WorldWideScience

Sample records for blowers

  1. VARIABLE SPEED INTEGRATED INTELLIGENT HVAC BLOWER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shixiao Wang; Herman Wiegman; Wilson Wu; John Down; Luana Iorio; Asha Devarajan; Jing Wang; Ralph Carl; Charlie Stephens; Jeannine Jones; Paul Szczesny

    2001-11-14

    This comprehensive topical report discusses the key findings in the development of a intelligent integrated blower for HVAC applications. The benefits of rearward inclined blades over that of traditional forward inclined blades is well documented and a prototype blower design is presented. A comparison of the proposed blower to that of three typical units from the industry is presented. The design of the blower housing is also addressed and the impact of size limitations on static efficiency is discussed. Issues of air flow controllability in the rearward inclined blower is addressed and a solution to this problem is proposed. Several motor design options are discussed including inside-out radial flux designs and novel axial flux designs, all are focused on the various blower needs. The control of the motor-blower and airflow through the use of a high density inverter stage and modern digital signal processor is presented. The key technical challenges of the approach are discussed. The use of the motor as a sensor in the larger heating/ventilating system is also discussed. Diagnostic results for both the motor itself and the blower system are presented.

  2. VARIABLE SPEED INTEGRATED INTELLIGENT HVAC BLOWER; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This comprehensive topical report discusses the key findings in the development of a intelligent integrated blower for HVAC applications. The benefits of rearward inclined blades over that of traditional forward inclined blades is well documented and a prototype blower design is presented. A comparison of the proposed blower to that of three typical units from the industry is presented. The design of the blower housing is also addressed and the impact of size limitations on static efficiency is discussed. Issues of air flow controllability in the rearward inclined blower is addressed and a solution to this problem is proposed. Several motor design options are discussed including inside-out radial flux designs and novel axial flux designs, all are focused on the various blower needs. The control of the motor-blower and airflow through the use of a high density inverter stage and modern digital signal processor is presented. The key technical challenges of the approach are discussed. The use of the motor as a sensor in the larger heating/ventilating system is also discussed. Diagnostic results for both the motor itself and the blower system are presented

  3. Air injection vacuum blower noise control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mose, Tyler L.A.; Faszer, Andrew C. [Noise Solutions Inc. (Canada)], email: tmose@noisesolutions.com, email: afaszer@noisesolutions.com

    2011-07-01

    Air injection vacuum blowers, with applications in waste removal, central vacuum systems, and aeration systems, are widely used when high vacuum levels are required. Noise generated by those blowers must be addressed for operator health and residential disturbance. This paper describes a project led by Noise Solutions Inc., to identify noise sources in a blower, and design and test a noise mitigation system. First the predominant noise sources in the blower must be determined, this is done with a sound level meter used to quantify the contribution of each individual noise source and the dominant tonal noise from the blower. Design of a noise abatement system must take into account constraints arising from blower mobile use, blower optimal performance, and the resulting overall vibration of the structure. The design was based on calculations from the sound attenuation of a reactive expansion chamber and two prototypes of custom silencers were then tested, showing a significant noise reduction both in total sound levels and tonal noise.

  4. Regenerative Blower for EVA Suit Ventilation Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Paul, Heather L.

    2010-01-01

    Portable life support systems in future space suits will include a ventilation subsystem driven by a dedicated fan. This ventilation fan must meet challenging requirements for pressure rise, flow rate, efficiency, size, safety, and reliability. This paper describes research and development that showed the feasibility of a regenerative blower that is uniquely suited to meet these requirements. We proved feasibility through component tests, blower tests, and design analysis. Based on the requirements for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) ventilation fan, we designed the critical elements of the blower. We measured the effects of key design parameters on blower performance using separate effects tests, and used the results of these tests to design a regenerative blower that will meet the ventilation fan requirements. We assembled a proof-of-concept blower and measured its performance at sub-atmospheric pressures that simulate a PLSS ventilation loop environment. Head/flow performance and maximum efficiency point data were used to specify the design and operating conditions for the ventilation fan. We identified materials for the blower that will enhance safety for operation in a lunar environment, and produced a solid model that illustrates the final design. The proof-of-concept blower produced the flow rate and pressure rise needed for the CSSE ventilation subsystem while running at 5400 rpm, consuming only 9 W of electric power using a non-optimized, commercial motor and controller and inefficient bearings. Scaling the test results to a complete design shows that a lightweight, compact, reliable, and low power regenerative blower can meet the performance requirements for future space suit life support systems.

  5. 33 CFR 154.826 - Vapor compressors and blowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Excessive shaft bearing temperature. (d) If a centrifugal compressor, fan, or lobe blower handles vapor in....826 Vapor compressors and blowers. (a) Each inlet and outlet to a compressor or blower which handles... system acceptable to the Commandant (CG-522). (b) If a reciprocating or screw-type compressor...

  6. Production Facility Prototype Blower Installation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dalmas, Dale Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Frank Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-28

    The roots blower in use at ANL for in-beam experiments and also at LANL for flow tests was sized for 12 mm diameter disks and significantly less beam heating.  Currently, the disks are 29 mm in diameter, with a 12 mm FWHM Gaussian beam spot at 42 MeV and 2.86 μA on each side of the target, 5.72 μA total. The target design itself is reported elsewhere.  With the increased beam heating, the helium flow requirement increased so that a larger blower was need for a mass flow rate of 400 g/s at 2.76 MPa (400 psig).  An Aerzen GM 12.4 blower was selected, and is currently being installed at the LANL facility for target and component flow testing.  This report describes this blower/motor/ppressure vessel package and the status of the facility preparations.

  7. Simplified multizone blower door techniques for multifamily buildings. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This research focused on the applicability of (a) two-blower-door and (b) single-blower-door multi-zone pressurization techniques for estimating the air leakage characteristics of New York State multi-family apartment buildings. The research also investigated the magnitude of external leakage area in multi-family buildings and used computer simulations to estimate the effect of decreasing external and internal leakage areas on air infiltration rates. This research investigates whether two blower doors can be used to determine the ELA of the exterior envelope and the ELA of partitions. Two multi-zone versions of the single-blower-door pressurization method are also examined.

  8. Experimental investigation on a one-step centripetal blower as a model of a blower to ventilate cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Model tests were performed on a one-step centripetal blower (impeller external diameter of 1 m) whose aim was to clarify whether this kind of blower is suitable to ventilate a cooling tower. Aside from the investigation of the general operational behaviour, it was above all important in the tests to investigate the sensitivity of the centripetal blower to rotating tearing with regular flow as well as with side wind, as the main difficulty was suspected in controlling the blower with side wind. (orig./LN)

  9. Operating experience with main blowers with variable blade angles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogatov, I.V.; Spivak, V.A.

    1986-05-01

    Efficiency of blowers used for ventilation in underground coal mines in the USSR in many cases is below the statistical efficiency level. Efficiency of 30% of blowers does not exceed 60%. New design of blower blades developed and tested in the USSR is an easy and economic way for increasing blower efficiency. Each blade consists of 2 sections: a stationary section and a section with a variable-incidence angle. The incidence angle depends on local conditions and requirements for ventilation. During performance tests of VTsZ-32 blowers in the PKAA mine an angle of blade incidence of 20 or 30 degrees was used. This guaranteed air pressure of 6,000 Pa and air output of 120 m/sup 3//s. Increased blade incidence angle was used in summer and during periods of increased methane emission. In winter angle of blade incidence was reduced to 10 degrees, blower output ranged from 80 to 90 m/sup 3//s, air pressure declined to 3,800 Pa. Using blower blades with variable-incidence angle reduced energy consumption, ventilation cost and investment.

  10. Vibration and Stability of 3000-hp, Titanium Chemical Process Blower

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    This 74-in-diameter blower had an overhung rotor design of titanium construction, operating at 50 pounds per square inch gauge in a critical chemical plant process. The shaft was supported by oil-film bearings and was directdriven by a 3000-hp electric motor through a metal disk type of coupling. The operating speed was 1780 rpm. The blower shaft and motor shaft motion was monitored by Bently Nevada proximity probes and a Model 3100 monitoring system.Although the blowers showed very satisfact...

  11. Blower door method in radon diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The idea of the radon transfer factor is commonly presented as the ratio of the building indoor radon concentration to the subsoil radon concentration. Ventilation and the pressure field over the whole building envelope, which varies in a time over a very wide range even in the same building, poses a major problem. Therefore a new approach based on the controlled conditions determining the soil air infiltration was developed. Radon in soil gas infiltrates into the building indoor environment particularly through cracks and other leakages in the structure providing the building contact with its subsoil. The infiltration is driven by the air pressure difference on the two sides of the structure. The pressure difference is caused by the stack effect and its value ranges from 1-2 Pa in family houses to some tens of Pa in higher buildings. Unfortunately, the pressure difference is very unstable under normal conditions, being affected by a host of parameters such as the height of the building, distribution and geometry of leakages, outdoor-indoor temperature difference, etc. Wind direction and velocity of the wind plays a major role. In our research the blower door method was applied in combination with a monitoring of the indoor radon concentration. The indoor-outdoor pressure difference and the pressure difference at the two sides of the screen shutter of the blower door fan are also measured. The blower door ensures a constant, evaluable air exchange rate. The fan power is regulated to provide a stable pressure difference within the range of roughly 5-100 Pa. This approach provides very well defined conditions allowing us to apply a constant ventilation-constant radon supply model. In such circumstances the dynamical changes of radon concentrations are very fast, and therefore a unique continual radon monitor was applied. The radon supply rate is evaluated from the radon steady state of the time course of radon concentration. The dependence of the radon supply rate on

  12. EC motors for blowers; EC-Motoren fuer Luefter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, Thomas; Reiff, Ellen-Christine

    2009-10-15

    There are highly flexible commercial ventilation and air conditioning systems for server rooms which combine energy savings with optimum room air quality. EC blowers contribute to this and reduce also body sound. (orig./GL)

  13. Dynamical system analysis of unstable flow phenomena in centrifugal blower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia David

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Methods of dynamical system analysis were employed to analyze unsteady phenomena in a centrifugal blower. Pressure signals gathered at different control points were decomposed into their Principal Components (PCs by means of Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA. Certain number of PCs was considered in the analysis based on their statistical correlation. Projection of the original signal onto its PCs allowed to draw the phase trajectory that clearly separated non-stable blower working conditions from its regular operation.

  14. Vibration and Stability of 3000-hp, Titanium Chemical Process Blower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Les Gutzwiller

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This 74-in-diameter blower had an overhung rotor design of titanium construction, operating at 50 pounds per square inch gauge in a critical chemical plant process. The shaft was supported by oil-film bearings and was directdriven by a 3000-hp electric motor through a metal disk type of coupling. The operating speed was 1780 rpm. The blower shaft and motor shaft motion was monitored by Bently Nevada proximity probes and a Model 3100 monitoring system.

  15. On sound generation mechanism by a centrifugal blower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sean

    2002-05-01

    Centrifugal blower noise has often been modeled as dipoles and quadrupoles to account for the effects of fluid-structure interaction and turbulence as the impeller rotates. However, many experimental results have shown that sound powers from centrifugal blowers increase with speed to the power of 4-6, which implies the existence of a monopole [Lighthill, Proc. R. Soc., Ser. A 222, 564-587 (1952)]. This paper demonstrates that such a monopole indeed exists for a blower running inside a heating ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) unit of a vehicle. Tests indicate that this monopole is producible by a volumetric fluctuation due to an unsteady rotor. When the blower is operated at the voltage power input specified by the car manufacturer, the sound power increases with the speed to the power of 4. When the blower is installed on a stable shaft and running at the same voltage power input, the volumetric fluctuations are significantly reduced and the sound power increases with speed to the power of 6. This implies that the monopole sound has been effectively replaced by the dipole sound. Since dipole is less effective in generating sound at low speeds than monopole, eliminating rotor fluctuations can lower vehicle HVAC noise levels.

  16. Uji Performansi Getaran Mekanis dan Kebisingan Mist Blower Yanmar MK 150-B

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Noval Irvani; Mad Yamin

    2012-01-01

    Mist blower is one of the mechanization tool of agriculture considered as a tool that can assist humans in fertilizer and pesticides spreading activities. Levels of motor speed in the used mist blower were 1915, 4009, and 7227 rpm. Vibration measurements were conducted on the engine and handlebar control mist blower with the three-dimensional axes namely X, Y, and Z. Mist blower noise measurements were performed on the engine, operator's right ear and left ear. Based on the analysis of vibrat...

  17. Building America Top Innovations 2013 Profile – High-Performance Furnace Blowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-09-01

    This Top Innovations profile describes Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's work with furnace blower design that led to the creation of a standard for rating blowers, credits for the use of good blowers in Federal tax credit programs and energy codes, and consideration in current federal rulemaking procedures.

  18. Performance Enhancement of Dual-Inlet Centrifugal Blower by Optimal Design of Splitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shape of an impeller splitter for a dual-inlet centrifugal blower was optimized to enhance the blower performance. Two design variable, the normalized chord and pitch of a splitter, were used to evaluate the blower performance and internal flow fields based on the three-dimensional flow analysis. The blower performance obtained using this numerical simulation had a maximum error of 4 percent compared to that in an experiment at the design flow condition. The shape optimization of the splitter successfully increased the blower efficiency and pressure by 3.65 and 1.14 percent compared to the reference values. The blower performance was increased by reducing the flow separation near the blade suction surface by optimizing the shape of the splitter, which produced a pressure increase at the outlet of the volute casing

  19. Performance Enhancement of Dual-Inlet Centrifugal Blower by Optimal Design of Splitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Sung; Jang, Choon Man [Korea Institute of Construction Technology, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    The shape of an impeller splitter for a dual-inlet centrifugal blower was optimized to enhance the blower performance. Two design variable, the normalized chord and pitch of a splitter, were used to evaluate the blower performance and internal flow fields based on the three-dimensional flow analysis. The blower performance obtained using this numerical simulation had a maximum error of 4 percent compared to that in an experiment at the design flow condition. The shape optimization of the splitter successfully increased the blower efficiency and pressure by 3.65 and 1.14 percent compared to the reference values. The blower performance was increased by reducing the flow separation near the blade suction surface by optimizing the shape of the splitter, which produced a pressure increase at the outlet of the volute casing.

  20. Design and Development of a Regenerative Blower for Space Suit Ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenson, Mike; Chen, Weibo; Paul, Heather

    2010-01-01

    The ventilation subsystem in future space suits will require a dedicated ventilation fan. The unique requirements for the ventilation fan, including stringent safety requirements and the ability to increase output to operate in buddy mode, combine to make a regenerative blower an attractive technology choice. This paper describes progress in the design, development, and testing of a regenerative blower designed to meet requirements for a ventilation subsystem for future space suit life support. Analysis methods were developed for the blower s complex internal flows and impeller geometries were identified that enable significant improvements in blower efficiency. Performance predictions were verified by test, measuring aerodynamic efficiencies of 45% at operating conditions that correspond to the ventilation fan s design point. A compact motor/controller was developed to drive the blower efficiently at low rotating speed (4500 rpm). Finally, a low-pressure oxygen test loop was assembled to demonstrate the blower s reliability under prototypical conditions.

  1. Design and Development of a Regenerative Blower for EVA Suit Ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Hill, Roger W.; Phillips, Scott D.; Paul, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    Ventilation subsystems in future space suits require a dedicated ventilation fan. The unique requirements for the ventilation fan - including stringent safety requirements and the ability to increase output to operate in buddy mode - combine to make a regenerative blower an attractive choice. This paper describes progress in the design, development, and testing of a regenerative blower designed to meet requirements for ventilation subsystems in future space suits. We have developed analysis methods for the blower s complex, internal flows and identified impeller geometries that enable significant improvements in blower efficiency. We verified these predictions by test, measuring aerodynamic efficiencies of 45% at operating conditions that correspond to the ventilation fan s design point. We have developed a compact motor/controller to drive the blower efficiently at low rotating speed (4500 rpm). Finally, we have assembled a low-pressure oxygen test loop to demonstrate the blower s reliability under prototypical conditions.

  2. Sistem Pemeliharaan Dan Cara Kerja Peralatan Blower Di Pabrik Mini PTKI – Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Manurung, Benari H.

    2012-01-01

    Pendidikan Teknologi Kimia Industri Medan memiliki suatu pabrik mini yang di dalamnya terdapat banyak peralatan – peralatan mekanik yang sering di gunakan di bidang industri, salah satu dari peralatan tersebut adalah Blower. Blower merupakan mesin atau alat yang digunakan untuk menaikkan atau memperbesar tekanan udara atau gas, yang akan dialirkan dalam suatu ruangan tertentu, juga sebagai pengisapan atau pemvakuman udara atau gas yang tertentu. Pada blower, cara kerja yang terjadi memi...

  3. Time-frequency analysis of the Surge Onset in the Centrifugal Blower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liskiewicz, Grzegorz; Horodko, Longin

    2015-09-01

    Time frequency analysis of the surge onset was performed in the centrifugal blower. A pressure signal was registered at the blower inlet, outlet and three locations at the impeller shroud. The time-frequency scalograms were obtained by means of the Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT). The blower was found to successively operate in four different conditions: stable working condition, inlet recirculation, transient phase and deep surge. Scalograms revealed different spectral structures of aforementioned phases and suggest possible ways of detecting the surge predecessors.

  4. Response to centrifugal and axi-vane blowers to large pressure transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of large pressure pulses on the operation of centrifugal and axi-vane blowers of the types found in ventilation systems used in the mining and nuclear industries was investigated using the Los Alamos National Laboratory/New Mexico State University fluid dynamics test facility. Three blowers were tested for both quasi-steady and transient pressures: a 24-in. and a 12-in. centrifugal blower and a 33-in. axi-vane blower were subjected to pressure pulses at their exhaust and inlet, which caused backflow and outrunning flow, respectively. Performance curves were obtained for the first, second, and fourth quadrants

  5. Gas-cooled reactor coolant circulator and blower technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the previous 17 meetings held within the framework of the International Working Group on Gas-Cooled Reactors, a wide variety of topics and components have been addressed, but the San Diego meeting represented the first time that a group of specialists had been convened to discuss circulator and blower related technology. A total of 20 specialists from 6 countries attended the meeting in which 15 technical papers were presented in 5 sessions: circulator operating experience I and II (6 papers); circulator design considerations I and II (6 papers); bearing technology (3 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. Production Facility Prototype Blower Installation Report with 1000 Hour Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Frank Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dalmas, Dale Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The roots blower in use at ANL for in-beam experiments and also at LANL for flow tests was sized for 12 mm diameter disks and significantly less beam heating. Currently, the disks are 29 mm in diameter, with a 12 mm FWHM Gaussian beam spot at 42 MeV and 2.86 μA on each side of the target, 5.72 μA total. The target design itself is reported elsewhere. With the increased beam heating, the helium flow requirement increased so that a larger blower was needed for a mass flow rate of 400 g/s at 2.76 MPa (400 psig). An Aerzen GM 12.4 blower was selected, and is currently being installed at the LANL facility for target and component flow testing. This report describes this blower/motor/pressure vessel package and the status of the facility preparations. The blower has been operated for 1000 hours as a preliminary investigation of long term performance, operation and possible maintenance issues. The blower performed well, with no significant change in blower head or mass flow rate developed under the operating conditions. Upon inspection, some oil had leaked out of the shaft seal of the blower. The shaft seal and bearing race have been replaced. Test results and conclusions are reported.

  7. Production Facility Prototype Blower Installation Report with 1000 Hour Test Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The roots blower in use at ANL for in-beam experiments and also at LANL for flow tests was sized for 12 mm diameter disks and significantly less beam heating. Currently, the disks are 29 mm in diameter, with a 12 mm FWHM Gaussian beam spot at 42 MeV and 2.86 μA on each side of the target, 5.72 μA total. The target design itself is reported elsewhere. With the increased beam heating, the helium flow requirement increased so that a larger blower was needed for a mass flow rate of 400 g/s at 2.76 MPa (400 psig). An Aerzen GM 12.4 blower was selected, and is currently being installed at the LANL facility for target and component flow testing. This report describes this blower/motor/pressure vessel package and the status of the facility preparations. The blower has been operated for 1000 hours as a preliminary investigation of long term performance, operation and possible maintenance issues. The blower performed well, with no significant change in blower head or mass flow rate developed under the operating conditions. Upon inspection, some oil had leaked out of the shaft seal of the blower. The shaft seal and bearing race have been replaced. Test results and conclusions are reported.

  8. Performance and Life Tests of a Regenerative Blower for EVA Suit Ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; McCormick, John; Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.

    2012-01-01

    Ventilation fans for future space suits must meet demanding performance specifications, satisfy stringent safety requirements for operation in an oxygen atmosphere, and be able to increase output to operate in buddy mode. A regenerative blower is an attractive choice due to its ability to meet these requirements at low operating speed. This paper describes progress in the development and testing of a regenerative blower designed to meet requirements for ventilation subsystems in future space suits. The blower includes a custom-designed motor that has significantly improved its efficiency. We have measured the blower s head/flow performance and power consumption under conditions that simulate both the normal and buddy mode operating points. We have operated the blower for TBD hours and demonstrated safe operation in an oxygen test loop at prototypical pressures. We also demonstrated operation with simulated lunar dust.

  9. Residential Forced Air System Cabinet Leakage and Blower Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain S.; Dickerhoff, Darryl J.; Delp, William W.

    2010-03-01

    This project evaluated the air leakage and electric power consumption of Residential HVAC components, with a particular focus on air leakage of furnace cabinets. Laboratory testing of HVAC components indicated that air leakage can be significant and highly variable from unit to unit ? indicating the need for a standard test method and specifying maximum allowable air leakage in California State energy codes. To further this effort, this project provided technical assistance for the development of a national standard for Residential HVAC equipment air leakage. This standard is being developed by ASHRAE and is called"ASHRAE Standard 193P - Method of test for Determining the Air Leakage Rate of HVAC Equipment". The final part of this project evaluated techniques for measurement of furnace blower power consumption. A draft test procedure for power consumption was developed in collaboration with the Canadian General Standards Board: CSA 823"Performance Standard for air handlers in residential space conditioning systems".

  10. Pumping characteristics of roots blower pumps for light element gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pumping speed and compression ratio of the two-stage roots blower pumping system were measured for light element gases (H2, D2 and He) and for N2, in order to assess validity of the ITER torus roughing system as an ITER R and D task (T234). The pumping system of an Edwards EH1200 (nominal pumping speed of 1200 m3/s), two EH250s (ibid. 250 m3/s) and a backing pump (ibid. 100 m3/s) in series connection was tested under PNEUROP standards. The maximum pumping speeds of the two-stage system for D2 and N2 were 1200 and 1300 m3/h, respectively at 60 Hz, which satisfied the nominal pumping speed. These experimental data support the design validity of the ITER torus roughing system. (author)

  11. Improving quality of assembly of mine ventilation blowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spivak, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    Results of a study by Dongiprouglemash of reasons for substandard performance of main ventilation blowers are described. Mean time between failures is 12-20 months, and this could be improved by 1.8-2.5 times. A table illustrating common faults and their consequences is given, and two examples from Donbass mines are described. Most common faults are poor alignment of bearing due e.g. to inadequate contact between concrete base and bearing shell (reduction of bearing life from 5-10 years to less than 1 year), stepped or otherwise incorrect shaping of concrete in air flow part (2-8% pressure reduction and 3-8% efficiency reduction), uneven labyrinth gaps, and incorrect setting of guide vanes (in given example leading to vibration, noise, overheating of bearings and 30% increase in electricity consumption).

  12. Enhancement of performance by blade optimization in two-stage ring blower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Choon-Man; Han, Gi-Young

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes the shape optimization of an impeller used for two-stage high pressure ring blower. Two shape variables, which are used to define an impeller shape, are introduced to increase the blower performance. The pressure of a blower is selected as an object function, and the blade optimization is performed by a response surface method. Three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are introduced to analyze the internal flow of the blower and to find the value of object function for the training data. Relatively good agreement between experimental measurements and numerical simulation is obtained in the present study. Throughout the shape optimization, it is found that a hub height is effective to increase pressure in the ring blower. The pressure rise for the optimal two-stage ring blower is successfully increased up to 1.86% compared with that of reference at the design flow rate. Local recirculation flow having low velocity is formed in both sides of the impeller outlet by different flow direction of the inlet and outlet of the impeller. Detailed flow field inside the ring blower is also analyzed and discussed.

  13. Time-frequency analysis of the Surge Onset in the Centrifugal Blower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liskiewicz Grzegorz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Time frequency analysis of the surge onset was performed in the centrifugal blower. A pressure signal was registered at the blower inlet, outlet and three locations at the impeller shroud. The time-frequency scalograms were obtained by means of the Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT. The blower was found to successively operate in four different conditions: stable working condition, inlet recirculation, transient phase and deep surge. Scalograms revealed different spectral structures of aforementioned phases and suggest possible ways of detecting the surge predecessors.

  14. Response of centrifugal blowers to simulated tornado transients, July-September 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During this quarter, quasi-steady and dynamic testing of the 24-in. centrifugal blower was completed using the blowdown facility located at New Mexico State University. The data were obtained using a new digital data-acquisition system. Software was developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to reduce the dynamic test data and create computer-generated movies showing the dynamic performance of the blower under simulated tornado transient pressure conditions relative to its quasi-steady-state performance. Currently, quadrant-four (outrunning flow) data have been reduced for the most severe and a less severe tornado pressure transient. The results indicate that both the quasi-steady and dynamic blower performance are very similar. Some hysteresis in the dynamic performance occurs because of rotational inertia effects in the blower rotor and drive system. Currently quadrant-two (backflow) data are being transferred to the LTSS computer system at Los Alamos and will be reduced shortly

  15. Using jet blowers in order to increase the intake capacity of pumping wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voznyy, V.R.; Goy, I.M.; Kifor, B.M.; Lotovskiy, V.N.; Yatsura, Ya.V.

    1983-01-01

    Methods for increasing the intake capacity of pumping wells are analyzed and a new technology is proposed for clearing the near shaft zone of a stratum using jet blowers. Experience in operations to restore the filtration properties of productive levels by the complex effect of acetic processing and cyclic action using the jet blowers on a stratum is described. Conclusions and recommendations for using the developed technology for clearing the near shaft zone of a stratum are given.

  16. OPTIMIZING IMPELLER GEOMETRY FOR PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT OF A CENTRIFUGAL BLOWER USING THE TAGUCHI QUALITY CONCEPT

    OpenAIRE

    R RAGOTH SINGH; M.Nataraj

    2012-01-01

    As the diffusion of flow process is highly complex in centrifugal blower operation, it is necessary to design / develop the geometry of impeller and casing to reduce the flow losses significantly. In the present study, the methodology to find near optimum combination of blower operating variables for performance enhancement were analyzed using computational fluid dynamics(CFD). Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) based design of experiments (DoE) technique determines the required experimental trial...

  17. Are laptop ventilation-blowers a potential source of nosocomial infections for patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, Katja; Hübner, Nils; Heidecke, Claus-Dieter; Brandenburg, Ronny; Rackow, Kristian; Benkhai, Hicham; Schnaak, Volker; Below, Harald; Dornquast, Tina; Assadian, Ojan; Kramer, Axel

    2010-01-01

    Inadequately performed hand hygiene and non-disinfected surfaces are two reasons why the keys and mouse-buttons of laptops could be sources of microbial contamination resulting consequently in indirect transmission of potential pathogens and nosocomial infections. Until now the question has not been addressed whether the ventilation-blowers in laptops are actually responsible for the spreading of nosocomial pathogens. Therefore, an investigational experimental model was developed which was capable of differentiating between the microorganisms originating from the external surfaces of the laptop, and from those being blown out via the ventilation-blower duct. Culture samples were taken at the site of the external exhaust vent and temperature controls were collected through the use of a thermo-camera at the site of the blower exhaust vent as well as from surfaces which were directly exposed to the cooling ventilation air projected by the laptop. Control of 20 laptops yielded no evidence of microbial emission originating from the internal compartment following switching-on of the ventilation blower. Cultures obtained at the site of the blower exhaust vent also showed no evidence of nosocomial potential. High internal temperatures on the inner surfaces of the laptops (up to 73°C) as well as those documented at the site of the blower exhaust vent (up to 56°C) might be responsible for these findings. PMID:20941339

  18. Are laptop ventilation-blowers a potential source of nosocomial infections for patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegmund, Katja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inadequately performed hand hygiene and non-disinfected surfaces are two reasons why the keys and mouse-buttons of laptops could be sources of microbial contamination resulting consequently in indirect transmission of potential pathogens and nosocomial infections. Until now the question has not been addressed whether the ventilation-blowers in laptops are actually responsible for the spreading of nosocomial pathogens. Therefore, an investigational experimental model was developed which was capable of differentiating between the microorganisms originating from the external surfaces of the laptop, and from those being blown out via the ventilation-blower duct. Culture samples were taken at the site of the external exhaust vent and temperature controls were collected through the use of a thermo-camera at the site of the blower exhaust vent as well as from surfaces which were directly exposed to the cooling ventilation air projected by the laptop. Control of 20 laptops yielded no evidence of microbial emission originating from the internal compartment following switching-on of the ventilation blower. Cultures obtained at the site of the blower exhaust vent also showed no evidence of nosocomial potential. High internal temperatures on the inner surfaces of the laptops (up to 73°C as well as those documented at the site of the blower exhaust vent (up to 56°C might be responsible for these findings.

  19. Blower Gun pellet injection system for W7-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foreseen to serve for the new stellarator W7-X for pellet investigations, the former ASDEX Upgrade Blower Gun was revised and revitalized in a test bed. The gun is able now to launch cylindrical pellets of 2 mm diameter and 2 mm length, produced from frozen Deuterium (D2) or Hydrogen (H2). Pellets are accelerated by a short pulse of pressurized helium propellant gas to velocities in the range of 100-250 m/s. Delivery reliabilities at the launcher exit close to unity are achieved. For pellet transfer to the plasma vessel a first mock up guiding tube version was investigated. Transfer through this S-shaped (inner diameter 8 mm; length 6 m) stainless steel guiding tube containing two 1 m curvature radii was investigated for both H2 and D2 pellets. Tests were performed applying repetition rates from 2 Hz to 50 Hz and propellant gas pressures ranging from 1 bar to 6 bar. For both H2 and D2, low overall delivery efficiencies were observed at slow repetition rates, but stable efficiencies of about 90% above 10 Hz.

  20. Retrofit device to improve vapor compression cooling system performance by dynamic blower speed modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Robert Paul; Hahn, David C.; Scaringe, Robert P.

    2015-12-08

    A device and method are provided to improve performance of a vapor compression system using a retrofittable control board to start up the vapor compression system with the evaporator blower initially set to a high speed. A baseline evaporator operating temperature with the evaporator blower operating at the high speed is recorded, and then the device detects if a predetermined acceptable change in evaporator temperature has occurred. The evaporator blower speed is reduced from the initially set high speed as long as there is only a negligible change in the measured evaporator temperature and therefore a negligible difference in the compressor's power consumption so as to obtain a net increase in the Coefficient of Performance.

  1. OPTIMIZING IMPELLER GEOMETRY FOR PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT OF A CENTRIFUGAL BLOWER USING THE TAGUCHI QUALITY CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R RAGOTH SINGH

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available As the diffusion of flow process is highly complex in centrifugal blower operation, it is necessary to design / develop the geometry of impeller and casing to reduce the flow losses significantly. In the present study, the methodology to find near optimum combination of blower operating variables for performance enhancement were analyzed using computational fluid dynamics(CFD. Taguchi orthogonal array (OA based design of experiments (DoE technique determines the required experimental trials. The experimental results are justifiedby Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and confirmed by conformation experiments. The parameters chosen for design optimization are Impeller outlet diameter, Impeller wheel width, Thickness of blade and Impeller inlet diameter. The levels for the parametric specification are chosen from the ranges where the blower will get thebest efficiency. CFD results were validated by the fine conformity between the CFD results and the experimental results.

  2. Aerosol generation by blower motors as a bias in assessing aerosol penetration into cabin filtration systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitbrink, William A; Collingwood, Scott

    2005-01-01

    In cabin filtration systems, blower motors pressurize a vehicle cabin with clean filtered air and recirculate air through an air-conditioning evaporator coil and a heater core. The exposure reduction offered by these cabins is evaluated by optical particle counters that measure size-dependent aerosol concentration inside and outside the cabin. The ratio of the inside-to-outside concentration is termed penetration. Blower motors use stationary carbon brushes to transmit an electrical current through a rotating armature that abrades the carbon brushes. This creates airborne dust that may affect experimental evaluations of aerosol penetration. To evaluate the magnitude of these dust emissions, blower motors were placed in a test chamber and operated at 12 and 13.5 volts DC. A vacuum cleaner drew 76 m3/hour (45 cfm) of air through HEPA filters, the test chamber, and through a 5 cm diameter pipe. An optical particle counter drew air through an isokinetic sampling probe and measured the size-dependent particle concentrations from 0.3 to 15 microm. The concentration of blower motor aerosol was between 2 x 10(5) and 1.8 x 10(6) particles/m3. Aerosol penetration into three stationary vehicles, two pesticide application vehicles and one tractor were measured at two conditions: low concentration (outside in the winter) and high concentration (inside repair shops and burning incense sticks used as a supplemental aerosol source). For particles smaller than 1 microm, the in-cabin concentrations can be explained by the blower motor emissions. For particles larger than 1 microm, other aerosol sources, such as resuspended dirt, are present. Aerosol generated by the operation of the blower motor and by other sources can bias the exposure reduction measured by optical particle counters. PMID:15764523

  3. Response of air cleaning system dampers and blowers to simulated tornado transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of tornado-like pressure transients upon dampers and blowers in nuclear air cleaning systems were studied. For the dampers pressure drop as a function of flow rate was obtained and an empirical relationship developed. Transient response was examined for several types of dampers, as was structural integrity. Both centrifugal and axi-vane blowers were tested and transient characteristic curves were generated in outrunning and backflow situations. The transient characteristic curves do not necessarily match the quasi-steady characteristic curves

  4. Development of local air blower for removing radioactive iodine using the carbon fiber filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiling water type nuclear power plant (BWR) conducts overhaul of the condenser and the turbine regularly. The radioactive iodine dissipation in the turbine system, that occurs in the reactor during plant operation, need to implement safeguards against radioactive iodine. Carbon particle filter type local air blower is conventionally used in order to eliminate the radioactive iodine before during maintenance, but has the problem in mobility due to size of the device. We developed the new type of local air blower using carbon fiber to improve mobility of device. (author)

  5. Auxiliary bearing design and rotor dynamics analysis of blower fan for HTR-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electromagnetic bearing instead of ordinary mechanical bearing was chosen to support the rotor in the blower fan system with helium of 10 MW high temperature gas-cooled test reactor (HTR-10), and the auxiliary bearing was applied in the HTR-10 as the backup protector. When the electromagnetic bearing doesn't work suddenly for the power broken, the auxiliary bearing is used to support the falling rotor with high rotating speed. The rotor system will be protected by the auxiliary bearing. The design of auxiliary bearing is the ultimate safeguard for the system. This rotor is vertically mounted to hold the blower fan. The rotor's length is about 1.5 m, its weight is about 240 kg and the rotating speed is about 5400 r/min. Auxiliary bearing design and rotor dynamics analysis are very important for the design of blower fan to make success. The research status of the auxiliary bearing was summarized in the paper. A sort of auxiliary bearing scheme was proposed. MSC.Marc was selected to analyze the vibration mode and the natural frequency of the rotor. The scheme design of auxiliary bearing and analysis result of rotor dynamics offer the important theoretical base for the protector design and control system of electromagnetic bearing of the blower fan. (authors)

  6. Velocity and turbulence measurements of impellers discharge flow for multi-stage centrifugal blower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper assesses some results of an experimental investigation on a 4-stage centrifugal blower. The two-dimensional velocity and turbulence field at the exit of the first and fourth stage was measured in some working conditions of the machine, by a single hot-wire anemometer rotated twice about its own axis

  7. Development of a no-moving-part blower for difficult operating conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 12 (2013), s. 2401-2411. ISSN 0263-8762 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-23046S Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : blower * fluidics * hazardous fluids Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.281, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0263876213001081

  8. Analytical study of ventilation-system behavior using TVENT1 under simulated blower malfunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large, complex ventilation system at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Plutonium Processing Facility was modeled and analyzed using a computer code called TVENT1. Useful information was obtained about the system's operating characteristics when subjected to potential blower malfunctions. This report provides an excellent example for a potential user of TVENT1 for application to an actual system

  9. Measurement and Analysis of the Noise Radiated by Low Mach Number Centrifugal Blowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, David Marvin

    An investigation was performed of the broad band, aerodynamically generated noise in low tip-speed Mach number, centrifugal air moving devices. An interdisciplinary experimental approach was taken which involved investigation of the aerodynamic and acoustic fields, and their mutual relationship. The noise generation process was studied using two experimental vehicles: (1) a scale model of a homologous family of centrifugal blowers typical of those used to cool computer and business equipment, and (2) a single blade from a centrifugal blower impeller placed in a known, controllable flow field. The radiation characteristics of the model blower were investigated by measuring the acoustic intensity distribution near the blower inlet and comparing it with the intensity near the inlet to an axial flow fan. Results showed that the centrifugal blower is a distributed, random noise source, unlike an axial fan which exhibited the effects of a coherent, interacting source distribution. Aerodynamic studies of the flow field in the inlet and at the discharge to the rotating impeller were used to assess the mean flow distribution through the impeller blade channels and to identify regions of excessive turbulence near the rotating blade row. Both circumferential and spanwise mean flow nonuniformities were identified along with a region of increased turbulence just downstream of the scroll cutoff. The fluid incidence angle, normally taken as an indicator of blower performance, was estimated from mean flow data as deviating considerably from an ideal impeller design. An investigation of the noise radiated from the single, isolated airfoil was performed using modern correlation and spectral analysis techniques. Radiation from the single blade in flow was characterized using newly developed expressions for the correlation area and the dipole source strength per unit area, and from the relationship between the blade surface pressure and the incident turbulent flow field. Results

  10. Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Discharge Flow with Fluctuation in Positive Discharge Blower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhengxian; WANG Dou; XU Lianhuan

    2009-01-01

    The operating performance of positive discharge blower/s markedly influenced by the pulsation of the discharge flow, but difficult to be measured with experimental methods. The internal and discharge flow of positive discharge blower with involute type three-lobe are numerically investigated, both in air cooling and countercurrent cooling conditions by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The unsteady compressible flow equations are solved using RNG κ-ε turbulent model. The finite difference method and the second order upwind difference scheme are applied into discrete equations. In the numerical simulation, the dynamic mesh techniques are used to approach the rotating displacement of cell cubage and the alterability of inlet, outlet flow area. The non-uniform mesh is applied to the rotor-stator coupled area. The reliability of the numerical method is verified by simulating the inner flow and comparing with the semi-empirical theory. The flow flux curves and the distributing of velocity vector showed obvious vortex motion in all the discharge process, both in air cooling and countercurrent cooling conditions. These vortexes with different positions, intension and numbers at different rotating angles have remarkable influences on the discharge flux. For air cooling, the vortex produced a second pulsation with big-amplitude in a cycle, and led to the early appearance of maximum of backflow. For countercurrent cooling, the frequency of pulsation increased due to the pre-inflow, but the hackflow at the outlet is prevented, also the pulsation strength has greatly decreased.

  11. Modification and Application of a Leaf Blower-vac for Field Sampling of Arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yi; van Telgen, Mario D; Chen, Junhui; Xiao, Haijun; de Kraker, Joop; Bianchi, Felix J J A; van der Werf, Wopke

    2016-01-01

    Rice fields host a large diversity of arthropods, but investigating their population dynamics and interactions is challenging. Here we describe the modification and application of a leaf blower-vac for suction sampling of arthropod populations in rice. When used in combination with an enclosure, application of this sampling device provides absolute estimates of the populations of arthropods as numbers per standardized sampling area. The sampling efficiency depends critically on the sampling duration. In a mature rice crop, a two-minute sampling in an enclosure of 0.13 m(2) yields more than 90% of the arthropod population. The device also allows sampling of arthropods dwelling on the water surface or the soil in rice paddies, but it is not suitable for sampling fast flying insects, such as predatory Odonata or larger hymenopterous parasitoids. The modified blower-vac is simple to construct, and cheaper and easier to handle than traditional suction sampling devices, such as D-vac. The low cost makes the modified blower-vac also accessible to researchers in developing countries. PMID:27584040

  12. Construction and testing of a blower-door assembly for regulation of air pressure within structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Technical Measurements Center is evaluating several methods to decrease the time required to determine an annual average radon-daughter concentration in structures. One method involves stabilizing the air pressure within the structure at a constant pressure with reference to external atmospheric or soil-gas pressure. This report describes the construction and preliminary testing of a blower-door system to maintain a constant differential air pressure within a structure. The blower-door assembly includes a collapsible frame and a large fan to occlude a doorway, a damper with an actuator to control air flow, a controller to drive the damper actuator, and a pressure transducer to measure the differential pressure. Preliminary testing of the system indicates that pressure within the structure in the range of 1 to 20 Pascals can be held to within approximately +-1 Pa of the set point. Further testing of the blower-door system is planned to provide data on the applicability of this method to short-duration tests for annual average radon-daughter concentration estimates. 13 figs., 1 tab

  13. Use of EC-blowers contribute to green investment; Gebruik van EC-ventilatoren levert bijdrage aan groene investering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huijgens, G.; Ridder, A.

    2009-07-01

    Despite their small share in the entire use, applying EC blowers (electronically commutated) in coolers and condensers can provide an interesting contribution to a sound green investment. This additional investment with EC blowers will pay off through more efficient energy use and easy operation with rpm control. [Dutch] Door gebruik te maken van EC-ventilatoren (EC staat voor 'electronically commutated') op koelers en condensors kan, ondanks het kleine aandeel in het totaalverbruik, toch een interessante bijdrage geleverd worden aan een verantwoorde groene investering. Deze meerinvestering met EC-ventilatoren betaalt zich uit in zuinig energieverbruik en eenvoudige aansturing met toerenregeling.

  14. R+D works for the further development of high temperature reactors. (1) Captive bearing experiments for active magnetic bearings. (2) Captive bearing test for HTR blowers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When using active magnetic bearings as blower shaft bearings, blower motors and bearings must be protected against mechanical damage in case of faults (example: total electrical supply failure due to the supply cables breaking). So-called captive bearings are provided, in order to be able to shut the blowers down safely in such faults. These captive bearings are roller bearings which are additionally fitted in the area of the blower shaft bearings, to prevent mechanical contact between the blower rotor and stator. As there was little experience available for the given boundary conditions, such as - speed, - acceleration, - bearing load, - bearing dimensions, - ambient conditions, appropriate development and tests had to be carried out. It was important to determine suitable captive bearings and the necessary ambient conditions, which will make it possible to support the failures of the magnetic bearings to be expected in 40 years' operation of the reactor without damage and to meet the requirements of the captive bearings. (orig./GL)

  15. Testicular cancer trends as 'whistle blowers' of testicular developmental problems in populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakkebaek, N E; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Jørgensen, N; Main, K M; Leffers, H; Andersson, A-M; Juul, A; Jensen, T K; Toppari, J

    2007-01-01

    Recently a worldwide rise in the incidence of testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC) has been repeatedly reported. The changing disease pattern may signal that other testicular problems may also be increasing. We have reviewed recent research progress, in particular evidence gathered in the Nordic...... countries, which shows strong associations between testicular cancer, undescended testis, hypospadias, poor testicular development and function, and male infertility. These studies have led us to suggest the existence of a testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS), of which TGCC, undescended testis, hypospadias...... trends in TGCC rates of a population may be 'whistle blowers' of other reproductive health problems. As cancer registries are often of excellent quality - in contrast to registries for congenital abnormalities - health authorities should consider an increase in TGCC as a warning that other reproductive...

  16. Investigations into effects of blade number in a booster blower for forced ventilation on noise level caused by stream heterogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowa, A.

    1985-09-01

    Noise level is analyzed caused by WLE-603A booster mine blowers used for local ventilation in underground coal mines in Poland. The blowers have two impellers rotating in opposite directions. One impeller is equipped with 10 or 11 blades, the other with 9, 8, 7, 6 or 5 blades. Revolution rate of 2940 rpm is used. A formula for optimizing blade number on two impellers and the relation of impeller number is derived. Effects of optimizing blade number on the air streams produced by two impellers and their interaction are analyzed. Effects of stream heterogeneity on noise level are determined. Recommendations for the optimum blade number which reduces noise level are made. 3 references.

  17. Cosmet'eau-Changes in the personal care product consumption practices: from whistle-blowers to impacts on aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressy, Adèle; Carré, Catherine; Caupos, Émilie; de Gouvello, Bernard; Deroubaix, José-Frédéric; Deutsch, Jean-Claude; Mailler, Romain; Marconi, Anthony; Neveu, Pascale; Paulic, Laurent; Pichon, Sébastien; Rocher, Vincent; Severin, Irina; Soyer, Mathilde; Moilleron, Régis

    2016-07-01

    The Cosmet'eau project (2015-2018) investigates the "changes in the personal care product (PCP) consumption practices: from whistle-blowers to impacts on aquatic environments." In this project, the example of PCPs will be used to understand how public health concerns related to micropollutants can be addressed by public authorities-including local authorities, industries, and consumers. The project aims to characterize the possible changes in PCP consumption practices and to evaluate the impact of their implementation on aquatic contamination. Our goals are to study the whistle-blowers, the risk perception of consumers linked with their practices, and the contamination in parabens and their substitutes, triclosan, and triclocarban from wastewater to surface water. The project investigates the following potential solutions: modifications of industrial formulation or changes in consumption practices. The final purpose is to provide policy instruments for local authorities aiming at building effective strategies to fight against micropollutants in receiving waters. PMID:27179812

  18. Cosmet'eau -Changes in the personal care product consumption practices: from whistle-blowers to impacts on aquatic environments

    OpenAIRE

    Bressy, Adèle; Carré, Catherine; Caupos, Émilie; De Gouvello, Bernard; Deroubaix, José-Frédéric; Deutsch, Jean-Claude; Mailler, Romain; Marconi, Anthony; Neveu, Pascale; Paulic, Laurent; Pichon, Sébastien; Rocher, Vincent; Severin, Irina; SOYER, Mathilde; Moilleron, Régis

    2016-01-01

    International audience The Cosmet'eau project (2015-2018) investigates the " changes in the personal care product (PCP) consumption practices: from whistle-blowers to impacts on aquatic environments. " In this project, the example of PCPs will be used to understand how public health concerns related to micropollutants can be addressed by public authorities – including local authorities –, industries and consumers. The project aims to characterize the possible changes in PCP consumption pra...

  19. Safety demonstration tests on pressure rise in ventilation system and blower integrity of a fuel-reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In JAERI, the demonstration test was carried out as a part of safety researches of the fuel-reprocessing plant using a large-scale facility consist of cells, ducts, dumpers, HEPA filters and a blower, when an explosive burning due to a rapid reaction of thermal decomposition for solvent/nitric acid occurs in a cell of the reprocessing plant. In the demonstration test, pressure response propagating through the facility was measured under a blowing of air from a pressurized tank into the cell in the facility to elucidate an influence of pressure rise in the ventilation system. Consequently, effective pressure decrease in the facility was given by a configuration of cells and ducts in the facility. In the test, transient responses of HEPA filters and the blower by the blowing of air were also measured to confirm the integrity. So that, it is confirmed that HEPA filters and the blower under pressure loading were sufficient to maintain the integrity. The content described in this report will contribute to safety assessment of the ventilation system in the event of explosive burning in the reprocessing plant. (author)

  20. Effects of inlet radius and bell mouth radius on flow rate and sound quality of centrifugal blower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of inlet radius and bell mouth radius on flow rate of centrifugal blower were numerically simulated using a commercial CFD program, FLUENT. In this research, a total of eight numerical models were prepared by combining different values of bell mouth radii and inlet radii (the cross section of bell mouth was chosen as a circular arc in this research). The frozen rotor method combined with a realizable k-epsilon turbulence model and non-equilibrium wall function was used to simulate the three-dimensional flow inside the centrifugal blowers. The inlet radius was then revealed to have significant impact on flow rate with the maximum difference between analyzed models was about 4.5% while the bell mouth radius had about 3% impact on flow rate. Parallel experiments were carried out to confirm the results of CFD analysis. The CFD results were thereafter validated owning to the good agreement between CFD results and the parallel experiment results. In addition to performance analysis, noise experiments were carried out to analyze the dependence of sound quality on inlet radius and bell mouth radius with different flow rate. The noise experiment results showed that the loudness and sharpness value of different models were quite similar, which mean the inlet radius and the bell mouth radius didn't have a clear impact on sound quality of centrifugal blower

  1. Effects of inlet radius and bell mouth radius on flow rate and sound quality of centrifugal blower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Pham Ngoc; Kim, Jae Won; Byun, S. M. [Sunmoon University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, E. Y. [Hanbat National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The effect of inlet radius and bell mouth radius on flow rate of centrifugal blower were numerically simulated using a commercial CFD program, FLUENT. In this research, a total of eight numerical models were prepared by combining different values of bell mouth radii and inlet radii (the cross section of bell mouth was chosen as a circular arc in this research). The frozen rotor method combined with a realizable k-epsilon turbulence model and non-equilibrium wall function was used to simulate the three-dimensional flow inside the centrifugal blowers. The inlet radius was then revealed to have significant impact on flow rate with the maximum difference between analyzed models was about 4.5% while the bell mouth radius had about 3% impact on flow rate. Parallel experiments were carried out to confirm the results of CFD analysis. The CFD results were thereafter validated owning to the good agreement between CFD results and the parallel experiment results. In addition to performance analysis, noise experiments were carried out to analyze the dependence of sound quality on inlet radius and bell mouth radius with different flow rate. The noise experiment results showed that the loudness and sharpness value of different models were quite similar, which mean the inlet radius and the bell mouth radius didn't have a clear impact on sound quality of centrifugal blower.

  2. Coordination of nuclear safety regulations and corporate compliance activities. Desirable implementation of the whistle-blower protection scheme in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, scandals and incidents associated with development and utilization of nuclear energy have attracted social concerns widely. However, there are limitations in preventing nuclear operators from illegal or unethical conduct only through reinforcement and expanding the nuclear safety regulations. From this viewpoint, it has turned out a real issue to develop a desirable coordination between the regulatory system and corporate compliance activities to maintain and further improve nuclear safety. Whistle-blower protection scheme (as depicted 'Declaration to the Competent Minister' in The Law for the Regulation of Nuclear Source Material, Nuclear Fuel Material and Reactors') reveals itself as a promising scheme to promote such coordination of nuclear safety regulations and corporate compliance activities. This study demonstrates that introduction of whistle-blower protection system in the U.S. federal nuclear safety regulations has encouraged developments of Employee Concerns Programs as corporate allegation programs at the U.S. based utility companies, and thereby indicates concrete improvement proposals of whistle-blower protection system enforcement in nuclear safety regulation in Japan that encourages corporate compliance activities. The principal aspects are as follows; (1) Development of compensatory scheme for employees who were discriminated on ground of the declaration, and (2) Clear rulemaking for existing private corporate allegation programs to be compatible with the official whistle-blowing procedure by Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency, the Japanese safety regulatory authority. (author)

  3. A noninvasive high frequency oscillation ventilator: Achieved by utilizing a blower and a valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, YueYang; Sun, JianGuo; Wang, Baicun; Feng, Pei; Yang, ChongChang

    2016-02-01

    After the High Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation (HFOV) has been applied in the invasive ventilator, the new technique of noninvasive High Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation (nHFOV) which does not require opening the patient's airway has attracted much attention from the field. This paper proposes the design of an experimental positive pressure-controlled nHFOV ventilator which utilizes a blower and a special valve and has three ventilation modes: spontaneous controlled ventilation combining HFOV, time-cycled ventilation combining HFOV (T-HFOV), and continuous positive airway pressure ventilation combining HFOV. Experiments on respiratory model are conducted and demonstrated the feasibility of using nHFOV through the control of fan and valve. The experimental ventilator is able to produce an air flow with small tidal volume (VT) and a large minute ventilation volume (MV) using regular breath tubes and nasal mask (e.g., under T-HFOV mode, with a maximum tidal volume of 100 ml, the minute ventilation volume reached 14 400 ml). In the process of transmission, there is only a minor loss of oscillation pressure. (Under experimental condition and with an oscillation frequency of 2-10 Hz, peak pressure loss was around 0%-50% when it reaches the mask.)

  4. Blower door tests of a group of identical flats in a new student accommodation in the Arctic

    OpenAIRE

    Kotol, Martin; Rode, Carsten; Vahala, Jan

    2012-01-01

    A new student accommodation for engineering students “Apisseq” was built in the town of Sisimiut, Greenland in 2010. Its purpose is not only to provide accommodation for students. Thanks to its complex monitoring system it enables researchers to evaluate the building’s energy performance and indoor air quality (IAQ) as well as performance of some single components. In summer 2012 a blower door test was performed on all 37 living units out of which 33 are identical single room flats and 4 are ...

  5. Automation of the control system and reform of the COSIPA no. 3 turbo blower; Automacao dos sistema de controle e reforma do turbo soprador n. 3 da Cosipa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobukloski, Sandro; Martins, Marcos Rogerio S.; Garcia, Jose Eduardo da S.; Reis, Joao de Paula; Romao Junior, Wilson; Vilarinho, Joao Clovis; Spinassi, Luiz Carlos; Florencio, Aurelio Freire; Rocha, Jose Olimpio Castro Pereira da [Companhia Siderurgica Paulista (COSIPA), Cubatao, SP (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    The turbo blower no. 3 (TS no. 3) start operation in 1976 blowing for the COSIPA blast furnace no. 2. Since 1993 the equipment was dedicated to the blast furnace no. 1, which is smaller than the previous one, consequently releasing the excess air to the atmosphere. Due to some modifications and for safety of the equipment, an operational conditional has been introducing with higher energy consumption. Due to operational requests a complete machine control system reformation was decided, blower stator and rotor blade replacement, and installation of a self-cleaning pre-filtering system. (author)

  6. Development of Filter-Blower Unit for use in the Advanced Nuclear Biological Chemical Protection System (ANBCPS) Helicopter/Transport-aircraft version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabel, R.; Reffeltrath, P.A.; Jonkman, A.; Post, T.

    2006-01-01

    As a participant in the three-nation partnership for development of the ANBCP-S for use in Helicopters, Transport Aircraft and Fast Jet, the Royal Netherlands Airforce (RNLAF) picked up the challenge to design a Filter- Blower-Unit (FBU). Major Command (MajCom) of the RNLAF set priority to develop a

  7. EC blowers for school building ventilation. Wholesome climate and high energy efficiency; EC-Ventilatoren fuer Schullueftungskonzepte. Gesundes Klima bei hoher Energieeffizienz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salig, Andreas [ebm-papst, Mulfingen (Germany). Verkauf Inland; Grohmann, Erwin [Grohmann Lueftungstechnik GmbH, Forchtenberg (Germany); Reiff, Ellen-Christine [Redaktionsbuero Stutensee (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Government funds of several thousands of millions were provided in 2009 for the modernisation of school buildings. There are highly flexible commercial ventilation and air conditioning systems for this type of buildings which combine energy savings with optimum room air quality. EC blowers contribute to this. (orig.)

  8. Application of a compliant foil bearing for the thrust force estimation in the single stage radial blower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łagodzinski, Jakub; Miazga, Kacper; Musiał, Izabela

    2015-08-01

    The paper presents the application of a compliant foil bearing for estimation of the thrust force in a single stage radial blower under operational conditions. The bump foil of the thrust bearing behaves as a nonlinear spring. The knowledge of the spring deflection curve allows estimation of the actual thrust force for a measured bump deflection at the given rotational speed. To acquire the deflection curve, static calibration of the axial shaft displacement sensor was performed. During the calibration, the information about voltage signals of the sensor for the given loading force was collected. The measured voltage values at different speeds and loadswere then converted into the thrust force. The results were verified by comparison to the thrust force resulting from the pressure distribution on the impeller.

  9. Dewetting Process of Blast Furnace Blower%高炉鼓风机前脱湿技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      高炉脱湿鼓风是高炉节能的重要措施,并对高炉的稳定生产具有重要作用。对高炉鼓风机前脱湿的工艺和特点进行说明,并简述其在钢铁企业推广的意义。%Blast furnace dewetting blast is an important measure for energy conservation of blast furnace and it plays an important role in stabilizing production of blast furnace. The dewetting process and features of blast blower are described. The significance to popularize the process in steel enterprises is introduced briefly.

  10. Analysis of natural circulation in the in-core structure test section (T2) in the case of a blower trip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a blower trip occurs in an abnormal condition of the in-core structure test section (T2), natural circulation will develop in the two flow channels which are formed by the gap between the fixed reflector and the side shield and the gap between the side shield and the core barrel. The natural circulation heats up the structures of T2, such as a core restraint mechanism and a core barrel and others. Moreover, the radiation emitted from the heated core barrel enhances markably heating-up of the pressure vessel. This report deals with an analysis of the natural circulation accurred after a blower trip, and with the effect on the temperature rise of the structures of T2. Possible countermeasures are also discussed. (author)

  11. Optimization in the design and efficiency of retractable soot blowers; Optimacion del diseno y la eficiencia de sopladores de hollin retractiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diego Marin, Antonio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1987-12-31

    In this article the importance of soot blowers in the subject of design, operation and maintenance are described and the effects that its inefficient functioning causes in the steam generators. The activities and the results of a project for the evaluation of the functioning of the soot blowers in the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) boilers. Finally, the scope of a new project oriented towards the retractable soot blowers efficiency optimization, and to the creation of the infra-structure to substitute the import of its components. [Espanol] En este articulo se describe la importancia de los sopladores de hollin en los aspectos de diseno, operacion y mantenimiento, y los efectos que su funcionamiento deficiente produce en los generadores de vapor. Se presentan tambien las actividades y los resultados de un proyecto para evaluar el funcionamiento de los deshollinadores de las calderas de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). Finalmente, se presenta el alcance de un nuevo proyecto que se orienta a optimar la eficiencia de los sopladores de hollin retractiles y a crear la infraestructura para sustituir las importaciones de sus componentes.

  12. 旋涡风机叶片侧边型线的研究%Research on the Shape of Blade Side of Vortex Blower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐照付; 聂波; 张俊林; 满建楠

    2013-01-01

    旋涡风机叶轮叶片侧边型线影响流体进出叶轮流道的速度三角形,对风机的性能有一定的影响.本文从试验和数值计算的角度对径向直叶片侧边倒角情况进行了研究,发现叶片侧边吸力面倒角比压力面倒角更能提高风机的性能,小流量区更为明显.本文用理论分析了该现象的原因,并推断前弯和后弯叶片也具有同样的性质.%The shape of impeller blade side of vortex blower can influence velocity triangle of fluid flowing in and out of impeller , so as to influence the performance of blower. The chamfer of radial side blade was studied by using methods of experiment and numerical simulation,and It finds that chamfer on the suction side is the best situation for improving the performance of vortex blower specially when little flux. The paper explains the roots of such phenomenon by theoretical analysis, and deduces that forward and backward bending blades own the same properties.

  13. Optimal DO Setpoint Decision and Electric Cost Saving in Aerobic Reactor Using Respirometer and Air Blower Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main objects for wastewater treatment operation are to maintain effluent water quality and minimize operation cost. However, the optimal operation is difficult because of the change of influent flow rate and concentrations, the nonlinear dynamics of microbiology growth rate and other environmental factors. Therefore, many wastewater treatment plants are operated for much more redundant oxygen or chemical dosing than the necessary. In this study, the optimal control scheme for dissolved oxygen (DO) is suggested to prevent over-aeration and the reduction of the electric cost in plant operation while maintaining the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration for the metabolism of microorganisms in oxic reactor. The oxygen uptake rate (OUR) is real-time measured for the identification of influent characterization and the identification of microorganisms' oxygen requirement in oxic reactor. Optimal DO set-point needed for the micro-organism is suggested based on real-time measurement of oxygen uptake of micro-organism and the control of air blower. Therefore, both stable effluent quality and minimization of electric cost are satisfied with a suggested optimal set-point decision system by providing the necessary oxygen supply requirement to the micro-organisms coping with the variations of influent loading

  14. Optimal DO Setpoint Decision and Electric Cost Saving in Aerobic Reactor Using Respirometer and Air Blower Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Su; Yoo, Changkyoo [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Minhan [Pangaea21 Ltd., Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jongrack [UnUsoft Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Main objects for wastewater treatment operation are to maintain effluent water quality and minimize operation cost. However, the optimal operation is difficult because of the change of influent flow rate and concentrations, the nonlinear dynamics of microbiology growth rate and other environmental factors. Therefore, many wastewater treatment plants are operated for much more redundant oxygen or chemical dosing than the necessary. In this study, the optimal control scheme for dissolved oxygen (DO) is suggested to prevent over-aeration and the reduction of the electric cost in plant operation while maintaining the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration for the metabolism of microorganisms in oxic reactor. The oxygen uptake rate (OUR) is real-time measured for the identification of influent characterization and the identification of microorganisms' oxygen requirement in oxic reactor. Optimal DO set-point needed for the micro-organism is suggested based on real-time measurement of oxygen uptake of micro-organism and the control of air blower. Therefore, both stable effluent quality and minimization of electric cost are satisfied with a suggested optimal set-point decision system by providing the necessary oxygen supply requirement to the micro-organisms coping with the variations of influent loading.

  15. Fuel to the nuclear debate : [Rezension von:] Nuclear power in crisis, Andrew Blowers and David Pepper (editors), New York, Nichols; London ..., Croom Helm, 1987

    OpenAIRE

    Renn, Ortwin

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear energy is one of the most popular topics of today’s publication market. The literature about the pros and cons of nuclear power may easily fill a whole library. Is there anything new to add to this voluminous body of arguments and contra-arguments that would justify editing another book on nuclear energy? Andrew Blowers and David Pepper obviously felt that way and published a reader on Nuclear Power in Crisis. The book consists of 13 articles covering mainly the political, social and ...

  16. 降低罗茨风机噪声的消声器研制%The noise depressing measures for Roots blower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程勒

    2001-01-01

    论述了自制消声器的设计计算及制造方法,举例说明这种降低罗茨风机噪声措施取得的明显效果,以及在石化企业中的应用。%The noise depressing measures for Roots blower,design,calculation and fabrication of the muffler are described.It shows that the m easures obtain obvious effect and can be applied in oil chemical plant.

  17. JOYO MK-III performance test report. Blower start-up test (PT-303), power-increase test (PT-301), rated power operation test (PT-302)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the MK-III performance test for the experimental fast reactor JOYO, the reactor thermal power was raised gradually with steps at about 20%, 50%, 75%, 90%, and 100% (140 MWt). The rated power of 140 MWt for the MK-III reactor core was reached on October 28, 2003. Then, it was operated continuously by rated power for 100 hours or more. The major results of the tests are as follows. (1) From standby states (sodium temperature of 250degC, isothermal condition), the rated power of 140 MWt for the MK-III reactor core was reached on October 28, 2003 by the usual power-increase operation (a power-up rate of about 5 MWt/20 min, where the power was held for about 10 minutes every 5 MWt). It was confirmed that the temperature and flow of sodium were the alarm setting values or less at each steps. (2) The blower start-up operation of which the parameter was the reactor thermal power was done, and the influence which it was on coolant temperature was confirmed. As a result, the optimal reactor thermal power to start up the blower from a natural ventilation cooling state was set to about 18 MWt, and the starting procedure was made into a method (order of 1A->2A->1B->2B) which starts four sets of one blower at a time one by one. (3) The reactor shutdown operation was confirmed by two simultaneous control-rod insertions at 35 MWt. It was confirmed to be carried out by a series of operations from the control rod insertion to the blower shutdown with enough time margin. By adopting this reactor shutdown operation, operation complexity was mitigated and plant characteristics also improved. (4) The rated power of 140 MWt was reached on November 14. It was operated continuously by rated power for 100 hours or more on November 20, 10:30. The detailed plant data was acquired at intervals of 24 hours, and was confirmed to be less than the alarm setting values. (author)

  18. Power consumption and parameter optimization of stalk impeller blowers%叶片式秸秆抛送装置功耗分析与参数优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟之平; 高搏; 杨忠义; 吴雅梅

    2013-01-01

    The impeller blower is widely used in various forage harvesters, such as crop straw choppers, rubbing, and breaking machines, to convey materials because of its simplicity, reliability, easy maintenance and adjustment, high capacity and low manufacturing cost. However, some undesired problems such as high power consumption, low throwing/blowing efficiency and high clogging probability also exist in the process of throwing/blowing the materials. In order to reduce the power consumption of the impeller blower and increase its blowing efficiency, the theoretical analyzing method was used to establish the mathematical models of the power consumption, firstly based on considering the airflow, which is suitable for forward-slant, backward-slant and radial paddle. The power consumption includes two parts. One part is the energy required to accelerate the materials that will obtain kinetic energy by means of the mechanical centrifugal force when the paddle rotates at high speed. The other part is the energy that accelerates the airflow in the impeller blower and helps the materials conveying under the condition of high rotating speed of the paddle. The first power consumption is related to the material-threw angle, namely, the rotation angle of the paddle in the course of hitting, carrying and throwing out of the material. When the material-threw angle is in the range from approximately 60°to 130°, all materials are thrown out of the housing under the condition of low energy consumption, high throwing/blowing efficiency and low clogging probability. However, when the material-threw angle is less than 60°or more than 130°, few materials are thrown out of the housing directly. Most of the materials will hit the housing, which causes most of the energy lost under the hitting energy E4c and a frictional energy E4f. Through validation by using the test data of the corn stalk, it shows that the computing power consumption by using this mathematical model of the power

  19. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 559: T Tunnel Compressor/Blower Pad, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-03-15

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) was prepared by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 559, T-Tunnel Compressor/Blower Pad. This CADD/CR is consistent with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 559 is comprised of one Corrective Action Site (CAS): • 12-25-13, Oil Stained Soil and Concrete The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure in place with use restrictions for CAU 559.

  20. Vibration analysis and online thermodynamic assessment of a turbo-blower turbine; Analisis de vibraciones y evaluacion termodinamica en linea de la turbina de un turbosoplador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz Q, Rodolfo; Marino L, Carlos; Ramirez S, Jose A.; Rivera G, Juan J. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    In this paper are presented the results of the analysis of dynamic and thermodynamic behavior analysis of a turbo-blower integrated by one 13,080 KW steam turbine and a blower with a flow of 131,520 ft{sup 3}/m, to determine the cause of the excessive wearing of the axial trust bearing of the steam turbine. The main cause of failure is the wearing and severe dirtiness of the turbine stages that contributes with an increment of the turbine axial load. The consequences of the turbine deterioration are: greater axial load due to the additional heating rotor (requires greater steam to generate the same power that in design conditions); turbine motive power reduction and the reduction of isentropic efficiency of the same, for similar average steam consumption between reference and test. Due to the former the turbine power represents a deviation of the 34.74% in Steam Specific Consumption (SSC). [Spanish] Se presenta los resultados del analisis del comportamiento dinamico y termodinamico de un turbosoplador integrado por una turbina de vapor de 13,080 KW y un soplador con un caudal de 131,520 pies{sup 3}/m, para determinar la causa del desgaste excesivo de la chumacera de empuje axial de la turbina de vapor. La causa principal de la falla es el desgaste y ensuciamiento severo de las etapas de la turbina que contribuye con un incremento de la carga axial de la turbina. Las consecuencias del deterioro de la turbina son: mayor carga axial debida al calentamiento adicional del rotor (requiere mayor vapor para generar la misma potencia que en condiciones de diseno); reduccion de la potencia motriz de la turbina y de la eficiencia isoentropica de las mismas, para un consumo de vapor promedio similar entre referencia y prueba. Debido a lo anterior la potencia de la turbina representa una desviacion del 34.74% en el Consumo Especifico de Vapor (CVE).

  1. A contribution on the investigation of the dynamic behavior of rotating shafts with a Hybrid Magnetic Bearing Concept (HMBC) for blower application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within a subproject of the RAPHAEL-Program, which was part of the 6th EURATOM Framework Program supervised by the European Commission, it was investigated whether the use of a Hybrid Magnetic Bearing Concept (HMBC) will be beneficial for a blower application. Within the RAPHAEL program, the subproject 'Component Development' is dealing with R and D of components of High Temperature Reactor Technology (HTR), where a major focus is on safety- and reliability-related issues. That implies special requirements for the support of high speed rotating shafts in HTR-Applications that only can be satisfied by using Active Magnetic Bearings (AMB). Regarding safety and competitiveness, AMBs are considered to be key components for the support of rotating HTR-components due to their technical features. AMBs are characterized by an electromagnetic actuator that is generating the bearing force depending on the clearance between stator and rotor, in which the rotor is levitated. Therefore an active control of the coil current is necessary. Furthermore, Touch Down Bearings (TDB) are needed to avoid damages in case of an emergency shut down or in case of energy supply losses. This contribution provides an internal insight on the advantages of a Hybrid Magnetic Bearing Concept that is characterized by a completely Active Magnetic Bearing-supported vertical arranged rotor and an additional permanent magnetic radial orientated bearing. One benefit of the HMBC is an additional radial guidance of the shaft that may reduce the loads while dropping into the Touch Down Bearings e.g. in case of energy supply losses of the AMBs. Reduced loads on the TDBs will increase their life cycle and the availability of the AMB supported component. The scope of this R and D-Project, which will be described more detailed in this contribution, includes: the analytical modeling and simulation of the dynamic behavior of the Hybrid Magnetic Bearing System; the modification of the completely AMB-supported test

  2. A contribution on the investigation of the dynamic behaviour of rotating shafts with a hybrid magnetic bearing concept (HMBC) for blower application - HTR2008-58045

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within a sub-project of the RAPHAEL-Program, which is part of the 6. EURATOM Framework Program supervised by the European Commission it was investigated whether the use of a Hybrid Magnetic Bearing Concept (HMBC) will be beneficial for a blower application. As in the RAPHAEL program the sub-project 'Component Development' deals with R and D on components of High Temperature Reactor Technology (HTR), a major focus is on safety- and reliability-related issues. That implies special requirements for the support of high speed rotating shafts in HTR-Applications that only can be satisfied by using Active Magnetic Bearings (AMB). Regarding safety and competitiveness, AMBs are considered key components for the support of rotating HTR-components due to their technical features. AMBs are characterized by an electromagnetic actuator that is generating the bearing force depending on the clearance between stator and rotor, in which the rotor is levitated. Therefore an active control of the coil current is necessary. Furthermore, Touch Down Bearings (TDB) are needed to avoid damages in case of an emergency shut down or in case of energy supply losses. This contribution provides an internal insight on the advantages of a Hybrid Magnetic Bearing Concept that is characterized by a completely Active Magnetic Bearing-supported vertical arranged rotor and an additional permanent magnetic Radial Bearing. One benefit of the HMBC is an additional radial guidance of the shaft that may reduce the loads while dropping into the Touch Down Bearings e.g. in case of energy supply losses of the AMBs. Reduced loads on the TDBs will increase their life cycle and the availability of the AMB supported component. The Scope of this R and D-Project, which will be described more detailed in this contribution, includes the analytical modeling and simulation of the dynamic behavior of the Hybrid Magnetic Bearing System, the modification of the completely AMB supported test facility FLP500 with a radial

  3. SO2主风机叶片断裂原因分析%Analysis of Fracture on SO2 Blower Blade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄世刚; 雷旻

    2014-01-01

    The impeller blade in an imported SO2 blower for sulfuric acid plant was fractured twice during normal operation. The cause of fracture was found by the SEM fractured appearance analysis, the metallographic structure, chemical composition analysis and static frequency measurement of vane. According to this conclusion, the project for safeguarding SO2 blower’s stable operation by localizing production of impeller and replacing semi-opened impeller by closed impeller was put forward.%硫酸装置某进口SO2主风机正常运行中先后两次发生叶轮叶片断裂事故,经断口SEM、金相组织、金属化学成分、叶片静频等方面的综合分析[1-3],找到了叶轮断裂失效的原因。根据该结论,提出了叶轮国产化改造方案,改半开式叶轮为闭式叶轮,保障了SO2主风机的稳定运行。

  4. 室外冰场环保清雪车的研制%Development of Environment Protection Snow Blower in Outdoor Ice Rinks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兴汉; 张霁虹; 柳洪涛

    2013-01-01

    Ice-snow sports is very popular in North China .Skating class of universities is one of the main courses of physical education in winter .But traditional artificial maintenance rink is slow and low quality , affecting the popularization and development of ice sports .In order to solve the problems that artificially sweeping snow is time -consuming and laborious , low efficiency and poor cleaning effect , the group con-ducted a research work on environment protection snow blower in outdoor ice rinks .Electric vehicle is de-signed , equipped with screw snow pushing device and belt snow brush .Using machinery to replace artifi-cially cleaning snow has fast speed , good effect , and practical significance to popularize and promote ice sports.%冰雪运动在我国北方很盛行,高校滑冰课是冬季体育课主要课程之一,但传统的人工维护冰场,速度慢、质量差,影响了冰上运动的普及和发展。为了解决人工清雪费时费力、效率低、清扫效果差的问题,课题组进行了室外冰场环保清雪车的研制工作。设计制造了环保电动车,配有螺旋推雪器和皮带扫雪刷并用的扫雪方式。用机械替代人力清雪能节省人力,速度快,效果好,对普及和推广冰上体育运动有实际意义。

  5. When Whistle-blowers Become the Story: The Problem of the ‘Third Victim’; Comment on “Cultures of Silence and Cultures of Voice: The Role of Whistleblowing in Healthcare Organisations”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Waring

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the healthcare context, whistleblowing has come to the fore of political, professional and public attention in the wake of major service scandals and mounting evidence of the routine threats to safety that patients face in their care. This paper offers a commentary and wider contextualisation of Mannion and Davies, ‘Cultures of silence and cultures of voice: the role of whistleblowing in healthcare organisations.’ It argues that closer attention is needed to the way in which whistle-blowers can become the focus and victim of raising concerns and speaking up.

  6. Construção e avaliação do desempenho de três abanadoras de sementes Construction and performance evaluation of three seed blowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. da Silva

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Os métodos de trilhamento das plantas não proporcionam grãos limpos, em condições de serem comercializados, semeados ou armazenados. É necessário que passem por um processo de limpeza com o fim de eliminar os fragmentos dos próprios grãos, detritos vegetais, folhas e pedaços de hastes. Os processos comuns de limpeza são pouco eficientes e os mais sofisticados podem não estar ao alcance de pequenos produtores. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, construir três abanadoras e avaliar seu desempenho em sementes de arroz. Uma abanadora é provida de ventilador acionado a pedal; a outra possui ventilador acionado por motor elétrico e a terceira possui ventilador e peneiras movimentados por motor elétrico. Foram abanadas sementes com diferentes teores de impureza e em diferentes taxas de alimentação das máquinas. As abanadoras apresentaram maior eficiência de limpeza nas sementes com menor teor de impureza e na menor taxa de alimentação das máquinas. A eficiência foi considerada adequada para as sementes que possuíam até 4% de impureza antes da abanação. Com 6% de impureza, as sementes devem ser abanadas por três vezes, para ficarem com menos de 1% de impureza. A perda de sementes pelas abanadoras foi desprezível.Usually, the available methods to trash cereal seeds do not provide a clean product, as required for commercialization, seeding and storage. For this purpose it is necessary to submit the seed lot to a cleaning process to eliminate grain fragments and other contaminants such as soil and plant particles. Common processing procedures are not efficient and other methods available, more sophisticated, are not economically suitable for small farmers. The objective of this study was to construct three different blowers and evaluate their performance on rice: one provided with a foot operated fan; a second with an electric fan; and a third with electric fan and screeners. Seed lots with different degrees of impurities and

  7. Field Test Evaluation of Conservation Retrofits of Low-Income, Single-Family Buildings in Wisconsin: Blower-Door-Directed Infiltration Reduction Procedure, Field Test Implementation and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gettings, M.B.

    2001-05-21

    A blower-door-directed infiltration retrofit procedure was field tested on 18 homes in south central Wisconsin. The procedure, developed by the Wisconsin Energy Conservation Corporation, includes recommended retrofit techniques as well as criteria for estimating the amount of cost-effective work to be performed on a house. A recommended expenditure level and target air leakage reduction, in air changes per hour at 50 Pascal (ACH50), are determined from the initial leakage rate measured. The procedure produced an average 16% reduction in air leakage rate. For the 7 houses recommended for retrofit, 89% of the targeted reductions were accomplished with 76% of the recommended expenditures. The average cost of retrofits per house was reduced by a factor of four compared with previous programs. The average payback period for recommended retrofits was 4.4 years, based on predicted energy savings computed from achieved air leakage reductions. Although exceptions occurred, the procedure's 8 ACH50 minimum initial leakage rate for advising retrofits to be performed appeared a good choice, based on cost-effective air leakage reduction. Houses with initial rates of 7 ACH50 or below consistently required substantially higher costs to achieve significant air leakage reductions. No statistically significant average annual energy savings was detected as a result of the infiltration retrofits. Average measured savings were -27 therm per year, indicating an increase in energy use, with a 90% confidence interval of 36 therm. Measured savings for individual houses varied widely in both positive and negative directions, indicating that factors not considered affected the results. Large individual confidence intervals indicate a need to increase the accuracy of such measurements as well as understand the factors which may cause such disparity. Recommendations for the procedure include more extensive training of retrofit crews, checks for minimum air exchange rates to insure air

  8. 基于Mixture模型的叶片式抛送装置内气固两相流模拟%Simulation of solid-gas two-phase flow in an impeller blower based on Mixture model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟之平; 杨忠义; 高博; 李健啸

    2013-01-01

    When an impeller blower is in operation, the materials in it are conveyed mainly by means of the paddle throwing and the airflow generated by a high-speed rotating impeller blowing. In order to reveal the influence of airflow in impeller blowers on material conveying, numerical models of the air flow in the impeller blowers using the computational fluid dynamics software Fluent were developed by some scholars at home and abroad. Basic characteristics of the airflow field were obtained, which would be useful for predicting the motion of the materials. However, the studies above mentioned aimed at airflow field only, without considering materials in it, so their conclusions were not accurate. To further study the solid-gas two-phase flow mechanism in an impeller blower, a three-dimensional simulation was performed for the solid-gas two-phase turbulent flow in the impeller blower by using FLUENT software with a mixture model and a standard k-ε turbulence model. In the numerical calculation, the finite volume method was used to discretize the governing equations. The SIMPLEC algorithm was applied for the solution of the discretized governing equations. For the calculated zones composed of rotating impeller and static housing, Moving Reference Frames (MRF) was used to simulate the two-phase flows in complex geometries. Comparisons between the simulated values and the measured values of materials velocity at the discharge vertical pipe by high-speed video in reference paper [4] were made, and the reliability of the numerical simulation was verified. Meanwhile, on the basis of the analysis of the law of materials flow, contrast simulations on variations in working parameters such as paddle numbers, impeller’s rotational speed, material-fed speed, and volume fraction of solid phase were carried out. It was concluded that:1) The mixture model was successfully applied to simulate the turbulent particle-gas two-phase flows in an impeller blower, and predict the conveying

  9. The FEM Calculation and Analysis for Rotor Disk of Heavy Blower%大型鼓风机转子轮盘强度的有限元计算与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高满旭; 宋华; 徐泽宁; 付丽华

    2001-01-01

    对某发电厂大型鼓风机转子轮盘强度进行了有限元计算与分析,确认了转子轮盘在出现沿叶片外弧的弧形沟槽后,略加修复仍可安全使用。该问题的研究方法与结果很有实用价值。%This text made FEM calculation and analysis for rotor disk of heavy blower in a plant, and found that the disk can be reused safely again after the arc grooves along outside of blade being repaired. The method and result are valuable to practice.

  10. 秸秆抛送装置抛送叶轮的振动特性分析%Analysis on vibration characteristics of throwing impeller of stalk impeller blower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟之平; 周雷; 杨忠义; 赵艳琼; 甘世明

    2015-01-01

    An impeller blower mainly consists of throwing impeller, shell, discharge tube, etc. When the impeller blower is working, the material is transported by mechanical centrifugal force and airflow which are generated by a high-speed rotating impeller. As the core component of the impeller blower, the impeller have to bear the comprehensive effect of the centrifugal force, the pressure of high-speed air flow inside the impeller blower and impeller gravity, which may produce violent vibration. The vibration will not only accelerate the throwing blade’s fatigue fracture and affect its service lifetime but also produce environmental noise. In the meantime, if the excitation frequency is closed to some-order natural frequency of the throwing impeller, the whole device would produce resonance which seriously affects the work performance, the service life and reliability of the impeller blower. Therefore, in order to improve the working performance of impeller blower and avoid the resonance, it is quite important to analyze the vibration characteristics of the throwing impeller. In this paper, the modal frequency and vibration types of the first 12-order free modal and constraint modal were calculated using the finite element analysis software ABAQUS. In order to verify the accuracy of numerical calculation, a modal test of the impeller was carried out using the PSV-500-3D Scanning Vibrometer, which showed the maximum error of numerical modal frequencies and experimental modal frequencies was 8.5%, the vibration types were basically the same, and the numerical calculation results were reliable. Based on analyzing the characteristics of external excitation frequency, the structural parameters such as blade number, blade thickness, whether reinforcement were simulated and compared. The results show that: 1) Prestress increased each order natural frequency of the impeller, and only the first and the second order frequency increased largely while other frequencies increased a

  11. What matters 2013. Construction and housing: Homes of tomorrow and beyond. Noise: Leaf blowers and engines. Protection of the marine environment: A blue economy - Threat or opportunity for the oceans? Annual report of the Federal Environment Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-11-01

    As of 2011, more people worldwide live in cities than in the country. The global consumption of resources, energy of heating, cooling or light, and daily environmental conditions such as air and noise pollution are very much characterised by the way we organise our cities. Although at the beginning of the industrial age, cities often were hostile, dirty and noisy places, they appealed greatly to the rural population. Today, the environmental quality of urban spaces in highly-developed countries has improved immensely. Hence, even in German, urban areas have been able to show a small population increase in the past few years. Under this aspect, the paper under consideration consists of the following contributions: (a) The EU and the two-degree limit (The many advantages of Germany's pioneering role); (b) Homes of tomorrow and beyond (A central sector for climate and site protection, the energy revolution and health); (c) Leaf blowers and engines (The struggle against noise pollution must include people); (d) A blue economy - threat or opportunity for the oceans? (Overfishing, enthrophication, contaminants and litter are threatening the oceans, but there are solutions); (e) Certificate for renewable energy (Te Federal Environment Agency's proof of origin); (f) On the gas trail (Our air monitoring network records air pollution, across borders and globally); (g) the environmental specimen bank (Environmental observation with samples from humans and the environment).

  12. Research of Digital Power Amplifier Simulation for High-power Blower with Active Magnetic Bearing%大功率磁悬浮鼓风机数字功放的仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于文涛; 刘淑琴

    2011-01-01

    High-power blower with active magnetic bearing (AMB) has advantages of small, high speed, high reliability, low noise, it uses three-level digital switching power amplifier base on field programmable gate array (FPGA). Using Matlab/Simulink power system blackset library to complete the model of half-bridge circuit and current sensing circuit, simulate the FPGA internal data processing by embedded M-function modules.The simulation and experimental results verify the correctness of this method of modeling.It provides a new accurate method for simulation of digital circuit power amplifier.%大功率磁悬浮轴承鼓风机具有体积小、转速高、可靠性高、噪音低等优点,其功率放大器采用基于现场可编程门阵列(FPGA)的三电平PWM数字功放,应用Matlab/Simulink中基于电力系统模块集库,完成数字功放电路中的半桥电路和电流采样电路的建模,通过植入M函数文件内嵌功能模块模拟了FPGA内部的数据处理流程.仿真与实验结果验证了该建模方法的正确性,为数字电路功放的仿真提供了新的准确方法.

  13. Numerical Simulation of Internal Airflow Field in a Centrifugal Blower Zhang Dengchun, Chen Huanxin/School of Energy and Power Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology%离心鼓风机整机内部流场数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张登春; 陈焕新; 陈亚洲

    2015-01-01

    采用稳态可压缩雷诺时均N-S方程、标准k-ε湍流模型和非结构化网格,应用计算流体力学软件Fluent对某离心鼓风机整机内流场进行了数值模拟,得出了鼓风机的整个运行工况曲线,对近设计工况点内部流场进行了深入分析。结果表明:风机在工作区内运行较为平稳,叶轮内部流道压力和速度变化过程合理,叶轮内部的流动损失较少;蜗壳的出口区域的回流状况和蜗壳内流动的不均匀性,使气流在蜗壳内的流动损失较大,是导致风机效率不高的重要原因,因此,需要通过对蜗壳的改型以达到提高效率的目的。%Based on steady compressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equat-ion, standard turbulent model and unstructured grid, the whole internal airflow in a certain type centrifugal blower is numerically simulated through CFD software Fluent. The entire performance curve is plotted by the numerical results. The internal airflow field is also analyzed deeply near the design point. The results show that the blower is working in a safety zone. The change of the pressure and velocity at the whole flow channel is reasonably, and the flow loss of the impeller is small. The backflow in the export of the volute and the asymmetrical flow in the volute which lead to higher flow losses in the volute. Those are the important reasons leading to the low efficiency of the centrifugal blower. So the modification of the volute is needed to achieve the higher efficiency of blower.

  14. Field Test Evaluation of Conservation Retrofits of Low-Income, Single-Family Buildings in Wisconsin: Blower-Door-Directed Infiltration Reduction Procedure, Field Test Implementation and Results; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A blower-door-directed infiltration retrofit procedure was field tested on 18 homes in south central Wisconsin. The procedure, developed by the Wisconsin Energy Conservation Corporation, includes recommended retrofit techniques as well as criteria for estimating the amount of cost-effective work to be performed on a house. A recommended expenditure level and target air leakage reduction, in air changes per hour at 50 Pascal (ACH50), are determined from the initial leakage rate measured. The procedure produced an average 16% reduction in air leakage rate. For the 7 houses recommended for retrofit, 89% of the targeted reductions were accomplished with 76% of the recommended expenditures. The average cost of retrofits per house was reduced by a factor of four compared with previous programs. The average payback period for recommended retrofits was 4.4 years, based on predicted energy savings computed from achieved air leakage reductions. Although exceptions occurred, the procedure's 8 ACH50 minimum initial leakage rate for advising retrofits to be performed appeared a good choice, based on cost-effective air leakage reduction. Houses with initial rates of 7 ACH50 or below consistently required substantially higher costs to achieve significant air leakage reductions. No statistically significant average annual energy savings was detected as a result of the infiltration retrofits. Average measured savings were -27 therm per year, indicating an increase in energy use, with a 90% confidence interval of 36 therm. Measured savings for individual houses varied widely in both positive and negative directions, indicating that factors not considered affected the results. Large individual confidence intervals indicate a need to increase the accuracy of such measurements as well as understand the factors which may cause such disparity. Recommendations for the procedure include more extensive training of retrofit crews, checks for minimum air exchange rates to insure air quality

  15. Sicle software. Pumps and blowers modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SICLE software includes a simplified modelization for pumps located on fluid circuits. This modelization is based on operating specifications (four quadrants), on energy conservation equation and on the second law of dynamics. The pump is considered like a punctual component without storage of mass or energy. In that case, it is the simplest punctual component of the different elementary modules of SICLE. Nevertheless, for a user, it represents one of the most complex component to model because of the many geometrical (driving or not by motor, turbine with or without coupling, etc...) and functional possibilities (operating in the four quadrants, motor specifications, turbines specifications, internal loss values, etc...). (authors). 4 figs., 1 ref

  16. Measurement of rotating stall in a centrifugal blower by semiconductor laser 2-focus velocimeter. 1st Report. ; Measurement of blade-to-blade distribution of velocity fluctuation. Handotai laser nishoten ryusokukei ni yoru enshin sofuki senkai shissoku no keisoku. 1. ; Sokudo hendo no yokukan bunpu keisoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaguchi, D.; Ishida, M.; Ueki, H.; Surana, T. (Nagasaki University, Nagasaki (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1994-03-25

    Measurement has been made on flows with from the design flow rate for an open type impeller having rearward tilting blades to a low flow rate that causes a rotating stall. The measurement was carried out in the impeller path just before the impeller outlet, just after the impeller outlet, and a vaneless diffuser by using a semiconductor laser 2-focus velocimeter. Probability density distribution of the velocity data was analyzed. The tested centrifugal blower has a radius of 255 mm at the impeller outlet, a blade inlet angle of 28 degrees, a blade outlet angle of 45 degrees, and 16 blades. The velocimeter consists of a semiconductor laser light source with a maximum output of 100 mW, an optic lens system, and two photodiodes to receive scattered lights from scattered particles. Measurements were made on the impeller characteristics and the inter-blade relative velocity distribution when the impeller was rotated at 2000 rpm. The velocity fluctuation downstream the impeller at flow rates before and after generation of the rotating stall created decrease in the size of an absolute velocity with the more inward the flow direction faces from the circumferential direction. This is inferred to have been caused from a torsional boundary layer flow on the diffuser wall. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  17. Protecting whistle-blowers: Anonymity on the internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even though strict legislation exists in many countries, it appears that the next few years should be a golden opportunity for groups to successfully monitor and publish the activity of the nuclear states, and human right violations through use of the Internet. The reasons for this are: 1. The Internet is becoming widespread even in repressive regimes; 2. Software is available to either hide messages from others or hide the mailers account; 3. Information from sites in other countries can be easily obtained to be read inside repressive regimes from the Internet. In this regard It is suggested the Pugwash or a similar organization should set up either an anonymous account to receive information or maybe use a more heavily protected cyperpunk remailer. Such an ability would hopefully prompt more people to notify treaty violations

  18. Residential Forced Air System Cabinet Leakage and Blower Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Iain S.

    2010-01-01

    This project evaluated the air leakage and electric power consumption of Residential HVAC components, with a particular focus on air leakage of furnace cabinets. Laboratory testing of HVAC components indicated that air leakage can be significant and highly variable from unit to unit ? indicating the need for a standard test method and specifying maximum allowable air leakage in California State energy codes. To further this effort, this project provided technical assistance for the developm...

  19. Noise and noise abatement in fans and blowers: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neise, W.

    1980-03-01

    Noise generation and its reduction industrial fans (ventilators) is addressed. A review is given of the fan types commonly in use and their practical applications, the mechanisms of the aerodynamic noise generation in fans, theoretical and empirical prediction methods for fan noise, acoustic similarity laws, and noise reduction methods by means of the fan construction and fan operation. Measurement procedures are discussed with respect to the noise radiated from different parts of a fan, e.g. from the fan inlet or outlet, from the fan casing, from the fan as a whole, and to the noise radiated into ducts connected to the fan. Finally, considerations are made, for which classes of fans noise standards can be defined to characterize the noise emission of the various fan types.

  20. Boundary model-based reference control of blower cooled high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans-Christian Becker; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2011-01-01

    Fuel cells have, by design, a limited effective life time, which depends on how they are operated. The general consent is that operation of the fuel cell at the extreme of the operational range, or operation of the fuel cell without sufficient reactants (a.k.a. starvation), will lower the effecti...

  1. Pressure loss due to the tip clearance of impellar blades in centrifugal and axial blowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senoo, Y.

    Equations to evaluate pressure loss based on the tip clearance of impeller blades (pressure loss induced by the leakage flow through the clearance, and pressure loss for supporting fluid against the pressure gradient in the thin annular clearance space between the shroud and the impeller) are derived. The predicted pressure losses are compared with experimental data for two types of centrifugal impellers. The equations are simplified for axial impellers as a special case, and the predicted efficiency-drop is compared with the experimental data for seven cases. Good agreement is demonstrated.

  2. Optimum geometry for boiler soot blowers nozzles; Geometria optima de toberas para deshollinadores de caldera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza Garza, Jesus; Garcia Tinoco, Guillermo J.; Martinez Flores, Jose Oscar [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1989-12-31

    For boiler soot blowing converging-diverging nozzles are employed, whose function is to convert thermal energy of a gas into kinetic energy to remove the deposits that adhere to the heat exchanger surfaces. In this paper are described the experimental equipment and the methods for flow, dynamic pressure, discharge velocity and air expansion factor calculation in each nozzle, as a function of its design geometry, utilizing air from a five stage centrifugal compressor. The graphic analysis of the results, concludes that the most efficient nozzles are not the ones than develop the greatest velocity, but the ones of highest dynamic pressure at the outlet. The nozzle geometry that allows obtaining the maximum dynamic air pressure at the discharge is A{sub 2}/A{sub g}=1.3676 [Espanol] Para el deshollinado de calderas se utilizan las toberas convergentes-divergentes, cuya funcion es convertir la energia termica de un gas en energia cinetica para remover los depositos que se adhieren a las superficies de intercambio de calor. En este trabajo se describen el equipo experimental y los metodos de calculo para flujo, presion dinamica, velocidad a la descarga y factor de expansion del aire en cada tobera, como funcion de su geometria de diseno. Durante la experimentacion se evaluaron siete disenos diferentes de toberas, empleando aire de un compresor centrifugo de cinco etapas. Del analisis grafico de los resultados, se concluye que las toberas mas eficientes no son las que desarrollan mayor velocidad sino las de mayor presion dinamica de la salida. La geometria de tobera que permite obtener la maxima presion dinamica del aire a la descarga es A{sub 2}/A{sub g} = 1.3676.

  3. Blower door tests of a group of identical flats in a new student accommodation in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotol, Martin; Rode, Carsten; Vahala, Jan

    A new student accommodation for engineering students “Apisseq” was built in the town of Sisimiut, Greenland in 2010. Its purpose is not only to provide accommodation for students. Thanks to its complex monitoring system it enables researchers to evaluate the building’s energy performance and indoor...... is as high as 400%. This result is without consideration of one particular flat which had the extreme result of being 940% as leaky as the unit with the highest air tightness. The reasons for such poor air tightness are lack of the installation gap between the vapour barrier and the inner wall, and...

  4. DCS系统在鼓风机控制中的应用%The DCS Control System in Blower Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王心量; 殷倩倩

    2013-01-01

    本文主要介绍了DCS控制系统在莱钢焦化厂鼓风机改造中的应用,重点介绍了鼓风机改造的技术要点,并对鼓风机改造前的现状和改造后的效果进行了简要阐述。%This paper from the system of instrument and control part, steam turbine control system technology,comprehensive analysis,through the use of soft measurement and optimization mathematics model,timely detection,reject and error correction data,effective protection of generator normal operation,raise the steam generating system in LaiGang generation rate.

  5. Construção e avaliação do desempenho de três abanadoras de sementes Construction and performance evaluation of three seed blowers

    OpenAIRE

    José G. da Silva; Dino M. Soares

    2006-01-01

    Os métodos de trilhamento das plantas não proporcionam grãos limpos, em condições de serem comercializados, semeados ou armazenados. É necessário que passem por um processo de limpeza com o fim de eliminar os fragmentos dos próprios grãos, detritos vegetais, folhas e pedaços de hastes. Os processos comuns de limpeza são pouco eficientes e os mais sofisticados podem não estar ao alcance de pequenos produtores. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, construir três abanadoras e avaliar seu desempenho ...

  6. Upgrading of the Control Program for Anti-surge System of Blast Furnace Blower%高炉鼓风机防喘系统控制程序优化改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段伦俊

    2015-01-01

    The performance of the Yingqian No.1 generator unit of Laiwu Steel’s power plant did not match the operation conditions of the blast furnaces. In order to ensure normal and stable production of the blast furnaces, through optimizing transformation of the control program for the anti-surge system the performance of No.1 generator unit was improved and production cost reduced.%莱钢能源动力厂银前1#机组性能与高炉冶炼工况不匹配,为确保高炉正常稳定生产,通过对防喘系统控制程序优化改造,提高1#机组性能同时节约了生产成本。

  7. NTS双吹瓶机气流传送带解决最复杂的装瓶(PET胶瓶)生产线%The NTS Dual- Blower Air Conveyor the Solution for the Most Complex PET Bottling Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ 法国NTS双吹瓶机气流传送带的原理是:将胶瓶的机械自动定位功能和在瓶颈凸缘上下方分别鼓风两者结合起来,满足最复杂的装瓶(PET胶瓶)生产线的要求,因为这种生产线要求输送方式多样化,瓶子形状变化多,输送量大.

  8. Wet clutch and its application in the blowers and pumps%液体粘性调速离合器在风机和水泵中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪琢; 杨承三

    2006-01-01

    这里简要的介绍了液体粘性调速离合器的工作原理,及其在风机、水泵中的应用.结合风机、水泵的特性,采用液体粘性离合器可以大幅度的提高运行效率、降低投资成本与运行成本.

  9. 10 CFR Appendix C to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Gaseous Diffusion Enrichment Plant Assemblies and Components Under NRC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Gas Blowers Especially designed or prepared axial, centrifugal, or positive displacement compressors... compressor or the gas blower rotor with the driver motor so as to ensure a reliable seal against in-leaking of air into the inner chamber of the compressor or gas blower which is filled with UF6. Such...

  10. Whistle-blowing: effective and ineffective coping responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, S; Ahern, K

    1999-01-01

    How do nurses respond when they identify misconduct in patient care settings? The authors used a descriptive survey (N = 95) to identify effective coping strategies of whistle-blowers (n = 70) and non-whistle-blowers (n = 25). Results identified four effective coping strategies used by whistle-blowers. The authors offer recommendations to nurses who encounter misconduct in their workplace. PMID:10795263

  11. Retrofit device and method to improve humidity control of vapor compression cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Robert Paul; Hahn, David C.; Scaringe, Robert P.

    2016-08-16

    A method and device for improving moisture removal capacity of a vapor compression system is disclosed. The vapor compression system is started up with the evaporator blower initially set to a high speed. A relative humidity in a return air stream is measured with the evaporator blower operating at the high speed. If the measured humidity is above the predetermined high relative humidity value, the evaporator blower speed is reduced from the initially set high speed to the lowest possible speed. The device is a control board connected with the blower and uses a predetermined change in measured relative humidity to control the blower motor speed.

  12. Development of maintenance technology for rotation equipments in the Tokai reprocessing plant. 1. Failure analysis for configuration parts of rotating equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many rotating equipments, such as blowers and pumps, are installed in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant. Blowers are important to keep containment ability of nuclear materials in the plant. This work focuses on the function of the blowers as an object of the evaluation. MTTF (Mean Time To Failure) and failure ratio distribution of the configuration parts in the blower were obtained from the maintenance data based on 30-year experiences. The reliability of every parts in the blower was evaluated by calculating MTBF (Mean Time Before Failure), which is based on the results of MTTF and failure ratio distribution. As a result of these analyses, the blowers have sufficient degree of reliability, and our maintenance system to prevent failures has been performed adequately. (author)

  13. Positive pressure breathing during rest and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hartog, E A; Heus, R

    2003-03-01

    The requirements to maintain a positive pressure with respiratory protection during heavy exercise and the effects on ventilation and feelings of discomfort were investigated. Eight male subjects participated, using the respirator system during rest and exercise at about 80% of their individual maximum power. A blower was used at maximum and medium capacity and at two pressure levels (3 and 15 mbar). Additionally, the mouth pressure was used as a feedback for the blower. The blower decreased the fraction of the breathing cycle with negative pressures from 50% (SD 4%) to 15% (SD 10%) during exercise. Negative pressures occurred at all settings of the blower during exercise. Thus, the currently available commercial blower systems do not supply a sufficient airflow to maintain a positive pressure during heavy exercise. Positive pressure breathing did not affect the ventilation and the circulation. But the oxygen consumption was higher with the blower and respirator than without. PMID:12628576

  14. 薄壁奥氏体不锈钢吹灰器外套管对接焊缝内外表面裂纹的超声波在役检测%Inservice Ultrasonic Detection of the Inside and Outside Surface Cracks in the Butt Welded Seams of the Thin-Wall Casing Tubes of Austenitic Stainless Steel Soot Blower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田旭海; 李永胜

    2005-01-01

    2003年上半年,华北某发电公司1和2号锅炉运行过程中,外套管焊缝发生两次断裂,由于吹灰汽体和链条传动作用,外套管断裂后被顶人前炉膛,坠人炉底,如砸伤水冷壁,将会造成严重后果。

  15. 10 CFR Appendix D to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Aerodynamic Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... separation is accomplished by the generation of high centrifugal forces over a curved-wall geometry. Two...) Compressors and gas blowers. Especially designed or prepared axial, centrifugal, or positive displacement... connecting the compressor rotor or the gas blower rotor with the driver motor to ensure a reliable...

  16. An Updated Equilibrium Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Emeric

    2008-01-01

    A device that can demonstrate equilibrium, kinetic, and thermodynamic concepts is described. The device consists of a leaf blower attached to a plastic container divided into two chambers by a barrier of variable size and form. Styrofoam balls can be exchanged across the barrier when the leaf blower is turned on and various air pressures are…

  17. Comparison of Three Insect Sampling Methods in Sweetpotato Foliage in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three sampling methods-sweep-net, hand-vacuum modified from a leaf vacuum/blower, and a wheeled, blower-vacuum designed to blow insects from the foliage into the vacuum port of a leaf vacuum-were compared as methods for sampling insects in sweetpotatoes, lpomead batatas L. Results of the 4-yr study...

  18. R-MCJ10042201-1A_PADT_PhaseII-report-final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Mark Christian

    2010-04-22

    The thrust of this R&D effort was to develop technology that serves the SOFC industry and help developers in this industry to succeed. In particular this project focused on fluid handling equipment that supported the SOFC stack. Two devices were developed: the Hot Anode Recycle Blower (HARB) blower which will serve hot anode gas requirements in FutureGen demonstration units, and the small multi stage (SMS) blower which will serve warm anode and cathode gas requirements for SOFC and other fuel cell industries.

  19. Filter material charging apparatus for filter assembly for radioactive contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A filter charging apparatus for a filter assembly is described. The filter assembly includes a housing with at least one filter bed therein and the filter charging apparatus for adding filter material to the filter assembly includes a tank with an opening therein, the tank opening being disposed in flow communication with opposed first and second conduit means, the first conduit means being in flow communication with the filter assembly housing and the second conduit means being in flow communication with a blower means. Upon activation of the blower means, the blower means pneumatically conveys the filter material from the tank to the filter housing

  20. 9 CFR 590.546 - Albumen flake process drying facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., dust, and dirt. (c) Premix-type burners, if used, shall be equipped with approved air filters at blower... as will permit thorough cleaning and be in accordance with the specification for the type of...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1217-96 - Evaporative emission enclosure calibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mixing blower (if not already on). (6) Seal enclosure and measure background hydrocarbon concentration...), seal the enclosure and measure background hydrocarbon concentration, background methanol, temperature... accomplished by constant flow metering using critical flow orifice devices.) (i) Obtain a small cylinder...

  2. Fuel burner with air-deflecting object and method therefor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durfee, E.P.

    1980-12-16

    There is provided an improved fuel burner of the type having an air blower and blast tube. The improvement involves placement of an air-deflecting object inside the housing of the air blower or in the blast tube. In one embodiment, the object has a v-shaped cross section, and is attached to a gently tapered cylinder; the object can be held in place by inserting it through a hole of appropriate dimension in the air blower or blast tube, and tapping on the exposed end of the tapered cylinder until the latter is engaged in the hole. There is also provided a method of improving a fuel burner by mounting a air-deflecting object of the type described in the air blower housing or in the blast tube.

  3. Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Noise from lawn mowers, snow blowers, or loud music can damage the inner ear. This can result ... see if another medicine can be used. Sudden deafness is a medical emergency that may be curable ...

  4. 30 CFR 75.341 - Direct-fired intake air heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.341 Direct-fired intake... off automatically. (b) Thermal overload devices shall protect the blower motor from overheating....

  5. 9 CFR 3.77 - Sheltered housing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., in accordance with generally accepted professional and husbandry practices. (b) Ventilation. The... moisture condensation. Ventilation must be provided by windows, doors, vents, fans, or air conditioning. Auxiliary ventilation, such as fans, blowers, or air conditioning, must be provided when the...

  6. 76 FR 51344 - Notice of Funds Availability for Section 514 Farm Labor Housing Loans and Section 516 Farm Labor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ..., ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment with Energy Star qualified heating, HVAC equipment. (3... least 15 percent as determined by pre- and post-rehabilitation blower door testing on a sample of...

  7. Air embolism during off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery -A case report-

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Choo-Hoon; Shin, Young Hee; Cho, Hyun-Sung

    2012-01-01

    There have been several reports of gas embolism occurring during off-pump coronary artery bypass graft (OPCAB) surgery. However, all these cases of air embolism were associated with the repair of venous circulation, using a CO2 blower. In this report, we describe a rare case of air embolism in the coronary arteries associated with the use of a CO2 blower during OPCAB. There was no injury to the veins during OPCAB. The air embolism was treated successfully with cardiopulmonary bypass.

  8. Multiple Flow Loop SCADA System Implemented on the Production Prototype Loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following report covers FY 15 activities to develop supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system for the Northstar Moly99 production prototype gas flow loop. The goal of this effort is to expand the existing system to include a second flow loop with a larger production-sized blower. Besides testing the larger blower, this system will demonstrate the scalability of our solution to multiple flow loops.

  9. Multiple Flow Loop SCADA System Implemented on the Production Prototype Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baily, Scott A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dalmas, Dale Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wheat, Robert Mitchell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-16

    The following report covers FY 15 activities to develop supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system for the Northstar Moly99 production prototype gas flow loop. The goal of this effort is to expand the existing system to include a second flow loop with a larger production-sized blower. Besides testing the larger blower, this system will demonstrate the scalability of our solution to multiple flow loops.

  10. Multifamily Envelope Leakage Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faakye, Omari [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Griffiths, Dianne [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-05-08

    “The cost for blower testing is high, because it is labor intensive, and it may disrupt occupants in multiple units. This high cost and disruption deter program participants, and dissuade them from pursuing energy improvements that would trigger air leakage testing, such as improvements to the building envelope.” This statement found in a 2012 report by Heschong Mahone Group for several California interests emphasizes the importance of reducing the cost and complexity of blower testing in multifamily buildings. Energy efficiency opportunities are being bypassed. The cost of single blower testing is on the order of $300. The cost for guarded blower door testing—the more appropriate test for assessing energy savings opportunities—could easily be six times that, and that’s only if you have the equipment and simultaneous access to multiple apartments. Thus, the proper test is simply not performed. This research seeks to provide an algorithm for predicting the guarded blower door test result based upon a single, total blower door test.

  11. Performance Characterization of the Production Facility Prototype Helium Flow System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dalmas, Dale Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Frank Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-16

    The roots blower in use at ANL for in-beam experiments and also at LANL for flow tests was sized for 12 mm diameter disks and significantly less beam heating. Currently, the disks are 29 mm in diameter, with a 12 mm FWHM Gaussian beam spot at 42 MeV and 2.86 μA on each side of the target, 5.72 μA total. The target design itself is reported elsewhere. With the increased beam heating, the helium flow requirement increased so that a larger blower was need for a mass flow rate of 400 g/s at 2.76 MPa (400 psig). An Aerzen GM 12.4 blower was selected, and is currently being installed at the LANL facility for target and component flow testing. This report describes this blower/motor/pressure vessel package and the status of the facility preparations. Blower performance (mass flow rate as a function of loop pressure drop) was measured at 4 blower speeds. Results are reported below.

  12. Energy consumption in terms of shear stress for two types of membrane bioreactors used for municipal wastewater treatment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratkovich, Nicolas; Bentzen, Thomas R.; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2012-10-01

    Two types of submerged membrane bioreactors (MBR): hollow fiber (HF) and hollow sheet (HS), have been studied and compared in terms of energy consumption and average shear stress over the membrane wall. The analysis of energy consumption was made using the correlation to determine the blower power and the blower power demand per unit of permeate volume. Results showed that for the system geometries considered, in terms the of the blower power, the HF MBR requires less power compared to HS MBR. However, in terms of blower power per unit of permeate volume, the HS MBR requires less energy. The analysis of shear stress over the membrane surface was made using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling. Experimental measurements for the HF MBR were compared with the CFD model and an error less that 8% was obtained. For the HS MBR, experimental measurements of velocity profiles were made and an error of 11% was found. This work uses an empirical relationship to determine the shear stress based on the ratio of aeration blower power to tank volume. This relationship is used in bubble column reactors and it is extrapolate to determine shear stress on MBR systems. This relationship proved to be overestimated by 28% compared to experimental measurements and CFD results. Therefore, a corrective factor is included in the relationship in order to account for the membrane placed inside the bioreactor.

  13. Recovering device for piece of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention concerns a novel device for recovering nuclear material pieces for recovering fabrication wastes generated in the manufacturing step of nuclear fuels in a glovebox. A suction power portion is constituted by assembling a plurality of ejectors which send pressurized air from the outside and jet it at a high speed to cause a negative pressure or assembling an ejector and a blower. Further, the outer side of a solid filter is coated with a bag filter made of resin fibers. The bag filter is formed by such a flexible member that extends by its own clogging. A back washing means is disposed for back washing the solid filter by pressurized air when it is clogged. Then, since the ejector is disposed to the suction side of the blower, the sucking force of the ejector is added to that of only the blower to enable the recovery of relatively large sized pieces such as pellet fabrication wastes. Further, even when the filter is clogged, the exhausted air from the ejector is supplied to the blower to reduce the load of the motor of the blower thereby preventing heating failures thereof. (N.H.)

  14. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON A VAPOR COMPRESSION REFRIGERATION CYCLE BY ADDING INTERNAL HEAT EXCHANGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asmail Eleiwi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Thispaper presents practical study to improve the indication COP of a vaporcompression refrigeration cycle in instrumented automobile air conditioner bydesigning internal heat exchanger and installing it in the vapor compressionrefrigeration cycle.  Two cases of  vapor compression refrigeration cycle were takenin this paper:  the first case is thatthe vapor compression refrigeration cycle without internal heat exchanger andin  the second case the vapor compressionrefrigeration cycle with heat exchanger ; in these two cases, the temperatureat each point of  a vapor compressionrefrigeration cycle, the low and the high pressure ,the indoor temperature andthe outdoor temperature were measured at each time at compressor speed 1450 rpmand 2900 rpm for each blower speed 1, blower speed 2 and blower speed 3.Therefrigerant fluid was used in the vapor compression refrigeration cycle withoutIHE and with IHE is R134a..

  15. Expert system for selective sootblowing; Sistema experto soplado selectivo (S3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, J.; Vilda, E.; Rodriguez, J.J.; Herrera, J.A. [Compania Sevillana de Electricided, S.A., Cadiz (Spain). Central Termica Los Barrios

    1994-12-31

    Cleaning of areas that absorb heat in steam generator equipment is one of the main operations that need improving. A system is suggested to control the fouling of the boiler which makes it possible to optimize the blowing operation with a selective use at each moment of blowers which allow the fouling of the heat transfer areas to be kept within reasonable limits without an excess use of blowers, so that this system allows operators to center their attention upon those specific zones which need cleaning. This fouling control system has the following objectives: increased boiler efficiency, reduction of the consumption of steam for blowers and water supply to temper the superheater and/or reheater; prolonging the life of boiler pipes, eliminating unnecessary or excessive blowing which produce erosion in the pipes; and a reduction in emission levels of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2} and CO. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  16. High efficiency stoichiometric internal combustion engine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsor, Richard Edward; Chase, Scott Allen

    2009-06-02

    A power system including a stoichiometric compression ignition engine in which a roots blower is positioned in the air intake for the engine to control air flow. Air flow is decreased during part power conditions to maintain the air-fuel ratio in the combustion chamber of the engine at stoichiometric, thus enabling the use of inexpensive three-way catalyst to reduce oxides of nitrogen. The roots blower is connected to a motor generator so that when air flow is reduced, electrical energy is stored which is made available either to the roots blower to temporarily increase air flow or to the system electrical load and thus recapture energy that would otherwise be lost in reducing air flow.

  17. Dynamic Modeling of a Reformed Methanol Fuel Cell System using Empirical Data and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Kristian Kjær; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Shaker, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a dynamic MATLAB Simulink model of a H3-350 Reformed Methanol Fuel Cell (RMFC) stand-alone battery charger produced by Serenergy is developed on the basis of theoretical and empirical methods. The advantage of RMFC systems is that they use liquid methanol as a fuel instead of gaseous...... hydrogen, which is difficult and energy consuming to store and transport. The models include thermal equilibrium models of the individual components of the system. Models of the heating and cooling of the gas flows between components are also modeled and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System models of the...... reforming process are implemented. Models of the cooling flow of the blowers for the fuel cell and the burner which supplies process heat for the reformer are made. The two blowers have a common exhaust, which means that the two blowers influence each other’s output. The models take this into account using...

  18. Technology Solutions Case Study: Predicting Envelope Leakage in Attached Dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-11-01

    The most common method of measuring air leakage is to perform single (or solo) blower door pressurization and/or depressurization test. In detached housing, the single blower door test measures leakage to the outside. In attached housing, however, this “solo” test method measures both air leakage to the outside and air leakage between adjacent units through common surfaces. In an attempt to create a simplified tool for predicting leakage to the outside, Building America team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) performed a preliminary statistical analysis on blower door test results from 112 attached dwelling units in four apartment complexes. Although the subject data set is limited in size and variety, the preliminary analyses suggest significant predictors are present and support the development of a predictive model. Further data collection is underway to create a more robust prediction tool for use across different construction types, climate zones, and unit configurations.

  19. Apparatus for treating radioactive vent gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Object: To reduce radioactivity contained in gaseous waste discharged from the chimney of an atomic power plant. Structure: An air sponger and liquid level gauge are provided within a radioactive waste liquid tank. Every time the waste liquid flows into said tank air is supplied from a blower through an on-off valve into a sponger to agitate the waste liquid. On the other hand, air is always supplied from a blower to said liquid level gauge. These air streams pass through the waste liquid and flow through a vent duct together with radioactive gas and mist. The vent gas is heated by a heater for reduction of the relative humidity and then led to an active carbon adsorption layer for removing radioactive gas through adsorption, and they are then withdrawn through a surge tank by a blower. (Kamimura, M.)

  20. A study of reducing radon level by ventilation in underground space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using Model 1027 continuous radon monitor, a test of reducing radon level by ventilation in underground space was done. Four different types of ventilation, i.e. by air pump (P), by air intake blower (B), by air pump and air intake blower simultaneously (PBS), and by air pump and air intake blower in turn (PBT), were examined. The authors found that efficiency of PBS is the highest among these ventilation type. Having ventilated the underground space with PBS for 1, 2 or 3 hours in three different days, and having observed the radon concentration change in the following 24 hours, the authors can conclude that it is safe for people to stay there during the eight working hours if the underground space is ventilated for 2 hours everyday in the morning. (authors)

  1. Demonstration test on the safety of a cell ventilation system during a hypothetical explosive burning in a fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To demonstrate the safety of an air ventilation system of cells in a fuel reprocessing plant under a postulated explosive burning caused by solvent fire or by thermal decomposition of nitrated solvent, four types of demonstration tests have been conducted using a large-scale facility simulating a cell ventilation system of an actual reprocessing plant, thus revealing effective mitigation by cell and duct structures on the pressure and temperature pulses generated by explosive burning. In boilover burning tests, solvent fire in a model cell was observed with various sizes of burning surface area as a main parameter, and analysis was performed on the factors dominating the magnitude of boilover burning, revealing that the magnitude strongly depends on accumulated amounts and their ratio of oxygen and solvent vapor present in the cell. In deflagration tests, solid rocket fuel was burned in the cell to simulate the explosive source. The generated pressure and temperature pulses were effectively declined by the cell and duct structures and the integrity of the ventilation system was kept. In blower tests, a centrifugal turbo blower was imposed by a lump of air with a larger flow rate than the rated one by about six times to observe the transient response of the blower fan and motor. It was found that integrity of the blower was kept. In pressure transient tests, compressed air was blown into the cell to induce a mild transient state of fluid dynamics inside the facility, and a variety of data were successfully obtained to be used for the verification and improvement of a computer code. In all the tests, transient overloading of gas caused no damage on HEPA filters, and overloading on the blower motor was avoided either by the slipping of transmission belt or by the acceleration of blower fan rotation during peak flow. (author)

  2. Modelling of ventilation systems of facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle using the extended FIPLOC code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FIPLOC 3.1 code is also applied to analyse accidents with an aerosol release in facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle. A new blower model with a given pressure-volume flow-characteristic was developed and implemented in FIPLOC. With this model, blowers in off-gas and ventilation systems can be simulated realistically. The characteristic described by a quadratic polynom has to be given in the input or is calculated from stored data of a reference blower of the same type. The blower model calculates the transport of gases and aerosols. With FIPLOC ten different blowers can be simulated simultaneously. The blower model was verified on two test examples. In the second part of this report the validation of the semi-mechanistical fibrous filter model is described, which was installed in FIPLOC 3.1 earlier. A total of ten different coarse, fine, and HEPA filters were investigated with respect to the pressure drop across the filter and the fractional aerosol collection efficiency. For the majority of the filters the agreement between calculation and measurement is good. The input parameters with the strongest influence on the result are the mean fibre diameter and the filter porosity. In the filter model two additional conditions can be taken into account: (1) Pressure drop across the unloaded filter and (2) efficiency at the most penetrating particle size. Thereby, the accuracy of the filter calculation is increased. The model can be used in aerosol transport calculation without problems. New filter data have always to be checked critically. (orig.)

  3. Initial acceptance test experience with FFTF plant equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the initial acceptance test experience of certain pieces of auxiliary equipment of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The scope focuses on the DHX blowers and drive train, inert gas blowers, H and V containment isolation valves, and the Surveillance and In-service Inspection (SISI) transporter and trolley. For each type of equipment, the discussion includes a summary of the design and system function, installation history, preoperational acceptance testing procedures and results, and unusual events and resolutions

  4. Seacoaster advanced marine vehicle. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burg, D.

    1998-08-18

    The Seacoaster combines the high efficiencies of Surface Effect Ships (SES) with simple catamaran hull construction. It has blower pressurized air cushions that support some 80-90 percent of displacement and hence the high efficiencies. However, unlike the SES, there are no expensive and high maintenance flexible seals. Each catamaran sidehull has a simple recess molded or built into its underside. Powered blowers direct pressurized air into such recesses and thereby create lifting air cushions. There are no flexible seals of any kind and there is no air cushion between the sidehulls. Extensive towed model tests were conducted that showed the viability of the invention.

  5. Comparative assessment of energy efficiencies of compressors in environmental engineering; Vergleich der Energie-Effizienz von Kompressoren in der Umwelttechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kammeyer, Ingo [Aerzener Maschinenfabrik GmbH, Aerzen (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    In communal sewage plants with blow-in depths of 8 mWS at most, rotary piston blowers and screw compressors have proved to be more efficient for compressed air generation. Turbocompressors have a narrower control range and thus may require too much energy in part-load operation; they are therefore often retrofitted with rotary piston blowers or screw compressors. The contribution outlines the advantages of all three types of compressors and presents an exemplary calculation to show how much money can be saved by careful consideration prior to deciding on a system to buy. (orig.)

  6. TVENT1P user's manual, a computer code for analyzing tornado induced gas dynamic transients in flow networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrae, R. W.; Tang, P. K.; Gregory, W. S.

    1984-09-01

    TVENT1P is a revised version of the TVENT computer code, which was designed to predict the flows and pressures in a ventilation system subjected to a tornado. TVENT1P is essentially the same code, but a material transport algorithm and features for turning blowers off and on, changing blower speeds, and changing the resistance of dampers and filters were added. These features make it possible to depict a sequence of events during a single run. Other features were added to make the code more versatile. Example problems are included to demonstrate applications for TVENT1P.

  7. Understanding the Design, Function and Testing of Relays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Roger E.; Lindbloom, Trent

    2006-01-01

    The increased use of electronics in today's automobiles has complicated the control of circuits and actuators. Manufacturers use relays to control a variety of complex circuits--for example, those involving actuators and other components like the A/C clutch, electronic cooling fans, and blower motors. Relays allow a switch or processor to control…

  8. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT II, MAINTAINING THE AIR SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE AIR SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE (1) OPERATION AND FUNCTION, (2) AIR CLEANER, (3) AIR SHUT-DOWN HOUSING, (4) EXHAUST SYSTEM, (5) BLOWER, (6) TURBOCHARGER, AND (7) TROUBLE-SHOOTING TIPS ON THE AIR SYSTEM. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A…

  9. Brushless dc motors. [applications in non-space technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Brushless dc motors were intensively developed and tested over several years before qualification as the prime movers for Apollo Spacecraft life support blowers, and for circulating oxygen in the lunar portable life support system. Knowledge gained through prototype development and critical testing has significantly influenced the technology employed, broadened markets and applications, and reduced the cost of present day motors.

  10. Measuring Lift with the Wright Airfoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavers, Richard M.; Soleymanloo, Arianne

    2011-01-01

    In this laboratory or demonstration exercise, we mount a small airfoil with its long axis vertical at one end of a nearly frictionless rotating platform. Air from a leaf blower produces a sidewise lift force L on the airfoil and a drag force D in the direction of the air flow (Fig. 1). The rotating platform is kept in equilibrium by adding weights…

  11. 24 CFR 3280.811 - Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... kilovoltampere) Demand factor (percent) Air-conditioning and cooling including heat pump compressors 100 Central... air conditioning and heating except include blower motor if used as air conditioner evaporator motor... amperes per leg for air conditioning. (3) 25 percent of current of largest motor in paragraph (a)(2)...

  12. Heat supply of the Therme Erding spa. Lower operating cost with a hot-air heating system; Waermeversorgung in der Therme Erding. Geringere Betriebskosten durch eine Heissluftheizung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landwehr, Elke [Systemair GmbH, Boxberg-Windischbuch (Germany). Vertriebsleitung Deutschland

    2009-07-01

    The ''Therme Erding'' spa comprises 26 different saunas and is one of the biggest indoor spas world-wide. It has an unusual hot air heating system. Optimal air circulation is ensured by blowers that work in continuous operation at temperatures up to 95 degC. (orig.)

  13. 400 W High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Stack Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2006-01-01

    -1000 series MEAs by Pemeas, with an active area of 45cm2. The low pressure gas channels enable the use of low power blowers instead of a compressor which increases the overall system efficiency. This initial system was made to test the bipolar plate design, and there is no need for humidification of...

  14. 78 FR 26544 - Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Public Meeting and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    .... Kathleen B. Hogan, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... commercial and industrial fan and blower equipment that published on February 1, 2013, (78 FR 7306) is... amended (76 FR 37628, June 28, 2011). As part of its further consideration of this determination, DOE...

  15. Energy Consumption in Terms of Shear Stress for Two Types of Membrane Bioreactors used for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Two types of submerged membrane bioreactors (MBR): hollow fiber (HF) and hollow sheet (HS), have been studied and compared in terms of energy consumption and average shear stress over the membrane wall. The analysis of energy consumption was made using the correlation to determine the blower power...

  16. Energy Consumption in Terms of Shear Stress for Two Types of Membrane Bioreactors Used for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Bérube, P.R.;

    2011-01-01

    Two types of submerged membrane bioreactors (MBR): Hollow Fiber (HF) and Hollow Sheet (HS), have been studied and compared in terms of energy consumption and average shear stress over the membrane wall. The analysis of energy consumption was made using the correlation to determine the blower power...

  17. 40 CFR 60.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and other deposits. The unit includes the riser, reactor, regenerator, air blowers, spent catalyst or... that are collected and combusted to comply with the wastewater provisions in § 60.692, 40 CFR 61.343 through 61.348, or 40 CFR 63.647, or the marine tank vessel loading provisions in 40 CFR 63.562 or 40...

  18. 40 CFR 60.101a - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... riser, reactor, regenerator, air blowers, spent catalyst or contact material stripper, catalyst or... collected and combusted to comply with the wastewater provisions in § 60.692, 40 CFR 61.343 through 61.348, 40 CFR 63.647, or the marine tank vessel loading provisions in 40 CFR 63.562 or 40 CFR 63.651....

  19. 40 CFR 63.1579 - What definitions apply to this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... riser, reactor, regenerator, air blowers, spent catalyst or contact material stripper, catalyst or... CFR 63.2, the General Provisions of this part (§§ 63.1 through 63.15), and in this section as listed... hydrogen sulfide. Responsible official means responsible official as defined in 40 CFR 70.2....

  20. 76 FR 26725 - Notice of a Regional Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American) of the American Recovery and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... Wastewater Treatment Plant Upgrade project. This is a project specific waiver and only applies to the use of... of two specified aeration blower units as part of its Airport Parkway Wastewater Treatment Plant... Wastewater Treatment Facility Upgrade construction project is approximately two thirds completed. One of...

  1. 40 CFR 86.117-96 - Evaporative emission enclosure calibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mixing blower (if not already on). (6) Seal enclosure and measure background hydrocarbon concentration...), seal the enclosure and measure background hydrocarbon concentration, background methanol, temperature... critical flow orifice devices.) (i) Obtain a small cylinder that has been charged with pure propane...

  2. Point: All the Information Fit to Be Reported--Negotiating American Symbolic Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernisky, Debra A.

    1997-01-01

    Explores theoretical and professional perspectives on the organizational whistle-blower, and examines the public relations function of framing and disseminating critical information. Urges organizations to tell the truth, but be cautious of journalists whose motives center on ratings and sensationalism. (RS)

  3. Engineering Task Plan for a vapor treatment system on Tank 241-C-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Engineering Task Plan describes tasks and responsibilities for the design, fabrication, test, and installation of a vapor treatment system (mixing system) on Tank 241-C-103. The mixing system is to be installed downstream of the breather filter and will use a mixing blower to reduce the chemical concentrations to below allowable levels

  4. Comparison of Indoor Residual Spray Equipment for Malaria Control in Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obenauer, Peter J; Farooq, Mohammad; Knapp, Jennifer A; Yans, Matthew W; Santana, Luis A; Richardson, Alec G; Nador, Nadoris N; Diclaro, Joseph W

    2015-12-01

    We describe and compare a new innovative backpack compressed-air sprayer (JQSX-12) to a Stihl® 450 backpack mist blower and a manually operated compression sprayer for its effectiveness as an alternative operational tool for indoor residual insecticide application to control malaria in Liberia. Advantages and physical characteristics of each sprayer and their spray atomization parameters are discussed. PMID:26675465

  5. Hybrid I-f starting and observer-based Ssnsorless control of single-phase BLDC-PM motor drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepure, Liviu Ioan; Boldea, Ion; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    A motion sensorless control for single-phase permanent magnet brushless dc motor based on an I-f starting sequence and a real-time permanent magnet flux estimation is proposed here. The special calculation for extracting the position and speed used here implies the generating of an orthogonal flux......-speed blower-motor (40 W, 10 krpm, 12 Vdc)....

  6. SR450 and Superhawk XP applications of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis de Barjac against Culex quinquefasciatus Say

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprayer comparisons and larval morality assays were conducted following SR450 backpack mist blower and Superhawk XP thermal fogger applications of Vectobac® WDG Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) de Barjac against Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis was applied at m...

  7. Minimizing noise in fiberglass aquaculture tanks: Noise reduction potential of various retrofits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equipment used in intensive aquaculture systems, such as pumps and blowers can produce underwater sound levels and frequencies within the range of fish hearing. The impacts of underwater noise on fish are not well known, but limited research suggests that subjecting fish to noise could result in imp...

  8. Implementing a Remote Laboratory Experience into a Joint Engineering Degree Program: Aerodynamic Levitation of a Beach Ball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, S. R.; Fahmy, Y.; Buckner, G. D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper details a successful and inexpensive implementation of a remote laboratory into a distance control systems course using readily available hardware and software. The physical experiment consists of a beach ball and a dc blower; the control objective is to make the height of the aerodynamically levitated beach ball track a reference…

  9. Unsavory Problems at Tasty's: A Role-Play about Whistle-Blowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Debra R.; Vega, Gina

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a role-play exercise to make the topic of whistle-blowing personally salient to undergraduates. Students identify with the prospective whistle-blower, whose decision affects several stakeholders. The protagonist merely suspects her manager of stealing, until she hears concrete evidence of his thefts from her assistant…

  10. Wacky Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabarre, Amy; Gulino, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    What do a leaf blower, water hose, fan, and ice cubes have in common? Ask the students who participated in an integrative science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (I-STEM) education unit, "Wacky Weather," and they will tell say "fun and severe weather"--words one might not have expected! The purpose of the unit…

  11. 40 CFR 53.42 - Generation of test atmospheres for wind tunnel tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... particle delivery system shall consist of a blower system and a wind tunnel having a test section of... particles delivered to the test section of the wind tunnel shall be established using the operating... wind tunnel is not critical. However, the cross-sectional uniformity of the particle concentration...

  12. Ventilation device for reactor containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of the present invention is to conduct effective ventilation for gases in a pressure containment vessel (PCV) after completion of a leakage test for the PCV, to shorten the time required for the ventilation and moderate operators' burden. That is, the device of the present invention comprises (1) an isolation valve connected to a dry well in the PCV and a suppression pool each by way of pipeways, (2) a stop valve disposed at the downstream of the isolation valve, (3) a discharge blower disposed at the downstream of the stop valve, (4) a stack disposed at the downstream of the blower, (5) a flow rate control valve disposed in parallel with the stop valve and the blower. (6) a detector for detecting the pressure in the PCV, and (7) a valve opening degree controller for controlling the valve opening degree of the flow rate control valve by signals sent from the pressure detector. In the device thus constituted, gases in the PCV after the completion of the PCV leakage test can be released to air without passing the blower. Further, since the opening degree of the flow rate control valve is controlled based on the result of the detection of the pressure in the PCV, the inner pressure of the PCV can be decreased rapidly. (I.S.)

  13. 46 CFR 111.15-10 - Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... (3) Each blower must have a non-sparking fan. (4) The power ventilation system must be interlocked... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation. 111.15-10 Section 111.15-10 Shipping COAST... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-10 Ventilation....

  14. 46 CFR 72.15-10 - Vessels using fuel having a flashpoint of 110 degrees F. or lower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) PASSENGER VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 72.15-10 Vessels using fuel having a flashpoint... fuel tanks shall have natural supply and mechanical ventilation as required by this section. (b) The... over Minutes per air change 500 2 500 1,000 3 1,000 1,500 4 1,500 5 (c) Exhaust blower motors shall...

  15. 46 CFR 151.50-42 - Ethyl ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the tank. (b) Adequate natural ventilation shall be provided for the voids around the cargo tanks while the vessel is underway. If a power ventilation system is installed, all blowers shall be of nonsparking construction. Power driven ventilation equipment shall not be located in the void...

  16. 33 CFR 183.610 - Powered ventilation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Powered ventilation system. 183... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Ventilation § 183.610 Powered ventilation system... must: (1) Be open to the atmosphere, or (2) Be ventilated by an exhaust blower system. (b) Each...

  17. 9 CFR 3.76 - Indoor housing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., in accordance with generally accepted professional and husbandry practices. (b) Ventilation. Indoor... condensation. Ventilation must be provided by windows, doors, vents, fans, or air conditioning. Auxiliary ventilation, such as fans, blowers, or air conditioning, must be provided when the ambient temperature is...

  18. 9 CFR 3.2 - Indoor housing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... chapter. (b) Ventilation. Indoor housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently ventilated at... odors, drafts, ammonia levels, and moisture condensation. Ventilation must be provided by windows, vents, fans, or air conditioning. Auxiliary ventilation, such as fans, blowers, or air conditioning must...

  19. New learns and new methods in radiation diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New method of correlation of radon activities in house ventilation was proposed. The blower doors technology is used and the radon concentration time characteristics are analyzed and the radon supply is derived. Radon supplied activity rate correlates with the pressure difference

  20. 46 CFR 190.15-5 - Vessels using fuel having a flashpoint of 110 °F. or lower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 190.15-5 Vessels using fuel having a... having a flashpoint of 110 °F. or lower shall have natural supply and mechanical exhaust ventilation as... feet Over Not over Minute per air change 500 2 500 1000 3 1000 1500 4 1500 5 (c) Exhaust blower...

  1. Ventilation facility for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention provides a facility to ventilate for an area in a secondary containment facility and an area for the outside of the secondary containment facility of a power plant, and avoids an operation of a blower or an air exhaustion device in a surging area, to prevent rupture of fans of the blower or the air exhaustion device. Namely, a bypass line is disposed between an air supply facility and an air exhaustion facility. A bypass valve is disposed to bypass line. The opening degree of the bypass valve is made controllable. Then, since the air flowing rate to the area outside of the secondary containment facility is thus controlled, the control for the air flowing rate and restriction of air flowing rate controlling mechanism at the upstream of the blower and the air exhaustion device are no more necessary. Accordingly, operation of the blower or the air exhaustion device in the surging area can be avoided. As a result, rupture of the fans can be prevented. In addition, the air flowing rate upon closure of the isolation valve can be controlled by the bypass valve in the midway of the bypass line. As a result, existent air flowing rate control damper and air flowing rate control mechanism are no more necessary. (I.S.)

  2. TVENT, 1-D Incompressible Flow for Pressure Transients in Ventilation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of problem or function: TVENT1P predicts flows and pressures in a ventilation system or other air pathway caused by pressure transients, such as a tornado. For an analytical model to simulate an actual system, it must have (1) the same arrangement of components in a network of flow paths; (2) the same friction characteristics; (3) the same boundary pressures; (4) the same capacitance; and (5) the same forces that drive the air. A specific set of components used for constructing the analytical model includes filters, dampers, ducts, blowers, rooms, or volume connected at nodal points to form networks. The effects of a number of similar components can be lumped into a single one. TVENT1P contains a material transport algorithm and features for turning blowers off and on, changing blower speeds, changing the resistance of dampers and filters, and providing a filter model to handle very high flows. These features make it possible to depict a sequence of events during a single run. Component properties are varied using time functions. The filter model is not used by the code unless it is specified by the user. The basic results of a TVENT1P solution are flows in branches and pressures at nodes. A post-processor program, PLTTEX, is included to produce the plots specified in the TVENT1P input. PLTTEX uses the proprietary CA-DISSPLA graphics software. 2 - Method of solution: The continuity equation is satisfied at each node in the flow network with the dependent variable (pressure) solved simultaneously by point-wise (local) relaxation techniques. The flows are determined from the calculated pressures with experimental or classical flow descriptions. The boundary conditions are specified as stated but are arbitrary functions of time. The material transport algorithm is based on a simple convection model. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of: 500 branches, 400 nodes, 60 rooms, 50 boundary nodes, 25 plot frames with 4 plots per frame

  3. Intelligent soot blowing for boilers co-firing waste and biofuel; Behovsstyrd sotblaasning foer bio- och avfallseldade pannor - inventering och teknikval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjoerk, Anders [S.E.P. Scandinavian Energy Project AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2003-11-01

    To achieve optimum boiler operation and performance it is necessary to control the cleanliness and limit the fouling of the heat transfer surfaces. Historically, the heating surfaces in boilers firing biomass and waste are cleaned by steamblowing soot blowers on scheduled time-based and/or parameter-based intervals or by mechanical methods. With the advent of fuel switching strategies and use of mixed-in industrial waste, the control of heating surface cleanliness has become even more crucial for these boilers. Scheduled and/or parameter based approaches do not easily address operational changes. As plant operators push to achieve greater efficiency and performance from their boilers, the ability to more effectively optimize cleaning cycles has become increasingly important. If soot blowing is done only when and where it is required rather than at set intervals, unit performance can be maintained with reduced blowing, which saves steam. Two philosophical approaches toward intelligent soot blowing are currently being applied in the industry. One incorporates heat flux monitors to gather real-time heat transfer data to determine which areas of the furnace need cleaning. The other uses indirect temperature and pressure data to infer locations where soot blowing is needed, and is mainly applied for controlling soot blowers in the superheater and economiser area. The heat flux monitors are so fare used for control of the furnace wall blowers. A system using temperature, pressure and flow data does not require much additional instrumentation as compared with what is available on a standard boiler. However the blower control system must be capable of operating blowers on an individual basis. For advanced options it should also be possible to adjust the speed of the soot blower and the steam pressure. The control program could be more or less advanced but the ability to model heating surfaces and determine real-time cleanliness is crucial for an intelligent soot blowing

  4. Absorber-evaporator unit for an absorption-refrigeration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallatt, R.J.; Rorschach, R.L.

    1965-01-26

    This low temperature absorption-refrigeration system uses an absorber-evaporator. A conduit is connected between the upper portion of the absorber and the lower portion of the evaporator to conduct inert gas from the absorber to the evaporator. A second conduit connects the upper portion of the evaporator to the lower portion of the absorber and a blower in this conduit circulates the inert gas through the closed system. By placing the blower between the evaporator ad the absorber, the pressure in the evaporator is maintained at a minimum so that the working temperature is as low as possible. The medium to be cooled by the refrigerant is circulated through a heat exchanger located within the evaporator, whereby the latent heat of vaporization of the liquid refrigerant is employed to cool the outside medium. (2 claims)

  5. Evaluation on Operation and Safety Function of the Kartini Reactor Ventilation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In nuclear reactor, for research purposes or power plant, shall be provided with VAC and air cleaning system for safety reason. Kartini Reactor in Yogyakarta is also equipped with Ventilation System, which have been operating until now as supporting system for the reactor operation. It was designed to provide air exchange rate up to 6 times/hour, and equipped with Filtration System for air cleaning of the exhaust air before released through the stack to atmosphere. Based on visual survey, measurement, calculation and assumption, also modification on the construction of ventilation system, such as the exhaust blower was designed prior for three installations in this time has been used for reactor installation only so the blower becomes over capacity. Reevaluation and in accordance with the theory of safety for nuclear installation which is also referred to some installations at Serpong, therefore the Kartini Reactor Ventilation should be more improved, so that some alternative recommendations are given. (author)

  6. 增压器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Blower Drive System Based on Synchronous Motor With Solid Salient-Pole Rotor: Performance Under Starting and Voltage Sag Conditions;Centrifugal blower's parameters optimization by condition of inlet pressure suppression;Component tolerances impact on critical clearances for Ford Fiesta supercharger; exhaust assemblyDemisting of vehicle air intake using plane baffles;DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF A CORN SILAGE HARVESTER USING SHREDDING AND FLAIL CUTTING; Design of a Radiator Cooling Fan for Passenger Cars (First Report) - Axial-Flow Design for an Axial-Flow Fan Operating in Mixed-Flow State with Reverse Flow; Design of a Radiator Cooling Fan for Passenger Cars (Second Report) - Mixed-Flow Design for an Axial-Flow Fan Operating in Mixed-Flow State with Reverse Flow; Development and evaluation of a down-the-row boom sprayer attachment to power tiller;

  7. Cooling system for baby EBM scanning device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heat exchange of the scanning window of baby EBM is a critical factor for maintaining the integrity of the window material structure. As the titanium foil which was used as the scanning window, the maximum temperature accepted for the foil should be 200 degree C. This paper will discuss a simple method of Bernoulli principle to obtain the correct air blower capacity in order to reduce the heat of the scanning window of Baby EBM. It was found that the required air pressure and air speed of the blower are 2613.6 Pascal and 237.6 m3/h respectively for the electron accelerator of 0.14 MeV energy and 10 mA beam current. (Author)

  8. Microprocessor based automatic operation of ventilation system of solid storage surveillance facility, Tarapur (Paper No. 5.3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microprocessor based system is designed for continous operation of various components of ventilation system of Solid Storage Surveillance Facility (SSSF) like air compressors, exhaust blowers and supply blowers as per programmed logic. The logic was developed based on different requirements of the system such as selection of particular unit or combination of units on normal electrical supply and some critical equipments on emergency power supply. It also includes automatic switch-over to standby unit in case of failure as well as interlocking between different units with respect to safety related aspects of nuclear installations. Look up tables were prepared for different sub-systems considering all possible combinations of system parameters. By the look-up table approach, a very compact and flexible programme could be developed. With minor changes in software, it is possible to add or delete any sub-system. (author)

  9. Heat generating waste storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A heat generating waste storage facility comprises an air flow regulating plug and a plug position control mechanism. When heat generation wastes are contained only in small number of containing tubes, the air flow regulator plugs of the containing tubes incorporated with heat generating wastes are raised, and air discharge holes are exposed from the upper end of the containing tube. The flow regulating plugs of the containing tubes not incorporated with heat generating waste are lowered, and the upper ends of the containing tubes are closed by closing members. Then, air streams are circulated only to the containing tubes incorporated with heat generation wastes. This can minimize the amount of the air flow of the air supply blowers and air exhaustion blowers thereby enabling to reduce the running cost. (N.H.)

  10. Spent fuel storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A diffusion-preventive device for the radioactivity of pool water is disposed in a pool chamber for accommodating a spent fuel storage chamber. The diffusion-preventive device comprises an air washer and a recycling blower which discharges air in the air washer to the pool chamber. In this air washer, not-activated pure water, etc. are supplied. The recycling blower is driven to introduce the air in the pool chamber to the air washer, and water is sprayed from a nozzle to moisten the air. In this way, the vapor pressure in the pool chamber can be increased and the amount of vapor generated from the pool can be decreased. The amount of radioactivity transferring from the poor water to the air can thereby be decreased and the amount of radioactivity released to the atmospheric air by means of ventilation air conditioning device can be decreased. (I.N.)

  11. Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Air Inlet and Outlet Openings for Aircraft, Special Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogallo, Francis M.; Gauvain, William E.

    1938-01-01

    An investigation was made in the NACA 5-foot vertical wind tunnel of a large variety of duct inlets and outlets to obtain information relative to their design for the cooling or the ventilation systems on aircraft. Most of the tests were of openings in a flat plate but, in order to determine the best locations and the effects of interference, a few tests were made of openings in an airfoil. The best inlet location for a system not including a blower was found to be at the forward stagnation point; for one including a blower, the best location was found to be in the region of lowest total head, probably in the boundary layer near the trailing edge. Design recommendations are given, and it is shown that correct design demands a knowledge of the external flow and of the internal requirements in addition to that obtained from the results of the wind tunnel tests.

  12. Gas Pulsations: A Shock Tube Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Paul Xiubao

    2012-01-01

    Gas pulsations are defined presently as a macro flow rate and/or pressure fluctuation with relatively low frequency and high amplitude. They commonly exist in HVACR, energy and other processing industries, and are widely accepted to be mainly caused by PD type gas machinery such as reciprocating or rotary compressors, expanders and Roots type blowers. Moreover, they are believed to be responsible for system vibrations, noises and fatigue failures. Naturally, as important a matter as gas pulsa...

  13. Inward Leakage in Tight-Fitting PAPRs

    OpenAIRE

    Frank C. Koh; Johnson, Arthur T.; Rehak, Timothy E.

    2011-01-01

    A combination of local flow measurement techniques and fog flow visualization was used to determine the inward leakage for two tight-fitting powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs), the 3M Breathe-Easy PAPR and the SE 400 breathing demand PAPR. The PAPRs were mounted on a breathing machine head form, and flows were measured from the blower and into the breathing machine. Both respirators leaked a little at the beginning of inhalation, probably through their exhalation valves. In both cases,...

  14. Pengaruh Perubahan Tegangan Terhadap Efisiensi Pada Motor Induksi Tiga Fasa

    OpenAIRE

    Siburian, Antoni Franciscus

    2011-01-01

    Motor listrik merupakan sebuah perangkat elektromagnetis yang mengubah energi listrik menjadi energi mekanik. Energi mekanik ini digunakan untuk, misalnya, memutar impeller pompa, fan atau blower, menggerakan kompresor, mengangkat bahan, dll. Motor listrik digunakan juga di rumah (mixer, bor listrik, fan angin) dan di industri. Motor listrik kadangkala disebut “kuda kerja” nya industri sebab diperkirakan bahwa motor-motor menggunakan sekitar 70% beban listrik total di industri. Dan pada sa...

  15. Noise evaluation of automotive A/C compressor

    OpenAIRE

    Sameh M. Metwally, Mohamed I. Khalil, Shawki A. Abouel-seoud

    2011-01-01

    Passenger compartment's interior noise and thermal performance are essential criteria for the driving comfort of vehicles. The air-conditioning system influences both field of comfort. It creates comfortable thermal conditions. On the other hand, the noise radiation of the air-condition system's components can be annoying. The blower, the air distribution ducts and the registers affect air rush noise. In some cases, the refrigerant flow creates hissing noise. Such noise has a great influence ...

  16. Effect of Refrigerant Charge, Compressor Speed and Air Flow Through the Evaporator on the Performance of an Automotive Air Conditioning System

    OpenAIRE

    Datta, Santanu Prasad; Das, Prasanta Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Siddhartha

    2014-01-01

    During last few decades research on Automotive Air Conditioning System (AACS) reached a milestone in terms of comfort, safety and economy. However investigation on system performance due to AACS’s variable operating conditions is limited. The performance of any AACS mostly depends on compressor speed, blower speed, refrigerant charge level and ambient condition. However, the combined effect of these parameters on the performance of AACS could be non-intuitive. Reduction in compressor speed an...

  17. Performance characteristics of d.c. motors. Part 2. Separately excited and inverse-speed motors; Betriebseigenschaften von Gleichstrommaschinen. Teil 2. Fremderregte und Reihenschluss-Motoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunze, G.

    2001-03-01

    Separately excited d.c. motors have a wide speed control range and are well suited for driving machine tools, rolling machines and haulage systems. Inverse speed motors are found mainly in traction drives, vehicles, lifting gear, gyropumps and blowers but never in belt drives. [German] Der fremderregte Gleichstrommotor mit seinem grossen Drehzahlsteuerbereich eignet sich zum Antrieb von Werkzeugmaschinen, Walzenstrassen und Foerderanlagen. Den Reihenschlussmotor findet man hauptsaechlich in Traktionsantrieben, ferner in Fahrzeugen, Hebezeugen, Kreiselpumpen und Ventilatoren, keinesfalls aber in Riemenantrieben. (orig.)

  18. An experimental study of a pin-fin heat exchanger

    OpenAIRE

    Ramthun, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited A detailed experimental study has been carried out on the heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of a compact heat exchanger with pin fins. A modular wind-tunnel with a rectangular cross-section duct-flow area was constructed that would accommodate the heat exchanger test section with varying pin designs. The flow in the tunnel was achieved through a suction-type blower, and a leading entrance length section was added to achie...

  19. THE REFORM OF CORRUPTION ERADICATION IN INDONESIA: THE PRISMATIC LAW IN THE RECENT CONTEXT

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Fatahillah Akbar; Dian Agung Wicaksono

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the reform of corruption eradication in Indonesia from three crucial aspects: the form of the Corruption Eradication Commission (KPK), the formulation of corruption in material and formal aspects, and other additional support system such as asset recovery and the protection of justice collaborator and whistle blower. This paper is a normative-legal research where it dissects secondary data which includes statutory regulations, various legal documents, researches...

  20. Leaving it up to professionals (and the market)

    OpenAIRE

    Heikkilä, Heikki

    2011-01-01

    Transparency and media accountability have gained more prominence in Finland recently with regard to two main factors: Firstly, the news media have become whistle-blowers with regard to a few political scandals over recent years, which have triggered public debate over the power of media and ethical conduct of journalism. Secondly, controversies have risen with regard to the ‘ownership’ of opinions published on online discussion boards and whether or not these should be submitted to the re...

  1. Fraud Risk Assessment Plan for Barclays Bank of Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Kimani, Janet

    2011-01-01

    The typical organization loses an average of 5-7% of its gross revenue to fraud annually. Theft of assets, which includes money, physical assets and or services, is the most common type of fraud. Majority of frauds are detected through tips reported by either employees, vendors or whistle blowers. Organizations that implement company-wide fraud awareness training cut fraud losses by 52%. This thesis aims at providing more understanding of fraud; prevention, detection, reporting and resol...

  2. Failure analysis of a polymer centrifugal impeller

    OpenAIRE

    Nikhil K. Kar; Yinghui Hu; Naresh J. Kar; Ramesh J. Kar

    2015-01-01

    A failure analysis investigation was performed on a fractured polymer impeller used in a respiratory blower. Light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and finite element analysis techniques were utilized to characterize the mode(s) of failure and fracture surfaces. A radial split down the impeller center was observed with symmetric fracture faces about the impeller bore. Fractographic analysis revealed brittle fracture features including Wallner lines, mirror, mist and hackle features st...

  3. Production of ethanol by solid particles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moebus, O.; Teuber, M.

    1982-01-01

    CO/sub 2/ can be used as the fluid continuous phase for the fermentation of 10-40% aqueous solutions of glucose to ethanol with S. cerevisiae using a closed circuit consisting of a fluidized bed of small solid yeast particles, a cooled condenser for the sampling of water and ethanol, and a blower. At 80 degrees, a fermentation of 12 mu mol glucose/minute-g dry yeast was achieved.

  4. Production Facility System Reliability Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Crystal Buchanan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Klein, Steven Karl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-06

    This document describes the reliability, maintainability, and availability (RMA) modeling of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) design for the Closed Loop Helium Cooling System (CLHCS) planned for the NorthStar accelerator-based 99Mo production facility. The current analysis incorporates a conceptual helium recovery system, beam diagnostics, and prototype control system into the reliability analysis. The results from the 1000 hr blower test are addressed.

  5. Construction of radon/radon daughter calibraton chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radon/radon daughter test chamber is a copper lined room 1.65x1.75x2.75m with an effective volume of 8000 litres. The air residence time is controlled by circulating the air in the chamber through absolute filters which remove 99.9% of particulates. Radon is drawn into the chamber from a 17 μCi 226RaCl source using the pressure differential across the blowers (<3 psi)

  6. The optimisation and analysis of a centrifugal slurry pump impeller with 2 blades

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Salih Cellek; Tahsin Engin

    2013-01-01

    With FLUENT, which is Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software, it becomes possible to define the performance of complicated flow in turbo machines like pumps and blowers. It is not only reduced costs but also saves time. This study is aimed to optimize a commercial slurry pump impeller. Therefore, four different types of impellers were designed with using various blade angles, blade length and splitter blade on the impeller, which is the most crucial component of the pump. As a result of ...

  7. 遠心羽根車入口循環流によるインデューサ失速の抑制 : 第2報, 失速抑制効果の数値解析

    OpenAIRE

    孫, 自祥; 石田, 正弘; 坂口, 大作; 植木, 弘信

    2000-01-01

    The ring groove arrangement was proposed to improve surge margin in a centrifugal blower. The inlet recirculation formed by the arrangement at small flow rates resulted in a significant decrease in the flow rate of the unstable flow inception at a small expense of the delivery pressure drop. The effect of inlet recirculation on the main through-flow in the impeller and the unstable flow suppression is analyzed by the 3-D turbulent flow calculation, and the calculated results are compared with...

  8. カントリエレベータ内の騒音解析 : 出雲市江南と北部カントリエレベータの場合

    OpenAIRE

    中尾, 清治; 田辺, 一

    1984-01-01

    The noisy sound in Kanan (old type facilities) and Hokubu (new type facilities) country elevators, Izumo, were surveyed and the effect of noise prevention and the noise exposure time for worker were discussed. The results were as follows; (1) The predominant noise sources identified were the combustion furnace and the blowere for burning and drying on the heated-air drying system of both facilities. As the combustion furnace in Hokubu was placed in the room partitioned off part of th...

  9. When you hear that whistle blowing. How trustees can reduce the threat of "qui tam" lawsuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, A L

    1999-06-01

    The number of qui tam--whistle-blower--lawsuits against hospitals has increased 1,500 percent in the last decade--in large part because of the high priority the government attaches to Medicare fraud and abuse. Even suits that never make it to court are financially draining and a blow to an organization's reputation. Here are some tips for protecting your hospital. PMID:10539692

  10. Fire-station solar-energy system--Kansas City, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Screen-walled, flat-plate air collectors are part of award-winning architectural design; concrete-box storage subsystem, domestic hot-water preheat tank, blowers, pumps, heat exchangers, ducting, controls, and plumbing complete solar system. Design provides half of space heating and 75 percent of heat for domestic hot-water for fire station. Report includes historical narrative of project along with detailed drawings, charts, and product literature.

  11. Cascaded Position-Flux Controller for an AMB System Operating at Zero Bias

    OpenAIRE

    Rafal P. Jastrzebski; Alexander Smirnov; Arkadiusz Mystkowski; Olli Pyrhönen

    2014-01-01

    The paper reports on the implementation and the design of a controller for a fuel cell blower (FCB) with active magnetic bearings (AMBs). The cascaded position-fluxcentralized controller is comprised of a centralized position control loop and an inner flux control loop. The last one is based on state estimation without explicit flux measurements. As the position control is not dependent on the magnetic field nonlinearities, such a control structure enables operation under a zero bias. The pra...

  12. Experimental and theoretical investigation of shock waves in ventilation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The passage of shock-waves through a model ventilation system which includes two rooms, a blower, a HEPA filter and a damper, all connected by 30cm diameter ducts was studied experimentally and theoretically. A computer code was utilized which treated the three-dimensional effects as the shock progressed through changes of area. Several different levels of shock overpressure were examined. Good correlation between experimental and computer results was obtained. (author)

  13. Dry well cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A plurality of blowing ports with introduction units are disposed to a plurality of ducts in a dry well, and a cooling unit comprising a cooler, a blower and an isolating valve is disposed outside of the dry well. Cooling air and the atmosphere in the dry well are mixed to form a cooling gas and blown into the dry well to control the temperature. Since the cooling unit is disposed outside of the dry well, the maintenance of the cooling unit can be performed even during the plant operation. In addition, since dampers opened/closed depending on the temperature of the atmosphere are disposed to the introduction units for controlling the temperature of the cooling gas, the temperature of the atmosphere in the dry well can be set to a predetermined level rapidly. Since an axial flow blower is used as the blower of the cooling unit, it can be contained in a ventilation cylinder. Then, the atmosphere in the dry well flowing in the ventilation cylinder can be prevented from leaking to the outside. (N.H.)

  14. Ways of decreasing metal input requirements and improving parameters of explosion-proof electric motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponizko, A. S.

    1987-04-01

    The specific metal input requirements for the construction of explosion-proof electric motors can be reduced by improving the forced-air cooling and relieving the explosion hazardous pressure through the use of gas permeable fire barriers. Quantitative estimates of the cooling efficiency for explosion-proof, asynchronous motors cooled by a twin blower mounted on the motor shaft are provided. The ventilation inside the explosion-proof containment is accomplished by the air from the inside blower of the fan assembly being sucked through the porous elements from the working end of the shaft, passed through the rotor channels, through the porous elements of the second bearing shield plate, and directed by the vanes of the fan into the air flow coming from the outer forced-air circulating blower. Calculations of the air flow, temperature and cooling efficiency are given for a four-pole 160 kW VAO315M-4 motor. The performance of the porous fire barriers in industry environments is also discussed.

  15. Control and interlocking of ventilation system at Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility, BARC, Tarapur using microprocessor based programmable logic controllers (Paper No. 5.4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear fuel fabrication facility has been set up by BARC at Tarapur. These fuel elements being radioactive emit nuclear radiation which is hazardous to human beings. Therefore these fuel elements during fabrication stage are handled in totally enclosed transparent boxes known as glove boxes. To prevent leakage from these glove boxes the once through ventilation system at fuel fabrication facility has been designed and interlocked such that air flow is always from surrounding atmosphere to laboratory rooms to glove boxes. This is achieved by maintaining negative air pressure in laboratory rooms and still higher negative pressure in glove boxes. Some interlocking logics have been defined to achieve these interlocks by operating a combination of specified number of main exhaust blowers, glove exhaust blowers and supply blowers. This interlocking has been done on electrical side and being very complicated, programmable logic controllers have been used instead of electromagnetic relays for building the blocks of interlocking scheme. With PLC, once the system is hard wired, any change in logic can be easily effected by reprogramming the system. In this paper the commissioning experience, teething troubles faced, remedial measures taken and modifications carried out are discussed. (author)

  16. Mold contamination and air handling units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephen C; Palmatier, Robert N; Andriychuk, Larysa A; Martin, Jared M; Jumper, Cynthia A; Holder, Homer W; Straus, David C

    2007-07-01

    An investigation was conducted on selected locations in air handling units (AHUs) to (a) identify common mold species found on these locations, (b) determine whether some locations (and subsets) featured mold growth sites more frequently than others, (c) ascertain whether the operating condition of AHUs is related to mold contamination, and (d) provide a basis for a microbial sampling protocol for AHUs. A total of 566 tape lifts and 570 swab samples were collected from the blower wheel fan blades, insulation, cooling coil fins, and ductwork from 25 AHUs. All AHU conditions were numerically rated using a heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) survey. Results showed that Cladosporium sp. fungi were commonly recovered in terms of growth sites and deposited spores, and they were found mainly in the blower wheel fan blades, the ductwork, and the cooling coil fins. Subsections of the fan blades, insulation, and cooling coil fins showed no preferred area for mold growth sites. Other organisms such as Penicillium sp., Aspergillus sp., and Paecilomyces sp. were recovered from the cooling coil fins and insulation. Because of the widespread prevalence of Cladosporium sp., there was no relationship between mold growth and operating condition. However, the presence of different species of molds in locations other than the blower wheel blades may indicate that the AHU condition is not optimal. A suggested microbial sampling protocol including interpretations of sample results is presented. PMID:17487721

  17. An Integrated model for Product Quality Development—A case study on Quality functions deployment and AHP based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, Subrata; Banerjee, Debamalya

    2010-10-01

    Present article is based on application of the product quality and improvement of design related with the nature of failure of machineries and plant operational problems of an industrial blower fan Company. The project aims at developing the product on the basis of standardized production parameters for selling its products in the market. Special attention is also being paid to the blower fans which have been ordered directly by the customer on the basis of installed capacity of air to be provided by the fan. Application of quality function deployment is primarily a customer oriented approach. Proposed model of QFD integrated with AHP to select and rank the decision criterions on the commercial and technical factors and the measurement of the decision parameters for selection of best product in the compettitive environment. The present AHP-QFD model justifies the selection of a blower fan with the help of the group of experts' opinion by pairwise comparison of the customer's and ergonomy based technical design requirements. The steps invoved in implementation of the QFD—AHP and selection of weighted criterion may be helpful for all similar purpose industries maintaining cost and utility for competitive product.

  18. Real-time Data Center Energy Efficiency At Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisk, Daniel R.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Marquez, Andres; Hatley, Darrel D.; Cader, Tahir; Schmidt, Roger R.

    2009-05-26

    The escalating consumption of power in data centers worldwide has brought the issue of data center energy efficiency to the forefront. Data center owners and operators now regard detailed knowledge of the energy efficiencies of their data centers as a competitive advantage. With funding from the Department of Energy (NNSA), PNNL has undertaken an in-depth analysis of the real-time energy efficiency for its Energy Smart Data Center Test Bed(ESDC-TB), which is housed in the mixed-use EMSL. The analysis is centered around the real-time display of The Green Grid’s proposed DCiE metric. To calculate this metric, PNNL relies on a variety of sources of data. At the ESDC-TB level, the data center is instrumented to the 100% level (all power consumption, and water temperatures and flow rates are measured). Most of this data is monitored in real-time, but the exception to this is with the CRAHs, which rely on a one-time power consumption measurement for the blowers (these are single speed blowers, so a one-time measurement suffices.). Outside of the data center (EMSL facility level), PNNL relies on the following: • Real-time data from the entire chiller plant (five chillers), six chilled water pumps, and one of four cooling towers (blowers only). • One-time power measurements for a single fixed speed pump that is representative of each grouping of pumps (the other pumps are assumed to possess the same power consumption levels). • One-time power measurements for a single two-speed cooling tower blower. This same blower model is deployed in three of the four cooling towers, so is assumed to be representative for all these blowers. • One-time power measurements for a single fixed speed cooling tower pump. This same pump model is deployed in all four cooling towers, so is assumed to be representative for all these pumps. A software tool named FRED was developed by PNNL to acquire, reduce, display, and archive all the data acquired from the ESDC-TB and EMSL. FRED

  19. Efficiency characteristics of speed modulated drives at predicted torque conditions for air-to-air heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, C. K.

    Examples of system (motor + inverter drive) efficiencies of two types of adjustable speed control are compared for predicted compressor and indoor blower load profiles. The two classifications are inverter-driven induction motors (IDIMs) and permanent-magnet electronically commutated motors (PM-ECMs). Reference sine-wave-driven induction motor (SWDIM) efficiencies are also given. Available bench data on late 70's IDIM compressor drives are compared to recent data on IDIM and PM-ECM drives. The drive efficiencies are compared over common operating torque requirements for heating and cooling. A modulating heat pump model was used to develop predicted reciprocating compressor torque/drive-frequency mappings and the expected operating torque ranges. The variation in modulating compressor torque requirements is analyzed. Ways to adjust the torque relation for different compressor types and sizing strategies are also discussed. Modulating blower performance data on an early '80s generation modulating heat pump with an IDIM drive (and SWDIM reference drive) were obtained and compared to bench data on recent IDIM and PM-ECM drives under similar torque conditions. In both compressor and blower applications, the combined system efficiency of the PM-ECM drives is nearly equal to or higher than that of the reference SWDIM cases and significantly better than IDIMs available in the late '70s. When compared to more recent IDIMs, the PM-ECM efficiency advantage over IDIM compressors has been reduced 40 to 50 percent between half and nominal speed (3600 rpm) but still remains 14 to 9 percent higher, respectively.

  20. Susceptibility of Australian Redfin Perch Perca fluviatilis Experimentally Challenged with Epizootic Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (EHNV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Joy A; Tweedie, Alison; Gilligan, Dean; Asmus, Martin; Whittington, Richard J

    2016-06-01

    The ranavirus epizootic hematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV) is endemic to Australia and is listed by the Office International des Epizooties. Clinical outbreaks have only been observed in wild populations of Redfin Perch Perca fluviatilis (also known as Eurasian Perch) and farmed populations of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. The initial outbreaks of EHNV describe all age-classes of Redfin Perch as being susceptible and can lead to epidemic fish kills. Subsequently, experimental challenge studies using either cohabitation with the virus or injection exposures resulted in mixed susceptibilities across various age-groupings of Redfin Perch. We used an experimental bath challenge model to investigate the susceptibility of Redfin Perch collected from areas with and without a history of EHNV outbreaks. The median survival time for fish from Blowering Dam in New South Wales, a zone with a history of EHNV outbreaks, was 35 d, compared with fish from other areas, which had a median survival between 12 and 28 d postexposure. Redfin Perch from Blowering Dam demonstrated an increased mortality associated with epizootic hematopoietic necrosis up to approximately day 14 after exposure, and then there was a significantly reduced risk of mortality until the end of the trial compared with all other fish. Redfin Perch from Blowering Dam had markedly decreased susceptibility to EHNV, and less than 40% became infected following a bath challenge. In contrast, Redfin Perch from neighboring (e.g., Bethungra Dam and Tarcutta Creek) and distant water bodies (e.g., in Western Australia) with no previous history of EHNVdisplayed moderate to high susceptibility when given a bath challenge. Potential factors for the observed changes in the host-pathogen relationship include intense positive selection pressure for resistant fish following epizootic hematopoietic necrosis outbreaks and subsequent attenuation of the virulence of the virus in resistant fish. Received August 22, 2015; accepted

  1. Temperature control of paddy bulk storage with aeration-thermosyphon heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technology of an aeration-thermosyphon heat pipe is developed for controlling paddy temperature in a paddy bulk silo. A prototype of paddy bulk storage of 1000 kg has a set of copper tubes with steel fins embedded in the paddy bed. The total heat transfer area of the tubes with fins is 16 m2. The tubes act as the evaporator of a thermosyphon heat pipe and absorb heat resulting from the paddy respiration. The thermosyphon has a total condenser area of 12.2 m2 that is exposed to ambient air. At the bottom of the silo, ambient air is fed upward through the paddy bed for the aeration. The initial moisture content of the paddy is around 12.8% wet basis. A mathematical model to predict the paddy bed temperature in the silo with the hybrid aeration-thermosyphon is developed, and the results agree very well with the experimental data. The operating period of its blower could be found from the simulation. The blower is on when the paddy bed temperature, T b, is over or equal to 28 deg. C and the difference temperature between the bed and the ambient, T d, is over or equal to 1 deg. C. The appropriate evaporator area should be over 8 m2. At the area of 8 m2, the operation time of the blower is 8-9% of the annual period compared with 30-40% for normal aeration alone. The monthly paddy bed temperature could be maintained between 24 and 27 deg. C under the climate of Chiang Mai, Thailand

  2. Electricity and Natural Gas Efficiency Improvements forResidential Gas Furnaces in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, James E.; McNeil, Michael; Lutz, Jim

    2006-05-26

    This paper presents analysis of the life-cycle costs for individual households and the aggregate energy and economic impacts from potential energy efficiency improvements in U.S. residential furnaces. Most homes in the US are heated by a central furnace attached to ducts for distributing heated air and fueled by natural gas. Electricity consumption by a furnace blower is significant, comparable to the annual electricity consumption of a major appliance. Since the same blower unit is also used during the summer to circulate cooled air in centrally air conditioned homes, electricity savings occur year round. Estimates are provided of the potential electricity savings from more efficient fans and motors. Current regulations require new residential gas-fired furnaces (not including mobile home furnaces) to meet or exceed 78 percent annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE), but in fact nearly all furnaces sold are at 80 percent AFUE or higher. The possibilities for higher fuel efficiency fall into two groups: more efficient non-condensing furnaces (81 percent AFUE) and condensing furnaces (90-96 percent AFUE). There are also options to increase the efficiency of the furnace blower. This paper reports the projected national energy and economic impacts of requiring higher efficiency furnaces in the future. Energy savings vary with climate, with the result that condensing furnaces offer larger energy savings in colder climates. The range of impacts for a statistical sample of households and the percent of households with net savings in life cycle cost are shown. Gas furnaces are somewhat unusual in that the technology does not easily permit incremental change to the AFUE above 80 percent. Achieving significant energy savings requires use of condensing technology, which yields a large efficiency gain (to 90 percent or higher AFUE), but has a higher cost. With respect to electricity efficiency design options, the ECM has a negative effect on the average LCC. The current

  3. Revised control strategies to improve sulphur plant performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a lower cost alternative to process additions or modifications for improving sulfur plant performance, strategies can yield impressive results. Traditional control strategies are discussed, including reaction furnace control (combustion air, H2S content compensation, acid gas), blower surge control, and the use of process measurement and control valves. Revised control strategies are then presented. In controlling the furnace combustion air, the objective is to use the fast-acting trim air valve to handle any rapid small disturbances while using the main air valve to handle base load. H2 content compensation is performed by monitoring the reaction furnace temperature, which provides a means of detecting H2S changes immediately. A temperature control loop is configured to adjust the air to acid gas ratio. An alternative to controlling acid gas during startup is bringing in the acid gas under flow control rather than pressure control, and let the flare pressure controller maintain the back pressure on the regeneration unit. Blower surge control is more effective using a blower flow as the control variable. New and existing instrumentation should be calibrated for the current plant load, not the design load. High resolution characterized ball valves are more desirable than the traditional butterfly valves. The revised control strategies cannot be practically implemented in pneumatic equipment and require electronic controllers. Applying the revised strategies has enabled a 0.5% increase in sulfur recovery, equivalent to a 33% decrease in stack SO2 emissions. The revised strategies also make the sulfur plants more stable during process upsets and normal operation. 4 figs., 1 tab

  4. Design and Use of a Full Flow Sampling System (FFS) for the Quantification of Methane Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Derek R; Covington, April N; Clark, Nigel N

    2016-01-01

    The use of natural gas continues to grow with increased discovery and production of unconventional shale resources. At the same time, the natural gas industry faces continued scrutiny for methane emissions from across the supply chain, due to methane's relatively high global warming potential (25-84x that of carbon dioxide, according to the Energy Information Administration). Currently, a variety of techniques of varied uncertainties exists to measure or estimate methane emissions from components or facilities. Currently, only one commercial system is available for quantification of component level emissions and recent reports have highlighted its weaknesses. In order to improve accuracy and increase measurement flexibility, we have designed, developed, and implemented a novel full flow sampling system (FFS) for quantification of methane emissions and greenhouse gases based on transportation emissions measurement principles. The FFS is a modular system that consists of an explosive-proof blower(s), mass airflow sensor(s) (MAF), thermocouple, sample probe, constant volume sampling pump, laser based greenhouse gas sensor, data acquisition device, and analysis software. Dependent upon the blower and hose configuration employed, the current FFS is able to achieve a flow rate ranging from 40 to 1,500 standard cubic feet per minute (SCFM). Utilization of laser-based sensors mitigates interference from higher hydrocarbons (C2+). Co-measurement of water vapor allows for humidity correction. The system is portable, with multiple configurations for a variety of applications ranging from being carried by a person to being mounted in a hand drawn cart, on-road vehicle bed, or from the bed of utility terrain vehicles (UTVs). The FFS is able to quantify methane emission rates with a relative uncertainty of ± 4.4%. The FFS has proven, real world operation for the quantification of methane emissions occurring in conventional and remote facilities. PMID:27341646

  5. A supercritical steam cooled fast breeder reactor with negative reactivity characteristics against voiding and flooding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The steam cooled fast breeder reactor with negative reactivity characteristic against voiding and flooding is feasible under the supercritical pressure. The breeding ratio is 1.04. A flat core with the zirconium hydride layer is adopted for mitigating the void reactivity. The thermal efficiency of the indirect cycle system is improved 9 % relatively from the current PWR's. The core should be cooled in 10 seconds after the large break loss of coolant accident (LOCA). The coast down time should be larger than 30 seconds to overcome the loss of flow (LOF) by the trip of all blowers. (author)

  6. Multifamily Envelope Leakage Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faakye, O. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Griffiths, D. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the 2013 research project was to develop the model for predicting fully guarded test results (FGT), using unguarded test data and specific building features of apartment units. The model developed has a coefficient of determination R2 value of 0.53 with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.13. Both statistical metrics indicate that the model is relatively strong. When tested against data that was not included in the development of the model, prediction accuracy was within 19%, which is reasonable given that seasonal differences in blower door measurements can vary by as much as 25%.

  7. Different Boosting Systems and their Control Strategies for a Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolehovský Ondřej

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research uses 1-D simulation in GT-Power for evaluation of boosting systems for a spark ignition engine. Exhaust gas driven (waste-gated turbocharger and mechanical driven (Roots blower boosting systems are assessed in both steady state and transient modes in terms of performance, efficiency, fuel consumption, drivability, energy distribution and other aspects that influence gas exchange phase. Moreover, different boost control strategies, particularly at partial load, are also evaluated. Results of the research are aimed at helping identify an optimal boosting system for standardized or real-world drive cycles.

  8. Nuclear steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear steam generator has a blowdown pump arranged to pump water from the blowdown line through a filter for return to the steam generator. The piping is arranged so that the pump may operate to reverse the direction of pumping through the blowdown line whereby reverse circulation may be established during wet lay up of the steam generator. A blower is arranged to withdraw nitrogen from an upper elevation in the steam generator and inject the nitrogen into the blowdown line in combination with the pumped reverse circulation during wet lay up. (author)

  9. Extending the role of veterinary nurses in anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Allowing registered veterinary nurses to assist with all aspects of anaesthesia. Update on the alternative dispute resolution trial. Potential implications of a British exit from the EU. English language requirement to be included in the Code of Professional Conduct. Providing a line to the RCVS for 'whistle-blowers'. An ethical review panel for practice-based research. These were among matters discussed by the RCVS Council at its meeting on November 5. The RCVS President, Bradley Viner, chaired the meeting, which was held at Belgravia House, London SW1P. PMID:26637616

  10. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances, Volume 42, No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report include the issuances received during the specificed period (August 1995) from the NRC, the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards, the Administrative Law Judges, and the Decisions on Petitions for Rule Making. In these issuances, the following areas were addressed: (1) Emergency planning at the University of Missouri, (2) Transfer of operating license at Plant Vogtle, (3) Discriminatory action against a whistle-blower at Millstone Units 1 ampersand 2, (4) Regulatory issues related to embittlement and cracking at Oyster Creek, and (5) Age-related deterioration of reactor internals components at Pilgrim

  11. Preliminary design and study of the indirect coupled cycle: An innovative option for Gas Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The study concerns an alternative design for a Gas Fast Reactor. ► It assumes that the primary compressors are driven by the secondary turbogenerators. ► 1st interest: no requirement for external energy for driving the compression system. ► Safety advantages: no LOFA (motor failure) and improvement of grace delay for LOCA. - Abstract: The gas cooled fast reactor (GFR) is one of the six reactor concepts selected in the framework of the Generation IV forum. The main characteristics of the CEA GFR concept are a 2400MW core based on a ceramic pin type fuel as a reference, with an inlet temperature of 400 °C and an outlet temperature of 780 °C. The power conversion system is based on an indirect cycle with helium on the primary circuit, a Brayton cycle with a mixture of nitrogen and helium on the secondary circuit and a steam cycle on the tertiary circuit. In depressurised situations, the use of the gas coolant circulation as the main way to remove the decay heat has been selected. A specific system (DHR system) has been designed: it consists of three loops (3 × 100% redundancy) in extension of the pressure vessel, equipped with heat exchangers and blowers. In the current preliminary viability studies, GFR primary compression system relies on three axial blowers (operating in parallel) driven by 3 electrical motors. The present study concerns an alternative design of the primary compression systems, assuming that the 3 primary compressors are driven by the 3 turbogenerators of the secondary circuits. This new system requires that the 3 shafts connecting the turbines and the compressors of the secondary circuits are also connected to their corresponding primary blowers, via longer shafts crossing the primary circuit vessel. This new cycle is the only new element of complexity in this alternative design. This fact should be put in regards of the advantage of no requirement for external energy for driving the compression system (excepting for start

  12. Studies on hot wire and hot film under water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study concerns some problems involved in the use of a hot wire and a hot film immersed in water. Some theoretical considerations are made concerning the sensitivity and the calibration of hot wires. A specially designed water blower and a measurement apparatus are described. Various calibrations have been carried out as a function of the velocity and of the temperature for different wires and films. Measurements of the amount of turbulence and of the energy distribution made in the centre of the tube are in good agreement with those already carried out in air. (authors)

  13. Investigation and Retrofitting Proposal for a Panbo Type House in Sisimiut, Greenland

    OpenAIRE

    Qu, Jing; Vladyková, Petra; Villumsen, Arne

    2012-01-01

    The ‘Blue House’ is a standard family detached house built by Panbo Huse A/S in 1985 in Sisimiut, Greenland. As an old building, it has many problems such as poor thermal comfort and high energy consumption, and therefore, the house has a potential to be retrofitted. The investigation of the ‘Blue House’ was carried out in August 2011, including collection of original documentation, visual inspection, blower-door test, thermography test, the indoor climate monitoring, questionnaire and interv...

  14. Effects of home ventilation systems on indoor radon--radon daughter levels. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted in a house in Polk County, Florida, to determine the effects of normal home ventilation methods on radon, radon progeny, and working levels. Three ventilation conditions were studied which approximate those found during normal occupancy. The effects of the central air conditioner, the central blower without air conditioning, and outside air ventilation were studied, with radon, radon progeny, and working level measurements made sequentially until significant changes ceased to be observed. In all three experiments, radon, radon progeny, and working levels decreased, with the decreases corresponding to estimated increases in house ventilation rate

  15. Machining of Titanium Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Karásek, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of this work is the analysis of manufacturing costs for the component of wheel´s blower. Followed by setting up the size of specific cutting force for milling operation of the titanium alloy Ti-Al6-Mo2-Cr2-Fe-Si, the used tool was a milling cutter which is made out of sintered carbide with conical and spherical face. The final values which are at intervals of 1500 to 1800 MPa were compared with the values of the Sandvik Coromant firm kc = 1690 MPa, for titanium alloy with the st...

  16. FMIT accelerator vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility accelerator is being designed to continuously accelerate 100-mA deuterons to 25 MeV. High vacuum pumping of the accelerator structure and beam lines will be done by ion pumps and titanium sublimation pumps. The design of the roughing system includes a Roots blower/mechanical pump package. For economy the size of the system has been designed to operate at 10-6 torr, where beam particle scattering on residual gases is negligible. For minimum maintenance in this neutron factory, the FMIT vacuum system is designed from the point of view of simplicity and reliability

  17. Development and Performance Evaluation of an Okra Drying Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Owolarafe, O. K.; Obayopo, S. O.; O. A. Amarachi; O. Babatunde; O.A. Ologunro

    2011-01-01

    An okra dryer was designed, constructed and evaluated in this study for post-harvest processing of the fruit. The dryer consists of a heating chamber, two drying trays, a blower of 1hp, two heating elements of 2000 W each, 4 roller tyres for ease of mobility, a control box which consist of a thermostat that regulates the temperature in the dryer. The result of evaluation of the dryer in no load indicated that it was able to yield temperature very close to the preset (by the thermostat) after ...

  18. Drive control by a subsynchronous converter cascade; Antriebsregelung mittels untersynchroner Stromrichterkaskade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, R.; Wolff, A. [Transresch Antriebssysteme Berlin GmbH (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    Cascades have been important elements of electric drives since last century (Kramer-Scherbius cascade). Wit a limited continuous control range as in machines like pumps, compressors, blowers, excavators, rotary kilns, presses, extruders, conveyer belt systems etc., drive control by a subsynchronous converter cascade has become an option for modern drives. Advances in constructional elements, control systems and in the properties of the electric machines have brought about this renaissance. An industrial system is presented which is offered by only a handful of producers as yet. (orig.)

  19. Attacks by “Anonymous” WikiLeaks Proponents not Anonymous

    OpenAIRE

    Pras, Aiko; Sperotto, Anna; Moura, Giovane C.M.; Drago, Idilio; Barbosa, Rafael; Sadre, Ramin; Schmidt, Ricardo; Hofstede, Rick

    2010-01-01

    On November 28, 2010, the world started watching the whistle blower website WikiLeaks to begin publishing part of the 250,000 US Embassy Diplomatic cables. These confidential cables provide an insight on U.S. international affairs from 274 different embassies, covering topics such as analysis of host countries and leaders and even requests for spying out United Nations leaders. The release of these cables has caused reactions not only in the real world, but also on the Internet. In fact, a cy...

  20. 小弦節比翼列ディフューザにおける二次流れの挙動解析 (第1報, 翼前縁位置の影響)

    OpenAIRE

    坂口, 大作; 石田, 正弘; 村上, 天元; 植木, 弘信; 速水, 洋

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the effect of the blade leading edge location of low solidity cascade diffuser (LSD) on noise and diffuser performance in a centrifugal blower. The noise of the vaneless diffuser, varied little in a wide flow rate range, on the other hand, that of the LSD increased remarkably as the flow rate decreased. Two kinds of discrete frequency noise appeared due to interaction between the rotating jet-wake flow and the LSD blade and another interaction between the rotating impell...

  1. The influence of blade profile and slots on the performance of a centrifugal impeller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, H. S.

    1980-01-01

    As part of the program of studies on centrifugal impellers, the problem of instability at low flows was investigated. The major cause was found to be flow detachment from the impeller vanes. Slotted blades were found to be the most effective means of delaying this detachment, and extending the working range of the blower. Low speed studies were confirmed by a test program on a high speed machine, where it was demonstrated that the improved flow range was accompanied by a general increase of efficiency. The design and placement of the slots is discussed.

  2. Speed Control Of Induction Motor Using Dspic30f2023

    OpenAIRE

    M. S. Aspalli; Laxmi

    2013-01-01

    AC motor drives are widely used to control the speed of conveyor systems, blower speeds, pump speeds, machine tool speeds and other applications that require variable speed with variable torque. The main aim of the work is to design and develop an electronic system that can be used to control the speed of a three phase induction motor.The speed of the three phase induction motor can be controlled by various methods. The stator frequency control is one of the simplest methods to control the sp...

  3. Decommissioning of a tritium-contaminated laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tritium laboratory facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, was decommissioned in 1979. The project involved dismantling the laboratory equipment and disposing of the equipment and debris at an on-site waste disposal/storage area. The laboratory was constructed in 1953 and was in service for tritium research and fabrication of lithium tritide components until 1974. The major features of the laboratory included some 25 meters of gloveboxes and hoods, associated vacuum lines, utility lines, exhaust ducts, electrodryers, blowers, and laboratory benches. This report presents details on the decommissioning, health physics, waste management, environmental surveillance, and costs for the operation

  4. A Single-phase Spindle Motor Design for DVD Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A. single phase brushless spindle motor with innovative design has been deyeloped for application in a DVD drive. The methods used to reduce the cogging torque and to improve the dynamic performance of this new design motor are proposed in this paper. The single phase brushless spindle motor is usually applied for cooling fan, pump and blower before the performance is improved by the reengineering process. The stator configuration and the drive circuit have been remodeled in order to meet the requirements of the spindle motor used in the DVD applications.

  5. リングファンの空力特性と騒音に関する研究

    OpenAIRE

    佐々木, 壮一; 福田, 雅治; 林, 秀千人

    2009-01-01

    The ring fan is a blower that has a shroud at the tip side of the axial flow impeller. In this study, to clarify the influence of the flow around the impeller on the aerodynamic characteristics and noise of the fan is aimed. The following characteristics were obtained; the efficiency of the ring fan is improved about 13% than the current propeller fan, the specific noise level is reduced approximately 6dB. The potential of the blade tip vortex of the ring fan has been weakened by the shroud. ...

  6. 羽根車羽根数を変えた場合の遠心送風機の性能と騒音

    OpenAIRE

    大木, 守松; 宮田, 史昭; 竹田, 伸吾

    1984-01-01

    Abstract Experimental results are presented for the effects of an impeller blade number on the performance and the noise characteristics of a centrifugal turboblower. The impeller changes its blade number as 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24. In general, it becomes high for the efficiency of the blower together with its total pressure as the impeller has more blades. Noticeably, the efficiency tends to nearly constant when the impeller has more than 8 blades, while the total pressure shows a constant ten...

  7. 半導体レーザ2焦点流速計による遠心送風機旋回失速の計測 : 第1報,速度変動の翼間分布計測

    OpenAIRE

    坂口, 大作; 石田, 正弘; 植木, 弘信; Surana, Taufan

    1994-01-01

    For detecting the rotating stall observed at a low flow rate in a centrifugal blower with a backward-leaning blade impeller, blade-to-blade variation of velocity fluctuation was measured in the impeller, immediately downstream of the impeller and in the vaneless diffuser. Measurement was conducted by means of the spot-focus-type semiconductor laser 2-focus velocimeter developed by the authors. This L2F velocimeter has a narrow-band spatial-filter effect within ±1.5 degrees of flow angle fluct...

  8. 大型送風機用羽根車の微小亀裂原因調査と構造変更(機械力学,計測,自動制御)

    OpenAIRE

    粂田, 克也; 大竹, 雅浩; 岩原, 光男; 長松, 昭男; Kumeda, Katsuya; Ohtake, Masahiro; Iwahara, Mitsuo; Nagamatsu, Akio

    2007-01-01

    The crack arose during actual operation, in an impeller of large-sized blower, at the joint part of the main board and blade. For the purpose to clarify this phenomenon, dynamic analysis and static analysis using the finite element method were performed. The analysis results showed that the cause of a crack of impeller is the stress which occurs owing to the deformation of the side board by centrifugal force. This deformation is wave like one which is same pitch as blade. Then, the structural...

  9. Understenshöjdens framtida utveckling : ett arbete om energieffektiviseringar i ekobyn samt uppgraderingar av dess energisystem utifrån ett hållbart perspektiv

    OpenAIRE

    Koidis, Christina; Kviberg, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Understenshöjden is Stockholm's largest eco-village which was built in the early 1990s with the vision of enabling ecological living for people. However the ecovillage is no longer considered as environmentally friendly because of its relatively high energy consumption, and non-updated energy system. The purpose of this study is therefore to investigate how Understenshöjden should reduce their energy consumption and upgrade its energy system by using Blower-Door, IR-camera and Design Builde...

  10. Design of Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratorium Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Base on the planning to increase of the research and service quality in the ''Neutron activation analysis'' (APN),the design of mentioned ''Neutron activation analysis laboratories room'' has been done in the multi purpose reactor G.A. Siwabessy. By the using the designed installation, the irradiation preparation and counting sample can be done. The design doing by determination of installation lay out and maximum particle contain in the air. The design installation required a unit of 1 HP blower, a unit of 1 HP split air condition and 2 units 1200 x 800 mm HEPA filter. This paper concluded that this design is feasible to fabricated

  11. 1997 Eleventh annual downstream suppliers directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An indexed directory of equipment and service suppliers to the oil and gas industry was provided. The index, preceding the directory, provides an alphabetic listing of companies grouped by major products or services, such as blowers, compressors, control systems, hauling, maintenance, pipes, pumps, valves, welding supplies, and many others. The directory itself is arranged in a single alphabet. Each entry provides brief, but adequate information about the products or services offered, distributed or manufactured, plant location, telephone, fax, E-mail/Internet addresses, and names of key personnel

  12. Understenshöjdens framtida utveckling : ett arbete om energieffektiviseringar i ekobyn samt uppgraderingar av dess energisystem utifrån ett hållbart perspektiv

    OpenAIRE

    Koidis, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Understenshöjden is Stockholm's largest eco-village which was built in the early 1990s with the vision of enabling ecological living for people. However the ecovillage is no longer considered as environmentally friendly because of its relatively high energy consumption, and non-updated energy system. The purpose of this study is therefore to investigate how Understenshöjden should reduce their energy consumption and upgrade its energy system by using Blower-Door, IR-camera and the simulation ...

  13. Fire extinguishing in goaf of underground mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Privalov, N.I.; Belik, I.P.; Krupka, A.A.; Taratuta, S.N. (VNIIGD (USSR))

    1990-09-01

    Discusses a scheme developed by the VNIIGD institute for fire fighting in underground coal mines with or without fire hazards. Inert gases are used for fire extinguishing. The following aspects of fire fighting are discussed: isolation of a mine zone with a developing fire, position of ventilation barriers, other methods for control of air leaks, position of the GIG-4 inert gas generator, supply of inert gases to a fire center, position of blowers, operation of an automatic system for analysis of fire gases and for measuring concentration of individual components, automatic control of inert gas supply. A scheme of the system is discussed.

  14. The optimisation and analysis of a centrifugal slurry pump impeller with 2 blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Salih Cellek

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available With FLUENT, which is Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD software, it becomes possible to define the performance of complicated flow in turbo machines like pumps and blowers. It is not only reduced costs but also saves time. This study is aimed to optimize a commercial slurry pump impeller. Therefore, four different types of impellers were designed with using various blade angles, blade length and splitter blade on the impeller, which is the most crucial component of the pump. As a result of analysis it was seen that every impeller affected on the pump performance at different flow rate.

  15. Confucian culture and whistle-blowing by professional accountants: an exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis Hwang; Blair Staley; Ying Te Chen; Jyh-Shan Lan

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to use survey data to examine the impact of culture on current and future accounting and auditing professionals' intent to be whistle-blowers in a Chinese cultural society. Design/methodology/approach – The paper examines intent to whistle-blow and factors influencing whistle-blowing, using survey data collected by the authors. Findings – It was found that a majority of respondents believe that a general sense of morality was the most important factor to...

  16. Single-family-residence solar heating--Carlsbad, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Solar-heating and hot-water system includes 408 square feet of flat-plate air collectors, rock storage bin, energy transport system, air-to-water heat exchanger, controls, and hot-water preheat tank. Hot-air oil furnace supplies auxiliary space heating, and electricity powers air-handler blower and hot water preheat pump. For 12 month period, system provided 43 percent of space-heating and 53 percent of hot-water energy; net energy savings were 23.072 million Btu.

  17. Boilers a practical reference

    CERN Document Server

    Rayaprolu, Kumar

    2012-01-01

    AAbrasion and Abrasion Index (see Wear)Absolute or Dynamic Viscosity (æ) (see Viscosity in Fluid Characteristics)Acid Cleaning (see Commissioning)Acid Rain (also see Air Pollution Emissions and Controls and Gas Cleaning)Acid Sludge (see Refuse Fuels from Refinery in Liquid Fuels)Acid Smuts (see Oil Ash)Acoustic Soot Blowers (see Sonic Horns)Acoustic Enclosure (see Noise Control)Acoustic Leak Detection SystemAdiabatic Flame Temperature (see Combustion)Aeroderivative (see Types of GTs in Turbines, Gas)Ageing of Boiler ComponentsAgro-Fuels and FiringAir Ducts (see Draught Plant)Air Flow Measureme

  18. Preliminary design and study of an innovative option for gas fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Gas cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) is one of the 6 reactor concepts selected in the framework of the Generation IV forum. The main characteristics of the CEA GFR concept are a 2400 MW core based on a ceramic pin type fuel as a reference, with an inlet temperature of 400 C degrees and an outlet temperature of 780 C degrees. The power conversion system is based on an indirect cycle with helium on the primary circuit, a Brayton cycle with a mixture of nitrogen and helium on the secondary circuit and a steam cycle on the tertiary circuit. In accidental situations, the use of the gas coolant circulation as the main way to remove the decay heat has been selected. A specific system (DHR system) has been designed: it consists of 3 loops (3*100% redundancy) in extension of the pressure vessel, equipped with heat exchangers and blowers. In the current preliminary viability studies, GFR primary compression system relies on 3 axial blowers (operating in parallel) driven by 3 electrical motors. The present study concerns an alternative design of the primary compression systems, assuming that the 3 primary compressors are driven by the 3 turbogenerators of the secondary circuits. This new system requires that the 3 shafts connecting the turbines and the compressors of the secondary circuits are also connected to their corresponding primary blowers, via longer shafts crossing the primary circuit vessel. This new cycle is the only new element of complexity in this alternative design. This fact should be put in regards of the advantage of no requirement for external energy for driving the compression system (excepting for start-up) and of the safety advantages: suppression of the Loss of Flow Accident due to a primary motor failure and possibility to use this new cycle to improve the grace delay of the reactor using the turbomachinery to drive the primary blowers during the beginning of any accidental situation. This paper first presents the main differences of design compare to the

  19. 沙漠環境風洞の特性計測 (定常風と脈動風)

    OpenAIRE

    林,農; 原, 豊; 康, 仁勝; 加藤, 優; 藤本,裕己; 若,良二; 田川, 公太朗; 神近,牧男

    2007-01-01

    Wind characteristics generated by the wind tunnel named Desert Environment Wind Tunnel, which can generate arbitrary pattern of wind speed variation by changing the angle of pitch of the blower blades, were investigated with both of a hot-wire anemometer and a ultrasonic anemometer. Distributions of the wind velocity components (v, w) in a plane perpendicular to the mainstream (u-direction), whose wind speed varies like a sine wave, were measured downstream at x = 1.5m from the exit of wind t...

  20. Investigation of air cleaning system response to accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air cleaning system response to the stress of accident conditions are being investigated. A program overview and hghlight recent results of our investigation are presented. The program includes both analytical and experimental investigations. Computer codes for predicting effects of tornados, explosions, fires, and material transport are described. The test facilities used to obtain supportive experimental data to define structural integrity and confinement effectiveness of ventilation system components are described. Examples of experimental results for code verification, blower response to tornado transients, and filter response to tornado and explosion transients are reported

  1. Fire and ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to restrict the consequences of the spread of a fire on adjacent premises and on the environment, the fire must not damage the ventilation system. This is why every endeavour must be made to confine the fire from the intake to the outlet of this system. The study of the confinement measures will cover in succession each component part of the system, namely: air intake, blower filter, premises, ducting and extraction filters. The spread of the fire and the effects on ventilation are then examined

  2. Investigation of air cleaning system response to accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are investigating air cleaning system response to the stress of accident conditions. In this paper we present a program overview and highlight recent results of our investigations. The program includes both analytical and experimental investigations. Computer codes for predicting effects of tornados, explosions, fires, and material transport are described. We also describe the test facilities we use to obtain supportive experimental data to define structural integrity and confinement effectiveness of ventilation system components. Examples of experimental results for code verification, blower response to tornado transients, and filter response to tornado and explosion transients are reported

  3. FIRAC, Nuclear Power Plant Fire Accident Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: FIRAC predicts fire-induced flows, thermal and material transport, and radioactive and non- radioactive source terms in a ventilation system. It is designed to predict the radioactive and nonradioactive source terms that lead to gas dynamic, material transport, and heat transfer transients. FIRAC's capabilities are directed toward nuclear fuel cycle facilities and the primary release pathway - the ventilation system. However, it is applicable to other facilities and can be used to model other airflow pathways within a structure. The basic material transport capability of FIRAC includes estimates of entrainment, convection, deposition, and filtration of material. The interrelated effects of filter plugging, heat transfer, and gas dynamics are also simulated. A ventilation system model includes elements such as filters, dampers, ducts, and blowers connected at nodal points to form networks. A zone-type compartment fire model is incorporated to simulate fire-induced transients within a facility. 2 - Method of solution: FIRAC solves one-dimensional, lumped-parameter, compressible flow equations by an implicit numerical scheme. The lumped-parameter method is the basic formulation that describes the gas dynamics system. No spatial distribution of parameters is considered in this approach, but an effect of spatial distribution can be approximated by noding. Network theory, using the lumped-parameter method, includes a number of system elements, called branches, joined at certain points, called nodes. Ventilation system components that exhibit flow resistance and inertia, such as dampers, ducts, valves, and filters, and those that exhibit flow potential, such as blowers, are located within the branches of the system. The connection points of branches are nodes for components that have finite volumes, such as rooms, gloveboxes, and plenums, and for boundaries where the volume is practically infinite. All internal nodes, therefore

  4. Dual turbine power plant and method of operating such plant, especially one having an HTGR steam supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A power plant including dual steam turbine-generators connected to pass superheat and reheat steam from a steam generator which derives heat from the coolant gas of a high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor is described. Associated with each turbine is a bypass line to conduct superheat steam in parallel with a high pressure turbine portion, and a bypass line to conduct superheat steam in parallel with a lower pressure turbine portion. Auxiliary steam turbines pass a portion of the steam flow to the reheater of the steam generator and drive gas blowers which circulate the coolant gas through the reactor and the steam source. Apparatus and method are disclosed for loading or unloading a turbine-generator while the other produces a steady power output. During such loading or unloading, the steam flows through the turbine portions are coordinated with the steam flows through the bypass lines for protection of the steam generator, and the pressure of reheated steam is regulated for improved performance of the gas blowers. 33 claims, 5 figures

  5. Gas plant environmental noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In September 1988, the Energy Resources Conservation Board which regulates the Alberta oil and gas industry tightened its environmental noise guidelines by a factor of 10. New nighttime maximum permissible noise levels as low as 40 dBA are now enforceable in rural areas. The directive is retroactively applicable upon residential complaints and necessitated the use of radical innovations for industry to comply. Details are presented of noise and noise parameters, acoustic fields, dissipation, absorption and diffraction. Major sources of gas plant noise are engine and turbine exhausts, air coolers and cooling towers, purge blowers for electric motors, piping and valves, and flares. Attenuation techniques include silencers, berms and dykes, acoustic lagging and housing, variable speed drives, and stack induced air draft cooler. Recommendations for noise abatement include: house all rotating equipment in acoustically lined buildings; muffle engine exhausts and purge blower vents with reactive silencers where possible; choose electric over engine driven equipment; keep a good mix of engine speeds, fan speeds, and blade counts to reduce tonal spikes; don't rely on berms or dykes; choose water cooling towers over aerial coolers and fit aerial coolers with variable speed drive fans; experiment with stack induced draft coolers where water cooling is not an option; and use process speed valves where possible over bypass valving. 18 figs

  6. Method of eliminating radioactive substances in atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To eliminate natural radioactive substance (in particular, gases 222Rn) in the atmosphere. Method: Air removed with dusts of greater than several μ in a filter is introduced into a mixer using a blower. In the blower, super-heated steams at 120 - 2000C and the airs are mixed together. Then, the air mixture is introduced into a cooler and cooled to room temperature -500C to condensate water. Subsequently, the cooled air mixture is passed through an activated carbon adsorption device (6 - 12 mesh, air passing speed less than 4 cm/sec. and activated carbon layer thickness 50 - 100 cm) to adsorb 222Rn. Finally, the air passed through the activated carbon adsorption device is introduced to an ultrafilter for collecting fine particles (asbesto filter, glass filter, etc.) to collect fine particles of activated carbon, lead, bismuth, etc. (decaying products of gaseous 222Rn). Liquid issued from the mixer and the cooler are discharged by way of drain pipes. (Ikeda, J.)

  7. Flow and Heat Transfer Tests in New Loop at 2757 kPa (400 psi)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-13

    A helium flow and heat transfer experiment has been designed for the new helium flow loop facility at LANL. This new facility is centered on an Aerzen GM 12.4 Root’s blower, selected for operation at higher pressure, up to 2757 kPa, and mass flow rate, up to 400 g/s. This replaces the previous Tuthill PD plus 3206 blower and loop limited to 2067 kPa (300 psi) and 100 g/s. The resistively heated test piece is comprised of 7 electric heaters with embedded thermocouples. The plant design for the Mo100 to Mo99 targets requires sharp bends and geometry changes in the helium flow tube immediately before and after the target. An idealized fully developed flow configuration with straight entry and exit will be tested and compared with an option that employs rectangular tubing to make the bend at a radius consistent with and practical for the actual plant design. The current plant design, with circular tubing and a sudden contraction to rectangular just prior to target entrance, will also be tested. This requires some modification of the test piece, as described in the report.

  8. Hydraulic design of a low-specific speed Francis runner for a hydraulic cooling tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, H.; Luo, X. Q.; Liao, W. L.; Zhao, Y. P.

    2012-11-01

    The air blower in a cooling tower is normally driven by an electromotor, and the electric energy consumed by the electromotor is tremendous. The remaining energy at the outlet of the cooling cycle is considerable. This energy can be utilized to drive a hydraulic turbine and consequently to rotate the air blower. The purpose of this project is to recycle energy, lower energy consumption and reduce pollutant discharge. Firstly, a two-order polynomial is proposed to describe the blade setting angle distribution law along the meridional streamline in the streamline equation. The runner is designed by the point-to-point integration method with a specific blade setting angle distribution. Three different ultra-low-specificspeed Francis runners with different wrap angles are obtained in this method. Secondly, based on CFD numerical simulations, the effects of blade setting angle distribution on pressure coefficient distribution and relative efficiency have been analyzed. Finally, blade angles of inlet and outlet and control coefficients of blade setting angle distribution law are optimal variables, efficiency and minimum pressure are objective functions, adopting NSGA-II algorithm, a multi-objective optimization for ultra-low-specific speed Francis runner is carried out. The obtained results show that the optimal runner has higher efficiency and better cavitation performance.

  9. Development of Micro Cogeneration System with a Porous Catalyst Microcombustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The self-standing micro cogeneration system by coupling a microcombustor, thermoelectric modules and an air supply device was developed. The microcombustor has a porous monolithic Pt catalyst layer and the combustion efficiency of 90% was attained. A micro-blower was used to supply air to the combustor, and it was driven by a part of the electricity from the Bi-Te TE modules through a DC-DC converter. We investigated the optimal point where the output became maximal and the system stood by itself. At the optimal point, the input fuel enthalpy was 13.2W and the electricity of 403mW was generated from the TE modules. The micro blower used 280mW and the net electricity was 123mW. Therefore the final thermal efficiency was 0.93%. The efficiency was the same magnitude of the world smallest model plane engine TeeDee01 (COX Co. Ltd.) although the thermal input was less than its 1/20

  10. Predicting Envelope Leakage in Attached Dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faakye, O.; Arena, L.; Griffiths, D.

    2013-07-01

    The most common method for measuring air leakage is to use a single blower door to pressurize and/or depressurize the test unit. In detached housing, the test unit is the entire home and the single blower door measures air leakage to the outside. In attached housing, this 'single unit', 'total', or 'solo' test method measures both the air leakage between adjacent units through common surfaces as well air leakage to the outside. Measuring and minimizing this total leakage is recommended to avoid indoor air quality issues between units, reduce energy losses to the outside, reduce pressure differentials between units, and control stack effect. However, two significant limitations of the total leakage measurement in attached housing are: for retrofit work, if total leakage is assumed to be all to the outside, the energy benefits of air sealing can be significantly over predicted; for new construction, the total leakage values may result in failing to meet an energy-based house tightness program criterion. The scope of this research is to investigate an approach for developing a viable simplified algorithm that can be used by contractors to assess energy efficiency program qualification and/or compliance based upon solo test results.

  11. Application of OxidationAir Compressor in Flue Gas Desulfurization Engineering in Power Plant%浅析氧化风机在电厂烟气脱硫工程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晓曼

    2012-01-01

      作为整个脱硫运行中比较关键的大型设备,氧化风机的选型是否合理,直接关系整个工程的投资及运营。本文从罗茨鼓风机和离心鼓风机各自的工作原理和特点分析了两种风机在实际脱硫工程中的优缺点,同时在风机效率、噪声大小及风机传动设施方面进行了比较说明。%  As a key equipment in al flue gas desulfurization engineering, the selection of oxidation air compressor shows a direct bearing on the investment and operation in project. The paper explicates the concept of the working principle and char-acteristics and analyzes the advantages and disadvantages on the areas of fan efficiency, noise and transmission facilities of the Root`s blower and centrifugal blower.

  12. Analysis of Two Stroke Marine Diesel Engine Operation Including Turbocharger Cut-Out by Using a Zero-Dimensional Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Guan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the operation of a large two-stroke marine diesel engine including various cases with turbocharger cut-out was thoroughly investigated by using a modular zero-dimensional engine model built in MATLAB/Simulink environment. The model was developed by using as a basis an in-house modular mean value engine model, in which the existing cylinder block was replaced by a more detailed one that is capable of representing the scavenging ports-cylinder-exhaust valve processes. Simulation of the engine operation at steady state conditions was performed and the derived engine performance parameters were compared with the respective values obtained by the engine shop trials. The investigation of engine operation under turbocharger cut-out conditions in the region from 10% to 50% load was carried out and the influence of turbocharger cut-out on engine performance including the in-cylinder parameters was comprehensively studied. The recommended schedule for the combination of the turbocharger cut-out and blower activation was discussed for the engine operation under part load conditions. Finally, the influence of engine operating strategies on the annual fuel savings, CO2 emissions reduction and blower operating hours for a Panamax container ship operating at slow steaming conditions is presented and discussed.

  13. Determination of an optimal process control for the incidence of pressure release in an HTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this dissertation, the methods and models of a newly developed program system are shown, which are particularly suitable for describing the dynamic behaviour and the interaction between the reactor pressure vessel and the reactor protection building of high temperature reactors in normal post-shutdown heat removal operation and in the pressure release accident. Using this program, the maximum pressure release accident is thoroughly examined for an HTR of medium output (about 500 MWe), where after barely 1 1/2 hours (fracture of a NW 65 duct), pressure equalisation occurs between the pressure vessel and the protection building, and there is therefore a possibility of air entering and of graphite corrosion in the pressure vessel. Transients are calculated for the various boundary conditions and the quantities of air entering the pressure vessel due to cooling (contraction) and meteorological air pressure variations are determined. Due to the slow behaviour specific to the HTR, the investigations arrive at the result, that after an automated start of the post-shutdown heat removal systems, the plant can be shut down manually by the control room staff. The investigations showed the following optimum shut-down programme: In the pressure release phase, starting up the blowers depending on reactor pressure vessel pressure, e.g. at 1/2 hour intervals, where the functional connection between the possible blower speed and the pressure vessel pressure is practically independent of the size of the leak. (orig./GL)

  14. Nickel super alloy INCONEL 713LC - structural characteristics after heat treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hernas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Nickel super alloy’s products are mainly using for construction parts of jet engines, gas turbines and turbo-blowers.Design/methodology/approach: Super alloy was commercially produced and was investigated by using the light microscopy (OLYMPUS IX 71 and local chemical microanalysis and by the scanning electron microscopy (JEOL JSM 50AFindings: We found a mode of optimum heat treatment. On the basis of obtained results it is possible to recommend a following regime of heat treatment: heating and dwell at the temperature exceeding 1240 °C (min. 1260 °C, so that precipitates at the grain boundaries dissolve completely, with subsequent slow cooling down to the temperature of approx. 940-950 °C, so that there occurs intensive intra-granular precipitation of intermetallic phase γ’.Research limitations/implications: The experiment was limited by occurrence a void in cast alloys.Practical implications: Nickel super alloy’s products are mainly using for construction parts of jet engines, gas turbines and turbo-blowers.Originality/value: Mode of optimum heat treatment was proposed. On the basis of obtained results it is possible to recommend the most suitable heat treatment, which produce intensive intra-granular precipitation of inter-metallic phase γ’. It was received a new know-how in this field.

  15. Blowing loop in the EL-4 reactor: CO2 flow control analogue study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes one study which contributed to the construction of the Monts d'Arree nuclear power station: EL-4. The reactor is cooled by a CO2 current provided by 3 turbo-blower groups. The priming vapour for the turbines is taken at the exit of the main CO2 - H2O exchangers. The operation of EL 4 is based on a high degree of centralization of the controls which attributes an important role to the general regulation circuits. This general regulation includes in particular an internal blowing loop which controls the CO2 flow. The study of the control of this CO2 flow is made up of 3 parts: - analogue representation of the reactors cooling circuit and of the turbo blower unit. - first test campaign using the analogue computer describing the natural behaviour of the system in the absence of control. theoretical determination of the regulation factors; definition of the regulation using an analogue computer and second test campaign for recording the performances of the blowing loop. The 4. part of the report deals with the analogue study: analogue equations - development. (authors)

  16. Numerical simulations of a full-scale polymer electrolyte fuel cell with analysing systematic performance in an automotive application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A 3-D full-scale fuel cell performance is numerically simulated. • Generated and consumed power in the system is affected by operating condition. • Systematic analysis predicts the net power of conceptual PEFC stack. - Abstract: In fuel cell powered electric vehicles, the net power efficiency is a critical factor in terms of fuel economy and commercialization. Although the fuel cell stack produces enough power to drive the vehicles, the transferred power to the power train could be significantly reduced due to the power consumption to operate the system components of air blower and cooling module. Thus the systematic analysis on the operating condition of the fuel cell stack is essential to predict the net power generation. In this paper numerical simulation is conducted to characterize the fuel cell performance under various operating conditions. Three dimensional and full-scale fuel cell of the active area of 355 cm2 is numerically modelled with 47.3 million grids to capture the complexities of the fluid dynamics, heat transfer and electrochemical reactions. The proposed numerical model requires large computational time and cost, however, it can be powerful to reasonably predict the fuel cell system performance at the early stage of conceptual design without requiring prototypes. Based on the model, it has been shown that the net power is reduced down to 90% of the gross power due to the power consumption of air blower and cooling module

  17. The impact of biomass co-combustion on the erosion of boiler convection surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The lower ash content of biomass, the more quickly ash settles on boiler tubes. • The higher share of biomass, the more quickly ash settles on boiler tubes. • Operation of jet blowers involves intense fly ash erosive wear of heating surfaces • Application of acoustic or microblasting technology is advantageous. - Abstract: The erosive wear of boiler tubes caused by fly ash in coal combustion flue gases has been studied for a long time. However, there are practically no data concerning the intensity of the erosion of the heating surfaces of boilers fired with both coal and biomass, and thus it is difficult to design these particular areas appropriately. The essential problem is the tendency of the fly ash from biomass combustion to produce ash deposits on the boiler convection surfaces and to cause slagging on the radiant surfaces. In such cases, both an increase in the deposits and a shortening of the time over which the ash fouling accumulates to the maximum level are observed. Consequently, if the boiler is fitted with steam or air blowers, they are started more frequently; if not, they have to be installed. The research conducted here proves that the situation leads to serious damage to the tubes, which results from the erosion caused by ash particles carried by the blowing agent jet. The authors of this paper attempt to make a quantitative evaluation of the impact of co-firing two types of biomass (coniferous wood chips and willow wood chips) on both types of tube erosion

  18. Improving operability of spouted beds using a simple optimizing control structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. CORRÊA

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In operations using spouted beds, it is of major importance, from an energy consumption point of view, to operate the process as close as possible to the minimum spout flow. At this point, the speed of the gas (for example, warm air in drying operations is greater than the amount of heat and mass transfer involved, although it only transfers the minimum amount of momentum to maintain the spout. Therefore, by staying close to this minimum flow condition, it is possible to perform a stable operation and to obtain energy savings not only in the heating of the gas but also in its displacement by blowers. In order to improve the operation of such processes, a study is carried out by implementing a simple optimizing control structure on a spouted bed experimental set-up. The air flow is regulated by a frequency inverter, at the speed of blower rotation. A PI controller was used and the set-point for the air flow rate is calculated on-line by a simple and well-known minimization method called Golden Section Search. This set-point is constantly updated with values very close to the actual minimum spout flow rate. To accomplish the calculations and data acquisitions, a microcomputer with an interface and an analog signal conditioner is used .

  19. Distillation of oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronder, G.A.

    1926-03-22

    To distill oil shales, cannel coals, and other carbonaceous materials for the extraction therefrom of hydrocarbons and volatile nitrogenous compounds, hard non-condensable gases from the condensers and scrubbers are withdrawn by blowers and admixed with burnt gases, obtained through conduits from the flues of heaters, and forced downwardly through horizontal chambers, connected by vertical conduits, of the heaters and delivered into the retort beneath the grate. Passing upwardly through the charge they vaporize the volatile substances in the shale, and a suction pump removes the vapors from the top of the retort. Immediately they are produced and at substantially the same temperature as that at which they emanate, thus preventing cracking of the oil vapors and condensation of the oil at the top of the retort. The amount of burnt flue gas admixed with the hard gases is regulated by two valves until a required uniform temperature is obtained. A generator supplies producer gas to a heater at the commencement of the retorting operation for circulation through the shale charge to initially produce oil vapors. The generator is connected by a pipe to the gas conduit leading to blowers.

  20. Medium and high energy electron beam processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron Beam Processing System (EPS) is a useful and powerful tool for industrial irradiation process. The specification of EPS is decided by consideration to irradiate what material with how thick and wide, how much dose, how to handle, in what atmosphere. In designing an EPS, it is necessary to consider safety measure such as x-ray shielding, ozone control and interlock system. The initial costs to install typical EPS are estimated for acceleration voltages from 500 kV to 5 MV, including following items; those are electron beam machine, x-ray shielding, auxiliary equipment, material handling, survey for installation, ozone exhaust duct, cooling water system, wiring and piping. These prices are reference only because the price should be changed for each case. The price of x-ray shielding should be changed by construction cost. Auxiliary equipment includes window, cooling blower, ozone exhaust blower and SF6 gas handling equipment. In installation work at site, actual workers of 3 - 4 persons for 2 months are necessary. Material handling system is considered only rolls provided in the shielding room as reference. In addition to the initial installation, operators and workers may be required to wear a personal radiation monitor. An x-ray monitor of suitable design should be installed outside the shield room to monitor x-ray level in the working area. (Y. Tanaka)

  1. Emergency gas processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention provides an emergency gas processing device which discharged contaminated air in a reactor building to the outside. Namely, a suction port of an emergency gas processing pipeline is disposed in the inside of the reactor building. The exit of the pipeline is connected to an exhaustion pipe of the building. On the side of the inlet of the pipeline, there are disposed an inlet valve, an air dryer, a blower, a filter unit and an exit valve from the suction port to the downstream. A heater is disposed to the air dryer. A recycling pipeline equipped with an automatic closing valve for connecting the inlet side of the inlet valve and the inlet side of the exit valve is disposed. Then, the moisture in an emergency gas flown from the inlet valve is removed, heated by the heater, and the temperature of the emergency gas is elevated. Impurities are removed by the filter unit. The automatic closing valve of the recycling pipeline is opened and the blower and the heater are operated to keep the temperature and humidity in the filter unit to a predetermined value during stand-by time. Upon occurrence of an accident, the automatic closing valve is closed, and the aimed system operation is preformed. (I.S.)

  2. Clearance Analysis and Leakage Flow CFD Model of a Two-Lobe Multi-Recompression Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph C. Mollendorf

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a study on multi-recompression heating. This process employs a Roots-type mechanism to heat gases to very high temperatures by compressive gas heating. A CFD model predicting the leakage flows in the machine was developed, and an excellent comparison with experimental data taken on a two-lobe Roots blower was obtained. A “clearance analysis” was performed to show that the clearance between the impellers remains constant for 96% of the angles of rotation. Assuming a quasi-steady state, the CFD simulation was performed for a single angle of rotation. A three-dimensional analysis showed that the flow field is identical along the rotor length, except for the leakage through the end plates. Hence, the model was further simplified to a two-dimensional analysis. This research may provide guidance in predicting the leakage flows in other blowers of the same kind with a different geometry.

  3. Human subject testing of leakage in a loose-fitting PAPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A.T.; Koh, F.C.; Jamshidi, S.; Rehak, T.E. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Leakage from loose-fitting PAPRs (powered air-purifying respirators) can compromise the safety of wearers. The Martindale Centurion MAX multifunction PAPR is a loose-fitting PAPR that also incorporates head, eye, and ear protection. This respirator is used in mines where coal dust usually is controlled by ventilation systems. Should the respirator be depended on for significant respiratory protection? Ten human volunteers were asked to wear the Centurion MAX inside a fog-filled chamber. Their inhalation flow rates were measured with small pitot-tube flowmeters held inside their mouths. They were video imaged while they breathed deeply, and the points at which the fog reached their mouths were determined. Results showed that an average of 1.1 L could be inhaled before contaminated air reached the mouth. As long as the blower purges contamination from inside the face piece during exhalation, the 1.1 L acts as a buffer against contaminants leaked due to overbreathing of blower flow rate.

  4. NaOCl effect on biofilm produced by Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the milking environment and mastitis infected cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana de Castro Melo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms constitute a physical barrier, protecting the encased bacteria from detergents and sanitizers. The objective of this work was to analyze the effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl against strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from raw milk of cows with subclinical mastitis and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the milking environment (blowers and milk conducting tubes. The results revealed that, in the presence of NaOCl (150ppm, the number of adhered cells of the twelve S. aureus strains was significantly reduced. When the same strains were evaluated in biofilm condition, different results were obtained. It was found that, after a contact period of five minutes with NaOCl (150ppm, four strains (two strains from milk , one from the blowers and one from a conductive rubber were still able to grow. Although with the increasing contact time between the bacteria and the NaOCl (150ppm, no growth was detected for any of the strains. Concerning the efficiency of NaOCl on total biofilm biomass formation by each S. aureus strain, a decrease was observed when these strains were in contact with 150 ppm NaOCl for a total period of 10 minutes. This study highlights the importance of a correct sanitation protocol of all the milk processing units which can indeed significantly reduce the presence of microorganisms, leading to a decrease of cow´s mastitis and milk contamination.

  5. Whistle-blowing and workplace culture in older peoples' care: qualitative insights from the healthcare and social care workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Aled; Kelly, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Inquiries in the UK into mistreatment of older people by healthcare employees over the last 30 years have focused on introducing or supporting employee whistle-blowing. Although whistle-blowers have made an important contribution to patient safety it remains a controversial activity. The fate of whistle-blowers is bleak, often resulting in personal and professional sacrifices. Here we draw on the views of healthcare and social care employees working with older people to explore perceptions of whistle-blowing as well as alternative strategies that may be used to raise concerns about the mistreatment of patients by co-workers. Whistle-blowing was perceived as a negative term. Managers said they promoted open cultures underpinned by regular team meetings and an open-door ethos. Others described workplace norms that were somewhat at odds with these open culture ideals. Whistle-blowing was considered risky, and this led to staff creating informal channels through which to raise concerns. Those who witnessed wrongdoing were aware that support was available from external agencies but preferred local solutions and drew upon personal ethics rather than regulatory edicts to shape their responses. We argue that the importance of workplace relationships and informal channels for raising concerns should be better understood to help prevent the mistreatment of vulnerable groups. PMID:24717014

  6. Whistle-blowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper five engineers in nuclear power, aerospace, and air-traffic control recount their experiences in following their consciences. Exposing errors or unethical conduct in any occupation is risky, but when engineering judgement is involved, the risks of blowing the whistle acquire an added dimension. A technical decision cannot always be categorized as strictly right or wrong - unlike situations in which an organization is falsifying documents or overcharging for a product. Consequently, the engineer must be convinced of being right and then wait, sometimes years and even decades after lives are lost or millions of dollars are spent, to be proved right or wrong. Frequently, the whistle-blower's career is destroyed in the meantime. In the following cases, which date from the 1970s and 1980s, the whistle-blowers have by now been vindicated to a degree for their actions, though the verdict may not be unanimous. And the careers of the first group may have even benefitted by blowing the whistle

  7. Whistle-blowing; Not always a losing game

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, K.

    1990-12-01

    In this paper five engineers in nuclear power, aerospace, and air-traffic control recount their experiences in following their consciences. Exposing errors or unethical conduct in any occupation is risky, but when engineering judgement is involved, the risks of blowing the whistle acquire an added dimension. A technical decision cannot always be categorized as strictly right or wrong - unlike situations in which an organization is falsifying documents or overcharging for a product. Consequently, the engineer must be convinced of being right and then wait, sometimes years and even decades after lives are lost or millions of dollars are spent, to be proved right or wrong. Frequently, the whistle-blower's career is destroyed in the meantime. In the following cases, which date from the 1970s and 1980s, the whistle-blowers have by now been vindicated to a degree for their actions, though the verdict may not be unanimous. And the careers of the first group may have even benefitted by blowing the whistle.

  8. Final Technical Report. Training in Building Audit Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosemer, Kathleen [Sault Sainte Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians, Marie, MI (United States)

    2015-03-27

    In 2011, the Tribe proposed and was awarded the Training in Building Audit Technologies grant from the DOE in the amount of $55,748 to contract for training programs for infrared cameras, blower door technology applications and building systems. The coursework consisted of; Infrared Camera Training: Level I - Thermal Imaging for Energy Audits; Blower Door Analysis and Building-As-A-System Training, Building Performance Institute (BPI) Building Analyst; Building Envelope Training, Building Performance Institute (BPI) Envelope Professional; and Audit/JobFLEX Tablet Software. Competitive procurement of the training contractor resulted in lower costs, allowing the Tribe to request and receive DOE approval to additionally purchase energy audit equipment and contract for residential energy audits of 25 low-income Tribal Housing units. Sault Tribe personnel received field training to supplement the classroom instruction on proper use of the energy audit equipment. Field experience was provided through the second DOE energy audits grant, allowing Sault Tribe personnel to join the contractor, Building Science Academy, in conducting 25 residential energy audits of low-income Tribal Housing units.

  9. Opportunities for Open Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California - Phase II Report. San Luis Rey Wastewater Treatment Plant Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Lisa; Lekov, Alex; McKane, Aimee; Piette, Mary Ann

    2010-08-20

    This case study enhances the understanding of open automated demand response opportunities in municipal wastewater treatment facilities. The report summarizes the findings of a 100 day submetering project at the San Luis Rey Wastewater Treatment Plant, a municipal wastewater treatment facility in Oceanside, California. The report reveals that key energy-intensive equipment such as pumps and centrifuges can be targeted for large load reductions. Demand response tests on the effluent pumps resulted a 300 kW load reduction and tests on centrifuges resulted in a 40 kW load reduction. Although tests on the facility?s blowers resulted in peak period load reductions of 78 kW sharp, short-lived increases in the turbidity of the wastewater effluent were experienced within 24 hours of the test. The results of these tests, which were conducted on blowers without variable speed drive capability, would not be acceptable and warrant further study. This study finds that wastewater treatment facilities have significant open automated demand response potential. However, limiting factors to implementing demand response are the reaction of effluent turbidity to reduced aeration load, along with the cogeneration capabilities of municipal facilities, including existing power purchase agreements and utility receptiveness to purchasing electricity from cogeneration facilities.

  10. Leak before break detection-annulus gas monitoring system evolution and operating experience at KGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWR) at RAPS 1 and 2 and MAPS have provision for detection of pressure tube leak by indirect method. The reactor vessel (calandria) is housed in calandria vault (C/V) filled with air and C/V moisture element indicates the water leak from calandria tube or pressure tube. Further, detection of leak is a cumbersome process. From NAPS onwards, calandria is housed in C/V filled with water, annulus between calandria tube and pressure tube is filled with CO2 and annulus gas monitoring system (AGMS) is provided by design for detection of any pressure tube leak. The design was improved and AGMS for Kaiga 1 and 2 and RAPS 3 and 4 is having re-circulation mode of operation. The design provides for monitoring dew point of annulus gas (CO2) for indicating the leak and later to identify the pressure tube/calandria tube having leak. The paper deals with operating experience of AGMS at Kaiga generating station (KGS). During the commissioning and initial power operation at KGS, problems were encountered in re-circulation mode. These problems were high radiation field near AGMS piping, high temperature on blower body, blower bearing failure and system leaks. Design modifications were carried out for effective performance of the system for detecting leak before break

  11. Method of controlling emergency gas treating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention concerns a control method for emergency gas treating system (SGTS) upon plant abnormality for conducting highly reliable SGTS operation without manual control. SGTS is so constituted that gases in nuclear reactor buildings are discharged by way of a switching valve, an air feed closing valve, a gas treating device, a difference pressure control valve and a ventilation blower from a discharge cylinder. The feature of the present invention resides in that the ventilation blower is so controlled that it is started at a low pressure difference between the inner pressure and the atmospheric pressure and stopped at a high difference pressure between the inner pressure and the atmospheric pressure of the reactor buildings. According to the control method, conventional primary system stopping operation or difference pressure controlling operation is no more necessary. Accordingly, SGTS control upon accident can be conducted automatically. Priliminary system stopping operation or difference pressure control operation which is complicate under the state of accidents is no more required. Accordingly, highly reliable SGTS operation is possible. (K.M.)

  12. Ventilation-air conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heretofore, in ventilation-air conditioning systems in a nuclear power plant, exhaust gases from each of the ventilation-air conditioning systems of a reactor building, a turbine building, a waste processing building are joined and they are released into atmosphere from the top of a high main exhaustion stack. In order to build such a high main exhaustion stack, a considerable construction cost is required and, in addition, there is a worry of lacking balance with surrounding scenery. Then, in the present invention, exhaust gases are heated by waste heat in a turbine during their introduction from the ventilation-air conditioning facility in the building of a power plant to the main exhaust stack. With such a constitution, since the exhaust gases are heated and their temperature is elevated, they uprise by natural convection when they are released from the top of the main exhaustion stack to the atmosphere. Accordingly, they are released to a level higher than the conventional case in view of the volume of the blower which sends the exhaust gases under pressure, to diffuse them to the atmosphere more sufficiently compared with a conventional case. Further, the height of the main exhaustion stack can be reduced, enabling to minimize the cost for moving the blower. (T.M.)

  13. Fire-accident analysis code (FIRAC) verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FIRAC computer code predicts fire-induced transients in nuclear fuel cycle facility ventilation systems. FIRAC calculates simultaneously the gas-dynamic, material transport, and heat transport transients that occur in any arbitrarily connected network system subjected to a fire. The network system may include ventilation components such as filters, dampers, ducts, and blowers. These components are connected to rooms and corridors to complete the network for moving air through the facility. An experimental ventilation system has been constructed to verify FIRAC and other accident analysis codes. The design emphasizes network system characteristics and includes multiple chambers, ducts, blowers, dampers, and filters. A large industrial heater and a commercial dust feeder are used to inject thermal energy and aerosol mass. The facility is instrumented to measure volumetric flow rate, temperature, pressure, and aerosol concentration throughout the system. Aerosol release rates and mass accumulation on filters also are measured. This paper compares and discusses the gas-dynamic and heat transport data obtained from the ventilation system experiments with those predicted by the FIRAC code. The numerically predicted data generally are within 10% of the experimental data

  14. Facilities for reducing radioactive material release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upon occurrence of an accident, temperature is elevated by the heat from exothermic materials in an building to cause expansion of the air in the building till the time an emergency gas processing system reaches a rated operation. Further, external air leaks into the building during the time lag depending on the rate of the leakage of the building. They cause lowering of the negative pressure in the building to bring about a worry that the air in the building containing radioactive materials in leaked and released. Then, in the present invention, an ordinary ventilation system comprising an air supply blower, an air exhaustion blower, an air supply isolation valve and an air exhaustion isolation valve, and an emergency gas processing system for exhausting the air in the building by removing radioactive materials upon occurrence of accident are disposed. Upon occurrence of accidents, the operation of the ordinary ventilation system is continued till the emergency gas processing system reaches a rated operation. In view of the above, the lowering of the negative pressure in the building till the emergency gas processing system reaches a rated operation can be prevented. (T.M.)

  15. Human subject testing of leakage in a loose-fitting PAPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Arthur T; Koh, Frank C; Jamshidi, Shaya; Rehak, Timothy E

    2008-05-01

    Leakage from loose-fitting PAPRs (powered air-purifying respirators) can compromise the safety of wearers. The Martindale Centurion MAX multifunction PAPR is a loose-fitting PAPR that also incorporates head, eye, and ear protection. This respirator is used in mines where coal dust usually is controlled by ventilation systems. Should the respirator be depended on for significant respiratory protection? Ten human volunteers were asked to wear the Centurion MAX inside a fog-filled chamber. Their inhalation flow rates were measured with small pitot-tube flowmeters held inside their mouths. They were video imaged while they breathed deeply, and the points at which the fog reached their mouths were determined. Results showed that an average of 1.1 L could be inhaled before contaminated air reached the mouth. As long as the blower purges contamination from inside the face piece during exhalation, the 1.1 L acts as a buffer against contaminants leaked due to overbreathing of blower flow rate. PMID:18348078

  16. Fire-accident analysis code (FIRAC) verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FIRAC computer code predicts fire-induced transients in nuclear fuel cycle facility ventilation systems. FIRAC calculates simultaneously the gas-dynamic, material transport, and heat transport transients that occur in any arbitrarily connected network system subjected to a fire. The network system may include ventilation components such as filters, dampers, ducts, and blowers. These components are connected to rooms and corridors to complete the network for moving air through the facility. An experimental ventilation system has been constructed to verify FIRAC and other accident analysis codes. The design emphasizes network system characteristics and includes multiple chambers, ducts, blowers, dampers, and filters. A larger industrial heater and a commercial dust feeder are used to inject thermal energy and aerosol mass. The facility is instrumented to measure volumetric flow rate, temperature, pressure, and aerosol concentration throughout the system. Aerosol release rates and mass accumulation on filters also are measured. We have performed a series of experiments in which a known rate of thermal energy is injected into the system. We then simulated this experiment with the FIRAC code. This paper compares and discusses the gas-dynamic and heat transport data obtained from the ventilation system experiments with those predicted by the FIRAC code. The numerically predicted data generally are within 10% of the experimental data

  17. Shielding door

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An exhaust processing device disposed at the outside of a radioactive nuclide handling chamber is connected to a shielding door as an exit/inlet for the radioactive nuclide handling chamber. An exhaust chamber is disposed in the inside of the thick shielding door having a thickness. The exhaust chamber is always evacuated by an exhaustion blower and maintained at a negative pressure. The radioactive nuclides in the radiation nuclide handling facility are shielded by an inner seal of the double seals which seal the gap between the wall body and the shielding door. Even if a trace amount of radioactive nuclides leaks from the seal at the inner side, it is shielded by an outer seal, and sucked into the exhaust chamber which is maintained at the negative pressure. Then, it is passed from a ventilation channel through a flexible tube then caught and removed by the filter of the exhaust processing device. This can reduce the capacity of the exhaustion blower to reduce the scale of the exhaust processing device. (I.N.)

  18. Ventilation and air conditioning facility turbine building in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the facility of the present invention, the exhaustion capacity of an exhaustion blower, an exhaustion duct or a main exhaustion stack are decreased to reduce cost for buildings and running cost. That is, the facility of the present invention has an exhaustion port at a position higher than an air supply port disposed to the outer wall of an operation floor of a turbine building. During usual operation, ventilation and air conditioning are conducted for the operation floor by natural circulating ventilation in which air is supplied from the air supply port and exhausted from the exhaustion port. Upon periodical inspection, ventilation and air conditioning are conducted for the operation floor by supplying air from the air supply port and exhausting it from the main exhaustion stack. When air is exhausted from the main exhaustion stack, a means for disposing an exhaustion system exclusively used for the operation floor having a separately disposed exhaustion blower connected to the main exhaustion stack is used or a means capable of selectively communicating the operation floor with a contamination area exhaustion system in the turbine building is used. With such a constitution, the capacity of the exhaustion system is reduced during both of the usual operation and periodical inspection. Further, upon periodical inspections, if air is exhausted from the main exhaustion stack by way of the exhaustion system exclusively used for the turbine building operation floor, the balance for the total amount of airflow is not lost. (I.S.)

  19. AN ELECTROMAGNETIC PNEUMO CAPSULE SYSTEM FOR CONVEYING MINERALS AND MINE WASTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry Liu; Charles W. Lenau

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of using a new and advanced pneumatic capsule pipeline (PCP) system for transporting minerals and mine wastes. The new system is different from conventional PCPs in two main respects: (1) it uses linear induction motors (LIMs) instead of blowers (fans) at the inlet of the pipeline to drive (pump) the capsules and the air through the pipeline; and (2) the capsules in the PCP have steel wheels running on steel rails as opposed to capsules in conventional systems, which use wheels with rubber tires running inside a pipe without rail. The advantage of using LIM pump instead of blower is that the former is non-intrusive and hence does not block the passage of capsules, enabling the system to run continuously without having to make the capsules bypass the pump. This not only simplifies the system but also enables the system to achieve much larger cargo throughput than that of PCPs using blowers, and use of LIMs as booster pumps which enables the system to have any length or to be used for transporting cargoes over practically any distance, say even one thousand kilometers or miles. An advantage of using steel wheels rolling on steel rails instead of using rubber tires rolling inside a pipeline is that the rolling friction coefficient and hence the use of energy is greatly reduced from that of conventional PCP systems. Moreover, rails enable easy control of capsule motion, such as switching capsules to a branch line by using railroad switching equipment. The advanced PCP system studied under this project uses rectangular conduits instead of circular pipe, having cross-sectional areas of 1 m by 1 m approximately. The system can be used for various transportation distances, and it can transport up to 50 million tonnes (metric tons) of cargo annually--the throughput of the largest mines in the world. Both an aboveground and an underground system were investigated and compared. The technical

  20. Design improvement of indigenous beater wheat thresher in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical wheat threshing has gained a spectacular popularity in Pakistan over a short span of time and so is the population of beater-wheat threshers that are being manufactured and marketed by the roadside vendors with little scientific and engineering experience. In fact, the major problems on conventional threshers have been identified as bulky weight, poor machine performance, human accidents and a high fuel consumption rate. A review of the conventional thresher suggests presence of three heavy flywheels with little scientific argument and similarly poorly designed threshing beaters and five MS rings on the beater-drum appear injudicious and unscientific. A horizontal throw of straw from the exhaust-blower takes away a noticeable amount of grains with it. Conventional threshers have witnessed terrifying accidents for the persons feeding the material without any safe crop feeding system. The local manufacturers least care about the fabrication drawings of the conventional machines and therefore their knowledge of manufacturing is restricted to the whims and wishes of ustad-shagird (seniors juniors). Therefore, the present study has been planned for investigation and improvements in the prevalent design of the indigenous beater-wheat thresher to bring about durability, reduction in weight of machine and grain losses in addition to an accident free and cost effective thresher. Modified designs and fabrication drawings of various components such as flywheel, beater, beater drum, blower and feeding conveyer were prepared. Total weight of redesigned beater wheat thresher was reduced from 1600 kg to 1300 kg and the grain damage was reduced four times. The mean threshing efficiency was increased from 98% to 99%. The replacement of the three flywheels by one redesigned flywheel of required size saved 24.37 kN-m energy. The fluctuation in speed was reduced to 3.05 times and coefficient of energy 3.11 times than that of conventional thresher By redesigning and

  1. [Emission of microorganisms from sewage treatment plants depending upon construction differences of single structural parts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikmann, T; Schröder, S; Pieler, J; Bahr, H; Einbrodt, H J

    1986-04-01

    In order to examine the influence exerted by the differing design of individual water treatment plant units on the emission rate of micro-organisms and the associated degree of exposure to which plant personnel is subjected, measurements were taken at three different types of treatment plants. Measurements were made using "Biotest" RCS Air Samplers. The total count of colonies was determined by means of Agar Strips GK-A (tryptic soy agar). Enterobacteriaceae were quantitatively ascertained using Agar Strips C (MacConkey agar), particular attention being paid to the determination of the coliform bacteria as faeces indicators. Agar Strips S (mannitol salt agar) were used to measure the count of staphylococci using Agar Strips HS (rosa Bengal streptomycin agar). Before taking measurements, the prevailing climatic conditions were recorded. It could be ascertained that the enclosure of the inflow area (screw conveyor pump station and aerated grit removal tank) lead to a considerable increase in the concentration of microorganisms in the air within the housing. The values dropped however, when adequate ventilation was provided. Differing oxygen in the activated sludge tanks - finebubble aeration at the tank bottom or the blowing in of air via centrifugal blowers - lead to large variations in the emission rates. However, the less the waste water is agitated, the lower the emission rates. In the case of fine-bubble aeration, rates which are also normally to be found in the "non-burdened" outside air were even recorded close to the aeration tank. In cases of centrifugal blower, the aeration tank should be covered with a shield. With this type of aeration the waste water is emitted radially towards the walls of the tank. The use of a sprinkler unit on an aeration tank equipped with centrifugal blower - to avoid foam formation on the surface of the water - does not lead to an increase in the already high emission rate. An increase in air pollution through mould fungi from

  2. Centrifugal fans: Similarity, scaling laws, and fan performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardar, Asad Mohammad

    Centrifugal fans are rotodynamic machines used for moving air continuously against moderate pressures through ventilation and air conditioning systems. There are five major topics presented in this thesis: (1) analysis of the fan scaling laws and consequences of dynamic similarity on modelling; (2) detailed flow visualization studies (in water) covering the flow path starting at the fan blade exit to the evaporator core of an actual HVAC fan scroll-diffuser module; (3) mean velocity and turbulence intensity measurements (flow field studies) at the inlet and outlet of large scale blower; (4) fan installation effects on overall fan performance and evaluation of fan testing methods; (5) two point coherence and spectral measurements conducted on an actual HVAC fan module for flow structure identification of possible aeroacoustic noise sources. A major objective of the study was to identity flow structures within the HVAC module that are responsible for noise and in particular "rumble noise" generation. Possible mechanisms for the generation of flow induced noise in the automotive HVAC fan module are also investigated. It is demonstrated that different modes of HVAC operation represent very different internal flow characteristics. This has implications on both fan HVAC airflow performance and noise characteristics. It is demonstrated from principles of complete dynamic similarity that fan scaling laws require that Reynolds, number matching is a necessary condition for developing scale model fans or fan test facilities. The physical basis for the fan scaling laws derived was established from both pure dimensional analysis and also from the fundamental equations of fluid motion. Fan performance was measured in a three times scale model (large scale blower) in air of an actual forward curved automotive HVAC blower. Different fan testing methods (based on AMCA fan test codes) were compared on the basis of static pressure measurements. Also, the flow through an actual HVAC

  3. Energy conservation research of dehumidification system for main cable anticorrosion of suspension bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Ce; Fan Liangkai; Feng Zhaoxiang; Pen Guanzhong

    2011-01-01

    The necessity of the main cable anticorrosion for suspension bridge is described, and operating principles and composition of main cable dehumidification system are analyzed. An idea using the waste heat of high temperature outlet air of dehumidification system to heat up regeneration air of rotary-type dehumidifier is put forward in this paper. The concrete scheme is to install a heat exchanger on air-out pipeline of roots blower and air-in pipeline of regeneration electric heater of rotary dehumidifier. Air preheated by the heat exchanger enters regeneration electric heater of rotary-type dehumidifier. Energy conservation of main cable dehumidification system for the Yangtze River highway bridge is calculated, and the results show that energy conservation rate can reach 44 %.

  4. Midwest nukes tumble, rock industry: Byron, Marble Hill, Zimmer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear industry is suffering from a lack of investor confidence because of cancelled projects and the unprecedented rejection of an operating license for Commonwealth Edison's Byron plant on grounds that the utility failed to meet quality assurance responsibilities. When plans to complete the Zimmer and Marble Hill nuclear plants were abandoned, Bechtel came forward with a financing plan that, while rejected for Zimmer and Marble Hill, could lead to future bailouts. Both Zimmer and Marble Hill plants could be partially converted to coal. The loss of investor confidence in nuclear plants is largely due to political pressures brought on by a combination of citizen intervenors, whistle blowers on construction sites and disagreements between participating utilities. A rise in stock prices followed the cancellation announcements and the lowered investment security ratings

  5. Rapid dewatering of Powdex resins at a BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For most BWR's a large portion of their radioactive waste produced is water demineralization resins, both powdered and bead. In order to minimize the quantities of resins produced, proper demineralizer operation, volume reduction and minimization techniques are relevant to spent resin dewatering and packaging. To meet burial requirements spent resin needs to be dewatered and packaged properly. Methods of dewatering spent resins have included centrifuge separation and pulling water out of the resin with a diaphragm pump. Various vendors are offering systems that provide rapid dewatering and volume reduction using filter/liners in combination with vacuum pumps and air blowers. The various systems required a standardized test program for proper comparison and evaluation. The program is described in this paper

  6. Advanced electric residential heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyo, S. E.

    The heat pump concept developed uses the vapor compression refrigeration cycle with R22 as the working fluid. In order to achieve the target efficiency an improved reciprocating compressor with modulatable capacity was developed along with higher efficiency air movers, a breadboard microprocessor based control system and higher effectiveness heat exchangers. The relative proportions of the compressor, blower, fan, and heat exchangers are specified through system optimization to minimize annual ownership cost while constrained to provide comfort. The efficiency of this compressor is comparable to the best available while the ratio of minimum to maximum capacity can be selected as a parameter of optimization. The incremental cost of this compressor is estimated to be one third that of the compressor with two speed drive motor.

  7. Control rod position detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The device of the present invention can save blowers for compulsory cooling. That is, the control rod position detector comprises (1) a control rod driving shaft made of a ferromagnetic material moving in a pressure vessel of a nuclear reactor and (2) detector coils arranged to the outside of the pressure vessel each at an identical distance over the moving stroke of the driving shaft for detecting the position of the driving shaft by the change of inductance. In addition, heat insulation materials are disposed between the detector coils and the reactor pressure vessel. Then, heat from the reactor pressure vessel can be insulated. Accordingly, temperature of the detector coils can be reduced by natural cooling. As a result, since it is no more necessary to dispose compulsory cooling fans as required in a conventional case, the entire device can be constituted economically, and the reliability of the device is improved. (I.S.)

  8. Numerical simulation of air flow field in high-pressure fan with splitter blades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianfeng LI; Junfu LU; Hai ZHANG; Qing LIU; Guangxi YUE

    2008-01-01

    For a deeper understanding of the flow char-acteristics in the high-pressure centrifugal blower of a fan of Model 9-26 with splitter blades, a three dimensional (3-D) numerical simulation of air flows in the fan was con-ducted with FLUENT software. The standard k-ε tur-bulent model and unstructured grids were used. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results showed that the performance of a fan could be improved by adding the splitter blades in the channel among the leaf blades. Under operational conditions, with the presence of splitter blades, the air flow rate of the fan increased about 5% and the total pressure at the outlet of the fan increased about 10% on average. It was also found that the length of the splitter blades affected the air flow and pressure drop. There is an optimal value for the length. The simulation results provide helpful information for improving the fan performance.

  9. Prediction of the decay process in turbulent swirl flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algifri, A. H.; Bhardwaj, R. K.; Rao, Y. V. N.

    The paper describes a numerical procedure for predicting the decay of a swirl flow by computing the swirl intensity and tangential and axial velocity distributions at any downstream section of the pipe from the flow parameters at the inlet of the test pipe. The predictions were compared with experimental results obtained on a flow in a test pipe of 74-mm-diameter and 7400-mm-length. Air was used as the working fluid; its stream was given a swirling motion by means of a radial cascade with adjustable blades installed at the inlet. The flow in this set-up was created by a blower, and the rate of flow was regulated by means of a throttling disk. Data obtained on four different flows on the variation of the swirl number along the axis of the test pipe agreed with theoretical predictions within the range of experimental errors. A flow chart for the computational procedure is included.

  10. Energy recovery ventilation as a radon mitigation method for Navy family housing in Guam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy recovery ventilation involves the exchange of contaminated indoor air with fresh, uncontaminated outdoor air with recovery of energy. During radon mitigation diagnostics, air change measurements were performed within three typical Navy family houses, and some were found to be well below recommended minimum standards. The only practical way to solve the indoor air quality problem was to increase the ventilation rate. Options were evaluated, and it was decided to install energy recovery ventilation (ERV) systems. An ERV system is a packaged unit complete with blower fans, controls, and air-to-air heat exchanger. However, because of economical limits on the quantity of conditioned air that can be exchanged, ERV has a finite range of application in radon abatement. In Guam, ERV has potential applications in up to 370 units and in an additional 154 units if the mechanical systems are moved indoors. The performance of ERV systems were evaluated during a demonstration program to determine the removal efficiency of radon

  11. Solid oxide fuel cell power plant with an anode recycle loop turbocharger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuo; Skiba, Tommy; Patel, Kirtikumar H.

    2015-07-14

    An anode exhaust recycle turbocharger (100) has a turbocharger turbine (102) secured in fluid communication with a compressed oxidant stream within an oxidant inlet line (218) downstream from a compressed oxidant supply (104), and the anode exhaust recycle turbocharger (100) also includes a turbocharger compressor (106) mechanically linked to the turbocharger turbine (102) and secured in fluid communication with a flow of anode exhaust passing through an anode exhaust recycle loop (238) of the solid oxide fuel cell power plant (200). All or a portion of compressed oxidant within an oxidant inlet line (218) drives the turbocharger turbine (102) to thereby compress the anode exhaust stream in the recycle loop (238). A high-temperature, automotive-type turbocharger (100) replaces a recycle loop blower-compressor (52).

  12. Industrial noise level study in a wheat processing factory in ilorin, nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, I.; Ajao, K. R.; Aremu, S. A.

    2016-05-01

    An industrial process such as wheat processing generates significant noise which can cause adverse effects on workers and the general public. This study assessed the noise level at a wheat processing mill in Ilorin, Nigeria. A portable digital sound level meter HD600 manufactured by Extech Inc., USA was used to determine the noise level around various machines, sections and offices in the factory at pre-determined distances. Subjective assessment was also mode using a World Health Organization (WHO) standard questionnaire to obtain information regarding noise ratings, effect of noise on personnel and noise preventive measures. The result of the study shows that the highest noise of 99.4 dBA was recorded at a pressure blower when compared to other machines. WHO Class-4 hearing protector is recommended for workers on the shop floor and room acoustics should be upgraded to absorb some sounds transmitted to offices.

  13. The Preparation of an Electron Beam Machine 500 keV/10 mA Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation of an Electron Beam Machine 500 keV/10 mA instrumentation by using a Distributed Instrumentation System have been done. The system consisting of industrial interfaces PCL-718 ADC 12 bit, PCLD-889 Mux/Prog Gain Amp PCLD-786 Driver Relay with solid state relays, PCL 745 serial com, DC motor 12-24 V/8.6 A with reduction gear 10:1 and a pair of PC's connected with twisted cable and an isolated amplifier AD-210 equipped with high voltage divider. The operation can be done using animation Pascal program on the remote mode using twisted cable and a pair of RS-485 interfaces, some operation sequences such as switch on/off blower unit, water pump cooling unit, filament voltage, anode voltage and some timer's have already been adapted on the computer program. Non intercepting beam monitoring technique have been discussed in this paper. (author)

  14. Description of the moderator systems for the ESS project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a suggestion for the arrangement of the Cold Neutron Sources for the two targets in the ESS project. (European Spallation Source). The suggestion is based upon the technique of the existing cold neutron sources at Risoe in Denmark, HMI and Geestacht in Germany. As moderating media all of them use H2 in supercritical condition, circulated by blowers, and the safety of the systems is based upon the triple-containment philosophy. This seems to be the most convenient principle to use near the ESS targets, as it provides a larger degree of freedom with respect to the arrangement of these sources and pipe connections to the chambers, especially because the space is limited and access to the target is relatively complicated. The moderator chambers have been designed by KFA, Juelich and the rest of the arrangement by Risoe, DK. The price calculations used for the ESS project are based upon this arrangement. (au)

  15. Impacts of the Weatherization Assistance Program in Fuel-Oil Heated Houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levins, W.P.

    1994-01-01

    installation labor and materials, and $627 for overhead and management), and the benefit-to-cost ratio was 1.48. A general trend toward higher-than-average fuel-oil savings was observed in houses with high pre-weatherization fuel-oil consumption. Program savings could likely be increased by targeting higher energy consumers for weatherization, although equity issues would have to be considered. Weatherization measures associated with higher-than-average savings were use of a blower door for air-sealing, attic and wall insulation, and replacement space-heating systems. Space-heating system tune-ups were not particularly effective at improving the steady-state efficiency of systems, although other benefits such as improved seasonal efficiency, and system safety and reliability may have resulted. The Program should investigate methods of improving the selection and/or application of space-heating system tune-ups and actively promote improved tune-up procedures that have been developed as a primary technology transfer activity. Houses were more air-tight following weatherization, but still leakier than what is achievable. Additional technology transfer effort is recommended to increase the use of blower doors considering that only half the weatherized houses used a blower door during air sealing. A guidebook developed by a committee of experts and covering a full range of blower-door topics might be a useful technology transfer and training document. Weatherization appeared to make occupants feel better about their house and house environment.

  16. Moisture reduction of filter cake by improved filter design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlstrom, D.A.; Davis, S.S.; Garlick, L.D.

    1983-10-01

    With the redesign of the Agidisc filter, several improvements have been achieved as follows: Internal velocities of filtrate and air have been greatly reduced in the PIPPED sectors, ferrules, internal channels and filter valve. This will maximize pressure drop across the cake resulting in lower moistures and decreased wear. The PIPPED sector achieves better cake discharge because of the flexing action while increasing bag life. Moisture content reduction for the PIPPED sectors alone appear to have the potential for about 1 1/2 percentage points lower then redwood sectors. By indexing the two halves of the disc filter so each half discharges separately, shock wear on the cake conveyor should be reduced. More air volume will also go to less sectors resulting in better discharge. Using a sudden blow with a low pressure blower for cake discharge, energy consumption is reduced. Overall maintenance costs for the new design should be reduced through less wear due to appreciably reduced velocities.

  17. Unhealthy marketing of pharmaceutical products: An international public health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulinari, Shai

    2016-05-01

    I consider the current state of pharmaceutical marketing vis-à-vis ethical and legal standards and advocate measures to improve it. There is abundant evidence of unethical or illicit marketing. It fuels growing concerns about undue corporate influence over pharmaceutical research, education, and consumption. The most extensive evidence of industry transgressions comes from the United States (US), where whistle-blowers are encouraged by financial rewards to help uncover illicit marketing and fraud. Outside the US increasing evidence of transgressions exists. Recently I have observed a range of new measures to align pharmaceutical marketing practices with ethical and legal standards. In the interest of public health, I highlight the need for additional and more profound reforms to ensure that information about medicines supports quality and resource-efficient care. PMID:26911654

  18. Evaluation and prevention of explosions in soil vapor extraction systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the widespread and long term use of petroleum derived fuels and solvents, many areas have subsurface soils contaminated with petroleum derivatives. This contamination can migrate to groundwater, which is frequently used to supply drinking water needs. A common method of cleaning up that contamination is soil vapor extraction (SVE). SVE is a technique where several extraction wells are installed in the contaminated area, with screens in the appropriate vertical locations. The soil vapors re extracted form the wells using a positive displacement blower. To prevent this subsurface contamination from becoming air pollution, the extracted vapors are then sent to some hydrocarbon removal device, such as a carbon adsorption system or a thermal oxidizer. The data used in this investigation were collected as part of a Radian Corporation project for a client. The site is a former petroleum refinery, and the hydrocarbons are primarily gasoline and diesel

  19. Investigation and Retrofitting Proposal for a Panbo Type House in Sisimiut, Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qu, Jing; Vladyková, Petra; Villumsen, Arne

    since December 2010. The results of the investigation show that the house has some serious problems influencing proper functions, such as thermal bridges, poor thermal comfort and high energy consumption. A retrofitting plan, including having an additional paper insulation layer and exterior climate......The ‘Blue House’ is a standard family detached house built by Panbo Huse A/S in 1985 in Sisimiut, Greenland. As an old building, it has many problems such as poor thermal comfort and high energy consumption, and therefore, the house has a potential to be retrofitted. The investigation of the ‘Blue...... House’ was carried out in August 2011, including collection of original documentation, visual inspection, blower-door test, thermography test, the indoor climate monitoring, questionnaire and interview with the occupants. The indoor climate, including temperature and relative humidity, has been recorded...

  20. Best practice guidelines on publishing ethics: a publisher's perspective, 2nd edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Chris; Deakin, Lisa; Docking, Martine; Jones, Jackie; Joshua, Sue; McKerahan, Tiffany; Ottmar, Martin; Stevens, Allen; Wates, Edward; Wyatt, Deborah

    2015-01-14

    Wiley has updated its publishing ethics guidelines, first published in 2006. These new guidelines provide guidance, resources, and practical advice on ethical concerns that arise in academic publishing for editors, authors, and researchers, among other audiences. New guidance is included about whistle blowers, animal research, clinical research, and clinical trial registration, addressing cultural differences, human rights, and confidentiality. The guidelines are uniquely interdisciplinary, and were reviewed by 24 editors and experts chosen from the wide range of communities that Wiley serves. These guidelines are also published in: Headache, International Journal of Clinical Practice, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Social Science Quarterly, and on the website http://exchanges.wiley.com/ethicsguidelines. PMID:25330311

  1. Thermal injury induces impaired function in polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes and reduced control of burn wound infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, H.; Moser, C.; Jensen, P. O.;

    2009-01-01

    Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6% third-degree burn...... infected burn wound. Furthermore, the oxidative burst and the phagocytic capacity of the PMNs were reduced in the group of mice with burn wound. Using this novel mouse model of thermal injury a decline of peripheral leucocytes was observed, whereas the increased local inflammatory response at the site of...... injury was induced in mice with a hot-air blower. The third-degree burn was confirmed histologically. The mice were allocated into five groups: control, shave, burn, infection and burn infection group. At 48 h, a decline in the concentration of peripheral blood leucocytes was observed in the group of...

  2. Survey of industrial coal conversion equipment capabilities: rotating components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, W. R.; Horton, J. R.; Boudreau, W. F.; Siman-Tov, M.

    1978-04-01

    At the request of the Major Facilities Project Management Division of the Energy Research and Development Administration, Fossil Energy Division, a study was undertaken to determine the capabilities of U.S. industry to supply the rotating equipment needed for future coal conversion facilities. Furthermore, problem areas were to be identified and research and development needs determined for producing advanced designs of the required equipment: Pumps, compressors, hydraulic turbines, and gas expanders. It has been concluded that equipment for essentially all clean-stream applications likely to be encountered in coal conversion facilities is generally available except high-pressure oxygen compressors. These oxygen compressors as well as slurry pumps need to be developed or significantly upgraded. Also, fans and blower for dirty-gas streams need developmental work, as do expanders for high-temperature service. Hydraulic turbines, which were not specified but which might be used for slurry applications in future coal conversion plants, are not available.

  3. Future timber house. Energy efficient with good indoor environment; Framtidens traehus. Energieffektiva med god innemiljoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kildsgaard, Ivana; Prejer, Erik

    2011-07-01

    The report presents documentation of the critical points during the development, planning, and building phases of the first multi-storey apartment buildings built in timber prefabricated construction according to the voluntary Swedish passive house criteria. Besides choice of the construction details, building elements, and technical systems the report includes results from blower-door tests as well as the energy analysis of building's heating needs and achieved summer indoor temperatures. Finally a comparison was done with a reference building Limnologen, which was built according to the energy requirements in the Vaelle Broar area in Vaexjoe. Simulations show that the Southern Portvakten building has 33 % less power need for heating than if the same building was built as the Limnologen building, while the heating demand is 41 % lower. A program for following the energy performance of the building during the first year in operation is also presented. Energy simulations were done in the DEROBLTH program.

  4. Field Trial of an Aerosol-Based Enclosure Sealing Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, Curtis [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Springer, David [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report presents the results from several demonstrations of a new method for sealing building envelope air leaks using an aerosol sealing process developed by the Western Cooling Efficiency Center at UC Davis. The process involves pressurizing a building while applying an aerosol sealant to the interior. As air escapes through leaks in the building envelope, the aerosol particles are transported to the leaks where they collect and form a seal that blocks the leak. Standard blower door technology is used to facilitate the building pressurization, which allows the installer to track the sealing progress during the installation and automatically verify the final building tightness. Each aerosol envelope sealing installation was performed after drywall was installed and taped, and the process did not appear to interrupt the construction schedule or interfere with other trades working in the homes. The labor needed to physically seal bulk air leaks in typical construction will not be replaced by this technology.

  5. Fuel exchanging machine for a nuclear ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To prevent atmospheric contaminations upon fuel exchange thereby keep the environmental circumstance clean in the periphery of the nuclear ship. Constitution: A nuclear reactor container is disposed to the inside of a containing vessel in the ship body and a shutter is mounted to the upper opening of the ship body. Further, a landing container having a bottom opening equipped with shutter for alingning the upper opening equipped with shuuter of the ship is elevatably suspended to the trolley of a crane by way of a wire rope and a winch, and a fuel exchange cask is elevatably disposed to the inside of the landing container. Further, airs in the inside of the container is adapted to be discharged externally through a filter by means of a blower and the inside is kept at a negative pressure. Thus, since the containing vessel is covered with the landing container upon fuel exchanging operation, atmospheric contamination can be prevented sufficiently. (Sekiya, K.)

  6. The end of encryption

    CERN Document Server

    Computer Security Team

    2013-01-01

    Sigh! Pandora’s box has been opened (once again). Recent documents leaked by whistle-blower Edward Snowden have revealed that the NSA project “Bullrun” is intruding deeply into the confidentiality of our documents and the privacy of our lives.   In their continuous effort to kill privacy on the Internet, the US National Security Agency (NSA) and the British Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) have made significant progress in breaking almost every basic encryption protocol or have developed the means to bypass them. “US and British intelligence agencies have successfully cracked much of the online encryption relied upon by hundreds of millions of people to protect the privacy of their personal data, online transactions and e-mails.” - The Guardian So what’s left? With “Prism” and “Tempora”, our public communication on the Internet was already filtered and analysed (see our Bulletin ar...

  7. Initial performance evaluation of major components in the head-end reprocessing solids handling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The General Atomic cold head-end reprocessing pilot plant has been built to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed commercial reprocessing flowsheet, in particular its integrated operation. This integration is accomplished in part by the solids handling system, which is designed to provide transfer of material at required rates between different steps in the process and to provide the required surge capacity. The major components of the solids handling system have been tested in order to verify or upgrade the design. The components described here are: inlet filters, conveying lines, bunkers, in-bunker filters, blowers, level sensors, feeders, and weigh cells. By and large, the equipment has performed as expected. Feeding of the various materials in the system has received considerable attention, and several improvements were necessary. The system is now equipped to perform its function of serving the needs of the other unit operations in the pilot plant

  8. THE USE OF WATER SENSITIVE PAPER FOR THE EVALUATION OF SPRAY COVERAGE IN AN APPLE ORCHARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đuro Banaj

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Three commercial mist-blowers were tested in an apple orchard at the end of vegetation development in October 2008, using pure water and water sensitive papers (WSP. The width between apples rows was 3.5 m, the average width of tree top was 1.6 m and the average apple height was 3.6 m. All the machines had the same “Albuz ATR 80” red nozzles and the tractor’s PTO had a rotational speed of 540 rpm. The average temperature during testing was 17.05 °C; the average air humidity was 56.55 %, and the average wind speed was 0.9 m/s from the West. The spraying equipment used was: (A “Tifone Vento” 1500, water levels of 1000 l/ha, maximum. air velocity of 30 m/s and 18638 m3/h of airflow, 14 nozzles, travel velocity of 5 km/h and work pressure of 17 bars; (B “Myers N1500”, water level of 1000 l/ha, maximum. air velocity of 34 m/s and 36580 m3/h of airflow, 14 nozzles, travel velocity of 5 km/h and work pressure bar of 11 bar; (C “Hardi Zaturn 1500”, water level of 1000 l/ha, maximum. Air velocity of 38 m/s and 44590 m3/h of airflow, 18 nozzles, travel velocity of 5 km/h and work pressure of 7 bar. The “Tifone” mistblower had 10048 m3/h total amount of air on the left side of the blower and 8590 m3/h on the right side. With this amount of air, the average WSP coverage on the left side was 44.05 %, and on the right was 41.33 %. The“Myers” mistblower had 18120 m3/h total amount of air on the left side of the blower and 18460 m3/h at the right side. With this amount of air, the average WSP coverage on the left side was 33.61 %, and on the right side was 37.98 %. (C The “Hardi” mistblower had 24940 m3/h total amount of air on the left side of the blower and 19650 m3/h on the right side. With this amount of air, the average WSP coverage on the left side was 45.85 %, and on the right side was 42.47 %. The WSP were photographed by a “Canon EOS 1000D”. The pictures were then converted by “Irfan View 4.0”, and finally

  9. Study on the Consultation Mechanism of an Internet-Based Remote Fault Diagnosis System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Aimed at the deficiency of the mechanism of management and consultation, an idea of an internet-based Virtual Diagnosis Center (VDC) for machine fault is proposed, and the key elements of remote consultation are abstracted. Around the key elements, the construct scheme and cooperative mechanism among experts of VDC are designed. According to the diagnosed object, the context knowledge of a fault machine, fault cases and ActiveX-based analysis tools are integrated into a multimedia consultation environment in VDC to enhance the efficiency of expert consultation. Simultaneously, the technique of push subscription in a SQL Server is utilized to collect machine condition data in an enterprise machine condition database, which ensures the security of the database. The VDC system in Xi'an Jiaotong University has been applied to remote diagnosis of a blower in Wuhan Iron and Steel Corporation and the system construction reasonableness and the running stability are verified.

  10. Characterization and quantification of deposits build up and removal in straw suspension fired boilers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arendt Jensen, Peter; Wedel, S.; Jappe Frandsen, F.; Dam-Johansen, K.; Shafique Bashir, M. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. CHEC Research Centre, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Wadenback, J.; Thaaning Pedersen, S. [Vattenfall A/S, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-07-15

    This project deals with ash deposit formation in suspension fired biomass power plant boilers. The project has been conducted in a tight collaboration between Vattenfall and the CHEC Research Centre at DTU Department of Chemical Engineering. A large part of the project has been performed by conducting advanced probe measurements at the Amagervaerkets Vattenfall owed boilers. It was the objective of the project to provide an improved understanding of ash deposit formation and removal in biomass suspension fired boilers. The project have provided a large amount of knowledge on the following issues: 1) The influence of local boiler conditions on deposit formation in suspension fired boilers using wood or co-firing straw and wood, 2) quantification of deposit removal in biomass suspension firing boilers with regards both to natural shedding and soot blower induced shedding, 3) established relations of the properties of fuel ash, fly ash and deposits, 4) use of coal ash to remedy biomass ash induced boiler deposit problems. (Author)

  11. New technologies shaping the biomass industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technology is becoming an increasing important piece of the biomass burning industry, as emission regulations and standards become tighter. New, smart technology available to the industry improves combustion efficiency and decreases emissions. Features such as variable speed pumps, blowers, and motors for fuel and air delivery and ash removal, oxygen sensors for feedback to fine-tune the air to fuel ratio and apps to offer remote control and alerts sent to smartphones and tablets are now available in the US. With smarter controls, the unit can run independently, adjust for a variety of conditions including fuel quality, and notify the user ahead of time of situations before they become a problem, such as adding more fuel. Furthermore, diagnostics aid in quick and efficient solutions, saving consumers and manufacturers’ time and money. (full text)

  12. Safety demonstration tests of hypothetical explosive burning in the cell and air ventilation system in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant equipped with an air ventilation system consisting of cells, ducts, dampers, high-efficiency particulate air filters, and blowers. This ventilation system is required to have multiple safeguards in order to confine airborne radioactive materials within the plant in the event of fire, explosion, and criticality. To evaluate these safeguards, three kinds of explosive burning tests are performed using a large-scale facility simulating the ventilation system of a reprocessing plant. In the boilover test, an organic solvent is burned on a layer of water in a burning pan to determine the magnitude of the burning caused by the sudden boiling of the water under the solvent. The optimum conditions for boilover burning are determined by the relationship between the pan size and the ventilation rate

  13. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitzner, E.W.

    1978-01-01

    This report covers the first 3 months effort of the Ford/DOE Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program, specifically Task I which is Fuel Economy Assessment. At the beginning of this contract effort the projected fuel economy of the 4-215 Stirling engine was 21.16 MPG with a confidence level of 29 percent. Since that date, the fuel economy improvement projection of the 4-215 Stirling engine has been increased to 22.11 MPG, with a confidence level of 29 percent. Collection of fuel economy improvement data is directly related to engine durability. Engine durability has been limited. Since September 19, 1977 a total of 47.7 hours of engine running time has been accumulated using two engine builds. Progress is reported in sub-task studies of burners, preheaters, engine drive, blower system, power control, air-fuel ratio control, cooling system, and cycle control. (LCL)

  14. Suppression of inducer stall based on inlet recirculation in a centrifugal impeller. 1st Report. Improvement in stall limit by ring groove arrangement; Enshin haneguruma iriguchi junkanryu ni yoru inducer shissoku no yokusei. 1. kanjoko ni yoru shissoku genkai no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueki, H.; Ishida, M.; Sakaguchi, D.; Sun, Z. [Nagasaki University, Nagasaki (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    2000-07-25

    A ring groove arrangement is proposed to suppress unstable flow or surge in a centrifugal blower. The ring groove arrangement connects the upstream position of impeller inlet and the inducer throat tip through a bypass. The recirculation flow 'vas formed by the pressure difference between the two positions, and the recirculation flow rate was changed by increasing the ring groove widths. The inlet recirculation results in a decrease in the flow rate of unstable flow inception, and an up to 800 improvement in stall limit was obtained by the ring groove arrangement at a small expense of the delivery pressure drop. The improvement of stall limit in the present experiment seems to be mainly due to decrease in flow incidence based on the inlet recirculation flow. Tre flow incidence decreases more as the recirculation flow rate increases, thus resulting in a larger improvement in stall limit. (author)

  15. Comparison of the externally heated air valve engine and the helium Stirling engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Air EHVE produces comparable power as equivalent helium Stirling engine. • No heat regenerator used in the EHVE, standard lubrication system. • External combustion engine combined with forced flow added (super-charging). • EHVE uses typical piston engine body design and governing cam system. • Possible use of different fuels: oil, coal, gas also sun and nuclear energy. - Abstract: A two-stroke, externally heated valve engine (EHVE) with a heater, a cooler and two blowers is simulated. The engine is entirely different from a typical Stirling engine. The pressure ratio pmax/pmin of its cycle is higher, but the engine volume and the mean value of the heat exchanger wall temperatures are the same. The power and efficiency of the EHVE and Stirling engines under the same maximum pressures are compared. The results show that the EHVE engine reaches almost the same level of performance as the Stirling engine, while using only available atmospheric air, rather than helium

  16. Nitrification cessation and recovery in an aerated saturated vertical subsurface flow treatment wetland: Field studies and microscale biofilm modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Clodagh; Rajabzadeh, Amin R; Weber, Kela P; Nivala, Jaime; Wallace, Scott D; Cooper, David J

    2016-06-01

    In aerated treatment wetlands, oxygen availability is not a limiting factor in sustaining a high level of nitrification in wastewater treatment. In the case of an air blower failure, nitrification would cease, potentially causing adverse effects to the nitrifying bacteria. A field trial was completed investigating nitrification loss when aeration is switched off, and the system recovery rate after the aeration is switched back on. Loss of dissolved oxygen was observed to be more rapid than loss of nitrification. Nitrate was observed in the effluent long after the aeration was switched off (48h+). A complementary modeling study predicted nitrate diffusion out of biofilm over a 48h period. After two weeks of no aeration in the established system, nitrification recovered within two days, whereas nitrification establishment in a new system was previously observed to require 20-45days. These results suggest that once established resident nitrifying microbial communities are quite robust. PMID:26967335

  17. Characteristics of Plasma-Sprayed Ceramic Coatings and Their Engineering Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Hua-ling; ZHANG Zhong-wen; WU Jun

    2004-01-01

    The microstructure, porosity, microhardness and adhesive strength of three plasma- sprayed ceramic coatings (Al2 O3, Cr2 O3 and Cr3 C2 + NiCr) were tested. The wear resistance of the coatings was characterized through sand blasting test. The results showed that the erosion resistance of Cr2 O3 coating was better than Al2 O3 and Cr3 C2 + NiCr coatings'.Through depositing the coating on the surface of boiler overheater tubes and on the surface of baffle- wall of carrying- coal grain blower to test its anti- erosion performance after a period of running, it was confirmed that the coatings present excellent wear resistance. Accordingly, it also demonstrates that ceramic coating has a promising prospects in surface protection in thermal power stations.

  18. Study on a decay heat removal system of light water reactors using air coolers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, a passive decay heat removal system for light water reactors (LWRs) based on a new concept is studied referring to an air cooling system (ACS) of the fast breeder reactor Monju. The present study will contribute to the reduction of severe accident risks of nuclear power plants. In this system, a blower for an air cooler (AC) is operated using the rotation of a small steam turbine by generated steam in order to cool heat transfer tubes by forced convection of air. The purpose of the present work is to investigate the plant transient caused by a station blackout (SBO) using the plant system code NETFLOW++ and decay heat removal characteristics. A calculation model is the Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) in Japan. (author)

  19. Modular PEM Fuel Cell System for Outdoor Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, Mark; Haberman, David; Ibrahim, Samir; Lokken, Orrin; Dunn, Dan; Cherniack, Mark; Salter, Carlton [DCH Technology, Valencia, CA 91355 (United States); Stetson, Ned [Energy Conversion Devices, Troy, MI 48084 (United States)

    1999-10-01

    In this paper we discuss small proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells that are well-suited to providing electrical power for many outdoor and portable applications. By utilizing a design that does not require any active components such as pumps, compressors, fans or blowers we are able to achieve high efficiencies and extremely reliable operation in a rugged, quiet and lightweight package. The fuel cell runs on hydrogen gas which reacts with oxygen from the air to produce electricity and water vapor. There are absolutely no emissions other than pure water vapor so the fuel cell is truly a `zero emissions` device. If larger amounts of power are desired for portable or stationary applications the modular fuel cells can be easily combined in parallel or series to produce the required voltage and current. (author) 6 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  20. Soil venting at a California site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development and evaluation of soil treatment technologies is being driven by regulatory demands, which often require or suggest that residual total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations in soil be reduced below 1000 mg/kg. In some areas this limit is as low as 100 mg/kg TPH; lower concentrations are mandated for other specific compounds. In situ soil venting, or vacuum extraction, is the focus of this paper. Typical components include: vapor extraction (recovery) wells installed within the vadose (unsaturated) zone, blowers or vacuum pumps, and vapor treatment systems. By applying a vacuum at the vapor extraction well, contaminant vapors are removed, the natural rate of volatilization in the soil is enhanced, and residual hydrocarbon concentrations are reduced. More complex systems may utilize surface seals, horizontal wells, and forced or passive air injection wells

  1. Expedited demonstration of molten salt mixed waste treatment technology. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This final report discusses the molten salt mixed waste project in terms of the various subtasks established. Subtask 1: Carbon monoxide emissions; Establish a salt recycle schedule and/or a strategy for off-gas control for MWMF that keeps carbon monoxide emission below 100 ppm on an hourly averaged basis. Subtask 2: Salt melt viscosity; Experiments are conducted to determine salt viscosity as a function of ash composition, ash concentration, temperature, and time. Subtask 3: Determine that the amount of sodium carbonate entrained in the off-gas is minimal, and that any deposited salt can easily be removed form the piping using a soot blower or other means. Subtask 4: The provision of at least one final waste form that meets the waste acceptance criteria of a landfill that will take the waste. This report discusses the progress made in each of these areas

  2. Electrospray ionization phenomena and the interface of capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently a new electrospray ionization interface for capillary electrophoresis-mass spectroscopy (CE-MS) has been developed. The interface uses a sheath flow of liquid to make electrical contact at the CZE terminus, thus defining both the CZE and electrospray field gradients. Ions created by the ESI process are sampled through a 1 mm nozzle into a region mechanically pumped at 50 L/s using a single-stage roots blower. The ions entering this region are sampled through a 2 mm dia skimmer orifice located 0.5 cm behind the nozzle orifice. Ions passing through the skimmer enter a radio frequency focusing quadrupole. This region is pumped by a cryopump. A mixture of four quaternary phosphonium salts is used to illustrate capillary electrophoresis separations with mass spectroscopy and their uses. 2 figs

  3. Melting Process and Application of Cupola%冲天炉熔炼特点与技术应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任树勇; 郑喜龙

    2011-01-01

    分析了冲天炉底焦燃烧时焦炭质量的影响因素、炉型结构与风机性能的关系,介绍了冲天炉送风网状图的使用、炉型结构与余热利用、工频感应前炉双炉熔炼等技术的应用。相关技术的应用有利于提高冲天炉熔炼铁液的质量。%Some techniques related with application of cupola have been introduced, such as influence of quality to burning of bottom coke, relation of furnace type with performance of blower, application of air blast net chart, furnace type and waste heat collection, double melting with induction heating ladle and others. These techniques can help to boost melting quality of cupola.

  4. Generalized drying curves in conductive/convective paper drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.C. Motta Lima

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a study related to conductive/convective drying of paper (cellulose sheets over heated surfaces, under natural and forced air conditions. The experimental apparatus consists in a metallic box heated by a thermostatic bath containing an upper surface on which the paper samples (about 1 mm thick are placed. The system is submitted to ambient air under two different conditions: natural convection and forced convection provide by an adjustable blower. The influence of initial paper moisture content, drying (heated surface temperature and air velocity on drying curves behavior is observed under different drying conditions. Hence, these influence is studied through the proposal of generalized drying curves. Those curves are analyzed individually for each air condition exposed above and for both together. A set of equations to fit them is proposed and discussed.

  5. The Thermal Performance and Air Leakage Characteristics of Six Log Homes in Idaho.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Carolyn; Eklund, Ken; Baylon, David

    1993-08-01

    The thermal performance and air leakage characteristics of four electrically heated log houses located in Idaho are summarized. The air leakage and construction characteristics of two additional log homes are also examined. The energy consumption of the four homes was submetered at weekly reporting intervals for up to 16 months. Blower door tests and site audits were performed. In addition, conditions at two of these homes, including heat flux through the log walls, indoor and outdoor temperatures, solar flux and envelope tightness, were measured in detail over several days during winter conditions. The energy use and thermal performance of these two homes were then modeled using SUNCODE-PC, an hourly thermal simulation program employing a finite difference technique.

  6. Ozone measurement in EXAFS beam line BL-08 of INDUS-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozone measurement in experimental hutch of Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) beam line (BL-08) of INDUS-2 is carried out with the objectives of measuring ozone build-up profile at various locations inside the hutch, to check the effectiveness of the existing exhaust blower used to remove the ozone from the hutch and to determine the ozone decay time to reach the safe limit of 0.1 ppm. The results show that the ozone level is less than 0.1 ppm in all measured locations. This paper describes the methodology, experimental set-up and the results of the experiment done in June 2010 at RRCAT. (author)

  7. Spectacular test of the fire extinguishing system in the underground cavern of the CMS experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The enormous rumbling heard 100 m under the earth on Friday, 12 May, was not the start of a foam party at CMS. The Safety Team looked on from the second tier of the CMS underground cavern as it reechoed to the sound of water rushing through the two huge pipes overhead and the air was filled with a mixture of water and foam. A minute later it was a winter wonderland, as fluffy puffs of foam came shooting out of the twelve foam blowers lining the upper cavern walls on both sides. In less than two minutes 7 m3 of water mixed with a small percentage of foaming liquid, was transformed into 5600 m3 of foam and discharged into the cavern.

  8. An experimental and simulation study of novel channel designs for open-cathode high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Sobi; Bates, Alex; Park, Sam;

    2016-01-01

    A minimum balance of plant (BOP) is desired for an open-cathode high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane (HTPEM) fuel cell to ensure low parasitic losses and a compact design. The advantage of an open-cathode system is the elimination of the coolant plate and incorporation of a blower for...... oxidant and coolant supply, which reduces the overall size of the stack, power losses, and results in a lower system volume. In the present study, we present unique designs for an open-cathode system which offers uniform temperature distribution with a minimum temperature gradient and a uniform flow...... distribution through each cell. Design studies were carried out to increase power density. An experimental and simulation approach was carried out to design the novel open-cathode system. Two unique parallel serpentine flow designs were developed to yield a low pressure drop and uniform flow distribution, one...

  9. Artificial Neural Network Based Control Strategies for Paddy Drying Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekhar F. Lilhare

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Paddy drying process depends upon ambient conditions, paddy quality, temperature and mass of hot drying air. Existing techniques of paddy drying process are highly nonlinear. In this paper, a neural network based automated controller for paddy drying is designed. The designed controller manages the steam temperature and blower motor speed to achieve constant paddy drying time. A Layer recurrent neural network is adopted for the controller. Atmospheric conditions such as temperature and humidity along with the size of the paddy are used as input to the network. Experimental results show that the developed controller can be used to control the paddy drying process. Implementation of developed controller will help in controlling the drying time at almost constant value which will definitely improve the quality of rice.

  10. HIGH EFFICIENCY FOSSIL POWER PLANT (HEFPP) CONCEPTUALIZATION PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.L. Justice

    1999-03-25

    This study confirms the feasibility of a natural gas fueled, 20 MW M-C Power integrated pressurized molten carbonate fuel cell combined in a topping cycle with a gas turbine generator plant. The high efficiency fossil power plant (HEFPP) concept has a 70% efficiency on a LHV basis. The study confirms the HEFPP has a cost advantage on a cost of electricity basis over the gas turbine based combined cycle plants in the 20 MW size range. The study also identifies the areas of further development required for the fuel cell, gas turbine generator, cathode blower, inverter, and power module vessel. The HEFPP concept offers an environmentally friendly power plant with minuscule emission levels when compared with the combined cycle power plant.

  11. Improvement in super heater deposition of straw boiler based on numerical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tai, Lv; Zhou, Ting-ting; Wang, Hai [Northeast Dianli Univ., Jilin (China). College of Energy and Power Engineering

    2013-07-01

    There is the problem of deposition exits generally in straw boiler super heater due to chlorine and alkalescent substance consists in the straw fuel, which agglomerate combustion material, especially for crops. Deposition does not only behave to raise the tube temperature, but also accelerate corrosion, even hide cartridge igniter trouble. This paper based on the study of some 75 t/h plant to optimize the ash removal system of super heater. According to the CFD simulation, the flue flow situation in tube bundle of super heater diverse along with the position of the tube. Based on the regular of deposit researched from the simulation outcome, this paper propose to optimize the structure of shock wave soot blower of pattern BH-100 used by the plant, which did not performance a proper role.

  12. Application of data mining techniques in the analysis of indoor hygrothermal conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, Nuno M M; Almeida, Ricardo M S F; Simões, Maria L; Manuel, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    The main benefit of the book is that it explores available methodologies for both conducting in-situ measurements and adequately exploring the results, based on a case study that illustrates the benefits and difficulties of concurrent methodologies. The case study corresponds to a set of 25 social housing dwellings where an extensive in situ measurement campaign was conducted. The dwellings are located in the same quarter of a city. Measurements included indoor temperature and relative humidity, with continuous log in different rooms of each dwelling, blower-door tests and complete outdoor conditions provided by a nearby weather station. The book includes a variety of scientific and engineering disciplines, such as building physics, probability and statistics and civil engineering. It presents a synthesis of the current state of knowledge for benefit of professional engineers and scientists.

  13. Improvement of the analytical model of Monju air cooler for natural circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monju is a sodium-cooled, loop-type prototype fast breeder reactor with three primary cooling loops which can supply 280 MW of electricity. If Station blackout occurs in Monju, the decay heat removal by natural circulation is required, because the power was lost for operating circulation pumps and blowers. The pressure losses of air flow path are very important factors for evaluating of the cooling ability by natural circulation because the air cooler is the ultimate heat sink and the pressure loss characteristic of air side in air cooler affects the temperature of cooling loop greatly. Therefore, the analytical model of the pressure loss characteristic of air side in the plant dynamic analysis code Super-COPD was improved for accurate simulation of natural circulation flow in this study. (author)

  14. A Medium-Voltage Motor Drive with a Modular Multilevel PWM Inverter Part I. Experimental Verification by a 400-V, 15-kW Downscaled Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Makoto; Nishimura, Kazutoshi; Akagi, Hirofumi

    This paper presents a medium-voltage motor drive with a three-phase modular multilevel PWM inverter and focuses on its control method and operating performance. This motor drive is particularly suitable for fans, blowers, pumps, and compressors, in which the load torque is proportional to the square of the rotating speed. Particular attention is paid to the dc-capacitor voltage fluctuation of each chopper-cell because it may affect the voltage rating of the power switching devices used. This paper describes the theoretical equations related to the amount of the voltage fluctuation. A downscaled model rated at 400V and 15kW is designed and built to confirm the validity and effectiveness of the nine-level (17-level in line-to-line) PWM inverter that is intended for use in medium-voltage motor drives to achieve energy savings.

  15. Design of drying chamber and biomass furnace for sun-biomass hybrid rice-drying machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satria, Dhimas; Haryadi, Austin, Ruben; Kurniawan, Bobby

    2016-03-01

    In most Asian countries, rice drying is carried out manually by exposing rice to sunlight. However, problem occurs when rain season comes. Lack of sunlight deters the drying process. This paper proposes a design of mechanical rice drying machine with hybrid sun-biomass energy source. Pahl & Beitz method, which consists of four steps process: function planning and clarification, design concept, design prototype, and design details; are used as design methodology. Based on design result and calculation, in this paper propose specifications for drying machine and biomass furnace. Drying chamber is a continuous flow system with pneumatic-conveyor as blower. This hybrid utilizes two types of energy sources, sun and biomass. The proposed machine has capacity of 500 kilograms per cycle using 455 Watt of energy, which is more efficient than ordinary heater. Biomass furnace utilizes heat transfer by means of arranging 64 pieces of stainless steel pipes of 0.65 diameters in parallel.

  16. Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at Kansas City, Fire Stations, Kansas City, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar system was designed to provide 47 percent of the space heating, 8,800 square feet area and 75 percent of the domestic hot water (DHW) load. The solar system consists of 2,808 square feet of Solaron, model 2001, air, flat plate collector subsystem, a concrete box storage subsystem which contains 1,428 cubic feet of 0.5 inch diameter pebbles weighing 71.5 tons, a DHW preheat tank, blowers, pumps, heat exchangers, air ducting, controls and associated plumbing. Two 120 gallon electric DHW heaters supply domestic hot water which is preheated by the solar system. Auxiliary space heating is provided by three electric heat pumps with electric resistance heaters and four 30 kilowatt electric unit heaters. There are six modes of system operation.

  17. Design of Greenhouse Temperature and Light Intensity Control Circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao; ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    In view of domestic scientific and technological achievements at present,real-time control circuit for greenhouse temperature and light intensity has been designed in line with the principle of cost saving and easy control.With advanced temperature sensor and light sensor applied to measure the temperature and light intensity,an execution unit is controlled by single-chip microcomputer(SCM)to regulate the temperature and light intensity,creating a hardware design scheme and software design idea.In case of high temperature and high light intensity in greenhouse,the sunshade net will be put down and the blower will be started automatically;in case of low temperature and light intensity,the sunshade net will be folded up and the heating valve will be turned up automatically.In this way,the temperature and light intensity in greenhouse will be controlled within the designed range.

  18. Characterization and quantification of deposits build up and removal in straw suspension fired boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Arendt; Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Wedel, Stig;

    This project deals with ash deposit formation in suspension fired biomass power plant boilers. The project has been conducted in a tight collaboration between Vattenfall and the CHEC Research Centre at DTU Department of Chemical Engineering. A large part of the project has been performed...... by conducting advanced probe measurements at the Amagerværkets Vattenfall owed boilers. It was the objective of the project to provide an improved understanding of ash deposit formation and removal in biomass suspension fired boilers. The project have provided a large amount of knowledge on the following issues......: 1) The influence of local boiler conditions on deposit formation in suspension fired boilers using wood or co-firing straw and wood, 2) quantification of deposit removal in biomass suspension firing boilers with regards both to natural shedding and soot blower induced shedding, 3) established...

  19. ANFIS -Based Navigation for HVAC Service Robot with Image Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we present an ongoing work on the autonomous navigation of a mobile service robot for Heat, Ventilation and Air Condition (HVAC) ducting. CCD camera mounted on the front-end of our robot is used to analyze the ducts openings (blob analysis) in order to differentiate them from other landmarks (blower fan, air outlets and etc). Distance between the robot and duct openings is measured using ultrasonic sensor. Controller chosen is ANFIS where its architecture accepts three inputs; recognition of duct openings, robot positions and distance while the outputs is maneuver direction (left or right).45 membership functions are created from which produces 46 training epochs. In order to demonstrate the functionality of the system, a working prototype is developed and tested inside HVAC ducting in ROBOCON Lab, IIUM

  20. Sandia Helicopter Acoustic Detector (SHAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlowe, H. D.

    1982-05-01

    The Sandia Helicopter Acoustic Detector was developed to provide a low cost alternative to radar for countering the helicopter threat at new DOE facilities. The main buildings of these new designs are generally hardened to provide significant delay to a helicopter borne adversary team. Under these circumstances the sensor is only required to detect helicopters that are in their final landing phase and at close range (less than 75 m). This short detection range allows the use of a fairly simple acoustic detection algorithm without making the system overly sensitive to wind noise, motor vehicles, and ventilation/heat exchange blowers. This work was sponsored by the Department of Energy/Office of Safeguards and Security as part of the overall Sandia Fixed Facility Physical Protection Program.

  1. TORAC User's Manual. A computer code for analyzing tornado-induced flow and material transport in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual describes the TORAC computer code, which can model tornado-induced flows, pressures, and material transport within structures. Future versions of this code will have improved analysis capabilities. In addition, it is part of a family of computer codes that is designed to provide improved methods of safety analysis for the nuclear industry. TORAC is directed toward the analysis of facility ventilation systems, including interconnected rooms and corridors. TORAC is an improved version of the TVENT computer code. In TORAC, blowers can be turned on and off and dampers can be controlled with an arbitrary time function. The material transport capability is very basic and includes convection, depletion, entrainment, and filtration of material. The input specifications for the code and a variety of sample problems are provided. 53 refs., 62 figs

  2. Control technology for fiber reinforced plastics industry at AMF Hatteras Yachts, New Bern Division, New Bern, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, W. F.

    1984-05-01

    Area and breathing zone samples were analyzed for styrene (100425) at AMF Hatteras Yachts (SIC-3079), New Bern, North Carolina, in September, 1983. Control technology at the facility was inspected. Breathing zone styrene concentrations were 8 to 74 parts per million (ppm), the highest concentrations occurring in the lamination and gel coating departments. Area samples ranged from 1 to 20ppm. The OSHA standard is 100ppm. The hull lamination and assembly areas were ventilated by air make up units and exhaust blowers. Air exhausted through the lamination booths in the small parts work area was considerably less than the supply air from the make up units. The air flow in two of the three lamination booths was considered inadequate. Respirators were available if needed. Industrial hygiene sampling at the facility was supervised by the industrial hygienist.

  3. Observações sobre o efeito da ventilação na qualidade de sementes de Pinus Effects of ventilation on the quality of Pinus seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Augusto do Lago

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available Duas amostras de sementes de Pinus oocarpa e Pinus caribaea foram submetidas a ventilação mecânica em aparelho de laboratório, obtendo-se duas frações, uma leve e outra pesada. Diversos testes foram realizados com sementes dessas duas frações e em uma da amostra original. Os resultados revelaram a possibilidade de melhorar a qualidade de lotes de sementes de Pinus por meio desse processo simples de beneficiamento.Seeds of Pinus oocarpa and P. caribaea were subjected to ventilation in a "South Dakota" seed blower, and thus three samples were obtained, i.e., heavy light, plus the original. Several tests were conducted with these samples and the results indicate that a substantial improvement in the quality of Pinus seed can be experimented after this very simple processing operation.

  4. Time variation of 222Rn concentration and gamma level in a half-basement room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correlation between 222Rn (radon) concentration and gamma level in a half-basement has been discussed. In order to decrease the background count of a whole-body counter (WBC), a ventilation blower of 72 m2h-1 was installed. The device succeeded in a big reduction of radon concentration in the half-basement and then the background of WBC (NaI(Tl)) decreased to the 76.5% of the saturated value. Through a radon saturation test the exhalation rate of radon from concrete wall was estimated as 2.1 Bqm-2h-1 by a simple model calculation. In addition, through a ventilation test, the procedure was analyzed by another simple model. (author)

  5. ANFIS -Based Navigation for HVAC Service Robot with Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Mohd Zoolfadli Md; Rashid, Nahrul Khair Alang Md; Mohd Mustafah, Yasir

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we present an ongoing work on the autonomous navigation of a mobile service robot for Heat, Ventilation and Air Condition (HVAC) ducting. CCD camera mounted on the front-end of our robot is used to analyze the ducts openings (blob analysis) in order to differentiate them from other landmarks (blower fan, air outlets and etc). Distance between the robot and duct openings is measured using ultrasonic sensor. Controller chosen is ANFIS where its architecture accepts three inputs; recognition of duct openings, robot positions and distance while the outputs is maneuver direction (left or right).45 membership functions are created from which produces 46 training epochs. In order to demonstrate the functionality of the system, a working prototype is developed and tested inside HVAC ducting in ROBOCON Lab, IIUM.

  6. Safety evaluation of large ventilation networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For large ventilation networks, it is necessary to make a safety evaluation of their responses to perturbations such as blower failure, unexpected transfers, local pressurization. This evaluation is not easy to perform because of the many interrelationships between the different parts of the networks, interrelationships coming from the circulations of workers and matetials between cells and rooms and from the usefulness of air transfers through zones of different classifications. This evaluation is all the more necessary since new imperatives in energy savings push for minimizing the air flows, which tends to render the network more sensitive to perturbations. A program to evaluate safety has been developed by the Service de Protection Technique in cooperation with operators and designers of big nuclear facilities and the first applications presented here show the weak points of the installation studied from the safety view point

  7. Indoor air quality/air infiltration in selected low-energy houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor air quality and air infiltration were measured in 16 low-energy California houses. Eleven has gas stoves; all had average infiltration rates of 0.5 h-1 of less, recent construction dates, low natural ventilation, and no mechanical ventilation. HCHO levels in 12 houses and radon-222 and NO2 levels in all houses were measured using passive monitors. Blower door measurements and local weather data were used to calculate average infiltration rates during the monitoring period. Correlation of pollutant concentrations with infiltration rates and building characteristics indicate that new houses with average heating season infiltration rates less than 0.5 h-1 do not necessarily experience poor indoor air quality, HCHO and radon-222 levels in new houses exceeded the lowest currently proposed standards or guidelines, and much higher levels probably exist elsewhere. Therefore, some strategy for identifying 'problem' houses is needed. We recommend an approach for future research in this area. (Author)

  8. Gas monitoring and control for upper corner of longwall based on hydraulic driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Hongzhen; Kou, Ziming

    2006-11-01

    In the mine pit using the "U" ventilation systems, there is serious gas accumulating phenomenon nearby upper corner. If not effectively in time, the serious coal mine security accident will exist because of the gas ultra to limit. Through analysis to the gas accumulation reason and the distribution rule nearby upper corner, the situation is understood that the wind speed is extremely low near upper corner region and some parts is at eddy flow status; Using the practical and economical real-time monitoring system, accumulative gas can be scattered through the air flow perturbation of hydraulic blower. This method could reduce partial gas concentration of upper corner in order to meet the coal mine security production requirements

  9. Use of biogas for cogeneration of heat and electricity for local application: performance evaluation of an engine power generator and a sludge thermal dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, L C S; Chernicharo, C A L; Pujatti, F J P; Martins, O M; Melo, G C B; Recio, A A R

    2013-01-01

    A small unit of cogeneration of energy and heat was tested at the Centre for Research and Training on Sanitation UFMG/COPASA - CePTS, located at the Arrudas Sewage Treatment Plant, in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The unit consisted of an engine power generator adapted to run on biogas, a thermal dryer prototype and other peripherals (compressor, biogas storage tank, air blower, etc.). The heat from engine power generator exhaust gases was directed towards the thermal dryer prototype to dry the sludge and disinfect it. The results showed that the experimental apparatus is self-sufficient in electricity, even producing a surplus, available for other uses. The tests of drying and disinfection of sludge lasted 7 h, leading to an increase in solids content from 4 to 8% (50% reduction in sludge volume). Although the drying of sludge was not possible (only thickening was achieved), the disinfection process proved very effective, enabling the complete inactivation of helminth eggs. PMID:23128634

  10. Safety study for HTR conceptual designs under German siting conditions. Phase I B, specialized volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic methodology for determining sequences of events and their frequencies (events and fault trees) does not differ significantly from that of other risk studies. This applies analogously to the treatment of statistical data uncertainties and the description of results in the form of expected value with uncertainty factor. System unavailabilities are determined by means of failure rates, most of which originate from the German Risk Study, and consecutive test intervals. Unlike in other risk studies, common mode failures of components of the same kind are being considered by a mostly 10% fraction of the overall failure of the multi-train system (β-factor). A multitude of planned or unplanned operator actions are identified in the study. They are assessed using models from AIPA and according to WASH-1400. HTR-specific aspects allow mitigating operator actions in the range of days, which are approximately covered by subjective estimates, and extensive reversibility of human errors. British experience with gas-cooled reactors proved to be useful for HTR-specific components. Rates of 0.2 to 1 for small leaks and 1.5 x 10-3 per reactor-year for larger leaks (tube ruptures) are derived on the basis of 2000 steam generator operating years. Failures of the main blowers (0.1 per blower-year) are covered by other transient events. The behaviour of structural components is of great significance for the progression of core heatup accidents. The liner of the reactor pressure vessel and the concrete located behind will fail over a large area due to decreasing strength at temperatures above 8000C. A rupture of closure plugs may be virtually precluded. This also applies to a failure of the reactor containment at internal design pressure. The ultimate strength will only be reached at pressures of more than 14 bar. (orig.)

  11. Minimizing noise in fiberglass aquaculture tanks: Noise reduction potential of various retrofits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J.; Frankel, A.S.; Ellison, W.T.; Summerfelt, S.; Popper, A.N.; Mazik, P.; Bebak, J.

    2007-01-01

    Equipment used in intensive aquaculture systems, such as pumps and blowers can produce underwater sound levels and frequencies within the range of fish hearing. The impacts of underwater noise on fish are not well known, but limited research suggests that subjecting fish to noise could result in impairment of the auditory system, reduced growth rates, and increased stress. Consequently, reducing sound in fish tanks could result in advantages for cultured species and increased productivity for the aquaculture industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the noise reduction potential of various retrofits to fiberglass fish culture tanks. The following structural changes were applied to tanks to reduce underwater noise: (1) inlet piping was suspended to avoid contact with the tank, (2) effluent piping was disconnected from a common drain line, (3) effluent piping was insulated beneath tanks, and (4) tanks were elevated on cement blocks and seated on insulated padding. Four combinations of the aforementioned structural changes were evaluated in duplicate and two tanks were left unchanged as controls. Control tanks had sound levels of 120.6 dB re 1 ??Pa. Each retrofit contributed to a reduction of underwater sound. As structural changes were combined, a cumulative reduction in sound level was observed. Tanks designed with a combination of retrofits had sound levels of 108.6 dB re 1 ??Pa, a four-fold reduction in sound pressure level. Sound frequency spectra indicated that the greatest sound reductions occurred between 2 and 100 Hz and demonstrated that nearby pumps and blowers created tonal frequencies that were transmitted into the tanks. The tank modifications used during this study were simple and inexpensive and could be applied to existing systems or considered when designing aquaculture facilities. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Research and Application of the Easy-to-trip High Pressure Multi-layer Fracture String%易起式高压多层压裂管柱的研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨康敏; 胡英才; 李家明; 汤程辉; 乔荣娜

    2012-01-01

    When the expanding packer rubber is subject to high pressure, there occur problems, such as incomplete steel sheet recycling and the steel sheet easily getting stuck in casing in string tripping to lead to the failure to trip the string. Therefore, the easy-to-trip high pressure multi-layer fracture string was studied. The string mainly consists of throttling sand blower, multi-stage KY344 -114 packer, multi-stage sand blower, hydraulic an- chor and safety joint. The new packer has the capacity to achieve releasing as soon as the pump stops and it is also capable of resisting high pressure. The field application shows that the string's technological principle is feasible and its structure is reliable. The success rate of once pulling-out reaching 93 % , the string is suitable for multi-layer fracturing in high pressure wells.%针对扩张式胶筒在受高压后出现钢片回收不完全,起管柱时钢片易卡死在套管中,造成管柱无法起出的问题,研究了易起式高压多层压裂管柱。该管柱主要由节流喷砂器、多级KY344-114型封隔器、多级喷砂器、水力锚和安全接头组成,采用新型的KY344-114型封隔器既具有停泵即解封,又具有耐高压的能力。现场应用结果表明,该管柱工艺原理可行,工具结构可靠,一次性起出率达93%,适合高压井的多层压裂。

  13. Putting in operation of Bugey 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main items of equipment involved in the running of BUGEY 1, the test procedure adopted and the results obtained are reported. The primary heat-extraction circuit is placed inside a prestressed concrete vessel and consists of: the reactor itself, the supporting structures, the exchanger and 4 turbo-blowers. The stach is made up of prismatic graphite rods forming a regular hexagonal lattice. The annular fuel element, cooled inside and outside consists of a clad natural uranium tube. The secondary circuit corresponds to the conventional part of a thermal centre. Four auxiliary boilers supply steam to the turbo-blowers, turbopumps and degassers providing residual heat evacuation at all-times. The principle of the control system is that of Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux. Trials were carried out on the site itself: blank tests, live tests, general tests. The general testing phase was divided into three periods: aptitude, starting up, trial run. The aptitude period precedes reactor loading and was foreseen to test the state of the circuits and the reliability of each function. The ultimate phase involved the pneumatic trial of the pressure vessel. After loading, two divergences were carried out in December 1971 and the automatic divergence process was adjusted. The start-up period lasted from January 1972 until the end of the same year. The power use tests took place (March 6th-October 23rd 1972) in 7 steps increasing from 100 to 1750Mw(th). A revision period was organized during the summer of 1972. The trial run extended through December 1972 and into 1973. During two years industrial operation the number of ill-timed control rod drops decreased gradually until September 1973 after which the plant ran continuously until June 1974, date of the annual shut-down. A table gives the variation in production and unavailabilities of the unit

  14. Redução do tempo de setup como estratégia de aumento da capacidade produtiva: estudo de caso em sopradora de garrafas plásticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teonas Bartz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for the introduction of new products to serve all customers from different markets causes companies to seek new concepts in planning and programming production and in the changing of tools. Single-Minute Exchange of Die (SMED reduces the setup time of equipment, minimizing non-productive periods. Thus, it is possible to reduce the size of production batches to increase operating rates and improve the flexibility, productivity and competitiveness of organizations. This paper presents the stages necessary for the implementation of SMED in a plastic bottle blower and reports the results obtained. To achieve this, we conducted an analysis of activities, suggested improvements in the machine and in procedures, timed the stages before and after introducing the improvements and analyzed the times obtained. The results showed a significant reduction in setup time for the machine in this study. Key words: The increasing demand for the introduction of new products to serve all customers from different markets causes companies to seek new concepts in planning and programming production and in the changing of tools. Single- Minute Exchange of Die (SMED reduces the setup time of equipment, minimizing non-productive periods. Thus, it is possible to reduce the size of production batches to increase operating rates and improve the flexibility, productivity and competitiveness of organizations. This paper presents the stages necessary for the implementation of SMED in a plastic bottle blower and reports the results obtained. To achieve this, we conducted an analysis of activities, suggested improvements in the machine and in procedures, timed the stages before and after introducing the improvements and analyzed the times obtained. The results showed a significant reduction in setup time for the machine in this study.

  15. Indoor radon concentration and outdoor/indoor pressure difference correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the current approach to the radon issue, the radon risk for people living in a building is estimated based on the average indoor radon concentration. Short-term measurements as usually applied fail to reflect the wide range of radon variations arising from ventilation, radon supply and, in particular, human activities in the building. For this reason, efforts are made to find a new approach to the assessment of the quality of a building as a radon barrier, independent of the weather conditions and residential habits. A simple model of radon volume activity entering the building at a constant rate and simultaneously ventilated at a constant rate is applicable to this task. The rate of radon ingress can be regarded as a parameter making it possible to quantify the leakage of structures provided the barrier against the radon in a soil gas. The ventilation rate, on the other hand, characterizes the leakage of the whole building envelope at a given outdoor/indoor pressure difference. A unique measuring technique called the blower door exists whereby a defined pressure difference between the indoor and outdoor atmosphere can be established. Under such conditions both the ventilation rate and the rate of radon ingress can be measured and expressed as a function of the pressure difference. An analysis of the model of a room with a constant ventilation and constant radon supply is presented and the relationship between radon supply and ventilation rate can be assumed. Some experimental results show how the model can be utilized. The real indoor-outdoor air pressure differences, the indoor-soil air pressure differences, and some effects of different ventilation regimes are given. Other experiments, which have been done by using the blower door method, illustrate the possible effects and some restrictions for a routine application are discussed

  16. Application of frequency converters in industry; Aplicacion de convertidores de frecuencia en la industria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delmar Saavedra, Alejandro [Eficiencia Energetica, S.A. de C.V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    Next an analysis methodology for the application of a frequency converter in equipment that handles flows, as they can be pumps, fans, blowers and extractors is presented. Measurements of some practical cases that we have had in the industry are shown. Some of the types of applications in which the control of speed with the frequency converter is used, are the following ones: pumps, fans, mills, crushing machines, extruders, Banbury mixers, spinning machines, conveyors, mixers, electrical vehicles, lime furnaces, injection machines, blowers and extractors. The purpose of a frequency converter is of controlling the speed and/or torque of an electrical motor. The reasons for which a frequency converter is used can be classified, in two large fields: the necessary and those that provide energy saving. [Spanish] A continuacion se presenta una metodologia de analisis para la aplicacion de un convertidor de frecuencia en equipos que manejan flujos, como pueden ser bombas, ventiladores, sopladores y extractores. Se muestran mediciones de algunos casos practicos que hemos tenido en la industria. Algunos de los tipos de aplicaciones en donde se usa el control de velocidad con el convertidor de frecuencia, son los siguientes: bombas, ventiladores, molinos, trituradoras, extrusoras, mezcladoras banbury, maquinas de hilado, transportadoras, mezcladoras, vehiculos electricos, horno de cal, maquinas de inyeccion, sopladores y extractores. El proposito de un convertidor de frecuencia es el de controlar la velocidad y/o par en un motor electrico. Se pueden, clasificar las razones por las que se usa un convertidor de frecuencia, en dos grandes campos: las necesarias y las que proporcionan ahorros de energia.

  17. Flow range enhancement by secondary flow effect in low solidity circular cascade diffusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Daisaku; Tun, Min Thaw; Mizokoshi, Kanata; Kishikawa, Daiki

    2014-08-01

    High-pressure ratio and wide operating range are highly required for compressors and blowers. The technical issue of the design is achievement of suppression of flow separation at small flow rate without deteriorating the efficiency at design flow rate. A numerical simulation is very effective in design procedure, however, cost of the numerical simulation is generally high during the practical design process, and it is difficult to confirm the optimal design which is combined with many parameters. A multi-objective optimization technique is the idea that has been proposed for solving the problem in practical design process. In this study, a Low Solidity circular cascade Diffuser (LSD) in a centrifugal blower is successfully designed by means of multi-objective optimization technique. An optimization code with a meta-model assisted evolutionary algorithm is used with a commercial CFD code ANSYS-CFX. The optimization is aiming at improving the static pressure coefficient at design point and at low flow rate condition while constraining the slope of the lift coefficient curve. Moreover, a small tip clearance of the LSD blade was applied in order to activate and to stabilize the secondary flow effect at small flow rate condition. The optimized LSD blade has an extended operating range of 114 % towards smaller flow rate as compared to the baseline design without deteriorating the diffuser pressure recovery at design point. The diffuser pressure rise and operating flow range of the optimized LSD blade are experimentally verified by overall performance test. The detailed flow in the diffuser is also confirmed by means of a Particle Image Velocimeter. Secondary flow is clearly captured by PIV and it spreads to the whole area of LSD blade pitch. It is found that the optimized LSD blade shows good improvement of the blade loading in the whole operating range, while at small flow rate the flow separation on the LSD blade has been successfully suppressed by the secondary flow

  18. Reducing aeration energy consumption in a large-scale membrane bioreactor: Process simulation and engineering application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianyu; Liang, Peng; Yan, Xiaoxu; Zuo, Kuichang; Xiao, Kang; Xia, Junlin; Qiu, Yong; Wu, Qing; Wu, Shijia; Huang, Xia; Qi, Meng; Wen, Xianghua

    2016-04-15

    Reducing the energy consumption of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) is highly important for their wider application in wastewater treatment engineering. Of particular significance is reducing aeration in aerobic tanks to reduce the overall energy consumption. This study proposed an in situ ammonia-N-based feedback control strategy for aeration in aerobic tanks; this was tested via model simulation and through a large-scale (50,000 m(3)/d) engineering application. A full-scale MBR model was developed based on the activated sludge model (ASM) and was calibrated to the actual MBR. The aeration control strategy took the form of a two-step cascaded proportion-integration (PI) feedback algorithm. Algorithmic parameters were optimized via model simulation. The strategy achieved real-time adjustment of aeration amounts based on feedback from effluent quality (i.e., ammonia-N). The effectiveness of the strategy was evaluated through both the model platform and the full-scale engineering application. In the former, the aeration flow rate was reduced by 15-20%. In the engineering application, the aeration flow rate was reduced by 20%, and overall specific energy consumption correspondingly reduced by 4% to 0.45 kWh/m(3)-effluent, using the present practice of regulating the angle of guide vanes of fixed-frequency blowers. Potential energy savings are expected to be higher for MBRs with variable-frequency blowers. This study indicated that the ammonia-N-based aeration control strategy holds promise for application in full-scale MBRs. PMID:26905799

  19. Lead-bismuth cooled reactor with a high level of natural circulation (RBEC-M)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RBEC-M is a lead-bismuth cooled fast reactor with a high level of primary coolant natural circulation and a gas lift system in the primary circuit to ensure a supply of inert gas (argon) in the coolant under the core. The name reflects the basic technology of the concept: a fast neutron spectrum, heavy metal lead-bismuth coolant, a high level of natural circulation with a nominal operation of inert gas blowers and safe cooldown of the core after the trip of gas supply blowers. The RBEC-M reactor is a conceptual development based on the preliminary design of the RBEC reactor, hereafter referred to as a 'basic project'. The direct predecessor of the RBEC-M is the design named RBEC, one of the Russian-developed designs of fast reactors with heavy metal coolants. The preliminary design of the RBEC reactor of 900 MW(th) and 340 MW(e) was completed in the 1990s by Russian design and scientific institutions: OKB 'Gidropress', Russian Research Centre (RRC) 'Kurchatov Institute' and IPPE, with the participation of VNIINM and RIAR. The main objective of the development of the RBEC lead-bismuth cooled fast reactor was to provide a reliable solution for nuclear fuel breeding, while using an approach alternative to sodium cooled fast reactors. It was assumed that design development of a nuclear power plant (NPP) with such reactor could be completed in a rather short period, with modest expenditures for additional testing and qualification of separate equipment units

  20. ESTIMATION OF LONG-TERM INVESTMENT PROJECTS WITH ENERGY-EFFICIENT SOLUTIONS BASED ON LIFE CYCLE COSTS INDICATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazhenov Viktor Ivanovich

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The starting stage of the tender procedures in Russia with the participation of foreign suppliers dictates the feasibility of the developments for economical methods directed to comparison of technical solutions on the construction field. The article describes the example of practical Life Cycle Cost (LCC evaluations under respect of Present Value (PV determination. These create a possibility for investor to estimate long-term projects (indicated as 25 years as commercially profitable, taking into account inflation rate, interest rate, real discount rate (indicated as 5 %. For economic analysis air-blower station of WWTP was selected as a significant energy consumer. Technical variants for the comparison of blower types are: 1 - multistage without control, 2 - multistage with VFD control, 3 - single stage double vane control. The result of LCC estimation shows the last variant as most attractive or cost-effective for investments with economy of 17,2 % (variant 1 and 21,0 % (variant 2 under adopted duty conditions and evaluations of capital costs (Cic + Cin with annual expenditure related (Ce+Co+Cm. The adopted duty conditions include daily and seasonal fluctuations of air flow. This was the reason for the adopted energy consumption as, kW∙h: 2158 (variant 1,1743...2201 (variant 2, 1058...1951 (variant 3. The article refers to Europump guide tables in order to simplify sophisticated factors search (Cp /Cn, df, which can be useful for economical analyses in Russia. Example of evaluations connected with energy-efficient solutions is given, but this reference involves the use of materials for the cases with resource savings, such as all types of fuel. In conclusion follows the assent to use LCC indicator jointly with the method of determining discounted cash flows, that will satisfy the investor’s need for interest source due to technical and economical comparisons.

  1. Economic evaluation of losses to electric power utilities caused by ash fouling. Final technical report, November 1, 1979-April 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhardt, F.R.; Persnger, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    Problems with convection ash fouling and wall slagging were considerable during our study. The Dakota lignites posed the greatest problems, particularly with fouling. The subbituminous coals had considerable problems, related mostly with wall slagging. The Texas lignites had few problems, and those were only associated with wall slagging. The generation losses were as follows: The Dakota lignite burning stations averaged an overall availability of 87.13%. Convection fouling outages were responsible for 57.75% of this outage time for a decrease in availability of 7.43%. Fouling was responsible for curtailment losses of 317,649 Mwh or 8.25% of the remaining available generation. Slagging was responsible for losses of 2732 megawatt hours or .07% of the remaining available generation. Total ash related losses amounted to 16.08% of the total available generation. The subbituminous burning stations averaged an overall availability of 78.36%. Total ash related losses amounted to 1.54% of the total available generation. The Texas lignite burning stations averaged an overall availability of 80.63%. No ash related outage losses occurred. Slagging curtailments accounted 0.08% of the total available generation. Costs due to ash fouling and slagging related curtailments are a tremendous sum. Seven power stations were studied for a six month period to assess costs. The total cost directly attributable to ash slagging and fouling condition was $20,638,113. Recommendations for reducing the problems involve soot blowers, control of furnace gas exit temperature, water blowers and more conservative boiler design.

  2. Challenges of Achieving 2012 IECC Air Sealing Requirements in Multifamily Dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klocke, S. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Faakye, O. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, S. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2014-10-01

    While previous versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) have included provisions to improve the air tightness of dwellings, for the first time, the 2012 IECC mandates compliance verification through blower door testing. Simply completing the Air Barrier and Insulation Installation checklist through visual inspection is no longer sufficient by itself. In addition, the 2012 IECC mandates a significantly stricter air sealing requirement. In Climate Zones 3 through 8, air leakage may not exceed 3 ACH50, which is a significant reduction from the 2009 IECC requirement of 7 ACH50. This requirement is for all residential buildings, which includes low-rise multifamily dwellings. While this air leakage rate requirement is an important component to achieving an efficient building thermal envelope, currently, the code language doesn't explicitly address differences between single family and multifamily applications. In addition, the 2012 IECC does not provide an option to sample dwellings for larger multifamily buildings, so compliance would have to be verified on every unit. With compliance with the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements on the horizon, several of Consortium for Advanced Residential Building's (CARB’s) multifamily builder partners are evaluating how best to comply with this requirement. Builders are not sure whether it is more practical or beneficial to simply pay for guarded testing or to revise their air sealing strategies to improve compartmentalization to comply with code requirements based on unguarded blower door testing. This report summarizes CARB's research that was conducted to assess the feasibility of meeting the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements in 3 multifamily buildings.

  3. Challenges of Achieving 2012 IECC Air Sealing Requirements in Multifamily Dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klocke, S.; Faakye, O.; Puttagunta, S.

    2014-10-01

    ​While previous versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) have included provisions to improve the air tightness of dwellings, for the first time, the 2012 IECC mandates compliance verification through blower door testing. Simply completing the Air Barrier and Insulation Installation checklist through visual inspection is no longer sufficient by itself. In addition, the 2012 IECC mandates a significantly stricter air sealing requirement. In Climate Zones 3 through 8, air leakage may not exceed 3 ACH50, which is a significant reduction from the 2009 IECC requirement of 7 ACH50. This requirement is for all residential buildings, which includes low-rise multifamily dwellings. While this air leakage rate requirement is an important component to achieving an efficient building thermal envelope, currently, the code language doesn't explicitly address differences between single family and multifamily applications. In addition, the 2012 IECC does not provide an option to sample dwellings for larger multifamily buildings, so compliance would have to be verified on every unit. With compliance with the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements on the horizon, several of CARB's multifamily builder partners are evaluating how best to comply with this requirement. Builders are not sure whether it is more practical or beneficial to simply pay for guarded testing or to revise their air sealing strategies to improve compartmentalization to comply with code requirements based on unguarded blower door testing. This report summarizes CARB's research that was conducted to assess the feasibility of meeting the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements in 3 multifamily buildings.

  4. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Challenges of Achieving 2012 IECC Air Sealing Requirements in Multifamily Dwellings, Upstate New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-11-01

    While previous versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) have included provisions to improve the air tightness of dwellings, for the first time, the 2012 IECC mandates compliance verification through blower door testing. Simply completing the Air Barrier and Insulation Installation checklist through visual inspection is no longer sufficient; the 2012 IECC mandates a significantly stricter air sealing requirement. In Climate Zones 3 through 8, air leakage may not exceed 3 ACH50, which is a significant reduction from the 2009 IECC requirement of 7 ACH50. This requirement is for all residential buildings, which includes low-rise multifamily dwellings. While this air leakage rate requirement is an important component to achieving an efficient building thermal envelope, currently, the code language doesn't explicitly address differences between single family and multifamily applications. In addition, the 2012 IECC does not provide an option to sample dwellings for larger multifamily buildings, so compliance would have to be verified on every unit. With compliance with the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements on the horizon, several of Building America team Consortium for Advanced Residential Building's (CARB) multifamily builder partners are evaluating how best to comply with this requirement. Builders are not sure whether it is more practical or beneficial to simply pay for guarded testing or to revise their air sealing strategies to improve compartmentalization to comply with code requirements based on unguarded blower door testing. This report summarizes CARB's research that was conducted to assess the feasibility of meeting the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements in three multifamily buildings.

  5. Building America Case Study: Challenges of Achieving 2012 IECC Air Sealing Requirements in Multifamily Dwellings, Upstate New York (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-11-01

    While previous versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) have included provisions to improve the air tightness of dwellings, for the first time, the 2012 IECC mandates compliance verification through blower door testing. Simply completing the Air Barrier and Insulation Installation checklist through visual inspection is no longer sufficient by itself. In addition, the 2012 IECC mandates a significantly stricter air sealing requirement. In Climate Zones 3 through 8, air leakage may not exceed 3 ACH50, which is a significant reduction from the 2009 IECC requirement of 7 ACH50. This requirement is for all residential buildings, which includes low-rise multifamily dwellings. While this air leakage rate requirement is an important component to achieving an efficient building thermal envelope, currently, the code language doesn't explicitly address differences between single family and multifamily applications. In addition, the 2012 IECC does not provide an option to sample dwellings for larger multifamily buildings, so compliance would have to be verified on every unit. With compliance with the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements on the horizon, several of CARB's multifamily builder partners are evaluating how best to comply with this requirement. Builders are not sure whether it is more practical or beneficial to simply pay for guarded testing or to revise their air sealing strategies to improve compartmentalization to comply with code requirements based on unguarded blower door testing. This report summarizes CARB's research that was conducted to assess the feasibility of meeting the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements in 3 multifamily buildings.

  6. Fire analyses in central and disposal tunnels by APROS; Keskus- ja loppusijoitustunneleiden palotarkasteluja APROSilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltokorpi, L.; Kukkola, T.; Nieminen, J. [Fortum Power and Heat Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-12-15

    The central tunnels and the disposal tunnels on the north-east disposal area are the target areas of the fire studies. Target is to maintain under pressure in the fire zone in case of a fire. In the central tunnels a fire of a drilling jumbo with moderate fire propagation is used as heat release rate. In the disposal tunnel the heat release rate of a canister transfer and installation vehicle fire received as a result of the pyrolysis analyze as well as an average heat release rate of a van fire are used. Inlet air is to be conducted to the back end of the fire zone and the exhaust is to be lead out from the beginning of the fire zone. The worst location of the fire is in the beginning of the fire zone just below of the exhaust air clap valve. The size of the fire zone does not have big impact on pressure. In all analyzed cases the fire zone remains too long time over pressurized. Inlet air flow of a 30 m{sup 3}/s is too much. The rotation controlled booster blowers will solve the pressure problems of the fire zone in fire cases. The rotation is controlled by the fire zone pressure. The fire of the canister transfer and installation vehicle in the central tunnel will not cause problems. The disposal tunnel fire door should be kept open, if the canister transfer and installation vehicle or the bentonite blocks transfer and installation vehicle is driven into the disposal tunnel. If a fire is caught in the disposal tunnel then the fire zone in the central tunnel is to be closed and the pressure is controlled by the rotation controlled booster blowers. If a personnel car or a van is driven into the disposal tunnel, then fire door of the disposal is to be kept closed against fires in the central tunnel. (orig.)

  7. Learning lessons from accidents with a human and organisational factors perspective: deficiencies and failures of operating experience feedback systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims at reminding the failures of operating experience feedback (OEF) systems through the lessons of accidents and provides a framework for improving the efficiency of OEF processes. The risk is for example to miss lessons from other companies and industrial sectors, or to miss the implementation of adequate corrective actions with the risk to repeat accidents. Most of major accidents have been caused by a learning failure or other organisational factors as a contributing cause among several root causes. Some of the recurring organisational factors are: -) poor recognition of critical components, of critical activities or deficiency in anticipation and detection of errors, -) excessive production pressure, -) deficiency of communication or lack of quality of dialogue, -) Excessive formalism, -) organisational complexity, -) learning deficiencies (OEF, closing feedback loops, lack of listening of whistle-blowers). Some major accidents occurred in the nuclear industry. Although the Three Mile Island accident has multiple causes, in particular, an inappropriate design of the man-machine interface, it is a striking example of the loss of external lessons from incidents. As for Fukushima it is too early to have established evidence on learning failures. The systematic study and organisational analysis of OEF failures in industrial accidents whatever their sector has enabled us to provide a framework for OEF improvements. Five key OEF issues to improve in priority: 1) human and organisational factors analysis of the root causes of the events, 2) listening to the field staff, dissenting voices and whistle-blowers, 3) monitoring of the external events that provide generic lessons, 4) building an alive memory through a culture of accidents with people who become experiences pillars, and 5) the setting of external audit or organisational analysis of the OEF system by independent experts. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation

  8. New steam generation system for lead-cooled fast reactors, based on steam re-circulation through ejector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Innovative steam generation system for lead-cooled fast reactors secondary loop. • Water evaporation outside of vessel heated by recirculation steam in a surface exchanger. • Steam recirculation occurs through steam jet ejector feeding bayonet heat exchangers. • Improvement of safety, availability and efficiency with respect to Loeffler system (EBBSG). - Abstract: The EBBSG (External Boiling Bayonet Steam Generator) system, proposed in previous publications, offers an alternative to the classical once-through high pressure steam generators. This system exploits the combination between the Loeffler external boiling scheme and the bayonet-tube steam generator and is expected to provide advantages in terms of safety while keeping good values of cycle performance and vessel size. The main disadvantages result in the increased size of the heat exchangers with respect to once-through steam boilers and in the need of steam blowers, as envisaged under the Loeffler scheme. In the present paper, a new and more efficient system is proposed, in which the steam circulation is assured by steam-jet ejectors instead of blowers. The innovative solution, named SJ-EBBSG (Steam-Jet External Boiling Bayonet Steam Generator), is expected to provide several advantages with respect to the original scheme. In particular, the advantages envisage an increased global efficiency (+0.49% with respect to EBBSG) due to the lower power consumption of the auxiliaries and smaller size of the bayonet heat exchangers (−6.1% diameter, −7.3% length), other than increased safety and plant availability. Throughout the article, the two steam generation solutions are compared and the advantages demonstrated by calculations

  9. Expectations from Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prof. A. Blowers observed that the social context within which radioactive waste management is considered has evolved over time. The early period where radioactive waste was a non-issue was succeeded by a period of intense conflict over solutions. The contemporary context is more consensual, in which solutions are sought that are both technically sound and socially acceptable. Among the major issues is that of inter-generational equity embraced in the question: how long can or should our responsibility to the future extend? He pointed out the differences in timescales. On the one hand, geo-scientific timescales are very long term, emphasizing the issue of how far into the future it is possible to make predictions about repository safety. By contrast, socio cultural timescales are much shorter, focusing on the foreseeable future of one or two generations and raising the issue of how far into the future we should be concerned. He listed. the primary expectations from society which are: safety and security to alleviate undue burdens to future generations and flexibility in order to enable the future generations to have a stake in decision making. The need to reconcile the two had led to a contemporary emphasis on phased geological disposal incorporating retrievability. However, the long timescales for implementation of disposal provided for sufficient flexibility without the need for retrievability. Future generations would inevitably have sold stake in decision making. Prof. A.. Blowers pointed out that society is also concerned with participation in decision making for implementation. The key elements for success are: openness and transparency, staged process, participation, partnership, benefits to enhance the well being of communities and a democratic framework for decision making, including the ratification of key decisions and the right for communities to withdraw from the process up to a predetermined point. This approach for decision making may also have

  10. Developing and teaching the virtue-ethics foundations of healthcare whistle blowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunce, Thomas

    2004-10-01

    Healthcare whistle blowing, despite the benefits it has brought to healthcare systems in many developed countries, remains generally regarded as a pariah activity by many of the most influential healthcare professionals and regulatory institutions. Few if any medical schools or law department health law and bioethics classes, teach whistle blowing in a formal sense. Yet without exception, public inquiries initiated by healthcare whistle blowers have validated their central allegations and demonstrated that the whistle blowers themselves were sincere in their desire to implement the fundamental virtues and principles of medical ethics, bioethics and public health law. In many jurisdictions, the law, this time remarkably in advance of professional opinion, has offered legislative protection for reasonable allegations of whistleblowers made in good faith and in the public interest concerning a substantial and imminent threat to public safety. One reason for this paradoxical position, explored here, is that healthcare whistle blowing lacks a firm virtue-based theoretical bioethical and jurisprudential foundation. The hypothesis discussed is that the lack of this bioethical and jurisprudential substrate has contributed to a situation where healthcare whistle blowing suffers in terms of institutional support due to its lack of academic legitimacy. This article commences the process of redressing this imbalance by attempting to lay the theoretical foundations for healthcare whistle blowing. As a case study, this article concludes by discussing the Personal and Professional Development course at the ANU Medical School where healthcare whistle blowing is a formal part of a virtue-based curriculum that emphasises the foundational importance of conscience. Illustrative elements of that program are discussed. PMID:15688511

  11. Isolating The Building Thermal Envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrje, D. T.; Dutt, G. S.; Gadsby, K. J.

    1981-01-01

    The evaluation of the thermal integrity of building envelopes by infrared scanning tech-niques is often hampered in mild weather because temperature differentials across the envelope are small. Combining the infrared scanning with positive or negative building pressures, induced by a "blower door" or the building ventilation system, considerably extends the periods during which meaningful diagnostics can be conducted. Although missing or poorly installed insulation may lead to a substantial energy penalty, it is the search for air leakage sites that often has the largest potential for energy savings. Infrared inspection of the attic floor with air forced from the occupied space through ceiling by-passes, and inspecting the interior of the building when outside air is being sucked through the envelope reveals unexpected leakage sites. Portability of the diagnostic equipment is essential in these surveys which may include access into some tight spaces. A catalog of bypass heat losses that have been detected in residential housing using the combined infrared pressure differential technique is included to point out the wide variety of leakage sites which may compromise the benefits of thermal insulation and allow excessive air infiltration. Detection and suppression of such leaks should be key items in any building energy audit program. Where a calibrated blower door is used to pressurize or evacuate the house, the leakage rate can be quantified and an excessively tight house recognized. Houses that are too tight may be improved with a minimal energy penalty by forced ventilation,preferably with a heat recuperator and/or by providing combustion air directly to the furnace.

  12. Improvement to the physical quality and imbibition pattern in seeds of candeia (Eremanthus incanus (Less. Less.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cláudio Davide

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop a methodology for seed processing and X-ray analysis and to study imbibition pattern in seeds of candeia (Eremanthus incanus. Seeds were gathered in 2001 and 2002 in Morro do Pilar and Lavras respectively, processed and stored in a cold chamber (5ºC/60%RH until the start of experiments. In order to identify unfilled seeds, a protocol was developed for X-ray use combining radiation energy (Kv and exposure time (seconds. For elimination of unfilled seeds, an experiment was conducted using a South Dakota seed blower whereby different opening settings and ventilation times were combined. Original seed lots and categorized lots following radiograph viewing were tested by germination tests, with seeds being cleansed in sodium hypochlorite and scattered over blotting paper in ‘gerboxes’ and then taken to germinators with alternating temperatures of 20º-30ºC and 10 hours of light, for up to 15 days. Imbibition curves were determined under the conditions 30ºC, 20º-30ºC/10 hours of light and 30º-20ºC/10 hours of light. The X-ray protocol that best allowed viewing of internal seed structures was 30Kv for 45 seconds. Seed separation using the blower setting at a 3.0 opening for 30 seconds raised the number of embryonic seeds to values exceeding 99%, also raising the germination rates as a consequence. The imbibition pattern is three-phased and the germination process is completed in 72 hours. Under alternate temperatures, primary root growth is favored.

  13. Improvement of the decay heat removal characteristics of the generation IV gas-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas cooling in nuclear power plants (NPPs) has a long history, the corresponding reactor types developed in France, the UK and the US having been thermal neutron spectrum systems using graphite as the moderator. The majority of NPPs worldwide, however, are currently light water reactors, using ordinary water as both coolant and moderator. These NPPs - of the so-called second generation - will soon need replacement, and a third generation is now being made available, offering increased safety while still based on light water technology. For the longer-term future, viz. beyond the year 2030, R and D is currently ongoing on Generation IV NPPs, aimed at achieving closure of the nuclear fuel cycle, and hence both drastically improved utilization of fuel resources and minimization of long-lived radioactive wastes. Like the SFR, the GFR is an efficient breeder, also able to work as iso-breeder using simply natural uranium as feed and producing waste which is predominantly in the form of fission products. The main drawback of the GFR is the difficulty to evacuate decay heat following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) due to the low thermal inertia of the core, as well as to the low coolant density. The present doctoral research focuses on the improvement of decay heat removal (DHR) for the Generation-IV GFR. The reference GFR system design considered in the thesis is the 2006 CEA concept, with a power of 2400 MWth. The CEA 2006 DHR strategy foresees, in all accidental cases (independent of the system pressure), that the reactor is shut down. For high pressure events, dedicated DHR loops with blowers and heat exchangers are designed to operate when the power conversion system cannot be used to provide acceptable core temperatures under natural convection conditions. For de-pressurized events, the strategy relies on a dedicated small containment (called the guard containment) providing an intermediate back-up pressure. The DHR blowers, designed to work under these pressure

  14. Improvement of the decay heat removal characteristics of the generation IV gas-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of NPPs worldwide are currently light water reactors, using ordinary water as both coolant and moderator. (...) For the longer-term future, viz. beyond the year 2030, Research and Development is currently ongoing on Generation IV NPPs, aimed at achieving closure of the nuclear fuel cycle, and hence both drastically improved utilization of fuel resources and minimization of long-lived radioactive wastes. Since the very beginning of the international cooperation on Generation IV, viz. the year 2000, the main research interest in Europe as regards the advanced fast-spectrum systems needed for achieving complete fuel cycle closure, has been for the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR). However, the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) is currently considered as the main back-up solution. Like the SFR, the GFR is an efficient breeder, also able to work as iso-breeder using simply natural uranium as feed and producing waste which is predominantly in the form of fission products. The main drawback of the GFR is the difficulty to evacuate decay heat following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) due to the low thermal inertia of the core, as well as to the low coolant density. The present doctoral research focuses on the improvement of decay heat removal (DHR) for the Generation-IV GFR. The reference GFR system design considered in the thesis is the 2006 CEA concept, with a power of 2400 MWth. The CEA 2006 DHR strategy foresees, in all accidental cases (independent of the system pressure), that the reactor is shut down. For high pressure events, dedicated DHR loops with blowers and heat exchangers are designed to operate when the power conversion system cannot be used to provide acceptable core temperatures under natural convection conditions. For depressurized events, the strategy relies on a dedicated small containment (called the guard containment) providing an intermediate back-up pressure. The DHR blowers, designed to work under these pressure conditions, need to be

  15. FOREWORD: 6th International Conference on Pumps and Fans with Compressors and Wind Turbines (ICPF2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yulin; Wang, Zhengwei; Yuan, Shouqi; Shi, Weidong; Liu, Shuhong; Luo, Xingqi; Wang, Fujun

    2013-12-01

    The 6th International Conference on Pumps and Fans with Compressors and Wind Turbines (ICPF 2013) was held in Beijing, China, 19-22 September 2013, which was jointly organized by Tsinghua University and Jiangsu University. The co-organizers were Zhejiang University, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, The State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, The State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy and Beijing International Science and Technology Cooperation Base for CO2 Utilization and Reduction. The sponsor of the conference was Concepts NREC. The First International Conference on Pumps and Systems (May 1992), the Second International Conference on Pumps and Fans (October 1995), the Third International Conference on Pumps and Fans (October 1998), and the Fourth International Conference on Pumps and Fans (26-29 August 2002) were all held in Beijing and were organized by the late famous Chinese professor on fluid machinery and engineering, Professor Zuyan Mei of Tsinghua University. The conference was interrupted by the death of Professor Mei in 2003. In order to commemorate Professor Mei, the organizing committee of ICPF decided to continue organizing the conference series. The Fifth Conference on Pumps and Systems (2010 ICPF) took place in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China, 18-21 October 2010, and it was jointly organized by Zhejiang University and Tsinghua University. With the development of renewable energy and new energy in China and in the world, some small types of compressor and some types of pump, as well as wind turbines are developing very fast; therefore the ICPF2013 conference included compressors and wind turbines. The theme of the conference was the application of renewable energy of pumps, compressors, fans and blowers. The content of the conference was the basic study, design and experimental study of compressors, fans, blowers and pumps; the CFD application on pumps and fans, their transient behavior, unsteady flows and multi-phase flow

  16. Development of a plant dynamics analytical model using flow network for the MONJU ex-vessel fuel storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► An analytical model was developed to analyze an ex-vessel fuel storage system. ► This model is effective for calculating the entire plant behavior under natural circulation conditions. ► The model is reliable for calculating the natural convection force generation. - Abstract: If a station blackout (SBO) occurs in a fast breeder reactor, heat removal by natural circulation is expected, because the height between the heat source and the sink was considered in the plant design to provide the potential for natural circulation. Therefore, many studies about heat removal by natural convection have been reported to date. In these studies, it was determined that the thermal hydraulics for natural circulation depend on the plant structure, cooling system, and component positions, unlike in the case of forced circulation. Thus, the heat removal ability by natural circulation differs in each system and each plant. For the fast breeder reactor (FBR) “MONJU” during normal operation, the ex-vessel fuel storage system (EVSS), which uses a natural circulation flow inside the ex-vessel fuel storage tank (EVST), and the EVST sodium cooling system rely on forced convection with an electromagnetic pump. The decay heat can be removed by air coolers and blowers. If an SBO occurs in this EVSS, all pumps and blowers would be stopped. However, the plant dynamics of the EVSS in the time after all the pumps and the blowers were tripped has not yet been evaluated. Therefore, in this study, a plant dynamics analysis model was developed using a flow network to calculate the entire dynamics of the EVSS in the event of an SBO. The Super-COPD program, which has been validated for models of the reactor and the main cooling system using several tests including the plant trip test and the natural circulation test, was used. A model of the EVSS was developed by considering the design information, and the modeling technique was based on specific analytical models for the

  17. TORAC, Flows, Pressure, Materials Transport within Structure During Tornado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: TORAC models tornado-induced flows, pressures, and material transport within structures. Its use is directed toward nuclear fuel cycle facilities and their primary release pathway - the ventilation system. However, it is applicable to other structures and can model other airflow pathways within a facility. In a nuclear facility, this network system could include process cells, canyons, laboratory offices, corridors, and offgas systems. TORAC predicts flow through a network system that also includes ventilation system components such as filters, dampers, ducts, and blowers. These ventilation system components are connected to the rooms and corridors of the facility to form a complete network for moving air through the structure and, perhaps, maintaining pressure levels in certain areas. The material transport capability in TORAC is very basic and includes convection, depletion, entrainment, and filtration of material. 2 - Method of solution: The lumped-parameter method is the basic formulation used to describe a ventilation system or any other air pathway. Using the lumped-parameter method, network theory includes a number of system elements called branches, joined at certain points, called nodes. Ventilation system components that exhibit resistance or potential, such as dampers, filters, and blowers are located within the branches. Components that have larger volumes, such as rooms and plenums, are located at nodal points; nodes may possess some volume or capacitance where fluid storage or compressibility may be taken into account. The gas dynamics governing equations require that the continuity equation be satisfied at every node and that a pressure-flow equation be satisfied for each element or branch. Variations in the node equations depend on whether the node represents a finite volume. This variation also exists for branches, depending on whether the branch is simply a duct or contains a filter, blower, or damper

  18. Mo100 to Mo99 Target Cooling Enhancements Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Olivas, Eric Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mocko, Michal [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-16

    Target design requirements changed significantly over the past year to a much higher beam current on larger diameter disks, and with a beam impingement on both ends of the target. Scaling from the previous design, that required significantly more mass flow rate of helium coolant, and also thinner disks. A new Aerzen GM12.4 blower was selected that can deliver up to 400 g/s at 400 psi, compared to about 100 g/s possible with the Tuthill blower previously selected.Further, to accommodate the 42 MeV, 2.7 mA beam on each side of the target, the disk thickness and the coolant gaps were halved to create the current baseline design: 0.5 mm disk thickness (at 29 mm diameter) and 0.25 mm coolant gap. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of this target, presented below for reference, gave very good results, suggesting that the target could be improved with fewer, thicker disks and with disk thickness increasing toward the target center. The total thickness of Mo100 in the target remaining the same, that reduces the number of coolant gaps. This allows for the gap width to be increased, increasing the mass flow in each gap and consequently increasing heat transfer. A preliminary geometry was selected and analyzed with variable disk thickness and wider coolant gaps. The result of analysis of this target shows that disk thickness increase near the window was too aggressive and further resizing of the disks is necessary, but it does illustrate the potential improvements that are possible. Experimental and analytical study of diffusers on the target exit has been done. This shows modest improvement in requcing pressure drop, as will be summarized below. However, the benefit is not significant, and implementation becomes problematic when disk thickness is varying. A bull nose at the entrance does offer significant benefit and is relatively easy to incorporate. A bull nose on both ends is now a feature of the baseline design, and will be a feature of any redesign or enhanced designs that

  19. A pellet launcher tool optimized for the control of plasma edge instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A promising solution to the type-I edge localized mode (ELM) ELM power load problem in ITER is ELM pacing via quasi-continuous injection of cryogenic hydrogen isotope pellets. The feasibility of this approach was demonstrated on ASDEX Upgrade, culminating in successful, quasi-stationary ELM frequency control in radiative H-mode edge scenarios. However, all these experiments were performed by using an injection system developed for particle fuelling launching pellets from the magnetic high field side (HFS) with velocities between 240 and 1000 m/s at a repetition rate (60 Hz) in the range of the intrinsic ELM frequency. It turned out although those pellets were able to control the ELMs their parameters are adversarial for the task of a suitable control tool. Such a pellet based ELM pacing system requires injection of small pellets at high repetition rates but low velocities from the magnetic low field side (LFS) - operational requests absolutely contradictory with a fuelling system. Consequently, our aim was to design and developed a new pellet injection system optimized as a tool for plasma edge and ELM control. The systems pellet source is composed from separated extrusion and storage cryostats. Simultaneous pellet cutting and filling of a gun barrel is performed by a shuttle mechanics allowing alternating launch along two acceleration lines. Acceleration is based on the blower gun principle and capable to combine small pellet sizes, high repetition rates and low pellet velocities. Thus, higher pacing rates become possible while unwanted pellet fuelling can be minimized and furthermore the flexibility of accessible injection geometry is enhanced. As a result the new system allows for an enhancement in the tokamak operation as well as for more sophisticated experiments investigating the underlying physics of the plasma edge instabilities. We report on the results achieved in the test bed campaign and from first injection events in ASDEX Upgrade. Pellet repetition

  20. 除雪设备的现状及发展趋势%Status and Development Trend of Snow Rmoval Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝文超; 付君; 高贵武; 隋佳

    2011-01-01

    There are currently snow pusher, snow blowers and snow plowers in the snow removal equipment, and each with various features. Snow pusher is mainly hung in the pickup, light truck, high-powered tractor front side, and with the vehicle moving direction at 30° tilt, pushing the snow to the side of the road. Snow blowers use of horizontal helical blade off the snow from the ground, while the motor driving the fan blades rotate, the suction fan in the snow off, and thrown through the guide tube to the side of the road. Snow plower is hung in the back of a tractor, the tractor after the power output shaft to provide power for the snow plower, snow plower and tractor traveling direction at 30 ° tilt, which will snow down the side of the road.%目前的除雪机械主要有推雪机、吹雪机、扫雪机,各类除雪设备各具特点。推雪机主要悬挂在皮卡、轻卡、大功率拖拉机的前侧,并与车辆行进方向成30°倾斜,将积雪推至马路一侧。吹雪机利用水平方向的螺旋叶片将积雪从地面掀起,同时马达带动风扇叶片转动,将掀起的积雪吸入风扇内,并通过导向管抛至道路一侧。扫雪机主要悬挂在拖拉机后部,拖拉机的后动力输出轴为扫雪机提供动力,扫雪机与拖拉机行进方向成30°倾斜,从而将积雪扫向马路一侧。

  1. OPTIMIZATION OF AERODYNAMIC CONDITIONS OF THE CHAMBER DRIER OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sychevsky

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Wood utilization is a critical direction of the industrial production advancement, where desiccation of wood holds a prominent place. Convective drying in chamber driers is the presentday dominant technique for wood desiccation. Nevertheless, available scientific literature on the subject does not place high emphasis on the issue of gas flow structure inside the drier installations and, in particular, in the clearance between horizontal rows of stacked saw timber. Whereas, the air flowing between horizontal rows facilitates wood heating and moisture removing from the boundary layer. The present article studies aerodynamics of the experimental timber drying test stand at the A. V. Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Institute of NAS of Belarus. The timber drying test stand geometry structure is complicated, which is why aerodynamics valuation of the drier agent in the chamber involves the software system ANSYS Fluent 14.5. For that end, the researchers developed the convective drier installation geometrical model. A physico-mathematical simulation was developed for sawn timber convective drying aerodynamics in the timber drying test stand of the Heat and Mass Transfer Institute. Based on the computations made, the drier agent flow configuration was analyzed, stagnant pockets identified. It was found that the timber drying test stand was not operating within its optimal aerodynamic conditions. The drying chamber optimal aerodynamic conditions determination includes accounting for an additional canal between the chamber rear wall and the timber stack, absence of the screen above the stack, and presence of the screen between the floor and the stack. As well as variation of the drying agent speed, pressure differrential at the blower, the inter-row gobb amount variation. The paper offers recommendations on optimizing the drying installation aerodynamics based on the numerical simulation results. To this effect, speed of the drier agent in the chamber

  2. Enabling collaboration across communities through blogs and mashups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blower, Jon; Frey, Jeremy; Haines, Keith; Gemmell, Alastair; Milsted, Andrew

    2010-05-01

    measurements, which have hitherto been inaccessible due to the unfamiliarity of the data format used. The challenges inherent in supporting user-contributed data (including privacy and data format inconsistencies) will be addressed. We shall conclude by discussing common findings from these projects, such as the need for tight controls over the access to user-supplied content and how users can share identities among multiple online collaboration systems. ------- [1] Jon Blower, Keith Haines, Adit Santokhee, Chunlei Liu, Godiva2: Interactive visualization of environmental data on the web, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. A, 367, 1035-9, 2009 [2] A.L. Gemmell, G.C. Smith, K. Haines, J.D. Blower, Validation of ocean model syntheses against hydrography using a new web application, Journal of Operational Oceanography 2(2) August 2009, pp. 29-41

  3. Blowing loop in the EL-4 reactor: CO{sub 2} flow control analogue study; Boucle de soufflage de la centrale EL-4 - regulation du debit CO{sub 2} - etude analogique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chazal, G.; Merle, J.P.; Guillemard, B. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Leroy, C.; Robin, L.; Jacquin, J.C.; Cornudet, A. [Societe INDATOM, France (France)

    1966-07-01

    This report describes one study which contributed to the construction of the Monts d'Arree nuclear power station: EL-4. The reactor is cooled by a CO{sub 2} current provided by 3 turbo-blower groups. The priming vapour for the turbines is taken at the exit of the main CO{sub 2} - H{sub 2}O exchangers. The operation of EL 4 is based on a high degree of centralization of the controls which attributes an important role to the general regulation circuits. This general regulation includes in particular an internal blowing loop which controls the CO{sub 2} flow. The study of the control of this CO{sub 2} flow is made up of 3 parts: - analogue representation of the reactors cooling circuit and of the turbo blower unit. - first test campaign using the analogue computer describing the natural behaviour of the system in the absence of control. theoretical determination of the regulation factors; definition of the regulation using an analogue computer and second test campaign for recording the performances of the blowing loop. The 4. part of the report deals with the analogue study: analogue equations - development. (authors) [French] Ce rapport prend place parmi les etudes de realisation de la Centrale des Monts d'Arree EL-4. Le reacteur est refroidi par une circulation de CO{sub 2} assuree par 3 groupes turbosoufflantes. La vapeur d'entrainement des turbines est prelevee a la sortie des echangeurs principaux CO{sub 2} - H{sub 2}O. L'exploitation de EL-4 repose sur une centralisation poussee des moyens de controle-commande qui attribue un role essentiel aux circuits de regulation generale. Cette regulation generale comporte en particulier une boucle interne de soufflage qui realise un asservissement du debit de CO{sub 2}. L'etude de cette regulation du debit CO{sub 2} comprend 3 parties: - representation analogique du circuit de refroidissement du reacteur et de l'ensemble turbine-soufflante. - premiere campagne d'essais sur calculateur

  4. Countermeasure for long-term operation of a 3.0 MM TPY FCC unit%3Mt/a催化裂化装置长周期运行对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠海

    2013-01-01

    对催化裂化装置非计划停工原因进行统计分析,发现造成非计划停工的原因主要为沉降器结焦、主风机组故障、油浆系统故障、特殊阀门和设备故障、工艺管线腐蚀等.首先通过MIP-CGP工艺改造降低了装置非计划停工次数,然后结合多年的实际操作和管理经验,采取了一系列措施,如原料优化、操作优化来减缓沉降器结焦,更换安全的机组控制系统、减少烟机故障、材质升级,优化油浆系统、降低换热器压力降以及完善管理措施等.尤其强调对装置的日常监控,确保装置达到3~4 a的运行周期.%The analysis of statistics of unscheduled shutdown of the FCC unit concluded that the unscheduled shutdown were mainly caused by coking in the settler, accidents or failures of main air blower, special valves and equipment and inappropriate operation methods, etc. After the unit was revamped with MIP-CGP process, the number of unscheduled shutdown has been greatly reduced. In addition, a series of effective measures based upon years' operation and management experience have been adopted, such as optimization of feedstock and operating conditions to mitigate coking in settler, replacement of control system of main air blower train, reduction of flue gas expander accidents, upgrading of materials, optimization of oil slurry system, lowering of pressure drop of heat exchanger, improvement of management, strengthened routine monitoring of the unit operation, etc. , 3-4 years' operating cycle has been ensured as the result.

  5. Development of indigenous local exhaust ventilation system: reduction of welders exposure to welding fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Shakeel; Sathawara, Natvarbhai; Kumar, Sunil; Gandhi, Sumitra; Parmar, Chimanlal; Saiyed, Habibullah

    2004-07-01

    Two (portable and mobile) local exhaust ventilation (LEV) units were developed in collaboration with the Rural Technology Institute, Gandhinagar, India. Basically, each unit consists of three parts comprising an electric motor, a blower and a fume hood. In both units the motor is fixed in a rectangular iron frame in a foot-mount position and equipped compactly with a blower, which in turn is connected to a fume hood through a flexible hosepipe. The portable unit is light in weight (50 kg) and has a cone shaped metallic fume hood. The mobile unit, on the other hand, differs from the portable model with respect to its weight (150 kg), size, RPM, voltage requirement, hood shape and size, and has a motor enclosure. The efficiency of the portable and mobile units on trial bases was tested by measuring the manganese concentration as a reference metal in welding fumes generated by electric arc welding. The concentration of manganese (mean +/- SD) was 0.218 +/- 0.06 microg/m3 in the general environment. In the workplace area where joining of metal objects by welding was done, the concentration of manganese was found to be 0.63 +/- 0.09 and 3.75 +/- 0.56 microg/m3 at a distance of 5 m and 2 m away from the site of operation, respectively. In the breathing zone it was 22.16 +/- 20.90 microg/m3 which was reduced to 8.25 +/- 4.5 microg /m3 after application of a portable LEV showing about 63% removal of the manganese concentration from the breathing zone of the welder. In another experiment conducted with a mobile LEV unit for heavy-duty work, the concentration of manganese in the breathing zone without operating the mobile LEV was 70.06 +/- 37.38 microg /m3 but was lowered to 8.29 +/- 1.76 microg /m3 after operating the mobile LEV. This indicated an average removal of manganese content by about 88% from the breathing zone of the welder. In both the experiments locations of sample collection were similar. PMID:15308834

  6. General design and main problems of a gas-heavy-water power reactor contained in a pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of research carried out on a CO2-cooled power reactor moderated by heavy water, the so-called 'pressure vessel' solution involves the total integration of the core, of the primary circuit (exchanges and blowers) and of the fuel handling machine inside a single, strong, sealed vessel made of pre-stressed concrete. A vertical design has been chosen: the handling 'attic' is placed above the core, the exchanges being underneath. This solution makes it possible to standardize the type of reactor which is moderated by heavy-water or graphite and cooled by a downward stream of carbon dioxide gas; it has certain advantages and disadvantages with respect to the pressure tube solution and these are considered in detail in this report. Extrapolation presents in particular.problems due specifically to the heavy water (for example its cooling,its purification, the balancing of the pressures of the heavy water and of the gas, the assembling of the internal structures, the height of the attic, etc. (authors)

  7. Operational cost minimization in cooling water systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro M.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an optimization model that considers thermal and hydraulic interactions is developed for a cooling water system. It is a closed loop consisting of a cooling tower unit, circulation pump, blower and heat exchanger-pipe network. Aside from process disturbances, climatic fluctuations are considered. Model constraints include relations concerning tower performance, air flowrate requirement, make-up flowrate, circulating pump performance, heat load in each cooler, pressure drop constraints and climatic conditions. The objective function is operating cost minimization. Optimization variables are air flowrate, forced water withdrawal upstream the tower, and valve adjustment in each branch. It is found that the most significant operating cost is related to electricity. However, for cooled water temperatures lower than a specific target, there must be a forced withdrawal of circulating water and further makeup to enhance the cooling tower capacity. Additionally, the system is optimized along the months. The results corroborate the fact that the most important variable on cooling tower performance is not the air temperature itself, but its humidity.

  8. Advanced electric heat pump dual-stroke compressor and system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyo, S. E.; Fagan, T. J.

    1983-12-01

    The development of an advanced electric heat pump is discussed. A two-capacity, residential, advanced electric heat pump utilizing a unique dual-stroke compressor was developed. Two nearly identical preprototype split systems of nominally 3.5 tons maximum cooling capacity were designed, built and laboratory tested. The estimated annual energy efficiency of this advanced system is 20 percent better than a two-speed electric heat pump available at contract inception in 1979. This superior performance is due to the synergism of a high-efficiency, dual-stroke reciprocating compressor, a dual-strength high-efficiency single-speed single-phase hermetic drive motor, a single-width, single-entry high-efficiency indoor blower with backward curved cambered plate blades, a high-efficiency multivane axial flow outdoor fan, high-efficiency two-speed air mover motors and a microprocessor control system. The relative proportions of heat exchangers, air flows and compressor size as well as the ratio between high and low capacity were optimized so as to minimize the annual cost of ownership in a northern climate. Constraints placed upon the optimization and design process to ensure comfort provide heating air with a temperature of at least 90(0)F and provide cooling with a sensible-to-total capacity ratio of not more than 0.7. System performance was measured in the laboratory in accordance with applicable codes and procedures. Performance data plus hardware details are provided.

  9. Characteristics of HVAC System in radioisotope production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotope production facility (hereinafter called 'RIP facility'), one of the subsidiary one of the subsidiary ones in the HANARO research reactor, has been operated since 1995. They have 4 banks; bank1 consists of 4 concrete cells I-192 and Co-60 are produced, bank2 consists of 11 lead cells R and D project is conducted, bank3 consists of 6 lead cells I-131 is produced, and bank4 consists of 4 lead cells Tc-99m generator is produced. In order to prevent the gaseous radioactive material to be released to atmosphere, 3-stage charcoal adsorbent was installed at the exhaust side of the bank3. Also, prefilters and HEPA filters are mounted in all hot cell banks respectively. Charcoal cartridge and HEPA Filters are replaced every 18 month for maintenance without exception. After replacing them, we commence In-Place Leakage Test using the halide and D. O. P tester according to the ASME N510-2007. This paper describes characteristics of HVAC system in RIP facility and maintenance of their components such as AHU, HRU, blower, fan, damper as well as filters. Especially, the management of HEPA filters and charcoal adsorbents are very important for protecting environment and workers. So, I deal with the maintenance and repair of these filters and hands-on leak test result. In addition, this paper shows evaluation about radio-iodine released to atmosphere via the stack in HANARO

  10. Sodium removing facility for core-constitutional elements of FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactor core-constitutional elements as spent reactor core fuel assemblies are contained in a containing vessel. An inert gas (N2, Ar or He) is filled in the containing vessel through an inert gas supply channel. The temperature of the inert gas is raised by the remaining after heat of the reactor core-constitutional elements. The inert gas is circulated and heated through a preheating circuit by driving a recycling gas blower and returned to the containing vessel. If the inert gas is heated to a predetermined temperature, metal sodium deposited on the surface of the materials of the reactor core-constitutional elements is evaporated. Next, a vacuum pump unit of a vacuum exhaustion channel is driven to suck an inert gas entraining sodium vapor in the containing vessel, and the sodium vapor is cooled, condensed thereby separated in a sodium separator. Then, the inert gas at a low temperature is introduced to a vacuum exhaustion channel to remove and discharge remained sodium vapor by a sodium trap. (I.N.)

  11. Diesel Engine Turbo-Charger Surge on Large Vessel%大型船用柴油机透平喘振的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高林波

    2011-01-01

    Since the diesel engine turbocharger surge on large vessel becomes a more frequently occurred trouble, this paper explores the inherent reasons of turbocharger surge by means of thermodynamic and hydrodynamics principles: the air through the blower is under the higher pressure and less flow condition. It explores the material reasons in 3 ways; turbocharger matches with engine, propeller and vessel each other, air and gas flow path and components, and engine combustion components. By many representative examples, this work provides analysis and effective methods to remove the turbocharger surge, to protect the main engine and turbocharger, to reduce the components damage and economic loss.%针对大型船用柴油机增压器喘振这一常见故障,采用热力学和流体力学原理阐述了增压器喘振的根本原因是流经压气机的气体形成高被压、小流量;从透平、机、浆、船适配及气体流通部件和柴油机燃烧部件3个方面分析了引起透平喘振的具体原因,并利用实例分析解决透平喘振的有效方法,以保护主机和透平,减少部件和经济损失.

  12. Radiological safety assessment of Thoron inhalation hazards during DDU handling at UMP, Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium Extraction Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai has been producing nuclear grade uranium metal from Ammonium di-uranate received from IRE to meet the fuel requirement of research reactors of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre at Uranium Metal Plant (UMP) in Trombay. In UMP, uranium oxide powder (U3O8 and UO3) is first reduced to uranium dioxide in reduction reactor and is converted to uranium tetra fluoride in hydro fluorination reactor. After removing moisture and acid vapour in expulsion area, reduction of uranium tetrafluoride is carried out with magnesium in magnesio-thermic reduction (MTR) reactor, pure uranium metal ingot with magnesium fluoride slag is produced. Finally natural uranium ingot is separated from slag in ingot discharging area. However deeply depleted uranium (DDU) metal was produced from uranium oxide (reprocessed uranium) received from PREFRE, Tarapur, as a special campaign. External radiation hazards are not dominant during the processing of natural uranium in uranium metal Plant. However it was observed that during processing of DDU metal, external and internal hazards are significant because of daughter products of thoron. Inhalation dose due to thoron was found less during charging of UO3 powder operation than ingot discharge operation because of pneumatic powder transport system used for charging operation. It is estimated that after introduction of new blower system in different powder handling operation areas, the potential effective inhalation dose due to thoron inhalation may get reduced by 60% - 80%

  13. Upgrades to the XRD1 beamline optics and endstation at the LNLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    XRD1 was the first X-ray diffraction beamline to be built at the LNLS and after approximately 12 years of operation it was substantially updated to improve beam stability, increase the reliability of the monochromator movement as well as provide an experimental hutch that would meet the demands of users. The improvements included the construction of an independent concrete slab below the mirror and monochromator to minimize the vibrations originating from the floor. In addition, the installation of new monochromator mechanisms as well as the replacement of the two Si(111) crystals were performed in order to attain higher precision, stability and reproducibility during operation. Moreover, the diffractometer was replaced by a 3-circle heavy duty diffractometer from Newport to collect XRD patterns primarily in capillary geometry. A robotic arm was installed for fast and automated replacement of samples as well as to secure a cryojet or a hot air blower in front of the sample during measurements. In addition, a housing equipped with 24 Mythen detectors was installed at the beamline allowing for extremely fast data acquisition. Another upgrade was the integration of motors and control systems from PXI National Instruments and Galil controllers with Phytron. These systems are crucial for the next upgrade that is underway at the beamline: enabling remote access for users to collect their measurements without the need to travel to the LNLS.

  14. Modelling and simulation of an absorption cycle with a blow pump; Modellierung und Simulation eines Absorptionskreislaufes mit einer Blasenpumpe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buecherl, Markus

    2011-07-01

    Diffusion-absorption refrigerators are commonly operated with ammonia and water. If a ionic liquid with negligible vapour pressure is substituted for water, the rectifier will be unnecessary. In the context of a diploma thesis, a diffusion-absorption refrigerator with a blower pump and ammonia and a ionic liquid as working fluid was modelled and simulated. For this, three models were selected from the relevant literature and compared. Changes in COP as a result of varied operating parameters were investigated as well. It was shown that it is possible, in principle, to operate a diffusion-absorption refrigerator with a ionic liquid. [German] Diffusions-Absorptions-Kaeltemaschinen werden in der Regel mit dem Arbeitsstoffpaar Ammoniak-Wasser betrieben. Ersetzt man das Absorptionsmittel Wasser gegen eine ionische Fluessigkeit, die nur einen vernachlaessigbaren Dampfdruck besitzt, kann man den Rektifikator einsparen. Im Rahmen einer Diplomarbeit wurde eine Diffusions-Absorptions-Kaeltemaschine mit einer Blasenpumpe und dem Arbeitsstoffpaar Ammoniak-Ionische Fluessigkeit modelliert und simuliert. Hierfuer wurden drei Modelle aus der Literatur ausgewaehlt. Diese Modelle wurden untereinander verglichen. Ausserdem wurde die Veraenderung des COP bei der Variation der Betriebsparameter fuer diese Berechnungsmodelle untersucht. Es konnte gezeigt werden, dass es prinzipiell moeglich ist, eine Diffusions-Absorptions-Kaeltemaschine mit ionischer Fluessigkeit zu betreiben.

  15. Solar energy system performance evaluation report for IBM System 4 at Clinton, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The IBM System 4 Solar Energy System is described and evaluated. The system was designed to provide 35 percent of the space heating and 63 percent of the domestic hot water preheating for a single family residence located within the United States. The system consists of 259 square feet of flat plate air collectors, a rock thermal storage containing 5 1/2 ton of rock, heat exchangers, blowers, a 52 gallon preheat tank, controls, and associated plumbing. In general, the performance of the system did not meet design expectations, since the overall design solar fraction was 48 percent and the measured value was 32 percent. Although the measured space heating solar fraction at 32 percent did agree favorably with the design space heating solar fraction at 35 percent, the hot water measured solar fraction at 33 percent did not agree favorably with the design hot water solar fraction of 63 percent. In particular collector array air leakage, dust covered collectors, abnormal hot water demand, and the preheat tank by pass valve problem are main reasons for the lower performance.

  16. In-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction investigation of the hydriding and dehydriding properties of a cast Mg–Ni alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, X.Q., E-mail: x.tran@uq.edu.au [Nihon Superior Centre for the Manufacture of Electronic Materials (NS CMEM), School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, The University of Queensland (Australia); McDonald, S.D. [Nihon Superior Centre for the Manufacture of Electronic Materials (NS CMEM), School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, The University of Queensland (Australia); Gu, Q.F. [Powder Diffraction Beamline, Australian Synchrotron (Australia); Nogita, K. [Nihon Superior Centre for the Manufacture of Electronic Materials (NS CMEM), School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, The University of Queensland (Australia)

    2015-07-05

    Highlights: • We demonstrate the method of in-situ synchrotron XRD for hydrogen sorption study. • The unactivated alloy shows a fast kinetic of hydrogen sorption reactions. • We report the thermal properties of associated phases during the reactions. - Abstract: In previous research, it has been demonstrated that the hydrogenation kinetics of Mg–Ni alloys is significantly improved by elemental Na doping. To clarify the underlying mechanisms in terms of crystallographic phase changes during the reactions, in-situ hydrogen absorption and desorption as a function of temperature under constant hydrogen atmospheres of 2 MPa and 0.2 MPa, respectively, was studied. The experiments were performed at the Powder Diffraction beamline of the Australian Synchrotron facility with a gas flow cell and a hot air blower. This study showed that the hydrogenation of Na-doped Mg–Ni alloys can be identified at a temperature as low as 260 °C via an interface-controlled nucleation and growth mechanism without any prior activation whilst the dehydrogenation occurred at about 370 °C. The sequence of phase transformations associated with these reactions as well as associated expansion properties of individual phases during hydrogen sorption reactions as provided by the high resolution X-ray diffraction data are discussed.

  17. Efficiency of the Shut-Down and Safety Equipment and the Kinetic Characteristics of the G2 and G3 Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experience gained in several years of operating the G2 and G3 reactors confirms that natural uranium-graphite-gas reactors are extremely safe. The built-in shut-down and safety mechanisms which minimize operational incidents such as lack of power from the mains, blower failure, lack of water etc., together with accidents such as cladding bursts, local overheating, loss of coolant etc. are described and their operation explained by means of diagrams. The main points examined are as follows: (a) power distribution and controlability during accident conditions; (b) distribution of emergency water; and (c) the safety chain. The performance of the installations and the successive improvements incorporated in them are mentioned. The built-in safety characteristics of the reactors are shown by means of an experimental study of their behaviour in transient operation. These studies make it possible to check the validity of the calculation model. The machine calculation programmes can subsequently be used to study the consequences of possible accidents. Special attention is given to the depressurization accident, taking into account the performance of the safety device installed. (author)

  18. Design and simulation of a lithium-ion battery with a phase change material thermal management system for an electric scooter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khateeb, Siddique A.; Farid, Mohammed M.; Selman, J. Robert; Al-Hallaj, Said

    A lithium-ion battery employing a novel phase change material (PCM) thermal management system was designed for an electric scooter. Passive thermal management systems using PCM can control the temperature excursions and maintain temperature uniformity in Li-ion batteries without the use of active cooling components such as a fan, a blower or a pump found in air/liquid-cooling systems. Hence, the advantages of a compact, lightweight, and energy efficient system can be achieved with this novel form of thermal management system. Simulation results are shown for a Li-ion battery sub-module consisting of nine 18650 Li-ion cells surrounded by PCM with a melting point between 41 and 44 °C. The use of aluminum foam within the PCM and fins attached to the battery module were studied to overcome the low thermal conductivity of the PCM and the low natural convection heat transfer coefficient. The comparative results of the PCM performance in the presence of Al-foam and Al-fins are shown. The battery module is also simulated for summer and winter conditions. The effect of air-cooling on the Li-ion battery was also studied. These simulation results demonstrate the successful use of the PCM as a potential candidate for thermal management solution in electric scooter applications and therefore for other electric vehicle applications.

  19. Effects of hydrogen peroxide pretreatment and heat activation of silane on the shear bond strength of fiber-reinforced composite posts to resin cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Tae-Bong; Lee, Joo-Hee; Ahn, Kang-Min; Kim, Tae-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate the effects of hydrogen peroxide pretreatment and heat activation of silane on the shear bond strength of fiber-reinforced composite posts to resin cement. MATERIALS AND METHODS The specimens were prepared to evaluate the bond strength of epoxy resin-based fiber posts (D.T. Light-Post) to dual-curing resin cement (RelyX U200). The specimens were divided into four groups (n=18) according to different surface treatments: group 1, no treatment; group 2, silanization; group 3, silanization after hydrogen peroxide etching; group 4, silanization with warm drying at 80℃ after hydrogen peroxide etching. After storage of the specimens in distilled water at 37℃ for 24 hours, the shear bond strength (in MPa) between the fiber post and resin cement was measured using a universal testing machine. The fractured surface of the fiber post was examined using scanning electron microscopy. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and post-hoc analysis with Tukey's HSD test (α=0.05). RESULTS Silanization of the fiber post (Group 2) significantly increased the bond strength in comparison with the non treated control (Group 1) (P.05). CONCLUSION Fiber post silanization and subsequent heat treatment (80℃) with warm air blower can be beneficial in clinical post cementation. However, hydrogen peroxide etching prior to silanization was not effective in this study. PMID:27141252

  20. Removal of trapped dehy reboiler condensate from soils near a water table aquifer using in-situ volatilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-situ soil venting, or vapor extraction, is one of the most efficient treatment processes for the remediation of soils contaminated with volatile hydrocarbons. For this reason, a soil venting field system to remediate soils at or above residual gas condensate saturations was installed at a gas well site in northern Michigan. A soil venting system was designed to induce airflow through the contaminated interval and remove volatile hydrocarbons. This system consists of a withdrawal well and four monitor wells spaced radially away from the withdrawal well. All wells are screened throughout the contaminated interval. A rotary lobe air blower is attached to the well to create a vacuum at the withdrawal well. Once the contaminated vapors are extracted, they treated with two, 200 pound vapor phase activated carbon tanks connected in series. System monitoring is conducted by weekly monitoring of extracted vapor concentrations and pre- and post-operation soil borings. Because the system is still in operation in a final mass removal is yet to be determined. The system is operated at 100 SCFM. A radius of influence of more than 50 feet has been identified by pressure measurements in the monitor wells. At start-up, vapor concentrations were in excess of 300 ppmv as measured by an organic vapor meter with a photo ionization detector. After nine months of operation, vapor concentrations have dropped to less than 5 ppmv

  1. Condition monitoring of machinery using motor current signature analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motor current signature analysis (MCSA) is a powerful monitoring tool for motor-driven equipment that provides a nonintrusive means for detecting the presence of mechanical and electrical abnormalities in the motor and the driven equipment, including altered conditions in the process ''downstream'' of the motor-driven equipment. It was developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as a means for determining the effects of aging and service wear systems, but it is applicable to a broad range of machinery. MCSA is based on the recognition that an electric motor (ac or dc) driving a mechanical load acts as an efficient and permanently available transducer by sensing mechanical load variations, large and small, long-term and rapid, and converting them into variations in the induced current generated in the motor windings. These motor current variations are carried by the electrical cables processes as desired. Motor current signatures, obtained in both time and over time to provide early indication of degradation. Successful applications of MCSA technology (patent applied for) include not only motor-operated valves but also pumps of various designs, blowers, and air conditioning systems. Examples are presented briefly, and speculation regarding the applicability of MCSA to a broader range of equipment monitoring and production line testing is also given. 1 ref., 13 figs

  2. Energy Optimization in WWTP of Murcia Region; Optimizacion energetica en EDAR de la Region de Murcia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon Andreu, P.; Lardin Mifsut, C.; Abellan Solar, M.

    2012-07-01

    One of the main functions of Entidad de Saneamiento y Depuracion de la Region de Murcia (ESAMUR), is the management and maintenance of public wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in order to obtain good quality water in accordance with wastewater reuse regulations, and at the same time, enhance each process related to wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in order to obtain good quality water in accordance with wastewater reuse regulations, and at the same time, enhance each process related to wastewater treatment. The energy costs are almost 35% of the global costs in WWTP and a reduction in these costs has been a priority for ESAMUR during the last few years. We know that good design of WWTP is fundamental to obtain suitable energy ratios, and we are changing much of the operational criteria, evaluating the minimum amount of oxygen required by bacteria, studying the best ways of transferring oxygen from the gas to liquid phases in order in order to minimize aeration requirements, reducing the pressure losses, consuming the minimum energy for supplying an amount of air, testing control systems to manage air consumption, changing blowers for others more efficient, and improving the process of anaerobic fermentation of sludge, increasing the production of biogas by means of co-digestion processes and pre-treatments for improving the hydrolysis step. (Author)

  3. Performance evaluation of a proof-of-concept 70 W internal reforming methanol fuel cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgouropoulos, G.; Schlicker, S.; Schelhaas, K.-P.; Papavasiliou, J.; Papadimitriou, K. D.; Theodorakopoulou, E.; Gourdoupi, N.; Machocki, A.; Ioannides, T.; Kallitsis, J. K.; Kolb, G.; Neophytides, S.

    2016-03-01

    A proof-of-concept 70 W Internal Reforming Methanol Fuel Cell (IRMFC) stack including Balance-of-Plant (BoP) was designed, assembled and tested. Advent TPS® high-temperature, polymer electrolyte membrane electrode assemblies were employed for fuel cell operation at 200 °C. In order to avoid phosphoric acid poisoning of the reformer, the anode electrocatalyst of each cell was indirectly adjoined, via a separation plate, to a highly active CuMnAlOx catalyst coated onto copper foam, which served as methanol reforming layer. The reformer was in-situ converting the methanol/steam feed to the required hydrogen (internal reforming concept) at 200 °C, which was readily oxidized at the anode electrodes. The operation of the IRMFC was supported through a number of BoP components consisting of a start-up subsystem (air blower, evaporator and monolithic burner), a combined afterburner/evaporator device, methanol/water supply and data acquisition units (reactants/products analysis, temperature control, flow control, system load/output control). Depending on the composition of the liquid MeOH/H2O feed streams, current densities up to 0.18 A cm-2 and power output up to 70 W could be obtained with remarkable repeatability. Specific targets for improvement of the efficiency were identified.

  4. Application of the voltage biased digital relay for the optimal protection of high inertia drive induction motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes typical protection schemes for large-size high inertia drive motor that are generally rotor thermal limited. Difficult and variable starting conditions of the large-size high inertia drive motor and compromises in the selection and setting of the protective devices are frequently encountered. The motors that typically encounter severe starting duty and present difficulties in achieving full motor protection are reactor coolant pumps (RCPs), blowers and compressors. For difficult starting conditions that are encountered by the large-size high inertia drive motors, state-of-the-art computer based calculations are capable of providing realistic predictions of the band of margin available for applying the protective relay. Based on the analysis of starting characteristics of large-size high inertia drive motors, this paper recommends that the optimal protection scheme for high inertia drive motors for nuclear power plants can be achieved by using the voltage biased digital relay instead of a speed switch and conventional overcurrent relays. (author)

  5. Influence of constructional energy-saving measures on the radon-concentration in the air in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to energy-saving measures the air exchange in residential houses may be reduced. In order to determine time-dependent courses the indoor radon-concentrations were measured both, before and after renovation for several weeks. In addition, the most relevant climatic conditions or indoor climate factors, as e.g. the CO2-concentration, were measured. Verifying the renovation success, Blower-Door registered -Tests were performed, both as well before and after the renovation. Simultaneously the radon-concentration was measured. The results before and after renovation were compared with respect to seasonal parameters and the inhabitant's behavior. By investigation of the correlation coefficient the influencing parameters and the impact of the energy saving measures were analyzed. Based on the findings a model was developed to characterize the time-dependent course based on the influence quantities. The energy-saving measures at the building considerably influence the radon dynamics. Due to the denser building envelope, fresh air flows in case of underinflation caused by stack effect not only from the outside but even through the basement from the soil. Thus, by this path the radon-containing air can be transported into the dwelling's rooms as well. The influences of the users outweigh the influence of weather parameters, thus, the radonemission- rate was used for user-independent determination of the radon situation.

  6. Building America Case Study: Field Trial of an Aerosol-Based Enclosure Sealing Technology, Clovis, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-05-01

    This report presents the results from several demonstrations of a new method for sealing building envelope air leaks using an aerosol sealing process developed by the Western Cooling Efficiency Center at UC Davis. The process involves pressurizing a building while applying an aerosol sealant to the interior. As air escapes through leaks in the building envelope, the aerosol particles are transported to the leaks where they collect and form a seal that blocks the leak. Standard blower door technology is used to facilitate the building pressurization, which allows the installer to track the sealing progress during the installation and automatically verify the final building tightness. Each aerosol envelope sealing installation was performed after drywall was installed and taped, and the process did not appear to interrupt the construction schedule or interfere with other trades working in the homes. The labor needed to physically seal bulk air leaks in typical construction will not be replaced by this technology. However, this technology is capable of bringing the air leakage of a building that was built with standard construction techniques and HERS-verified sealing down to levels that would meet DOE Zero Energy Ready Homes program requirements. When a developer is striving to meet a tighter envelope leakage specification, this technology could greatly reduce the cost to achieve that goal by providing a simple and relatively low cost method for reducing the air leakage of a building envelope with little to no change in their common building practices.

  7. Analysis of U.S. residential air leakage database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Wanyu R.; Price, Phillip N.; Sohn, Michael D.; Gadgil, Ashok J.

    2003-07-01

    The air leakage of a building envelope can be determined from fan pressurization measurements with a blower door. More than 70,000 air leakage measurements have been compiled into a database. In addition to air leakage, the database includes other important characteristics of the dwellings tested, such as floor area, year built, and location. There are also data for some houses on the presence of heating ducts, and floor/basement construction type. The purpose of this work is to identify house characteristics that can be used to predict air leakage. We found that the distribution of leakage normalized with floor area of the house is roughly lognormal. Year built and floor area are the two most significant factors to consider when predicting air leakage: older and smaller houses tend to have higher normalized leakage areas compared to newer and larger ones. Results from multiple linear regression of normalized leakage with respect to these two factors are presented for three types of houses: low-income, energy-efficient, and conventional. We demonstrate a method of using the regression model in conjunction with housing characteristics published by the US Census Bureau to derive a distribution that describes the air leakage of the single-family detached housing stock. Comparison of our estimates with published datasets of air exchange rates suggests that the regression model generates accurate estimates of air leakage distribution.

  8. Experimental study of regenerative desiccant integrated solar dryer with and without reflective mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An indirect forced convection with desiccant integrated solar dryer has been built and tested. The main parts are: a flat plate solar air collector, a drying chamber, desiccant bed and a centrifugal blower. The system is operated in two modes, sunshine hours and off sunshine hours. During sun shine hours the hot air from the flat plate collector is forced to the drying chamber for drying the product and simultaneously the desiccant bed receives solar radiation directly and through the reflected mirror. In the off sunshine hours, the dryer is operated by circulating the air inside the drying chamber through the desiccant bed by a reversible fan. The dryer is used to dry 20 kg of green peas and pineapple slices. Drying experiments were conducted with and without the integration of desiccant unit. The effect of reflective mirror on the drying potential of desiccant unit was also investigated. With the inclusion of reflective mirror, the drying potential of the desiccant material is increased by 20% and the drying time is reduced. The drying efficiency of the system varies between 43% and 55% and the pick-up efficiency varies between 20% and 60%, respectively. Approximately in all the drying experiments 60% of moisture is removed by air heated using solar energy and the remainder by the desiccant. The inclusion of reflective mirror on the desiccant bed makes faster regeneration of the desiccant material

  9. Automatic control of the D20 vapor recovery dryers at Cernavoda NPP U2 (CANDU Project 82)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'D20 vapor Recovery System' is built in the frame of CANDU NPP Cernavoda, Romania, in order to preserve the atmosphere dry inside the Reactor Building. The system includes ten dryers, four tanks and three pumps grouped in thirteen equipment units with cyclic operation. When desiccant bed of the dryers is full of humidity the operating regime is switched automatically from absorption to regeneration. During regeneration, the air from blower discharge is passed through electric heaters and desiccant bed to condenser where the D20 vapor is recovered, and again to fan inlet. The dryer regeneration is completed when its desiccant bed is hot. Also, transferring the contents of the tanks is a batch processing operation. Considering the Cernavoda U1 operating experience, the CANDU project 82, for Cernavoda NPP U2, is now under an improving process, which implies an Automatic Control for the 'D20 vapor Recovery System'. This Automatic Control, performed by Industrial Computers and Data Acquisition System, is able automatically to detect the completion of the equipment unit phases, to switch the equipment unit to appropriate operation mode, to check the proper operating mode and to trip the equipment unit if necessary. This paper intends to present the problems surmounted during the technical specification issuing for designing process. (author)

  10. Tests of gas-blast burners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testing of the most sold small gas-blast burners on the Danish market was carried out with regard to carbon monoxide emission contra the content of oxygen in the flue gas in relation to the burners' combustion stability at varying fire box pressures. The burners tested were Weishaupt WG 1: DG no. 2506, Riello 40 GS3: DG no. 2722, Bentone BEG 15: DG no. 2153 and Box 1 G: no. 1104. This covers 90% of the Danish market for gas burners. It was concluded that all the burners had a broader area of adjustment possibilities without carbon monoxide emission than previously tested box burners. This with the exception of when surplus oxygen is low, where large of amounts of carbon monoxide are generated at an oxygen content in flue gas of ca. 2% (10.8% CO2). Burners in which the total pressure in the blower was high were the most stable with regard to air supply and varying fire-box pressure. It is pointed out that other conditions of design have also influence in this respect. In the cases of Weishaupt, Bentone and Riello burners there is a significant relation between blast pressure and oxygen content in the flue gas, whereas in the case of the Box burner, the percentage of oxygen in the flue gas rises in relation to increased pressure in the smoke outlet. The results of the tests are presented in great detail. (AB)

  11. Studi Eksperimen Pengaruh Sudut Blade Tipe Single Row Distributor pada Swirling Fluidized Bed Coal Dryer terhadap Karakteristik Pengeringan Batubara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrizal Tegar Oktianto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Penggunaan batubara dengan nilai kalori rendah pada PLTU dapat berpengaruh terhadap kinerja pulverizer. Kinerja pulverizer akan semakin berat dikarenakan kapasitas batubara yang dibutuhkan untuk pembakaran semakin banyak. Hal tersebut terjadi karena kualitas batubara yang tersedia tidak sesuai dengan spesifikasi desain awal boiler. Berdasarkan kondisi tersebut, diperlukan suatu teknologi yang dapat meningkatkan kualitas batubara, berupa swirling fluidized bed coal dryer. Penelitian dilakukan dengan studi eksperimen menggunakan model skala alat percobaan, yang dirancang oleh peneliti sebelumnya yaitu swirling fluidized bed coal dryer. Udara panas dengan temperatur 55oC dihembuskan oleh blower ke dalam chamber dengan melewati distributor bed berupa blade yang membentuk sudut sehingga menyebabkan swirling didalam chamber. Pengambilan data dilakukan dengan menimbang massa sampel batubara basah setiap 1 menit sebanyak 5 kali, 2 menit sebanyak 3 kali, dan 5 menit sebanyak 4 kali sehingga total waktu pengeringan 31 menit.. Percobaan dilakukan dengan variasi sudut blade 10˚, 20˚, dan 30˚ dengan massa batubara 600 gram dan ukuran partikel 10 mm, pengeringan dilanjutkan menggunakan oven dengan  temperatur 1050 C selama 180 menit  untuk mendapatkan massa sampel batubara kering. Dari hasil eksperimen diketahui bahwa pada sudut blade 10o, 20o dan 30o didapat moisture content batubara terendah berturut-turut sebesar 6,8 %; 7,6 %; dan 8 %. Untuk laju pengeringan berturut-turut sebesar 0,00767 kg/menit; 0,0059 kg/menit; dan 0,00452 kg/menit.

  12. Construction and Testing of Window System of 350 keV/10 mA Electron Beam Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction and testing of window system of 350 keV/10 mA electron beam machine have been carried out. The function of the window is to separate vacuum chamber of electron beam machine from atmosphere and pass the electron beam from electron gun to the target. The design of window system consist of scanning horn flange, intermediate flange, supporting flange, gasket holder, made of pure aluminium wire material and cooling nozzle. To obtain high vacuum, the pure aluminium wire gasket should be used. But in vacuum testing the pure aluminium wire gasket was replaced with viton and titanium foil window of 50 μm was replaced with bronze plate. Theoretically the loss of energy of 500 keV electron beam at window is 33.32 keV. So that the 20 mA electron beam current will produce power dissipation of 665.2 Watt. For cooling the power dissipation the air speed of 41.553 m/sec is blown to the window surface. Blower with capacity of 0.167 m3/sec was used in this experiment, so that the nozzle around of 3.35 mm is applied. The result of test indicates that the optimal vacuum 5x10-5 mbar was reached, this result was close to the used diffusion pump capacity that is 3.5x10-5 mbar. It can be concluded that there is no leakage on the window construction. (author)

  13. Cooling performance and evaluation of automotive refrigeration system for a passenger car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajitno, Deendarlianto, Majid, Akmal Irfan; Mardani, Mahardeka Dhias; Wicaksono, Wendi; Kamal, Samsul; Purwanto, Teguh Pudji; Fauzun

    2016-06-01

    A new design of automotive refrigeration system for a passenger car was proposed. To ensure less energy consumption and optimal thermal comfort, the performance of the system were evaluated. This current research was aimed to evaluate the refrigeration characteristics of the system for several types of cooling load. In this present study, a four-passenger wagon car with 1500 cc gasoline engine that equipped by a belt driven compressor (BDC) was used as the tested vehicle. To represent the tropical condition, a set of lamps and wind sources are installed around the vehicle. The blower capacity inside a car is varied from 0.015 m/s to 0.027 m/s and the compressor speed is varied at variable 820, 1400, and 2100 rpm at a set temperature of 22°C. A set of thermocouples that combined by data logger were used to measure the temperature distribution. The system uses R-134a as the refrigerant. In order to determine the cooling capacity of the vehicle, two conditions were presented: without passengers and full load conditions. As the results, cooling capacity from any possible heating sources and transient characteristics of temperature in both systems for the cabin, engine, compressor, and condenser are presented in this work. As the load increases, the outlet temperature of evaporator also increases due to the increase of condensed air. This phenomenon also causes the increase of compressor work and compression ratio which associated to the addition of specific volume in compressor inlet.

  14. After Prism & Tempora: How much monitoring is OK for CERN?

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2013-01-01

    Edward Snowden’s revelations about the “Prism” and “Tempora” surveillance operations, run by the NSA in the US and GCHQ in the UK respectively, created quite a stir! Why has the witch hunt of a whistle-blower dominated newspaper headlines when there appears to have been no outcry over the fact that two countries have deeply penetrated our digital lives for so long?!   With echoes of George Orwell’s 1984, the two agencies collected a huge amount of Internet traffic, tapping into as much data per day as the LHC produces per year (see here). How much privacy are we willing to give up in order to protect ourselves against terrorist attacks? How much monitoring of our Internet activity is justified in order to feel safer? And how much monitoring is OK in the academic environment of CERN? As the world’s largest high-energy physics research lab and the home of the LHC, CERN is a target for hacktivists and cyber-attackers. CERN mu...

  15. Electrical performance analysis of HTS synchronous motor based on 3D FEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 1-MW class superconducting motor with High-Temperature Superconducting (HTS) field coil is analyzed and tested. This machine is a prototype to make sure applicability aimed at generator and industrial motor applications such as blowers, pumps and compressors installed in large plants. This machine has the HTS field coil made of Bi-2223 HTS wire and the conventional copper armature (stator) coils cooled by water. The 1-MW class HTS motor is analyzed by 3D electromagnetic Finite Element Method (FEM) to get magnetic field distribution, self and mutual inductance, and so forth. Especially excitation voltage (Back EMF) is estimated by using the mutual inductance between armature and field coils and compared with experimental result. Open and short circuit tests were conducted in generator mode while a 1.1-MW rated induction machine was rotating the HTS machine. Electrical parameters such as mutual inductance and synchronous inductance are deduced from these tests and also compared with the analysis results from FEM.

  16. Electrical performance analysis of HTS synchronous motor based on 3D FEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, S. K.; Kwon, Y. K.; Kim, H. M.; Lee, J. D.; Kim, Y. C.; Park, G. S.

    2010-11-01

    A 1-MW class superconducting motor with High-Temperature Superconducting (HTS) field coil is analyzed and tested. This machine is a prototype to make sure applicability aimed at generator and industrial motor applications such as blowers, pumps and compressors installed in large plants. This machine has the HTS field coil made of Bi-2223 HTS wire and the conventional copper armature (stator) coils cooled by water. The 1-MW class HTS motor is analyzed by 3D electromagnetic Finite Element Method (FEM) to get magnetic field distribution, self and mutual inductance, and so forth. Especially excitation voltage (Back EMF) is estimated by using the mutual inductance between armature and field coils and compared with experimental result. Open and short circuit tests were conducted in generator mode while a 1.1-MW rated induction machine was rotating the HTS machine. Electrical parameters such as mutual inductance and synchronous inductance are deduced from these tests and also compared with the analysis results from FEM.

  17. Low-cost Radon Reduction Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, William B. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Francisco, Paul W. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Merrin, Zachary [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Building America research team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofits conducted a primary scoping study on the impact of air sealing between the foundation and the living space on radon transport reduction across the foundation and living space floor assembly. Fifteen homes in the Champaign, Illinois, area participated in the study. These homes were instrumented for hourly continuous radon measurements and simultaneous temperature and humidity measurements. Blower door and zone pressure diagnostics were conducted at each house. The treatments consisted of using air-sealing foams at the underside of the floor that separated the living space from the foundation and providing duct sealing on the ductwork that is situated in the foundation area. The hypothesis was that air sealing the floor system that separated the foundation from the living space should better isolate the living space from the foundation; this isolation should lead to less radon entering the living space from the foundation. If the hypothesis had been proven, retrofit energy-efficiency programs may have chosen to adopt these isolation methods for enhanced radon protection to the living space.

  18. Frequency controlled scroll compressor in R410A air/water heat pumps; Drehzahlgeregelter Scroll-Verdichter in R410A Luft/Wasser Waermepumpen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koepke, Dina; Fraccari, Enrico [Emerson Climate Technologies GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The efficiency of air/water heat pumps with fixed speed compressors is not sufficient for a market breakthrough. This may change with speed-controlled compressors and blowers with high flexibility and high part-load efficiency. Speed-controlled scroll compressors with steam injection ensure higher water temperatures which are better suited for modernisation of older buildings and ensure higher efficiency. The presentation uses a simulation based on prEN14825 to illustrate the effects of steam injection and speed control on the efficiency at different operating temperatures. The best results were achieved by a combination of matched components and optimised control. [German] Die Effizienz von Luft/Wasser-Waermepumpen mit An/Aus-Regelung beim Einsatz von Verdichtern mit fester Drehzahl erreicht nicht die Werte, die fuer eine wesentlich verbesserte Marktdurchdringung notwendig sind. Eine kontinuierliche Anpassung der gelieferten Heizungskapazitaet an die benoetigte Waermelast wuerde die Effizienz jedoch betraechtlich erhoehen. Notwendige Voraussetzung hierfuer ist der Einsatz von drehzahlgeregelten Verdichtern und Lueftern mit einem weiten Anwendungsbereich und hoher Teillasteffizienz. Durch drehzahlgeregelte Scroll Verdichter mit Dampfeinspritzung werden hoehere Wassertemperaturen erreicht, die die Altbausanierung erleichtern und zudem zu einer verbesserten Effizienz fuehren. Diese Praesentation erlaeutert anhand einer Simulation basierend auf der prEN14825 den jeweiligen Einfluss von Dampfeinspritzung und Drehzahlregelung auf... das Effizienzniveau/ die Effizienz bei verschiedenen Anwendungstemperaturen. Die besten Resultate werden durch die Kombination effizient aufeinander abgestimmter Komponenten mit einer optimaler Steuerung erreicht.

  19. Field Trial of an Aerosol-Based Enclosure Sealing Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, Curtis [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Springer, David [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report presents the results from several demonstrations of a new method for sealing building envelope air leaks using an aerosol sealing process developed by the Western Cooling Efficiency Center at UC Davis. The process involves pressurizing a building while applying an aerosol sealant to the interior. As air escapes through leaks in the building envelope, the aerosol particles are transported to the leaks where they collect and form a seal that blocks the leak. Standard blower door technology is used to facilitate the building pressurization, which allows the installer to track the sealing progress during the installation and automatically verify the final building tightness. Each aerosol envelope sealing installation was performed after drywall was installed and taped, and the process did not appear to interrupt the construction schedule or interfere with other trades working in the homes. The labor needed to physically seal bulk air leaks in typical construction will not be replaced by this technology. However, this technology is capable of bringing the air leakage of a building that was built with standard construction techniques and HERS-verified sealing down to levels that would meet DOE Zero Energy Ready Homes program requirements. When a developer is striving to meet a tighter envelope leakage specification, this technology could greatly reduce the cost to achieve that goal by providing a simple and relatively low cost method for reducing the air leakage of a building envelope with little to no change in their common building practices.

  20. Survey and Control of the EL4 Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Survey and control of the EL4, where the degree of automation is comparable with that of the latest graphite-gas reactors being built, are nevertheless distinguished - in view of the fact that this is a prototype facility and that doubts do exist about its exact operating performance - by the varying opportunities offered for operator intervention. The papers starts with a functional description of the facility and then goes on to deal with: 1. The regulatory systems, which allow for the majority of faults that may develop under a broad range of working conditions, and their salient features, namely: regulating loop, blower loop, and temperature correction and heat-balance loops. 2. Use of programmed and wired logic processes for surveillance and correction without eliminating the possibility of intervention by the operator should safety considerations so dictate. (a) Units for data processing and control of the main operations; (b) Manual control points: At the main block: wholly automatic control; At the secondary block: semi-automatic control. 3. The system of circuits ensuring safety of the reactor in respect df mechanical faults and defects in the survey process: (a) Power reduction chain; (b) Breakdown in data processing. 4. The technology of highly dependable ultimate safety circuits for emergency shut-down of the reactor using components intended solely for this purpose. (author)

  1. Radioactivity in the furnace air-cleaning filter from a house with an unusually high level of airborne radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amounts of the three short-lived daughters of radon on the furnace air-cleaning filter from a house with a high level of radon were estimated to be 8.2, 33, and 38 kBq (0.22, 0.89, and 1.03 μCi) for 218Po, 214Pb, and 214Bi, respectively, at the time of removal from the furnace. These data were used to calculate the airborne concentrations of the three, and the results indicated that about 70% of the daughters were lost to surfaces in the house and by impaction in the air ducts. The filter's content of 210Pb was found to be 4.4 kBg (0.12 μCi); from this the average concentration of radon-producing filterable daughters during the time the furnace blower operated, was estimated to be 860 Bq m-3. This indicated that there was no significant loss to surfaces or in air ducts. Possible reasons for the difference are given. The filter was also found to contain 1 kBq (27 nCi) of 212Bi from the thorium series

  2. Testing of the EL4 Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first tests of the core channels in the EL4 power plant were performed on the various prototype channels. The results obtained on channel structure - force tubes and guide rods in particular - are briefly noted in the paper. The power plant tests began on 15 March 1966 with the start-up of the turbo-blowers of the CO2 circuit, tested on an experimental loop. These trials revealed the difficulties in coupling the various machines and led to the production of new vanes, but they also confirmed the capacity of the machines to withstand neutron irradiation. A second important series of trials was begun in November 1966: by means of electric heaters the CO2 circuit and the reactor block were heated to 240°C (normal cold temperature of the circuit) so that the mechanical performance of these structures could be checked at this temperature. The reactor began to go into power operation in May 1967 after neutron tests in the cold. The paper gives the results of this operation up to September 1967. Also given are the results of tests made on the control-rod drive mechanisms, the heavy-water circuit, the filed-fuel element detection system, and the fuel handling equipment. (author)

  3. Experimental evaluation of automotive air-conditioning using HFC-134a and HC-134a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, Henry; Zainudin, Muhammad Amir; Aziz, Azhar Abdul; Latiff, Zulkarnain Abdul; Perang, Mohd Rozi Mohd; Rahman, Abd Halim Abdul

    2012-06-01

    An experimental study to evaluate the energy consumption of an automotive air conditioning is presented. In this study, these refrigerants will be tested using the experimental rig which simulated the actual cars as a cabin complete with a cooling system component of the actual car that is as the blower, evaporator, condenser, radiators, electric motor, which acts as a vehicle engine, and then the electric motor will operate the compressor using a belt and pulley system, as well as to the alternator will recharge the battery. The compressor working with the fluids HFC-134a and HC-134a and has been tested varying the speed in the range 1000, 1500, 2000 and 2500 rpm. The measurements taken during the one hour experimental periods at 2-minutes interval times for temperature setpoint of 20°C with internal heat loads 0, 500, 700 and 1000 W. The final results of this study show an overall better energy consumption of the HFC-134a compared with the HC-134a.

  4. Numerical prediction of system round-trip efficiency and feasible operating conditions of small-scale solid oxide iron-air battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmori, Hiroko; Iwai, Hiroshi; Itakura, Kotaro; Saito, Motohiro; Yoshida, Hideo

    2016-03-01

    A simulation model of a small-scale solid oxide iron-air battery system was developed to clarify its fundamental characteristics and feasibility from the view point of energy efficiency. The energy flow in one cycle of charge/discharge operations was evaluated under a quasi-state assumption with 0-dimensional models of the system components, i.e., a solid oxide electrochemical cell, an iron (Fe) box and heat exchangers. Special care was taken when considering thermal aspects; not only a simple system but also a more complicated system with thermal recirculation by three heat exchangers was investigated. It was found that the system round-trip efficiency reaches 61% under the base conditions in this study. The results also show that several limitations exist for the operation parameters and conditions in view of practical applications. In particular, higher and lower limits exist for the fuel and air utilization factors under which the system operates effectively because of constraints such as the maximum allowable fuel-blower temperature and no heat input during the discharge operation.

  5. HYTEST Phase I Facility Commissioning and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee P. Shunn; Richard D. Boardman; Shane J. Cherry; Craig G. Rieger

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to report the first year accomplishments of two coordinated Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) projects that utilize a hybrid energy testing laboratory that couples various reactors to investigate system reactance behavior. This work is the first phase of a series of hybrid energy research and testing stations - referred to hereafter as HYTEST facilities – that are planned for construction and operation at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). A HYTEST Phase I facility was set up and commissioned in Bay 9 of the Bonneville County Technology Center (BCTC). The purpose of this facility is to utilize the hydrogen and oxygen that is produced by the High Temperature Steam Electrolysis test reactors operating in Bay 9 to support the investigation of kinetic phenomena and transient response of integrated reactor components. This facility provides a convenient scale for conducting scoping tests of new reaction concepts, materials performance, new instruments, and real-time data collection and manipulation for advance process controls. An enclosed reactor module was assembled and connected to a new ventilation system equipped with a variable-speed exhaust blower to mitigate hazardous gas exposures, as well as contract with hot surfaces. The module was equipped with a hydrogen gas pump and receiver tank to supply high quality hydrogen to chemical reactors located in the hood.

  6. GSM Web-Based Centralized Remote Wireless Automatic Controlling and Monitoring of Aquafeeder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C. L.; Idris, A.; Hasan, Z.

    2016-03-01

    This project is about producing a prototype to feed fishes at fish ponds of remote location with the use of GSM mobile phone. An automatic fish feeder is an electric device that has been designed to give out the right amount of pellets at the designed time. In this project, the automatic feeder designed consists of photovoltaic solar cells that are used to generate electricity and storing it into batteries. Solar charge controllers can be used to determine the rate of which current is drawn and added from the batteries. GSM cellular communication is used to allow user to control from a distance. Commands or instructions are sent to the operating system which in return runs the servomotor and blower by blowing certain amount of fish pallets into the pond to feed the fishes. The duration of the feeding processes is fixed by the user, hence the amount of fish food pallets released are precisely the same for each time. This technology is especially useful for fish farmers where they can remotely feed their fishes.

  7. A microfluidic-structured flow field for passive direct methanol fuel cells operating with highly concentrated fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) have to operate with excessively diluted methanol solutions to limit methanol crossover and its detrimental consequences. Operation with such diluted methanol solutions not only results in a significant penalty in the specific energy of the power pack, limiting the runtime of this type of fuel cell, but also lowers the cell performance and operating stability. In this paper, a microfluidic-structured anode flow field for passive DMFCs with neither liquid pumps nor gas compressors/blowers is developed. This flow field consists of plural micro flow passages. Taking advantage of the liquid methanol and gas CO2 two-phase counter flow, the unique fluidic structure enables the formation of a liquid–gas meniscus in each flow passage. The evaporation from the small meniscus in each flow passage can lead to an extremely large interfacial mass-transfer resistance, creating a bottleneck of methanol delivery to the anode CL. The fuel cell tests show that the innovative flow field allows passive DMFCs to achieve good cell performance with a methanol concentration as high as 18.0 M, increasing the specific energy of the DMFC system by about five times compared with conventional designs.

  8. A high frequency high power IGBT inverter drive for 45 HP/16,000 rpm brushless homopolar inductor motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A microprocessor-based ultra-high speed brushless homopolar inductor motor drive system (HiDrive) with no gearing and using a high frequency IGBT inverter switching at 32 kHz is described and discussed in this paper. The homopolar motor features a solid steel rotor without magnets, windings, or laminations, which allows the motor to be operated at very high speed. The HiDrive system achieves 16,000 RPM, 45 Hp continuously. The drive system discussed in this paper can be used to replace conventional motors and speed increasing gear boxes in very high speed industrial applications such as centrifuges, compressors, blowers, pumps, and machine tool spindles. The HiDrive system discussed in this paper is used to drive a compressor for nuclear power application. In this paper, the detailed descriptions of the motor construction, equivalent circuit, operation and control principle are offered. The IGBT inverter drive system design and controls including motor speed sensing, load angle control, synchronization, brake control, power device switchings, and thermal issues are addressed. The simulation results various test results, and the typical application examples of the high speed drives are also presented in this paper

  9. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF TRAUMATIC CATARACT AND ITS VISUAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharam S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available : INTRODUCTION: Ocular trauma is the leading cause of unilateral blindness all over the world.[1] The incidence of ocular trauma varies in different parts of the world. From India, the reported incidence is 20.53%.[2] Any strategy for prevention requires knowledge of the cause of injury, which may enable more appropriate targeting of resources towards preventing such injuries.[3] Eye trauma represents a large, potentially preventable burden on both victims and society as a whole. Traumatic cataracts occur secondary to blunt or penetrating ocular trauma, Infrared energy (glass-blower's cataract, electric shock and ionizing radiation are other rare causes of traumatic cataracts.[4] It form a separate category of cataracts as they present with other ocular morbidity like corneal tears, iris injury, vitreous hemorrhage and retinal tears; and they are to some extent, preventable. The methods used to evaluate the visual outcome in eyes managed for traumatic cataracts and senile cataracts are similar, but the damage to other ocular tissues owing to trauma may compromise the visual gain in eyes treated surgically for traumatic cataracts.[5] Hence, the success rates may differ between eyes with these two types of cataract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the final visual outcome of a patient with surgical extraction of traumatic cataract along with demographic features and modes of trauma.

  10. Energy efficiency of local sewage plants. Background; Energieeffizienz kommunaler Klaeranlagen. Hintergrund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Klaus

    2009-10-15

    In the struggle against the climate change the saving of energy is a proven means. There are great potentials of energy saving with the numerous local purification plants. In the context of the research project ''Increase of the energy efficiency at local purification plants'', the Federal Office for Environment Protection (Dessau, Federal Republic of Germany) examines the increase if energy efficiency of purification plants within a short and medium time - naturally without reductions in the cleaning achievement or operating stability. Here, an important measure is the promotion of transparency regarding to the consumption of electricity of aggregates such as compressors, blowers, pumps or agitators. Efficient ventilation, improved controlling of the aggregates and engines or pumps with the highest energy efficiency class enable a medium energy conservation of 20 per cent. The self-supply with electricity can be doubled, and a saving of 600.000 tons of carbon dioxide per year can be achieved by improved production and utilization of fouling gas.

  11. Numerical simulation of 3D unsteady flow in a rotating pump by dynamic mesh technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the numerical simulation of unsteady flow for three kinds of typical rotating pumps, roots blower, roto-jet pump and centrifugal pump, were performed using the three-dimensional Dynamic Mesh technique. In the unsteady simulation, all the computational domains, as stationary, were set in one inertial reference frame. The motions of the solid boundaries were defined by the Profile file in FLUENT commercial code, in which the rotational orientation and speed of the rotors were specified. Three methods (Spring-based Smoothing, Dynamic Layering and Local Re-meshing) were used to achieve mesh deformation and re-meshing. The unsteady solutions of flow field and pressure distribution were solved. After a start-up stage, the flow parameters exhibit time-periodic behaviour corresponding to blade passing frequency of rotor. This work shows that Dynamic Mesh technique could achieve numerical simulation of three-dimensional unsteady flow field in various kinds of rotating pumps and have a strong versatility and broad application prospects

  12. Support to DHS Chemical Detection Field Testing and Countermeasures Studies: Report to Sponsors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Michael; Black, Douglas; Delp, William

    2011-09-01

    This document reports on work that Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory performed to support the Department of Homeland Security's testing of ARFCAM and LACIS systems. In the sections that follow, LBNL lists the scope of work, field analyses conducted, and preliminary results. LBNL developed a model of the Port Gaston building at the Nevada Test Site and calibrated it using data from field experiments, both blower door and tracer gas tests. Model development and comparison to data show very good agreement. The model was developed to (1) support the interpretation of data from field trials performed by Signature Science LLC, (2) support the placement of sampler equipment, and (3) predict if meteorological differences between the Wet-Run/Dry-Run and the Hot-Run might adversely affect the development of the Hot Run Test Plan. LBNL reported its findings on each task to the experiment team at scheduled planning meetings. In the end, we note that the model was used limitedly because the data from the Wet-Run/Dry Run were if such high quality. Lastly, LBNL conducted a research experiment at the end of the Wet-Run/Dry-Run to study if, and to what degree, specific TICs sorb and desorb on indoor surfaces. We found that several of the TICs either sorb onto surfaces or are lost through chemical reactions. These findings may have important implications on determining sheltering-in-place concepts of operation.

  13. Examination of dynamic response of detectors for criticality accident alarm systems at Tokai Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tokai reprocessing plant is so designed as to prevent the occurrence of any criticality accident during the operation including the handling, storage and transport of fissile materials in the plant. High reliable alarm systems against criticality accidents are urgently necessary to enable workers to evacuate immediately from the plant in a rare accident. The present systems were manufactured by SEIN Corp. in France, and the quality was guaranteed by CEA. The installation and maintenance of the systems have been performed by Toshiba Corp. The systems consist of 12 detectors which can detect gamma or neutron radiation resulting from critical excursion, a 623 BJ data processing module, an evacuation alarm sender and the warning equipment of 65 flash light boxes and 18 horn blowers. One area is monitored with a set of three criticality detectors of the same type, and alarm sounds when two out of three detectors detect the signals exceeding the threshold limit within the coincidence time of 500 msec. The configuration of gamma detectors, the test on dose rate linearity, alarm output characteristics and in-pile performance, and the results are reported. The time constant of the detectors was determined, and the detectors satisfactorily worked in the exposure test. (Kako, I.)

  14. Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at Kansas City, Fire Station, Kansas City, Missouri. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This document is the final report of the solar energy heating and hot water system installed at the Kansas City Fire Station, Number 24, 2309 Hardesty Street, Kansas City, Missouri. The solar system was designed to provide 47 percent of the space heating, 8800 square feet area and 75 percent of the domestic hot water (DHW) load. The solar system consists of 2808 square feet of Solaron, model 2001, air, flat plate collector subsystem, a concrete box storage subsystem which contains 1428 cubic feet of 1/2 inch diameter pebbles weighing 71 1/2 tons, a DHW preheat tank, blowers, pumps, heat exchangers, air ducting, controls and associated plumbing. Two 120-gallon electric DHW heaters supply domestic hot water which is preheated by the solar system. Auxiliary space heating is provided by three electric heat pumps with electric resistance heaters and four 30-kilowatt electric unit heaters. There are six modes of system operation. This project is part of the Department of Energy PON-1 Solar Demonstration Program with DOE cost sharing $154,282 of the $174,372 solar system cost. The Final Design Review was held March 1977, the system became operational March 1979 and acceptance test was completed in September 1979.

  15. Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact Study Final Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, Tate [Baylor Univ., Waco, TX (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The goal of the Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact (BBCSI) Study was to characterize the concentration and isotopic composition of carbonaceous atmospheric particulate matter (PM) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site in Barrow, AK. The carbonaceous component was characterized via measurement of the organic and black carbon (OC and BC) components of the total PM. To facilitate complete characterization of the particulate matter, filter-based collections were used, including a medium volume PM2.5 sampler and a high volume PM10 sampler. Thirty-eight fine (PM2.5) and 49 coarse (PM10) particulate matter fractions were collected at weekly and bi-monthly intervals. The PM2.5 sampler operated with minimal maintenance during the 12 month campaign. The PM10 sampler used for the BBCSI used standard Tisch hi-vol motors which have a known lifetime of ~1 month under constant use; this necessitated monthly maintenance and it is suggested that the motors be upgraded to industrial blowers for future deployment in the Arctic. The BBCSI sampling campaign successfully collected and archived 87 ambient atmospheric particulate matter samples from Barrow, AK from July 2012 to June 2013. Preliminary analysis of the organic and black carbon concentrations has been completed. This campaign confirmed known trends of high BC lasting from the winter through to spring haze periods and low BC concentrations in the summer.

  16. Measurement of Wall-thinning Defect in Pipeline for Circulation System of Nuclear Power Plant using Shearography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Chan Geun; Kim, Snag Chae; Kim, Hyun Ho; Jung, Hyun Chul; Na, Man Gyun; Kim, Kyeong Suk [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Shearography was developed by Leendertz based on the concept to derive derivative for deformation after configuring proper optical interferometry. Where defect exists at rigid object, external force will create stress concentration. Rigid body deformation does not involve change in strain rate, and shearography method will be highly suitable to measure the defect in object, and it has less influence from disturbance. In this paper, shearography is used to measure wall-thinning defect according to internal temperature change in pipeline for circulation system of nuclear power plant. 2.5 inch pipeline specimen is prepared, and wall-thinning depth is 50% and 75%, respectively. Using pipeline circulation system, internal temperature of pipeline specimen to 50 ∼ 200 is changed 50, and blower is used to quench the specimen for measuring defect shape. With the experiment results, 50%,75% of the depth of the defect is possible to measure the size and shape. Thus, the actual circulatory system can be measured by applying the wall thinning defects.

  17. Physicochemical and thermal characterization of nonedible oilseed residual waste as sustainable solid biofuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Pooja; Srivastava, Gopal; Pathak, Gauri; Dikshit, Madhurima

    2014-10-01

    The present study aims to investigate the potential of nonedible oilseed Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) and Karanja (Pongamia pinnata) defatted residual biomasses (whole seed, kernel, and hull), as solid biofuel. These biomasses showed good carbon contents (39.8-44.5%), whereas, fewer amounts were observed for sulfur (0.15-0.90%), chlorine (0.64-1.76%), nitrogen (0.9-7.2%) and ash contents (4.0-8.7%). Their volatile matter (60.23-81.6%) and calorific values (17.68-19.98 MJ/kg) were found to be comparable to coal. FT-IR and chemical analyses supported the presence of good amount of cellulose, hemicellulose and lower lignin. The pellets prepared without any additional binder, showed better compaction ratio, bulk density and compressive strength. XRF analysis carried out for determination of slagging-fouling indices, suggested their ash deposition tendencies in boilers, which can be overcome significantly with the optimization of the blower operations and control of ash depositions. Thus, overall various chemical, physical properties, thermal decomposition, surface morphological studies and their high biofuel reactivity indicated that residual biomasses of Jatropha and Karanja seeds have high potential to be utilized as a solid biofuel. PMID:24462338

  18. Development and Performance Evaluation of an Okra Drying Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.K. Owolarafe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available An okra dryer was designed, constructed and evaluated in this study for post-harvest processing of the fruit. The dryer consists of a heating chamber, two drying trays, a blower of 1hp, two heating elements of 2000 W each, 4 roller tyres for ease of mobility, a control box which consist of a thermostat that regulates the temperature in the dryer. The result of evaluation of the dryer in no load indicated that it was able to yield temperature very close to the preset (by the thermostat after about 3 min. The dryer was evaluated by drying okra of different thickness (5 and 10 mm, in two trays at two heights (25 and 50 cm from the bottom and at a preset temperatures of 50º and 70ºC. Moisture losses from the slices were obtained at intervals of 30, 45, 60 and 90 min. The result showed that increase in temperature from 50º to 70ºC, increases moisture loss from the slices. Slices of 5 mm thickness were observed to dry faster than 10 mm slices with those on the upper tray losing more moisture. The study further showed that slice thickness of 5 mm dried at 70ºC in the upper tray level of 60 cm from the base of the dryer are suitable for drying okra slices in the dryer.

  19. Controlling Hazardous Releases while Protecting Passengers in Civil Infrastructure Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimer, Sara P.; Katopodes, Nikolaos D.

    2015-11-01

    The threat of accidental or deliberate toxic chemicals released into public spaces is a significant concern to public safety, and the real-time detection and mitigation of such hazardous contaminants has the potential to minimize harm and save lives. Furthermore, the safe evacuation of occupants during such a catastrophe is of utmost importance. This research develops a comprehensive means to address such scenarios, through both the sensing and control of contaminants, and the modeling of and potential communication to occupants as they evacuate. A computational fluid dynamics model is developed of a simplified public space characterized by a long conduit (e.g. airport terminal) with unidirectional ambient flow that is capable of detecting and mitigating the hazardous contaminant (via boundary ports) over several time horizons using model predictive control optimization. Additionally, a physical prototype is built to test the real-time feasibility of this computational flow control model. The prototype is a blower wind-tunnel with an elongated test section with the capability of sensing (via digital camera) an injected `contaminant' (propylene glycol smoke), and then mitigating that contaminant using actuators (compressed air operated vacuum nozzles) which are operated by a set of pressure regulators and a programmable controller. Finally, an agent-based model is developed to simulate ``agents'' (i.e. building occupants) as they evacuate a public space, and is coupled with the computational flow control model such that agents must interact with a dynamic, threatening environment. NSF-CMMI #0856438.

  20. 煤气冷却器积灰原因与解决措施%Causes for Ash Accumulation in Coal Gas Cooler and Measures of Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭肖选; 张彦民

    2013-01-01

    对Shell粉煤气化装置中煤气冷却器的积灰问题进行了探讨,并介绍了解决积灰问题的措施.通过采用配煤技术、改造煤气冷却器过热段吹灰器、新增l台能力较大的激冷气压缩机等措施后,基本上解决了制约气化装置的积灰问题,实现了高负荷下的长周期运行.%An inquiry is made into the problem of ash accumulation in the coal gas cooler after the Shell pulverized coal gasifier,and measures are described for the solution of the problem of ash accumulation.The problem of ash accumulation that constrains the gasifier is basically solved by the use of coal blending,reform of the soot blower of the superheat section of the coal gas cooler,and new addition of one large capacity quench gas compressor,resulting in long-period operation under high load.

  1. Study for reactive power on distribution system line B RSG-GAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study for reactive power on distribution system line B RSG-GA is already done. The study intended to evaluate how much inductive load need the reactive power (positive), how much power factor, and what will be done to increase the power factor. The reactive power is the losses power, can't be changed into energy, but it is need for transmission process and it is cause the energy losses. The loads on distribution system line B consist of induction motors which are used for primary cooling system and secondary cooling system, lift, blower on cooling tower, and air condition system. Due to the motors using, the power factor are falling down to low. By the calculation results give that the inductive loads on distribution line B are 850 KVA and these loads caused the low power factor 0.80. If we want to increase the power factor up to 0.95, it is need to install the reactive loads likes capacitor bank 250 KVAR. (author)

  2. PROMSYS, Plant Equipment Maintenance and Inspection Scheduling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of problem or function: PROMSYS is a computer system designed to automate the scheduling of routine maintenance and inspection of plant equipment. This 'programmed maintenance' provides the detailed planning and accomplishment of lubrication, inspection, and similar repetitive maintenance activities which can be scheduled at specified predetermined intervals throughout the year. The equipment items included are the typical pumps, blowers, motors, compressors, automotive equipment, refrigeration units, filtering systems, machine shop equipment, cranes, elevators, motor-generator sets, and electrical switchgear found throughout industry, as well as cell ventilation, shielding, containment, and material handling equipment unique to nuclear research and development facilities. Four related programs are used to produce sorted schedule lists, delinquent work lists, and optional master lists. Five additional programs are used to create and maintain records of all scheduled and unscheduled maintenance history. 2 - Method of solution: Service specifications and frequency are established and stored. The computer program reviews schedules weekly and prints, on schedule cards, instructions for service that is due the following week. The basic output from the computer program comes in two forms: programmed-maintenance schedule cards and programmed-maintenance data sheets. The data sheets can be issued in numerical building, route, and location number sequence as equipment lists, grouped for work assigned to a particular foreman as the foreman's equipment list, or grouped by work charged to a particular work order as the work-order list. Data sheets grouped by equipment classification are called the equipment classification list

  3. Noise evaluation of automotive A/C compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metwally, Sameh M.; Khalil, Mohamed I.; Abouel-seoud, Shawki A. [Automotive and Tractors Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2011-07-01

    Passenger compartment's interior noise and thermal performance are essential criteria for the driving comfort of vehicles. The air-conditioning system influences both field of comfort. It creates comfortable thermal conditions. On the other hand, the noise radiation of the air-condition system's components can be annoying. The blower, the air distribution ducts and the registers affect air rush noise. In some cases, the refrigerant flow creates hissing noise. Such noise has a great influence on vehicle acoustical comfort and on overall quality perception of a vehicle Therefore, the acoustic performance of air-condition compressors become more important for passenger comfort. At engine idling and at extreme temperatures the air-condition compressor can be audible as the significant sound source. However, the aim of this paper is to quantify air-borne noise characteristics of vehicle air-condition compressor. A simulated experimental model comprises a small wooden box with dimensions of 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 m represented the principle of hemi-anechoic room was designed and acoustic characteristics of the sound field inside the box were determined. The air-condition compressor characteristics parameters considered in this paper are fan position and electric motor speed. In addition, a single number of the air column natural frequency is calculated. The results indicate that significant information can be obtained in order to investigate the vehicle air-condition compressor and consequently improve the vehicle interior quietness.

  4. Optimisation of pressure aeration systems in waste water treatment; Optimierung von Druckbelueftungssystemen in der Abwasserbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, J.

    2002-07-01

    This paper investigates, evaluates and places in context a diverse range of factors impacting on the performance of aerator elements used in the pressure aeration of wastewater treatment. To perform the investigation, a large-scale test basin and column were installed to allow oxygen transfer tests to be conducted under identical and hence reproducible boundary conditions. In addition to standard model aerators, numerous prototypes of disc, pipe and hose aerators were produced which differed in individual design characteristics or other properties. The various designs were installed in the experimental set-up and their performance measured by means of oxygen transfer tests using the desorption method. Based on these findings as well as on the detailed theoretical principles and the empirical investigations, recommendations were drawn up for the optimisation of pressurised aerator systems which will allow a significant reduction in the required volumes of air and hence in the cost of electricity for the compressors and blowers without a reduction in performance. (orig.)

  5. Performance characteristics of HENDEL M1 loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The helium engineering demonstration loop (HENDEL) at JAERI is designed as a large-scale model test facility for demonstrative operation of high-temperature components, such as a fuel stack, an in-core structure, an intermidiate heat exchanger, high-temperature pipings and valves of the experimental very high-temperature gas cooled reactor (VHTR). The HENDEL is supposed to be operated under the simulated conditions of the VHTR. The HENDEL consists of the first and second helium gas loops (M1 and M2 loops) and six test sections, the first of which was completed and the others are being designed. This report describes operational data of components (heater, blower and cooler) and overall performance of the first loop (M1 loop), during the test operations until March, 1983. M1 loop is to provide helium gas of 450 0C, 0.4 kg/s and 4.0 MPa to a fuel stack test section (T1). (author)

  6. Integrity and the moral complexity of professional practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Andrew; Pattison, Stephen

    2011-04-01

    The paper offers an account of integrity as the capacity to deliberate and reflect usefully in the light of context, knowledge, experience, and information (that of self and others) on complex and conflicting factors bearing on action or potential action. Such an account of integrity seeks to encompass the moral complexity and conflict of the professional environment, and the need for compromises in professional practice. In addition, it accepts that humans are social beings who must respect and engage with the moral position of others. This account is contrasted with a more traditional view of integrity as the rigid maintenance of consistency between professional practice and deeply held, but inflexible, moral principles. While this strong sense of moral conviction may be valuable as a source of moral motivation, e.g. in the case of whistle-blowers, it is equally likely to lead to dogmatism and hubris. Professionals and their organizations are encouraged to foster the more complex and reflective form of integrity. PMID:21371247

  7. Evaluation of the Repeatability of the Delta Q Duct Leakage Testing TechniqueIncluding Investigation of Robust Analysis Techniques and Estimates of Weather Induced Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerhoff, Darryl; Walker, Iain

    2008-08-01

    The DeltaQ test is a method of estimating the air leakage from forced air duct systems. Developed primarily for residential and small commercial applications it uses the changes in blower door test results due to forced air system operation. Previous studies established the principles behind DeltaQ testing, but raised issues of precision of the test, particularly for leaky homes on windy days. Details of the measurement technique are available in an ASTM Standard (ASTM E1554-2007). In order to ease adoption of the test method, this study answers questions regarding the uncertainty due to changing weather during the test (particularly changes in wind speed) and the applicability to low leakage systems. The first question arises because the building envelope air flows and pressures used in the DeltaQ test are influenced by weather induced pressures. Variability in wind induced pressures rather than temperature difference induced pressures dominates this effect because the wind pressures change rapidly over the time period of a test. The second question needs to answered so that DeltaQ testing can be used in programs requiring or giving credit for tight ducts (e.g., California's Building Energy Code (CEC 2005)). DeltaQ modeling biases have been previously investigated in laboratory studies where there was no weather induced changes in envelope flows and pressures. Laboratory work by Andrews (2002) and Walker et al. (2004) found biases of about 0.5% of forced air system blower flow and individual test uncertainty of about 2% of forced air system blower flow. The laboratory tests were repeated by Walker and Dickerhoff (2006 and 2008) using a new ramping technique that continuously varied envelope pressures and air flows rather than taking data at pre-selected pressure stations (as used in ASTM E1554-2003 and other previous studies). The biases and individual test uncertainties for ramping were found to be very close (less than 0.5% of air handler flow) to those

  8. Surface emission of landfill gas from solid waste landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Won; Shin, Ho-Chul

    The surface emission of landfill gas (LFG) was studied to estimate the amount of LFG efflux from solid waste landfills using an air flux chamber. LFG efflux increased as atmospheric temperature increased during the day, and the same pattern for the surface emission was observed for the change of seasons. LFG efflux rate decreased from summer through winter. The average LFG efflux rates of winter, spring and summer were 0.1584, 0.3013 and 0.8597 m 3 m -2 h -1 respectively. The total amount of surface emission was calculated based on the seasonal LFG efflux rate and the landfill surface area. From the estimates of LFG generation, it is expected that about 30% of the generated LFG may be released through the surface without extraction process. As forced extraction with a blower proceeded, the extraction well pressure decreased from 1100 to -100 mm H 2O, and the LFG surface efflux decreased markedly above 80%. Thus, the utilization of LFG by forced extraction would be the good solution for global warming and air pollution by LFG.

  9. Development of Fault Models for Hybrid Fault Detection and Diagnostics Algorithm: October 1, 2014 -- May 5, 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Howard [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Braun, James E. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2015-12-31

    This report describes models of building faults created for OpenStudio to support the ongoing development of fault detection and diagnostic (FDD) algorithms at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Building faults are operating abnormalities that degrade building performance, such as using more energy than normal operation, failing to maintain building temperatures according to the thermostat set points, etc. Models of building faults in OpenStudio can be used to estimate fault impacts on building performance and to develop and evaluate FDD algorithms. The aim of the project is to develop fault models of typical heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment in the United States, and the fault models in this report are grouped as control faults, sensor faults, packaged and split air conditioner faults, water-cooled chiller faults, and other uncategorized faults. The control fault models simulate impacts of inappropriate thermostat control schemes such as an incorrect thermostat set point in unoccupied hours and manual changes of thermostat set point due to extreme outside temperature. Sensor fault models focus on the modeling of sensor biases including economizer relative humidity sensor bias, supply air temperature sensor bias, and water circuit temperature sensor bias. Packaged and split air conditioner fault models simulate refrigerant undercharging, condenser fouling, condenser fan motor efficiency degradation, non-condensable entrainment in refrigerant, and liquid line restriction. Other fault models that are uncategorized include duct fouling, excessive infiltration into the building, and blower and pump motor degradation.

  10. Jet fans for the Konan-Himawari tunnel of Yokohama-city; Yokohamashi Konan Himawari tunnel muke jet fan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H.; Fujisaki, M.; Toyoda, M. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-07-10

    The above-said jet fans for ventilation are installed in the upper space of the tunnel. The jet fans can reverse the direction of the jets. Since it is so designed that the volume of air that a unit can handle is constant, the required volume of ventilation as a whole (dependent on the number of driving vehicles, etc.) is controlled by changing the number of jet fans to be in operation. Since such jet fans are required to exhibit the same performance in both directions, the flat plate airfoil is the design used for the blades in most of the jet fans of the conventional type and, inevitably, jet fans designed as such are inferior in performance to the unidirectional type. Under the circumstances, a cambered airfoil is employed in the jet fan introduced in this report. For the designing of the cambered airfoil, flows in the front and the rear of the blade are measures for both forward rotation and the reverse, and the results are compared with the analytical results. Since the fan is forced to repeat start and stop very frequently as the case may be, the rotor is fully analyzed for stress and tested for fatigue strength. The new fan is found to be 14% higher than the conventional type in terms of blower efficiency. The noise is reduced by 6dB from that of the conventional type thanks to noise reduction in the blade section and to the modification of the housing. 8 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Actions to ensure the power and utilities supplying during the start-up and regular operation of the TKCSA steel complex through island operation mode; Acoes para garantir o suprimento de energia eletrica e utilidades durante a fase de start up e de operacao regular do complexo siderurgico da TKCSA (Thyssenkrupp - Companhia Siderurgica do Atlantico) atraves do modo de operacao em ilha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianna, Bernardo Matoso T.; Viana, Claudio Sobreira; Vaz, Daniel; Cesario, Fabricio; Pereira, Jose Antonio; Gimenez, Marcus Vinicius O.; Pascotto, Ricardo; Freitas Neto, Roberto Soares; Riederer, Werner [ThyssenKrupp Companhia Siderurgica do Atlantico (TKCSA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-12-21

    At TKCSA, the energy and media distribution has an important function in the production processes. The electrical department is responsible for the power system operation, ensuring the receiving, transformation and supplying of this media for the regular and stable operation of the electrical equipment of the steel processes, and another important assignment of the electrical power sector is to guarantee the continuous power supply for the complex, even in case of interruption caused by the external grid, since the blast furnace, steel making and continuous casting cannot be interrupted abruptly. This continuous supply of energy is guaranteed by the Island Operation Mode (IOM), which always aims to ensure the supply of electricity from the Power Plant for the blowers, technical gases distribution system, fuel gases, steam and internal distribution of electricity and industrial water for the steel mill complex. During the complex start up and the regular operation phases, these two distribution systems (electricity and media) work interconnected and are kept in operation by the IOM, being guaranteed by the permanent operation of the electrical power generation system of Power Plant. This work presents how this concept was developed, tested and implemented at TKCSA. (author)

  12. Prizes awarded in fiscal 1999 by the Minister for International Trade and Industry on factories having applied excellent energy management. Energy conservation by installing fuel cell power generation facilities utilizing methane gas generated from waste water treatment plants / Improvements toward a clean room and energy saving air conditioning system; 1999 nendo energy kanri yuryo kojo tsusho sangyo daijin hyosho jusho. 1999 nendo shigen energy sho chokan hyosho jusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    In order to achieve energy conservation in a waste water treatment plant in a brewery factories, an anaerobic treatment facility was introduced, and a fuel cell power generation facility effectively utilizing methane gas generated from the anaerobic waste water treatment plant was installed. This has resulted in large reduction in the operating number of blowers in the waste water treatment facility of activated sludge system. In addition, electric power, steam, and hot water generated from the fuel cells are effectively utilized as the factory utility. In energy conservation in an optical communication device manufacturing factory, the fan filter unit system was adopted, having been changed from the circulation air conditioner, a conventional type air conditioning system. The present system is a circulation system integrating the fan with the filter, making it possible to circulate air in the room to perform control of temperature, humidity, and dust in a clean room. Thus, the system has eliminated the circulating air conditioner, and reduced the air conditioner capacity by 42% and power consumption by 58.6% compared with those in the conventional circulation system. (NEDO)

  13. Noise evaluation of automotive A/C compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh M. Metwally, Mohamed I. Khalil, Shawki A. Abouel-seoud

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Passenger compartment's interior noise and thermal performance are essential criteria for the driving comfort of vehicles. The air-conditioning system influences both field of comfort. It creates comfortable thermal conditions. On the other hand, the noise radiation of the air-condition system's components can be annoying. The blower, the air distribution ducts and the registers affect air rush noise. In some cases, the refrigerant flow creates hissing noise. Such noise has a great influence on vehicle acoustical comfort and on overall quality perception of a vehicle Therefore, the acoustic performance of air-condition compressors become more important for passenger comfort. At engine idling and at extreme temperatures the air-condition compressor can be audible as the significant sound source. However, the aim of this paper is to quantify air-borne noise characteristics of vehicle air-condition compressor. A simulated experimental model comprises a small wooden box with dimensions of 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 m represented the principle of hemi-anechoic room was designed and acoustic characteristics of the sound field inside the box were determined. The air-condition compressor characteristics parameters considered in this paper are fan position and electric motor speed. In addition, a single number of the air column natural frequency is calculated. The results indicate that significant information can be obtained in order to investigate the vehicle air-condition compressor and consequently improve the vehicle interior quietness.

  14. Feasibility research of CRDM natural circulation cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: In the second generation pressurized water reactor, the Control Rod Drive Mechanism (CRDM) is mainly cooled by the blast blower, which consumes more energy and is of lower security. Based on the layout of the CRDM group in the Daya Bay nuclear power plant, the EMC-B type of CRDM is taken as research object. Purpose: The temperature distribution of the CRDM group was simulated to verify the feasibility of natural circulation cooling of air. Methods: Several Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based programs were employed for this research. Firstly, Pro/ENGINEER was applied to establish the 3D model of the CRDM group; then the geometrical model was meshed with ICEM; finally, the flow field and temperature distribution were solved by using FLUENT. Results: The temperature field of the CRDM can be divided into three regions, and the temperature of the middle CRDM was highest, while the temperature of the region between the middle and outside regions was lowest due to the relative weak convection. The highest coil temperature is 198℃, below the limit value of 200℃. Conclusion: The CRDM and the coils may be cooled effectively by natural convection of air under given conditions. (authors)

  15. Reduction of Carbon Dioxide in Filtering Facepiece Respirators with an Active-Venting System: A Computational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Birgersson

    Full Text Available During expiration, the carbon dioxide (CO2 levels inside the dead space of a filtering facepiece respirator (FFR increase significantly above the ambient concentration. To reduce the CO2 concentration inside the dead space, we attach an active lightweight venting system (AVS comprising a one-way valve, a blower and a battery in a housing to a FFR. The achieved reduction is quantified with a computational-fluid-dynamics model that considers conservation of mass, momentum and the dilute species, CO2, inside the FFR with and without the AVS. The results suggest that the AVS can reduce the CO2 levels inside the dead space at the end of expiration to around 0.4% as compared to a standard FFR, for which the CO2 levels during expiration reach the same concentration as that of the expired alveolar air at around 5%. In particular, during inspiration, the average CO2 volume fraction drops to near-to ambient levels of around 0.08% with the AVS. Overall, the time-averaged CO2 volume fractions inside the dead space for the standard FFR and the one with AVS are around 3% and 0.3% respectively. Further, the ability of the AVS to vent the dead-space air in the form of a jet into the ambient - similar to the jets arising from natural expiration without a FFR - ensures that the expired air is removed and diluted more efficiently than a standard FFR.

  16. Thermoelectric energy harvesting for a solid waste processing toilet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, C. David; Baldasaro, Nicholas G.; Bulman, Gary E.; Stoner, Brian R.

    2014-06-01

    Over 2.5 billion people do not have access to safe and effective sanitation. Without a sanitary sewer infrastructure, self-contained modular systems can provide solutions for these people in the developing world and remote areas. Our team is building a better toilet that processes human waste into burnable fuel and disinfects the liquid waste. The toilet employs energy harvesting to produce electricity and does not require external electrical power or consumable materials. RTI has partnered with Colorado State University, Duke University, and Roca Sanitario under a Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Reinvent the Toilet Challenge (RTTC) grant to develop an advanced stand-alone, self-sufficient toilet to effectively process solid and liquid waste. The system operates through the following steps: 1) Solid-liquid separation, 2) Solid waste drying and sizing, 3) Solid waste combustion, and 4) Liquid waste disinfection. Thermoelectric energy harvesting is a key component to the system and provides the electric power for autonomous operation. A portion of the exhaust heat is captured through finned heat-sinks and converted to electricity by thermoelectric (TE) devices to provide power for the electrochemical treatment of the liquid waste, pumps, blowers, combustion ignition, and controls.

  17. The removal of sodium aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is concentrated on the removal of sodium combustion aerosol. The experimental results are presented in it. Besides, the output of the aerosol, the igniting point and combustion rate of sodium are also obtained. An experimental device for removing of the aerosol consists of a blower, sodium combustion container, water-spraying column, water storage tank and nitrogen bottle. In order to compare the concentrations at the outlet of the column before and after the water-spraying, the concentration distribution was measured in the process of sodium burning. It was found that similar concentration could be obtained from sixth to eighth minute after ignition of sodium in the container. During the interval the water-spraying was performed, the measurement of the aerosol concentrations at different water-spray height was proceeded. The removing efficiency of the aerosol at different water-spraying heights is different. The efficiency at the height of 1220 mm is near to maximum. The results show that further increasing water-spray height could not greatly reduce the concentration of the aerosol at the outlet. (author)

  18. Cascaded Position-Flux Controller for an AMB System Operating at Zero Bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal P. Jastrzebski

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on the implementation and the design of a controller for a fuel cell blower (FCB with active magnetic bearings (AMBs. The cascaded position-fluxcentralized controller is comprised of a centralized position control loop and an inner flux control loop. The last one is based on state estimation without explicit flux measurements. As the position control is not dependent on the magnetic field nonlinearities, such a control structure enables operation under a zero bias. The practical working implementation of a flux control for the industrial levitated rotor is shown for the first time. The flux control gives better results than current control for both normal and zero bias operation. The system is analyzed fully, combining rotor dynamics and power amplifier analyses simultaneously. The importance of using the coil voltage in addition to current and practical treatment of the flux control is revealed. The centralized position-flux controller is compared with a state-of-the-art cascaded position-current control, which has inner current control loops. The proposed control solution with a zero bias can achieve a dynamic performance comparable that of a controller with the classical bias current.

  19. Experimental Analysis of 3D Flow in Scroll Casing of Multi-Blade Fan for Air-Conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitadume, Michio; Kawahashi, Masaaki; Hirahara, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Tadashi; Yanagawa, Hideki

    The multi-blade fan, which has been widely used as a blower for air-conditioning systems of vehicles, is one of the well-established fluid machinery. However, many factors must be considered in its practical design because the flow generated in the fan is quite complicated with three-dimensionality and unsteadiness. The fundamental fan performance is primarily determined by the impeller of the fan, and is also affected by the scroll casing. However, the theoretical estimation of the effect of the casing on the performance has not been well established. In order to estimate the casing effect on fan performance, detailed three-dimensional (3D) flow analysis in the casing is necessary. Stereoscopic PIV (SPIV) is one of the useful techniques for experimental analysis of 3D flow fields. There are some difficulties in practical application of SPIV for flow analysis in fluid machinery with complicated geometry, but the results obtained provide useful information for understanding the 3D flow field. In this report, experimental investigation of the flow in the scroll casing has been carried out using PIV and SPIV under the premise of downsizing automobile air conditioner fans.

  20. Development of Hatchobaru power plant second unit. Hatchobaru hatsudensho 2 goki no kaihatsu ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, K.; Ejima, Y. (Kyushu Electric Power Co. Ltd., Fukuoka (Japan))

    1990-10-30

    The No. 2 power generating plant (55MW) at the Hatchobaru Power Station commissioned the commercial operation in June, 1990. This paper introduced the developing history since this plant had been developed, considering the economy as the oil substituting energy. The No. 2 plant was constructed by the similar specification to that of No. 1 plant concerning the double flash type and two-phase flow transformation system but the following points were considered: The turbine inlet pressure was set to the optimal value from the characteristics of steam well. The cooling system of the generator was changed from the hydrogen cooling to the air cooling. The gas extractor was changed from that using a motor blower in the No. 1 plant to that of steam ejector which can reduce the required power. The subsidy provided through the Government contributes to the cost reduction. Thus, the power generating cost could be reduced to that of any hydroelectric power plants, thermal power plants, and nuclear power plants. 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Speed Control Of Induction Motor Using Dspic30f2023

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Aspalli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AC motor drives are widely used to control the speed of conveyor systems, blower speeds, pump speeds, machine tool speeds and other applications that require variable speed with variable torque. The main aim of the work is to design and develop an electronic system that can be used to control the speed of a three phase induction motor.The speed of the three phase induction motor can be controlled by various methods. The stator frequency control is one of the simplest methods to control the speed of IM and the same method is employed.In the proposed scheme, dsPIC30F2023 controller is used to produce control signals for switches (IGBTs. It is a 44 pin IC. As compared to the PIC controller and DSP, dsPIC is cheaper and most reliable. The dsPIC DSC has the “heart” of a 16-bit MCU with robust peripherals and fast interrupt handling capability and the “brain” of a DSP that manages high computation activities, creating the optimum single chip solution for embedded system designs.

  2. Analysis of flow characteristics of the ECBD SLAB model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DVI+ Emergency Core Barrel Ducts (ECBDs), one of the new safety injection features applied to the APR+ reactor, will be installed in the downcomer region to decrease Emergency Core Cooling (ECC) water direct bypass rate. The ECBD is expected to prevent steam-water interaction, which is the main cause of the ECC bypass phenomena by a cross flow of steam in the downcomer during a late phase of a LBLOCA. A full scale ECBD test facility for the cross flow condition was constructed and preliminary tests were being performed. The test facility uses air instead of steam. However, as a large capacity of an air blower is necessary to simulate the cross flow condition for the entire downcomer region, the cross flow condition for the region of the DVI+ nozzle is simulated. In this study, a CFD calculation has been performed to investigate the characteristics of the flow field due to the cross flow in the slab type downcomer region. The calculated ECC water spillage fraction is close to that of the experimental results of 4∼6% for the condition of no cross flow. The spillage fraction is increased by the cross flow at the DVI elevation. The results can be also used to study the cross flow characteristics and their differences between slab and cylindrical geometries. (author)

  3. Lightweight two-stroke cycle aircraft diesel engine technology enablement program, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freen, P. D.; Berenyi, S. G.; Brouwers, A. P.; Moynihan, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental Single Cylinder Test Engine Program is conducted to confirm the analytically projected performance of a two-stroke cycle diesel engine for aircraft applications. The test engine delivered 78kW indicated power from 1007cc displacement, operating at 3500 RPM on Schnuerle loop scavenged two-stroke cycle. Testing confirms the ability of a proposed 4-cylinder version of such an engine to reach the target power at altitude, in a highly turbocharged configuration. The experimental program defines all necessary parameters to permit design of a multicylinder engine for eventual flight applications; including injection system requirement, turbocharging, heat rejection, breathing, scavenging, and structural requirements. The multicylinder engine concept is configured to operate with an augmented turbocharger, but with no primary scavenge blower. The test program is oriented to provide a balanced turbocharger compressor to turbine power balance without an auxiliary scavenging system. Engine cylinder heat rejection to the ambient air has been significantly reduced and the minimum overall turbocharger efficiency required is within the range of commercially available turbochargers. Analytical studies and finite element modeling is made of insulated configurations of the engines - including both ceramic and metallic versions. A second generation test engine is designed based on current test results.

  4. Generalization of drying curves in conductive/convective drying of cellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stenzel

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to analyze the possibility of applying the drying curves generalization methodology to the conductive/convective hot plate drying of cellulose. The experiments were carried out at different heated plate temperatures and air velocities over the surface of the samples. This kind of approach is very interesting because it permits comparison of the results of different experiments by reducing them to only one set, which can be divided into two groups: the generalized drying curves and the generalized drying rate curves. The experimental apparatus is an attempt to reproduce the operational conditions of conventional paper dryers (ratio of paper/air movement and consists of a metallic box heated by a thermostatic bath containing an upper surface on which the cellulose samples are placed. Sample material is short- and long-fiber cellulose sheets, about 1 mm thick, and ambient air was introduced into the system by a adjustable blower under different conditions. Long-fiber cellulose generalized curves were obtained and analyzed first individually and then together with the short-fiber cellulose results from Motta Lima et al. (2000 a,b. Finally, a set of equations to fit the generalized curves obtained was proposed and discussed.

  5. Experimental investigation of an indirect-mode forced convection solar dryer for drying thymus and mint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Photograph of the experimental set-up. - Highlights: • Thermal performance of an indirect-mode solar dryer is investigated. • Mathematical models are obtained for thin layer drying of thymus and mint. • Both thymus and mint show the constant and falling rate drying periods. - Abstract: An indirect-mode forced convection solar dryer was designed and fabricated. The thermal performance of the solar dryer under Tanta (latitude, 30° 47′ N and longitude, 31° E) prevailing weather conditions was experimentally investigated. The system consists of a double pass v-corrugated plate solar air heater connected to a drying chamber. A blower was used to force the heated air to the drying chamber. Drying experiments were performed for thymus (initial moisture content 95% on wet basis) and mint (initial moisture content 85% on wet basis) at an initial temperature of 29 °C. The final moisture contents for thymus and mint were reached after 34 and 5 h, respectively. Fourteen mathematical models of thin layer drying were tested to specify the suitable model for describing the drying behavior of the studied products. It was found that, Midilli and Kucuk model is convenient to describe the thin layer solar drying of mint. However, the Page and modified Page models were found to be the best among others for describing the drying curves of thymus

  6. Brookfield Homes Passive House Performance Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, A. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Poerschke, A. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Beach, R. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-02-04

    In 2012-2013, IBACOS worked with a builder, Brookfield Homes in Denver, Colorado, to design and construct a Passive House certified model home. IBACOS used several modeling programs and calculation methods to complete the final design package along with Brookfield's architect KGA Studio. This design package included upgrades to the thermal enclosure, basement insulation, windows, and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. Short-term performance testing in the Passive House was done during construction and after construction. Testing with a blower door indicated that whole-building air leakage to the outside was 324 CFM and 0.60 ACH50. The other two test homes had little short-term testing done post-construction by the local energy rater. IBACOS then monitored the energy consumption and whole-house comfort conditions of that occupied Passive House after one year of operation and compared the monitoring results to those for two other occupied test houses in the same area with similar square footage but slightly different floor plans. IBACOS also assisted the builder, Brookfield Homes, in researching design scenarios for Zero Energy Ready Home and ENERGY STAR acceptance levels. IBACOS also assisted Brookfield in conceptualizing product for Denver's Brighton Heights area. Brookfield was considering building to Zero Energy Ready Home standards in that location. IBACOS provided strategies that Brookfield may draw from in the event the builder chooses to pursue a Zero Energy Ready Home plan for that market.

  7. From Energy Audits to Home Performance: 30 Years of Articles in Home Energy Magazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Alan

    2014-08-11

    Home Energy Magazine has been publishing articles about residential energy efficiency for 30 years. Its goal has been to disseminate technically reliable and neutral information to the practitioners, that is, professionals in the business of home energy efficiency. The articles, editorials, letters, and advertisements are a kind of window on the evolution of energy conservation technologies, policies, and organizations. Initially, the focus was on audits and simple retrofits, such as weatherstripping and insulation. Instrumentation was sparse sometimes limited to a ruler to measure depth of attic insulation and a blower door was exotic. CFLs were heavy, awkward bulbs which might, or might not, fit in a fixture. Saving air conditioning energy was not a priority. Solar energy was only for the most adventurous. Thirty years on, the technologies and business have moved beyond just insulating attics to the larger challenge of delivering home performance and achieving zero net energy. This shift reflects the success in reducing space heating energy and the need to create a profitable industry by providing more services. The leading edge of the residential energy services market is becoming much more sophisticated, offering both efficiency and solar systems. The challenge is to continue providing relevant and reliable information in a transformed industry and a revolutionized media landscape.

  8. Airtightness Results of Roof-Only Air Sealing Strategies on 1 ½-Story Homes in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojczyk, C.; Murry, T.; Mosiman, G.

    2014-07-01

    In this second study on solutions to ice dams in 1-1/2 story homes, the NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team analyzed five test homes located in both cold and very cold climates for air leakage reduction rates following modifications by independent contractors on owner-occupied homes. These homes were chosen for testing as they are common in Minnesota and very difficult to air seal and insulate effectively. Two projects followed a roof-only Exterior Thermal Moisture Management System (ETMMS) process. One project used an interior-only approach to roof air sealing and insulation. The remaining two projects used a deep energy retrofit approach for whole house (foundation wall, above grade wall, roof) air leakage and heat loss reduction. All were asked to provide information regarding project goals, process, and pre and post-blower door test results. Additional air leakage reduction data was provided by several NorthernSTAR industry partners for interior-applied, roof-only modifications on 1-1/2 story homes. The data represents homes in the general market as well as homes that were part of the state of Minnesota weatherization program. A goal was to compare exterior air sealing methods with interior approaches. This pool of data enabled the team to compare air tightness data from over 220 homes using similar air seal methods.

  9. Ultrafine and respirable particle exposure during vehicle fire suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Douglas E; Fent, Kenneth W

    2015-10-01

    Vehicle fires are a common occurrence, yet few studies have reported exposures associated with burning vehicles. This article presents an assessment of firefighters' potential for ultrafine and respirable particle exposure during vehicle fire suppression training. Fires were initiated within the engine compartment and passenger cabins of three salvaged vehicles, with subsequent water suppression by fire crews. Firefighter exposures were monitored with an array of direct reading particle and air quality instruments. A flexible metallic duct and blower drew contaminants to the instrument array, positioned at a safe distance from the burning vehicles, with the duct inlet positioned at the nozzle operator's shoulder. The instruments measured the particle number, active surface area, respirable particle mass, photoelectric response, aerodynamic particle size distributions, and air quality parameters. Although vehicle fires were suppressed quickly (cabin fires averaged 2.04 × 10(5) particles per cm(3), 2.7 mg m(-3) respirable particle mass, 320 μm(2) cm(-3) active particle surface area, and 34 (arbitrary units) in photoelectric response. Passenger cabin fires were a greater potential source of exposure than engine compartment fires. The wind direction and the relative position of the fire crew to the stationary burning vehicle played a primary role in fire crews' potential for exposure. We recommend that firefighters wear self-contained breathing apparatus during all phases of the vehicle fire response to significantly reduce their potential for particulate, vapor, and gaseous exposures. PMID:26308547

  10. Modeling and Simulation of Current Source Inverter Fed Synchronous Motor in Complex Frequency Domain Taking the Transition Zone From Induction Motor to Synchronous Motor Mode into Account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Chattopadhyay

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of synchronous motor plays a dominant role in designing complicated drive system for different applications, especially large blower fans etc for steel industries. As synchronous motor has no inherent starting torque generally it is started as an induction motor with the help of a damper winding and it pulls into synchronism under certain conditions. The present paper exactly concentrates on this particular zone of transition from induction motor to synchronous motor mode for a current source inverter fed synchronous motor drive system. Due to complexity of synchronous motor in terms of number of windings and finite amount of air gap saliency, direct modeling of such transition zone in time domain becomes cumbersome at the first instance of modeling. That is why the modeling in complex frequency domain (s-domain has been taken up using small perturbation model. Such a model clearly shows role of induction motor as noise function or disturbance function with respect to the open loop block diagram of synchronous motor. Such finding can be quantized in terms of important results and that is done in the present paper such that the results can help the designer for the successful design of a synchronous motor drive system.

  11. Ultrahigh performance composting of sludge from food industry-comparative study of fermentation in sawdust and paper mixing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We succeeded to develop an ultra high performance composting system for food industrial sludge by employing paper mixing method. Sludge was mixed with cut pieces (3 x 12 mm) of waste paper, like newspapers, in the range of 10-20 % (w/w) in an electric mixer to enhance the porosity and reduce water content of the mass. We followed conventional way of sawdust mixing as control. The mixture was subjected to aeration at room temperature with an electric blower at 86 L/min/m/sup 2/ bottom area of bio-reactor. The composting process completed in 10 days, in contrast to the conventional cases where it takes 60 to 90 days to complete composting, thereby reducing the time course 6 to 9 fold. Chemical analyses of the compost showed concentration nitrogen (N) 5.0%, phosphorus (P) 4.9% and potassium (K) 0.6% while all heavy metal contents were below the standard required level. The compost showed pH 7.1, EC 5.6 and C/N ratio 8. We analyzed for nitrogen release into the soil and efficacy on the germination and growth of Brassica Tapa L. the compost showed markedly good effect on the growth of the plantlets. The present study demonstrated that the paper-mixed composting method is highly efficient and energy saving. In addition, this method can lead to design a reactor which is compact but with very high capacity to convert municipal organic waste to compost. (author)

  12. Characteristics of HVAC System in radioisotope production facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mun; Kim, Min Jin; Yoon, Byeong Joo; Youn, Dong Weon; Jung, Hoan Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Radioisotope production facility (hereinafter called 'RIP facility'), one of the subsidiary one of the subsidiary ones in the HANARO research reactor, has been operated since 1995. They have 4 banks; bank1 consists of 4 concrete cells I-192 and Co-60 are produced, bank2 consists of 11 lead cells R and D project is conducted, bank3 consists of 6 lead cells I-131 is produced, and bank4 consists of 4 lead cells Tc-99m generator is produced. In order to prevent the gaseous radioactive material to be released to atmosphere, 3-stage charcoal adsorbent was installed at the exhaust side of the bank3. Also, prefilters and HEPA filters are mounted in all hot cell banks respectively. Charcoal cartridge and HEPA Filters are replaced every 18 month for maintenance without exception. After replacing them, we commence In-Place Leakage Test using the halide and D. O. P tester according to the ASME N510-2007. This paper describes characteristics of HVAC system in RIP facility and maintenance of their components such as AHU, HRU, blower, fan, damper as well as filters. Especially, the management of HEPA filters and charcoal adsorbents are very important for protecting environment and workers. So, I deal with the maintenance and repair of these filters and hands-on leak test result. In addition, this paper shows evaluation about radio-iodine released to atmosphere via the stack in HANARO.

  13. Dry well cooling systems in BWR type nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To prevent the damages of pipeways due to salt damages at the surface of control rod drives in BWR type reactors. Constitution: In control rod drives and the lowermost area in the dry well in which surface corrosion and pitching have been resulted by the salt contents in air due to the increase in the humidity accompanying the lowering of the temperature, a blower is disposed to the upstream of the cooling coils and a portion of high temperature air returned to the lower cooler is replaced with a low temperature feed air to increase the feed temperature in the area. Further, by upwardly turning the downwarded feed air drawing port in which cold feed air has so far been descended as it is, the descendance of the cold air is suppressed. As a result, temperature lowering in the driving mechanisms and the lower area can be prevented to obtain a predetermined temperature, whereby the dewing on the surface can be prevented and thereby preventing the occurrence of corrosion and pitching. (Horiuchi, T.)

  14. Control of secondary flow in a low solidity circular cascade diffuser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Daisaku; Fujii, Takuji; Ueki, Hironobu; Ishida, Masahiro; Hayami, Hiroshi

    2012-08-01

    According to the previous experimental works on the low solidity circular cascade diffuser (LSD), a pressure recovery of a centrifugal blower was improved by the LSD significantly in a wide range of flow rate, and the pressure recovery was improved further by the LSD with a tandem cascade in comparison with the LSD with a single-row cascade. In the present study, the flow behavior in the LSD with the tandem cascade has been analyzed numerically by using the commercial CFD code of ANSYS-CFX12. It was shown clearly that the higher pressure recovery was achieved by applying the LSD with the tandem cascade, and the high pressure recovery is based on the high pressure rise in the vaneless space upstream of the LSD and the high blade loading of the front blade of the LSD. The high pressure recovery in the LSD could be achieved by controlling the flow separation on the suction surface of the front blade and also on that of the rear blade due to formation of the favorable secondary flow and due to increase in mass flow passing through the slit section between the front and rear blades.

  15. Control element recovering device for HTGR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a recoverying device comprising a nozzle connected to the lower end of a recoverying tube, the nozzle is in contact with the inner wall surface of an insertion hole, and has a spherical swinging stopper disposed to the contacting outer surface. With such a constitution, even if the upper end of the recoverying tube is inclined, the nozzle is not swung but the sucking port of the nozzle is always situated at the axial center of the insertion hole. Therefore, the gaps of gas flow channels in the insertion hole are made uniform, so that uniform gas flow channels are formed. Since gas channels formed by suction from a blower is formed by disposing a plurality of swinging stoppers each with a gap or by disposing through holes, the gas stream is not hindered. Further, since the surface of the swinging stopper in contact with the inner wall surface of the insertion hole is spherical, even if the nozzle is inclined, the distance between each of the surfaces is always made constant. Since the nozzle is free from the reaction, the resistance to the downward movement of the nozzle is reduced to obtain high reliability. (T.M.)

  16. The operation of post-irradiation examination facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operation of post-irradiation examination facility was performed as follow. HVAC and pool water treatment system were continuously operated, and radiation monitoring in PIE facility has been carried out to maintain the facility safely. Inspection of the fuel assembly (F02) transported from Kori Unit 1 was performed in pool, and fuel rods extracted from the fuel assembly (J44) of Kori Unit 2 NPP were examined in hot cell. A part of deteriorated pipe line of drinking water was exchanged for stainless steel pipe to prevent leaking accidents. Halon gas system was also installed in the exhausting blower room for fire fighting. And IAEA inspection camera for safeguard of nuclear materials was fixed at the wall in pool area. Radiation monitoring system were improved to display the area radioactive value at CRT monitor in health physics control room. And automatic check system for battery and emergency diesel generator was developed to measure the voltage and current of them. The performance test of oxide thickness measuring device installed in hot cell for irradiated fuel rod and improvement of the device were performed, and good measuring results using standard sample were obtained. The safeguard inspection of nuclear materials and operation inspection of the facility were carried out through the annual operation inspection, quarterly IAEA inspection and quality assurance auditing. 26 tabs., 43 figs., 14 refs. (Author) .new

  17. Design and development of 3 MeV, 30 kW DC industrial electron accelerator at Electron Beam Center Kharghar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A 3 MeV, 10 mA, 30 kW DC Dynamitron type industrial electron accelerator has been designed and is being developed by APPD/BARC. This accelerator will be commissioned at Electron Beam Center, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai. The accelerator comprises of several sub systems namely: Accelerator Tank at a pressure of 6 kg/cm2 of SF6 gas, HVDC power supply, 120 kHz high power oscillator, step up transformer, RF electrodes assembly, High voltage multiplier column with terminal dome, Electron gun with La B6 cathode, Accelerating tubes, Scan horn assembly with X and Y scanning magnets, turbo molecular pump based UHV system,Titanium foil (50 μm thick) holder, radiation shielding, computer control system and conveyor system for product handling. The other auxiliary facilities include Low conductivity water plant, Gas Handling plant, Ozone exhaust duct fitted with blowers, instrumentation and safety interlocks. This paper describes the design philosophy, important features of the major sub systems and the current status of the accelerator

  18. Reporting doping in sport: national level athletes' perceptions of their role in doping prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, L; Backhouse, S H; Long, J

    2014-12-01

    This paper qualitatively explores national level athletes' willingness to report doping in sport. Following ethical approval, semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine national level athletes from rugby league (n = 5) and track and field athletics (n = 4). Thematic analysis established the main themes within the data. Contextual differences existed around the role that athletes perceived they would play if they became aware of doping. Specifically, track and field athletes would adopt the role of a whistle-blower and report individuals who were doping in their sport. In comparison, the rugby league players highlighted a moral dilemma. Despite disagreeing with their teammates' actions, the players would adhere to a code of silence and refrain from reporting doping. Taking these findings into account, prevention programs might focus on changing broader group and community norms around doping. In doing so, community members' receptivity to prevention messages may increase. Moreover, developing skills to intervene (e.g., speaking out against social norms that support doping behavior) or increasing awareness of reporting lines could enhance community responsibility for doping prevention. In sum, the findings highlight the need to consider the context of sport and emphasize that a one-size-fits-all approach to anti-doping is problematic. PMID:24673128

  19. Experimental and theoretical investigations on the transmission of sound through single and double plates in air and helium at pressures up to 50 bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal insulation in hot gas ducts of High Temperature Reactors (HTR) is subjected to dynamic loads due to pressure fluctuations. These fluctuations which are caused by turbomachines or by turbulent pipe flow may cause mechanical failures. To find out the transmission of sound energy through the structure of the insulation it is necessary to make investigations at pressures up to 50 bars with He. The first part deals with the radiation of sound by blowers and the propagation of sound in circular tubes. As an approximation to on insulation the transmission of sound through single and a double plate is calculated. Bases of the calculations are kown methods of room acoustics and Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) derived for conditions at ambient pressure. The transmission of sound through single and double plates was investigated in a tube at pressures up to 50 bars with air and He. The results of these experiments were compared with the theoretical predictions. Especially at higher frequencies the agreement between theory and experimental results are good. The main parameter influencing sound transmission is the wave resistance. (orig./HP)

  20. Method of pre-treatment of spent fuel before storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CO2 is compulsorily supplied to spent fuels in LMFBR type reactors to convert residual sodium deposited to spent fuels into chemically inactive form of Na2CO3. That is, spent fuels are applied with pre-treatment before storage in an underground carrier in a cell in a CO2 atmosphere in which they are transferred and accepted between an inactive gas cell and an air cell. A containing vessel is disposed on the carrier for containing spent fuels and a blower and a filter are loaded for circulating atmospheric CO2 into the vessel. Heating and cooling device are disposed as necessary. Thus, since reactions are taken place only moderately or not taken place at all in a water or air atmosphere after processing, exposed in-water storage is enabled. Accordingly, it is possible to remarkably rationalize the cleaning facilities, save exclusive vessel made of steel, reduce radioactive wastes and save relevant facilities upon dry-storage. (T.M.)