroidal galaxy population of the Local Group. The intrinsic distribution of axial ratios of the Coma UDGs is flat in the range of 0.4 ≤ a/c ≤ 0.9 with a mean value of =0.65+/- 0.14. This might provide important constraints for theoretical models of their origin. Formation scenarios that could explain the extended prolate nature of UDGs are discussed.

  1. A Catalog of Edge-on Disk Galaxies: From Galaxies with a Bulge to Superthin Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Kautsch, S. J.; Grebel, E. K.; Barazza, F. D.; Gallagher, J. S.

    2005-01-01

    The formation and evolution of disk-dominated galaxies is difficult to explain, yet these objects exist. We therefore embarked on a study aimed at a better understanding of these enigmatic objects. We used data from the SDSS DR1 in order to identify edge-on galaxies with disks in a uniform, reproducible, automated fashion. We identified 3169 edge-on disk galaxies, which we subdivided into disk galaxies with bulge, intermediate types, and simple disk galaxies without any obvious bulge componen...

  2. The Ultraviolet and Infrared Star Formation Rates of Compact Group Galaxies: An Expanded Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenkic, Laura; Tzanavaris, Panayiotis; Gallagher, Sarah C.; Desjardins, Tyler D.; Walker, Lisa May; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Fedotov, Konstantin; Charlton, Jane; Cardiff, Ann H.; Durell, Pat R.

    2016-01-01

    Compact groups of galaxies provide insight into the role of low-mass, dense environments in galaxy evolution because the low velocity dispersions and close proximity of galaxy members result in frequent interactions that take place over extended time-scales. We expand the census of star formation in compact group galaxies by Tzanavaris et al. (2010) and collaborators with Swift UVOT, Spitzer IRAC and MIPS 24 m photometry of a sample of 183 galaxies in 46 compact groups. After correcting luminosities for the contribution from old stellar populations, we estimate the dust-unobscured star formation rate (SFRUV) using the UVOT uvw2 photometry. Similarly, we use the MIPS 24 m photometry to estimate the component of the SFR that is obscured by dust (SFRIR). We find that galaxies which are MIR-active (MIR-red), also have bluer UV colours, higher specific SFRs, and tend to lie in Hi-rich groups, while galaxies that are MIR-inactive (MIR-blue) have redder UV colours, lower specific SFRs, and tend to lie in Hi-poor groups. We find the SFRs to be continuously distributed with a peak at about 1 M yr1, indicating this might be the most common value in compact groups. In contrast, the specific SFR distribution is bimodal, and there is a clear distinction between star-forming and quiescent galaxies. Overall, our results suggest that the specific SFR is the best tracer of gas depletion and galaxy evolution in compact groups.

  3. Too Fast, Too Furious: A Galaxy's Fatal Plunge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    the galaxy looks unusually clumpy with many young star clusters and chaotic dust features. Besides the disrupted features in the galaxy's disk, HST also showed that the light in the tail is mostly attributed to recent star formation, providing a direct link to the stripping of the galaxy as it passed through the cluster core. Gas compressed along the galaxy's leading edge, like snow before a plow, ignited a firestorm of new star birth. Evidence of recent star formation also comes from the optical spectrum obtained at the 10-meter Gemini North telescope in Hawaii. The spectrum allows the researchers to estimate the time since the most recent burst of star formation. This conclusion was further bolstered when the Mosaic camera on Kitt Peak's Mayall telescope found a very long tail of extended gas coming off the galaxy. The tail was apparently generated in part by a hurricane of stellar winds boiling off the new star-birth regions and being blown backwards as the galaxy streaks through the surrounding hot gas of the cluster. Spectroscopic observations with the Gemini telescope allowed astronomers to age-date the starburst. They find that 90 percent of C153's blue light is from a population of stars that are 100 million years old. This age corresponds to the time the galaxy should have gone careening through the densest gas in the cluster core. The Gemini spectroscopic observations show the stars are in a regular pattern of orbital motion around the center, as usual for disk galaxies. However, there are multiple widespread clouds of gas moving independently of the stars. "This is an important clue that something beyond gravitational forces must be at work, since stars and gas respond the same way to purely gravitational forces," says Keel. "In other words, the galaxy's gas doesn't know what the stars are doing." NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory discovered that the cooler clouds detected with optical telescopes and an associated radio feature are embedded in a much larger

  4. Cosmology and galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.J.T.; Gonzalez, E.M.

    1985-05-01

    The aim of the present series of lectures is to be unashamedly pedagogical and present, in simple terms, an overview of our current thinking about our universe and the way in which we believe galaxies have formed. (orig./WL)

  5. Evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroczkin, D.

    1973-01-01

    The theory of Truran and Cameron concerning the chemical evolution of the Galaxy is described, as well as the photometric properties obtained from the galactic models calculations. Also few observational facts are given. (author)

  6. The global warming of group satellite galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yozin, C.; Bekki, K.

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies adopting λRe, a proxy for specific angular momentum, have highlighted how early-type galaxies (ETGs) are composed of two kinematical classes for which distinct formation mechanisms can be inferred. With upcoming surveys expected to obtain λRe from a broad range of environments (e.g. SAMI, MaNGA), we investigate in this numerical study how the λRe-ɛe distribution of fast-rotating dwarf satellite galaxies reflects their evolutionary state. By combining N-body/SPH simulations of progenitor disc galaxies (stellar mass ≃109 M⊙), their cosmologically-motivated sub-halo infall history and a characteristic group orbit/potential, we demonstrate the evolution of a satellite ETG population driven by tidal interactions (e.g. harassment). As a general result, these satellites remain intrinsically fast-rotating oblate stellar systems since their infall as early as z = 2; mis-identifications as slow rotators often arise due to a bar/spiral lifecycle which plays an integral role in their evolution. Despite the idealistic nature of its construction, our mock λRe-ɛe distribution at z < 0.1 reproduces its observational counterpart from the ATLAS3D/SAURON projects. We predict therefore how the observed λRe-ɛe distribution of a group evolves according to these ensemble tidal interactions.

  7. Automated galaxy surface photometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawson, M.G.M.; Kibblewhite, E.J.; Disney, M.J.; Phillipps, S.

    1987-01-01

    Two-dimensional surface photometry of a very large number of galaxies on a deep Schmidt plate has been obtained using the Automatic Plate Measuring System (APM). A method of photometric calibration, suitable for APM measurements, via pixel-by-pixel comparison with CCD frames of a number of the brighter galaxies is described and its advantages are discussed. The same method is used to demonstrate the consistency of measurement of the APM machine when used for surface photometry. (author)

  8. Hubble's Menagerie of Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    and barred spirals, in a se- quence of gradually loos- ening of spiral arms and diminishing brightness of the central bulge. one cannot infer its true shape. A galaxy m ay look °at- tened by a di®erent degree if view ed from a di®erent d irectio n . Spiral galaxies are m arked by spiral `arm s' around a bright,nuclear region,often ...

  9. A GALAXY BLAZES WITH STAR FORMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Most galaxies form new stars at a fairly slow rate, but members of a rare class known as 'starburst' galaxies blaze with extremely active star formation. Scientists using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope are perfecting a technique to determine the history of starburst activity in galaxies by using the colors of star clusters. Measuring the clusters' colors yields information about stellar temperatures. Since young stars are blue, and older stars redder, the colors can be related to the ages, somewhat similar to counting the rings in a fallen tree trunk in order to determine the tree's age. The galaxy NGC 3310 is forming clusters of new stars at a prodigious rate. Astronomer Gerhardt Meurer of The Johns Hopkins University leads a team of collaborators who are studying several starburst galaxies, including NGC 3310, which is showcased in this month's Hubble Heritage image. There are several hundred star clusters in NGC 3310, visible in the Heritage image as the bright blue diffuse objects that trace the galaxy's spiral arms. Each of these star clusters represents the formation of up to about a million stars, a process that takes less than 100,000 years. In addition, hundreds of individual young, luminous stars can be seen throughout the galaxy. Once formed, the star clusters become redder with age as the most massive and bluest stars exhaust their fuel and burn out. Measurements in this image of the wide range of cluster colors show that they have ages ranging from about one million up to more than one hundred million years. This suggests that the starburst 'turned on' over 100 million years ago. It may have been triggered when a companion galaxy collided with NGC 3310. These observations may change astronomers' view of starbursts. Starbursts were once thought to be brief episodes, resulting from catastrophic events like a galactic collision. However, the wide range of cluster ages in NGC 3310 suggests that the starbursting can continue for an extended interval, once

  10. Evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palous, J.

    1987-01-01

    The proceedings contain 87 papers divided into 8 chapters. The chapter Bipolar outflows and star formations contains papers on optical and infrared observations of young bipolar outflow objects and the theory thereof, and on observations of cometary nebulae. The chapter Masers and early stellar evolution discusses molecular masers and star forming regions. The following chapter contains papers on initial mass function and star formation rates in galaxies. The chapter Clusters and star formation contains data on OB associations and open star clusters, their development and observations, CO and H 2 in our galaxy, the four vector model of radio emission and an atlas of the wavelength dependence of ultraviolet extinction in the Galaxy. The most voluminous is the chapter Evolution of galaxies. It contains papers on the theories of the physical and chemodynamic development of galaxies of different types, rotation research and rotation velocities of galaxies and their arms, and on mathematical and laboratory models of morphological development. Chapter seven contains papers dealing with active extragalactic objects, quasars and active galactic nuclei. The last chapter discusses cosmological models, the theory of the inflationary universe, and presents an interpretation of the central void and X-ray background. (M.D.). 299 figs., 48 tabs., 1651 refs

  11. The Stellar Kinematics of E+A Galaxies in SDSS IV-MaNGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Amalya; Dudley, Raymond; Edwards, Kay; Gonzalez, Andrea; Kerrison, Nicole; Marinelli, Mariarosa; Melchert, Nancy; Ojanen, Winonah; Liu, Charles; SDSS-IV MaNGA

    2018-01-01

    E+A galaxies, hypothesized to be “transition” galaxies between the blue cloud and the red sequence, are valuable sources for studying the evolution of galaxies. Using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey, a large scale integral field spectroscopic survey of nearby galaxies from 3600 to 10300 Å, we identifed galaxies that exhibitted E+A characteristics within their optical spectra. We analyzed the 2,812 galaxies thus far observed by MaNGA to identify those that showed evidence of a starburst about 1 billion years ago, followed by cessation of star formation and quenching of the galaxy. Through this process we identifed 39 E+A galaxies by directly looking at the optical spectra and ensuring they exhibited the necessary properties of an E+A spectra, including a strong break at the 4000 Å mark, little to no Hα emission and absorption through the Balmer series, and a blue slope of the continuum past ~5000 Å as the flux decreases. We analyzed the stellar kinematics of these galaxies to determine whether or not they were fast or slow rotators, a proposed indicator of a major merger in their recent past. Using Voronoi binned graphs from the MaNGA Marvin database, we measured their stellar rotation curves in order to more clearly show the range of velocities within the galaxies. Among our 39 E+A candidates, all but two exhibited significant, orderly rotation across the galaxy, and 29 out of 39 of our galaxies show rotation faster than 30 km/s. With the caveat that our selection process was biased toward galaxies with orderly rotation, this prevalence of rotation challenges the belief that all E+A galaxies are created from major mergers. This work was supported by grants AST-1460860 from the National Science Foundation and SDSS FAST/SSP-483 from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation to the CUNY College of Staten Island.

  12. Comparing Low-Redshift Compact Dwarf Starbursts in the RESOLVE Survey with High-Redshift Blue Nuggets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Michael Louis; Kannappan, Sheila; Snyder, Elaine; Eckert, Kathleen; Norman, Dara; Fraga, Luciano; Quint, Bruno; Amram, Philippe; Mendes de Oliveira, Claudia; RESOLVE Team

    2018-01-01

    We identify and characterize a population of compact dwarf starburst galaxies in the RESOLVE survey, a volume-limited census of galaxies in the local universe, to probe the possibility that these galaxies are related to “blue nuggets,” a class of intensely star-forming and compact galaxies previously identified at high redshift. Blue nuggets are thought to form as the result of intense compaction events that drive fresh gas to their centers. They are expected to display prolate morphology and rotation along their minor axes. We report IFU observations of three of our compact dwarf starburst galaxies, from which we construct high-resolution velocity fields, examining the evidence for minor axis or otherwise misaligned rotation. We find multiple cases of double nuclei in our sample, which may be indicative of a merger origin as in some blue nugget formation scenarios. We compare the masses, radii, gas-to-stellar mass ratios, star formation rates, stellar surface mass densities, and environmental contexts of our sample to expectations for blue nuggets.

  13. Galaxy Clustering and Merging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Z. L.

    2011-09-01

    Cosmic structure formation and galaxy evolution are important subjects in astrophysics. The thesis consists of two parts: (1) identification of galaxy clusters and studies of their properties; (2) identification of the mergers of luminous early-type galaxies and gravitational waves (GWs). Most of the galaxy clusters in the previous catalogs have redshifts z≤0.3 with richnesses not well determined. Using the photometric redshifts of galaxies from the Sixth Data Release of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS DR6), we identify 39716 clusters in the redshift range of 0.05contamination rate and the completeness of member galaxies are found to be ˜20% and ∼90%, respectively. Monte Carlo simulations show that the cluster detection rate is larger than 90% for the massive (M_{200}>2×10^{14} M_{⊙}) clusters with z≤0.42. The false detection rate is ˜5%. We obtain the richness, the summed luminosity and the gross galaxy number. They are tightly correlated with the X-ray luminosity and the temperature of clusters. The cluster mass is also found to be tightly related to the richness and summed luminosity in the form of M_{200}∝ R^{1.90±0.04} and M_{200}∝ L_r^{1.64±0.03}, respectively. In addition, 790 new candidates of X-ray clusters are found by cross-identification of our clusters with the unidentified source list of the ROSAT X-ray survey. By visual inspections of the detected clusters, we recognize 13 gravitational lensing candidates. Among all the candidates, four can be sure strong lensing systems even without further spectroscopic identification, five are more probable and four are possible lenses. In the second part, we discuss the merger rates of luminous early-type galaxies and GWs from the mergers of supermassive black holes (SMBHs). The merger rates of massive galaxies in the local universe are still not clear so far. We select a large sample (1209) of close pairs of galaxies with projected separations 7 kpc

  14. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF PASSIVE AND STAR-FORMING EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES: AN INFRARED COLOR-COLOR SEQUENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temi, Pasquale; Brighenti, Fabrizio; Mathews, William G.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the infrared properties of a large sample of early-type galaxies, comparing data from the Spitzer archive with Ks-band emission from the Two Micron All Sky Survey. While most representations of this data result in correlations with large scatter, we find a remarkably tight relation among colors formed by ratios of luminosities in Spitzer-Multiband Imaging Photometer bands (24, 70, and 160 μm) and the Ks band. Remarkably, this correlation among E and S0 galaxies follows that of nearby normal galaxies of all morphological types. In particular, the tight infrared color-color correlation for S0 galaxies alone follows that of the entire Hubble sequence of normal galaxies, roughly in order of galaxy type from ellipticals to spirals to irregulars. The specific star formation rate (SFR) of S0 galaxies estimated from the 24 μm luminosity increases with decreasing K-band luminosity (or stellar mass) from essentially zero, as with most massive ellipticals, to rates typical of irregular galaxies. Moreover, the luminosities of the many infrared-luminous S0 galaxies can significantly exceed those of the most luminous (presumably post-merger) E galaxies. SFRs in the most infrared-luminous S0 galaxies approach 1-10 solar masses per year. Consistently, with this picture we find that while most early-type galaxies populate an infrared red sequence, about 24% of the objects (mostly S0s) are in an infrared blue cloud together with late-type galaxies. For those early-type galaxies also observed at radio frequencies, we find that the far-infrared luminosities correlate with the mass of neutral and molecular hydrogen, but the scatter is large. This scatter suggests that the star formation may be intermittent or that similar S0 galaxies with cold gaseous disks of nearly equal mass can have varying radial column density distributions that alter the local and global SFRs.

  15. [Blue light and eye health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Leilei; Dai, Jinhui

    2015-01-01

    Blue light, with the wavelength between 400 nm and 500 nm, has caused public concern because of the injury to the retinal cells. Meanwhile, it is important in circadian rhythm regulation, scotopic vision and ocular growth. Is the blue light safe? Should it be eliminated from the daily life? Here we review the effect and safety of the blue light.

  16. The Sloan Lens ACS Survey. XI. Beyond Hubble Resolution : Size, Luminosity, and Stellar Mass of Compact Lensed Galaxies at Intermediate Redshift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newton, Elisabeth R.; Marshall, Philip J.; Treu, Tommaso; Auger, Matthew W.; Gavazzi, Raphaeel; Bolton, Adam S.; Koopmans, Leon V. E.; Moustakas, Leonidas A.

    We exploit the strong lensing effect to explore the properties of intrinsically faint and compact galaxies at intermediate redshift (z(s) similar or equal to 0.4-0.8) at the highest possible resolution at optical wavelengths. Our sample consists of 46 strongly lensed emission line galaxies (ELGs)

  17. The Galaxy Evolution Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Jason; Galaxy Evolution Probe Team

    2018-01-01

    The Galaxy Evolution Probe (GEP) is a concept for a far-infrared observatory to survey large regions of sky for star-forming galaxies from z = 0 to beyond z = 3. Our knowledge of galaxy formation is incomplete and requires uniform surveys over a large range of redshifts and environments to accurately describe mass assembly, star formation, supermassive black hole growth, interactions between these processes, and what led to their decline from z ~ 2 to the present day. Infrared observations are sensitive to dusty, star-forming galaxies, which have bright polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features and warm dust continuum in the rest-frame mid infrared and cooler thermal dust emission in the far infrared. Unlike previous far-infrared continuum surveys, the GEP will measure photometric redshifts commensurate with galaxy detections from PAH emission and Si absorption features, without the need for obtaining spectroscopic redshifts of faint counterparts at other wavelengths.The GEP design includes a 2 m diameter telescope actively cooled to 4 K and two instruments: (1) An imager covering 10 to 300 um with 25 spectral resolution R ~ 8 bands (with lower R at the longest wavelengths) to detect star-forming galaxies and measure their redshifts photometrically. (2) A 23 – 190 um, R ~ 250 dispersive spectrometer for redshift confirmation and identification of obscured AGN using atomic fine-structure lines. Lines including [Ne V], [O IV], [O III], [O I], and [C II] will probe gas physical conditions, radiation field hardness, and metallicity. Notionally, the GEP will have a two-year mission: galaxy surveys with photometric redshifts in the first year and a second year devoted to follow-up spectroscopy. A comprehensive picture of star formation in galaxies over the last 10 billion years will be assembled from cosmologically relevant volumes, spanning environments from field galaxies and groups, to protoclusters, to dense galaxy clusters.Commissioned by NASA, the

  18. The Cosmic Web Unravelled: A study of filamentary structure in the Galaxy and Mass Assembly survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpaslan, Mehmet; Galaxy; Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey Team

    2015-01-01

    I have investigated the properties of the large scale structure of the nearby Universe using data from the Galaxy and Mass Assembly survey (GAMA).I used a volume limited sample of GAMA groups and galaxies to generate the large scale structure catalogue. This was done with an adapted minimal spanning tree algorithm, which identifies and classifies structures, detecting 643 filaments that measure up to 200 h-1 Mpc, each containing 8 groups on average. A secondary population of smaller coherent structures, dubbed 'tendrils,' that link filaments together or penetrate into voids are also detected. On average, tendrils measure around 10 h-1 Mpc and contain 6 galaxies. The so-called line correlation function is used to prove that tendrils are real structures rather than accidental alignments. A population of isolated void galaxies are also identified. The properties of filaments and tendrils in observed and mock GAMA galaxy catalogues agree well. I go on to show that voids from other surveys that overlap with GAMA regions contain a large number of galaxies, primarily belonging to tendrils. This implies that void sizes are strongly dependent on the number density and sensitivity limits of the galaxies observed by a survey.Finally, I examine the properties of a mass controlled sample galaxies in different environments. While mass normalised galaxies in voids show subtly higher UV and IR emission, they are no more likely to be blue, faint, or disc-like than their counterparts in filaments. Extending my analysuis to groups and pairs, I fail to see a strong dependence of halo mass on Sersic index and galaxy luminosity, but do find that it correlates very strongly with colour. Repeating this analysis without mass control introduces and amplifies trends in the properties of galaxies in pairs, groups, and large scale structure, indicating that stellar mass is the most important predictor of galaxy properties followed by morphological type, halo mass, pair rank, local density and

  19. Weak lensing galaxy cluster field reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jullo, E.; Pires, S.; Jauzac, M.; Kneib, J.-P.

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we compare three methods to reconstruct galaxy cluster density fields with weak lensing data. The first method called FLens integrates an inpainting concept to invert the shear field with possible gaps, and a multi-scale entropy denoising procedure to remove the noise contained in the final reconstruction, that arises mostly from the random intrinsic shape of the galaxies. The second and third methods are based on a model of the density field made of a multi-scale grid of radial basis functions. In one case, the model parameters are computed with a linear inversion involving a singular value decomposition (SVD). In the other case, the model parameters are estimated using a Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov Chain optimization implemented in the lensing software LENSTOOL. Methods are compared on simulated data with varying galaxy density fields. We pay particular attention to the errors estimated with resampling. We find the multi-scale grid model optimized with Monte Carlo Markov Chain to provide the best results, but at high computational cost, especially when considering resampling. The SVD method is much faster but yields noisy maps, although this can be mitigated with resampling. The FLens method is a good compromise with fast computation, high signal-to-noise ratio reconstruction, but lower resolution maps. All three methods are applied to the MACS J0717+3745 galaxy cluster field, and reveal the filamentary structure discovered in Jauzac et al. We conclude that sensitive priors can help to get high signal-to-noise ratio, and unbiased reconstructions.

  20. Understanding Galaxy Shapes Across Cosmic Time Using The IllustrisTNG Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genel, Shy

    2017-08-01

    Legacy HST observations have enabled groundbreaking measurements of galaxy structure over cosmic time, measurements that still require theoretical interpretation in the context of a comprehensive galaxy evolution model. This proposed research aims at significantly promoting our understanding of the shapes of galaxies as quantified by their principal axes ratios. The main tool we propose to use is IllustrisTNG, a suite consisting of two of the largest cosmological hydrodynamical simulations run to date, which contain resolved galaxy populations (thousands of L* galaxies) that represent a state-of-the-art match to observed galaxies. In Part I of the program, we will use the simulations to create mock images and study the dependence of projected shape measurements on various factors: shape estimator, observed band, the presence of dust, radial and surface brightness cuts, and noise. We will then perform apples-to-apples comparison with observations (including HST), and provide predictions for archival as well as future observations. Further, we will quantify the intrinsic, three-dimensional, shape distribution of galaxies as a function of various galaxy parameters: redshift, mass, color, and size. In Part II of the program, we will develop theoretical insights into the physical mechanisms driving these results. We will study how galaxy shapes relate to angular momentum and merger history, and will follow the shape evolution of individual galaxies over time, looking for correlations to the evolution of other galaxy properties, e.g. size and SFR. We will also study galaxy shape relations to dark matter halo shape, thereby providing input for high-precision cosmic shear models.

  1. Optical emission line spectra of Seyfert galaxies and radio galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterbrock, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    Many radio galaxies have strong emission lines in their optical spectra, similar to the emission lines in the spectra of Seyfert galaxies. The range of ionization extends from [O I] and [N I] through [Ne V] and [Fe VII] to [Fe X]. The emission-line spectra of radio galaxies divide into two types, narrow-line radio galaxies whose spectra are indistinguishable from Seyfert 2 galaxies, and broad-line radio galaxies whose spectra are similar to Seyfert 1 galaxies. However on the average the broad-line radio galaxies have steeper Balmer decrements, stronger [O III] and weaker Fe II emission than the Seyfert 1 galaxies, though at least one Seyfert 1 galaxy not known to be a radio source has a spectrum very similar to typical broad-line radio galaxies. Intermediate-type Seyfert galaxies exist that show various mixtures of the Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 properties, and the narrow-line or Seyfert 2 property seems to be strongly correlated with radio emission. (Auth.)

  2. Blue light for infectious diseases: Propionibacterium acnes, Helicobacter pylori, and beyond?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Tianhong; Gupta, Asheesh; Murray, Clinton K.; Vrahas, Mark S.; Tegos, George P.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Blue light, particularly in the wavelength range of 405–470 nm, has attracted increasing attention due to its intrinsic antimicrobial effect without the addition of exogenous photosensitizers. In addition, it is commonly accepted that blue light is much less detrimental to mammalian cells than ultraviolet irradiation, which is another light-based antimicrobial approach being investigated. In this review, we discussed the blue light sensing systems in microbial cells, antimicrobial efficacy of blue light, the mechanism of antimicrobial effect of blue light, the effects of blue light on mammalian cells, and the effects of blue light on wound healing. It has been reported that blue light can regulate multi-cellular behavior involving cell-to-cell communication via blue light receptors in bacteria, and inhibit biofilm formation and subsequently potentiate light inactivation. At higher radiant exposures, blue light exhibits a broad-spectrum antimicrobial effect against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Blue light therapy is a clinically accepted approach for Propionibacterium acnes infections. Clinical trials have also been conducted to investigate the use of blue light for Helicobacter pylori stomach infections and have shown promising results. Studies on blue light inactivation of important wound pathogenic bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa have also been reported. The mechanism of blue light inactivation of P. acnes, H. pylori, and some oral bacteria is the photo-excitation of intracellular porphyrins and the subsequent production of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species. Although it may be the case that the mechanism of blue light inactivation of wound pathogens (e.g., S. aureus, P. aeruginosa) is the same as that of P. acnes, this hypothesis has not been rigorously tested. Limited and discordant results have been reported regarding the effects of blue light on mammalian cells and wound healing. Under certain wavelengths

  3. Topics in Galaxy Evolution: Early Star Formation and Quenching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Thiago Signorini

    In this thesis, we present three projects designed to shed light on yet unanswered questions on galaxy formation and evolution. The first two concern a sample of UV-bright starburst galaxies in the local universe (z ˜0.2). These objects are remarkably similar to star-forming galaxies that were abundant at high redshifts (2 manipulating our observations to mimic our objects at greater distances, we show how low resolution and signal-to-noise ratios can lead to erroneous conclusions, in particular when attempting to diagnose mergers as the origin of the starburst. Then, we present results from a pilot survey to study the cold, molecular gas reservoir in such objects. Again, we show that the observed properties are analogous to those observed at high redshift, in particular with respect to baryonic gas fractions in the galaxy, higher than normally found in low-extinction objects in the local universe. Furthermore, we show how gas surface density and star-formation surface density follow the same relation as local galaxies, albeit at much higher values. Finally, we discuss an observational project designed to measure the mass flux density from the blue sequence to the red sequence across the so-called green valley. We obtain the deepest spectra ever observed of green valley galaxies at intermediate redshifts (z˜0.8) in order to measure spectral features from which we can measure the star formation histories of individual galaxies. We measure a mass flux ratio that is higher than observed in the local universe, indicating the red sequence was growing faster when the universe was half its present age than today.

  4. Irregular Dwarf Galaxy IC 1613

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Ultraviolet image (left) and visual image (right) of the irregular dwarf galaxy IC 1613. Low surface brightness galaxies, such as IC 1613, are more easily detected in the ultraviolet because of the low background levels compared to visual wavelengths.

  5. THE ACS NEARBY GALAXY SURVEY TREASURY. IX. CONSTRAINING ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH EVOLUTION WITH OLD METAL-POOR GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardi, Leo; Williams, Benjamin F.; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Rosenfield, Philip; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Marigo, Paola; Boyer, Martha L.; Dolphin, Andrew; Weisz, Daniel R.; Skillman, Evan; Melbourne, Jason; Olsen, Knut A. G.; Seth, Anil C.

    2010-01-01

    In an attempt to constrain evolutionary models of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase at the limit of low masses and low metallicities, we have examined the luminosity functions and number ratios between AGB and red giant branch (RGB) stars from a sample of resolved galaxies from the ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury. This database provides Hubble Space Telescope optical photometry together with maps of completeness, photometric errors, and star formation histories for dozens of galaxies within 4 Mpc. We select 12 galaxies characterized by predominantly metal-poor populations as indicated by a very steep and blue RGB, and which do not present any indication of recent star formation in their color-magnitude diagrams. Thousands of AGB stars brighter than the tip of the RGB (TRGB) are present in the sample (between 60 and 400 per galaxy), hence, the Poisson noise has little impact in our measurements of the AGB/RGB ratio. We model the photometric data with a few sets of thermally pulsing AGB (TP-AGB) evolutionary models with different prescriptions for the mass loss. This technique allows us to set stringent constraints on the TP-AGB models of low-mass, metal-poor stars (with M sun , [Fe/H]∼ sun . This is also in good agreement with recent observations of white dwarf masses in the M4 old globular cluster. These constraints can be added to those already derived from Magellanic Cloud star clusters as important mileposts in the arduous process of calibrating AGB evolutionary models.

  6. The ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury. IX. Constraining Asymptotic Giant Branch Evolution with Old Metal-poor Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Léo; Williams, Benjamin F.; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Rosenfield, Philip; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Marigo, Paola; Boyer, Martha L.; Dolphin, Andrew; Weisz, Daniel R.; Melbourne, Jason; Olsen, Knut A. G.; Seth, Anil C.; Skillman, Evan

    2010-12-01

    In an attempt to constrain evolutionary models of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase at the limit of low masses and low metallicities, we have examined the luminosity functions and number ratios between AGB and red giant branch (RGB) stars from a sample of resolved galaxies from the ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury. This database provides Hubble Space Telescope optical photometry together with maps of completeness, photometric errors, and star formation histories for dozens of galaxies within 4 Mpc. We select 12 galaxies characterized by predominantly metal-poor populations as indicated by a very steep and blue RGB, and which do not present any indication of recent star formation in their color-magnitude diagrams. Thousands of AGB stars brighter than the tip of the RGB (TRGB) are present in the sample (between 60 and 400 per galaxy), hence, the Poisson noise has little impact in our measurements of the AGB/RGB ratio. We model the photometric data with a few sets of thermally pulsing AGB (TP-AGB) evolutionary models with different prescriptions for the mass loss. This technique allows us to set stringent constraints on the TP-AGB models of low-mass, metal-poor stars (with M white dwarf masses in the M4 old globular cluster. These constraints can be added to those already derived from Magellanic Cloud star clusters as important mileposts in the arduous process of calibrating AGB evolutionary models.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Intrinsic far-IR SED of luminous AGNs (Lyu+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, J.; Rieke, G. H.

    2018-01-01

    The range of currently proposed active galactic nucleus (AGN) far-infrared templates results in uncertainties in retrieving host galaxy information from infrared observations and also undermines constraints on the outer part of the AGN torus. We discuss how to test and reconcile these templates. Physically, the fraction of the intrinsic AGN IR-processed luminosity compared with that from the central engine should be consistent with the dust-covering factor. In addition, besides reproducing the composite spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of quasars, a correct AGN IR template combined with an accurate library of star-forming galaxy templates should be able to reproduce the IR properties of the host galaxies, such as the luminosity-dependent SED shapes and aromatic feature strengths. We develop tests based on these expected behaviors and find that the shape of the AGN intrinsic far-IR emission drops off rapidly starting at ~20μm and can be matched by an Elvis+ (1994, J/ApJS/95/1)-like template with a minor modification. Despite the variations in the near- to mid-IR bands, AGNs in quasars and Seyfert galaxies have remarkably similar intrinsic far-IR SEDs at λ~20-100μm, suggesting a similar emission character of the outermost region of the circumnuclear torus. The variations of the intrinsic AGN IR SEDs among the type-1 quasar population can be explained by the changing relative strengths of four major dust components with similar characteristic temperatures, and there is evidence for compact AGN-heated dusty structures at sub-kiloparsec scales in the far-IR. (3 data files).

  8. Large-Scale Environment Properties of Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies at z < 0.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Järvelä, Emilia; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lietzen, H.

    2017-01-01

    The large-scale environment is believed to affect the evolution and intrinsic properties of galaxies. It offers a new perspective on narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1) which have not been extensively studied in this context before. We study a large and diverse sample of 960 NLS1 galaxies using a luminosity-density field constructed using Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We investigate how the large-scale environment is connected to the properties of NLS1 galaxies, especially their radio loudness. Furthermore, we compare the large-scale environment properties of NLS1 galaxies with other active galactic nuclei (AGN) classes, for example, other jetted AGN and broad-line Seyfert 1 (BLS1) galaxies, to shed light on their possible relations. In general NLS1 galaxies reside in less dense large-scale environments than any of our comparison samples, thus supporting their young age. The average luminosity-density and distribution to different luminosity-density regions of NLS1 sources is significantly different compared to BLS1 galaxies. This contradicts the simple orientation-based unification of NLS1 and BLS1 galaxies, and weakens the hypothesis that BLS1 galaxies are the parent population of NLS1 galaxies. The large-scale environment density also has an impact on the intrinsic properties of NLS1 galaxies; the radio loudness increases with the increasing luminosity-density. However, our results suggest that the NLS1 population is indeed heterogeneous, and that a considerable fraction of them are misclassified. We support a suggested description that the traditional classification based on the radio loudness should be replaced with the division to jetted and non-jetted sources.

  9. Large-Scale Environment Properties of Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies at z < 0.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Järvelä, Emilia [Metsähovi Radio Observatory, Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Department of Electronics and Nanoengineering, Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Lähteenmäki, A. [Metsähovi Radio Observatory, Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Department of Electronics and Nanoengineering, Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Tartu Observatory, Tõravere (Estonia); Lietzen, H., E-mail: emilia.jarvela@aalto.fi [Tartu Observatory, Tõravere (Estonia)

    2017-11-30

    The large-scale environment is believed to affect the evolution and intrinsic properties of galaxies. It offers a new perspective on narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1) which have not been extensively studied in this context before. We study a large and diverse sample of 960 NLS1 galaxies using a luminosity-density field constructed using Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We investigate how the large-scale environment is connected to the properties of NLS1 galaxies, especially their radio loudness. Furthermore, we compare the large-scale environment properties of NLS1 galaxies with other active galactic nuclei (AGN) classes, for example, other jetted AGN and broad-line Seyfert 1 (BLS1) galaxies, to shed light on their possible relations. In general NLS1 galaxies reside in less dense large-scale environments than any of our comparison samples, thus supporting their young age. The average luminosity-density and distribution to different luminosity-density regions of NLS1 sources is significantly different compared to BLS1 galaxies. This contradicts the simple orientation-based unification of NLS1 and BLS1 galaxies, and weakens the hypothesis that BLS1 galaxies are the parent population of NLS1 galaxies. The large-scale environment density also has an impact on the intrinsic properties of NLS1 galaxies; the radio loudness increases with the increasing luminosity-density. However, our results suggest that the NLS1 population is indeed heterogeneous, and that a considerable fraction of them are misclassified. We support a suggested description that the traditional classification based on the radio loudness should be replaced with the division to jetted and non-jetted sources.

  10. Large-Scale Environment Properties of Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies at z < 0.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvelä, Emilia; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lietzen, H.

    2017-11-01

    The large-scale environment is believed to affect the evolution and intrinsic properties of galaxies. It offers a new perspective on narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1) which have not been extensively studied in this context before. We study a large and diverse sample of 960 NLS1 galaxies using a luminosity-density field constructed using Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We investigate how the large-scale environment is connected to the properties of NLS1 galaxies, especially their radio loudness. Furthermore, we compare the large-scale environment properties of NLS1 galaxies with other active galactic nuclei (AGN) classes, for example, other jetted AGN and broad-line Seyfert 1 (BLS1) galaxies, to shed light on their possible relations. In general NLS1 galaxies reside in less dense large-scale environments than any of our comparison samples, thus supporting their young age. The average luminosity-density and distribution to different luminosity-density regions of NLS1 sources is significantly different compared to BLS1 galaxies. This contradicts the simple orientation-based unification of NLS1 and BLS1 galaxies, and weakens the hypothesis that BLS1 galaxies are the parent population of NLS1 galaxies. The large-scale environment density also has an impact on the intrinsic properties of NLS1 galaxies; the radio loudness increases with the increasing luminosity-density. However, our results suggest that the NLS1 population is indeed heterogeneous, and that a considerable fraction of them are misclassified. We support a suggested description that the traditional classification based on the radio loudness should be replaced with the division to jetted and non-jetted sources.

  11. Characterization of Partial Intrinsic Symmetries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shehu, Aurela; Brunton, Alan; Wuhrer, Stefanie; Wand, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We present a mathematical framework and algorithm for characterizing and extracting partial intrinsic symmetries of surfaces, which is a fundamental building block for many modern geometry processing algorithms. Our goal is to compute all “significant” symmetry information of the shape, which we

  12. Reading: Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    Much debate centers on motivating student in reading achievement. Should students feel motivated from within (intrinsic motivation), or is it better to have extrinsic motivation whereby external stimuli are used to help learners achieve optimally in reading? This paper aims to analyze the two points of view about motivating students in reading…

  13. Intrinsic volumes of symmetric cones

    OpenAIRE

    Amelunxen, Dennis; Bürgisser, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We compute the intrinsic volumes of the cone of positive semidefinite matrices over the real numbers, over the complex numbers, and over the quaternions, in terms of integrals related to Mehta's integral. Several applications for the probabilistic analysis of semidefinite programming are given.

  14. Acoustic resonance spectroscopy intrinsic seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olinger, C.T.; Burr, T.; Vnuk, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    We have begun to quantify the ability of acoustic resonance spectroscopy (ARS) to detect the removal and replacement of the lid of a simulated special nuclear materials drum. Conceptually, the acoustic spectrum of a container establishcs a baseline fingerprint, which we refer to as an intrinsic seal, for the container. Simply removing and replacing the lid changes some of the resonant frequencies because it is impossible to exactly duplicate all of the stress patterns between the lid and container. Preliminary qualitative results suggested that the ARS intrinsic seal could discriminate between cases where a lid has or has not been removed. The present work is directed at quantifying the utility of the ARS intrinsic seal technique, including the technique's sensitivity to ''nuisance'' effects, such as temperature swings, movement of the container, and placement of the transducers. These early quantitative tests support the potential of the ARS intrinsic seal application, but also reveal a possible sensitivity to nuisance effects that could limit environments or conditions under which the technique is effective

  15. Intrinsic Motivation in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Benjamin; Nambiar, Nathan; Hemphill, Caroline; Devietti, Elizabeth; Massengale, Alexandra; McCredie, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This article describes ways in which educators can use Harter's perceived competence motivation theory, the achievement goal theory, and self-determination theory to develop students' intrinsic motivation to maintain physical fitness, as demonstrated by the Sound Body Sound Mind curriculum and proven effective by the 2013 University of…

  16. Velocity-metallicity correlation for high-z DLA galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledoux, C.; Petitjean, P.; Fynbo, J.P.U.

    2006-01-01

    Galaxies: halos, galaxies: high-redshift, galaxies: ISM, quasars: absorption lines, cosmology: observations Udgivelsesdato: Oct.......Galaxies: halos, galaxies: high-redshift, galaxies: ISM, quasars: absorption lines, cosmology: observations Udgivelsesdato: Oct....

  17. Detection of Lyman/alpha emission from a DLA galaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, P.; Fynbo, Johan Peter Uldall; Fall, S.M

    2004-01-01

    HIGH-REDSHIFT; BREAK GALAXIES; STARFORMATION; DISK GALAXIES; METAL ENRICHMENT; HOST GALAXY; ABSORPTION; ABSORBER; SYSTEMS; SPECTROSCOPY......HIGH-REDSHIFT; BREAK GALAXIES; STARFORMATION; DISK GALAXIES; METAL ENRICHMENT; HOST GALAXY; ABSORPTION; ABSORBER; SYSTEMS; SPECTROSCOPY...

  18. Photometric characteristics of paired E and S0 galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demin, V. V.

    1984-12-01

    The properties of type EE and ES double galaxies are studied, using Tomov's UBV photoelectric photometry. Paired early-type galaxies have different color/absolute-magnitude diagrams from those belonging to groups. Since the (U-V)t0 colors of paired E, S0 galaxies are wholly uncorrelated with their absolute magnitude M(v), pair members evolve differently from group and cluster members. The same conclusion is drawn from comparison of the integrated photometric properties of the E, S0 galaxies in EE and in ES pairs: their color dispersion is greater than for group and cluster members, while the Holmberg color match and the M(v) correlation between pair components depend on morphological type, dynamical and kinematic behavior, and whether interaction is present. Thus the evolution of paired galaxies is controlled less by their intrinsic properties than by external factors. Star-formation bursts may alternate in the two pair components, accompanying active mass-exchange processes, but the evolution of the pairs in the sample studied will not be significantly affected by dynamical friction.

  19. The dependence of galactic outflows on the properties and orientation of zCOSMOS galaxies at z ∼ 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordoloi, R.; Lilly, S. J.; Hardmeier, E.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Fevre, O. Le; Garilli, B.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Zamorani, G.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Caputi, K.; Cucciati, O.; De la Torre, S.; De Ravel, L.; Iovino, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of cool outflowing gas around galaxies, traced by Mg II absorption lines in the coadded spectra of a sample of 486 zCOSMOS galaxies at 1 ≤ z ≤ 1.5. These galaxies span a range of stellar masses (9.45 ≤ log 10 [M * /M ☉ ] ≤ 10.7) and star formation rates (0.14 ≤ log 10 [SFR/M ☉ yr –1 ] ≤ 2.35). We identify the cool outflowing component in the Mg II absorption and find that the equivalent width of the outflowing component increases with stellar mass. The outflow equivalent width also increases steadily with the increasing star formation rate of the galaxies. At similar stellar masses, the blue galaxies exhibit a significantly higher outflow equivalent width as compared to red galaxies. The outflow equivalent width shows strong correlation with the star formation surface density (Σ SFR ) of the sample. For the disk galaxies, the outflow equivalent width is higher for the face-on systems as compared to the edge-on ones, indicating that for the disk galaxies, the outflowing gas is primarily bipolar in geometry. Galaxies typically exhibit outflow velocities ranging from –150 km s –1 ∼–200 km s –1 and, on average, the face-on galaxies exhibit higher outflow velocity as compared to the edge-on ones. Galaxies with irregular morphologies exhibit outflow equivalent width as well as outflow velocities comparable to face on disk galaxies. These galaxies exhibit mass outflow rates >5-7 M ☉ yr –1 and a mass loading factor (η = M-dot out /SFR) comparable to the star formation rates of the galaxies.

  20. A Subhalo-Galaxy Correspondence Model of Galaxy Biasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Juhan; Park, Changbom; Choi, Yun-Young

    2008-08-01

    We propose a model for allocating galaxies in cosmological N-body simulations. We identify each subhalo with a galaxy and assign luminosity and morphological type, assuming that the galaxy luminosity is a monotonic function of the host subhalo mass. Morphology is assigned using two simple relations between the subhalo mass and galaxy luminosity for different galaxy types. The first uses a constant luminosity ratio between early-type (E/SO) and late-type (S/Irr) galaxies at a fixed subhalo mass. The other assumes that galaxies of different morphological types but equal luminosity have a constant ratio of subhalo mass. We made a series of comparisons of the properties of these mock galaxies with those of SDSS galaxies. The resulting mock galaxy sample is found to successfully reproduce the observed local number density distribution except in high-density regions. We study the luminosity function as a function of local density, and find that the observed luminosity functions in different local density environments are overall well reproduced by the mock galaxies. A discrepancy is found at the bright end of the luminosity function of early types in the underdense regions and at the faint end of both morphological types in very high density regions. A significant fraction of the observed early-type galaxies in voids seem to have undergone relatively recent star formation and become brighter. The lack of faint mock galaxies in dense regions may be due to the strong tidal force of the central halo, which destroys less massive satellite subhalos around the simulation. The mass-to-light ratio is found to depend on the local density in a way similar to that observed in the SDSS sample. We have found an impressive agreement between our mock galaxies and the SDSS galaxies in the dependence of central velocity dispersion on the local density and luminosity.

  1. The Illustris simulation: supermassive black hole-galaxy connection beyond the bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu-Pakdil, Burçin; Seigar, Marc S.; Hewitt, Ian B.; Treuthardt, Patrick; Berrier, Joel C.; Koval, Lauren E.

    2018-02-01

    We study the spiral arm morphology of a sample of the local spiral galaxies in the Illustris simulation and explore the supermassive black hole-galaxy connection beyond the bulge (e.g. spiral arm pitch angle, total stellar mass, dark matter mass, and total halo mass), finding good agreement with other theoretical studies and observational constraints. It is important to study the properties of supermassive black holes and their host galaxies through both observations and simulations and compare their results in order to understand their physics and formative histories. We find that Illustris prediction for supermassive black hole mass relative to pitch angle is in rather good agreement with observations and that barred and non-barred galaxies follow similar scaling relations. Our work shows that Illustris presents very tight correlations between supermassive black hole mass and large-scale properties of the host galaxy, not only for early-type galaxies but also for low-mass, blue and star-forming galaxies. These tight relations beyond the bulge suggest that halo properties determine those of a disc galaxy and its supermassive black hole.

  2. Spectral Investigation and Physical Properties of Markarian Galaxies from SDSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyulzadyan, M. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.; Abrahamyan, H. V.; Paronyan, G. M.

    2016-06-01

    Beginning in the mid-1960s and continuing through 1978, the first large-area objective-prism survey for galaxies with blue and ultraviolet excess in their continuum radiation was conducted by Markarian, Lipovetskii and Stepanian (published in Lists I-XV). Observations were carried out using primarily a 1.5° objective prism with the 40″/52″ (1.0/1.3 m) Schmidt telescope at Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory. Their setup produced an inverse dispersion of 2500 Å/mm at Hβ (Markarian 1967). The publication of the List XV (Markarian et al. 1981) completed the Markarian Survey (also known as FBS, First Byurakan Survey). We present some average characteristics for 1493 Markarian galaxies derived from SDSS images and spectra and compare them to those of the two groups of the Second Byurakan Survey galaxies, defined using two indicators of activity as observed on objective-prism spectra: the presence of UV excess (860 UVX) in the continuum and the presence of emission lines (813 ELs). The parameters used for the comparison were morphology, redshift, apparent magnitude, absolute magnitude, the ratio of the small and the large semi-axes R (J), and close environment. For UVG the average apparent magnitude is 16.95m, for Mrk it is 15.2m, and for ELG it is 16.7m; the average absolute magnitude is 20.1m for Mrk, 20.73m for UVG, and 20.67m for ELG; the redshift is 0.024 for Mrk, 0.046 for UVG and 0.035 for ELG; the ratio of the small and the large semi-axes R (J) is 0.74 for Mrk and UVG, and 0.67 for ELG. On average, there are more spiral and compact galaxies among Mrk, UVG, and ELG objects. Some 31% of Mrk galaxies, 38% of UVG and 25% of ELG have neighboring galaxies in a circle with a radius of 50 kpc. In the course of the Markarian survey, more than 200 Seyfert galaxies, and hundreds of starburst, blue compact, and HII galaxies were discovered.

  3. Optical photometry of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comte, G.

    1981-01-01

    The present status of the optical and near-infrared photometry of galaxies is reviewed. Part I introduces to the goals and general methods of both photographic surface photometry and integrated multicolor aperture photoelectric photometry for extended stellar systems, with a summary of the necessary corrections to the observed magnitudes and colors. Part II (surface photometry) summarizes recent results on the empirical luminosity laws for spheroidal systems and the separation of components in disk-plus-bulge systems. Part III (color problems) discusses integrated color effects (color and gas content, color-absolute magnitude relation for early-type systems, colors of interacting galaxies) and color gradient across spheroidal and disk galaxies. In part IV are summarized some constraints on the luminosity function of the stellar population in spheroidal systems given by narrow-band photometry [fr

  4. On the interdependence of galaxy morphology, star formation and environment in massive galaxies in the nearby Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bait, Omkar; Barway, Sudhanshu; Wadadekar, Yogesh

    2017-11-01

    Using multiwavelength data, from ultraviolet to optical to near-infrared to mid-infrared, for ˜6000 galaxies in the local Universe, we study the dependence of star formation on the morphological T-types for massive galaxies (log M*/M⊙ ≥ 10). We find that, early-type spirals (Sa-Sbc) and S0s predominate in the green valley, which is a transition zone between the star forming and quenched regions. Within the early-type spirals, as we move from Sa to Sbc spirals the fraction of green valley and quenched galaxies decreases, indicating the important role of the bulge in the quenching of galaxies. The fraction of early-type spirals decreases as we enter the green valley from the blue cloud, which coincides with the increase in the fraction of S0s. These points towards the morphological transformation of early-type spiral galaxies into S0s, which can happen due to environmental effects such as ram-pressure stripping, galaxy harassment or tidal interactions. We also find a second population of S0s that are actively star forming and are present in all environments. Since morphological T-type, specific star formation rate (sSFR), and environmental density are all correlated with each other, we compute the partial correlation coefficient for each pair of parameters while keeping the third parameter as a control variable. We find that morphology most strongly correlates with sSFR, independent of the environment, while the other two correlations (morphology-density and sSFR-environment) are weaker. Thus, we conclude that, for massive galaxies in the local Universe, the physical processes that shape their morphology are also the ones that determine their star-forming state.

  5. Cold gas accretion in galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sancisi, Renzo; Fraternali, Filippo; Oosterloo, Tom; van der Hulst, Thijs

    Evidence for the accretion of cold gas in galaxies has been rapidly accumulating in the past years. HI observations of galaxies and their environment have brought to light new facts and phenomena which are evidence of ongoing or recent accretion: (1) A large number of galaxies are accompanied by

  6. On the Evolution of the Central Density of Quiescent Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacchella, Sandro; Carollo, C. Marcella; Faber, S. M.; Cibinel, Anna; Dekel, Avishai; Koo, David C.; Renzini, Alvio; Woo, Joanna

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the origin of the evolution of the population-averaged central stellar mass density (Σ1) of quiescent galaxies (QGs) by probing the relation between stellar age and Σ1 at z ˜ 0. We use the Zurich ENvironmental Study (ZENS), which is a survey of galaxy groups with a large fraction of satellite galaxies. QGs shape a narrow locus in the Σ1-M ⋆ plane, which we refer to as Σ1 ridgeline. Colors of (B - I) and (I - J) are used to divide QGs into three age categories: young (4 Gyr). At fixed stellar mass, old QGs on the Σ1 ridgeline have higher Σ1 than young QGs. This shows that galaxies landing on the Σ1 ridgeline at later epochs arrive with lower Σ1, which drives the zeropoint of the ridgeline down with time. We compare the present-day zeropoint of the oldest population at z = 0 with the zeropoint of the quiescent population 4 Gyr back in time, at z = 0.37. These zeropoints are identical, showing that the intrinsic evolution of individual galaxies after they arrive on the Σ1 ridgeline must be negligible, or must evolve parallel to the ridgeline during this interval. The observed evolution of the global zeropoint of 0.07 dex over the last 4 Gyr is thus largely due to the continuous addition of newly quenched galaxies with lower Σ1 at later times (“progenitor bias”). While these results refer to the satellite-rich ZENS sample as a whole, our work suggests a similar age-Σ1 trend for central galaxies.

  7. LOCAL TADPOLE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Putko, Joseph; Dewberry, Janosz; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Sánchez Almeida, Jorge; Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana

    2012-01-01

    Tadpole galaxies have a giant star-forming region at the end of an elongated intensity distribution. Here we use Sloan Digital Sky Survey data to determine the ages, masses, and surface densities of the heads and tails in 14 local tadpoles selected from the Kiso and Michigan surveys of UV-bright galaxies, and we compare them to tadpoles previously studied in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. The young stellar mass in the head scales linearly with rest-frame galaxy luminosity, ranging from ∼10 5 M ☉ at galaxy absolute magnitude U = –13 mag to 10 9 M ☉ at U = –20 mag. The corresponding head surface density increases from several M ☉ pc –2 locally to 10-100 M ☉ pc –2 at high redshift, and the star formation rate (SFR) per unit area in the head increases from ∼0.01 M ☉ yr –1 kpc –2 locally to ∼1 M ☉ yr –1 kpc –2 at high z. These local values are normal for star-forming regions, and the increases with redshift are consistent with other cosmological SFRs, most likely reflecting an increase in gas abundance. The tails in the local sample look like bulge-free galaxy disks. Their photometric ages decrease from several Gyr to several hundred Myr with increasing z, and their surface densities are more constant than the surface densities of the heads. The far-outer intensity profiles in the local sample are symmetric and exponential. We suggest that most local tadpoles are bulge-free galaxy disks with lopsided star formation, perhaps from environmental effects such as ram pressure or disk impacts, or from a Jeans length comparable to half the disk size.

  8. Spectroscopy of the galaxy components of N and Seyfert galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boroson, T.A.; Oke, J.B.; Palomar Observatory, Pasadena, CA)

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear and off-nuclear spectra of nine active galaxies are presented. The sample consists of four Seyfert galaxies, two N galaxies, one Seyfert radio galaxy, and one liner/Seyfert 2 galaxy. All of the objects show continuum emission off the nucleus. Four clearly show absorption features from a stellar population. Velocities have been measured for the off-nuclear emission and absorption lines. In the case of I Zw 1, the absorption-line velocities are inconsistent with 21-cm H I measurements of this object. 26 references

  9. WISE Discovery of Hyper Luminous Galaxies at z=2-4 and Their Implications for Galaxy and AGN Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chao Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter; Wu, Jingwen; Bridge, Carrie; Assef, Roberto; Benford, Dominic; Blain, Andrew; Cutri, Roc; Griffith, Robert L.; Jarrett, Thomas; hide

    2014-01-01

    On behalf of the WISE Science team, we present the discovery of a class of distant dust-enshrouded galaxies with extremely high luminosity. These galaxies are selected to have extreme red colors in the mid-IR using NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). They are faint in the optical and near-IR, predominantly at zeta = 2-4, and with IR luminosity > 10(exp 13) Solar Luminosity, making them Hyper-Luminous Infrared Galaxies (HyLIRGs). SEDs incorporating the WISE, Spitzer, and Herschel PACS and SPIRE photometry indicate hot dust dominates the bolometric luminosity, presumably powered by AGN. Preliminary multi-wavelength follow-up suggests that they are different from normal populations in the local M-sigma relation. Their low source density implies that these objects are either intrinsically rare, or a short-lived phase in a more numerous population. If the latter is the case, these hot, dust-enshrouded galaxies may be an early stage in the interplay between AGN and galaxies.

  10. Galaxy S II

    CERN Document Server

    Gralla, Preston

    2011-01-01

    Unlock the potential of Samsung's outstanding smartphone with this jargon-free guide from technology guru Preston Gralla. You'll quickly learn how to shoot high-res photos and HD video, keep your schedule, stay in touch, and enjoy your favorite media. Every page is packed with illustrations and valuable advice to help you get the most from the smartest phone in town. The important stuff you need to know: Get dialed in. Learn your way around the Galaxy S II's calling and texting features.Go online. Browse the Web, manage email, and download apps with Galaxy S II's 3G/4G network (or create you

  11. Dwarf galaxy evolution within the environments of massive galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arraki, Kenza S.; Klypin, Anatoly A.; Ceverino, Daniel; Trujillo-Gomez, Sebastian; Primack, Joel R.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding galaxy evolution depends on connecting large-scale structure determined by the ΛCDM model with, at minimum, the small-scale physics of gas, star formation, and stellar feedback. Formation of galaxies within dark matter halos is sensitive to the physical phenomena occurring within and around the halo. This is especially true for dwarf galaxies, which have the smallest potential wells and are more susceptible to the effects of gas ionization and removal than larger galaxies. At dwarf galaxies scales comparisons of dark matter-only simulations with observations has unveiled various differences including the core-cusp, the missing satellites, and the too-big-to-fail problems. We have run a new suite of hydrodynamical simulations using the ART code to examine the evolution of dwarf galaxies in massive host environments. These are cosmological zoom-in simulations including deterministic star formation and stellar feedback in the form of supernovae feedback, stellar winds, radiation pressure, and photoionization pressure. We simulates galaxies with final halo masses on the order of 1012 M⊙ with high resolution, allowing us to examine the satellite dwarf galaxies and local isolated dwarf galaxies around each primary galaxy. We analyzed the abundance and structure of these dwarfs specifically the velocity function, their star formation rates, core creation and the circumgalactic medium. By reproducing observations of dwarf galaxies in simulations we show how including baryons in simulations relieves tensions seen in comparing dark matter only simulations with observations.

  12. A dusty star-forming galaxy at z = 6 revealed by strong gravitational lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Jorge A.; Montaña, Alfredo; Hughes, David H.; Yun, Min S.; Ivison, R. J.; Valiante, Elisabetta; Wilner, David; Spilker, Justin; Aretxaga, Itziar; Eales, Stephen; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Chávez, Miguel; Cooray, Asantha; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Dunlop, James S.; Dunne, Loretta; Gómez-Ruiz, Arturo I.; Michałowski, Michał J.; Narayanan, Gopal; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Oteo, Ivan; Rosa González, Daniel; Sánchez-Argüelles, David; Schloerb, F. Peter; Serjeant, Stephen; Smith, Matthew W. L.; Terlevich, Elena; Vega, Olga; Villalba, Alan; van der Werf, Paul; Wilson, Grant W.; Zeballos, Milagros

    2018-01-01

    Since their discovery, submillimetre-selected galaxies1,2 have revolutionized the field of galaxy formation and evolution. From the hundreds of square degrees mapped at submillimetre wavelengths3-5, only a handful of sources have been confirmed to lie at z > 5 (refs 6-10) and only two at z ≥ 6 (refs 11,12). All of these submillimetre galaxies are rare examples of extreme starburst galaxies with star formation rates of ≳1,000 M⊙ yr-1 and therefore are not representative of the general population of dusty star-forming galaxies. Consequently, our understanding of the nature of these sources, at the earliest epochs, is still incomplete. Here, we report the spectroscopic identification of a gravitationally amplified (μ = 9.3 ± 1.0) dusty star-forming galaxy at z = 6.027. After correcting for gravitational lensing, we derive an intrinsic less-extreme star formation rate of 380 ± 50 M⊙ yr-1 for this source and find that its gas and dust properties are similar to those measured for local ultra luminous infrared galaxies, extending the local trends to a poorly explored territory in the early Universe. The star-formation efficiency of this galaxy is similar to those measured in its local analogues13, despite a 12 Gyr difference in cosmic time.

  13. The remnants of galaxy formation from a panoramic survey of the region around M31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnachie, Alan W; Irwin, Michael J; Ibata, Rodrigo A; Dubinski, John; Widrow, Lawrence M; Martin, Nicolas F; Côté, Patrick; Dotter, Aaron L; Navarro, Julio F; Ferguson, Annette M N; Puzia, Thomas H; Lewis, Geraint F; Babul, Arif; Barmby, Pauline; Bienaymé, Olivier; Chapman, Scott C; Cockcroft, Robert; Collins, Michelle L M; Fardal, Mark A; Harris, William E; Huxor, Avon; Mackey, A Dougal; Peñarrubia, Jorge; Rich, R Michael; Richer, Harvey B; Siebert, Arnaud; Tanvir, Nial; Valls-Gabaud, David; Venn, Kimberly A

    2009-09-03

    In hierarchical cosmological models, galaxies grow in mass through the continual accretion of smaller ones. The tidal disruption of these systems is expected to result in loosely bound stars surrounding the galaxy, at distances that reach 10-100 times the radius of the central disk. The number, luminosity and morphology of the relics of this process provide significant clues to galaxy formation history, but obtaining a comprehensive survey of these components is difficult because of their intrinsic faintness and vast extent. Here we report a panoramic survey of the Andromeda galaxy (M31). We detect stars and coherent structures that are almost certainly remnants of dwarf galaxies destroyed by the tidal field of M31. An improved census of their surviving counterparts implies that three-quarters of M31's satellites brighter than M(v) = -6 await discovery. The brightest companion, Triangulum (M33), is surrounded by a stellar structure that provides persuasive evidence for a recent encounter with M31. This panorama of galaxy structure directly confirms the basic tenets of the hierarchical galaxy formation model and reveals the shared history of M31 and M33 in the unceasing build-up of galaxies.

  14. Stellar mass estimation based on IRAC photometry for Spitzer SWIRE-field galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yinan; Wu Hong; Li Haining; Cao Chen

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the feasibility of estimating the stellar mass of galaxies by mid-infrared luminosities based on a large sample of galaxies cross-identified from Spitzer SWIRE fields and the SDSS spectrographic survey. We derived the formulae to calculate the stellar mass by using IRAC 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm luminosities. The mass-to-luminosity ratios of IRAC 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm luminosities are more sensitive to the star formation history of galaxies than to other factors, such as the intrinsic extinction, metallicity and star formation rate. To remove the effect of star formation history, we used g - r color to recalibrate the formulae and obtain a better result. Researchers must be more careful when estimating the stellar mass of low metallicity galaxies using our formulae. Due to the emission from dust heated by the hottest young stars, luminous infrared galaxies present higher IRAC 4.5 μm luminosities compared to IRAC 3.6 μm luminosities. For most of type-II AGNs, the nuclear activity cannot enhance 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm luminosities compared with normal galaxies. Star formation in our AGN-hosting galaxies is also very weak, almost all of which are early-type galaxies.

  15. A Robust Classification of Galaxy Spectra: Dealing with Noisy and Incomplete Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, A. J.; Szalay, A. S.

    1999-05-01

    Over the next few years new spectroscopic surveys (from the optical surveys of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 2dF Galaxy Survey through to space-based ultraviolet satellites such as GALEX) will provide the opportunity and challenge of understanding how galaxies of different spectral type evolve with redshift. Techniques have been developed to classify galaxies based on their continuum and line spectra. Some of the most promising of these have used the Karhunen & Loève transform (or principal component analysis) to separate galaxies into distinct classes. Their limitation has been that they assume that the spectral coverage and quality of the spectra are constant for all galaxies within a given sample. In this paper we develop a general formalism that accounts for the missing data within the observed spectra (such as the removal of sky lines or the effect of sampling different intrinsic rest-wavelength ranges due to the redshift of a galaxy). We demonstrate that by correcting for these gaps we can recover an almost redshift-independent classification scheme. From this classification we can derive an optimal interpolation that reconstructs the underlying galaxy spectral energy distributions in the regions of missing data. This provides a simple and effective mechanism for building galaxy spectral energy distributions directly from data that may be noisy, incomplete, or drawn from a number of different sources.

  16. Large-scale environments of narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvelä, E.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lietzen, H.; Poudel, A.; Heinämäki, P.; Einasto, M.

    2017-09-01

    Studying large-scale environments of narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies gives a new perspective on their properties, particularly their radio loudness. The large-scale environment is believed to have an impact on the evolution and intrinsic properties of galaxies, however, NLS1 sources have not been studied in this context before. We have a large and diverse sample of 1341 NLS1 galaxies and three separate environment data sets constructed using Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We use various statistical methods to investigate how the properties of NLS1 galaxies are connected to the large-scale environment, and compare the large-scale environments of NLS1 galaxies with other active galactic nuclei (AGN) classes, for example, other jetted AGN and broad-line Seyfert 1 (BLS1) galaxies, to study how they are related. NLS1 galaxies reside in less dense environments than any of the comparison samples, thus confirming their young age. The average large-scale environment density and environmental distribution of NLS1 sources is clearly different compared to BLS1 galaxies, thus it is improbable that they could be the parent population of NLS1 galaxies and unified by orientation. Within the NLS1 class there is a trend of increasing radio loudness with increasing large-scale environment density, indicating that the large-scale environment affects their intrinsic properties. Our results suggest that the NLS1 class of sources is not homogeneous, and furthermore, that a considerable fraction of them are misclassified. We further support a published proposal to replace the traditional classification to radio-loud, and radio-quiet or radio-silent sources with a division into jetted and non-jetted sources.

  17. What Are S0 Galaxies?

    OpenAIRE

    Bergh, Sidney van den

    2009-01-01

    The data collected in the Shapley-Ames catalog of bright galaxies show that lenticular (S0) galaxies are typically about a magnitude fainter than both elliptical (E) and early spiral (Sa) galaxies. Hubble (1936) was therefore wrong to regard S0 galaxies as being intermediate between morphological types E and Sa. The observation that E5-E7 galaxies are significantly fainter than objects of sub-types E0-E5 suggests that many of the flattest 'ellipticals' may actually be misclassified lenticular...

  18. Blue ocean leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2014-05-01

    Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets.

  19. Following the Cosmic Evolution of Pristine Gas. II. The Search for Pop III–bright Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmento, Richard; Scannapieco, Evan; Cohen, Seth

    2018-02-01

    Direct observational searches for Population III (Pop III) stars at high redshift are faced with the question of how to select the most promising targets for spectroscopic follow-up. To help answer this, we use a large-scale cosmological simulation, augmented with a new subgrid model that tracks the fraction of pristine gas, to follow the evolution of high-redshift galaxies and the Pop III stars they contain. We generate rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) luminosity functions for our galaxies and find that they are consistent with current z≥slant 7 observations. Throughout the redshift range 7≤slant z≤slant 15, we identify “Pop III–bright” galaxies as those with at least 75% of their flux coming from Pop III stars. While less than 1% of galaxies brighter than {m}UV,{AB}}=31.4 mag are Pop III–bright in the range 7≤slant z≤slant 8, roughly 17% of such galaxies are Pop III–bright at z = 9, immediately before reionization occurs in our simulation. Moving to z = 10, {m}UV,{AB}}=31.4 mag corresponds to larger, more luminous galaxies, and the Pop III–bright fraction falls off to 5%. Finally, at the highest redshifts, a large fraction (29% at z = 14 and 41% at z = 15) of all galaxies are Pop III–bright regardless of magnitude. While {m}UV,{AB}}=31.4 mag galaxies are extremely rare during this epoch, we find that 13% of galaxies at z = 14 are Pop III–bright with {m}UV,{AB}}≤slant 33 mag, a intrinsic magnitude within reach of the James Webb Space Telescope using lensing. Thus, we predict that the best redshift to search for luminous Pop III–bright galaxies is just before reionization, while lensing surveys for fainter galaxies should push to the highest redshifts possible.

  20. The environmental history of group and cluster galaxies in a Λ cold dark matter universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lucia, Gabriella; Weinmann, Simone; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2012-06-01

    We use publicly available galaxy merger trees, obtained applying semi-analytic techniques to a large high-resolution cosmological simulation, to study the environmental history of group and cluster galaxies. Our results highlight the existence of an intrinsic history bias which makes the nature versus nurture (as well as the mass versus environment) debate inherently ill posed. In particular, we show that (i) surviving massive satellites were accreted later than their less massive counterparts, from more massive haloes and (ii) the mixing of galaxy populations is incomplete during halo assembly, which creates a correlation between the time a galaxy becomes satellite and its present distance from the parent halo centre. The weakest trends are found for the most massive satellites, as a result of efficient dynamical friction and late formation times of massive haloes. A large fraction of the most massive group/cluster members are accreted on to the main progenitor of the final halo as central galaxies, while about half of the galaxies with low and intermediate stellar masses are accreted as satellites. Large fractions of group and cluster galaxies (in particular those of low stellar mass) have therefore been ‘pre-processed’ as satellites of groups with mass ˜1013 M⊙. To quantify the relevance of hierarchical structure growth on the observed environmental trends, we have considered observational estimates of the passive galaxy fractions and their variation as a function of halo mass and clustercentric distance. Comparisons with our theoretical predictions require relatively long times (˜5-7 Gyr) for the suppression of star formation in group and cluster satellites. It is unclear how such a gentle mode of strangulation can be achieved by simply relaxing the assumption of instantaneous stripping of the hot gas reservoir associated with accreting galaxies, or if the difficulties encountered by recent galaxy formation models in reproducing the observed trends

  1. Featured Image: Identifying Weird Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-08-01

    Hoags Object, an example of a ring galaxy. [NASA/Hubble Heritage Team/Ray A. Lucas (STScI/AURA)]The above image (click for the full view) shows PanSTARRSobservationsof some of the 185 galaxies identified in a recent study as ring galaxies bizarre and rare irregular galaxies that exhibit stars and gas in a ring around a central nucleus. Ring galaxies could be formed in a number of ways; one theory is that some might form in a galaxy collision when a smaller galaxy punches through the center of a larger one, triggering star formation around the center. In a recent study, Ian Timmis and Lior Shamir of Lawrence Technological University in Michigan explore ways that we may be able to identify ring galaxies in the overwhelming number of images expected from large upcoming surveys. They develop a computer analysis method that automatically finds ring galaxy candidates based on their visual appearance, and they test their approach on the 3 million galaxy images from the first PanSTARRS data release. To see more of the remarkable galaxies the authors found and to learn more about their identification method, check out the paper below.CitationIan Timmis and Lior Shamir 2017 ApJS 231 2. doi:10.3847/1538-4365/aa78a3

  2. Probing Magnetic Fields of Early Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-06-01

    the magnetic fields in the foreground protogalaxies.Farnes and collaborators were unable to detect either coherent or random magnetic fields in DLAs. LLSs, however, showed some evidence of coherent magnetic fields and significant evidence of incoherent magnetic fields. The observations show that the magnetized gas in LLSs must be highly turbulent on a scale of 520 parsecs similar to turbulence scales in the Milky Way.Support for DynamosWhat do these observations imply? Both support the dynamo theory of magnetic field growth in galaxies!Polarization fraction distributions (top) and their logarithms (bottom) for sources with and without protogalaxies in the foreground (pink for DLAs, blue for LLSs, and grey for no intervenor). Statistical analysis reveals that the distribution for LLSs differs from the control sample, indicating the presence of magnetized gas. [Adapted from Farnes et al. 2017]The DLAs appear to consist of mostly non-turbulent quiescent gas; no dynamo action is currently occurring in these protogalaxies. The LLSs, on the other hand, appear to be growing their random magnetic fields via a turbulent dynamo. Thefields have not yet had enough time to become ordered like the fields of more evolved galaxies, however.Farnes and collaborators data indicate that magnetic fields are indeed being gradually built up in early galaxies by dynamos. They also suggest that DLAs may represent an earlier galactic evolutionary stage than LLSs, as DLAs havent yet had the time to develop their magnetic fields to a detectable level.A future increase in sample size will certainly help improve our understanding of the field formation process. In the meantime, the data in this study provide the first observational picture of magnetic field evolution in galaxies, lending excellent support to theoretical models.CitationJ. S. Farnes et al 2017 ApJ 841 67. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa7060

  3. Galaxy Clustering in Early Sloan Digital Sky Survey Redshift Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehavi, Idit; Blanton, Michael R.; Frieman, Joshua A.; Weinberg, David H.; Mo, Houjun J.; Strauss, Michael A.; Anderson, Scott F.; Annis, James; Bahcall, Neta A.; Bernardi, Mariangela; Briggs, John W.; Brinkmann, Jon; Burles, Scott; Carey, Larry; Castander, Francisco J.; Connolly, Andrew J.; Csabai, Istvan; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Dodelson, Scott; Doi, Mamoru; Eisenstein, Daniel; Evans, Michael L.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Friedman, Scott; Fukugita, Masataka; Gunn, James E.; Hennessy, Greg S.; Hindsley, Robert B.; Ivezić, Željko; Kent, Stephen; Knapp, Gillian R.; Kron, Richard; Kunszt, Peter; Lamb, Donald Q.; Leger, R. French; Long, Daniel C.; Loveday, Jon; Lupton, Robert H.; McKay, Timothy; Meiksin, Avery; Merrelli, Aronne; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Narayanan, Vijay; Newcomb, Matt; Nichol, Robert C.; Owen, Russell; Peoples, John; Pope, Adrian; Rockosi, Constance M.; Schlegel, David; Schneider, Donald P.; Scoccimarro, Roman; Sheth, Ravi K.; Siegmund, Walter; Smee, Stephen; Snir, Yehuda; Stebbins, Albert; Stoughton, Christopher; SubbaRao, Mark; Szalay, Alexander S.; Szapudi, Istvan; Tegmark, Max; Tucker, Douglas L.; Uomoto, Alan; Vanden Berk, Dan; Vogeley, Michael S.; Waddell, Patrick; Yanny, Brian; York, Donald G.

    2002-05-01

    We present the first measurements of clustering in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxy redshift survey. Our sample consists of 29,300 galaxies with redshifts 5700kms-1is approximately 8 h-1 Mpc. The two-dimensional correlation function ξ(rp,π) shows clear signatures of both the small-scale, ``fingers-of-God'' distortion caused by velocity dispersions in collapsed objects and the large-scale compression caused by coherent flows, though the latter cannot be measured with high precision in the present sample. The inferred real-space correlation function is well described by a power law, ξ(r)=(r/6.1+/-0.2h-1Mpc)-1.75+/-0.03, for 0.1h-1Mpcis σ12~600+/-100kms-1 for projected separations 0.15h-1Mpcreal-space correlation function and a higher pairwise velocity dispersion than do the blue galaxies. The relative behavior of subsamples defined by high/low profile concentration or high/low surface brightness is qualitatively similar to that of the red/blue subsamples. Our most striking result is a clear measurement of scale-independent luminosity bias at rreal-space correlation functions that are parallel power laws of slope ~-1.8 with correlation lengths of approximately 7.4, 6.3, and 4.7 h-1 Mpc, respectively.

  4. Galaxies in the Early Universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogager, Jens-Kristian

    Understanding how galaxies evolved from the early Universe through cosmic time is a fundamental part of modern astrophysics. In order to study this evolution it is important to sample the galaxies at various times in a consistent way through time. In regular luminosity selected samples, our...... analyses are biased towards the brightest galaxies at all times (as these are easier to observe and identify). A complementary method relies on the absorption imprint from neutral gas in galaxies, the so-called damped Ly absorbers (DLAs) seen towards distant bright objects. This thesis seeks to understand...... how the absorption selected galaxies relate to the emission selected galaxies by identifying the faint glow from the absorbing galaxies at redshift z 2. In Chapters 2 and 3, the emission properties of DLAs are studied in detail using state-of-the-art instrumentation. The specific DLA studied...

  5. Lopsided spiral galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lopsided distribution highlighted first: Baldwin, Lynden-Bell, & Sancisi (1980) · Lopsidedness also seen in an edge-on galaxy : NGC 891 · Slide 7 · Origin of m=1 disk distribution? Early Theoretical models: · Disk response to a lopsided halo potential (Jog 1997, 2002): · Isophotal shapes in a lopsided potential. Distribution of ...

  6. Simulations of galaxy mergers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villumsen, J.V.; Yale Univ., New Haven, CT

    1982-01-01

    A number of N-body simulations of mergers of equal and unequal galaxies are presented. A new code is presented which determines the potential from a mass distribution by a fourth-order expansion in Tesseral harmonics in three dimensions as an approximation to a collisionless system. The total number of particles in the system is 1200. Two galaxies, each a spherical non-rotating system with isothermal or Hubble density profile, are put in orbit around each other where tidal effects and dynamical friction lead to merging. The final system has a Hubble profile, and in some mergers an 'isothermal' halo forms as found in cD galaxies. Equal mass mergers are more flattened than unequal mass mergers. The central surface brightness decreases except in a merger of isothermal galaxies which shows a major redistribution of energy towards a Hubble profile. Mixing is severe in equal mass mergers, where radial gradients are weakened, while in unequal mass encounters gradients can build up due to less mixing and the formation of a halo. Oblate systems with strong rotation form in high angular momentum encounters while prolate systems with little rotation are formed in near head-on collisions. (author)

  7. Outskirts of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Janice; Paz, Armando

    2017-01-01

    This book consists of invited reviews written by world-renowned experts on the subject of the outskirts of galaxies, an upcoming field which has been understudied so far. These regions are faint and hard to observe, yet hide a tremendous amount of information on the origin and early evolution of galaxies. They thus allow astronomers to address some of the most topical problems, such as gaseous and satellite accretion, radial migration, and merging. The book is published in conjunction with the celebration of the end of the four-year DAGAL project, an EU-funded initial training network, and with a major international conference on the topic held in March 2016 in Toledo. It thus reflects not only the views of the experts, but also the scientific discussions and progress achieved during the project and the meeting. The reviews in the book describe the most modern observations of the outer regions of our own Galaxy, and of galaxies in the local and high-redshift Universe. They tackle disks, haloes, streams, and a...

  8. From gas to galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hulst, J.M.; Sadler, E.M.; Jackson, C.A.; Hunt, L.K.; Verheijen, M.; van Gorkom, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    The unsurpassed sensitivity and resolution of the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) will make it possible for the first time to probe the continuum emission of normal star forming galaxies out to the edges of the universe. This opens the possibility for routinely using the radio continuum emission from

  9. Forming galaxies with MOND

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, R. H.

    2008-01-01

    Beginning with a simple model for the growth of structure, I consider the dissipationless evolution of a MOND-dominated region in an expanding universe by means of a spherically symmetric N-body code. I demonstrate that the final virialized objects resemble elliptical galaxies with well-defined

  10. Galaxy Masses : A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Courteau, Stephane; Cappellari, Michele; Jong, Roelof S. de; Dutton, Aaron A.; Koopmans, L.V.E.

    2013-01-01

    Galaxy masses play a fundamental role in our understanding of structure formation models. This review addresses the variety and reliability of mass estimators that pertain to stars, gas, and dark matter. The dierent sections on masses from stellar populations, dynamical masses of gas-rich and

  11. Formation of Triaxial Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang-Hyeon Park

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Results of N-body simulation of dissipationless cold collapse of spherical gravitating system are presented. We compared the results with properties of elliptical galaxies. The system gradually evolved to triaxial system. The projected density profile is in good agreement with observations. In addition to triaxial instability, it seems that there is another instability.

  12. Galaxy And Mass Assembly: automatic morphological classification of galaxies using statistical learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejith, Sreevarsha; Pereverzyev, Sergiy, Jr.; Kelvin, Lee S.; Marleau, Francine R.; Haltmeier, Markus; Ebner, Judith; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Driver, Simon P.; Graham, Alister W.; Holwerda, Benne W.; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Liske, Jochen; Loveday, Jon; Moffett, Amanda J.; Pimbblet, Kevin A.; Taylor, Edward N.; Wang, Lingyu; Wright, Angus H.

    2018-03-01

    We apply four statistical learning methods to a sample of 7941 galaxies (z Support Vector Machines, Classification Trees, Classification Trees with Random Forest (CTRF) and Neural Networks, and returning True Prediction Ratios (TPRs) of 75.8 per cent, 69.0 per cent, 76.2 per cent, and 76.0 per cent, respectively. Those occasions whereby all four algorithms agree with each other yet disagree with the visual classification (`unanimous disagreement') serves as a potential indicator of human error in classification, occurring in ˜ 9 per cent of ellipticals, ˜ 9 per cent of little blue spheroids, ˜ 14 per cent of early-type spirals, ˜ 21 per cent of intermediate-type spirals, and ˜ 4 per cent of late-type spirals and irregulars. We observe that the choice of parameters rather than that of algorithms is more crucial in determining classification accuracy. Due to its simplicity in formulation and implementation, we recommend the CTRF algorithm for classifying future galaxy data sets. Adopting the CTRF algorithm, the TPRs of the five galaxy types are : E, 70.1 per cent; LBS, 75.6 per cent; S0-Sa, 63.6 per cent; Sab-Scd, 56.4 per cent, and Sd-Irr, 88.9 per cent. Further, we train a binary classifier using this CTRF algorithm that divides galaxies into spheroid-dominated (E, LBS, and S0-Sa) and disc-dominated (Sab-Scd and Sd-Irr), achieving an overall accuracy of 89.8 per cent. This translates into an accuracy of 84.9 per cent for spheroid-dominated systems and 92.5 per cent for disc-dominated systems.

  13. A GREEN BANK TELESCOPE SURVEY FOR H I 21 cm ABSORPTION IN THE DISKS AND HALOS OF LOW-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borthakur, Sanchayeeta; Tripp, Todd M.; Yun, Min S.; Meiring, Joseph D.; Bowen, David V.; York, Donald G.; Momjian, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    We present an H I 21 cm absorption survey with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) of galaxy-quasar pairs selected by combining galaxy data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and radio sources from the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-Centimeters (FIRST) survey. Our sample consists of 23 sight lines through 15 low-redshift foreground galaxy-background quasar pairs with impact parameters ranging from 1.7 kpc up to 86.7 kpc. We detected one absorber in the GBT survey from the foreground dwarf galaxy, GQ1042+0747, at an impact parameter of 1.7 kpc and another possible absorber in our follow-up Very Large Array (VLA) imaging of the nearby foreground galaxy UGC 7408. The line widths of both absorbers are narrow (FWHM of 3.6 and 4.8km s -1 ). The absorbers have sub-damped Lyα column densities, and most likely originate in the disk gas of the foreground galaxies. We also detected H I emission from three foreground galaxies including UGC 7408. Although our sample contains both blue and red galaxies, the two H I absorbers as well as the H I emissions are associated with blue galaxies. We discuss the physical conditions in the 21 cm absorbers and some drawbacks of the large GBT beam for this type of survey.

  14. Discovery of Molecular Gas Shells around the Unusual Galaxy Centaurus A

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Recent observations by an international team of astronomers [1] with the 15-metre Swedish-ESO Submillimetre Telescope at the La Silla observatory (Chile) have shown that the unusual, nearby galaxy Centaurus A is surrounded by shells in which carbon monoxide molecules are present. These new exciting results are the first of their kind. In addition to the intrinsic scientific value of this discovery, it also provides an instructive example of what will become possible for more distant galaxies with the projected Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) , now in the planning phase. Ellipticals and spirals Galaxies come in different shapes. Some of these take the form of more or less perfect spirals, some have the form of ellipsoids and still others have an irregular appearance. One of the major differences between elliptical and spiral galaxies is that the former do not possess extensive gaseous discs in which young stars can be formed. This is despite the fact that most elliptical galaxies are probably formed by the merger of two or more spiral galaxies. However, during such a process most of the gas in the spirals is either quickly turned into stars by massive bursts of star formation or is completely lost into the surrounding space. Shells around elliptical galaxies Most galaxies are members of groups. Once they have been formed, massive elliptical galaxies in these often behave like "cannibals" by swallowing one or more smaller companion galaxies. Some vestiges of such an event may remain visible for a certain time after the merger, normally in the form of weak structures in the otherwise smooth light distribution over the elliptical galaxy. These structures resemble the ripples or waves that develop on the water surface when you throw a small stone into a calm pond. While long-exposure photos show them as faint "rings" around the galaxy, they are in fact the projected images of three-dimensional structures and are often referred to as shells . By means of

  15. Instant BlueStacks

    CERN Document Server

    Judge, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A fast-paced, example-based approach guide for learning BlueStacks.This book is for anyone with a Mac or PC who wants to run Android apps on their computer. Whether you want to play games that are freely available for Android but not your computer, or you want to try apps before you install them on a physical device or use it as a development tool, this book will show you how. No previous experience is needed as this is written in plain English

  16. POX 186: A Dwarf Galaxy in the Process of Formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Michael R.; Vacca, William D.

    2002-12-01

    We present deep U-, V-, and I-band images of the ``ultracompact'' blue dwarf galaxy POX 186 obtained with the Planetary Camera 2 of the Hubble Space Telescope. We have also obtained a near-ultraviolet spectrum of the object with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph and combine this with a new ground-based optical spectrum. The images confirm the galaxy to be extremely small, with a maximum extent of only 300 pc, a luminosity of ~10-4L*, and an estimated mass of ~107 Msolar. Its morphology is highly asymmetric, with a tail of material on its western side that may be tidal in origin. The U-band image shows this tail to be part of a stream of material in which stars have recently formed. Most of the star formation in the galaxy is, however, concentrated in a central, compact (d~10-15 pc) star cluster. We estimate this cluster to have a total mass of ~105 Msolar, to be forming stars at a rate of less than 0.05 yr-1, and to have a maximum age of a few million years. The outer regions of the galaxy are significantly redder than the cluster, with V-I colors consistent with a population dominated by K and M stars. From our analysis of the optical spectrum we find the galaxy to have a metallicity Z~=0.06 Zsolar and to contain a significant amount of internal dust [E(B-V)~=0.28] both values agree with previous estimates. While these results rule out earlier speculation that POX 186 is a protogalaxy, its morphology, mass, and active star formation suggest that it represents a recent (within ~108 yr) collision between two clumps of stars of subgalactic size (~100 pc). POX 186 may thus be a very small dwarf galaxy that, dynamically speaking, is still in the process of formation. This interpretation is supported by the fact that it resides in a void, so its morphology cannot be explained as the result of an encounter with a more massive galaxy. Clumps of stars this small may represent the building blocks required by hierarchical models of galaxy formation, and these results

  17. Deep Imaging of the HCG 95 Field. I. Ultra-diffuse Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dong Dong; Zheng, Xian Zhong; Zhao, Hai Bin; Pan, Zhi Zheng; Li, Bin; Zou, Hu; Zhou, Xu; Guo, KeXin; An, Fang Xia; Li, Yu Bin

    2017-09-01

    We present a detection of 89 candidates of ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) in a 4.9 degree2 field centered on the Hickson Compact Group 95 (HCG 95) using deep g- and r-band images taken with the Chinese Near Object Survey Telescope. This field contains one rich galaxy cluster (Abell 2588 at z = 0.199) and two poor clusters (Pegasus I at z = 0.013 and Pegasus II at z = 0.040). The 89 candidates are likely associated with the two poor clusters, giving about 50-60 true UDGs with a half-light radius {r}{{e}}> 1.5 {kpc} and a central surface brightness μ (g,0)> 24.0 mag arcsec-2. Deep z\\prime -band images are available for 84 of the 89 galaxies from the Dark Energy Camera Legacy Survey (DECaLS), confirming that these galaxies have an extremely low central surface brightness. Moreover, our UDG candidates are spread over a wide range in g - r color, and ˜26% are as blue as normal star-forming galaxies, which is suggestive of young UDGs that are still in formation. Interestingly, we find that one UDG linked with HCG 95 is a gas-rich galaxy with H I mass 1.1× {10}9 M ⊙ detected by the Very Large Array, and has a stellar mass of {M}\\star ˜ 1.8× {10}8 M ⊙. This indicates that UDGs at least partially overlap with the population of nearly dark galaxies found in deep H I surveys. Our results show that the high abundance of blue UDGs in the HCG 95 field is favored by the environment of poor galaxy clusters residing in H I-rich large-scale structures.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Metallicity of MPA-JHU SDSS-DR7 dwarf galaxies (Douglass+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, K. A.; Vogeley, M. S.

    2017-07-01

    We study how the cosmic environment affects galaxy evolution in the universe by comparing the metallicities of dwarf galaxies in voids with dwarf galaxies in more dense regions. Ratios of the fluxes of emission lines, particularly those of the forbidden [OIII] and [SII] transitions, provide estimates of a region's electron temperature and number density. From these two quantities and the emission line fluxes [OII]λ3727, [OIII]λ4363, and [OIII]λλ4959,5007, we estimate the abundance of oxygen with the direct Te method. We estimate the metallicity of 42 blue, star-forming void dwarf galaxies and 89 blue, star-forming dwarf galaxies in more dense regions using spectroscopic observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, as reprocessed in the MPA-JHU value-added catalog. We find very little difference between the two sets of galaxies, indicating little influence from the large-scale environment on their chemical evolution. Of particular interest are a number of extremely metal-poor dwarf galaxies that are less prevalent in voids than in the denser regions. (1 data file).

  19. Blue phases as photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohley, Christian; Scharf, Toralf

    2003-12-01

    The Liquid Crystalline Blue Phases (LC BPs) and their diffraction patterns were investigated experimentally and theoretically. We stabilized Blue Phases and measured their diffraction pattern for different wavelengths of monochromatic light with the help of a conoscopic setup of a polarization microscope. Moreover, the diffraction patterns were calculated with the help of a 4x4 matrix method which allows amplitude and phase investigations.

  20. OMEGA - OSIRIS Mapping of Emission-line Galaxies in A901/2 - III. Galaxy properties across projected phase space in A901/2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinzirl, Tim; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Gray, Meghan E.; Bamford, Steven P.; Rodríguez del Pino, Bruno; Chies-Santos, Ana L.; Böhm, Asmus; Wolf, Christian; Cool, Richard J.

    2017-10-01

    We conduct a comprehensive projected phase-space analysis of the A901/2 multicluster system at z ˜ 0.165. Aggregating redshifts from spectroscopy, tunable-filter imaging and prism techniques, we assemble a sample of 856 cluster galaxies reaching 108.5 M⊙ in stellar mass. We look for variations in cluster galaxy properties between virialized and non-virialized regions of projected phase space (PPS). Our main conclusions point to relatively gentle environmental effects, expressed mainly on galaxy gas reservoirs. (1) Stacking the four subclusters in A901/2, we find galaxies in the virialized region are more massive, redder and have marginally higher Sérsic indices, but their half-light radii and Hubble types are not significantly different. (2) After accounting for trends in stellar mass, there is a remaining change in rest-frame colour across PPS. Primarily, the colour difference is due to the absence in the virialized region of galaxies with rest frame B - V 109.85 M⊙) stellar mass. (3) There is an infalling population of lower mass (M⋆ ≤ 109.85 M⊙), relatively blue (B - V PPS regions is strongly dictated by stellar mass. However, there remains a reduced fraction of star-forming galaxies in the centres of the clusters at fixed stellar mass, consistent with the star formation-density relation in galaxy clusters. (5) There is no change in specific Hα-derived star formation rates of star-forming galaxies at fixed mass across the cluster environment. This suggests that pre-processing of galaxies during infall plays a prominent role in quenching star formation.

  1. The formation of cluster galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancone, Conor L.

    2012-06-01

    In this work I sought to understand the formation and evolution of galaxies. Specifically, I studied three key aspects of galaxy formation: star formation, mass assembly, and structural evolution. Past research has shown that the formation of a galaxy is strongly coupled to its local environment (i.e. the local galaxy density). Therefore, I studied the evolution of cluster galaxies because clusters are the highest density environments that exist in the universe. In turn, the observational results found herein form a foundation upon which to test theories of galaxy formation in the densest environments. I used the latest sample of galaxy clusters from the Bootes region to measure the near-infrared luminosity function (NIR LF) of cluster galaxies from 0 1.3. I used deeper IRAC imaging to study the NIR LF of high redshift cluster galaxies (1 pulsating AGB stars, which are poorly understood observationally but contribute substantially to the NIR light of a stellar population. I also created the Python Galaxy Fitter (PyGFit), a program which measures PSF matched photometry from crowded imaging with disparate PSFs and resolutions. This enabled accurate measurement of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) in crowded cluster fields.

  2. Detecting Nosocomial Intrinsic Infections through Relating Bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research ... Surgical procedures often lead to both intrinsic and extrinsic infections. ... This study demonstrated surgical procedures as precursory to intrinsic infections and that bacterial pathogens found on wounds and endogenous indicators of surgery are links to intrinsic infection.

  3. The evolution of the cold interstellar medium in galaxies following a starburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, K.; Wild, V.; Nesvadba, N.; Sibthorpe, B.; Mortier, A.; Lehnert, M.; da Cunha, E.

    2015-03-01

    We present the evolution of dust and molecular gas properties in a sample of 11 z ˜ 0.03 starburst to post-starburst (PSB) galaxies selected to span an age sequence from ongoing starburst to 1 Gyr after the starburst ended. All PSBs harbour significant molecular gas and dust reservoirs and residual star formation, indicating that complete quenching of the starburst due to exhaustion or expulsion of gas has not occurred during this timespan. As the starburst ages, we observe a clear decrease in the star formation efficiency, molecular gas and star formation rate (SFR) surface density, and effective dust temperature, from levels coincident with starburst galaxies to those of normal star-forming galaxies. These trends are consistent with a natural decrease in the SFR following consumption of molecular gas by the starburst, and corresponding decrease in the interstellar radiation field strength as the starburst ages. The gas and dust contents of the PSBs are coincident with those of star-forming galaxies and molecular gas-rich early-type galaxies, and are not consistent with galaxies on the red sequence. We find no evidence that the global gas reservoir is expelled by stellar winds or active galactic nuclei feedback. Our results show that although a strong starburst in a low-redshift galaxy may cause the galaxy to ultimately have a lower specific SFR and be of an earlier morphological type, the galaxy will remain in the `green valley' for an extended time. Multiple such episodes may be needed to complete migration of the galaxy from the blue- to red sequence.

  4. On possible extension of the unification scheme of radio galaxies and quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyzy, Krzysztof Tadeusz

    1995-03-01

    Barthel's simple unification scheme of powerful radio galaxies and quasars, based entirely on the orientation dependent effects, has been confronted with the observed radio structures for 152 radio galaxies and 173 steep spectrum quasars. Contrary to the scheme's prediction, the cosmological evolution of geometrical parameters describing the large scale structure of these two types of radio sources is different. Linear size, arm ratio asymmetry and bending all are more strongly evolving with epoch for radio galaxies. Moreover, linear size and bending are more closely correlated with radio luminosity for radio galaxies than for quasars. This supports the supposition that, even if these two AGN classes are intrinsically identical sets of objects in deep interior regions, their large scale structures reveal various host environmental conditions that probably developed in the course of their evolution. In that case Barthel's simple unification scheme may be supplemented by additional class of less powerful objects with hardly visible broad line region even in their optical polarized flux spectrum.

  5. The Arecibo Galaxy Environment Survey IX: the isolated galaxy sample

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Minchin, R.F.; Auld, R.; Davies, J.I.; Karachentsev, I.D.; Keenan, O.; Momjian, E.; Rodriguez, R.; Taber, T.; Taylor, Rhys

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 455, č. 4 (2016), s. 3430-3435 ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG14013; GA ČR GAP209/12/1795 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : individual galaxies NGC 1156 * individual galaxies NGC 5523 * individual galaxies UGC 2082 Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.961, year: 2016

  6. Cluster and field elliptical galaxies at z 1.3. The marginal role of the environment and the relevance of the galaxy central regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracco, P.; Gargiulo, A.; Ciocca, F.; Marchesini, D.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this work is twofold: first, to assess whether the population of elliptical galaxies in cluster at z 1.3 differs from the population in the field and whether their intrinsic structure depends on the environment where they belong; second, to constrain their properties 9 Gyr back in time through the study of their scaling relations. Methods: We compared a sample of 56 cluster elliptical galaxies selected from three clusters at 1.2 morphology. We compared physical and structural parameters of galaxies in the two environments and we derived the relationships between effective radius, surface brightness, stellar mass, and stellar mass density ΣRe within the effective radius and central mass density Σ1 kpc, within 1 kpc radius. Results: We find that the structure and the properties of cluster elliptical galaxies do not differ from those in the field: they are characterized by the same structural parameters at fixed mass and they follow the same scaling relations. On the other hand, the population of field elliptical galaxies at z 1.3 shows a significant lack of massive (ℳ∗> 2 × 1011M⊙) and large (Re> 4-5 kpc) elliptical galaxies with respect to the cluster. Nonetheless, at ℳ∗mt) defining a transition mass density Σ1 kpc ≃ 2-3 × 103M⊙ pc-2. The effective stellar mass density ΣRe does not correlate with mass; dense/compact galaxies can be assembled over a wide mass regime, independently of the environment. The central stellar mass density, Σ1 kpc, besides being correlated with the mass, is correlated to the age of the stellar population: the higher the central stellar mass density, the higher the mass, the older the age of the stellar population. Conclusions: While we found some evidence of environmental effects on the elliptical galaxies as a population, we did not find differences between the intrinsic properties of cluster and field elliptical galaxies at comparable redshift. The structure and the shaping of elliptical galaxies at z

  7. Origin of 12 micrometer Emission Across Galaxy Populations from Wise and ADSS Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donso, E.; Yan, Lin; Tsai, C.; Eisenhardt, P; Stern, D.; Assef, R. J.; Leisawitz, D.; Jarrett, T. H.; Stanford, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    We cross-matched Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer sources brighter than 1 mJy at 12 micron with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxy spectroscopic catalog to produce a sample of approx. 10(exp 5) galaxies at z = 0.08, the largest of its kind. This sample is dominated (70%) by star-forming (SF) galaxies from the blue sequence, with total IR luminosities in the range approx 10(exp 8)-10(exp 12) Solar L. We identify which stellar populations are responsible for most of the 12 micron emission. We find that most (approx 80%) of the 12 micron emission in SF galaxies is produced by stellar populations younger than 0.6 Gyr. In contrast, the 12 micron emission in weak active galactic nuclei (AGNs; L [O iii] 10(exp 7) solar L ), act as an extension of massive SF galaxies, connecting the SF and weak AGN sequences. This suggests a picture where galaxies form stars normally until an AGN (possibly after a starburst episode) starts to gradually quench the SF activity. We also find that 4.6-12 micron color is a useful first-order indicator of SF activity in a galaxy when no other data are available.

  8. A study of the structure and kinematics of the narrow-line region in Seyfert galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veilleux, S.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a high resolution study of the narrow emission line profiles of 16 Seyfert galaxies are presented. It is shown that the line profile parameters published in earlier low resolution studies are sometimes strongly influenced by resolution effects. In spite of these important systematic errors, many of the results derived from low resolution data are confirmed in the high resolution data. The narrow line profiles of Seyfert galaxies have a stronger base relative to core than a Gaussian. Most of the emission lines present a blueward asymmetry in the lower portion of their profile. In some galaxies, the line widths and/or line asymmetries are correlated with the ionization potential and/or critical density of the lines. There is a weak correlation between the line asymmetry and the dust content of the narrow line region (NLR). The large scatter in this relation, the absence of a similar correlation in Seyfert 1 to 1.5 galaxies, and the presence of a blue asymmetry in galaxies with dustfree line-emitting regions suggest that dust obscuration is not the only mechanism responsible for the line asymmetry in active galaxies. An optically-thick disk close to the nucleus is proposed as the other source of line asymmetry. An important result is that the host galaxy is probably playing a role in the kinematics of some of the gas in the NLR. A multicomponent model of the NLR is proposed to explain these results

  9. Occurrence of LINER galaxies within the galaxy group environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldwell, Georgina V.; Pereyra, Luis; Alonso, Sol; Donoso, Emilio; Duplancic, Fernanda

    2017-05-01

    We study the properties of a sample of 3967 low-ionization nuclear emission-line region (LINER) galaxies selected from SDSS-DR7, with respect to their proximity to galaxy groups. The host galaxies of LINERs have been analysed and compared with a well-defined control sample of 3841 non-LINER galaxies matched in redshift, luminosity, colour, morphology, age and stellar mass content. We find no difference between LINER and control galaxies in terms of the colour and age of stellar population as a function of the virial mass and distance to the geometric centre of the group. However, we find that LINERs are more likely to populate low-density environments in spite of their morphology, which is typical of high-density regions such as rich galaxy clusters. For rich (poor) galaxy groups, the occurrence of LINERs is approximately two times lower (higher) than the occurrence of matched, non-LINER galaxies. Moreover, LINER hosts do not seem to follow the expected morphology-density relation in groups of high virial mass. The high frequency of LINERs in low-density regions could be due to the combination of a sufficient gas reservoir to power the low-ionization emission and/or enhanced galaxy interaction rates benefiting the gas flow towards their central regions.

  10. Enhancing the view of a million galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Composite image hi-res Size hi-res: 851 KB Credits: ESA/Univ. of Leicester/I. Stewart and M. Watson XMM-Newton X-ray spectral colour composite image XMM-Newton X-ray spectral colour composite image of the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Field. The view gives an X-ray pseudo-colour representation of all the sources, coded according to their X-ray energy. More energetic sources are shown in blue and less energetic ones in red. This mosaic image, composed of 7 partially overlapping pointings, maps the full extent of the SXDF and corresponds to an exposure time exceeding one hundred hours. These data form the largest contiguous area over which deep X-ray observations have been performed. Composite image hi-res Size hi-res: 6215 KB Credits: NAOJ/Subaru Telescope XMM-Newton/Subaru colour composite image A colour composite image obtained by combining data taken with the Subaru Telescope in blue, red and near-infrared light. The image, worth over two hundred hours of exposure time, covers an area of sky seven times larger than the full moon. The images in blue light show details several hundred million times fainter than what can be seen with the naked eye. SXDS field hi-res Size hi-res: 448 KB Credits: NAOJ/Subaru Telescope SXDS field A particular of the SXDS field. The teardrop-shaped galaxy in the upper right portion of the frame is likely to have suffered from a collision with another galaxy. SXDS field hi-res Size hi-res: 358 KB Credits: NAOJ/Subaru Telescope SXDS field A particular of the SXDS field. The prominent spiral galaxy near the centre may be ineracting with a less-conspicuous dwarf galaxy to its lower right. One of the fundamental goals of modern astronomy is understanding the history of the Universe, and in particular learning about the processes that shape the formation and evolution of galaxies. To observe these processes as they unfold, astronomers must survey galaxies near and far, spanning a large enough volume of the Universe, so that local variations in the

  11. The Galaxy's Eating Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, M. E.; Thom, C.; Gibson, B. K.; Staveley-Smith, L.

    2004-06-01

    The possibility of a gaseous halo stream which was stripped from the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy is presented. The total mass of the neutral hydrogen along the orbit of the Sgr dwarf in the direction of the Galactic Anti-Center is 4 - 10 × 106 M⊙ (at 36 kpc, the distance to the stellar debris in this region). Both the stellar and gaseous components have negative velocities in this part of the sky, but the gaseous component extends to higher negative velocities. We suggest this gaseous stream was stripped from the main body of the dwarf 0.2 - 0.3 Gyr ago during its current orbit after a passage through a diffuse edge of the Galactic disk with a density > 10-4 cm-3. The gas would then represent the dwarf's last source of star formation fuel and explains how the galaxy was forming stars 0.5-2 Gyr ago.

  12. The Anatomy of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onofrio, Mauro; Rampazzo, Roberto; Zaggia, Simone; Longair, Malcolm S.; Ferrarese, Laura; Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack W.; van der Kruit, Pieter C.; Laurikainen, Eija; Elmegreen, Debra M.; Combes, Françoise; Bertin, Giuseppe; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Calzetti, Daniela; Moss, David L.; Matteucci, Francesca; Djorgovski, Stanislav George; Fraix-Burnet, Didier; Graham, Alister W. McK.; Tully, Brent R.

    Just after WWII Astronomy started to live its "Golden Age", not differently to many other sciences and human activities, especially in the west side countries. The improved resolution of telescopes and the appearance of new efficient light detectors (e.g. CCDs in the middle eighty) greatly impacted the extragalactic researches. The first morphological analysis of galaxies were rapidly substituted by "anatomic" studies of their structural components, star and gas content, and in general by detailed investigations of their properties. As for the human anatomy, where the final goal was that of understanding the functionality of the organs that are essential for the life of the body, galaxies were dissected to discover their basic structural components and ultimately the mystery of their existence.

  13. Black holes and galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Propst, Raphael J

    2010-01-01

    Galaxies are the basic unit of cosmology. The study of galaxy formation is concerned with the processes that formed a heterogeneous universe from a homogeneous beginning. The physics of galaxy formation is complicated because it deals with the dynamics of stars, thermodynamics of gas and energy production of stars. A black hole is a massive object whose gravitational field is so intense that it prevents any form of matter or radiation to escape. It is hypothesized that the most massive galaxies in the universe- "elliptical galaxies"- grow simultaneously with the supermassive black holes at their centers, giving us much stronger evidence that black holes control galaxy formation. This book reviews new evidence in the field.

  14. A Century of Galaxy Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Vera C.

    1995-10-01

    The first successful spectrum of a galaxy, M31, was obtained in 1898 and published in a two-page paper in the young Astrophysical Journal (Scheiner 1899). Thus the first century of galaxy spectroscopy and the first century of the Astrophysical Journal are almost coincident; I celebrate both in this paper. I describe the very early history of the determination of internal kinematics in spiral galaxies, often by quoting the astronomers' own published words. By mid-century, observations with improved optical and radio telescopes offered evidence that much of the matter in a galaxy is dark. As the century ends, research interests have enlarged to include study of spheroidal and disk galaxies with complex nuclear (and other) kinematics. These complicated velocity patterns are understood as the result of interactions, acquisitions, and mergers, and offer clear evidence of the important role of gravitational effects in galaxy evolution.

  15. The environments of Markarian galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackenty, J.W.; Simpson, C.; Mclean, B.

    1990-01-01

    The extensively studied Markarian sample of 1500 ultraviolet excess galaxies contains many Seyfert, starburst, and peculiar galaxies. Using the 20 minute V plates obtained for the construction of the Hubble Space Telescope Guide Star Catalog, the authors investigated the morphologies of the Markarian galaxies and the environments in which they are located. The relationship between the types of nuclear activity and the morphologies and environments of the Markarian galaxies is discussed. The authors conclude that the type of nuclear activity present in the galaxies of the Markarian sample is not dependent on either the morphology or the local environment of the galaxy. This is not to imply that nuclear activity per se is not influenced by the environment in which the nucleus is located. Rather the type of nuclear activity (at least in the Markarian population) does not appear to be determined by the environment

  16. Simulations of galaxy mergers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villumsen, J.V.

    1982-01-01

    This work is a theoretical investigation of the mechanisms and results of mergers of elliptical galaxies. An N-body code is developed to simulate the dynamics of centrally concentrated collisionless systems. It is used for N-body simulations of the mergers of galaxies with mass ratios of 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1 with a total of 1200 or 2400 particles. The initial galaxies are spherical and non-rotating with Hubble type profiles and isotropic velocity distributions. The remnants are flattened (up to E4) and are oblate, triaxial or prolate depending on the impact parameter. Equal mass mergers are more flattened than unequal mass mergers and have significant velocity anisotropies. The remnants have Hubble type profiles with decreased central surface brightness and increased core radii and tidal radii. In some unequal mass mergers ''isothermal'' haloes tend to form. The density profiles are inconsistent with De Vaucouleurs profiles even though the initial profiles were not. The central velocity dispersion increases in 1:1 and 2:1 mass mergers but decreases in 3:1 mass mergers. Near head-on mergers lead to prolate systems with little rotation while high angular momentum mergers lead to oblate systems with strong rotation. The rotation curves show solid body rotation out to the half mass radius followed by a slow decline. Radial mixing is strong in equal mass mergers where it will weaken radial gradients. In unequal mass mergers there is little radial mixing but matter from the smaller galaxy ends up in the outer parts of the system where it can give rise to colour gradient

  17. Intrinsic cylindrical and spherical waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludlow, I K

    2008-01-01

    Intrinsic waveforms associated with cylindrical and spherical Bessel functions are obtained by eliminating the factors responsible for the inverse radius and inverse square radius laws of wave power per unit area of wavefront. The resulting expressions are Riccati-Bessel functions for both cases and these can be written in terms of amplitude and phase functions of order v and wave variable z. When z is real, it is shown that a spatial phase angle of the intrinsic wave can be defined and this, together with its amplitude function, is systematically investigated for a range of fixed orders and varying z. The derivatives of Riccati-Bessel functions are also examined. All the component functions exhibit different behaviour in the near field depending on the order being less than, equal to or greater than 1/2. Plots of the phase angle can be used to display the locations of the zeros of the general Riccati-Bessel functions and lead to new relations concerning the ordering of the real zeros of Bessel functions and the occurrence of multiple zeros when the argument of the Bessel function is fixed

  18. STAR-GALAXY CLASSIFICATION IN MULTI-BAND OPTICAL IMAGING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadely, Ross; Willman, Beth; Hogg, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Ground-based optical surveys such as PanSTARRS, DES, and LSST will produce large catalogs to limiting magnitudes of r ∼> 24. Star-galaxy separation poses a major challenge to such surveys because galaxies—even very compact galaxies—outnumber halo stars at these depths. We investigate photometric classification techniques on stars and galaxies with intrinsic FWHM best ) where the training data are (unrealistically) a random sampling of the data in both signal-to-noise and demographics and (2) a more realistic scenario where training is done on higher signal-to-noise data (SVM real ) at brighter apparent magnitudes. Testing with COSMOS ugriz data, we find that HB outperforms ML, delivering ∼80% completeness, with purity of ∼60%-90% for both stars and galaxies. We find that no algorithm delivers perfect performance and that studies of metal-poor main-sequence turnoff stars may be challenged by poor star-galaxy separation. Using the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve, we find a best-to-worst ranking of SVM best , HB, ML, and SVM real . We conclude, therefore, that a well-trained SVM will outperform template-fitting methods. However, a normally trained SVM performs worse. Thus, HB template fitting may prove to be the optimal classification method in future surveys.

  19. HOST GALAXY PROPERTIES OF THE SWIFT BAT ULTRA HARD X-RAY SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koss, Michael; Mushotzky, Richard; Veilleux, Sylvain; Winter, Lisa M.; Baumgartner, Wayne; Tueller, Jack; Gehrels, Neil; Valencic, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    We have assembled the largest sample of ultra hard X-ray selected (14-195 keV) active galactic nucleus (AGN) with host galaxy optical data to date, with 185 nearby (z * >10.5) have a 5-10 times higher rate of spiral morphologies than in SDSS AGNs or inactive galaxies. We also see enhanced far-infrared emission in BAT AGN suggestive of higher levels of star formation compared to the comparison samples. BAT AGNs are preferentially found in the most massive host galaxies with high concentration indexes indicative of large bulge-to-disk ratios and large supermassive black holes. The narrow-line (NL) BAT AGNs have similar intrinsic luminosities as the SDSS NL Seyferts based on measurements of [O III] λ5007. There is also a correlation between the stellar mass and X-ray emission. The BAT AGNs in mergers have bluer colors and greater ultra hard X-ray emission compared to the BAT sample as a whole. In agreement with the unified model of AGNs, and the relatively unbiased nature of the BAT sources, the host galaxy colors and morphologies are independent of measures of obscuration such as X-ray column density or Seyfert type. The high fraction of massive spiral galaxies and galaxy mergers in BAT AGNs suggest that host galaxy morphology is related to the activation and fueling of local AGN.

  20. Blue moons and Martian sunsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Kurt; Chakrabarty, Rajan; Moosmüller, Hans

    2014-03-20

    The familiar yellow or orange disks of the moon and sun, especially when they are low in the sky, and brilliant red sunsets are a result of the selective extinction (scattering plus absorption) of blue light by atmospheric gas molecules and small aerosols, a phenomenon explainable using the Rayleigh scattering approximation. On rare occasions, dust or smoke aerosols can cause the extinction of red light to exceed that for blue, resulting in the disks of the sun and moon to appear as blue. Unlike Earth, the atmosphere of Mars is dominated by micron-size dust aerosols, and the sky during sunset takes on a bluish glow. Here we investigate the role of dust aerosols in the blue Martian sunsets and the occasional blue moons and suns on Earth. We use the Mie theory and the Debye series to calculate the wavelength-dependent optical properties of dust aerosols most commonly found on Mars. Our findings show that while wavelength selective extinction can cause the sun's disk to appear blue, the color of the glow surrounding the sun as observed from Mars is due to the dominance of near-forward scattering of blue light by dust particles and cannot be explained by a simple, Rayleigh-like selective extinction explanation.

  1. THE EVOLUTION OF POST-STARBURST GALAXIES FROM z  ∼ 1 TO THE PRESENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattarakijwanich, Petchara; Strauss, Michael A. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Peyton Hall, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Ho, Shirley [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Ross, Nicholas P. [Department of Physics, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2016-12-10

    Post-starburst galaxies are in the transitional stage between blue, star-forming galaxies and red, quiescent galaxies and therefore hold important clues for our understanding of galaxy evolution. In this paper, we systematically searched for and identified a large sample of post-starburst galaxies from the spectroscopic data set of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 9. In total, we found more than 6000 objects with redshifts between z  ∼ 0.05 and z  ∼ 1.3, making this the largest sample of post-starburst galaxies in the literature. We calculated the luminosity function of the post-starburst galaxies using two uniformly selected subsamples: the SDSS main galaxy sample and the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey CMASS sample. The luminosity functions are reasonably fit by half-Gaussian functions. The peak magnitudes shift as a function of redshift from M  ∼ −23.5 at z  ∼ 0.8 to M  ∼ −20.3 at z  ∼ 0.1. This is consistent with the downsizing trend, whereby more massive galaxies form earlier than low-mass galaxies. We compared the mass of the post-starburst stellar population found in our sample to the decline of the global star formation rate and found that only a small amount (∼1%) of all star formation quenching in the redshift range z  = 0.2–0.7 results in post-starburst galaxies in the luminosity range our sample is sensitive to. Therefore, luminous post-starburst galaxies are not the place where most of the decline in the star formation rate of the universe is happening.

  2. AGN feedback in galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Antonuccio-Delogu, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    During the past decade, convincing evidence has been accumulated concerning the effect of active galactic nuclei (AGN) activity on the internal and external environment of their host galaxies. Featuring contributions from well-respected researchers in the field, and bringing together work by specialists in both galaxy formation and AGN, this volume addresses a number of key questions about AGN feedback in the context of galaxy formation. The topics covered include downsizing and star-formation time scales in massive elliptical galaxies, the connection between the epochs of supermassive black h

  3. Dark matter and galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umemura, Masayuki

    1987-01-01

    We propose a hybrid model of universe for galaxy formation, that is, an Einstein- de Sitter universe dominated by two-component dark matter: massive neutrinos and cold dark matter. In this hybrid model, the first luminous objects are dwarf galaxies. The neutrino density fluctuations produce large-scale high density and low density regions, which consequently evolve to superclusters of galaxies and voids, respectively. Dwarf galaxies are formed preferentially in supercluster regions. In voids, the formation of dwarf galaxies is fairly suppressed by diffuse UV flux from QSOs, and instead a number of expanding clouds are born, which produce Lyα forest as seen in QSO spectra. Ordinary galaxies are expected to form as aggregations of dwarf galaxies. In this model, some galaxies are born also in voids, and they tend to evolve to spiral galaxies. Additionally, if the same number of globular clusters are formed in a dwarf, the specific globular cluster frequencies are expected to be much larger in ellipticals than in spirals. (author)

  4. Galaxies a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Gribbin, John

    2008-01-01

    Galaxies: A Very Short Introduction explores the building blocks of the Universe. Standing like islands in space, each is made up of many hundreds of millions of stars in which the chemical elements are made, around which planets form, and where on at least one of those planets intelligent life has emerged. Our own galaxy, the Milky Way, is just one of several hundred million other galaxies. Yet it was only in the 1920s that we realised that there is more to the Universe. Since then, many exciting discoveries have been made about our own galaxy and about those beyond.

  5. An Exploration of Dusty Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-04-01

    Submillimeter galaxies i.e., galaxies that we detect in the submillimeter wavelength range are mysterious creatures. Its only within the last couple decades that weve had telescope technology capable of observing them, and were only now getting to the point where angular resolution limits allow us to examine them closely. A new study has taken advantage of new capabilities to explore the properties of a sample of 52 of thesegalaxies.Dusty Star FormationSubmillimeter galaxies are generally observed in the early universe. Though theyre faint in other wavebands, theyre extremely luminous in infrared and submillimeter their infrared luminosities are typically trillions of times the Suns luminosity. This is thought to be because these galaxies are very actively forming stars at rates of hundreds of times that of the Milky Way!Example 10 10 true-color images of ten submillimeter galaxies in the authors ALMA-identified sample. [Simpson et al. 2017]Submillimeter galaxies are also extremely dusty, so we dont see their star formation directly in optical wavelengths. Instead, we see the stellar light after its been absorbed and reemitted by interstellar dust lanes were indirectly observing heavily obscured star formation.Why look for submillimeter galaxies? Studying them can help us to learn about galaxy and star formation early in our universes history, and help us to understand how the universe has evolved into what we see locally today.Submillimeter StrugglesDue to angular resolution limitations in the past, we often couldnt pin down the exact locations of submillimeter galaxies, preventing us from examining them properly. But now a team of scientists has used the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter array (ALMA) to precisely locate 52 submillimeter galaxies identified by the Submillimeter Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA-2) in the UKIDSS Ultra Deep Survey field.The precise locations made possible by ALMA allowed the team led by James Simpson (University of Edinburgh

  6. Dark Matter in Galaxy Clusters: Shape, Projection, and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groener, Austen M.

    We explore the intrinsic distribution of dark matter within galaxy clusters, by combining insights from the largest N-body simulations as well as the largest observational dataset of its kind. Firstly, we study the intrinsic shape and alignment of isodensities of galaxy cluster halos extracted from the MultiDark MDR1 cosmological simulation. We find that the simulated halos are extremely prolate on small scales and increasingly spherical on larger ones. Due to this trend, analytical projection along the line of sight produces an overestimate of the concentration index as a decreasing function of radius, which we quantify by using both the intrinsic distribution of 3D concentrations (c200) and isodensity shape on weak and strong lensing scales. We find this difference to be ˜ 18% (˜ 9%) for low (medium) mass cluster halos with intrinsically low concentrations (c200=1- 3), while we find virtually no difference for halos with intrinsically high concentrations. Isodensities are found to be fairly well-aligned throughout the entirety of the radial scale of each halo population. However, major axes of individual halos have been found to deviate by as much as ˜ 30°. We also present a value-added catalog of our analysis results, which we have made publicly available to download. Following that, we then turn to observational measurements galaxy clusters. Scaling relations of clusters have made them particularly important cosmological probes of structure formation. In this work, we present a comprehensive study of the relation between two profile observables, concentration (cvir ) and mass (Mvir). We have collected the largest known sample of measurements from the literature which make use of one or more of the following reconstruction techniques: Weak gravitational lensing (WL), strong gravitational lensing (SL), Weak+Strong Lensing (WL+SL), the Caustic Method (CM), Line-of-sight Velocity Dispersion (LOSVD), and X-ray. We find that the concentration-mass (c-M) relation

  7. THE DENSEST GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strader, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Seth, Anil C. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Forbes, Duncan A.; Pota, Vincenzo; Usher, Christopher [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Caldwell, Nelson [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Romanowsky, Aaron J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San José State University, San Jose, CA 95192 (United States); Brodie, Jean P.; Arnold, Jacob A. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Conroy, Charlie, E-mail: strader@pa.msu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2013-09-20

    We report the discovery of a remarkable ultra-compact dwarf galaxy around the massive Virgo elliptical galaxy NGC 4649 (M60), which we call M60-UCD1. With a dynamical mass of 2.0 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉} but a half-light radius of only ∼24 pc, M60-UCD1 is more massive than any ultra-compact dwarfs of comparable size, and is arguably the densest galaxy known in the local universe. It has a two-component structure well fit by a sum of Sérsic functions, with an elliptical, compact (r{sub h} = 14 pc; n ∼ 3.3) inner component and a round, exponential, extended (r{sub h} = 49 pc) outer component. Chandra data reveal a variable central X-ray source with L{sub X} ∼ 10{sup 38} erg s{sup –1} that could be an active galactic nucleus associated with a massive black hole or a low-mass X-ray binary. Analysis of optical spectroscopy shows the object to be old (∼> 10 Gyr) and of solar metallicity, with elevated [Mg/Fe] and strongly enhanced [N/Fe] that indicates light-element self-enrichment; such self-enrichment may be generically present in dense stellar systems. The velocity dispersion (σ ∼ 70 km s{sup –1}) and resulting dynamical mass-to-light ratio (M/L{sub V} = 4.9 ± 0.7) are consistent with—but slightly higher than—expectations for an old, metal-rich stellar population with a Kroupa initial mass function. The presence of a massive black hole or a mild increase in low-mass stars or stellar remnants is therefore also consistent with this M/L{sub V} . The stellar density of the galaxy is so high that no dynamical signature of dark matter is expected. However, the properties of M60-UCD1 suggest an origin in the tidal stripping of a nucleated galaxy with M{sub B} ∼ –18 to –19.

  8. The luminosity function of field galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Mahtessian, A. P.

    2011-01-01

    Schmidt's method for construction of luminosity function of galaxies is generalized by taking into account the dependence of density of galaxies from the distance in the near Universe. The logarithmical luminosity function (LLF) of field galaxies depending on morphological type is constructed. We show that the LLF for all galaxies, and also separately for elliptical and lenticular galaxies can be presented by Schechter function in narrow area of absolute magnitudes. The LLF of spiral galaxies...

  9. ESO 113-IG45 galaxy and/or quasar?

    CERN Document Server

    West, R M; Danks, A C

    1978-01-01

    Spectroscopy, UBV photometry and photography have been obtained of the extraordinary 13th magnitude object ESO 113-IG45 identified as a Seyfert galaxy by Fairall (1977); R.A.=01/sup h/ 21/sup m/.9; Decl .=-59 degrees 04' (1950). V/sub 0/=13630+or-50 km s/sup -1/; M/sub V /=-24/sup m/.0; largest diameter 75 kpc or more (with H/sub 0/=55 km s /sup -1/ Mpc/sup -1/). The nucleus is stellar-like and several times more luminous than the surrounding envelope which has a well-developed lane-structure. It is the intrinsically most luminous Seyfert nuclear yet known, and may be described as a 'quasar in the center of a (spiral) galaxy'. It is probably associated with the X-ray source 2A0120-591. (14 refs).

  10. Modelling high resolution ALMA observations of strongly lensed highly star forming galaxies detected by Herscheltype="fn" rid="fn1" />

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, S.; Furlanetto, C.; Dunne, L.; Eales, S. A.; Negrello, M.; Nayyeri, H.; van der Werf, P. P.; Serjeant, S.; Farrah, D.; Michałowski, M. J.; Baes, M.; Marchetti, L.; Cooray, A.; Riechers, D. A.; Amvrosiadis, A.

    2018-02-01

    We have modelled ˜0.1 arcsec resolution ALMA imaging of six strong gravitationally lensed galaxies detected by the Herschel Space Observatory. Our modelling recovers mass properties of the lensing galaxies and, by determining magnification factors, intrinsic properties of the lensed sub-millimetre sources. We find that the lensed galaxies all have high ratios of star formation rate to dust mass, consistent with or higher than the mean ratio for high redshift sub-millimetre galaxies and low redshift ultra-luminous infra-red galaxies. Source reconstruction reveals that most galaxies exhibit disturbed morphologies. Both the cleaned image plane data and the directly observed interferometric visibilities have been modelled, enabling comparison of both approaches. In the majority of cases, the recovered lens models are consistent between methods, all six having mass density profiles that are close to isothermal. However, one system with poor signal to noise shows mildly significant differences.

  11. Inhibition of Intrinsic Thrombin Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W. Stief MD

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The contact phase of coagulation is of physiologic/pathophysiologic importance, whenever unphysiologic polynegative substances such as cell fragments (microparticles get in contact with blood. There are several clinically used inhibitors of intrinsic thrombin generation. Here the inhibitory concentrations 50% (IC50 of these anticoagulants are measured by the highly specific thrombin generation assay INCA. Methods Unfrozen pooled normal citrated plasma in polystyrole tubes was supplemented at 23°C in duplicate with 0–2 IU/ml low molecular weight heparin (dalteparin, 0–2 IU/ml unfractionated heparin, 0–500 KIU/ml aprotinin, or 0–40 mM arginine. 50 μl plasma or 1 IU/ml thrombin standard were pipetted into a polystyrole microtiter plate with flat bottom. 5 μl SiO 2 /CaCl 2 - reagent (INCA activator were added and after 0–30 min incubation at 37°C 100 μl 2.5 M arginine, pH 8.6, were added; arginine inhibits hemostasis activation and depolymerizes generated fibrin within 20 min at 23°C. The in the physiologic 37°C incubation phase generated thrombin was then chromogenically detected. The intra-assay CV values were < 5%. Results and Discussion The approximate IC50 were 0.01 IU/ml dalteparin, 0.02 IU/ml heparin, 25 KIU/ml aprotinin, and 12 mM arginine. The efficiency of any anticoagulant on intrinsic thrombin generation should be measured for each individual patient. Abbreviations IIa, thrombin; δA, increase in absorbance; APTT, activated partial thromboplastin time; CRT, coagulation reaction time (at 37°C in water-bath; F-wells, polystyrole microtiter plates with flat bottom; IC50, inhibitory concentration 50%; INCA, intrinsic coagulation activity assay; IU, international units; KIU, kallikrein inhibiting unis; LMWH, low molecular weight heparin; mA, milli-absorbance units; PSL, pathromtin SL®; RT, room temperature (23°C; U-wells, polystyrole microtiter plates with round bottom.

  12. Interactions between intergalactic medium and galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einasto, J.; Saar, E.

    1977-01-01

    The interaction of galaxies with the environmental gas both in clusters and in small groups of galaxies is investigated. Interaction between galaxies and the ambient medium can be considered simply as final touches in the process of galaxy formation. Large relative velocities of galaxies in their clusters and of the intercluster gas result in a loss of the intergalactic gas, that in its turn affects the morphology of cluster galaxies. Interaction between the coronal clouds and the gas in the disk of spiral galaxies may result in regular patterns of star formation and in the bending of planes of galaxies

  13. Spectrum from Faint Galaxy IRAS F00183-7111

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope has detected the building blocks of life in the distant universe, albeit in a violent milieu. Training its powerful infrared eye on a faint object located at a distance of 3.2 billion light-years, Spitzer has observed the presence of water and organic molecules in the galaxy IRAS F00183-7111. With an active galactic nucleus, this is one of the most luminous galaxies in the universe, rivaling the energy output of a quasar. Because it is heavily obscured by dust (see visible-light image in the inset), most of its luminosity is radiated at infrared wavelengths.The infrared spectrograph instrument onboard Spitzer breaks light into its constituent colors, much as a prism does for visible light. The image shows a low-resolution spectrum of the galaxy obtained by the spectrograph at wavelengths between 4 and 20 microns. Spectra are graphical representations of a celestial object's unique blend of light. Characteristic patterns, or fingerprints, within the spectra allow astronomers to identify the object's chemical composition and to determine such physical properties as temperature and density.The broad depression in the center of the spectrum denotes the presence of silicates (chemically similar to beach sand) in the galaxy. An emission peak within the bottom of the trough is the chemical signature for molecular hydrogen. The hydrocarbons (orange) are organic molecules comprised of carbon and hydrogen, two of the most common elements on Earth. Since it has taken more than three billion years for the light from the galaxy to reach Earth, it is intriguing to note the presence of organics in a distant galaxy at a time when life is thought to have started forming on our home planet.Additional features in the spectrum reveal the presence of water ice (blue), carbon dioxide ice (green) and carbon monoxide (purple) in both gas and solid forms. The magenta peak corresponds to singly ionized neon gas, a spectral line often used by astronomers as a

  14. The Progenitors of Local Ultra-massive Galaxies Across Cosmic Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchesini, Danilo; Muzzin, Adam; Stefanon, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Using the UltraVISTA catalogs, we investigate the evolution in the 11.4~Gyr since $z=3$ of the progenitors of local ultra-massive galaxies ($\\log{(M_{\\rm star}/M_{\\odot})}\\approx11.8$; UMGs), providing a complete and consistent picture of how the most massive galaxies at $z=0$ have assembled...... in age of $z=0$ UMGs as derived from their fossil records. The progenitors of local UMGs, including the star-forming ones, never lived on the blue cloud since $z=3$. We propose an alternative path for the formation of local UMGs that refines previously proposed pictures and that is fully consistent...

  15. Blue Light Rescues Mice from Potentially Fatal Pseudomonas aeruginosa Burn Infection: Efficacy, Safety, and Mechanism of Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Tianhong; Gupta, Asheesh; Huang, Ying-Ying; Yin, Rui; Murray, Clinton K.; Vrahas, Mark S.; Sherwood, Margaret E.; Tegos, George P.

    2013-01-01

    Blue light has attracted increasing attention due to its intrinsic antimicrobial effect without the addition of exogenous photosensitizers. However, the use of blue light for wound infections has not been established yet. In this study, we demonstrated the efficacy of blue light at 415 nm for the treatment of acute, potentially lethal Pseudomonas aeruginosa burn infections in mice. Our in vitro studies demonstrated that the inactivation rate of P. aeruginosa cells by blue light was approximately 35-fold higher than that of keratinocytes (P = 0.0014). Transmission electron microscopy revealed blue light-mediated intracellular damage to P. aeruginosa cells. Fluorescence spectroscopy suggested that coproporphyrin III and/or uroporphyrin III are possibly the intracellular photosensitive chromophores associated with the blue light inactivation of P. aeruginosa. In vivo studies using an in vivo bioluminescence imaging technique and an area-under-the-bioluminescence-time-curve (AUBC) analysis showed that a single exposure of blue light at 55.8 J/cm2, applied 30 min after bacterial inoculation to the infected mouse burns, reduced the AUBC by approximately 100-fold in comparison with untreated and infected mouse burns (P blue light at the effective antimicrobial dose. Survival analyses revealed that blue light increased the survival rate of the infected mice from 18.2% to 100% (P blue light therapy might offer an effective and safe alternative to conventional antimicrobial therapy for P. aeruginosa burn infections. PMID:23262998

  16. The dwarf galaxy population of nearby galaxy clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisker, Thorsten; Wittmann, Carolin; Pak, Mina; Janz, Joachim; Bialas, Daniel; Peletier, Reynier; Grebel, Eva; Falcon Barroso, Jesus; Toloba, Elisa; Smakced Collaboration, Focus Collaboration

    The Fornax, Virgo, Ursa Major and Perseus galaxy clusters all have very different characteristics, in terms of their density, mass, and large-scale environment. We can regard these clusters as laboratories for studying environmental influence on galaxy evolution, using the sensitive low-mass

  17. Fairy tails: Flexibility and function of intrinsically disordered extensions in the photosynthetic world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel eThieulin-Pardo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsically Disordered Proteins (IDPs, or protein fragments also called Intrinsically Disordered Regions (IDRs, display high flexibility as the result of their amino acid composition. They can adopt multiple roles. In globular proteins, IDRs are usually found as loops and linkers between secondary structure elements. However, not all disordered fragments are loops: some proteins bear an intrinsically disordered extension at their C- or N-terminus, and this flexibility can affect the protein as a whole. In this review, we focus on the disordered N- and C-terminal extensions of globular proteins from photosynthetic organisms. Using the examples of the A2B2-GAPDH and the α Rubisco activase isoform, we show that intrinsically disordered extensions can help regulate their host protein in response to changes in light, thereby participating in photosynthesis regulation. As IDPs are famous for their large number of protein partners, we used the examples of the NAC, bZIP, TCP and GRAS transcription factor families to illustrate the fact that intrinsically disordered extremities can allow a protein to have an increased number of partners, which directly affects its regulation. Finally, for proteins from the cryptochrome light receptor family, we describe how a new role for the photolyase proteins may emerge by the addition of an intrinsically disordered extension, while still allowing the protein to absorb blue light. This review has highlighted the diverse repercussions of the disordered extension on the regulation and function of their host protein and outlined possible future research avenues.

  18. ZFOURGE/CANDELS: On the Evolution of M* Galaxy Progenitors from z = 3 to 0.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papovich, C.; Labbé, I.; Quadri, R.; Tilvi, V.; Behroozi, P.; Bell, E. F.; Glazebrook, K.; Spitler, L.; Straatman, C. M. S.; Tran, K.-V.; Cowley, M.; Davé, R.; Dekel, A.; Dickinson, M.; Ferguson, H. C.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Gawiser, E.; Inami, H.; Faber, S. M.; Kacprzak, G. G.; Kawinwanichakij, L.; Kocevski, D.; Koekemoer, A.; Koo, D. C.; Kurczynski, P.; Lotz, J. M.; Lu, Y.; Lucas, R. A.; McIntosh, D.; Mehrtens, N.; Mobasher, B.; Monson, A.; Morrison, G.; Nanayakkara, T.; Persson, S. E.; Salmon, B.; Simons, R.; Tomczak, A.; van Dokkum, P.; Weiner, B.; Willner, S. P.

    2015-04-01

    Galaxies with stellar masses near M* contain the majority of stellar mass in the universe, and are therefore of special interest in the study of galaxy evolution. The Milky Way (MW) and Andromeda (M31) have present-day stellar masses near M*, at 5 × 1010 M ⊙ (defined here to be MW-mass) and 1011 M ⊙ (defined to be M31-mass). We study the typical progenitors of these galaxies using the FOURSTAR Galaxy Evolution Survey (ZFOURGE). ZFOURGE is a deep medium-band near-IR imaging survey, which is sensitive to the progenitors of these galaxies out to z ~ 3. We use abundance-matching techniques to identify the main progenitors of these galaxies at higher redshifts. We measure the evolution in the stellar mass, rest-frame colors, morphologies, far-IR luminosities, and star formation rates, combining our deep multiwavelength imaging with near-IR Hubble Space Telescope imaging from Cosmic Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS), and Spitzer and Herschel far-IR imaging from Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-Herschel and CANDELS-Herschel. The typical MW-mass and M31-mass progenitors passed through the same evolution stages, evolving from blue, star-forming disk galaxies at the earliest stages to redder dust-obscured IR-luminous galaxies in intermediate stages and to red, more quiescent galaxies at their latest stages. The progenitors of the MW-mass galaxies reached each evolutionary stage at later times (lower redshifts) and with stellar masses that are a factor of two to three lower than the progenitors of the M31-mass galaxies. The process driving this evolution, including the suppression of star formation in present-day M* galaxies, requires an evolving stellar-mass/halo-mass ratio and/or evolving halo-mass threshold for quiescent galaxies. The effective size and SFRs imply that the baryonic cold-gas fractions drop as galaxies evolve from high redshift to z ~ 0 and are strongly anticorrelated with an increase in the Sérsic index. Therefore, the growth

  19. ZFOURGE/CANDELS: ON THE EVOLUTION OF M* GALAXY PROGENITORS FROM z = 3 TO 0.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papovich, C.; Quadri, R.; Tilvi, V.; Tran, K.-V. [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Labbé, I.; Straatman, C. M. S. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Behroozi, P.; Ferguson, H. C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bell, E. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Glazebrook, K.; Kacprzak, G. G. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Spitler, L.; Cowley, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Davé, R. [University of the Western Cape, Bellville, Cape Town 7535 (South Africa); Dekel, A. [Center of Astrophysics and Planetary Sciences, Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Dickinson, M.; Inami, H. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Finkelstein, S. L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Gawiser, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Faber, S. M., E-mail: papovich@tamu.edu [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); and others

    2015-04-10

    Galaxies with stellar masses near M* contain the majority of stellar mass in the universe, and are therefore of special interest in the study of galaxy evolution. The Milky Way (MW) and Andromeda (M31) have present-day stellar masses near M*, at 5 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} (defined here to be MW-mass) and 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉} (defined to be M31-mass). We study the typical progenitors of these galaxies using the FOURSTAR Galaxy Evolution Survey (ZFOURGE). ZFOURGE is a deep medium-band near-IR imaging survey, which is sensitive to the progenitors of these galaxies out to z ∼ 3. We use abundance-matching techniques to identify the main progenitors of these galaxies at higher redshifts. We measure the evolution in the stellar mass, rest-frame colors, morphologies, far-IR luminosities, and star formation rates, combining our deep multiwavelength imaging with near-IR Hubble Space Telescope imaging from Cosmic Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS), and Spitzer and Herschel far-IR imaging from Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-Herschel and CANDELS-Herschel. The typical MW-mass and M31-mass progenitors passed through the same evolution stages, evolving from blue, star-forming disk galaxies at the earliest stages to redder dust-obscured IR-luminous galaxies in intermediate stages and to red, more quiescent galaxies at their latest stages. The progenitors of the MW-mass galaxies reached each evolutionary stage at later times (lower redshifts) and with stellar masses that are a factor of two to three lower than the progenitors of the M31-mass galaxies. The process driving this evolution, including the suppression of star formation in present-day M* galaxies, requires an evolving stellar-mass/halo-mass ratio and/or evolving halo-mass threshold for quiescent galaxies. The effective size and SFRs imply that the baryonic cold-gas fractions drop as galaxies evolve from high redshift to z ∼ 0 and are strongly anticorrelated with an increase in the S

  20. ZFOURGE/CANDELS: ON THE EVOLUTION OF M* GALAXY PROGENITORS FROM z = 3 TO 0.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papovich, C.; Quadri, R.; Tilvi, V.; Tran, K.-V.; Labbé, I.; Straatman, C. M. S.; Behroozi, P.; Ferguson, H. C.; Bell, E. F.; Glazebrook, K.; Kacprzak, G. G.; Spitler, L.; Cowley, M.; Davé, R.; Dekel, A.; Dickinson, M.; Inami, H.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Gawiser, E.; Faber, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Galaxies with stellar masses near M* contain the majority of stellar mass in the universe, and are therefore of special interest in the study of galaxy evolution. The Milky Way (MW) and Andromeda (M31) have present-day stellar masses near M*, at 5 × 10 10 M ☉ (defined here to be MW-mass) and 10 11 M ☉ (defined to be M31-mass). We study the typical progenitors of these galaxies using the FOURSTAR Galaxy Evolution Survey (ZFOURGE). ZFOURGE is a deep medium-band near-IR imaging survey, which is sensitive to the progenitors of these galaxies out to z ∼ 3. We use abundance-matching techniques to identify the main progenitors of these galaxies at higher redshifts. We measure the evolution in the stellar mass, rest-frame colors, morphologies, far-IR luminosities, and star formation rates, combining our deep multiwavelength imaging with near-IR Hubble Space Telescope imaging from Cosmic Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS), and Spitzer and Herschel far-IR imaging from Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-Herschel and CANDELS-Herschel. The typical MW-mass and M31-mass progenitors passed through the same evolution stages, evolving from blue, star-forming disk galaxies at the earliest stages to redder dust-obscured IR-luminous galaxies in intermediate stages and to red, more quiescent galaxies at their latest stages. The progenitors of the MW-mass galaxies reached each evolutionary stage at later times (lower redshifts) and with stellar masses that are a factor of two to three lower than the progenitors of the M31-mass galaxies. The process driving this evolution, including the suppression of star formation in present-day M* galaxies, requires an evolving stellar-mass/halo-mass ratio and/or evolving halo-mass threshold for quiescent galaxies. The effective size and SFRs imply that the baryonic cold-gas fractions drop as galaxies evolve from high redshift to z ∼ 0 and are strongly anticorrelated with an increase in the Sérsic index. Therefore, the

  1. Intrinsic rotation with gyrokinetic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, Felix I.; Barnes, Michael; Catto, Peter J.; Calvo, Iván

    2012-01-01

    The generation of intrinsic rotation by turbulence and neoclassical effects in tokamaks is considered. To obtain the complex dependences observed in experiments, it is necessary to have a model of the radial flux of momentum that redistributes the momentum within the tokamak in the absence of a preexisting velocity. When the lowest order gyrokinetic formulation is used, a symmetry of the model precludes this possibility, making small effects in the gyroradius over scale length expansion necessary. These effects that are usually small become important for momentum transport because the symmetry of the lowest order gyrokinetic formulation leads to the cancellation of the lowest order momentum flux. The accuracy to which the gyrokinetic equation needs to be obtained to retain all the physically relevant effects is discussed.

  2. User-Wearable Devices that Monitor Exposure to Blue Light and Recommend Adjustments Thereto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Jin (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Described herein are user-wearable devices that include an optical sensor, and methods for use therewith. In certain embodiments, an optical sensor of a user-wearable device (e.g., a wrist-worn device) is used to detect blue light that is incident on the optical sensor and to produce a blue light detection signal indicative thereof, and thus, indicative of the response of the user's intrinsically photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells (ipRGCs). In dependence on the blue light detection signal, there is a determination of a metric indicative of an amount of blue light detected by the optical sensor. The metric is compared to a corresponding threshold, and a user notification is triggered in dependence on results of the comparing, wherein the user notification informs a person wearing the user-wearable device to adjust their exposure to light.

  3. Photometry of faint blue stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilkenny, D.; Hill, P.W.; Brown, A.

    1977-01-01

    Photometry on the uvby system is given for 61 faint blue stars. The stars are classified by means of the Stromgren indices, using criteria described in a previous paper (Kilkenny and Hill (1975)). (author)

  4. The VANDELS survey: dust attenuation in star-forming galaxies at z = 3-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, F.; McLure, R. J.; Khochfar, S.; Dunlop, J. S.; Dalla Vecchia, C.; Carnall, A. C.; Bourne, N.; Castellano, M.; Cimatti, A.; Cirasuolo, M.; Elbaz, D.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Garilli, B.; Koekemoer, A.; Marchi, F.; Pentericci, L.; Talia, M.; Zamorani, G.

    2018-05-01

    We present the results of a new study of dust attenuation at redshifts 3 galaxies from the VANDELS spectroscopic survey. Motivated by results from the First Billion Years (FiBY) simulation project, we argue that the intrinsic spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of star-forming galaxies at these redshifts have a self-similar shape across the mass range 8.2 ≤ log (M⋆/M⊙) ≤ 10.6 probed by our sample. Using FiBY data, we construct a set of intrinsic SED templates which incorporate both detailed star formation and chemical abundance histories, and a variety of stellar population synthesis (SPS) model assumptions. With this set of intrinsic SEDs, we present a novel approach for directly recovering the shape and normalization of the dust attenuation curve. We find, across all of the intrinsic templates considered, that the average attenuation curve for star-forming galaxies at z ≃ 3.5 is similar in shape to the commonly adopted Calzetti starburst law, with an average total-to-selective attenuation ratio of RV = 4.18 ± 0.29. In contrast, we find that an average attenuation curve as steep as the SMC extinction law is strongly disfavoured. We show that the optical attenuation (AV) versus stellar mass (M⋆) relation predicted using our method is consistent with recent ALMA observations of galaxies at 2 galaxies with log(M⋆/M⊙) ≳ 9.5. Finally, we present tentative evidence which suggests that the attenuation curve may become steeper at lower masses log(M⋆/M⊙) ≲ 9.0.

  5. Gemini/GMOS imaging of globular clusters in the Virgo galaxy NGC 4649 (M60)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Duncan A.; Faifer, Favio Raúl; Forte, Juan Carlos; Bridges, Terry; Beasley, Michael A.; Gebhardt, Karl; Hanes, David A.; Sharples, Ray; Zepf, Stephen E.

    2004-12-01

    We present Sloan g and i imaging from the Gemini Multi-object Spectrograph (GMOS) instrument on the Gemini North telescope for the globular cluster (GC) system around the Virgo galaxy NGC 4649 (M60). Our three pointings, taken in good seeing conditions, cover an area of about 90 square arcmin. We detect 2151 unresolved sources. Applying colour and magnitude selection criteria to this source list gives 995 candidate GCs. Our source list is greater than 90 per cent complete to a magnitude of i= 23.6, and has little contamination from background galaxies. We find fewer than half a dozen potential ultracompact dwarf galaxies around NGC 4649. Foreground extinction from the nearby spiral NGC 4647 is limited to be AV < 0.1. We confirm the bimodality in the GC colour distribution found by earlier work using Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2 imaging. As is commonly seen in other galaxies, the red GCs are concentrated towards the centre of the galaxy, having a steeper number density profile than the blue GC subpopulation. The varying ratio of red-to-blue GCs with radius can largely explain the overall GC system colour gradient. The underlying galaxy starlight has a similar density profile slope and colour to the red GCs. This suggests a direct connection between the galaxy field stars and the red GC subpopulation. We estimate a total GC population of 3700 +/- 900, with the uncertainty dominated by the extrapolation to larger radii than observed. This total number corresponds to a specific frequency SN= 4.1 +/- 1.0. Future work will present properties derived from GMOS spectra of the NGC 4649 GCs.

  6. DETECTION OF H i IN EMISSION IN THE LY α EMITTING GALAXY HARO 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardy, Stephen A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Cannon, John M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Östlin, Göran; Hayes, Matthew [Department of Astronomy, Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Bergvall, Nils, E-mail: spardy@astro.wisc.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 515, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2016-12-01

    We present the first robust detection of H i 21 cm emission in the blue compact galaxy Haro 11 using the 100 m Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). Haro 11 is a luminous blue compact galaxy with emission in both Ly α and the Lyman continuum. We detect (5.1 ± 0.7 × 10{sup 8}) M {sub ⊙} of H i gas at an assumed distance of 88 Mpc, making this galaxy H i deficient compared to other local galaxies with similar optical properties. Given this small H i mass, Haro 11 has an elevated M{sub H2}/ M{sub Hi} ratio and a very low gas fraction compared to most local galaxies, and contains twice as much mass in ionized hydrogen as in neutral hydrogen. The H i emission has a linewidth of 71 km s{sup −}1 and is offset 60 km s{sup −1} redward of the optical line center. It is undergoing a starburst after a recent merger that has elevated the star formation rate, and will deplete the gas supply in <0.2 Gyr. Although this starburst has elevated the star formation rate (SFR) compared to galaxies with similar H i masses and line widths, Haro 11 matches a trend of lower gas fractions toward higher SFRs and is below the general trend of increasing H i mass with increasing luminosity. Taken together, our results paint Haro 11 as a standard low-mass galaxy that is undergoing an unusually efficient star formation episode.

  7. Maximal lens bounds on QSO-galaxy association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovner, I.

    1989-01-01

    The maximal possible enhancement of QSO number counts that can be produced by any ensemble of lenses which conserve brightness and in which the magnification probability is negligibly correlated with the intrinsic QSO flux is obtained. Under the assumption of the Boyle et al. (1988) number-magnitude relation for the QSOs unaffected by lenses, the theory is applied to the QSO-galaxy association sample of Webster et al. (1988). The results suggest that the background QSOs of Webster et al. may be appreciably affected by lensing. 17 refs

  8. The mass-temperature relation for clusters of galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, J.; Oukbir, J.; van Kampen, E.

    1998-01-01

    temperatures measured with ASCA and masses inferred from weak and strong gravitational lensing. The surface lensing masses are deprojected in accordance with N-body simulations and analytic results. The data are well-fitted by the mass-temperature relation and are consistent with the empirical normalization...... with wide-held HST imaging could provide a sensitive test of the normalization and intrinsic scatter of the relation, resulting in a powerful and expedient way of measuring masses of clusters of galaxies. In addition, as M(r)/r las derived from lensing) is dependent on the cosmological model at high...

  9. Mass distributions in disk galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinsson, Thomas; Verheijen, Marc; Bershady, Matthew; Westfall, Kyle; Andersen, David; Swaters, Rob

    We present results on luminous and dark matter mass distributions in disk galaxies from the DiskMass Survey. As expected for normal disk galaxies, stars dominate the baryonic mass budget in the inner region of the disk; however, at about four optical scale lengths (hR ) the atomic gas starts to

  10. The Cool ISM in Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hulst, J. M.; Blok, W. J. G. de; Oswalt, Terry D.; Keel, William C.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes the different constituents of the observable interstellar medium (ISM) in galaxies and reviews the relationships between the ISM and the star formation in galaxies. The emphasis is on the component which is most widespread and most easily observable, the neutral atomic

  11. Optical appearance of distant galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchet, C.; Kline, M.I.

    1981-01-01

    We have used the recent evolutionary and K-corrections of Bruzual and Kron to predict the optical appearance of galaxies spanning a wide range of magnitudes and redshifts. It is found that nearly all galaxies with J< or approx. =25 are resolved in 1-arcsec seeing. At fixed apparent magnitude, galaxies with large redshifts are more diffuse in appearance than those at small z. This fact causes the most distant galaxies at any magnitude level to be missed, and, depending on the measurement algorithm employed, may cause the luminosities of detected galaxies to be seriously underestimated. Both of these effects deserve consideration when attempting to interpret number counts of faint galaxies. Observations made with the Space Telescope are expected to resolve nearly all galaxies at J< or approx. =27.5; however, several factors conspire to render Space Telescope observations less effective than certain ground-based CCD observations for the optical detection of distant galaxies. Finally, we note that most of our conclusions are unaffected by changes in the assumed cosmology

  12. Radio galaxies and their environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Breugel, W.

    1993-01-01

    The relationships between radio galaxies and their environment are varied, complex, and evolve with cosmic epoch. Basic questions are what role the environment plays in triggering and fuelling (radio) galaxy activity what the effects of this activity are on its environment, and how radio galaxies and environment evolve. Clearly, this could be the topic of a workshop all in itself and the scope of this review will necessarily be limited. A review of the connections between environment and galaxy activity in general has been given by Heckman. First, I will briefly summarize the relationships between parent galaxy and cluster environments, and radio galaxies. A more detailed discussion of various aspects of this will be given elsewhere by F. Owen, J.0. Burns and R. Perley. I will then discuss the current status of investigations of extended emission-line regions in radio galaxies, again referring elsewhere in this volume for more detailed discussions of some particular aspects (kinematics and ionization mechanisms by K. Meisenheimer; polarization and spectral index lobe asymmetries by G. Pooley). I will conclude with a brief discussion of the current status of observations of high redshift radio galaxies

  13. Dust tori in radio galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wolk, G.; Barthel, P. D.; Peletier, R. F.; Pel, J. W.

    Aims. We investigate the quasar - radio galaxy unification scenario and detect dust tori within radio galaxies of various types. Methods. Using VISIR on the VLT, we acquired sub-arcsecond (similar to 0.40 '') resolution N-band images, at a wavelength of 11.85 mu m, of the nuclei of a sample of 27

  14. Three types of galaxy disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pohlen, M.; Erwin, P.; Trujillo, I.; Beckman, J. E.; Knapen, JH; Mahoney, TJ; Vazdekis, A

    2008-01-01

    We present our new scheme for the classification of radial stellar surface brightness profiles for disk galaxies. We summarize the current theoretical attempts to understand their origin and give an example of an application by comparing local galaxies with their counterparts at high redshift (z

  15. QSO Pairs across Active Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Several QSO pairs have been reported and their redshifts determined, where the two objects in each pair are located across an active galaxy. The usually accepted explanation of such occurrences is that the pair is ejected from the parent galaxy. Currently interpreted redshifted spectra for both the QSOs ...

  16. Nuclear activity in nearby galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filho, Mercedes Esteves

    2003-01-01

    The main focus of this thesis has been the search for and study of low luminosity AGN. We have detected severa low luminosity AGN in nearby galaxies, revealing that this type of activity can occur in a broad range of galaxy types and powers. Furthermore, we have been able to establish importan

  17. Red galaxies at high redshift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuyts, Stijn Elisabeth Raphaël

    2007-01-01

    From its origin at the center of a star to the edge, through the surrounding gas and dust in the distant galaxy, through the intergalactic medium, traveling billions of light years only to be reflected by a mirror and captured by a detector; the little amount of light observed from galaxies in the

  18. The GALEX/S4G Surface Brightness and Color Profiles Catalog. I. Surface Photometry and Color Gradients of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquin, Alexandre Y. K.; Gil de Paz, Armando; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan Carlos; Boissier, Samuel; Sheth, Kartik; Zaritsky, Dennis; Peletier, Reynier F.; Knapen, Johan H.; Gallego, Jesús

    2018-02-01

    We present new spatially resolved surface photometry in the far-ultraviolet (FUV) and near-ultraviolet (NUV) from images obtained by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) and IRAC1 (3.6 μm) photometry from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G). We analyze the radial surface brightness profiles μ FUV, μ NUV, and μ [3.6], as well as the radial profiles of (FUV ‑ NUV), (NUV ‑ [3.6]), and (FUV ‑ [3.6]) colors in 1931 nearby galaxies (z measured scale length and central surface brightness values yield distributions of spin and circular velocity within a factor of two of those obtained via direct kinematic measurements. We find that at a surface brightness fainter than μ [3.6] = 20.89 mag arcsec‑2, or below 3 × 108 M ⊙ kpc‑2 in stellar mass surface density, the average specific star formation rate (sSFR) for star-forming and quiescent galaxies remains relatively flat with radius. However, a large fraction of GALEX Green Valley galaxies show a radial decrease in sSFR. This behavior suggests that an outside-in damping mechanism, possibly related to environmental effects, could be testimony of an early evolution of galaxies from the blue sequence of star-forming galaxies toward the red sequence of quiescent galaxies.

  19. Ultra-low dispersion spectroscopy of stars and galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bappu, M.K.V.; Parthasarathy, M.

    1977-01-01

    Application of ultra-low dispersion spectroscopy 10,000 A mm - 1 , is described to study the nuclei of elliptical galaxies, the quasi-stellar objects and for the discovery of faint OB stars, reddened stars and red stars. The instrument used is an f/2 slitless spectrograph with a three degree quartz prism at the Cassegrain focus of the 102-cm Ritchey-Chratien reflector at Kavalur. The spectra cover a field of 40 minutes of arc and the dispersion is 10,000 A mm - 1 . Ultra-low dispersion spectra (microspectra) were obtained for fifteen elliptical and three SO galaxies from the list of Ekers and Ekers (1973) who classified them as compact and extended sources from the observations of radio emission at 6 cms. From an analysis of micro-spectra and from direct photographs with graded exposure times, it is found that all compact radio galaxies in the Ekers list also have optically compact nuclei. Some of these elliptical galaxies with compact nuclei show enhancement of intensity in the blue violet region. From an examination of microspectra of forty-three of the known quasi-stellar objects of different redshifts it is found that the most striking characteristic of the spectra is their flat appearance. This characteristic flatness is also noticed in the microspectrum of the large redshift quasi-stellar objects like OH 471 and OQ 172 which do not have UV excess. Because of this characteristic difference in the appearance of the microspectra of the quasi-stellar objects and stellar objects, it is possible to detect new OSO's with this technique. An application of this technique to detect red stars in our galaxy and in the Large Magellanic cloud is discussed. (author)

  20. Observing and Simulating Galaxy Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Karen Pardos

    It remains a quest for modern astronomy to answer what main mechanisms set the star formation rate (SFR) of galaxies. Massive galaxies present a good starting point for such a quest due to their relatively easy detection at every redshift. Since stars form out of cold and dense gas, a comprehensive...... model for galaxy evolution should explain any observed connection between SFR and the amount and properties of the molecular gas of the interstellar medium (ISM). In proposed models of that kind, an active galactic nucleus (AGN) phase is often invoked as the cause for the decrease or cease of star...... formation. This thesis consists of models and observations of gas and AGNs in massive galaxies at z _ 2, and how they may affect the overall SFR and the subsequent evolutionary trajectory of massive galaxies to z = 0. For an improved understanding of how observed gas emission lines link to the underlying...

  1. Relic galaxies: where are they?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta de Arriba, L.; Quilis, V.; Trujillo, I.; Cebrián, M.; Balcells, M.

    2017-03-01

    The finding that massive galaxies grow with cosmic time fired the starting gun for the search of objects which could have survived up to the present day without suffering substantial changes (neither in their structures, neither in their stellar populations). Nevertheless, and despite the community efforts, up to now only one firm candidate to be considered one of these relics is known: NGC 1277. Curiously, this galaxy is located at the centre of one of the most rich near galaxy clusters: Perseus. Is its location a matter of chance? Should relic hunters focus their search on galaxy clusters? In order to reply this question, we have performed a simultaneous and analogous analysis using simulations (Millennium I-WMAP7) and observations (New York University Value-Added Galaxy Catalogue). Our results in both frameworks agree: it is more probable to find relics in high density environments.

  2. Creating lenticular galaxies with mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querejeta, Miguel; Eliche-Moral, M. Carmen; Tapia, Trinidad; Borlaff, Alejandro; van de Ven, Glenn; Lyubenova, Mariya; Martig, Marie; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Méndez-Abreu, Jairo; Zamorano, Jaime; Gallego, Jesús

    2017-03-01

    Lenticular galaxies (S0s) represent the majority of early-type galaxies in the local Universe, but their formation channels are still poorly understood. While galaxy mergers are obvious pathways to suppress star formation and increase bulge sizes, the marked parallelism between spiral and lenticular galaxies (e.g. photometric bulge-disc coupling) seemed to rule out a potential merger origin. Here, we summarise our recent work in which we have shown, through N-body numerical simulations, that disc-dominated lenticulars can emerge from major mergers of spiral galaxies, in good agreement with observational photometric scaling relations. Moreover, we show that mergers simultaneously increase the light concentration and reduce the angular momentum relative to their spiral progenitors. This explains the mismatch in angular momentum and concentration between spirals and lenticulars recently revealed by CALIFA observations, which is hard to reconcile with simple fading mechanisms (e.g. ram-pressure stripping).

  3. Observing and Simulating Galaxy Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Karen Pardos

    model for galaxy evolution should explain any observed connection between SFR and the amount and properties of the molecular gas of the interstellar medium (ISM). In proposed models of that kind, an active galactic nucleus (AGN) phase is often invoked as the cause for the decrease or cease of star...... formation. This thesis consists of models and observations of gas and AGNs in massive galaxies at z _ 2, and how they may affect the overall SFR and the subsequent evolutionary trajectory of massive galaxies to z = 0. For an improved understanding of how observed gas emission lines link to the underlying......, and sheds light on the AGN-host co-evolution by connecting the fraction and luminosity of AGNs with galaxy properties. By analyzing a large survey in X-ray, AGNs of high and low X-ray luminosity are extracted among massive galaxies at z _ 2 via AGN classification methods, and stacking techniques of non...

  4. ORIGIN OF 12 {mu}m EMISSION ACROSS GALAXY POPULATIONS FROM WISE AND SDSS SURVEYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoso, E.; Yan Lin; Tsai, C. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Eisenhardt, P.; Stern, D.; Assef, R. J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Leisawitz, D. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Jarrett, T. H. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stanford, S. A. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2012-04-01

    We cross-matched Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer sources brighter than 1 mJy at 12 {mu}m with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxy spectroscopic catalog to produce a sample of {approx}10{sup 5} galaxies at (z) = 0.08, the largest of its kind. This sample is dominated (70%) by star-forming (SF) galaxies from the blue sequence, with total IR luminosities in the range {approx}10{sup 8}-10{sup 12} L{sub Sun }. We identify which stellar populations are responsible for most of the 12 {mu}m emission. We find that most ({approx}80%) of the 12 {mu}m emission in SF galaxies is produced by stellar populations younger than 0.6 Gyr. In contrast, the 12 {mu}m emission in weak active galactic nuclei (AGNs; L{sub [Oiii]} < 10{sup 7} L{sub .}) is produced by older stars, with ages of {approx}1-3 Gyr. We find that L{sub 12{mu}m} linearly correlates with stellar mass for SF galaxies. At fixed 12 {mu}m luminosity, weak AGNs deviate toward higher masses since they tend to be hosted by massive, early-type galaxies with older stellar populations. SF galaxies and weak AGNs follow different L{sub 12{mu}m}-SFR (star formation rate) relations, with weak AGNs showing excess 12 {mu}m emission at low SFR (0.02-1 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}). This is likely due to dust grains heated by older stars. While the specific star formation rate (SSFR) of SF galaxies is nearly constant, the SSFR of weak AGNs decreases by {approx}3 orders of magnitude, reflecting the very different star formation efficiencies between SF galaxies and massive, early-type galaxies. Stronger type II AGNs in our sample (L[{sub Oiii]} > 10{sup 7} L{sub .}), act as an extension of massive SF galaxies, connecting the SF and weak AGN sequences. This suggests a picture where galaxies form stars normally until an AGN (possibly after a starburst episode) starts to gradually quench the SF activity. We also find that 4.6-12 {mu}m color is a useful first-order indicator of SF activity in a galaxy when no other data are available.

  5. ORIGIN OF 12 μm EMISSION ACROSS GALAXY POPULATIONS FROM WISE AND SDSS SURVEYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donoso, E.; Yan Lin; Tsai, C.; Eisenhardt, P.; Stern, D.; Assef, R. J.; Leisawitz, D.; Jarrett, T. H.; Stanford, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    We cross-matched Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer sources brighter than 1 mJy at 12 μm with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxy spectroscopic catalog to produce a sample of ∼10 5 galaxies at (z) = 0.08, the largest of its kind. This sample is dominated (70%) by star-forming (SF) galaxies from the blue sequence, with total IR luminosities in the range ∼10 8 -10 12 L ☉ . We identify which stellar populations are responsible for most of the 12 μm emission. We find that most (∼80%) of the 12 μm emission in SF galaxies is produced by stellar populations younger than 0.6 Gyr. In contrast, the 12 μm emission in weak active galactic nuclei (AGNs; L [Oiii] 7 L . ) is produced by older stars, with ages of ∼1-3 Gyr. We find that L 12μm linearly correlates with stellar mass for SF galaxies. At fixed 12 μm luminosity, weak AGNs deviate toward higher masses since they tend to be hosted by massive, early-type galaxies with older stellar populations. SF galaxies and weak AGNs follow different L 12μm -SFR (star formation rate) relations, with weak AGNs showing excess 12 μm emission at low SFR (0.02-1 M ☉ yr –1 ). This is likely due to dust grains heated by older stars. While the specific star formation rate (SSFR) of SF galaxies is nearly constant, the SSFR of weak AGNs decreases by ∼3 orders of magnitude, reflecting the very different star formation efficiencies between SF galaxies and massive, early-type galaxies. Stronger type II AGNs in our sample (L[ Oiii] > 10 7 L . ), act as an extension of massive SF galaxies, connecting the SF and weak AGN sequences. This suggests a picture where galaxies form stars normally until an AGN (possibly after a starburst episode) starts to gradually quench the SF activity. We also find that 4.6-12 μm color is a useful first-order indicator of SF activity in a galaxy when no other data are available.

  6. Merger relics of cluster galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, S. K.; Lee, J.; Jung, I.; Ji, I.; Sheen, Y.-K.

    2013-06-01

    Context. Sheen and collaborators recently found that a surprisingly large portion (38%) of massive early-type galaxies in heavy clusters show strong merger-related disturbed features. This contradicts the general understanding that massive clusters are hostile environments for galaxy mergers. Considering the significance of mergers in galaxy evolution, it is important to understand this. Aims: We aim to present a theoretical foundation that explains galaxy mergers in massive clusters. Methods: We used the N-body simulation technique to perform a cosmological-volume simulation and derive dark-halo merger trees. Then, we used the semi-analytic modeling technique to populate each halo with galaxies. We ran hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy mergers to estimate the lifetime of merger features for the imaging condition used by Sheen and collaborators. We applied this merger feature lifetime to our semi-analytic models. Finally, we counted the massive early-type galaxies in heavy model clusters that would show strong merger features. Results: While there still are substantial uncertainties, our preliminary results are remarkably close to the observed fraction of galaxies with merger features. Key ingredients for the success are twofold: firstly, the subhalo motion in dark haloes has been accurately traced, and, second, the lifetime of merger features has been properly estimated. As a result, merger features are expected to last very long in cluster environments. Many massive early-type galaxies in heavy clusters therefore show merger features not because they experience mergers in the current clusters in situ, but because they still carry their merger features from their previous halo environments. Conclusions: Investigating the merger relics of cluster galaxies is potentially important, because it uniquely allows us to backtrack the halo merger history.

  7. Large-scale galaxy bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Donghui; Desjacques, Vincent; Schmidt, Fabian

    2018-01-01

    Here, we briefly introduce the key results of the recent review (arXiv:1611.09787), whose abstract is as following. This review presents a comprehensive overview of galaxy bias, that is, the statistical relation between the distribution of galaxies and matter. We focus on large scales where cosmic density fields are quasi-linear. On these scales, the clustering of galaxies can be described by a perturbative bias expansion, and the complicated physics of galaxy formation is absorbed by a finite set of coefficients of the expansion, called bias parameters. The review begins with a detailed derivation of this very important result, which forms the basis of the rigorous perturbative description of galaxy clustering, under the assumptions of General Relativity and Gaussian, adiabatic initial conditions. Key components of the bias expansion are all leading local gravitational observables, which include the matter density but also tidal fields and their time derivatives. We hence expand the definition of local bias to encompass all these contributions. This derivation is followed by a presentation of the peak-background split in its general form, which elucidates the physical meaning of the bias parameters, and a detailed description of the connection between bias parameters and galaxy (or halo) statistics. We then review the excursion set formalism and peak theory which provide predictions for the values of the bias parameters. In the remainder of the review, we consider the generalizations of galaxy bias required in the presence of various types of cosmological physics that go beyond pressureless matter with adiabatic, Gaussian initial conditions: primordial non-Gaussianity, massive neutrinos, baryon-CDM isocurvature perturbations, dark energy, and modified gravity. Finally, we discuss how the description of galaxy bias in the galaxies' rest frame is related to clustering statistics measured from the observed angular positions and redshifts in actual galaxy catalogs.

  8. Large-scale galaxy bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjacques, Vincent; Jeong, Donghui; Schmidt, Fabian

    2018-02-01

    This review presents a comprehensive overview of galaxy bias, that is, the statistical relation between the distribution of galaxies and matter. We focus on large scales where cosmic density fields are quasi-linear. On these scales, the clustering of galaxies can be described by a perturbative bias expansion, and the complicated physics of galaxy formation is absorbed by a finite set of coefficients of the expansion, called bias parameters. The review begins with a detailed derivation of this very important result, which forms the basis of the rigorous perturbative description of galaxy clustering, under the assumptions of General Relativity and Gaussian, adiabatic initial conditions. Key components of the bias expansion are all leading local gravitational observables, which include the matter density but also tidal fields and their time derivatives. We hence expand the definition of local bias to encompass all these contributions. This derivation is followed by a presentation of the peak-background split in its general form, which elucidates the physical meaning of the bias parameters, and a detailed description of the connection between bias parameters and galaxy statistics. We then review the excursion-set formalism and peak theory which provide predictions for the values of the bias parameters. In the remainder of the review, we consider the generalizations of galaxy bias required in the presence of various types of cosmological physics that go beyond pressureless matter with adiabatic, Gaussian initial conditions: primordial non-Gaussianity, massive neutrinos, baryon-CDM isocurvature perturbations, dark energy, and modified gravity. Finally, we discuss how the description of galaxy bias in the galaxies' rest frame is related to clustering statistics measured from the observed angular positions and redshifts in actual galaxy catalogs.

  9. Incentives and intrinsic motivation in healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel Berdud

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: The conclusions could act as a guide to support the optimal design of incentive policies and schemes within health organisations when healthcare professionals are intrinsically motivated.

  10. Algebraic description of intrinsic modes in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leviatan, A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1990-01-01

    We present a procedure for extracting normal modes in algebraic number-conserving systems of interacting bosons relevant for collective states in even-even nuclei. The Hamiltonian is resolved into intrinsic (bandhead related) and collective (in-band related) parts. Shape parameters are introduced through non-spherical boson bases. Intrinsic modes decoupled from the spurious modes are obtained from the intrinsic part of the Hamiltonian in the limit of large number of bosons. Intrinsic states are constructed and serve to evaluate electromagnetic transition rates. The method is illustrated for systems with one type of boson as well as with proton-neutron bosons. (author).

  11. Algebraic description of intrinsic modes in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leviatan, A.

    1990-01-01

    We present a procedure for extracting normal modes in algebraic number-conserving systems of interacting bosons relevant for collective states in even-even nuclei. The Hamiltonian is resolved into intrinsic (bandhead related) and collective (in-band related) parts. Shape parameters are introduced through non-spherical boson bases. Intrinsic modes decoupled from the spurious modes are obtained from the intrinsic part of the Hamiltonian in the limit of large number of bosons. Intrinsic states are constructed and serve to evaluate electromagnetic transition rates. The method is illustrated for systems with one type of boson as well as with proton-neutron bosons. (author)

  12. [Acute blue urticaria following subcutaneous injection of patent blue dye].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, A; Vial-Dupuy, A; Lebrun-Vignes, B; Francès, C; Soria, A; Barete, S

    2015-11-01

    Patent blue (PB) is a lymphatic vessel dye commonly used in France for sentinel lymph node detection in breast cancer, and less frequently in melanoma, and which may induce hypersensitivity reactions. We report a case of acute blue urticaria occurring within minutes of PB injection. Ten minutes after PB injection for sentinel lymph node detection during breast cancer surgery, a 49-year-old woman developed generalised acute blue urticaria and eyelid angioedema without bronchospasm or haemodynamic disturbance, but requiring discontinuation of surgery. Skin testing using PB and the anaesthetics given were run 6 weeks after the episode and confirmed PB allergy. PB was formally contra-indicated. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to PB have been reported for between 0.24 and 2.2% of procedures. Such reactions are on occasion severe, chiefly involving anaphylactic shock. Two mechanisms are probably associated: non-specific histamine release and/or an IgE-mediated mechanism. Skin tests are helpful in confirming the diagnosis of PB allergy. Blue acute urticaria is one of the clinical manifestations of immediate hypersensitivity reactions to patent blue dye. Skin tests must be performed 6 weeks after the reaction in order to confirm the diagnosis and formally contra-indicate this substance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. QUENCHING DEPENDS ON MORPHOLOGIES: IMPLICATIONS FROM THE ULTRAVIOLET-OPTICAL RADIAL COLOR DISTRIBUTIONS IN GREEN VALLEY GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Zhizheng; Lin, Weipeng; Li, Jinrong; Kong, Xu; Wang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    In this Letter, we analyze the radial ultraviolet-optical color distributions in a sample of low redshift green valley galaxies, with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX)+Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) images, to investigate how the residual recent star formation is distributed in these galaxies. We find that the dust-corrected u – r colors of early-type galaxies (ETGs) are flat out to R 90 , while the colors monotonously turn blue when r > 0.5 R 50 for late-type galaxies (LTGs). More than half of the ETGs are blue-cored and have remarkable positive NUV – r color gradients, suggesting that their star formations are centrally concentrated. The rest have flat color distributions out to R 90 . The centrally concentrated star formation activity in a large portion of ETGs is confirmed by the SDSS spectroscopy, showing that ∼50% of the ETGs have EW(Hα) >6.0 Å. Of the LTGs, 95% show uniform radial color profiles, which can be interpreted as a red bulge plus an extended blue disk. The links between the two kinds of ETGs, e.g., those objects having remarkable ''blue-cores'' and those having flat color gradients, are less known and require future investigations. It is suggested that the LTGs follow a general model by which quenching first occurs in the core regions, and then finally extend to the rest of the galaxy. Our results can be re-examined and have important implications for the IFU surveys, such as MaNGA and SAMI

  14. QUENCHING DEPENDS ON MORPHOLOGIES: IMPLICATIONS FROM THE ULTRAVIOLET-OPTICAL RADIAL COLOR DISTRIBUTIONS IN GREEN VALLEY GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Zhizheng; Lin, Weipeng [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Science, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Li, Jinrong; Kong, Xu [Center of Astrophysics, University of Science and Technology of China, Jinzhai Road 96, Hefei 230026 (China); Wang, Jing, E-mail: panzz@shao.ac.cn, E-mail: linwp@shao.ac.cn [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, PO Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia)

    2014-09-01

    In this Letter, we analyze the radial ultraviolet-optical color distributions in a sample of low redshift green valley galaxies, with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX)+Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) images, to investigate how the residual recent star formation is distributed in these galaxies. We find that the dust-corrected u – r colors of early-type galaxies (ETGs) are flat out to R {sub 90}, while the colors monotonously turn blue when r > 0.5 R {sub 50} for late-type galaxies (LTGs). More than half of the ETGs are blue-cored and have remarkable positive NUV – r color gradients, suggesting that their star formations are centrally concentrated. The rest have flat color distributions out to R {sub 90}. The centrally concentrated star formation activity in a large portion of ETGs is confirmed by the SDSS spectroscopy, showing that ∼50% of the ETGs have EW(Hα) >6.0 Å. Of the LTGs, 95% show uniform radial color profiles, which can be interpreted as a red bulge plus an extended blue disk. The links between the two kinds of ETGs, e.g., those objects having remarkable ''blue-cores'' and those having flat color gradients, are less known and require future investigations. It is suggested that the LTGs follow a general model by which quenching first occurs in the core regions, and then finally extend to the rest of the galaxy. Our results can be re-examined and have important implications for the IFU surveys, such as MaNGA and SAMI.

  15. Updating the (supermassive black hole mass)-(spiral arm pitch angle) relation: a strong correlation for galaxies with pseudobulges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Benjamin L.; Graham, Alister W.; Seigar, Marc S.

    2017-10-01

    We have conducted an image analysis of the (current) full sample of 44 spiral galaxies with directly measured supermassive black hole (SMBH) masses, MBH, to determine each galaxy's logarithmic spiral arm pitch angle, ϕ. For predicting black hole masses, we have derived the relation: log (MBH/M⊙) = (7.01 ± 0.07) - (0.171 ± 0.017)[|ϕ| - 15°]. The total root mean square scatter associated with this relation is 0.43 dex in the log MBH direction, with an intrinsic scatter of 0.30 ± 0.08 dex. The MBH-ϕ relation is therefore at least as accurate at predicting SMBH masses in spiral galaxies as the other known relations. By definition, the existence of an MBH-ϕ relation demands that the SMBH mass must correlate with the galaxy discs in some manner. Moreover, with the majority of our sample (37 of 44) classified in the literature as having a pseudobulge morphology, we additionally reveal that the SMBH mass correlates with the large-scale spiral pattern and thus the discs of galaxies hosting pseudobulges. Furthermore, given that the MBH-ϕ relation is capable of estimating black hole masses in bulge-less spiral galaxies, it therefore has great promise for predicting which galaxies may harbour intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs, MBH < 105 M⊙). Extrapolating from the current relation, we predict that galaxies with |ϕ| ≥ 26.7° should possess IMBHs.

  16. LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE AND THEIR HOST GALAXIES FROM THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Naoki; Fukugita, Masataka

    2010-01-01

    The sample of 137 low-redshift type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) with 0.05 ≤ z ≤ 0.3 obtained from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-II supernova survey for the southern equatorial stripe of 300 deg 2 is used to derive the luminosity functions (LFs) of SNe Ia and of their host galaxies in the g, r, i passbands. We show that the LF of SNe Ia host galaxies matches well with that of galaxies in the general field, suggesting that the occurrence of SNe Ia does not favor a particular type of galaxy but is predominantly proportional to the luminosity of galaxies. The evidence is weak that the SNe rate varies with the color of host galaxies. The only evidence that points to possible correlation between the SN rate and star formation activity is that the SN rate in late-type galaxies is higher than that in early-type galaxies by 31% ± 35%. In our low-redshift sample, the component of type Ia SN rate that is proportional to star formation activity is not evident in the integrated SN rate, while our observation is compatible with the current two-component models. The sample contains eight SNe Ia whose host galaxies were not identified, but it is shown that their occurrence is consistent with them occurring in low-luminous galaxies beyond the survey. The LF of SNe Ia is approximately Gaussian with the full width at half-maximum being a factor of σ = 0.24 mag or 1.67 in luminosity. The Gaussian distribution becomes tighter if the ratio of extinction to reddening, R V , is lower than the characteristic value for the Milky Way and if luminosity is corrected for the light-curve shape. The average color excess is ∼0.07 mag, which is significantly smaller than reddening expected for field galaxies. This color excess does not vary with the distance of the SNe from the center of the host galaxy to 15 kpc. This suggests that the major part of the color excess appears to be either intrinsic or reddening that arises in the immediate environment of SNe, rather than interstellar

  17. ALFALFA DISCOVERY OF THE MOST METAL-POOR GAS-RICH GALAXY KNOWN: AGC 198691

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschauer, Alec S.; Salzer, John J.; Rhode, Katherine L., E-mail: ash@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: slaz@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: krhode@indiana.edu [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 East Third Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); and others

    2016-05-10

    We present spectroscopic observations of the nearby dwarf galaxy AGC 198691. This object is part of the Survey of H i in Extremely Low-Mass Dwarfs project, which is a multi-wavelength study of galaxies with H i masses in the range of 10{sup 6}–10{sup 7.2} M {sub ⊙}, discovered by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. We have obtained spectra of the lone H ii region in AGC 198691 with the new high-throughput KPNO Ohio State Multi-Object Spectrograph on the Mayall 4 m, as well as with the Blue Channel spectrograph on the MMT 6.5 m telescope. These observations enable the measurement of the temperature-sensitive [O iii] λ 4363 line and hence the determination of a “direct” oxygen abundance for AGC 198691. We find this system to be an extremely metal-deficient (XMD) system with an oxygen abundance of 12+log(O/H) = 7.02 ± 0.03, making AGC 198691 the lowest-abundance star-forming galaxy known in the local universe. Two of the five lowest-abundance galaxies known have been discovered by the ALFALFA blind H i survey; this high yield of XMD galaxies represents a paradigm shift in the search for extremely metal-poor galaxies.

  18. Geochemical indicators of intrinsic bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borden, R.C.; Gomez, C.A.; Becker, M.T.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed field investigation has been completed at a gasoline-contaminated aquifer near Rocky Point, NC, to examine possible indicators of intrinsic bioremediation and identify factors that may significantly influence the rae and extent of bioremediation. The dissolved plume of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) in ground water is naturally degrading. Toluene and o-xylene are most rapidly degraded followed by m-, p-xylene, and benzene. Ethylbenzene appears to degrade very slowly under anaerobic conditions present in the center of the plume. The rate and extent of biodegradation appears to be strongly influenced by the type and quantity of electron acceptors present in the aquifer. At the upgradient edge of the plume, nitrate, ferric iron, and oxygen are used as terminal electron acceptors during hydrocarbon biodegradation. The equivalent of 40 to 50 mg/l of hydrocarbon is degraded based on the increase in dissolved CO 2 relative to background ground water. Immediately downgradient of the source area, sulfate and iron are the dominant electron acceptors. Toluene and o-xylene are rapidly removed in this region. Once the available oxygen, nitrate, and sulfate are consumed, biodegradation is limited and appears to be controlled by mixing and aerobic biodegradation at the plume fringes

  19. Protein intrinsic disorder in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Florencio; Pietrosemoli, Natalia; García-Martín, Juan A; Solano, Roberto

    2013-09-12

    To some extent contradicting the classical paradigm of the relationship between protein 3D structure and function, now it is clear that large portions of the proteomes, especially in higher organisms, lack a fixed structure and still perform very important functions. Proteins completely or partially unstructured in their native (functional) form are involved in key cellular processes underlain by complex networks of protein interactions. The intrinsic conformational flexibility of these disordered proteins allows them to bind multiple partners in transient interactions of high specificity and low affinity. In concordance, in plants this type of proteins has been found in processes requiring these complex and versatile interaction networks. These include transcription factor networks, where disordered proteins act as integrators of different signals or link different transcription factor subnetworks due to their ability to interact (in many cases simultaneously) with different partners. Similarly, they also serve as signal integrators in signaling cascades, such as those related to response to external stimuli. Disordered proteins have also been found in plants in many stress-response processes, acting as protein chaperones or protecting other cellular components and structures. In plants, it is especially important to have complex and versatile networks able to quickly and efficiently respond to changing environmental conditions since these organisms cannot escape and have no other choice than adapting to them. Consequently, protein disorder can play an especially important role in plants, providing them with a fast mechanism to obtain complex, interconnected and versatile molecular networks.

  20. Protein intrinsic disorder in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencio ePazos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To some extent contradicting the classical paradigm of the relationship between protein 3D structure and function, now it is clear that large portions of the proteomes, especially in higher organisms, lack a fixed structure and still perform very important functions. Proteins completely or partially unstructured in their native (functional form are involved in key cellular processes underlain by complex networks of protein interactions. The intrinsic conformational flexibility of these disordered proteins allows them to bind multiple partners in transient interactions of high specificity and low affinity. In concordance, in plants this type of proteins has been found in processes requiring these complex and versatile interaction networks. These include transcription factor networks, where disordered proteins act as integrators of different signals or link different transcription factor subnetworks due to their ability to interact (in many cases simultaneously with different partners. Similarly, they also serve as signal integrators in signalling cascades, such as those related to response to external stimuli. Disordered proteins have also been found in plants in many stress-response processes, acting as protein chaperones or protecting other cellular components and structures. In plants, it is especially important to have complex and versatile networks able to quickly and efficiently respond to changing environmental conditions since these organisms can not escape and have no other choice than adapting to them. Consequently, protein disorder can play an especially important role in plants, providing them with a fast mechanism to obtain complex, interconnected and versatile molecular networks.

  1. Near field cosmology from Dwarf Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Near field cosmology from Dwarf Galaxies. Extremely faint dwarfs are particularly interesting in the context of hierarchical galaxy formation models. The smallest objects collapse first, larger galaxies from by merger of smaller ones. The process of galaxy formation via merger s is ...

  2. The fate of the Antennae galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahén, Natalia; Johansson, Peter H.; Rantala, Antti; Naab, Thorsten; Frigo, Matteo

    2018-04-01

    We present a high-resolution smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulation of the Antennae galaxies (NGC 4038/4039) and follow the evolution 3 Gyr beyond the final coalescence. The simulation includes metallicity-dependent cooling, star formation, and both stellar feedback and chemical enrichment. The simulated best-match Antennae reproduce well both the observed morphology and the off-nuclear starburst. We also produce for the first time a simulated two-dimensional (2D) metallicity map of the Antennae and find good agreement with the observed metallicity of off-nuclear stellar clusters; however, the nuclear metallicities are overproduced by ˜0.5 dex. Using the radiative transfer code SKIRT, we produce multiwavelength observations of both the Antennae and the merger remnant. The 1-Gyr-old remnant is well fitted with a Sérsic profile of n = 7.07, and with an r-band effective radius of re = 1.6 kpc and velocity dispersion of σe = 180 km s-1 the remnant is located on the Fundamental Plane of early-type galaxies (ETGs). The initially blue Antennae remnant evolves on to the red sequence after ˜2.5 Gyr of secular evolution. The remnant would be classified as a fast rotator, as the specific angular momentum evolves from λRe ≈ 0.11 to 0.14 during its evolution. The remnant shows ordered rotation and a double peaked maximum in the mean 2D line-of-sight velocity. These kinematical features are relatively common amongst local ETGs and we specifically identify three local ETGs (NGC 3226, NGC 3379, and NGC 4494) in the atlas3D sample, whose photometric and kinematic properties most resemble the Antennae remnant.

  3. Galaxy bias from galaxy-galaxy lensing in the DES science verification data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, J.; Sánchez, C.; Miquel, R.; Kwan, J.; Blazek, J.; Bonnett, C.; Amara, A.; Bridle, S. L.; Clampitt, J.; Crocce, M.; Fosalba, P.; Gaztanaga, E.; Giannantonio, T.; Hartley, W. G.; Jarvis, M.; MacCrann, N.; Percival, W. J.; Ross, A. J.; Sheldon, E.; Zuntz, J.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Annis, J.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Fausti Neto, A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Lima, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Melchior, P.; Menanteau, F.; Nord, B.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.

    2018-01-01

    We present a measurement of galaxy-galaxy lensing around a magnitude-limited (iAB science verification (DES-SV) data. We split these lenses into three photometric-redshift bins from 0.2 to 0.8, and determine the product of the galaxy bias b and cross-correlation coefficient between the galaxy and dark matter overdensity fields r in each bin, using scales above 4 h-1 Mpc comoving, where we find the linear bias model to be valid given our current uncertainties. We compare our galaxy bias results from galaxy-galaxy lensing with those obtained from galaxy clustering and CMB lensing for the same sample of galaxies, and find our measurements to be in good agreement with those in Crocce et al., while, in the lowest redshift bin (z ∼ 0.3), they show some tension with the findings in Giannantonio et al. We measure b · r to be 0.87 ± 0.11, 1.12 ± 0.16 and 1.24 ± 0.23, respectively, for the three redshift bins of width Δz = 0.2 in the range 0.2 code to split the lens sample, TPZ, leads to changes in the measured biases at the 10-20 per cent level, but it does not alter the main conclusion of this work: when comparing with Crocce et al. we do not find strong evidence for a cross-correlation parameter significantly below one in this galaxy sample, except possibly at the lowest redshift bin (z ∼ 0.3), where we find r = 0.71 ± 0.11 when using TPZ, and 0.83 ± 0.12 with BPZ.

  4. KiDS+GAMA: Cosmology constraints from a joint analysis of cosmic shear, galaxy-galaxy lensing and angular clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Uitert, Edo; Joachimi, Benjamin; Joudaki, Shahab; Amon, Alexandra; Heymans, Catherine; Köhlinger, Fabian; Asgari, Marika; Blake, Chris; Choi, Ami; Erben, Thomas; Farrow, Daniel J.; Harnois-Déraps, Joachim; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hoekstra, Henk; Kitching, Thomas D.; Klaes, Dominik; Kuijken, Konrad; Merten, Julian; Miller, Lance; Nakajima, Reiko; Schneider, Peter; Valentijn, Edwin; Viola, Massimo

    2018-03-01

    We present cosmological parameter constraints from a joint analysis of three cosmological probes: the tomographic cosmic shear signal in ˜450 deg2 of data from the Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS), the galaxy-matter cross-correlation signal of galaxies from the Galaxies And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey determined with KiDS weak lensing, and the angular correlation function of the same GAMA galaxies. We use fast power spectrum estimators that are based on simple integrals over the real-space correlation functions, and show that they are practically unbiased over relevant angular frequency ranges. We test our full pipeline on numerical simulations that are tailored to KiDS and retrieve the input cosmology. By fitting different combinations of power spectra, we demonstrate that the three probes are internally consistent. For all probes combined, we obtain S_8≡ σ _8 √{Ω _m/0.3}=0.800_{-0.027}^{+0.029}, consistent with Planck and the fiducial KiDS-450 cosmic shear correlation function results. Marginalising over wide priors on the mean of the tomographic redshift distributions yields consistent results for S8 with an increase of 28% in the error. The combination of probes results in a 26% reduction in uncertainties of S8 over using the cosmic shear power spectra alone. The main gain from these additional probes comes through their constraining power on nuisance parameters, such as the galaxy intrinsic alignment amplitude or potential shifts in the redshift distributions, which are up to a factor of two better constrained compared to using cosmic shear alone, demonstrating the value of large-scale structure probe combination.

  5. On compact galaxies in the UGC catalogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogoshvili, N.G.

    1980-01-01

    A problem of separation of compact galaxies in the UGC Catalogue is considered. Value of surface brightness equal to or less than 21sup(m) was used as compactness criterion from a square second of arc. 96 galaxies, which are brighter than 14sup(m)5 satisfy this criterion. Among compact galaxies discovered in the UGC Catalogue 7% are the Zwicky galaxies, 15% belong to the Markarian galaxies and 27% of galaxies are part of a galaxy list with high surface brightness. Considerable divergence in estimates of total share of compact galaxies in the B.A. Worontsov-Veljaminov Morphological Catalogue of Galaxies (MCG) and the UGC Catalogue is noted. This divergence results from systematical underestimation of visible sizes of compact galaxies in the MCG Catalogue as compared with the UGC Catalogue [ru

  6. Galaxies appear simpler than expected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, M J; Romano, J D; Garcia-Appadoo, D A; West, A A; Dalcanton, J J; Cortese, L

    2008-10-23

    Galaxies are complex systems the evolution of which apparently results from the interplay of dynamics, star formation, chemical enrichment and feedback from supernova explosions and supermassive black holes. The hierarchical theory of galaxy formation holds that galaxies are assembled from smaller pieces, through numerous mergers of cold dark matter. The properties of an individual galaxy should be controlled by six independent parameters including mass, angular momentum, baryon fraction, age and size, as well as by the accidents of its recent haphazard merger history. Here we report that a sample of galaxies that were first detected through their neutral hydrogen radio-frequency emission, and are thus free from optical selection effects, shows five independent correlations among six independent observables, despite having a wide range of properties. This implies that the structure of these galaxies must be controlled by a single parameter, although we cannot identify this parameter from our data set. Such a degree of organization appears to be at odds with hierarchical galaxy formation, a central tenet of the cold dark matter model in cosmology.

  7. Velocity evolution of galaxy clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saslaw, W.C.; Aarseth, S.J.

    1982-02-15

    We have examined the changing velocity distribution of galaxies as they cluster in computer models of the expanding universe. The models are 4000-body numerical simulations of galaxies with a large range of masses interacting gravitationally. Clustering in velocity space is measured by calculating the residual peculiar velocities around the Hubble expansion. These form ''Hubble streaks as clustering progresses. We distinguish isolated field galaxies from clustered galaxies. In contrast to the usual belief, the velocity dispersion of the most extreme field galaxies does not decrease adiabatically. Rather, it is dominated by the perturbations of distant large clusters as they form and it decreases much more slowly than the inverse expansion length scale, R/sup -1/. The velocity dispersion of extreme field galaxies is a good cosmological indicator of ..cap omega.. = rho/rho/sub crit/. Preliminary comparison of several simulations with observtions shows that our universe agrees better with low density models, ..cap omega..< or =0.1. The velocity dispersion of cluster centers of mass is a good cosmological marker as well. We also suggest another new method for estimating ..cap omega.., based on the history of extreme field galaxies.

  8. LEADERSHIP STYLE AND EMPLOYEES' INTRINSIC JOB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This study investigates the impact of leadership style on employees' intrinsic job satisfaction in the Cross River State Newspaper Corporation, Calabar,. Nigeria. The study examined the problem of dissatisfaction in the work place as far as intrinsic factors of job satisfaction are concerned. Structured questionnaire ...

  9. Intrinsic bioremediation of landfills interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigmon, R.L.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    Intrinsic bioremediation is a risk management option that relies on natural biological and physical processes to contain the spread of contamination from a source. Evidence is presented in this report that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at the Sanitary Landfill is fundamental to support incorportion into a Corrective Action Plan (CAP)

  10. Differential scanning microcalorimetry of intrinsically disordered proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permyakov, Sergei E

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasensitive differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is an indispensable thermophysical technique enabling to get direct information on enthalpies accompanying heating/cooling of dilute biopolymer solutions. The thermal dependence of protein heat capacity extracted from DSC data is a valuable source of information on intrinsic disorder level of a protein. Application details and limitations of DSC technique in exploration of protein intrinsic disorder are described.

  11. Intrinsic bioremediation of landfills interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Fliermans, C.B.

    1997-07-14

    Intrinsic bioremediation is a risk management option that relies on natural biological and physical processes to contain the spread of contamination from a source. Evidence is presented in this report that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at the Sanitary Landfill is fundamental to support incorportion into a Corrective Action Plan (CAP).

  12. An Intrinsic Coordinate System for Fingerprint Matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazen, A.M.; Gerez, Sabih H.; Bigun, J.; Smeraldi, F.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, an intrinsic coordinate system is proposed for fingerprints. First the fingerprint is partitioned in regular regions, which are regions that contain no singular points. In each regular region, the intrinsic coordinate system is defined by the directional field. When using the

  13. Data Release of UV to Submillimeter Broadband Fluxes for Simulated Galaxies from the EAGLE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Peter; Trčka, Ana; Trayford, James; Baes, Maarten; Theuns, Tom; Crain, Robert A.; McAlpine, Stuart; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop

    2018-02-01

    We present dust-attenuated and dust emission fluxes for sufficiently resolved galaxies in the EAGLE suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, calculated with the SKIRT radiative transfer code. The post-processing procedure includes specific components for star formation regions, stellar sources, and diffuse dust and takes into account stochastic heating of dust grains to obtain realistic broadband fluxes in the wavelength range from ultraviolet to submillimeter. The mock survey includes nearly half a million simulated galaxies with stellar masses above {10}8.5 {M}ȯ across six EAGLE models. About two-thirds of these galaxies, residing in 23 redshift bins up to z = 6, have a sufficiently resolved metallic gas distribution to derive meaningful dust attenuation and emission, with the important caveat that the same dust properties were used at all redshifts. These newly released data complement the already publicly available information about the EAGLE galaxies, which includes intrinsic properties derived by aggregating the properties of the smoothed particles representing matter in the simulation. We further provide an open-source framework of Python procedures for post-processing simulated galaxies with the radiative transfer code SKIRT. The framework allows any third party to calculate synthetic images, spectral energy distributions, and broadband fluxes for EAGLE galaxies, taking into account the effects of dust attenuation and emission.

  14. Young Galaxy Candidates in the Hubble Frontier Fields. IV. MACS J1149.5+2223

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Zitrin, Adi; Infante, Leopoldo; Laporte, Nicolas; Huang, Xingxing; Moustakas, John; Ford, Holland C.; Shu, Xinwen; Wang, Junxian; Diego, Jose M.; Bauer, Franz E.; Troncoso Iribarren, Paulina; Broadhurst, Tom; Molino, Alberto

    2017-02-01

    We search for high-redshift dropout galaxies behind the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) galaxy cluster MACS J1149.5+2223, a powerful cosmic lens that has revealed a number of unique objects in its field. Using the deep images from the Hubble and Spitzer space telescopes, we find 11 galaxies at z > 7 in the MACS J1149.5+2223 cluster field, and 11 in its parallel field. The high-redshift nature of the bright z ≃ 9.6 galaxy MACS1149-JD, previously reported by Zheng et al., is further supported by non-detection in the extremely deep optical images from the HFF campaign. With the new photometry, the best photometric redshift solution for MACS1149-JD reduces slightly to z = 9.44 ± 0.12. The young galaxy has an estimated stellar mass of (7+/- 2)× {10}8 {M}⊙ , and was formed at z={13.2}-1.6+1.9 when the universe was ≈300 Myr old. Data available for the first four HFF clusters have already enabled us to find faint galaxies to an intrinsic magnitude of {M}{UV}≃ -15.5, approximately a factor of 10 deeper than the parallel fields.

  15. Star Formation Histories of Nearby Dwarf Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Grebel, Eva K.

    2000-01-01

    Properties of nearby dwarf galaxies are briefly discussed. Dwarf galaxies vary widely in their star formation histories, the ages of their subpopulations, and in their enrichment history. Furthermore, many dwarf galaxies show evidence for spatial variations in their star formation history; often in the form of very extended old populations and radial gradients in age and metallicity. Determining factors in dwarf galaxy evolution appear to be both galaxy mass and environment. We may be observi...

  16. Star Formation Histories of Dwarf Galaxies from the Colour-Magnitude Diagrams of Their Resolved Stellar Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Cignoni

    2010-01-01

    build synthetic CMDs and to exploit them to derive the SF histories (SFHs are described, as well as the corresponding uncertainties. The SFHs of resolved dwarf galaxies of all morphological types, obtained from the application of the synthetic CMD method, are reviewed and discussed. To summarize: (1 only early-type galaxies show evidence of long interruptions in the SF activity; late-type dwarfs present rather continuous, or gasping, SF regimes; (2 a few early-type dwarfs have experienced only one episode of SF activity concentrated at the earliest epochs, whilst many others show extended or recurrent SF activity; (3 no galaxy experiencing now its first SF episode has been found yet; (4 no frequent evidence of strong SF bursts is found; (5 there is no significant difference in the SFH of dwarf irregulars and blue compact dwarfs, except for the current SF rates. Implications of these results on the galaxy formation scenarios are briefly discussed.

  17. The chemical evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiosi, Cesare

    1986-01-01

    The chemical evolution of galaxies is reviewed with particular attention to the theoretical interpretation of the distribution and abundances of elements in stars and the interstellar medium. The paper was presented to the conference on ''The early universe and its evolution'', Erice, Italy, 1986. The metallicity distribution of the solar vicinity, age metallicity relationship, abundance gradients in the galaxy, external galaxies, star formation and evolution, major sites of nucleosynthesis, yields of chemical elements, chemical models, and the galactic disk, are all discussed. (U.K.)

  18. The kinematics of lopsided galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Noordermeer, Edo; Sparke, Linda S.; Levine, Stephen E.

    2001-01-01

    Lopsidedness is a common feature in galaxies, both in the distribution of light and in the kinematics. We investigate the kinematics of a model for lopsided galaxies that consists of a disc lying off-centre in a dark halo, and circling around the halo centre. We search for families of stable, closed, non-crossing orbits, and assume that gas in our galaxies moves on these orbits. Several of our models show strong lopsided gas kinematics, especially the ones in which the disc spins around its a...

  19. Dark matter in elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carollo, C. M.; Zeeuw, P. T. DE; Marel, R. P. Van Der; Danziger, I. J.; Qian, E. E.

    1995-01-01

    We present measurements of the shape of the stellar line-of-sight velocity distribution out to two effective radii along the major axes of the four elliptical galaxies NGC 2434, 2663, 3706, and 5018. The velocity dispersion profiles are flat or decline gently with radius. We compare the data to the predictions of f = f(E, L(sub z)) axisymmetric models with and without dark matter. Strong tangential anisotropy is ruled out at large radii. We conclude from our measurements that massive dark halos must be present in three of the four galaxies, while for the fourth galaxy (NGC 2663) the case is inconclusive.

  20. Blue-emitting laser diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, K.; Ishibashi, A.

    This paper reviews the recent results of blue-emitting laser diodes. These devices are based on ZnMgSSe alloy II-VI semiconductors. Recently we have achieved room temperature continuous-wave operation of ZnMgSSe blue lasers for the first time. ZnMgSSe alloys offer a wide range of band-gap energy from 2.8 to 4.5 eV, while maintaining lattice matching to GaAs substrates. These characteristics make ZnMgSSe suitable for cladding layers of blue lasers. In this article, the feasibilities of ZnMgSSe will be reviewed. The laser structures and characteristics will be also mentioned.

  1. Nuclear Activity of Compact Group Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubee, Sohn; Hwang, H.; Lee, M.; Lee, G.; Lee, J.

    2013-01-01

    We present results of a study on nuclear activities of compact group galaxies in the local universe. The triggering mechanism of AGN is an intriguing proble, and one of the suggested AGN triggering mechanism is galaxy interaction. In this regard, compact groups are a great laboratory to study the connection between galaxy interaction and nuclear activities. To study the environmental effects on nuclear activity, we estimate the fraction of AGN-host galaxies for a spectroscopic sample of 238 member galaxies in 59 compact groups from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey using the emission-line ratio diagnostic diagrams in comparison with field and cluster regions. We derive the 17-42% of AGN fraction of the compact groups depending on the AGN classification methods. The AGN fraction of compact groups is not the highest among the galaxy environments for both early and late type galaxies. We also examine the environmental dependence of nuclear activity using the surface galaxy number density. For early type galaxies, the AGN fraction decreases with increasing galaxy number density, while the AGN fraction of late-type galaxies barely changes. Moreover, we do not find any mid-infrared detected AGN-host compact group galaxies in our sample using WISE photometry. These results imply that the compact group galaxies is not stronngly active because of lack of gas supply, in contrast to the expectation that they may experience frequent galaxy-galaxy interactions.

  2. Most Distant Group of Galaxies Known in the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    the Universe was very young, just a small fraction of its present age. The radio galaxies are amongst the most massive objects in the early Universe and there has long been circumstantial evidence that they are located at the heart of young clusters of galaxies, still in the process of formation. In this sense, they act as signposts of early cosmic "meeting points" . Radio galaxies are therefore potential beacons for pinpointing regions of the Universe in which large galaxies and clusters of galaxies are being formed. VLT observations of the environment of radio galaxy TN J1338-1942 ESO PR Photo 11a/02 ESO PR Photo 11a/02 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 493 pix - 336k] [Normal - JPEG: 1250 x 1541 pix - 2.3M] Caption : PR Photo 11a/02 shows the sky region near the powerful radio galaxy TN J1338-1942 at a redshift of 4.1 [2], i.e. at a distance of about 13.5 billion light-years from the Earth (we see it as it was when the Universe was just 1.5 billion years old). The photo is a "negative" rendering (the objects are dark on a bright background) of an image obtained with the FORS2 multi-mode instrument on the 8.2-m VLT KUEYEN telescope (ESO Paranal Observatory, Chile) through a narrow-band optical filter, centered at the wavelength of the redshifted Lyman-alpha line. The 20 galaxies that have been confirmed to be emitting the sharp colours due to glowing hydrogen gas at the distance of the radio galaxy are encircled in blue. The green rectangle marks the radio galaxy, from which a stream of hydrogen gas stretches to the northwest, over a distance of about 300,000 light-years. The size of the sky field corresponds to about 10 million light-years at the distance of these galaxies. North is up and East is left. Technical information about the photo is available below. ESO PR Photo 11b/02 ESO PR Photo 11b/02 [Preview - JPEG: 515 x 400 pix - 136k] [Normal - JPEG: 1000 x 777 pix - 320k] Caption : PR Photo 11b/02 shows the spectra (brightness as a function of wavelength) for ten of the

  3. Blue light emitting thiogallate phosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Robert C.; Smith, David C.; King, Christopher N.; Tuenge, Richard T.

    1998-01-01

    A crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor of the formula RGa.sub.2 S.sub.4 :Ce.sub.x where R is selected from the group consisting of calcium, strontium, barium and zinc, and x is from about 1 to 10 atomic percent, the phosphor characterized as having a crystalline microstructure on the size order of from about 100 .ANG. to about 10,000 .ANG. is provided together with a process of preparing a crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor by depositing on a substrate by CVD and resultant thin film electroluminescent devices including a layer of such deposited phosphor on an ordinary glass substrate.

  4. EVOLUTION OF GROUP GALAXIES FROM THE FIRST RED-SEQUENCE CLUSTER SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, I. H. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Yee, H. K. C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Hsieh, B. C. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Gladders, M., E-mail: tli@astro.swin.edu.au, E-mail: hyee@astro.utoronto.ca, E-mail: bchsieh@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: gladders@oddjob.uchicago.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Ave, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2012-04-20

    We study the evolution of the red-galaxy fraction (f{sub red}) in 905 galaxy groups with 0.15 {<=} z < 0.52. The galaxy groups are identified by the 'probability friends-of-friends' algorithm from the first Red-Sequence Cluster Survey (RCS1) photometric-redshift sample. There is a high degree of uniformity in the properties of the red sequence of the group galaxies, indicating that the luminous red-sequence galaxies in the groups are already in place by z {approx} 0.5 and that they have a formation epoch of z {approx}> 2. In general, groups at lower redshifts exhibit larger f{sub red} than those at higher redshifts, showing a group Butcher-Oemler effect. We investigate the evolution of f{sub red} by examining its dependence on four parameters, one of which can be classified as intrinsic and three of which can be classified as environmental: galaxy stellar mass (M{sub *}), total group stellar mass (M{sub *,grp}, a proxy for group halo mass), normalized group-centric radius (r{sub grp}), and local galaxy density ({Sigma}{sub 5}). We find that M{sub *} is the dominant parameter such that there is a strong correlation between f{sub red} and galaxy stellar mass. Furthermore, the dependence of f{sub red} on the environmental parameters is also a strong function of M{sub *}. Massive galaxies (M{sub *} {approx}> 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun }) show little dependence of f{sub red} on r{sub grp}, M{sub *,grp}, and {Sigma}{sub 5} over the redshift range. The dependence of f{sub red} on these parameters is primarily seen for galaxies with lower masses, especially for M{sub *} {approx}< 10{sup 10.6} M{sub Sun }. We observe an apparent 'group down-sizing' effect, in that galaxies in lower-mass halos, after controlling for galaxy stellar mass, have lower f{sub red}. We find a dependence of f{sub red} on both r{sub grp} and {Sigma}{sub 5} after the other parameters are controlled. At a fixed r{sub grp}, there is a significant dependence of f{sub red} on {Sigma}{sub 5

  5. SDSS IV MaNGA: the global and local stellar mass assemby histories of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Medel, Héctor J.; Sánchez, Sebastián F.; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Hernández-Toledo, Héctor M.; González, J. Jesús; Drory, Niv; Bundy, Kevin; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Cano-Díaz, Mariana; Malanushenko, Elena; Pan, Kaike; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Thomas, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    Using the fossil record method implemented through Pipe3D, we reconstruct the global and radial stellar mass growth histories (MGHs) of a large sample of galaxies, ranging from dwarf to giant objects, from the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at the Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey. We confirm that the main driver of the global MGHs is mass, with more massive galaxies assembling earlier (downsizing), though for a given mass, the global MGHs segregate by colour, specific star formation rate and morphological type. From the inferred radial mean MGHs, we find that at fractions of assembled mass larger than ˜80 per cent, the innermost regions formed stars, on average, in the inside-out mode. At earlier epochs, when the age estimation of the method becomes poor, the MGHs seem to be spatially homogeneous or even in the outside-in mode, especially for the red/quiescent/early-type galaxies. The innermost MGHs are, in general, less scattered around the mean than the outermost MGHs. For dwarf and low-mass galaxies, we do not find evidence of an outside-in formation mode; instead, their radial MGHs are very diverse most of the time, with periods of outside-in and inside-out modes (or strong radial migration), suggesting this is an episodic star formation history. Blue/star-forming/late-type galaxies present, on average, a significantly more pronounced inside-out formation mode than red/quiescent/early-type galaxies, independently of mass. We discuss our results in the light of the processes of galaxy formation, quenching and radial migration. We also discuss the uncertainties and biases of the fossil record method and how these could affect our results.

  6. First results from the IllustrisTNG simulations: the galaxy colour bimodality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Dylan; Pillepich, Annalisa; Springel, Volker; Weinberger, Rainer; Hernquist, Lars; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Genel, Shy; Torrey, Paul; Vogelsberger, Mark; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Marinacci, Federico; Naiman, Jill

    2018-03-01

    We introduce the first two simulations of the IllustrisTNG project, a next generation of cosmological magnetohydrodynamical simulations, focusing on the optical colours of galaxies. We explore TNG100, a rerun of the original Illustris box, and TNG300, which includes 2 × 25003 resolution elements in a volume 20 times larger. Here, we present first results on the galaxy colour bimodality at low redshift. Accounting for the attenuation of stellar light by dust, we compare the simulated (g - r) colours of 109 simulation, as well as excellent quantitative agreement with the observations, with a sharp transition in median colour from blue to red at a characteristic M⋆ ˜ 1010.5 M⊙. Investigating the build-up of the colour-mass plane and the formation of the red sequence, we demonstrate that the primary driver of galaxy colour transition is supermassive black hole feedback in its low accretion state. Across the entire population the median colour transition time-scale Δtgreen is ˜1.6 Gyr, a value which drops for increasingly massive galaxies. We find signatures of the physical process of quenching: at fixed stellar mass, redder galaxies have lower star formation rates, gas fractions, and gas metallicities; their stellar populations are also older and their large-scale interstellar magnetic fields weaker than in bluer galaxies. Finally, we measure the amount of stellar mass growth on the red sequence. Galaxies with M⋆ > 1011 M⊙ which redden at z < 1 accumulate on average ˜25 per cent of their final z = 0 mass post-reddening; at the same time, ˜18 per cent of such massive galaxies acquire half or more of their final stellar mass while on the red sequence.

  7. wft4galaxy: a workflow testing tool for galaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, Marco Enrico; Pireddu, Luca; Zanetti, Gianluigi

    2017-12-01

    Workflow managers for scientific analysis provide a high-level programming platform facilitating standardization, automation, collaboration and access to sophisticated computing resources. The Galaxy workflow manager provides a prime example of this type of platform. As compositions of simpler tools, workflows effectively comprise specialized computer programs implementing often very complex analysis procedures. To date, no simple way to automatically test Galaxy workflows and ensure their correctness has appeared in the literature. With wft4galaxy we offer a tool to bring automated testing to Galaxy workflows, making it feasible to bring continuous integration to their development and ensuring that defects are detected promptly. wft4galaxy can be easily installed as a regular Python program or launched directly as a Docker container-the latter reducing installation effort to a minimum. Available at https://github.com/phnmnl/wft4galaxy under the Academic Free License v3.0. marcoenrico.piras@crs4.it. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Environmental Effects on Galaxy Evolution. II. Quantifying the Tidal Features in NIR Images of the Cluster Abell 85

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapathy, Y.; Bravo-Alfaro, H.; Mayya, Y. D.; Lobo, C.; Durret, F.; Gamez, V.; Valerdi, M.; Granados-Contreras, A. P.; Navarro-Poupard, F.

    2017-12-01

    This work is part of a series of papers devoted to investigating the evolution of cluster galaxies during their infall. In the present article, we image in NIR a selected sample of galaxies throughout the massive cluster Abell 85 (z = 0.055). We obtain (JHK‧) photometry for 68 objects, reaching ˜1 mag arcsec-2 deeper than 2MASS. We use these images to unveil asymmetries in the outskirts of a sample of bright galaxies and develop a new asymmetry index, {α }{An}, which allows us to quantify the degree of disruption by the relative area occupied by the tidal features on the plane of the sky. We measure the asymmetries for a subsample of 41 large-area objects, finding clear asymmetries in 10 galaxies; most of these are in groups and pairs projected at different clustercentric distances, and some of them are located beyond R 500. Combining information on the H I gas content of blue galaxies and the distribution of substructures across Abell 85 with the present NIR asymmetry analysis, we obtain a very powerful tool to confirm that tidal mechanisms are indeed present and are currently affecting a fraction of galaxies in Abell 85. However, when comparing our deep NIR images with UV blue images of two very disrupted (jellyfish) galaxies in this cluster, we discard the presence of tidal interactions down to our detection limit. Our results suggest that ram-pressure stripping is at the origin of such spectacular disruptions. We conclude that across a complex cluster like Abell 85, environmental mechanisms, both gravitational and hydrodynamical, are playing an active role in driving galaxy evolution.

  9. Low-amplitude clustering in low-redshift 21-cm intensity maps cross-correlated with 2dF galaxy densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C. J.; Luciw, N. J.; Li, Y.-C.; Kuo, CY; Yadav, J.; Masui, K. W.; Chang, T.-C.; Chen, X.; Oppermann, N.; Liao, Y.-W.; Pen, U.-L.; Price, D. C.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Switzer, E. R.; Timbie, P. T.; Wolz, L.

    2018-02-01

    We report results from 21-cm intensity maps acquired from the Parkes radio telescope and cross-correlated with galaxy maps from the 2dF galaxy survey. The data span the redshift range 0.057 power spectrum is low relative to the expected dark matter power spectrum, assuming a neutral hydrogen (HI) bias and mass density equal to measurements from the ALFALFA survey. The decrement is pronounced and statistically significant at small scales. At k ˜ 1.5 h Mpc-1, the cross power spectrum is more than a factor of 6 lower than expected, with a significance of 15.3 σ. This decrement indicates either a lack of clustering of neutral hydrogen (HI), a small correlation coefficient between optical galaxies and HI, or some combination of the two. Separating 2dF into red and blue galaxies, we find that red galaxies are much more weakly correlated with HI on k ˜ 1.5 h Mpc-1 scales, suggesting that HI is more associated with blue star-forming galaxies and tends to avoid red galaxies.

  10. Cosmological parameter constraints from galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clustering with the SDSS DR7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelbaum, Rachel; Slosar, Anže; Baldauf, Tobias; Seljak, Uroš; Hirata, Christopher M.; Nakajima, Reiko; Reyes, Reinabelle; Smith, Robert E.

    2013-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that the cross-correlation coefficient between galaxies and dark matter is very close to unity on scales outside a few virial radii of galaxy haloes, independent of the details of how galaxies populate dark matter haloes. This finding makes it possible to determine the dark matter clustering from measurements of galaxy-galaxy weak lensing and galaxy clustering. We present new cosmological parameter constraints based on large-scale measurements of spectroscopic galaxy samples from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data release 7. We generalize the approach of Baldauf et al. to remove small-scale information (below 2 and 4 h-1 Mpc for lensing and clustering measurements, respectively), where the cross-correlation coefficient differs from unity. We derive constraints for three galaxy samples covering 7131 deg2, containing 69 150, 62 150 and 35 088 galaxies with mean redshifts of 0.11, 0.28 and 0.40. We clearly detect scale-dependent galaxy bias for the more luminous galaxy samples, at a level consistent with theoretical expectations. When we vary both σ8 and Ωm (and marginalize over non-linear galaxy bias) in a flat Λ cold dark matter model, the best-constrained quantity is σ8(Ωm/0.25)0.57 = 0.80 ± 0.05 (1σ, stat. + sys.), where statistical and systematic errors (photometric redshift and shear calibration) have comparable contributions, and we have fixed ns = 0.96 and h = 0.7. These strong constraints on the matter clustering suggest that this method is competitive with cosmic shear in current data, while having very complementary and in some ways less serious systematics. We therefore expect that this method will play a prominent role in future weak lensing surveys. When we combine these data with Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 7-year (WMAP7) cosmic microwave background (CMB) data, constraints on σ8, Ωm, H0, wde and ∑mν become 30-80 per cent tighter than with CMB data alone, since our data break several parameter

  11. Secular Evolution of Spiral Galaxies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Xiaolei

    2003-01-01

    It is now a well established fact that galaxies undergo significant morphological transformation during their lifetimes, manifesting as an evolution along the Hubble sequence from the late to the early Hubble types...

  12. Globular Clusters - Guides to Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Richtler, Tom; Joint ESO-FONDAP Workshop on Globular Clusters

    2009-01-01

    The principal question of whether and how globular clusters can contribute to a better understanding of galaxy formation and evolution is perhaps the main driving force behind the overall endeavour of studying globular cluster systems. Naturally, this splits up into many individual problems. The objective of the Joint ESO-FONDAP Workshop on Globular Clusters - Guides to Galaxies was to bring together researchers, both observational and theoretical, to present and discuss the most recent results. Topics covered in these proceedings are: internal dynamics of globular clusters and interaction with host galaxies (tidal tails, evolution of cluster masses), accretion of globular clusters, detailed descriptions of nearby cluster systems, ultracompact dwarfs, formations of massive clusters in mergers and elsewhere, the ACS Virgo survey, galaxy formation and globular clusters, dynamics and kinematics of globular cluster systems and dark matter-related problems. With its wide coverage of the topic, this book constitute...

  13. A search for megamaser galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, R.P.; Gardner, F.F.; Whiteoak, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    The results are reported of a search for OH megamaser emission from a sample of 32 galaxies selected from the IRAS Point Source Catalog on the basis of their infrared properties. For each galaxy (other than those few already observed elsewhere) we have obtained an optical redshift and have searched for both OH and H I emission. The search yielded one new OH megamaser galaxy and H I was detected towards nine objects. We conclude that there are unlikely to be any OH megamasers in the Southern Hemisphere with flux densities comparable to that of Arp 220 (280 mJy), although there may be a population of weaker megamasers. From the statistics of our search we conclude that no special conditions are required to explain the known OH megamasers other than those expected in a cool, dusty, active galaxy. (author)

  14. On wave dark matter in spiral and barred galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Medina, Luis A.; Matos, Tonatiuh [Departamento de Física, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, A.P. 14-740, 07000 México D.F., México. (Mexico); Bray, Hubert L., E-mail: lmedina@fis.cinvestav.mx, E-mail: bray@math.duke.edu, E-mail: tmatos@fis.cinvestav.mx [Mathematics Department, Duke University, Box 90320, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    We recover spiral and barred spiral patterns in disk galaxy simulations with a Wave Dark Matter (WDM) background (also known as Scalar Field Dark Matter (SFDM), Ultra-Light Axion (ULA) dark matter, and Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) dark matter). Here we show how the interaction between a baryonic disk and its Dark Matter Halo triggers the formation of spiral structures when the halo is allowed to have a triaxial shape and angular momentum. This is a more realistic picture within the WDM model since a non-spherical rotating halo seems to be more natural. By performing hydrodynamic simulations, along with earlier test particles simulations, we demonstrate another important way in which wave dark matter is consistent with observations. The common existence of bars in these simulations is particularly noteworthy. This may have consequences when trying to obtain information about the dark matter distribution in a galaxy, the mere presence of spiral arms or a bar usually indicates that baryonic matter dominates the central region and therefore observations, like rotation curves, may not tell us what the DM distribution is at the halo center. But here we show that spiral arms and bars can develop in DM dominated galaxies with a central density core without supposing its origin on mechanisms intrinsic to the baryonic matter.

  15. On wave dark matter in spiral and barred galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Medina, Luis A.; Matos, Tonatiuh; Bray, Hubert L.

    2015-01-01

    We recover spiral and barred spiral patterns in disk galaxy simulations with a Wave Dark Matter (WDM) background (also known as Scalar Field Dark Matter (SFDM), Ultra-Light Axion (ULA) dark matter, and Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) dark matter). Here we show how the interaction between a baryonic disk and its Dark Matter Halo triggers the formation of spiral structures when the halo is allowed to have a triaxial shape and angular momentum. This is a more realistic picture within the WDM model since a non-spherical rotating halo seems to be more natural. By performing hydrodynamic simulations, along with earlier test particles simulations, we demonstrate another important way in which wave dark matter is consistent with observations. The common existence of bars in these simulations is particularly noteworthy. This may have consequences when trying to obtain information about the dark matter distribution in a galaxy, the mere presence of spiral arms or a bar usually indicates that baryonic matter dominates the central region and therefore observations, like rotation curves, may not tell us what the DM distribution is at the halo center. But here we show that spiral arms and bars can develop in DM dominated galaxies with a central density core without supposing its origin on mechanisms intrinsic to the baryonic matter

  16. Spectroscopic confirmation of an ultra-faint galaxy at the epoch of reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoag, Austin; Bradač, Maruša; Trenti, Michele; Treu, Tommaso; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Huang, Kuang-Han; Lemaux, Brian C.; He, Julie; Bernard, Stephanie R.; Abramson, Louis E.; Mason, Charlotte A.; Morishita, Takahiro; Pentericci, Laura; Schrabback, Tim

    2017-04-01

    Within one billion years of the Big Bang, intergalactic hydrogen was ionized by sources emitting ultraviolet and higher energy photons. This was the final phenomenon to globally affect all the baryons (visible matter) in the Universe. It is referred to as cosmic reionization and is an integral component of cosmology. It is broadly expected that intrinsically faint galaxies were the primary ionizing sources due to their abundance in this epoch1,2. However, at the highest redshifts (z > 7.5 lookback time 13.1 Gyr), all galaxies with spectroscopic confirmations to date are intrinsically bright and, therefore, not necessarily representative of the general population3. Here, we report the unequivocal spectroscopic detection of a low luminosity galaxy at z > 7.5. We detected the Lyman-α emission line at ˜10,504 Å in two separate observations with MOSFIRE4 on the Keck I Telescope and independently with the Hubble Space Telescope's slitless grism spectrograph, implying a source redshift of z = 7.640 ± 0.001. The galaxy is gravitationally magnified by the massive galaxy cluster MACS J1423.8+2404 (z = 0.545), with an estimated intrinsic luminosity of MAB = -19.6 ± 0.2 mag and a stellar mass of M⊙=3.0-0.8+1.5×108 solar masses. Both are an order of magnitude lower than the four other Lyman-α emitters currently known at z > 7.5, making it probably the most distant representative source of reionization found to date.

  17. Color excesses, intrinsic colors, and absolute magnitudes of Galactic and Large Magellanic Cloud Wolf-Rayet stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacca, W.D.; Torres-Dodgen, A.V.

    1990-01-01

    A new method of determining the color excesses of WR stars in the Galaxy and the LMC has been developed and is used to determine the excesses for 44 Galactic and 32 LMC WR stars. The excesses are combined with line-free, narrow-band spectrophotometry to derive intrinsic colors of the WR stars of nearly all spectral subtypes. No correlation of UV spectral index or intrinsic colors with spectral subtype is found for the samples of single WN or WC stars. There is evidence that early WN stars in the LMC have flatter UV continua and redder intrinsic colors than early WN stars in the Galaxy. No separation is found between the values derived for Galactic WC stars and those obtained for LMC WC stars. The intrinsic colors are compared with those calculated from model atmospheres of WR stars and generally good agreement is found. Absolute magnitudes are derived for WR stars in the LMC and for those Galactic WR stars located in clusters and associations for which there are reliable distance estimates. 78 refs

  18. Elliptical and lenticular galaxies evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigroux, L.

    1981-01-01

    Different evolutionnary models for elliptical and lenticular galaxies are discussed. In the first part, we show that, at least some peculiar early types galaxies exhibit some activity. Then we describe the observationnal constraints: the color-magnitude diagram, the color gradient and the high metallicity of intraclusters gas. Among the different models, only the dissipation collapse followed by a hot wind driven by supernovae explosion explain in a natural way these constraints. Finally, the origin of SO is briefly discussed [fr

  19. LLAMA: nuclear stellar properties of Swift-BAT AGN and matched inactive galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Yi; Davies, R. I.; Hicks, E. K. S.; Burtscher, L.; Contursi, A.; Genzel, R.; Koss, M.; Lutz, D.; Maciejewski, W.; Müller-Sánchez, F.; Orban de Xivry, G.; Ricci, C.; Riffel, R.; Riffel, R. A.; Rosario, D.; Schartmann, M.; Schnorr-Müller, A.; Shimizu, T.; Sternberg, A.; Sturm, E.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Tacconi, L.; Veilleux, S.

    2018-02-01

    In a complete sample of local 14-195 keV selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and inactive galaxies, matched by their host galaxy properties, we study the spatially resolved stellar kinematics and luminosity distributions at near-infrared wavelengths on scales of 10-150 pc, using SINFONI on the VLT. In this paper, we present the first half of the sample, which comprises 13 galaxies, eight AGNs and five inactive galaxies. The stellar velocity fields show a disc-like rotating pattern, for which the kinematic position angle is in agreement with the photometric position angle obtained from large scale images. For this set of galaxies, the stellar surface brightness of the inactive galaxy sample is generally comparable to the matched sample of AGN, but extends to lower surface brightness. After removal of the bulge contribution, we find a nuclear stellar light excess with an extended nuclear disc structure, which exhibits a size-luminosity relation. While we expect the excess luminosity to be associated with a dynamically cooler young stellar population, we do not typically see a matching drop in dispersion. This may be because these galaxies have pseudo-bulges in which the intrinsic dispersion increases towards the centre. And although the young stars may have an impact in the observed kinematics, their fraction is too small to dominate over the bulge and compensate the increase in dispersion at small radii, so no dispersion drop is seen. Finally, we find no evidence for a difference in the stellar kinematics and nuclear stellar luminosity excess between these active and inactive galaxies.

  20. Investigating a method of producing "red and dead" galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skory, Stephen

    2010-08-01

    In optical wavelengths, galaxies are observed to be either red or blue. The overall color of a galaxy is due to the distribution of the ages of its stellar population. Galaxies with currently active star formation appear blue, while those with no recent star formation at all (greater than about a Gyr) have only old, red stars. This strong bimodality has lead to the idea of star formation quenching, and various proposed physical mechanisms. In this dissertation, I attempt to reproduce with Enzo the results of Naab et al. (2007), in which red and dead galaxies are formed using gravitational quenching, rather than with one of the more typical methods of quenching. My initial attempts are unsuccessful, and I explore the reasons why I think they failed. Then using simpler methods better suited to Enzo + AMR, I am successful in producing a galaxy that appears to be similar in color and formation history to those in Naab et al. However, quenching is achieved using unphysically high star formation efficiencies, which is a different mechanism than Naab et al. suggests. Preliminary results of a much higher resolution, follow-on simulation of the above show some possible contradiction with the results of Naab et al. Cold gas is streaming into the galaxy to fuel starbursts, while at a similar epoch the galaxies in Naab et al. have largely already ceased forming stars in the galaxy. On the other hand, the results of the high resolution simulation are qualitatively similar to other works in the literature that show a somewhat different gravitational quenching mechanism than Naab et al. I also discuss my work using halo finders to analyze simulated cosmological data, and my work improving the Enzo/AMR analysis tool "yt". This includes two parallelizations of the halo finder HOP (Eisenstein and Hut, 1998) which allows analysis of very large cosmological datasets on parallel machines. The first version is "yt-HOP," which works well for datasets between about 2563 and 5123 particles

  1. The VANDELS survey: Dust attenuation in star-forming galaxies at z = 3 - 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, F.; McLure, R. J.; Khochfar, S.; Dunlop, J. S.; Dalla Vecchia, C.; Carnall, A. C.; Bourne, N.; Castellano, M.; Cimatti, A.; Cirasuolo, M.; Elbaz, D.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Garilli, B.; Koekemoer, A.; Marchi, F.; Pentericci, L.; Talia, M.; Zamorani, G.

    2018-02-01

    We present the results of a new study of dust attenuation at redshifts 3 Motivated by results from the First Billion Years (FiBY) simulation project, we argue that the intrinsic spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of star-forming galaxies at these redshifts have a self-similar shape across the mass range 8.2 ≤ log(M⋆/M⊙) ≤ 10.6 probed by our sample. Using FiBY data, we construct a set of intrinsic SED templates which incorporate both detailed star formation and chemical abundance histories, and a variety of stellar population synthesis (SPS) model assumptions. With this set of intrinsic SEDs, we present a novel approach for directly recovering the shape and normalization of the dust attenuation curve. We find, across all of the intrinsic templates considered, that the average attenuation curve for star-forming galaxies at z ≃ 3.5 is similar in shape to the commonly-adopted Calzetti starburst law, with an average total-to-selective attenuation ratio of RV = 4.18 ± 0.29. In contrast, we find that an average attenuation curve as steep as the SMC extinction law is strongly disfavoured. We show that the optical attenuation (AV) versus stellar mass (M⋆) relation predicted using our method is consistent with recent ALMA observations of galaxies at 2 law. In fact, our results, combined with other literature data, suggest that the AV - M⋆ relation does not evolve over the redshift range 0 < z < 5, at least for galaxies with log(M⋆/M⊙) ≳ 9.5. Finally, we present tentative evidence which suggests that the attenuation curve may become steeper at lower masses log(M⋆/M⊙) ≲ 9.0.

  2. The Blue Revolution in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano; Kelling, Ingrid; Jespersen, Karen Sau

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we examine the upgrading trajectories of selected aquaculture value chains in four Asian countries and the links between upgrading and three factors of value chain governance: coordination mechanisms; types of drivers; and domestic regulation. We find instances of improving produ...... of upgrading the "blue revolution" in Asia...

  3. Blue Ocean vs. Five Forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Burke (Andrew); A.J. van Stel (André); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe article reports on the authors' research in the Netherlands which focused on a profit model in Dutch retail stores and a so-called blue-ocean approach which requires a new market that attracts consumers and increases profits. Topics include the competitive strategy approach to

  4. Mobilizing investors for blue growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, van den Sander W.K.; Stuiver, Marian; Bolman, Bas C.; Wijnen, Roland; Selnes, Trond; Dalton, Gordon

    2017-01-01

    The European Union's Blue Growth Strategy is a long term strategy to support sustainable growth in the marine and maritime sectors, aiming to contribute to innovation and economic growth (European Commission, 2012). The EU sees the financial sector as a key partner to bring about transition to

  5. Nobel Prize for blue LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2015-01-01

    A brief review of lighting technologies is presented. Unavoidable restrictions for incandescent light bulbs caused by the Planck distribution and properties of the human eye are illustrated. The efficiency and luminous efficacy of thermal radiation are calculated for various temperatures; the results clearly show the limitations for thermal radiators. The only way to overcome these limitations is using non-thermal radiators, such as fluorescent lamps and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Unique advantages of LEDs undoubtedly made a revolution in this field. A crucial element of this progress is the blue LEDs (Nobel Prize 2014). Some experiments with a blue and a green LED are described: (i) the luminescence triggered in a green-yellow phosphor inside a white LED by the blue LED; (ii) radiant spectra and ‘efficiency droop’ in the LEDs; (iii) modulation of the blue LED up to 4 MHz; and (iv) the h/e ratio from the turn-on voltage of the green LED. The experiments are suitable for undergraduate laboratories and usable as classroom demonstrations. (paper)

  6. Nobel Prize for blue LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2015-05-01

    A brief review of lighting technologies is presented. Unavoidable restrictions for incandescent light bulbs caused by the Planck distribution and properties of the human eye are illustrated. The efficiency and luminous efficacy of thermal radiation are calculated for various temperatures; the results clearly show the limitations for thermal radiators. The only way to overcome these limitations is using non-thermal radiators, such as fluorescent lamps and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Unique advantages of LEDs undoubtedly made a revolution in this field. A crucial element of this progress is the blue LEDs (Nobel Prize 2014). Some experiments with a blue and a green LED are described: (i) the luminescence triggered in a green-yellow phosphor inside a white LED by the blue LED; (ii) radiant spectra and ‘efficiency droop’ in the LEDs; (iii) modulation of the blue LED up to 4 MHz; and (iv) the h/e ratio from the turn-on voltage of the green LED. The experiments are suitable for undergraduate laboratories and usable as classroom demonstrations.

  7. AGN feedback in dwarf galaxies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashyan, Gohar; Silk, Joseph; Mamon, Gary A.; Dubois, Yohan; Hartwig, Tilman

    2018-02-01

    Dwarf galaxy anomalies, such as their abundance and cusp-core problems, remain a prime challenge in our understanding of galaxy formation. The inclusion of baryonic physics could potentially solve these issues, but the efficiency of stellar feedback is still controversial. We analytically explore the possibility of feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in dwarf galaxies and compare AGN and supernova (SN) feedback. We assume the presence of an intermediate-mass black hole within low-mass galaxies and standard scaling relations between the relevant physical quantities. We model the propagation and properties of the outflow and explore the critical condition for global gas ejection. Performing the same calculation for SNe, we compare the ability of AGNs and SNe to drive gas out of galaxies. We find that a critical halo mass exists below which AGN feedback can remove gas from the host halo and that the critical halo mass for an AGN is greater than the equivalent for SNe in a significant part of the parameter space, suggesting that an AGN could provide an alternative and more successful source of negative feedback than SNe, even in the most massive dwarf galaxies.

  8. Further simulations of merging galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, S.D.M.

    1979-01-01

    Galaxy collisions and the structure of the resulting merger remnants are studied using a large number of numerical simulations. These experiments extend earlier calculations of mergers between pairs of similar 'galaxies'. The tidal coupling in collisions is found to depend strongly on the rotational properties of the 'galaxies' involved. It is greatly enhanced if their spin vectors are aligned with that of their orbit, and it is suppressed if this alignment is reversed. The structure of a merger product depends only weakly on that of its progenitors. Such remnants are typically axisymmetric oblate systems with radially decreasing velocity dispersions and density profiles which have near power-law form over two decades in radius. This density structure is reasonably well described by de Vaucouleurs' empirical formula for the surface brightness distribution of elliptical galaxies. The flattening of merger remnants may be partly supported by an anisotropic pressure distribution, but the systems studied here nevertheless rotate considerably more rapidly than most observed elliptical galaxies, and a natural preference for nearly head-on collisions must be invoked if all ellipticals are to be identified as merger remnants. Mass and energy losses are found to be very small for mergers between bound or marginally unbound 'galaxies'. Escapers can, however, carry away a significant amount of angular momentum. (author)

  9. IRAC Imaging of LSB Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schombert, James; McGaugh, Stacy; Lelli, Federico

    2017-04-01

    We propose a program to observe a large sample of Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxies. Large galaxy surveys conducted with Spitzer suffer from the unavoidable selection bias against LSB systems (e.g., the S4G survey). Even those programs thathave specifically targeted LSB galaxies have usually been restricted objects of intermediate surface brightness (between 22 and 23 B mag/ []). Our sample is selected to be of a more extreme LSB nature (with central surface brightness fainter than 23 Bmag/[]). Even warm, Spitzer is the ideal instrument to image these low contrast targets in the near infrared: our sample goes a considerable way towards remedying this hole in the Spitzer legacy archive, also increasing coverage in terms of stellar mass, gas mass, and SFR. The sample will be used to address the newly discovered radial acceleration relation (RAR) in disk galaxies. While issues involving the connection between baryons and dark matter have been known since the development of the global baryonic Tully-Fisher (bTF) relation, it is only in the last six months that the particle physics and theoretical communities have recognized and responded to the local coupling between dark and baryonic matter represented by the RAR. This important new correlation is effectively a new natural law for galaxies. Spitzer photometry has been at the forefront of resolving the stellar mass component in galaxies that make-up the RAR and is the primary reason for the discovery of this new kinematic law.

  10. Star Formation in Tadpole Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casiana Muñoz-Tuñon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tadpole Galaxies look like a star forming head with a tail structure to the side. They are also named cometaries. In a series of recent works we have discovered a number of issues that lead us to consider them extremely interesting targets. First, from images, they are disks with a lopsided starburst. This result is rmly  established with long slit spectroscopy in a nearby representative sample. They rotate with the head following the rotation pattern but displaced from the rotation center. Moreover, in a search for extremely metal poor (XMP galaxies, we identied tadpoles as the dominant shapes in the sample - nearly 80% of the local XMP galaxies have a tadpole morphology. In addition, the spatially resolved analysis of the metallicity shows the remarkable result that there is a metallicity drop right at the position of the head. This is contrary to what intuition would say and dicult to explain if star formation has happened from gas processed in the disk. The result could however be understood if the star formation is driven by pristine gas falling into the galaxy disk. If conrmed, we could be unveiling, for the rst time, cool  ows in action in our nearby world. The tadpole class is relatively frequent at high redshift - 10% of resolvable galaxies in the Hubble UDF but less than 1% in the local Universe. They are systems that could track cool ows and test models of galaxy formation.

  11. Lopsidedness of cluster galaxies in modified gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xufen; Zhao, HongSheng; Famaey, Benoit

    2010-01-01

    We point out an interesting theoretical prediction for elliptical galaxies residing inside galaxy clusters in the framework of modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND), that could be used to test this paradigm. Apart from the central brightest cluster galaxy, other galaxies close enough to the centre experience a strong gravitational influence from the other galaxies of the cluster. This influence manifests itself only as tides in standard Newtonian gravity, meaning that the systematic acceleration of the centre of mass of the galaxy has no consequence. However, in the context of MOND, a consequence of the breaking of the strong equivalence principle is that the systematic acceleration changes the own self-gravity of the galaxy. We show here that, in this framework, initially axisymmetric elliptical galaxies become lopsided along the external field's direction, and that the centroid of the galaxy, defined by the outer density contours, is shifted by a few hundreds parsecs with respect to the densest point

  12. Gas Kinematics in GRB Host Galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arabsalmani, Maryam

    The star formation history of the Universe is one of the most complex and interesting chapters in our quest to understand galaxy formation and evolution. Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are beacons of actively star forming galaxies from redshifts near zero back to the cosmic dawn. In addition, they provide...... a unique method for selecting galaxies without a luminosity bias as the GRB detectability is unrelated to the brightness of the host galaxy. Even at the highest redshifts, where the hosts are often too faint to be detected in emission, their properties can be inferred from the absorption features...... selected galaxies. Moreover, it is crucial to investigate whether this galaxy population differs from the general population of star forming galaxies (if GRB hosts are a distinct galaxy population), before applying the findings from this selected population to the general population of galaxies...

  13. Algebraic description of intrinsic modes in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leviatan, A.

    1989-01-01

    We present a procedure for extracting normal modes in algebraic number-conserving systems of interacting bosons relevant for collective states in even-even nuclei. The Hamiltonian is resolved into intrinsic (bandhead related) and collective (in-band related) parts. Shape parameters are introduced through non-spherical boson bases. Intrinsic modes decoupled from the spurious modes are obtained from the intinsic part of the Hamiltonian in the limit of large number of bosons. Intrinsic states are constructed and serve to evaluate electromagnetic transition rates. The method is illustrated for systems with one type of boson as well as with proton-neutron bosons. 28 refs., 1 fig

  14. Algebraic description of intrinsic modes in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leviatan, A.

    1989-01-01

    We present a procedure for extracting normal modes in algebraic number-conserving systems of interacting bosons relevant for collective states in even-even nuclei. The Hamiltonian is resolved into intrinsic (bandhead related) and collective (in-band related) parts. Shape parameters are introduced through non-spherical boson bases. Intrinsic modes decoupled from the spurious modes are obtained from the intinsic part of the Hamiltonian in the limit of large number of bosons. Intrinsic states are constructed and serve to evaluate electromagnetic transition rates. The method is illustrated for systems with one type of boson as well as with proton-neutron bosons. 28 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Automatic quantitative morphological analysis of interacting galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, Lior; Holincheck, Anthony; Wallin, John

    2013-08-01

    The large number of galaxies imaged by digital sky surveys reinforces the need for computational methods for analyzing galaxy morphology. While the morphology of most galaxies can be associated with a stage on the Hubble sequence, the morphology of galaxy mergers is far more complex due to the combination of two or more galaxies with different morphologies and the interaction between them. Here we propose a computational method based on unsupervised machine learning that can quantitatively analyze morphologies of galaxy mergers and associate galaxies by their morphology. The method works by first generating multiple synthetic galaxy models for each galaxy merger, and then extracting a large set of numerical image content descriptors for each galaxy model. These numbers are weighted using Fisher discriminant scores, and then the similarities between the galaxy mergers are deduced using a variation of Weighted Nearest Neighbor analysis such that the Fisher scores are used as weights. The similarities between the galaxy mergers are visualized using phylogenies to provide a graph that reflects the morphological similarities between the different galaxy mergers, and thus quantitatively profile the morphology of galaxy mergers.

  16. Submillimeter galaxies as progenitors of compact quiescent galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toft, S.; Zirm, A.; Krogager, J.-K.; Man, A. W. S.; Smolčić, V.; Krpan, J.; Magnelli, B.; Karim, A.; Michalowski, M.; Capak, P.; Sheth, K.; Schawinski, K.; Wuyts, S.; Lutz, D.; Staguhn, J.; Berta, S.; Sanders, D.; Mccracken, H.; Riechers, D.

    2014-01-01

    Three billion years after the big bang (at redshift z = 2), half of the most massive galaxies were already old, quiescent systems with little to no residual star formation and extremely compact with stellar mass densities at least an order of magnitude larger than in low-redshift ellipticals, their descendants. Little is known about how they formed, but their evolved, dense stellar populations suggest formation within intense, compact starbursts 1-2 Gyr earlier (at 3 < z < 6). Simulations show that gas-rich major mergers can give rise to such starbursts, which produce dense remnants. Submillimeter-selected galaxies (SMGs) are prime examples of intense, gas-rich starbursts. With a new, representative spectroscopic sample of compact, quiescent galaxies at z = 2 and a statistically well-understood sample of SMGs, we show that z = 3-6 SMGs are consistent with being the progenitors of z = 2 quiescent galaxies, matching their formation redshifts and their distributions of sizes, stellar masses, and internal velocities. Assuming an evolutionary connection, their space densities also match if the mean duty cycle of SMG starbursts is 42 −29 +40 Myr (consistent with independent estimates), which indicates that the bulk of stars in these massive galaxies were formed in a major, early surge of star formation. These results suggest a coherent picture of the formation history of the most massive galaxies in the universe, from their initial burst of violent star formation through their appearance as high stellar-density galaxy cores and to their ultimate fate as giant ellipticals.

  17. The environment and dynamics of the radio galaxy NGC 6251

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, Pierre Nicolas

    2002-01-01

    This thesis is primarily a case study of the low-power radio galaxy NGC 6251. New radio (VLA), optical imaging (KPNO), optical spectroscopy (MMTO) and X-ray (Chandra) data are complemented with existing HST, ROSAT and ASCA results to give a comprehensive multi-wavelength overview of this spectacular source on different size scales. On the large scale, the gravity field is probed by measuring the velocity dispersion of the cluster members associated with NGC 6251 and relating this to the cluster's X-ray emission. The cluster is found to be a poor one, and the X-ray-emitting gas confined within is consequently cool. Potential optical and X-ray jet detections are discussed, and spectral distributions of three jet knots are modeled. The results suggest that synchrotron radiation most convincingly explains the radio to X-ray spectrum. The issue of the dynamics of the host galaxy and their relation to the radio structure is briefly discussed, but proves largely inconclusive, due to observational limitations. To probe the inner regions of NGC 6251, L-band spectral line radio observations are analysed, and show 21 cm neutral hydrogen absorption against the continuum of the galactic core. The HI spectrum shows a rare double-peaked absorption profile straddling the systemic velocity of the galaxy, suggesting the existence of both infalling and outflowing components. It is shown that the amount of infalling gas is more than enough to fuel the central engine of the AGN by accretion. Two models are proposed to account for the outflow, including an outflowing 'wind' that explains both the HI absorption component and the blue-shifted optical-line-emitting gas. The technique of using optical spectroscopic observations to probe cluster environments is also applied to the low-power radio galaxy NGC 326. The measured velocity dispersion is found to be consistent with the X-ray temperature of the cluster dominated by NGC 326. (author)

  18. Galaxy bias from galaxy-galaxy lensing in the DES Science Verification Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prat, J.; et al.

    2016-09-26

    We present a measurement of galaxy-galaxy lensing around a magnitude-limited ($i_{AB} < 22.5$) sample of galaxies selected from the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification (DES-SV) data. We split these lenses into three photometric-redshift bins from 0.2 to 0.8, and determine the product of the galaxy bias $b$ and cross-correlation coefficient between the galaxy and dark matter overdensity fields $r$ in each bin, using scales above 4 Mpc/$h$ comoving, where we find the linear bias model to be valid given our current uncertainties. We compare our galaxy bias results from galaxy-galaxy lensing with those obtained from galaxy clustering (Crocce et al. 2016) and CMB lensing (Giannantonio et al. 2016) for the same sample of galaxies, and find our measurements to be in good agreement with those in Crocce et al. (2016), while, in the lowest redshift bin ($z\\sim0.3$), they show some tension with the findings in Giannantonio et al. (2016). Our results are found to be rather insensitive to a large range of systematic effects. We measure $b\\cdot r$ to be $0.87\\pm 0.11$, $1.12 \\pm 0.16$ and $1.24\\pm 0.23$, respectively for the three redshift bins of width $\\Delta z = 0.2$ in the range $0.2galaxy sample, except possibly at the lowest redshift bin ($z\\sim 0.3$), where we find $r = 0.71 \\pm 0.11$ when using TPZ, and $0.83 \\pm 0.12$ with BPZ, assuming the difference between the results from the two probes can be solely attributed to the cross-correlation parameter.

  19. The dynamics of aggregates of galaxies as related to their main galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einasto, J.; Joeveer, M.; Kaasik, A.; Vennik, J.

    1976-01-01

    The dynamics of the aggregates of galaxies is compared with the dynamics of their member galaxies. It is demonstrated that within a factor 1.5-2 the dispersion of relative line-of-sight velocities is constant from the nuclei of main galaxies to the periphery of an aggregate. This isothermality of aggregates of galaxies is observed in all aggregates studied so far, from poor groups to rich clusters. The fact that the velocity dispersion of stars in galaxies is equal to that of galaxies in aggregates applies only to main galaxies. The stars in all companion galaxies have a smaller velocity dispersion of stars. The dynamical evolution of both galaxies and aggregates of galaxies is very slow. Thus the above data suggest that galaxies and their aggregates were formed together. (orig.) [de

  20. Movements of Blue Sharks (Prionace glauca) across Their Life History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeperre, Frederic; Aires-da-Silva, Alexandre; Fontes, Jorge; Santos, Marco; Serrão Santos, Ricardo; Afonso, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Spatial structuring and segregation by sex and size is considered to be an intrinsic attribute of shark populations. These spatial patterns remain poorly understood, particularly for oceanic species such as blue shark (Prionace glauca), despite its importance for the management and conservation of this highly migratory species. This study presents the results of a long-term electronic tagging experiment to investigate the migratory patterns of blue shark, to elucidate how these patterns change across its life history and to assess the existence of a nursery area in the central North Atlantic. Blue sharks belonging to different life stages (n = 34) were tracked for periods up to 952 days during which they moved extensively (up to an estimated 28.139 km), occupying large parts of the oceanic basin. Notwithstanding a large individual variability, there were pronounced differences in movements and space use across the species' life history. The study provides strong evidence for the existence of a discrete central North Atlantic nursery, where juveniles can reside for up to at least 2 years. In contrast with previously described nurseries of coastal and semi-pelagic sharks, this oceanic nursery is comparatively vast and open suggesting that shelter from predators is not its main function. Subsequently, male and female blue sharks spatially segregate. Females engage in seasonal latitudinal migrations until approaching maturity, when they undergo an ontogenic habitat shift towards tropical latitudes. In contrast, juvenile males generally expanded their range southward and apparently displayed a higher degree of behavioural polymorphism. These results provide important insights into the spatial ecology of pelagic sharks, with implications for the sustainable management of this heavily exploited shark, especially in the central North Atlantic where the presence of a nursery and the seasonal overlap and alternation of different life stages coincides with a high fishing

  1. THE SIZE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RED AND BLUE GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IS NOT DUE TO PROJECTION EFFECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, Jeremy J.; Harris, William E.; Sills, Alison

    2012-01-01

    Metal-rich (red) globular clusters in massive galaxies are, on average, smaller than metal-poor (blue) globular clusters. One of the possible explanations for this phenomenon is that the two populations of clusters have different spatial distributions. We test this idea by comparing clusters observed in unusually deep, high signal-to-noise images of M87 with a simulated globular cluster population in which the red and blue clusters have different spatial distributions, matching the observations. We compare the overall distribution of cluster effective radii as well as the relationship between effective radius and galactocentric distance for both the observed and simulated red and blue sub-populations. We find that the different spatial distributions does not produce a significant size difference between the red and blue sub-populations as a whole or at a given galactocentric distance. These results suggest that the size difference between red and blue globular clusters is likely due to differences during formation or later evolution.

  2. The Size Difference between Red and Blue Globular Clusters is not due to Projection Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jeremy J.; Harris, William E.; Sills, Alison

    2012-11-01

    Metal-rich (red) globular clusters in massive galaxies are, on average, smaller than metal-poor (blue) globular clusters. One of the possible explanations for this phenomenon is that the two populations of clusters have different spatial distributions. We test this idea by comparing clusters observed in unusually deep, high signal-to-noise images of M87 with a simulated globular cluster population in which the red and blue clusters have different spatial distributions, matching the observations. We compare the overall distribution of cluster effective radii as well as the relationship between effective radius and galactocentric distance for both the observed and simulated red and blue sub-populations. We find that the different spatial distributions does not produce a significant size difference between the red and blue sub-populations as a whole or at a given galactocentric distance. These results suggest that the size difference between red and blue globular clusters is likely due to differences during formation or later evolution.

  3. Orientations of galaxies in the Local Supercluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGillivray, H.T.; Dodd, R.J.; McNally, B.V.; Corwin, H.G. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution of position angles and ellipticities for a sample of 727 spiral and irregular galaxies, selected on the basis of brightness and radial velocity from the Second Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies, is analysed for non-random effects. A marginally significant tendency is found for galaxies to be aligned along the plane of the Local Supercluster. This preferential alignment effect is found to exist mainly for galaxies at high supergalactic latitude and for galaxies which are seen nearly edge-on. The results are interpreted as supporting the view that superclusters formed prior to the formation of the constituent galaxies and clusters. (author)

  4. BURST OF STAR FORMATION DRIVES BUBBLE IN GALAXY'S CORE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    These NASA Hubble Space Telescope snapshots reveal dramatic activities within the core of the galaxy NGC 3079, where a lumpy bubble of hot gas is rising from a cauldron of glowing matter. The picture at left shows the bubble in the center of the galaxy's disk. The structure is more than 3,000 light-years wide and rises 3,500 light-years above the galaxy's disk. The smaller photo at right is a close-up view of the bubble. Astronomers suspect that the bubble is being blown by 'winds' (high-speed streams of particles) released during a burst of star formation. Gaseous filaments at the top of the bubble are whirling around in a vortex and are being expelled into space. Eventually, this gas will rain down upon the galaxy's disk where it may collide with gas clouds, compress them, and form a new generation of stars. The two white dots just above the bubble are probably stars in the galaxy. The close-up reveals that the bubble's surface is lumpy, consisting of four columns of gaseous filaments that tower above the galaxy's disk. The filaments disperse at a height of 2,000 light-years. Each filament is about 75 light-years wide. Velocity measurements taken by the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope in Hawaii show that the gaseous filaments are ascending at more than 4 million miles an hour (6 million kilometers an hour). According to theoretical models, the bubble formed when ongoing winds from hot stars mixed with small bubbles of very hot gas from supernova explosions. Observations of the core's structure by radio telescopes indicate that those processes are still active. The models suggest that this outflow began about a million years ago. They occur about every 10 million years. Eventually, the hot stars will die, and the bubble's energy source will fade away. Astronomers have seen evidence of previous outbursts from radio and X-ray observations. Those studies show rings of dust and gas and long plumes of material, all of which are larger than the bubble. NGC 3079 is 50

  5. X-Ray Binaries in Local Analogs to the First Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brorby, Matthew G.

    2017-02-01

    The focus of this dissertation is to investigate the effect of metallicity on high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) formation and evolution as a means to understand the evolution of the early Universe (z > 6). Understanding the population and X-ray output of HMXBs are vital to modelling the heating and ionization morphology of the intergalactic medium during the epoch of reionization. Current X-ray instruments are unable to directly detect very high redshift HMXBs, making it impossible to constrain population sizes in this way. Instead certain local galaxies may be used as analogs to infer the properties of galaxies in the early Universe. These local analogs should have properties consistent with those expected for the first galaxies, such as low-metallicity, compact morphology, and intense recent star formation. I present an X-ray population study of 25 blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCD), using multiwavelength data and Bayesian analysis techniques. We find a significant enhancement of the HMXB population in low-metallicity environments and suggest the same may be true in the early Universe. I continue the investigation of HMXB populations in a sample of 10 moderate metallicity (Z ≥ 0.3, Z solar masses), local star-forming galaxies known as Lyman Break Analogs (LBAs). I find evidence of a LX-SFR-metallicity plane in the combined sample of BCDs, LBAs, and regular star-forming galaxies. Then I study a third type of local analog to early Universe galaxies, the Green Pea galaxies. These are a subclass of luminous compact galaxies (LCGs) which show strong [OIII]lambda5007A emission indicative of extreme, recent star-formation. This pilot study was carried out to look, for the first time in X-rays, at this recently established class of galaxies and use them to test the LX-SFR-metallicity plane. Determining the spectral properties of bright HMXBs in low-metallicity environments also has important implications for models of X-ray heating leading up to the Epoch of Reionization. I

  6. Intrinsic endometriosis of ureter: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Myung Sun; Kim, Ho Chul; Yun, Ku Sup; Choi, Chul Soon; Bae, Sang Hoon; Kim, Sung Yong; Shin, Hyung Sik

    1995-01-01

    Endometriosis is a rare cause of an ureteral obstruction. We report a case of intrinsic ureteral endometriosis resulting in severe hydroureteronephrosis. The diagnosis of ureteral endometriosis may be considered in women with flank pain and ureteric obstruction within true pelvis

  7. The Intrinsic Dynamics of Psychological Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallacher, Robin R.; van Geert, Paul; Nowak, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Psychological processes unfold on various timescales in accord with internally generated patterns. The intrinsic dynamism of psychological process is difficult to investigate using traditional methods emphasizing cause–effect relations, however, and therefore is rarely incorporated into social

  8. Deuterium NMR, induced and intrinsic cholesteric lyomesophases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcantara, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    Induced and intrinsic cholesteric lyotropic mesophases were studied. Induced cholesteric lyomesophases based on potassium laurate (KL) system, with small amounts of cholesterol added, were studied by deuterium NMR and by polarizing microscopy. Order profiles obtained from deuterium NMR of KL perdenderated chains in both induced cholesteric and normal mesophases were compared. The intrinsic cholesteric lyotropic mesophases were based on the amphiphile potassium N-lauroyl serinate (KLNS) in the resolved levo form. The study of the type I intrinsic cholesteric mesophase was made by optical microscopy under polarized light and the type II intrinsic cholesteric lyomesophase was characterized by deuterium NMR. The new texture was explained by the use of the theory of disclinations developed for thermotropic liquid crystals, specially for cholesteric type. (M.J.C.) [pt

  9. NGC 404: A REJUVENATED LENTICULAR GALAXY ON A MERGER-INDUCED, BLUEWARD EXCURSION INTO THE GREEN VALLEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thilker, David A.; Bianchi, Luciana; Schiminovich, David; Gil de Paz, Armando; Seibert, Mark; Madore, Barry F.; Wyder, Ted; Barlow, Tom; Conrow, Tim; Forster, Karl; Friedman, Peter; Martin, Chris; Morrissey, Patrick; Small, Todd; Rich, R. Michael; Yi, Sukyoung; Neff, Susan

    2010-01-01

    We have discovered recent star formation in the outermost portion ((1-4) x R 25 ) of the nearby lenticular (S0) galaxy NGC 404 using Galaxy Evolution Explorer UV imaging. FUV-bright sources are strongly concentrated within the galaxy's H I ring (formed by a merger event according to del RIo et al.), even though the average gas density is dynamically subcritical. Archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging reveals resolved upper main-sequence stars and conclusively demonstrates that the UV light originates from recent star formation activity. We present FUV, NUV radial surface brightness profiles, and integrated magnitudes for NGC 404. Within the ring, the average star formation rate (SFR) surface density (Σ SFR ) is ∼2.2 x 10 -5 M sun yr -1 kpc -2 . Of the total FUV flux, 70% comes from the H I ring which is forming stars at a rate of 2.5 x 10 -3 M sun yr -1 . The gas consumption timescale, assuming a constant SFR and no gas recycling, is several times the age of the universe. In the context of the UV-optical galaxy color-magnitude diagram, the presence of the star-forming H I ring places NGC 404 in the green valley separating the red and blue sequences. The rejuvenated lenticular galaxy has experienced a merger-induced, disk-building excursion away from the red sequence toward bluer colors, where it may evolve quiescently or (if appropriately triggered) experience a burst capable of placing it on the blue/star-forming sequence for up to ∼1 Gyr. The green valley galaxy population is heterogeneous, with most systems transitioning from blue to red but others evolving in the opposite sense due to acquisition of fresh gas through various channels.

  10. Globular Clusters for Faint Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    The origin of ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) has posed a long-standing mystery for astronomers. New observations of several of these faint giants with the Hubble Space Telescope are now lending support to one theory.Faint-Galaxy MysteryHubble images of Dragonfly 44 (top) and DFX1 (bottom). The right panels show the data with greater contrast and extended objects masked. [van Dokkum et al. 2017]UDGs large, extremely faint spheroidal objects were first discovered in the Virgo galaxy cluster roughly three decades ago. Modern telescope capabilities have resulted in many more discoveries of similar faint galaxies in recent years, suggesting that they are a much more common phenomenon than we originally thought.Despite the many observations, UDGs still pose a number of unanswered questions. Chief among them: what are UDGs? Why are these objects the size of normal galaxies, yet so dim? There are two primary models that explain UDGs:UDGs were originally small galaxies, hence their low luminosity. Tidal interactions then puffed them up to the large size we observe today.UDGs are effectively failed galaxies. They formed the same way as normal galaxies of their large size, but something truncated their star formation early, preventing them from gaining the brightness that we would expect for galaxies of their size.Now a team of scientists led by Pieter van Dokkum (Yale University) has made some intriguing observations with Hubble that lend weight to one of these models.Globulars observed in 16 Coma-cluster UDGs by Hubble. The top right panel shows the galaxy identifications. The top left panel shows the derived number of globular clusters in each galaxy. [van Dokkum et al. 2017]Globulars GaloreVan Dokkum and collaborators imaged two UDGs with Hubble: Dragonfly 44 and DFX1, both located in the Coma galaxy cluster. These faint galaxies are both smooth and elongated, with no obvious irregular features, spiral arms, star-forming regions, or other indications of tidal interactions

  11. Peering Into an Early Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-04-01

    Thirteen billion years ago, early galaxies ionized the gas around them, producing some of the first light that brought our universe out of its dark ages. Now the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) has provided one of the first detailed looks into the interior of one of these early, distant galaxies.Sources of LightArtists illustration of the reionization of the universe (time progresses left to right), in which ionized bubbles that form around the first sources of light eventually overlap to form the fully ionized universe we observe today. [Avi Loeb/Scientific American]For the first roughly hundred million years of its existence, our universe expanded in relative darkness there were no sources of light at that time besides the cosmic microwave background. But as mass started to condense to form the first objects, these objects eventually shone as the earliest luminous sources, contributing to the reionization of the universe.To learn about the early production of light in the universe, our best bet is to study in detail the earliest luminous sources stars, galaxies, or quasars that we can hunt down. One ideal target is the galaxy COSMOS Redshift 7, known as CR7 for short.Targeting CR7CR7 is one of the oldest, most distant galaxies known, lying at a redshift of z 6.6. Its discovery in 2015 and subsequent observations of bright, ultraviolet-emitting clumps within it have led to broad speculation about the source of its emission. Does this galaxy host an active nucleus? Or could it perhaps contain the long-theorized first generation of stars, metal-free Population III stars?To determine the nature of CR7 and the other early galaxies that contributed to reionization, we need to explore their gas and dust in detail a daunting task for such distant sources! Conveniently, this is a challenge that is now made possible by ALMAs incredible capabilities. In a new publication led by Jorryt Matthee (Leiden University, the Netherlands), a team of scientists now

  12. Intrinsic and acquired resistance mechanisms in enterococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbeck, Brian L.; Rice, Louis B.

    2012-01-01

    Enterococci have the potential for resistance to virtually all clinically useful antibiotics. Their emergence as important nosocomial pathogens has coincided with increased expression of antimicrobial resistance by members of the genus. The mechanisms underlying antibiotic resistance in enterococci may be intrinsic to the species or acquired through mutation of intrinsic genes or horizontal exchange of genetic material encoding resistance determinants. This paper reviews the antibiotic resistance mechanisms in Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis and discusses treatment options. PMID:23076243

  13. Galaxy Zoo: Mergers - Dynamical models of interacting galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holincheck, Anthony J.; Wallin, John F.; Borne, Kirk; Fortson, Lucy; Lintott, Chris; Smith, Arfon M.; Bamford, Steven; Keel, William C.; Parrish, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The dynamical history of most merging galaxies is not well understood. Correlations between galaxy interaction and star formation have been found in previous studies, but require the context of the physical history of merging systems for full insight into the processes that lead to enhanced star formation. We present the results of simulations that reconstruct the orbit trajectories and disturbed morphologies of pairs of interacting galaxies. With the use of a restricted three-body simulation code and the help of citizen scientists, we sample 105 points in parameter space for each system. We demonstrate a successful recreation of the morphologies of 62 pairs of interacting galaxies through the review of more than 3 million simulations. We examine the level of convergence and uniqueness of the dynamical properties of each system. These simulations represent the largest collection of models of interacting galaxies to date, providing a valuable resource for the investigation of mergers. This paper presents the simulation parameters generated by the project. They are now publicly available in electronic format at http://data.galaxyzoo.org/mergers.html. Though our best-fitting model parameters are not an exact match to previously published models, our method for determining uncertainty measurements will aid future comparisons between models. The dynamical clocks from our models agree with previous results of the time since the onset of star formation from starburst models in interacting systems and suggest that tidally induced