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Sample records for blowfly genetic control

  1. The sheep blowfly genetic control program in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, Geoffrey G.

    1989-01-01

    The blowfly Lucilia cuprina is the most important myiasis pet of sheep in Australia. Other species are associated with sheep myiasis, but L. cuprina is probably responsible for initiating more than 90% of infestations. Annual costs of production losses, prevention and treatment have been estimated at $149 millions in 1985. Prevention and treatment encompass both insecticidal applications to sheep and non-chemical management practices. In the absence of effective preventive measures, the sheep industry would be non-viable over much of Australia. Insecticide usage against L. cuprina has been marked by the appearance of widespread resistance to cyclodienes in 1956, the organophosphates in 1965, and carbamates in 1966. Resistance has not yet been reported against the triazine compounds introduced for blowfly control in 1981. The most effective non-chemical control measures are surgical (removal of skin from the breech in certain breeds of sheep, and tail-docking). They protect sheep by reducing favourable oviposition sites (dung and urine-stained wool). The spectre of insecticide resistance and the early success of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against screwworm fly in the U.S.A., led this Division to consider SIT and other autocidal methods in the 1960s. The L. cuprina genetics research program was established in 1966 and subsequently expanded in 1971. More recently, lobbying by animal welfare groups against surgical blowfly control practices, as well as increasing consumer awareness of insecticide residues in animal products, have accelerated the search for alternatives to chemical control. When SIT was first considered for L. cuprina control in 1960, little was known about the population dynamics of L. cuprina. There were insufficient ecological data to evaluate the prospects of alternative strategies such as suppression or containment. The number of flies which would have to be released in a SIT program was unknown, as were the costs. Assuming that the cost of

  2. Wolbachia and genetic variability in the birdnest blowfly Protocalliphora sialia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudry, E; Bartos, J; Emerson, K; Whitworth, T; Werren, J H

    2003-07-01

    Wolbachia are widespread cytoplasmically inherited bacteria that induce various reproductive alterations in host arthropods, including cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), an incompatibility between sperm and egg that typically results in embryonic death. CI has been invoked as a possible mechanism for reproductive isolation and speciation in arthropods, by restricting gene flow and promoting maintenance (and evolution) of genetic divergence between populations. Here we investigate patterns of Wolbachia infection and nuclear and mitochondrial differentiation in geographical populations of the birdnest blowfly Protocalliphora sialia. Blowflies in western North America are infected with two A-group Wolbachia, with some individuals singly and others doubly infected. Individuals in eastern North America mostly show single infections with a B-group Wolbachia. Populations in the Midwest are polymorphic for infections and show A- or B-group infection. There is a low level of mitochondrial divergence and perfect concordance of mitochondrial haplotype with infection type, suggesting that two Wolbachia-associated selective sweeps of the mitochondrion have occurred in this species. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis of nuclear genetic variation shows genetic differentiation between the eastern-Midwestern and western populations. Both Midwestern and eastern flies infected with A-Wolbachia show eastern nuclear genetic profiles. Current results therefore suggest that Wolbachia has not acted as a major barrier to gene flow between western and eastern-Midwestern populations, although some genetic differentiation between A-Wolbachia infected and B-Wolbachia infected individuals in eastern-Midwestern populations cannot be ruled out.

  3. [Identification of the genetic sex chromosomes in the monogenic blowfly Chrysomya rufifacies (Calliphoridae, Diptera)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullerich, F H

    1975-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown the sex determination in the monogenic blowfly Chrysomya rufifacies to be controlled by a cytologically not discernible homogametry-heterogamety mechanism in the female. Female-producing (thelygenic) females are assumed to be heterozygous for a dominant female sex realizer (F') with sex-predetermining properties, while male-producing (arrhenogenic) females as well as males are supposed to be homozygous for the recessive allele (f). In order to identify the genetic sex chromosomes of C. rufifacies among its five pairs of long euchromatic chromosomes (nos. 1-5) plus one pair of small heterochromatic ones (no. 6), all chromosomes were marked by reciprocal translocations induced by X-ray treatment of adult males. The inheritance of thirteen different heteroxygous translocations has been analyzed. All of the translocations (eleven) between two of the four longer chromosomes did not show sex-linked inheritance, thus demonstrating the autosomal character of the chromosomes nos 1, 2, 3 and 4. The same is true for the translocation T6 (2/6). Therefore the small heterochromatic chromosome no. 6, corresponding to the morphlogically differentiated six chromosomes within the amphogenic calliphorid species, remains without sex determining function in the monogenic fly. This could be confirmed by the analysis of monosomic (monosomy-6) and trisomic (trisomy-6) individuals, which resulted from meiotic non-disfunction in T6/+ translocation heterozygotes. Contrary to these translocations, the heteroxygous 5/2 translocation (T14) exhibited sex-linked inheritance: There was but a very low frequency (0,76 per cent) of recombinants resulting from crossing-over between F'/f and the translocation breakage point in theylgenic F1 T14/+females. The sex-linked inheritance of T14 was confirmed by the progeny of a thelygenic F1 T14/+ female crossed to a homozygous T14/T14 translocation male.Among the offspring of that F1 T14/+ female, which had received the

  4. Chasing behaviour and optomotor following in free-flying male blowflies: flight performance and interactions of the underlying control systems

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    Christine Trischler

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The chasing behaviour of male blowflies after small targets belongs to the most rapid and virtuosic visually guided behaviours found in nature. Since in a structured environment any turn towards a target inevitably leads to a displacement of the entire retinal image in the opposite direction, it might evoke optomotor following responses counteracting the turn. To analyse potential interactions between the control systems underlying chasing behaviour and optomotor following, respectively, we performed behavioural experiments on male blowflies and examined the characteristics of the two flight control systems in isolation and in combination. Three findings are particularly striking. (i The characteristic saccadic flight and gaze style – a distinctive feature of blowfly cruising flights – is largely abandoned when the entire visual surroundings move around the fly; in this case flies tend to follow the moving pattern in a relatively continuous and smooth way. (ii When male flies engage in following a small target, they also employ a smooth pursuit strategy. (iii Although blowflies are reluctant to fly at high background velocities, the performance and dynamical characteristics of the chasing system are not much affected when the background moves in either the same or in the opposite direction as the target. Hence, the optomotor following response is largely suppressed by the chasing system and does not much impair chasing performance.

  5. Genetic Diversity and Phylogenetic Relationships of Coevolving Symbiont-Harboring Insect Trypanosomatids, and Their Neotropical Dispersal by Invader African Blowflies (Calliphoridae

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    Tarcilla C. Borghesan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is about the inter- and intra-specific genetic diversity of trypanosomatids of the genus Angomonas, and their association with Calliphoridae (blowflies in Neotropical and Afrotropical regions. Microscopic examination of 3,900 flies of various families, mostly Calliphoridae, revealed that 31% of them harbored trypanosomatids. Small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA barcoding showed that Angomonas predominated (46% over the other common trypanosomatids of blowflies of genera Herpetomonas and Wallacemonas. Among Angomonas spp., A. deanei was much more common than the two-other species, A. desouzai and A. ambiguus. Phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rRNA, glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH and internal transcribed spacer rDNA (ITS rDNA sequences revealed a marked genetic diversity within A. deanei, which comprised four infraspecific genotypes (Dea1–Dea4, and four corresponding symbiont genotypes (Kcr1–Kcr4. Host and symbiont phylogenies were highly congruent corroborating their co-divergence, consistent with host-symbiont interdependent metabolism and symbiont reduced genomes shaped by a long coevolutionary history. We compared the diversity of Angomonas/symbionts from three genera of blowflies, Lucilia, Chrysomya and Cochliomyia. A. deanei, A. desouzai, and A. ambiguus were found in the three genera of blowflies in South America. In Africa, A. deanei and A. ambiguus were identified in Chrysomya. The absence of A. desouzai in Africa and its presence in Neotropical Cochliomyia and Lucilia suggests parasite spillback of A. desouzai into Chrysomya, which was most likely introduced four decades ago from Africa into the Neotropic. The absence of correlation between parasite diversity and geographic and genetic distances, with identical genotypes of A. deanei found in the Neotropic and Afrotropic, is consistent with disjunct distribution due to the recent human-mediated transoceanic dispersal of Angomonas by Chrysomya. This

  6. Genetic Diversity and Phylogenetic Relationships of Coevolving Symbiont-Harboring Insect Trypanosomatids, and Their Neotropical Dispersal by Invader African Blowflies (Calliphoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghesan, Tarcilla C.; Campaner, Marta; Matsumoto, Tania E.; Espinosa, Omar A.; Razafindranaivo, Victor; Paiva, Fernando; Carranza, Julio C.; Añez, Nestor; Neves, Luis; Teixeira, Marta M. G.; Camargo, Erney P.

    2018-01-01

    This study is about the inter- and intra-specific genetic diversity of trypanosomatids of the genus Angomonas, and their association with Calliphoridae (blowflies) in Neotropical and Afrotropical regions. Microscopic examination of 3,900 flies of various families, mostly Calliphoridae, revealed that 31% of them harbored trypanosomatids. Small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) barcoding showed that Angomonas predominated (46%) over the other common trypanosomatids of blowflies of genera Herpetomonas and Wallacemonas. Among Angomonas spp., A. deanei was much more common than the two-other species, A. desouzai and A. ambiguus. Phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rRNA, glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) and internal transcribed spacer rDNA (ITS rDNA) sequences revealed a marked genetic diversity within A. deanei, which comprised four infraspecific genotypes (Dea1–Dea4), and four corresponding symbiont genotypes (Kcr1–Kcr4). Host and symbiont phylogenies were highly congruent corroborating their co-divergence, consistent with host-symbiont interdependent metabolism and symbiont reduced genomes shaped by a long coevolutionary history. We compared the diversity of Angomonas/symbionts from three genera of blowflies, Lucilia, Chrysomya and Cochliomyia. A. deanei, A. desouzai, and A. ambiguus were found in the three genera of blowflies in South America. In Africa, A. deanei and A. ambiguus were identified in Chrysomya. The absence of A. desouzai in Africa and its presence in Neotropical Cochliomyia and Lucilia suggests parasite spillback of A. desouzai into Chrysomya, which was most likely introduced four decades ago from Africa into the Neotropic. The absence of correlation between parasite diversity and geographic and genetic distances, with identical genotypes of A. deanei found in the Neotropic and Afrotropic, is consistent with disjunct distribution due to the recent human-mediated transoceanic dispersal of Angomonas by Chrysomya. This study provides

  7. Microsatellite markers for population genetic studies of the blowfly Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae

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    Rosangela Aparecida Rodrigues

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of the genetic variation and population structure of Chrysomya species is of great interest for both basic and applied research. However, very limited genetic information is available for this genus across its geographical distribution. Here, we describe 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci isolated from Chrysomya putoria with expected heterozygosities ranging from 0.1402-0.8312. These markers are of potential applied interest for forensic entomologists and for the characterisation of the genetic structure of C. putoria from recently colonised regions, with great promise for understanding the colonisation dynamics and spread of the genus Chrysomya in the New World.

  8. Head orientation of walking blowflies is controlled by visual and mechanical cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteagudo, José; Lindemann, Jens P; Egelhaaf, Martin

    2017-12-15

    During locomotion, animals employ visual and mechanical cues in order to establish the orientation of their head, which reflects the orientation of the visual coordinate system. However, in certain situations, contradictory cues may suggest different orientations relative to the environment. We recorded blowflies walking on a horizontal or tilted surface surrounded by visual cues suggesting a variety of orientations. We found that the different orientations relative to gravity of visual cues and walking surface were integrated, with the orientation of the surface being the major contributor to head orientation, while visual cues and gravity also play an important role. In contrast, visual cues did not affect body orientation much. Cue integration was modeled as the weighted sum of orientations suggested by the different cues. Our model suggests that in the case of lacking visual cues, more weight is given to gravity. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. A survey of the prevalence of blowfly strike and the control measures used in the Rûens area of the Western Cape Province of South Africa

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    A. J. Scholtz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Blowfly strike and the methods used to combat blowfly strike were recorded on 33 properties in the Rûens area of South Africa during 2003/2004. Data were recorded on Merino and Dohne Merino hoggets (n = 4951 with at least 3 months’ wool growth. The following data were captured: presence or absence of strike, site of the strike (body or breech, presence or absence of dermatophilosis as well as subjective scores for wool quality and wool colour. Control measures recorded include: chemical treatment (preventative and spot treatment, crutching, mulesing and the use of the Lucitrap® system. Blowfly strike was not significantly influenced by gender or breed. Hoggets suffering from dermatophilosis were more likely to be struck, compared with contemporaries not suffering from the skin disorder (0.057 vs 0.027; P < 0.05. Merino hoggets generally had higher scores than their Dohne Merino contemporaries for wool quality (32.6 vs 27.4; P<0.05 and wool colour (29.0 vs 27.2; P<0.05. There was an indication that the Lucitrap® system may have reduced flystrike, but the effect was not statistically significant (P = 0.19 for overall strikes and P = 0.12 for body strike. The Mules operation benefited overall flystrike (0.013 vs 0.110; P < 0.05; mainly through an effect on breech strike (0.010 vs 0.109; P < 0.05. The proportion of fly strikes increased with wool length, and declined with an increase in farm size in wool colour score. None of the ethically acceptable control measures assessed could substantially reduce blowfly strike on their own, and an integrated pest management programme was proposed.

  10. Fatty acid solubilizer from the oral disk of the blowfly.

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    Yuko Ishida

    Full Text Available Blowflies are economic pests of the wool industry and potential vectors for epidemics. The establishment of a pesticide-free, environmentally friendly blowfly control strategy is necessary. Blowflies must feed on meat in order to initiate the cascade of events that are involved in reproduction including juvenile hormone synthesis, vitellogenesis, and mating. During feeding blowflies regurgitate salivary lipase, which may play a role in releasing fatty acids from triglycerides that are found in food. However, long-chain fatty acids show low solubility in aqueous solutions. In order to solubilize and ingest the released hydrophobic fatty acids, the blowflies must use a solubilizer.We applied native PAGE, Edman degradation, cDNA cloning, and RT-PCR to characterize a protein that accumulated in the oral disk of the black blowfly, Phormia regina. In situ hybridization was carried out to localize the expression at the cellular level. A fluorescence competitive binding assay was used to identify potential ligands of this protein.A protein newly identified from P. regina (PregOBP56a belonged to the classic odorant-binding protein (OBP family. This gene was expressed in a cluster of cells that was localized between pseudotracheae on the oral disk, which are not accessory cells of the taste peg chemosensory sensilla that normally synthesize OBPs. At pH 7 and pH 6, PregOBP56a bound palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids, that are mainly found in chicken meat. The binding affinity of PregOBP56a decreased at pH 5. We propose that PregOBP56a is a protein that solubilizes fatty acids during feeding and subsequently helps to deliver the fatty acids to the midgut where it may help in the process of reproduction. As such, PregOBP56a is a potential molecular target for controlling the blowfly.

  11. Inheritance patterns of new genetic markers and occurrence of spontaneous mosaicism in the monogenic blowfly Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera:Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullerich, F H

    1996-11-27

    Four new genetic markers for Chrysomya rufifacies, a fly with maternal sex determination, were characterized. The markers include one body colour mutant, black body (bl), and three eye colour mutants, brown eye (br), apricot eye (ap), and red eye (wr). Two of the latter, br and wr, turn out to be sex linked, the others behave as autosomal genes belonging to different linkage groups. wr is a hypomorphic and w an apomorphic mutation of the white gene, w/w is epistatic to br/br and to ap/ap. A preliminary genetic linkage map with the sex realizer F'/f and the loci br and w residing in homomorphic sex chromosomes is established. Evidence is presented that crossing over is absent in the male sex. The possible causes of the spontaneous appearance of mosaics for eye colour observed among individuals heterozygous for recessive genes are discussed.

  12. Fluorescence Spectra of Blowfly Metaxanthopsins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruizinga, B.; Stavenga, D.G.

    The main visual pigment of blowflies (xanthopsin) photoconverts into two thermostable metaxanthopsin states M and M’. The fluorescence spectra of the two photoproducts were studied by microspectrofluorometry in vivo. The emission spectra of M and M’ are very similar and peak at 660 nm. The

  13. Forensic Implications of Blowfly Chrysomya rufifacies (Calliphoridae: Diptera) Development Rates Affected by Ketum Extract

    OpenAIRE

    A. R. Rashid; A. S. Siti; F. R. Siti; A. R. Reena; H. S. S. Sharifah; F. Z. Nurul; W. A. Nazni

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of ketum extract on development of Chrysomya rufifacies and to analyze the presence of mitragynine in the larvae samples. 110 newly emerged first instar larvae of C. rufifacies were introduced on ketum extract-mixed cow liver at doses of 0, 20, 40 and 60g. Blowfly development rate was determined with 12 hour intervals and mitragynine in larvae was extracted and quantitated. C. rufifacies in control group took about 192 hours to complete their...

  14. Larviposition in the ovoviviparous blowfly Calliphora dubia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D F; Dadour, I R

    2011-03-01

    This study examined larviposition in Calliphora dubia Macquart (Diptera: Calliphoridae), an ovoviviparous blowfly of considerable forensic importance in Australia. Females in the field carried 22-83 live larvae, exhibiting a strong linear relationship between female size and the number of live larvae carried. Females took just over 1 min (mean 67.7 ± 7.7 s, n = 54) to larviposit live larvae on or near fresh liver in the laboratory. Females laid larvae at a mean rate of 1.2 ± 0.1 larvae/s, with the fastest rate being 3.4 larvae/s. Most females (70%) laid live larvae only, but 14% laid larvae and eggs at the same time and 16% laid eggs only (none of the eggs laid were viable). Females laying only live larvae laid a mean of 53.7 ± 2.3 larvae, whereas those laying only eggs laid a mean of 48.6 ± 2.8 eggs on each occasion. None of the eggs laid were viable. Most females (86%) laid all their larvae in a single spot, even if they engaged in several bouts of laying live larvae. Nearly one-third of females did not lay all the live larvae in their ovisacs, but retained half of their complement of developed larvae. Females may be opting to spread their larvae across several carcasses in order to increase their survival and not to overcrowd small, ephemeral carcasses. The fact that a blowfly can lay either eggs or live larvae has enormous implications for the accurate determination of the post-mortem interval (PMI) as the presence of larvae derived from eggs laid on the body add 6-18 h to the PMI. This paper represents the first report of the ability of female calliphorids to resorb some of their own live larvae. © 2010 The Authors. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2010 The Royal Entomological Society.

  15. [Species determination of puparia of forensically important blowflies].

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    Reiter, C; Wollenek, G

    1983-01-01

    The cephalopharyngealsclerite and the morphology of the 12th puparian segment provide useful recognition features to distinguish the puparia of forensically important blow-fly species. In addition it was found that the size of the puparia can only make restricted reference to the identification of the species. The most useful characters of the puparia are finally collected in a classification key.

  16. Simple clearing technique as species determination tool in blowfly larvae.

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    Niederegger, Senta; Wartenberg, Nelly; Spiess, Roland; Mall, Gita

    2011-03-20

    A simple clearing technique is presented by which species specific structures and organs of blowfly larvae can easily be visualized and displayed without any danger of mechanical damages or dislocations of delicate formations and without fixation of the object. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Olfactory response of the blowfly, chrysomya chloropyga (wied ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (diptera: calliphoridae) to odour sources. ... Attractants to the blowfly, Chrysomya chloropyga, in the enviroment were used to studybait preference of the fly in the laboratory. The attractants included sheep dung, decayed liver, poultry dung, fresh liver and mixture of ground rice and fish paste. C. chloropyga were reared on a ...

  18. Spectral Sensitivity of Blowfly Photoreceptors : Dependence on Waveguide Effects and Pigment Concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smakman, J.G.J.; Stavenga, D.G.

    1986-01-01

    Spectral and polarization sensitivities of blowfly R1-6 photoreceptor cells were measured by intracellular recordings in cells which differed in visual pigment content. The spectral sensitivity in the visible wavelength range can be quantitatively explained from the absorption spectrum of blowfly

  19. Function and coding in the blowfly H1 neuron during naturalistic optic flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van; Kern, R.; Schwerdtfeger, G.; Egelhaaf, M.

    2005-01-01

    Naturalistic stimuli, reconstructed from measured eye movements of flying blowflies, were replayed on a panoramic stimulus device. The directional movement-sensitive H1 neuron was recorded from blowflies watching these stimuli. The response of the H1 neuron is dominated by the response to fast

  20. Prospect of a method of infected wound healing with a help of Calliphoridae blowfly screwworms

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    L. I. Faly

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Complex assessment of possibilities of infected wound healing with a help of screwworms of blowfly of the family Calliphoridae in the hospitals of Ukraineis offered. On the basis of available data the mechanism of therapeutic action is shown, and the medicinal properties of substances containing in the secretions and excretions of the blowfly screwworms are described. The gist of the treatment method and traits of the blowfly cultivation in a laboratory are highlighted. The quality standards for specialized biological laboratories are presented. The proposed wound healing method is proved as promising.

  1. Effects of the essential oil constituent thymol and other neuroactive chemicals on flight motor activity and wing beat frequency in the blowfly Phaenicia sericata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliwitiya, Ranil; Belton, Peter; Nicholson, Russell A; Lowenberger, Carl A

    2010-03-01

    The effects were evaluated of the plant terpenoid thymol and eight other neuroactive compounds on flight muscle impulses (FMIs) and wing beat frequency (WBF) of tethered blowflies (Phaenicia sericata Meig.). The electrical activity of the dorsolongitudinal flight muscles was closely linked to the WBF of control insects. Topically applied thymol inhibited WBF within 15-30 min and reduced FMI frequency. Octopamine and chlordimeform caused a similar, early-onset bursting pattern that decreased in amplitude with time. Desmethylchlordimeform blocked wing beating within 60 min and generated a profile of continuous but lower-frequency FMIs. Fipronil suppressed wing beating and induced a pattern of continuous, variable-frequency spiking that diminished gradually over 6 h. Cypermethrin- and rotenone-treated flies had initial strong FMIs that declined with time. In flies injected with GABA, the FMIs were generally unidirectional and frequency was reduced, as was seen with thymol. Thymol readily penetrates the cuticle and interferes with flight muscle and central nervous function in the blowfly. The similarity of the action of thymol and GABA suggests that this terpenoid acts centrally in blowflies by mimicking or facilitating GABA action.

  2. Phototransduction in primate cones and blowfly photoreceptors : different mechanisms, different algorithms, similar response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van; Snippe, H.P.

    Phototransduction in primate cones is compared with phototransduction in blowfly photoreceptor cells. Phototransduction in the two cell types utilizes not only different molecular mechanisms, but also different signal processing steps, producing range compression, contrast constancy, and an

  3. Field calibration of blowfly-derived DNA against traditional methods for assessing mammal diversity in tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ping-Shin; Gan, Han Ming; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Wilson, John-James

    2016-11-01

    Mammal diversity assessments based on DNA derived from invertebrates have been suggested as alternatives to assessments based on traditional methods; however, no study has field-tested both approaches simultaneously. In Peninsular Malaysia, we calibrated the performance of mammal DNA derived from blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) against traditional methods used to detect species. We first compared five methods (cage trapping, mist netting, hair trapping, scat collection, and blowfly-derived DNA) in a forest reserve with no recent reports of megafauna. Blowfly-derived DNA and mist netting detected the joint highest number of species (n = 6). Only one species was detected by multiple methods. Compared to the other methods, blowfly-derived DNA detected both volant and non-volant species. In another forest reserve, rich in megafauna, we calibrated blowfly-derived DNA against camera traps. Blowfly-derived DNA detected more species (n = 11) than camera traps (n = 9), with only one species detected by both methods. The rarefaction curve indicated that blowfly-derived DNA would continue to detect more species with greater sampling effort. With further calibration, blowfly-derived DNA may join the list of traditional field methods. Areas for further investigation include blowfly feeding and dispersal biology, primer biases, and the assembly of a comprehensive and taxonomically-consistent DNA barcode reference library.

  4. Effects of methamphetamine and its primary human metabolite, p-hydroxymethamphetamine, on the development of the Australian blowfly Calliphora stygia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullany, Christina; Keller, Paul A; Nugraha, Ari S; Wallman, James F

    2014-08-01

    The larvae of necrophagous fly species are used as forensic tools for the determination of the minimum postmortem interval (PMI). However, any ingested drugs in corpses may affect larval development, thus leading to incorrect estimates of the period of infestation. This study investigated the effects of methamphetamine and its metabolite, p-hydroxymethamphetamine, on the forensically important Australian blowfly Calliphora stygia. It was found that the presence of the drugs significantly accelerated larval growth and increased the size of all life stages. Furthermore, drug-exposed samples remained as pupae for up to 78 h longer than controls. These findings suggest that estimates of the minimum PMI of methamphetamine-dosed corpses could be incorrect if the altered growth of C. stygia is not considered. Different temperatures, drug concentrations and substrate types are also likely to affect the development of this blowfly. Pending further research, the application of C. stygia to the entomological analysis of methamphetamine-related fatalities should be appropriately qualified. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Using the Developmental Gene Bicoid to Identify Species of Forensically Important Blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae

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    Seong Hwan Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying species of insects used to estimate postmortem interval (PMI is a major subject in forensic entomology. Because forensic insect specimens are morphologically uniform and are obtained at various developmental stages, DNA markers are greatly needed. To develop new autosomal DNA markers to identify species, partial genomic sequences of the bicoid (bcd genes, containing the homeobox and its flanking sequences, from 12 blowfly species (Aldrichina grahami, Calliphora vicina, Calliphora lata, Triceratopyga calliphoroides, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya pinguis, Phormia regina, Lucilia ampullacea, Lucilia caesar, Lucilia illustris, Hemipyrellia ligurriens and Lucilia sericata; Calliphoridae: Diptera were determined and analyzed. This study first sequenced the ten blowfly species other than C. vicina and L. sericata. Based on the bcd sequences of these 12 blowfly species, a phylogenetic tree was constructed that discriminates the subfamilies of Calliphoridae (Luciliinae, Chrysomyinae, and Calliphorinae and most blowfly species. Even partial genomic sequences of about 500 bp can distinguish most blowfly species. The short intron 2 and coding sequences downstream of the bcd homeobox in exon 3 could be utilized to develop DNA markers for forensic applications. These gene sequences are important in the evolution of insect developmental biology and are potentially useful for identifying insect species in forensic science.

  6. Genetic control of fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walder, J.M.M.

    1987-01-01

    The sterile-insect technique for control of fruit-flies is studied. A brief historic of the technique is presented, as well as a short description of the methodology. Other aspects are discussed: causes of sterility in insects and the principles of insect population suppression by sterile-insect technique. (M.A.C.)

  7. Cuticular muscle attachment sites as a tool for species determination in blowfly larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederegger, Senta; Spiess, Roland

    2012-05-01

    First results of a new method for species determination in third instar larvae of saprophagous blowflies are introduced. Cuticular attachment sites of a limited number of transversal muscles are visualized for light microscopic analysis. After removing the muscles and staining the cuticle, the attachment sites become visible as laterally symmetrical segmental clusters of dark dots. The combined patterns of five such clusters, located in the second, third and fourth segments, show sufficient differences to allow reliable separation of externally very similar larval Lucilia sericata and Lucilia illustris as well as Calliphora vomitoria and Calliphora vicina, the most common saprophagous blowfly species in Europe. Species determination even in poorly conserved, discoloured and fragmented blowfly larvae becomes possible with this new method. The method can primarily be applied for postmortem interval (PMI) calculations in forensic entomology. Interspecific morphological similarity of the larvae and differences in growth rate make species determination an essential requisite for an exact PMI calculation.

  8. Time Spent by Calliphora Spp. Blowflies on Standard Traps Baited with Liver and Ammonia

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    Florica Morariu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The larvae of blowflies from the Calliphoridae family cause fly strikes in sheep and other species of economic importance. Impaired wool, decrease of ewe fertility, and even death can occur in heavy infestations. This paper describes the Calliphora spp. blowflies’ behavior on and around a trap baited with liver and ammonia before they entered in. More than half of Calliphora spp. blowflies (50.88% stayed a medium time (eight to fourteen seconds on the standard trap, while only 1.79% of them spent a longer time (26 to 30 seconds before entering the trap.

  9. On spiking units in the first optic chiasm of the blowfly. III. The sustaining unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansonius, N.M.; Hateren, J.H. van

    1993-01-01

    We recorded from the spiking sustaining unit in the optic chiasm between lamina and medulla in the brain of the blowfly Calliphora vicina, and investigated both temporal and spatial properties of the light-adapted cell. The sustaining unit fails to follow the highest temporal frequencies followed by

  10. ON SPIKING UNITS IN THE 1ST OPTIC CHIASM OF THE BLOWFLY .3. THE SUSTAINING UNIT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JANSONIUS, NM; VANHATEREN, JH

    We recorded from the spiking sustaining unit in the optic chiasm between lamina and medulla in the brain of the blowfly Calliphora vicina, and investigated both temporal and spatial properties of the light-adapted cell. The sustaining unit fails to follow the highest temporal frequencies followed by

  11. Exponential Extinction of Nicholson's Blowflies System with Nonlinear Density-Dependent Mortality Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new generalized Nicholson’s blowflies system with patch structure and nonlinear density-dependent mortality terms. Under appropriate conditions, we establish some criteria to guarantee the exponential extinction of this system. Moreover, we give two examples and numerical simulations to demonstrate our main results.

  12. Mitochondrial DNA-based identification of some forensically important blowflies in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preativatanyou, Kanok; Sirisup, Nantana; Payungporn, Sunchai; Poovorawan, Yong; Thavara, Usavadee; Tawatsin, Apiwat; Sungpradit, Sivapong; Siriyasatien, Padet

    2010-10-10

    Accurate identification of insects collected from death scenes provides not only specific developmental data assisting forensic entomologists to determine the postmortem interval more precisely but also other kinds of forensic evidence. However, morphological identification can be complicated due to the similarity among species, especially in the early larval stages. To simplify and make the species identification more practical and reliable, DNA-based identification is preferentially considered. In this study, we demonstrate the application of partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and cytochrome oxidase II (COII) sequences for differentiation of forensically important blowflies in Thailand; Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya rufifacies and Lucilia cuprina by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The PCR yields a single 1324bp-sized amplicon in all blowfly specimens, followed by direct DNA sequencing. Taq(α)I and VspI predicted from the sequencing data provide different RFLP profiles among these three species. Sequence analysis reveals no significant intraspecific divergence in blowfly specimens captured from different geographical regions in Thailand. Accordingly, neighbor-joining tree using Kimura's 2-parameter model illustrates reciprocal monophyly between species. Thus, these approaches serve as promising tools for molecular identification of these three common forensically important blowfly species in Thailand. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Light dependence of calcium and membrane potential measured in blowfly photoreceptors in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberwinkler, J; Stavenga, DG

    Light adaptation in insect photoreceptors is caused by an increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration. To better understand this process, we measured the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration in vivo as a function of adapting light intensity in the white-eyed blowfly mutant chalky. We developed a technique

  14. RECEPTOR POTENTIAL AND LIGHT-INDUCED MITOCHONDRIAL ACTIVATION IN BLOWFLY PHOTORECEPTOR MUTANTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MOJET, MH; TINBERGEN, J; STAVENGA, DG

    1991-01-01

    1. Simultaneous measurements of the receptor potential and the light-induced mitochondrial activation were performed in white-eyed blowflies Calliphora vicina, mutant chalky, and Lucilia cuprina, mutants w(F) and w'nss. The intensity dependence and the temporal dynamics were investigated. 2. The

  15. Phototransduction and light-iinducted mitochondrial activation in blowfly compound eyes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, Martinus Hendrik

    1992-01-01

    The present thesis considered two aspects of phototransduction in the blowfly Calliphora vicina mutant chalky. First, we studied the mechanism of the basis process, conversion of light to an electrical signal. And second, we examined the light-induced actvation of mitochrondial respiration,

  16. Light Reduces the Excitation Efficiency in the nss Mutant of the Sheep Blowfly Lucilia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barash, S.; Suss, E.; Stavenga, D.G.; Rubinstein, C.T.; Selinger, Z.; Minke, B.

    1988-01-01

    The nss (no steady state) phototransduction mutant of the sheep blowfly Lucilia was studied electrophysiologically using intracellular recordings. The effects of the nss mutation on the receptor potential are manifested in the following features of the light response. (a) The responses to a flash or

  17. A Three-Compartment Model Describing Temperature Changes in Tethered Flying Blowflies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, D.G.; Schwering, P.B.W.; Tinbergen, J.

    1993-01-01

    A three-compartment model is presented that describes temperature measurements of tethered flying blowflies, obtained by thermal imaging. During rest, the body temperature is approximately equal to the ambient temperature. At the start of flight, the thorax temperature increases exponentially with a

  18. On-off units in the first optic chiasm of the blowfly. II. Spatial properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansonius, N.M.; Hateren, J.H. van

    1993-01-01

    We recorded from the spiking on-off unit in the first optic chiasm (between lamina and medulla) in the blowfly Calliphora vicina, and investigated its spatial properties. The receptive field extends over (11.4±0.9)° horizontally and (8.7±0.6)° vertically, i.e. about 7 by 5 interommatidial angles.

  19. ON-OFF UNITS IN THE 1ST OPTIC CHIASM OF THE BLOWFLY .2. SPATIAL PROPERTIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JANSONIUS, NM; VANHATEREN, JH

    We recorded from the spiking on-off unit in the first optic chiasm (between lamina and medulla) in the blowfly Calliphora vicina, and investigated its spatial properties. The receptive field extends over (11.4+/-0.9)-degrees horizontally and (8.7+/-0.6)-degrees vertically, i.e. about 7 by 5

  20. Fast temporal adaptation of on-off units in the first optic chiasm of the blowfly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansonius, N.M.; Hateren, J.H. van

    1991-01-01

    We recorded from spiking units in the first optic chiasm between lamina and medulla in the brain of the blowfly (Calliphora vicina). Both previously characterized neuron types, on-off units and sustaining units, were encountered. On-off units had a temporal frequency response with a lower cut-off

  1. Dye Transport across the Retinal Basement Membrane of the Blowfly Calliphora erythrocephala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weyrauther, E.; Roebroek, J.G.H.; Stavenga, D.G.

    In the blowfly, Calliphora erythrocephala, transport of dye into or out of the retina, following injection into the eye or thorax, was investigated, mainly by microspectrophotometry and fluorimetry. After injection into the eye, Phenol Red, Trypan Blue, Lucifer Yellow and 9-amino-acridine were

  2. In vivo time-resolved microtomography reveals the mechanics of the blowfly flight motor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon M Walker

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dipteran flies are amongst the smallest and most agile of flying animals. Their wings are driven indirectly by large power muscles, which cause cyclical deformations of the thorax that are amplified through the intricate wing hinge. Asymmetric flight manoeuvres are controlled by 13 pairs of steering muscles acting directly on the wing articulations. Collectively the steering muscles account for <3% of total flight muscle mass, raising the question of how they can modulate the vastly greater output of the power muscles during manoeuvres. Here we present the results of a synchrotron-based study performing micrometre-resolution, time-resolved microtomography on the 145 Hz wingbeat of blowflies. These data represent the first four-dimensional visualizations of an organism's internal movements on sub-millisecond and micrometre scales. This technique allows us to visualize and measure the three-dimensional movements of five of the largest steering muscles, and to place these in the context of the deforming thoracic mechanism that the muscles actuate. Our visualizations show that the steering muscles operate through a diverse range of nonlinear mechanisms, revealing several unexpected features that could not have been identified using any other technique. The tendons of some steering muscles buckle on every wingbeat to accommodate high amplitude movements of the wing hinge. Other steering muscles absorb kinetic energy from an oscillating control linkage, which rotates at low wingbeat amplitude but translates at high wingbeat amplitude. Kinetic energy is distributed differently in these two modes of oscillation, which may play a role in asymmetric power management during flight control. Structural flexibility is known to be important to the aerodynamic efficiency of insect wings, and to the function of their indirect power muscles. We show that it is integral also to the operation of the steering muscles, and so to the functional flexibility of the

  3. In vivo time-resolved microtomography reveals the mechanics of the blowfly flight motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Simon M; Schwyn, Daniel A; Mokso, Rajmund; Wicklein, Martina; Müller, Tonya; Doube, Michael; Stampanoni, Marco; Krapp, Holger G; Taylor, Graham K

    2014-03-01

    Dipteran flies are amongst the smallest and most agile of flying animals. Their wings are driven indirectly by large power muscles, which cause cyclical deformations of the thorax that are amplified through the intricate wing hinge. Asymmetric flight manoeuvres are controlled by 13 pairs of steering muscles acting directly on the wing articulations. Collectively the steering muscles account for flight muscle mass, raising the question of how they can modulate the vastly greater output of the power muscles during manoeuvres. Here we present the results of a synchrotron-based study performing micrometre-resolution, time-resolved microtomography on the 145 Hz wingbeat of blowflies. These data represent the first four-dimensional visualizations of an organism's internal movements on sub-millisecond and micrometre scales. This technique allows us to visualize and measure the three-dimensional movements of five of the largest steering muscles, and to place these in the context of the deforming thoracic mechanism that the muscles actuate. Our visualizations show that the steering muscles operate through a diverse range of nonlinear mechanisms, revealing several unexpected features that could not have been identified using any other technique. The tendons of some steering muscles buckle on every wingbeat to accommodate high amplitude movements of the wing hinge. Other steering muscles absorb kinetic energy from an oscillating control linkage, which rotates at low wingbeat amplitude but translates at high wingbeat amplitude. Kinetic energy is distributed differently in these two modes of oscillation, which may play a role in asymmetric power management during flight control. Structural flexibility is known to be important to the aerodynamic efficiency of insect wings, and to the function of their indirect power muscles. We show that it is integral also to the operation of the steering muscles, and so to the functional flexibility of the insect flight motor.

  4. Texture dependence of motion sensing and free flight behavior in blowflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Peter Lindemann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many flying insects exhibit an active flight and gaze strategy: Purely translational flight segments alternate with quick turns called saccades. To generate such a saccadic flight pattern, the animals decide the timing, direction, and amplitude of the next saccade during the previous translatory intersaccadic interval. The information underlying these decisions is assumed to be extracted from the retinal image displacements (optic flow, which scale with the distance to objects during the intersaccadic flight phases. In an earlier study we proposed a saccade-generation mechanism based on the responses of large-field motion sensitive neurons. In closed-loop simulations we achieved collision avoidance behavior in a limited set of environments but observed collisions in others. Here we show by open-loop simulations that the cause of this observation is the known texture-dependence of elementary motion detection in flies, reflected also in the responses of large-field neurons as used in our model. We verified by electrophysiological experiments that this result is not an artifact of the sensory model. Already subtle changes in the texture may lead to qualitative differences in the responses of both our model cells and their biological counterparts in the fly’s brain. Nonetheless, free flight behavior of blowflies is only moderately affected by such texture changes. This divergent texture dependence of motion sensitive neurons and behavioral performance suggests either mechanisms that compensate for the texture dependence of the visual motion pathway at the level of the circuits generating the saccadic turn decisions or the involvement of a hypothetical parallel pathway in saccadic control that provides the information for collision avoidance independent of the textural properties of the environment.

  5. The effect of the coupled oxidation of substrate on the permeability of blowfly flight-muscle mitochondria to potassium and other cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansford, R G; Lehninger, A L

    1972-02-01

    1. Blowfly flight-muscle mitochondria respiring in the absence of phosphate acceptor (i.e. in state 4) take up greater amounts of K(+), Na(+), choline, phosphate and Cl(-) (but less NH(4) (+)) than non-respiring control mitochondria. 2. Uptake of cations is accompanied by an increase in the volume of the mitochondrial matrix, determined with the use of [(14)C]-sucrose and (3)H(2)O. The osmolarity of the salt solution taken up was approximately that of the suspending medium. 3. The [(14)C]sucrose-inaccessible space decreased with increasing osmolarity of potassium chloride in the suspending medium, confirming that the blowfly mitochondrion behaves as an osmometer. 4. Light-scattering studies showed that both respiratory substrate and a permeant anion such as phosphate or acetate are required for rapid and massive entry of K(+), which occurs in an electrophoretic process rather than in exchange for H(+). The increase in permeability to K(+) and other cations is probably the result of a large increase in the exposed area of inner membrane surface in these mitochondria, with no intrinsic increase in the permeability per unit area. 5. No increase in permeability to K(+) and other cations occurs during phosphorylation of ADP in state 3 respiration.

  6. Application of genetic algorithm to control design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yoon Joon; Cho, Kyung Ho

    1995-01-01

    A classical PID controller is designed by applying the GA (Genetic Algorithm) which searches the optimal parameters through three major operators of reproduction, crossover and mutation under the given constraints. The GA could minimize the designer's interference and the whole design process could easily be automated. In contrast with other traditional PID design methods which allows for the system output responses only, the design with the GA can take account of the magnitude or the rate of change of control input together with the output responses, which reflects the more realistic situations. Compared with other PIDs designed by the traditional methods such as Ziegler and analytic, the PID by the GA shows the superior response characteristics to those of others with the least control input energy

  7. Calcium inhibition of the NAD+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase from blowfly flight muscle mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulos, B A; Thomas, B J; Sacktor, B

    1984-08-25

    Free Ca2+ was shown to inhibit the NAD+-isocitrate dehydrogenase from blowfly flight muscle mitochondria. Inhibition by free Ca2+ concentrations of 40 microM or greater was found in the absence or presence of ADP and citrate, two known activators of the enzyme. Calcium decreased the affinity of the enzyme for its substrate, the magnesium DL-isocitrate chelate; no change in the apparent V of the reaction was observed. Calcium was inhibitory when activity was measured in the presence of fixed concentrations of magnesium DL-isocitrate chelate in the presence of several fixed concentrations of either free isocitrate3-, an activator, or free Mg2+, an inhibitor of the enzyme. That NAD+-isocitrate dehydrogenase from blowfly flight muscle mitochondria was not activated by micromolar free Ca2+ is consistent with the view that calcium does not play a role in regulating the flux through the tricarboxylate cycle in this species.

  8. Blowfly Larval Tissues as a Secondary Detector for Determining Paraquat-Related Death in Rabbit Carcass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawai, Vannessa; Abdul Rahim, Nor Aliza; Ngaini, Zainab

    2015-11-01

    Paraquat poisoning is commonly associated with suicide or homicide in Malaysia. In a case involving advanced body decomposition, pathological analysis regarding the cause of death may become difficult or almost impossible. Insects serve as common alternative matrix for poison detection in forensic analysis. Paraquat detection via secondary bioaccumulation in fly larvae tissue has never been reported. In this study, tissues from blowfly larvae collected from a rabbit carcass with paraquat poisoning were analyzed for secondary bioaccumulation. Larvae samples were collected and analyzed using liquid-liquid extraction. The detection was performed via reduction of quaternary ammonium presence in paraquat and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with selected ion monitoring mode (SIM mode). GC-MS showed the elution of reduced paraquat was at retention time 12.8 min. Blowfly larvae tissue has proven useful as a secondary detector in paraquat-related deaths. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Genetic control of Drosophila nerve cord development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeath, James B.; Thor, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    The Drosophila ventral nerve cord has been a central model system for studying the molecular genetic mechanisms that control CNS development. Studies show that the generation of neural diversity is a multistep process initiated by the patterning and segmentation of the neuroectoderm. These events act together with the process of lateral inhibition to generate precursor cells (neuroblasts) with specific identities, distinguished by the expression of unique combinations of regulatory genes. The expression of these genes in a given neuroblast restricts the fate of its progeny, by activating specific combinations of downstream genes. These genes in turn specify the identity of any given postmitotic cell, which is evident by its cellular morphology and choice of neurotransmitter.

  10. Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm applied to dengue control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florentino, Helenice O; Cantane, Daniela R; Santos, Fernando L P; Bannwart, Bettina F

    2014-12-01

    Dengue fever is an infectious disease caused by a virus of the Flaviridae family and transmitted to the person by a mosquito of the genus Aedes aegypti. This disease has been a global public health problem because a single mosquito can infect up to 300 people and between 50 and 100 million people are infected annually on all continents. Thus, dengue fever is currently a subject of research, whether in the search for vaccines and treatments for the disease or efficient and economical forms of mosquito control. The current study aims to study techniques of multiobjective optimization to assist in solving problems involving the control of the mosquito that transmits dengue fever. The population dynamics of the mosquito is studied in order to understand the epidemic phenomenon and suggest strategies of multiobjective programming for mosquito control. A Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm (MGA_DENGUE) is proposed to solve the optimization model treated here and we discuss the computational results obtained from the application of this technique. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetic Control of Mosquitoes: population suppression strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Barretto Bruno Wilke

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, morbidity and mortality from malaria and dengue fever among other pathogens are an increasing Public Health problem. The increase in the geographic distribution of vectors is accompanied by the emergence of viruses and diseases in new areas. There are insufficient specific therapeutic drugs available and there are no reliable vaccines for malaria or dengue, although some progress has been achieved, there is still a long way between its development and actual field use. Most mosquito control measures have failed to achieve their goals, mostly because of the mosquito's great reproductive capacity and genomic flexibility. Chemical control is increasingly restricted due to potential human toxicity, mortality in no target organisms, insecticide resistance, and other environmental impacts. Other strategies for mosquito control are desperately needed. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT is a species-specific and environmentally benign method for insect population suppression, it is based on mass rearing, radiation mediated sterilization, and release of a large number of male insects. Releasing of Insects carrying a dominant lethal gene (RIDL offers a solution to many of the drawbacks of traditional SIT that have limited its application in mosquitoes while maintaining its environmentally friendly and species-specific utility. The self-limiting nature of sterile mosquitoes tends to make the issues related to field use of these somewhat less challenging than for self-spreading systems characteristic of population replacement strategies. They also are closer to field use, so might be appropriate to consider first. The prospect of genetic control methods against mosquito vectored human diseases is rapidly becoming a reality, many decisions will need to be made on a national, regional and international level regarding the biosafety, social, cultural and ethical aspects of the use and deployment of these vector control methods.

  12. Regulation of pyruvate oxidation in blowfly flight muscle mitochondria: requirement for ADP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulos, B A; Thomas, B J; Shukla, S P; Sacktor, B

    1984-11-01

    Blowfly (Phormia regina) flight muscle mitochondria oxidized pyruvate ( + proline) in the presence of either ADP (coupled respiration) or carbonylcyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP-uncoupled respiration). There was an absolute requirement for ADP (Km = 8.0 microM) when pyruvate oxidation was stimulated by FCCP in the presence of oligomycin. This requirement for ADP was limited to the oxidation of pyruvate; uncoupled alpha-glycerolphosphate oxidation proceeded maximally even in the absence of added ADP. Atractylate inhibited uncoupled pyruvate oxidation whether added before (greater than 99%) or after (95%) initiation of respiration with FCCP. In the presence of FCCP, oligomycin, and limiting concentrations of ADP (less than 110 microM), there was a shutoff in the uptake of oxygen. This inhibition of respiration was completely reversed by the addition of more ADP. Plots of net oxygen uptake as a function of the limiting ADP concentration were linear; the observed ADP/O ratio was 0.22 +/- 0.025. An ADP/O ratio of 0.2 was predicted if phosphorylation occurred only at the succinyl-CoA synthetase step of the tricarboxylate cycle. Experiments performed in the presence of limiting concentrations of ADP, and designed to monitor changes in the mitochondrial content of ADP and ATP, demonstrated that the shutoff in oxygen uptake was not due to the presence of a high intramitochondrial concentration of ATP. Indeed, ATP, added to the medium prior to the addition of FCCP, inhibited uncoupled pyruvate oxidation; the apparent KI was 0.8 mM. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that it is the intramitochondrial ATP/ADP ratio that is one of the controlling factors in determining the rate of flux through the tricarboxylate cycle. Changes in the mitochondrial content of citrate, isocitrate, alpha-ketoglutarate, and malate during uncoupled pyruvate oxidation in the presence of a limiting concentration of ADP were consistent with the hypothesis that the

  13. Genetic noise control via protein oligomerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghim, C; Almaas, E

    2008-06-12

    Gene expression in a cell entails random reaction events occurring over disparate time scales. Thus, molecular noise that often results in phenotypic and population-dynamic consequences sets a fundamental limit to biochemical signaling. While there have been numerous studies correlating the architecture of cellular reaction networks with noise tolerance, only a limited effort has been made to understand the dynamical role of protein-protein associations. We have developed a fully stochastic model for the positive feedback control of a single gene, as well as a pair of genes (toggle switch), integrating quantitative results from previous in vivo and in vitro studies. In particular, we explicitly account for the fast protein binding-unbinding kinetics, RNA polymerases, and the promoter/operator sequences of DNA. We find that the overall noise-level is reduced and the frequency content of the noise is dramatically shifted to the physiologically irrelevant high-frequency regime in the presence of protein dimerization. This is independent of the choice of monomer or dimer as transcription factor and persists throughout the multiple model topologies considered. For the toggle switch, we additionally find that the presence of a protein dimer, either homodimer or heterodimer, may significantly reduce its intrinsic switching rate. Hence, the dimer promotes the robust function of bistable switches by preventing the uninduced (induced) state from randomly being induced (uninduced). The specific binding between regulatory proteins provides a buffer that may prevent the propagation of fluctuations in genetic activity. The capacity of the buffer is a non-monotonic function of association-dissociation rates. Since the protein oligomerization per se does not require extra protein components to be expressed, it provides a basis for the rapid control of intrinsic or extrinsic noise. The stabilization of phenotypically important toggle switches, and nested positive feedback loops in

  14. Genetic control of biennial bearing in apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitton, Baptiste; Kelner, Jean-Jacques; Velasco, Riccardo; Gardiner, Susan E.; Chagné, David; Costes, Evelyne

    2012-01-01

    Although flowering in mature fruit trees is recurrent, floral induction can be strongly inhibited by concurrent fruiting, leading to a pattern of irregular fruiting across consecutive years referred to as biennial bearing. The genetic determinants of biennial bearing in apple were investigated using the 114 flowering individuals from an F1 population of 122 genotypes, from a ‘Starkrimson’ (strong biennial bearer)בGranny Smith’ (regular bearer) cross. The number of inflorescences, and the number and the mass of harvested fruit were recorded over 6 years and used to calculate 26 variables and indices quantifying yield, precocity of production, and biennial bearing. Inflorescence traits exhibited the highest genotypic effect, and three quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on linkage group (LG) 4, LG8, and LG10 explained 50% of the phenotypic variability for biennial bearing. Apple orthologues of flowering and hormone-related genes were retrieved from the whole-genome assembly of ‘Golden Delicious’ and their position was compared with QTLs. Four main genomic regions that contain floral integrator genes, meristem identity genes, and gibberellin oxidase genes co-located with QTLs. The results indicated that flowering genes are less likely to be responsible for biennial bearing than hormone-related genes. New hypotheses for the control of biennial bearing emerged from QTL and candidate gene co-locations and suggest the involvement of different physiological processes such as the regulation of flowering genes by hormones. The correlation between tree architecture and biennial bearing is also discussed. PMID:21963613

  15. Genetic noise control via protein oligomerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almaas Eivind

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression in a cell entails random reaction events occurring over disparate time scales. Thus, molecular noise that often results in phenotypic and population-dynamic consequences sets a fundamental limit to biochemical signaling. While there have been numerous studies correlating the architecture of cellular reaction networks with noise tolerance, only a limited effort has been made to understand the dynamic role of protein-protein interactions. Results We have developed a fully stochastic model for the positive feedback control of a single gene, as well as a pair of genes (toggle switch, integrating quantitative results from previous in vivo and in vitro studies. In particular, we explicitly account for the fast binding-unbinding kinetics among proteins, RNA polymerases, and the promoter/operator sequences of DNA. We find that the overall noise-level is reduced and the frequency content of the noise is dramatically shifted to the physiologically irrelevant high-frequency regime in the presence of protein dimerization. This is independent of the choice of monomer or dimer as transcription factor and persists throughout the multiple model topologies considered. For the toggle switch, we additionally find that the presence of a protein dimer, either homodimer or heterodimer, may significantly reduce its random switching rate. Hence, the dimer promotes the robust function of bistable switches by preventing the uninduced (induced state from randomly being induced (uninduced. Conclusion The specific binding between regulatory proteins provides a buffer that may prevent the propagation of fluctuations in genetic activity. The capacity of the buffer is a non-monotonic function of association-dissociation rates. Since the protein oligomerization per se does not require extra protein components to be expressed, it provides a basis for the rapid control of intrinsic or extrinsic noise. The stabilization of regulatory circuits

  16. Nutritional ecology of blowflies (Diptera, Calliphoridae: estimates of critical larval weight for pupation on two different

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio da Silva Ribeiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Under natural environmental conditions, blowflies utilize discrete and ephemeral feeding resources such as decaying carcasses. Competition for food on such feeding substrates is usually very severe, and only the individuals that are capable of attaining the critical larval weight for pupation will be able to survive. This critical weight is hitherto unknown for several blowfly species; therefore, the current work is aimed at obtaining such a critical value for four blowfly species of the genera Chrysomya and Lucilia, deploying two types of feeding substrate, namely, artificial diet and macerated bovine meat. On the whole, the critical weights ranged from 30 to 35 mg. The lowest larval weight which permitted pupation was 30.0 mg for Chrysomya megacephala reared on macerated bovine meat. This species was also the best adapted to pupation at low larval weights in relation to the maximum larval weight for males. Regarding the pupation of females, the best-adapted individual was a C. albiceps specimen exhibiting a critical weight that was equal to 39.20 % of the maximum value obtained. Concerning all the species and diet types, the female individuals exhibited the lowest critical weights that produced viable pupae, probably representing an evolutionary strategy that favoured the survival of females, responsible for the egg formation, contributing to the establishment of future generations. Regarding the loss (in percentage of adult biomass in relation to the third instar larvae, the females of C. megacephala lost less weight than males in both feeding substrates. On the other hand, such a loss of weight occurred in males of C. albiceps and L. cuprina.

  17. Genetic resistance - an alternative for controlling PRRS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Reiner

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract PRRS is one of the most challenging diseases for world-wide pig production. Attempts for a sustainable control of this scourge by vaccination have not yet fully satisfied. With an increasing knowledge and methodology in disease resistance, a new world-wide endeavour has been started to support the combat of animal diseases, based on the existence of valuable gene variants with regard to any host-pathogen interaction. Several groups have produced a wealth of evidence for natural variability in resistance/susceptibility to PRRS in our commercial breeding lines. However, up to now, exploiting existing variation has failed because of the difficulty to detect the carriers of favourable and unfavourable alleles, especially with regard to such complex polygenic traits like resistance to PRRS. New hope comes from new genomic tools like next generation sequencing which have become extremely fast and low priced. Thus, research is booming world-wide and the jigsaw puzzle is filling up – slowly but steadily. On the other hand, knowledge from virological and biomedical basic research has opened the way for an “intervening way”, i.e. the modification of identified key genes that occupy key positions in PRRS pathogenesis, like CD163. CD163 was identified as the striking receptor in PRRSV entry and its knockout from the genome by gene editing has led to the production of pigs that were completely resistant to PRRSV – a milestone in modern pig breeding. However, at this early step, concerns remain about the acceptance of societies for gene edited products and regulation still awaits upgrading to the new technology. Further questions arise with regard to upcoming patents from an ethical and legal point of view. Eventually, the importance of CD163 for homeostasis, defence and immunity demands for more insight before its complete or partial silencing can be answered. Whatever path will be followed, even a partial abolishment of PRRSV replication

  18. Representation of behaviourally relevant information by blowfly motion-sensitive visual interneurons requires precise compensatory head movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, R.; Hateren, J.H. van; Egelhaaf, M.

    2006-01-01

    Flying blowflies shift their gaze by saccadic turns of body and head, keeping their gaze basically fixed between saccades. For the head, this results in almost pure translational optic flow between saccades, enabling visual interneurons in the fly motion pathway to extract information about

  19. Na+/K(+)pump activity in photoreceptors of the blowfly Calliphora : A model analysis based on membrane potential measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerster, U; Stavenga, DG; Backhaus, W

    Na+/K+-pump activity and intracellular Na+ and K+ concentration changes in blowfly photoreceptors are derived from intracellular potential measurements in vivo with a model based on the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz theory for membrane currents. The relation between the intracellular Na+ concentration and

  20. FAST TEMPORAL ADAPTATION OF ON-OFF UNITS IN THE 1ST OPTIC CHIASM OF THE BLOWFLY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JANSONIUS, NM; VANHATEREN, JH

    1991-01-01

    1. We recorded from spiking units in the first optic chiasm between lamina and medulla in the brain of the blowfly (Calliphora vicina). Both previously characterized neuron types, on-off units and sustaining units, were encountered. On-off units had a temporal frequency response with a lower cut-off

  1. Utility of Multi-Gene Loci for Forensic Species Diagnosis of Blowflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Farrah; Wei, Shu-jun; Shi, Min; Chen, Xue-xin

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary studies in forensic entomology exhaustively evaluate gene sequences because these constitute the fastest and most accurate method of species identification. For this purpose single gene segments, cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) in particular, are commonly used. However, the limitation of such sequences in identification, especially of closely related species and populations, demand a multi-gene approach. But this raises the question of which group of genes can best fulfill the identification task? In this context the utility of five gene segments was explored among blowfly species from two distinct geographic regions, China and Pakistan. COI, cytochrome b (CYTB), NADH dehydrogenase 5 (ND5), nuclear internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2), were sequenced for eight blowfly species including Chrysomya megacephala F. (Diptera: Calliphoidae), Ch. pinguis Walker, Lucilia sericata Meigen L. porphyrina Walker, L. illustris Meigen Hemipyrellia ligurriens Wiedemann, Aldrichina grahami Aldrich, and the housefly, Musca domestica L. (Muscidae), from Hangzhou, China; while COI, CYTB, and ITS2 were sequenced for four species, i.e. Ch. megacephala, Ch. rufifacies, L. cuprina, and the flesh fly, Sarcophaga albiceps Meigen (Sarcophagidae), from Dera Ismail Khan Pakistan. The results demonstrate a universal utility of these gene segments in the molecular identification of flies of forensic importance. PMID:21864153

  2. Blowfly puparia in a hermetic container: survival under decreasing oxygen conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mądra-Bielewicz, Anna; Frątczak-Łagiewska, Katarzyna; Matuszewski, Szymon

    2017-09-01

    Despite widely accepted standards for sampling and preservation of insect evidence, unrepresentative samples or improperly preserved evidence are encountered frequently in forensic investigations. Here, we report the results of laboratory studies on the survival of Lucilia sericata and Calliphora vomitoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae) intra-puparial forms in hermetic containers, which were stimulated by a recent case. It is demonstrated that the survival of blowfly intra-puparial forms inside airtight containers is dependent on container volume, number of puparia inside, and their age. The survival in both species was found to increase with an increase in the volume of air per 1 mg of puparium per day of development in a hermetic container. Below 0.05 ml of air, no insect survived, and above 0.2 ml of air per 1 mg of puparium per day, survival reached its maximum. These results suggest that blowflies reveal a single, general pattern of survival under decreasing oxygen conditions and that this pattern is a product of number of developing insects, their age and the initial amount of available air. Implications for forensic entomology are discussed.

  3. Robust reactor power control system design by genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yoon Joon; Cho, Kyung Ho; Kim, Sin [Cheju National University, Cheju (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The H{sub {infinity}} robust controller for the reactor power control system is designed by use of the mixed weight sensitivity. The system is configured into the typical two-port model with which the weight functions are augmented. Since the solution depends on the weighting functions and the problem is of nonconvex, the genetic algorithm is used to determine the weighting functions. The cost function applied in the genetic algorithm permits the direct control of the power tracking performances. In addition, the actual operating constraints such as rod velocity and acceleration can be treated as design parameters. Compared with the conventional approach, the controller designed by the genetic algorithm results in the better performances with the realistic constraints. Also, it is found that the genetic algorithm could be used as an effective tool in the robust design. 4 refs., 6 figs. (Author)

  4. The utility of mitochondrial DNA sequences for the identification of forensically important blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in southeastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallman, J F; Donnellan, S C

    2001-08-15

    The applicability of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing was investigated for the identification of the following forensically important species of blowflies from southeastern Australia: Calliphora albifrontalis, C. augur, C. dubia, C. hilli hilli, C. maritima, C. stygia, C. vicina, Chrysomya rufifacies, Ch. varipes and Onesia tibialis. All breed in carrion except O. tibialis, which is an earthworm parasitoid. Emphasis was placed on Calliphora species because they predominate among the carrion-breeding blowfly fauna of southern Australia and their immatures are difficult to identify morphologically. A partial sequence of the mitochondrial COII gene was determined for all species and for COI for C. albifrontalis, C. augur, C. dubia and C. stygia only. Five other species of blowflies, Chrysomya albiceps, Ch. rufifacies, Protophormia terraenovae, Lucilia illustris and L. sericata, for which sequence data were already available, were also included. Analysis of the COI and COII sequences revealed abundant phylogenetically informative nucleotide substitutions that could identify blowfly species to species group. In contrast, because of the low level of sequence divergence of sister species, the data could not distinguish among taxa from the same species group, i.e. the species within the C. augur and C. stygia groups. The molecular data support the existing species group separation of the taxa within Calliphora. Because of the speed and accuracy of current nucleotide sequencing technology and the abundant apomorphic substitutions available from mtDNA sequences, this approach, with the analysis of additional taxa and genes, is likely to enable the reliable identification of carrion-breeding blowflies in Australia.

  5. Tuning of active vibration controllers for ACTEX by genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Moon K.; Denoyer, Keith K.

    1999-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the optimal tuning of digitally programmable analog controllers on the ACTEX-1 smart structures flight experiment. The programmable controllers for each channel include a third order Strain Rate Feedback (SRF) controller, a fifth order SRF controller, a second order Positive Position Feedback (PPF) controller, and a fourth order PPF controller. Optimal manual tuning of several control parameters can be a difficult task even though the closed-loop control characteristics of each controller are well known. Hence, the automatic tuning of individual control parameters using Genetic Algorithms is proposed in this paper. The optimal control parameters of each control law are obtained by imposing a constraint on the closed-loop frequency response functions using the ACTEX mathematical model. The tuned control parameters are then uploaded to the ACTEX electronic control electronics and experiments on the active vibration control are carried out in space. The experimental results on ACTEX will be presented.

  6. Geochemical, Genetic, and Community Controls on Mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Judy D.

    2014-11-10

    The sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are soil bacteria that share two common characteristics, strict anaerobiosis and the ability to respire sulfate. The metabolic activities of these bacteria play significant roles in the global sulfur cycle, anaerobic degradation of biomass, biological metal corrosion in the environment and, recently, degradation of toxic compounds. The accumulation of evidence suggests these bacteria are also key to the production of the neurotoxin methylmercury in environmental settings. We propose to use our experience with the development of genetics in sulfate-reducing bacteria of the genus Desulfovibrio to create mutations that will eliminate the methylation of mercury, thereby identifying the genes essential for this process. This information may allow the environmental monitoring of the mercury methylation potential to learn the location and quantity of the production this toxin. From these data, more accurate predictive models of mercury cycling can be generated.

  7. Genetic control of heterochrony in Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Corey J; Freeman, Jules S; Jones, Rebecca C; Potts, Brad M; Wong, Melissa M L; Weller, James L; Hecht, Valérie F G; Poethig, R Scott; Vaillancourt, René E

    2014-05-08

    A change in the timing or rate of developmental events throughout ontogeny is referred to as heterochrony, and it is a major evolutionary process in plants and animals. We investigated the genetic basis for natural variation in the timing of vegetative phase change in the tree Eucalyptus globulus, which undergoes a dramatic change in vegetative morphology during the juvenile-to-adult transition. Quantitative trait loci analysis in an outcross F2 family derived from crosses between individuals from a coastal population of E. globulus with precocious vegetative phase change and individuals from populations in which vegetative phase change occurs several years later implicated the microRNA EglMIR156.5 as a potential contributor to this heterochronic difference. Additional evidence for the involvement of EglMIR156.5 was provided by its differential expression in trees with early and late phase change. Our findings suggest that changes in the expression of miR156 underlie natural variation in vegetative phase change in E. globulus, and may also explain interspecific differences in the timing of this developmental transition. Copyright © 2014 Hudson et al.

  8. Genetic control of flowering time in rice: integration of Mendelian genetics and genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Kiyosumi; Matsubara, Kazuki; Yano, Masahiro

    2016-12-01

    Integration of previous Mendelian genetic analyses and recent molecular genomics approaches, such as linkage mapping and QTL cloning, dramatically strengthened our current understanding of genetic control of rice flowering time. Flowering time is one of the most important agronomic traits for seed production in rice (Oryza sativa L.). It is controlled mainly by genes associated with photoperiod sensitivity, particularly in short-day plants such as rice. Since the early twentieth century, rice breeders and researchers have been interested in elucidating the genetic basis of flowering time because its modification is important for regional adaptation and yield optimization. Although flowering time is a complex trait controlled by many quantitative trait loci (QTLs), classical genetic studies have shown that many associated genes are inherited in accordance with Mendelian laws. Decoding the rice genome sequence opened a new era in understanding the genetic control of flowering time on the basis of genome-wide mapping and gene cloning. Heading date 1 (Hd1) was the first flowering time QTL to be isolated using natural variation in rice. Recent accumulation of information on rice genome has facilitated the cloning of other QTLs, including those with minor effects on flowering time. This information has allowed us to rediscover some of the flowering genes that were identified by classical Mendelian genetics. The genes characterized so far, including Hd1, have been assigned to specific photoperiod pathways. In this review, we provide an overview of the studies that led to an in-depth understanding of the genetic control of flowering time in rice, and of the current state of improving and fine-tuning this trait for rice breeding.

  9. Adaptive Process Control with Fuzzy Logic and Genetic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    Researchers at the U.S. Bureau of Mines have developed adaptive process control systems in which genetic algorithms (GA's) are used to augment fuzzy logic controllers (FLC's). GA's are search algorithms that rapidly locate near-optimum solutions to a wide spectrum of problems by modeling the search procedures of natural genetics. FLC's are rule based systems that efficiently manipulate a problem environment by modeling the 'rule-of-thumb' strategy used in human decision-making. Together, GA's and FLC's possess the capabilities necessary to produce powerful, efficient, and robust adaptive control systems. To perform efficiently, such control systems require a control element to manipulate the problem environment, an analysis element to recognize changes in the problem environment, and a learning element to adjust to the changes in the problem environment. Details of an overall adaptive control system are discussed. A specific laboratory acid-base pH system is used to demonstrate the ideas presented.

  10. Adaptive process control using fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    Researchers at the U.S. Bureau of Mines have developed adaptive process control systems in which genetic algorithms (GA's) are used to augment fuzzy logic controllers (FLC's). GA's are search algorithms that rapidly locate near-optimum solutions to a wide spectrum of problems by modeling the search procedures of natural genetics. FLC's are rule based systems that efficiently manipulate a problem environment by modeling the 'rule-of-thumb' strategy used in human decision making. Together, GA's and FLC's possess the capabilities necessary to produce powerful, efficient, and robust adaptive control systems. To perform efficiently, such control systems require a control element to manipulate the problem environment, and a learning element to adjust to the changes in the problem environment. Details of an overall adaptive control system are discussed. A specific laboratory acid-base pH system is used to demonstrate the ideas presented.

  11. Genetic control of cuticular wax compounds in Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosney, Benjamin J; Potts, Brad M; O'Reilly-Wapstra, Julianne M; Vaillancourt, René E; Fitzgerald, Hugh; Davies, Noel W; Freeman, Jules S

    2016-01-01

    Plant cuticular wax compounds perform functions that are essential for the survival of terrestrial plants. Despite their importance, the genetic control of these compounds is poorly understood outside of model taxa. Here we investigate the genetic basis of variation in cuticular compounds in Eucalyptus globulus using quantitative genetic and quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses. Quantitative genetic analysis was conducted using 246 open-pollinated progeny from 13 native sub-races throughout the geographic range. QTL analysis was conducted using 112 clonally replicated progeny from an outcross F2 population. Nine compounds exhibited significant genetic variation among sub-races with three exhibiting signals of diversifying selection. Fifty-two QTL were found with co-location of QTL for related compounds commonly observed. Notable among these was the QTL for five wax esters, which co-located with a gene from the KCS family, previously implicated in the biosynthesis of cuticular waxes in Arabidopsis. In combination, the QTL and quantitative genetic analyses suggest the variation and differentiation in cuticular wax compounds within E. globulus has a complex genetic origin. Sub-races exhibited independent latitudinal and longitudinal differentiation in cuticular wax compounds, likely reflecting processes such as historic gene flow and diversifying selection acting upon genes that have diverse functions in distinct biochemical pathways. © 2015 University of Tasmania New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Reflectance-based determination of age and species of blowfly puparia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Sasha C; Magni, Paola; Dadour, Ian; Nansen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Forensic entomology is primarily concerned with the estimation of time since death and involves determination of the age of immature insects colonising decomposing remains. Accurate age determination of puparia is usually accomplished by dissection, which means destructive sampling of evidence. As part of improving abilities to correctly identify species and developmental age, it is highly desirable to have available non-destructive methods. In this study, we acquired external hyperspectral imaging (HSI) data (77 spectral bands, 389-892 nm) from the dorsal and ventral sides of individual puparia of two species of blowfly (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Calliphora dubia Macquart 1855 and Chrysomya rufifacies Macquart 1842. Puparia were dissected to determine the presence/absence of eight internal morphological development characteristics (legs, wings, labella, abdominal segments, antennae, thoracic bristles, orbital/facial bristles and eye colour and arista). Based on linear discriminant analysis and independent validation of HSI data, reflectance features from puparia could be used to successfully (1) distinguish the two species (classification accuracy = 92.5 %), (2) differentiate dorsal and ventral sides of puparia (classification accuracy C. dubia = 81.5 %; Ch. rufifacies = 89.2 %) and (3) predict the presence of these morphological characteristics and therefore the developmental stage of puparia (average classification accuracy using dorsal imaging: C. dubia = 90.3 %; Ch. rufifacies = 94.0 %). The analytical approach presented here provides proof of concept for a direct puparial age relationship (i.e. days since the onset of pupation) between external puparial reflectance features and internal morphological development. Furthermore, this approach establishes the potential for further refinement by using a non-invasive technique to determine the age and developmental stage of blowflies of forensic importance.

  13. Environmental Control Of A Genetic Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Chaitan; Bailey, James E.

    1991-01-01

    E. coli bacteria altered to contain DNA sequence encoding production of hemoglobin made to produce hemoglobin at rates decreasing with increases in concentration of oxygen in culture media. Represents amplification of part of method described in "Cloned Hemoglobin Genes Enhance Growth Of Cells" (NPO-17517). Manipulation of promoter/regulator DNA sequences opens promising new subfield of recombinant-DNA technology for environmental control of expression of selected DNA sequences. New recombinant-DNA fusion gene products, expression vectors, and nucleotide-base sequences will emerge. Likely applications include such aerobic processes as manufacture of cloned proteins and synthesis of metabolites, production of chemicals by fermentation, enzymatic degradation, treatment of wastes, brewing, and variety of oxidative chemical reactions.

  14. [Effect of different baits as attractant for blowflies (Diptera) at Valonguinho, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Almeida, José M; Fraga, Mariana B

    2007-01-01

    It was carried out a survey of blowflies in an area of the Campus (Valonguinho) of the Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. The collections were performed with traps, using baits of fish (sardine), bovine liver, shrimps and banana. Were collected 6015 flies, Chrysomya megacephala and Lucilia eximia were the most frequent (50.55% and 21.52%, respectively). The flies were more abundant in February and March and the most attractive bait was fish (38.32%).

  15. Genetic test feedback with weight control advice: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meisel Susanne F

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic testing for risk of weight gain is already available over the internet despite uncertain benefits and concerns about adverse emotional or behavioral effects. Few studies have assessed the effect of adding genetic test feedback to weight control advice, even though one of the proposed applications of genetic testing is to stimulate preventive action. This study will investigate the motivational effect of adding genetic test feedback to simple weight control advice in a situation where weight gain is relatively common. Methods/design First-year university students (n = 800 will be randomized to receive either 1 their personal genetic test result for a gene (FTO related to weight gain susceptibility in addition to a leaflet with simple weight control advice (‘Feedback + Advice’ group, FA, or 2 only the leaflet containing simple weight control advice (‘Advice Only’ group, AO. Motivation to avoid weight gain and active use of weight control strategies will be assessed one month after receipt of the leaflet with or without genetic test feedback. Weight and body fat will be measured at baseline and eight months follow-up. We will also assess short-term psychological reactions to the genetic test result. In addition, we will explore interactions between feedback condition and gene test status. Discussion We hope to provide a first indication of the clinical utility of weight-related genetic test feedback in the prevention context. Trial registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN91178663

  16. Physiology and genetics of metabolic flux control in Zymomonas mobilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, T.

    1992-01-01

    This work seeks to understand the role of gene expression in regulating glycolytic enzyme synthesis in a balance that allows proper glycoltic flux control. The seven genes targeted for study in this laboratory have been cloned and sequenced, and molecular details of regulation have been investigated. Clear that glycolytic enzyme synthesis is coordinated to prevent the build up of toxic metabolic intermediates. The genetic mechanisms responsible for regulating balanced expression of the EntnerDoudoroff and glycolytic genes in Z. mobilis are beginning to be understood. Several layers of genetic control, perhaps in a hierarchal arrangement act in concert to determine the relative abundance of the glycolytic enzymes. These genetic controls involve differential translational efficiency, highly conserved promoter sequences, transcription factors, differential mRNA stabilities, and nucleolytic mRNA processing. The serendipitous cloning of the glucose facilitator, glf, as a result of linkage to several other genes of interest will have a significant impact on the study of Z. mobilis metabolism. The glucose facilitator is being characterized in a genetically reconstituted system in E. coli. Molecular genetic studies indicate that the ratio of glf expression to that of glk, zmf, and edd is carefully regulated, and suggests a critical role in metabolic control. Regulation of glycolytic gene expression is now sufficiently well understood to allow use of the glycolytic genes as tools to manipulate specified enzyme levels for the purpose of analyzing metabolic flux control. The critical genes have been subcloned for stable expression in Z. mobilis and placed under control of a regulated promoter system involving the tac promoter, the lacI repressor, and gene induction in by IPTG. HPLC methods have been developed that allow quantitation of virtually all of the metabolic intermediates in the cell pool.

  17. Design of PID Controller Simulator based on Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahri VATANSEVER

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available PID (Proportional Integral and Derivative controllers take an important place in the field of system controlling. Various methods such as Ziegler-Nichols, Cohen-Coon, Chien Hrones Reswick (CHR and Wang-Juang-Chan are available for the design of such controllers benefiting from the system time and frequency domain data. These controllers are in compliance with system properties under certain criteria suitable to the system. Genetic algorithms have become widely used in control system applications in parallel to the advances in the field of computer and artificial intelligence. In this study, PID controller designs have been carried out by means of classical methods and genetic algorithms and comparative results have been analyzed. For this purpose, a graphical user interface program which can be used for educational purpose has been developed. For the definite (entered transfer functions, the suitable P, PI and PID controller coefficients have calculated by both classical methods and genetic algorithms and many parameters and responses of the systems have been compared and presented numerically and graphically

  18. Rhizobial exopolysaccharides: genetic control and symbiotic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazur Andrzej

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Specific complex interactions between soil bacteria belonging to Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Phylorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium and Azorhizobium commonly known as rhizobia, and their host leguminous plants result in development of root nodules. Nodules are new organs that consist mainly of plant cells infected with bacteroids that provide the host plant with fixed nitrogen. Proper nodule development requires the synthesis and perception of signal molecules such as lipochitooligosaccharides, called Nod factors that are important for induction of nodule development. Bacterial surface polysaccharides are also crucial for establishment of successful symbiosis with legumes. Sugar polymers of rhizobia are composed of a number of different polysaccharides, such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS, capsular polysaccharides (CPS or K-antigens, neutral β-1, 2-glucans and acidic extracellular polysaccharides (EPS. Despite extensive research, the molecular function of the surface polysaccharides in symbiosis remains unclear. This review focuses on exopolysaccharides that are especially important for the invasion that leads to formation of indetermined (with persistent meristem type of nodules on legumes such as clover, vetch, peas or alfalfa. The significance of EPS synthesis in symbiotic interactions of Rhizobium leguminosarum with clover is especially noticed. Accumulating data suggest that exopolysaccharides may be involved in invasion and nodule development, bacterial release from infection threads, bacteroid development, suppression of plant defense response and protection against plant antimicrobial compounds. Rhizobial exopolysaccharides are species-specific heteropolysaccharide polymers composed of common sugars that are substituted with non-carbohydrate residues. Synthesis of repeating units of exopolysaccharide, their modification, polymerization and export to the cell surface is controlled by clusters of genes, named exo/exs, exp or

  19. System control fuzzy neural sewage pumping stations using genetic algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владлен Николаевич Кузнецов

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is considered the system of management of sewage pumping station with regulators based on a neuron network with fuzzy logic. Linguistic rules for the controller based on fuzzy logic, maintaining the level of effluent in the receiving tank within the prescribed limits are developed. The use of genetic algorithms for neuron network training is shown.

  20. Genetic improvement of tomato by targeted control of fruit softening

    KAUST Repository

    Uluisik, Selman

    2016-07-25

    Controlling the rate of softening to extend shelf life was a key target for researchers engineering genetically modified (GM) tomatoes in the 1990s, but only modest improvements were achieved. Hybrids grown nowadays contain \\'non-ripening mutations\\' that slow ripening and improve shelf life, but adversely affect flavor and color. We report substantial, targeted control of tomato softening, without affecting other aspects of ripening, by silencing a gene encoding a pectate lyase. © 2016 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantum control using genetic algorithms in quantum communication: superdense coding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domínguez-Serna, Francisco; Rojas, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    We present a physical example model of how Quantum Control with genetic algorithms is applied to implement the quantum superdense code protocol. We studied a model consisting of two quantum dots with an electron with spin, including spin-orbit interaction. The electron and the spin get hybridized with the site acquiring two degrees of freedom, spin and charge. The system has tunneling and site energies as time dependent control parameters that are optimized by means of genetic algorithms to prepare a hybrid Bell-like state used as a transmission channel. This state is transformed to obtain any state of the four Bell basis as required by superdense protocol to transmit two bits of classical information. The control process protocol is equivalent to implement one of the quantum gates in the charge subsystem. Fidelities larger than 99.5% are achieved for the hybrid entangled state preparation and the superdense operations. (paper)

  2. Genetic control of organ shape and tissue polarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia A Green

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which genes control organ shape are poorly understood. In principle, genes may control shape by modifying local rates and/or orientations of deformation. Distinguishing between these possibilities has been difficult because of interactions between patterns, orientations, and mechanical constraints during growth. Here we show how a combination of growth analysis, molecular genetics, and modelling can be used to dissect the factors contributing to shape. Using the Snapdragon (Antirrhinum flower as an example, we show how shape development reflects local rates and orientations of tissue growth that vary spatially and temporally to form a dynamic growth field. This growth field is under the control of several dorsoventral genes that influence flower shape. The action of these genes can be modelled by assuming they modulate specified growth rates parallel or perpendicular to local orientations, established by a few key organisers of tissue polarity. Models in which dorsoventral genes only influence specified growth rates do not fully account for the observed growth fields and shapes. However, the data can be readily explained by a model in which dorsoventral genes also modify organisers of tissue polarity. In particular, genetic control of tissue polarity organisers at ventral petal junctions and distal boundaries allows both the shape and growth field of the flower to be accounted for in wild type and mutants. The results suggest that genetic control of tissue polarity organisers has played a key role in the development and evolution of shape.

  3. Illusions of controlling the future: Risk and genetic inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkler, Kaja

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the implications of current beliefs that human beings can control the risk of inheriting a genetic disease and influence their present and future health. To accomplish this goal, materials will be drawn from disparate literatures bearing on concepts of probability, risk and genetic inheritance, and on empirical data gathered on cancer survivors and healthy persons with a family history of cancer. The concept of risk has been theorised on a grand scale but, as Lupton (1999, Introduction, Risk and Sociological Theory , Cambridge University Press) correctly observes, there has been very little empirical work done on how people experience risk as part of their lived world. In this paper, notions of probabilities and risk will be examined as applied to beliefs in genetic inheritance that are shaped by historical and cultural forces and in turn how they shape people's lives. It will be proposed that the belief that knowledge of one's genetic inheritance can control one's future health and disease is an illusion, and also replicates in part a religious notion of predestination.

  4. Genetic Algorithm Optimizes Q-LAW Control Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungwon; von Allmen, Paul; Petropoulos, Anastassios; Terrile, Richard

    2008-01-01

    A document discusses a multi-objective, genetic algorithm designed to optimize Lyapunov feedback control law (Q-law) parameters in order to efficiently find Pareto-optimal solutions for low-thrust trajectories for electronic propulsion systems. These would be propellant-optimal solutions for a given flight time, or flight time optimal solutions for a given propellant requirement. The approximate solutions are used as good initial solutions for high-fidelity optimization tools. When the good initial solutions are used, the high-fidelity optimization tools quickly converge to a locally optimal solution near the initial solution. Q-law control parameters are represented as real-valued genes in the genetic algorithm. The performances of the Q-law control parameters are evaluated in the multi-objective space (flight time vs. propellant mass) and sorted by the non-dominated sorting method that assigns a better fitness value to the solutions that are dominated by a fewer number of other solutions. With the ranking result, the genetic algorithm encourages the solutions with higher fitness values to participate in the reproduction process, improving the solutions in the evolution process. The population of solutions converges to the Pareto front that is permitted within the Q-law control parameter space.

  5. Optimal Robust Motion Controller Design Using Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svečko, Rajko

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a multiobjective genetic algorithm for robust motion controller design. Motion controller structure is based on a disturbance observer in an RIC framework. The RIC approach is presented in the form with internal and external feedback loops, in which an internal disturbance rejection controller and an external performance controller must be synthesised. This paper involves novel objectives for robustness and performance assessments for such an approach. Objective functions for the robustness property of RIC are based on simple even polynomials with nonnegativity conditions. Regional pole placement method is presented with the aims of controllers' structures simplification and their additional arbitrary selection. Regional pole placement involves arbitrary selection of central polynomials for both loops, with additional admissible region of the optimized pole location. Polynomial deviation between selected and optimized polynomials is measured with derived performance objective functions. A multiobjective function is composed of different unrelated criteria such as robust stability, controllers' stability, and time-performance indexes of closed loops. The design of controllers and multiobjective optimization procedure involve a set of the objectives, which are optimized simultaneously with a genetic algorithm—differential evolution. PMID:24987749

  6. Beyond barcoding: a mitochondrial genomics approach to molecular phylogenetics and diagnostics of blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Leigh A; Lambkin, Christine L; Batterham, Philip; Wallman, James F; Dowton, Mark; Whiting, Michael F; Yeates, David K; Cameron, Stephen L

    2012-12-15

    Members of the Calliphoridae (blowflies) are significant for medical and veterinary management, due to the ability of some species to consume living flesh as larvae, and for forensic investigations due to the ability of others to develop in corpses. Due to the difficulty of accurately identifying larval blowflies to species there is a need for DNA-based diagnostics for this family, however the widely used DNA-barcoding marker, cox1, has been shown to fail for several groups within this family. Additionally, many phylogenetic relationships within the Calliphoridae are still unresolved, particularly deeper level relationships. Sequencing whole mt genomes has been demonstrated both as an effective method for identifying the most informative diagnostic markers and for resolving phylogenetic relationships. Twenty-seven complete, or nearly so, mt genomes were sequenced representing 13 species, seven genera and four calliphorid subfamilies and a member of the related family Tachinidae. PCR and sequencing primers developed for sequencing one calliphorid species could be reused to sequence related species within the same superfamily with success rates ranging from 61% to 100%, demonstrating the speed and efficiency with which an mt genome dataset can be assembled. Comparison of molecular divergences for each of the 13 protein-coding genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes, at a range of taxonomic scales identified novel targets for developing as diagnostic markers which were 117-200% more variable than the markers which have been used previously in calliphorids. Phylogenetic analysis of whole mt genome sequences resulted in much stronger support for family and subfamily-level relationships. The Calliphoridae are polyphyletic, with the Polleninae more closely related to the Tachinidae, and the Sarcophagidae are the sister group of the remaining calliphorids. Within the Calliphoridae, there was strong support for the monophyly of the Chrysomyinae and Luciliinae and for the sister

  7. Disclosing genetic risk for coronary heart disease: effects on perceived personal control and genetic counseling satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, C L; Jouni, H; Kruisselbrink, T M; Austin, E E; Christensen, K D; Green, R C; Kullo, I J

    2016-02-01

    We investigated whether disclosure of coronary heart disease (CHD) genetic risk influences perceived personal control (PPC) and genetic counseling satisfaction (GCS). Participants (n = 207, age: 45-65 years) were randomized to receive estimated 10-year risk of CHD based on a conventional risk score (CRS) with or without a genetic risk score (GRS). Risk estimates were disclosed by a genetic counselor who also reviewed how GRS altered risk in those randomized to CRS+GRS. Each participant subsequently met with a physician and then completed surveys to assess PPC and GCS. Participants who received CRS+GRS had higher PPC than those who received CRS alone although the absolute difference was small (25.2 ± 2.7 vs 24.1 ± 3.8, p = 0.04). A greater proportion of CRS+GRS participants had higher GCS scores (17.3 ± 5.3 vs 15.9 ± 6.3, p = 0.06). In the CRS+GRS group, PPC and GCS scores were not correlated with GRS. Within both groups, PPC and GCS scores were similar in patients with or without family history (p = NS). In conclusion, patients who received their genetic risk of CHD had higher PPC and tended to have higher GCS. Our findings suggest that disclosure of genetic risk of CHD together with conventional risk estimates is appreciated by patients. Whether this results in improved outcomes needs additional investigation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; McGue, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The sequenced genomes of individuals aged ≥80 years, who were highly educated, self-referred volunteers and with no self-reported chronic diseases were compared to young controls. In these data, healthy ageing is a distinct phenotype from exceptional longevity and genetic factors that protect...

  9. Improving family communication after a new genetic diagnosis: a randomised controlled trial of a genetic counselling intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Jan M; Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Aitken, Maryanne; Donath, Susan M; Gaff, Clara L; Winship, Ingrid M; Delatycki, Martin B; Skene, Loane L C; McClaren, Belinda J; Paul, Jean L; Halliday, Jane L

    2014-03-14

    Genetic information given to an individual newly diagnosed with a genetic condition is likely to have important health implications for other family members. The task of communicating with these relatives commonly falls to the newly diagnosed person. Talking to relatives about genetic information can be challenging and is influenced by many factors including family dynamics. Research shows that many relatives remain unaware of relevant genetic information and the possible impact on their own health. This study aims to evaluate whether a specific genetic counselling intervention for people newly diagnosed with a genetic condition, implemented over the telephone on a number of occasions, could increase the number of at-risk relatives who make contact with genetics services after a new genetic diagnosis within a family. This is a prospective, multi-centre randomised controlled trial being conducted at genetics clinics at five public hospitals in Victoria, Australia. A complex genetic counselling intervention has been developed specifically for this trial. Probands (the first person in a family to present with a diagnosis of a genetic condition) are being recruited and randomised into one of two arms - the telephone genetic counselling intervention arm and the control arm receiving usual care. The number of at-risk relatives for each proband will be estimated from a family pedigree collected at the time of diagnosis. The primary outcome will be measured by comparing the proportion of at-risk relatives in each arm of the trial who make subsequent contact with genetics services. This study, the first randomised controlled trial of a complex genetic counselling intervention to enhance family communication, will provide evidence about how best to assist probands to communicate important new genetic information to their at-risk relatives. This will inform genetic counselling practice in the context of future genomic testing. Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials

  10. Voltage-dependent K+channels improve the energy efficiency of signalling in blowfly photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras, Francisco J H; Anderson, John; Laughlin, Simon B; Niven, Jeremy E

    2017-04-01

    Voltage-dependent conductances in many spiking neurons are tuned to reduce action potential energy consumption, so improving the energy efficiency of spike coding. However, the contribution of voltage-dependent conductances to the energy efficiency of analogue coding, by graded potentials in dendrites and non-spiking neurons, remains unclear. We investigate the contribution of voltage-dependent conductances to the energy efficiency of analogue coding by modelling blowfly R1-6 photoreceptor membrane. Two voltage-dependent delayed rectifier K + conductances (DRs) shape the membrane's voltage response and contribute to light adaptation. They make two types of energy saving. By reducing membrane resistance upon depolarization they convert the cheap, low bandwidth membrane needed in dim light to the expensive high bandwidth membrane needed in bright light. This investment of energy in bandwidth according to functional requirements can halve daily energy consumption. Second, DRs produce negative feedback that reduces membrane impedance and increases bandwidth. This negative feedback allows an active membrane with DRs to consume at least 30% less energy than a passive membrane with the same capacitance and bandwidth. Voltage-dependent conductances in other non-spiking neurons, and in dendrites, might be organized to make similar savings. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Genetic and Environmental Control of Neurodevelopmental Robustness in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Mellert

    Full Text Available Interindividual differences in neuronal wiring may contribute to behavioral individuality and affect susceptibility to neurological disorders. To investigate the causes and potential consequences of wiring variation in Drosophila melanogaster, we focused on a hemilineage of ventral nerve cord interneurons that exhibits morphological variability. We find that late-born subclasses of the 12A hemilineage are highly sensitive to genetic and environmental variation. Neurons in the second thoracic segment are particularly variable with regard to two developmental decisions, whereas its segmental homologs are more robust. This variability "hotspot" depends on Ultrabithorax expression in the 12A neurons, indicating variability is cell-intrinsic and under genetic control. 12A development is more variable and sensitive to temperature in long-established laboratory strains than in strains recently derived from the wild. Strains with a high frequency of one of the 12A variants also showed a high frequency of animals with delayed spontaneous flight initiation, whereas other wing-related behaviors did not show such a correlation and were thus not overtly affected by 12A variation. These results show that neurodevelopmental robustness is variable and under genetic control in Drosophila and suggest that the fly may serve as a model for identifying conserved gene pathways that stabilize wiring in stressful developmental environments. Moreover, some neuronal lineages are variation hotspots and thus may be more amenable to evolutionary change.

  12. Optimal control strategy of malaria vector using genetically modified mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafikov, M; Bevilacqua, L; Wyse, A P P

    2009-06-07

    The development of transgenic mosquitoes that are resistant to diseases may provide a new and effective weapon of diseases control. Such an approach relies on transgenic mosquitoes being able to survive and compete with wild-type populations. These transgenic mosquitoes carry a specific code that inhibits the plasmodium evolution in its organism. It is said that this characteristic is hereditary and consequently the disease fades away after some time. Once transgenic mosquitoes are released, interactions between the two populations and inter-specific mating between the two types of mosquitoes take place. We present a mathematical model that considers the generation overlapping and variable environment factors. Based on this continuous model, the malaria vector control is formulated and solved as an optimal control problem, indicating how genetically modified mosquitoes should be introduced in the environment. Numerical simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed control.

  13. A scenario for a genetically controlled fission of artificial vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bönzli, Eva; Hadorn, Maik; Jørgensen, Mikkel Girke

    2011-01-01

    construction of a cell in a bottom-up manner. Numerous efforts to build an artificial cell that bridge the living and non-living world will most presumably represent one of the main goals of science in the 21st century. It was shown that artificial genetic programs and the required cellular machinery can...... to vesicles (Hanczyc et al. 2003). In the present work, we developed a scenario how a genetically controlled fission of vesicles may be achieved by the synthesis of a special class of viral proteins within artificial vesicles. Because the authors already have a lot of experience in the water-in-oil emulsion...... transfer method to prepare vesicles, the base for the development of a protocol to induce fission in artificial cell may be available....

  14. Genetic and physiological controls of growth under water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardieu, François; Parent, Boris; Caldeira, Cecilio F; Welcker, Claude

    2014-04-01

    The sensitivity of expansive growth to water deficit has a large genetic variability, which is higher than that of photosynthesis. It is observed in several species, with some genotypes stopping growth in a relatively wet soil, whereas others continue growing until the lower limit of soil-available water. The responses of growth to soil water deficit and evaporative demand share an appreciable part of their genetic control through the colocation of quantitative trait loci as do the responses of the growth of different organs to water deficit. This result may be caused by common mechanisms of action discussed in this paper (particularly, plant hydraulic properties). We propose that expansive growth, putatively linked to hydraulic processes, determines the sink strength under water deficit, whereas photosynthesis determines source strength. These findings have large consequences for plant modeling under water deficit and for the design of breeding programs.

  15. Experimental control of a fluidic pinball using genetic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raibaudo, Cedric; Zhong, Peng; Noack, Bernd R.; Martinuzzi, Robert J.

    2017-11-01

    The wake stabilization of a triangular cluster of three rotating cylinders was investigated in the present study. Experiments were performed at Reynolds number Re 6000, and compared with URANS-2D simulations at same flow conditions. 2D2C PIV measurements and constant temperature anemometry were used to characterize the flow without and with actuation. Open-loop actuation was first considered for the identification of particular control strategies. Machine learning control was also implemented for the experimental study. Linear genetic programming has been used for the optimization of open-loop parameters and closed-loop controllers. Considering a cost function J based on the fluctuations of the velocity measured by the hot-wire sensor, significant performances were achieved using the machine learning approach. The present work is supported by the senior author's (R. J. Martinuzzi) NSERC discovery Grant. C. Raibaudo acknowledges the financial support of the University of Calgary Eyes-High PDF program.

  16. Genetic control of muscle development: learning from Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Tariq; Jagla, Krzysztof

    2007-01-01

    Muscle development involves a complex sequence of time and spatially regulated cellular events leading to the formation of highly specialised syncytial muscle cells displaying a common feature, the capacity of contraction. Analyses of mechanisms controlling muscle development reveals that the main steps of muscle formation including myogenic determination, diversification of muscle precursors, myoblast fusion and terminal differentiation involve the actions of evolutionarily conserved genes. Thus dissecting the genetic control of muscle development in simple model organisms appears to be an attractive way to get insights into core genetic cascade that orchestrate myogenesis. In this respect, particularly insightful have been data generated using Drosophila as a model system. Notably, the interplay between intrinsic and extrinsic cues that determine the early myogenic decisions leading to the specification of muscle progenitors and those controlling myoblasts fusion are much better characterised in Drosophila than in vertebrate species. Also, adult Drosophila myogenesis, which leads to the formation of vertebrate-like multi-fibre muscles, emerges as a particularly well-adapted system to study normal and aberrant muscle development.

  17. Genetic and epigenetic control of plant heat responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junzhong eLiu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants have evolved sophisticated genetic and epigenetic regulatory systems to respond quickly to unfavorable environmental conditions such as heat, cold, drought, and pathogen infections. In particular, heat greatly affects plant growth and development, immunity and circadian rhythm, and poses a serious threat to the global food supply. According to temperatures exposing, heat can be usually classified as warm ambient temperature (about 22-27℃, high temperature (27-30℃ and extremely high temperature (37-42℃, also known as heat stress for the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The genetic mechanisms of plant responses to heat have been well studied, mainly focusing on elevated ambient temperature-mediated morphological acclimation and acceleration of flowering, modulation of plant immunity and circadian clock by high temperatures, and thermotolerance to heat stress. Recently, great progress has been achieved on epigenetic regulation of heat responses, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, histone variants, ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling, histone chaperones, small RNAs, long non-coding RNAs and other undefined epigenetic mechanisms. These epigenetic modifications regulate the expression of heat-responsive genes and function to prevent heat-related damage. This review focuses on recent progresses regarding the genetic and epigenetic control of heat responses in plants, and pays more attention to the role of the major epigenetic mechanisms in plant heat responses. Further research perspectives are also discussed.

  18. Control of the lighting system using a genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čongradac Velimir D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The manufacturing, distribution and use of electricity are of fundamental importance for the social life and they have the biggest influence on the environment associated with any human activity. The energy needed for building lighting makes up 20-40% of the total consumption. This paper displays the development of the mathematical model and genetic algorithm for the control of dimmable lighting on problems of regulating the level of internal lighting and increase of energetic efficiency using daylight. A series of experiments using the optimization algorithm on the realized model confirmed very high savings in electricity consumption.

  19. The blowfly Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) as a new forensic indicator in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassberger, Martin; Friedrich, Elisabeth; Reiter, Christian

    2003-04-01

    During the summer months of the year 2001, six forensic cases (one is reported in the present paper), a pig carrion study in the city of Vienna (latitude 48 degrees 12'N, longitude 16 degrees 22'E) and several liver-baited traps north of Vienna, yielded large numbers of maggots of the blowfly Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Apart from some records from France, reports of C. albiceps from the palearctic region north of the Alps (i.e. north of a latitude of 48 degrees N) have been scarce. Our findings provided an opportunity to derive developmental schedules for C. albiceps at five different constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, 35 degrees C). The minimal duration of development from oviposition to adult was inversely related to temperature, ranging from 8.3 +/- 0.5 days at 35 degrees C to 19.2 +/- 0.92 days at 20 degrees C. Although eggs hatched after 1.9 +/- 0.16 days at 15 degrees C, larvae did not complete development and frequently died during the first instar stage. We also found a high mortality rate (up to 99%) of native L. sericata larvae caused by predation of C. albiceps larvae under laboratory conditions, indicating a high susceptibility of L. sericata to attack by C. albiceps. Apart from this, the current and possible future distribution of C. albicepsin Europe is discussed. The northward expansion of its range beyond southern Europe obviously decreases the value of C. albiceps in estimating the site of death, in that it is no longer exclusive to southern European regions. Moreover, the aggressive feeding behaviour of second and third instar larve of C. albiceps could reset the post-mortem insect clock by clearing a corpse of all earlier arrivers.

  20. Controlling complexity: the clinical relevance of mouse complex genetics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Forejt, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 11 (2013), s. 1191-1196 ISSN 1018-4813 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Mouse model * Forward genetics * Rewiev Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 4.225, year: 2013

  1. Hormesis and stage specific toxicity induced by cadmium in an insect model, the queen blowfly, Phormia regina Meig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascarella, Marc A.; Stoffolano, John G.; Stanek, Edward J.; Kostecki, Paul T.; Calabrese, Edward J.

    2003-01-01

    This is the first report of a heavy metal displaying a hormetic-like biphasic response for early developmental success, while at the same time displaying stage-specific toxicity at a later developmental stage. - Hormesis is an adaptive response, commonly characterized by a biphasic dose-response that can be either directly induced, or the result of compensatory biological processes following an initial disruption in homeostasis [Calabrese and Baldwin, Hum. Exp. Toxicol., 21 (2002), 91]. Low and environmentally relevant levels of dietary cadmium significantly enhanced the pupation rate of blowfly larvae, while higher doses inhibited pupation success. However, dietary cadmium at all exposure levels adversely affected the emergence of the adult fly from the pupal case. Such findings represent the first report of a heavy metal displaying a hormetic-like biphasic response for pupation success, while at the same time displaying stage-specific toxicity at a later developmental period. These conclusions are based on substantial experimentation of over 1750 blowflies, in seven replicate experiments, involving 10 concentrations per experiment. These findings indicate the need to assess the impact of environmental stressors over a broad range of potential exposures as well as throughout the entire life cycle

  2. Genetic quality control in mass-reared melon flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, T.

    2002-01-01

    Quality control in mass-reared melon flies, Bactrocera cucurbitae, after eradication is discussed, based on the results of artificial selection experiments. First, a brief history of quality control in mass-rearing of insects is described. In practical mass- rearing of melon fly, many traits have already been differentiated between mass-reared and wild flies. These differing traits are reviewed and the factors which caused these differences are considered. It was considered that the differences between wild and mass-reared melon flies depended on the selection pressures from the mass-rearing method. Next, the results of several artificial selection experiments using the melon fly are reviewed. Finally, consideration is given to some correlated responses to artificial selection in mass-rearing. Longevity that is correlated to early fecundity was successfully controlled by artificial selection for reproduction in the mass-rearing system. On the basis of these results, an improved method for quality control in mass-reared melon fly with considerations for quantitative genetics is discussed

  3. Insects feeding on cadavers as an alternative source of human genetic material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Skowronek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In some criminal cases, the use of classical sources of human genetic material is difficult or even impossible. One solution may be the use of insects, especially blowfly larvae which feed on corpses. A recent review of case reports and experimental studies available in biomedical databases has shown that insects can be a valuable source of human mitochondrial and genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA, allowing for an effective analysis of hypervariable region (HVR sequences and short tandem repeat (STR profiles, respectively. The optimal source of human DNA is the crop (a part of the gut of active third-instar blowfly larvae. Pupae and insect faeces can be also used in forensic genetic practice instead of the contents of the alimentary tract.

  4. Bioactive Hierarchical Structures for Genetic Control of Bone Morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Sepulveda

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available For thirty years it has been known that certain compositions of Na2O-CaO-P2O5-SiO 2 glasses will form a mechanically strong, chemical bond to bone. These materials have become known as bioactive glasses and the process of bonding is called bioactive fixation. Bioactive glasses are widely used clinically in the repair of bone defects. Recent research at the Imperial College Tissue Engineering Centre has now established that there is a genetic control of the cellular response to bioactive materials. Seven families of genes are up-regulated when primary human osteoblasts are exposed to the ionic dissolution products of bioactive glasses. The gene expression occurs very rapidly, within two days, and includes enhanced expression of cell cycle regulators. The consequence is rapid differentiation of the osteoblasts into a mature phenotype and formation of large three-dimensional bone nodules within six days in vitro. These cell culture results correlate with extensive human clinical results using the same bioactive material. The new genetic theory of bioactive materials provides a scientific foundation for molecular design of new generation of resorbable bioactive materials for tissue engineering and in situ tissue regeneration and repair. Application of this theory to the synthesis of bioactive foams for tissue engineering of bone is described.

  5. Genetic control of social behavior: Lessons from mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzano, Giovanni; Chelini, Gabriele; Bozzi, Yuri

    2017-05-15

    Social behavior is evolutionary conserved, and is thought to be evolved since it increased reproductive and survival fitness of living species. In humans, disturbances of social behavior are a peculiar pathological trait of neurodevelopmental disorders, namely autism spectrum disorder (ASD). ASD is defined by deficits in two core domains (social interaction/communication and repetitive/restrictive behaviors), which emerge during early postnatal development. ASD has a strong genetic component: copy number variations, de novo and familial mutations, as well as epigenetic modifications have been reported in a huge number of genes. Recent studies in mice demonstrate that mutations in a wide variety of ASD-associated genes can cause neurodevelopmental defects, which subsequently result in social behavior disturbances during early postnatal age and adulthood. From these studies, it clearly emerges that functionally interrelated cellular mechanisms underlie social behavior and its disturbances in ASD. Indeed, most of ASD-associated genes control neuronal differentiation and migration, growth of neuronal connections and synaptic function. Here we will present the recent advances in understanding the genetic determinants of social behavior, as they emerge from the study of ASD mouse models, and discuss the importance of these studies for the development of novel therapeutic approaches to overcome social disturbances in ASD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetic design of interpolated non-linear controllers for linear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajlouni, N.

    2000-01-01

    The techniques of genetic algorithms are proposed as a means of designing non-linear PID control systems. It is shown that the use of genetic algorithms for this purpose results in highly effective non-linear PID control systems. These results are illustrated by using genetic algorithms to design a non-linear PID control system and contrasting the results with an optimally tuned linear PID controller. (author)

  7. Evaluation of Optimum Genetic Contribution Theory to Control Inbreeding While Maximizing Genetic Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-H. Oh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Inbreeding is the mating of relatives that produce progeny having more homozygous alleles than non-inbred animals. Inbreeding increases numbers of recessive alleles, which is often associated with decreased performance known as inbreeding depression. The magnitude of inbreeding depression depends on the level of inbreeding in the animal. Level of inbreeding is expressed by the inbreeding coefficient. One breeding goal in livestock is uniform productivity while maintaining acceptable inbreeding levels, especially keeping inbreeding less than 20%. However, in closed herds without the introduction of new genetic sources high levels of inbreeding over time are unavoidable. One method that increases selection response and minimizes inbreeding is selection of individuals by weighting estimated breeding values with average relationships among individuals. Optimum genetic contribution theory (OGC uses relationships among individuals as weighting factors. The algorithm is as follows: i Identify the individual having the best EBV; ii Calculate average relationships ( r j ¯ between selected and candidates; iii Select the individual having the best EBV adjusted for average relationships using the weighting factor k, E B V * = E B V j ( 1 - k r j ¯ . iv Repeat process until the number of individuals selected equals number required. The objective of this study was to compare simulated results based on OGC selection under different conditions over 30 generations. Individuals (n = 110 were generated for the base population with pseudo random numbers of N~ (0, 3, ten were assumed male, and the remainder female. Each male was mated to ten females, and every female was assumed to have 5 progeny resulting in 500 individuals in the following generation. Results showed the OGC algorithm effectively controlled inbreeding and maintained consistent increases in selection response. Difference in breeding values between selection with OGC algorithm and by EBV only was 8

  8. Optochemical control of genetically engineered neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tochitsky, Ivan; Banghart, Matthew R.; Mourot, Alexandre; Yao, Jennifer Z.; Gaub, Benjamin; Kramer, Richard H.; Trauner, Dirk

    2012-02-01

    Advances in synthetic chemistry, structural biology, molecular modelling and molecular cloning have enabled the systematic functional manipulation of transmembrane proteins. By combining genetically manipulated proteins with light-sensitive ligands, innately ‘blind’ neurobiological receptors can be converted into photoreceptors, which allows them to be photoregulated with high spatiotemporal precision. Here, we present the optochemical control of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) with photoswitchable tethered agonists and antagonists. Using structure-based design, we produced heteromeric α3β4 and α4β2 nAChRs that can be activated or inhibited with deep-violet light, but respond normally to acetylcholine in the dark. The generation of these engineered receptors should facilitate investigation of the physiological and pathological functions of neuronal nAChRs and open a general pathway to photosensitizing pentameric ligand-gated ion channels.

  9. Diversity Controlling Genetic Algorithm for Order Acceptance and Scheduling Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Selection and scheduling are an important topic in production systems. To tackle the order acceptance and scheduling problem on a single machine with release dates, tardiness penalty, and sequence-dependent setup times, in this paper a diversity controlling genetic algorithm (DCGA is proposed, in which a diversified population is maintained during the whole search process through survival selection considering both the fitness and the diversity of individuals. To measure the similarity between individuals, a modified Hamming distance without considering the unaccepted orders in the chromosome is adopted. The proposed DCGA was validated on 1500 benchmark instances with up to 100 orders. Compared with the state-of-the-art algorithms, the experimental results show that DCGA improves the solution quality obtained significantly, in terms of the deviation from upper bound.

  10. Genetic control of startle behavior in medaka fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satomi Tsuboko

    Full Text Available Genetic polymorphisms are thought to generate intraspecific behavioral diversities, both within and among populations. The mechanisms underlying genetic control of behavioral properties, however, remain unclear in wild-type vertebrates, including humans. To explore this issue, we used diverse inbred strains of medaka fish (Oryzias latipes established from the same and different local populations. Medaka exhibit a startle response to a visual stimulus (extinction of illumination by rapidly bending their bodies (C-start 20-ms after the stimulus presentation. We measured the rates of the response to repeated stimuli (1-s interval, 40 times among four inbred strains, HNI-I, HNI-II, HO5, and Hd-rR-II1, and quantified two properties of the startle response: sensitivity (response rate to the first stimulus and attenuation of the response probability with repeated stimulus presentation. Among the four strains, the greatest differences in these properties were detected between HNI-II and Hd-rR-II1. HNI-II exhibited high sensitivity (approximately 80% and no attenuation, while Hd-rR-II1 exhibited low sensitivity (approximately 50% and almost complete attenuation after only five stimulus presentations. Our findings suggested behavioral diversity of the startle response within a local population as well as among different populations. Linkage analysis with F2 progeny between HNI-II and Hd-rR-II1 detected quantitative trait loci (QTL highly related to attenuation, but not to sensitivity, with a maximum logarithm of odds score of 11.82 on linkage group 16. The three genotypes (homozygous for HNI-II and Hd-rR-II1 alleles, and heterozygous at the marker nearest the QTL correlated with attenuation. Our findings are the first to suggest that a single genomic region might be sufficient to generate individual differences in startle behavior between wild-type strains. Further identification of genetic polymorphisms that define the behavioral trait will contribute to

  11. Genetic and phenotypic parameters of pelt traits in a Karakul control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic parameters of 16 pelt trais and birth mass were calculated in a Karakul control flock (n =2058; rams= 305) with a half-sib analysis. Moderately high heritabilities were estimated for pelt traits. No antagonistic genetic correlation was found between pattern and hair quality. The genetic correlations between pattern and ...

  12. Fuzzy-Genetic Optimal Control for Four Degreeof Freedom Robotic Arm Movement

    OpenAIRE

    V. K. Banga; R. Kumar; Y. Singh

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present optimal control for movement and trajectory planning for four degrees-of-freedom robot using Fuzzy Logic (FL) and Genetic Algorithms (GAs). We have evaluated using Fuzzy Logic (FL) and Genetic Algorithms (GAs) for four degree-of-freedom (4 DOF) robotics arm, Uncertainties like; Movement, Friction and Settling Time in robotic arm movement have been compensated using Fuzzy logic and Genetic Algorithms. The development of a fuzzy genetic optimizatio...

  13. Modeling and control of V/f controlled induction motor using genetic-ANFIS algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ustun, Seydi Vakkas; Demirtas, Metin

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with modeling and performance analysis of the voltage/frequency (V/f) control of induction motor drives. The V/f control, which realizes a low cost and simple design, is advantageous in the middle to high-speed range. Its torque response depends on the electrical time constant of the motor and adjustments of the control parameters are not need. Therefore, V/f control of induction motor is carried out. Space vector pulse width modulation is used for controlling the motor because of including minimum harmonics according to the other PWM techniques. Proportional Integral (PI) controller is used to control speed of induction motor. In this work, optimization of PI coefficients is carried out by Ziegler-Nichols model and Genetic-Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) model. These controllers are applied to drive system with 0.55 kW induction motor. A digital signal processor controller (dsPIC30F6010) is used to carry out control applications. The proposed method is compared Ziegler-Nichols model. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed control method

  14. Influence of rain and malathion on the oviposition and development of blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) infesting rabbit carcasses in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahat, N A; Zafarina, Z; Jayaprakash, P T

    2009-11-20

    The influence of rain and malathion on the initial oviposition as well as development of blowfly species infesting rabbit carcasses decomposing in sunlit and shaded habitats were studied over a period of 1 year in Kelantan, Malaysia. Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) was the most dominant species that infested the carcasses, followed by Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). In general, rain, depending on its intensity, delayed initial oviposition by 1-2 days and prolonged the pupation period by 1-3 days. The presence of malathion in the carcasses delayed initial oviposition by 1-3 days and prolonged the pupation period by 2-3 days. These findings deserve consideration while estimating postmortem interval since rain is a commonplace occurrence in Malaysia and malathion is one of the common poisons as an agent for choice to commit suicide.

  15. Light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry of neurons in the blowfly optic lobe reacting with antisera to RFamide and FMRFamide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nässel, D R; Ohlsson, Lisbeth; Johansson, K U

    1988-01-01

    Different antisera to the molluscan cardioexcitatory peptide FMRFamide, and its fragment, RFamide (Arg-Phe-NH2), label a distinct population of neurons in the optic lobe of the blowfly, Calliphora erythrocephala. Seven morphological types of RFamide/FMRFamide-like immunoreactive neurons could...... be distinguished in the optic lobes based on the locations of their cell bodies, their axonal projections and the distribution of their processes. Of these, two types could be resolved in their entire extent, the others were labeled only in their cell bodies and terminal processes or were partly obscured by other...... immunoreactive processes. The RF-like immunoreactive neurons in the optic lobes are of two main classes: (1) two types of large field projection neurons and (2) five types of local neurons. One type of projection neurons (five in each lobe) connects the entire projected retinal mosaic of the medulla and lobula...

  16. Impact of stride-coupled gaze shifts of walking blowflies on the neuronal representation of visual targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eKress

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available During locomotion animals rely heavily on visual cues gained from the environment to guide their behavior. Examples are basic behaviors like collision avoidance or the approach to a goal. The saccadic gaze strategy of flying flies, which separates translational from rotational phases of locomotion, has been suggested to facilitate the extraction of environmental information, because only image flow evoked by translational self-motion contains relevant distance information about the surrounding world. In contrast to the translational phases of flight during which gaze direction is kept largely constant, walking flies experience continuous rotational image flow that is coupled to their stride-cycle. The consequences of these self-produced image shifts for the extraction of environmental information are still unclear. To assess the impact of stride-coupled image shifts on visual information processing, we performed electrophysiological recordings from the HSE cell, a motion sensitive wide-field neuron in the blowfly visual system. This cell has been concluded to play a key role in mediating optomotor behavior, self-motion estimation and spatial information processing. We used visual stimuli that were based on the visual input experienced by walking blowflies while approaching a black vertical bar. The response of HSE to these stimuli was dominated by periodic membrane potential fluctuations evoked by stride-coupled image shifts. Nevertheless, during the approach the cell’s response contained information about the bar and its background. The response components evoked by the bar were larger than the responses to its background, especially during the last phase of the approach. However, as revealed by targeted modifications of the visual input during walking, the extraction of distance information on the basis of HSE responses is much impaired by stride-coupled retinal image shifts. Possible mechanisms that may cope with these stride

  17. Nocturnal oviposition behavior of blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in the southern hemisphere (South Africa and Australia) and its forensic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kirstin A; Wallman, James F; Lessard, Bryan D; Kavazos, Christopher R J; Mazungula, D Nkosinathi; Villet, Martin H

    2017-06-01

    Published research has offered contradictory evidence of the occurrence of nocturnal oviposition by carrion-breeding blowflies, a behavior that can affect the interpretation of forensic estimates of a minimum post mortem interval ( min PMI) by up to 12 hours, depending on latitude and season. The majority of published studies are from the northern hemisphere. Field experiments were conducted in South Africa and Australia that extend observations to species of the southern hemisphere. Various vertebrate carrion was exposed at night in summer under different lunar phases and/or artificial lighting, and in woodland and pasture areas. Three laboratory experiments were also conducted. No nocturnal oviposition occurred outdoors in Berry, Australia, but Lucilia cuprina, Lucilia sericata and Chrysomya megacephala laid eggs outdoors at night in Grahamstown and Durban, South Africa. In laboratory experiments L. sericata, L. cuprina, Chrysomya chloropyga and Chrysomya putoria laid eggs and Calliphora augur deposited larvae under nocturnal conditions. Chrysomya albiceps and C. chloropyga laid eggs in darkness with increasing likelihood as ambient temperature increased. This study shows that nocturnal ovi/larviposition by carrion-breeding blowflies is possible in both South Africa and Australia. The forensic issue is therefore not whether nocturnal oviposition occurs, but rather whether the conditions of a particular case are more or less conducive to it. Circadian rhythms and physiological thresholds (particularly temperature and humidity) appear to act individually and in conjunction to stimulate or inhibit nocturnal laying. The significance of carcass size, freezing and handling of carcasses and comprehensive quantification for experimental design is discussed, and recommendations are made for future laboratory and case scene experiments.

  18. Genetic Control of Wiring Specificity in the Fly Olfactory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Weizhe; Luo, Liqun

    2014-01-01

    Precise connections established between pre- and postsynaptic partners during development are essential for the proper function of the nervous system. The olfactory system detects a wide variety of odorants and processes the information in a precisely connected neural circuit. A common feature of the olfactory systems from insects to mammals is that the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) expressing the same odorant receptor make one-to-one connections with a single class of second-order olfactory projection neurons (PNs). This represents one of the most striking examples of targeting specificity in developmental neurobiology. Recent studies have uncovered central roles of transmembrane and secreted proteins in organizing this one-to-one connection specificity in the olfactory system. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of how this wiring specificity is genetically controlled and focus on the mechanisms by which transmembrane and secreted proteins regulate different stages of the Drosophila olfactory circuit assembly in a coordinated manner. We also discuss how combinatorial coding, redundancy, and error-correcting ability could contribute to constructing a complex neural circuit in general. PMID:24395823

  19. Genetic management strategies for controlling infectious diseases in livestock populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishop Stephen C

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper considers the use of disease resistance genes to control the transmission of infection through an animal population. Transmission is summarised by R0, the basic reproductive ratio of a pathogen. If R0 > 1.0 a major epidemic can occur, thus a disease control strategy should aim to reduce R0 below 1.0, e.g. by mixing resistant with susceptible wild-type animals. Suppose there is a resistance allele, such that transmission of infection through a population homozygous for this allele will be R02 01, where R01 describes transmission in the wildtype population. For an otherwise homogeneous population comprising animals of these two groups, R0 is the weighted average of the two sub-populations: R0 = R01ρ + R02 (1 - ρ, where ρ is the proportion of wildtype animals. If R01 > 1 and R02 0 ≤ 1, i.e. ρ ≤ (R0 - R02/(R01 - R02. If R02 = 0, the proportion of resistant animals must be at least 1 - 1/R01. For an n genotype model the requirement is still to have R0 ≤ 1.0. Probabilities of epidemics in genetically mixed populations conditional upon the presence of a single infected animal were derived. The probability of no epidemic is always 1/(R0 + 1. When R0 ≤ 1 the probability of a minor epidemic, which dies out without intervention, is R0/(R0 + 1. When R0 > 1 the probability of a minor and major epidemics are 1/(R0 + 1 and (R0 - 1/(R0 + 1. Wherever possible a combination of genotypes should be used to minimise the invasion possibilities of pathogens that have mutated to overcome the effects of specific resistance alleles.

  20. RESEARCH ARTICLE Genetic control of Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sony

    Qualitative genetic analysis done on the basis of segregation pattern of tolerant and ... Few attempts have been made in the past to study the genetics of tolerance to YVMV disease in okra. In India, the ..... supported by a an expected segregation pattern of 1 Tolerant:1Susceptible in case of BC2 generations confirmed our ...

  1. Common genetic variation and the control of HIV-1 in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellay, J.; Ge, D.; Shianna, K.V.

    2009-01-01

    To extend the understanding of host genetic determinants of HIV-1 control, we performed a genome-wide association study in a cohort of 2,554 infected Caucasian subjects. The study was powered to detect common genetic variants explaining down to 1.3% of the variability in viral load at set point. We...... genetic variation in HIV-1 control in Caucasians Udgivelsesdato: 2009/12...

  2. Genetic algorithm-based precision tuning of digital P-I-D controller ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuning of the PID controller is often done by trial and error which is tedious, · time consuming and relatively inefficient. A more reliable and etricient approach of tuning the PID controller using genetic algorithm is presented. The scope of this work is limited to obtaining control parameters of a digital PID controller for a ...

  3. Can Man Control His Biological Evolution? A Symposium on Genetic Engineering. Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Paul

    1972-01-01

    Presented are issues related to genetic engineering. Increased knowledge of techniques to manipulate genes are apt to create confusion about moral values in relation to unborn babies and other living organisms on earth. Human beings may use this knowledge to disturb the balance maintained by nature. (PS)

  4. Optimal design and robustification of fuzzy-logic controllers for robotic manipulators using genetic algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Moini, A

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, genetic algorithms are used in the design and robustification various mo el-ba ed/non-model-based fuzzy-logic controllers for robotic manipulators. It is demonstrated that genetic algorithms provide effective means of designing the optimal set of fuzzy rules as well as the optimal domains of associated fuzzy sets in a new class of model-based-fuzzy-logic controllers. Furthermore, it is shown that genetic algorithms are very effective in the optimal design and robustification of non-model-based multivariable fuzzy-logic controllers for robotic manipulators.

  5. Genetic control of yellow vein mosaic virus disease tolerance in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PUSHPARANI SENJAM

    2018-01-29

    Jan 29, 2018 ... related traits, namely (i) days to first appearance of YVMV disease (vein clearing of ... the selected lines were made in the following fashion dur- ..... okra for. YVMV disease related traits. Genetic components. (para meter). Crosses. M dh. I j l. Days to first appearance of. YVMV disease. BCO-1. ×. Lal. B hendi.

  6. A design for the control of apoptosis in genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Nao; Noguchi, Misa; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    We have engineered a system that holds potential for use as a safety switch in genetically modified yeasts. Human apoptotic factor BAX (no homolog in yeast), under the control of the FBP1 (gluconeogenesis enzyme) promoter, was conditionally expressed to induce yeast cell apoptosis after glucose depletion. Such systems might prove useful for the safe use of genetically modified organisms.

  7. Food Control and a Citizen Science Approach for Improving Teaching of Genetics in Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, Y. J.; Muñoz-Colmenero, A. M.; Dopico, E.; Miralles, L.; Garcia-Vazquez, E.

    2016-01-01

    A Citizen Science approach was implemented in the laboratory practices of Genetics at the University of Oviedo, related with the engaging topic of Food Control. Real samples of food products consumed by students at home ("students as samplers") were employed as teaching material in three different courses of Genetics during the academic…

  8. Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Likelihood of getting certain diseases Mental abilities Natural talents An abnormal trait (anomaly) that is passed down ... one of them has a genetic disorder. Information Human beings have cells with 46 chromosomes . These consist ...

  9. [Nodulation competitiveness of nodule bacteria: Genetic control and adaptive significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchuk, O P; Vorobyov, N I; Provorov, N A

    2017-01-01

    The most recent data on the system of cmp (competitiveness) genes that determine the nodulation competitiveness of rhizobial strains, i.e., the ability to compete for nodule formation in leguminous plants, is analyzed. Three genetic approaches for the construction of economically valuable strains of rhizobia are proposed: the amplification of positive regulators of competitiveness, the inactivation of the negative regulators of this trait, and the introduction of efficient competitiveness factors into strains capable of active nitrogen fixation.

  10. Double Motor Coordinated Control Based on Hybrid Genetic Algorithm and CMAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shaozhong; Tu, Ji

    A novel hybrid cerebellar model articulation controller (CMAC) and online adaptive genetic algorithm (GA) controller is introduced to control two Brushless DC motor (BLDCM) which applied in a biped robot. Genetic Algorithm simulates the random learning among the individuals of a group, and CMAC simulates the self-learning of an individual. To validate the ability and superiority of the novel algorithm, experiments have been done in MATLAB/SIMULINK. Analysis among GA, hybrid GA-CMAC and CMAC feed-forward control is also given. The results prove that the torque ripple of the coordinated control system is eliminated by using the hybrid GA-CMAC algorithm.

  11. Genetic and epigenetic control of transfer cell development in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jing; Bateman, Perry; Gutierrez-Marcos, Jose

    2016-09-20

    The inter-cellular translocation of nutrients in plant is mediated by highly specialized transfer cells (TCs). TCs share similar functional and structural features across a wide range of plant species, including location at plant exchange surfaces, rich in secondary wall ingrowths, facilitation of nutrient flow, and passage of select molecules. The fate of endosperm TCs is determined in the TC fate acquisition stage (TCF), before the structure features are formed in the TC differentiation stage (TCD). At present, the molecular basis of TC development in plants remains largely unknown. In this review, we summarize the important roles of the signaling molecules in different development phases, such as sugars in TCF and phytohormones in TCD, and discuss the genetic and epigenetic factors, including TC-specific genes and endogenous plant peptides, and their crosstalk with these signaling molecules as a complex regulatory network in regulation of TC development in plants. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Genetics Society of China. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Food control and a citizen science approach for improving teaching of Genetics in universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, Y J; Muñoz-Colmenero, A M; Dopico, E; Miralles, L; Garcia-Vazquez, E

    2016-09-10

    A Citizen Science approach was implemented in the laboratory practices of Genetics at the University of Oviedo, related with the engaging topic of Food Control. Real samples of food products consumed by students at home (students as samplers) were employed as teaching material in three different courses of Genetics during the academic year 2014-2015: Experimental Methods in Food Production (MBTA) (Master level), and Applied Molecular Biology (BMA) and Conservation Genetics and Breeding (COMGE) (Bachelor/Degree level). Molecular genetics based on PCR amplification of DNA markers was employed for species identification of 22 seafood products in COMGE and MBTA, and for detection of genetically modified (GM) maize from nine products in BMA. In total six seafood products incorrectly labeled (27%), and two undeclared GM maize (22%) were found. A post-Laboratory survey was applied for assessing the efficacy of the approach for improving motivation in the Laboratory Practices of Genetics. Results confirmed that students that worked on their own samples from local markets were significantly more motivated and better evaluated their Genetic laboratory practices than control students (χ(2)  = 12.11 p = 0.033). Our results suggest that citizen science approaches could not be only useful for improving teaching of Genetics in universities but also to incorporate students and citizens as active agents in food control. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(5):450-462, 2016. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  13. [Analysis of genetic control of maize response in anther culture within a diallelic set].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satarova, T N

    2002-01-01

    The androgenic ability in anther culture in vitro was examined within a diallel set of five maize lines. The complex analysis of genetic variation components, Hayman's diagram, and genetic parameters showed that the anther response is under the control of an additive-dominant genetic system. The examined lines possessed the different correlation of dominant and recessive alleles controlling androgenesis. And 44 was the line with the biggest number of recessive genes, which determined the increase in the trait. The level of dominance varied in different loci, though in the whole the degree of dominance approached to the complete one.

  14. Design Genetic Algorithm Optimization Education Software Based Fuzzy Controller for a Tricopter Fly Path Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Huu-Khoa; Chiou, Juing -Shian; Peng, Shou-Tao

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of a Genetic Algorithm Optimization (GAO) education software based Fuzzy Logic Controller (GAO-FLC) for simulating the flight motion control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is designed. The generated flight trajectories integrate the optimized Scaling Factors (SF) fuzzy controller gains by using GAO algorithm. The…

  15. Electrophysiological studies of salty taste modification by organic acids in the labellar taste cell of the blowfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yoshihiro; Kataoka-Shirasugi, Naoko; Amakawa, Taisaku

    2002-01-01

    Using the labellar salt receptor cells of the blowfly, Phormia regina, we electrophysiologically showed that the response to NaCl and KCl aqueous solutions was enhanced and depressed by acetic, succinic and citric acids. The organic acid concentrations at which the most enhanced salt response (MESR) was obtained were found to be different: 0.05-1 mM citric acid, 0.5-2 mM succinic acid and 5-50 mM acetic acid. Moreover, the degree of the salt response was not always dependent on the pH values of the stimulating solutions. The salt response was also enhanced by HCl (pH 3.5-3.0) only when the NaCl concentration was greater than the threshold, indicating that the salty taste would be enhanced by the comparatively lower concentrations of hydrogen ions. Another explanation for the enhancement is that the salty taste may also be enhanced by undissociated molecules of the organic acids, because the MESRs were obtained at the pH values lower than the pKa(1) or pKa(2) values of these organic acids. On the other hand, the salty taste could be depressed by both the lower pH range (pH 2.5-2.0) and the dissociated organic anions from organic acid molecules with at least two carboxyl groups.

  16. Do male secondary sexual characters correlate with testis size and sperm length in the small hairy maggot blowfly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie D; Wallman, James F; Byrne, Phillip G

    2015-12-01

    The phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis proposes that secondary sexual characters (SSCs) advertise a male's fertility to prospective mates. However, findings from empirical studies attempting to test this hypothesis are often ambivalent or even contradictory, and few studies have simultaneously evaluated how both morphological and behavioural SSCs relate to ejaculate characteristics. Males of the small hairy maggot blowfly, Chrysomya varipes, possess conspicuous foreleg ornaments and display highly stereotyped courtship behaviour. These traits are favoured by females during pre-copulatory mate choice, but it remains unknown whether they correlate with post-copulatory traits expected to influence male fertility. The aim of this study was to investigate whether male courtship and ornamentation correlate with testis size and sperm length in C. varipes. We found that males investing more in courtship had bigger testes, and males with more extensive foreleg ornamentation released sperm with longer tails. Based on the assumption that larger testes enable males to produce more sperm, and that sperm with longer tails have greater propulsive force, our findings suggest that more vigorous and more ornamented males may be more fertile. These findings lend support to the phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis. However, a complete test of this hypothesis will require evaluating whether testis size and sperm length influence male fertilisation ability, as well as female fecundity and/or fertility. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Morphology and developmental rate of blowflies Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies in Thailand: application in forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kom; Piangjai, Somsak; Siriwattanarungsee, Sirisuda; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2008-05-01

    The larval morphology and developmental rate of Chrysomya megacephala (F.) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), the two most forensically important blowfly species in Thailand, are presented. Morphological comparison of the third instar of both species revealed different characteristics (e.g., body appearance, cephalopharyngeal skeleton, dorsal cuticular spines between the prothorax and mesothorax, and feature of the posterior spiracle), thereby, allowing correct identification. A data analysis was conducted in Chiang Mai province, Northern Thailand during 2000-2001 on the developmental rate of both flies under natural ambient temperature and a natural light-dark photoperiod. The results indicated that larvae of C. megacephala developed more rapidly in April, pupariation initiated at 84 h at temperatures averaging 31.4 degrees C, and the larvae grew slower in the rainy season and winter. Similarly, rapid development of C. rufifacies larvae appeared in the summer, with a pupariation period as short as 96 h in June (average temperature 27.4 degrees C). Analysis of the median body length of C. megacephala and C. rufifacies larvae in different seasons of the years 2000-2001 in Thailand revealed that both species developed rapidly in the summer; pupariation of C. rufifacies initiated at 144 h, while C. megacephala initiated pupariation at 156 h. This information is potentially useful for estimating the postmortem interval of a corpse in forensic investigations, where the corpse becomes infesting with these fly species.

  18. Hormonal, functional and genetic biomarkers in controlled ovarian stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alviggi, Carlo; Humaidan, Peter; Ezcurra, Diego

    2012-01-01

    single patient characteristics. These could potentially be used to match patients with the right treatment options to optimise efficacy, safety and tolerability during COS. Currently, age and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) level remain the most commonly used single patient characteristics in clinical...... to guide COS. The antral follicle count is a functional biomarker that could be useful in determining the dose of FSH necessary during stimulation and the success of treatment. Finally, in the future, genetic screening may allow an individual patient's response to stimulation during COS to be predicted...

  19. Genetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubitschek, H.E.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: genetic effects of high LET radiations; genetic regulation, alteration, and repair; chromosome replication and the division cycle of Escherichia coli; effects of radioisotope decay in the DNA of microorganisms; initiation and termination of DNA replication in Bacillus subtilis; mutagenesis in mouse myeloma cells; lethal and mutagenic effects of near-uv radiation; effect of 8-methoxypsoralen on photodynamic lethality and mutagenicity in Escherichia coli; DNA repair of the lethal effects of far-uv; and near uv irradiation of bacterial cells

  20. Controlled field release of a bioluminescent genetically engineered microorganism for bioremediation process monitoring and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripp, S.; Nivens, D.E.; Ahn, Y.; Werner, C.; Jarrell, J. IV; Easter, J.P.; Cox, C.D.; Burlage, R.S.; Sayler, G.S.

    2000-03-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44 represents the first genetically engineered microorganism approved for field testing in the United States for bioremediation purposes. Strain HK44 harbors an introduced lux gene fused within a naphthalene degradative pathway, thereby allowing this recombinant microbe to bioluminescent as it degrades specific polyaromatic hydrocarbons such as naphthalene. The bioremediation process can therefore be monitored by the detection of light. P. fluorescens HK44 was inoculated into the vadose zone of intermediate-scale, semicontained soil lysimeters contaminated with naphthalene, anthracene, and phenanthrene, and the population dynamics were followed over an approximate 2-year period in order to assess the long-term efficacy of using strain HK44 for monitoring and controlling bioremediation processes. Results showed that P. fluorescens HK44 was capable of surviving initial inoculation into both hydrocarbon contaminated and uncontaminated soils and was recoverable from these soils 660 days post inoculation. It was also demonstrated that strain HK44 was capable of generating bioluminescence in response to soil hydrocarbon bioavailability. Bioluminescence approaching 166,000 counts/s was detected in fiber optic-based biosensor devices responding to volatile polyaromatic hydrocarbons, while a portable photomultiplier module detected bioluminescence at an average of 4300 counts/s directly from soil-borne HK44 cells within localized treatment areas. The utilization of lux-based bioreporter microorganisms therefore promises to be a viable option for in situ determination of environmental contaminant bioavailability and biodegradation process monitoring and control.

  1. Genetic algorithms for optimal design and control of adaptive structures

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeiro, R; Dias-Rodrigues, J; Vaz, M

    2000-01-01

    Future High Energy Physics experiments require the use of light and stable structures to support their most precise radiation detection elements. These large structures must be light, highly stable, stiff and radiation tolerant in an environment where external vibrations, high radiation levels, material aging, temperature and humidity gradients are not negligible. Unforeseen factors and the unknown result of the coupling of environmental conditions, together with external vibrations, may affect the position stability of the detectors and their support structures compromising their physics performance. Careful optimization of static and dynamic behavior must be an essential part of the engineering design. Genetic Algorithms ( GA) belong to the group of probabilistic algorithms, combining elements of direct and stochastic search. They are more robust than existing directed search methods with the advantage of maintaining a population of potential solutions. There is a class of optimization problems for which Ge...

  2. From many, one: genetic control of prolificacy during maize domestication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Wills

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A reduction in number and an increase in size of inflorescences is a common aspect of plant domestication. When maize was domesticated from teosinte, the number and arrangement of ears changed dramatically. Teosinte has long lateral branches that bear multiple small ears at their nodes and tassels at their tips. Maize has much shorter lateral branches that are tipped by a single large ear with no additional ears at the branch nodes. To investigate the genetic basis of this difference in prolificacy (the number of ears on a plant, we performed a genome-wide QTL scan. A large effect QTL for prolificacy (prol1.1 was detected on the short arm of chromosome 1 in a location that has previously been shown to influence multiple domestication traits. We fine-mapped prol1.1 to a 2.7 kb "causative region" upstream of the grassy tillers1 (gt1 gene, which encodes a homeodomain leucine zipper transcription factor. Tissue in situ hybridizations reveal that the maize allele of prol1.1 is associated with up-regulation of gt1 expression in the nodal plexus. Given that maize does not initiate secondary ear buds, the expression of gt1 in the nodal plexus in maize may suppress their initiation. Population genetic analyses indicate positive selection on the maize allele of prol1.1, causing a partial sweep that fixed the maize allele throughout most of domesticated maize. This work shows how a subtle cis-regulatory change in tissue specific gene expression altered plant architecture in a way that improved the harvestability of maize.

  3. Genetic diversity analysis of mitochondrial DNA control region in artificially propagated Chinese sucker Myxocyprinus asiaticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yuan; Zhou, Chun-Hua; Ouyang, Shan; Huang, Xiao-Chen; Zhan, Yang; Zhou, Ping; Rong, Jun; Wu, Xiao-Ping

    2015-08-01

    The genetic diversity of the three major artificially propagated populations of Chinese sucker, an endangered freshwater fish species, was investigated using the sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control regions. Among the 89 individuals tested, 66 variable sites (7.26%) and 10 haplotypes were detected (Haplotype diversity Hd = 0.805, Nucleotide diversity π = 0.0287). In general, genetic diversity was lower in artificially propagated populations than in wild populations. This reduction in genetic diversity may be due to population bottlenecks, genetic drift and human selection. A stepping-stone pattern of gene flow was detected in the populations studied, showing much higher gene flow between neighbouring populations. To increase the genetic diversity, wild lineages should be introduced, and more lineages should be shared among artificially propagated populations.

  4. Potential International Approaches to Ownership/Control of Human Genetic Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Catherine

    2016-09-01

    In its governance activities for genetic resources, the international community has adopted various approaches to their ownership, including: free access; common heritage of mankind; intellectual property rights; and state sovereign rights. They have also created systems which combine elements of these approaches. While governance of plant and animal genetic resources is well-established internationally, there has not yet been a clear approach selected for human genetic resources. Based on assessment of the goals which international governance of human genetic resources ought to serve, and the implications for how they will be accessed and utilised, it is argued that common heritage of mankind will be the most appropriate approach to adopt to their ownership/control. It does this with the aim of stimulating discussion in this area and providing a starting point for deeper consideration of how a common heritage of mankind, or similar, regime for human genetic resources would function and be implemented.

  5. Genetic and environmental influences on the relationship between flow proneness, locus of control and behavioral inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam A Mosing

    Full Text Available Flow is a psychological state of high but subjectively effortless attention that typically occurs during active performance of challenging tasks and is accompanied by a sense of automaticity, high control, low self-awareness, and enjoyment. Flow proneness is associated with traits and behaviors related to low neuroticism such as emotional stability, conscientiousness, active coping, self-esteem and life satisfaction. Little is known about the genetic architecture of flow proneness, behavioral inhibition and locus of control--traits also associated with neuroticism--and their interrelation. Here, we hypothesized that individuals low in behavioral inhibition and with an internal locus of control would be more likely to experience flow and explored the genetic and environmental architecture of the relationship between the three variables. Behavioral inhibition and locus of control was measured in a large population sample of 3,375 full twin pairs and 4,527 single twins, about 26% of whom also scored the flow proneness questionnaire. Findings revealed significant but relatively low correlations between the three traits and moderate heritability estimates of .41, .45, and .30 for flow proneness, behavioral inhibition, and locus of control, respectively, with some indication of non-additive genetic influences. For behavioral inhibition we found significant sex differences in heritability, with females showing a higher estimate including significant non-additive genetic influences, while in males the entire heritability was due to additive genetic variance. We also found a mainly genetically mediated relationship between the three traits, suggesting that individuals who are genetically predisposed to experience flow, show less behavioral inhibition (less anxious and feel that they are in control of their own destiny (internal locus of control. We discuss that some of the genes underlying this relationship may include those influencing the function of

  6. Automatic Tuning of PID Controller for a 1-D Levitation System Using a Genetic Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Pedersen, Gerulf K.m.

    2006-01-01

    The automatic PID control design for a onedimensional magnetic levitation system is investigated. The PID controller is automatically tuned using the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) based on a nonlinear system model. The developed controller is digitally implemented and tested....... The preliminary simulation and test results show a bright potential to use artificial intelligence methods for supporting the control design for complicated nonlinear and open-loop unstable systems....

  7. A Genetic Cerebellar-Based Controller for Dynamic State Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-31

    and development time, yet outperforms traditional control methods. Our testbed system was a high degree-of-freedom 3-D biped robot . In simulation, we...walking trials on the actual (hardware) biped to adaptively improve the hardware model. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Non-linear control, evolutionary robotics ...have constructed a nine DOF biped robot to test the ability of algorithms to overcome problems including sensor noise, actuator variability, parts

  8. The Major Genetic Determinants of HIV-1 Control Affect HLA Class I Peptide Presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Pereyra, Florencia; Jia, Xiaoming; McLaren, Paul J.; Telenti, Amalio; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Walker, Bruce D.; Jia, Xiaoming; McLaren, Paul J.; Ripke, Stephan; Brumme, Chanson J.; Pulit, Sara L.; Telenti, Amalio; Carrington, Mary; Kadie, Carl M.; Carlson, Jonathan M.

    2010-01-01

    Infectious and inflammatory diseases have repeatedly shown strong genetic associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); however, the basis for these associations remains elusive. To define host genetic effects on the outcome of a chronic viral infection, we performed genome-wide association analysis in a multiethnic cohort of HIV-1 controllers and progressors, and we analyzed the effects of individual amino acids within the classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) proteins. W...

  9. The Long and Short of Genetic Counseling Summary Letters: A Case-control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggenbuck, J; Temme, R; Pond, D; Baker, J; Jarvis, K; Liu, M; Dugan, S; Mendelsohn, N J

    2015-08-01

    Genetic counseling summary letters are intended to reinforce information received during genetic counseling, but little information is available on patient/family responses to these letters. We conducted a case-control study to assess the effectiveness of two different letter formats. Parents of children receiving a new diagnosis were enrolled. The control group (n = 85) received a genetic counseling summary letter in a narrative format, 4-5 pages in length. After the control enrollment period, genetic counselors were trained by a professional medical writer to develop a concise letter format. The case group (n = 64) received a concise letter, approximately 1.5 pages in length, utilizing simple sentences, lay terms, and lists/bullet points. Parents completed a survey 4 weeks after the visit to rate the letter's format, usefulness, and their emotional reaction. Results show that parents in the case group rated the letter more highly (p = 0.023), particularly in the emotional response dimension (rating changes in anxiety, depression, fear, ability to cope, and confidence in response to the letter). Parents in the case group also rated the genetic counseling session more highly (p = 0.039). In the control group, parents without a college degree were more likely to rate the letter as too long and the level of medical detail as too high. In the case group, no significant differences were seen between parents with or without a college degree. These data suggest that a short genetic counseling summary letter is rated higher by parents, and is particularly associated with a more positive emotional reaction. A short letter format highlighting the basic facts related to the genetic condition may be more useful to parents of diverse educational backgrounds, and may support a positive emotional adaptation at the time of a new diagnosis. Genetic counselors may benefit from specific instruction in medical and educational writing.

  10. The Neurobiology and Genetics of Impulse Control Disorders: Relationships to Drug Addictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Judson A.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2008-01-01

    Impulse control disorders (ICDs), including pathological gambling, trichotillomania, kleptomania and others, have been conceptualized to lie along an impulsive-compulsive spectrum. Recent data have suggested that these disorders may be considered addictions. Here we review the genetic and neuropathological bases of the impulse control disorders and consider the disorders within these non-mutually exclusive frameworks. PMID:17719013

  11. Genetic control of plasticity in root morphology and anatomy of rice in response to water deficit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadam, Niteen N.; Tamilselvan, Anandhan; Lawas, Lovely M.F.; Quinones, Cherryl; Bahuguna, Rajeev N.; Thomson, Michael J.; Dingkuhn, Michael; Muthurajan, Raveendran; Struik, Paul C.; Yin, Xinyou; Jagadish, Krishna S.V.

    2017-01-01

    Elucidating the genetic control of rooting behavior under water-deficit stress is essential to breed climate-robust rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars. Using a diverse panel of 274 indica genotypes grown under control and water-deficit conditions during vegetative growth, we phenotyped 35 traits, mostly

  12. Genetic control of methyl halide production in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhew, Robert C; Østergaard, Lars; Saltzman, Eric S; Yanofsky, Martin F

    2003-10-14

    Methyl chloride (CH(3)Cl) and methyl bromide (CH(3)Br) are the primary carriers of natural chlorine and bromine, respectively, to the stratosphere, where they catalyze the destruction of ozone, whereas methyl iodide (CH(3)I) influences aerosol formation and ozone loss in the boundary layer. CH(3)Br is also an agricultural pesticide whose use is regulated by international agreement. Despite the economic and environmental importance of these methyl halides, their natural sources and biological production mechanisms are poorly understood. Besides CH(3)Br fumigation, important sources include oceans, biomass burning, tropical plants, salt marshes, and certain crops and fungi. Here, we demonstrate that the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana produces and emits methyl halides and that the enzyme primarily responsible for the production is encoded by the HARMLESS TO OZONE LAYER (HOL) gene. The encoded protein belongs to a group of methyltransferases capable of catalyzing the S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM)-dependent methylation of chloride (Cl(-)), bromide (Br(-)), and iodide (I(-)) to produce methyl halides. In mutant plants with the HOL gene disrupted, methyl halide production is largely eliminated. A phylogenetic analysis with the HOL gene suggests that the ability to produce methyl halides is widespread among vascular plants. This approach provides a genetic basis for understanding and predicting patterns of methyl halide production by plants.

  13. Optimal shape control of functionally graded smart plates using genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, K. M.; He, X. Q.; Meguid, S. A.

    This paper deals with optimal shape control of functionally graded smart plate containing patches of piezoelectric sensors and actuators. The genetic algorithm (GA) is designed to search for optimal actuator voltage and displacement control gains for the shape control of the functionally graded material (FGM) plates. The work extends the earlier finite element formulations of the two leading authors, so that it can be readily treated using genetic algorithms. Numerical results have been obtained to study the effect of the shape control of the FGM plates under a temperature gradient by optimising (i) the voltage distribution for the open loop control, and (ii) the displacement control gain values for the closed loop feedback control. The effect of the constituent volume fractions of zirconia, through varying the volume fraction exponent n, on the optimal voltages and gain values has also been examined.

  14. Genetically Controlled Fusion, Exocytosis and Fission of Artificial Vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bönzli, Eva; Hadorn, Maik; De Lucrezia, Davide

    to induce in a next step fusion of adjacent vesicles, fission and exocytosis of nested vesicles. Second, we will replace the peptides by an enclosed cell-free expression system to internally synthesize fusion peptides. To control the gene expression, different mechanisms are available, e.g. addition...... of transcription factors. Changes in the pH are reported to control the activity of the fusion peptides. So far, we successfully enclosed a commercially available cell-free system and expressed eGFP in vesicles as a proof of principle. Furthermore, we optimized the already established protocol to produce nested...

  15. Advances in genetic engineering for plants abiotic stress control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consequently, engineering genes that protect and maintain the function and structure of cellular components can enhance tolerance to stress. This review presents principal methods adapted in the control of plants abiotic stresses including recent advances in using transgenes for the improvement of abiotic stress tolerance ...

  16. Building beauty: the genetic control of floral patterning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmann, J. U., and Weigel, D.

    2002-02-01

    OAK-B135 Floral organ identity is controlled by combinatorial action of homeotic genes expressed in different territories within the emerging flower. This review discusses recent progress in our understanding of floral homeotic genes, with an emphasis on how their region-specific expression is regulated.

  17. Genetic control of wood density and bark thickness, and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tree diameter under and over bark at breast height (dbh), wood density and bark thickness were assessed on samples from control-pollinated families of Eucalyptus grandis, E. urophylla, E. grandis × E. urophylla and E. urophylla × E. grandis. The material was planted in field trials in the coastal Zululand region of South ...

  18. Internal combustion engine control for series hybrid electric vehicles by parallel and distributed genetic programming/multiobjective genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladwin, D.; Stewart, P.; Stewart, J.

    2011-02-01

    This article addresses the problem of maintaining a stable rectified DC output from the three-phase AC generator in a series-hybrid vehicle powertrain. The series-hybrid prime power source generally comprises an internal combustion (IC) engine driving a three-phase permanent magnet generator whose output is rectified to DC. A recent development has been to control the engine/generator combination by an electronically actuated throttle. This system can be represented as a nonlinear system with significant time delay. Previously, voltage control of the generator output has been achieved by model predictive methods such as the Smith Predictor. These methods rely on the incorporation of an accurate system model and time delay into the control algorithm, with a consequent increase in computational complexity in the real-time controller, and as a necessity relies to some extent on the accuracy of the models. Two complementary performance objectives exist for the control system. Firstly, to maintain the IC engine at its optimal operating point, and secondly, to supply a stable DC supply to the traction drive inverters. Achievement of these goals minimises the transient energy storage requirements at the DC link, with a consequent reduction in both weight and cost. These objectives imply constant velocity operation of the IC engine under external load disturbances and changes in both operating conditions and vehicle speed set-points. In order to achieve these objectives, and reduce the complexity of implementation, in this article a controller is designed by the use of Genetic Programming methods in the Simulink modelling environment, with the aim of obtaining a relatively simple controller for the time-delay system which does not rely on the implementation of real time system models or time delay approximations in the controller. A methodology is presented to utilise the miriad of existing control blocks in the Simulink libraries to automatically evolve optimal control

  19. Genetic control of albinism in pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettys, Lyn A; Wofford, David S

    2007-01-01

    Pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata L.) is a diploid (2n = 2x = 16) perennial aquaphyte. Preliminary studies revealed that a group of nonalbino pickerelweed plants maintained for breeding and inheritance studies regularly produced albino seedlings. The objective of this experiment was to determine the number of loci, number of alleles, and gene action controlling albinism in pickerelweed. Five nonalbino parental lines were used in this experiment to create S(1) and F(1) populations. F(2) populations were produced through self-pollination of F(1) plants. Evaluation of S(1), F(1), and F(2) generations allowed us to identify a single diallelic locus controlling albinism in these populations of pickerelweed, with albinism completely recessive to normal green leaf production. We propose that this locus be named albino with alleles A and a.

  20. Some aspects of genetic control of antibiotic biosynthesis in Streptomyces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. P. Teplitskaya

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available These work contain a review of basic hypotheses and experimental information in relation to the problem of antibiotic synthesis regulation by the bacteria of the Streptomyces family. Data on cluster organization of antibiotics biosynthesis genes in these microorganisms were generalized. The examples of the positive and negative specific control of antibiotic production genes were resulted. Except for it, proofs that confirm participation of a few genes of more high level in the process of initiation and expression of antibiotics biosynthesis genes also were found. In this connection А-factor role in the mechanism of cascade-organized process of streptomycin biosynthesis control, some other antibiotics and spore determinations is discussed in detail.

  1. Periodic heartbeat reversals cause cardiogenic inspiration and expiration with coupled spiracle leakage in resting blowflies, Calliphora vicina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserthal, Lutz T

    2014-05-01

    Respiration in insects is thought to be independent of the circulatory system because insects typically lack respiratory pigments and because oxygen transport occurs in the gaseous phase through a ramified tracheal system by diffusion and convection directly to the tissues. In the blowfly, as in other insects with periodic heartbeat reversal, the haemolymph is periodically shifted between the anterior body and abdomen, exerting alternating pressure changes on the compliant tracheae in the thorax and in the abdomen. Simultaneous pressure and O2 optode measurements show that, during negative pressure periods, the tracheal partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) increases by 0.5 kPa. In the quiescent fly, tracheal PO2 is rather high (17.5-18.9 kPa), although the thoracic spiracles remain constricted. Microscopic video recordings and reflectance measurements revealed that the dorsal soft edges of the valve lips of the second spiracle leave a very small leak, which is passively widened during backward pulses of the heart. Thus, negative pressure, combined with increased leakage of the spiracle Sp2 valve enable inspiration in the thorax. The positive pressure periods are correlated with a new type of convective CO2 micro-bursts as shown in flow-through measurements. The bulk of the CO2 is, however, released after longer interbursts in macro-bursts with actively opening valves reminiscent of the open phase in a cyclic gas exchange. When the valves open, the PO2 in the thoracic air sacs unexpectedly drops by a mean of 2.75±1.09 kPa, suggesting a displacement of O2 by the transient accumulation of CO2 in the tracheal system before its release.

  2. Effects of floral scents and their dietary experiences on the feeding preference in the blowfly, Phormia regina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru eMaeda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe flowers of different plant species have diverse scents with varied chemical compositions. Hence, every floral scent does not uniformly affect insect feeding preferences. The blowfly, Phormia regina, is a nectar feeder, and when a fly feeds on flower nectar, its olfactory organs, antennae, and maxillary palps are exposed to the scent. Generally, feeding preference is influenced by food flavor, which relies on both taste and odor. Therefore, the flies perceive the sweet taste of nectar and the particular scent of the flower simultaneously, and this olfactory information affects their feeding preference. Here, we show that the floral scents of 50 plant species have various effects on their sucrose feeding motivation, which was evaluated using the proboscis extension reflex (PER. Those floral scents were first categorized into three groups, based on their effects on the PER threshold sucrose concentration, which indicates whether a fly innately dislikes, ignores, or likes the target scent. Moreover, memory of olfactory experience with those floral scents during sugar feeding influenced the PER threshold. After feeding on sucrose solutions flavored with floral scents for 5 days, the scents did not consistently show the previously observed effects. Considering such empirical effects of scents on the PER threshold, we categorized the effects of the 50 tested floral scents on feeding preference into 16 of all possible 27 theoretical types. We then conducted the same experiments with flies whose antennae or maxillary palps were ablated prior to PER test in a fly group naïve to floral scents and prior to the olfactory experience during sugar feeding in the other fly group in order to test how these organs were involved in the effect of the floral scent. The results suggested that olfactory inputs through these organs play different roles in forming or modifying feeding preferences. Thus, our study contributes to an understanding of underlying

  3. Climate Shapes the Geographic Distribution of the Blowfly Sarconesia chlorogaster (Diptera: Calliphoridae): An Environmental Niche Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecheta, Melise Cristine; Corrêa, Rodrigo César; Moura, Mauricio Osvaldo

    2017-10-01

    For all species, abiotic factors directly affect performance, survival and reproduction, and consequently, their geographic distribution. Species distribution models (SDMs) are important tools to predict the influence of abiotic factors in species distributions and has been more applied over the years. However, these models can be built under different algorithms and using different methods to select environmental predictors, which can lead to different results. Five different algorithms and two sets of environmental predictors were compared to predict the geographic distribution of the blowfly Sarconesia chlorogaster (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). This species has several occurrence points and a considerable amount of biological data available, which makes S. chlorogaster a good model system to compare environmental predictors. Two sets of environmental predictors (mainly derived from temperature and humidity) were built, and the set based on the influence of abiotic variables on the ecophysiology of S. chlorogaster showed better results than the principal component analysis (PCA) approach using 19 climatic variables. We also employed five modeling algorithms-Envelope Score, Mahalanobis Distance, GARP, Support Vector Machines, and Maxent-and the latter two showed the best performances. The results indicate that temperature is the main factor shaping geographic distribution of S. chlorogaster through its effect on fitness. Furthermore, we showed that this species is mainly distributed in south, southeastern, and some northwestern and southwestern sites of South America. In addition, our results also predicted suitable areas in Ecuador and Colombia, countries without previous records. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Effects of Floral Scents and Their Dietary Experiences on the Feeding Preference in the Blowfly, Phormia regina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Toru; Tamotsu, Miwako; Yamaoka, Ryohei; Ozaki, Mamiko

    2015-01-01

    The flowers of different plant species have diverse scents with varied chemical compositions. Hence, every floral scent does not uniformly affect insect feeding preferences. The blowfly, Phormia regina, is a nectar feeder, and when a fly feeds on flower nectar, its olfactory organs, antennae, and maxillary palps are exposed to the scent. Generally, feeding preference is influenced by food flavor, which relies on both taste and odor. Therefore, the flies perceive the sweet taste of nectar and the particular scent of the flower simultaneously, and this olfactory information affects their feeding preference. Here, we show that the floral scents of 50 plant species have various effects on their sucrose feeding motivation, which was evaluated using the proboscis extension reflex (PER). Those floral scents were first categorized into three groups, based on their effects on the PER threshold sucrose concentration, which indicates whether a fly innately dislikes, ignores, or likes the target scent. Moreover, memory of olfactory experience with those floral scents during sugar feeding influenced the PER threshold. After feeding on sucrose solutions flavored with floral scents for 5 days, the scents did not consistently show the previously observed effects. Considering such empirical effects of scents on the PER threshold, we categorized the effects of the 50 tested floral scents on feeding preference into 16 of all possible 27 theoretical types. We then conducted the same experiments with flies whose antennae or maxillary palps were ablated prior to PER test in a fly group naïve to floral scents and prior to the olfactory experience during sugar feeding in the other fly group in order to test how these organs were involved in the effect of the floral scent. The results suggested that olfactory inputs through these organs play different roles in forming or modifying feeding preferences. Thus, our study contributes to an understanding of underlying mechanisms associated with

  5. Report of the Advisory Group Meeting on Genetic Methods of Insect Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Despite the availability of a range of modern pest control techniques, insects remain a major cause of production losses in agriculture and contribute significantly to diseases of man and livestock. The increasing incidence of pesticide resistance, and concerns over the environmental impact of residues, have highlighted the need for improved technologies. As a result, genetic methods of pest control, including the use of irradiation sterilized insects, have become of increasing importance. It is therefore essential that the Joint FAO/IAEA Division continues to promote the development and application of this method of pest control. The advisory group concluded that the opportunities for genetic control might be widened by the application of new techniques, particularly recombinant DNA technology. The scope for integration of genetic control methods with other control measures, and ist use as a temporary suppressive measure on an area-wide basis was also recognized. Examples are given from representative groups of insect pests to illustrate how these concepts can be applied. The advisory group regarded the Seibersdorf laboratory as a unique facility for the conduct of tactical research related to mass-rearing and release procedures for major pests such as medfly and tsetse spp. Associated research on genetic sexing of medfly, diet recycling and the development of more environmentally acceptable alternatives for pre-release suppression of medfly were considered to be important research projects. The advisory group concluded that the laboratory should continue to remain a centre of excellence for mass-rearing technologies for medfly and tsetse spp., and for training scientists and technicians from developing countries. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division currently plays a major co-ordinating and supportive role for those areas of international research which impinge on genetic control. The advisory group believes that the Joint FAO/IAEA Division should maintain its initiative

  6. Design of the Fuzzy Control Systems Based on Genetic Algorithm for Intelligent Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyula Mester

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives the structure optimization of fuzzy control systems based on genetic algorithm in the MATLAB environment. The genetic algorithm is a powerful tool for structure optimization of the fuzzy controllers, therefore, in this paper, integration and synthesis of fuzzy logic and genetic algorithm has been proposed. The genetic algorithms are applied for fuzzy rules set, scaling factors and membership functions optimization. The fuzzy control structure initial consist of the 3 membership functions and 9 rules and after the optimization it is enough for the 4 DOF SCARA Robot control to compensate for structured and unstructured uncertainty. Fuzzy controller with the generalized bell membership functions can provide better dynamic performance of the robot then with the triangular membership functions. The proposed joint-space controller is computationally simple and had adaptability to a sudden change in the dynamics of the robot. Results of the computer simulation applied to the 4 DOF SCARA Robot show the validity of the proposed method.

  7. Chaotic queue-based genetic algorithm for design of a self-tuning fuzzy logic controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Sanju; Saini, J. S.

    2012-11-01

    This paper employs a chaotic queue-based method using logistic equation in a non-canonical genetic algorithm for optimizing the performance of a self-tuning Fuzzy Logic Controller, used for controlling a nonlinear double-coupled system. A comparison has been made with a standard canonical genetic algorithm implemented on the same plant. It has been shown that chaotic queue-method brings an improvement in the performance of the FLC for wide range of set point changes by a more profound initial population spread in the search space.

  8. Genetic variation at loci controlling quality traits in spring wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, N.; Iqbal, M.; Asif, M.

    2013-01-01

    Selection for quality traits in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) during early breeding generations requires quick analytical methods that need small grain samples. Marker assisted selection can be useful for the improvement of quality traits in wheat. The present study was conducted to screen 117 Pakistani adapted spring wheat varieties with DNA markers linked with genes controlling composition of low and high molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS and HMW-GS, respectively), starch viscosity, Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and grain hardness. DNA fragments associated with the presence/absence of quality related genes were amplified using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and detected using agarose gel electrophoresis. Positive allele of beta-secalin, which indicates presence of 1B.1R translocation, was found in 77 (66%) varieties. The marker PPO05 was found in 30 (26%) varieties, indicating lower PPO activity. Grain hardness controlled by Pinb-D1b allele was present in 49 (42%) varieties. Allele Wx-B1b which confers superior noodle quality was found in 48 (41%) varieties. HMW-GS encoded by Glu-D1d allele that exerts a positive effect on dough strength was present in 115 (98%) varieties. LMW-GS alleles Glu-A3d and Glu-B3 were observed in 21 (18%) and 76 (65%) varieties, respectively. Results of the present study may help wheat breeders in selecting parents for improving desirable quality attributes of future wheat varieties. The varieties, identified having desirable quality genes, in this study can be used in the wheat breeding programs aiming to improve quality traits. Early generation marker assisted selection can help to efficiently utilize resources of a breeding program. (author)

  9. Control of Disease Induced by Tospoviruses in Tomato: An Update of the Genetic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cebolla-Cornejo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the search for genetic resistance to tospoviruses affecting tomato crops are reviewed. The economic losses caused by Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV, the great number of hosts it affects and its wide distribution around the world has made TSWV one of the ten most important plant viruses. Other viruses in or related to the same genus also cause severe damage, although their presence in the world is much more localized. Due to the limited effectiveness of physical, chemical and biological control methods, the use of genetic resistance for control is the best management strategy on a medium-long term basis. Given the relative ease with which new TSWV isolates that overcome existing genetic resistance are generated, it is of prime importance to continue the search for new sources of resistance, as well as to promote a better exploitation of available ones. A better understanding of the mechanisms causing resistance and of their genetic control, as well as the identification of molecular markers linked to resistance genes, would enable the pyramiding of different resistance genes. This would be a positive contribution to the development of a greater and more durable resistance. It is also necessary to further the study of genetic resistance to other viruses of the genus Tospovirus, as globalisation can speed up their distribution throughout the world.

  10. Automatic Design of Robust Optimal Controller for Interval Plants Using Genetic Programming and Kharitonov Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Chen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach to automatic design of a robust optimal controller for interval plants with Genetic Programming based on Kharitonov Theorem (KT, which provides a theoretical foundation in the design of robust controller for interval plants. The structure and parameters of the robust optimal controller for interval plants are optimized by Genetic Programming and the Generalized KT related stability criteria are integrated into the solution to guarantee the stability of the closed-loop system. Consequently, the evolved controller not only minimizes time-weighted absolute error (ITAE of the closed-loop system, but also stabilizes the whole interval plant family robustly. Finally, the simulations on a benchmark problem show that the proposed method can effectively generate a robust optimal controller for interval plants.

  11. Cannabis use and genetic predisposition for schizophrenia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veling, W; Mackenbach, J P; van Os, J; Hoek, H W

    2008-09-01

    Cannabis use may be a risk factor for schizophrenia. Part of this association may be explained by genotype-environment interaction, and part of it by genotype-environment correlation. The latter issue has not been explored. We investigated whether cannabis use is associated with schizophrenia, and whether gene-environment correlation contributes to this association, by examining the prevalence of cannabis use in groups with different levels of genetic predisposition for schizophrenia. Case-control study of first-episode schizophrenia. Cases included all non-Western immigrants who made first contact with a physician for schizophrenia in The Hague, The Netherlands, between October 2000 and July 2005 (n=100; highest genetic predisposition). Two matched control groups were recruited, one among siblings of the cases (n=63; intermediate genetic predisposition) and one among immigrants who made contact with non-psychiatric secondary health-care services (n=100; lowest genetic predisposition). Conditional logistic regression analyses were used to predict schizophrenia as a function of cannabis use, and cannabis use as a function of genetic predisposition for schizophrenia. Cases had used cannabis significantly more often than their siblings and general hospital controls (59, 21 and 21% respectively). Cannabis use predicted schizophrenia [adjusted odds ratio (OR) cases compared to general hospital controls 7.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.7-22.6; adjusted OR cases compared to siblings 15.9 (95% CI 1.5-167.1)], but genetic predisposition for schizophrenia did not predict cannabis use [adjusted OR intermediate predisposition compared to lowest predisposition 1.2 (95% CI 0.4-3.8)]. Cannabis use was associated with schizophrenia but there was no evidence for genotype-environment correlation.

  12. Physiology and genetics of metabolic flux control in Zymomonas mobilis. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, T.

    1992-08-01

    This work seeks to understand the role of gene expression in regulating glycolytic enzyme synthesis in a balance that allows proper glycoltic flux control. The seven genes targeted for study in this laboratory have been cloned and sequenced, and molecular details of regulation have been investigated. Clear that glycolytic enzyme synthesis is coordinated to prevent the build up of toxic metabolic intermediates. The genetic mechanisms responsible for regulating balanced expression of the EntnerDoudoroff and glycolytic genes in Z. mobilis are beginning to be understood. Several layers of genetic control, perhaps in a hierarchal arrangement act in concert to determine the relative abundance of the glycolytic enzymes. These genetic controls involve differential translational efficiency, highly conserved promoter sequences, transcription factors, differential mRNA stabilities, and nucleolytic mRNA processing. The serendipitous cloning of the glucose facilitator, glf, as a result of linkage to several other genes of interest will have a significant impact on the study of Z. mobilis metabolism. The glucose facilitator is being characterized in a genetically reconstituted system in E. coli. Molecular genetic studies indicate that the ratio of glf expression to that of glk, zmf, and edd is carefully regulated, and suggests a critical role in metabolic control. Regulation of glycolytic gene expression is now sufficiently well understood to allow use of the glycolytic genes as tools to manipulate specified enzyme levels for the purpose of analyzing metabolic flux control. The critical genes have been subcloned for stable expression in Z. mobilis and placed under control of a regulated promoter system involving the tac promoter, the lacI repressor, and gene induction in by IPTG. HPLC methods have been developed that allow quantitation of virtually all of the metabolic intermediates in the cell pool.

  13. Genetically-modified mosquitoes for malaria control: requirements to be considered before field releases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touré, Y.T.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2006-01-01

    The technical feasibility of the development of transgenic mosquitoes highly refractory to (rodent) malaria parasites has been demonstrated in the laboratory. Following this proof of principle, genetic control of vectors could have an important role to play in the interruption of transmission of

  14. [Genetic control of the isoenzymes in Cembra pine (Pinus cembra L.) in the Ukrainian Carpathian Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirko, Ia V; Korshikov, I I

    2001-01-01

    Genetic control of GOT, GDH, DIA, MDH, SOD, FDH, ADH, ACP, and LAP enzymes was studied in the seed megagametophytes of cembra pine (Pinus cembra L.) from the natural population of the Ukrainian Carpa-thian mountains. Efficient electrophoretic separation was obtained for 21 loci products. The analysis of allele segregation in heterozygous trees confirms monogenic inheritance of the revealed variants.

  15. Genetic diversity in the mtDNA control region and population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the genetic structure and phylogeographical patterns of Sardinella zunasi in Northwestern Pacific. The mitochondrial DNA control region was sequenced for 77 individuals of S.zunasi from four localities over most of the species range. A total of 215 polymorphic sites (72 parsimony informative) and 69 ...

  16. [Genetic control of Silver fir isozymes (Abies alba Mill.) of the Ukrainian Carpathian Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshikov, I I; Morozova, N N; Pirko, Ia V

    2003-01-01

    Genetic control of GOT, GDH, DIA, MDH, ME, SOD, FDH, ADH, ACP, LAP enzymes has been studied in the seed megagametophytes of Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) from four natural populations of the Ukrainian Carpathian mountains. The distinct electrophoretic division has been obtained for the 21 loci products. The analysis of allele segregation in the heterozygous trees confirms monogenic inheritance of the revealed variants.

  17. Genetic control of plant development by overriding a geometric division rule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoshida, S.; Barbier de Reuille, P.; Lane, B.; Bassel, G.W.; Prusinkiewicz, P.; Smith, R.S.; Weijers, D.

    2014-01-01

    Formative cell divisions are critical for multicellular patterning. In the early plant embryo, such divisions follow from orienting the division plane. A major unanswered question is how division plane orientation is genetically controlled, and in particular whether this relates to cell geometry. We

  18. Management of Uncertainty by Statistical Process Control and a Genetic Tuned Fuzzy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Birle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In food industry, bioprocesses like fermentation often are a crucial part of the manufacturing process and decisive for the final product quality. In general, they are characterized by highly nonlinear dynamics and uncertainties that make it difficult to control these processes by the use of traditional control techniques. In this context, fuzzy logic controllers offer quite a straightforward way to control processes that are affected by nonlinear behavior and uncertain process knowledge. However, in order to maintain process safety and product quality it is necessary to specify the controller performance and to tune the controller parameters. In this work, an approach is presented to establish an intelligent control system for oxidoreductive yeast propagation as a representative process biased by the aforementioned uncertainties. The presented approach is based on statistical process control and fuzzy logic feedback control. As the cognitive uncertainty among different experts about the limits that define the control performance as still acceptable may differ a lot, a data-driven design method is performed. Based upon a historic data pool statistical process corridors are derived for the controller inputs control error and change in control error. This approach follows the hypothesis that if the control performance criteria stay within predefined statistical boundaries, the final process state meets the required quality definition. In order to keep the process on its optimal growth trajectory (model based reference trajectory a fuzzy logic controller is used that alternates the process temperature. Additionally, in order to stay within the process corridors, a genetic algorithm was applied to tune the input and output fuzzy sets of a preliminarily parameterized fuzzy controller. The presented experimental results show that the genetic tuned fuzzy controller is able to keep the process within its allowed limits. The average absolute error to the

  19. Host Genetic Control of the Microbiota Mediates the Drosophila Nutritional Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaston, John M.; Dobson, Adam J.; Newell, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    A wealth of studies has demonstrated that resident microorganisms (microbiota) influence the pattern of nutrient allocation to animal protein and energy stores, but it is unclear how the effects of the microbiota interact with other determinants of animal nutrition, including animal genetic factors and diet. Here, we demonstrate that members of the gut microbiota in Drosophila melanogaster mediate the effect of certain animal genetic determinants on an important nutritional trait, triglyceride (lipid) content. Parallel analysis of the taxonomic composition of the associated bacterial community and host nutritional indices (glucose, glycogen, triglyceride, and protein contents) in multiple Drosophila genotypes revealed significant associations between the abundance of certain microbial taxa, especially Acetobacteraceae and Xanthamonadaceae, and host nutritional phenotype. By a genome-wide association study of Drosophila lines colonized with a defined microbiota, multiple host genes were statistically associated with the abundance of one bacterium, Acetobacter tropicalis. Experiments using mutant Drosophila validated the genetic association evidence and reveal that host genetic control of microbiota abundance affects the nutritional status of the flies. These data indicate that the abundance of the resident microbiota is influenced by host genotype, with consequent effects on nutrient allocation patterns, demonstrating that host genetic control of the microbiome contributes to the genotype-phenotype relationship of the animal host. PMID:26567306

  20. Research on central heating system control strategy based on genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Sa; Yang, Jianhua; Lu, Wei; Duan, Zhipeng

    2017-03-01

    The central heating is a major way of warming in northeast China in winter, however, the traditional heating method is inefficient, intensifying the energy consumption. How to improve the heating efficiency and reduce energy waste attracts more and more attentions in our country. In this paper, the mathematical model of heat transfer station temperature control system was established based on the structure of central heating system. The feedforward-feedback control strategy was used to overcome temperature fluctuations caused by the pressurized heating exchange system. The genetic algorithm was used to optimize the parameters of PID controller and simulation results demonstrated that central heating temperature achieved well control effect and meet stabilization requirements.

  1. Genetic architecture of sex determination in fish: Applications to sex ratio control in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulino eMartínez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Controlling the sex ratio is essential in finfish farming. A balanced sex ratio is usually good for broodstock management, since it enables to develop appropriate breeding schemes. However, in some species the production of monosex populations is desirable because the existence of sexual dimorphism, primarily in growth or first time of sexual maturation, but also in color or shape, can render one sex more valuable. The knowledge of the genetic architecture of sex determination (SD is convenient for controlling sex ratio and for the implementation of breeding programs. Unlike mammals and birds, which show highly conserved master genes that control a conserved genetic network responsible for gonad differentiation (GD, a huge diversity of SD mechanisms has been reported in fish. Despite theory predictions, more than one gene is in many cases involved in fish SD and genetic differences have been observed in the GD network. Environmental factors also play a relevant role and epigenetic mechanisms are becoming increasingly recognized for the establishment and maintenance of the GD pathways. Although major genetic factors are frequently involved in fish SD, these observations strongly suggest that SD in this group resembles a complex trait. Accordingly, the application of quantitative genetics combined with genomic tools is desirable to address its study and in fact, when applied, it has frequently demonstrated a multigene trait interacting with environmental factors in model and cultured fish species. This scenario has notable implications for aquaculture and, depending upon the species, from chromosome manipulation or environmental control techniques up to classical selection or marker assisted selection programs, are being applied. In this review, we selected four relevant species or fish groups to illustrate this diversity and hence the technologies that can be used by the industry for the control of sex ratio: turbot and European sea bass, two

  2. A parallel adaptive quantum genetic algorithm for the controllability of arbitrary networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhong; Gong, Guanghong; Li, Ni

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm-parallel adaptive quantum genetic algorithm-which can rapidly determine the minimum control nodes of arbitrary networks with both control nodes and state nodes. The corresponding network can be fully controlled with the obtained control scheme. We transformed the network controllability issue into a combinational optimization problem based on the Popov-Belevitch-Hautus rank condition. A set of canonical networks and a list of real-world networks were experimented. Comparison results demonstrated that the algorithm was more ideal to optimize the controllability of networks, especially those larger-size networks. We demonstrated subsequently that there were links between the optimal control nodes and some network statistical characteristics. The proposed algorithm provides an effective approach to improve the controllability optimization of large networks or even extra-large networks with hundreds of thousands nodes.

  3. A parallel adaptive quantum genetic algorithm for the controllability of arbitrary networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhong

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm—parallel adaptive quantum genetic algorithm—which can rapidly determine the minimum control nodes of arbitrary networks with both control nodes and state nodes. The corresponding network can be fully controlled with the obtained control scheme. We transformed the network controllability issue into a combinational optimization problem based on the Popov-Belevitch-Hautus rank condition. A set of canonical networks and a list of real-world networks were experimented. Comparison results demonstrated that the algorithm was more ideal to optimize the controllability of networks, especially those larger-size networks. We demonstrated subsequently that there were links between the optimal control nodes and some network statistical characteristics. The proposed algorithm provides an effective approach to improve the controllability optimization of large networks or even extra-large networks with hundreds of thousands nodes. PMID:29554140

  4. NOTE - Genetic control of resistance to gray leaf spot of maize in tropical germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Humberto de Brito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to assess the nature and magnitude of gene effects for resistance to Cercospora leaf spot. A randomized block design with three replications was used. The data were obtained at the plant level by assessing the disease severity. The data were analyzed per experiment, using the average data per plot. A dominant-additive genetic model without epistasis was considered, with estimation of the components of means and variance. The genetic control of resistance to gray leaf spot is polygenic with predominance of the additive effects. Dominance was observed in a few small-effect loci and high heritability values.

  5. Genetic control of disease in an experimental model for Sjögren's syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Åsa Inga Maria

    2009-01-01

    susceptibility in Sjögren's syndrome, studies of disease phenotypes have been performed in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse. By the identification of genetic regions controlling development of autoimmune exocrinopathy in the NOD mouse and by reducing one of these regions considerably, Nguyen et al. in a recent......Sjögren's syndrome is an autoimmune disease with a complex etiology depending on hereditary and environmental factors. The disease is characterized by lymphocytic infiltration and inflammation in the salivary and lacrimal glands, leading to oral and ocular dryness. To understand the genetic...

  6. Common genetic variation and the control of HIV-1 in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellay, J.; Ge, D.; Shianna, K.V.

    2009-01-01

    To extend the understanding of host genetic determinants of HIV-1 control, we performed a genome-wide association study in a cohort of 2,554 infected Caucasian subjects. The study was powered to detect common genetic variants explaining down to 1.3% of the variability in viral load at set point. We...... and fail to support a role for any variant outside of the MHC or the chemokine receptor cluster on chromosome 3. In addition, we evaluated functional variants, copy-number polymorphisms, epistatic interactions, and biological pathways. This study thus represents a comprehensive assessment of common human...

  7. Vibration suppression control of smart piezoelectric rotating truss structure by parallel neuro-fuzzy control with genetic algorithm tuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J.; Zheng, Y. B.

    2012-07-01

    The main goal of this paper is to develop a novel approach for vibration control on a piezoelectric rotating truss structure. This study will analyze the dynamics and control of a flexible structure system with multiple degrees of freedom, represented in this research as a clamped-free-free-free truss type plate rotated by motors. The controller has two separate feedback loops for tracking and damping, and the vibration suppression controller is independent of position tracking control. In addition to stabilizing the actual system, the proposed proportional-derivative (PD) control, based on genetic algorithm (GA) to seek the primary optimal control gain, must supplement a fuzzy control law to ensure a stable nonlinear system. This is done by using an intelligent fuzzy controller based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) with GA tuning to increase the efficiency of fuzzy control. The PD controller, in its assisting role, easily stabilized the linear system. The fuzzy controller rule base was then constructed based on PD performance-related knowledge. Experimental validation for such a structure demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed controller. The broad range of problems discussed in this research will be found useful in civil, mechanical, and aerospace engineering, for flexible structures with multiple degree-of-freedom motion.

  8. Drag reduction of a car model by linear genetic programming control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruiying; Noack, Bernd R.; Cordier, Laurent; Borée, Jacques; Harambat, Fabien

    2017-08-01

    We investigate open- and closed-loop active control for aerodynamic drag reduction of a car model. Turbulent flow around a blunt-edged Ahmed body is examined at ReH≈ 3× 105 based on body height. The actuation is performed with pulsed jets at all trailing edges (multiple inputs) combined with a Coanda deflection surface. The flow is monitored with 16 pressure sensors distributed at the rear side (multiple outputs). We apply a recently developed model-free control strategy building on genetic programming in Dracopoulos and Kent (Neural Comput Appl 6:214-228, 1997) and Gautier et al. (J Fluid Mech 770:424-441, 2015). The optimized control laws comprise periodic forcing, multi-frequency forcing and sensor-based feedback including also time-history information feedback and combinations thereof. Key enabler is linear genetic programming (LGP) as powerful regression technique for optimizing the multiple-input multiple-output control laws. The proposed LGP control can select the best open- or closed-loop control in an unsupervised manner. Approximately 33% base pressure recovery associated with 22% drag reduction is achieved in all considered classes of control laws. Intriguingly, the feedback actuation emulates periodic high-frequency forcing. In addition, the control identified automatically the only sensor which listens to high-frequency flow components with good signal to noise ratio. Our control strategy is, in principle, applicable to all multiple actuators and sensors experiments.

  9. Optimal tracking controller for an autonomous wheeled mobile robot using fuzzy genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangwon; Park, Chongkug

    2005-12-01

    This paper deals with development of a kinematics model, a trajectory tracking, and a controller of fuzzy-genetics algorithm for 2-DOF Wheeled Mobile Robot (WMR). The global inputs to the WMR are a reference position, P r= (x r,y r,θ r) t and a reference velocity q r=(v r,ω r) t, which are time variables. The global output of WMR is a current posture P c= (x c,y c,θ c) t. The position of WMR is estimated by dead-reckoning algorithm. Dead-reckoning algorithm can determine present position of WMR in real time by adding up the increased position data to the previous one in sampling period. The tracking controller makes position error to be converged 0. In order to reduce position error, a compensation velocities q=(v,ω) t on the track of trajectory is necessary. Therefore, a controller using fuzzy-genetic algorithm is proposed to give velocity compensation in this system. Input variables of two fuzzy logic controllers (FLCs) are position errors in every sampling time. The output values of FLCs are compensation velocities. Genetic algorithms (GAs) are implemented to adjust the output gain of fuzzy logic. The computer simulation is performed to get the result of trajectory tracking and to prove efficiency of proposed controller.

  10. Genetically Generated Double-Level Fuzzy Controller with a Fuzzy Adjustment Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiche, Sofiane; Wang, Wei; Fan, Zhun

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a genetic algorithm (GA) in tuning a double-level modular fuzzy logic controller (DLMFLC), which can expand its control working zone to a larger spectrum than a single-level FLC. The first-level FLCs are tuned by a GA so that the input parameters of their membership...... functions and fuzzy rules are optimized according to their individual working zones. The second-level FLC is then used to adjust contributions of the first-level FLCs to the final output signal of the whole controller, i.e., DLMFLC, so that it can function in a wider spectrum covering all individual working...

  11. Maximum Torque per Ampere Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rezaei

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM drives have many advantages over other drives, i.e. high efficiency and high power density. Particularly, PMSMs are epoch-making and are intensively studied among researchers, scientists and engineers. This paper deals with a novel high performance controller based on genetic algorithm. The scheme allows the motor to be driven with maximum torque per ampere characteristic. In this paper assuming an appropriate fitness function, the optimum values for d-axis current of motor set points at each time are found and then applied to the controller. Simulation results show the successful operation of the proposed controller.

  12. Unique genetic loci identified for emotional behavior in control and chronic stress conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly AK Carhuatanta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An individual’s genetic background affects their emotional behavior and response to stress. Although studies have been conducted to identify genetic predictors for emotional behavior or stress response, it remains unknown how prior stress history alters the interaction between an individual’s genome and their emotional behavior. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify chromosomal regions that affect emotional behavior and are sensitive to stress exposure. We utilized the BXD behavioral genetics mouse model to identify chromosomal regions that predict fear learning and emotional behavior following exposure to a control or chronic stress environment. 62 BXD recombinant inbred strains and C57BL/6 and DBA/2 parental strains underwent behavioral testing including a classical fear conditioning paradigm and the elevated plus maze. Distinct quantitative trait loci (QTLs were identified for emotional learning, anxiety and locomotion in control and chronic stress populations. Candidate genes, including those with already known functions in learning and stress were found to reside within the identified QTLs. Our data suggest that chronic stress history reveals novel genetic predictors of emotional behavior.

  13. Using genetic techniques to quantify reinvasion, survival and in situ breeding rates during control operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, A J; Edge, K-A; McMurtrie, P; Fewster, R M; Clout, M N; Gleeson, D M

    2013-10-01

    Determining the origin of individuals caught during a control/eradication programme enables conservation managers to assess the reinvasion rates of their target species and evaluate the level of success of their control methods. We examine how genetic techniques can focus management by distinguishing between hypotheses of 'reinvasion' and 'survivor', and defining kin groups for invasive stoats (Mustela erminea) on Secretary Island, New Zealand. 205 stoats caught on the island were genotyped at 16 microsatellite loci, along with 40 stoats from the opposing mainland coast, and the age and sex were determined for each individual. Using these data, we compare and combine a variety of genetic techniques including genetic clustering, population assignment and kinship-based techniques to assess the origin of each stoat. The population history and individual movement could be described in fine detail, with results indicating that both in-situ survival and breeding, and reinvasion are occurring. Immigration to the island was found to be generally low, apart from in 1 year where around 8 stoats emigrated from the mainland. This increased immigration was probably linked to a stoat population spike on the mainland in that year, caused by a masting event of southern beech forest (Nothofagus sp.) and the subsequent rodent irruption. Our study provides an example of some of the ways genetic analyses can feed directly into informing management practices for invasive species. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Deciphering the genetic regulatory code using an inverse error control coding framework.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rintoul, Mark Daniel; May, Elebeoba Eni; Brown, William Michael; Johnston, Anna Marie; Watson, Jean-Paul

    2005-03-01

    We have found that developing a computational framework for reconstructing error control codes for engineered data and ultimately for deciphering genetic regulatory coding sequences is a challenging and uncharted area that will require advances in computational technology for exact solutions. Although exact solutions are desired, computational approaches that yield plausible solutions would be considered sufficient as a proof of concept to the feasibility of reverse engineering error control codes and the possibility of developing a quantitative model for understanding and engineering genetic regulation. Such evidence would help move the idea of reconstructing error control codes for engineered and biological systems from the high risk high payoff realm into the highly probable high payoff domain. Additionally this work will impact biological sensor development and the ability to model and ultimately develop defense mechanisms against bioagents that can be engineered to cause catastrophic damage. Understanding how biological organisms are able to communicate their genetic message efficiently in the presence of noise can improve our current communication protocols, a continuing research interest. Towards this end, project goals include: (1) Develop parameter estimation methods for n for block codes and for n, k, and m for convolutional codes. Use methods to determine error control (EC) code parameters for gene regulatory sequence. (2) Develop an evolutionary computing computational framework for near-optimal solutions to the algebraic code reconstruction problem. Method will be tested on engineered and biological sequences.

  15. Preparing Individuals to Communicate Genetic Test Results to Their Relatives: Report of a Randomized Control Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Susan V.; Barsevick, Andrea M.; Egleston, Brian L.; Bingler, Ruth; Ruth, Karen; Miller, Suzanne M.; Malick, John; Cescon, Terrence P.; Daly, Mary B.

    2013-01-01

    Background This study reports a randomized clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of an intervention to prepare individuals to communicate BRCA1/BRCA2 results to family members. Methods Women aged 18 years and older, who had genetic testing, and who had adult first-degree relatives (FDRs), were randomly assigned to a communication skills-building intervention or a wellness control session. Primary outcomes were the percentage of probands sharing test results, and the level of distress associated with sharing. The ability of the Theory of Planned Behavior variables to predict the outcomes was explored. Results Four hundred twenty-two women were enrolled in the study, 219 (intervention) and 203 (control). Data from 137 in the intervention group and 112 in the control group were analyzed. Two hundred forty-nine probands shared test results with 838 relatives (80.1%). There were no significant differences between study groups in the primary outcomes. Combining data from both arms revealed that perceived control and specific social influence were associated with sharing. Probands were more likely to share genetic test results with their children, female relatives and relatives who they perceived had a favorable opinion about learning the results. Conclusion The communication skills intervention did not impact sharing of test results. The proband’s perception of her relative’s opinion of genetic testing and her sense of control in relaying this information influenced sharing. Communication of test results is selective, with male relatives and parents less likely to be informed. Impact Prevalent psychosocial factors play a role in the communication of genetic test results within families. PMID:23420550

  16. Optimization of Aero Engine Acceleration Control in Combat State Based on Genetic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Fan, Ding; Sreeram, Victor

    2012-03-01

    In order to drastically exploit the potential of the aero engine and improve acceleration performance in the combat state, an on-line optimized controller based on genetic algorithms is designed for an aero engine. For testing the validity of the presented control method, detailed joint simulation tests of the designed controller and the aero engine model are performed in the whole flight envelope. Simulation test results show that the presented control algorithm has characteristics of rapid convergence speed, high efficiency and can fully exploit the acceleration performance potential of the aero engine. Compared with the former controller, the designed on-line optimized controller (DOOC) can improve the security of the acceleration process and greatly enhance the aero engine thrust in the whole range of the flight envelope, the thrust increases an average of 8.1% in the randomly selected working states. The plane which adopts DOOC can acquire better fighting advantage in the combat state.

  17. Genetic algorithm with small population size for search feasible control parameters for parallel hybrid electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Huei Cheng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The control strategy is a major unit in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. In order to provide suitable control parameters for reducing fuel consumptions and engine emissions while maintaining vehicle performance requirements, the genetic algorithm (GA with small population size is applied to search for feasible control parameters in parallel HEVs. The electric assist control strategy (EACS is used as the fundamental control strategy of parallel HEVs. The dynamic performance requirements stipulated in the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV is considered to maintain the vehicle performance. The known ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR is used to simulate a specific parallel HEV with urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS. Five population sets with size 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 are used in the GA. The experimental results show that the GA with population size of 25 is the best for selecting feasible control parameters in parallel HEVs.

  18. PID-Controller Tuning Optimization with Genetic Algorithms in Servo Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Y. Jaen-Cuellar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Performance improvement is the main goal of the study of PID control and much research has been conducted for this purpose. The PID filter is implemented in almost all industrial processes because of its well-known beneficial features. In general, the whole system's performance strongly depends on the controller's efficiency and hence the tuning process plays a key role in the system's behaviour. In this work, the servo systems will be analysed, specifically the positioning control systems. Among the existent tuning methods, the Gain-Phase Margin method based on Frequency Response analysis is the most adequate for controller tuning in positioning control systems. Nevertheless, this method can be improved by integrating an optimization technique. The novelty of this work is the development of a new methodology for PID control tuning by coupling the Gain-Phase Margin method with the Genetic Algorithms in which the micro-population concept and adaptive mutation probability are applied. Simulations using a positioning system model in MATLAB and experimental tests in two CNC machines and an industrial robot are carried out in order to show the effectiveness of the proposal. The obtained results are compared with both the classical Gain-Phase Margin tuning and with a recent PID controller optimization using Genetic Algorithms based on real codification. The three methodologies are implemented using software.

  19. Controlling futures? Online Genetic Testing and Neurodegenerative Disease : Comment on "Personal Genomic Testing, Genetic Inheritance, and Uncertainty".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Narelle; Gardner, John

    2017-12-01

    Online personalized genetic testing services offer accessible and convenient options for satisfying personal curiosity about health and obtaining answers about one's genetic provenance. They are especially attractive to healthy people who wish to learn about their future risk of disease, as Paul Mason's (2017) case study of "Jordan" illustrates. In this response, we consider how online genetic testing services are used by people diagnosed with a common neurodegenerative disease, Parkinson's disease, to gain a sense of certainty regarding the future.

  20. The Major Genetic Determinants of HIV-1 Control Affect HLA Class I Peptide Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra, Florencia; Jia, Xiaoming; McLaren, Paul J.; Telenti, Amalio; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Walker, Bruce D.; Jia, Xiaoming; McLaren, Paul J.; Ripke, Stephan; Brumme, Chanson J.; Pulit, Sara L.; Telenti, Amalio; Carrington, Mary; Kadie, Carl M.; Carlson, Jonathan M.; Heckerman, David; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Pereyra, Florencia; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Graham, Robert R.; Plenge, Robert M.; Deeks, Steven G.; Walker, Bruce D.; Gianniny, Lauren; Crawford, Gabriel; Sullivan, Jordan; Gonzalez, Elena; Davies, Leela; Camargo, Amy; Moore, Jamie M.; Beattie, Nicole; Gupta, Supriya; Crenshaw, Andrew; Burtt, Noël P.; Guiducci, Candace; Gupta, Namrata; Carrington, Mary; Gao, Xiaojiang; Qi, Ying; Yuki, Yuko; Pereyra, Florencia; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Cutrell, Emily; Rosenberg, Rachel; Moss, Kristin L.; Lemay, Paul; O’Leary, Jessica; Schaefer, Todd; Verma, Pranshu; Toth, Ildiko; Block, Brian; Baker, Brett; Rothchild, Alissa; Lian, Jeffrey; Proudfoot, Jacqueline; Alvino, Donna Marie L.; Vine, Seanna; Addo, Marylyn M.; Allen, Todd M.; Altfeld, Marcus; Henn, Matthew R.; Le Gall, Sylvie; Streeck, Hendrik; Walker, Bruce D.; Haas, David W.; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.; Robbins, Gregory K.; Shafer, Robert W.; Gulick, Roy M.; Shikuma, Cecilia M.; Haubrich, Richard; Riddler, Sharon; Sax, Paul E.; Daar, Eric S.; Ribaudo, Heather J.; Agan, Brian; Agarwal, Shanu; Ahern, Richard L.; Allen, Brady L.; Altidor, Sherly; Altschuler, Eric L.; Ambardar, Sujata; Anastos, Kathryn; Anderson, Ben; Anderson, Val; Andrady, Ushan; Antoniskis, Diana; Bangsberg, David; Barbaro, Daniel; Barrie, William; Bartczak, J.; Barton, Simon; Basden, Patricia; Basgoz, Nesli; Bazner, Suzane; Bellos, Nicholaos C.; Benson, Anne M.; Berger, Judith; Bernard, Nicole F.; Bernard, Annette M.; Birch, Christopher; Bodner, Stanley J.; Bolan, Robert K.; Boudreaux, Emilie T.; Bradley, Meg; Braun, James F.; Brndjar, Jon E.; Brown, Stephen J.; Brown, Katherine; Brown, Sheldon T.; Burack, Jedidiah; Bush, Larry M.; Cafaro, Virginia; Campbell, Omobolaji; Campbell, John; Carlson, Robert H.; Carmichael, J. Kevin; Casey, Kathleen K.; Cavacuiti, Chris; Celestin, Gregory; Chambers, Steven T.; Chez, Nancy; Chirch, Lisa M.; Cimoch, Paul J.; Cohen, Daniel; Cohn, Lillian E.; Conway, Brian; Cooper, David A.; Cornelson, Brian; Cox, David T.; Cristofano, Michael V.; Cuchural, George; Czartoski, Julie L.; Dahman, Joseph M.; Daly, Jennifer S.; Davis, Benjamin T.; Davis, Kristine; Davod, Sheila M.; Deeks, Steven G.; DeJesus, Edwin; Dietz, Craig A.; Dunham, Eleanor; Dunn, Michael E.; Ellerin, Todd B.; Eron, Joseph J.; Fangman, John J.W.; Farel, Claire E.; Ferlazzo, Helen; Fidler, Sarah; Fleenor-Ford, Anita; Frankel, Renee; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; French, Neel K.; Fuchs, Jonathan D.; Fuller, Jon D.; Gaberman, Jonna; Gallant, Joel E.; Gandhi, Rajesh T.; Garcia, Efrain; Garmon, Donald; Gathe, Joseph C.; Gaultier, Cyril R.; Gebre, Wondwoosen; Gilman, Frank D.; Gilson, Ian; Goepfert, Paul A.; Gottlieb, Michael S.; Goulston, Claudia; Groger, Richard K.; Gurley, T. Douglas; Haber, Stuart; Hardwicke, Robin; Hardy, W. David; Harrigan, P. Richard; Hawkins, Trevor N.; Heath, Sonya; Hecht, Frederick M.; Henry, W. Keith; Hladek, Melissa; Hoffman, Robert P.; Horton, James M.; Hsu, Ricky K.; Huhn, Gregory D.; Hunt, Peter; Hupert, Mark J.; Illeman, Mark L.; Jaeger, Hans; Jellinger, Robert M.; John, Mina; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Johnson, Kristin L.; Johnson, Heather; Johnson, Kay; Joly, Jennifer; Jordan, Wilbert C.; Kauffman, Carol A.; Khanlou, Homayoon; Killian, Robert K.; Kim, Arthur Y.; Kim, David D.; Kinder, Clifford A.; Kirchner, Jeffrey T.; Kogelman, Laura; Kojic, Erna Milunka; Korthuis, P. Todd; Kurisu, Wayne; Kwon, Douglas S.; LaMar, Melissa; Lampiris, Harry; Lanzafame, Massimiliano; Lederman, Michael M.; Lee, David M.; Lee, Jean M.L.; Lee, Marah J.; Lee, Edward T.Y.; Lemoine, Janice; Levy, Jay A.; Llibre, Josep M.; Liguori, Michael A.; Little, Susan J.; Liu, Anne Y.; Lopez, Alvaro J.; Loutfy, Mono R.; Loy, Dawn; Mohammed, Debbie Y.; Man, Alan; Mansour, Michael K.; Marconi, Vincent C.; Markowitz, Martin; Marques, Rui; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Martin, Harold L.; Mayer, Kenneth Hugh; McElrath, M. Juliana; McGhee, Theresa A.; McGovern, Barbara H.; McGowan, Katherine; McIntyre, Dawn; Mcleod, Gavin X.; Menezes, Prema; Mesa, Greg; Metroka, Craig E.; Meyer-Olson, Dirk; Miller, Andy O.; Montgomery, Kate; Mounzer, Karam C.; Nagami, Ellen H.; Nagin, Iris; Nahass, Ronald G.; Nelson, Margret O.; Nielsen, Craig; Norene, David L.; O’Connor, David H.; Ojikutu, Bisola O.; Okulicz, Jason; Oladehin, Olakunle O.; Oldfield, Edward C.; Olender, Susan A.; Ostrowski, Mario; Owen, William F.; Pae, Eunice; Parsonnet, Jeffrey; Pavlatos, Andrew M.; Perlmutter, Aaron M.; Pierce, Michael N.; Pincus, Jonathan M.; Pisani, Leandro; Price, Lawrence Jay; Proia, Laurie; Prokesch, Richard C.; Pujet, Heather Calderon; Ramgopal, Moti; Rathod, Almas; Rausch, Michael; Ravishankar, J.; Rhame, Frank S.; Richards, Constance Shamuyarira; Richman, Douglas D.; Robbins, Gregory K.; Rodes, Berta; Rodriguez, Milagros; Rose, Richard C.; Rosenberg, Eric S.; Rosenthal, Daniel; Ross, Polly E.; Rubin, David S.; Rumbaugh, Elease; Saenz, Luis; Salvaggio, Michelle R.; Sanchez, William C.; Sanjana, Veeraf M.; Santiago, Steven; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Sestak, Philip M.; Shalit, Peter; Shay, William; Shirvani, Vivian N.; Silebi, Vanessa I.; Sizemore, James M.; Skolnik, Paul R.; Sokol-Anderson, Marcia; Sosman, James M.; Stabile, Paul; Stapleton, Jack T.; Starrett, Sheree; Stein, Francine; Stellbrink, Hans-Jurgen; Sterman, F. Lisa; Stone, Valerie E.; Stone, David R.; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Taplitz, Randy A.; Tedaldi, Ellen M.; Telenti, Amalio; Theisen, William; Torres, Richard; Tosiello, Lorraine; Tremblay, Cecile; Tribble, Marc A.; Trinh, Phuong D.; Tsao, Alice; Ueda, Peggy; Vaccaro, Anthony; Valadas, Emilia; Vanig, Thanes J.; Vecino, Isabel; Vega, Vilma M.; Veikley, Wenoah; Wade, Barbara H.; Walworth, Charles; Wanidworanun, Chingchai; Ward, Douglas J.; Warner, Daniel A.; Weber, Robert D.; Webster, Duncan; Weis, Steve; Wheeler, David A.; White, David J.; Wilkins, Ed; Winston, Alan; Wlodaver, Clifford G.; Wout, Angelique van’t; Wright, David P.; Yang, Otto O.; Yurdin, David L.; Zabukovic, Brandon W.; Zachary, Kimon C.; Zeeman, Beth; Zhao, Meng

    2011-01-01

    Infectious and inflammatory diseases have repeatedly shown strong genetic associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); however, the basis for these associations remains elusive. To define host genetic effects on the outcome of a chronic viral infection, we performed genome-wide association analysis in a multiethnic cohort of HIV-1 controllers and progressors, and we analyzed the effects of individual amino acids within the classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) proteins. We identified >300 genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the MHC and none elsewhere. Specific amino acids in the HLA-B peptide binding groove, as well as an independent HLA-C effect, explain the SNP associations and reconcile both protective and risk HLA alleles. These results implicate the nature of the HLA–viral peptide interaction as the major factor modulating durable control of HIV infection. PMID:21051598

  1. Use of a twin dataset to identify AMD-related visual patterns controlled by genetic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quellec, Gwénolé; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Russell, Stephen R.

    2010-03-01

    The mapping of genotype to the phenotype of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is expected to improve the diagnosis and treatment of the disease in a near future. In this study, we focused on the first step to discover this mapping: we identified visual patterns related to AMD which seem to be controlled by genetic factors, without explicitly relating them to the genes. For this purpose, we used a dataset of eye fundus photographs from 74 twin pairs, either monozygotic twins, who have the same genotype, or dizygotic twins, whose genes responsible for AMD are less likely to be identical. If we are able to differentiate monozygotic twins from dizygotic twins, based on a given visual pattern, then this pattern is likely to be controlled by genetic factors. The main visible consequence of AMD is the apparition of drusen between the retinal pigment epithelium and Bruch's membrane. We developed two automated drusen detectors based on the wavelet transform: a shape-based detector for hard drusen, and a texture- and color- based detector for soft drusen. Forty visual features were evaluated at the location of the automatically detected drusen. These features characterize the texture, the shape, the color, the spatial distribution, or the amount of drusen. A distance measure between twin pairs was defined for each visual feature; a smaller distance should be measured between monozygotic twins for visual features controlled by genetic factors. The predictions of several visual features (75.7% accuracy) are comparable or better than the predictions of human experts.

  2. Constraining the optimization of a fuzzy logic controller using an enhanced genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, F; Lai, R

    2000-01-01

    Fuzzy logic controllers (FLCs) are gaining in popularity across a broad array of disciplines because they allow a more human approach to control. Recently, the design of the fuzzy sets and the rule base has been automated by the use of genetic algorithms (GAs) which are powerful search techniques. Though the use of GAs can produce near optimal FLCs, it raises problems such as messy overlapping of fuzzy sets and rules not in agreement with common sense. This paper describes an enhanced genetic algorithm which constrains the optimization of FLCs to produce well-formed fuzzy sets and rules which can be better understood by human beings. To achieve the above, we devised several new genetic operators and used a parallel GA with three populations for optimizing FLCs with 3x3, 5x5, and 7x7 rule bases, and we also used a novel method for creating migrants between the three populations of the parallel GA to increase the chances of optimization. In this paper, we also present the results of applying our GA to designing FLCs for controlling three different plants and compare the performance of these FLC's with their unconstrained counterparts.

  3. Genetic manipulation of endosymbionts to control vector and vector borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Prakash Gupta

    Full Text Available Vector borne diseases (VBD are on the rise because of failure of the existing methods of control of vector and vector borne diseases and the climate change. A steep rise of VBDs are due to several factors like selection of insecticide resistant vector population, drug resistant parasite population and lack of effective vaccines against the VBDs. Environmental pollution, public health hazard and insecticide resistant vector population indicate that the insecticides are no longer a sustainable control method of vector and vector-borne diseases. Amongst the various alternative control strategies, symbiont based approach utilizing endosymbionts of arthropod vectors could be explored to control the vector and vector borne diseases. The endosymbiont population of arthropod vectors could be exploited in different ways viz., as a chemotherapeutic target, vaccine target for the control of vectors. Expression of molecules with antiparasitic activity by genetically transformed symbiotic bacteria of disease-transmitting arthropods may serve as a powerful approach to control certain arthropod-borne diseases. Genetic transformation of symbiotic bacteria of the arthropod vector to alter the vector’s ability to transmit pathogen is an alternative means of blocking the transmission of VBDs. In Indian scenario, where dengue, chikungunya, malaria and filariosis are prevalent, paratransgenic based approach can be used effectively. [Vet World 2012; 5(9.000: 571-576

  4. Energy Management of Dual-Source Propelled Electric Vehicle using Fuzzy Controller Optimized via Genetic Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoobi, Saeed; Halvaei, Abolfazl; Hajizadeh, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Energy and power distribution between multiple energy sources of electric vehicles (EVs) is the main challenge to achieve optimum performance from EV. Fuzzy inference systems are powerful tools due to nonlinearity and uncertainties of EV system. Design of fuzzy controllers for energy management...... of EV relies too much on the expert experience and it may lead to sub-optimal performance. This paper develops an optimized fuzzy controller using genetic algorithm (GA) for an electric vehicle equipped with two power bank including battery and super-capacitor. The model of EV and optimized fuzzy...... controller are simulated in ADVISOR software. Developed method has been implemented on standard driving cycles and simulation results show the decrease on consumed power by developed controller compared with standard fuzzy controller....

  5. Genetic Algorithm Based PID Controller Tuning Approach for Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jayachitra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic algorithm (GA based PID (proportional integral derivative controller has been proposed for tuning optimized PID parameters in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR process using a weighted combination of objective functions, namely, integral square error (ISE, integral absolute error (IAE, and integrated time absolute error (ITAE. Optimization of PID controller parameters is the key goal in chemical and biochemical industries. PID controllers have narrowed down the operating range of processes with dynamic nonlinearity. In our proposed work, globally optimized PID parameters tend to operate the CSTR process in its entire operating range to overcome the limitations of the linear PID controller. The simulation study reveals that the GA based PID controller tuned with fixed PID parameters provides satisfactory performance in terms of set point tracking and disturbance rejection.

  6. Genetic control of lithium sensitivity and regulation of inositol biosynthetic genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason King

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Lithium (Li(+ is a common treatment for bipolar mood disorder, a major psychiatric illness with a lifetime prevalence of more than 1%. Risk of bipolar disorder is heavily influenced by genetic predisposition, but is a complex genetic trait and, to date, genetic studies have provided little insight into its molecular origins. An alternative approach is to investigate the genetics of Li(+ sensitivity. Using the social amoeba Dictyostelium, we previously identified prolyl oligopeptidase (PO as a modulator of Li(+ sensitivity. In a link to the clinic, PO enzyme activity is altered in bipolar disorder patients. Further studies demonstrated that PO is a negative regulator of inositol(1,4,5trisphosphate (IP(3 synthesis, a Li(+ sensitive intracellular signal. However, it was unclear how PO could influence either Li(+ sensitivity or risk of bipolar disorder. Here we show that in both Dictyostelium and cultured human cells PO acts via Multiple Inositol Polyphosphate Phosphatase (Mipp1 to control gene expression. This reveals a novel, gene regulatory network that modulates inositol metabolism and Li(+ sensitivity. Among its targets is the inositol monophosphatase gene IMPA2, which has also been associated with risk of bipolar disorder in some family studies, and our observations offer a cellular signalling pathway in which PO activity and IMPA2 gene expression converge.

  7. The genetic algorithm for the nonlinear programming of water pollution control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, J.; Zhang, J. [China University of Geosciences (China)

    1999-08-01

    In the programming of water pollution control system the combined method of optimization with simulation is used generally. It is not only laborious in calculation, but also the global optimum of the obtained solution is guaranteed difficult. In this paper, the genetic algorithm (GA) used in the nonlinear programming of water pollution control system is given, by which the preferred conception for the programming of waste water system is found in once-through operation. It is more succinct than the conventional method and the global optimum of the obtained solution could be ensured. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Randomised controlled trial of genetic amniocentesis in 4606 low-risk women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabor, A; Philip, J; Madsen, Mette

    1986-01-01

    Outcome of pregnancy after amniocentesis was studied in a randomised controlled trial of 4606 women, age-range 25-34 years, without known risk of genetic disease. Spontaneous abortion rate was 1.7% in the study group after amniocentesis and 0.7% in the control group after ultrasound (relative risk...... amniocentesis/ultrasound scan, amniotic fluid leakage occurred more often in the study group but there was no difference in the rate of vaginal bleeding. Frequency of postural malformations in the infants in the two groups was the same. In the study group, respiratory distress syndrome was diagnosed more often...

  9. Determining Relative Importance and Effective Settings for Genetic Algorithm Control Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, K L; Filliben, J J; Haines, A L

    2015-01-01

    Setting the control parameters of a genetic algorithm to obtain good results is a long-standing problem. We define an experiment design and analysis method to determine relative importance and effective settings for control parameters of any evolutionary algorithm, and we apply this method to a classic binary-encoded genetic algorithm (GA). Subsequently, as reported elsewhere, we applied the GA, with the control parameter settings determined here, to steer a population of cloud-computing simulators toward behaviors that reveal degraded performance and system collapse. GA-steered simulators could serve as a design tool, empowering system engineers to identify and mitigate low-probability, costly failure scenarios. In the existing GA literature, we uncovered conflicting opinions and evidence regarding key GA control parameters and effective settings to adopt. Consequently, we designed and executed an experiment to determine relative importance and effective settings for seven GA control parameters, when applied across a set of numerical optimization problems drawn from the literature. This paper describes our experiment design, analysis, and results. We found that crossover most significantly influenced GA success, followed by mutation rate and population size and then by rerandomization point and elite selection. Selection method and the precision used within the chromosome to represent numerical values had least influence. Our findings are robust over 60 numerical optimization problems.

  10. Genetic and Molecular Mechanisms of Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling Maize Inflorescence Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Manfei; Zhong, Wanshun; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Zuxin

    2018-03-01

    The establishment of inflorescence architecture is critical for the reproduction of flowering plant species. The maize plant generates two types of inflorescences, the tassel and the ear, and their architectures have a large effect on grain yield and yield-related traits that are genetically controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Since ear and tassel architecture are deeply affected by the activity of inflorescence meristems, key QTLs and genes regulating meristematic activity have important impacts on inflorescence development and show great potential for optimizing grain yield. Isolation of yield trait-related QTLs is challenging, but these QTLs have direct application in maize breeding. Additionally, characterization and functional dissection of QTLs can provide genetic and molecular knowledge of quantitative variation in inflorescence architecture. In this review, we summarize currently identified QTLs responsible for the establishment of ear and tassel architecture and discuss the potential genetic control of four ear-related and four tassel-related traits. In recent years, several inflorescence architecture-related QTLs have been characterized at the gene level. We review the mechanisms of these characterized QTLs.

  11. Clinical-genetic model predicts incident impulse control disorders in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemmer, Julia; Smith, Kara; Weintraub, Daniel; Guillemot, Vincent; Nalls, Mike A; Cormier-Dequaire, Florence; Moszer, Ivan; Brice, Alexis; Singleton, Andrew B; Corvol, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Impulse control disorders (ICD) are commonly associated with dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Our aims were to estimate ICD heritability and to predict ICD by a candidate genetic multivariable panel in patients with PD. Methods Data from de novo patients with PD, drug-naïve and free of ICD behaviour at baseline, were obtained from the Parkinson’s Progression Markers Initiative cohort. Incident ICD behaviour was defined as positive score on the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in PD. ICD heritability was estimated by restricted maximum likelihood analysis on whole exome sequencing data. 13 candidate variants were selected from the DRD2, DRD3, DAT1, COMT, DDC, GRIN2B, ADRA2C, SERT, TPH2, HTR2A, OPRK1 and OPRM1 genes. ICD prediction was evaluated by the area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results Among 276 patients with PD included in the analysis, 86% started DRT, 40% were on dopamine agonists (DA), 19% reported incident ICD behaviour during follow-up. We found heritability of this symptom to be 57%. Adding genotypes from the 13 candidate variants significantly increased ICD predictability (AUC=76%, 95% CI (70% to 83%)) compared to prediction based on clinical variables only (AUC=65%, 95% CI (58% to 73%), p=0.002). The clinical-genetic prediction model reached highest accuracy in patients initiating DA therapy (AUC=87%, 95% CI (80% to 93%)). OPRK1, HTR2A and DDC genotypes were the strongest genetic predictive factors. Conclusions Our results show that adding a candidate genetic panel increases ICD predictability, suggesting potential for developing clinical-genetic models to identify patients with PD at increased risk of ICD development and guide DRT management. PMID:27076492

  12. Genetic Variation Controlling Wrinkled Seed Phenotypes in Pisum: How Lucky Was Mendel?

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    Tracey Rayner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the traits studied by Mendel in pea (Pisum sativum L. was the wrinkled-seeded phenotype, and the molecular basis for a mutation underlying this phenotype was discovered in the 1990s. Although the starch-branching enzyme gene mutation identified at the genetic locus r is most likely to be that in seeds available to Mendel in the mid-1800s, it has remained an open question as to whether or not additional natural mutations in this gene exist within Pisum germplasm collections. Here, we explore this question and show that all but two wrinkled-seeded variants in one such collection correspond to either the mutant allele described previously for the r locus or a mutation at a second genetic locus, rb, affecting the gene encoding the large subunit of Adenosine diphosphoglucose (ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase; the molecular basis for the rb mutation is described here. The genetic basis for the phenotype of one (JI 2110 of the two lines which are neither r nor rb has been studied in crosses with a round-seeded variant (JI 281; for which extensive genetic marker data were expected. In marked contrast to the trait studied by Mendel and the rb phenotype; the data suggest that the wrinkled-seeded phenotype in JI 2110 is maternally determined, controlled by two genetic loci, and the extent to which it is manifested is very sensitive to the environment. Metabolite analysis of the cotyledons of JI 2110 revealed a profile for sucrose and sucrose-derived compounds that was more similar to that of wild-type round-seeded, than that of wrinkled-seeded r, pea lines. However, the metabolite profile of the seed coat (testa of JI 2110 was distinct from that of other round-seeded genotypes tested which, together with analysis of recombinant inbred progeny lines, suggests an explanation for the seed phenotype.

  13. Genetic factors control nicotine self-administration in isogenic adolescent rat strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Chen

    Full Text Available Adult cigarette smokers usually become dependent on cigarettes during adolescence. Despite recent advances in addiction genetics, little data delineates the genetic factors that account for the vulnerability of humans to smoke tobacco. We studied the operant nicotine self-administration (SA behavior of six inbred strains of adolescent male rats (Fisher 344, Brown Norway, Dark Agouti, Spontaneous Hypertensive Rat, Wistar Kyoto and Lewis and six selected F1 hybrids. All rats were trained to press a lever to obtain food starting on postnatal day (PN 32, and then nicotine (0.03 mg/kg/infusion, i.v. reinforcement was made available on PN41-42 (10 consecutive daily 2 h sessions. Of the 12 isogenic strains, Fisher rats self-administered the fewest nicotine infusions (1.45 ± 0.36/d during the last 3 d, while Lewis rats took the most nicotine (13.0 ± 1.4/d. These strains sorted into high, intermediate and low self-administration groups in 2, 2, and 8 strains, respectively. The influence of heredity on nicotine SA (0.64 is similar to that reported for humans. Therefore, this panel of isogenic rat strains effectively models the overall impact of genetics on the vulnerability to acquire nicotine-reinforced behavior during adolescence. Separate groups of rats responded for food starting on PN41. The correlation between nicotine and food reward was not significant. Hence, the genetic control of the motivation to obtain nicotine is distinctly different from food reward, indicating the specificity of the underlying genetic mechanisms. Lastly, the behavior of F1 hybrids was not predicted from the additive behavior of the parental strains, indicating the impact of significant gene-gene interactions on the susceptibility to nicotine reward. Taken together, the behavioral characteristics of this model indicate its strong potential to identify specific genes mediating the human vulnerability to smoke cigarettes.

  14. Perspectives of people in Mali toward genetically-modified mosquitoes for malaria control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Famenini Shannon

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetically-modified (GM mosquitoes have been proposed as part of an integrated vector control strategy for malaria control. Public acceptance is essential prior to field trials, particularly since mosquitoes are a vector of human disease and genetically modified organisms (GMOs face strong scepticism in developed and developing nations. Despite this, in sub-Saharan Africa, where the GM mosquito effort is primarily directed, very little data is available on perspectives to GMOs. Here, results are presented of a qualitative survey of public attitudes to GM mosquitoes for malaria control in rural and urban areas of Mali, West Africa between the months of October 2008 and June 2009. Methods The sample consisted of 80 individuals - 30 living in rural communities, 30 living in urban suburbs of Bamako, and 20 Western-trained and traditional health professionals working in Bamako and Bandiagara. Questions were asked about the cause of malaria, heredity and selective breeding. This led to questions about genetic alterations, and acceptable conditions for a release of pest-resistant GM corn and malaria-refractory GM mosquitoes. Finally, participants were asked about the decision-making process in their community. Interviews were transcribed and responses were categorized according to general themes. Results Most participants cited mosquitoes as one of several causes of malaria. The concept of the gene was not widely understood; however selective breeding was understood, allowing limited communication of the concept of genetic modification. Participants were open to a release of pest-resistant GM corn, often wanting to conduct a trial themselves. The concept of a trial was reapplied to GM mosquitoes, although less frequently. Participants wanted to see evidence that GM mosquitoes can reduce malaria prevalence without negative consequences for human health and the environment. For several participants, a mosquito control programme was

  15. Perspectives of people in Mali toward genetically-modified mosquitoes for malaria control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, John M; Touré, Mahamoudou B; Traore, Mohamed M; Famenini, Shannon; Taylor, Charles E

    2010-05-14

    Genetically-modified (GM) mosquitoes have been proposed as part of an integrated vector control strategy for malaria control. Public acceptance is essential prior to field trials, particularly since mosquitoes are a vector of human disease and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) face strong scepticism in developed and developing nations. Despite this, in sub-Saharan Africa, where the GM mosquito effort is primarily directed, very little data is available on perspectives to GMOs. Here, results are presented of a qualitative survey of public attitudes to GM mosquitoes for malaria control in rural and urban areas of Mali, West Africa between the months of October 2008 and June 2009. The sample consisted of 80 individuals - 30 living in rural communities, 30 living in urban suburbs of Bamako, and 20 Western-trained and traditional health professionals working in Bamako and Bandiagara. Questions were asked about the cause of malaria, heredity and selective breeding. This led to questions about genetic alterations, and acceptable conditions for a release of pest-resistant GM corn and malaria-refractory GM mosquitoes. Finally, participants were asked about the decision-making process in their community. Interviews were transcribed and responses were categorized according to general themes. Most participants cited mosquitoes as one of several causes of malaria. The concept of the gene was not widely understood; however selective breeding was understood, allowing limited communication of the concept of genetic modification. Participants were open to a release of pest-resistant GM corn, often wanting to conduct a trial themselves. The concept of a trial was reapplied to GM mosquitoes, although less frequently. Participants wanted to see evidence that GM mosquitoes can reduce malaria prevalence without negative consequences for human health and the environment. For several participants, a mosquito control programme was preferred; however a transgenic release that satisfied

  16. Quadratic genetic modifications: a streamlined route to cosmological simulations with controlled merger history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Martin P.; Pontzen, Andrew

    2018-02-01

    Recent work has studied the interplay between a galaxy's history and its observable properties using `genetically modified' cosmological zoom simulations. The approach systematically generates alternative histories for a halo, while keeping its cosmological environment fixed. Applications to date altered linear properties of the initial conditions, such as the mean overdensity of specified regions; we extend the formulation to include quadratic features, such as local variance, that determines the overall importance of smooth accretion relative to mergers in a galaxy's history. We introduce an efficient algorithm for this new class of modification and demonstrate its ability to control the variance of a region in a one-dimensional toy model. Outcomes of this work are twofold: (i) a clarification of the formulation of genetic modifications and (ii) a proof of concept for quadratic modifications leading the way to a forthcoming implementation in cosmological simulations.

  17. Understanding the risks, managing life: genetic counselling between biopolitcs and society of control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Lucas Saliba de Paula

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare the genetic counselling (GC with the eugenic policies of the early twentieth century. We perform an analysis of how GC is portrayed by the Brazilian press as well as a theoretical discussion about the configurations of biopower in a biotechnological context. Our results indicate that while eugenics was practiced by States that disciplined individual conduct and regulated its populations to "improve the human race", the GC relates to the neoliberal governmentality’s and to the society of control rationalities. It happens because the GC takes place in a context in which government, market and experts modulate the probabilities and risks associated to individuals who, as "entrepreneurs of themselves", need to manage their genetic capital and are considered as customers and stakeholders, and not only patients and citizens.

  18. Control of a Linear Distillation Column Using Type-2 Fuzzy Method Optimized by Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Asgari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The distillation process is important process in the chemical industry and has wide application in industry. Distillation tower is used by chemical engineers as a popular tool to separate materials and is the most common method for separating materials. Keeping constant the product composition in the distillation column is very important from control perspective. Control of these complicated processes need intelligent methods to adopt the appropriate decision for control based on the behavior of the system. Between intelligent methods, fuzzy technique has superior response in complex systems control and so is used in this study. In this article at first, a type-1fuzzy controller is designed for linear model of distillation tower. In design of this Fuzzy controller, genetic algorithm (GA is used for optimization of fuzzy rules base. It has been shown that the fuzzy controller is better than conventional PI one. Then the type-1 fuzzy controller has been replaced with type-2 fuzzy controller and has been shown that the performance of type-2 is better than type-1 in various points of view. In this study, the MATLAB/SIMULINK software has been used for modeling and implementing the proposed methods.

  19. Optimal planning approaches with multiple impulses for rendezvous based on hybrid genetic algorithm and control method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JingRui Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we focus on safe and effective completion of a rendezvous and docking task by looking at planning approaches and control with fuel-optimal rendezvous for a target spacecraft running on a near-circular reference orbit. A variety of existent practical path constraints are considered, including the constraints of field of view, impulses, and passive safety. A rendezvous approach is calculated by using a hybrid genetic algorithm with those constraints. Furthermore, a control method of trajectory tracking is adopted to overcome the external disturbances. Based on Clohessy–Wiltshire equations, we first construct the mathematical model of optimal planning approaches of multiple impulses with path constraints. Second, we introduce the principle of hybrid genetic algorithm with both stronger global searching ability and local searching ability. We additionally explain the application of this algorithm in the problem of trajectory planning. Then, we give three-impulse simulation examples to acquire an optimal rendezvous trajectory with the path constraints presented in this article. The effectiveness and applicability of the tracking control method are verified with the optimal trajectory above as control objective through the numerical simulation.

  20. Genetic mapping of QTLs controlling fatty acids provided insights into the genetic control of fatty acid synthesis pathway in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li Wang

    Full Text Available Peanut, a high-oil crop with about 50% oil content, is either crushed for oil or used as edible products. Fatty acid composition determines the oil quality which has high relevance to consumer health, flavor, and shelf life of commercial products. In addition to the major fatty acids, oleic acid (C18:1 and linoleic acid (C18:2 accounting for about 80% of peanut oil, the six other fatty acids namely palmitic acid (C16:0, stearic acid (C18:0, arachidic acid (C20:0, gadoleic acid (C20:1, behenic acid (C22:0, and lignoceric acid (C24:0 are accounted for the rest 20%. To determine the genetic basis and to improve further understanding on effect of FAD2 genes on these fatty acids, two recombinant inbred line (RIL populations namely S-population (high oleic line 'SunOleic 97R' × low oleic line 'NC94022' and T-population (normal oleic line 'Tifrunner' × low oleic line 'GT-C20' were developed. Genetic maps with 206 and 378 marker loci for the S- and the T-population, respectively were used for quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis. As a result, a total of 164 main-effect (M-QTLs and 27 epistatic (E-QTLs QTLs associated with the minor fatty acids were identified with 0.16% to 40.56% phenotypic variation explained (PVE. Thirty four major QTLs (>10% of PVE mapped on five linkage groups and 28 clusters containing more than three QTLs were also identified. These results suggest that the major QTLs with large additive effects would play an important role in controlling composition of these minor fatty acids in addition to the oleic and linoleic acids in peanut oil. The interrelationship among these fatty acids should be considered while breeding for improved peanut genotypes with good oil quality and desired fatty acid composition.

  1. Speed control of switched reluctance motor using genetic algorithm and ant colony based on optimizing PID controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed Ahmed Ibrahim Hassan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Proportional-Integral-Derivative control is the most used kind of control which provides the simplest and most effective solution to different kinds of control engineering applications. But until now PID controller is poorly tuned in real life and online applications. While most of PID tuning is done manually. Switched reluctance motor (SRM has highly nonlinear characteristics since the developed/produced torque of the motor has a nonlinear function on both phase current and rotor position. These nonlinearities of the SRM drives make the conventional PID (proportional + integral + Derivative controller a poor choice for application where high dynamic performance is desired under all motor operating conditions. research paper comes up with two artificial and hybrid techniques involving Genetic Algorithm (GA and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO. Those techniques where used to tune the PID parameters for the switched reluctance motor (SRM and its performance were compared with the conventional method of “Ziegler Nichols. The results obtained reflects that, the use of those algorithms based controller improves the performance of the whole process in terms of a fast set point tracking and regulatory changes and also provides an optimum stability for the system itself with a minimum overshoot on the output signal.

  2. A tuning algorithm for model predictive controllers based on genetic algorithms and fuzzy decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lee, J H; Svrcek, W Y; Young, B R

    2008-01-01

    Model Predictive Control is a valuable tool for the process control engineer in a wide variety of applications. Because of this the structure of an MPC can vary dramatically from application to application. There have been a number of works dedicated to MPC tuning for specific cases. Since MPCs can differ significantly, this means that these tuning methods become inapplicable and a trial and error tuning approach must be used. This can be quite time consuming and can result in non-optimum tuning. In an attempt to resolve this, a generalized automated tuning algorithm for MPCs was developed. This approach is numerically based and combines a genetic algorithm with multi-objective fuzzy decision-making. The key advantages to this approach are that genetic algorithms are not problem specific and only need to be adapted to account for the number and ranges of tuning parameters for a given MPC. As well, multi-objective fuzzy decision-making can handle qualitative statements of what optimum control is, in addition to being able to use multiple inputs to determine tuning parameters that best match the desired results. This is particularly useful for multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) cases where the definition of "optimum" control is subject to the opinion of the control engineer tuning the system. A case study will be presented in order to illustrate the use of the tuning algorithm. This will include how different definitions of "optimum" control can arise, and how they are accounted for in the multi-objective decision making algorithm. The resulting tuning parameters from each of the definition sets will be compared, and in doing so show that the tuning parameters vary in order to meet each definition of optimum control, thus showing the generalized automated tuning algorithm approach for tuning MPCs is feasible.

  3. Consultants' Group Meeting on Tsetse Genetics in Relation to Tsetse/Trypanosomiasis Control/Eradication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The FAO and IAEA have long recognized the need for methods for insect and pest control based upon approaches other than simply the widespread use of insecticides. Through the past several years the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has expended a considerable amount of effort in the development of a SIT programme applicable to tsetse. Such programmes have proved to be a highly successful component of the integrated control of tsetse flies. However, the pilot programmes undertaken to date have been applied to areas of limited size and future integrated control programmes for tsetse must cover much larger regions. The Consultants' Group was cognisant of the continued need for improvements in the cost effectiveness in the mass production of tsetse, particularly for SIT programmes. The Consultants' Goup recognized also that FAO/IAEA plays an important leadership role in the development of new technologies for the control of insect pest populations, and in the transfer of such technologies to assist in the improvement of agricultural production, particularly in developing countries. In addition to research on the development of methods for insect control (emphasizing application of the Sterile Insect Technique), the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has established and implemented five 'Co-ordinated Research Programmes' on tsetse and has, from time to time, convened groups of consultants to discuss and make recommendations on specific subjects. At least two such meetings (in July 1975 and November 1987) focused on genetic methods of insect control. The recent, rapid developments in molecular biology have stimulated interest in the application of genetic techniques to the problem of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control in Africa.

  4. Intersection signal control multi-objective optimization based on genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanhong Zhou

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A signal control intersection increases not only vehicle delay, but also vehicle emissions and fuel consumption in that area. Because more and more fuel and air pollution problems arise recently, an intersection signal control optimization method which aims at reducing vehicle emissions, fuel consumption and vehicle delay is required heavily. This paper proposed a signal control multi-object optimization method to reduce vehicle emissions, fuel consumption and vehicle delay simultaneously at an intersection. The optimization method combined the Paramics microscopic traffic simulation software, Comprehensive Modal Emissions Model (CMEM, and genetic algorithm. An intersection in Haizhu District, Guangzhou, was taken for a case study. The result of the case study shows the optimal timing scheme obtained from this method is better than the Webster timing scheme.

  5. Development and Genetic Control of Plant Architecture and Biomass in the Panicoid Grass, Setaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Mauro-Herrera

    Full Text Available The architecture of a plant affects its ability to compete for light and to respond to environmental stresses, thus affecting overall fitness and productivity. Two components of architecture, branching and height, were studied in 182 F7 recombinant inbred lines (RILs at the vegetative, flowering and mature developmental stages in the panicoid C4 model grass system, Setaria. The RIL population was derived from a cross between domesticated S. italica (foxtail millet and its wild relative S. viridis (green foxtail. In both field and greenhouse trials the wild parent was taller initially, started branching earlier, and flowered earlier, while the domesticated parent was shorter initially, but flowered later, producing a robust tall plant architecture with more nodes and leaves on the main culm and few or no branches. Biomass was highly correlated with height of the plant and number of nodes on the main culm, and generally showed a negative relationship with branch number. However, several of the RILs with the highest biomass in both trials were significantly more branched than the domesticated parent of the cross. Quantitative trait loci (QTL analyses indicate that both height and branching are controlled by multiple genetic regions, often with QTL for both traits colocalizing in the same genomic regions. Genomic positions of several QTL colocalize with QTL in syntenic regions in other species and contain genes known to control branching and height in sorghum, maize, and switchgrass. Included in these is the ortholog of the rice SD-1 semi-dwarfing gene, which underlies one of the major Setaria height QTL. Understanding the relationships between height and branching patterns in Setaria, and their genetic control, is an important step to gaining a comprehensive knowledge of the development and genetic regulation of panicoid grass architecture.

  6. A wavelet neural network based on genetic algorithm and its application to gain scheduling flight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xun; Zhang, Weiguo; Yin, Wei; Li, Aijun

    2006-11-01

    As enlarging of the flight envelop, the aerodynamic derivative of the airplane varies enormous. The gain scheduling method is usually used to deal with it. But the workload is enormously and the stability is difficulty to be assured. To solve the above problem, a large envelope wavelet neural network gain scheduling flight control law design method based on genetic algorithm is presented in this paper. Wavelet has good time accuracy in high frequency-domain and the good frequency accuracy in low frequency-domain. Neural network has the self-learning character. In this method, wavelet function instead of Sigmoid function as the excitation function. So the two merits are merged and the high nonlinear function approximation capability could be achieved. In order to obtain higher accuracy and faster speed, genetic algorithm is used to optimize the parameters of the wavelet neural network. This method is used in design the large envelope gain scheduling flight control law. This simulation results show that good control capability could be achieved in large envelope and the system is still stable when modeling error is 20%. In the situation of 20% modeling error, the maximum overshoot is only 12m and it is 35% of the maximum overshoot using normal method.

  7. PedGenie: meta genetic association testing in mixed family and case-control designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen-Brady Kristina

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background- PedGenie software, introduced in 2006, includes genetic association testing of cases and controls that may be independent or related (nuclear families or extended pedigrees or mixtures thereof using Monte Carlo significance testing. Our aim is to demonstrate that PedGenie, a unique and flexible analysis tool freely available in Genie 2.4 software, is significantly enhanced by incorporating meta statistics for detecting genetic association with disease using data across multiple study groups. Methods- Meta statistics (chi-squared tests, odds ratios, and confidence intervals were calculated using formal Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel techniques. Simulated data from unrelated individuals and individuals in families were used to illustrate meta tests and their empirically-derived p-values and confidence intervals are accurate, precise, and for independent designs match those provided by standard statistical software. Results- PedGenie yields accurate Monte Carlo p-values for meta analysis of data across multiple studies, based on validation testing using pedigree, nuclear family, and case-control data simulated under both the null and alternative hypotheses of a genotype-phenotype association. Conclusion- PedGenie allows valid combined analysis of data from mixtures of pedigree-based and case-control resources. Added meta capabilities provide new avenues for association analysis, including pedigree resources from large consortia and multi-center studies.

  8. Genetic structure of Florida green turtle rookeries as indicated by mitochondrial DNA control region sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamblin, Brian M.; Bagley, Dean A.; Ehrhart, Llewellyn M.; Desjardin, Nicole A.; Martin, R. Erik; Hart, Kristen M.; Naro-Maciel, Eugenia; Rusenko, Kirt; Stiner, John C.; Sobel, Debra; Johnson, Chris; Wilmers, Thomas; Wright, Laura J.; Nairn, Campbell J.

    2014-01-01

    Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) nesting has increased dramatically in Florida over the past two decades, ranking the Florida nesting aggregation among the largest in the Greater Caribbean region. Individual beaches that comprise several hundred kilometers of Florida’s east coast and Keys support tens to thousands of nests annually. These beaches encompass natural to highly developed habitats, and the degree of demographic partitioning among rookeries was previously unresolved. We characterized the genetic structure of ten Florida rookeries from Cape Canaveral to the Dry Tortugas through analysis of 817 base pair mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences from 485 nesting turtles. Two common haplotypes, CM-A1.1 and CM-A3.1, accounted for 87 % of samples, and the haplotype frequencies were strongly partitioned by latitude along Florida’s Atlantic coast. Most genetic structure occurred between rookeries on either side of an apparent genetic break in the vicinity of the St. Lucie Inlet that separates Hutchinson Island and Jupiter Island, representing the finest scale at which mtDNA structure has been documented in marine turtle rookeries. Florida and Caribbean scale analyses of population structure support recognition of at least two management units: central eastern Florida and southern Florida. More thorough sampling and deeper sequencing are necessary to better characterize connectivity among Florida green turtle rookeries as well as between the Florida nesting aggregation and others in the Greater Caribbean region.

  9. Field application of a genetically engineered microorganism for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon bioremediation process monitoring and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayler, G.S.; Cox, C.D.; Ripp, S.; Nivens, D.E.; Werner, C.; Ahn, Y.; Matrubutham, U. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Burlage, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

    1998-11-01

    On October 30, 1996, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) commenced the first test release of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) for use in bioremediation. The specific objectives of the investigation were multifaceted and include (1) testing the hypothesis that a GEM can be successfully introduced and maintained in a bioremediation process, (2) testing the concept of using, at the field scale, reporter organisms for direct bioremediation process monitoring and control, and (3) acquiring data that can be used in risk assessment decision making and protocol development for future field release applications of GEMs. The genetically engineered strain under investigation is Pseudomonas fluorescens strain HK44 (King et al., 1990). The original P. fluorescens parent strain was isolated from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated manufactured gas plant soil. Thus, this bacterium is able to biodegrade naphthalene (as well as other substituted naphthalenes and other PAHs) and is able to function as a living bioluminescent reporter for the presence of naphthalene contamination, its bioavailability, and the functional process of biodegradation. A unique component of this field investigation was the availability of an array of large subsurface soil lysimeters. This article describes the experience associated with the release of a genetically modified microorganism, the lysimeter facility and its associated instrumentation, as well as representative data collected during the first eighteen months of operation.

  10. Genetic control of diploid recovery after γ-irradiation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeki, T.; Machida, I.; Nakai, S.

    1980-01-01

    Genetic mechanism(s) of γ-ray resistance of the diploid and budding haploid cells of S. cerevisiae were investigated, with special reference to mitotic recombination, by examining 11 rad mutant strains. The radiosentivity of the diploid was markedly enhanced in certain γ-ray-sensitive rad mutants, whereas the sensitivity of the haploid was not so enhanced in these rad mutants. These enhanced sensitivities of diploids were irrespective of their own haploid sensitivities. From these results, the existence of a mechanism of diploid-specific recovery was postulated. The magnitude of diploid radioresistance in rad mutants was positively correlated with the ability for the induction of mitotic recombinational events which were controlled by RAD genes belonging to the RAD-51 genetic pathway. The genetic mechanism(s) of the diploid recovery after γ-irradiation are probably related to recombinational processes between the homologous chromosomes leading to reciprocal recombination or non-reciprocal gene conversion. Furthermore, the higher radioresistance of budding cells in comparison with the non-budding cells was also correlated to the diploid radioresistance with a few exceptions. Consequently, the mechanism(s) of budding radioresistance similar to the diploid recovery seems to be related to mitotic recombinational processes. (orig.)

  11. Genetic Fuzzy Trees for Intelligent Control of Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernest, Nicholas D.

    Fuzzy Logic Control is a powerful tool that has found great success in a variety of applications. This technique relies less on complex mathematics and more "expert knowledge" of a system to bring about high-performance, resilient, and efficient control through linguistic classification of inputs and outputs and if-then rules. Genetic Fuzzy Systems (GFSs) remove the need of this expert knowledge and instead rely on a Genetic Algorithm (GA) and have similarly found great success. However, the combination of these methods suffer severely from scalability; the number of rules required to control the system increases exponentially with the number of states the inputs and outputs can take. Therefor GFSs have thus far not been applicable to complex, artificial intelligence type problems. The novel Genetic Fuzzy Tree (GFT) method breaks down complex problems hierarchically, makes sub-decisions when possible, and thus greatly reduces the burden on the GA. This development significantly changes the field of possible applications for GFSs. Within this study, this is demonstrated through applying this technique to a difficult air combat problem. Looking forward to an autonomous Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle (UCAV) in the 2030 time-frame, it becomes apparent that the mission, flight, and ground controls will utilize the emerging paradigm of Intelligent Systems (IS); namely, the ability to learn, adapt, exhibit robustness in uncertain situations, make sense of the data collected in real-time and extrapolate when faced with scenarios significantly different from those used in training. LETHA (Learning Enhanced Tactical Handling Algorithm) was created to develop intelligent controllers for these advanced unmanned craft as the first GFT. A simulation space referred to as HADES (Hoplological Autonomous Defend and Engage Simulation) was created in which LETHA can train the UCAVs. Equipped with advanced sensors, a limited supply of Self-Defense Missiles (SDMs), and a recharging

  12. Local-regional control in breast cancer patients with a possible genetic predisposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, Laura M.; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Thames, Howard D.; Strom, Eric A.; McNeese, Marsha D.; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Singletary, S. Eva; Heaton, Keith M.; Hunt, Kelly K.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Local control rates for breast cancer in genetically predisposed women are poorly defined. Because such a small percentage of breast cancer patients have proven germline mutations, surrogates, such as a family history for breast cancer, have been used to examine this issue. The purpose of this study was to evaluate local-regional control following breast conservation therapy (BCT) in patients with bilateral breast cancer and a breast cancer family history. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed records of all 58 patients with bilateral breast cancer and a breast cancer family history treated in our institution between 1959 and 1998. The primary surgical treatment was a breast-conserving procedure in 55 of the 116 breast cancer cases and a mastectomy in 61. The median follow-up was 68 months for the BCT patients and 57 months for the mastectomy-treated patients. Results: Eight local-regional recurrences occurred in the 55 cases treated with BCT, resulting in 5- and 10-year actuarial local-regional control rates of 86% and 76%, respectively. In the nine cases that did not receive radiation as a component of their BCT, four developed local-regional recurrences (5- and 10-year local-regional control rates of BCT without radiation: 49% and 49%). The 5- and 10-year actuarial local-regional control rates for the 46 cases treated with BCT and radiation were 94% and 83%, respectively. In these cases, there were two late local recurrences, developing at 8 years and 9 years, respectively. A log rank comparison of radiation versus no radiation actuarial data was significant at p = 0.009. In the cases treated with BCT, a multivariate analysis of radiation use, patient age, degree of family history, margin status, and stage revealed that only the use of radiation was associated with improved local control (Cox regression analysis p = 0.021). The 10-year actuarial rates of local-regional control following mastectomy with and without radiation were 91% and 89

  13. Different genetic control of cutaneous and visceral disease after Leishmania major infection in mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vladimirov, Vladimir; Badalová, Jana; Svobodová, M.; Havelková, Helena; Hart, A. A. M.; Blažková, Hana; Demant, P.; Lipoldová, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 4 (2003), s. 2041-2046 ISSN 0019-9567 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/00/0760; GA ČR GA310/03/1381; GA MŠk OK 394 Grant - others:Howard Hughes Medical Institute(US) HHMI55000323; EC(XE) ERBI-C15-CT98-0317; EC(XE) BIO-4-CT98-0445 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : genetic control * Leishmania major Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.875, year: 2003

  14. [Genetical control of the allozymes in juniper (Juniperus excelsa Bieb.) of the Crimea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshikov, I I; Nikolaeva, A V

    2007-01-01

    Genetical control of nine enzyme systems has been studied in preserved juniper species (Juniperus excelsa Bieb.) of the natural population of the mountain Crimea. Isozymes were extracted from the haploid seed endosperms and separated elecrophoretically. As a result 16 loci have been identified. Fourteen of them were polymorphic (14--Gdh, Got-1, Mdh-1, Mdh-2, Mdh-3, Acp-1, Acp-2, Acp-3, Lap-1, Dia-1, Fdh, Sod-1, Sod-2, Sod-3). Analysis of the allele segragation of the heterozygous trees confirmed their monogenic inheritance.

  15. Association of genetic variations in the mitochondrial DNA control region with presbycusis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falah M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Masoumeh Falah,1 Mohammad Farhadi,1 Seyed Kamran Kamrava,1 Saeid Mahmoudian,1 Ahmad Daneshi,1 Maryam Balali,1 Alimohamad Asghari,2 Massoud Houshmand1,3 1ENT and Head & Neck Research Center and Department, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 2Skull Base Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 3Department of Medical Genetics, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran, Iran Background: The prominent role of mitochondria in the generation of reactive oxygen species, cell death, and energy production contributes to the importance of this organelle in the intracellular mechanism underlying the progression of the common sensory disorder of the elderly, presbycusis. Reduced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA gene expression and coding region variation have frequently been reported as being associated with the development of presbycusis. The mtDNA control region regulates gene expression and replication of the genome of this organelle. To comprehensively understand of the role of mitochondria in the progression of presbycusis, we compared variations in the mtDNA control region between subjects with presbycusis and controls.Methods: A total of 58 presbycusis patients and 220 control subjects were enrolled in the study after examination by the otolaryngologist and audiology tests. Variations in the mtDNA control region were investigated by polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing.Results: A total of 113 sequence variants were observed in mtDNA, and variants were detected in 100% of patients, with 84% located in hypervariable regions. The frequencies of the variants, 16,223 C>T, 16,311 T>C, 16,249 T>C, and 15,954 A>C, were significantly different between presbycusis and control subjects.Conclusion: The statistically significant difference in the frequencies of four nucleotide variants in the mtDNA control region of presbycusis patients and controls is in agreement with previous experimental

  16. Genetic control of cowpea seed sizes Controle genético do tamanho das sementes de caupi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cláudio da Conceição Lopes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] is one of the most widely adapted grain legumes in hot regions of Africa, Asia and the Americas. In the semiarid Northeast of Brazil, it is the main subsistence crop, an excellent protein source of low cost, for the poor population. The objective of this work was to estimate genetic parameters to understand the inheritance of seed sizes in cowpea. The parents P1 and P2 and the generations, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 of the cross TVx5058-09C X Manteiguinha formed the genetic material for this study. These six generates (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC were evaluated in a completely randomized block-design with six replications, in Teresina - PI, Brazil, in 1998. The genetic parameters estimated were: phenotypic and total genetic variance, additive and dominance genetic components of variance and the variance attributed to the environment, heritability in the broad and narrow senses, average degree of dominance and the number of genes controlling the character. The additive - dominance model fitted the data for 100-seeds weight in as much as the midparental value and the additive effect were the more important genetic parameters for the determination of this character. The number of genes that control its expression is five. The occurrence of high values for narrow sense heritability indicates that the selection for seed size can be made in early generations.Caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] é uma das leguminosas mais adaptadas às regiões quentes da África, Ásia e das Américas. No semi-árido do nordeste do Brasil é a principal cultura de subsistência, por ser uma excelente fonte de proteína de baixo custo para a população mais carente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar parâmetros genéticos que podem explicar a herança do tamanho das sementes de caupi. Os genótipos parentais P1 e P2 e as gerações F1, F2, RC1 e RC2 do cruzamento TVx5058-09C X Manteiguinha, constituíram o material genético utilizado

  17. Genetic control of late blight, yield and some yield related traits in tomato (lycopersicon esculentum mill.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.Y.; Asghar, M.; Khan, A.R.; Iqbal, Q.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic control of late blight (LB) and some economic traits was assessed to identify genotypes suitable for the hybrids were derived from crossing of 2 male sterile lines viz., development of late blight resistant hybrids in tomato. 10 F/sub 1/ hybrid were derived from crossing of 2 male sterile lines viz., TMS1 and TMS2 with 5 elite lines viz., Nagina, Riogrande, Roma, 88572 and Picdenato according to line x tester technique. Disease resistance was measured using detached leaf and whole plant assay techniques. Data were also recorded for days to maturity, number of fruit per plant, single fruit weight and yield per plant. The analysis of variance showed significant differences among crosses, lines, testers and line x tester interaction for almost all parameters. Estimate of genetic components indicated preponderance of additive type of gene action for detached leaf assay, whole plant assay, number of fruit per plant and yield per plant whereas non-additive type of gene action for days to maturity and single fruit weight. Among parents, TMS2, Nagina, Roma and Picdenato showed significant favorable general combing ability (GCA) effects for disease rating traits while TMS1 and Riogrande indicated desirable GCA effects for yield and some yield related traits. Among hybrids, TMS2 x Roma and TMS1 x Riogrande had significant specific combing ability (SCA) effects for detached and whole plant assays. However, hybrid TMS2 x Roma appeared as good combination of LB resistance as it had both parents with desirable GCA effects. All hybrids showed average type of SCA effects for yield and yield components. Genetic control of LB revealed that a multiple crossing program involving genotypes with high GCA effects would be rewarding to identify LB resistant genotypes in early generations. (author)

  18. Control of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS through genetic improvements in disease resistance and tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond eRowland

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Infections caused by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV have a severe economic impact on pig production in North America, Europe and Asia. The emergence and eventual predominance of PRRS in the 1990s are the likely result of changes in the pork industry initiated in the late 1970s, which allowed the virus to occupy a unique niche within a modern commercial production system. PRRSV infection is responsible for severe clinical disease, but can maintain a life-long subclinical infection, as well as participate in several polymicrobial syndromes. Current vaccines lessen clinical signs, but are of limited use for disease control and elimination. The relatively poor protective immunity following vaccination is a function of the virus’s capacity to generate a large degree of genetic diversity, combined with several strategies to evade innate and adaptive immune responses. In 2007, the PRRS Host Genetics consortium (PHGC was established to explore the role of host genetics as as an avenue for PRRS control. The PHGC model for PRRS incorporates the experimental infection of large numbers of growing pigs and has created the opportunity to study experimental PRRSV infection at the population level. The results show that pigs can be placed into distinct phenotypic groups, including pigs that show resistance or pigs that exhibit tolerance to infection. Tolerance is best illustrated by pigs that gain weight normally in the face of a relatively high virus load. Genome-wide association analysis has identified a region on chromosome 4 (SSC4 correlated with resistance; i.e., higher weight gain combined with lower virus load. The genomic region is near a family of genes involved in innate immunity. These results create the opportunity to develop breeding programs that will produce pigs with increased resistance to PRRS. The identification of genomic markers involved in tolerance will likely prove more difficult, primarily because tolerance

  19. Understanding the population genetics of Plasmodium vivax is essential for malaria control and elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnott Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditionally, infection with Plasmodium vivax was thought to be benign and self-limiting, however, recent evidence has demonstrated that infection with P. vivax can also result in severe illness and death. Research into P. vivax has been relatively neglected and much remains unknown regarding the biology, pathogenesis and epidemiology of this parasite. One of the fundamental factors governing transmission and immunity is parasite diversity. An understanding of parasite population genetic structure is necessary to understand the epidemiology, diversity, distribution and dynamics of natural P. vivax populations. In addition, studying the population structure of genes under immune selection also enables investigation of the dynamic interplay between transmission and immunity, which is crucial for vaccine development. A lack of knowledge regarding the transmission and spread of P. vivax has been particularly highlighted in areas where malaria control and elimination programmes have made progress in reducing the burden of Plasmodium falciparum, yet P. vivax remains as a substantial obstacle. With malaria elimination back on the global agenda, mapping of global and local P. vivax population structure is essential prior to establishing goals for elimination and the roll-out of interventions. A detailed knowledge of the spatial distribution, transmission and clinical burden of P. vivax is required to act as a benchmark against which control targets can be set and measured. This paper presents an overview of what is known and what is yet to be fully understood regarding P. vivax population genetics, as well as the importance and application of P. vivax population genetics studies.

  20. Control of type III protein secretion using a minimal genetic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Miryoung; Sukovich, David J; Ciccarelli, Luciano; Mayr, Julia; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Jesus; Mirsky, Ethan A; Tucker, Alex C; Gordon, D Benjamin; Marlovits, Thomas C; Voigt, Christopher A

    2017-05-09

    Gram-negative bacteria secrete proteins using a type III secretion system (T3SS), which functions as a needle-like molecular machine. The many proteins involved in T3SS construction are tightly regulated due to its role in pathogenesis and motility. Here, starting with the 35 kb Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1), we eliminated internal regulation and simplified the genetics by removing or recoding genes, scrambling gene order and replacing all non-coding DNA with synthetic genetic parts. This process results in a 16 kb cluster that shares no sequence identity, regulation or organizational principles with SPI-1. Building this simplified system led to the discovery of essential roles for an internal start site (SpaO) and small RNA (InvR). Further, it can be controlled using synthetic regulatory circuits, including under SPI-1 repressing conditions. This work reveals an incredible post-transcriptional robustness in T3SS assembly and aids its control as a tool in biotechnology.

  1. Integration of epigenetic and genetic controls of seed size by cytokinin in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Nie, Xin; Tan, Jeanie Li Hui; Berger, Frédéric

    2013-09-17

    The development of seeds in flowering plants is placed under complex interactions between maternal tissues, the embryo, and the endosperm. The endosperm plays a major role in the regulation of seed size. In Arabidopsis thaliana, endosperm size depends on the coordination of the genetic pathway HAIKU (IKU) with epigenetic controls comprising genome dosage, DNA methylation, and trimethylated lysine 27 on histone H3 (H3K27me3) deposition. However, the effectors that integrate these pathways have remained unknown. Here, we identify a target of the IKU pathway, the cytokinin oxidase CKX2, that affects cytokinin signaling. CKX2 expression is activated by the IKU transcription factor WRKY10 directly and promotes endosperm growth. CKX2 expression also depends on H3K27me3 deposition, which fluctuates in response to maternal genome dosage imbalance and DNA demethylation of male gametes. Hence, the control of endosperm growth by CKX2 integrates genetic and epigenetic regulations. In angiosperms, cytokinins are highly active in endosperm, and we propose that IKU effectors coordinate environmental and physiological factors, resulting in modulation of seed size.

  2. Genetic control of resistance to salmonellosis and to Salmonella carrier-state in fowl: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vignal Alain

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Salmonellosis is a frequent disease in poultry stocks, caused by several serotypes of the bacterial species Salmonella enterica and sometimes transmitted to humans through the consumption of contaminated meat or eggs. Symptom-free carriers of the bacteria contribute greatly to the propagation of the disease in poultry stocks. So far, several candidate genes and quantitative trait loci (QTL for resistance to carrier state or to acute disease have been identified using artificial infection of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis or S. enterica serovar Typhimurium strains in diverse genetic backgrounds, with several different infection procedures and phenotypic assessment protocols. This diversity in experimental conditions has led to a complex sum of results, but allows a more complete description of the disease. Comparisons among studies show that genes controlling resistance to Salmonella differ according to the chicken line studied, the trait assessed and the chicken's age. The loci identified are located on 25 of the 38 chicken autosomal chromosomes. Some of these loci are clustered in several genomic regions, indicating the possibility of a common genetic control for different models. In particular, the genomic regions carrying the candidate genes TLR4 and SLC11A1, the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC and the QTL SAL1 are interesting for more in-depth studies. This article reviews the main Salmonella infection models and chicken lines studied under a historical perspective and then the candidate genes and QTL identified so far.

  3. Optimization of spatial light distribution through genetic algorithms for vision systems applied to quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellini, P; Cecchini, S; Stroppa, L; Paone, N

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents an adaptive illumination system for image quality enhancement in vision-based quality control systems. In particular, a spatial modulation of illumination intensity is proposed in order to improve image quality, thus compensating for different target scattering properties, local reflections and fluctuations of ambient light. The desired spatial modulation of illumination is obtained by a digital light projector, used to illuminate the scene with an arbitrary spatial distribution of light intensity, designed to improve feature extraction in the region of interest. The spatial distribution of illumination is optimized by running a genetic algorithm. An image quality estimator is used to close the feedback loop and to stop iterations once the desired image quality is reached. The technique proves particularly valuable for optimizing the spatial illumination distribution in the region of interest, with the remarkable capability of the genetic algorithm to adapt the light distribution to very different target reflectivity and ambient conditions. The final objective of the proposed technique is the improvement of the matching score in the recognition of parts through matching algorithms, hence of the diagnosis of machine vision-based quality inspections. The procedure has been validated both by a numerical model and by an experimental test, referring to a significant problem of quality control for the washing machine manufacturing industry: the recognition of a metallic clamp. Its applicability to other domains is also presented, specifically for the visual inspection of shoes with retro-reflective tape and T-shirts with paillettes. (paper)

  4. Novel Insights into the Genetic Controls of Primitive and Definitive Hematopoiesis from Zebrafish Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Sood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoiesis is a dynamic process where initiation and maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells, as well as their differentiation into erythroid, myeloid and lymphoid lineages, are tightly regulated by a network of transcription factors. Understanding the genetic controls of hematopoiesis is crucial as perturbations in hematopoiesis lead to diseases such as anemia, thrombocytopenia, or cancers, including leukemias and lymphomas. Animal models, particularly conventional and conditional knockout mice, have played major roles in our understanding of the genetic controls of hematopoiesis. However, knockout mice for most of the hematopoietic transcription factors are embryonic lethal, thus precluding the analysis of their roles during the transition from embryonic to adult hematopoiesis. Zebrafish are an ideal model organism to determine the function of a gene during embryonic-to-adult transition of hematopoiesis since bloodless zebrafish embryos can develop normally into early larval stage by obtaining oxygen through diffusion. In this review, we discuss the current status of the ontogeny and regulation of hematopoiesis in zebrafish. By providing specific examples of zebrafish morphants and mutants, we have highlighted the contributions of the zebrafish model to our overall understanding of the roles of transcription factors in regulation of primitive and definitive hematopoiesis.

  5. Genetic control of ascorbic acid biosynthesis and recycling in horticultural crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellidou, Ifigeneia; Kanellis, Angelos K.

    2017-07-01

    Ascorbic acid (AsA) is an essential compound present in almost all living organisms that has important functions in several aspects of plant growth and development, hormone signalling, as well as stress defense networks. In recent years, the genetic regulation of AsA metabolic pathways has received much attention due to its beneficial role in human diet. Despite the great variability within species, genotypes, tissues and developmental stages, AsA accumulation is considered to be controlled by the fine orchestration of net biosynthesis, recycling, degradation/oxidation, and/or intercellular and intracellular transport. To date, several structural genes from the AsA metabolic pathways and transcription factors are considered to significantly affect AsA in plant tissues, either at the level of activity, transcription or translation via feedback inhibition. Yet, all the emerging studies support the notion that the steps proceeding through GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase and to a lesser extent through GDP-D-mannose-3,5-epimerase are control points in governing AsA pool size in several species. In this mini review, we discuss the current consensus of the genetic regulation of AsA biosynthesis and recycling, with a focus on horticultural crops. The aspects of AsA degradation and transport are not discussed herein. Novel insights of how this multifaceted trait is regulated are critical to prioritize candidate genes for follow-up studies towards improving the nutritional value of fruits and vegetables.

  6. Genetic control and regulatory mechanisms of succinoglycan and curdlan biosynthesis in genus Agrobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Li, Ang; Ma, Fang; Yang, Jixian; Xie, Yutong

    2016-07-01

    Agrobacterium is a genus of gram-negative bacteria that can produce several typical exopolysaccharides with commercial uses in the food and pharmaceutical fields. In particular, succinoglycan and curdlan, due to their good quality in high yield, have been employed on an industrial scale comparatively early. Exopolysaccharide biosynthesis is a multiple-step process controlled by different functional genes, and various environmental factors cause changes in exopolysaccharide biosynthesis through regulatory mechanisms. In this mini-review, we focus on the genetic control and regulatory mechanisms of succinoglycan and curdlan produced by Agrobacterium. Some key functional genes and regulatory mechanisms for exopolysaccharide biosynthesis are described, possessing a high potential for application in metabolic engineering to modify exopolysaccharide production and physicochemical properties. This review may contribute to the understanding of exopolysaccharide biosynthesis and exopolysaccharide modification by metabolic engineering methods in Agrobacterium.

  7. A methodology for obtaining the control rod patterns in a BWR using genetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz S, J.J.; Montes T, J.L.; Requena R, I.

    2003-01-01

    In this work the GACRP system based on the genetic algorithms technique for the obtaining of the drivers of control bars in a BWR reactor is presented. This methodology was applied to a transition cycle and a one of balance of the Laguna Verde nuclear power station (CNLV). For each one of the studied cycles, it was executed the methodology with a fixed length of the cycle and it was compared the effective multiplication factor of neutrons at the end of the cycle that it is obtained with the proposed drivers of control bars and the multiplication factor of neutrons obtained by means of a Haling calculation. It was found that it is possible to extend several days the length of both cycles with regard to the one Haling calculation. (Author)

  8. CYTOKINE GENES AS GENETIC MARKERS OF CONTROLLED AND UNCONTROLLED ATOPIC BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

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    M. V. Smolnikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Atopic bronchial asthma (ABA is a multifactorial disease; its development is dependent on many environmental and genetic factors. Genetic risk factors can affect the clinical phenotype of ABA and the level of therapeutic control over the disease. Cytokine genes are crucially important in pathogenesis of ABA as they encode proteins participating in immune response and development of inflammation in bronchi. It was suggested that the therapeutic control of the disease is genetically mediated and depends on the presence of one or another allele in genes of mediators, participating in ABA pathogenesis. The knowledge about genetic markers will allow to predict clinical course of ABA in children. We carried out the analysis of association between genes of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines with the level of therapeutic control of ABA. In children with controlled and uncontrolled ABA (CABA and UABA, respectively; n = 110, and in general a population sample (n = 138, we analysed 11 polymorphisms: IL2 (rs2069762, IL4 (rs2070874 и rs2243250, IL5 (rs2069812, IL10 (rs1800872 and rs1800896, IL12B (rs3212227, TNFA (rs1800629 and rs1800630, TGFB1 (rs1800469, and IFNG (rs2069705, encoding cytokines actively participating at the development of allergic inflammation. According to results of present study, the prevalence of alleles and genotypes of the analysed loci in the East Siberia Caucasians is consistent with the data in other world Caucasian populations. We have found statistically significant differences between UABA and control groups for the prevalence of IL2 (rs2069762 polymorphism: GG genotype was more common in control group (14.1% compared to 5.9%, р = 0.03. It was shown that the IL2*T allele and ТТ genotype of the rs2069762 are associated with the increased risk of uncontrolled ABA. A comparison of the haplotypes of IL4 (rs2070874 and rs2243250 gene with correction for sex and age within an additive model revealed that the most common

  9. Genetically Optimization of an Asymmetrical Fuzzy Logic Based Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Tracking Controller

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    AL-GIZI, A.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new fuzzy logic controller (FLC based photovoltaic (PV maximum power point tracking (MPPT optimized with the genetic algorithm (GA. Four FLCs with five and seven numbers of triangular (tri and generalized bell (g-bell membership functions (MFs are analyzed. The performances of the analyzed algorithms have been compared with the appropriate performances of the classical perturb and observe (P&O algorithm by using the following criteria: the rise time (tr, the tracking accuracy of the output power, and the energy yield. The results showed that the FL-based PV MPPT controller with seven triangular (7-tri MFs provides the best steady-state performances.

  10. Genetic control of sex differences in C. elegans neurobiology and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portman, Douglas S

    2007-01-01

    As a well-characterized, genetically tractable animal, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is an ideal model to explore the connections between genes and the sexual regulation of the nervous system and behavior. The two sexes of C. elegans, males and hermaphrodites, have precisely defined differences in neuroanatomy: superimposed onto a "core" nervous system of exactly 294 neurons, hermaphrodites and males have 8 and 89 sex-specific neurons, respectively. These sex-specific neurons are essential for cognate sex-specific behaviors, including hermaphrodite egg-laying and male mating. In addition, regulated sex differences in the core nervous system itself may provide additional, though poorly understood, controls on behavior. These differences in the nervous system and behavior, like all known sex differences in the C. elegans soma, are controlled by the master regulator of C. elegans sex determination, tra-1. Downstream of tra-1 lie specific effectors of sex determination, including genes controlling sex-specific cell death and a family of regulators, the DM-domain genes, related to Drosophila doublesex and the vertebrate DMRT genes. There is no central (i.e., gonadal) regulator of sexual phenotype in the C. elegans nervous system; instead, tra-1 acts cell-autonomously in nearly all sexually dimorphic somatic cells. However, recent results suggest that the status of the gonad can be communicated to the nervous system to modulate sex-specific behaviors. Continuing research into the genetic control of neural sex differences in C. elegans is likely to yield insight into conserved mechanisms of cell-autonomous cross talk between cell fate patterning and sexual differentiation pathways.

  11. Robust control of uncertain nonlinear switched genetic regulatory networks with time delays: A redesign approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Hojjatullah; Majd, Vahid Johari

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, the problem of robust stability of nonlinear genetic regulatory networks (GRNs) is investigated. The developed method is an integral sliding mode control based redesign for a class of perturbed dissipative switched GRNs with time delays. The control law is redesigned by modifying the dissipativity-based control law that was designed for the unperturbed GRNs with time delays. The switched GRNs are switched from one mode to another based on time, state, etc. Although, the active subsystem is known in any instance, but the switching law and the transition probabilities are not known. The model for each mode is considered affine with matched and unmatched perturbations. The redesigned control law forces the GRN to always remain on the sliding surface and the dissipativity is maintained from the initial time in the presence of the norm-bounded perturbations. The global stability of the perturbed GRNs is maintained if the unperturbed model is globally dissipative. The designed control law for the perturbed GRNs guarantees robust exponential or asymptotic stability of the closed-loop network depending on the type of stability of the unperturbed model. The results are applied to a nonlinear switched GRN, and its convergence to the origin is verified by simulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Breast cancer risk and genetic ancestry: a case-control study in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Carolina; Bertoni, Bernardo; Hidalgo, Pedro C; Artagaveytia, Nora; Ackermann, Elizabeth; Barreto, Isabel; Cancela, Paula; Cappetta, Mónica; Egaña, Ana; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Heinzen, Silvina; Hooker, Stanley; Román, Estela; Sans, Mónica; Kittles, Rick A

    2015-01-01

    Uruguay exhibits one of the highest rates of breast cancer in Latin America, similar to those of developed nations, the reasons for which are not completely understood. In this study we investigated the effect that ancestral background has on breast cancer susceptibility among Uruguayan women. We carried out a case-control study of 328 (164 cases, 164 controls) women enrolled in public hospitals and private clinics across the country. We estimated ancestral proportions using a panel of nuclear and mitochondrial ancestry informative markers (AIMs) and tested their association with breast cancer risk. Nuclear individual ancestry in cases was (mean ± SD) 9.8 ± 7.6% African, 13.2 ± 10.2% Native American and 77.1 ± 13.1% European, and in controls 9.1 ± 7.5% African, 14.7 ± 11.2% Native American and 76.2 ± 14.2% European. There was no evidence of a difference in nuclear or mitochondrial ancestry between cases and controls. However, European mitochondrial haplogroup H was associated with breast cancer (OR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.1, 3.5). We have not found evidence that overall genetic ancestry differs between breast cancer patients and controls in Uruguay but we detected an association of the disease with a European mitochondrial lineage, which warrants further investigation.

  13. Genetic Control of Plasticity in Root Morphology and Anatomy of Rice in Response to Water Deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, Niteen N; Tamilselvan, Anandhan; Lawas, Lovely M F; Quinones, Cherryl; Bahuguna, Rajeev N; Thomson, Michael J; Dingkuhn, Michael; Muthurajan, Raveendran; Struik, Paul C; Yin, Xinyou; Jagadish, S V Krishna

    2017-08-01

    Elucidating the genetic control of rooting behavior under water-deficit stress is essential to breed climate-robust rice ( Oryza sativa ) cultivars. Using a diverse panel of 274 indica genotypes grown under control and water-deficit conditions during vegetative growth, we phenotyped 35 traits, mostly related to root morphology and anatomy, involving 45,000 root-scanning images and nearly 25,000 cross sections from the root-shoot junction. The phenotypic plasticity of these traits was quantified as the relative change in trait value under water-deficit compared with control conditions. We then carried out a genome-wide association analysis on these traits and their plasticity, using 45,608 high-quality single-nucleotide polymorphisms. One hundred four significant loci were detected for these traits under control conditions, 106 were detected under water-deficit stress, and 76 were detected for trait plasticity. We predicted 296 (control), 284 (water-deficit stress), and 233 (plasticity) a priori candidate genes within linkage disequilibrium blocks for these loci. We identified key a priori candidate genes regulating root growth and development and relevant alleles that, upon validation, can help improve rice adaptation to water-deficit stress. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Simple Algorithms to Calculate Asymptotic Null Distributions of Robust Tests in Case-Control Genetic Association Studies in R

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    Wing Kam Fung

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The case-control study is an important design for testing association between genetic markers and a disease. The Cochran-Armitage trend test (CATT is one of the most commonly used statistics for the analysis of case-control genetic association studies. The asymptotically optimal CATT can be used when the underlying genetic model (mode of inheritance is known. However, for most complex diseases, the underlying genetic models are unknown. Thus, tests robust to genetic model misspecification are preferable to the model-dependant CATT. Two robust tests, MAX3 and the genetic model selection (GMS, were recently proposed. Their asymptotic null distributions are often obtained by Monte-Carlo simulations, because they either have not been fully studied or involve multiple integrations. In this article, we study how components of each robust statistic are correlated, and find a linear dependence among the components. Using this new finding, we propose simple algorithms to calculate asymptotic null distributions for MAX3 and GMS, which greatly reduce the computing intensity. Furthermore, we have developed the R package Rassoc implementing the proposed algorithms to calculate the empirical and asymptotic p values for MAX3 and GMS as well as other commonly used tests in case-control association studies. For illustration, Rassoc is applied to the analysis of case-control data of 17 most significant SNPs reported in four genome-wide association studies.

  15. Air pollution and asthma control in the Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemin, Bénédicte; Kauffmann, Francine; Pin, Isabelle; Le Moual, Nicole; Bousquet, Jean; Gormand, Frédéric; Just, Jocelyne; Nadif, Rachel; Pison, Christophe; Vervloet, Daniel; Künzli, Nino; Siroux, Valérie

    2012-09-01

    The associations between exposure to air pollution and asthma control are not well known. The objective of this study was to assess the association between long-term exposure to NO(2), O(3) and PM(10) and asthma control in the follow-up of the Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA2) (2003-2007). Modelled outdoor NO(2), O(3) and PM(10) estimates were linked to each residential address using the 4 km grid air pollutant surface developed by the French Institute of Environment in 2004. Asthma control was assessed in 481 subjects with current asthma using a multidimensional approach following the 2006-2009 Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines. Multinomial and ordinal logistic regressions were conducted adjusted for sex, age, body mass index, education, smoking and use of inhaled corticosteroids. The association between air pollution and the three domains of asthma control (symptoms, exacerbations and lung function) was assessed. ORs are reported per IQR. Median concentrations (in micrograms per cubic metre) were 32 (IQR 25-38) for NO(2) (n=465), 46 (41-52) for O(3) and 21 (18-21) for PM(10) (n=481). In total, 44%, 29% and 27% had controlled, partly controlled and uncontrolled asthma, respectively. The ordinal ORs for O(3) and PM(10) with asthma control were 1.69 (95% CI 1.22 to 2.34) and 1.35 (95% CI 1.13 to 1.64), respectively. When including both pollutants in the same model, both associations persisted. Associations were not modified by sex, smoking status, use of inhaled corticosteroids, atopy, season of examination or body mass index. Both pollutants were associated with each of the three main domains of control. The results suggest that long-term exposure to PM(10) and O(3) is associated with uncontrolled asthma in adults, defined by symptoms, exacerbations and lung function.

  16. Genetic and environmental control of the Verticillium syndrome in Arabidopsis thaliana

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    Diederichsen Elke

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Verticillium spp. are major pathogens of dicotyledonous plants such as cotton, tomato, olive or oilseed rape. Verticillium symptoms are often ambiguous and influenced by development and environment. The aim of the present study was to define disease and resistance traits of the complex Verticillium longisporum syndrome in Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh. A genetic approach was used to determine genetic, developmental and environmental factors controlling specific disease and resistance traits and to study their interrelations. Results A segregating F2/F3 population originating from ecotypes 'Burren' (Bur and 'Landsberg erecta' (Ler was established. Plants were root-dip inoculated and tested under greenhouse conditions. The Verticillium syndrome was dissected into components like systemic spread, stunting, development time and axillary branching. Systemic spread of V. longisporum via colonisation of the shoot was extensive in Ler; Bur showed a high degree of resistance against systemic spread. Fungal colonisation of the shoot apex was determined by (a determining the percentage of plants from which the fungus could be re-isolated and (b measuring fungal DNA content with quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR. Four quantitative trait loci (QTL controlling systemic spread were identified for the percentage of plants showing fungal outgrowth, two of these QTL were confirmed with qPCR data. The degree of colonisation by V. longisporum was negatively correlated with development time. QTL controlling development time showed some overlap with QTL for resistance to systemic spread. Stunting depended on host genotype, development time and seasonal effects. Five QTL controlling this trait were identified which did not co-localize with QTL controlling systemic spread. V. longisporum induced increased axillary branching in Bur; two QTL controlling this reaction were found. Conclusions Systemic spread of V. longisporum in the host as well as

  17. Application of Genetic Control with Adaptive Scaling Scheme to Signal Acquisition in Global Navigation Satellite System Receiver

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    Ho-Nien Shou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a genetic-based control scheme that not only utilizes evolutionary characteristics to find the signal acquisition parameters, but also employs an adaptive scheme to control the search space and avoid the genetic control converging to local optimal value so as to acquire the desired signal precisely and rapidly. Simulations and experiment results show that the proposed method can improve the precision of signal parameters and take less signal acquisition time than traditional serial search methods for global navigation satellite system (GNSS signals.

  18. Genetic control of some morphological mutants in sunflower [Helianthus annuus L.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabipour, A.; Sarrafi, A.; Yazdi-Samadi, B.

    2004-01-01

    Inheritance study of induced mutants is an important tool in genetic and breeding programs. Sunflower is one of the most important oil crops for which mutant collection is meager. Seeds of sunflower line AS-613 were irradiated with gamma rays and mutant phenotypes were traced until M4 generation. In M5 generation, the following traits were studied: dwarfing, branching, leaf shape, albinism, rosette, lack of apex and alternative leaves. In most cases, the mutated characters were controlled by a single recessive gene, while in two cases they were controlled by two recessive genes. In M5 progenies, segregation for two albino, one alternative leaves, one dwarfism, 5 branching, one rosette, 2 lacks of apex and 5 leaf shape mutants was recorded. Amongst five cases of branching, one was controlled by two recessive genes, where at least one homozygote recessive locus was necessary for branching. In one case, the lack of apex was controlled by two recessive genes and even only one dominant allele could provoke the normal plant [it

  19. Genetic control of resistance to Trypanosoma brucei brucei infection in mice.

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    Matyáš Síma

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma brucei brucei infects livestock, with severe effects in horses and dogs. Mouse strains differ greatly in susceptibility to this parasite. However, no genes controlling these differences were mapped.We studied the genetic control of survival after T. b. brucei infection using recombinant congenic (RC strains, which have a high mapping power. Each RC strain of BALB/c-c-STS/A (CcS/Dem series contains a different random subset of 12.5% genes from the parental "donor" strain STS/A and 87.5% genes from the "background" strain BALB/c. Although BALB/c and STS/A mice are similarly susceptible to T. b. brucei, the RC strain CcS-11 is more susceptible than either of them. We analyzed genetics of survival in T. b. brucei-infected F(2 hybrids between BALB/c and CcS-11. CcS-11 strain carries STS-derived segments on eight chromosomes. They were genotyped in the F(2 hybrid mice and their linkage with survival was tested by analysis of variance.We mapped four Tbbr (Trypanosoma brucei brucei response loci that influence survival after T. b. brucei infection. Tbbr1 (chromosome 3 and Tbbr2 (chromosome 12 have effects on survival independent of inter-genic interactions (main effects. Tbbr3 (chromosome 7 influences survival in interaction with Tbbr4 (chromosome 19. Tbbr2 is located on a segment 2.15 Mb short that contains only 26 genes.This study presents the first identification of chromosomal loci controlling susceptibility to T. b. brucei infection. While mapping in F(2 hybrids of inbred strains usually has a precision of 40-80 Mb, in RC strains we mapped Tbbr2 to a 2.15 Mb segment containing only 26 genes, which will enable an effective search for the candidate gene. Definition of susceptibility genes will improve the understanding of pathways and genetic diversity underlying the disease and may result in new strategies to overcome the active subversion of the immune system by T. b. brucei.

  20. Case-control study for colorectal cancer genetic susceptibility in EPICOLON: previously identified variants and mucins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abulí, Anna; Morillas, Juan D; Rigau, Joaquim; Latorre, Mercedes; Fernández-Bañares, Fernando; Peña, Elena; Riestra, Sabino; Payá, Artemio; Jover, Rodrigo; Xicola, Rosa M; Llor, Xavier; Fernández-Rozadilla, Ceres; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis; Villanueva, Cristina M; Moreno, Victor; Piqué, Josep M; Carracedo, Angel; Castells, Antoni; Andreu, Montserrat; Ruiz-Ponte, Clara; Castellví-Bel, Sergi; Alonso-Espinaco, Virginia; Muñoz, Jenifer; Gonzalo, Victoria; Bessa, Xavier; González, Dolors; Clofent, Joan; Cubiella, Joaquin

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Familial aggregation in CRC is also important outside syndromic forms and, in this case, a polygenic model with several common low-penetrance alleles contributing to CRC genetic predisposition could be hypothesized. Mucins and GALNTs (N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase) are interesting candidates for CRC genetic susceptibility and have not been previously evaluated. We present results for ten genetic variants linked to CRC risk in previous studies (previously identified category) and 18 selected variants from the mucin gene family in a case-control association study from the Spanish EPICOLON consortium. CRC cases and matched controls were from EPICOLON, a prospective, multicenter, nationwide Spanish initiative, comprised of two independent stages. Stage 1 corresponded to 515 CRC cases and 515 controls, whereas stage 2 consisted of 901 CRC cases and 909 controls. Also, an independent cohort of 549 CRC cases and 599 controls outside EPICOLON was available for additional replication. Genotyping was performed for ten previously identified SNPs in ADH1C, APC, CCDN1, IL6, IL8, IRS1, MTHFR, PPARG, VDR and ARL11, and 18 selected variants in the mucin gene family. None of the 28 SNPs analyzed in our study was found to be associated with CRC risk. Although four SNPs were significant with a P-value < 0.05 in EPICOLON stage 1 [rs698 in ADH1C (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.06-2.50, P-value = 0.02, recessive), rs1800795 in IL6 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.10-2.37, P-value = 0.01, recessive), rs3803185 in ARL11 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.17-2.15, P-value = 0.007, codominant), and rs2102302 in GALNTL2 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.00-1.44, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles], only rs3803185 achieved statistical significance in EPICOLON stage 2 (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.06-1.69, P-value = 0.01, recessive). In the joint analysis for both stages, results were only significant for rs3803185 (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1

  1. Case-control study for colorectal cancer genetic susceptibility in EPICOLON: previously identified variants and mucins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Victor

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Familial aggregation in CRC is also important outside syndromic forms and, in this case, a polygenic model with several common low-penetrance alleles contributing to CRC genetic predisposition could be hypothesized. Mucins and GALNTs (N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase are interesting candidates for CRC genetic susceptibility and have not been previously evaluated. We present results for ten genetic variants linked to CRC risk in previous studies (previously identified category and 18 selected variants from the mucin gene family in a case-control association study from the Spanish EPICOLON consortium. Methods CRC cases and matched controls were from EPICOLON, a prospective, multicenter, nationwide Spanish initiative, comprised of two independent stages. Stage 1 corresponded to 515 CRC cases and 515 controls, whereas stage 2 consisted of 901 CRC cases and 909 controls. Also, an independent cohort of 549 CRC cases and 599 controls outside EPICOLON was available for additional replication. Genotyping was performed for ten previously identified SNPs in ADH1C, APC, CCDN1, IL6, IL8, IRS1, MTHFR, PPARG, VDR and ARL11, and 18 selected variants in the mucin gene family. Results None of the 28 SNPs analyzed in our study was found to be associated with CRC risk. Although four SNPs were significant with a P-value ADH1C (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.06-2.50, P-value = 0.02, recessive, rs1800795 in IL6 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.10-2.37, P-value = 0.01, recessive, rs3803185 in ARL11 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.17-2.15, P-value = 0.007, codominant, and rs2102302 in GALNTL2 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.00-1.44, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles], only rs3803185 achieved statistical significance in EPICOLON stage 2 (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.06-1.69, P-value = 0.01, recessive. In the joint analysis for both stages, results were only significant for rs3803185 (OR = 1

  2. A genetic-based neuro-fuzzy approach for modeling and control of dynamical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, W A; Quintana, V H; Lambert-Torres, G

    1998-01-01

    Linguistic modeling of complex irregular systems constitutes the heart of many control and decision making systems, and fuzzy logic represents one of the most effective algorithms to build such linguistic models. In this paper, a linguistic (qualitative) modeling approach is proposed. The approach combines the merits of the fuzzy logic theory, neural networks, and genetic algorithms (GA's). The proposed model is presented in a fuzzy-neural network (FNN) form which can handle both quantitative (numerical) and qualitative (linguistic) knowledge. The learning algorithm of an FNN is composed of three phases. The first phase is used to find the initial membership functions of the fuzzy model. In the second phase, a new algorithm is developed and used to extract the linguistic-fuzzy rules. In the third phase, a multiresolutional dynamic genetic algorithm (MRD-GA) is proposed and used for optimized tuning of membership functions of the proposed model. Two well-known benchmarks are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed modeling approach, and compare it with other modeling approaches.

  3. Conserved genetic pathways controlling the development of the diffuse endocrine system in vertebrates and Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartenstein, Volker; Takashima, Shigeo; Adams, Katrina L

    2010-05-01

    The midgut epithelium is formed by absorptive enterocytes, secretory cells and endocrine cells. Each of these lineages is derived from the pluripotent progenitors that constitute the embryonic endoderm; the mature midgut retains pools of self-renewing stem cells that continue to produce all lineages. Recent findings in vertebrates and Drosophila shed light on the genetic mechanism that specifies the fate of the different lineages. A pivotal role is played by the Notch signaling pathway that, in a manner that appears to be very similar to the way in which Notch signaling selects neural progenitors within the neurectoderm, distinguishes the fate of secretory/endocrine cells and enterocytes. Proneural genes encoding bHLH transcription factors are expressed and required in prospective endocrine cells; activation of the Notch pathways restricts the number of these cells and promotes enterocyte development. In this review we compare the development of the intestinal endocrine cells in vertebrates and insects and summarize recent findings dealing with genetic pathways controlling this cell type. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Evidence for coordinate genetic control of Na,K pump density in erythrocytes and lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLuise, M.; Flier, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    The erythrocyte is widely used as a model cell for studies of the Na,K pump in health and disease. However, little is known about the factors that control the number of Na,K pumps expressed on the erythrocytes of a given individual, nor about the extent to which erythrocytes can be used to validly assess the pump density on other cell types. In this report, the authors have compared the interindividual variance of Na,K pump density in erythrocytes of unrelated individuals to that seen with identical twins. Unlike unrelated individuals, in whom pump parameters, i.e., ouabain binding sites, 86 Rb uptake, and cell Na concentration vary widely, identical twin pairs showed no significant intrapair variation for these values. Thus, a role for genetic factors is suggested. In addition, the authors established and validated a method for determining Na,K pump density and pump-mediated 86 Rb uptake in human peripheral lymphocytes. Using this method, they show that whereas Na,K pump density differs markedly between erythrocytes (mean of 285 sites per cell) and lymphocytes (mean 40,600 sites per cell), there is a strong and highly significant correlation (r = 0.79, P less than 0.001) between the pump density in these cell types in any given individual. Taken together, these studies suggest that genetic factors are important determinants of Na,K pump expression, and that pump density appears to be coordinately regulated in two cell types in healthy individuals

  5. Impact of fathers on risky sexual behavior in daughters: a genetically and environmentally controlled sibling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Bruce J; Schlomer, Gabriel L; Tilley, Elizabeth H; Butler, Emily A

    2012-02-01

    Girls receiving lower quality paternal investment tend to engage in more risky sexual behavior (RSB) than peers. Whereas paternal investment theory posits that this effect is causal, it could arise from environmental or genetic confounds. To distinguish between these competing explanations, the current authors employed a genetically and environmentally controlled sibling design (N = 101 sister pairs; ages 18-36), which retrospectively examined the effects of differential sibling exposure to family disruption/father absence and quality of fathering. Consistent with a causal explanation, differences between older and younger sisters in the effects of quality of fathering on RSB were greatest in biologically disrupted families when there was a large age gap between the sisters (thus maximizing differential exposure to fathers), with greater exposure within families to higher quality fathering serving as a protective factor against RSB. Further, variation around the lower end of fathering quality appeared to have the most influence on RSB. In contrast, differential sibling exposure to family disruption/father absence (irrespective of quality of fathering) was not associated with RSB. The differential sibling-exposure design affords a new quasi-experimental method for evaluating the causal effects of fathers within families.

  6. Sweet Spot Control of 1:2 Array Antenna using A Modified Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyo-Hwan HYUN

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel scheme that quickly searches for the sweet spot of 1:2 array antennas, and locks on to it for high-speed millimeter wavelength transmissions, when communications to another antenna array are disconnected. The proposed method utilizes a modified genetic algorithm, which selects a superior initial group through preprocessing in order to solve the local solution in a genetic algorithm. TDD (Time Division Duplex is utilized as the transfer method and data controller for the antenna. Once the initial communication is completed for the specific number of individuals, no longer antenna's data will be transmitted until each station processes GA in order to produce the next generation. After reproduction, individuals of the next generation become the data, and communication between each station is made again. The simulation results of 1:1, 1:2 array antennas, and experiment results of 1:1 array antenna confirmed the efficiency of the proposed method. The bit of gene is each 8bit, 16bit and 16bit split gene. 16bit split has similar performance as 16bit gene, but the gene of antenna is 8bit.

  7. Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci for tuber-cadmium and zinc concentration in potato reveals associations with maturity and both overlapping and independent components of genetic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengist, Molla F; Alves, Sheila; Griffin, Denis; Creedon, Joanne; McLaughlin, Mike J; Jones, Peter W; Milbourne, Dan

    2018-04-01

    Cd is a toxic metal, whilst Zn is an essential for plant and human health. Both can accumulate in potato tubers. We examine the genetic control of this process. The aim of this study was to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) influencing tuber concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn). We developed a segregating population comprising 188 F 1 progeny derived from crossing two tetraploid cultivars exhibiting divergent tuber-Cd-accumulation phenotypes. These progeny were genotyped using the SolCap 8303 SNP array, and evaluated for Cd, Zn, and maturity-related traits. Linkage and QTL mapping were performed using TetraploidSNPMap software, which incorporates all allele dosage information. The final genetic map comprised 3755 SNP markers with average marker density of 2.94 per cM. Tuber-Cd and Zn concentrations were measured in the segregating population over 2 years. QTL mapping identified four loci for tuber-Cd concentration on chromosomes 3, 5, 6, and 7, which explained genetic variance ranging from 5 to 33%, and five loci for tuber-Zn concentration on chromosome 1, 3, 5, and, 6 explaining from 5 to 38% of genetic variance. Among the QTL identified for tuber-Cd concentration, three loci coincided with tuber-Zn concentration. The largest effect QTL for both tuber-Cd and Zn concentration coincided with the maturity locus on chromosome 5 where earliness was associated with increased tuber concentration of both metals. Coincident minor-effect QTL for Cd and Zn sharing the same direction of effect was also found on chromosomes 3 and 6, and these were unrelated to maturity The results indicate partially overlapping genetic control of tuber-Cd and Zn concentration in the cross, involving both maturity-related and non-maturity-related mechanisms.

  8. Current situation, genetic relationship and control measures of infectious bronchitis virus variants circulating in African regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadija Khataby

    2016-08-01

    Three S1 gene hypervariable regions were studied and compared to the reference genotypes/serotypes that found emerging in African regions. This comparison was based on phylogenetic trees, nucleotide and amino-acid sequence analysis. It clearly appears that IBV variants reported in Africa, display a low genetic relationship between them and with the majority of the reference strains emerging in neighboring countries, except the case of variants from Libya and Egypt that show a high relatedness. Also the Massachusetts serotypes were the most prevalent co-circulating with both serotypes, Italy02 type in Morocco and Qx-like genotype in South part of the African continent. In order to control the IBV variants in African regions, an efficient vaccination strategy program should be implemented.

  9. Actuator Location and Voltages Optimization for Shape Control of Smart Beams Using Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios E. Stavroulakis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical study on optimal voltages and optimal placement of piezoelectric actuators for shape control of beam structures. A finite element model, based on Timoshenko beam theory, is developed to characterize the behavior of the structure and the actuators. This model accounted for the electromechanical coupling in the entire beam structure, due to the fact that the piezoelectric layers are treated as constituent parts of the entire structural system. A hybrid scheme is presented based on great deluge and genetic algorithm. The hybrid algorithm is implemented to calculate the optimal locations and optimal values of voltages, applied to the piezoelectric actuators glued in the structure, which minimize the error between the achieved and the desired shape. Results from numerical simulations demonstrate the capabilities and efficiency of the developed optimization algorithm in both clamped−free and clamped−clamped beam problems are presented.

  10. Optimizing models for production and inventory control using a genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan S. Pamučar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to make the Economic Production Quantity (EPQ model more applicable to real-world production and inventory control problems, in this paper we expand this model by assuming that some imperfect items of different product types being produced such as reworks are allowed. In addition, we may have more than one product and supplier along with warehouse space and budget limitation. We show that the model of the problem is a constrained non-linear integer program and propose a genetic algorithm to solve it. Moreover, a design of experiments is employed to calibrate the parameters of the algorithm for different problem sizes. In the end, a numerical example is presented to demonstrate the application of the proposed methodology.

  11. Genetic and epigenetic control of gene expression by CRISPR–Cas systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Albert; Qi, Lei

    2017-01-01

    The discovery and adaption of bacterial clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)–CRISPR-associated (Cas) systems has revolutionized the way researchers edit genomes. Engineering of catalytically inactivated Cas variants (nuclease-deficient or nuclease-deactivated [dCas]) combined with transcriptional repressors, activators, or epigenetic modifiers enable sequence-specific regulation of gene expression and chromatin state. These CRISPR–Cas-based technologies have contributed to the rapid development of disease models and functional genomics screening approaches, which can facilitate genetic target identification and drug discovery. In this short review, we will cover recent advances of CRISPR–dCas9 systems and their use for transcriptional repression and activation, epigenome editing, and engineered synthetic circuits for complex control of the mammalian genome. PMID:28649363

  12. Fundamental aspects of genetic control of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    Radiobiological properties of Tetranychus urticae and other topics of genetic control have been evaluated. The induction by X-rays or fast neutrons of dominant lethals in mature sperm and of dominant lethals and recessive lethals in prophase-1 oocytes and the induction by both radiation types of chromosome mutations, recessive lethals and factors causing F 1 -infertility in sperm and oocytes, have been studied. From the results the optimal dose, radiation type and germ cell type could be chosen for obtaining either fully sterile males or substerile males, producing fully infertile F 1 -females. Also the most favourable conditions were determined for the induction of chromosome mutations with the lowest frequency of linked recessive lethals. The radiobiological properties of holokinetic chromosomes are extensively discussed. The successful displacement of the standard karyotype by a radiation arranged karyotype is presented and discussed in its relevance for practical application. (Auth./C.F.)

  13. Genetic associations with viral respiratory illnesses and asthma control in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loisel, Dagan A; Du, Gaixin; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Tisler, Christopher J.; Evans, Michael D.; Myers, Rachel A.; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Bisgaard, Hans; Jackson, Daniel J.; Lemanske, Robert F.; Nicolae, Dan L.; Gern, James E.; Ober, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Background Viral respiratory infections can cause acute wheezing illnesses in children and exacerbations of asthma. Objective We sought to identify variation in genes with known antiviral and pro-inflammatory functions to identify specific associations with more severe viral respiratory illnesses and the risk of virus-induced exacerbations during the peak fall season. Methods The associations between genetic variation at 326 SNPs in 63 candidate genes and 10 phenotypes related to viral respiratory infection and asthma control were examined in 226 children enrolled in the RhinoGen study. Replication of asthma control phenotypes was performed in 2,128 children in the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC). Significant associations in RhinoGen were further validated using virus-induced wheezing illness and asthma phenotypes in an independent sample of 122 children enrolled in the Childhood Origins of Asthma birth cohort study (COAST). Results A significant excess of P values smaller than 0.05 was observed in the analysis of the 10 RhinoGen phenotypes. Polymorphisms in 12 genes were significantly associated with variation in the four phenotypes showing a significant enrichment of small P values. Six of those genes (STAT4, JAK2, MX1, VDR, DDX58, and EIF2AK2) also showed significant associations with asthma exacerbations in the COPSAC study or with asthma or virus-induced wheezing phenotypes in the COAST study. Conclusions We identified genetic factors contributing to individual differences in childhood viral respiratory illnesses and virus-induced exacerbations of asthma. Defining mechanisms of these associations may provide insight into the pathogenesis of viral respiratory infections and virus-induced exacerbations of asthma. PMID:26399222

  14. Can Man Control His Biological Evolution? A Symposium on Genetic Engineering. Man's Responsibility to His Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoagland, Hudson

    1972-01-01

    Biological evolution can be carried out in the laboratory. With new knowledge available in genetics, possibilities are raised that genetic characters can be transferred in the future to embryos according to a predetermined plan. (PS)

  15. Elevator Group Supervisory Control System Using Genetic Network Programming with Macro Nodes and Reinforcement Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Yu, Lu; Mabu, Shingo; Hirasawa, Kotaro; Hu, Jinglu; Markon, Sandor

    Elevator Group Supervisory Control System (EGSCS) is a very large scale stochastic dynamic optimization problem. Due to its vast state space, significant uncertainty and numerous resource constraints such as finite car capacities and registered hall/car calls, it is hard to manage EGSCS using conventional control methods. Recently, many solutions for EGSCS using Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies have been reported. Genetic Network Programming (GNP), which is proposed as a new evolutionary computation method several years ago, is also proved to be efficient when applied to EGSCS problem. In this paper, we propose an extended algorithm for EGSCS by introducing Reinforcement Learning (RL) into GNP framework, and an improvement of the EGSCS' performances is expected since the efficiency of GNP with RL has been clarified in some other studies like tile-world problem. Simulation tests using traffic flows in a typical office building have been made, and the results show an actual improvement of the EGSCS' performances comparing to the algorithms using original GNP and conventional control methods. Furthermore, as a further study, an importance weight optimization algorithm is employed based on GNP with RL and its efficiency is also verified with the better performances.

  16. Control of Stochastic Master Equation Models of Genetic Regulatory Networks by Approximating Their Average Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umut Caglar, Mehmet; Pal, Ranadip

    2010-10-01

    The central dogma of molecular biology states that ``information cannot be transferred back from protein to either protein or nucleic acid.'' However, this assumption is not exactly correct in most of the cases. There are a lot of feedback loops and interactions between different levels of systems. These types of interactions are hard to analyze due to the lack of data in the cellular level and probabilistic nature of interactions. Probabilistic models like Stochastic Master Equation (SME) or deterministic models like differential equations (DE) can be used to analyze these types of interactions. SME models based on chemical master equation (CME) can provide detailed representation of genetic regulatory system, but their use is restricted by the large data requirements and computational costs of calculations. The differential equations models on the other hand, have low calculation costs and much more adequate to generate control procedures on the system; but they are not adequate to investigate the probabilistic nature of interactions. In this work the success of the mapping between SME and DE is analyzed, and the success of a control policy generated by DE model with respect to SME model is examined. Index Terms--- Stochastic Master Equation models, Differential Equation Models, Control Policy Design, Systems biology

  17. Barley seed ageing: genetics behind the dry elevated pressure of oxygen ageing and moist controlled deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela eNagel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Experimental seed ageing approaches intend to mimic seed deterioration processes to achieve a storage interval reduction. Common methods apply higher seed moisture levels and temperatures. In contrast, the elevated partial pressure of oxygen (EPPO approach treats dry seed stored at ambient temperatures with high oxygen pressure. To analyse the genetic background of seed longevity and the effects of seed ageing under dry conditions, the EPPO approach was applied to the progeny of the Oregon Wolfe Barley (OWB mapping population. In comparison to a non-treated control and a control high-pressure nitrogen treatment, EPPO stored seeds showed typical symptoms of ageing with a significant reduction of normal seedlings, slower germination, and less total germination. Thereby, the parent Dom (OWB-D, carrying dominant alleles, is more sensitive to ageing in comparison to the population mean and in most cases to the parent Rec (OWB-R, carrying recessive alleles. Quantitative trait locus (QTL analyses using 2,832 markers revealed 65 QTLs, including two major loci for seed vigor on 2H and 7H. QTLs for EPPO tolerance were detected on 3H, 4H, and 5H. An applied controlled deterioration (CD treatment (aged at higher moisture level and temperature revealed a tolerance QTL on 5H, indicating that the mechanism of seed deterioration differs in part between EPPO or CD conditions.

  18. Barley Seed Aging: Genetics behind the Dry Elevated Pressure of Oxygen Aging and Moist Controlled Deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Manuela; Kodde, Jan; Pistrick, Sibylle; Mascher, Martin; Börner, Andreas; Groot, Steven P C

    2016-01-01

    Experimental seed aging approaches intend to mimic seed deterioration processes to achieve a storage interval reduction. Common methods apply higher seed moisture levels and temperatures. In contrast, the "elevated partial pressure of oxygen" (EPPO) approach treats dry seed stored at ambient temperatures with high oxygen pressure. To analyse the genetic background of seed longevity and the effects of seed aging under dry conditions, the EPPO approach was applied to the progeny of the Oregon Wolfe Barley (OWB) mapping population. In comparison to a non-treated control and a control high-pressure nitrogen treatment, EPPO stored seeds showed typical symptoms of aging with a significant reduction of normal seedlings, slower germination, and less total germination. Thereby, the parent Dom ("OWB-D"), carrying dominant alleles, is more sensitive to aging in comparison to the population mean and in most cases to the parent Rec ("OWB-R"), carrying recessive alleles. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses using 2832 markers revealed 65 QTLs, including two major loci for seed vigor on 2H and 7H. QTLs for EPPO tolerance were detected on 3H, 4H, and 5H. An applied controlled deterioration (CD) treatment (aged at higher moisture level and temperature) revealed a tolerance QTL on 5H, indicating that the mechanism of seed deterioration differs in part between EPPO or CD conditions.

  19. Optimal shape control of piezolaminated beams with different boundary condition and loading using genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendine, Kouider; Wankhade, Rajan L.

    2017-12-01

    Piezoelectric actuators are effectively used to control the response of light weight structures in shape, vibration and buckling. Optimization for the shape control of piezoelectric beam is the recent challenge which requires proper numerical technique to perform. The shape control of a composite beam using surface-bounded piezoelectric actuators has been investigated in the present work. The mathematical model is developed using two-node Timoshenko beam element coupling with the theory of linear piezoelectricity. First-order shear deformation theory is employed in the formulation to consider the effect of shear. In the analysis, the effect of the actuators position for different set of boundary conditions is investigated. For different boundary conditions which include clamped-free-, clamped-clamped- and simply supported beam, optimisation of piezoelectric patch location is investigated. Moreover, a genetic algorithm is adopted and implemented to optimize the required voltage to maintain the desired shape of the beam. This optimization technique is applied to different cases of composite beams with varying the boundary condition.

  20. Effects of provision of type 2 diabetes genetic risk feedback on patient perceptions of diabetes control and diet and physical activity self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVay, Megan A; Beadles, Christopher; Wu, Ryanne; Grubber, Janet; Coffman, Cynthia J; Yancy, William S; Reiner, Isaac Lipkus; Voils, Corrine I

    2015-06-30

    We examined effects of providing type 2 diabetes genetic risk feedback on controllability perceptions. This is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial in which overweight/obese Veterans Affairs patients without diabetes received conventional type 2 diabetes risk counseling that included either (1) personalized diabetes genetic risk feedback (genetic risk arm) or (2) eye disease counseling (comparison arm). Perceived diabetes control, and dietary and physical activity self-efficacy were compared between study arms, and between the comparison arm and each of 3 DNA-based genetic risk levels. Participants (N=531) were predominately male, middle-age, and African American. Immediately post-counseling, perceived diabetes control was higher for the genetic risk arm (risk levels combined) than the comparison arm (p=0.005). In analyses by genetic risk levels, low genetic risk participants reported higher perceived diabetes control than comparison participants (p=0.007). Immediately post-counseling, low genetic risk participants reported higher dietary self-efficacy in situations when mood is negative compared with controls(p=0.01). At 3 months, no differences in constructs were observed. Genetic risk feedback for diabetes has temporary effects on perceived controllability among patients with low genetic risk. Clinicians and other stakeholders should consider the limited effects on behavior change of diabetes genetic risk feedback. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Selection of an effective microsatellite marker system for genetic control and analysis of gerbil populations in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, X Y; Li, W; Sa, X Y; Li, C L; Lu, J; Wang, Y Z; Chen, Z W

    2015-09-21

    Although gerbils have been widely used in many areas of biological research over many years, there is currently no effective genetic quality control system available. In the present study, we sought to establish a microsatellite marker system for quality control and conducted an optimized analysis of 137 microsatellite loci in two laboratory gerbil populations and one wild population. Independent sample t-tests on the mean effective allele number, mean of Shannon's information index, and mean HE suggested that 28 of the 137 microsatellite markers were informative for gerbil genetic control. Analysis of 4 laboratory gerbil populations and 1 wild population using the 28 microsatellite loci indicated that allele numbers varied from 1.9639 (Guangzhou, GZ) to 6.6071 (North-West wild, NW). The average of HO versus HE was 0.6236/0.3802, 0.6671/0.4159, 0.4185/0.3464, 0.4592/0.3821, and 0.3972/0.4167 for the Beijing, NW, Hangzhou, Dalian, and GZ populations, respectively. The GZ population showed the greatest differentiation, having higher RST and Nei's standard genetic distances. An AMO-VA revealed high genetic differentiation among the five populations (FST = 0.296). The microsatellite system established here is effective and will be important in future studies for genetic quality control and monitoring of gerbil breeds.

  2. The effects of initial conditions and control time on optimal actuator placement via a max-min Genetic Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmond, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parker, G. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    1993-07-01

    This paper examines the role of the control objective and the control time in determining fuel-optimal actuator placement for structural vibration suppression. A general theory is developed that can be easily extended to include alternative performance metrics such as energy and time-optimal control. The performance metric defines a convex admissible control set which leads to a max-min optimization problem expressing optimal location as a function of initial conditions and control time. A solution procedure based on a nested Genetic Algorithm is presented and applied to an example problem. Results indicate that the optimal locations vary widely as a function of control time and initial conditions.

  3. Application of genetic algorithms to the adjustment of the supports of fuzzy sets in a mamdani controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Mazzucco

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of control systems based on fuzzy rules facilitates the solving of problems when insufficient phenomenological information is available. The most common way of grouping fuzzy rules to form a controller is known as Mamdani controller. This controller consists of a set of rules with two premises, the error and the error variation, and one conclusion, the control action variation. One of the most delicate phases of the project of fuzzy systems is the definition of the supports (range of each fuzzy qualifiers. This work apply genetic algorithms, together with some model of the system, to the adjustment of the supports of the fuzzy sets used in a Mamdani controller. The results show that the automatic adjustment is faster and more efficient that the manual one. Finally, the results are compared with a PID that was also adjusted with genetic algorithms.

  4. Examining the impact of genetic testing for type 2 diabetes on health behaviors: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voils Corrine I

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe the study design, procedures, and development of the risk counseling protocol used in a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the impact of genetic testing for diabetes mellitus (DM on psychological, health behavior, and clinical outcomes. Methods/Design Eligible patients are aged 21 to 65 years with body mass index (BMI ≥27 kg/m2 and no prior diagnosis of DM. At baseline, conventional DM risk factors are assessed, and blood is drawn for possible genetic testing. Participants are randomized to receive conventional risk counseling for DM with eye disease counseling or with genetic test results. The counseling protocol was pilot tested to identify an acceptable graphical format for conveying risk estimates and match the length of the eye disease to genetic counseling. Risk estimates are presented with a vertical bar graph denoting risk level with colors and descriptors. After receiving either genetic counseling regarding risk for DM or control counseling on eye disease, brief lifestyle counseling for prevention of DM is provided to all participants. Discussion A standardized risk counseling protocol is being used in a randomized trial of 600 participants. Results of this trial will inform policy about whether risk counseling should include genetic counseling. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01060540

  5. Timing the tides: genetic control of diurnal and lunar emergence times is correlated in the marine midge Clunio marinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Tobias S; Neumann, Dietrich; Heckel, David G

    2011-05-20

    The intertidal zone of seacoasts, being affected by the superimposed tidal, diurnal and lunar cycles, is temporally the most complex environment on earth. Many marine organisms exhibit lunar rhythms in reproductive behaviour and some show experimental evidence of endogenous control by a circalunar clock, the molecular and genetic basis of which is unexplored. We examined the genetic control of lunar and diurnal rhythmicity in the marine midge Clunio marinus (Chironomidae, Diptera), a species for which the correct timing of adult emergence is critical in natural populations. We crossed two strains of Clunio marinus that differ in the timing of the diurnal and lunar rhythms of emergence. The phenotype distribution of the segregating backcross progeny indicates polygenic control of the lunar emergence rhythm. Diurnal timing of emergence is also under genetic control, and is influenced by two unlinked genes with major effects. Furthermore, the lunar and diurnal timing of emergence is correlated in the backcross generation. We show that both the lunar emergence time and its correlation to the diurnal emergence time are adaptive for the species in its natural environment. The correlation implies that the unlinked genes affecting lunar timing and the two unlinked genes affecting diurnal timing could be the same, providing an unexpectedly close interaction of the two clocks. Alternatively, the genes could be genetically linked in a two-by-two fashion, suggesting that evolution has shaped the genetic architecture to stabilize adaptive combinations of lunar and diurnal emergence times by tightening linkage. Our results, the first on genetic control of lunar rhythms, offer a new perspective to explore their molecular clockwork.

  6. PR Toxin - Biosynthesis, Genetic Regulation, Toxicological Potential, Prevention and Control Measures: Overview and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Manish K; Aamir, Mohd; Kaushik, Manish S; Khare, Saumya; Meena, Mukesh; Singh, Surendra; Upadhyay, Ram S

    2018-01-01

    Out of the various mycotoxigenic food and feed contaminant, the fungal species belonging to Penicillium genera, particularly Penicillium roqueforti is of great economic importance, and well known for its crucial role in the manufacturing of Roquefort and Gorgonzola cheese. The mycotoxicosis effect of this mold is due to secretion of several metabolites, of which PR toxin is of considerable importance, with regard to food quality and safety challenges issues. The food products and silages enriched with PR toxin could lead into damage to vital internal organs, gastrointestinal perturbations, carcinogenicity, immunotoxicity, necrosis, and enzyme inhibition. Moreover, it also has the significant mutagenic potential to disrupt/alter the crucial processes like DNA replication, transcription, and translation at the molecular level. The high genetic diversities in between the various strains of P. roqueforti persuaded their nominations with Protected Geographical Indication (PGI), accordingly to the cheese type, they have been employed. Recently, the biosynthetic mechanism and toxicogenetic studies unraveled the role of ari1 and prx gene clusters that cross-talk with the synthesis of other metabolites or involve other cross-regulatory pathways to negatively regulate/inhibit the other biosynthetic route targeted for production of a strain-specific metabolites. Interestingly, the chemical conversion that imparts toxic properties to PR toxin is the substitution/oxidation of functional hydroxyl group (-OH) to aldehyde group (-CHO). The rapid conversion of PR toxin to the other derivatives such as PR imine, PR amide, and PR acid, based on conditions available reflects their unstability and degradative aspects. Since the PR toxin-induced toxicity could not be eliminated safely, the assessment of dose-response and other pharmacological aspects for its safe consumption is indispensable. The present review describes the natural occurrences, diversity, biosynthesis, genetics

  7. PR Toxin – Biosynthesis, Genetic Regulation, Toxicological Potential, Prevention and Control Measures: Overview and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Manish K.; Aamir, Mohd; Kaushik, Manish S.; Khare, Saumya; Meena, Mukesh; Singh, Surendra; Upadhyay, Ram S.

    2018-01-01

    Out of the various mycotoxigenic food and feed contaminant, the fungal species belonging to Penicillium genera, particularly Penicillium roqueforti is of great economic importance, and well known for its crucial role in the manufacturing of Roquefort and Gorgonzola cheese. The mycotoxicosis effect of this mold is due to secretion of several metabolites, of which PR toxin is of considerable importance, with regard to food quality and safety challenges issues. The food products and silages enriched with PR toxin could lead into damage to vital internal organs, gastrointestinal perturbations, carcinogenicity, immunotoxicity, necrosis, and enzyme inhibition. Moreover, it also has the significant mutagenic potential to disrupt/alter the crucial processes like DNA replication, transcription, and translation at the molecular level. The high genetic diversities in between the various strains of P. roqueforti persuaded their nominations with Protected Geographical Indication (PGI), accordingly to the cheese type, they have been employed. Recently, the biosynthetic mechanism and toxicogenetic studies unraveled the role of ari1 and prx gene clusters that cross-talk with the synthesis of other metabolites or involve other cross-regulatory pathways to negatively regulate/inhibit the other biosynthetic route targeted for production of a strain-specific metabolites. Interestingly, the chemical conversion that imparts toxic properties to PR toxin is the substitution/oxidation of functional hydroxyl group (-OH) to aldehyde group (-CHO). The rapid conversion of PR toxin to the other derivatives such as PR imine, PR amide, and PR acid, based on conditions available reflects their unstability and degradative aspects. Since the PR toxin-induced toxicity could not be eliminated safely, the assessment of dose-response and other pharmacological aspects for its safe consumption is indispensable. The present review describes the natural occurrences, diversity, biosynthesis, genetics

  8. Genetic controls balancing excitatory and inhibitory synaptogenesis in neurodevelopmental disorder models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl L Gatto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Proper brain function requires stringent balance of excitatory and inhibitory synapse formation during neural circuit assembly. Mutation of genes that normally sculpt and maintain this balance results in severe dysfunction, causing neurodevelopmental disorders including autism, epilepsy and Rett syndrome. Such mutations may result in defective architectural structuring of synaptic connections, molecular assembly of synapses and/or functional synaptogenesis. The affected genes often encode synaptic components directly, but also include regulators that secondarily mediate the synthesis or assembly of synaptic proteins. The prime example is Fragile X syndrome (FXS, the leading heritable cause of both intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders. FXS results from loss of mRNA-binding FMRP, which regulates synaptic transcript trafficking, stability and translation in activity-dependent synaptogenesis and plasticity mechanisms. Genetic models of FXS exhibit striking excitatory and inhibitory synapse imbalance, associated with impaired cognitive and social interaction behaviors. Downstream of translation control, a number of specific synaptic proteins regulate excitatory versus inhibitory synaptogenesis, independently or combinatorially, and loss of these proteins is also linked to disrupted neurodevelopment. The current effort is to define the cascade of events linking transcription, translation and the role of specific synaptic proteins in the maintenance of excitatory versus inhibitory synapses during neural circuit formation. This focus includes mechanisms that fine-tune excitation and inhibition during the refinement of functional synaptic circuits, and later modulate this balance throughout life. The use of powerful new genetic models has begun to shed light on the mechanistic bases of excitation/inhibition imbalance for a range of neurodevelopmental disease states.

  9. Microfluidic study of environmental control of genetic competence in Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Minjun; Ghoreishilangroudi, Seyedehdelaram; Ahn, Sang-Joon; Burne, Robert; Hagen, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    The bacterial pathogen Streptococcus mutans has the ability to enter a transient state of genetic competence in which it can integrate exogenous DNA. It regulates the competent state in response to several environmental inputs that include two quorum sensing peptides (CSP and XIP) as well as pH and other variables. However the interplay of these variables in regulating the competent state is poorly understood. We are using microfluidics to isolate and control environmental inputs and examine how the competence regulatory circuit responds at the single cell level. Our studies reveal that the pH of the growth environment plays a critical role in determining how cells respond to the quorum sensing signals: The response to both peptides is sharply tuned to a narrow window of near-neutral pH. Within this optimal pH range, a population responds unimodally to a XIP stimulus, and bimodally to CSP; outside this range the response to both signals is suppressed. Because a growing S. mutans culture acidifies its medium, our findings suggest that the passage of the pH through the sensitivity window transiently activates the competence circuit. In this way a sharply tuned environmental response gives S. mutans fine control over the duration of its competent state. This work is supported by the NIH under NIDCR awards R01 DE023339.

  10. Engineering control of bacterial cellulose production using a genetic toolkit and a new cellulose-producing strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florea, Michael; Hagemann, Henrik; Santosa, Gabriella; Micklem, Chris N.; Spencer-Milnes, Xenia; de Arroyo Garcia, Laura; Paschou, Despoina; Lazenbatt, Christopher; Kong, Deze; Chughtai, Haroon; Jensen, Kirsten; Freemont, Paul S.; Kitney, Richard; Reeve, Benjamin; Ellis, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose is a strong and ultrapure form of cellulose produced naturally by several species of the Acetobacteraceae. Its high strength, purity, and biocompatibility make it of great interest to materials science; however, precise control of its biosynthesis has remained a challenge for biotechnology. Here we isolate a strain of Komagataeibacter rhaeticus (K. rhaeticus iGEM) that can produce cellulose at high yields, grow in low-nitrogen conditions, and is highly resistant to toxic chemicals. We achieved external control over its bacterial cellulose production through development of a modular genetic toolkit that enables rational reprogramming of the cell. To further its use as an organism for biotechnology, we sequenced its genome and demonstrate genetic circuits that enable functionalization and patterning of heterologous gene expression within the cellulose matrix. This work lays the foundations for using genetic engineering to produce cellulose-based materials, with numerous applications in basic science, materials engineering, and biotechnology. PMID:27247386

  11. Genetic differentiation of invasive Aedes albopictus by RAPD-PCR: implications for effective vector control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shivani; Preet, Shabad

    2014-06-01

    Aedes albopictus is an invasive mosquito species of great concern to public health as it is responsible for the biological transmission of several pathogens causing dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, etc. In 2009, this mosquito was detected for the first time in Agra City. This study represents the first genetic analysis of A. albopictus from India. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to study the genetic structure of A. albopictus in four populations from different larval habitats. Seven RAPD primers produced 141 loci. The results displayed rich genetic variation among larval populations which is evident from high value of genetic differentiation (G ST), i.e. 0.280, indicating a very great genetic differentiation. Effective migration rates were observed to be 1.28, depicting a limited gene flow. According to analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), the genetic distance between populations was significant (P < 0.05), showing a very high intrapopulation variation (96%) with only 4% variation among populations. Average genetic distances between populations were also calculated using PopGene software. Nei's average genetic distance between these populations was 0.112 (0.05-0.18). The cluster analysis technique of unweighted pair-group mean analysis (UPGMA) method of arithmetic averages was used to develop the phylogenetic tree which clearly shows two clusters of different larval habitats. The findings highlight high genetic differentiation indicating a slight migration rate confirming the recent introduction of this species in Agra region.

  12. Genetic variations in the Dravidian population of South West coast of India: Implications in designing case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Cunha, Anitha; Pandit, Lekha; Malli, Chaithra

    2017-06-01

    Indian data have been largely missing from genome-wide databases that provide information on genetic variations in different populations. This hinders association studies for complex disorders in India. This study was aimed to determine whether the complex genetic structure and endogamy among Indians could potentially influence the design of case-control studies for autoimmune disorders in the south Indian population. A total of 12 single nucleotide variations (SNVs) related to genes associated with autoimmune disorders were genotyped in 370 healthy individuals belonging to six different caste groups in southern India. Allele frequencies were estimated; genetic divergence and phylogenetic relationship within the various caste groups and other HapMap populations were ascertained. Allele frequencies for all genotyped SNVs did not vary significantly among the different groups studied. Wright's FSTwas 0.001 per cent among study population and 0.38 per cent when compared with Gujarati in Houston (GIH) population on HapMap data. The analysis of molecular variance results showed a 97 per cent variation attributable to differences within the study population and <1 per cent variation due to differences between castes. Phylogenetic analysis showed a separation of Dravidian population from other HapMap populations and particularly from GIH population. Despite the complex genetic origins of the Indian population, our study indicated a low level of genetic differentiation among Dravidian language-speaking people of south India. Case-control studies of association among Dravidians of south India may not require stratification based on language and caste.

  13. Genetic variation between two Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana) populations in the eastern China based on mitochondrial DNA control region sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yongfang; Zhong, Lijing; Liu, Bofeng; Li, Jiayi; Ni, Qingyong; Xu, Huailiang

    2013-06-01

    Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana) is a threatened primate species endemic to China. Population genetic and phylogenetic analyses were conducted in 66 Tibetan individuals from Sichuan (SC), Huangshan (HS), and Fujian (FJ) based on a 477-bp fragment of mitochondrial DNA control region. Four new haplotypes were defined, and a relatively high level of genetic diversity was first observed in FJ populations (Hd = 0.7661). Notably, a continuous approximately 10 bp-fragment deletion was observed near the 5' end of the mtDNA control region of both HS and FJ populations when compared with that of SC population, and a sharing haplotype was found between the two populations, revealing a closer genetic relationship. However, significant genetic differentiation (FST = 0.8700) and more poor gene exchange (Nm < 1) had occurred among three populations. This study mainly provide a further insight into the genetic relationship between HS and FJ Tibetan macaque populations, but it may be necessary to carry out further study with extra samples from other locations in the geographic coverage of the two subspecies (M. thibetana pullus and M. thibetana huangshanensis).

  14. Multi-objective optimization of the control strategy of electric vehicle electro-hydraulic composite braking system with genetic algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Fengjiao; Wei Minxiang

    2015-01-01

    Optimization of the control strategy plays an important role in improving the performance of electric vehicles. In order to improve the braking stability and recover the braking energy, a multi-objective genetic algorithm is applied to optimize the key parameters in the control strategy of electric vehicle electro-hydraulic composite braking system. Various limitations are considered in the optimization process, and the optimization results are verified by a software simulation platform of el...

  15. Genetic control of soybean (Glycine max) yield in the absence and presence of the Asian rust fungus (Phakopsora pachyrhizi)

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Aliny Simony; Toledo, José Francisco Ferraz de; Arias, Carlos Alberto Arrabal; Godoy, Cláudia Vieira; Soares, Rafael Moreira; Moreira, José Ubirajara Vieira; Pierozzi, Pedro Henrique Braga; Vidigal, Maria Celeste Gonçalves; Oliveira, Marcelo Fernandes de

    2008-01-01

    Soybean is one of the most important crops in Brazil and continuously generates demands for production technologies, such as cultivars resistant to diseases. In recent years, the Asian rust fungus (Phakopsora pachyrhizi Syd. & P. Syd 1914) has caused severe yield losses and the development of resistant cultivars is the best means of control. Understanding the genetic control and estimating parameters associated with soybean (Glycine max) resistance to P. pachyrhizi will provide essential ...

  16. Genetic control of acquired resistance to gastrointestinal nematode parasites in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windon, R.G.; Wagland, B.M.; Dineen, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    A radiation attenuated larval vaccine has been used to evaluate the role of genetic components of the immune response in the control of Trichostrongylus colubriformis in sheep. Through selection based on age dependent responsiveness, lines of sheep have been established in which lambs are either high or low responders to vaccination and challenge infection. The estimated and realized heritabilities for the selected trait are 0.35-0.41. Significant interline differences were demonstrated and, within the lines, ewe lambs were consistently more responsive than rams or wethers. The effect of selection was not antigenically specific, since high responsiveness to T. colubriformis was associated with increased responsiveness to other related (T. rugatus) and unrelated parasites (Ostertagia circumcincta and Haemonchus contortus). In addition, high responders had a more vigorous reaction against naturally acquired infections than low responders. The general immunological competence was also increased in high responders; this was shown by the levels of serum complement fixing antibody to larval antigens after vaccination and challenge, in vitro blastogenic responses stimulated by larval antigens and the phagocytic function of peripheral leucocytes. No production penalty (weight gain and wool growth) was associated with heightened responsiveness. (author). 10 refs, 1 fig

  17. Genetic control of number of flowers and pod set in common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, E S; Pinto Júnior, R A; Abreu, A F B; Ramalho, M A P

    2017-09-21

    This article aimed to study the genetic control of some flowers and pod set of common bean and to verify if its estimate varies with environmental conditions and gene pool. A complete diallel was used among six lines, but no reciprocal ones. The treatments were evaluated in three harvests/generations - F 2 , F 3 , and F 4 - in 2015/2016, in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The plot consisted of 3 lines with 4 m. In the center line, a receptacle to collect the aborted flowers/pods was placed. The traits considered were the number of flowers/plant (N), the percentage of pod set (V), and the production of grain/plant (W). A joint diallel analysis was performed, and the correlations between N, V, ​​and W were estimated. N was 31.9 on average, and V was 40.4%. The average of Mesoamerican parents, for N and V, was higher than for Andean. Specific combining ability explained most of the variation for N, evidencing predominance of dominance effect. For V, specific combining ability was slightly lower than general combining ability, indicating additive loci and also dominance effects. These two traits were very influenced by environment and should be considered a strategy for greater grain yield stability of common bean.

  18. Controlling macromolecular topology with genetically encoded SpyTag-SpyCatcher chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Bin; Sun, Fei; Tirrell, David A; Arnold, Frances H

    2013-09-18

    Control of molecular topology constitutes a fundamental challenge in macromolecular chemistry. Here we describe the synthesis and characterization of artificial elastin-like proteins (ELPs) with unconventional nonlinear topologies including circular, tadpole, star, and H-shaped proteins using genetically encoded SpyTag-SpyCatcher chemistry. SpyTag is a short polypeptide that binds its protein partner SpyCatcher and forms isopeptide bonds under physiological conditions. Sequences encoding SpyTag and SpyCatcher can be strategically placed into ELP genes to direct post-translational topological modification in situ. Placement of SpyTag at the N-terminus and SpyCatcher at the C-terminus directs formation of circular ELPs. Induction of expression at 16 °C with 10 μM IPTG yields 80% monomeric cyclic protein. When SpyTag is placed in the middle of the chain, it exhibits an even stronger tendency toward cyclization, yielding up to 94% monomeric tadpole proteins. Telechelic ELPs containing either SpyTag or SpyCatcher can be expressed, purified, and then coupled spontaneously upon mixing in vitro. Block proteins, 3-arm or 4-arm star proteins, and H-shaped proteins have been prepared, with the folded CnaB2 domain that results from the SpyTag-SpyCatcher reaction as the molecular core or branch junction. The modular character of the SpyTag-SpyCatcher strategy should make it useful for preparing nonlinear macromolecules of diverse sequence and structure.

  19. The major genetic determinants of HIV-1 control affect HLA class I peptide presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereyra, Florencia; Jia, Xiaoming; McLaren, Paul J.; Telenti, Amalio; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Walker, Bruce D.; Ripke, Stephan; Brumme, Chanson J.; Pulit, Sara L.; Carrington, Mary; Kadie, Carl M.; Carlson, Jonathan M.; Heckerman, David; Graham, Robert R.; Plenge, Robert M.; Deeks, Steven G.; Gianniny, Lauren; Crawford, Gabriel; Sullivan, Jordan; Gonzalez, Elena; Davies, Leela; Camargo, Amy; Moore, Jamie M.; Beattie, Nicole; Gupta, Supriya; Crenshaw, Andrew; Burtt, Noël P.; Guiducci, Candace; Gupta, Namrata; Gao, Xiaojiang; Qi, Ying; Yuki, Yuko; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Cutrell, Emily; Rosenberg, Rachel; Moss, Kristin L.; Lemay, Paul; O'Leary, Jessica; Schaefer, Todd; Verma, Pranshu; Toth, Ildiko; Block, Brian; Baker, Brett; Rothchild, Alissa; Lian, Jeffrey; Proudfoot, Jacqueline; Alvino, Donna Marie L.; Vine, Seanna; Addo, Marylyn M.; Allen, Todd M.; Altfeld, Marcus; Henn, Matthew R.; Le Gall, Sylvie; Streeck, Hendrik; Haas, David W.; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.; Robbins, Gregory K.; Shafer, Robert W.; Gulick, Roy M.; Shikuma, Cecilia M.; Haubrich, Richard; Riddler, Sharon; Sax, Paul E.; Daar, Eric S.; Ribaudo, Heather J.; Agan, Brian; Agarwal, Shanu; Ahern, Richard L.; Allen, Brady L.; Altidor, Sherly; Altschuler, Eric L.; Ambardar, Sujata; Anastos, Kathryn; Anderson, Ben; Anderson, Val; Andrady, Ushan; Antoniskis, Diana; Bangsberg, David; Barbaro, Daniel; Barrie, William; Bartczak, J.; Barton, Simon; Basden, Patricia; Basgoz, Nesli; Bazner, Suzane; Bellos, Nicholaos C.; Benson, Anne M.; Berger, Judith; Bernard, Nicole F.; Bernard, Annette M.; Birch, Christopher; Bodner, Stanley J.; Bolan, Robert K.; Boudreaux, Emilie T.; Bradley, Meg; Braun, James F.; Brndjar, Jon E.; Brown, Stephen J.; Brown, Katherine; Brown, Sheldon T.; Burack, Jedidiah; Bush, Larry M.; Cafaro, Virginia; Campbell, Omobolaji; Campbell, John; Carlson, Robert H.; Carmichael, J. Kevin; Casey, Kathleen K.; Cavacuiti, Chris; Celestin, Gregory; Chambers, Steven T.; Chez, Nancy; Chirch, Lisa M.; Cimoch, Paul J.; Cohen, Daniel; Cohn, Lillian E.; Conway, Brian; Cooper, David A.; Cornelson, Brian; Cox, David T.; Cristofano, Michael V.; Cuchural, George; Czartoski, Julie L.; Dahman, Joseph M.; Daly, Jennifer S.; Davis, Benjamin T.; Davis, Kristine; Davod, Sheila M.; DeJesus, Edwin; Dietz, Craig A.; Dunham, Eleanor; Dunn, Michael E.; Ellerin, Todd B.; Eron, Joseph J.; Fangman, John J. W.; Farel, Claire E.; Ferlazzo, Helen; Fidler, Sarah; Fleenor-Ford, Anita; Frankel, Renee; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; French, Neel K.; Fuchs, Jonathan D.; Fuller, Jon D.; Gaberman, Jonna; Gallant, Joel E.; Gandhi, Rajesh T.; Garcia, Efrain; Garmon, Donald; Gathe, Joseph C.; Gaultier, Cyril R.; Gebre, Wondwoosen; Gilman, Frank D.; Gilson, Ian; Goepfert, Paul A.; Gottlieb, Michael S.; Goulston, Claudia; Groger, Richard K.; Gurley, T. Douglas; Haber, Stuart; Hardwicke, Robin; Hardy, W. David; Harrigan, P. Richard; Hawkins, Trevor N.; Heath, Sonya; Hecht, Frederick M.; Henry, W. Keith; Hladek, Melissa; Hoffman, Robert P.; Horton, James M.; Hsu, Ricky K.; Huhn, Gregory D.; Hunt, Peter; Hupert, Mark J.; Illeman, Mark L.; Jaeger, Hans; Jellinger, Robert M.; John, Mina; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Johnson, Kristin L.; Johnson, Heather; Johnson, Kay; Joly, Jennifer; Jordan, Wilbert C.; Kauffman, Carol A.; Khanlou, Homayoon; Killian, Robert K.; Kim, Arthur Y.; Kim, David D.; Kinder, Clifford A.; Kirchner, Jeffrey T.; Kogelman, Laura; Kojic, Erna Milunka; Korthuis, P. Todd; Kurisu, Wayne; Kwon, Douglas S.; LaMar, Melissa; Lampiris, Harry; Lanzafame, Massimiliano; Lederman, Michael M.; Lee, David M.; Lee, Jean M. L.; Lee, Marah J.; Lee, Edward T. Y.; Lemoine, Janice; Levy, Jay A.; Llibre, Josep M.; Liguori, Michael A.; Little, Susan J.; Liu, Anne Y.; Lopez, Alvaro J.; Loutfy, Mono R.; Loy, Dawn; Mohammed, Debbie Y.; Man, Alan; Mansour, Michael K.; Marconi, Vincent C.; Markowitz, Martin; Marques, Rui; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Martin, Harold L.; Mayer, Kenneth Hugh; McElrath, M. Juliana; McGhee, Theresa A.; McGovern, Barbara H.; McGowan, Katherine; McIntyre, Dawn; Mcleod, Gavin X.; Menezes, Prema; Mesa, Greg; Metroka, Craig E.; Meyer-Olson, Dirk; Miller, Andy O.; Montgomery, Kate; Mounzer, Karam C.; Nagami, Ellen H.; Nagin, Iris; Nahass, Ronald G.; Nelson, Margret O.; Nielsen, Craig; Norene, David L.; O'Connor, David H.; Ojikutu, Bisola O.; Okulicz, Jason; Oladehin, Olakunle O.; Oldfield, Edward C.; Olender, Susan A.; Ostrowski, Mario; Owen, William F.; Pae, Eunice; Parsonnet, Jeffrey; Pavlatos, Andrew M.; Perlmutter, Aaron M.; Pierce, Michael N.; Pincus, Jonathan M.; Pisani, Leandro; Price, Lawrence Jay; Proia, Laurie; Prokesch, Richard C.; Pujet, Heather Calderon; Ramgopal, Moti; Rathod, Almas; Rausch, Michael; Ravishankar, J.; Rhame, Frank S.; Richards, Constance Shamuyarira; Richman, Douglas D.; Rodes, Berta; Rodriguez, Milagros; Rose, Richard C.; Rosenberg, Eric S.; Rosenthal, Daniel; Ross, Polly E.; Rubin, David S.; Rumbaugh, Elease; Saenz, Luis; Salvaggio, Michelle R.; Sanchez, William C.; Sanjana, Veeraf M.; Santiago, Steven; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Sestak, Philip M.; Shalit, Peter; Shay, William; Shirvani, Vivian N.; Silebi, Vanessa I.; Sizemore, James M.; Skolnik, Paul R.; Sokol-Anderson, Marcia; Sosman, James M.; Stabile, Paul; Stapleton, Jack T.; Starrett, Sheree; Stein, Francine; Stellbrink, Hans-Jurgen; Sterman, F. Lisa; Stone, Valerie E.; Stone, David R.; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Taplitz, Randy A.; Tedaldi, Ellen M.; Theisen, William; Torres, Richard; Tosiello, Lorraine; Tremblay, Cecile; Tribble, Marc A.; Trinh, Phuong D.; Tsao, Alice; Ueda, Peggy; Vaccaro, Anthony; Valadas, Emilia; Vanig, Thanes J.; Vecino, Isabel; Vega, Vilma M.; Veikley, Wenoah; Wade, Barbara H.; Walworth, Charles; Wanidworanun, Chingchai; Ward, Douglas J.; Warner, Daniel A.; Weber, Robert D.; Webster, Duncan; Weis, Steve; Wheeler, David A.; White, David J.; Wilkins, Ed; Winston, Alan; Wlodaver, Clifford G.; van't Wout, Angelique; Wright, David P.; Yang, Otto O.; Yurdin, David L.; Zabukovic, Brandon W.; Zachary, Kimon C.; Zeeman, Beth; Zhao, Meng

    2010-01-01

    Infectious and inflammatory diseases have repeatedly shown strong genetic associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); however, the basis for these associations remains elusive. To define host genetic effects on the outcome of a chronic viral infection, we performed genome-wide

  20. Genetic diversity in the mtDNA control region and population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... 1The Key Laboratory of Mariculture, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, 266003 P. R. China. 2Fishery ... lineages. Analyses of molecular variance and the population statistic ΦST also revealed significant genetic ..... population growth, hitchhiking and background selection. Genetics.

  1. Control of the olive fruit fly using genetics-enhanced sterile insect technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ant, Thomas; Koukidou, Martha; Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Gong, Hong-Fei; Economopoulos, Aris; Vontas, John; Alphey, Luke

    2012-06-19

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the major arthropod pest of commercial olive production, causing extensive damage to olive crops worldwide. Current control techniques rely on spraying of chemical insecticides. The sterile insect technique (SIT) presents an alternative, environmentally friendly and species-specific method of population control. Although SIT has been very successful against other tephritid pests, previous SIT trials on olive fly have produced disappointing results. Key problems included altered diurnal mating rhythms of the laboratory-reared insects, resulting in asynchronous mating activity between the wild and released sterile populations, and low competitiveness of the radiation-sterilised mass-reared flies. Consequently, the production of competitive, male-only release cohorts is considered an essential prerequisite for successful olive fly SIT. We developed a set of conditional female-lethal strains of olive fly (named Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal; RIDL®), providing highly penetrant female-specific lethality, dominant fluorescent marking, and genetic sterility. We found that males of the lead strain, OX3097D-Bol, 1) are strongly sexually competitive with wild olive flies, 2) display synchronous mating activity with wild females, and 3) induce appropriate refractoriness to wild female re-mating. Furthermore, we showed, through a large proof-of-principle experiment, that weekly releases of OX3097D-Bol males into stable populations of caged wild-type olive fly could cause rapid population collapse and eventual eradication. The observed mating characteristics strongly suggest that an approach based on the release of OX3097D-Bol males will overcome the key difficulties encountered in previous olive fly SIT attempts. Although field confirmation is required, the proof-of-principle suppression and elimination of caged wild-type olive fly populations through OX3097D-Bol male releases provides evidence for the female

  2. Control of the olive fruit fly using genetics-enhanced sterile insect technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ant Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the major arthropod pest of commercial olive production, causing extensive damage to olive crops worldwide. Current control techniques rely on spraying of chemical insecticides. The sterile insect technique (SIT presents an alternative, environmentally friendly and species-specific method of population control. Although SIT has been very successful against other tephritid pests, previous SIT trials on olive fly have produced disappointing results. Key problems included altered diurnal mating rhythms of the laboratory-reared insects, resulting in asynchronous mating activity between the wild and released sterile populations, and low competitiveness of the radiation-sterilised mass-reared flies. Consequently, the production of competitive, male-only release cohorts is considered an essential prerequisite for successful olive fly SIT. Results We developed a set of conditional female-lethal strains of olive fly (named Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal; RIDL®, providing highly penetrant female-specific lethality, dominant fluorescent marking, and genetic sterility. We found that males of the lead strain, OX3097D-Bol, 1 are strongly sexually competitive with wild olive flies, 2 display synchronous mating activity with wild females, and 3 induce appropriate refractoriness to wild female re-mating. Furthermore, we showed, through a large proof-of-principle experiment, that weekly releases of OX3097D-Bol males into stable populations of caged wild-type olive fly could cause rapid population collapse and eventual eradication. Conclusions The observed mating characteristics strongly suggest that an approach based on the release of OX3097D-Bol males will overcome the key difficulties encountered in previous olive fly SIT attempts. Although field confirmation is required, the proof-of-principle suppression and elimination of caged wild-type olive fly populations through OX3097D

  3. Experience with multiple control groups in a large population-based case-control study on genetic and environmental risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomp, E R; Van Stralen, K J; Le Cessie, S; Vandenbroucke, J P; Rosendaal, F R; Doggen, C J M

    2010-07-01

    We discuss the analytic and practical considerations in a large case-control study that had two control groups; the first control group consisting of partners of patients and the second obtained by random digit dialling (RDD). As an example of the evaluation of a general lifestyle factor, we present body mass index (BMI). Both control groups had lower BMIs than the patients. The distribution in the partner controls was closer to that of the patients, likely due to similar lifestyles. A statistical approach was used to pool the results of both analyses, wherein partners were analyzed with a matched analysis, while RDDs were analyzed without matching. Even with a matched analysis, the odds ratio with partner controls remained closer to unity than with RDD controls, which is probably due to unmeasured confounders in the comparison with the random controls as well as intermediary factors. However, when studying injuries as a risk factor, the odds ratio remained higher with partner control subjects than with RRD control subjects, even after taking the matching into account. Finally we used factor V Leiden as an example of a genetic risk factor. The frequencies of factor V Leiden were identical in both control groups, indicating that for the analyses of this genetic risk factor the two control groups could be combined in a single unmatched analysis. In conclusion, the effect measures with the two control groups were in the same direction, and of the same order of magnitude. Moreover, it was not always the same control group that produced the higher or lower estimates, and a matched analysis did not remedy the differences. Our experience with the intricacies of dealing with two control groups may be useful to others when thinking about an optimal research design or the best statistical approach.

  4. Experience with multiple control groups in a large population-based case–control study on genetic and environmental risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomp, E. R.; Van Stralen, K. J.; Le Cessie, S.; Vandenbroucke, J. P.; Doggen, C. J. M.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the analytic and practical considerations in a large case–control study that had two control groups; the first control group consisting of partners of patients and the second obtained by random digit dialling (RDD). As an example of the evaluation of a general lifestyle factor, we present body mass index (BMI). Both control groups had lower BMIs than the patients. The distribution in the partner controls was closer to that of the patients, likely due to similar lifestyles. A statistical approach was used to pool the results of both analyses, wherein partners were analyzed with a matched analysis, while RDDs were analyzed without matching. Even with a matched analysis, the odds ratio with partner controls remained closer to unity than with RDD controls, which is probably due to unmeasured confounders in the comparison with the random controls as well as intermediary factors. However, when studying injuries as a risk factor, the odds ratio remained higher with partner control subjects than with RRD control subjects, even after taking the matching into account. Finally we used factor V Leiden as an example of a genetic risk factor. The frequencies of factor V Leiden were identical in both control groups, indicating that for the analyses of this genetic risk factor the two control groups could be combined in a single unmatched analysis. In conclusion, the effect measures with the two control groups were in the same direction, and of the same order of magnitude. Moreover, it was not always the same control group that produced the higher or lower estimates, and a matched analysis did not remedy the differences. Our experience with the intricacies of dealing with two control groups may be useful to others when thinking about an optimal research design or the best statistical approach. PMID:20549310

  5. Weed control changes and genetically modified herbicide tolerant crops in the USA 1996-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Crops that have been genetically modified (GM) to be tolerant to herbicides have been widely grown in the USA since 1996. The rapid and widespread adoption of this technology reflects the important economic and environmental benefits that farmers have derived from its use (equal to $21.7 billion additional farm income and a 225 million kg reduction in herbicide active ingredient use 1996-2012). During this time, weed control practices in these crops relative to the 'conventional alternative' have evolved to reflect experience of using the technology, the challenges that have arisen and the increasing focus in recent years on developing sustainable production systems. This paper examines the evidence on the changing nature of herbicides used with these crops and in particular how farmers addressed the challenge of weed resistance. The evidence shows that use of the technology has resulted in a net reduction in both the amount of herbicide used and the associated environmental impact, as measured by the EIQ indicator when compared to what can reasonably be expected if the area planted to GM HT crops reverted to conventional production methods. It also facilitated many farmers being able to derive the economic and environmental benefits associated with switching from a plough-based to a no tillage or conservation tillage production system. In terms of herbicide use, the technology has also contributed to a change the profile of herbicides used. A broad range of, mostly selective herbicides has been replaced by one or 2 broad-spectrum herbicides (mostly glyphosate) used in conjunction with one or 2 other (complementary) herbicides. Since the mid-2000s, the average amount of herbicide applied and the associated environmental load, as measured by the EIQ indicator, have increased on both GM HT and conventional crops. A primary reason for these changes has been increasing incidence of weed species developing populations resistant to herbicides and increased awareness of

  6. Genetic algorithm to optimize two-echelon inventory control system for perishable goods in terms of active packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Yousefi Yegane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers an inventory control policy for a two-echelon inventory control system with one supplier-one buyer. We consider the case of deteriorating items which lead to shortage in supply chain. Therefore, it is necessary to decrease the deterioration rate by adding some specification to the packaging of these items that is known as active packaging. Although this packaging can reduce the deteriorating rate of products, but may be increases the cost of both supplier and buyer. Because of the complexity of the mathematical model, a genetic algorithm has been developed to determine the best policy of this inventory control system.

  7. IL13 genetic polymorphisms, smoking, and eczema in women: a case-control study in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arakawa Masashi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several genetic association studies have examined the relationships between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the IL13 gene and eczema, and have provided contradictory results. We investigated the relationship between the IL13 SNPs rs1800925 and rs20541 and the risk of eczema in Japanese young adult women. Methods Included were 188 cases who met the criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC for eczema. Control subjects were 1,082 women without eczema according to the ISAAC criteria, who had not been diagnosed with atopic eczema by a doctor and who had no current asthma as defined by the European Community Respiratory Health Survey criteria. Adjustment was made for age, region of residence, number of children, smoking, and education. Results The minor TT genotype of SNP rs1800925 was significantly associated with an increased risk of eczema in the co-dominant model: the adjusted odds ratio was 2.19 (95% confidence interval: 1.03-4.67. SNP rs20541 was not related to eczema. None of the haplotypes were significantly associated with eczema. Compared with women with the CC or CT genotype of SNP rs1800925 who had never smoked, those with the TT genotype who had ever smoked had a 2.85-fold increased risk of eczema, though the adjusted odds ratio was not statistically significant, and neither multiplicative nor additive interaction was statistically significant. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the IL13 SNP rs1800925 is significantly associated with eczema in Japanese young adult women. We could not find evidence for an interaction between SNP rs1800925 and smoking with regard to eczema.

  8. Control of Electrostatic Interactions Between F-Actin And Genetically Modified Lysozyme in Aqueous Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, L.K.; Xian, W.; Guaqueta, C.; Strohman, M.; Vrasich, C.R.; Luijten, E.; Wong, G.C.L.

    2009-01-01

    The aim for deterministic control of the interactions between macroions in aqueous media has motivated widespread experimental and theoretical work. Although it has been well established that like-charged macromolecules can aggregate under the influence of oppositely charged condensing agents, the specific conditions for the stability of such aggregates can only be determined empirically. We examine these conditions, which involve an interplay of electrostatic and osmotic effects, by using a well defined model system composed of F-actin, an anionic rod-like polyelectrolyte, and lysozyme, a cationic globular protein with a charge that can be genetically modified. The structure and stability of actin-lysozyme complexes for different lysozyme charge mutants and salt concentrations are examined by using synchrotron x-ray scattering and molecular dynamics simulations. We provide evidence that supports a structural transition from columnar arrangements of F-actin held together by arrays of lysozyme at the threefold interstitial sites of the actin sublattice to marginally stable complexes in which lysozyme resides at twofold bridging sites between actin. The reduced stability arises from strongly reduced partitioning of salt between the complex and the surrounding solution. Changes in the stability of actin-lysozyme complexes are of biomedical interest because their formation has been reported to contribute to the persistence of airway infections in cystic fibrosis by sequestering antimicrobials such as lysozyme. We present x-ray microscopy results that argue for the existence of actin-lysozyme complexes in cystic fibrosis sputum and demonstrate that, for a wide range of salt conditions, charge-reduced lysozyme is not sequestered in ordered complexes while retaining its bacterial killing activity.

  9. Final Technical Report: Genetic and Molecular Analysis of a new control pathway in assimilate partitioning.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, Daniel, R.

    2009-03-10

    Assimilate partitioning refers to the systemic distribution of photoassimilate from sites of primary assimilation (source tissue) to import-dependent tissues and organs (sinks). One of the defining questions in this area is how plants balance source productivity with sink demand. We discovered a sucrose-sensing signal transduction pathway that controls the activity of BvSUT1, a proton-sucrose symporter in sugar beet leaf tissue. Sucrose symporters are responsible for sucrose accumulation in the phloem of many plants and, therefore, they mediate the pivotal step in the long-distance transport of photoassimilate to non-photosynthetic tissues, such as roots and seed. We previously showed that sucrose transport activity is directly proportional to the transcription rate of BvSUT1 and that symporter mRNA and protein have high rates of turnover with half-lives on the order of 2 h. We further demonstrated that symporter transcription is regulated by sucrose levels in the leaf and that sucrose-dependent regulation of BvSUT1 transcription is mediated, at least in part, by a protein phosphorylation relay pathway. The goal of the experiments during this current grant were to use genetic and molecular approaches to identify essential components of this vital regulatory system. The initial objectives were to: (1) to characterize Arabidopsis mutants we've isolated that are resistant to growth inhibition by sucrose analogues that are recognized by the sucrose-sensor, (2) to screen for loss of function mutants in BvSUT1-promoter:luciferase transgenic plants that no longer respond to sucrose accumulation in the leaf using non-destructive visualization of luciferase activity, (3) to use gel mobility-shift assays and nuclease protection experiments to identify cis elements in the symporter promoter and DNA-binding proteins that are involved in sucrose regulation of symporter expression.

  10. Intrinsic Noise Profoundly Alters the Dynamics and Steady State of Morphogen-Controlled Bistable Genetic Switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    During tissue development, patterns of gene expression determine the spatial arrangement of cell types. In many cases, gradients of secreted signalling molecules—morphogens—guide this process by controlling downstream transcriptional networks. A mechanism commonly used in these networks to convert the continuous information provided by the gradient into discrete transitions between adjacent cell types is the genetic toggle switch, composed of cross-repressing transcriptional determinants. Previous analyses have emphasised the steady state output of these mechanisms. Here, we explore the dynamics of the toggle switch and use exact numerical simulations of the kinetic reactions, the corresponding Chemical Langevin Equation, and Minimum Action Path theory to establish a framework for studying the effect of gene expression noise on patterning time and boundary position. This provides insight into the time scale, gene expression trajectories and directionality of stochastic switching events between cell states. Taking gene expression noise into account predicts that the final boundary position of a morphogen-induced toggle switch, although robust to changes in the details of the noise, is distinct from that of the deterministic system. Moreover, the dramatic increase in patterning time close to the boundary predicted from the deterministic case is substantially reduced. The resulting stochastic switching introduces differences in patterning time along the morphogen gradient that result in a patterning wave propagating away from the morphogen source with a velocity determined by the intrinsic noise. The wave sharpens and slows as it advances and may never reach steady state in a biologically relevant time. This could explain experimentally observed dynamics of pattern formation. Together the analysis reveals the importance of dynamical transients for understanding morphogen-driven transcriptional networks and indicates that gene expression noise can qualitatively

  11. Control of electrostatic interactions between F-actin and genetically modified lysozyme in aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, Lori K.; Xian, Wujing; Guaqueta, Camilo; Strohman, Michael J.; Vrasich, Chuck R.; Luijten, Erik; Wong, Gerard C.L.

    2007-01-01

    The aim for deterministic control of the interactions between macroions in aqueous media has motivated widespread experimental and theoretical work. Although it has been well established that like-charged macromolecules can aggregate under the influence of oppositely charged condensing agents, the specific conditions for the stability of such aggregates can only be determined empirically. We examine these conditions, which involve an interplay of electrostatic and osmotic effects, by using a well defined model system composed of F-actin, an anionic rod-like polyelectrolyte, and lysozyme, a cationic globular protein with a charge that can be genetically modified. The structure and stability of actin-lysozyme complexes for different lysozyme charge mutants and salt concentrations are examined by using synchrotron x-ray scattering and molecular dynamics simulations. We provide evidence that supports a structural transition from columnar arrangements of F-actin held together by arrays of lysozyme at the threefold interstitial sites of the actin sublattice to marginally stable complexes in which lysozyme resides at twofold bridging sites between actin. The reduced stability arises from strongly reduced partitioning of salt between the complex and the surrounding solution. Changes in the stability of actin-lysozyme complexes are of biomedical interest because their formation has been reported to contribute to the persistence of airway infections in cystic fibrosis by sequestering antimicrobials such as lysozyme. We present x-ray microscopy results that argue for the existence of actin-lysozyme complexes in cystic fibrosis sputum and demonstrate that, for a wide range of salt conditions, charge-reduced lysozyme is not sequestered in ordered complexes while retaining its bacterial killing activity.

  12. Genetic control of the seed coat colour of Middle American and Andean bean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possobom, Micheli Thaise Della Flora; Ribeiro, Nerinéia Dalfollo; Zemolin, Allan Emanoel Mezzomo; Arns, Fernanda Daltrozo

    2015-02-01

    Seed coat colour of bean seeds is decisive for acceptance of a cultivar. The objectives of this research were to determine whether there is maternal effect for "L", a* and b* colour parameters in Middle American and Andean bean seeds; to obtain estimates of heritability and gain with selection for "L", a* and b* values; and select recombinants with the seed coat colour required by the market demand. Thus, controlled crossings were carried out between the Middle American lines CNFP 10104 and CHC 01-175, and between the Andean lines Cal 96 and Hooter, for obtaining F1, F1 reciprocal, F2 and F2 reciprocal generations for each hybrid combination. Parents and generations were evaluated in two field experiments (2012 normal rainy and 2013 dry seasons) in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Seed coat colour was quantified with a portable colorimeter. Genetic variability for "L" (luminosity), chromaticity a* (green to red shade), and chromaticity b* (blue to yellow shade) values was observed in seeds with F2 seed coat of Middle American and Andean beans. "L", a* and b* values in bean seeds presented maternal effects. High broad-sense heritability are observed for luminosity (h(2)b: 76.66-95.07%), chromaticity a* (h(2)b: 73.08-89.31%), and chromaticity b* (h(2)b: 88.63-92.50%) values in bean seeds. From the crossings, it was possible to select bean seeds in early generation for the black group, and for carioca and cranberry types (dark or clear background) which present the colour required by the market demand.

  13. Intrinsic Noise Profoundly Alters the Dynamics and Steady State of Morphogen-Controlled Bistable Genetic Switches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Perez-Carrasco

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available During tissue development, patterns of gene expression determine the spatial arrangement of cell types. In many cases, gradients of secreted signalling molecules-morphogens-guide this process by controlling downstream transcriptional networks. A mechanism commonly used in these networks to convert the continuous information provided by the gradient into discrete transitions between adjacent cell types is the genetic toggle switch, composed of cross-repressing transcriptional determinants. Previous analyses have emphasised the steady state output of these mechanisms. Here, we explore the dynamics of the toggle switch and use exact numerical simulations of the kinetic reactions, the corresponding Chemical Langevin Equation, and Minimum Action Path theory to establish a framework for studying the effect of gene expression noise on patterning time and boundary position. This provides insight into the time scale, gene expression trajectories and directionality of stochastic switching events between cell states. Taking gene expression noise into account predicts that the final boundary position of a morphogen-induced toggle switch, although robust to changes in the details of the noise, is distinct from that of the deterministic system. Moreover, the dramatic increase in patterning time close to the boundary predicted from the deterministic case is substantially reduced. The resulting stochastic switching introduces differences in patterning time along the morphogen gradient that result in a patterning wave propagating away from the morphogen source with a velocity determined by the intrinsic noise. The wave sharpens and slows as it advances and may never reach steady state in a biologically relevant time. This could explain experimentally observed dynamics of pattern formation. Together the analysis reveals the importance of dynamical transients for understanding morphogen-driven transcriptional networks and indicates that gene expression noise can

  14. A genetically informed test of cholesterol levels and self-control, depressive symptoms, antisocial behavior, and neuroticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joseph A; Rowland, Meghan W; Beaver, Kevin M

    2014-08-01

    Low cholesterol levels have been found to be associated with a wide range of behavioral problems, including violent and criminal behavior, and a wide range of psychological problems including impulsivity, depression, and other internalizing problems. The casual mechanisms underlying these associations remain largely unknown, but genetic factors may play a role in the etiology of such associations as previous research has found significant genetic influence on cholesterol levels and various deleterious behavioral and psychological outcomes. The current study addressed this existing gap in the literature by performing a genetically sensitive test of the association between cholesterol levels and various outcomes including levels of self-control, depressive symptoms, anger expression, and neuroticism. DeFries-Fulker (DF) analysis was used to analyze data from 388 twin pairs nested within the Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS). The results of the genetically informed models revealed that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels were negatively and significantly associated with depressive symptoms, had a marginally significant effect on neuroticism, and a nonsignificant effect on both anger expression and self-control. The findings may not extrapolate to the larger population of American adults since the subsample of twins with cholesterol information may not be nationally representative. Genetic influences play a significant role in the association between cholesterol levels and various deleterious outcomes and failing to control for these influences may result in model misspecification and may increase the probability of detecting a significant association when one does not actually exist. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetic Differentiation in Native and Introduced Populations of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Its Implications for Biological Control Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao-Sen; Jin, Meng-Jie; Ślipiński, Adam; De Clercq, Patrick; Pang, Hong

    2015-10-01

    Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is an effective biological control agent of Australian origin, which has been introduced worldwide to control mealybugs. Although successfully used for >100 yr, its introduction in a new area may cause environmental risks should the populations become invasive. In the present study, a population genetics method was used to make predictions of the invasive potential of C. montrouzieri. Our results showed a similar level of genetic diversity among all populations. No significant genetic differentiation between native and introduced populations was observed, while three populations from the native region were significantly divergent. The fact that genetic diversity was not reduced in introduced areas suggests that no bottleneck effect has occurred during introduction. To avoid rapid evolution of the introduced C. montrouzieri, the introduction records of each population should be clearly traced and introductions from multiple sources into the same area should be avoided. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Shared Genetic Control of Brain Activity During Sleep and Insulin Secretion: A Laboratory-Based Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, Lisa L; Gamazon, Eric R; Tasali, Esra; Cox, Nancy J; Van Cauter, Eve; Davis, Lea K

    2018-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, a large body of experimental and epidemiologic evidence has linked sleep duration and quality to glucose homeostasis, although the mechanistic pathways remain unclear. The aim of the current study was to determine whether genetic variation influencing both sleep and glucose regulation could underlie their functional relationship. We hypothesized that the genetic regulation of electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during non-rapid eye movement sleep, a highly heritable trait with fingerprint reproducibility, is correlated with the genetic control of metabolic traits including insulin sensitivity and β-cell function. We tested our hypotheses through univariate and bivariate heritability analyses in a three-generation pedigree with in-depth phenotyping of both sleep EEG and metabolic traits in 48 family members. Our analyses accounted for age, sex, adiposity, and the use of psychoactive medications. In univariate analyses, we found significant heritability for measures of fasting insulin sensitivity and β-cell function, for time spent in slow-wave sleep, and for EEG spectral power in the delta, theta, and sigma ranges. Bivariate heritability analyses provided the first evidence for a shared genetic control of brain activity during deep sleep and fasting insulin secretion rate. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  17. Replication of recently identified systemic lupus erythematosus genetic associations: a case-control study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suarez-Gestal, M.; Calaza, M.; Endreffy, E.; Pullmann, R.; Ordi-Ros, J.; Sebastiani, D.G.; Růžičková, Šárka; Santos, J.M.; Papasteriades, C.; Marchini, M.; Skopouli, F.N.; Suarez, A.; Blanco, F.J.; D'Alfonso, S.; Bijl, M.; Carreira, P.; Witte, T.; Migliaresi, S.; Gomez-Reino, J.J.; Gonzalez, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2009), R69 ISSN 1478-6362 Keywords : Single nucleotide polymorphism susceptibility * sytemic lupus erythematosus Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.271, year: 2009

  18. Precursors and genetic control of anthocyanin synthesis in Matthiola incana R. Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkmann, G

    1977-01-01

    After application of dihydroflavonols, naringenin, or suitable substituted chalcones, anthocyanins were synthesized in three genetically defined acyanic lines of Matthiola incana, indicating that the corresponding genetic block concerns the synthesis of the chalcone-flavanone intermediate. Independent of the precursors used, only cyanidin derivatives were produced. This supports the hypothesis that the oxygenation pattern of the B ring in anthocyanin formation is determined at a stage of a C15 intermediate. In addition to the gene responsible for the oxygenation of the 3' position, the genes responsible for the glycosylation in the 3 and 5 positions of the anthocyanin molecule, and those responsible for the acylation with various hydroxycinnamic acids can still exert their influence. Two further genetically defined lines containing flavonol glycosides were not able to synthesize anthocyanins with any of the precursors tested. Their genetic blocks are assumed to be localized after dihydroflavonol synthesis but before anthocyanin formation.

  19. Daf-2, Daf-16 and Daf-23: Genetically Interacting Genes Controlling Dauer Formation in Caenorhabditis Elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Gottlieb, S.; Ruvkun, G.

    1994-01-01

    Under conditions of high population density and low food, Caenorhabditis elegans forms an alternative third larval stage, called the dauer stage, which is resistant to desiccation and harsh environments. Genetic analysis of some dauer constitutive (Daf-c) and dauer defective (Daf-d) mutants has revealed a complex pathway that is likely to function in particular neurons and/or responding tissues. Here we analyze the genetic interactions between three genes which comprise a branch of the dauer ...

  20. Fuzzy Logic Controller Based on Observed Signals and a Genetic Algorithm Application with STATCOM for Power System Stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongesombut, Komsan; Mitani, Yasunori; Tsuji, Kiichiro

    Fuzzy logic control has been applied to various applications in power systems. Its control rules and membership functions are typically obtained by trial and error methods or experience knowledge. Proposed here is the application of a micro-genetic algorithm (micro-GA) to simultaneously design optimal membership functions and control rules for STATCOM. First, we propose a simple approach to extract membership functions and fuzzy logic control rules based on observed signals. Then a proposed GA will be applied to optimize membership functions and its control rules. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, several simulation studies have been performed on a multimachine power system. Simulation results show that the proposed fuzzy logic controller with STATCOM can effectively and robustly enhance the damping of oscillations.

  1. Controle genético das células-tronco humanas cultivadas Genetic control of cultivated human stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer L. M. Payão

    2009-05-01

    period of time could result in an accumulation of genetic alterations and consequently, in a neoplastic process. For this reason, cytogenetic techniques are very important to guarantee the control and safety of cultivated stem cells to be used in human therapy. Structural chromosomal alterations, such as for example, deletions, translocations and inversions represent an important mechanism by which cells might gradually transform in a neoplastic process. Thus, these chromosomal alterations could result in an abnormal expression of the genes and lead to cancer.

  2. The Potential for Genetic Control of Malaria-Transmitting Mosquitoes. Report of a Consultants Group Meeting. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division Programme on the research and development of insect pest control methodology, emphasis has been placed on the basic and applied aspects of implementing the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Special emphasis has always been directed at the assembly of technological progress into workable systems that can be implemented in developing countries. The general intention is to solve problems associated with insect pests that have an adverse impact on public health and the production of food and fibre. For certain insects, SIT has proven to be a powerful method for control, but for a variety of reasons this technology has not been tried on an operational scale for most of the pest species of insects that exact a toll on the endeavors of humans. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division convened a Consultants Group Meeting to examine 'The Potential for Genetic Control of Malaria-Transmitting Mosquitoes', with emphasis to be placed on the SIT. A group of five scientists met, 26-30 April 1993, to examine the current status and the future potential of genetic control for malaria mosquitoes. In most of the tropical, developing countries, and to some extent in temperate regions of the world, Anopheles mosquitoes cause havoc by transmitting malaria, a dreaded disease that causes high mortality amongst children and diminishes productivity of adults. The importance of malaria as a deterrent to further economic growth in a large part of the world cannot be over-emphasized. Malaria is a severe problem because there are inadequacies in the technology available for control. As a result of the deliberations at the meeting, the consultants prepared a list of recommendations concerning the consensus opinions about the development of genetic control for malaria vector control. This report presents the findings and recommendations of the Consultants Group Meeting.

  3. Genetic algorithm–based varying parameter linear quadratic regulator control for four-wheel independent steering vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Gao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available From the perspective of vehicle dynamics, the four-wheel independent steering vehicle dynamics stability control method is studied, and a four-wheel independent steering varying parameter linear quadratic regulator control system is proposed with the help of expert control method. In the article, a four-wheel independent steering linear quadratic regulator controller for model following purpose is designed first. Then, by analyzing the four-wheel independent steering vehicle dynamic characteristics and the influence of linear quadratic regulator control parameters on control performance, a linear quadratic regulator control parameter adjustment strategy based on vehicle steering state is proposed to achieve the adaptive adjustment of linear quadratic regulator control parameters. In addition, to further improve the control performance, the proposed varying parameter linear quadratic regulator control system is optimized by genetic algorithm. Finally, simulation studies have been conducted by applying the proposed control system to the 8-degree-of-freedom four-wheel independent steering vehicle dynamics model. The simulation results indicate that the proposed control system has better performance and robustness and can effectively improve the stability and steering safety of the four-wheel independent steering vehicle.

  4. Hybrid feedforward and feedback controller design for nuclear steam generators over wide range operation using genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Y.; Edwards, R.M.; Lee, K.Y.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, a simplified model with a lower order is first developed for a nuclear steam generator system and verified against some realistic environments. Based on this simplified model, a hybrid multi-input and multi-out (MIMO) control system, consisting of feedforward control (FFC) and feedback control (FBC), is designed for wide range conditions by using the genetic algorithm (GA) technique. The FFC control, obtained by the GA optimization method, injects an a priori command input into the system to achieve an optimal performance for the designed system, while the GA-based FBC control provides the necessary compensation for any disturbances or uncertainties in a real steam generator. The FBC control is an optimal design of a PI-based control system which would be more acceptable for industrial practices and power plant control system upgrades. The designed hybrid MIMO FFC/FBC control system is first applied to the simplified model and then to a more complicated model with a higher order which is used as a substitute of the real system to test the efficacy of the designed control system. Results from computer simulations show that the designed GA-based hybrid MIMO FFC/FBC control can achieve good responses and robust performances. Hence, it can be considered as a viable alternative to the current control system upgrade

  5. Cheiloscopy and dermatoglyphics as genetic markers in the transmission of cleft lip and palate: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saujanya, K; Prasad, M Ghanashyam; Sushma, B; Kumar, J Raghavendra; Reddy, Y S N; Niranjani, K

    2016-01-01

    Determining the relative risk of cleft lip and palate (CL[P]) on the basis of lip prints and dermatoglyphics as genetic background may be useful for genetic counseling, and the development of future preventive measures. (1) To analyze the various pattern types of lip prints and dermatoglyphics in parents of CL(P) children and to detect if any specific type can be contemplated as a genetic marker in the transmission of CL(P). (2) To compare these patterns with that of parents of unaffected children. 31 parents of children with CL(P) as a study group, and 31 parents of unaffected children as control group were included. Lip prints and finger prints were collected from all subjects and analysis of both patterns was carried out followed by a comparison of the patterns of unaffected parents with the controls statistically. Among the mothers of the study group, type O followed by type IIa lip patterns were found to be significantly higher in upper and lower lips, and in fathers type IIa followed by type O were significantly higher. In the control group, type IIb followed by type III were higher in both fathers and mothers. Dermatoglyphic analysis of palm and finger prints revealed no significant difference in the pattern types and total ridge counts, but the Atd angle asymmetry was found to be significant between study and control group. Types IIa and O lip patterns, asymmetry of Atd angles can be considered as genetic markers for the transmission of CL(P) deformity to offsprings.

  6. Cheiloscopy and dermatoglyphics as genetic markers in the transmission of cleft lip and palate: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Saujanya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Determining the relative risk of cleft lip and palate (CL[P] on the basis of lip prints and dermatoglyphics as genetic background may be useful for genetic counseling, and the development of future preventive measures. Aims and Objectives: (1 To analyze the various pattern types of lip prints and dermatoglyphics in parents of CL(P children and to detect if any specific type can be contemplated as a genetic marker in the transmission of CL(P. (2 To compare these patterns with that of parents of unaffected children. Materials and Methods: 31 parents of children with CL(P as a study group, and 31 parents of unaffected children as control group were included. Lip prints and finger prints were collected from all subjects and analysis of both patterns was carried out followed by a comparison of the patterns of unaffected parents with the controls statistically. Results: Among the mothers of the study group, type O followed by type IIa lip patterns were found to be significantly higher in upper and lower lips, and in fathers type IIa followed by type O were significantly higher. In the control group, type IIb followed by type III were higher in both fathers and mothers. Dermatoglyphic analysis of palm and finger prints revealed no significant difference in the pattern types and total ridge counts, but the Atd angle asymmetry was found to be significant between study and control group. Conclusion: Types IIa and O lip patterns, asymmetry of Atd angles can be considered as genetic markers for the transmission of CL(P deformity to offsprings.

  7. Genetic control and transgressive segregation of zinc, iron, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, and sodium accumulation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes Santos, C A; Boiteux, L S

    2015-01-16

    Cowpea crop, through combining a range of essential minerals with high quality proteins, plays an important role in providing nutritional security to human population living in semi-arid regions. Studies on genetics of biofortification with essential minerals are still quite scarce, and the major objective of the present study was to provide genetic information on development of cowpea cultivars with high seed mineral contents. Genetic parameters heritability and minimum number of genes were estimated for seed accumulation of zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and sodium (Na). Generation mean and variance analyses were conducted using contrasting parental lines, F₁, F₂, and backcross populations derived from IT97K-1042-3 x BRS Tapaihum and IT97K-1042-3 x Canapu crosses. High narrow-sense heritability (h²) values were found for accumulation of Fe (65-86%), P (74-77%), and K (77-88%), whereas moderate h(2) values were observed for accumulation of Ca (41-56%), Zn (51-83%), and Na (50-55%) in seeds. Significant additive genetic effects as well as parental mean effects were detected in both crosses for all minerals, whereas epistasis was important genetic component in Zn content. The minimum number of genes controlling the accumulation of minerals ranged from two (K) to 11 (P). Transgressive segregation was observed in F2 populations of both crosses for all minerals analyzed. The results suggest that, although under either oligogenic or polygenic control, the seed content of these six minerals in cowpea can be improved via standard breeding methods largely used for self-pollinated crops.

  8. Loss of genetic diversity in Culex quinquefasciatus targeted by a lymphatic filariasis vector control program in Recife, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartaxo, Marina F S; Ayres, Constância F J; Weetman, David

    2011-09-01

    Recife is one of the largest cities in north-eastern Brazil and is endemic for lymphatic filariasis transmitted by Culex quinquefasciatus. Since 2003 a control program has targeted mosquito larvae by elimination of breeding sites and bimonthly application of Bacillus sphaericus. To assess the impact of this program on the local vector population we monitored the genetic diversity and differentiation of Cx. quinquefasciatus using microsatellites and a B. sphaericus-resistance associated mutation (cqm1(REC)) over a 3-year period. We detected a significant but gradual decline in allelic diversity, which, coupled with subtle temporal genetic structure, suggests a major impact of the control program on the vector population. Selection on cqm1(REC) does not appear to be involved with loss of neutral diversity from the population, with no temporal trend in resistant allele frequency and no correlation with microsatellite differentiation. The evidence for short-term genetic drift we detected suggests a low ratio of effective population size: census population size for Cx. quinquefasciatus, perhaps coupled with strong geographically-restricted population structure. Spatial definition of populations will be an important step for success of an expanded vector control program. Copyright © 2011 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic effects for controlling stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici resistance in wheat through joint segregation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalim Ullah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mixed inheritance analysis using joint segregation analysis (JSA for stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici resistance was carried out in six basic populations (P1, F1, P2, BC1, BC2 and F2 of four wheat crosses (Hashim-08 × LU-26, Farid-06 × Shafaq, Parula × Blue Silver, TD-1 × D-97603 during crop season 2009 to 2012. Genes controlling stripe rust resistance were assessed by using area under disease progress curve (AUDPC. The AUDPC was controlled by mixed two additive-dominant-epistatic major genes plus additive-dominant-epistasis of polygenes in cross Hashim-08 × LU-26 (model E, while in Farid-06 × Shafaq, it was controlled by mixed two major additive-dominant genes plus additive-dominant polygenes (model E-2. In cross Parula × Blue Silver, the AUDPC was managed by additive, dominance and epistasis of two major genes (model B-1, however, it was controlled by mixed one major gene and additive dominant polygenes in cross TD-1 × D-97603 (model D-1. Genetic variation and heritability was higher in major genes than polygene for all the crosses showing that AUDPC was mainly controlled by major genes. The genetic behavior of the AUDPC revealed that stripe rust resistance was controlled by mixed interaction of one to two major genes plus polygenes.

  10. Genetic control of spontaneous arthritis in a four-way advanced intercross line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Mellado Ranea

    Full Text Available Identifying the genetic basis of complex diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, remains a challenge that requires experimental models to reduce the genetic and environmental variability. Numerous loci for arthritis have been identified in induced animal models; however, few spontaneous models have been genetically studied. Therefore, we generated a four-way advanced intercross line (AIL from four inbred strains, including BXD2/TyJ which spontaneously develops autoimmune arthritis. A genome-wide scan for spontaneous arthritis was performed in a cohort of 366 mice of the fourth generation (G4 of this cross. Five loci contributing to clinical phenotypes were identified in chromosomes 3, 7, 13, 18, and X. Three of the loci found in this study, confirm previously identified loci; whereas two of them are novel loci. Interesting candidate genes for the loci are highlighted. This study provides a genetic overview of spontaneous arthritis in mice and aids to solve the genetic etiology of rheumatoid arthritis and to gain a better understanding of the disease.

  11. Genetic algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grefenstette, J.J.

    1994-12-31

    Genetic algorithms solve problems by using principles inspired by natural population genetics: They maintain a population of knowledge structures that represent candidate solutions, and then let that population evolve over time through competition and controlled variation. GAs are being applied to a wide range of optimization and learning problems in many domains.

  12. Attempt to replicate published genetic associations in a large, well-defined osteoarthritis case-control population (the GOAL study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limer, K L; Tosh, K; Bujac, S R; McConnell, R; Doherty, S; Nyberg, F; Zhang, W; Doherty, M; Muir, K R; Maciewicz, R A

    2009-06-01

    Published studies have tested over 90 genes for association with osteoarthritis (OA), but few positives reported have been independently replicated. Using a new case-control study, our aim was to attempt the replication of findings from 12 genes reported to have significant genetic association with OA and to further examine the role of genetic variation in six of these genes. A case-control study was undertaken in Nottingham, UK. Hospital-referred index cases with symptomatic, radiographic OA (ROA) of the knee (n=1040) or hip (n=1004) were recruited. Asymptomatic controls (n=1123) were recruited from intravenous urography waiting lists and screened for radiographic hip and knee OA. Sixty-eight polymorphisms were genotyped in IL1A, IL1B, IL1RN, IL4R, IL6, COL2A1, ADAM12, ASPN, IGF1, TGFB1, ESR1 and VDR. Statistical analysis compared allele or genotype frequencies of these polymorphisms in all asymptomatic controls and the subset of controls without ROA vs all OA, knee OA and hip OA. The analyses were adjusted for age, gender and body mass index. We were unable to replicate any of the published genetic associations investigated. Our extended exploratory analyses identified some associations between polymorphisms in TGFB1, IGF1 and IL1RN and OA; but the strength of evidence varied with the control group used. Lack of replication is common and could be due to differences in study design, phenotype, populations examined or the occurrence of false positives in the initial study. Variants within TGFB1, IGF1 and IL1RN could have a role in OA susceptibility; however, replication of these findings is required in an independent study.

  13. Tuning of the Preferred Optic Flow Axes of Locust and Blowfly Visual Interneurons to Their Preferred Modes of Flight Behaviour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krapp, Holger G; Bomphrey, R. J; Laughlin, S. B; Taylor, G. K; Wuestenberg, D. G

    2008-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking Imperial College London as follows: The grantee will investigate the sensory mechanisms of gaze stabilization and flight control on insects (flies and locusts...

  14. Genetic relationships among some subspecies of the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus L.), inferred from mitochondrial DNA control-region sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Clayton M.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Sage, George K.; Anderson, Clifford; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to successfully colonize and persist in diverse environments likely requires broad morphological and behavioral plasticity and adaptability, and this may partly explain why the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) exhibits a large range of morphological characteristics across their global distribution. Regional and local differences within Peregrine Falcons were sufficiently variable that ∼75 subspecies have been described; many were subsumed, and currently 19 are generally recognized. We used sequence information from the control region of the mitochondrial genome to test for concordance between genetic structure and representatives of 12 current subspecies and from two areas where subspecies distributions overlap. Haplotypes were broadly shared among subspecies, and all geographic locales shared a widely distributed common haplotype (FalconCR2). Haplotypes were distributed in a star-like phylogeny, consistent with rapid expansion of a recently derived species, with observed genetic patterns congruent with incomplete lineage sorting and/or differential rates of evolution on morphology and neutral genetic characters. Hierarchical analyses of molecular variance did not uncover genetic partitioning at the continental level, despite strong population-level structure (FST = 0.228). Similar analyses found weak partitioning, albeit significant, among subspecies (FCT = 0.138). All reconstructions placed the hierofalcons' (Gyrfalcon [F. rusticolus] and Saker Falcon [F. cherrug]) haplotypes in a well-supported clade either basal or unresolved with respect to the Peregrine Falcon. In addition, haplotypes representing Taita Falcon (F. fasciinucha) were placed within the Peregrine Falcon clade.

  15. Deltamethrin flea-control preserves genetic variability of black-tailed prairie dogs during a plague outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, P.H.; Biggins, D.E.; Eads, D.A.; Eads, S.L.; Britten, H.B.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic variability and structure of nine black-tailed prairie dog (BTPD, Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies were estimated with 15 unlinked microsatellite markers. A plague epizootic occurred between the first and second years of sampling and our study colonies were nearly extirpated with the exception of three colonies in which prairie dog burrows were previously dusted with an insecticide, deltamethrin, used to control fleas (vectors of the causative agent of plague, Yersinia pestis). This situation provided context to compare genetic variability and structure among dusted and non-dusted colonies pre-epizootic, and among the three dusted colonies pre- and post-epizootic. We found no statistical difference in population genetic structures between dusted and non-dusted colonies pre-epizootic. On dusted colonies, gene flow and recent migration rates increased from the first (pre-epizootic) year to the second (post-epizootic) year which suggested dusted colonies were acting as refugia for prairie dogs from surrounding colonies impacted by plague. Indeed, in the dusted colonies, estimated densities of adult prairie dogs (including dispersers), but not juveniles (non-dispersers), increased from the first year to the second year. In addition to preserving BTPDs and many species that depend on them, protecting colonies with deltamethrin or a plague vaccine could be an effective method to preserve genetic variability of prairie dogs. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  16. New Insights into the Genetic Control of Gene Expression using a Bayesian Multi-tissue Approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petretto, E.; Bottolo, L.; Langley, S. R.; Heinig, M.; McDermott-Roe, Ch.; Sarwar, R.; Pravenec, Michal; Hübner, N.; Aitman, T. J.; Cook, S.A.; Richardson, S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 4 (2010), e1000737 ISSN 1553-734X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA301/08/0166; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA ČR GAP301/10/0290 Grant - others:EC(XE) LSHG-CT-2005-019015; Fondation Leducq(FR) 06 CVD 03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : expression profiles * Bayesian multi-tissue approach * genetic al genomics Subject RIV: EB - Genetic s ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.515, year: 2010

  17. Three genetic systems controlling growth, development and productivity of rice (Oryza sativa L.): a reevaluation of the 'Green Revolution'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Jiang, Yun-Zhu; Yu, Si-Bin; Ali, J; Paterson, A H; Khush, G S; Xu, Jian-Long; Gao, Yong-Ming; Fu, Bin-Ying; Lafitte, R; Li, Zhi-Kang

    2013-04-01

    The Green Revolution (GR-I) included worldwide adoption of semi-dwarf rice cultivars (SRCs) with mutant alleles at GA20ox2 or SD1 encoding gibberellin 20-oxidase. Two series of experiments were conducted to characterize the pleiotropic effects of SD1 and its relationships with large numbers of QTLs affecting rice growth, development and productivity. The pleiotropic effects of SD1 in the IR64 genetic background for increased height, root length/mass and grain weight, and for reduced spikelet fertility and delayed heading were first demonstrated using large populations derived from near isogenic IR64 lines of SD1. In the second set of experiments, QTLs controlling nine growth and yield traits were characterized using a new molecular quantitative genetics model and the phenotypic data of the well-known IR64/Azucena DH population evaluated across 11 environments, which revealed three genetic systems: the SD1-mediated, SD1-repressed and SD1-independent pathways that control rice growth, development and productivity. The SD1-mediated system comprised 43 functional genetic units (FGUs) controlled by GA. The SD1-repressed system was the alternative one comprising 38 FGUs that were only expressed in the mutant sd1 backgrounds. The SD1-independent one comprised 64 FGUs that were independent of SD1. GR-I resulted from the overall differences between the former two systems in the three aspects: (1) trait/environment-specific contributions; (2) distribution of favorable alleles for increased productivity in the parents; and (3) different responses to (fertilizer) inputs. Our results suggest that at 71.4 % of the detected loci, a QTL resulted from the difference between a functional allele and a loss-of-function mutant, whereas at the remaining 28.6 % of loci, from two functional alleles with differentiated effects. Our results suggest two general strategies to achieve GR-II (1) by further exploiting the genetic potential of the SD1-repressed and SD1-independent pathways and (2

  18. Spatially and genetically distinct control of seed germination by phytochromes A and B

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lee, K. P.; Piskurewicz, U.; Turečková, Veronika; Carat, S.; Chappuis, R.; Strnad, Miroslav; Fankhauser, Ch.; Lopez-Molina, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 17 (2012), s. 1984 -1996 ISSN 0890-9369 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : ABI5 * DELLA factors * abscisic acid Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 12.444, year: 2012

  19. Evidence for genetic control of adult weight plasticity in the snail Helix aspersa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ros, Mathieu; Sorensen, Daniel; Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge

    2004-01-01

    of adult weight in the snail Helix aspersa. Several models of heterogeneous variance are fitted using a Bayesin, MCMC approach. Exploratory analyses using posterior predictive model checking and model comparisons based on the deviance information criterion favor a model postulating a genetically structured...... is illustrated numerically using estimates of parameters derived from the snail data set....

  20. Genetic control of chromosome behaviour: Implications in evolution, crop improvement, and human biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromosomes and chromosome pairing are pivotal to all biological sciences. The study of chromosomes helps unravel several aspects of an organism. Although the foundation of genetics occurred with the formulation of the laws of heredity in 1865, long before the discovery of chromosomes, their subsequ...

  1. Genetic and phenotypic parameters of pelt traits in a Karakul control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    decrease in bandedness, a slight increase in lusre and in the occurrence of feathers, and a moderate decrease in curl type and hair length. Genetic estimates obtained in this study are compared with previous estimates obtained in. Karakul sheep. Genetiese parameters van 16 pelseienskappe en van geboortemassa is in.

  2. Contribution to Control of an Elastic Two-Mass System by Means of Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelmira Ferkova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Oscillations of an elastic two-mass system with all known parameters may be suppressed by suitable feedback signal. An observer enables to estimate this feedback without measurement of load mechanism speed. This article contains application of genetic algorithms for identification of elastic system parameters and determination of corresponding observer feedback coefficients. Design correctness is verified by simulation.

  3. Does Type 2 Diabetes Genetic Testing and Counseling Reduce Modifiable Risk Factors? A Randomized Controlled Trial of Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voils, Corrine I; Coffman, Cynthia J; Grubber, Janet M; Edelman, David; Sadeghpour, Azita; Maciejewski, Matthew L; Bolton, Jamiyla; Cho, Alex; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Yancy, William S

    2015-11-01

    We examined the clinical utility of supplementing type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) risk counseling with DM genetic test results and counseling. In this randomized controlled trial, non-diabetic overweight/obese veteran outpatients aged 21 to 65 years received DM risk estimates for lifetime risk, family history, and fasting plasma glucose, followed by either genetic test results (CR+G; N = 303) or control eye disease counseling (CR+EYE; N = 298). All participants received brief lifestyle counseling encouraging weight loss to reduce the risk of DM. The mean age was 54 years, 53% of participants were black, and 80% were men. There was no difference between arms in weight (estimated mean difference between CR+G vs. CR+EYE at 3 months = 0.2 kg, 95% CI: -0.3 to 0.7; at 6 months = 0.4 kg, 95 % CI: -0.3 to 1.1), insulin resistance, perceived risk, or physical activity at 3 or 6 months. Calorie and fat intake were lower in the CR+G arm at 3 months (p's ≤ 0.05) but not at 6 months (p's > 0.20). Providing patients with genetic test results was not more effective in changing patient behavior to reduce the risk of DM compared to conventional risk counseling. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01060540 http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01060540.

  4. Genetic algorithms optimized fuzzy controller for the indoor environmental management in buildings implemented using PLC and local operating networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolokotsa, D. [Technological Educational Institute of Crete (Greece). Dept. of Natural Resources Engineering; Stavrakakis, G.S.; Kalaitzakis, K. [Technical University of Crete (Greece). Dept. of Electronics and Computer Engineering; Agoris, D. [University of Patras (Greece). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    2002-09-01

    In this paper, an optimized fuzzy controller is presented for the control of the environmental parameters at the building zone level. The occupants' preferences are monitored via a smart card unit. Genetic algorithm optimization techniques are applied to shift properly the membership functions of the fuzzy controller in order to satisfy the occupants' preferences while minimizing energy consumption. The implementation of the system integrates a smart card unit, sensors, actuators, interfaces, a programmable logic controller (PLC), local operating network (LON) modules and devices, and a central PC that monitors the performance of the system. The communication of the PLC with the smart card unit is performed using an RS 485 port, while the PLC-PC communication is performed via the LON network. The integrated system is installed and tested in the building of the Laboratory of Electronics of the Technical University of Crete. (author)

  5. Investigating the optimal passive and active vibration controls of adjacent buildings based on performance indices using genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Muhammad N. S.; Uz, Mehmet E.

    2015-02-01

    This study proposes the optimal passive and active damper parameters for achieving the best results in seismic response mitigation of coupled buildings connected to each other by dampers. The optimization to minimize the H2 and H∞ norms in the performance indices is carried out by genetic algorithms (GAs). The final passive and active damper parameters are checked for adjacent buildings connected to each other under El Centro NS 1940 and Kobe NS 1995 excitations. Using real coded GA in H∞ norm, the optimal controller gain is obtained by different combinations of the measurement as the feedback for designing the control force between the buildings. The proposed method is more effective than other metaheuristic methods and more feasible, although the control force increased. The results in the active control system show that the response of adjacent buildings is reduced in an efficient manner.

  6. Association study of common genetic variants and HIV-1 acquisition in 6,300 infected cases and 7,200 controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaren, Paul J; Coulonges, Cédric; Ripke, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Multiple genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been performed in HIV-1 infected individuals, identifying common genetic influences on viral control and disease course. Similarly, common genetic correlates of acquisition of HIV-1 after exposure have been interrogated using GWAS, although in ...

  7. Investigation of Genetic Control of Traits Related to Salinity Tolerance in Rice Seedling Using Line × Tester Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sabouri

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available After wheat, rice is the second most important cereal grown in Iran that improvement of its economical characteristics always has important role in the rice breeding programs. In order to estimate the genetic parameters and identify salt-tolerant varieties and hybrids in seedling stage, seven female parents (Shah-pasand, Gharib, Tarom Mahalli, Ahlami Tarom, Hashemi and Dom Sepid and four male parents (Khazar, Sepidroud, Dorfak and IR28 were crossed in a Line × tester mating design and their progenies were evaluated for traits related to salinity tolerance in Physiology Laboratory of Gonbad Kavous University. These traits include genetic code, chlorophyll content, root and shoot length, dry weight of root and shoot, sodium and potassium percentage in roots and shoots, ratio of sodium to potassium in roots and shoots and the percentage of seedlings’ stand. The results showed both additive and non-additive effects are involved in seedlings’ traits under salinity condition but non-additive effects play more important role in the genetic control of the traits. In this study, it was found that varieties of Hashemi (-0.101, Gharib (-0.284, Tarom Mahalli (-0.326, Sepidroud (-0.562 and Dorfak (-0.164 which possess good general combining ability are suitable for transferring more desirable genetic code and the higher percentage of seedlings stand and could be used in breeding programs to reduce the genetic code and increase the seedlings’ stand under salinity stress. In addition, investigation of specific combining ability for morphological and physiological characteristics showed that among the 28 crosses, three hybrids of Sepidroud×Ahlami Tarom, Dorfak×Hashemi and Dorfak×Sepidroud could be suitable for the breeding programs of salinity tolerance in seedling stage.

  8. PREDICTIVE CONTROL OF A BATCH POLYMERIZATION SYSTEM USING A FEEDFORWARD NEURAL NETWORK WITH ONLINE ADAPTATION BY GENETIC ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cancelier

    Full Text Available Abstract This study used a predictive controller based on an empirical nonlinear model comprising a three-layer feedforward neural network for temperature control of the suspension polymerization process. In addition to the offline training technique, an algorithm was also analyzed for online adaptation of its parameters. For the offline training, the network was statically trained and the genetic algorithm technique was used in combination with the least squares method. For online training, the network was trained on a recurring basis and only the technique of genetic algorithms was used. In this case, only the weights and bias of the output layer neuron were modified, starting from the parameters obtained from the offline training. From the experimental results obtained in a pilot plant, a good performance was observed for the proposed control system, with superior performance for the control algorithm with online adaptation of the model, particularly with respect to the presence of off-set for the case of the fixed parameters model.

  9. Association of genetic polymorphisms with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the Chinese Han population: a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Yi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. Few gene studies of the Chinese population have focused on COPD. We investigated candidate genes associated with susceptibility to COPD in the Chinese Han population. Methods A total of 331 COPD patients and 213 control subjects were recruited for this study. Nighty-seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of 46 genes were selected for genotyping. Genotypes were determined using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results Significant differences between patients and healthy controls were observed in the allele frequencies of seven SNPs: rs1205 C, rs2353397 C, rs20541 T, rs2070600 G, rs10947233 G, rs1800629 G, and rs2241712 A. After Bonferroni correction, rs2353397 C was most strongly associated with susceptibility to COPD. Haplotype analysis showed that the frequencies of the GC, GT haplotypes of rs2241718 (TGF-β1 gene, and rs6957 (CDC97 gene were significantly higher in the control group than in the COPD case group (p=1.88×10-9; the frequencies of the TT haplotype of rs1205 and rs2808630 (CRP gene were significantly higher in the control group (p=0.0377. Conclusion Our study suggests some genetic variants associated with the susceptibility of COPD in the Chinese Han population.

  10. Genetic control of soybean (Glycine max yield in the absence and presence of the Asian rust fungus (Phakopsora pachyrhizi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliny Simony Ribeiro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is one of the most important crops in Brazil and continuously generates demands for production technologies, such as cultivars resistant to diseases. In recent years, the Asian rust fungus (Phakopsora pachyrhizi Syd. & P. Syd 1914 has caused severe yield losses and the development of resistant cultivars is the best means of control. Understanding the genetic control and estimating parameters associated with soybean (Glycine max resistance to P. pachyrhizi will provide essential information for cultivar selection. We investigated quantitative genetic control of P. pachyrhizi and estimated parameters associated to soybean yield in the absence and presence of this phytopathogen. Six cultivars and their 15 diallel derived F2 and F3 generations were assessed in experiments carried out in the absence and presence of P. pachyrhizi. The results indicated that soybean yield in the presence and absence of P. pachyrhizi is controlled by polygenes expressing predominantly additive effects that can be selected to develop new cultivars resistant or tolerant to P. pachyrhizi. These cultivars may prove to be a useful and more durable alternative than cultivars carrying major resistance genes.

  11. Power and sample size calculations in the presence of phenotype errors for case/control genetic association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finch Stephen J

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phenotype error causes reduction in power to detect genetic association. We present a quantification of phenotype error, also known as diagnostic error, on power and sample size calculations for case-control genetic association studies between a marker locus and a disease phenotype. We consider the classic Pearson chi-square test for independence as our test of genetic association. To determine asymptotic power analytically, we compute the distribution's non-centrality parameter, which is a function of the case and control sample sizes, genotype frequencies, disease prevalence, and phenotype misclassification probabilities. We derive the non-centrality parameter in the presence of phenotype errors and equivalent formulas for misclassification cost (the percentage increase in minimum sample size needed to maintain constant asymptotic power at a fixed significance level for each percentage increase in a given misclassification parameter. We use a linear Taylor Series approximation for the cost of phenotype misclassification to determine lower bounds for the relative costs of misclassifying a true affected (respectively, unaffected as a control (respectively, case. Power is verified by computer simulation. Results Our major findings are that: (i the median absolute difference between analytic power with our method and simulation power was 0.001 and the absolute difference was no larger than 0.011; (ii as the disease prevalence approaches 0, the cost of misclassifying a unaffected as a case becomes infinitely large while the cost of misclassifying an affected as a control approaches 0. Conclusion Our work enables researchers to specifically quantify power loss and minimum sample size requirements in the presence of phenotype errors, thereby allowing for more realistic study design. For most diseases of current interest, verifying that cases are correctly classified is of paramount importance.

  12. Association of Interleukin 6 gene polymorphisms with genetic susceptibilities to spastic tetraplegia in males: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingjie; Li, Tongchuan; Lin, Sheyu; Bi, Dan; Zhu, Dengna; Shang, Qing; Ma, Caiyun; Wang, Honglian; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yiting; He, Lin; Zhu, Changlian; Xing, Qinghe

    2013-03-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of non-progressive motor impairment and permanent disorders causing limitation of activity and abnormal posture. It may be caused by infection (such as chorioamnionitis), asphyxia or multiple genetic factors. The Interleukin 6 gene (IL6) was suggested to be involved in the susceptibilities to CP risk as a kind of proinflammatory cytokine. To explore the genetic association between the polymorphisms of the IL6 gene and CP in the Chinese population. A total of 542 CP patients and 483 healthy control children were recruited in this study to detect five single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs1800796, rs2069837, rs2066992, rs2069840, and rs10242595) in the IL6 locus. Genotyping of SNPs was performed by the MassArray platform-based genotyping approach. The SHEsis program was applied to analyze the genotyping data. Of the five selected SNPs, no significant allelic and genotypic association was found between CP patients and controls. However, subgroup analysis found significant differences in allele frequencies between spastic tetraplegia in males compared with controls at rs1800796 (OR=1.39, P=0.033, P=0.099 after SNPSpD correction) and rs2069837 (OR=1.58, P=0.012, P=0.035 after SNPSpD correction). The frequencies of the C allele of rs1800796 and the A allele of rs2069837 were greater in males with spastic tetraplegia than in the controls. The two SNPs haplotype rs1800796 (G) - rs2069837 (G) were also associated with a decreased risk of spastic tetraplegia in males (OR=0.619, P=0.009, P=0.027 after Bonferroni correction). Genetic variation of the IL6 gene may influence susceptibility to spastic tetraplegia in males and its role in cerebral palsy deserves further evaluation in a large-scale and well-designed study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic control of modified genomic region in a firm ripening tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Ricken Schuelter

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies involving the firm tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum mutant have shown that pleiotropy or geneticlinkage are responsible for modifications in morphological and postharvest traits. The objective of this report was to evaluatethe hypothesis of pleiotropy or genetic linkage linked to morphologic traits and to verify the effect of QTL on fruit firmness.Plants of mutant firm and L. cheesmani were intercrossed; the F2 and F3 generations were analyzed for segregation ofmorphological traits and firmness, and the RAPD technique was used for the F2 population. Results showed that the recessivepleiotropic gene is responsible for the morphological traits, but environmental and/or genetic factors affect the penetranceand expressivity of the mutation. By the RAPD analysis, a QTL was detected in the group represented by the markers AS-08622,AQ-16747 and l-2 that explains 29.77% of the variation to fruit firmness.

  14. Research to support sterile-male-release and genetic alteration techniques for sea lamprey control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstedt, Roger A.; Twohey, Michael B.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated pest management of sea lampreys in the Laurentian Great Lakes has recently been enhanced by addition of a sterile-male-release program, and future developments in genetic approaches may lead to additional methods for reducing sea lamprey reproduction. We review the development, implementation, and evaluation of the sterile-male-release technique (SMRT) as it is being applied against sea lampreys in the Great Lakes, review the current understanding of SMRT efficacy, and identify additional research areas and topics that would increase either the efficacy of the SMRT or expand its geographic potential for application. Key areas for additional research are in the sterilization process, effects of skewed sex ratios on mating behavior, enhancing attractiveness of sterilized males, techniques for genetic alteration of sea lampreys, and sources of animals to enhance or expand the use of sterile lampreys.

  15. Economic Statistical Design of Variable Sampling Interval X¯$\\overline X $ Control Chart Based on Surrogate Variable Using Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Tae-Hoon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In many cases, a X¯$\\overline X $ control chart based on a performance variable is used in industrial fields. Typically, the control chart monitors the measurements of a performance variable itself. However, if the performance variable is too costly or impossible to measure, and a less expensive surrogate variable is available, the process may be more efficiently controlled using surrogate variables. In this paper, we present a model for the economic statistical design of a VSI (Variable Sampling Interval X¯$\\overline X $ control chart using a surrogate variable that is linearly correlated with the performance variable. We derive the total average profit model from an economic viewpoint and apply the model to a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR nuclear fuel measurement system and derive the optimal result using genetic algorithms. Compared with the control chart based on a performance variable, the proposed model gives a larger expected net income per unit of time in the long-run if the correlation between the performance variable and the surrogate variable is relatively high. The proposed model was confined to the sample mean control chart under the assumption that a single assignable cause occurs according to the Poisson process. However, the model may also be extended to other types of control charts using a single or multiple assignable cause assumptions such as VSS (Variable Sample Size X¯$\\overline X $ control chart, EWMA, CUSUM charts and so on.

  16. Determinants of Excess Genetic Risk of Acute Myocardial Infarction - A Matched Case-Control Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valenta, Zdeněk; Mazura, Ivan; Kolář, M.; Feglarová, Petra; Peleška, Jan; Tomečková, Marie; Kalina, Jan; Slovák, Dalibor; Zvárová, Jana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2012), s. 34-43 ISSN 1801-5603 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : genome-wide association study * gene expression * myocardial infarction * genetic predisposition * predictive modeling Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://www.ejbi.org/img/ejbi/2012/1/Valenta_en.pdf

  17. Distinct genetic control of parasite elimination, dissemination, and disease after Leishmania major infection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kurey, Irina; Kobets, Tetyana; Havelková, Helena; Slapničková, Martina; Quan, L.; Trtková, Kateřina; Grekov, Igor; Svobodová, M.; Stassen, A. P. M.; Hutson, A.; Demant, P.; Lipoldová, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 9 (2009), s. 619-633 ISSN 0093-7711 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/06/1745; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Grant - others:EC(XE) 05-1000004-7761 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Leishmania major * Parasite elimination * QTL mapping Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.988, year: 2009

  18. Predictive Control of Hydronic Floor Heating Systems using Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Kasper; Green, Torben; Østergaard, Søren

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the use a neural network and a micro genetic algorithm to optimize future set-points in existing hydronic floor heating systems for improved energy efficiency. The neural network can be trained to predict the impact of changes in set-points on future room temperatures. Additio...... space is not guaranteed. Evaluation of the performance of multiple neural networks is performed, using different levels of information, and optimization results are presented on a detailed house simulation model....

  19. Genetic control of resistance to Trypanosoma brucei brucei infection in mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šíma, Matyáš; Havelková, Helena; Quan, L.; Svobodová, M.; Jarošíková, T.; Vojtíšková, Jarmila; Stassen, A. P. M.; Demant, P.; Lipoldová, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 6 (2011), e1173 ISSN 1935-2735 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500520606; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Grant - others:NIH-NCI(US) 1R01CA127162-01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Trypanosoma brucei brucei * mouse recombinant congenic strains * Tbbr Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.716, year: 2011

  20. Recognition of Mixture Control Chart Pattern Using Multiclass Support Vector Machine and Genetic Algorithm Based on Statistical and Shape Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Control charts have been widely utilized for monitoring process variation in numerous applications. Abnormal patterns exhibited by control charts imply certain potentially assignable causes that may deteriorate the process performance. Most of the previous studies are concerned with the recognition of single abnormal control chart patterns (CCPs. This paper introduces an intelligent hybrid model for recognizing the mixture CCPs that includes three main aspects: feature extraction, classifier, and parameters optimization. In the feature extraction, statistical and shape features of observation data are used in the data input to get the effective data for the classifier. A multiclass support vector machine (MSVM applies for recognizing the mixture CCPs. Finally, genetic algorithm (GA is utilized to optimize the MSVM classifier by searching the best values of the parameters of MSVM and kernel function. The performance of the hybrid approach is evaluated by simulation experiments, and simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach is able to effectively recognize mixture CCPs.

  1. Multi-objective optimization of the control strategy of electric vehicle electro-hydraulic composite braking system with genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Fengjiao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of the control strategy plays an important role in improving the performance of electric vehicles. In order to improve the braking stability and recover the braking energy, a multi-objective genetic algorithm is applied to optimize the key parameters in the control strategy of electric vehicle electro-hydraulic composite braking system. Various limitations are considered in the optimization process, and the optimization results are verified by a software simulation platform of electric vehicle regenerative braking system in typical brake conditions. The results show that optimization objectives achieved a good astringency, and the optimized control strategy can increase the brake energy recovery effectively under the condition of ensuring the braking stability.

  2. Effects of latex from "Amapazeiro"Parahancornia amapa (Apocynaceae) on blowfly Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) post-embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Paloma M; Lima, Mariana G; Albuquerque, Luis R M; Carvalho, Mario G; Queiroz, Margareth M C

    2011-06-10

    Nowadays, insect control is usually carried out using chemical insecticides, but insect resistance and other negative side effects have prompted the search for alternatives. Biopesticides provide a positive alternative to synthetic pesticides because they have low impact on the environmental, low toxicity to humans and low costs among other advantages. This research was carried out to evaluate the activity of Parahancornia amapa (Huber) Ducke (Apocynaceae) lyophilized latex on the post embryonic development of Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Larvae treated with 1.0% latex showed a shorter post embryonic development period (larval, pupal and newly hatched larvae to adult); whereas larvae treated with 3.0% latex provoked a prolongation of these periods. Viability (53%) was also very low at the newly hatched larvae to adult period for larvae treated with 3.0% latex, indicating that latex from P. amapa at high concentrations could change C. megacephala post embryonic development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic effects of ELISA-based segregation for control of bacterial kidney disease in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard, J.J.; Elliott, D.G.; Pascho, R.J.; Chase, D.M.; Park, L.K.; Winton, J.R.; Campton, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated genetic variation in ability of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to resist two bacterial pathogens: Renibacterium salmoninarum, the agent of bacterial kidney disease (BKD), and Listonella anguillarum, an agent of vibriosis. After measuring R. salmoninarum antigen in 499 adults by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we mated each of 12 males with high or low antigen levels to two females with low to moderate levels and exposed subsets of their progeny to each pathogen separately. We found no correlation between R. salmoninarum antigen level in parents and survival of their progeny following pathogen exposure. We estimated high heritability for resistance to R. salmoninarum (survival h2 = 0.890 ?? 0.256 (mean ?? standard error)) independent of parental antigen level, but low heritability for resistance to L. anguillarum (h2 = 0.128 ?? 0.078). The genetic correlation between these survivals (rA = -0.204 ?? 0.309) was near zero. The genetic and phenotypic correlations between survival and antigen levels among surviving progeny exposed to R. salmoninarum were both negative (rA = -0.716 ?? 0.140; rP = -0.378 ?? 0.041), indicating that variation in antigen level is linked to survival. These results suggest that selective culling of female broodstock with high antigen titers, which is effective in controlling BKD in salmon hatcheries, will not affect resistance of their progeny. ?? 2006 NRC.

  4. Systems-level quantification of division timing reveals a common genetic architecture controlling asynchrony and fate asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Vincy Wing Sze; Wong, Ming-Kin; An, Xiaomeng; Guan, Daogang; Shao, Jiaofang; Ng, Hon Chun Kaoru; Ren, Xiaoliang; He, Kan; Liao, Jinyue; Ang, Yingjin; Chen, Long; Huang, Xiaotai; Yan, Bin; Xia, Yiji; Chan, Leanne Lai Hang; Chow, King Lau; Yan, Hong; Zhao, Zhongying

    2015-01-01

    Coordination of cell division timing is crucial for proper cell fate specification and tissue growth. However, the differential regulation of cell division timing across or within cell types during metazoan development remains poorly understood. To elucidate the systems-level genetic architecture coordinating division timing, we performed a high-content screening for genes whose depletion produced a significant reduction in the asynchrony of division between sister cells (ADS) compared to that of wild-type during Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis. We quantified division timing using 3D time-lapse imaging followed by computer-aided lineage analysis. A total of 822 genes were selected for perturbation based on their conservation and known roles in development. Surprisingly, we find that cell fate determinants are not only essential for establishing fate asymmetry, but also are imperative for setting the ADS regardless of cellular context, indicating a common genetic architecture used by both cellular processes. The fate determinants demonstrate either coupled or separate regulation between the two processes. The temporal coordination appears to facilitate cell migration during fate specification or tissue growth. Our quantitative dataset with cellular resolution provides a resource for future analyses of the genetic control of spatial and temporal coordination during metazoan development. PMID:26063786

  5. Systems-level quantification of division timing reveals a common genetic architecture controlling asynchrony and fate asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Vincy Wing Sze; Wong, Ming-Kin; An, Xiaomeng; Guan, Daogang; Shao, Jiaofang; Ng, Hon Chun Kaoru; Ren, Xiaoliang; He, Kan; Liao, Jinyue; Ang, Yingjin; Chen, Long; Huang, Xiaotai; Yan, Bin; Xia, Yiji; Chan, Leanne Lai Hang; Chow, King Lau; Yan, Hong; Zhao, Zhongying

    2015-06-10

    Coordination of cell division timing is crucial for proper cell fate specification and tissue growth. However, the differential regulation of cell division timing across or within cell types during metazoan development remains poorly understood. To elucidate the systems-level genetic architecture coordinating division timing, we performed a high-content screening for genes whose depletion produced a significant reduction in the asynchrony of division between sister cells (ADS) compared to that of wild-type during Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis. We quantified division timing using 3D time-lapse imaging followed by computer-aided lineage analysis. A total of 822 genes were selected for perturbation based on their conservation and known roles in development. Surprisingly, we find that cell fate determinants are not only essential for establishing fate asymmetry, but also are imperative for setting the ADS regardless of cellular context, indicating a common genetic architecture used by both cellular processes. The fate determinants demonstrate either coupled or separate regulation between the two processes. The temporal coordination appears to facilitate cell migration during fate specification or tissue growth. Our quantitative dataset with cellular resolution provides a resource for future analyses of the genetic control of spatial and temporal coordination during metazoan development. © 2015 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  6. Genetic variation in scaly hair-fin anchovy Setipinna tenuifilis (Engraulididae) based on the mitochondrial DNA control region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shengyong; Song, Na; Lu, Zhichuang; Wang, Jun; Cai, Shanshan; Gao, Tianxiang

    2014-06-01

    Scaly hair-fin anchovy (Setipinna tenuifilis) is a small, pelagic and economical species and widely distributed in Chinese coastal water. However, resources of S. tenuifilis have been reduced due to overfishing. For better fishery management, it is necessary to understand the pattern of S. tenuifilis's biogeography. Genetic analyses were taken place to detect their population genetic variation. A total of 153 individuals from 7 locations (Dongying, Yantai, Qingdao, Nantong, Wenzhou, Xiamen and Beibu Bay) were sequenced at the 5' end of mtDNA control region. A 39-bp tandem repeated sequence was found at the 5' end of the segment and a polymorphism of tandem repeated sequence was detected among 7 populations. Both mismatch distribution analysis and neutrality tests showed S. tenuifilis had experienced a recent population expansion. The topology of neighbor-joining tree and Bayesian evolutionary tree showed no significant genealogical branches or clusters of samples corresponding to sampling locality. Hierarchical analysis of molecular variance and conventional pairwise population Fst value at group hierarchical level implied that there might have genetic divergence between southern group (population WZ, XM and BB) and northern group (population DY, YT, QD and NT). We concluded that there might have three different fishery management groups of S. tenuifilis and the late Pleistocene glacial event might have a crucial effect on present-day demography of S. tenuifilis in this region.

  7. Genetic diversity and demographical history of Coilia ectenes (Clupeiformes: Engraulidae) inferred from the complete control region sequences of mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chunyan; Cheng, Qiqun; Zhang, Qingyi

    2012-10-01

    Coilia ectenes is a commercially important fishery species. In this study, genetic diversity and population structure of C. ectenes were examined by using mitochondrial DNA control region sequences in 246 individuals sampled from 10 localities in China. One hundred and ninety-five polymorphic sites defined 184 distinct haplotypes, revealing a moderately high haplotype diversity (Hd) and a relatively low nucleotide diversity (π) in the 10 localities. An excess of unique haplotypes at most sample locations were detected, which might influence the genetic structure of the C. ectenes populations. Hd ranged from 0.939 to 1.000 and π ranged from 0.26% to 1.15%. The Dongting fish population had the highest π level. The genetic distances ranged from 0.26% to 1.03% within populations and from 0.56% to 4.90% between populations. The distances between the Fuzhou (FZ) population and other populations were mostly >4.8%. Neighbor-joining tree indicated distinct patterns of phylogeographic structure among haplotypes from FZ population and those from other populations. Analyses of molecular variance and F(st) statistics suggested that the divergence existed among populations from 10 localities, indicating that gene flow might be restricted among those regions, despite the wide dispersal. In addition, neutral tests and analysis of mismatch distribution suggested that C. ectenes might have undergone a population expansion. Our study revealed the extant population genetic diversity and structure of the C. ectenes, and was in favor of the related fishery management issues including fishery stock identification and conservation.

  8. Intelligent control a hybrid approach based on fuzzy logic, neural networks and genetic algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Siddique, Nazmul

    2014-01-01

    Intelligent Control considers non-traditional modelling and control approaches to nonlinear systems. Fuzzy logic, neural networks and evolutionary computing techniques are the main tools used. The book presents a modular switching fuzzy logic controller where a PD-type fuzzy controller is executed first followed by a PI-type fuzzy controller thus improving the performance of the controller compared with a PID-type fuzzy controller.  The advantage of the switching-type fuzzy controller is that it uses one rule-base thus minimises the rule-base during execution. A single rule-base is developed by merging the membership functions for change of error of the PD-type controller and sum of error of the PI-type controller. Membership functions are then optimized using evolutionary algorithms. Since the two fuzzy controllers were executed in series, necessary further tuning of the differential and integral scaling factors of the controller is then performed. Neural-network-based tuning for the scaling parameters of t...

  9. Genetic control of interactions among individuals: contrasting outcomes of indirect genetic effects arising from neighbour disease infection and competition in a forest tree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa e Silva, J.; Potts, B.M.; Bijma, P.; Kerr, R.J.; Pilbeam, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Indirect genetic effects (IGEs) are heritable effects of individuals on trait values of their conspecifics. IGEs may substantially affect response to selection, but empirical studies on IGEs are sparse and their magnitude and correlation with direct genetic effects are largely unknown in plants.

  10. Reactive power and voltage control based on general quantum genetic algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachogiannis, Ioannis (John); Østergaard, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an improved evolutionary algorithm based on quantum computing for optima l steady-state performance of power systems. However, the proposed general quantum genetic algorithm (GQ-GA) can be applied in various combinatorial optimization problems. In this study the GQ-GA determines...... techniques such as enhanced GA, multi-objective evolutionary algorithm and particle swarm optimization algorithms, as well as the classical primal-dual interior-point optimal power flow algorithm. The comparison demonstrates the ability of the GQ-GA in reaching more optimal solutions....

  11. The fractional PID controllers tuned by genetic algorithms for expansion turbine in the cryogenic air separation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bučanović Ljubiša J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the design of a new algorithm of PID control based on fractional calculus (FC in production of technical gases, i.e. in a cryogenic air separation process. Production of low pressure liquid air was first introduced by P. L. Kapica and involved expansion in a gas turbine. For application in the synthesis of the control law, for the input temperature and flow of air to the expansion turbine, it is necessary to determine the appropriate differential equations of the cryogenic process of mixing of two gaseous airflows at different temperatures before entrance to the expansion turbine. Thereafter, the model is linearized and decoupled and consequently classical PID and fractional order controllers are taken to assess the quality of the proposed technique. A set of optimal parameters of these controllers are achieved through the genetic algorithm optimization procedure by minimizing a cost function. Our design method focuses on minimizing performance criterion which involves IAE, overshoot, as well as settling time. A time-domain simulation was used to identify the performance of controller with respect to a traditional optimized PID controller. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 35006

  12. Genetic and environmental risk factors for rheumatoid arthritis in a UK African ancestry population: the GENRA case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traylor, Matthew; Curtis, Charles; Patel, Hamel; Breen, Gerome; Hyuck Lee, Sang; Xu, Xiaohui; Newhouse, Stephen; Dobson, Richard; Steer, Sophia; Cope, Andrew P; Markus, Hugh S; Lewis, Cathryn M; Scott, Ian C

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate whether genetic and environmental factors associated with RA in European and Asian ancestry populations are also associated with RA in African ancestry individuals. A case-control study was undertaken in 197 RA cases and 868 controls of African ancestry (Black African, Black Caribbean or Black British ethnicity) from South London. Smoking and alcohol consumption data at RA diagnosis was captured. Genotyping was undertaken (Multi-Ethnic Genotyping Array) and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles imputed. The following European/Asian RA susceptibility factors were tested: 99 genome-wide loci combined into a genetic risk score; HLA region [20 haplotypes; shared epitope (SE)]; smoking; and alcohol consumption. The SE was tested for its association with radiological erosions. Logistic regression models were used, including ancestry-informative principal components, to control for admixture. European/Asian susceptibility loci were associated with RA in African ancestry individuals. The genetic risk score provided an odds ratio (OR) for RA of 1.53 (95% CI: 1.31, 1.79; P = 1.3 × 10 - 7 ). HLA haplotype ORs in European and African ancestry individuals were highly correlated ( r = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.94; P = 1.1 × 10 - 4 ). Ever-smoking increased (OR = 2.36, 95% CI: 1.46, 3.82; P = 4.6 × 10 - 4 ) and drinking alcohol reduced (OR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.20, 0.56; P = 2.7 × 10 - 5 ) RA risk in African ancestry individuals. The SE was associated with erosions (OR = 2.61, 95% CI: 1.36, 5.01; P = 3.9 × 10 - 3 ). Gene-environment RA risk factors identified in European/Asian ancestry populations are relevant in African ancestry individuals. As modern statistical methods facilitate analysing ancestrally diverse populations, future genetic studies should incorporate African ancestry individuals to ensure their implications for precision medicine are universally applicable. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for

  13. Genetic control of the radiosensitivity of lymphoid cells for antibody formation ability in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumoto, Masaaki; Mori, Nobuko; Esaki, Kozaburo; Imai, Shunsuke; Haga, Satomi; Hilgers, Jo; Takamori, Yasuhiko.

    1994-01-01

    To analyze the genetic basis of the relationship between the radiosensitivity of the immune response and radiation lymphomagenesis, we examined the radiosensitivity of lymphoid cells for antibody formation in BALB/cHeA, STS/A, F 1 hybrids, and their recombinant inbred mouse strains. The decrease in the number of plaque-forming spleen cells in BALB/cHeA mice exposed to 3 Gy X-irradiation was more than tenfold that in STS/A mice. The phenotype of radioresistance was dominant over sensitivity. The coincidence between the strain distribution patterns of the genetic markers and radiosensitivities of antibody formation in the various recombinant inbred strains was in the region with the lgh locus on chromosome 12. There was obvious difference between the patterns in the region containing the lfa locus on chromosome 4 which has been shown to be related to the incidence of radiation-induced lymphomas. These results indicate that the region on chromosome 12 may contain major gene(s) related to radiosensitivity for antibody formation. (author)

  14. Systems Genetics Implicates Cytoskeletal Genes in Oocyte Control of Cloned Embryo Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yong; Gaughan, John; Midic, Uros; Han, Zhiming; Liang, Cheng-Guang; Patel, Bela G.; Latham, Keith E.

    2013-01-01

    Cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer is an important technology, but remains limited due to poor rates of success. Identifying genes supporting clone development would enhance our understanding of basic embryology, improve applications of the technology, support greater understanding of establishing pluripotent stem cells, and provide new insight into clinically important determinants of oocyte quality. For the first time, a systems genetics approach was taken to discover genes contributing to the ability of an oocyte to support early cloned embryo development. This identified a primary locus on mouse chromosome 17 and potential loci on chromosomes 1 and 4. A combination of oocyte transcriptome profiling data, expression correlation analysis, and functional and network analyses yielded a short list of likely candidate genes in two categories. The major category—including two genes with the strongest genetic associations with the traits (Epb4.1l3 and Dlgap1)—encodes proteins associated with the subcortical cytoskeleton and other cytoskeletal elements such as the spindle. The second category encodes chromatin and transcription regulators (Runx1t1, Smchd1, and Chd7). Smchd1 promotes X chromosome inactivation, whereas Chd7 regulates expression of pluripotency genes. Runx1t1 has not been associated with these processes, but acts as a transcriptional repressor. The finding that cytoskeleton-associated proteins may be key determinants of early clone development highlights potential roles for cytoplasmic components of the oocyte in supporting nuclear reprogramming. The transcriptional regulators identified may contribute to the overall process as downstream effectors. PMID:23307892

  15. Short-term suppression of Aedes aegypti using genetic control does not facilitate Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Kevin; Young, Josué; Pineda, Lleysa; Márquez, Ricardo; Sosa, Nestor; Bernal, Damaris; Torres, Rolando; Soto, Yamilitzel; Lacroix, Renaud; Naish, Neil; Kaiser, Paul; Tepedino, Karla; Philips, Gwilym; Kosmann, Cecilia; Cáceres, Lorenzo

    2016-03-01

    Under permit from the National Biosafety Commission for the use of genetically modified organisms, releases of a genetically engineered self-limiting strain of Aedes aegypti (OX513A) were used to suppress urban pest Ae. aegypti in West Panama. Experimental goals were to assess the effects on a coexisting population of Ae. albopictus and examine operational parameters with relevance to environmental impact. Ae. albopictus populations were shown to be increasing year upon year at each of three study sites, potentially reflecting a broader-scale incursion into the area. Ae. albopictus abundance was unaffected by a sustained reduction in Ae. aegypti by up to 93% through repeated releases of OX513A. Males accounted for 99.99% of released OX513A, resulting in a sustained mating fraction of 75%. Mean mating competitiveness of OX513A was 0.14. The proportion of OX513A in the local environment decreased by 95% within 25 days of the final release. There was no evidence for species replacement of Ae. aegypti by Ae. albopictus over the course of this study. No unintentional environmental impacts or elevated operational risks were observed. The potential for this emerging technology to mitigate against disease outbreaks before they become established is discussed. © 2015 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Virtual mutagenesis of the yeast cyclins genetic network reveals complex dynamics of transcriptional control networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliska Vohradska

    Full Text Available Study of genetic networks has moved from qualitative description of interactions between regulators and regulated genes to the analysis of the interaction dynamics. This paper focuses on the analysis of dynamics of one particular network--the yeast cyclins network. Using a dedicated mathematical model of gene expression and a procedure for computation of the parameters of the model from experimental data, a complete numerical model of the dynamics of the cyclins genetic network was attained. The model allowed for performing virtual experiments on the network and observing their influence on the expression dynamics of the genes downstream in the regulatory cascade. Results show that when the network structure is more complicated, and the regulatory interactions are indirect, results of gene deletion are highly unpredictable. As a consequence of quantitative behavior of the genes and their connections within the network, causal relationship between a regulator and target gene may not be discovered by gene deletion. Without including the dynamics of the system into the network, its functional properties cannot be studied and interpreted correctly.

  17. The effect of genetic counseling for adult offspring of patients with type 2 diabetes on attitudes toward diabetes and its heredity: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigaki, M; Tokunaga-Nakawatase, Y; Nishida, J; Kazuma, K

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of diabetes genetic counseling on attitudes toward diabetes and its heredity in relatives of type 2 diabetes patients. This study was an unmasked, randomized controlled trial at a medical check-up center in Japan. Subjects in this study are healthy adults between 30 and 60 years of age who have a family history of type 2 diabetes in their first degree relatives. Participants in the intervention group received a brief genetic counseling session for approximately 10 min. Genetic counseling was structured based on the Health Belief Model. Both intervention and control groups received a booklet for general diabetes prevention. Risk perception and recognition of diabetes, and attitude towards its prevention were measured at baseline, 1 week and 1 year after genetic counseling. Participants who received genetic counseling showed significantly higher recognition about their sense of control over diabetes onset than control group both at 1 week and 1 year after the session. On the other hand, anxiety about diabetes did not change significantly. The findings show that genetic counseling for diabetes at a medical check center helped adults with diabetes family history understand they are able to exert control over the onset of their disease through lifestyle modification.

  18. Intersection signal control multi-objective optimization based on genetic algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Zhanhong Zhou; Ming Cai

    2014-01-01

    A signal control intersection increases not only vehicle delay, but also vehicle emissions and fuel consumption in that area. Because more and more fuel and air pollution problems arise recently, an intersection signal control optimization method which aims at reducing vehicle emissions, fuel consumption and vehicle delay is required heavily. This paper proposed a signal control multi-object optimization method to reduce vehicle emissions, fuel consumption and vehicle delay simultaneously at ...

  19. Genetic algorithm-based control of birefringent filtering for self-tuning, self-pulsing fiber lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, R. I.; Kelleher, E. J. R.

    2017-08-01

    Polarization-based filtering in fiber lasers is well-known to enable spectral tunability and a wide range of dynamical operating states. This effect is rarely exploited in practical systems, however, because optimization of cavity parameters is non-trivial and evolves due to environmental sensitivity. Here, we report a genetic algorithm-based approach, utilizing electronic control of the cavity transfer function, to autonomously achieve broad wavelength tuning and the generation of Q-switched pulses with variable repetition rate and duration. The practicalities and limitations of simultaneous spectral and temporal self-tuning from a simple fiber laser are discussed, paving the way to on-demand laser properties through algorithmic control and machine learning schemes.

  20. Identification of isomers and control of ionization and dissociation processes using dual-mass-spectrometer scheme and genetic algorithm optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhou; Qiu-Nan Tong; Zhang Cong-Cong; Hu Zhan

    2015-01-01

    Identification of acetone and its two isomers, and the control of their ionization and dissociation processes are performed using a dual-mass-spectrometer scheme. The scheme employs two sets of time of flight mass spectrometers to simultaneously acquire the mass spectra of two different molecules under the irradiation of identically shaped femtosecond laser pulses. The optimal laser pulses are found using closed-loop learning method based on a genetic algorithm. Compared with the mass spectra of the two isomers that are obtained with the transform limited pulse, those obtained under the irradiation of the optimal laser pulse show large differences and the various reaction pathways of the two molecules are selectively controlled. The experimental results demonstrate that the scheme is quite effective and useful in studies of two molecules having common mass peaks, which makes a traditional single mass spectrometer unfeasible. (paper)

  1. Design of Autonomous Navigation Controllers for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Multi-Objective Genetic Programming

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barlow, Gregory J

    2004-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have become increasingly popular for many applications, including search and rescue, surveillance, and electronic warfare, but almost all UAVs are controlled remotely by humans...

  2. DIXDC1 Phosphorylation and Control of Dendritic Morphology Are Impaired by Rare Genetic Variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickie Kwan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of neural connectivity is essential for brain function, and disruption of this process is associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. DIX domain containing 1 (DIXDC1 has previously been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders, but its role in postnatal brain function remains unknown. Using a knockout mouse model, we determined that DIXDC1 is a regulator of excitatory neuron dendrite development and synapse function in the cortex. We discovered that MARK1, previously linked to ASDs, phosphorylates DIXDC1 to regulate dendrite and spine development through modulation of the cytoskeletal network in an isoform-specific manner. Finally, rare missense variants in DIXDC1 were identified in ASD patient cohorts via genetic sequencing. Interestingly, the variants inhibit DIXDC1 isoform 1 phosphorylation, causing impairment to dendrite and spine growth. These data reveal that DIXDC1 is a regulator of cortical dendrite and synaptic development and provide mechanistic insight into morphological defects associated with neurodevelopmental disorders.

  3. Use of genomic models to study genetic control of environmental variance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Ye; Christensen, Ole Fredslund; Sorensen, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    . The genomic model commonly found in the literature, with marker effects affecting mean only, is extended to investigate putative effects at the level of the environmental variance. Two classes of models are proposed and their behaviour, studied using simulated data, indicates that they are capable...... of detecting genetic variation at the level of mean and variance. Implementation is via Markov chain Monte Carlo (McMC) algorithms. The models are compared in terms of a measure of global fit, in their ability to detect QTL effects and in terms of their predictive power. The models are subsequently fitted...... to back fat thickness data in pigs. The analysis of back fat thickness shows that the data support genomic models with effects on the mean but not on the variance. The relative sizes of experiment necessary to detect effects on mean and variance is discussed and an extension of the McMC algorithm...

  4. Genetic polymorphisms and asthma: findings from a case-control study in the Madeira island population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenguer, Anabela Gonçalves; Fernandes, Ana Teresa; Oliveira, Susana; Rodrigues, Mariana; Ornelas, Pedro; Romeira, Diogo; Serrão, Tânia; Rosa, Alexandra; Câmara, Rita

    2014-09-04

    Asthma is a complex disease influenced by multiple genetic and environmental factors. While Madeira has the highest prevalence of asthma in Portugal (14.6%), the effect of both genetic and environmental factors in this population has never been assessed. We categorized 98 asthma patients according to the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines, established their sensitization profile, and measured their forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) indexes. Selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were analysed as potential markers for asthma susceptibility and severity in the interleukin 4 (IL4), interleukin 13 (IL13), beta-2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2), a disintegrin and metalloprotease 33 (ADAM33), gasdermin-like (GSDML) and the signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) genes comparatively to a population reference set. Although mites are the major source of allergic sensitization, no significant difference was found amongst asthma severity categories. IL4-590*CT/TT and IL4-RP2*253183/183183 were found to predict the risk (2-fold) and severity (3 to 4-fold) of asthma and were associated with a lower FEV1 index. ADRB2-c.16*AG is a risk factor (3.5-fold), while genotype GSDML-236*TT was protective (4-fold) for moderate-severe asthma. ADAM33-V4*C was associated to asthma and mild asthma by the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT). Finally, ADAM33-V4*CC and STAT6-21*TT were associated with higher sensitization (mean wheal size ≥10 mm) to house dust (1.4-fold) and storage mite (7.8-fold). In Madeira, IL4-590C/T, IL4-RP2 253/183, GSDML-236C/T and ADAM33-V4C/G SNPs are important risk factors for asthma susceptibility and severity, with implications for asthma healthcare management.

  5. Genetic polymorphisms and asthma: findings from a case - control study in the Madeira island population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabela Gonçalves Berenguer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Asthma is a complex disease influenced by multiple genetic and environmental factors. While Madeira has the highest prevalence of asthma in Portugal (14.6%, the effect of both genetic and environmental factors in this population has never been assessed. We categorized 98 asthma patients according to the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA guidelines, established their sensitization profile, and measured their forced expiratory volume in 1second (FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC indexes. Selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were analysed as potential markers for asthma susceptibility and severity in the interleukin 4 (IL4, interleukin 13 (IL13, beta-2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2, a disintegrin and metalloprotease 33 (ADAM33, gasdermin-like (GSDML and the signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6 genes comparatively to a population reference set. RESULTS: Although mites are the major source of allergic sensitization, no significant difference was found amongst asthma severity categories. IL4-590*CT/TT and IL4-RP2*253183/183183 were found to predict the risk (2-fold and severity (3 to 4-fold of asthma and were associated with a lower FEV1 index. ADRB2-c.16*AG is a risk factor (3.5-fold, while genotype GSDML-236*TT was protective (4-fold for moderate-severe asthma. ADAM33-V4*C was associated to asthma and mild asthma by the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT. Finally, ADAM33-V4*CC and STAT6-21*TT were associated with higher sensitization (mean wheal size ≥10mm to house dust (1.4-fold and storage mite (7.8-fold. CONCLUSION: In Madeira, IL4-590C/T, IL4-RP2 253/183, GSDML-236C/T and ADAM33-V4C/G SNPs are important risk factors for asthma susceptibility and severity, with implications for asthma healthcare management.

  6. Final Technical Report: Genetic Control of Nitrogen Assimilation in Klebsiella oxytoca.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valley Stewart

    2007-03-07

    Klebsiella oxytoca, an enterobacterium closely related to Escherichia coli and amenable to molecular genetic analysis, is a long-established model organism for studies of bacterial nitrogen assimilation. Our work concerned utilization of purines, nitrogen-rich compounds that are widespread in the biosphere. This project began with our observation that molybdenum cofactor (chlorate-resistant) mutants can use (hypo)xanthine as sole nitrogen source (Garzón et al., J. Bacteriol. 174:6298, 1992). Since xanthine dehydrogenase is a molybdoenzyme, Klebsiella must use an alternate route for (hypo)xanthine catabolsim. We identified and characterized a cluster of 22 genes that encode the enzymes, permeases and regulators for utilizing hypoxanthine and xanthine as sole nitrogen source. (Hypoxanthine and xanthine arise from deamination of adenine and guanine, respectively.) Growth and complementation tests with insertion mutants, combined with protein sequence comparisons, allow us to assign probable functions for the products of these genes and to deduce the overall pathway. We present genetic evidence that the first two enzymes for the Klebsiella purine utilization pathway have been recruited from pathways involved in catabolism of aromatic compounds. The first, HxaAB enzyme catalyzing (hypo)xanthine oxidation, is related to well-studied aromatic ring hydroxylating oxygenases such as phthalate dioxygenase. The second, HxbA enzyme catalyzing urate hydroxylation, is related to single-component monooxygenases. Thus, the Klebsiella purine utilization pathway has likely experienced non-orthologous gene displacement, substituting these oxygenases for the conventional enzymes, xanthine dehydrogenase and uricase. We also present evidence that transcription of the hxaAB operon is subject to dual regulation: global general nitrogen regulation (Ntr) through an unknown mechanism, and (hypo)xanthine induction mediated by a LysR-type activator.

  7. The genetic control of aposematic black pigmentation in hemimetabolous insects: insights from Oncopeltus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Lemonds, Thomas R; Popadić, Aleksandar

    2014-09-01

    Variations in body pigmentation, encompassing both the range of specific colors as well as the spatial arrangement of those colors, are among the most noticeable and lineage-specific insect features. However, the genetic mechanisms responsible for generating this diversity are still limited to several model species that are primarily holometabolous insects. To address this lack of knowledge, we utilize Oncopeltus fasciatus, an aposematic hemimetabolous insect, as a new model to study insect pigmentation. First, to determine the genetic regulation of black pigment production in Oncopeltus, we perform an RNAi analysis on three core genes involved in the melanin pathway, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopa decarboxylase (DDC), and laccase 2 (lac2). The black pigmentation is affected in all instances, showing that the black pigments in this species are derived from the melanin pathway. The results of the DDC RNAi are particularly informative because they reveal that it is Dopamine melanin, not DOPA melanin, which is the predominant component of black pigments in Oncopeltus. Second, we test whether pigmentation follows a two-step model where the spatial pre-mapping of enzymatic activity is followed by vein-dependent transportation of melanin substances. We confirm the existence of the first step by observing that premature wings develop black pigmentation when exposed to melanin precursors. In addition, we provide evidence for the second step by showing that wing melanin patterning is disrupted when vein transportation is halted. These findings bring novel insights from a hemimetabolous species and establish a framework for subsequent studies on the mechanisms of pigment production and patterning responsible for variations in insect coloration. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Association of genetic variations in the mitochondrial DNA control region with presbycusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falah, Masoumeh; Farhadi, Mohammad; Kamrava, Seyed Kamran; Mahmoudian, Saeid; Daneshi, Ahmad; Balali, Maryam; Asghari, Alimohamad; Houshmand, Massoud

    2017-01-01

    The prominent role of mitochondria in the generation of reactive oxygen species, cell death, and energy production contributes to the importance of this organelle in the intracellular mechanism underlying the progression of the common sensory disorder of the elderly, presbycusis. Reduced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene expression and coding region variation have frequently been reported as being associated with the development of presbycusis. The mtDNA control region regulates gene expression and replication of the genome of this organelle. To comprehensively understand of the role of mitochondria in the progression of presbycusis, we compared variations in the mtDNA control region between subjects with presbycusis and controls. A total of 58 presbycusis patients and 220 control subjects were enrolled in the study after examination by the otolaryngologist and audiology tests. Variations in the mtDNA control region were investigated by polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing. A total of 113 sequence variants were observed in mtDNA, and variants were detected in 100% of patients, with 84% located in hypervariable regions. The frequencies of the variants, 16,223 C>T, 16,311 T>C, 16,249 T>C, and 15,954 A>C, were significantly different between presbycusis and control subjects. The statistically significant difference in the frequencies of four nucleotide variants in the mtDNA control region of presbycusis patients and controls is in agreement with previous experimental evidence and supports the role of mitochondria in the intracellular mechanism underlying presbycusis development. Moreover, these variants have potential as diagnostic markers for individuals at a high risk of developing presbycusis. The data also suggest the possible presence of changes in the mtDNA control region in presbycusis, which could alter regulatory factor binding sites and influence mtDNA gene expression and copy number.

  9. Who should fund and control the direction of human behavior genetics? Review of Nuffield Council on Bioethics 2002 report, genetics and human behaviour: the ethical context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, D A

    2003-12-01

    In this (Nuffield Council on Bioethics 2002), the third in its series on ethics and related issues in genetics (see also Nuffield Council on Bioethics 1993 and Nuffield Council on Bioethics 1998), the Nuffield Council has focused on four'normal' behaviors; intelligence, personality, antisocial behavior and sexual orientation. This is a narrow range of behaviors and one where their discussion of the potential impact of predictive genetic testing is probably inappropriate. They also take an unduly narrow view of the purposes of behavior genetics in the 21st century. It is not simply to estimate heritability but to understand more about the structure of behavior and the processes which underlie it. Their narrow focus and their negative approach to the history and achievements of genetics is reflected in their less than positive support for future behavior genetic research. Behavior geneticists need to do more to publicize what their field has achieved in order to counter the very extensive antibehavior genetics initiatives which are almost unique in science. At the same time, organizations such as the Nuffield Council need to consider carefully the impact their deliberations may have on research funding.

  10. The dual genetic control of ornithine transcarbamylase synthesis in Escherichia coli K12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glansdorff, N.; Sand, G.; Verhoef, C.

    1967-01-01

    Mutations at 2 distant genes influence ornithine transcarbamylase synthesis in Escherichia coli K12. The wild type alleles of either of them restores to an OTC-less strain the ability to synthesize this enzyme under feedback control by arginine.

  11. Genetic controls on starch amylose content in wheat and rice grains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-04-07

    –10%), low (10–20%), interme- ... by most consumers (Juliano 1971). Low amylose culti- vars (15–20%) are tender, ...... bound starch synthase are temperature-sensitive and controlled by a single-nucleotide polymorphism.

  12. Do genetic factors protect for early onset lung cancer? A case control study before the age of 50 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilge Bettina

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early onset lung cancer shows some familial aggregation, pointing to a genetic predisposition. This study was set up to investigate the role of candidate genes in the susceptibility to lung cancer patients younger than 51 years at diagnosis. Methods 246 patients with a primary, histologically or cytologically confirmed neoplasm, recruited from 2000 to 2003 in major lung clinics across Germany, were matched to 223 unrelated healthy controls. 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms of genes with reported associations to lung cancer have been genotyped. Results Genetic associations or gene-smoking interactions was found for GPX1(Pro200Leu and EPHX1(His113Tyr. Carriers of the Leu-allele of GPX1(Pro200Leu showed a significant risk reduction of OR = 0.6 (95% CI: 0.4–0.8, p = 0.002 in general and of OR = 0.3 (95% CI:0.1–0.8, p = 0.012 within heavy smokers. We could also find a risk decreasing genetic effect for His-carriers of EPHX1(His113Tyr for moderate smokers (OR = 0.2, 95% CI:0.1–0.7, p = 0.012. Considered both variants together, a monotone decrease of the OR was found for smokers (OR of 0.20; 95% CI: 0.07–0.60 for each protective allele. Conclusion Smoking is the most important risk factor for young lung cancer patients. However, this study provides some support for the T-Allel of GPX1(Pro200Leu and the C-Allele of EPHX1(His113Tyr to play a protective role in early onset lung cancer susceptibility.

  13. The Instability of Neurospora Duplication Dp(IL→IR)H4250 , and Its Genetic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmeyer, Dorothy; Galeazzi, Donna R.

    1977-01-01

    Previous work (Newmeyer and Taylor 1967) showed that a nontandem duplication, Dp(IL→IR)H4250, is regularly produced by recombination in crosses heterozygous for the effectively terminal pericentric inversion In(IL→IR)H4250. The duplications initially have strongly inhibited growth because they are heterozygous for mating type, which behaves like a vegetative-incompatibility (het) locus. Such cultures "escape" from the inhibition as a result of events that eliminate the mating-type heterozygosity. The product of a given escape event may be barren or fertile. (Neurospora duplications are characteristically barren; that is, when crossed, they make many perithecia but few ascospores.)—The present paper reports on a genetic analysis of the instability of Dp(IL→IR)H4250 . Most of the barren escape products behave as if due either to mitotic crossovers, which make mating type and distal markers homozygous, or to very long deletions which uncover mating type and all distal markers; presumably the latter would retain enough duplicated material to render them barren. It is difficult to distinguish between these two possibilities, but homozygosis seems more probable and has been clearly demonstrated in one case. Only a few barren escapes could be due to short deletions or to changes at the mating-type locus.—The fertile escape products appear to be euploid. Most of these behave as if they arose by precise deletion of one or the other duplicated segment, thus restoring one of the parental sequences. A large majority of the precise deletions restore normal sequence; only a few restore inversion sequence. Preferential restoration of the normal sequence has also been found by other workers for Neurospora duplications from several other rearrangements. A hypothesis is presented to explain these findings; it is posulated that the precise deletions result from mitotic crossing over in homologous material located at chromosome tips and tip-break-points.—There is a smaller

  14. Linking tree genetics and stream consumers: Isotopic tracers elucidate controls on carbon and nitrogen assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compson, Zacchaeus G; Hungate, Bruce A; Whitham, Thomas G; Koch, George W; Dijkstra, Paul; Siders, Adam C; Wojtowicz, Todd; Jacobs, Ryan; Rakestraw, David N; Allred, Kiel E; Sayer, Chelsea K; Marks, Jane C

    2018-03-30

    Leaf litter provides an important nutrient subsidy to headwater streams, but little is known about how tree genetics influences energy pathways from litter to higher trophic levels. Despite the charge to quantify carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pathways from decomposing litter, the relationship between litter decomposition and aquatic consumers remains unresolved. We measured litter preference (attachments to litter), C and N assimilation rates, and growth rates of a shredding caddisfly (Hesperophylax magnus, Limnephilidae) in response to leaf litter of different chemical and physical phenotypes using Populus cross types (P. fremontii, P. angustifolia, and F 1 hybrids) and genotypes within P. angustifolia. We combined laboratory mesocosm studies using litter from a common garden with a field study using doubly labeled litter ( 13 C and 15 N) grown in a greenhouse and incubated in Oak Creek, AZ. We found that, in the lab, shredders initially chose relatively labile (low lignin and condensed tannin concentrations, rapidly decomposing) cross type litter, but preference changed within four days to relatively recalcitrant (high lignin and condensed tannin concentrations, slowly decomposing) litter types. Additionally, in the lab, shredder growth rates were higher on relatively recalcitrant compared to labile cross type litter. Over the course of a three-week field experiment, shredders also assimilated more C and N from relatively recalcitrant compared to labile cross type litter. Finally, among P. angustifolia genotypes, N assimilation by shredders was positively related to litter lignin and C:N, but negatively related to condensed tannins and decomposition rate. C assimilation was likewise positively related to litter C:N, and also to litter %N. C assimilation was not associated with condensed tannins or lignin. Collectively, these findings suggest that relatively recalcitrant litter of Populus cross types provides more nutritional benefit, in terms of N fluxes and growth

  15. Genetic algorithm-based fuzzy-PID control methodologies for enhancement of energy efficiency of a dynamic energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahedi, G.; Ardehali, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    The simplicity in coding the heuristic judgment of experienced operator by means of fuzzy logic can be exploited for enhancement of energy efficiency. Fuzzy logic has been used as an effective tool for scheduling conventional PID controllers gain coefficients (F-PID). However, to search for the most desirable fuzzy system characteristics that allow for best performance of the energy system with minimum energy input, optimization techniques such as genetic algorithm (GA) could be utilized and the control methodology is identified as GA-based F-PID (GA-F-PID). The objective of this study is to examine the performance of PID, F-PID, and GA-F-PID controllers for enhancement of energy efficiency of a dynamic energy system. The performance evaluation of the controllers is accomplished by means of two cost functions that are based on the quadratic forms of the energy input and deviation from a setpoint temperature, referred to as energy and comfort costs, respectively. The GA-F-PID controller is examined in two different forms, namely, global form and local form. For the global form, all possible combinations of fuzzy system characteristics in the search domain are explored by GA for finding the fittest chromosome for all discrete time intervals during the entire operation period. For the local form, however, GA is used in each discrete time interval to find the fittest chromosome for implementation. The results show that the global form GA-F-PID and local form GA-F-PID control methodologies, in comparison with PID controller, achieve higher energy efficiency by lowering energy costs by 51.2%, and 67.8%, respectively. Similarly, the comfort costs for deviation from setpoint are enhanced by 54.4%, and 62.4%, respectively. It is determined that GA-F-PID performs better in local from than global form.

  16. Laboratory rearing of Anopheles arabiensis: impact on genetic variability and implications for Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) based mosquito control in northern Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Rasha Siddig Azrag; Kamal Ibrahim; Colin Malcolm; Elamin El Rayah; Badria El-Sayed

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Mosquito colony populations often show significant changes in their population genetic make-up compared to the field populations that were used as founding source. Most of the changes that have been reported are indicators of depletion in the overall genetic diversity of the colony populations. The Sterile Insect Techniques programme of mosquito control that is underway in Northern Sudan uses sterilized males produced from a laboratory-maintained colony population. The gen...

  17. Histochemical studies on genetical control of hormonal enzyme inducibility in the mouse. IV: Cellular localization of androgen sensitive nonspecific esterase in the epididymis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Blecher, S R

    1981-01-01

    Nonspecific esterase of mouse epididymis has previously been studied histochemically, using alpha naphthyl-acetate and 5-bromoindoxyl acetate techniques, as well as certain inhibitors. Epithelial cell types of the epididymis have been characterized, and certain esterase isozymes in a particular c...... to normal. This method can now be applied to the study of epididymides of genetically sex-reversed chromosomal female, to analyze genetic control of X-chromosomal activation....

  18. Genetically controlled environmental variance for sternopleural bristles in Drosophila melanogaster - an experimental test of a heterogeneous variance model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anders Christian; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Loeschcke, Volker

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the environmental variance of sternopleural bristle number in Drosophila melanogaster is partly under genetic control. We used data from 20 inbred lines and 10 control lines to test this hypothesis. Two models were used: a standard quant...... as genes affecting the environmental variance may be important for adaptation to changing environmental conditions...

  19. The importance of genetic and shared environmental factors for the associations between job demands, control, support and burnout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Blom

    Full Text Available Within occupational health research, one of the most influential models is the Job Demands-Control-Support model. Numerous studies have applied the model to different domains, with both physical and psychological health outcomes, such as burnout. The twin design provides a unique and powerful research methodology for examining the effects of environmental risk factors on burnout while taking familial factors (genetic and shared environment into account. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of familial factors on the associations of burnout with job demands, control and support. A total of 14,516 individuals from the Swedish Twin Registry, who were born between 1959 and 1986, and who participated in the Study of Twin Adults: Genes and Environment (STAGE by responding to a web-based questionnaire in 2005, were included in the analyses. Of these, there were 5108 individuals in complete same-sex twin pairs. Co-twin control analyses were performed using linear mixed modeling, comparing between-pairs effects and within-pair effects, stratified also by zygosity and sex. The results indicate that familial factors are of importance in the association between support and burnout in both women and men, but not between job demands and burnout. There are also tendencies towards familial factors being involved in the association between control and burnout in men. These results offer increased understanding of the mechanisms involved in the associations between work stress and burnout.

  20. Association mapping of loci controlling genetic and environmental interaction of soybean flowering time under various photo-thermal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Tingting; Li, Jinyu; Wen, Zixiang; Wu, Tingting; Wu, Cunxiang; Sun, Shi; Jiang, Bingjun; Hou, Wensheng; Li, Wenbin; Song, Qijian; Wang, Dechun; Han, Tianfu

    2017-05-26

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is a short day plant. Its flowering and maturity time are controlled by genetic and environmental factors, as well the interaction between the two factors. Previous studies have shown that both genetic and environmental factors, mainly photoperiod and temperature, control flowering time of soybean. Additionally, these studies have reported gene × gene and gene × environment interactions on flowering time. However, the effects of quantitative trait loci (QTL) in response to photoperiod and temperature have not been well evaluated. The objectives of the current study were to identify the effects of loci associated with flowering time under different photo-thermal conditions and to understand the effects of interaction between loci and environment on soybean flowering. Different photoperiod and temperature combinations were obtained by adjusting sowing dates (spring sowing and summer sowing) or day-length (12 h, 16 h). Association mapping was performed on 91 soybean cultivars from different maturity groups (MG000-VIII) using 172 SSR markers and 5107 SNPs from the Illumina SoySNP6K iSelectBeadChip. The effects of the interaction between QTL and environments on flowering time were also analysed using the QTXNetwork. Large-effect loci were detected on Gm 11, Gm 16 and Gm 20 as in previous reports. Most loci associated with flowering time are sensitive to photo-thermal conditions. Number of loci associated with flowering time was more under the long day (LD) than under the short day (SD) condition. The variation of flowering time among the soybean cultivars mostly resulted from the epistasis × environment and additive × environment interactions. Among the three candidate loci, i.e. Gm04_4497001 (near GmCOL3a), Gm16_30766209 (near GmFT2a and GmFT2b) and Gm19_47514601 (E3 or GmPhyA3), the Gm04_4497001 may be the key locus interacting with other loci for controlling soybean flowering time. The effects of loci associated

  1. Hybrid-Controlled Neurofuzzy Networks Analysis Resulting in Genetic Regulatory Networks Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manshaei, Roozbeh; Sobhe Bidari, Pooya; Aliyari Shoorehdeli, Mahdi; Feizi, Amir; Lohrasebi, Tahmineh; Malboobi, Mohammad Ali; Kyan, Matthew; Alirezaie, Javad

    2012-01-01

    Reverse engineering of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) is the process of estimating genetic interactions of a cellular system from gene expression data. In this paper, we propose a novel hybrid systematic algorithm based on neurofuzzy network for reconstructing GRNs from observational gene expression data when only a medium-small number of measurements are available. The approach uses fuzzy logic to transform gene expression values into qualitative descriptors that can be evaluated by using a set of defined rules. The algorithm uses neurofuzzy network to model genes effects on other genes followed by four stages of decision making to extract gene interactions. One of the main features of the proposed algorithm is that an optimal number of fuzzy rules can be easily and rapidly extracted without overparameterizing. Data analysis and simulation are conducted on microarray expression profiles of S. cerevisiae cell cycle and demonstrate that the proposed algorithm not only selects the patterns of the time series gene expression data accurately, but also provides models with better reconstruction accuracy when compared with four published algorithms: DBNs, VBEM, time delay ARACNE, and PF subjected to LASSO. The accuracy of the proposed approach is evaluated in terms of recall and F-score for the network reconstruction task. PMID:25969749

  2. Control of bovine spongiform encephalopathy by genetic engineering: possible approaches and regulatory considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavora, J.S.; Kochhar, H.P.S.; Gifford, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) include bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), scrapie in sheep and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans. A new CJD variant (nvCJD) is believed to be related to consumption of meat from BSE cattle. In TSE individuals, prion proteins (PrP) with approximately 250 amino acids convert to the pathogenic prion PrP Sc , leading to a dysfunction of the central neural system. Research elsewhere with mice has indicated a possible genetic engineering approach to the introduction of BSE resistance: individuals with amino acid substitutions at positions 167 or 218, inoculated with a pathogenic prion protein, did not support PrP Sc replication. This raises the possibility of producing prion-resistant cattle with a single PrP amino acid substitution. Since prion-resistant animals might still harbour acquired prion infectivity, regulatory assessment of the engineered animals would need to ascertain that such possible 'carriers' do not result in a threat to animal and human health. (author)

  3. Arthropods dataset from different genetically modified maize events and associated controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pálinkás, Zoltán; Zalai, Mihály; Szénási, Ágnes; Dorner, Zita; Kiss, József; North, Samuel; Woodward, Guy; Balog, Adalbert

    2018-02-01

    Arthropods from four genetically modified (GM) maize hybrids (coleopteran resistant, coleopteran and lepidopteran resistant, lepidopteran resistant+herbicide tolerant and coleopteran resistant and herbicide tolerant) and non-GM varieties were sampled during a two-year field assessment. A total number of 363 555 arthropod individuals were collected. This represents the most comprehensive arthropod dataset from GM maize, and together with weed data, is reasonable to determine functional groups of arthropods and interactions between species. Trophic groups identified from both phytophagous and predatory arthropods were previously considered non-target organisms on which possible detrimental effects of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins may have been directly (phytophagous species) or indirectly (predators) detected. The high number of individuals and species and their dynamics through the maize growing season can predict that interactions are highly correlational, and can thus be considered a useful tool to assess potential deleterious effects of Bt toxins on non-target organisms, serving to develop biosafety risk hypotheses for invertebrates exposed to GM maize plants.

  4. Genetic control of Eucalyptus urophylla and E. grandis resistance to canker caused by Chrysoporthe cubensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Guimarães, Lúcio Mauro; de Resende, Marcos Deon Vilela; Lau, Douglas; Rosse, Leonardo Novaes; Alves, Alexandre Alonso; Alfenas, Acelino Couto

    2010-07-01

    Chrysophorte cubensis induced canker occurs in nearly all tropical and subtropical regions where eucalypts are planted, causing losses in both wood quality and volume productivity, especially so in the warmer and more humid regions of Brazil. The wide inter and intra-specific genetic variability of resistance to canker among Eucalyptus species facilitates the selection of resistant plants. In this study, we evaluated resistance to this pathogen in five Eucalyptus grandis (G) and 15 E. urophylla (U) trees, as well as in 495 individuals from 27 progenies derived from crosses between the trees. In the field, six-months-old test seedlings were inoculated with C. cubensis. Lesion length in the xylem and bark was measured eight months later. The results demonstrated that xylem lesions could preferentially be used for the selection of resistant clones. Eight trees (7 U and 1 G) were susceptible, and the remainder (8 U and 4 G) resistant. Individual narrow and broad sense heritability estimates were 17 and 81%, respectively, thereby suggesting that canker resistance is quantitative and highly dependent on dominance and epistasis.

  5. Genetics of mechanisms controlling responses to two major pathogens in broiler and layer chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamzic, Edin

    The objective of this thesis was to improve the understanding of molecular mechanisms controlling the response to two major pathogens, Eimeria maxima (coccidiosis) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), in broiler and layer chickens, respectively. Breeding for the improved response to the two...... pathogens is a possible complementary approach for their control in poultry production. A key step is to understand the molecular mechanisms controlling the host’s response to a disease. For E. maxima, a large-scale challenge study on Cobb500 broilers and a follow-up genome-wide association study (GWAS......), respectively. MBL plays a key role in innate immunity which is crucial for improving disease resistance. We observed large differences in the immune parameters and the spleen transcriptome profiles for uninfected and IBV infected birds between the two MBL lines. The large differences in expression of genes...

  6. Genetically Modifying the Insect Gut Microbiota to Control Chagas Disease Vectors through Systemic RNAi

    OpenAIRE

    Taracena, Mabel L.; Oliveira, Pedro L.; Almendares, Olivia; Uma?a, Claudia; Lowenberger, Carl; Dotson, Ellen M.; Paiva-Silva, Gabriela O.; Pennington, Pamela M.

    2015-01-01

    Technologies based on RNA interference may be used for insect control. Sustainable strategies are needed to control vectors of Chagas disease such as Rhodnius prolixus. The insect microbiota can be modified to deliver molecules to the gut. Here, Escherichia coli HT115(DE3) expressing dsRNA for the Rhodnius heme-binding protein (RHBP) and for catalase (CAT) were fed to nymphs and adult triatomine stages. RHBP is an egg protein and CAT is an antioxidant enzyme expressed in all tissues by all de...

  7. A safe, free and efficient way to control Nasonia vitripennis, a common pest in forensic entomology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charabidze, D; Hedouin, V

    2014-12-01

    Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a parasitoid of necrophagous blowflies. Its presence in a forensic entomology laboratory can be extremely damaging to samples and can compromise the PMI estimation. We describe for the first time a simple, safe and efficient trap to control N. vitripennis infestations. Adhesive tape is placed horizontally on windows to create an obstacle. Wasps go underneath until they reach the adhesive side of the tape and become stuck by their wings. This method is highly selective, costless and has been successfully used in our laboratory for years. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic algorithm based PID controller design for a multi-area AGC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    converter unit consists of a dc superconducting inductor, a 12-pulse cascade bridge type ac/dc converter and a Y-Y/∆ step down transformer. Control of the converter firing angle provides the DC voltage Ed appearing across the inductor to be ...

  9. Power for genetic association study of human longevity using the case-control design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of the popular case-control design in gene-longevity association studies needs to be verified because, different from a binary trait, longevity represents only the extreme end of the continuous life span distribution without a clear cutoff for defining the phenotype. In this paper...

  10. Genetic control of growth traits and inheritance of resistance to bacterial leaf scorch in American Sycamore

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.P. Adams; R. J. Rousseau; T. D. Leininger

    2012-01-01

    Open-pollinated progeny tests of American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.), which included 55 open-pollinated families selected from several prior Westvaco progeny tests and seed orchards and six control-pollinated families were established in 2002 and 2003. The half-sibling families were planted at two sites in western Kentucky and southeastern...

  11. Controlled laboratory challenge demonstrates substantial additive genetic variation in resistance to Streptococcus iniae in Nile tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae is an etiologic agent of streptococcal disease in tilapia and is one of several Streptococcus spp. that negatively impact worldwide tilapia production. Methods for the prevention and control of S. iniae include vaccines, management strategies, and antibiotics. An alternative and ...

  12. Sustainable control of pea bacterial blight : approaches for durable genetic resistance and biocontrol by endophytic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elvira-Recuenco, M.

    2000-01-01

    Key-words: bacterial blight, biological control, biodiversity, endophytic bacteria, L-form, pea, PDRl retrotransposon, Pisum sativum, Pisum abyssinicum, Pseudomonas syringae pv. pisi, race specific resistance, race non-specific resistance, Spanish landraces.

    Pea bacterial blight

  13. Genetic diversity studies of Brazilian garlic cultivars and quality control of garlic-clover production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buso, G S C; Paiva, M R; Torres, A C; Resende, F V; Ferreira, M A; Buso, J A; Dusi, A N

    2008-06-17

    The garlic cultivars grown in Brazil evolved from somatic mutations and clone selection by breeding programs and by the introduction of germplasm from other countries. Morphological characters have been used to differentiate these cultivars. Two hundred and six random amplified polymorphic DNA markers were utilized for a diversity analysis of the 17 most planted garlic cultivars in Brazil. Bootstrap analysis showed that the number of markers was efficient and sufficient to obtain a coefficient of variation of 10%. Similarity varied between 16 and 98% and cluster analysis showed that, in general, genetic similarities correlate with morphological characters of the cultivars and production cycle variation. High bootstrap values at most of the nodes supported the dendrogram stability. The grouping of most varieties agreed well with previous reports based on morphological characters. As a vegetative-propagated species, viral diseases are a key problem regarding production and quality of the bulbs, causing gradual loss of yield and decrease in storage capacity. To improve the health quality of garlic seed, a virus-free stock of garlic cloves of the Amarante cultivar was obtained. The ability to distinguish garlic cultivars to detect varietal mixing after in vitro multiplication is extremely important, since correct identification is not possible until bulbs are produced. Random amplified polymorphic DNA markers were also used to differentiate cultivars while they are in vitro and not amenable to morphological discrimination. No difference was identified between the fingerprints of the virus-free or of the infected bulks of Amarante, showing that there was no clove mixing in the handling of material in the clonal multiplication phase.

  14. Population size drives industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcoholic fermentation and is under genetic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertin, Warren; Marullo, Philippe; Aigle, Michel; Dillmann, Christine; de Vienne, Dominique; Bely, Marina; Sicard, Delphine

    2011-04-01

    Alcoholic fermentation (AF) conducted by Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been exploited for millennia in three important human food processes: beer and wine production and bread leavening. Most of the efforts to understand and improve AF have been made separately for each process, with strains that are supposedly well adapted. In this work, we propose a first comparison of yeast AFs in three synthetic media mimicking the dough/wort/grape must found in baking, brewing, and wine making. The fermentative behaviors of nine food-processing strains were evaluated in these media, at the cellular, populational, and biotechnological levels. A large variation in the measured traits was observed, with medium effects usually being greater than the strain effects. The results suggest that human selection targeted the ability to complete fermentation for wine strains and trehalose content for beer strains. Apart from these features, the food origin of the strains did not significantly affect AF, suggesting that an improvement program for a specific food processing industry could exploit the variability of strains used in other industries. Glucose utilization was analyzed, revealing plastic but also genetic variation in fermentation products and indicating that artificial selection could be used to modify the production of glycerol, acetate, etc. The major result was that the overall maximum CO(2) production rate (V(max)) was not related to the maximum CO(2) production rate per cell. Instead, a highly significant correlation between V(max) and the maximum population size was observed in all three media, indicating that human selection targeted the efficiency of cellular reproduction rather than metabolic efficiency. This result opens the way to new strategies for yeast improvement.

  15. Performance and parasite control of different genetic groups of lambs finished in irrigated pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Fernandes Júnior

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the following four genetic groups of hair sheep: Santa Inês (SI, Morada Nova (MN, Brazilian Somali (BS, and the F1 1/2Dorper x 1/2Morada Nova crossbreed on traits related to growth and parasitic infection. Thirty-three male lambs of the same age and of simple birth, under the same pre-weaning management conditions were used in the experiment. After weaning the animals were housed in a completely randomized design in paddocks made of Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania. Along the course of the research, the performance of the four groups of sheep was observed to be negatively affected by gastrointestinal parasites, but there was a genotype effect to the average daily weight gain (ADWG, where the SI and F1 genotypes presented higher values. The effects of genotype, time and genotype x time interaction were significant in weight and corporal score (CS measurements. The BS lambs had the highest CS values throughout the experiment despite not presenting greater weight gain when compared to the SI and F1 breeds. There were also significant effects of time and genotype x time interaction for packed cell volume (PCV and FAMACHA© score (FAM and only the time effect was significant in the total number of eggs per gram (EPG and total plasma protein (TPP. The MN lambs showed higher PCV values and unlike the other groups, presented a FAMACHA© score below 3 and PCV above 23% even having a higher EPG tendency, especially in the initial phase, indicating a possible higher resilience to infection caused by gastrointestinal parasites.

  16. High Resolution Genomic Scans Reveal Genetic Architecture Controlling Alcohol Preference in Bidirectionally Selected Rat Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiao-Ling Lo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on the influence of nature vs. nurture on Alcoholism (Alcohol Use Disorder in human have yet to provide a clear view on potential genomic etiologies. To address this issue, we sequenced a replicated animal model system bidirectionally-selected for alcohol preference (AP. This model is uniquely suited to map genetic effects with high reproducibility, and resolution. The origin of the rat lines (an 8-way cross resulted in small haplotype blocks (HB with a corresponding high level of resolution. We sequenced DNAs from 40 samples (10 per line of each replicate to determine allele frequencies and HB. We achieved ~46X coverage per line and replicate. Excessive differentiation in the genomic architecture between lines, across replicates, termed signatures of selection (SS, were classified according to gene and region. We identified SS in 930 genes associated with AP. The majority (50% of the SS were confined to single gene regions, the greatest numbers of which were in promoters (284 and intronic regions (169 with the least in exon's (4, suggesting that differences in AP were primarily due to alterations in regulatory regions. We confirmed previously identified genes and found many new genes associated with AP. Of those newly identified genes, several demonstrated neuronal function involved in synaptic memory and reward behavior, e.g. ion channels (Kcnf1, Kcnn3, Scn5a, excitatory receptors (Grin2a, Gria3, Grip1, neurotransmitters (Pomc, and synapses (Snap29. This study not only reveals the polygenic architecture of AP, but also emphasizes the importance of regulatory elements, consistent with other complex traits.

  17. High Resolution Genomic Scans Reveal Genetic Architecture Controlling Alcohol Preference in Bidirectionally Selected Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chiao-Ling; Lossie, Amy C; Liang, Tiebing; Liu, Yunlong; Xuei, Xiaoling; Lumeng, Lawrence; Zhou, Feng C; Muir, William M

    2016-08-01

    Investigations on the influence of nature vs. nurture on Alcoholism (Alcohol Use Disorder) in human have yet to provide a clear view on potential genomic etiologies. To address this issue, we sequenced a replicated animal model system bidirectionally-selected for alcohol preference (AP). This model is uniquely suited to map genetic effects with high reproducibility, and resolution. The origin of the rat lines (an 8-way cross) resulted in small haplotype blocks (HB) with a corresponding high level of resolution. We sequenced DNAs from 40 samples (10 per line of each replicate) to determine allele frequencies and HB. We achieved ~46X coverage per line and replicate. Excessive differentiation in the genomic architecture between lines, across replicates, termed signatures of selection (SS), were classified according to gene and region. We identified SS in 930 genes associated with AP. The majority (50%) of the SS were confined to single gene regions, the greatest numbers of which were in promoters (284) and intronic regions (169) with the least in exon's (4), suggesting that differences in AP were primarily due to alterations in regulatory regions. We confirmed previously identified genes and found many new genes associated with AP. Of those newly identified genes, several demonstrated neuronal function involved in synaptic memory and reward behavior, e.g. ion channels (Kcnf1, Kcnn3, Scn5a), excitatory receptors (Grin2a, Gria3, Grip1), neurotransmitters (Pomc), and synapses (Snap29). This study not only reveals the polygenic architecture of AP, but also emphasizes the importance of regulatory elements, consistent with other complex traits.

  18. Optimal clustering of MGs based on droop controller for improving reliability using a hybrid of harmony search and genetic algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini, Mohammad; Moradi, Mohammad H; Hosseinian, S M

    2016-03-01

    This paper proposes a novel method to address reliability and technical problems of microgrids (MGs) based on designing a number of self-adequate autonomous sub-MGs via adopting MGs clustering thinking. In doing so, a multi-objective optimization problem is developed where power losses reduction, voltage profile improvement and reliability enhancement are considered as the objective functions. To solve the optimization problem a hybrid algorithm, named HS-GA, is provided, based on genetic and harmony search algorithms, and a load flow method is given to model different types of DGs as droop controller. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated in two case studies. The results provide support for the performance of the proposed method. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetic and epigenetic control of gene expression by CRISPR–Cas systems [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Lo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The discovery and adaption of bacterial clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR–CRISPR-associated (Cas systems has revolutionized the way researchers edit genomes. Engineering of catalytically inactivated Cas variants (nuclease-deficient or nuclease-deactivated [dCas] combined with transcriptional repressors, activators, or epigenetic modifiers enable sequence-specific regulation of gene expression and chromatin state. These CRISPR–Cas-based technologies have contributed to the rapid development of disease models and functional genomics screening approaches, which can facilitate genetic target identification and drug discovery. In this short review, we will cover recent advances of CRISPR–dCas9 systems and their use for transcriptional repression and activation, epigenome editing, and engineered synthetic circuits for complex control of the mammalian genome.

  20. SIRT1 genetic variants associate with the metabolic response of Caucasians to a controlled lifestyle intervention – the TULIP Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Norbert

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sirtuin1 (SIRT1 regulates gene expression in distinct metabolic pathways and mediates beneficial effects of caloric restriction in animal models. In humans, SIRT1 genetic variants associate with fasting energy expenditure. To investigate the relevance of SIRT1 for human metabolism and caloric restriction, we analyzed SIRT1 genetic variants in respect to the outcome of a controlled lifestyle intervention in Caucasians at risk for type 2 diabetes. Methods A total of 1013 non-diabetic Caucasians from the Tuebingen Family Study (TUEF were genotyped for four tagging SIRT1 SNPs (rs730821, rs12413112, rs7069102, rs2273773 for cross-sectional association analyses with prediabetic traits. SNPs that associated with basal energy expenditure in the TUEF cohort were additionally analyzed in 196 individuals who underwent a controlled lifestyle intervention (Tuebingen Lifestyle Intervention Program; TULIP. Multivariate regressions analyses with adjustment for relevant covariates were performed to detect associations of SIRT1 variants with the changes in anthropometrics, weight, body fat or metabolic characteristics (blood glucose, insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and liver fat, measured by magnetic resonance techniques after the 9-month follow-up test in the TULIP study. Results Minor allele (X/A carriers of rs12413112 (G/A had a significantly lower basal energy expenditure (p = 0.04 and an increased respiratory quotient (p = 0.02. This group (rs12413112: X/A was resistant against lifestyle-induced improvement of fasting plasma glucose (GG: -2.01%, X/A: 0.53%; p = 0.04, had less increase in insulin sensitivity (GG: 17.3%, X/A: 9.6%; p = 0.05 and an attenuated decline in liver fat (GG: -38.4%, X/A: -7.5%; p = 0.01. Conclusion SIRT1 plays a role for the individual lifestyle intervention response, possibly owing to decreased basal energy expenditure and a lower lipid-oxidation rate in rs12413112 X/A allele carriers. SIRT1 genetic

  1. Genetic algorithm-based optimal fuzzy control system for the MT 25 microtron

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krist, Pavel; Bíla, J.; Chvátil, David

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, MAY (2013), T05003 ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-27885S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : hardware and accelerator control systems * accelerator modelling and simulations * multi- particle dynamics * single- particle dynamics Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.526, year: 2013 http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-0221/8/05/T05003/pdf/1748-0221_8_05_T05003.pdf

  2. Genetics and Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, C. O.

    1973-01-01

    Can genetic evolution be controlled by man in a manner which does not violate a civilized, humane, and democratic ethos? The genetics of health and illhealth and of normal variation are discussed with respect to this question. (PEB)

  3. Genetic Control of the Trigger for the G2/M Checkpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Eric J. [Columbia University; Smilenov, Lubomir B. [Columbia University; Young, Erik F. [Columbia University

    2013-10-01

    The work undertaken in this project addressed two seminal areas of low dose radiation biology that are poorly understood and controversial. These areas are the challenge to the linear-no-threshold (LNT) paradigm at low doses of radiation and, the fundamental elements of radiation bystander effect biology Genetic contributions to low dose checkpoint engagement: The LNT paradigm is an extrapolation of known, measured cancer induction endpoints. Importantly, data for lower doses is often not available. Debatably, radiation protection standards have been introduced which are prudently contingent on the adherence of cancer risk to the established trend seen at higher doses. Intriguing findings from other labs have hinted at separate DNA damage response programs that engage at low or high levels of radiation. Individual radiation sensitivity commensurate with hemizygosity for a radiation sensitivity gene has been estimated at 1-2% in the U.S.. Careful interrogation of the DNA damage response at low doses of radiation became important and served as the basis for this grant. Several genes were tested in combinations to determine if combined haploinsufficiency for multiple radiosensitizing genes could render a cell more sensitive to lower levels of acute radiation exposure. We measured a classical radiation response endpoint, cell cycle arrest prior to mitosis. Mouse embryo fibroblasts were used and provided a uniform, rapidly dividing and genetically manipulable population of study. Our system did not report checkpoint engagement at acute doses of gamma rays below 100 mGy. The system did report checkpoint engagement reproducibly at 500 mGy establishing a threshold for activation between 100 and 500 mGy. Engagement of the checkpoint was ablated in cells nullizygous for ATM but was otherwise unperturbed in cells combinatorially haploinsufficient for ATM and Rad9, ATM and PTEN or PTEN and Rad9. Taken together, these experiments tell us that, in a sensitive fibroblast culture

  4. Genetic causal beliefs about obesity, self-efficacy for weight control, and obesity-related behaviours in a middle-aged female cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knerr, Sarah; Bowen, Deborah J; Beresford, Shirley A A; Wang, Catharine

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a heritable condition with well-established risk-reducing behaviours. Studies have shown that beliefs about the causes of obesity are associated with diet and exercise behaviour. Identifying mechanisms linking causal beliefs and behaviours is important for obesity prevention and control. Cross-sectional multi-level regression analyses of self-efficacy for weight control as a possible mediator of obesity attributions (diet, physical activity, genetic) and preventive behaviours in 487 non-Hispanic White women from South King County, Washington. Self-reported daily fruit and vegetable intake and weekly leisure-time physical activity. Diet causal beliefs were positively associated with fruit and vegetable intake, with self-efficacy for weight control partially accounting for this association. Self-efficacy for weight control also indirectly linked physical activity attributions and physical activity behaviour. Relationships between genetic causal beliefs, self-efficacy for weight control, and obesity-related behaviours differed by obesity status. Self-efficacy for weight control contributed to negative associations between genetic causal attributions and obesity-related behaviours in non-obese, but not obese, women. Self-efficacy is an important construct to include in studies of genetic causal beliefs and behavioural self-regulation. Theoretical and longitudinal work is needed to clarify the causal nature of these relationships and other mediating and moderating factors.

  5. Genetically modifying the insect gut microbiota to control Chagas disease vectors through systemic RNAi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel L Taracena

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Technologies based on RNA interference may be used for insect control. Sustainable strategies are needed to control vectors of Chagas disease such as Rhodnius prolixus. The insect microbiota can be modified to deliver molecules to the gut. Here, Escherichia coli HT115(DE3 expressing dsRNA for the Rhodnius heme-binding protein (RHBP and for catalase (CAT were fed to nymphs and adult triatomine stages. RHBP is an egg protein and CAT is an antioxidant enzyme expressed in all tissues by all developmental stages. The RNA interference effect was systemic and temporal. Concentrations of E. coli HT115(DE3 above 3.35 × 10(7 CFU/mL produced a significant RHBP and CAT gene knockdown in nymphs and adults. RHBP expression in the fat body was reduced by 99% three days after feeding, returning to normal levels 10 days after feeding. CAT expression was reduced by 99% and 96% in the ovary and the posterior midgut, respectively, five days after ingestion. Mortality rates increased by 24-30% in first instars fed RHBP and CAT bacteria. Molting rates were reduced by 100% in first instars and 80% in third instars fed bacteria producing RHBP or CAT dsRNA. Oviposition was reduced by 43% (RHBP and 84% (CAT. Embryogenesis was arrested in 16% (RHBP and 20% (CAT of laid eggs. Feeding females 105 CFU/mL of the natural symbiont, Rhodococcus rhodnii, transformed to express RHBP-specific hairpin RNA reduced RHBP expression by 89% and reduced oviposition. Modifying the insect microbiota to induce systemic RNAi in R. prolixus may result in a paratransgenic strategy for sustainable vector control.

  6. Genetically modifying the insect gut microbiota to control Chagas disease vectors through systemic RNAi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taracena, Mabel L; Oliveira, Pedro L; Almendares, Olivia; Umaña, Claudia; Lowenberger, Carl; Dotson, Ellen M; Paiva-Silva, Gabriela O; Pennington, Pamela M

    2015-02-01

    Technologies based on RNA interference may be used for insect control. Sustainable strategies are needed to control vectors of Chagas disease such as Rhodnius prolixus. The insect microbiota can be modified to deliver molecules to the gut. Here, Escherichia coli HT115(DE3) expressing dsRNA for the Rhodnius heme-binding protein (RHBP) and for catalase (CAT) were fed to nymphs and adult triatomine stages. RHBP is an egg protein and CAT is an antioxidant enzyme expressed in all tissues by all developmental stages. The RNA interference effect was systemic and temporal. Concentrations of E. coli HT115(DE3) above 3.35 × 10(7) CFU/mL produced a significant RHBP and CAT gene knockdown in nymphs and adults. RHBP expression in the fat body was reduced by 99% three days after feeding, returning to normal levels 10 days after feeding. CAT expression was reduced by 99% and 96% in the ovary and the posterior midgut, respectively, five days after ingestion. Mortality rates increased by 24-30% in first instars fed RHBP and CAT bacteria. Molting rates were reduced by 100% in first instars and 80% in third instars fed bacteria producing RHBP or CAT dsRNA. Oviposition was reduced by 43% (RHBP) and 84% (CAT). Embryogenesis was arrested in 16% (RHBP) and 20% (CAT) of laid eggs. Feeding females 105 CFU/mL of the natural symbiont, Rhodococcus rhodnii, transformed to express RHBP-specific hairpin RNA reduced RHBP expression by 89% and reduced oviposition. Modifying the insect microbiota to induce systemic RNAi in R. prolixus may result in a paratransgenic strategy for sustainable vector control.

  7. Genetically controlled fusion, exocytosis and fission of artificial vesicles-a roadmap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bönzli, Eva; Hadorn, Maik; de Lucrezia, Davide

    2011-01-01

    enclosed synthesized peptides in vesicles to induce in a next step fusion of adjacent vesicles, fission and exocytosis of nested vesicles. Second, we will replace the peptides by an enclosed cell-free expression system to internally synthesize fusion peptides. To control the gene expression, different...... of principle. Furthermore, we optimized the already established protocol (Hadorn et al. 2011) to produce nested vesicles in the presence of peptides. This project may present an important step towards an artificial cell. Especially vesicle division is discussed as one of the upcoming challenges in designing...

  8. Genetic control of floral morph in tristylous Pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettys, Lyn A; Wofford, David S

    2008-01-01

    Pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata L.) is a diploid (2n = 2x = 16) tristylous aquatic perennial. Populations usually contain 3 floral morphs that differ reciprocally in style length and anther height (referred to as the long-, mid-, and short-styled morphs, hereafter L-, M-, and S-morphs). The floral polymorphism promotes disassortative mating among the 3 floral morphs and is maintained in populations by negative frequency-dependent selection. The objective of this study was to determine the number of loci, number of alleles, and gene action controlling floral morph in pickerelweed. Three parental lines (one each of the L-, M-, and S-morph) were used to create S1 and F1 populations. F2 populations were produced through self-pollination of F1 plants. Progeny ratios of S1, F1, and F2 generations revealed that tristyly is controlled by 2 diallelic loci (S and M) with dominant gene action. The S locus is epistatic to the M locus, with the S-morph produced by plants with the dominant S allele (genotype S _ _ _). Plants with recessive alleles at the S locus were either L-morph (ssmm) or M-morph (ssM_). The results of this experiment demonstrate that the inheritance of tristyly in pickerelweed is the same as previously reported for several tristylous species in the Lythraceae and Oxalidaceae.

  9. Genetic control of Ceratitis capitata: practical application of the sterile-insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellado, L.; Ros, P.; Arroyo, M.; Castillo, E.

    1975-01-01

    Since 1965 the INIA has been carrying out a programme of biological control of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) by means of the sterile-insect technique (SIT). Preliminary field experiments in 1969 in the province of Murcia, Spain, showed the method to be effective when applied in small isolated areas. New field experiments in 1972 in the province of Granada showed that it was possible to protect a semi-isolated area of 100 ha by creating peripheral ''barriers'' of sterile insects. No ''sterile punctures'' were observed in the fruit of the release area. In 1973, mass-rearing techniques were improved and methods for shipment of refrigerated adults instead of pupae were developed. Results of these experiments confirm (a) that the SIT is fully effective in the control of C. capitata, (b) that shipment of insects in the adult stage is more effective than in the pupal stage, and (c) that improvement in the rearing system can reduce the cost of production of irradiated insects by 60%. (author)

  10. [Genetic polymorphisms and lung cancer risk: a case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Massa, Ana E; Alonso-Sardón, Montserrat; Menacho-Miguel, José Antonio; Mirón-Canelo, José Antonio; González-Sarmiento, Rogelio

    2014-08-04

    The smoke fume, principal factor in the development of lung cancer, causes the expression of certain cytokines, including interleukin 4, 6, 8 and 10, which may act by inhibiting apoptosis and interfere cellular repair mechanisms and angiogenesis. To determine the possible relationship between gene polymorphisms of these cytokines and lung cancer. To achieve this objective we designed a case-control study, which included 400 patients who had come to the consultation for rapid diagnosis of lung cancer at the Pneumology Department, University Hospital of Salamanca, and whose main criterion exclusion was the lack of active contact with smoke fume. Patients were divided into 2 groups, each consisting of 200 patients: cases (patients diagnosed with lung cancer) and controls (patients without lung cancer). A percentage of 62.8 of men were former smokers at diagnosis compared with 55.5% of women, although the former still had a greater cumulative consumption. Squamous cell carcinoma predominated in diagnosis (48.9% of patients) and more than half were in advanced stages (28.5% in stage iiiB and 25.5% in stage iv). No statistical significance was observed by linking the existence of tumor to the prevalence of any of the analyzed polymorphisms. Polymorphisms in the study did not modify the risk of developing lung cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Epidemiology, quality control and consumer access in the medical marketplace: the changing landscape of human genetic technology regulation in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savard, Jacqueline

    2013-03-01

    Advances in genetics, genetic therapeutics and the application of genetic technologies to many aspects of human life have challenged the capacity of regulatory authorities and legislative processes the world over. In Australia, developments in the "new genetics" prompted the government to initiate a major inquiry into the protection of human genetic information, resulting in the production and publication of Report 96, titled "Essentially Yours: The Protection of Human Genetic Information in Australia" in 2003. This article examines the recommendations set out in this report and how they have provided Australia with a framework to deal with the advances in human genetic technologies, using the examples of direct-to-consumer personal genome testing and whole-genome sequencing.

  12. Genetics and ecology of colonization and mass rearing of Hawaiian fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) for use in sterile insect control programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saul, S.H.; McCombs, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    It is critical to maintain the genetic, physiological and behavioral competence of colonized populations of insect species, such as fruit flies, which are reared for release in sterile insect and other genetic control programs. Selective pressures associated with the mass rearing process affect this competence, but the underlying mechanisms of genetic change arc largely unknown. However, competence is often an operational goal achieved by manipulating environmental factors without possessing precise genetic knowledge of alleles and their marginal effects on the desired traits. One goal of this paper is to show that the precise genetic and statistical analysis of components that determine competence in a broad sense or fitness in the narrower ecological sense, is extremely difficult. We can gel contradictory results from the different methods for estimating genetic variation in tephritid populations. We observe low levels of allozyme variation, but high levels of recessive mutants in inbred populations. We propose that genetic variability may be maintained in colonized and mass reared laboratory populations by balanced lethal systems and that the introduction of fresh genetic material may reduce, not increase, fitness. We require rigorous and precise models of directional selection in the laboratory and selective forces in the natural environment to aid our understanding of dynamic changes in courtship and mating behavior under artificial conditions. We have chosen to examine the lek model as an example of an idea whose usefulness has yet to be determined by test ing and validation. The inclusion of lek forming ability in genetic models will be depen dent on rigorously establishing the validity of the lek model for each tephritid species

  13. The genetic origins of biosynthesis and light-responsive control of the chemical UV screen of land plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgensen, R.

    1994-01-01

    Most land plants possess the capacity to protect themselves from UV light, and do so by producing pigments that absorb efficiently in the UV-A and UV-B regions of the spectrum while allowing transmission of nearly all photosynthetically useful wavelengths. These UV-absorbing pigments are mainly phenylpropanoids and flavonoids. This chapter summarizes current understanding of the mechanism of UV protection in higher land plants, evaluates the information available from lower land plants and their green-algal relatives, and then considers the possible evolutionary origins of this use of chemical filters for selectively screening UV light from solar radiation. It is proposed that photo control over the biosynthesis of UV-absorbing phenylpropanoids and flavonoids may have evolved in concert with the evolution of the high biosynthetic activity necessary for UV protection. The toxicity of phenylpropanoids and flavonoids has been postulated to have been a barrier to the evolution of an effective chemical UV screen, and that some means for sequestering these compounds and/or for controlling their synthesis probably evolved prior to, or in concert with, the evolution of high rates of biosynthesis. The original photoreceptor and signal transduction system is speculated to have been based on photo isomerization of a phenylpropanoid ester and a pre-existing product feedback mechanism for controlling phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. Understanding the original mechanism for photo control of the chemical UV screen of land plants could be valuable for understanding the adaptability of extant land plants to rising levels of solar UV-B radiation and may suggest genetic strategies for engineering improved UV tolerance in crop plants. (author)

  14. Genetically tunable frustration controls allostery in an intrinsically disordered transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; White, Jordan T; Saavedra, Harry; Wrabl, James O; Motlagh, Hesam N; Liu, Kaixian; Sowers, James; Schroer, Trina A; Thompson, E Brad; Hilser, Vincent J

    2017-10-12

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) present a functional paradox because they lack stable tertiary structure, but nonetheless play a central role in signaling, utilizing a process known as allostery. Historically, allostery in structured proteins has been interpreted in terms of propagated structural changes that are induced by effector binding. Thus, it is not clear how IDPs, lacking such well-defined structures, can allosterically affect function. Here, we show a mechanism by which an IDP can allosterically control function by simultaneously tuning transcriptional activation and repression, using a novel strategy that relies on the principle of 'energetic frustration'. We demonstrate that human glucocorticoid receptor tunes this signaling in vivo by producing translational isoforms differing only in the length of the disordered region, which modulates the degree of frustration. We expect this frustration-based model of allostery will prove to be generally important in explaining signaling in other IDPs.

  15. Genetically tunable frustration controls allostery in an intrinsically disordered transcription factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; White, Jordan T; Saavedra, Harry; Wrabl, James O; Motlagh, Hesam N; Liu, Kaixian; Sowers, James; Schroer, Trina A; Thompson, E Brad

    2017-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) present a functional paradox because they lack stable tertiary structure, but nonetheless play a central role in signaling, utilizing a process known as allostery. Historically, allostery in structured proteins has been interpreted in terms of propagated structural changes that are induced by effector binding. Thus, it is not clear how IDPs, lacking such well-defined structures, can allosterically affect function. Here, we show a mechanism by which an IDP can allosterically control function by simultaneously tuning transcriptional activation and repression, using a novel strategy that relies on the principle of ‘energetic frustration’. We demonstrate that human glucocorticoid receptor tunes this signaling in vivo by producing translational isoforms differing only in the length of the disordered region, which modulates the degree of frustration. We expect this frustration-based model of allostery will prove to be generally important in explaining signaling in other IDPs. PMID:29022880

  16. Nature vs nurture: interplay between the genetic control of telomere length and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Yaniv; Romano, Gal-Hagit; Ungar, Lior; Kupiec, Martin

    2013-11-15

    Telomeres are nucleoprotein structures that cap the ends of the linear eukaryotic chromosomes, thus protecting their stability and integrity. They play important roles in DNA replication and repair and are central to our understanding of aging and cancer development. In rapidly dividing cells, telomere length is maintained by the activity of telomerase. About 400 TLM (telomere length maintenance) genes have been identified in yeast, as participants of an intricate homeostasis network that keeps telomere length constant. Two papers have recently shown that despite this extremely complex control, telomere length can be manipulated by external stimuli. These results have profound implications for our understanding of cellular homeostatic systems in general and of telomere length maintenance in particular. In addition, they point to the possibility of developing aging and cancer therapies based on telomere length manipulation.

  17. Diabetes with poor glycaemic control does not promote atherosclerosis in genetically modified hypercholesterolaemic minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Mashhadi, Rozh H; Bjørklund, Martin M; Mortensen, Martin B

    2015-01-01

    with no alterations in plasma cholesterol or creatinine concentrations did not augment the plaque burden or promote the development of more advanced lesions in this large-animal model of human-like atherosclerosis. This is consistent with clinical studies in patients with type 1 diabetes, indicating...... atherogenesis in a novel pig model of atherosclerosis, the D374Y-PCSK9 (+) transgenic minipig. METHODS: Nineteen minipigs were fed a cholesterol-enriched, high-fat diet; ten of these pigs were injected with streptozotocin to generate a model of diabetes. Restricted feeding was implemented to control the pigs......-cholesterol and creatinine levels were unaffected. Diabetes failed to increase atherosclerosis in any of the vessels examined. The plaque burden in the aorta and right coronary artery was comparable between the groups, and was even reduced in the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary and iliofemoral arteries...

  18. A Double-Deck Elevator Group Supervisory Control System with Destination Floor Guidance System Using Genetic Network Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu; Zhou, Jin; Mabu, Shingo; Hirasawa, Kotaro; Hu, Jinglu; Markon, Sandor

    The Elevator Group Supervisory Control Systems (EGSCS) are the control systems that systematically manage three or more elevators in order to efficiently transport the passengers in buildings. Double-deck elevators, where two elevators are connected with each other, serve passengers at two consecutive floors simultaneously. Double-deck Elevator systems (DDES) become more complex in their behavior than conventional single-deck elevator systems (SDES). Recently, Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology has been used in such complex systems. Genetic Network Programming (GNP), a graph-based evolutionary method, has been applied to EGSCS and its advantages are shown in some papers. GNP can obtain the strategy of a new hall call assignment to the optimal elevator when it performs crossover and mutation operations to judgment nodes and processing nodes. Meanwhile, Destination Floor Guidance System (DFGS) is installed in DDES, so that passengers can also input their destinations at elevator halls. In this paper, we have applied GNP to DDES and compared DFGS with normal systems. The waiting time and traveling time of DFGS are all improved because of getting more information from DFGS. The simulations showed the effectiveness of the double-deck elevators with DFGS in different building traffics.

  19. Genetic susceptibility loci, environmental exposures, and Parkinson's disease: a case-control study of gene-environment interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sun Ju; Armasu, Sebastian M; Anderson, Kari J; Biernacka, Joanna M; Lesnick, Timothy G; Rider, David N; Cunningham, Julie M; Ahlskog, J Eric; Frigerio, Roberta; Maraganore, Demetrius M

    2013-06-01

    Prior studies causally linked mutations in SNCA, MAPT, and LRRK2 genes with familial Parkinsonism. Genome-wide association studies have demonstrated association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in those three genes with sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) susceptibility worldwide. Here we investigated the interactions between SNPs in those three susceptibility genes and environmental exposures (pesticides application, tobacco smoking, coffee drinking, and alcohol drinking) also associated with PD susceptibility. Pairwise interactions between environmental exposures and 18 variants (16 SNPs and two variable number tandem repeats, or "VNTRs") in SNCA, MAPT and LRRK2, were investigated using data from 1098 PD cases from the upper Midwest, USA and 1098 matched controls. Environmental exposures were assessed using a validated telephone interview script. Five pairwise interactions had uncorrected P-values coffee drinking × MAPT H1/H2 haplotype or MAPT rs16940806, and alcohol drinking × MAPT rs2435211. None of these interactions remained significant after Bonferroni correction. Secondary analyses in strata defined by type of control (sibling or unrelated), sex, or age at onset of the case also did not identify significant interactions after Bonferroni correction. This study documented limited pairwise interactions between established genetic and environmental risk factors for PD; however, the associations were not significant after correction for multiple testing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. CLOCK 3111T/C genetic variant influences the daily rhythm of autonomic nervous function: relevance to body weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, M-T; Bandin, C; Yang, H-W; Scheer, F A J L; Hu, K; Garaulet, M

    2018-02-01

    Humans carrying the genetic risk variant C at the circadian CLOCK (Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput) 3111T/C have been shown to have more difficulties to achieve desired weight loss than TT carriers. We tested the hypothesis that the daily rhythm of autonomic nervous function differs in CLOCK 3111C carriers, leading to reduced effectiveness in weight control. We recruited 40 overweight/obese Caucasian women (body mass index>25), 20 carrying CLOCK 3111C (CC and TC) and 20 non-carriers with matched age and body mass index who participated in a dietary obesity treatment program of up to 30 weeks. Following the treatment, ambulatory electrocardiography was continuously monitored for up to 3.5 days when subjects underwent their normal daily activities. To assess autonomic function, heart rate variability analysis (HRV) was performed hourly to obtain mean inter-beat interval between two consecutive R waves (mean RR) and s.d. of normal-to-normal heartbeat intervals (SDNN), and two parasympathetic measures, namely, proportion of differences between adjacent NN intervals that are >50 ms (pNN50), and high-frequency (HF: 0.15-0.4 Hz) power. In the TT carriers, all tested HRV indices showed significant daily rhythms (all P-values CLOCK variation on body weight control.

  1. The efficacy of a standardized questionnaire in facilitating personalized communication about problems encountered in cancer genetic counseling: design of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eijzenga, Willem; Aaronson, Neil K; Kluijt, Irma; Sidharta, Grace N; Hahn, Daniela Ee; Ausems, Margreet Gem; Bleiker, Eveline Ma

    2014-01-15

    Individuals with a personal or family history of cancer, can opt for genetic counseling and DNA-testing. Approximately 25% of these individuals experience clinically relevant levels of psychosocial distress, depression and/or anxiety after counseling. These problems are frequently left undetected by genetic counselors. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a cancer genetics-specific screening questionnaire for psychosocial problems, the 'Psychosocial Aspects of Hereditary Cancer (PAHC) questionnaire' together with the Distress Thermometer, in: (1) facilitating personalized counselor-counselee communication; (2) increasing counselors' awareness of their counselees' psychosocial problems; and (3) facilitating the management of psychosocial problems during and after genetic counseling. This multicenter, randomized controlled trial will include 264 individuals undergoing cancer genetic counseling in two family cancer clinics in the Netherlands. Participants will be randomized to either: (1) an intervention group that completes the PAHC questionnaire, the results of which are made available to the genetic counselor prior to the counseling session; or (2) a control group that completes the PAHC questionnaire, but without feedback being given to the genetic counselor. The genetic counseling sessions will be audiotaped for content analysis. Additionally, study participants will be asked to complete questionnaires at baseline, three weeks after the initial counseling session, and four months after a telephone follow-up counseling session. The genetic counselors will be asked to complete questionnaires at the start of and at completion of the study, as well as a checklist directly after each counseling session. The questionnaires/checklists of the study include items on communication during genetic counseling, counselor awareness of their clients' psychosocial problems, the (perceived) need for professional psychosocial support, cancer worries, general

  2. Role of genetic polymorphisms of the dopaminergic system in Parkinson's disease patients with impulse control disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallelunga, Annamaria; Flaibani, Raffaella; Formento-Dojot, Patrizia; Biundo, Roberta; Facchini, Silvia; Antonini, Angelo

    2012-05-01

    The mechanisms underlying the development of impulse control disorders (ICDs) like compulsive gambling, buying, sexual, and eating behaviors in Parkinson's disease (PD) are debated. We assessed whether allelic variants of dopamine D2 receptors (DRD2), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and dopamine transporter (DAT) were associated with the development of ICDs in PD. We enrolled 89 idiopathic PD patients (48 without ICDs and 41 with ICDs). All patients were screened with the Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview (MIDI) and fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for the ICD positive cohort. Differences in the frequency of the genotypes between ICDs and non-ICDs groups were assessed using the χ(2) test. Genotyping was performed for variants of the DRD2 Taq1A (rs1800497), COMT Val(158)Met (rs4680), DAT1 (3' UTR 40bp VNTR). Variants of DRD2 Taq1A, COMT and DAT1 were not associated with the risk of developing ICDs. In our study, there were no differences in the frequency of variant of DRD2 Taq1A, COMT and DAT1 between the two groups. Polymorphisms of dopaminergic genes do not play a relevant role in the development of ICD in PD suggesting that ICD originate from inability to filter inappropriate behaviors triggered by dopaminergic therapy. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Instance-based Policy Learning by Real-coded Genetic Algorithms and Its Application to Control of Nonholonomic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamae, Atsushi; Sakuma, Jun; Ono, Isao; Kobayashi, Shigenobu

    The stabilization control of nonholonomic systems have been extensively studied because it is essential for nonholonomic robot control problems. The difficulty in this problem is that the theoretical derivation of control policy is not necessarily guaranteed achievable. In this paper, we present a reinforcement learning (RL) method with instance-based policy (IBP) representation, in which control policies for this class are optimized with respect to user-defined cost functions. Direct policy search (DPS) is an approach for RL; the policy is represented by parametric models and the model parameters are directly searched by optimization techniques including genetic algorithms (GAs). In IBP representation an instance consists of a state and an action pair; a policy consists of a set of instances. Several DPSs with IBP have been previously proposed. In these methods, sometimes fail to obtain optimal control policies when state-action variables are continuous. In this paper, we present a real-coded GA for DPSs with IBP. Our method is specifically designed for continuous domains. Optimization of IBP has three difficulties; high-dimensionality, epistasis, and multi-modality. Our solution is designed for overcoming these difficulties. The policy search with IBP representation appears to be high-dimensional optimization; however, instances which can improve the fitness are often limited to active instances (instances used for the evaluation). In fact, the number of active instances is small. Therefore, we treat the search problem as a low dimensional problem by restricting search variables only to active instances. It has been commonly known that functions with epistasis can be efficiently optimized with crossovers which satisfy the inheritance of statistics. For efficient search of IBP, we propose extended crossover-like mutation (extended XLM) which generates a new instance around an instance with satisfying the inheritance of statistics. For overcoming multi-modality, we

  4. A genetic switch controls the production of flagella and toxins in Clostridium difficile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon R Anjuwon-Foster

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the human intestinal pathogen Clostridium difficile, flagella promote adherence to intestinal epithelial cells. Flagellar gene expression also indirectly impacts production of the glucosylating toxins, which are essential to diarrheal disease development. Thus, factors that regulate the expression of the flgB operon will likely impact toxin production in addition to flagellar motility. Here, we report the identification a "flagellar switch" that controls the phase variable production of flagella and glucosylating toxins. The flagellar switch, located upstream of the flgB operon containing the early stage flagellar genes, is a 154 bp invertible sequence flanked by 21 bp inverted repeats. Bacteria with the sequence in one orientation expressed flagellum and toxin genes, produced flagella, and secreted the toxins ("flg phase ON". Bacteria with the sequence in the inverse orientation were attenuated for flagellar and toxin gene expression, were aflagellate, and showed decreased toxin secretion ("flg phase OFF". The orientation of the flagellar switch is reversible during growth in vitro. We provide evidence that gene regulation via the flagellar switch occurs post-transcription initiation and requires a C. difficile-specific regulatory factor to destabilize or degrade the early flagellar gene mRNA when the flagellar switch is in the OFF orientation. Lastly, through mutagenesis and characterization of flagellar phase locked isolates, we determined that the tyrosine recombinase RecV, which catalyzes inversion at the cwpV switch, is also responsible for inversion at the flagellar switch in both directions. Phase variable flagellar motility and toxin production suggests that these important virulence factors have both advantageous and detrimental effects during the course of infection.

  5. COMT genetic variation confers risk for psychotic and affective disorders: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lencz Todd

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variation in the COMT gene has been implicated in a number of psychiatric disorders, including psychotic, affective and anxiety disorders. The majority of these studies have focused on the functional Val108/158Met polymorphism and yielded conflicting results, with limited studies examining the relationship between other polymorphisms, or haplotypes, and psychiatric illness. We hypothesized that COMT variation may confer a general risk for psychiatric disorders and have genotyped four COMT variants (Val158Met, rs737865, rs165599, and a SNP in the P2 promoter [-278A/G; rs2097603] in 394 Caucasian cases and 467 controls. Cases included patients with schizophrenia (n = 196, schizoaffective disorder (n = 62, bipolar disorder (n = 82, major depression (n = 30, and patients diagnosed with either psychotic disorder NOS or depressive disorder NOS (n = 24. Results SNP rs2097603, the Val/Met variant and SNP rs165599 were significantly associated (p = 0.004; p = 0.05; p = 0.035 with a broad "all affected" diagnosis. Haplotype analysis revealed a potentially protective G-A-A-A haplotype haplotype (-278A/G; rs737865; Val108/158Met; rs165599, which was significantly underrepresented in this group (p = 0.0033 and contained the opposite alleles of the risk haplotype previously described by Shifman et al. Analysis of diagnostic subgroups within the "all affecteds group" showed an association of COMT in patients with psychotic disorders as well as in cases with affective illness although the associated variants differed. The protective haplotype remained significantly underrepresented in most of these subgroups. Conclusion Our results support the view that COMT variation provides a weak general predisposition to neuropsychiatric disease including psychotic and affective disorders.

  6. Association of RET genetic polymorphisms and haplotypes with papillary thyroid carcinoma in the Portuguese population: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Santos

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer has a multifactorial aetiology resulting from the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Several low penetrance susceptibility genes have been identified but their effects often vary between different populations. Somatic point mutations and translocations of the REarranged during Transfection (RET proto-oncogene are frequently found in thyroid cancer. The aim of this case-control study was to determine the effect of four well known RET single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs on the risk for differentiated thyroid carcinoma. A total of 545 Portuguese patients and 543 controls were genotyped by PCR and restriction enzyme analysis, for the following SNPs: G691S (exon 11, rs1799939 G/A, L769L (exon 13, rs1800861 T/G, S836S (exon 14, rs1800862 C/T, and S904S (exon 15, rs1800863 C/G. The minor allele of S836S was overrepresented in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC when compared to controls (OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.05-2.35; p = 0.026. The GGTC haplotype was also overrepresented in PTC (OR 2.51; 95% CI 1.07-5.91; p = 0.029. No associations were found in follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed no differences regarding gender, age at diagnosis, lymph node or distant metastasis. However, a near significant overrepresentation of the minor alleles of G691S and S904S was found in patients with tumours greater than 10 mm of diameter at diagnosis. These data suggest that the RET S836S polymorphism in exon 14 and the GGTC haplotype are risk factors for PTC, but not FTC, and that the G691S/S904S polymorphisms might be associated with tumour behaviour.

  7. Association of RET Genetic Polymorphisms and Haplotypes with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in the Portuguese Population: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Marina; Azevedo, Teresa; Martins, Teresa; Rodrigues, Fernando J.; Lemos, Manuel C.

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid cancer has a multifactorial aetiology resulting from the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Several low penetrance susceptibility genes have been identified but their effects often vary between different populations. Somatic point mutations and translocations of the REarranged during Transfection (RET) proto-oncogene are frequently found in thyroid cancer. The aim of this case-control study was to determine the effect of four well known RET single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the risk for differentiated thyroid carcinoma. A total of 545 Portuguese patients and 543 controls were genotyped by PCR and restriction enzyme analysis, for the following SNPs: G691S (exon 11, rs1799939 G/A), L769L (exon 13, rs1800861 T/G), S836S (exon 14, rs1800862 C/T), and S904S (exon 15, rs1800863 C/G). The minor allele of S836S was overrepresented in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) when compared to controls (OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.05–2.35; p = 0.026). The GGTC haplotype was also overrepresented in PTC (OR 2.51; 95% CI 1.07–5.91; p = 0.029). No associations were found in follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed no differences regarding gender, age at diagnosis, lymph node or distant metastasis. However, a near significant overrepresentation of the minor alleles of G691S and S904S was found in patients with tumours greater than 10 mm of diameter at diagnosis. These data suggest that the RET S836S polymorphism in exon 14 and the GGTC haplotype are risk factors for PTC, but not FTC, and that the G691S/S904S polymorphisms might be associated with tumour behaviour. PMID:25330015

  8. Scapula development is governed by genetic interactions of Pbx1 with its family members and with Emx2 via their cooperative control of Alx1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capellini, Terence D; Vaccari, Giulia; Ferretti, Elisabetta; Fantini, Sebastian; He, Mu; Pellegrini, Massimo; Quintana, Laura; Di Giacomo, Giuseppina; Sharpe, James; Selleri, Licia; Zappavigna, Vincenzo

    2010-08-01

    The genetic pathways underlying shoulder blade development are largely unknown, as gene networks controlling limb morphogenesis have limited influence on scapula formation. Analysis of mouse mutants for Pbx and Emx2 genes has suggested their potential roles in girdle development. In this study, by generating compound mutant mice, we examined the genetic control of scapula development by Pbx genes and their functional relationship with Emx2. Analyses of Pbx and Pbx1;Emx2 compound mutants revealed that Pbx genes share overlapping functions in shoulder development and that Pbx1 genetically interacts with Emx2 in this process. Here, we provide a biochemical basis for Pbx1;Emx2 genetic interaction by showing that Pbx1 and Emx2 can bind specific DNA sequences as heterodimers. Moreover, the expression of genes crucial for scapula development is altered in these mutants, indicating that Pbx genes act upstream of essential pathways for scapula formation. In particular, expression of Alx1, an effector of scapula blade patterning, is absent in all compound mutants. We demonstrate that Pbx1 and Emx2 bind in vivo to a conserved sequence upstream of Alx1 and cooperatively activate its transcription via this potential regulatory element. Our results establish an essential role for Pbx1 in genetic interactions with its family members and with Emx2 and delineate novel regulatory networks in shoulder girdle development.

  9. Genetic correlations among canine hip dysplasia radiographic traits in a cohort of Australian German Shepherd Dogs, and implications for the design of a more effective genetic control program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany J Wilson

    Full Text Available Canine hip dysplasia (CHD is a common musculoskeletal disease in pedigree dog populations. It can cause severe pain and dysfunction which may require extensive medication and/or surgical treatment and often ultimately requires humane euthanasia. CHD has been found to be moderately heritable and, given its impact on welfare, should be considered an imperative breeding priority. The British Veterinary Association/Kennel Club scoring method is one of several measures used to assess the genetic propensity of potential breeding stock for dysplastic changes to the hips based on radiographic examination. It is a complex measure composed of nine ordinal traits, intended to evaluate both early and late dysplastic changes. It would be highly desirable if estimated breeding values (EBVs for these nine traits were consolidated into a simpler, EBV-based, selection index more easily usable by breeders. A multivariate analysis on the phenotype scores from an Australian cohort of 13,124 German Shepherd Dogs (GSDs returned genetic correlations between 0.48-0.97 for the nine traits which fell into two trait groups, Group 1 reflecting early changes ("laxity" and Group 2 reflecting late changes ("osteoarthritis". Principal components analysis of the ordinal EBVs suggested the same pattern, with strong differentiation between "laxity" and "osteoarthritis" traits in the second component. Taking account of all results, we recommend interim use of two selection indexes: the first being the average of ordinal EBVs for "laxity" traits and the second being the average of ordinal EBVs for "osteoarthritis" traits. The correlation between these two selection indexes (0.771-0.774 is sufficiently less than unity enabling the selection of dogs with different genetic propensity for laxity and for osteoarthritic CHD changes in GSDs; this may also be applicable in other breeds. Dogs with low propensity for severe osteoarthritic change in the presence of laxity may be of interest

  10. Controle genético do comprimento do pedúnculo em feijão-caupi Genetic control of peduncle length in cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurisrael de Moura Rocha

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o controle genético do caráter comprimento do pedúnculo em feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata. Para isso, foi realizado um cruzamento entre os parentais TVx-5058-09C, de pedúnculo curto, e TE96-282-22G, de pedúnculo longo. Os parentais e as gerações F1, F2, RC1 (P1xF1 e RC2 (P2xF1 foram avaliados em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Foram estimados: variâncias fenotípica, genotípica, ambiental, aditiva e de dominância; herdabilidades no sentido amplo e restrito; grau médio de dominância e número mínimo de genes que determinam o caráter. O modelo aditivo-dominante foi adequado para explicar a variação observada. O efeito gênico aditivo foi o mais importante no controle do comprimento do pedúnculo, que é, aparentemente, controlado por cinco genes.The objective of this work was to investigate the genetic control of peduncle length in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.. A short peduncle cowpea line (TVx-5058-09C was crossed with a long peduncle line (TE 96-282-22G. The parents and the F1, F2, RC1 (P1xF1, and RC2 (P2xF1 generations were evaluated in randomized block design with four replications. Genotypic, phenotypic, environmental, additive, and dominance variances for peduncle length were determined. Narrow and broad sense heritability, the degree of dominance, and the minimum number of genes determining peduncle length were estimated. The additive-dominant model was adequate to explain the observed variation. The additive gene effect was the most important in controlling peduncle length, which appeared to be controlled by five genes.

  11. Role of horizontal gene transfer as a control on the coevolution of ribosomal proteins and the genetic code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woese, Carl R.; Goldenfeld, Nigel; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida

    2011-03-31

    Our main goal is to develop the conceptual and computational tools necessary to understand the evolution of the universal processes of translation and replication and to identify events of horizontal gene transfer that occurred within the components. We will attempt to uncover the major evolutionary transitions that accompanied the development of protein synthesis by the ribosome and associated components of the translation apparatus. Our project goes beyond standard genomic approaches to explore homologs that are represented at both the structure and sequence level. Accordingly, use of structural phylogenetic analysis allows us to probe further back into deep evolutionary time than competing approaches, permitting greater resolution of primitive folds and structures. Specifically, our work focuses on the elements of translation, ranging from the emergence of the canonical genetic code to the evolution of specific protein folds, mediated by the predominance of horizontal gene transfer in early life. A unique element of this study is the explicit accounting for the impact of phenotype selection on translation, through a coevolutionary control mechanism. Our work contributes to DOE mission objectives through: (1) sophisticated computer simulation of protein dynamics and evolution, and the further refinement of techniques for structural phylogeny, which complement sequence information, leading to improved annotation of genomic databases; (2) development of evolutionary approaches to exploring cellular function and machinery in an integrated way; and (3) documentation of the phenotype interaction with translation over evolutionary time, reflecting the system response to changing selection pressures through horizontal gene transfer.

  12. Genetic control of chromosome instability in Aspergillus nidulans as a means for gene amplification in eukaryotic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parag, Y.; Roper, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    A haploid strain of Aspergillus nidulans carrying I-II duplication homozygous for the leaky mutation adE20 shows improved growth on minimal medium. The duplication, though more stable than disomics, still shows instability. Several methods were used for detecting genetic control of improved stability. a) visual selection, using a duplicated strain which is very unstable due to UV sensitivity, (adE20, biAl/dp yA2; uvsB). One stable strain showed a deletion (or a lethal mutation) distal to biA on the segment at the original position (on chromosome I). This deletion reduces crossing-over frequency detween the two homologous segments. As the deletion of the non-translated segment (yellow sectors) must be preceded by crossing-over, the above reduces the frequency of yellow sectors. A deletion of the translocated segment (green sectors) results in non-viability due to the deletion, and such sectors do not appear. The net result is a stable duplication involving only 12 C.O. units carrying the gene in concern. b) Suppressors of UV sensitivity (su-uvsB) were attempted using the above uvs duplicated strain. Phenotypic revertants were easily obtained, but all were back mutations at the uvsB locus. c) Mutations for UV resistance higher than that of the wild type were not obtained, in spite of the strong selective pressure inserted. d) Recombination deficient mutations (rec), six altogether, all uvs + , did not have any effect on stability. (orig.) [de

  13. Genetic Polymorphisms in Vitamin D Metabolism and Signaling Genes and Risk of Breast Cancer: A Nested Case-Control Study.

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    Tess V Clendenen

    Full Text Available Genetic polymorphisms in vitamin D metabolism and signaling genes have been inconsistently associated with risk of breast cancer, though few studies have examined SNPs in vitamin D-related genes other than the vitamin D receptor (VDR gene and particularly have not examined the association with the retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRA gene which may be a key vitamin D pathway gene. We conducted a nested case-control study of 734 cases and 1435 individually matched controls from a population-based prospective cohort study, the Northern Sweden Mammary Screening Cohort. Tag and functional SNPs were genotyped for the VDR, cytochrome p450 24A1 (CYP24A1, and RXRA genes. We also genotyped specific SNPs in four other genes related to vitamin D metabolism and signaling (GC/VDBP, CYP2R1, DHCR7, and CYP27B1. SNPs in the CYP2R1, DHCR7, and VDBP gene regions that were associated with circulating 25(OHD concentration in GWAS were also associated with plasma 25(OHD in our study (p-trend <0.005. After taking into account the false discovery rate, these SNPs were not significantly associated with breast cancer risk, nor were any of the other SNPs or haplotypes in VDR, RXRA, and CYP24A1. We observed no statistically significant associations between polymorphisms or haplotypes in key vitamin D-related genes and risk of breast cancer. These results, combined with the observation in this cohort and most other prospective studies of no association of circulating 25(OHD with breast cancer risk, do not support an association between vitamin D and breast cancer risk.

  14. An examination of the genetic control of Douglas-fir vascular tissue phytochemicals: implications for black bear foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce A. Kimball; G.R. Johnson; Dale L. Nolte; Doreen L. Griffin

    1999-01-01

    Silvicultural practices can influence black bear (Ursus americanus) foraging preferences for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) cambial-zone vascular tissues, but little is known about the role of genetics. To study the impact of genetic selection, vascular tissue samples were collected from Douglas-fir trees in six half-sib families from five...

  15. Pediatric Predispositional Genetic Risk Communication: Potential Utility for Prevention and Control of Melanoma Risk as an Exemplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yelena P; Mays, Darren; Kohlmann, Wendy; Tercyak, Kenneth P

    2017-10-01

    Predispositional genetic testing among minor children is intensely debated due to the potential benefits and harms of providing this type of genetic information to children and their families. Existing guidelines on pediatric genetic testing state that predispositional testing could be appropriate for minors if preventive services exist that mitigate children's risk for or severity of the health condition in question. We use the example of hereditary melanoma to illustrate the rationale for and potential application of genetic risk communication for an adult-onset cancer to a pediatric population where childhood behaviors may reduce risk of disease later in life. We draw from the adult melanoma genetic risk communication and pediatric health behavior change literatures to suggest ways in which genetic test reporting and complementary education could be delivered to children who carry a hereditary risk for melanoma and their families in order to foster children's engagement in melanoma preventive behaviors. Genetic discoveries will continue to yield new opportunities to provide predispositional genetic risk information to unaffected individuals, including children, and could be delivered within programs that provide personalized and translational approaches to cancer prevention.

  16. The Association between Infants' Attention Control and Social Inhibition Is Moderated by Genetic and Environmental Risk for Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Rebecca J.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Leve, Leslie D.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Reiss, David

    2011-01-01

    Infant social inhibition is associated with increased risk for anxiety later in life. Although both genetic and environmental factors are associated with anxiety, little empirical work has addressed how developing regulatory abilities work with genetic and environmental risk to exacerbate or mitigate problem behaviors. The current study was aimed…

  17. Effect of differents baits as attractant for blowflies (diptera) at Valonguinho, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ, Brazil Efeito de diferentes iscas na atração de califorídeos (diptera) no campus do Valonguinho, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    José M. D'almeida; Mariana B Fraga

    2007-01-01

    It was carried out a survey of blowflies in a área of the Campus (Valonguinho) of the Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. The collections were performed with traps, using baits of fish (sardine), bovine liver, shrimps and banana. Were collected 6015 flies, Chrysomya megacephala and Lucilia eximia were the most frequent (50.55% and 21.52%, respectively). The flies were more abundant in February and March and the most attractive bait was fish (38.32%).Foi realizado um estu...

  18. Controle genético da resistência aos enfezamentos do milho Genetic control of the resistance to corn stunt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Gonçalves Silva

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar o controle genético da resistência aos enfezamentos do milho (Zea mays L.. Foram realizados dois experimentos em março de 2001 nos municípios de Coimbra e Sete Lagoas, em Minas Gerias. Cada experimento foi constituído por 25 tratamentos, dos quais cinco foram representados pelos híbridos e os demais pelas combinações híbridas e suas recíprocas. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. A parcela experimental foi aproveitada integralmente, constituindo-se de duas linhas com 5 m de comprimento e espaçamento de 0,9 m, com 25 plantas por linha, representando uma população de aproximadamente 55.000 plantas por hectare. Na época do enchimento dos grãos realizaram-se as avaliações de incidência e severidade dos enfezamentos. Utilizou-se, ainda, o índice de doença. Nos dois locais, foram avaliadas as produções de grãos de milho em cada parcela. Em virtude de o método baseado na incidência dos sintomas apresentar alta herdabilidade, foi possível confirmar sua eficiência. Os alelos com efeitos predominantemente aditivos controlam a resistência do milho aos enfezamentos; os genitores diferiram quanto à freqüência de alelos aditivos e não-aditivos para resistência aos enfezamentos.The objective of this work was to identify the genetic control of the resistance to corn (Zea mays L. stunt. Two experiments were set up at March 2001, in Coimbra and Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Each experiment consisted of 25 treatments, five of them were represented by maize hybrids. Other treatments were the hybrid combinations and their reciprocal ones. The randomized blocks design with three replicates was used. The experimental plot was integrally used and consisted of two 5 m rows at a 0.9 m spacing from each other, with 25 plants per row, representing a population around 55,000 plants ha-1. At the time of kernel fulfilling, the evaluations were performed for

  19. Genetic control of wheat seedling root growth Controle genético do crescimento radicular de plântulas de trigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Wheat cultivars should have long primary roots to allow good crop establishment, considering the short crop establishment season (April in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, where the occurrence of water stress is frequent. This paper demonstrates the control and type of inheritance of the primary root growth trait. Crosses were made between genotypes, BH-1146 and KAUZ "S"/IAC-24 M4 with strong and reduced primary root growth, respectively. F2 and F3 generation seeds from these crosses and F2 generation seeds from the backcrosses of both parents were also obtained. Seedlings from these genotypes plus the parentals were evaluated in relation to primary root growth in complete nutrient solutions containing 3.875 mg L-1 phosphorus, at pH 4.0 and a temperature of 25 ± 1°C for 10 days. Control of the primary root growth trait was demonstrated to have quantitative inheritance. The degrees of dominance showed that the genes for strong root growth had a partially recessive behavior. Heterosis and heterobeltiosis values were negative. The estimated broad-sense heritability for root growth indicated that a great part of the observed variation was of genetic origin. The narrow-sense heritability indicated that a great part of the total genetic variability in relation to the trait under consideration is due to a small number of genes. Considering the estimated coefficient of determination, selection for strong root growth would be effective even when made in the early segregant generations after the cross.Os cultivares de trigo devem apresentar raízes primárias longas para permitir um bom estabelecimento da cultura, considerando o curto período de estabelecimento da cultura (abril no Estado de São Paulo, onde é freqüente a ocorrência de estresse hídrico. Este trabalho visa demonstrar o controle e o tipo de herança envolvida na expressão do caracter crescimento da raiz primária. Foram feitos cruzamentos entre os cultivares BH-1146 e KAUZ "S

  20. Genetic diversity of serotype A foot-and-mouth disease viruses in Kenya from 1964 to 2013; implications for control strategies in eastern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wekesa, Sabenzia N.; Sangula, Abraham K.; Belsham, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Serotype A is the most genetically and antigenically diverse of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotypes. Records of its occurrence in Kenya date back to 1952 and the antigenic diversity of the outbreak viruses in this region is reflected by the current use of two different vaccine strains...... across the region of eastern Africa was apparent. Continuous surveillance for the virus, coupled to genetic and antigenic characterization is recommended for improved regional control strategies....... between 1964 and 2013 were determined. Coalescent-based methods were used to infer times of divergence of the virus strains and the evolutionary rates alongside 27 other serotype A FMDV sequences from Genbank and the World Reference Laboratory (WRL). This study represents the first comprehensive genetic...

  1. IN SITU COMPARISON OF TREE-RING RESPONSES TO CLIMATE AND POPULATION GENETICS: THE NEED TO CONTROL FOR LOCAL CLIMATE AND SITE VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Mathias Housset

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tree species responses to climate change will be greatly influenced by their evolutionary potential and their phenotypic plasticity. Investigating tree-rings responses to climate and population genetics at the regional scale is therefore crucial in assessing the tree behaviour to climate change. This study combined in situ dendroclimatology and population genetics over a latitudinal gradient and compared the variations between the two at the intra- and inter-population levels. This approach was applied on the northern marginal populations of Thuja occidentalis (eastern white-cedar in the Canadian boreal forest. We aimed first to assess the radial growth variability (response functional trait within populations across the gradient and to compare it with the genetic diversity (microsatellites. Second, we investigated the variability in the growth response to climate at the regional scale through the radial growth-climate relationships, and tested its correlation with environmental variables and population genetic structure. Model selection based on the Akaike Information Criteria revealed that the growth synchronicity between pairs of trees of a population covariates with both the genetic diversity of this population and the amount of precipitation (inverse correlation, although these variables only explained a small fraction of the observed variance. At the regional scale, variance partitioning and partial redundancy analysis indicate that the growth response to climate was greatly modulated by stand environmental variables, suggesting predominant plastic variations in growth-response to climate. Combining in situ dendroclimatology and population genetics is a promising way to investigate species’ response capacity to climate change in natural stands. We stress the need to control for local climate and site conditions effects on dendroclimatic response to climate to avoid misleading conclusions regarding the associations with genetic variables.

  2. Low Genetic Diversity and Strong Geographical Structure of the Critically Endangered White-Headed Langur (Trachypithecus leucocephalus) Inferred from Mitochondrial DNA Control Region Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiran; Qiao, Yu; Pan, Wenshi; Yao, Meng

    2015-01-01

    Many Asian colobine monkey species are suffering from habitat destruction and population size decline. There is a great need to understand their genetic diversity, population structure and demographic history for effective species conservation. The white-headed langur (Trachypithecus leucocephalus) is a Critically Endangered colobine species endemic to the limestone karst forests in southwestern China. We analyzed the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences of 390 fecal samples from 40 social groups across the main distribution areas, which represented one-third of the total extant population. Only nine haplotypes and 10 polymorphic sites were identified, indicating remarkably low genetic diversity in the species. Using a subset of 77 samples from different individuals, we evaluated genetic variation, population structure, and population demographic history. We found very low values of haplotype diversity (h = 0.570 ± 0.056) and nucleotide diversity (π = 0.00323 ± 0.00044) in the hypervariable region I (HVRI) of the mtDNA control region. Distribution of haplotypes displayed marked geographical pattern, with one population (Chongzuo, CZ) showing a complete lack of genetic diversity (having only one haplotype), whereas the other population (Fusui, FS) having all nine haplotypes. We detected strong population genetic structure among habit patches (ΦST = 0.375, P population size and modest population expansion in the last 2,000 years. Our results indicate different genetic diversity and possibly distinct population history for different local populations, and suggest that CZ and FS should be considered as one evolutionarily significant unit (ESU) and two management units (MUs) pending further investigation using nuclear markers.

  3. Effects of Soy Product Intake and Interleukin Genetic Polymorphisms on Early Gastric Cancer Risk in Korea: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sarah; Park, Yoon; Lee, Jeonghee; Choi, Il Ju; Kim, Young Woo; Ryu, Keun Won; Sung, Joohon; Kim, Jeongseon

    2017-10-01

    The current study investigated whether the combined effects of soy intake and genetic polymorphisms of interleukin (IL) genes modify gastric cancer risk. A total of 377 cases and 754 controls of Korean origin were included in the analysis. Soy consumption was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Seven variants of IL10 (rs1800871), IL2 (rs2069763 and rs2069762), IL13 (rs6596090 and rs20541), and IL4R (rs7205663 and rs1805010) were genetically analyzed. To analyze the combined effect of soy intake and genetic polymorphisms, a low-intake group and high-intake group of each type of soy were categorized based on the intake level of the control group. Interactions between soy products and these genetic variants were analyzed by a likelihood ratio test, in which a multiplicative interaction term was added to the logistic regression model. A higher intake of nonfermented soy products was associated with a reduced cancer risk (odds ratio [OR], 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43 to 0.90), and the reduced risk was only apparent in males (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.27 to 0.71). None of the IL genetic polymorphisms examined were independently associated with gastric cancer risk. Individuals with a minor allele of IL2 rs2069762 and a higher intake of nonfermented soy food had a decreased risk of gastric cancer (OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.68) compared to those with a lower intake (p interaction =0.039). Based on the genetic characteristics of the studied individuals, the interaction between IL2 rs2069762 and nonfermented soy intake may modify the risk of gastric cancer.

  4. Population genetic structure of Aedes polynesiensis in the Society Islands of French Polynesia: implications for control using a Wolbachia-based autocidal strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brelsfoard Corey L

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aedes polynesiensis is the primary vector of Wuchereria bancrofti in the South Pacific and an important vector of dengue virus. An improved understanding of the mosquito population genetics is needed for insight into the population dynamics and dispersal, which can aid in understanding the epidemiology of disease transmission and control of the vector. In light of the potential release of a Wolbachia infected strain for vector control, our objectives were to investigate the microgeographical and temporal population genetic structure of A. polynesiensis within the Society Islands of French Polynesia, and to compare the genetic background of a laboratory strain intended for release into its population of origin. Methods A panel of eight microsatellite loci were used to genotype A. polynesiensis samples collected in French Polynesia from 2005-2008 and introgressed A. polynesiensis and Aedes riversi laboratory strains. Examination of genetic differentiation was performed using F-statistics, STRUCTURE, and an AMOVA. BAYESASS was used to estimate direction and rates of mosquito movement. Results FST values, AMOVA, and STRUCTURE analyses suggest low levels of intra-island differentiation from multiple collection sites on Tahiti, Raiatea, and Maupiti. Significant pair-wise FST values translate to relatively minor levels of inter-island genetic differentiation between more isolated islands and little differentiation between islands with greater commercial traffic (i.e., Tahiti, Raiatea, and Moorea. STRUCTURE analyses also indicate two population groups across the Society Islands, and the genetic makeup of Wolbachia infected strains intended for release is similar to that of wild-type populations from its island of origin, and unlike that of A. riversi. Conclusions The observed panmictic population on Tahiti, Raiatea, and Moorea is consistent with hypothesized gene flow occurring between islands that have relatively high levels of air

  5. Population genetic structure of Aedes polynesiensis in the Society Islands of French Polynesia: implications for control using a Wolbachia-based autocidal strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brelsfoard, Corey L; Dobson, Stephen L

    2012-04-24

    Aedes polynesiensis is the primary vector of Wuchereria bancrofti in the South Pacific and an important vector of dengue virus. An improved understanding of the mosquito population genetics is needed for insight into the population dynamics and dispersal, which can aid in understanding the epidemiology of disease transmission and control of the vector. In light of the potential release of a Wolbachia infected strain for vector control, our objectives were to investigate the microgeographical and temporal population genetic structure of A. polynesiensis within the Society Islands of French Polynesia, and to compare the genetic background of a laboratory strain intended for release into its population of origin. A panel of eight microsatellite loci were used to genotype A. polynesiensis samples collected in French Polynesia from 2005-2008 and introgressed A. polynesiensis and Aedes riversi laboratory strains. Examination of genetic differentiation was performed using F-statistics, STRUCTURE, and an AMOVA. BAYESASS was used to estimate direction and rates of mosquito movement. FST values, AMOVA, and STRUCTURE analyses suggest low levels of intra-island differentiation from multiple collection sites on Tahiti, Raiatea, and Maupiti. Significant pair-wise FST values translate to relatively minor levels of inter-island genetic differentiation between more isolated islands and little differentiation between islands with greater commercial traffic (i.e., Tahiti, Raiatea, and Moorea). STRUCTURE analyses also indicate two population groups across the Society Islands, and the genetic makeup of Wolbachia infected strains intended for release is similar to that of wild-type populations from its island of origin, and unlike that of A. riversi. The observed panmictic population on Tahiti, Raiatea, and Moorea is consistent with hypothesized gene flow occurring between islands that have relatively high levels of air and maritime traffic, compared to that of the more isolated Maupiti

  6. Phylogenetics and genetic diversity of the Cotesia flavipes complex of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), biological control agents of lepidopteran stemborers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Kate A; Murphy, Nicholas P; Sallam, Nader; Donnellan, Stephen C; Austin, Andrew D

    2012-06-01

    The Cotesia flavipes complex of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are economically important for the biological control of lepidopteran stemboring pests associated with gramineous crops. Some members of the complex successfully parasitize numerous stemborer pest species, however certain geographic populations have demonstrated variation in the range of hosts that they parasitize. In addition, the morphology of the complex is highly conserved and considerable confusion surrounds the identity of species and host-associated biotypes. We generated nucleotide sequence data for two mtDNA genes (COI, 16S) and three anonymous nuclear loci (CfBN, CfCN, CfEN) for the C. flavipes complex. To analyze genetic variation and relationships among populations we used (1) concatenated mtDNA and nDNA data, (2) a nDNA multilocus network approach, and (3) two species tree inference methods, i.e. Bayesian estimation of species trees (BEST) and Bayesian inference of species trees from multilocus data with (*)BEAST. All phylogenetic analyses provide strong support for monophyly of the complex and the presence of at least four species, C. chilonis (from China and Japan), C. sesamiae (from Africa), C. flavipes (originating from the Indo-Asia region but introduced into Africa and the New World), and C. nonagriae (from Australia and Papua New Guinea). Haplotype diversity of geographic populations relates to historical biogeographic barriers and biological control introductions, and reflects previous reports of ecological variation in these species. Strong discordance was found between the mitochondrial and nuclear markers in the Papua New Guinea haplotypes, which may be an outcome of hybridization and introgression of C. flavipes and C. nonagriae. The position of Cotesia flavipes from Japan was not well supported in any analysis and was the sister taxon to C. nonagriae (mtDNA, (*)BEAST), C. flavipes (nDNA) or C. flavipes+C. nonagriae (BEST) and, may represent a cryptic species. The

  7. An automatic optimum number of well-distributed ground control lines selection procedure based on genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavari, Somayeh; Valadan Zoej, Mohammad Javad; Salehi, Bahram

    2018-05-01

    The procedure of selecting an optimum number and best distribution of ground control information is important in order to reach accurate and robust registration results. This paper proposes a new general procedure based on Genetic Algorithm (GA) which is applicable for all kinds of features (point, line, and areal features). However, linear features due to their unique characteristics are of interest in this investigation. This method is called Optimum number of Well-Distributed ground control Information Selection (OWDIS) procedure. Using this method, a population of binary chromosomes is randomly initialized. The ones indicate the presence of a pair of conjugate lines as a GCL and zeros specify the absence. The chromosome length is considered equal to the number of all conjugate lines. For each chromosome, the unknown parameters of a proper mathematical model can be calculated using the selected GCLs (ones in each chromosome). Then, a limited number of Check Points (CPs) are used to evaluate the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of each chromosome as its fitness value. The procedure continues until reaching a stopping criterion. The number and position of ones in the best chromosome indicate the selected GCLs among all conjugate lines. To evaluate the proposed method, a GeoEye and an Ikonos Images are used over different areas of Iran. Comparing the obtained results by the proposed method in a traditional RFM with conventional methods that use all conjugate lines as GCLs shows five times the accuracy improvement (pixel level accuracy) as well as the strength of the proposed method. To prevent an over-parametrization error in a traditional RFM due to the selection of a high number of improper correlated terms, an optimized line-based RFM is also proposed. The results show the superiority of the combination of the proposed OWDIS method with an optimized line-based RFM in terms of increasing the accuracy to better than 0.7 pixel, reliability, and reducing systematic

  8. Lifestyle Advice Combined with Personalized Estimates of Genetic or Phenotypic Risk of Type 2 Diabetes, and Objectively Measured Physical Activity: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Job G Godino

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Information about genetic and phenotypic risk of type 2 diabetes is now widely available and is being incorporated into disease prevention programs. Whether such information motivates behavior change or has adverse effects is uncertain. We examined the effect of communicating an estimate of genetic or phenotypic risk of type 2 diabetes in a parallel group, open, randomized controlled trial.We recruited 569 healthy middle-aged adults from the Fenland Study, an ongoing population-based, observational study in the east of England (Cambridgeshire, UK. We used a computer-generated random list to assign participants in blocks of six to receive either standard lifestyle advice alone (control group, n = 190 or in combination with a genetic (n = 189 or a phenotypic (n = 190 risk estimate for type 2 diabetes (intervention groups. After 8 wk, we measured the primary outcome, objectively measured physical activity (kJ/kg/day, and also measured several secondary outcomes (including self-reported diet, self-reported weight, worry, anxiety, and perceived risk. The study was powered to detect a between-group difference of 4.1 kJ/kg/d at follow-up. 557 (98% participants completed the trial. There were no significant intervention effects on physical activity (difference in adjusted mean change from baseline: genetic risk group versus control group 0.85 kJ/kg/d (95% CI -2.07 to 3.77, p = 0.57; phenotypic risk group versus control group 1.32 (95% CI -1.61 to 4.25, p = 0.38; and genetic risk group versus phenotypic risk group -0.47 (95% CI -3.40 to 2.46, p = 0.75. No significant differences in self-reported diet, self-reported weight, worry, and anxiety were observed between trial groups. Estimates of perceived risk were significantly more accurate among those who received risk information than among those who did not. Key limitations include the recruitment of a sample that may not be representative of the UK population, use of self-reported secondary outcome

  9. Controle genético da resistência à mancha-de-Phaeosphaeria em milho Genetic control of resistance to Phaeosphaeria leaf spot in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Gomes Lopes

    2007-06-01

    about the genetic control of resistance to the disease is necessary so that the programs can be efficient. The main goal of this study was to determine the genetic control of resistance to the Phaeosphaeria leaf spot in maize through the assessment of the generation means from two crossing between a resistant inbred line (DAS95 or DAS72 with a susceptible line (DAS21 under natural infection conditions of the disease. The experiment was carried out in Indianópolis (MG in two sowen dates, October and November, 2000. The randomized blocks design with three repetitions was utilized. The evaluation to resistance was performed thirty days after the flowering using a diagrammatic scale of percentage of the total foliar tissue of the plant affected by the disease. Disease severity means of parental lines and generations F1, F2, RCP1 and RCP2 were analysed according to the model by MATHER & JINKS (1971. Genetic variation due to additive effects varied from 73% to 84% whilst dominant effects ranged from 13% to 23%. In both studied population, the predominance of gene additive over dominant effects was evidented. The inheritance values were high, varying from 61% to 88%. These results indicate favourable conditions to develop new resistance lines to Phaeosphaeria leaf spot with the studied populations.

  10. Genetic and biochemical investigations of the role of MamP in redox control of iron biomineralization in Magnetospirillum magneticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie R; Wilson, Tiffany D; Brown, Margaret E; Rahn-Lee, Lilah; Yu, Yi; Fredriksen, Laura L; Ozyamak, Ertan; Komeili, Arash; Chang, Michelle C Y

    2015-03-31

    Magnetotactic bacteria have evolved complex subcellular machinery to construct linear chains of magnetite nanocrystals that allow the host cell to sense direction. Each mixed-valent iron nanoparticle is mineralized from soluble iron within a membrane-encapsulated vesicle termed the magnetosome, which serves as a specialized compartment that regulates the iron, redox, and pH environment of the growing mineral. To dissect the biological components that control this process, we have carried out a genetic and biochemical study of proteins proposed to function in iron mineralization. In this study, we show that the redox sites of c-type cytochromes of the Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 magnetosome island, MamP and MamT, are essential to their physiological function and that ablation of one or both heme motifs leads to loss of function, suggesting that their ability to carry out redox chemistry in vivo is important. We also develop a method to heterologously express fully heme-loaded MamP from AMB-1 for in vitro biochemical studies, which show that its Fe(III)-Fe(II) redox couple is set at an unusual potential (-89 ± 11 mV) compared with other related cytochromes involved in iron reduction or oxidation. Despite its low reduction potential, it remains competent to oxidize Fe(II) to Fe(III) and mineralize iron to produce mixed-valent iron oxides. Finally, in vitro mineralization experiments suggest that Mms mineral-templating peptides from AMB-1 can modulate the iron redox chemistry of MamP.

  11. Genetic control of conventional labeling through the bovine meat production chain by single nucleotide polymorphisms using real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capoferri, Rossana; Bongioni, Graziella; Galli, Andrea; Aleandri, Riccardo

    2006-08-01

    Since January 2002, the European Union has adopted precise guidelines aimed at protecting the safety of meat and controlling the production chain. To this purpose, the conventional traceability of livestock and meat represents the main tool, but verification of traceability requires genetic support. At present, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) represent the most innovative molecular markers in genotyping studies. The aim of this study was to verify correct labeling in a bovine meat production chain by a real-time PCR protocol based on SNP analysis. Reference hair samples from 5,000 animals were randomly collected from 22 farms. Twelve hundred meat samples were collected at different steps of the bovine meat production chain. In particular, 1,000 meat samples were collected at the slaughterhouse and 200 samples from the same animals directly at the butcher's shop. The protocol was optimized and validated by testing a set of 16 SNP markers on 95 DNA samples from bovine sires of different breeds. Thereafter, the genotyping of 2,200 samples was conducted with a set of 12 selected SNPs to verify traceability of the meat production chain at three different stages: farm, slaughterhouse, and butcher's shop. Irregularities in conventional traceability were evidenced directly in 1.87% of the samples at the slaughterhouse. This percentage increased to 3.25% when sampling was conducted at the butcher's shop. This study demonstrates that despite the precautions adopted over the meat production chain, some critical points still exist that cause the loss of a correct association between registration numbers and samples.

  12. Genetic Algorithm with Maximum-Minimum Crossover (GA-MMC Applied in Optimization of Radiation Pattern Control of Phased-Array Radars for Rocket Tracking Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo W. T. Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In launching operations, Rocket Tracking Systems (RTS process the trajectory data obtained by radar sensors. In order to improve functionality and maintenance, radars can be upgraded by replacing antennas with parabolic reflectors (PRs with phased arrays (PAs. These arrays enable the electronic control of the radiation pattern by adjusting the signal supplied to each radiating element. However, in projects of phased array radars (PARs, the modeling of the problem is subject to various combinations of excitation signals producing a complex optimization problem. In this case, it is possible to calculate the problem solutions with optimization methods such as genetic algorithms (GAs. For this, the Genetic Algorithm with Maximum-Minimum Crossover (GA-MMC method was developed to control the radiation pattern of PAs. The GA-MMC uses a reconfigurable algorithm with multiple objectives, differentiated coding and a new crossover genetic operator. This operator has a different approach from the conventional one, because it performs the crossover of the fittest individuals with the least fit individuals in order to enhance the genetic diversity. Thus, GA-MMC was successful in more than 90% of the tests for each application, increased the fitness of the final population by more than 20% and reduced the premature convergence.

  13. Genetic algorithm with maximum-minimum crossover (GA-MMC) applied in optimization of radiation pattern control of phased-array radars for rocket tracking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Leonardo W T; Barros, Vitor F; Silva, Sandro G

    2014-08-18

    In launching operations, Rocket Tracking Systems (RTS) process the trajectory data obtained by radar sensors. In order to improve functionality and maintenance, radars can be upgraded by replacing antennas with parabolic reflectors (PRs) with phased arrays (PAs). These arrays enable the electronic control of the radiation pattern by adjusting the signal supplied to each radiating element. However, in projects of phased array radars (PARs), the modeling of the problem is subject to various combinations of excitation signals producing a complex optimization problem. In this case, it is possible to calculate the problem solutions with optimization methods such as genetic algorithms (GAs). For this, the Genetic Algorithm with Maximum-Minimum Crossover (GA-MMC) method was developed to control the radiation pattern of PAs. The GA-MMC uses a reconfigurable algorithm with multiple objectives, differentiated coding and a new crossover genetic operator. This operator has a different approach from the conventional one, because it performs the crossover of the fittest individuals with the least fit individuals in order to enhance the genetic diversity. Thus, GA-MMC was successful in more than 90% of the tests for each application, increased the fitness of the final population by more than 20% and reduced the premature convergence.

  14. Genetic Algorithm with Maximum-Minimum Crossover (GA-MMC) Applied in Optimization of Radiation Pattern Control of Phased-Array Radars for Rocket Tracking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Leonardo W. T.; Barros, Vitor F.; Silva, Sandro G.

    2014-01-01

    In launching operations, Rocket Tracking Systems (RTS) process the trajectory data obtained by radar sensors. In order to improve functionality and maintenance, radars can be upgraded by replacing antennas with parabolic reflectors (PRs) with phased arrays (PAs). These arrays enable the electronic control of the radiation pattern by adjusting the signal supplied to each radiating element. However, in projects of phased array radars (PARs), the modeling of the problem is subject to various combinations of excitation signals producing a complex optimization problem. In this case, it is possible to calculate the problem solutions with optimization methods such as genetic algorithms (GAs). For this, the Genetic Algorithm with Maximum-Minimum Crossover (GA-MMC) method was developed to control the radiation pattern of PAs. The GA-MMC uses a reconfigurable algorithm with multiple objectives, differentiated coding and a new crossover genetic operator. This operator has a different approach from the conventional one, because it performs the crossover of the fittest individuals with the least fit individuals in order to enhance the genetic diversity. Thus, GA-MMC was successful in more than 90% of the tests for each application, increased the fitness of the final population by more than 20% and reduced the premature convergence. PMID:25196013

  15. The efficacy of showers for control of ectoparasites of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, A C; Quick, M P

    1978-01-21

    Ectoparasites of sheep in Britain include the tick Ixodes ricinus, the blowfly, Lucilia sericata, the ked, Melophagus ovinus and the lice, Damalinia ovis and Linognathus ovillus. The most important ectoparasite, however, is the mite Psoroptes communis ovis which causes sheep scab. This notifiable disease was eradicated from Britain in 1952 but was reported again in 1973. The control of ectoparasites depends largely on the efficient application of insecticide to the fleece and skin. Plunge dipping in a bath is generally regarded as the most efficient method and is compulsory for the control of sheep scab but it is not always the most convenient. After the eradication of sheep scab in 1952 plunge dipping was no longer compulsory and jetting, spraying and showering techniques were then employed for the other ectoparasites.

  16. Common genetic risk variants of TLR2 are not associated with periodontitis in large European case-control populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richter, G.M.; Graetz, C.; Pohler, P.; Nothnagel, M.; Dommisch, H.; Laine, M.L.; Folwaczny, M.; Noack, B.; Eickholz, P.; Groessner-Schreiber, B.; Jepsen, S.; Loos, B.G.; Schreiber, S.; Schaefer, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    Aim Involvement of TLR2 in the pathophysiology of periodontitis has widely been discussed, but hitherto, no validated genetic associations were reported. Previous association studies lacked sufficient statistical power and adequate haplotype information to draw unambiguous conclusions. The aim of

  17. Environmental Exposures, Genetic Polymorphisms and p53 Mutational Spectra in a Case-Control Study of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shields, eter

    1999-01-01

    .... Other genetic analyses are completed for MEH3, MEH4, CYP2D6, GSTMl, GST-T and CYP1A1. We have been validating a p53 mutational spectra detection technology using the Affymetrix gene chip array...

  18. Genetic control of water use efficiency and leaf carbon isotope discrimination in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) subjected to two drought scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiredjo, Afifuddin Latif; Navaud, Olivier; Muños, Stephane; Langlade, Nicolas B; Lamaze, Thierry; Grieu, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    High water use efficiency (WUE) can be achieved by coordination of biomass accumulation and water consumption. WUE is physiologically and genetically linked to carbon isotope discrimination (CID) in leaves of plants. A population of 148 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of sunflower derived from a cross between XRQ and PSC8 lines was studied to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling WUE and CID, and to compare QTL associated with these traits in different drought scenarios. We conducted greenhouse experiments in 2011 and 2012 by using 100 balances which provided a daily measurement of water transpired, and we determined WUE, CID, biomass and cumulative water transpired by plants. Wide phenotypic variability, significant genotypic effects, and significant negative correlations between WUE and CID were observed in both experiments. A total of nine QTL controlling WUE and eight controlling CID were identified across the two experiments. A QTL for phenotypic response controlling WUE and CID was also significantly identified. The QTL for WUE were specific to the drought scenarios, whereas the QTL for CID were independent of the drought scenarios and could be found in all the experiments. Our results showed that the stable genomic regions controlling CID were located on the linkage groups 06 and 13 (LG06 and LG13). Three QTL for CID were co-localized with the QTL for WUE, biomass and cumulative water transpired. We found that CID and WUE are highly correlated and have common genetic control. Interestingly, the genetic control of these traits showed an interaction with the environment (between the two drought scenarios and control conditions). Our results open a way for breeding higher WUE by using CID and marker-assisted approaches and therefore help to maintain the stability of sunflower crop production.

  19. Mouse to human comparative genetics reveals a novel immunoglobulin E-controlling locus on Hsa8q12

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gusareva, Elena; Havelková, Helena; Blažková, Hana; Kosařová, Marcela; Kučera, P.; Král, V.; Salyakina, D.; Mulller-Myhsok, b.; Lipoldová, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 1 (2009), s. 15-25 ISSN 0093-7711 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/06/1745; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : atopy * specific IgE * genetic loci * mouse-human homology * Czech population * 8q12 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.988, year: 2009

  20. [Genetic control of growth and development of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Phenotypic selection of mutants among strains of the Peterhof genetic collection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitavichius, D

    2001-06-01

    Results of identifying phenotypes intrinsic to mutations of genes that regulate the activity of the signal transduction pathway of RAS-cyclic adenosinemonophosphate in six strains belonging to the Peterhof genetic collection of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are presented: an increase or decrease in the amount of the accumulated glycogen, resistance or sensitivity to heat shock and nitrogen starvation, and the growth and viability in media containing unfermentable carbon sources (potassium acetate, ethanol, and glycerol) at temperatures 30 and 70 degrees C. Collectively these phenotypic characteristics in five examined yeast strains can be interpreted as indicating disturbances in the activity of the RAS/cAMP pathway. However, the discrepancies revealed between cellular phenotypes in these strains and in the strains with a decreased or increased activity of the RAS/cAMP pathway did not allow them to be assigned to a particular functional activity group. The inconsistencies between phenotypes detected in this study may be prerequisites for the identification of new genes responsible for this signal transduction pathway or new mutations in the known genes that determine other phenotypic combinations.

  1. Contribution of genetic variation rs266882 to prostate-specific antigen levels in healthy controls with serum PSA below 2.0 ng/ml.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jaeman; Park, Heeyoon; Lee, Gilho

    2013-04-01

    We evaluated the impact of genetic variation in the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) gene (rs266882) on serum PSA levels in healthy men as well as risk factors for benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH) and prostate cancer. The study population comprised 91 men with PSA levels below 2.0 ng/ml as healthy controls, 78 men with PSA 2-10 ng/ml as a BPH group, and 128 prostate cancer patients, all in Korea. DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and the product was sequenced. We found that PSA levels were associated with a G/A polymorphism only in healthy controls. The transition, however, was not associated with PSA levels of BPH and cancer patients, nor was it a risk factor. In conclusion, this genetic factor is important for determining serum PSA levels in the naive group, whereas the disruption of prostatic architecture in BPH or prostate cancer may be a major determining factor for PSA levels.

  2. Genetic variants in DNA double-strand break repair genes and risk of salivary gland carcinoma: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xu

    Full Text Available DNA double strand break (DSB repair is the primary defense mechanism against ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage. Ionizing radiation is the only established risk factor for salivary gland carcinoma (SGC. We hypothesized that genetic variants in DSB repair genes contribute to individual variation in susceptibility to SGC. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a case-control study in which we analyzed 415 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 45 DSB repair genes in 352 SGC cases and 598 controls. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Rs3748522 in RAD52 and rs13180356 in XRCC4 were significantly associated with SGC after Bonferroni adjustment; ORs (95% CIs for the variant alleles of these SNPs were 1.71 (1.40-2.09, P = 1.70 × 10(-7 and 0.58 (0.45-0.74, P = 2.00 × 10(-5 respectively. The genetic effects were modulated by histological subtype. The association of RAD52-rs3748522 with SGC was strongest for mucoepidermoid carcinoma (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.55-3.15, P = 1.25 × 10(-5, n = 74, and the association of XRCC4-rs13180356 with SGC was strongest for adenoid cystic carcinoma (OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.42-0.87, P = 6.91 × 10(-3, n = 123. Gene-level association analysis revealed one gene, PRKDC, with a marginally significant association with SGC risk in non-Hispanic whites. To our knowledge, this study is the first to comprehensively evaluate the genetic effect of DSB repair genes on SGC risk. Our results indicate that genetic variants in the DSB repair pathways contribute to inter-individual differences in susceptibility to SGC and show that the impact of genetic variants differs by histological subtype. Independent studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

  3. Effect of communicating genetic and phenotypic risk for type 2 diabetes in combination with lifestyle advice on objectively measured physical activity: protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godino Job G

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes (T2D is associated with increased risk of morbidity and premature mortality. Among those at high risk, incidence can be halved through healthy changes in behaviour. Information about genetic and phenotypic risk of T2D is now widely available. Whether such information motivates behaviour change is unknown. We aim to assess the effects of communicating genetic and phenotypic risk of T2D on risk-reducing health behaviours, anxiety, and other cognitive and emotional theory-based antecedents of behaviour change. Methods In a parallel group, open randomised controlled trial, approximately 580 adults born between 1950 and 1975 will be recruited from the on-going population-based, observational Fenland Study (Cambridgeshire, UK. Eligible participants will have undergone clinical, anthropometric, and psychosocial measurements, been genotyped for 23 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with T2D, and worn a combined heart rate monitor and accelerometer (Actiheart® continuously for six days and nights to assess physical activity. Participants are randomised to receive either standard lifestyle advice alone (control group, or in combination with a genetic or a phenotypic risk estimate for T2D (intervention groups. The primary outcome is objectively measured physical activity. Secondary outcomes include self-reported diet, self-reported weight, intention to be physically active and to engage in a healthy diet, anxiety, diabetes-related worry, self-rated health, and other cognitive and emotional outcomes. Follow-up occurs eight weeks post-intervention. Values at follow-up, adjusted for baseline, will be compared between randomised groups. Discussion This study will provide much needed evidence on the effects of providing information about the genetic and phenotypic risk of T2D. Importantly, it will be among the first to examine the impact of genetic risk information using a randomised controlled trial design, a

  4. Genetic control of the radiosensitivity of lymphoid cells for antibody-forming ability in CXS series of recombinant inbred mouse strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumoto, M.; Mori, N.; Nishikawa, R.; Imai, S.; Hilgers, J.; Takamori, Y.; Yagasaki, O.

    1992-01-01

    Incidence of radiation-induced lymphomas differs remarkably among various mouse strains. BALB/cHeA (C) mice are highly susceptible to radiation induction of lymphomas, while STS/A (S) mice are resistant. Thus, the induction of the disease is controlled by some genetic factors. To examine an involvement of radiosensitivity of lymphoid cells in lymphomagenesis, we have compared genetic control of the radiosensitivity for antibody-forming ability with that of lymphoma development in BALB/cHeA, STS/A, (CXS)F 1 hybrids and CXS series of recombinant inbred strains. Decrease of number of splenic plaque-forming cell (PFC) in Jerne's method by 3 Gy of X-irradiation for BALB/cHeA mice was larger than that for STS/A mice by more than one order of magnitude. (CXS)F 1 hybrid mice showed small number of decrease of PFC similar to STS/A mice suggesting that phenotype of radioresistance was dominant over sensitivity. The best concordance between genetic markers and radiosensitivities of antibody-forming ability in recombinant inbred strains was observed in a region containing Igh locus on chromosome 12. The results show that one locus controlling the radioresistance of lymphoid cells for antibody-forming ability might exist in the region containing Igh locus, and that this region clearly differ from a region with Ifa locus on chromosome 4 which regulate the susceptibility to radiation-induced lymphomagenesis. (author)

  5. Evidence for the control of phytolith formation in Cucurbita fruits by the hard rind (Hr) genetic locus: Archaeological and ecological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperno, Dolores R.; Holst, Irene; Wessel-Beaver, Linda; Andres, Thomas C.

    2002-01-01

    Many angiosperms, both monocotyledons and dicotyledons, heavily impregnate their vegetative and reproductive organs with solid particles of silicon dioxide (SiO2) known as opaline phytoliths. The underlying mechanisms accounting for the formation of phytoliths in plants are poorly understood, however. Using wild and domesticated species in the genus Cucurbita along with their F1 and F2 progeny, we have demonstrated that the production of large diagnostic phytoliths in fruit rinds exhibits a one-to-one correspondence to the lignification of these structures. We propose that phytolith formation in Cucurbita fruits is primarily determined by a dominant genetic locus, called hard rind (Hr), previously shown to code for lignin deposition. If true, this evidence represents a demonstration of genetic control over phytolith production in a dicotyledon and provides considerable support to hypotheses that silica phytoliths constitute another important system of mechanical defense in plants. Our research also identifies Hr as another single locus controlling more than one important phenotypic difference between wild and domesticated plants, and establishes rind tissue cell structure and hardness under the effects of Hr as an important determinant of phytolith morphology. When recovered from pre-Columbian archaeological sites, Cucurbita phytoliths represent genetically controlled fossil markers of exploitation and domestication in this important economic genus. PMID:12149443

  6. Modulation of Radiation-Induced Genetic Damage by HCMV in Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes from a Brain Tumor Case-Control Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rourke, Elizabeth A.; Lopez, Mirtha S.; Monroy, Claudia M. [Department of Epidemiology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Scheurer, Michael E. [Department of Pediatrics and Dan L. Duncan Cancer Center, The Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Etzel, Carol J. [Department of Epidemiology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Albrecht, Thomas [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Bondy, Melissa L.; El-Zein, Randa A., E-mail: relzein@mdanderson.org [Department of Epidemiology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2010-04-12

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection occurs early in life and viral persistence remains through life. An association between HCMV infection and malignant gliomas has been reported, suggesting that HCMV may play a role in glioma pathogenesis and could facilitate an accrual of genotoxic damage in the presence of γ-radiation; an established risk factor for gliomas. We tested the hypothesis that HCMV infection modifies the sensitivity of cells to γ-radiation-induced genetic damage. We used peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from 110 glioma patients and 100 controls to measure the level of chromosome damage and cell death. We evaluated baseline, HCMV-, γ-radiation and HCMV + γ-radiation induced genetic instability with the comprehensive Cytokinesis-Blocked Micronucleus Cytome (CBMN-CYT). HCMV, similar to radiation, induced a significant increase in aberration frequency among cases and controls. PBLs infected with HCMV prior to challenge with γ-radiation led to a significant increase in aberrations as compared to baseline, γ-radiation and HCMV alone. With regards to apoptosis, glioma cases showed a lower percentage of induction following in vitro exposure to γ-radiation and HCMV infection as compared to controls. This strongly suggests that, HCMV infection enhances the sensitivity of PBLs to γ-radiation-induced genetic damage possibly through an increase in chromosome damage and decrease in apoptosis.

  7. Population Genetics as a Tool to Select Tsetse Control Strategies: Suppression or Eradication of Glossina palpalis gambiensis in the Niayes of Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solano, Philippe; Kaba, Dramane; Ravel, Sophie; Sall, Baba; Mathu Ndung'u, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    The Government of Senegal has initiated the ''Projet de lutte contre les glossines dans les Niayes'' to remove the trypanosomosis problem from this area in a sustainable way. Due to past failures to sustainably eradicate Glossina palpalis gambiensis from the Niayes area, controversies remain as to the best strategy implement, i.e. ''eradication'' versus ''supression''.To inform this debate, we used population genetics to measure genetic differentiation between G. palpalis gambiensis from the Niayes and those from the southern tsetse belt (Missira).Three different markers (microsatellite DNA, mitochondrial CO1 DNA, and geometric morphometrics of the wings) were used on 153 individuals and revealed that the G. p. gambiensis populations of the Niayes were genetically isolated from the nearest proximate known population of Missira. The genetic differentiation measured between these two areas (h=0.12 using microsatellites) was equivalent to a between-taxa differentiation. We also demonstrated that within the Niayes, the population from Dakar Hann was isolated from the others and had probably experienced a bottleneck.The information presented in this paper leads to the recommendation that an eradication strategy for the Niayes populations is advisable. This kind of study may be repeated in other habitats and for other tsetse species to help decision on appropriate tsetse control strategies and find other possible discontinuities in tsetse distribution.

  8. Genetic Diversity in the mtDNA control region and population structure of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus