Freeman, Nancy K.; Corning, Lisa L.
Recommends universal precautions policies and procedures to minimize for children and adults in early childhood settings the risk of infection from exposure to blood-borne pathogens such as hepatitis B or HIV. Outlines symptoms of hepatitis B and HIV/AIDS. Discusses legal and ethical implications related to inclusion. Lists resources for teachers…
Weller, S C
Congress is putting pressure on OSHA to finalize its Universal Precaution standards by December. When the standards go into effect, textile rental companies that serve medical, dental, and outpatient care facilities--including private physician and dentist offices--must take steps to protect employees from blood-borne pathogens. Soiled linens, towels, gowns, and other items from any customer in risk categories link a textile rental facility and/or commercial laundry with the OSHA regulations. Read and heed this information.
Full Text Available The interaction between blood-borne pathogens and fibrinolysis is one of the most important mechanisms that mediate invasion and the establishment of infectious agents in their hosts. However, overproduction of plasmin (final product of the route has been related in other contexts to proliferation and migration of the arterial wall cells and degradation of the extracellular matrix. We have recently identified fibrinolysis-activating antigens from Dirofilaria immitis, a blood-borne parasite whose key pathological event (proliferative endarteritis is produced by similar mechanisms to those indicated above. The objective of this work is to study how two of this antigens [actin (ACT and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (FBAL] highly conserved in pathogens, activate fibrinolysis and to establish a relationship between this activation and the development of proliferative endarteritis during cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis. We demonstrate that both proteins bind plasminogen, enhance plasmin generation, stimulate the expression of the fibrinolytic activators tPA and uPA in endothelial cell cultures and are located on the surface of the worm in contact with the host's blood. ELISA, western blot and immunofluorescence techniques were employed for this purpose. Additionally, the implication of lysine residues in this interaction was analyzed by bioinformatics. The involvement of plasmin generated by the ACT/FBAL and plasminogen binding in cell proliferation and migration, and degradation of the extracellular matrix were shown in an "in vitro" model of endothelial and smooth muscle cells in culture. The obtained results indicate that ACT and FBAL from D. immitis activate fibrinolysis, which could be used by the parasite like a survival mechanism to avoid the clot formation. However, long-term overproduction of plasmin can trigger pathological events similar to those described in the emergence of proliferative endarteritis. Due to the high degree of
Tso, David K. [University of British Columbia, Department of Radiology (Canada); Athreya, Sriharsha, E-mail: email@example.com [St. Joseph' s Healthcare Hamilton, Department of Diagnostic Imaging (Canada)
Interventional radiologists are at risk of exposure to blood-borne pathogens in their day-to-day practice. Percutaneous exposure from unsafe sharps handling, mucocutaneous exposure from body fluid splashes, and glove perforation from excessive wear can expose the radiologist to potentially infectious material. The increasing prevalence of blood-borne pathogens, including hepatitis B and C, and human immunodeficiency virus, puts nurses, residents, fellows, and interventional radiologists at risk for occupational exposure. This review outlines suggestions to establish a culture of safety in the interventional suite.
Full Text Available Introduction: There has been no recent assessment of public attitudes and opinions concerning risk of blood-borne pathogen transmission during health care. To assess public attitudes and opinions towards dentists infected with blood-borne viruses, this study was carried out.Materials and Methods: Six items in this cross-sectional survey were used to assess current attitudes and opinions about dentists infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV, Hepatitis B and CViruses, and the risk of blood-borne virus transmission during health care in a sample of 500 cases, in Yazd. Data were analyzed by SPSS (version 13 and chi-square tests were used, when appropriate.Results: Of 500 respondents, 94% agreed that they want to know whether their dentist is infectedwith HIV, HBV or HCV; 93.8% agreed that disclosure of HIV, HBV or HCV infection in a provider should be mandatory. However, 15.8% did not believe that HIV-infected dentists were more likely to infect patients than those dentists infected with HBV or HCV. Opinions were divided on whether HIV-infected providers should be able to care for patients as long as they use good infection control:only 41.6% thought that infected providers should be allowed to provide patient care.Conclusion: These findings suggest that improved public education and risk communication on health care-associated blood-borne infections is needed.
N Lakshmi Priya; K Usha Krishnan; G Jayalakshmi; S Vasanthi
Occupational exposure poses a significant risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens to healthcare workers (HCWs). Adherence to standard precautions, awareness about post exposure prophylaxis is poor in developing countries. This retrospective study analyzes the self-reported cases of occupational exposure in a tertiary care hospital. During the study period, 105 HCWs sustained occupational exposure to blood and body fluids. Majority of the victims 36 (34.2%) were interns and the clinical ...
Full Text Available Background: Exposure to human blood and body fluids is a common risk for nurses. Many factors can affect the prevalence and incidence of this occupational hazard. Psychosocial factors at work may be a risk factor for the exposure. Objective: To assess needle stick, sharp injury and mucus exposure to blood-borne pathogens among nurses in Iran and to determine the association between these exposures and psychosocial factors at work. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on nurses in a public hospital, Tehran, Iran. 364 nurses received and 339 completed and returned a self-reported questionnaire containing demographic data, history of exposure to blood-borne pathogens at work during previous year and the General Nordic questionnaire for psychological and social factors at work (QPS Nordic 34+ Questionnaire. Results: Of 339 participants, 197 (58.1% reported needle-stick injury, 186 (54.6% reported another type of sharp injury, and 112 (33% reported a mucous membrane exposure during the previous year. More than half of the participants who had history of exposure, had not reported it. Those with middle or high level of stress had higher crude and adjusted odds than those with lower stress for all kinds of exposure. Adjusted odds ratios for high stress group (ranging from 2.8 to 4.4 were statistically different from 1. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of needle-stick and sharp injury and mucous membrane exposure to patients' blood or body fluids among studied nurses. There is a significant association between increasing psychosocial factors at work and exposure to blood-borne pathogens among this group of nurses.
Priya, N Lakshmi; Krishnan, K Usha; Jayalakshmi, G; Vasanthi, S
Occupational exposure poses a significant risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens to healthcare workers (HCWs). Adherence to standard precautions, awareness about post exposure prophylaxis is poor in developing countries. This retrospective study analyzes the self-reported cases of occupational exposure in a tertiary care hospital. During the study period, 105 HCWs sustained occupational exposure to blood and body fluids. Majority of the victims 36 (34.2%) were interns and the clinical practice that led to the occupational exposure was withdrawal of blood (45.7%). Good infection control practices and emphasis on appropriate disposal are needed to increase the occupational safety for HCWs.
N Lakshmi Priya
Full Text Available Occupational exposure poses a significant risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens to healthcare workers (HCWs. Adherence to standard precautions, awareness about post exposure prophylaxis is poor in developing countries. This retrospective study analyzes the self-reported cases of occupational exposure in a tertiary care hospital. During the study period, 105 HCWs sustained occupational exposure to blood and body fluids. Majority of the victims 36 (34.2% were interns and the clinical practice that led to the occupational exposure was withdrawal of blood (45.7%. Good infection control practices and emphasis on appropriate disposal are needed to increase the occupational safety for HCWs.
Hänscheid, H; Fernández, M; Lassmann, M
The radiation absorbed dose to blood and organs from activity in the blood is relevant for nuclear medicine dosimetry and for research in biodosimetry. The present study provides coefficients for the average absorbed dose rates to the blood from blood-borne activity for radionuclides frequently used in targeted radiotherapy and in PET diagnostics. The results were deduced from published data for vessel radius-dependent dose rate coefficients and reasonable assumptions on the blood-volume distribution as a function of the vessel radius. Different parts of the circulatory system were analyzed separately. Vessel size information for heart chambers, aorta, vena cava, pulmonary artery, and capillaries was taken from published results of morphometric measurements. The remaining blood not contained in the mentioned vessels was assumed to reside in fractal-like vascular trees, the smallest branches of which are the arterioles or venules. The applied vessel size distribution is consistent with recommendations of the ICRP on the blood-volume distribution in the human. The resulting average absorbed dose rates to the blood per nuclear disintegration per milliliter (ml) of blood are (in 10 −11 Gy·s −1 ·Bq −1 ·ml) Y-90: 5.58, I-131: 2.49, Lu-177: 1.72, Sm-153: 2.97, Tc-99m: 0.366, C-11: 4.56, F-18: 3.61, Ga-68: 5.94, I-124: 2.55. Photon radiation contributes 1.1–1.2·10 −11 Gy·s −1 ·Bq −1 ·ml to the total dose rate for positron emitters but significantly less for the other nuclides. Blood self-absorption of the energy emitted by ß-particles in the whole blood ranges from 37% for Y-90 to 80% for Tc-99m. The correspondent values in vascular trees, which are important for the absorbed dose to organs, range from 30% for Y-90 to 82% for Tc-99m. (paper)
Full Text Available The health-care workers (HCWs are at an occupational risk of exposure to blood-borne pathogens, mainly, HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus. HBV is currently the only blood-borne virus for which a vaccine is available. All health-care institutions must encourage the HCWs to undergo screening for blood-borne pathogens.
Barral, Patricia; Sánchez-Niño, María Dolores; van Rooijen, Nico; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Batista, Facundo D
Natural killer T (NKT) cells play an important role in mounting protective responses to blood-borne infections. However, though the spleen is the largest blood filter in the body, the distribution and dynamics of NKT cells within this organ are not well characterized. Here we show that the majority of NKT cells patrol around the marginal zone (MZ) and red pulp (RP) of the spleen. In response to lipid antigen, these NKT cells become arrested and rapidly produce cytokines, while the small proportion of NKT cells located in the white pulp (WP) exhibit limited activation. Importantly, disruption of the splenic MZ by chemical or genetic approaches results in a severe reduction in NKT cell activation indicating the need of cooperation between both MZ macrophages and dendritic cells for efficient NKT cell responses. Thus, the location of splenic NKT cells in the MZ and RP facilitates their access to blood-borne antigen and enables the rapid initiation of protective immune responses.
Dunford, Linda; Carr, Michael J; Dean, Jonathan; Nguyen, Linh Thuy; Ta Thi, Thu Hong; Nguyen, Binh Thanh; Connell, Jeff; Coughlan, Suzie; Nguyen, Hien Tran; Hall, William W; Thi, Lan Anh Nguyen
Hepatitis B (HBV) infection is endemic in Viet Nam, with up to 8.4 million individuals estimated to be chronically infected. We describe results of a large, multicentre seroepidemiological and molecular study of the prevalence of HBV infection and blood-borne viral coinfections in Viet Nam. Individuals with varying risk factors for infection (n = 8654) were recruited from five centres; Ha Noi, Hai Phong, Da Nang, Khanh Hoa and Can Tho. A mean prevalence rate of 10.7% was observed and levels of HBsAg were significantly higher in injecting drug users (IDUs) (17.4%, n = 174/1000) and dialysis patients (14.3%, n = 82/575) than in lower-risk groups (9.4%; pViet Nam and also highlights the significant levels of blood-borne virus coinfections, which have important implications for hepatitis-related morbidity and development of effective management strategies.
Full Text Available Assessing current fatigue of athletes to fine-tune training prescriptions is a critical task in competitive sports. Blood-borne surrogate markers are widely used despite the scarcity of validation trials with representative subjects and interventions. Moreover, differences between training modes and disciplines (e.g. due to differences in eccentric force production or calorie turnover have rarely been studied within a consistent design. Therefore, we investigated blood-borne fatigue markers during and after discipline-specific simulated training camps. A comprehensive panel of blood-born indicators was measured in 73 competitive athletes (28 cyclists, 22 team sports, 23 strength at 3 time-points: after a run-in resting phase (d 1, after a 6-day induction of fatigue (d 8 and following a subsequent 2-day recovery period (d 11. Venous blood samples were collected between 8 and 10 a.m. Courses of blood-borne indicators are considered as fatigue dependent if a significant deviation from baseline is present at day 8 (Δfatigue which significantly regresses towards baseline until day 11 (Δrecovery. With cycling, a fatigue dependent course was observed for creatine kinase (CK; Δfatigue 54±84 U/l; Δrecovery -60±83 U/l, urea (Δfatigue 11±9 mg/dl; Δrecovery -10±10 mg/dl, free testosterone (Δfatigue -1.3±2.1 pg/ml; Δrecovery 0.8±1.5 pg/ml and insulin linke growth factor 1 (IGF-1; Δfatigue -56±28 ng/ml; Δrecovery 53±29 ng/ml. For urea and IGF-1 95% confidence intervals for days 1 and 11 did not overlap with day 8. With strength and high-intensity interval training, respectively, fatigue-dependent courses and separated 95% confidence intervals were present for CK (strength: Δfatigue 582±649 U/l; Δrecovery -618±419 U/l; HIIT: Δfatigue 863±952 U/l; Δrecovery -741±842 U/l only. These results indicate that, within a comprehensive panel of blood-borne markers, changes in fatigue are most accurately reflected by urea and IGF-1 for cycling
Hecksteden, Anne; Skorski, Sabrina; Schwindling, Sascha; Hammes, Daniel; Pfeiffer, Mark; Kellmann, Michael; Ferrauti, Alexander; Meyer, Tim
Assessing current fatigue of athletes to fine-tune training prescriptions is a critical task in competitive sports. Blood-borne surrogate markers are widely used despite the scarcity of validation trials with representative subjects and interventions. Moreover, differences between training modes and disciplines (e.g. due to differences in eccentric force production or calorie turnover) have rarely been studied within a consistent design. Therefore, we investigated blood-borne fatigue markers during and after discipline-specific simulated training camps. A comprehensive panel of blood-born indicators was measured in 73 competitive athletes (28 cyclists, 22 team sports, 23 strength) at 3 time-points: after a run-in resting phase (d 1), after a 6-day induction of fatigue (d 8) and following a subsequent 2-day recovery period (d 11). Venous blood samples were collected between 8 and 10 a.m. Courses of blood-borne indicators are considered as fatigue dependent if a significant deviation from baseline is present at day 8 (Δfatigue) which significantly regresses towards baseline until day 11 (Δrecovery). With cycling, a fatigue dependent course was observed for creatine kinase (CK; Δfatigue 54±84 U/l; Δrecovery -60±83 U/l), urea (Δfatigue 11±9 mg/dl; Δrecovery -10±10 mg/dl), free testosterone (Δfatigue -1.3±2.1 pg/ml; Δrecovery 0.8±1.5 pg/ml) and insulin linke growth factor 1 (IGF-1; Δfatigue -56±28 ng/ml; Δrecovery 53±29 ng/ml). For urea and IGF-1 95% confidence intervals for days 1 and 11 did not overlap with day 8. With strength and high-intensity interval training, respectively, fatigue-dependent courses and separated 95% confidence intervals were present for CK (strength: Δfatigue 582±649 U/l; Δrecovery -618±419 U/l; HIIT: Δfatigue 863±952 U/l; Δrecovery -741±842 U/l) only. These results indicate that, within a comprehensive panel of blood-borne markers, changes in fatigue are most accurately reflected by urea and IGF-1 for cycling and by CK
Full Text Available Lifespan and the proportion of older people in the population are increasing, with far reaching consequences for the social, political and economic landscape. Unless accompanied by an increase in health span, increases in age-related diseases will increase the burden on health care resources. Intervention studies to enhance healthy ageing need appropriate outcome measures, such as blood-borne biomarkers, which are easily obtainable, cost-effective, and widely accepted. To date there have been no systematic reviews of blood-borne biomarkers of mortality.To conduct a systematic review to identify available blood-borne biomarkers of mortality that can be used to predict healthy ageing post-retirement.Four databases (Medline, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science were searched. We included prospective cohort studies with a minimum of two years follow up and data available for participants with a mean age of 50 to 75 years at baseline.From a total of 11,555 studies identified in initial searches, 23 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Fifty-one blood borne biomarkers potentially predictive of mortality risk were identified. In total, 20 biomarkers were associated with mortality risk. Meta-analyses of mortality risk showed significant associations with C-reactive protein (Hazard ratios for all-cause mortality 1.42, p<0.001; Cancer-mortality 1.62, p<0.009; CVD-mortality 1.31, p = 0.033, N Terminal-pro brain natriuretic peptide (Hazard ratios for all-cause mortality 1.43, p<0.001; CHD-mortality 1.58, p<0.001; CVD-mortality 1.67, p<0.001 and white blood cell count (Hazard ratios for all-cause mortality 1.36, p = 0.001. There was also evidence that brain natriuretic peptide, cholesterol fractions, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, fibrinogen, granulocytes, homocysteine, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, neutrophils, osteoprotegerin, procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide, serum uric acid, soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, tissue inhibitor of
Goldwater, Paul N
Pediatric infectious disease clinicians in industrialized countries may encounter iatrogenically transmitted HIV, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus infections in refugee children from Central Asia, Southeast Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The consequences of political collapse and/or civil war-work migration, prostitution, intravenous drug use, defective public health resources, and poor access to good medical care-all contribute to the spread of blood-borne viruses. Inadequate infection control practices by medical establishments can lead to iatrogenic infection of children. Summaries of 4 cases in refugee children in Australia are a salient reminder of this problem.
Barral, Patricia; Sánchez-Niño, María Dolores; van Rooijen, Nico; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Batista, Facundo D
Natural killer T (NKT) cells play an important role in mounting protective responses to blood-borne infections. However, though the spleen is the largest blood filter in the body, the distribution and dynamics of NKT cells within this organ are not well characterized. Here we show that the majority of NKT cells patrol around the marginal zone (MZ) and red pulp (RP) of the spleen. In response to lipid antigen, these NKT cells become arrested and rapidly produce cytokines, while the small proportion of NKT cells located in the white pulp (WP) exhibit limited activation. Importantly, disruption of the splenic MZ by chemical or genetic approaches results in a severe reduction in NKT cell activation indicating the need of cooperation between both MZ macrophages and dendritic cells for efficient NKT cell responses. Thus, the location of splenic NKT cells in the MZ and RP facilitates their access to blood-borne antigen and enables the rapid initiation of protective immune responses. PMID:22505026
Saba, T M; Antikatzides, T G
The influence of systemic heparin administration on the vascular clearance and tissue distribution of blood-borne microparticles was evaluated in normal rats and rats after operation (laparotomy plus intestinal manipulation) utilizing an (131)I- colloid which is phagocytized by the reticuloendothelial system (RES). Intravenous heparin administration (100 USP/100g body weight) into normal animals three minutes prior to colloid injection (50 mg/lOOg) induced a significant increase in pulmonary localization of the microparticles as compared to nonheparinized control rats, while hepatic and splenic uptake were decreased. Surgical trauma decreased hepatic RE uptake and increased pulmonary localization of the microparticles when injected systemically at 60 minutes postsurgery. Heparin administration 60 minutes after surgery and three minutes prior to colloid injection, magnified the increased pulmonary localization response with an associated further depression of the RES. The ability of heparin to alter both RE clearance function and lung localization of microparticles was dose dependent and a function of the interval between heparin administration and systemic particulate infusion. Thus, low dose heparin administration was capable of stimulating RE activity while heparin in doses of excess of 50 USP units/lOOg body weight decreased RE function. These findings suggest that the functional state of the hepatic RE system can be greatly affected in a dose-dependent manner by systemic heparin administration which may influence distribution of blood-borne microparticles.
Full Text Available Background: The risk for transmission of blood-borne viruses (BBVs such as Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV due to occupational exposure is a major concern in the health care setting.Materials and Methods: This study among 337 health care workers (HCWs accidentally exposed to BBVs was carried out from January 2009 to March 2015. The data were reviewed in labbafinejhad hospital, Tehran, Iran.Results: 4 HCWs had exposure to HBS Ag positive, which HBS antibody titer of them was higher than 10 mlu/ml, 6 HCWs were exposed to HCV seropositive patients underwent laboratory investigations for HCV-antibody on 4,12, 24 weeks that results were negative. 3 cases had exposure to HIV seropositive patients which received standard antiretroviral post exposure prophylaxis.Conclusion: Timely performance for PEP (Post Exposure Prophylaxis reducing BBVs transmission among HCWs.prophylaxis. Conclusions: Timely performance for PEP(Post Exposure Prophylaxis reducing BBVs transmission among HCWs.Key words: Outcome; Accidental Exposure; Blood Borne Viral Infections
Rich Josiah D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately one-third of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome cases in the United States are associated with the practice of sharing of injection equipment and are preventable through the once-only use of syringes, needles and other injection equipment. Discussion Sterile syringes may be obtained legally by 4 methods depending on the state. They may be purchased over the counter, prescribed, obtained at syringe exchange programs or furnished by authorized agencies. Each of these avenues has advantages and disadvantages; therefore, legal access through all means is the most likely way to promote the use of sterile syringes. Summary By assisting illicit drug injectors to obtain sterile syringes the primary care provider is able to reduce the incidence of blood borne infections, and educate patients about safe syringe disposal. The provider is also able to initiate discussion about drug use in a nonjudgmental manner and to offer care to patients who are not yet ready to consider drug treatment.
Fry, Craig L; Lintzeris, Nick
To develop a standard measure of blood-borne virus transmission risk behaviour, and examine the underlying psychometric properties. The Blood-borne Virus Transmission Risk Assessment Questionnaire (BBV-TRAQ) was developed over three consecutive phases of the original BBV-TRAQ study in adherence to classical scale development procedures, culminating in the recruitment of a development sample of current injecting drug users via convenience and snowball sampling. Needle and syringe programmes (NSPs), medical clinics, alcohol/drug agencies, peer-based and outreach organizations across inner and outer metropolitan Melbourne. Two hundred and nine current injecting drug users. The mean age was 27 years, 68% were male, 65% unemployed, 36% with prison history and 25% in methadone maintenance. BBV-TRAQ items cover specific injecting, sexual and skin penetration risk practices. BBV-TRAQ characteristics were assessed via measures of internal and test-retest reliability; collateral validation; and principal components analyses. The BBV-TRAQ has satisfactory psychometric properties. Internal (a=0.87), test-retest (r=0.84) and inter-observer reliability results were high, suggesting that the instrument provides a reliable measure of BBV risk behaviour and is reliable over time and across interviewers. A principal components analysis with varimax rotation produced a parsimonious factor solution despite modest communality, and indicated that three factors (injecting, sex and skin penetration/hygiene risks) are required to describe BBV risk behaviour. The BBV-TRAQ is reliable and represents the first risk assessment tool to incorporate sufficient coverage of injecting, sex and other skin penetration risk practices to be considered truly content valid. The questionnaire is indicated for use in addictions research, clinical, peer education and BBV risk behaviour surveillance settings.
Julian, Ross; Meyer, Tim; Fullagar, Hugh H K; Skorski, Sabrina; Pfeiffer, Mark; Kellmann, Michael; Ferrauti, Alexander; Hecksteden, Anne
Julian, R, Meyer, T, Fullagar, HHK, Skorski, S, Pfeiffer, M, Kellmann, M, Ferrauti, A, and Hecksteden, A. Individual patterns in blood-borne indicators of fatigue-trait or chance. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 608-619, 2017-Blood-borne markers of fatigue such as creatine kinase (CK) and urea (U) are widely used to fine-tune training recommendations. However, predictive accuracy is low. A possible explanation for this dissatisfactory characteristic is the propensity of athletes to react to different patterns of fatigue indicators (e.g., predominantly muscular [CK] or metabolic [U]). The aim of the present trial was to explore this hypothesis by using repetitive fatigue-recovery cycles. A total of 22 elite junior swimmers and triathletes (18 ± 3 years) were monitored for 9 weeks throughout 2 training phases (low-intensity, high-volume [LIHV] and high-intensity, low-volume [HILV] phases). Blood samples were collected each Monday (recovered) and Friday (fatigued) morning. From measured values of CK, U, free-testosterone (FT), and cortisol (C) as determined in the rested and fatigued state, respectively, Monday-Friday differences (Δ) were calculated and classified by magnitude before calculation of ratios (ΔCK/ΔU and ΔFT/ΔC). Coefficient of variation (CV) was calculated as group-based estimates of reproducibility. Linear mixed modeling was used to differentiate inter- and intraindividual variability. Consistency of patterns was analyzed by comparing with threshold values (1.1 for all weeks). Reproducibility was very low for fatigue-induced changes (CV ≥ 100%) with interindividual variation accounting for 45-60% of overall variability. Case-wise analysis indicated consistent ΔCK/ΔU patterns for 7 individuals in LIHV and 7 in HILV; 5 responded consistently throughout. For ΔFT/ΔC the number of consistent patterns was 2 in LIHV and 3 in HILV. These findings highlight the potential value of an individualized and multivariate approach in the assessment of fatigue.
Full Text Available Hepatitis B (HBV infection is endemic in Viet Nam, with up to 8.4 million individuals estimated to be chronically infected. We describe results of a large, multicentre seroepidemiological and molecular study of the prevalence of HBV infection and blood-borne viral coinfections in Viet Nam. Individuals with varying risk factors for infection (n = 8654 were recruited from five centres; Ha Noi, Hai Phong, Da Nang, Khanh Hoa and Can Tho. A mean prevalence rate of 10.7% was observed and levels of HBsAg were significantly higher in injecting drug users (IDUs (17.4%, n = 174/1000 and dialysis patients (14.3%, n = 82/575 than in lower-risk groups (9.4%; p<0.001. Coinfection with HIV was seen in 28% of HBV-infected IDUs (n = 49/174 and 15.2% of commercial sex workers (CSWs; n = 15/99. HCV infection was present in 89.8% of the HBV-HIV coinfected IDUs (n = 44/49 and 40% of HBV-HIV coinfected CSWs (n = 16/40. Anti-HDV was detected in 10.7% (n = 34/318 of HBsAg positive individuals. Phylogenetic analysis of HBV S gene (n = 187 showed a predominance of genotype B4 (82.6%; genotypes C1 (14.6%, B2 (2.7% and C5 (0.5% were also identified. The precore mutation G1896A was identified in 35% of all specimens, and was more frequently observed in genotype B (41% than genotype C (3%; p<0.0001. In the immunodominant 'a' region of the surface gene, point mutations were identified in 31% (n = 58/187 of sequences, and 2.2% (n = 4/187 and 5.3% (n = 10/187 specimens contained the major vaccine escape mutations G145A/R and P120L/Q/S/T, respectively. 368 HBsAg positive individuals were genotyped for the IL28B SNP rs12979860 and no significant association between the IL28B SNP and clearance of HBsAg, HBV viral load or HBeAg was observed. This study confirms the high prevalence of HBV infection in Viet Nam and also highlights the significant levels of blood-borne virus coinfections, which have important implications for hepatitis-related morbidity and development of effective
Martin, Susan; Hilton, Shona; McDaid, Lisa M
Improving sexual health and blood-borne virus (BBV) outcomes continue to be of high priority within the United Kingdom (UK) and it is evident that the media can and do impact the public health agenda. This paper presents the first large-scale exploration of UK national newsprint media representations of sexual health and BBVs. Using keyword searches in electronic databases, 677 articles published during 2010 were identified from 12 national (UK-wide and Scottish) newspapers. Content analysis was used to identify manifest content and to examine the tone of articles. Although there was a mixed picture overall in terms of tone, negatively toned articles, which focussed on failures or blame, were common, particularly within HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B and C, and other sexually transmissible infection coverage (41% were assessed as containing negative content; 46% had negative headlines). Differences were found by newspaper genre, with 'serious' newspaper articles appearing more positive and informative than 'midmarket' newspapers or 'tabloids'. Across the sample, particular individuals, behaviours and risk groups were focussed on, not always accurately, and there was little mention of deprivation and inequalities (9%). A gender imbalance was evident, particularly within reproductive health articles (71% focussed on women; 23% on men), raising questions concerning gender stereotyping. There is a need to challenge the role that media messages have in the reinforcement of a negative culture around sexual health in the UK and for a strong collective advocacy voice to ensure that future media coverage is positively portrayed.
Full Text Available Hypoxic tissue subvolumes are a hallmark feature of solid malignant tumors, relevant for cancer therapy and patient outcome because they increase both the intrinsic aggressiveness of tumor cells and their resistance to several commonly used anticancer strategies. Pathogenetic mechanisms leading to hypoxia are diverse, may coexist within the same tumor and are commonly grouped according to the duration of their effects. Chronic hypoxia is mainly caused by diffusion limitations resulting from enlarged intercapillary distances and adverse diffusion geometries and — to a lesser extent — by hypoxemia, compromised perfusion or long-lasting microregional flow stops. Conversely, acute hypoxia preferentially results from transient disruptions in perfusion. While each of these features of the tumor microenvironment can contribute to a critical reduction of oxygen availability, the delivery of imaging agents (as well as nutrients and anticancer agents may be compromised or remain unaffected. Thus, a critical appraisal of the effects of the various mechanisms leading to hypoxia with regard to the blood-borne delivery of imaging agents is necessary to judge their ability to correctly represent the hypoxic phenotype of solid malignancies.
A review of patient notification exercises (PNEs) carried out in Ireland between 1997 and 2011 to investigate potential exposure to blood-borne viruses (BBVs) in healthcare settings was undertaken to inform future policy and practice. A questionnaire was sent to key informants in the health services to identify all relevant PNEs. Structured interviews were conducted with key investigators, and available documentation was examined. Ten BBV-related PNEs were identified. Despite testing over 2000 patients, only one case of transmission was found. However, in-depth local investigations before undertaking the PNEs identified six cases of healthcare-associated transmission.
Mohammadali, Fatemeh; Pourfathollah, Aliakbar
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV and syphilis infections in blood donors referred to Tehran Blood Transfusion Center (TBTC), and determine any association between blood groups and blood- borne infections between the years of 2005 and 2011. This was a retrospective study conducted at TBTC. All of the donor serum samples were screened for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis by using third generation ELISA kits and RPR test. Initial reactive samples were tested in duplicate. Confirmatory tests were performed on all repeatedly reactive donations. Blood group was determined by forward and reverse blood grouping. The results were subjected to chi square analysis for determination of statistical difference between the values among different categories according to SPSS program. Overall, 2031451 donor serum samples were collected in 2005-2011. Totally, 10451 were positive test for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis. The overall seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, HIV, and syphilis was 0.39%, 0.11%, 0.005%, and 0.010%, respectively. Hepatitis B and HIV infections were significantly associated with blood group of donors (P blood group "A" and percentage of HBs Ag was lower in donors who had blood group O. There was no significant association between Hepatitis C and syphilis infections with ABO and Rh blood groups (P>0.05). Compared with neighboring countries and the international standards, prevalence of blood-borne infections is relatively low.
Eikelenboom, P.; Scott, J. R.; McBride, P. A.; Rozemuller, J. M.; Bruce, M. E.; Fraser, H.
The present study was designed to investigate blood-brain permeability and the possible involvement of plasma proteins and blood-borne cells in amyloid plaque formation in scrapie-affected mice. No abnormal extravasation of intravenously injected horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was found and with
Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Ujhelyi, Eszter; Neaigus, Alan
We assessed the prevalence of HIV and selected blood-borne and sexually transmitted infections among a convenience sample of 64 residents of Dzsumbuj, a predominantly Roma (Gypsy) neighbourhood in Budapest, Hungary. No cases of HIV were detected, while the prevalence of Hepatitis B infection (anti-HBc) was 27% and syphilis prevalence was 2%. Romas (n=50) were significantly more likely than non-Romas (n=14) to have HAV antibodies (80% vs. 43%) and less likely to be HBV immunized (anti-HBs only; 6% vs. 29%). Current drug injectors (n=13) were more likely than non-injectors (n=51) to have antibodies against HAV (85% vs. 69%) and HCV (85% vs. 8%). While HIV has not been introduced in this population, risk conditions for a potentially explosive HIV epidemic are present. Health care policies should focus on expanding coverage for HAV and HBV immunizations, and access to HIV preventive services needs to be extended to marginalized, mostly minority populations, such as the Roma in Europe. PMID:18935777
Fisker, Niels; Mygind, Lone H.; Krarup, Henrik B.; Licht, Dorthe; Georgsen, Jorgen; Christensen, Peer B.
Denmark is a country with low prevalence and incidence of blood borne viral infections. Among health care workers (HCWs) vaccination for hepatitis B is only offered to high-risk groups. The aims of this cross sectional survey were to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B, -C, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among the staff at a Danish University hospital and to correlate this with risk factors for transmission. Additionally, we wanted to examine the current frequency of blood exposure, reporting habits and hepatitis B vaccination status in the staff. Of 1439 eligible hospital staffs included, 960 (67%) were HCWs. The overall human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-, hepatitis C Virus (HCV)- and hepatitis B Virus (HBV)-prevalence was 0% (0/1439), 0.14% (2/1439) and 1.6% (23/1439), respectively. Twenty-three percent of HCWs were vaccinated against HBV. Age, blood transfusion and stay in endemic areas were associated independently to HBV infection as opposed to job-category, duration of employment, HBV vaccination status and blood exposure. Based on a 4-week recall period, the incidence of percutaneous blood exposure was 1.5/person-year. In conclusion the HIV and hepatitis prevalence was low despite frequent blood exposure and the principal risk factors were unrelated to work. Danish HCWs do not seem to be at increased risk of hepatitis B even though universal HBV vaccination has not been implemented
Full Text Available The concept of “serodiscordance” (mixed infection status is primarily associated with epidemiological concerns about HIV transmission risk in couples. We make the case for extending this concept to include families with mixed HIV and viral hepatitis status. Social research on couples with mixed HIV and hepatitis C status has laid an important foundation for illuminating how experiences of serodiscordance within intimate partnerships are much broader than concerns about risk. This body of work attests to serodiscordance holding promise as a valuable concept for understanding viral infections as socially situated and intensely relational phenomena. However, serodiscordance is still limited as a concept because of its near universal focus on couples. It is rarely applied to wider relationships, including family networks beyond the couple. Despite evidence in the literature that families are affected by blood-borne viruses in multiple social, emotional, financial, and generational ways, the concept of serodiscordance does not capture these broader dynamics. Making serodiscordance more inclusive is an important step in recognising the diverse ways families’ everyday lives, relationships, and futures can be entangled with HIV, hepatitis C, and hepatitis B, and for understanding how today’s era of effective treatment options might shape the “family life” of viral infections.
Chappell, M A; Payne, S J
Under decompression, bubbles can form in the human body, and these can be found both within the body tissues and the bloodstream. Mathematical models for the growth of both types of bubbles have previously been presented, but they have not been coupled together. This work thus explores the interaction between the growth of tissue and blood-borne bubbles under decompression, specifically looking at the extent to which they compete for the common resource of inert gas held in solution in the tissues. The influence of tissue bubbles is found to be significant for densities as low as 10 ml -1 for tissues which are poorly perfused. However, the effects of formation of bubbles in the blood are not found until the density of bubble production sites reaches 10 6 ml -1 . From comparison of the model predictions with experimental evidence for bubbles produced in animals and man under decompression, it is concluded that the density of tissue bubbles is likely to have a significant effect on the number of bubbles produced in the blood. However, the density of nucleation sites in the blood is unlikely to be sufficiently high in humans for the formation of bubbles in the blood to have a significant impact on the growth of the bubbles in the tissue
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the patients who have antisocial personality disorder (ASPD and the healthy individuals in terms of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs and Blood-Borne Transmitted Infections (BTIs prevalences. Methods: This study is a prospective, single-center, open-label, non-randomized controlled clinical study. There were two groups in the study. The patient group consistsed of 100 males who were diagnosed as ASPD with a clinical interview form. The control group consisted of 98 healthy males who did not have any psychiatric disorder. Dermatologic examination was performed, and clinical findings were recorded. Results: The mean age of the patient group was 21.96±2.40 (range 20-37 years. The mean age of the control group was 24.20±2.88 (21-36 years. The most common disease was gonorrhea (25% followed by genital wart (11%, molluskum contagiosum (5%, HBsAg (4%, and HSV-2 seropositivity (4% in the patients group. In the control group, HSV-2 seropositivity (4.08%, genital wart (3.06%, molluskum contagiosum (3.06%, and gonorrhe (1.02% were commonly seen in the control group. STDs and/or BVTIs were found more common in the patients group (82% than that in the control group (45.91% (X2=30.62, p=0.000. Conclusions: The patients with ASPD are at greater risk than normal population to catch a STDs or BTIs because of their lower educational levels and riskier behaviors. This condition entertains a risk in the general population and the patients themselves.
Ufnal, Marcin; Skrzypecki, Janusz
Accumulating evidence suggests that blood borne hormones modulate brain mechanisms regulating blood pressure. This appears to be mediated by the circumventricular organs which are located in the walls of the brain ventricular system and lack the blood-brain barrier. Recent evidence shows that neurons of the circumventricular organs express receptors for the majority of cardiovascular hormones. Intracerebroventricular infusions of hormones and their antagonists is one approach to evaluate the influence of blood borne hormones on the neural mechanisms regulating arterial blood pressure. Interestingly, there is no clear correlation between peripheral and central effects of cardiovascular hormones. For example, angiotensin II increases blood pressure acting peripherally and centrally, whereas peripherally acting pressor catecholamines decrease blood pressure when infused intracerebroventricularly. The physiological role of such dual hemodynamic responses has not yet been clarified. In the paper we review studies on hemodynamic effects of catecholamines, neuropeptide Y, angiotensin II, aldosterone, natriuretic peptides, endothelins, histamine and bradykinin in the context of their role in a cross-talk between peripheral and brain mechanisms involved in the regulation of arterial blood pressure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Muhammad Zuhaib Khan
Full Text Available Background. Blood-borne viral infections like viral hepatitis are highly prevalent in Pakistan. There is also a potential threat of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV spread in the country. Health care workers (HCWs are a high risk population for acquiring such viral infections and potential spread to the patients. This study aimed to determine the frequency of three blood-borne viruses: HCV, HBV, and HIV in HCWs of district Malakand in northern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK province of Pakistan. Moreover, risk factors and preventive behaviors among HCWs were investigated in detail. Materials and Methods. Prevalence was investigated using serological assays followed by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR based characterization. A total of 626 health care workers working at 17 different health care units, belonging to 6 different job categories, were included in this study. Results. HIV was not detected in the HCWs while rate of prevalence of HCV and HBV was far less (0.8 % and 0.64 %, resp. as compared to general population (4.7%–38%. The majority of HCWs were aware of the mode of spread of these viruses and associated risk factors. Needle stick injury was found to be the most important risk factor for possible acquisition of these infections.
Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that even with very high levels of immediate and delayed retention of educational content as measured by exam, the impact of an educational intervention on behavioural change may be much more short-lived. This has implications regarding the need for continuous education to support for workplace safety campaigns.
Elias, Lucília de Almeida; Bastos, Francisco Inacio
This article assesses the historical context and the conceptual frame of setting up damage containment programs in the field of public health, with special emphasis on the Brazilian experience. The survey seeks to assess the relevance of such programs in the ongoing efforts to curb the spread of blood-borne and sexually transmitted infections, especially AIDS and hepatitis C. Findings from both the Brazilian and the international literature demonstrate that practical damage containment initiatives tend to be more effective when integrated with other public health measures based on common goals. Damage containment initiatives, aligned with the basic principles of public health do not limit themselves to a priori models or health care per se. They encompass a variety of pragmatic measures based on public policies and should be in line with the demands of the communities since the moment of their inception and implemented in the context of full partnership with such communities.
Full Text Available Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs are specialized scavenger cells that mediate high-capacity clearance of soluble waste macromolecules and colloid material, including blood-borne adenovirus. To explore if LSECs function as a sink for other viruses in blood, we studied the fate of virus-like particles (VLPs of two ubiquitous human DNA viruses, BK and JC polyomavirus, in mice. Like complete virions, VLPs specifically bind to receptors and enter cells, but unlike complete virions, they cannot replicate. 125I-labeled VLPs were used to assess blood decay, organ-, and hepatocellular distribution of ligand, and non-labeled VLPs to examine cellular uptake by immunohisto- and -cytochemistry. BK- and JC-VLPs rapidly distributed to liver, with lesser uptake in kidney and spleen. Liver uptake was predominantly in LSECs. Blood half-life (∼1 min, and tissue distribution of JC-VLPs and two JC-VLP-mutants (L55F and S269F that lack sialic acid binding affinity, were similar, indicating involvement of non-sialic acid receptors in cellular uptake. Liver uptake was not mediated by scavenger receptors. In spleen, the VLPs localized to the red pulp marginal zone reticuloendothelium, and in kidney to the endothelial lining of vasa recta segments, and the transitional epithelium of renal pelvis. Most VLP-positive vessels in renal medulla did not express PV-1/Meca 32, suggesting location to the non-fenestrated part of vasa recta. The endothelial cells of these vessels also efficiently endocytosed a scavenger receptor ligand, formaldehyde-denatured albumin, suggesting high endocytic activity compared to other renal endothelia. We conclude that LSECs very effectively cleared a large fraction of blood-borne BK- and JC-VLPs, indicating a central role of these cells in early removal of polyomavirus from the circulation. In addition, we report the novel finding that a subpopulation of endothelial cells in kidney, the main organ of polyomavirus persistence, showed
Crawford, Gemma; Lobo, Roanna; Brown, Graham; Macri, Chloe; Smith, Hannah; Maycock, Bruce
In some high-income countries, a proportion of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), other blood-borne virus (BBV) or sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnoses have been reported as acquired overseas in low- and middle-income countries. A review was conducted to explore HIV, other BBV or STI related knowledge, risk behavior and acquisition amongst expatriates and travelers, particularly males, travelling from high to low- and middle-income countries. Seven academic databases were searched for 26 peer reviewed articles that met inclusion criteria. Significant variability in the studies was noted, in age, travel duration and frequency and outcomes/risk factors measured and reported on. Risk factors described included longer duration of stay; being single; travel for romance or sex; alcohol and other drug use; lack of travel advice; being male; higher number of sexual partners; and inconsistent condom use. Vaccination, pre-travel health advice, and having fewer sexual partners were described as protective. Studies are needed focusing on the social context in which risk-taking occurs. Better collaboration is essential to deliver comprehensive health promotion interventions alongside more consistent pre- and post- travel testing and advice. Policy measures are crucial, including consistent evaluation indicators to assess impacts of HIV, other BBVs or STIs in the context of mobility. Risks and responses for these epidemics are shared globally. PMID:27999275
Trotter, Patrick B; Summers, Dominic M; Robb, Matthew; Hulme, William; Ushiro-Lumb, Ines; Watson, Christopher J E; Neuberger, James; Bradley, J Andrew
Deceased organ donors are routinely screened for behaviors that increase the risk of transmissible blood-borne viral (BBV) infection, but the impact of this information on organ donation and transplant outcome is not well documented. Our aim was to establish the impact of such behavior on organ donation and utilization, as well transplant recipient outcomes. We identified all UK deceased organ donors from 2003 to 2015 with a disclosed history of increased risk behavior (IRB) including intravenous drug use (IVDU), imprisonment and increased risk sexual behavior. Of 17 262 potential donors, 659 (3.8%) had IRB for BBV and 285 (1.7%) were seropositive for BBV, of whom half had a history of IRB (mostly IVDU [78.5%]). Of actual donors with IRB, 393 were seronegative for viral markers at time of donation. A history of recent IVDU was associated with fewer potential donors proceeding to become actual organ donors (64% vs 75%, P = 0.007). Donors with IRB provided 1091 organs for transplantation (624 kidneys and 467 other organs). Transplant outcome was similar in recipients of organs from donors with and without IRB. There were 3 cases of unexpected hepatitis C virus transmission, all from an active IVDU donor who was hepatitis C virus seronegative at time of donation, but was found to be viremic on retrospective testing. Donors with a history of IRB provide a valuable source of organs for transplantation with good transplant outcomes and there is scope for increasing the use of organs from such donors.
Welburn Susan C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosis of blood borne infectious diseases relies primarily on the detection of the causative agent in the blood sample. Molecular techniques offer sensitive and specific tools for this although considerable difficulties exist when using these approaches in the field environment. In large scale epidemiological studies, FTA®cards are becoming increasingly popular for the rapid collection and archiving of a large number of samples. However, there are some difficulties in the downstream processing of these cards which is essential for the accurate diagnosis of infection. Here we describe recommendations for the best practice approach for sample processing from FTA®cards for the molecular diagnosis of trypanosomiasis using PCR. Results A comparison of five techniques was made. Detection from directly applied whole blood was less sensitive (35.6% than whole blood which was subsequently eluted from the cards using Chelex®100 (56.4%. Better apparent sensitivity was achieved when blood was lysed prior to application on the FTA cards (73.3% although this was not significant. This did not improve with subsequent elution using Chelex®100 (73.3% and was not significantly different from direct DNA extraction from blood in the field (68.3%. Conclusions Based on these results, the degree of effort required for each of these techniques and the difficulty of DNA extraction under field conditions, we recommend that blood is transferred onto FTA cards whole followed by elution in Chelex®100 as the best approach.
Ahmed, Heba A; MacLeod, Ewan T; Hide, Geoff; Welburn, Susan C; Picozzi, Kim
Diagnosis of blood borne infectious diseases relies primarily on the detection of the causative agent in the blood sample. Molecular techniques offer sensitive and specific tools for this although considerable difficulties exist when using these approaches in the field environment. In large scale epidemiological studies, FTA®cards are becoming increasingly popular for the rapid collection and archiving of a large number of samples. However, there are some difficulties in the downstream processing of these cards which is essential for the accurate diagnosis of infection. Here we describe recommendations for the best practice approach for sample processing from FTA®cards for the molecular diagnosis of trypanosomiasis using PCR. A comparison of five techniques was made. Detection from directly applied whole blood was less sensitive (35.6%) than whole blood which was subsequently eluted from the cards using Chelex®100 (56.4%). Better apparent sensitivity was achieved when blood was lysed prior to application on the FTA cards (73.3%) although this was not significant. This did not improve with subsequent elution using Chelex®100 (73.3%) and was not significantly different from direct DNA extraction from blood in the field (68.3%). Based on these results, the degree of effort required for each of these techniques and the difficulty of DNA extraction under field conditions, we recommend that blood is transferred onto FTA cards whole followed by elution in Chelex®100 as the best approach.
Background Diagnosis of blood borne infectious diseases relies primarily on the detection of the causative agent in the blood sample. Molecular techniques offer sensitive and specific tools for this although considerable difficulties exist when using these approaches in the field environment. In large scale epidemiological studies, FTA®cards are becoming increasingly popular for the rapid collection and archiving of a large number of samples. However, there are some difficulties in the downstream processing of these cards which is essential for the accurate diagnosis of infection. Here we describe recommendations for the best practice approach for sample processing from FTA®cards for the molecular diagnosis of trypanosomiasis using PCR. Results A comparison of five techniques was made. Detection from directly applied whole blood was less sensitive (35.6%) than whole blood which was subsequently eluted from the cards using Chelex®100 (56.4%). Better apparent sensitivity was achieved when blood was lysed prior to application on the FTA cards (73.3%) although this was not significant. This did not improve with subsequent elution using Chelex®100 (73.3%) and was not significantly different from direct DNA extraction from blood in the field (68.3%). Conclusions Based on these results, the degree of effort required for each of these techniques and the difficulty of DNA extraction under field conditions, we recommend that blood is transferred onto FTA cards whole followed by elution in Chelex®100 as the best approach. PMID:21548975
Full Text Available A formal Needle and Syringe Program (NSP is not provided in Australian prisons. Injecting equipment circulates in prisons as part of an informal and illegal economy. This paper examined how this economy generates blood-borne virus (BBV risk and risk mitigation opportunities for inmates.The HITS-p cohort recruited New South Wales inmates who had reported ever injecting drugs and who had a negative HCV serological test within 12 months prior to enrolment. For this study, qualitative interviews were conducted with 30 participants enrolled in HITS-p. Participants included 10 women and were incarcerated in 12 prisons.A needle/syringe was nominated as being typically priced in the 'inside' prison economy at $100-$150, with a range of $50-$350. Purchase or hire of equipment was paid for in cash (including transactions that occurred outside prison and in exchange for drugs and other commodities. A range of other resources was required to enable successful needle/syringe economies, especially relationships with visitors and other prisoners, and violence to ensure payment of debts. Strategies to mitigate BBV risk included retaining one needle/syringe for personal use while hiring out others, keeping drug use (and ownership of equipment "quiet", stealing used equipment from the prison health clinic, and manufacture of syringes from other items available in the prison.The provision of prison NSP would disrupt the inside economies built around contraband needles/syringes, as well as minimise BBV risk. However, any model of prison NSP should be interrogated for any unanticipated markets that could be generated as a result of its regulatory practices.
Ellen Perrett, Stephanie; Erricker, Mark; Lyons, Marion
The purpose of this paper is to provide education on blood-borne viruses (BBVs) to prison staff to help reduce stigma within the prisons, improve the care prisoners receive and reduce the risk of occupational transmission. An e-module was used to improve staff understanding of hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV) and HIV at a prison in Wales, UK. An assessment was used to gather data on prison staff understanding of BBVs prior to undertaking the e-module. In total, 530/697 (76 per cent) prison staff completed the BBV e-module. Average pre- and post-course assessment scores were 8.6/11 and 10.85/11, respectively. Most staff understood the modes of hepatitis transmission, however, gaps in understanding were highlighted. In total, 22 per cent of staff believed HBV and HCV were airborne, 9 per cent believed transmission occurred through sharing cutlery. In total, 31 per cent of staff believed prisoners with hepatitis should declare their status to the prison. Practical implications: The e-module significantly improved staff understanding of BBVs and should be incorporated into future prison training packages. Future education should include how BBVs are not transmitted with an emphasis on casual contact. Medical confidentiality in prisons should also be addressed. Improving understanding will help reduce the stigma of BBVs within prison and improve the multidisciplinary care the prisoner receives. To the authors knowledge this is the first published evaluation of a BBV learning package for custodial staff. Evaluation of this educational package demonstrates a unique and valuable insight into the general understanding of BBVs by prison staff in Wales, UK.
Wei, Shun-Guang; Yu, Yang; Felder, Robert B
We previously reported that microinjection of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) into the subfornical organ (SFO) elicits a pressor response accompanied by increases in inflammation and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity in the SFO and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). The present study sought to determine whether blood-borne IL-1β induces similar neurochemical changes in the SFO and PVN and, if so, whether increased inflammation and RAS activity at the SFO level orchestrate the sympathoexcitatory response to circulating IL-1β. In urethane-anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats, intravenous injection of IL-1β (500 ng) increased blood pressure, heart rate, renal sympathetic nerve activity, and mRNA for angiotensin-converting enzyme, angiotensin II type 1a receptor, cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-α, and IL-1β, as well as the tumor necrosis factor-α p55 receptor and the IL-1 receptor, in the SFO and PVN. Pretreatment with SFO microinjections of the angiotensin II type 1a receptor blocker losartan (1 µg), the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril (1 µg), or the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor NS-398 (2 µg) attenuated expression of these excitatory mediators in the SFO and downstream in the PVN and the IL-1β-induced pressor responses. An SFO lesion minimized the IL-1β-induced expression of inflammatory and RAS components as well as c-Fos, an indicator of neuronal excitation, in the PVN. These studies demonstrate that circulating IL-1β, which increases in cardiovascular disorders such as hypertension and heart failure, acts on the SFO to increase inflammation and RAS activity in the SFO and PVN and that intervening in these neurochemical processes in the SFO can significantly reduce the sympathetic response.
Treloar, Carla; McCredie, Luke; Lloyd, Andrew R
A formal Needle and Syringe Program (NSP) is not provided in Australian prisons. Injecting equipment circulates in prisons as part of an informal and illegal economy. This paper examined how this economy generates blood-borne virus (BBV) risk and risk mitigation opportunities for inmates. The HITS-p cohort recruited New South Wales inmates who had reported ever injecting drugs and who had a negative HCV serological test within 12 months prior to enrolment. For this study, qualitative interviews were conducted with 30 participants enrolled in HITS-p. Participants included 10 women and were incarcerated in 12 prisons. A needle/syringe was nominated as being typically priced in the 'inside' prison economy at $100-$150, with a range of $50-$350. Purchase or hire of equipment was paid for in cash (including transactions that occurred outside prison) and in exchange for drugs and other commodities. A range of other resources was required to enable successful needle/syringe economies, especially relationships with visitors and other prisoners, and violence to ensure payment of debts. Strategies to mitigate BBV risk included retaining one needle/syringe for personal use while hiring out others, keeping drug use (and ownership of equipment) "quiet", stealing used equipment from the prison health clinic, and manufacture of syringes from other items available in the prison. The provision of prison NSP would disrupt the inside economies built around contraband needles/syringes, as well as minimise BBV risk. However, any model of prison NSP should be interrogated for any unanticipated markets that could be generated as a result of its regulatory practices.
Full Text Available Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs from blood are increasingly recognized as biomarker candidates for human diseases. Clinical routine settings frequently include blood sampling in tubes with EDTA as anticoagulant without considering the influence of phlebotomy on the overall miRNA expression pattern. We collected blood samples from six healthy individuals each in an EDTA blood collection tube. Subsequently, the blood was transferred into PAXgeneTM tubes at three different time points, i.e. directly (0 min, 10 min, and 2 h after phlebotomy. As control blood was also directly collected in PAXgeneTM blood RNA tubes that contain a reagent to directly lyse blood cells and stabilize their content. For all six blood donors at the four conditions (24 samples we analyzed the abundance of 1,205 miRNAs by human Agilent miRNA V16 microarrays.While we found generally a homogenous pattern of the miRNA abundance in all 24 samples, the duration of the EDTA treatment appears to influence the miRNA abundance of specific miRNAs. The most significant changes are observed after longer EDTA exposition. Overall, the impact of the different blood sample conditions on the miRNA pattern was substantially lower than intra-individual variations. While samples belonging to one of the six individuals mostly cluster together, there was no comparable clustering for any of the four tested blood sampling conditions. The most affected miRNA was miR-769-3p that was not detected in any of the six PAXgene blood samples, but in all EDTA 2h samples. Accordingly, hsa-miR-769-3p was also the only miRNA that showed a significantly different abundance between the 4 blood sample conditions by an ANOVA analysis (Benjamini-Hochberg adjusted p-value of 0.003. Validation by qRT-PCR confirmed this finding.The pattern of blood-borne miRNA abundance is rather homogenous between the four tested blood sample conditions of six blood donors. There was a clustering between the miRNA profiles that belong
El Ridi, Rashika; Tallima, Hatem
Uric acid is synthesized mainly in the liver, intestines and the vascular endothelium as the end product of an exogenous pool of purines, and endogenously from damaged, dying and dead cells, whereby nucleic acids, adenine and guanine, are degraded into uric acid. Mentioning uric acid generates dread because it is the established etiological agent of the severe, acute and chronic inflammatory arthritis, gout and is implicated in the initiation and progress of the metabolic syndrome. Yet, uric acid is the predominant anti-oxidant molecule in plasma and is necessary and sufficient for induction of type 2 immune responses. These properties may explain its protective potential in neurological and infectious diseases, mainly schistosomiasis. The pivotal protective potential of uric acid against blood-borne pathogens and neurological and autoimmune diseases is yet to be established.
Knight, Rod; Karamouzian, Mohammad; Salway, Travis; Gilbert, Mark; Shoveller, Jean
Globally, young gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (gbMSM) continue to experience disproportionately high rates of HIV and other sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections (STBBIs). As such, there are strong public health imperatives to evaluate innovative prevention, treatment and care interventions, including online interventions. This study reviewed and assessed the status of published research (e.g. effectiveness; acceptability; differential effects across subgroups) involving online interventions that address HIV/STBBIs among young gbMSM. We searched Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Google Scholar to identify relevant English-language publications from inception to November 2016. Studies that assessed an online intervention regarding the prevention, care, or treatment of HIV/STBBIs were included. Studies with gay and bisexual men; four studies did not assess sexual identity. Two studies reported including both HIV+ and HIV- participants, and all but one study included one or more measure of socio-economic status. Few studies reported on the differential intervention effects by socio-economic status, sexual identity, race or serostatus. While online interventions show promise at addressing HIV/STBBI among young gbMSM, to date, little emphasis has been placed on assessing: (i) potential differential effects of interventions across subgroups of young gbMSM; (ii) effectiveness studies of interventions in the dissemination phase; and (iii) on some "key" populations of young gbMSM (e.g. those who are: transgender, from low-income settings and/or HIV positive). Future research that unpacks the potentially distinctive experiences of particular subgroups with "real world" interventions is needed. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of the International AIDS Society published by John Wiley & sons Ltd on behalf of the International AIDS Society.
Wingender, Gerhard; Schumak, Beatrix; Schurich, Anna; Gessner, J Engelbert; Endl, Elmar; Limmer, Andreas; Knolle, Percy A
Dissemination of soluble molecules or antigens via the blood stream is considered to lead to a uniform distribution in the various organs of the body, but organ-specific microarchitecture and vascularization may influence this. Following intravenous injection of αCD3ε antibody (αCD3εAb) we observed clear differences in antibody binding to Fcγ receptor (FcγR)+ antigen-presenting cells (APCs) or T lymphocytes in different organs. Significant binding of blood-borne αCD3εAb was only detected in the spleen and liver and not in the thymus or lymph node. In the spleen, only 10% of dendritic cells/macrophages and 40% of T-cell receptor (TCR)-β+ cells were positive for αCD3εAb, and, dependent on FcγR-mediated cross-linking of αCD3εAb, a similar percentage of splenic TCR-β+ cells were stimulated and became CD69+. Stimulation of TCR-β+ cells in the liver was at least as efficient as in the spleen, but almost all T cells and all scavenger liver sinusoidal endothelial cells bound αCD3εAb. In contrast to CD69 up-regulation, only CD4+ natural killer T (NKT) cells and CD11ahigh CD8+ T cells were activated by αCD3εAb and expressed interferon (IFN)-γ. Again, IFN-γ release from NKT/T cells was at least as efficient in the liver as in the spleen. Taken together, our results support the notion that the combination of extensive hepatic vascularization and very high scavenger activity allows the liver to fulfill its metabolic tasks and to promote stimulation of the large but widely distributed hepatic population of NKT/T cells. PMID:16423047
Full Text Available Different species inhabit different sensory worlds and thus have evolved diverse means of processing information, learning and memory. In the escalated arms race with host defense, each pathogenic bacterium not only has evolved its individual cellular sensing and behaviour, but also collective sensing, interbacterial communication, distributed information processing, joint decision making, dissociative behaviour, and the phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity necessary for epidemiologic success. Moreover, pathogenic populations take advantage of dormancy strategies and rapid evolutionary speed, which allow them to save co-generated intelligent traits in a collective genomic memory. This review discusses how these mechanisms add further levels of complexity to bacterial pathogenicity and transmission, and how mining for these mechanisms could help to develop new anti-infective strategies.
Full Text Available Foodborne pathogens are causing a great number of diseases with significant effects on human health and economy. The characteristics of the most common pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium perfringens, Cronobacter sakazakii, Esherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Staphylococccus aureus, Vibrio spp. and Yersinia enterocolitica, viruses (Hepatitis A and Noroviruses and parasites (Cyclospora cayetanensis, Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spiralis, together with some important outbreaks, are reviewed. Food safety management systems based on to classical hazard-based approach has been proved to be inefficient, and risk-based food safety approach is now suggested from leading researchers and organizations. In this context, a food safety management system should be designed in a way to estimate the risks to human health from food consumption and to identify, select and implement mitigation strategies in order to control and reduce these risks. In addition, the application of suitable food safety education programs for all involved people in the production and consumption of foods is suggested.
Department of Veterans Affairs — The Emerging Pathogens Initiative (EPI) database contains emerging pathogens information from the local Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). The EPI software...
Mesquita, Inês Morais; Moreira, Diana; Marques, Belém Sampaio; Laforge, Mireille; Cordeiro-da-Silva, Anabela; Ludovico, Paula; Estaquier, Jérôme; Silvestre, Ricardo Jorge Leal
During host–pathogen interactions, a complex web of events is crucial for the outcome of infection. Pathogen recognition triggers powerful cellular signaling events that is translated into the induction and maintenance of innate and adaptive host immunity against infection. In opposition, pathogens employ active mechanisms to manipulate host cell regulatory pathways toward their proliferation and survival. Among these, subversion of host cell energy metabolism by pathogens is currently recogn...
Allain, J P
The residual risk of post-transfusion human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is low but slightly higher for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), the main reason being viraemia during the window period preceding antibody or antigen detection by enzyme immunoassays. Immunosilent-infected individuals and carriers of distant viral variants also play an unquantifiable role. Multiple techniques, e.g. reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), PCR, ligase-chain reaction, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) and transcription-mediated amplification (TMA) have been developed to amplify and detect viral genomes as single or multiplex assays. Equipment providing various degrees of automation has been adapted to these techniques. Applying nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAT) to blood screening, two main approaches have been advocated: plasma pool and single-donation testing. Pool testing presents the advantage of lower cost and readily available equipment although it is prone to false negative and positive reactions. The time required to identify infected donations is incompatible with blood component release, and may lead to product waste. Single-unit testing, although appealing, is not yet fully automated and potentially very costly unless a systematic multiplex approach is taken. Although technically feasible, NAT applied to the blood supply needs to be clinically evaluated and its cost efficiency assessed in the general public health context. However, pool NAT is currently implemented in continental Europe and the USA.
Mesquita, Inês; Moreira, Diana; Sampaio-Marques, Belém; Laforge, Mireille; Cordeiro-da-Silva, Anabela; Ludovico, Paula; Estaquier, Jérôme; Silvestre, Ricardo
During host-pathogen interactions, a complex web of events is crucial for the outcome of infection. Pathogen recognition triggers powerful cellular signaling events that is translated into the induction and maintenance of innate and adaptive host immunity against infection. In opposition, pathogens employ active mechanisms to manipulate host cell regulatory pathways toward their proliferation and survival. Among these, subversion of host cell energy metabolism by pathogens is currently recognized to play an important role in microbial growth and persistence. Extensive studies have documented the role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling, a central cellular hub involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, in host-pathogen interactions. Here, we highlight the most recent advances detailing how pathogens hijack cellular metabolism by suppressing or increasing the activity of the host energy sensor AMPK. We also address the role of lower eukaryote AMPK orthologues in the adaptive process to the host microenvironment and their contribution for pathogen survival, differentiation, and growth. Finally, we review the effects of pharmacological or genetic AMPK modulation on pathogen growth and persistence.
Currently, fungicides are necessary to protect potato crops against late blight, Phytophthora infestans, one of the world’s most damaging crop pathogens. The introgression of plant resistance genes from wild potato species targeted specifically to the late blight pathogen into
The Salmonella scare reinforced the importance of never taking chances when it comes to controlling pathogens. The issue has been resolved by radurisation. The article deals with the various pathogens that can effect food and argues the case for radurisation in dealing with them. It also looks at some of the other food products that can be treated using this process
Pelletier, J P R; Transue, S; Snyder, E L
The desire to rid the blood supply of pathogens of all types has led to the development of many technologies aimed at the same goal--eradication of the pathogen(s) without harming the blood cells or generating toxic chemical agents. This is a very ambitious goal, and one that has yet to be achieved. One approach is to shun the 'one size fits all' concept and to target pathogen-reduction agents at the Individual component types. This permits the development of technologies that might be compatible with, for example, plasma products but that would be cytocidal and thus incompatible with platelet concentrates or red blood cell units. The technologies to be discussed include solvent detergent and methylene blue treatments--designed to inactivate plasma components and derivatives; psoralens (S-59--amotosalen) designed to pathogen-reduce units of platelets; and two products aimed at red blood cells, S-303 (a Frale--frangible anchor-linker effector compound) and Inactine (a binary ethyleneimine). A final pathogen-reduction material that might actually allow one material to inactivate all three blood components--riboflavin (vitamin B2)--is also under development. The sites of action of the amotosalen (S-59), the S-303 Frale, Inactine, and riboflavin are all localized in the nucleic acid part of the pathogen. Solvent detergent materials act by dissolving the plasma envelope, thus compromising the integrity of the pathogen membrane and rendering it non-infectious. By disrupting the pathogen's ability to replicate or survive, its infectivity is removed. The degree to which bacteria and viruses are affected by a particular pathogen-reducing technology relates to its Gram-positive or Gram-negative status, to the sporulation characteristics for bacteria, and the presence of lipid or protein envelopes for viruses. Concerns related to photoproducts and other breakdown products of these technologies remain, and the toxicology of pathogen-reduction treatments is a major ongoing area
Godfree, Alan; Farrell, Joseph
Wastewater contains human, animal, and plant pathogens capable of causing viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections. There are several routes whereby sewage pathogens may affect human health, including direct contact, contamination of food crops, zoonoses, and vectors. The range and numbers of pathogens in municipal wastewater vary with the level of endemic disease in the community, discharges from commercial activities, and seasonal factors. Regulations to control pathogen risk in the United States and Europe arising from land application of biosolids are based on the concept of multiple barriers to the prevention of transmission. The barriers are (i) treatment to reduce pathogen content and vector attraction, (ii) restrictions on crops grown on land to which biosolids have been applied, and (iii) minimum intervals following application and grazing or harvesting. Wastewater treatment reduces number of pathogens in the wastewater by concentrating them with the solids in the sludge. Although some treatment processes are designed specifically to inactivate pathogens, many are not, and the actual mechanisms of microbial inactivation are not fully understood for all processes. Vector attraction is reduced by stabilization (reduction of readily biodegradable material) and/or incorporation immediately following application. Concerns about health risks have renewed interest in the effects of treatment (on pathogens) and advanced treatment methods, and work performed in the United States suggests that Class A pathogen reduction can be achieved less expensively than previously thought. Effective pathogen risk management requires control to the complete chain of sludge treatment, biosolids handling and application, and post-application activities. This may be achieved by adherence to quality management systems based on hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) principles.
The present study shows that tested lichen Parmotrema sp. extracts demonstrated a strong antimicrobial effect. That suggests the active components from methanol extracts of the investigated lichen Parmotrema sp. can be used as natural antimicrobial agent against pathogens.
DiRita, Victor J; Seifert, H. Steven
... A. Hogan vvi ■ CONTENTS 8. Evolution of Pathogens in Soil Rachel Muir and Man-Wah Tan / 131 9. Experimental Models of Symbiotic Host-Microbial Relationships: Understanding the Underpinnings of ...
Committee on Indicators for Waterborne Pathogens, National Research Council
... not practical or feasible to monitor for the complete spectrum of microorganisms that may occur in water, and many known pathogens are difficult to detect directly and reliably in water samples.Â...
Smits, M.A.; Schokker, D.J.
The outcome of an infection is determined by numerous interactions between hosts and pathogens occurring at many different biological levels, ranging from molecule to population. To develop new control strategies for infectious diseases in livestock species, appropriate methodologies are needed
Chiu, Charles Y
Viral pathogen discovery is of critical importance to clinical microbiology, infectious diseases, and public health. Genomic approaches for pathogen discovery, including consensus polymerase chain reaction (PCR), microarrays, and unbiased next-generation sequencing (NGS), have the capacity to comprehensively identify novel microbes present in clinical samples. Although numerous challenges remain to be addressed, including the bioinformatics analysis and interpretation of large datasets, these technologies have been successful in rapidly identifying emerging outbreak threats, screening vaccines and other biological products for microbial contamination, and discovering novel viruses associated with both acute and chronic illnesses. Downstream studies such as genome assembly, epidemiologic screening, and a culture system or animal model of infection are necessary to establish an association of a candidate pathogen with disease. PMID:23725672
Swayne, D E; Suarez, D L
Highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza (AI) (HPAI) is an extremely contagious, multi-organ systemic disease of poultry leading to high mortality, and caused by some H5 and H7 subtypes of type A influenza virus, family Orthomyxoviridae. However, most AI virus strains are mildly pathogenic (MP) and produce either subclinical infections or respiratory and/or reproductive diseases in a variety of domestic and wild bird species. Highly pathogenic avian influenza is a List A disease of the Office International des Epizooties, while MPAI is neither a List A nor List B disease. Eighteen outbreaks of HPAI have been documented since the identification of AI virus as the cause of fowl plague in 1955. Mildly pathogenic avian influenza viruses are maintained in wild aquatic bird reservoirs, occasionally crossing over to domestic poultry and causing outbreaks of mild disease. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses do not have a recognised wild bird reservoir, but can occasionally be isolated from wild birds during outbreaks in domestic poultry. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses have been documented to arise from MPAI viruses through mutations in the haemagglutinin surface protein. Prevention of exposure to the virus and eradication are the accepted methods for dealing with HPAI. Control programmes, which imply allowing a low incidence of infection, are not an acceptable method for managing HPAI, but have been used during some outbreaks of MPAI. The components of a strategy to deal with MPAI or HPAI include surveillance and diagnosis, biosecurity, education, quarantine and depopulation. Vaccination has been used in some control and eradication programmes for AI.
Tybur, J.M.; Lieberman, D.
Over the past few decades, researchers have become increasingly interested in the adaptations guiding the avoidance of disease-causing organisms. Here we discuss the latest developments in this area, including a recently developed information-processing model of the adaptations underlying pathogen
Liu, Xiao-Hong; Xu, Fei; Snyder, John Hugh; Shi, Huan-Bin; Lu, Jian-Ping; Lin, Fu-Cheng
Autophagy is a conserved cellular process that degrades cytoplasmic constituents in vacuoles. Plant pathogenic fungi develop special infection structures and/or secrete a range of enzymes to invade their plant hosts. It has been demonstrated that monitoring autophagy processes can be extremely useful in visualizing the sequence of events leading to pathogenicity of plant pathogenic fungi. In this review, we introduce the molecular mechanisms involved in autophagy. In addition, we explore the relationship between autophagy and pathogenicity in plant pathogenic fungi. Finally, we discuss the various experimental strategies available for use in the study of autophagy in plant pathogenic fungi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Morschhäuser, J; Köhler, G; Ziebuhr, W; Blum-Oehler, G; Dobrindt, U; Hacker, J
Various genetic mechanisms including point mutations, genetic rearrangements and lateral gene transfer processes contribute to the evolution of microbes. Long-term processes leading to the development of new species or subspecies are termed macroevolution, and short-term developments, which occur during days or weeks, are considered as microevolution. Both processes, macro- and microevolution need horizontal gene transfer, which is particularly important for the development of pathogenic micr...
Full Text Available Altogether 300 seed samples were collected during 9 years in 8 regions of Poland and the fungi Were isolated and their pathogenicity to carrot seedlings was examined. Alternaria rudicina provcd to be the most important pathogen although. A. alternata was more common. The other important pathogens were Fusarium spp., Phoma spp. and Botrytis cinerea. The infection of carrot seeds by A. radicina should be used as an important criterium in seed quality evaluation.
Geldreich, Edwin E.
Numerous pathogenic agents have been found in freshwaters used as sources for water supplies, recreational bathing and irrigation. These agents include bacterial pathogens, enteric viruses, several protozoans and parasitic worms more common to tropical waters. Although infected humans are a major source of pathogens, farm animals (cattle, sheep, pigs), animal pets (dogs, cats) and wildlife serve as significant reservoirs and should not be ignored. The range of infected individuals within a given warm-blooded animal group (humans included) may range from 1 to 25%. Survival times for pathogens in the water environment may range from a few days to as much as a year (Ascaris, Taenia eggs), with infective dose levels varying from one viable cell for several primary pathogenic agents to many thousands of cells for a given opportunistic pathogen.As pathogen detection in water is complex and not readily incorporated into routine monitoring, a surrogate is necessary. In general, indicators of faecal contamination provide a positive correlation with intestinal pathogen occurrences only when appropriate sample volumes are examined by sensitive methodology.Pathways by which pathogens reach susceptible water users include ingestion of contaminated water, body contact with polluted recreational waters and consumption of salad crops irrigated by polluted freshwaters. Major contributors to the spread of various water-borne pathogens are sewage, polluted surface waters and stormwater runoff. All of these contributions are intensified during periods of major floods. Several water-borne case histories are cited as examples of breakdowns in public health protection related to water supply, recreational waters and the consumption of contaminated salad crops. In the long term, water resource management must focus on pollution prevention from point sources of waste discharges and the spread of pathogens in watershed stormwater runoff.
Klein Cátia S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is a highly infectious swine pathogen and is the causative agent of enzootic pneumonia (EP. Following the previous report of a proteomic survey of the pathogenic 7448 strain of swine pathogen, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, we performed comparative protein profiling of three M. hyopneumoniae strains, namely the non-pathogenic J strain and the two pathogenic strains 7448 and 7422. Results In 2DE comparisons, we were able to identify differences in expression levels for 67 proteins, including the overexpression of some cytoadherence-related proteins only in the pathogenic strains. 2DE immunoblot analyses allowed the identification of differential proteolytic cleavage patterns of the P97 adhesin in the three strains. For more comprehensive protein profiling, an LC-MS/MS strategy was used. Overall, 35% of the M. hyopneumoniae genome coding capacity was covered. Partially overlapping profiles of identified proteins were observed in the strains with 81 proteins identified only in one strain and 54 proteins identified in two strains. Abundance analysis of proteins detected in more than one strain demonstrates the relative overexpression of 64 proteins, including the P97 adhesin in the pathogenic strains. Conclusions Our results indicate the physiological differences between the non-pathogenic strain, with its non-infective proliferate lifestyle, and the pathogenic strains, with its constitutive expression of adhesins, which would render the bacterium competent for adhesion and infection prior to host contact.
Bolker, Benjamin M; Nanda, Arjun; Shah, Dharmini
Should emerging pathogens be unusually virulent? If so, why? Existing theories of virulence evolution based on a tradeoff between high transmission rates and long infectious periods imply that epidemic growth conditions will select for higher virulence, possibly leading to a transient peak in virulence near the beginning of an epidemic. This transient selection could lead to high virulence in emerging pathogens. Using a simple model of the epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of emerging pathogens, along with rough estimates of parameters for pathogens such as severe acute respiratory syndrome, West Nile virus and myxomatosis, we estimated the potential magnitude and timing of such transient virulence peaks. Pathogens that are moderately evolvable, highly transmissible, and highly virulent at equilibrium could briefly double their virulence during an epidemic; thus, epidemic-phase selection could contribute significantly to the virulence of emerging pathogens. In order to further assess the potential significance of this mechanism, we bring together data from the literature for the shapes of tradeoff curves for several pathogens (myxomatosis, HIV, and a parasite of Daphnia) and the level of genetic variation for virulence for one (myxomatosis). We discuss the need for better data on tradeoff curves and genetic variance in order to evaluate the plausibility of various scenarios of virulence evolution.
Full Text Available Disease ecology is a new approach to the understanding of the spread and dynamics of pathogens in natural and man-made environments. Defining and describing the ecological niche of the pathogens is one of the major tasks for ecological theory, as well as for practitioners preoccupied with the control and forecasting of established and emerging diseases. Niche theory has been periodically revised, not including in an explicit way the pathogens. However, many progresses have been achieved in niche modeling of disease spread, but few attempts were made to construct a theoretical frame for the ecological niche of pathogens. The paper is a review of the knowledge accumulated during last decades in the niche theory of pathogens and proposes an ecological approach in research. It quest for new control methods in what concerns forest plant pathogens, with a special emphasis on fungi like organisms of the genus Phytophthora. Species of Phytophthora are the most successful plant pathogens of the moment, affecting forest and agricultural systems worldwide, many of them being invasive alien organisms in many ecosystems. The hyperspace of their ecological niche is defined by hosts, environment and human interference, as main axes. To select most important variables within the hyperspace, is important the understanding of the complex role of pathogens in the ecosystems as well as for control programs. Biotic relationships within ecosystem of host-pathogen couple are depicted by ecological network and specific metrics attached to this. The star shaped network is characterized by few high degree nodes, by short path lengths and relatively low connectivity, premises for a rapid disturbance spread.
Full Text Available Disease ecology is a new approach to the understanding of the spread and dynamics of pathogens in natural and man-made environments. Defining and describing the ecological niche of the pathogens is one of the major tasks for ecological theory, as well as for practitioners preoccupied with the control and forecasting of established and emerging diseases. Niche theory has been periodically revised, not including in an explicit way the pathogens. However, many progresses have been achieved in niche modeling of disease spread, but few attempts were made to construct a theoretical frame for the ecological niche of pathogens. The paper is a review of the knowledge accumulated during last decades in the niche theory of pathogens and proposes an ecological approach in research. It quest for new control methods in what concerns forest plant pathogens, with a special emphasis on fungi like organisms of the genus Phytophthora. Species of Phytophthora are the most successful plant pathogens of the moment, affecting forest and agricultural systems worldwide, many of them being invasive alien organisms in many ecosystems. The hyperspace of their ecological niche is defined by hosts, environment and human interference, as main axes. To select most important variables within the hyperspace, is important for the understanding of the complex role of pathogens in the ecosystems as well as for control programs. Biotic relationships within ecosystem of host-pathogen couple are depicted by ecological network and specific metrics attached to this. The star shaped network is characterized by few high degree nodes, by short path lengths and relatively low connectivity, premises for a rapid disturbance spread.
Harwood, Catherine G; Rao, Reeta P
Pathogenic fungi cause superficial infections but pose a significant public health risk when infections spread to deeper tissues, such as the lung. Within the last three decades, fungi have been identified as the leading cause of nosocomial infections making them the focus of research. This review outlines the model systems such as the mouse, zebrafish larvae, flies, and nematodes, as well as ex vivo and in vitro systems available to study common fungal pathogens.
Catherine G. Harwood
Full Text Available Pathogenic fungi cause superficial infections but pose a significant public health risk when infections spread to deeper tissues, such as the lung. Within the last three decades, fungi have been identified as the leading cause of nosocomial infections making them the focus of research. This review outlines the model systems such as the mouse, zebrafish larvae, flies, and nematodes, as well as ex vivo and in vitro systems available to study common fungal pathogens.
Full Text Available Rickettsiae are obligate intracellular parasitic bacteria that cause febrile exanthematous illnesses such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Mediterranean spotted fever, epidemic and murine typhus, etc. Although the vector ranges of each Rickettsia species are rather restricted; i.e., ticks belonging to Arachnida and lice and fleas belonging to Insecta usually act as vectors for spotted fever group and typhus group rickettsiae, respectively, it would be interesting to elucidate the mechanisms controlling the vector tropism of rickettsiae. This review discusses the factors determining the vector tropism of rickettsiae. In brief, the vector tropism of rickettsiae species is basically consistent with their tropism towards cultured tick and insect cells. The mechanisms responsible for rickettsiae pathogenicity are also described. Recently, genomic analyses of rickettsiae have revealed that they possess several genes that are homologous to those affecting the pathogenicity of other bacteria. Analyses comparing the genomes of pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of rickettsiae have detected many factors that are related to rickettsial pathogenicity. It is also known that a reduction in the rickettsial genome has occurred during the course of its evolution. Interestingly, Rickettsia species with small genomes, such as Rickettsia prowazekii, are more pathogenic to humans than those with larger genomes. This review also examines the growth kinetics of pathogenic and nonpathogenic species of spotted fever group rickettsiae in mammalian cells. The growth of nonpathogenic species is restricted in these cells, which is mediated, at least in part, by autophagy. The superinfection of nonpathogenic rickettsiae-infected cells with pathogenic rickettsiae results in an elevated yield of the nonpathogenic rickettsiae and the growth of the pathogenic rickettsiae. Autophagy is restricted in these cells. These results are discussed in this review.
Meyling, Nicolai V.; Ormond, Emma; Roy, Helen E.; Pell, Judith K.
Insects can detect cues related to the risk of attack by their natural enemies. Pathogens are among the natural enemies of insects and entomopathogenic fungi attack a wide array of host species. Evidence documents that social insects in particular have adapted behavioural mechanisms to avoid infection by fungal pathogens. These mechanisms are referred to as 'behavioural resistance'. However, there is little evidence for similar adaptations in non-social insects. We have conducted experime...
Walsh, Ciara; Duffy, Geraldine
Wide-spread antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens is now a serious public health issue and multi-antibiotic resistance has been reported in many foodborne pathogens including Salmonella and E. coli. A study to determine antibiotic resistance profiles of a range of Salmonella and Verocytotoxigenic E.coli (VTEC) isolated from Irish foods revealed significant levels of antibiotic resistance in the strains. S. typhimurium DT104 were multiantibiotic resistant with 97% resistant to 7 anti...
.... Molecular Detection of Human Bacterial Pathogens addresses this issue, with international scientists in respective bacterial pathogen research and diagnosis providing expert summaries on current...
Khater, Mohga; de la Escosura-Muñiz, Alfredo; Merkoçi, Arben
Infectious plant diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, viroids, phytoplasma and nematodes. Worldwide, plant pathogen infections are among main factors limiting crop productivity and increasing economic losses. Plant pathogen detection is important as first step to manage a plant disease in greenhouses, field conditions and at the country boarders. Current immunological techniques used to detect pathogens in plant include enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and direct tissue blot immunoassays (DTBIA). DNA-based techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), real time PCR (RT-PCR) and dot blot hybridization have also been proposed for pathogen identification and detection. However these methodologies are time-consuming and require complex instruments, being not suitable for in-situ analysis. Consequently, there is strong interest for developing new biosensing systems for early detection of plant diseases with high sensitivity and specificity at the point-of-care. In this context, we revise here the recent advancement in the development of advantageous biosensing systems for plant pathogen detection based on both antibody and DNA receptors. The use of different nanomaterials such as nanochannels and metallic nanoparticles for the development of innovative and sensitive biosensing systems for the detection of pathogens (i.e. bacteria and viruses) at the point-of-care is also shown. Plastic and paper-based platforms have been used for this purpose, offering cheap and easy-to-use really integrated sensing systems for rapid on-site detection. Beside devices developed at research and development level a brief revision of commercially available kits is also included in this review. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
de Wit, Emmie; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; de Jong, Menno D.; Fouchier, Ron A. M.
In recent years, there has been an increase in outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in poultry. Occasionally, these outbreaks have resulted in transmission of influenza viruses to humans and other mammals, with symptoms ranging from conjunctivitis to pneumonia and death. Here, the
The emergence of pathogens is the result of a number of impact in all parts of the food chain. The emerging technologies in food production explain how new pathogens can establish themselves in the food chain and compromise food safety. The impact of the food technology is analysed for several bacteria, such as Yersinia, Campylobacter, Arcobacter, Helicobacter pullorum, Enterobacter sakazakii, Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis, prions related to vCJD and others. The importance of the ability of many microbes to form VBNC forms is elaborated on. Research on culture independent methods may address this outstanding issue to the better understanding of emerging pathogens. The "demerging" of pathogens also occur, and examples of this are explained. The reaction of bacteria to stresses and sublethal treatments, and how exposure to one stress factor can confer resistance to other stresses, literally speaking causing contagious resistance, are explained. The implication of this e.g. in modern approaches of food preservation, such as Minimally processed Foods, is considerable. Intestinal colonization of EHEC may be regulated by Quorum sensing, and this ability of microbes plays an important role in the colonization of microbes in food and on food processing equipment, an important factor in the emergence of pathogens. The emergence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as an opportunistic human pathogen, used for centuries for food and production of alcoholic beverages, calls for research in molecular tools to distinguish between probiotic and clinical strains. Cyclospora cayetanensis and Norovirus outbreaks can no longer be designated as emerging pathogens, they share however one characteristic in the epidemiology of emerging nature, the importance of the hygiene in the primary production stage, including supply of potable water, and the application of GMP and the HACCP principles in the beginning of the food chain. Hepatitis E virus is a potential emerging food borne
and customized source of information designed for and accessible to microbiologists interested in applying cutting-edge genomics in food safety and public health research. This book fills this void with a well-selected collection of topics, case studies, and bioinformatics tools contributed by experts......This book provides a timely and thorough snapshot into the emerging and fast evolving area of applied genomics of foodborne pathogens. Driven by the drastic advance of whole genome shot gun sequencing (WGS) technologies, genomics applications are becoming increasingly valuable and even essential...... at the forefront of foodborne pathogen genomics research....
Kupfer, Tom R.; Tybur, Joshua M.
The behavioral immune system includes motivational systems for avoiding contact with pathogens, including those transmitted by other people. Motivations to avoid others may depend not only on the perceived risk of infection but also on perceived benefits of social interaction. Based on this idea, we
Gallegos, Belém; Martínez, Ruth; Pérez, Laura; Del Socorro Pina, María; Perez, Eduardo; Hernández, Pedro
Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins widely distributed in nature. They constitute a highly diverse group of proteins consisting of many different protein families that are, in general, structurally unrelated. In the last few years, mushroom and other fungal lectins have attracted wide attention due to their antitumour, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities. The present mini-review provides concise information about recent developments in understanding lectins from human pathogenic fungi. A bibliographic search was performed in the Science Direct and PubMed databases, using the following keywords "lectin", "fungi", "human" and "pathogenic". Lectins present in fungi have been classified; however, the role played by lectins derived from human pathogenic fungi in infectious processes remains uncertain; thus, this is a scientific field requiring more research. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012). Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Shi, Run; Yang, Xia; Chen, Lu; Chang, Hong-tao; Liu, Hong-ying; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Xin-wei; Wang, Chuan-qing
Shigellosis in chickens was first reported in 2004. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens and the possibility of cross-infection between humans and chickens. The pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens was examined via infection of three-day-old SPF chickens with Shigella strain ZD02 isolated from a human patient. The virulence and invasiveness were examined by infection of the chicken intestines and primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed Shigella can cause death via intraperitoneal injection in SPF chickens, but only induce depression via crop injection. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy revealed the Shigella can invade the intestinal epithelia. Immunohistochemistry of the primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells infected with Shigella showed the bacteria were internalized into the epithelial cells. Electron microscopy also confirmed that Shigella invaded primary chicken intestinal epithelia and was encapsulated by phagosome-like membranes. Our data demonstrate that Shigella can invade primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and chicken intestinal mucosa in vivo, resulting in pathogenicity and even death. The findings suggest Shigella isolated from human or chicken share similar pathogenicity as well as the possibility of human-poultry cross-infection, which is of public health significance.
Solheim, Bjarte G
Thanks to many blood safety interventions introduced in developed countries the risk of transfusion transmitted infections has become exceedingly small in these countries. However, emerging pathogens still represent a serious challenge, as demonstrated by West Nile virus in the US and more recently by Chikungunya virus in the Indian Ocean. In addition bacterial contamination, particularly in platelets, and protozoa transmitted by blood components still represent sizeable risks in developed countries. In developing countries the risk of all transfusion transmitted infections is still high due to insufficient funding and organisation of the health service. Pathogen reduction of pooled plasma products has virtually eliminated the risk of transfusion transmitted infections, without compromising the quality of the products significantly. Pathogen reduction of blood components has been much more challenging. Solvent detergent treatment which has been so successfully applied for plasma products dissolves cell membranes, and can, therefore, only be applied for plasma and not for cellular blood components. Targeting of nucleic acids has been another method for pathogen inactivation of plasma and the only approach possible for cellular blood products. As documented in more than 15 year's track record, solvent detergent treatment of pooled plasma can yield high quality plasma. The increased risk for contamination by unknown viruses due to pooling is out weighed by elimination of TRALI, significant reduction in allergic reactions and standardisation of the product. Recently, a promising method for solvent detergent treatment of single donor plasma units has been published. Methylene blue light treatment of single donor plasma units has a similar long track record as pooled solvent detergent treated plasma; but the method is less well documented and affects coagulation factor activity more. Psoralen light treated plasma has only recently been introduced (CE marked in Europe
Sillivan, Stephanie E; Vaissière, Thomas; Miller, Courtney A
Our unique collection of memories determines our individuality and shapes our future interactions with the world. Remarkable advances into the neurobiological basis of memory have identified key epigenetic mechanisms that support the stability of memory. Various forms of epigenetic regulation at the levels of DNA methylation, histone modification, and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) can modulate transcriptional and translational events required for memory processes. By changing the cellular profile in the brain's emotional, reward, and memory circuits, these epigenetic modifications have also been linked to perseverant, pathogenic memories. In this review, we will delve into the relevance of epigenetic dysregulation to pathogenic memory mechanisms by focusing on two neuropsychiatric disorders perpetuated by aberrant memory associations: substance use disorder (SUD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). As our understanding improves, neuroepigenetic mechanisms may someday be harnessed to develop novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of these chronic, relapsing disorders.
Stephanie E. Sillivan
Full Text Available Our unique collection of memories determines our individuality and shapes our future interactions with the world. Remarkable advances into the neurobiological basis of memory have identified key epigenetic mechanisms that support the stability of memory. Various forms of epigenetic regulation at the levels of DNA methylation, histone modification, and noncoding RNAs can modulate transcriptional and translational events required for memory processes. By changing the cellular profile in the brain’s emotional, reward, and memory circuits, these epigenetic modifications have also been linked to perseverant, pathogenic memories. In this review, we will delve into the relevance of epigenetic dysregulation to pathogenic memory mechanisms by focusing on 2 neuropsychiatric disorders perpetuated by aberrant memory associations: substance use disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. As our understanding improves, neuroepigenetic mechanisms may someday be harnessed to develop novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of these chronic, relapsing disorders.
Oliver, Stephen P; Murinda, Shelton E
Antibiotics are used extensively in the dairy industry to combat disease and to improve animal performance. Antibiotics such as penicillin, cephalosporin, streptomycin, and tetracycline are used for the treatment and prevention of diseases affecting dairy cows caused by a variety of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Antibiotics are often administrated routinely to entire herds to prevent mastitis during the dry period. An increase in the incidence of disease in a herd generally results in increased use of antimicrobials, which in turn increases the potential for antibiotic residues in milk and the potential for increased bacterial resistance to antimicrobials. Continued use of antibiotics in the treatment and prevention of diseases of dairy cows will continue to be scrutinized. It is clear that strategies employing the prudent use of antimicrobials are needed. This clearly illustrates the importance of effective herd disease prevention and control programs. Based on studies published to date, scientific evidence does not support widespread, emerging resistance among mastitis pathogens to antibacterial drugs even though many of these antibiotics have been used in the dairy industry for treatment and prevention of disease for several decades. However, it is clear that use of antibiotics in dairy cows can contribute to increased antimicrobial resistance. While antimicrobial resistance does occur, we are of the opinion that the advantages of using antibiotics for the treatment of mastitis far outweigh the disadvantages. The clinical consequences of antimicrobial resistance of dairy pathogens affecting humans appear small. Antimicrobial resistance among dairy pathogens, particularly those found in milk, is likely not a human health concern as long as the milk is pasteurized. However, there are an increasing number of people who choose to consume raw milk. Transmission of an antimicrobial-resistant mastitis pathogen and/or foodborne pathogen to humans could occur
... and Evolutionary Dynamics of Pathogens * 21 Keith A. Crandall and Marcos Pérez-Losada II. Evolutionary Genetics of Microbial Pathogens 4. Environmental and Social Influences on Infectious Disea...
Bishop, Deborah L.; Levine, Howard G.; Anderson, Anne J.
Plants grown in microgravity are subject to many environmental stresses, which may promote microbial growth and result in pathogenicity to the plant. Recent plant experiments with super dwarf wheat aboard the NASA Space Shuttle and NASA/Russian Mir Space Station returned from the mission with severe degrees of fungal contamination. Understanding the cause of such microbial contamination and methods to eliminate it are necessary prerequisites for continued plant growth and development studies ...
Full Text Available Plant pathogenic fungi cause important yield losses in crops. In order to develop efficient and environmental friendly crop protection strategies, molecular studies of the fungal biological cycle, virulence factors, and interaction with its host are necessary. For that reason, several approaches have been performed using both classical genetic, cell biology, and biochemistry and the modern, holistic, and high-throughput, omic techniques. This work briefly overviews the tools available for studying Plant Pathogenic Fungi and is amply focused on MS-based Proteomics analysis, based on original papers published up to December 2009. At a methodological level, different steps in a proteomic workflow experiment are discussed. Separate sections are devoted to fungal descriptive (intracellular, subcellular, extracellular and differential expression proteomics and interactomics. From the work published we can conclude that Proteomics, in combination with other techniques, constitutes a powerful tool for providing important information about pathogenicity and virulence factors, thus opening up new possibilities for crop disease diagnosis and crop protection.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There are a number of well-known mutations responsible of common mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA diseases. In order to overcome technical problems related to the analysis of complete mtDNA genomes, a variety of different techniques have been proposed that allow the screening of coding region pathogenic mutations. Methods We here propose a minisequencing assay for the analysis of mtDNA mutations. In a single reaction, we interrogate a total of 25 pathogenic mutations distributed all around the whole mtDNA genome in a sample of patients suspected for mtDNA disease. Results We have detected 11 causal homoplasmic mutations in patients suspected for Leber disease, which were further confirmed by standard automatic sequencing. Mutations m.11778G>A and m.14484T>C occur at higher frequency than expected by change in the Galician (northwest Spain patients carrying haplogroup J lineages (Fisher's Exact test, P-value Conclusion We here developed a minisequencing genotyping method for the screening of the most common pathogenic mtDNA mutations which is simple, fast, and low-cost. The technique is robust and reproducible and can easily be implemented in standard clinical laboratories.
Fuchs, Thilo Martin
Cautious optimism has arisen over recent decades with respect to the long struggle against bacteria, viruses, and parasites. This has been offset, however, by a fatal complacency stemming from previous successes such as the development of antimicrobial drugs, the eradication of smallpox, and global immunization programs. Infectious diseases nevertheless remain the world's leading cause of death, killing at least 17 million persons annually . Diarrheal diseases caused by Vibrio cholerae or Shigella dysenteriae kill about 3 million persons every year, most of them young children: Another 4 million die of tuberculosis or tetanus. Outbreaks of diphtheria in Eastern Europe threatens the population with a disease that had previously seemed to be overcome. Efforts to control infectious diseases more comprehensively are undermined not only by socioeconomic conditions but also by the nature of the pathogenic organisms itself; some isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter have become so resistant to drugs by horizontal gene transfer that they are almost untreatable. In addition, the mechanism of genetic variability helps pathogens to evade the human immune system, thus compromising the development of powerful vaccines. Therefore detailed knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of microbial pathogenicity is absolutely necessary to develop new strategies against infectious diseases and thus to lower their impact on human health and social development.
Full Text Available Certain human bacterial pathogens such as the enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica are not proven to be plant pathogens yet. Nonetheless, under certain conditions they can survive on, penetrate into, and colonize internal plant tissues causing serious food borne disease outbreaks. In this review, we highlight current understanding on the molecular mechanisms of plant responses against human bacterial pathogens and discuss salient common and contrasting themes of plant interactions with phytopathogens or human pathogens.
Yeager, J.G.; Ward, R.L.
United States Environmental Protection Agency regulations include gamma ray irradiation of sludge as an approved Process to Further Reduce Pathogens (PFRP) prior to land application. Research at Sandia National Laboratories on pathogen inactivation in sludge by gamma irradiation has demonstrated that the 1 Mrad PFRP dose is capable, by itself, of eliminating bacterial, fungal, and parasitic pathogens from sludge. Gamma irradiation of sludge in conjunction with the required Processes to Significantly Reduce Pathogens (PSRP) should also eliminate the viral hazard from wastewater sludges
.... APHIS-2006-0074] RIN 0579-AC36 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza is considered to exist. The interim rule also imposed... avian influenza, or that have moved through regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian...
Wallace, M Ariel Geer; Kormos, Tzipporah M; Pleil, Joachim D
Environmental health science aims to link environmental pollution sources to adverse health outcomes to develop effective exposure intervention strategies that reduce long-term disease risks. Over the past few decades, the public health community recognized that health risk is driven by interaction between the human genome and external environment. Now that the human genetic code has been sequenced, establishing this "G × E" (gene-environment) interaction requires a similar effort to decode the human exposome, which is the accumulation of an individual's environmental exposures and metabolic responses throughout the person's lifetime. The exposome is composed of endogenous and exogenous chemicals, many of which are measurable as biomarkers in blood, breath, and urine. Exposure to pollutants is assessed by analyzing biofluids for the pollutant itself or its metabolic products. New methods are being developed to use a subset of biomarkers, termed bioindicators, to demonstrate biological changes indicative of future adverse health effects. Typically, environmental biomarkers are assessed using noninvasive (excreted) media, such as breath and urine. Blood is often avoided for biomonitoring due to practical reasons such as medical personnel, infectious waste, or clinical setting, despite the fact that blood represents the central compartment that interacts with every living cell and is the most relevant biofluid for certain applications and analyses. The aims of this study were to (1) review the current use of blood samples in environmental health research, (2) briefly contrast blood with other biological media, and (3) propose additional applications for blood analysis in human exposure research.
Shabani, Shkelzen; Kamio, Michiya; Derby, Charles D
When attacked by predators, diverse animals actively or passively release molecules that evoke alarm and related anti-predatory behavior by nearby conspecifics. The actively released molecules are alarm pheromones, whereas the passively released molecules are alarm cues. For example, many insects have alarm-signaling systems that involve active release of alarm pheromones from specialized glands and detection of these signals using specific sensors. Many crustaceans passively release alarm cues, but the nature of the cues, sensors and responses is poorly characterized. Here we show in laboratory and field experiments that injured Caribbean spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, passively release alarm cues via blood (hemolymph) that induce alarm responses in the form of avoidance and suppression of feeding. These cues are detected exclusively through specific olfactory chemosensors, the aesthetasc sensilla. The alarm cues for Caribbean spiny lobsters are not unique to the species but do show some phylogenetic specificity: P. argus responds primarily with alarm behavior to conspecific blood, but with mixed alarm and appetitive behaviors to blood from the congener Panulirus interruptus, or with appetitive behaviors to blood from the blue crab Callinectes sapidus. This study lays the foundation for future neuroethological studies of alarm cue systems in this and other decapod crustaceans.
Aly, Hussein Hassan; Shimotohno, Kunitada; Hijikata, Makoto
Due to the high polymorphism of natural hepatitis C virus (HCV) variants, existing recombinant HCV replication models have failed to be effective in developing effective anti-HCV agents. In the current study, we describe an in vitro system that supports the infection and replication of natural HCV from patient blood using an immortalized primary human hepatocyte cell line cultured in a three-dimensional (3D) culture system. Comparison of the gene expression profile of cells cultured in the 3D system to those cultured in the existing 2D system demonstrated an up-regulation of several genes activated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) signaling. Furthermore, using PPARα agonists and antagonists, we also analyzed the effect of PPARα signaling on the modulation of HCV replication using this system. The 3D in vitro system described in this study provides significant insight into the search for novel anti-HCV strategies that are specific to various strains of HCV.
Watt, Andrew D; Perez, Keyla A; Faux, Noel G; Pike, Kerryn E; Rowe, Christopher C; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Salvado, Olivier; Masters, Colin L; Villemagne, Victor L; Barnham, Kevin J
Diagnostic measures for Alzheimer's disease (AD) commonly rely on evaluating the levels of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides within the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of affected individuals. These levels are often combined with levels of an additional non-Aβ marker to increase predictive accuracy. Recent efforts to overcome the invasive nature of CSF collection led to the observation of Aβ species within the blood cellular fraction, however, little is known of what additional biomarkers may be found in this membranous fraction. The current study aimed to undertake a discovery-based proteomic investigation of the blood cellular fraction from AD patients (n = 18) and healthy controls (HC; n = 15) using copper immobilized metal affinity capture and Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionisation Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry. Three candidate biomarkers were observed which could differentiate AD patients from HC (ROC AUC > 0.8). Bivariate pairwise comparisons revealed significant correlations between these markers and measures of AD severity including; MMSE, composite memory, brain amyloid burden, and hippocampal volume. A partial least squares regression model was generated using the three candidate markers along with blood levels of Aβ. This model was able to distinguish AD from HC with high specificity (90%) and sensitivity (77%) and was able to separate individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who converted to AD from MCI non-converters. While requiring further characterization, these candidate biomarkers reaffirm the potential efficacy of blood-based investigations into neurodegenerative conditions. Furthermore, the findings indicate that the incorporation of non-amyloid markers into predictive models, function to increase the accuracy of the diagnostic potential of Aβ.
varying greatly by species (Kloss et al. 2003, Nogami et al. 2000). Because sampling occurred at an .... of 12 with multiple protozoan genera present. Finding only hemoprotozoans of the genus. Plasmodium is thus concordant with previously established patterns. Also in agreement with previous research is the lack of.
Eskandarani, Hassan Ali; Kehrer, Michala; Christensen, Peer Brehm
to provide an updated evaluation of the annual frequency of registered exposures during the 2003-2012 period, the prevalence and incidence of transmission of HIV, HBV and HCV among HCWs, the prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV among source patients, the follow-up by HBV vaccination and blood sampling in exposed...... HCWs and, finally, reporting habits. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All registered first-time cases of BBF exposure at Odense University Hospital during the 2003-2012 period were included. The exposed HCW and source patient were linked to a laboratory database to obtain the test results for HIV, HBV, HCV...... among HCWs was zero. The prevalence of anti-HIV among source patients was 0.9%, HBsAg 1.2% and anti-HCV/HCV-RNA 3.8%. In 2003-2012, 31.3% of the tested HCWs had an anti-HBs ≥ 10 IU/l at baseline and this increased to 76.1% after vaccination. In 2012, 95% of the HCWs had blood samples at the time...
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The different types of circulating leucocytes were examined in 54 patients before and 2 to 4 months after 131 I therapy for hyperthyroidism. An absolute and differential percentage increase in the number of juvenile segmented neutrophils, eosinophilic and basophilic granulocytes was demonstrated in the patients free from signs of hyperthyroidism after therapy. This increase was statistically significant. No changes occurred in the 11 patients remaining hyperthyroid. (author)
Full Text Available Plant pathogens display impressive versatility in adapting to host immune systems. Pathogen effector proteins facilitate disease but can become avirulence (Avr factors when the host acquires discrete recognition capabilities that trigger immunity. The mechanisms that lead to changes to pathogen Avr factors that enable escape from host immunity are diverse, and include epigenetic switches that allow for reuse or recycling of effectors. This perspective outlines possibilities of how epigenetic control of Avr effector gene expression may have arisen and persisted in plant pathogens, and how it presents special problems for diagnosis and detection of specific pathogen strains or pathotypes.
Bradford, Scott A.; Harvey, Ronald W.
Contamination of groundwater by enteric pathogens has commonly been associated with disease outbreaks. Proper management and treatment of pathogen sources are important prerequisites for preventing groundwater contamination. However, non-point sources of pathogen contamination are frequently difficult to identify, and existing approaches for pathogen detection are costly and only provide semi-quantitative information. Microbial indicators that are readily quantified often do not correlate with the presence of pathogens. Pathogens of emerging concern and increasing detections of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens in groundwater are topics of growing concern. Adequate removal of pathogens during soil passage is therefore critical for safe groundwater extraction. Processes that enhance pathogen transport (e.g., high velocity zones and preferential flow) and diminish pathogen removal (e.g., reversible retention and enhanced survival) are of special concern because they increase the risk of groundwater contamination, but are still incompletely understood. Improved theory and modeling tools are needed to analyze experimental data, test hypotheses, understand coupled processes and controlling mechanisms, predict spatial and/or temporal variability in model parameters and uncertainty in pathogen concentrations, assess risk, and develop mitigation and best management approaches to protect groundwater.
Bradford, Scott A.; Harvey, Ronald W.
Contamination of groundwater by enteric pathogens has commonly been associated with disease outbreaks. Proper management and treatment of pathogen sources are important prerequisites for preventing groundwater contamination. However, non-point sources of pathogen contamination are frequently difficult to identify, and existing approaches for pathogen detection are costly and only provide semi-quantitative information. Microbial indicators that are readily quantified often do not correlate with the presence of pathogens. Pathogens of emerging concern and increasing detections of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens in groundwater are topics of growing concern. Adequate removal of pathogens during soil passage is therefore critical for safe groundwater extraction. Processes that enhance pathogen transport (e.g., high velocity zones and preferential flow) and diminish pathogen removal (e.g., reversible retention and enhanced survival) are of special concern because they increase the risk of groundwater contamination, but are still incompletely understood. Improved theory and modeling tools are needed to analyze experimental data, test hypotheses, understand coupled processes and controlling mechanisms, predict spatial and/or temporal variability in model parameters and uncertainty in pathogen concentrations, assess risk, and develop mitigation and best management approaches to protect groundwater.
Kumar, Himanshu; Kawai, Taro; Akira, Shizuo
Immunity against microbial pathogens primarily depends on the recognition of pathogen components by innate receptors expressed on immune and non-immune cells. Innate receptors are evolutionarily conserved germ-line-encoded proteins and include TLRs (Toll-like receptors), RLRs [RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene-I)-like receptors] and NLRs (Nod-like receptors). These receptors recognize pathogens or pathogen-derived products in different cellular compartments, such as the plasma membrane, the endosomes or the cytoplasm, and induce the expression of cytokines, chemokines and co-stimulatory molecules to eliminate pathogens and instruct pathogen-specific adaptive immune responses. In the present review, we will discuss the recent progress in the study of pathogen recognition by TLRs, RLRs and NLRs and their signalling pathways.
Water-borne pathogen contamination in water resources and related diseases are a major water quality concern throughout the world. Increasing interest in controlling water-borne pathogens in water resources evidenced by a large number of recent publications clearly attests to the need for studies that synthesize knowledge from multiple fields covering comparative aspects of pathogen contamination, and unify them in a single place in order to present and address the problem as a whole. Providing a broader perceptive of pathogen contamination in freshwater (rivers, lakes, reservoirs, groundwater) and saline water (estuaries and coastal waters) resources, this review paper attempts to develop the first comprehensive single source of existing information on pathogen contamination in multiple types of water resources. In addition, a comprehensive discussion describes the challenges associated with using indicator organisms. Potential impacts of water resources development on pathogen contamination as well as challenges that lie ahead for addressing pathogen contamination are also discussed. PMID:25006540
Fraga, Tatiana Rodrigues; Isaac, Lourdes; Barbosa, Angela Silva
Leptospirosis is a neglected infectious disease caused by spirochetes from the genus Leptospira . Pathogenic microorganisms, notably those which reach the blood circulation such as Leptospira , have evolved multiple strategies to escape the host complement system, which is important for innate and acquired immunity. Leptospira avoid complement-mediated killing through: (i) recruitment of host complement regulators; (ii) acquisition of host proteases that cleave complement proteins on the bacterial surface; and, (iii) secretion of proteases that inactivate complement proteins in the Leptospira surroundings. The recruitment of host soluble complement regulatory proteins includes the acquisition of Factor H (FH) and FH-like-1 (alternative pathway), C4b-binding protein (C4BP) (classical and lectin pathways), and vitronectin (Vn) (terminal pathway). Once bound to the leptospiral surface, FH and C4BP retain cofactor activity of Factor I in the cleavage of C3b and C4b, respectively. Vn acquisition by leptospires may result in terminal pathway inhibition by blocking C9 polymerization. The second evasion mechanism lies in plasminogen (PLG) binding to the leptospiral surface. In the presence of host activators, PLG is converted to enzymatically active plasmin, which is able to degrade C3b, C4b, and C5 at the surface of the pathogen. A third strategy used by leptospires to escape from complement system is the active secretion of proteases. Pathogenic, but not saprophytic leptospires, are able to secrete metalloproteases that cleave C3 (central complement molecule), Factor B (alternative pathway), and C4 and C2 (classical and lectin pathways). The purpose of this review is to fully explore these complement evasion mechanisms, which act together to favor Leptospira survival and multiplication in the host.
Hafeez, A.; Munir, T.; Najeeb, S.; Rehman, S.; Gilani, M.
Objective: To determine the frequency and antibiogram of pathogens in an intensive care unit (ICU). Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Army Medical College, National University of Science and Technology, Islamabad, from January 2013 to January 2014. Methodology: Clinical samples, received from patients admitted in ICU, were inoculated on various medias like blood agar, chocolate agar, MacConkey agar and urine samples on CLED. These were then incubated at 37 degree C for 24 hours. Isolates were identified by colony morphology, Gram reaction, catalase test, oxidase test. Species identification in case of Gram Negative Rods was done by using API 20E (BioMerieux). Antibiotic susceptibility was done by using modified KirbyBauer disc diffusion technique. Bacterial isolates were prepared and inoculated on Mueller-Hinton agar plates followed by application of various antibiotic disc (Oxoid, UK) as per manufacturer's instructions. The plates were then incubated at 37 degree C aerobically for 18 - 24 hours. Zone diameters were measured and interpreted as sensitive and resistant, according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Results: Out of the 367 positive cultures, 116 (31.08 percent) were Acinetobacter baumanniisusceptible to minocycline and tigecycline followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=71, 16 percent) susceptible to tigecycline and meropenem. Others were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Klebsiella oxytoca, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Candida spp. Conclusion: Acinetobacter baumannii was the most frequently isolated pathogen. Most of the cultures yielding pathogens were from respiratory tract samples. Gram negative isolates were multidrug resistant but most were tigecycline and susceptible to meropenem. (author)
Yu. A. Panferova
Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii is an obligate intracellular gram-negative bacterial pathogen, an ethiological agent of Q-fever, a zoonotic disease, elapsing as an acute (mostly atypical pneumonia or a chronic (mostly endocarditis form. The host range is represented by wide range of mammal, avian and arthropod species, but the main source of human infection are farm animals. The main route of infection is aerosolic. In case of contact with organism pathogen binds with phagocytal monocytic-macrophagal cell line. C. burnetii promotes maturation of specific phagolysosome-like compartment in host cell, called coxiella-containing vacuole, within this vacuole pathogen becames metabolically activated and actively replicates. Coxiella persists as metabolically inactive spore-like form in environment. Internalisation of C. burnetii occurs using actin-mediated phagocytosis and zipper mechanism. After internalization of bacteria maturation of phagolysosome-like compartment and large coxiella-containing vacuole formation occure, and vacuole can occupy nearly the whole cytoplasm of the host cell. Survivance of infected cells is important for chronic infection with C. burnetii. C. burnetii elongate the viability of host cell by two ways: it actively inhibits apoptotic signal cascades and induce pro-survival factors. Exceptthat C. burnetii involves autophagic pathway during coxiella-containing vacuole formation, and induction of autophagy promotes pathogen replication. During infection C. burnetii translocates effector substrates from bacterial cytosole to euca ryotic host cell cytosole using type IV secretion system, where effectors modulate host cell proteins. Overall approximately 130 secreted effectors of type IV transport system, but function of most of them remains unknown to date. Specific sec reted proteins for variety of strains and isolates were identified, confirmed that certain pathotypes of C. burnetii can exist. Identification and
Maniatis, A N; Palermos, J; Kantzanou, M; Maniatis, N A; Christodoulou, C; Legakis, N J
The significance of Streptococcus agalactiae as an aetiological agent in vaginitis was evaluated. A total of 6226 samples from women who presented with vaginal symptoms was examined. The presence of >10 leucocytes/high-power field (h.p.f.) was taken to be the criterion of active infection. S. agalactiae was isolated from 10.1% of these samples. The isolation rates of other common pathogens such as Candida spp., Gardnerella vaginalis and Trichomonas spp. were 54.1%, 27.2% and 4.2%, respectively, in the same group of patients. In contrast, the isolation rates of these micro-organisms in the group of patients who had no infection (S. agalactiae was isolated, it was the sole pathogen isolated (83%) and its presence was associated with an inflammatory response in 80% of patients. Furthermore, the relative risk of vaginal infection with S. agalactiae (2.38) in patients with purulent vaginal discharge was greater than that of Candida spp. infection (1.41) and lower than that of Trichomonas spp. infection (8.32). These data suggest that S. agalactiae in symptomatic women with microscopic evidence of inflammation should be considered a causative agent of vaginitis.
Sviridov, Dmitri; Bukrinsky, Michael
Pathogens of different taxa, from prions to protozoa, target cellular cholesterol metabolism to advance their own development and to impair host immune responses, but also causing metabolic complications, for example, atherosclerosis. This review describes recent findings of how pathogens do it. A common theme in interaction between pathogens and host cholesterol metabolism is pathogens targeting lipid rafts of the host plasma membrane. Many intracellular pathogens use rafts as an entry gate, taking advantage of the endocytic machinery and high abundance of outward-looking molecules that can be used as receptors. At the same time, disruption of the rafts' functional capacity, achieved by the pathogens through a number of various means, impairs the ability of the host to generate immune response, thus helping pathogen to thrive. Pathogens cannot synthesize cholesterol, and salvaging host cholesterol helps pathogens build advanced cholesterol-containing membranes and assembly platforms. Impact on cholesterol metabolism is not limited to the infected cells; proteins and microRNAs secreted by infected cells affect lipid metabolism systemically. Given an essential role that host cholesterol metabolism plays in pathogen development, targeting this interaction may be a viable strategy to fight infections, as well as metabolic complications of the infections.
Đukić Dragutin A.
Full Text Available The dynamics of soil mould populations that can compromise the human immune system was evaluated in experimental plots located at different distances (100, 300, 500, 700 and 900 m from the main source of pollution - the Podgorica Aluminum Plant. Soil samples were collected in July and October 2008 from three different plot zones at a depth of 0-10 cm. The count of potentially pathogenic, keratinolytic and allergenic (melaninogenic moulds was assessed, which can significantly contribute to both diagnosis and prophylaxis. The count of medically important moulds was higher in the urban soil than in the unpolluted (control soil. Their count decreased with increasing distance from the main pollution source (PAP. Their abundance in the soil was considerably higher in autumn than in spring.
Amano, A; Chen, C; Honma, K; Li, C; Settem, R P; Sharma, A
Periodontal disease is caused by a group of bacteria that utilize a variety of strategies and molecular mechanisms to evade or overcome host defenses. Recent research has uncovered new evidence illuminating interesting aspects of the virulence of these bacteria and their genomic variability. This paper summarizes some of the strategies utilized by the major species - Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, and Porphyromonas gingivalis - implicated in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. Whole-genome sequencing of 14 diverse A. actinomycetemcomitans strains has revealed variations in their genetic content (ranging between 0.4% and 19.5%) and organization. Strikingly, isolates from human periodontal sites showed no genomic changes during persistent colonization. T. forsythia manipulates the cytokine responses of macrophages and monocytes through its surface glycosylation. Studies have revealed that bacterial surface-expressed O-linked glycans modulate T-cell responses during periodontal inflammation. Periodontal pathogens belonging to the "red complex" consortium express neuraminidases, which enables them to scavenge sialic acid from host glycoconjugates. Analysis of recent data has demonstrated that the cleaved sialic acid acts as an important nutrient for bacterial growth and a molecule for the decoration of bacteria surfaces to help evade the host immune attack. In addition, bacterial entry into host cells is also an important prerequisite for the lifestyle of periodontal pathogens such as P. gingivalis. Studies have shown that, after its entry into the cell, this bacterium uses multiple sorting pathways destined for autophagy, lysosomes, or recycling pathways. In addition, P. gingivalis releases outer membrane vesicles which enter cells via endocytosis and cause cellular functional impairment.
Perez-Lopez, Araceli; Behnsen, Judith; Nuccio, Sean-Paul; Raffatellu, Manuela
The intestinal mucosa is a particularly dynamic environment in which the host constantly interacts with trillions of commensal microorganisms, known as the microbiota, and periodically interacts with pathogens of diverse nature. In this Review, we discuss how mucosal immunity is controlled in response to enteric bacterial pathogens, with a focus on the species that cause morbidity and mortality in humans. We explain how the microbiota can shape the immune response to pathogenic bacteria, and we detail innate and adaptive immune mechanisms that drive protective immunity against these pathogens. The vast diversity of the microbiota, pathogens and immune responses encountered in the intestines precludes discussion of all of the relevant players in this Review. Instead, we aim to provide a representative overview of how the intestinal immune system responds to pathogenic bacteria.
Choby, Jacob E.; Skaar, Eric P.
Bacterial pathogens require the iron-containing cofactor heme to cause disease. Heme is essential to the function of hemoproteins, which are involved in energy generation by the electron transport chain, detoxification of host immune effectors, and other processes. During infection, bacterial pathogens must synthesize heme or acquire heme from the host; however, host heme is sequestered in high-affinity hemoproteins. Pathogens have evolved elaborate strategies to acquire heme from host source...
Turner, Siobhán A.; Butler, Geraldine
Candida species are the most common causes of fungal infection. Approximately 90% of infections are caused by five species: Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida krusei. Three (C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis) belong to the CTG clade, in which the CTG codon is translated as serine and not leucine. C. albicans remains the most commonly isolated but is decreasing relative to the other species. The increasing incidence of C. glabrata is related to its reduced susceptibility to azole drugs. Genome analysis suggests that virulence in the CTG clade is associated with expansion of gene families, particularly of cell wall genes. Similar independent processes took place in the C. glabrata species group. Gene loss and expansion in an ancestor of C. glabrata may have resulted in preadaptations that enabled pathogenicity. PMID:25183855
Diseases transmitted via the faecal-oral exposure route cause severe gastroenteric disorders, and large numbers of causative organisms are discharged with the faecal matter of infected individuals. For this reason, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, protozoa, or helminths, are always found in sewage sludge. If not properly treated for use in agriculture, sludge can be a source of pathogenic contamination. Radiation is an attractive method to reduce the numbers of microorganisms in sewage sludge. Routine examination for pathogens is not practised nor recommended because complicated and costly procedures are involved. Instead, an indicator organism is usually assayed and enumerated. In this paper, methods are discussed for the investigation of pathogens in sewage sludge. (author)
Załuga, Joanna; Stragier, Pieter; Baeyen, Steve; Haegeman, Annelies; Van Vaerenbergh, Johan; Maes, Martine; De Vos, Paul
Background The genus Clavibacter harbors economically important plant pathogens infecting agricultural crops such as potato and tomato. Although the vast majority of Clavibacter strains are pathogenic, there is an increasing number of non-pathogenic isolates reported. Non-pathogenic Clavibacter strains isolated from tomato seeds are particularly problematic because they affect the current detection and identification tests for Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm), which is reg...
Helms, J Bernd; Kaloyanova, Dora V; Strating, Jeroen R P; van Hellemond, Jaap J; van der Schaar, Hilde M; Tielens, Aloysius G M; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M; Brouwers, Jos F
The hydrophobic molecules of the metabolome - also named the lipidome - constitute a major part of the entire metabolome. Novel technologies show the existence of a staggering number of individual lipid species, the biological functions of which are, with the exception of only a few lipid species, unknown. Much can be learned from pathogens that have evolved to take advantage of the complexity of the lipidome to escape the immune system of the host organism and to allow their survival and replication. Different types of pathogens target different lipids as shown in interaction maps, allowing visualization of differences between different types of pathogens. Bacterial and viral pathogens target predominantly structural and signaling lipids to alter the cellular phenotype of the host cell. Fungal and parasitic pathogens have complex lipidomes themselves and target predominantly the release of polyunsaturated fatty acids from the host cell lipidome, resulting in the generation of eicosanoids by either the host cell or the pathogen. Thus, whereas viruses and bacteria induce predominantly alterations in lipid metabolites at the host cell level, eukaryotic pathogens focus on interference with lipid metabolites affecting systemic inflammatory reactions that are part of the immune system. A better understanding of the interplay between host-pathogen interactions will not only help elucidate the fundamental role of lipid species in cellular physiology, but will also aid in the generation of novel therapeutic drugs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
We are entering a new era in plant pathology where whole-genome sequences of many individuals of a pathogen species are becoming readily available. This era of pathogen population genomics will provide new opportunities and challenges, requiring new computational and analytical tools. Population gen...
Aznar, Aude; Chen, Nicolas W G; Thomine, Sebastien; Dellagi, Alia
Iron is essential for metabolic processes in most living organisms. Pathogens and their hosts often compete for the acquisition of this nutrient. However, iron can catalyze the formation of deleterious reactive oxygen species. Hosts may use iron to increase local oxidative stress in defense responses against pathogens. Due to this duality, iron plays a complex role in plant-pathogen interactions. Plant defenses against pathogens and plant response to iron deficiency share several features, such as secretion of phenolic compounds, and use common hormone signaling pathways. Moreover, fine tuning of iron localization during infection involves genes coding iron transport and iron storage proteins, which have been shown to contribute to immunity. The influence of the plant iron status on the outcome of a given pathogen attack is strongly dependent on the nature of the pathogen infection strategy and on the host species. Microbial siderophores emerged as important factors as they have the ability to trigger plant defense responses. Depending on the plant species, siderophore perception can be mediated by their strong iron scavenging capacity or possibly via specific recognition as pathogen associated molecular patterns. This review highlights that iron has a key role in several plant-pathogen interactions by modulating immunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Graham, Elizabeth M; Taylor, David J
With the notable exception of Brucella canis, exogenous bacterial pathogens are uncommon causes of reproductive disease in cats and dogs. Most bacterial reproductive infections are endogenous, and predisposing factors for infection are important. This article reviews the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and public health significance of bacterial reproductive pathogens in cats and dogs.
Citrus trees are often infected with multiple pathogens of economic importance, especially those with insect or mite vectors. Real-time/quantitative PCR (qPCR) has been used for high-throughput detection and relative quantification of pathogens; however, target reference or standards are required. I...
Full Text Available The studies on root parsley pathogens inhabiting seeds were conducted during 1981-1988 and in 1993. Filter paper method with prefreezing and keeping under light was used. Each test sample comprised 500 seeds. Pathogenicity of collected fungal isolates was tested following two laboratory methods. 238 seed samples were studied. 18 fungal species were found but only 7 proved to be important pathogens of root parsley. The most common inhabitants of root parsley seeds were Alternaria spp. A.allernata occurred on 74,8% of seeds but only a few isolates showed to be slightly pathogenic while A.petroselini and A.radicina were higly pathogenic and inhabited 11,4 and 4,2% of seeds, respectively. The second group of important pathogens were species of Fusarium found on 3,9% of seeds. F.avenaceum dominated as it comprised 48% of Fusarium isolates, the next were as follow: F.culmorum - 20%, F.equiseti - 15%, F.solani - 8%, F.oxysporum - 7% and F.dimerum -2%. Some fungi like Botrytis cinerea, Septoria petroselini and Phoma spp. inhabited low number of seeds, respectively O,4; 0,5 and 0,8%, but they were highly pathogenic to root parsley. The fungi: Bipolaris sorokiniana, Drechslera biseptata, Stemphylium botryosum and Ulocludium consortiale showed slight pathogenicity. They were isolated from 3,8% of seeds.
... [Docket No. APHIS-2006-0074] RIN 0579-AC36 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal and Plant... regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is considered to exist. The interim... avian influenza (HPAI). On January 24, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 4046-4056...
Fermented foods have many advantageous attributes such as improved nutritional value and safety against bacterial pathogens. These foods are also important for weaning purposes and hence play a role in protecting infants against foodborne diseases. However, pathogens have been isolated from some fermented foods ...
Brul, S.; Fratamico, P.M.; McMeekin, T.A.
Successful methods for the detection and investigation of outbreaks of foodborne disease are essential for ensuring consumer safety. Increased understanding of the transmission of pathogens in food chains will also assist efforts to safeguard public health. Tracing pathogens in the food chain
Moyo, P; Allsopp, E; Roets, F; Mostert, L; Halleen, F
Arthropod-mediated dispersal of pathogens is known in many cropping systems but has never been demonstrated for grapevine trunk disease pathogens. Arthropods from vineyards were screened for the presence of pathogens associated with Petri disease and esca using cultural and molecular techniques. The ability of the most abundant pathogen-carrying species to inoculate healthy grapevine vascular tissues was also determined. Millipedes and ants were allowed to associate with a DsRed- Express-transformed Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, after which they were exposed to freshly pruned healthy grapevines under controlled conditions and wounds were monitored for subsequent infection. In addition, the possibility of millipede excreta, commonly found on pruning wounds in the field, to act as inoculum source was determined. A diverse arthropod fauna was associated with declining grapevines and many of these carried trunk disease pathogens. However, spiders, the ant Crematogaster peringueyi, and the millipede Ommattoiulus moreleti were the most abundant pathogen carriers. The ant and millipede species fed on pruning wound sap and effectively transmitted trunk disease pathogens. Millipede excreta contained viable spores of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and may serve as an inoculum source. Numerous arthropods, including beneficial predators, are potential vectors of grapevine trunk disease pathogens. Our results highlight the need for an integrated approach, including targeted management of ants and millipedes at the time of pruning, to limit the spread of grapevine trunk diseases.
Fernández, Francisco J; Gómez, Sara; Vega, M Cristina
The surveillance and pathogen fighting functions of the complement system have evolved to protect mammals from life-threatening infections. In turn, pathogens have developed complex molecular mechanisms to subvert, divert and evade the effector functions of the complement. The study of complement immunoevasion by pathogens sheds light on their infection drivers, knowledge that is essential to implement therapies. At the same time, complement evasion also acts as a discovery ground that reveals important aspects of how complement works under physiological conditions. In recent years, complex interrelationships between infection insults and the onset of autoimmune and complement dysregulation diseases have led to propose that encounters with pathogens can act as triggering factors for disease. The correct management of these diseases involves the recognition of their triggering factors and the development and administration of complement-associated molecular therapies. Even more recently, unsuspected proteins from pathogens have been shown to possess moonlighting functions as virulence factors, raising the possibility that behind the first line of virulence factors there be many more pathogen proteins playing secondary, helping and supporting roles for the pathogen to successfully establish infections. In an era where antibiotics have a progressively reduced effect on the management and control of infectious diseases worldwide, knowledge on the mechanisms of pathogenic invasion and evasion look more necessary and pressing than ever. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Choby, Jacob E; Skaar, Eric P
Bacterial pathogens require the iron-containing cofactor heme to cause disease. Heme is essential to the function of hemoproteins, which are involved in energy generation by the electron transport chain, detoxification of host immune effectors, and other processes. During infection, bacterial pathogens must synthesize heme or acquire heme from the host; however, host heme is sequestered in high-affinity hemoproteins. Pathogens have evolved elaborate strategies to acquire heme from host sources, particularly hemoglobin, and both heme acquisition and synthesis are important for pathogenesis. Paradoxically, excess heme is toxic to bacteria and pathogens must rely on heme detoxification strategies. Heme is a key nutrient in the struggle for survival between host and pathogen, and its study has offered significant insight into the molecular mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Niller, Hans Helmut; Masa, Roland; Venkei, Annamária; Mészáros, Sándor; Minarovits, Janos
We wished to overview recent data on a subset of epigenetic changes elicited by intracellular bacteria in human cells. Reprogramming the gene expression pattern of various host cells may facilitate bacterial growth, survival, and spread. DNA-(cytosine C5)-methyltransferases of Mycoplasma hyorhinis targeting cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) dinucleotides and a Mycobacterium tuberculosis methyltransferase targeting non-CpG sites methylated the host cell DNA and altered the pattern of gene expression. Gene silencing by CpG methylation and histone deacetylation, mediated by cellular enzymes, also occurred in M. tuberculosis-infected macrophages. M. tuberculosis elicited cell type-specific epigenetic changes: it caused increased DNA methylation in macrophages, but induced demethylation, deposition of euchromatic histone marks and activation of immune-related genes in dendritic cells. A secreted transposase of Acinetobacter baumannii silenced a cellular gene, whereas Mycobacterium leprae altered the epigenotype, phenotype, and fate of infected Schwann cells. The 'keystone pathogen' oral bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis induced local DNA methylation and increased the level of histone acetylation in host cells. These epigenetic changes at the biofilm-gingiva interface may contribute to the development of periodontitis. Epigenetic regulators produced by intracellular bacteria alter the epigenotype and gene expression pattern of host cells and play an important role in pathogenesis.
Jamie R. Stevens
Full Text Available In the absence of a fossil record, the evolution of protozoa has until recently largely remained a matter for speculation. However, advances in molecular methods and phylogenetic analysis are now allowing interpretation of the "history written in the genes". This review focuses on recent progress in reconstruction of trypanosome phylogeny based on molecular data from ribosomal RNA, the miniexon and protein-coding genes. Sufficient data have now been gathered to demonstrate unequivocally that trypanosomes are monophyletic; the phylogenetic trees derived can serve as a framework to reinterpret the biology, taxonomy and present day distribution of trypanosome species, providing insights into the coevolution of trypanosomes with their vertebrate hosts and vectors. Different methods of dating the divergence of trypanosome lineages give rise to radically different evolutionary scenarios and these are reviewed. In particular, the use of one such biogeographically based approach provides new insights into the coevolution of the pathogens, Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma cruzi, with their human hosts and the history of the diseases with which they are associated.
Full Text Available The term ‘quorum sensing’ describes intercellular bacterial communication which regulates bacterial gene expression according to population cell density. Bacteria produce and secrete small molecules, named autoinducers, into the intercellular space. The concentration of these molecules increases as a function of population cell density. Once the concentration of the stimulatory threshold is reached, alteration in gene expression occurs. Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria possess different types of quorum sensing systems. Canonical LuxI/R-type/acyl homoserine lactone mediated quorum sensing system is the best studied quorum sensing circuit and is described in Gram-negative bacteria which employ it for inter-species communication mostly. Grampositive bacteria possess a peptide-mediated quorum sensing system. Bacteria can communicate within their own species (intra-species but also between species (inter-species, for which they employ an autoinducer-2 quorum sensing system which is called the universal language of the bacteria. Periodontal pathogenic bacteria possess AI-2 quorum sensing systems. It is known that they use it for regulation of biofilm formation, iron uptake, stress response and virulence factor expression. A better understanding of bacterial communication mechanisms will allow the targeting of quorum sensing with quorum sensing inhibitors to prevent and control disease.
Michael J Sweet
Full Text Available Benthic algae are associated with coral death in the form of stress and disease. It's been proposed that they release exudates, which facilitate invasion of potentially pathogenic microbes at the coral-algal interface, resulting in coral disease. However, the original source of these pathogens remains unknown. This study examined the ability of benthic algae to act as reservoirs of coral pathogens by characterizing surface associated microbes associated with major Caribbean and Indo-Pacific algal species/types and by comparing them to potential pathogens of two dominant coral diseases: White Syndrome (WS in the Indo-Pacific and Yellow Band Disease (YBD in the Caribbean. Coral and algal sampling was conducted simultaneously at the same sites to avoid spatial effects. Potential pathogens were defined as those absent or rare in healthy corals, increasing in abundance in healthy tissues adjacent to a disease lesion, and dominant in disease lesions. Potentially pathogenic bacteria were detected in both WS and YBD and were also present within the majority of algal species/types (54 and 100% for WS and YBD respectively. Pathogenic ciliates were associated only with WS and not YBD lesions and these were also present in 36% of the Indo-Pacific algal species. Although potential pathogens were associated with many algal species, their presence was inconsistent among replicate algal samples and detection rates were relatively low, suggestive of low density and occurrence. At the community level, coral-associated microbes irrespective of the health of their host differed from algal-associated microbes, supporting that algae and corals have distinctive microbial communities associated with their tissue. We conclude that benthic algae are common reservoirs for a variety of different potential coral pathogens. However, algal-associated microbes alone are unlikely to cause coral death. Initial damage or stress to the coral via other competitive mechanisms is
Załuga, Joanna; Stragier, Pieter; Baeyen, Steve; Haegeman, Annelies; Van Vaerenbergh, Johan; Maes, Martine; De Vos, Paul
The genus Clavibacter harbors economically important plant pathogens infecting agricultural crops such as potato and tomato. Although the vast majority of Clavibacter strains are pathogenic, there is an increasing number of non-pathogenic isolates reported. Non-pathogenic Clavibacter strains isolated from tomato seeds are particularly problematic because they affect the current detection and identification tests for Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm), which is regulated with a zero tolerance in tomato seed. Their misidentification as pathogenic Cmm hampers a clear judgment on the seed quality and health. To get more insight in the genetic features linked to the lifestyle of these bacteria, a whole-genome sequence of the tomato seed-borne non-pathogenic Clavibacter LMG 26808 was determined. To gain a better understanding of the molecular determinants of pathogenicity, the genome sequence of LMG 26808 was compared with that of the pathogenic Cmm strain (NCPPB 382). The comparative analysis revealed that LMG 26808 does not contain plasmids pCM1 and pCM2 and also lacks the majority of important virulence factors described so far for pathogenic Cmm. This explains its apparent non-pathogenic nature in tomato plants. Moreover, the genome analysis of LMG 26808 detected sequences from a plasmid originating from a member of Enterobacteriaceae/Klebsiella relative. Genes received that way and coding for antibiotic resistance may provide a competitive advantage for survival of LMG 26808 in its ecological niche. Genetically, LMG 26808 was the most similar to the pathogenic Cmm NCPPB 382 but contained more mobile genetic elements. The genome of this non-pathogenic Clavibacter strain contained also a high number of transporters and regulatory genes. The genome sequence of the non-pathogenic Clavibacter strain LMG 26808 and the comparative analyses with other pathogenic Clavibacter strains provided a better understanding of the genetic bases of virulence and
Full Text Available The prompt and efficient clearance of unwanted and abnormal cells by phagocytes is termed efferocytosis and is crucial for organism development, maintenance of tissue homeostasis, and regulation of the immune system. Dying cells are recognized by phagocytes through pathways initiated via “find me” signals, recognition via “eat me” signals and down-modulation of regulatory “don’t eat me” signals. Pathogen infection may trigger cell death that drives phagocytic clearance in an immunologically silent, or pro-inflammatory manner, depending on the mode of cell death. In many cases, efferocytosis is a mechanism for eliminating pathogens and pathogen-infected cells; however, some pathogens have subverted this process and use efferocytic mechanisms to avoid innate immune detection and assist phagocyte infection. In parallel, phagocytes can integrate signals received from infected dying cells to elicit the most appropriate effector response against the infecting pathogen. This review focuses on pathogen-induced cell death signals that drive infected cell recognition and uptake by phagocytes, and the outcomes for the infected target cell, the phagocyte, the pathogen and the host.
Flor Yazmín Ramírez-Castillo
Full Text Available Waterborne pathogens and related diseases are a major public health concern worldwide, not only by the morbidity and mortality that they cause, but by the high cost that represents their prevention and treatment. These diseases are directly related to environmental deterioration and pollution. Despite the continued efforts to maintain water safety, waterborne outbreaks are still reported globally. Proper assessment of pathogens on water and water quality monitoring are key factors for decision-making regarding water distribution systems’ infrastructure, the choice of best water treatment and prevention waterborne outbreaks. Powerful, sensitive and reproducible diagnostic tools are developed to monitor pathogen contamination in water and be able to detect not only cultivable pathogens but also to detect the occurrence of viable but non-culturable microorganisms as well as the presence of pathogens on biofilms. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA is a helpful tool to evaluate the scenarios for pathogen contamination that involve surveillance, detection methods, analysis and decision-making. This review aims to present a research outlook on waterborne outbreaks that have occurred in recent years. This review also focuses in the main molecular techniques for detection of waterborne pathogens and the use of QMRA approach to protect public health.
Grishkanich, Alexander; Zhevlakov, Alexander; Kascheev, Sergey; Sidorov, Igor; Ruzankina, Julia; Yakovlev, Alexey; Mak, Andrey
Currently there is a situation that makes it difficult to provide the population with quality drinking water for the sanitary-hygienic requirements. One of the urgent problems is the need for water disinfection. Since the emergence of microorganisms that are pathogens transmitted through water such as typhoid, cholera, etc. requires constant cleansing of waters against pathogenic bacteria. In the water treatment process is destroyed up to 98% of germs, but among the remaining can be pathogenic viruses, the destruction of which requires special handling. As a result, the conducted research the following methods have been proposed for combating harmful microorganisms: sterilization of water by laser radiation and using a UV lamp.
Xiao, Di; Zhang, Cuicai; Zhang, Huifang; Li, Xiuwen; Jiang, Xiugao; Zhang, Jianzhong
Leptospirosis is a worldwide, deadly zoonotic disease. Pathogenic Leptospira causes leptospirosis. The rapid and accurate identification of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Leptospira strains is essential for appropriate therapeutic management and timely intervention for infection control. The molecular fingerprint is a simple and rapid alternative tool for microorganisms identification, which is based on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). In this study, molecular fingerprint was performed to identify pathogenic strains of Leptospira. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences was used as the reference method. In addition, a label-free technique was used to reveal the different proteins of pathogenic or non-pathogenic Leptospira. A reference database was constructed using 30 Leptospira strains, including 16 pathogenic strains and 14 non-pathogenic strains. Two super reference spectra that were associated with pathogenicity were established. Overall, 33 Leptospira strains were used for validation, and 32 of 33 Leptospira strains could be identified on the species level and all the 33 could be classified as pathogenic or non-pathogenic. The super reference spectra and the major spectra projection (MSP) dendrogram correctly categorized the Leptospira strains into pathogenic and non-pathogenic groups, which was consistent with the 16S rRNA reference methods. Between the pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains, 108 proteins were differentially expressed. molecular fingerprint is an alternative to conventional molecular identification and can rapidly distinguish between pathogenic and non-pathogenic Leptospira strains. Therefore, molecular fingerprint may play an important role in the clinical diagnosis, treatment, surveillance, and tracking of epidemic outbreaks of leptospirosis. Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis that is caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. Leptospirosis is a serious zoonotic
This paper presents results of pathogen inactivation programs being conducted in Belgium, Czechoslovakia, France, East Germany, West Germany, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States
Chang, A C [Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, Univ. of California at Riverside, Riverside, CA (United States)
Diseases transmitted via the faecal-oral exposure route cause severe gastroenteric disorders, and large numbers of causative organisms are discharged with the faecal matter of infected individuals. For this reason, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, protozoa, or helminths, are always found in sewage sludge. If not properly treated for use in agriculture, sludge can be a source of pathogenic contamination. Radiation is an attractive method to reduce the numbers of microorganisms in sewage sludge. Routine examination for pathogens is not practised nor recommended because complicated and costly procedures are involved. Instead, an indicator organism is usually assayed and enumerated. In this paper, methods are discussed for the investigation of pathogens in sewage sludge. (author). 8 refs, 3 tabs.
Fratamico, Pina M; Liu, Yanhong; Kathariou, Sophia
... of Pathogenic Vibrio cholerae * 85 Salvador Almagro-Moreno, Ronan A. Murphy, and E. Fidelma Boyd 8. Genomics of the Enteropathogenic Yersiniae * 101 Alan McNally, Nicholas R. Thomson, and Brendan W. ...
know which endemic strains of S. aureus in dairy cattle ... Antibiotic resistance; cattle; mastitis; MRSA; pathogenic genes ... recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute ...... fnbA, eno, hla and nuc, did not show any relation to.
Granville, Mark F.
Explains schools' responsibilities in complying with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Bloodborne Pathogens Standard. Describes exposure determination plan, protective equipment, housekeeping practices, labeling of waste, training employees, hepatitis B vaccinations, postexposure evaluation and medical follow-up, and…
Bojsen, Rasmus Kenneth; Regenberg, Birgitte; Folkesson, Sven Anders
In this review, we briefly summarize the current understanding of how fungal pathogens can persist antifungal treatment without heritable resistance mutations by forming tolerant persister cells. Fungal infections tolerant to antifungal treatment have become a major medical problem. One mechanism...
Maurice Samuel Devaraj
Findings from this research may be used to prevent development of drug resistance, whether epigenetic or arising due to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA modification, in several pathogens, especially Mycobacterium tuberculosis through the co-administration of adenosine along with antibiotic treatment.
Ji Eun eOh
Full Text Available Autophagy is an ancient biological process for maintaining cellular homeostasis by degradation of long-lived cytosolic proteins and organelles. Recent studies demonstrated that autophagy is availed by immune cells to regulate innate immunity. On the one hand, cells exert direct effector function by degrading intracellular pathogens; on the other hand, autophagy modulates pathogen recognition and downstream signaling for innate immune responses. Pathogen recognition via pattern recognition receptors induces autophagy. The function of phagocytic cells is enhanced by recruitment of autophagy-related proteins. Moreover, autophagy acts as a delivery system for viral replication complexes to migrate to the endosomal compartments where virus sensing occurs. In another case, key molecules of the autophagic pathway have been found to negatively regulate immune signaling, thus preventing aberrant activation of cytokine production and consequent immune responses. In this review, we focus on the recent advances in the role of autophagy in pathogen recognition and modulation of innate immune responses.
SEVİNDİK, Emre; KIR, A. Çağrı; BAŞKEMER, Kadir; UZUN, Veysel
Polimerase chain reaction (PCR) with which, the development of recombinant DNA tecnology, a technique commonly used in field of moleculer biology and genetic. Duplication of the target DNA is provided with this technique without the need for cloning. Some fungus species, bacteria, viruses constitutent an important group of pathogenicity in human, animals and plants. There are routinely applied types of PCR in the detection of pathogens infections diseases. These Nested- PCR, Real- Time PCR, M...
Michod, Richard E; Bernstein, Harris; Nedelcu, Aurora M
Explaining the adaptive value of sex is one of the great outstanding problems in biology. The challenge comes from the difficulty in identifying the benefits provided by sex, which must outweigh the substantial costs of sex. Here, we consider the adaptive value of sex in viruses, bacteria and fungi, and particularly the information available on the adaptive role of sex in pathogenic microorganisms. Our general theme is that the varied aspects of sex in pathogens illustrate the varied issues surrounding the evolution of sex generally. These include, the benefits of sex (in the short- and long-term), as well as the costs of sex (both to the host and to the pathogen). For the benefits of sex (that is, its adaptive value), we consider three hypotheses: (i) sex provides for effective and efficient recombinational repair of DNA damages, (ii) sex provides DNA for food, and (iii) sex produces variation and reduces genetic associations among alleles under selection. Although the evolution of sex in microbial pathogens illustrates these general issues, our paper is not a general review of theories for the evolution of sex in all organisms. Rather, we focus on the adaptive value of sex in microbial pathogens and conclude that in terms of short-term benefits, the DNA repair hypothesis has the most support and is the most generally applicable hypothesis in this group. In particular, recombinational repair of DNA damages may substantially benefit pathogens when challenged by the oxidative defenses of the host. However, in the long-term, sex may help get rid of mutations, increase the rate of adaptation of the population, and, in pathogens, may infrequently create new infective strains. An additional general issue about sex illustrated by pathogens is that some of the most interesting consequences of sex are not necessarily the reasons for which sex evolved. For example, antibiotic resistance may be transferred by bacterial sex, but this transfer is probably not the reason sex
Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Larsen, Tove; Christiansen, Natalia
Epidemiological studies have shown that periodontitis may be associated with presence of atherosclerosis. DNA from periodontal pathogens has been detected in atherosclerotic lesions, but viable oral bacteria have not yet been isolated from atherosclerotic plaques. The purpose of the present study...... was to determine if viable oral bacteria could be isolated from atherosclerotic lesions and if DNA from periodontal pathogens could be detected by use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques....
Full Text Available The cuticle provides a physical barrier against water loss and protects against irradiation, xenobiotics and pathogens. Components of the cuticle are perceived by invading fungi and activate developmental processes during pathogenesis. In addition, cuticle alterations of various types induce a syndrome of reactions that often results in resistance to necrotrophs. This article reviews the current knowledge on the role of the cuticle in relation to the perception of pathogens and activation of defenses.
Nistico, L.; Kreft, R.; Gieseke, A.; Coticchia, J. M.; Burrows, A.; Khampang, P.; Liu, Y.; Kerschner, J. E.; Post, J. C.; Lonergan, S.; Sampath, R.; Hu, F. Z.; Ehrlich, G. D.; Stoodley, P.; Hall-Stoodley, L.
Biofilms of pathogenic bacteria are present on the middle ear mucosa of children with chronic otitis media (COM) and may contribute to the persistence of pathogens and the recalcitrance of COM to antibiotic treatment. Controlled studies indicate that adenoidectomy is effective in the treatment of COM, suggesting that the adenoids may act as a reservoir for COM pathogens. To investigate the bacterial community in the adenoid, samples were obtained from 35 children undergoing adenoidectomy for chronic OM or obstructive sleep apnea. We used a novel, culture-independent molecular diagnostic methodology, followed by confocal microscopy, to investigate the in situ distribution and organization of pathogens in the adenoids to determine whether pathogenic bacteria exhibited criteria characteristic of biofilms. The Ibis T5000 Universal Biosensor System was used to interrogate the extent of the microbial diversity within adenoid biopsy specimens. Using a suite of 16 broad-range bacterial primers, we demonstrated that adenoids from both diagnostic groups were colonized with polymicrobial biofilms. Haemophilus influenzae was present in more adenoids from the COM group (P = 0.005), but there was no significant difference between the two patient groups for Streptococcus pneumoniae or Staphylococcus aureus. Fluorescence in situ hybridization, lectin binding, and the use of antibodies specific for host epithelial cells demonstrated that pathogens were aggregated, surrounded by a carbohydrate matrix, and localized on and within the epithelial cell surface, which is consistent with criteria for bacterial biofilms. PMID:21307211
Rouse, Barry T; Suvas, Susmit
Immune responses to pathogens are modulated by one or more types of cells that perform a regulatory function. Some cells with this function, such as CD4+ Foxp3+ natural regulatory T cells (nTreg), pre-exist prior to infections whereas others may be induced as a consequence of infection (adaptive Treg). With pathogens that have a complex pathogenesis, multiple types of regulatory cells could influence the outcome. One major property of Treg is to help minimize collateral tissue damage that can occur during immune reactions to a chronic infection. The consequence is less damage to the host but in such situations the pathogen is likely to establish persistence. In some cases, a fine balance is established between Treg responses, effector components of immunity and the pathogen. Treg responses to pathogens may also act to hamper the efficacy of immune control. This review discusses these issues as well as the likely mechanisms by which various pathogens can signal the participation of Treg during infection.
Heitman, Joseph; Carter, Dee A.; Dyer, Paul S.; Soll, David R.
We review here recent advances in our understanding of sexual reproduction in fungal pathogens that commonly infect humans, including Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans/gattii, and Aspergillus fumigatus. Where appropriate or relevant, we introduce findings on other species associated with human infections. In particular, we focus on rapid advances involving genetic, genomic, and population genetic approaches that have reshaped our view of how fungal pathogens evolve. Rather than being asexual, mitotic, and largely clonal, as was thought to be prevalent as recently as a decade ago, we now appreciate that the vast majority of pathogenic fungi have retained extant sexual, or parasexual, cycles. In some examples, sexual and parasexual unions of pathogenic fungi involve closely related individuals, generating diversity in the population but with more restricted recombination than expected from fertile, sexual, outcrossing and recombining populations. In other cases, species and isolates participate in global outcrossing populations with the capacity for considerable levels of gene flow. These findings illustrate general principles of eukaryotic pathogen emergence with relevance for other fungi, parasitic eukaryotic pathogens, and both unicellular and multicellular eukaryotic organisms. PMID:25085958
Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae, or Group B Streptococcus (GBS, is a major pathogen causing neonatal sepsis and meningitis, bovine mastitis, and fish meningoencephalitis. CC23, including its namesake ST23, is not only the predominant GBS strain derived from human and cattle, but also can infect a variety of homeothermic and poikilothermic species. However, it has never been characterized in fish. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of ST23 GBS to fish and explore the mechanisms causing the difference in the pathogenicity of ST23 GBS based on the genome analysis. Infection of tilapia with 10 human-derived ST23 GBS isolates caused tissue damage and the distribution of pathogens within tissues. The mortality rate of infection was ranged from 76 to 100%, and it was shown that the mortality rate caused by only three human isolates had statistically significant difference compared with fish-derived ST7 strain (P < 0.05, whereas the mortality caused by other seven human isolates did not show significant difference compared with fish-derived ST7 strain. The genome comparison and prophage analysis showed that the major genome difference between virulent and non-virulent ST23 GBS was attributed to the different prophage sequences. The prophage in the P1 region contained about 43% GC and encoded 28–39 proteins, which can mediate the acquisition of YafQ/DinJ structure for GBS by phage recombination. YafQ/DinJ belongs to one of the bacterial toxin–antitoxin (TA systems and allows cells to cope with stress. The ST23 GBS strains carrying this prophage were not pathogenic to tilapia, but the strains without the prophage or carrying the pophage that had gene mutation or deletion, especially the deletion of YafQ/DinJ structure, were highly pathogenic to tilapia. In conclusion, human ST23 GBS is highly pathogenic to fish, which may be related to the phage recombination.
Uh Seong Jeong; Ju Hee Kim; Ki Kwon Lee; Seong Soo Cheong; Wang Hyu Lee
The strains of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, C. coccodes, C. acutatum isolated from black raspberry werepathogenic to apple and strawberry after dropping inoculation, but showed weak pathogenicity in hot-pepperand tomato. The anthracnose pathogens of C. gloeosporioides, C. orbiculare, C. acutatum isolated from apple,hot-pepper and pumpkin showed pathogenicity in black raspberry. Moreover, the anthracnose pathogensisolated from apple caused disease symptoms in non-wounded inoculation.
Amiri, Mandana; Bezaatpour, Abolfazl; Jafari, Hamed; Boukherroub, Rabah; Szunerits, Sabine
Bacterial infections remain one of the principal causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The number of deaths due to infections is declining every year by only 1% with a forecast of 13 million deaths in 2050. Among the 1400 recognized human pathogens, the majority of infectious diseases is caused by just a few, about 20 pathogens only. While the development of vaccinations and novel antibacterial drugs and treatments are at the forefront of research, and strongly financially supported by policy makers, another manner to limit and control infectious outbreaks is targeting the development and implementation of early warning systems, which indicate qualitatively and quantitatively the presence of a pathogen. As toxin contaminated food and drink are a potential threat to human health and consequently have a significant socioeconomic impact worldwide, the detection of pathogenic bacteria remains not only a big scientific challenge but also a practical problem of enormous significance. Numerous analytical methods, including conventional culturing and staining techniques as well as molecular methods based on polymerase chain reaction amplification and immunological assays, have emerged over the years and are used to identify and quantify pathogenic agents. While being highly sensitive in most cases, these approaches are highly time, labor, and cost consuming, requiring trained personnel to perform the frequently complex assays. A great challenge in this field is therefore to develop rapid, sensitive, specific, and if possible miniaturized devices to validate the presence of pathogens in cost and time efficient manners. Electrochemical sensors are well accepted powerful tools for the detection of disease-related biomarkers and environmental and organic hazards. They have also found widespread interest in the last years for the detection of waterborne and foodborne pathogens due to their label free character and high sensitivity. This Review is focused on the current
Feb 25, 2009 ... The prevalence of blood-borne diseases such as hepatitis. B, hepatitis C and HIV is increasing globally. Sub-Saharan. Africa is one of the worst-affected regions. The risk of infection from these blood-borne pathogens has become a significant occupational hazard for many categories of health care workers ...
Williams, Kelly Porter
Key goals towards national biosecurity include methods for analyzing pathogens, predicting their emergence, and developing countermeasures. These goals are served by studying bacterial genes that promote pathogenicity and the pathogenicity islands that mobilize them. Cyberinfrastructure promoting an island database advances this field and enables deeper bioinformatic analysis that may identify novel pathogenicity genes. New automated methods and rich visualizations were developed for identifying pathogenicity islands, based on the principle that islands occur sporadically among closely related strains. The chromosomally-ordered pan-genome organizes all genes from a clade of strains; gaps in this visualization indicate islands, and decorations of the gene matrix facilitate exploration of island gene functions. A %E2%80%9Clearned phyloblocks%E2%80%9D method was developed for automated island identification, that trains on the phylogenetic patterns of islands identified by other methods. Learned phyloblocks better defined termini of previously identified islands in multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC BAA-2146, and found its only antibiotic resistance island.
Full Text Available Many of the cellular mechanisms underlying host responses to pathogens have been well conserved during evolution. As a result, Drosophila can be used to deconstruct many of the key events in host-pathogen interactions by using a wealth of well-developed molecular and genetic tools. In this review, we aim to emphasize the great leverage provided by the suite of genomic and classical genetic approaches available in flies for decoding details of host-pathogen interactions; these findings can then be applied to studies in higher organisms. We first briefly summarize the general strategies by which Drosophila resists and responds to pathogens. We then focus on how recently developed genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi screens conducted in cells and flies, combined with classical genetic methods, have provided molecular insight into host-pathogen interactions, covering examples of bacteria, fungi and viruses. Finally, we discuss novel strategies for how flies can be used as a tool to examine how specific isolated virulence factors act on an intact host.
He, Yongqun; Vines, Richard R; Wattam, Alice R; Abramochkin, Georgiy V; Dickerman, Allan W; Eckart, J Dana; Sobral, Bruno W S
A vast amount of information about human, animal and plant pathogens has been acquired, stored and displayed in varied formats through different resources, both electronically and otherwise. However, there is no community standard format for organizing this information or agreement on machine-readable format(s) for data exchange, thereby hampering interoperation efforts across information systems harboring such infectious disease data. The Pathogen Information Markup Language (PIML) is a free, open, XML-based format for representing pathogen information. XSLT-based visual presentations of valid PIML documents were developed and can be accessed through the PathInfo website or as part of the interoperable web services federation known as ToolBus/PathPort. Currently, detailed PIML documents are available for 21 pathogens deemed of high priority with regard to public health and national biological defense. A dynamic query system allows simple queries as well as comparisons among these pathogens. Continuing efforts are being taken to include other groups' supporting PIML and to develop more PIML documents. All the PIML-related information is accessible from http://www.vbi.vt.edu/pathport/pathinfo/
The susceptibility of four species of Naegleria amoebae to complement-mediated lysis was determined. The amoebicidal activity of normal human serum (NHS) and normal guinea pig serum (NGPS) for Naegleria amoebae was measured by an in vitro cytotoxicity assay. Release of radioactivity from amoebae labeled with 3 H-uridine and visual observation with a compound microscope were used as indices of lysis. Susceptibility or resistance to complement-mediated lysis in vitro correlated with the in vivo pathogenic potential. Nonpathogenic Naegleria amoebae were lysed at a faster rate and at higher cell concentrations than were pathogenic amoebae. Electrophoretic analysis of NHS incubated with pathogenic or nonpathogenic Naegleria spp. demonstrated that amoebae activate the complement cascade resulting in the production of C3 and C5 complement cleavage products. Treatment with papain or trypsin for 1 h, but not with sialidase, increase the susceptibility of highly pathogenic, mouse-passaged N. fowleri to lysis. Treatment with actinomycin D, cycloheximide or various protease inhibitors for 4 h did not increase susceptibility to lysis. Neither a repair process involving de novo protein synthesis nor a complement-inactivating protease appear to account for the increase resistance of N. fowleri amoebae to complement-mediated lysis. A binding study with 125 I radiolabeled C9 indicated that the terminal complement component does not remain stably bound to the membrane of pathogenic amoebae
Pogány, Miklós; Dankó, Tamás; Kámán-Tóth, Evelin; Schwarczinger, Ildikó; Bozsó, Zoltán
Approximately two and a half percent of protein coding genes in Arabidopsis encode enzymes with known or putative proteolytic activity. Proteases possess not only common housekeeping functions by recycling nonfunctional proteins. By irreversibly cleaving other proteins, they regulate crucial developmental processes and control responses to environmental changes. Regulatory proteolysis is also indispensable in interactions between plants and their microbial pathogens. Proteolytic cleavage is simultaneously used both by plant cells, to recognize and inactivate invading pathogens, and by microbes, to overcome the immune system of the plant and successfully colonize host cells. In this review, we present available results on the group of proteases in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana whose functions in microbial pathogenesis were confirmed. Pathogen-derived proteolytic factors are also discussed when they are involved in the cleavage of host metabolites. Considering the wealth of review papers available in the field of the ubiquitin-26S proteasome system results on the ubiquitin cascade are not presented. Arabidopsis and its pathogens are conferred with abundant sets of proteases. This review compiles a list of those that are apparently involved in an interaction between the plant and its pathogens, also presenting their molecular partners when available.
Ren, Yuwei; Khan, Faheem Ahmed; Pandupuspitasari, Nuruliarizki Shinta; Zhang, Shujun
Preventing pathogen transmission to a new host is of major interest to the immunologist and could benefit from a detailed investigation of pathogen immune evasion strategies. The first line of defense against pathogen invasion is provided by macrophages. When they sense pathogens, macrophages initiate signals to inflammatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) subsequently mediating phagocytosis and inflammation. The macrophage immune machinery classically includes two subsets: the activated M1 and the activated M2 that respond accordingly in diverse immune challenges. The lipid and glycogen metabolic pathways work together with the lysosome to help the mature phagosome to degrade and eliminate intracellular pathogens in macrophages. The viral evasion strategies are even more complex due to the interplay between autophagy and apoptosis. However, pathogens evolve several strategies to camouflage themselves against immune responses in order to ensure their survival, replication and transmission. These strategies include the muting of PRRs initiated inflammatory responses, attenuation of M1 and/or induction of M2 macrophages, suppression of autophago-lysosomal formation, interference with lipid and glycogen metabolism, and viral mediation of autophagy and apoptosis cross-talk to enhance viral replication. This review focuses on pathogen immune evasion methods and on the strategies used by the host against camouflaged pathogens.
Kemmeren JM; Mangen MJJ; Duynhoven YTHP van; Havelaar AH; MGB
Toxoplasmosis causes the highest disease burden among seven evaluated foodborne pathogens. This is the preliminary conclusion of a major study of the disease burden and related costs of foodborne pathogens. The other micro-organisms that were studied are Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp.,
The main food-borne pathogens of concern in the beef food chain are Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Salmonella spp.; however, the presence of other pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter spp., Clostridium spp., Bacillus cereus, and Mycobacterium avium subsp. par...
The adaptation of two distantly related microsporidia to their mosquito hosts was investigated. Edhazardia aedis is a specialist pathogen that infects Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue and yellow fever arboviruses. Vavraia culicis is a generalist pathogen of several insects including Anophele...
Oliveira, Alberto; Oliveira, Leticia C; Aburjaile, Flavia; Benevides, Leandro; Tiwari, Sandeep; Jamal, Syed B; Silva, Arthur; Figueiredo, Henrique C P; Ghosh, Preetam; Portela, Ricardo W; De Carvalho Azevedo, Vasco A; Wattam, Alice R
This review gathers recent information about genomic and transcriptomic studies in the Corynebacterium genus, exploring, for example, prediction of pathogenicity islands and stress response in different pathogenic and non-pathogenic species. In addition, is described several phylogeny studies to Corynebacterium , exploring since the identification of species until biological speciation in one species belonging to the genus Corynebacterium . Important concepts associated with virulence highlighting the role of Pld protein and Tox gene. The adhesion, characteristic of virulence factor, was described using the sortase mechanism that is associated to anchorage to the cell wall. In addition, survival inside the host cell and some diseases, were too addressed for pathogenic corynebacteria, while important biochemical pathways and biotechnological applications retain the focus of this review for non-pathogenic corynebacteria. Concluding, this review broadly explores characteristics in genus Corynebacterium showing to have strong relevance inside the medical, veterinary, and biotechnology field.
Full Text Available Serpins are a broadly distributed superfamily of protease inhibitors that are present in all kingdoms of life. The acronym, serpin, is derived from their function as potent serine proteases inhibitors. Early studies of serpins focused on their functions in haemostasis since modulating serine proteases activities are essential for coagulation. Additional research has revealed that serpins function in infection and inflammation, by modulating serine and cysteine proteases activities. The aim of this review is to summarize the accumulating findings and current understanding of the functions of serpins in host-pathogen interactions, serving as host defense proteins as well as pathogenic factors. We also discuss the potential crosstalk between host and pathogen serpins. We anticipate that future research will elucidate the therapeutic value of this novel target.
Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Jensen, Annette Bruun; Lange, Lene
Fungi within the order Entomophthorales (subphylum Entomophthoromycotina) are obligate biotrophic pathogens of arthropods with a remarkable narrow host range. Infection takes place through the cuticle when conidia hit a susceptible host, facilitated by enzymatic and mechanical mechanisms. In the ...... pathogenicity genes within genera Entomophthora and Pandora, using fungal genomic DNA originating from field-collected, infected insect host species of dipteran (flies, mosquitoes) or hemipteran (aphid) origin.......Fungi within the order Entomophthorales (subphylum Entomophthoromycotina) are obligate biotrophic pathogens of arthropods with a remarkable narrow host range. Infection takes place through the cuticle when conidia hit a susceptible host, facilitated by enzymatic and mechanical mechanisms......, conidia are produced and discharged when humidity gets high—usually during night. In an earlier secretome study of field-collected grain aphids (Sitobion avenae) infected with entomophthoralean fungi, a number of pathogenesis-related, secreted enzymes were discovered (Fungal Genetics and Biology 2011, vol...
Tarkowski, Petr; Vereecke, Danny
Plant pathogenic bacteria can have devastating effects on plant productivity and yield. Nevertheless, because these often soil-dwelling bacteria have evolved to interact with eukaryotes, they generally exhibit a strong adaptivity, a versatile metabolism, and ingenious mechanisms tailored to modify the development of their hosts. Consequently, besides being a threat for agricultural practices, phytopathogens may also represent opportunities for plant production or be useful for specific biotechnological applications. Here, we illustrate this idea by reviewing the pathogenic strategies and the (potential) uses of five very different (hemi)biotrophic plant pathogenic bacteria: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, A. rhizogenes, Rhodococcus fascians, scab-inducing Streptomyces spp., and Pseudomonas syringae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Acetylation of histone lysine residues occurs in different organisms ranging from yeast to plants and mammals for the regulation of diverse cellular processes. With the identification of enzymes that create or reverse this modification, our understanding on histone acetylation has expanded at an amazing pace during the last two decades. In fungal pathogens of plants, however, the importance of such modification has only just begun to be appreciated in the recent years and there is a dearth of information on how histone acetylation is implicated in fungal pathogenesis. This review covers the current status of research related to histone acetylation in plant pathogenic fungi and considers relevant findings in the interaction between fungal pathogens and host plants. We first describe the families of histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Then we provide the cases where histone acetylation was investigated in the context of fungal pathogenesis. Finally, future directions and perspectives in epigenetics of fungal pathogenesis are discussed.
Fenny M. Dwivany
Full Text Available Banana is one of the world's most important trade commodities. However, infection of banana pathogenic fungi (Fusarium oxysporum race 4 is one of the major causes of decreasing production in Indonesia. Genetic engineering has become an alternative way to control this problem by isolating genes that involved in plant defense mechanism against pathogens. Two of the important genes are API5 and ChiI1, each gene encodes apoptosis inhibitory protein and chitinase enzymes. The purpose of this study was to study the expression of API5 and ChiI1 genes as candidate pathogenic resistance genes. The amplified fragments were then cloned, sequenced, and confirmed with in silico studies. Based on sequence analysis, it is showed that partial API5 gene has putative transactivation domain and ChiI1 has 9 chitinase family GH19 protein motifs. Data obtained from this study will contribute in banana genetic improvement.
Heyong Jin Roh
Full Text Available Abstract Background Significant increases in the bacterial resistance to various antibiotics have been found in fish farms. Non-antibiotic therapies for infectious diseases in aquaculture are needed. In recent years, light-emitting diode technology has been applied to the inactivation of pathogens, especially those affecting humans. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of blue light (wavelengths 405 and 465 nm on seven major bacterial pathogens that affect fish and shellfish important in aquaculture. Results We successfully demonstrate inactivation activity of a 405/465-nm LED on selected bacterial pathogens. Although some bacteria were not fully inactivated by the 465-nm light, the 405-nm light had a bactericidal effect against all seven pathogens, indicating that blue light can be effective without the addition of a photosensitizer. Photobacterium damselae, Vibrio anguillarum, and Edwardsiella tarda were the most susceptible to the 405-nm light (36.1, 41.2, and 68.4 J cm−2, respectively, produced one log reduction in the bacterial populations, whereas Streptococcus parauberis was the least susceptible (153.8 J cm−2 per one log reduction. In general, optical density (OD values indicated that higher bacterial densities were associated with lower inactivating efficacy, with the exception of P. damselae and Vibrio harveyi. In conclusion, growth of the bacterial fish and shellfish pathogens evaluated in this study was inactivated by exposure to either the 405- or 465-nm light. In addition, inactivation was dependent on exposure time. Conclusions This study presents that blue LED has potentially alternative therapy for treating fish and shellfish bacterial pathogens. It has great advantages in aspect of eco-friendly treating methods differed from antimicrobial methods.
Kania, Per Walther; Jørgensen, Thomas Rohde; Buchmann, Kurt
A new method based on PCR-RFLP is presented. It is able to differentiate between the Danish non-pathogenic form of Gyrodactylus salaris and the Norwegian pathogenic form.......A new method based on PCR-RFLP is presented. It is able to differentiate between the Danish non-pathogenic form of Gyrodactylus salaris and the Norwegian pathogenic form....
Pathogens have always had a major interest to humans due to their central role in sickness and death. Influenza A annually kills at least 250,000 humans, and has been the cause of millions of further deaths during pandemic years in the past. Plague (Yersinia pestis) has been the cause of the Black...... capture for the detection of Y. pestis in samples from the Justinian plague (600 AD) as an attempt to detect this pathogen as a cause of death in the victims....
-electrophoresis and single-locus sequencing has been widely used to characterize such types of veterinary pathogens. However, DNA sequencing techniques have become fast and cost effective in recent years and whole-genome sequencing data provide a much higher discriminative power and reproducibility than any...... genetic background. This indicates that dairy cows can be natural carriers of S. aureus subtypes that in certain cases lead to CM. A group of isolates that mostly belonged to ST151 carried three pathogenicity islands that were primarily found in this group. The prevalence of resistance genes was generally...
Sarah I. Bonnet
Full Text Available Ticks are among the most important vectors of pathogens affecting humans and other animals worldwide. They do not only carry pathogens however, as a diverse group of commensal and symbiotic microorganisms are also present in ticks. Unlike pathogens, their biology and their effect on ticks remain largely unexplored, and are in fact often neglected. Nonetheless, they can confer multiple detrimental, neutral, or beneficial effects to their tick hosts, and can play various roles in fitness, nutritional adaptation, development, reproduction, defense against environmental stress, and immunity. Non-pathogenic microorganisms may also play a role in driving transmission of tick-borne pathogens (TBP, with many potential implications for both human and animal health. In addition, the genetic proximity of some pathogens to mutualistic symbionts hosted by ticks is evident when studying phylogenies of several bacterial genera. The best examples are found within members of the Rickettsia, Francisella, and Coxiella genera: while in medical and veterinary research these bacteria are traditionally recognized as highly virulent vertebrate pathogens, it is now clear to evolutionary ecologists that many (if not most Coxiella, Francisella, and Rickettsia bacteria are actually non-pathogenic microorganisms exhibiting alternative lifestyles as mutualistic ticks symbionts. Consequently, ticks represent a compelling yet challenging system in which to study microbiomes and microbial interactions, and to investigate the composition, functional, and ecological implications of bacterial communities. Ultimately, deciphering the relationships between tick microorganisms as well as tick symbiont interactions will garner invaluable information, which may aid in the future development of arthropod pest and vector-borne pathogen transmission control strategies.
Merrill J. Rowley
Full Text Available The serological presence of autoantibodies is diagnostic of autoimmunity, and these autoantibodies may be present for many years before the presentation of autoimmune disease (AID. Although a pathogenic role has been demonstrated for various autoantibodies reactive with cell surface and extracellular autoantigens, studies using monoclonal antibodies (mAb show not all antibodies in the polyclonal response are pathogenic. Differences depend on Fab-mediated diversity in epitope specificity, Fc-mediated effects based on immunoglobulin (Ig class and subclass, activation of complement, and the milieu in which the reaction occurs. These autoantibodies often occur in organ-specific AID and this review illustrates their pathogenic and highly specific effects. The role of autoantibodies associated with intracellular antigens is less clear. In vitro they may inhibit or adversely affect well-defined intracellular biochemical pathways, yet, in vivo they are separated from their autoantigens by multiple cellular barriers. Recent evidence that Ig can traverse cell membranes, interact with intracellular proteins, and induce apoptosis has provided new evidence for a pathogenic role for such autoantibodies. An understanding of how autoantibodies behave in the polyclonal response and their role in pathogenesis of AID may help identify populations of culprit B-cells and selection of treatments that suppress or eliminate them.
de Jong, H.K.
This thesis focuses on host-pathogen interactions in Salmonella Typhi and Burkholderia pseudomallei infections and explores the interplay between these bacteria and the innate immune system. Typhoid fever is one of the most common causes of bacterial infection in low-income countries. With adequate
Avian influenza is one of the most important diseases affecting the poultry industry worldwide. Avian influenza viruses can cause a range of clinical disease in poultry. Viruses that cause severe disease and mortality are referred to as highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses. The Asian ...
de Vries, Walter; Berkhout, Ben
RNA silencing or RNAi interference (RNAi) serves as an innate antiviral mechanism in plants, fungi and animals. Human viruses, like plant viruses, encode suppressor proteins or RNAs that block or modulate the RNAi pathway. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which pathogenic human viruses
Dr. Stephan Monroe, a deputy director at CDC, discusses the impact of low-incidence, high-consequence pathogens globally. Created: 2/21/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 2/26/2014.
Beumer, R.R.; Hazeleger, W.C.
Although bacteria are the first type of microorganisms that come to mind when discussing microbial food safety, they are by no means the only pathogenic foodborne microorganisms. Mycotoxin producing moulds, human enteric viruses, protozoan parasites and marine biotoxins are also of importance.
Mukundan, Harshini; Xie, Hongzhi; Swanson, Basil I.; Martinez, Jennifer; Grace, Wynne K.
The present invention addresses the simultaneous detection and quantitative measurement of multiple biomolecules, e.g., pathogen biomarkers through either a sandwich assay approach or a lipid insertion approach. The invention can further employ a multichannel, structure with multi-sensor elements per channel.
Horrocks, Nicholas P. C.; Matson, Kevin D.; Tieleman, B. Irene
The extent to which organisms can protect themselves from disease depends on both the immune defenses they maintain and the pathogens they face. At the same time, immune systems are shaped by the antigens they encounter, both over ecological and evolutionary time. Ecological immunologists often
Huss, Hans Henrik
The pathogenic bacteria indigenous to the aquatic and general environment are listed. Their distribution in nature, prevalence in seafood and the possibilities for growth of these organisms in various types of products are outlined These data, combined with what is known regarding the epidemiology...
Cooperative work between NASA and Walt Disney World's EPCOT Land Pavilion is described. Joint efforts include research about allelopathy in multi-species plant cropping in CELSS, LEDs as light sources in hydroponic systems, and the growth of plant pathogens in space.
Mukundan, Harshini; Xie, Hongzhi; Swanson, Basil I; Martinez, Jennifer; Grace, Wynne K
The present invention addresses the simultaneous detection and quantitative measurement of multiple biomolecules, e.g., pathogen biomarkers through either a sandwich assay approach or a lipid insertion approach. The invention can further employ a multichannel, structure with multi-sensor elements per channel.
Alternaria blotch (Alternaria mali) causes severe foliar damage to apple trees in Kashmir. Twenty one (21) isolates of A. mali were collected from different locations and characterized for cultural, morphological, pathogenic and molecular variations. A. mali colonies varied in their cultural behaviour ranging from velvety to ...
Martin P A Coetzee
Full Text Available The global movement and speciation of fungal plant pathogens is important, especially because of the economic losses they cause and the ease with which they are able to spread across large areas. Understanding the biogeography and origin of these plant pathogens can provide insights regarding their dispersal and current day distribution. We tested the hypothesis of a Gondwanan origin of the plant pathogenic mushroom genus Armillaria and the currently accepted premise that vicariance accounts for the extant distribution of the species.The phylogeny of a selection of Armillaria species was reconstructed based on Maximum Parsimony (MP, Maximum Likelihood (ML and Bayesian Inference (BI. A timeline was then placed on the divergence of lineages using a Bayesian relaxed molecular clock approach.Phylogenetic analyses of sequenced data for three combined nuclear regions provided strong support for three major geographically defined clades: Holarctic, South American-Australasian and African. Molecular dating placed the initial radiation of the genus at 54 million years ago within the Early Paleogene, postdating the tectonic break-up of Gondwana.The distribution of extant Armillaria species is the result of ancient long-distance dispersal rather than vicariance due to continental drift. As these finding are contrary to most prior vicariance hypotheses for fungi, our results highlight the important role of long-distance dispersal in the radiation of fungal pathogens from the Southern Hemisphere.
The invention relates to control of pathogen caused diseases on leaves, fruits and ears in plants, such as apple scab (Venturia inaequalis by treatment of plant with an isolate of Cladosporium cladosporioides. The treatment is effective in both prevention and treatment of the fungal infection
The invention relates to control of pathogen caused diseases on leaves, fruits and ears in plants, such as apple scab (Venturia inaequalis by treatment of plant with an isolate of Cladosporium cladosporioides. The treatment is effective in both prevention and treatment of the fungal infection
Electrolyte and haematological parameters in rabbits infected with pathogenic isolates of Escherichia coli from rural water supplies in Rivers State, Nigeria, where monitored. Rabbits were orally infected with suspension containing 3x107 cfu /ml of Escherichia coli to induce diarrhoea, and the electrolyte (sodium, potassium ...
Moran, Nancy A
When bacterial lineages make the transition from free-living or facultatively parasitic life cycles to permanent associations with hosts, they undergo a major loss of genes and DNA. Complete genome sequences are providing an understanding of how extreme genome reduction affects evolutionary directions and metabolic capabilities of obligate pathogens and symbionts.
Zhang, Wei; Corwin, Jason A; Copeland, Daniel
To respond to pathogen attack, selection and associated evolution has led to the creation of plant immune system that are a highly effective and inducible defense system. Central to this system are the plant defense hormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) and crosstalk between the two...
349. Keywords. Antioxidant; baculovirus; host-pathogen; eIF2α-kinase; P35; PKR .... conferring a selective advantage to the virus, the capacity to prevent apoptosis is ..... totic extracts were found to cleave purified PKR in vitro. These findings ...
Zhang, Wei; Corwin, Jason A.; Copeland, Daniel
To respond to pathogen attack, selection and associated evolution has led to the creation of plant immune system that are a highly effective and inducible defense system. Central to this system are the plant defense hormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) and crosstalk between the two...
Griffin, Dale W.; Donaldson, Kim A.; Paul, J.H.; Rose, Joan B.
This review addresses both historical and recent investigations into viral contamination of marine waters. With the relatively recent emergence of molecular biology-based assays, a number of investigations have shown that pathogenic viruses are prevalent in marine waters being impacted by sewage. Research has shown that this group of fecal-oral viral pathogens (enteroviruses, hepatitis A viruses, Norwalk viruses, reoviruses, adenoviruses, rotaviruses, etc.) can cause a broad range of asymptomatic to severe gastrointestinal, respiratory, and eye, nose, ear, and skin infections in people exposed through recreational use of the water. The viruses and the nucleic acid signature survive for an extended period in the marine environment. One of the primary concerns of public health officials is the relationship between the presence of pathogens and the recreational risk to human health in polluted marine environments. While a number of studies have attempted to address this issue, the relationship is still poorly understood. A contributing factor to our lack of progress in the field has been the lack of sensitive methods to detect the broad range of both bacterial and viral pathogens. The application of new and advanced molecular methods will continue to contribute to our current state of knowledge in this emerging and
Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial foodborne disease. Yet, little is known about how this pathogen causes intestinal inflammation. The clinical pathology during human infection points to invasive bacterial behavior accompanied by the induction of potent pro-inflammatory
Stukenbrock, Eva; Bataillon, Thomas; Dutheil, Julien
that gene-rich regions or regions with low recombination experience stronger effects of natural selection on neutral diversity. Emergence of a new agricultural host selected a highly specialized and fast-evolving pathogen with unique evolutionary patterns compared with its wild relatives. The strong impact...
Marshall Space Flight Center funded the University of Madison-Wisconsin to develop ethylene scrubbers to keep produce fresh in space. Akida Holdings of Jacksonville, Florida, licensed the technology and developed Airocide, an air purifier that can kill airborne pathogens. Previously designed for industrial spaces, there is now a specially designed unit for home use.
The outcome of a bacterial infection depends on the interaction between pathogen and host. The ability of the microbe to survive in the host depends on its invasive potential (i.e. spreading and multiplication), and its ability to obtain essential nutrients and to resist the
Veloo, A. C. M.; Seme, K.; Raangs, Gerwin; Rurenga, P.; Singadji, Z.; Wekema - Mulder, G.; van Winkelhoff, A. J.
Periodontitis is a bacterial disease that can be treated with systemic antibiotics. The aim of this study was to establish the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of five periodontal pathogens to six commonly used antibiotics in periodontics. A total of 247 periodontal bacterial isolates were tested
Alternaria blight (Alternaria brassicae) causes severe foliar damage to Indian mustard in Uttarakhand. Ten (10) isolates of A. brassicae were collected from different hosts and characterized for cultural, morphological, pathogenic and molecular variations. A. brassicae colonies varied in their cultural behaviour ranging from ...
Full Text Available Infections caused by Ewingella americana have been rarely reported in the literature. Most of the cases that have been reported were among the immunocompromised patients. We report a case of E. americana causing osteomyelitis and septic arthritis of the shoulder joint in a previous intravenous drug abuser. The causative pathogen was identified by synovial fluid analysis and culture.
Badirzadeh, Alireza; Taheri, Tahereh; Taslimi, Yasaman; Abdossamadi, Zahra; Heidari-Kharaji, Maryam; Gholami, Elham; Sedaghat, Baharehsadat; Niyyati, Maryam; Rafati, Sima
Proliferation of Leishmania (L.) parasites depends on polyamine availability, which can be generated by the L-arginine catabolism and the enzymatic activity of arginase (ARG) of the parasites and of the mammalian hosts. In the present study, we characterized and compared the arginase (arg) genes from pathogenic L. major and L. tropica and from non-pathogenic L. tarentolae. We quantified the level of the ARG activity in promastigotes and macrophages infected with pathogenic L. major and L. tropica and non-pathogenic L. tarentolae amastigotes. The ARG's amino acid sequences of the pathogenic and non-pathogenic Leishmania demonstrated virtually 98.6% and 88% identities with the reference L. major Friedlin ARG. Higher ARG activity was observed in all pathogenic promastigotes as compared to non-pathogenic L. tarentolae. In vitro infection of human macrophage cell line (THP1) with pathogenic and non-pathogenic Leishmania spp. resulted in increased ARG activities in the infected macrophages. The ARG activities present in vivo were assessed in susceptible BALB/c and resistant C57BL/6 mice infected with L. major, L. tropica and L. tarentolae. We demonstrated that during the development of the infection, ARG is induced in both strains of mice infected with pathogenic Leishmania. However, in L. major infected BALB/c mice, the induction of ARG and parasite load increased simultaneously according to the time course of infection, whereas in C57BL/6 mice, the enzyme is upregulated solely during the period of footpad swelling. In L. tropica infected mice, the footpads' swellings were slow to develop and demonstrated minimal cutaneous pathology and ARG activity. In contrast, ARG activity was undetectable in mice inoculated with the non-pathogenic L. tarentolae. Our data suggest that infection by Leishmania parasites can increase ARG activity of the host and provides essential polyamines for parasite salvage and its replication. Moreover, the ARG of Leishmania is vital for parasite
Gascuel, Quentin; Martinez, Yves; Boniface, Marie-Claude; Vear, Felicity; Pichon, Magalie; Godiard, Laurence
Downy mildew of sunflower is caused by Plasmopara halstedii (Farlow) Berlese & de Toni. Plasmopara halstedii is an obligate biotrophic oomycete pathogen that attacks annual Helianthus species and cultivated sunflower, Helianthus annuus. Depending on the sunflower developmental stage at which infection occurs, the characteristic symptoms range from young seedling death, plant dwarfing, leaf bleaching and sporulation to the production of infertile flowers. Downy mildew attacks can have a great economic impact on sunflower crops, and several Pl resistance genes are present in cultivars to protect them against the disease. Nevertheless, some of these resistances have been overcome by the occurrence of novel isolates of the pathogen showing increased virulence. A better characterization of P. halstedii infection and dissemination mechanisms, and the identification of the molecular basis of the interaction with sunflower, is a prerequisite to efficiently fight this pathogen. This review summarizes what is currently known about P. halstedii, provides new insights into its infection cycle on resistant and susceptible sunflower lines using scanning electron and light microscopy imaging, and sheds light on the pathogenicity factors of P. halstedii obtained from recent molecular data. Kingdom Stramenopila; Phylum Oomycota; Class Oomycetes; Order Peronosporales; Family Peronosporaceae; Genus Plasmopara; Species Plasmopara halstedii. Sunflower seedling damping off, dwarfing of the plant, bleaching of leaves, starting from veins, and visible white sporulation, initially on the lower side of cotyledons and leaves. Plasmopara halstedii infection may severely impact sunflower seed yield. In spring, germination of overwintered sexual oospores leads to sunflower root infection. Intercellular hyphae are responsible for systemic plant colonization and the induction of disease symptoms. Under humid and fresh conditions, dissemination structures are produced by the pathogen on all
Overexpression of Differentially Expressed Genes Identified in Non-pathogenic and Pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica Clones Allow Identification of New Pathogenicity Factors Involved in Amoebic Liver Abscess Formation.
Full Text Available We here compared pathogenic (p and non-pathogenic (np isolates of Entamoeba histolytica to identify molecules involved in the ability of this parasite to induce amoebic liver abscess (ALA-like lesions in two rodent models for the disease. We performed a comprehensive analysis of 12 clones (A1-A12 derived from a non-pathogenic isolate HM-1:IMSS-A and 12 clones (B1-B12 derived from a pathogenic isolate HM-1:IMSS-B. "Non-pathogenicity" included the induction of small and quickly resolved lesions while "pathogenicity" comprised larger abscess development that overstayed day 7 post infection. All A-clones were designated as non-pathogenic, whereas 4 out of 12 B-clones lost their ability to induce ALAs in gerbils. No correlation between ALA formation and cysteine peptidase (CP activity, haemolytic activity, erythrophagocytosis, motility or cytopathic activity was found. To identify the molecular framework underlying different pathogenic phenotypes, three clones were selected for in-depth transcriptome analyses. Comparison of a non-pathogenic clone A1np with pathogenic clone B2p revealed 76 differentially expressed genes, whereas comparison of a non-pathogenic clone B8np with B2p revealed only 19 differentially expressed genes. Only six genes were found to be similarly regulated in the two non-pathogenic clones A1np and B8np in comparison with the pathogenic clone B2p. Based on these analyses, we chose 20 candidate genes and evaluated their roles in ALA formation using the respective gene-overexpressing transfectants. We conclude that different mechanisms lead to loss of pathogenicity. In total, we identified eight proteins, comprising a metallopeptidase, C2 domain proteins, alcohol dehydrogenases and hypothetical proteins, that affect the pathogenicity of E. histolytica.
Overexpression of Differentially Expressed Genes Identified in Non-pathogenic and Pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica Clones Allow Identification of New Pathogenicity Factors Involved in Amoebic Liver Abscess Formation.
Meyer, Martin; Fehling, Helena; Matthiesen, Jenny; Lorenzen, Stephan; Schuldt, Kathrin; Bernin, Hannah; Zaruba, Mareen; Lender, Corinna; Ernst, Thomas; Ittrich, Harald; Roeder, Thomas; Tannich, Egbert; Lotter, Hannelore; Bruchhaus, Iris
We here compared pathogenic (p) and non-pathogenic (np) isolates of Entamoeba histolytica to identify molecules involved in the ability of this parasite to induce amoebic liver abscess (ALA)-like lesions in two rodent models for the disease. We performed a comprehensive analysis of 12 clones (A1-A12) derived from a non-pathogenic isolate HM-1:IMSS-A and 12 clones (B1-B12) derived from a pathogenic isolate HM-1:IMSS-B. "Non-pathogenicity" included the induction of small and quickly resolved lesions while "pathogenicity" comprised larger abscess development that overstayed day 7 post infection. All A-clones were designated as non-pathogenic, whereas 4 out of 12 B-clones lost their ability to induce ALAs in gerbils. No correlation between ALA formation and cysteine peptidase (CP) activity, haemolytic activity, erythrophagocytosis, motility or cytopathic activity was found. To identify the molecular framework underlying different pathogenic phenotypes, three clones were selected for in-depth transcriptome analyses. Comparison of a non-pathogenic clone A1np with pathogenic clone B2p revealed 76 differentially expressed genes, whereas comparison of a non-pathogenic clone B8np with B2p revealed only 19 differentially expressed genes. Only six genes were found to be similarly regulated in the two non-pathogenic clones A1np and B8np in comparison with the pathogenic clone B2p. Based on these analyses, we chose 20 candidate genes and evaluated their roles in ALA formation using the respective gene-overexpressing transfectants. We conclude that different mechanisms lead to loss of pathogenicity. In total, we identified eight proteins, comprising a metallopeptidase, C2 domain proteins, alcohol dehydrogenases and hypothetical proteins, that affect the pathogenicity of E. histolytica.
The G. Eliava Institute of Bacteriophages, Microbiology and Virology (Tbilisi, Georgia) is one of the most famous institutions focused on bacteriophage research for the elaboration of appropriate phage methodologies for human and animal protection. The main direction of the institute is the study and production of bacteriophages against intestinal disorders (dysentery, typhoid, intesti) and purulent-septic infections (staphylococcus, streptococcus, pyophage, etc.). These preparations were successfully introduced during the Soviet era, and for decades were used throughout the former Soviet Union and in other Socialist countries for the treatment, prophylaxis, and diagnosis of various infectious diseases, including those caused by antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains. Bacteriophages were widely used for identifying and detecting infections caused by the most dangerous pathogens and causative agents of epidemiological outbreaks. The specific topic of this presentation is the phage typing of bacterial species, which can be an important method for epidemiological diagnostics. Together with different genetic methodologies - such as PCR-based methods, PFGE, plasmid fingerprinting, and ribosomal typing - phage typing is one method for identifying bacterial pathogens. The method has a high percentage of determination of phage types, high specificity of reaction, and is easy for interpretation and use by health workers. Phage typing was applied for inter-species differentiation of different species of Salmonella, S. typhi, Brucella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, E. col,i Clostridium deficile, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia pestis, Yersinia enterocolitica, Lysteria monocytogenes, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium tetani, plant pathogens, and other bacterial pathogens. In addition to addressing the utility and efficacy of phage typing, the paper will discuss the isolation and selection of diagnostic typing phages for interspecies differentiation of pathogens that is necessary
Lievens, B.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.
The failure to adequately identify plant pathogens from culture-based morphological techniques has led to the development of culture-independent molecular approaches. Increasingly, diagnostic laboratories are pursuing fast routine methods that provide reliable identification, sensitive detection,
Langhammer, Penny F; Lips, Karen R; Burrowes, Patricia A; Tunstall, Tate; Palmer, Crystal M; Collins, James P
Laboratory investigations into the amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), have accelerated recently, given the pathogen's role in causing the global decline and extinction of amphibians. Studies in which host animals were exposed to Bd have largely assumed that lab-maintained pathogen cultures retained the infective and pathogenic properties of wild isolates. Attenuated pathogenicity is common in artificially maintained cultures of other pathogenic fungi, but to date, it is unknown whether, and to what degree, Bd might change in culture. We compared zoospore production over time in two samples of a single Bd isolate having different passage histories: one maintained in artificial media for more than six years (JEL427-P39), and one recently thawed from cryopreserved stock (JEL427-P9). In a common garden experiment, we then exposed two different amphibian species, Eleutherodactylus coqui and Atelopus zeteki, to both cultures to test whether Bd attenuates in pathogenicity with in vitro passages. The culture with the shorter passage history, JEL427-P9, had significantly greater zoospore densities over time compared to JEL427-P39. This difference in zoospore production was associated with a difference in pathogenicity for a susceptible amphibian species, indicating that fecundity may be an important virulence factor for Bd. In the 130-day experiment, Atelopus zeteki frogs exposed to the JEL427-P9 culture experienced higher average infection intensity and 100% mortality, compared with 60% mortality for frogs exposed to JEL427-P39. This effect was not observed with Eleutherodactylus coqui, which was able to clear infection. We hypothesize that the differences in phenotypic performance observed with Atelopus zeteki are rooted in changes of the Bd genome. Future investigations enabled by this study will focus on the underlying mechanisms of Bd pathogenicity.
Penny F Langhammer
Full Text Available Laboratory investigations into the amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd, have accelerated recently, given the pathogen's role in causing the global decline and extinction of amphibians. Studies in which host animals were exposed to Bd have largely assumed that lab-maintained pathogen cultures retained the infective and pathogenic properties of wild isolates. Attenuated pathogenicity is common in artificially maintained cultures of other pathogenic fungi, but to date, it is unknown whether, and to what degree, Bd might change in culture. We compared zoospore production over time in two samples of a single Bd isolate having different passage histories: one maintained in artificial media for more than six years (JEL427-P39, and one recently thawed from cryopreserved stock (JEL427-P9. In a common garden experiment, we then exposed two different amphibian species, Eleutherodactylus coqui and Atelopus zeteki, to both cultures to test whether Bd attenuates in pathogenicity with in vitro passages. The culture with the shorter passage history, JEL427-P9, had significantly greater zoospore densities over time compared to JEL427-P39. This difference in zoospore production was associated with a difference in pathogenicity for a susceptible amphibian species, indicating that fecundity may be an important virulence factor for Bd. In the 130-day experiment, Atelopus zeteki frogs exposed to the JEL427-P9 culture experienced higher average infection intensity and 100% mortality, compared with 60% mortality for frogs exposed to JEL427-P39. This effect was not observed with Eleutherodactylus coqui, which was able to clear infection. We hypothesize that the differences in phenotypic performance observed with Atelopus zeteki are rooted in changes of the Bd genome. Future investigations enabled by this study will focus on the underlying mechanisms of Bd pathogenicity.
van der Meer-Janssen, Ynske P M; van Galen, Josse; Batenburg, Joseph J; Helms, J Bernd
Lipids were long believed to have a structural role in biomembranes and a role in energy storage utilizing cellular lipid droplets and plasma lipoproteins. Research over the last decades has identified an additional role of lipids in cellular signaling, membrane microdomain organization and dynamics, and membrane trafficking. These properties make lipids an attractive target for pathogens to modulate host cell processes in order to allow their survival and replication. In this review we will summarize the often ingenious strategies of pathogens to modify the lipid homeostasis of host cells, allowing them to divert cellular processes. To this end pathogens take full advantage of the complexity of the lipidome. The examples are categorized in generalized and emerging principles describing the involvement of lipids in host-pathogen interactions. Several pathogens are described that simultaneously induce multiple changes in the host cell signaling and trafficking mechanisms. Elucidation of these pathogen-induced changes may have important implications for drug development. The emergence of high-throughput lipidomic techniques will allow the description of changes of the host cell lipidome at the level of individual molecular lipid species and the identification of lipid biomarkers.
Full Text Available Several classical approaches have been developed to detect and identify soil fungal inhabitants through the years. Selective media have been devised to exclude the large number of soil organisms and allow growth of target fungi. However the advent of molecular biology has offered a number of revolutionary insights into the detection and enumeration of soilborne fungal pathogens and also has started to provide information on the identification of unknown species from DNA sequences. This review paper focuses on the application of various molecular techniques in the detection, identification, characterization and quantification of soilborne fungal plant pathogens. This is based on information from the literature and is combined with personal research findings of the author.
development and spreading of antibiotic resistant bacteria in the environment. Bacteriophage therapy, constitutes a potent alternative not only for treatment but also for prevention of vibriosis in aquaculture and the current thesis addresses the potential and challenges of using phages to control Vibrio...... pathogens. The combinatory administration of virulent bacteriophages φSt2 and φGrn1, isolated against Vibrio alginolyticus significantly reduced the Vibrio load in cultures of Artemia salina live prey, decreasing subsequently the risk of a vibriosis outbreak in the marine hatchery. During infection...... therapy applications. Lytic phage vB_VspP_pVa5 that has been isolated against the rapidly emerging pathogen V. splendidus is also a promising candidate for phage therapy application according to its gene content and in vitro performance against its host. The genetic features of vB_VspP_pVa5 provide also...
Full Text Available Antimicrobial volatile substances from plants represent alternatives to synthetic pesticides and food preservatives. In this study, the compositions of some essential oils were determined by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry, and the inhibitory properties of the essential oils and their components against the bacterial postharvest pathogens Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (CCM 1008, Pseudomonas syringae (CCM 7018, Xanthomonas campestris (CCM 22 were determined by the microdilution method. Essential oils from oregano, cinnamon, lemongrass, lavender, clove, rosemary, tea tree, eucalyptus, garlic, and ginger and their components cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, thymol, and carvacrol were used in the tests. The essential oil components exhibited strong antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria. The oregano and cinnamon essential oils were most effective. The rosemary, lavender, tea tree, eucalyptus, garlic, and ginger oils were not effective at the tested concentrations. In conclusion, certain essential oils, particularly their components, are highly effective and could be used for the control of postharvest bacterial pathogens.
Prigent, G.; Perillaud, C.; Amara, M.; Coutard, A.; Blanc, C.; Pangon, B.
Actinobaculum schaalii is a Gram-positive facultative anaerobe bacillus. It is a commensal organism of the genitourinary tract. Its morphology is nonspecific. Aerobic culture is tedious, and identification techniques have long been inadequate. Thus, A. schaalii has often been considered as a nonpathogen bacterium or a contaminant. Its pathogenicity is now well described in urinary tract infections, and infections in other sites have been reported. This pathogen is considered as an emerging one following the growing use of mass spectrometry identification. In this context, the aim of our study was to evaluate the number of isolations of A. schaalii before and after the introduction of mass spectrometry in our hospital and to study the clinical circumstances in which isolates were found. PMID:27014462
Luhrs, Caro Elise; Teitelbaum, Rita
The Hummer Associates Exposure Control Plan is designed to reduce significant occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens and infectious materials for Hummer Associates health care personnel. Under universal precautions, all patients and all body fluids are considered potentially infectious for bloodborne pathogens. Medical personnel need not be at increased risk if universal precautions are correctly understood and followed. This program covers all employees who could reasonably anticipate contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials during the performance of their job responsibilities. Although HIV and hepatitis B are mentioned most often, this program applies to all bloodborne diseases. The two main components needed to implement this program are universal precautions and engineering/work practice controls. This program covers all employees who may have occupational exposure to blood or other potentially infectious materials. Other aspects of this program are discussed.
Nørrung, Birgit; Andersen, Jens Kirk; Buncic, Sava
Although various foods can serve as sources of foodborne illness, meat and meat products are important sources of human infections with a variety of foodborne pathogens, i.e. Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni/coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Verotoxigenic E. coli and, to some extent, Listeria monocytogenes. All these may be harboured in the gastrointestinal tract of food-producing animals. The most frequent chain of events leading to meat-borne illness involves food animals, which are healthy carriers of the pathogens that are subsequently transferred to humans through production, handling and consumption of meat and meat products. Occurrences of Salmonella spp., C. jejuni/coli, Y. enterocolitica and Verotoxigenic E. coli in fresh red meat vary relatively widely, although most often are between 1 and 10%, depending on a range of factors including the organism, geographical factors, farming and/or meat production practices.
Ellis, Jeff; Dodds, Peter
A plant protein RIN4 is targeted and modified by bacterial pathogens as part of the disease process. At least two host resistance proteins monitor this pathogen interference and trigger the plant's defence responses.
PHIDIAS- Pathogen Host Interaction Data Integration and Analysis- allows searching of integrated genome sequences, conserved domains and gene expressions data related to pathogen host interactions in high priority agents for public health and security ...
Sep 13, 2010 ... The aim of the present study is to determine the pathogenic and potentially ... Keywords: pathogenic bacteria; antibiotic resistance; carpets; mosques; Tripoli; Libya .... During the process of praying, a Muslim is obliged to go.
Aug 13, 2014 ... In addition, plant pathogens directly affected through antibiosis and ... Trichoderma strains for antagonistic activity on the fungal pathogen V. ... Five soil sub samples were taken from the area around the healthy potato roots ...
Post-harvest interventions for control of foodborne pathogens on minimally processed foods are crucial for food safety. Biocontrol interventions have the primary objective of developing novel antagonists in combinations with physical and chemical interventions to inactivate pathogenic microbes. Ther...
Childhood urinary tract infection in Benin City: pathogens and antimicrobial ... of bacterial isolates implicated in urinary tract infection (UTI) amongst children was ... There is also an emerging resistance of common pathogens to azithromycin ...
Swainsonine, a cytotoxic fungal alkaloid and a potential cancer therapy drug, is produced by the insect pathogen and plant symbiont, Metarhizium robertsii, the clover pathogen Slafractonia leguminicola, locoweed symbionts belonging to Alternaria sect. Undifilum, and a recently discovered morning glo...
The outcome of a bacterial infection depends on the interaction between pathogen and host. The ability of the microbe to survive in the host depends on its invasive potential (i.e. spreading and multiplication), and its ability to obtain essential nutrients and to resist the host's defense system. On the other hand, the host's resistance to a bacterial attack depends on its physiological state, the intensity of the bacterial attack and the efficacy of the defense system to ...
Hendriksen, Rene S.; Mevius, Dik J.; Schroeter, Andreas; Teale, Christopher; Jouy, Eric; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia; Utinane, Andra; Amado, Alice; Moreno, Miguel; Greko, Christina; Stärk, Katharina D.C.; Berghold, Christian; Myllyniemi, Anna-Liisa; Hoszowski, Andrzej
Background: The project "Antibiotic resistance in bacteria of animal origin – II" (ARBAO-II) was funded by the European Union (FAIR5-QLK2-2002-01146) for the period 2003–05. The aim of this project was to establish a program for the continuous monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogenic and indicator bacteria from food animals using validated and harmonised methodologies. In this report the first data on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria cau...
Full Text Available With today’s leisure tourism, the frequency of visits to many caves makes it necessary to know about possible potentially pathogenic microorganisms in caves, determine their reservoirs, and inform the public about the consequences of such visits. Our data reveal that caves could be a potential danger to visitors because of the presence of opportunistic microorganisms, whose existence and possible development in humans is currently unknown.
of decontamination, porcine parvovirus (PPV) was selected as a model virus; B19 is the form that infects humans. PPV is an interesting pathogen...ultrasound to cold plasma. The ultrasound generates pure ice crystals, which are then removed to leave concentrated plasma. Testing: Porcine parvovirus ...energy to “burn” any proteins that they encounter. Furthermore, as they react, they also produce multiple other reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are
Peter J. Hume
Full Text Available Salmonella causes disease in humans and animals ranging from mild self-limiting gastroenteritis to potentially life-threatening typhoid fever. Salmonellosis remains a considerable cause of morbidity and mortality globally, and hence imposes a huge socio-economic burden worldwide. A key property of all pathogenic Salmonella strains is the ability to invade non-phagocytic host cells. The major determinant of this invasiveness is a Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS, a molecular syringe that injects virulence effector proteins directly into target host cells. These effectors cooperatively manipulate multiple host cell signaling pathways to drive pathogen internalization. Salmonella does not only rely on these injected effectors, but also uses several other T3SS-independent mechanisms to gain entry into host cells. This review summarizes our current understanding of the methods used by Salmonella for cell invasion, with a focus on the host signaling networks that must be coordinately exploited for the pathogen to achieve its goal.
Full Text Available During the last decade, Clostridium difficile infection showed a dramatic increase in incidence and virulence in the Northern hemisphere. This incessantly challenging disease is the leading cause of antibiotic-associated and nosocomial infectious diarrhea and became life-threatening especially among elderly people. It is generally assumed that all human bacterial pathogens are heterotrophic organisms, being either saccharolytic or proteolytic. So far, this has not been questioned as colonization of the human gut gives access to an environment, rich in organic nutrients. Here, we present data that C. difficile (both clinical and rumen isolates is also able to grow on CO2+H2 as sole carbon and energy source, thus representing the first identified autotrophic bacterial pathogen. Comparison of several different strains revealed high conservation of genes for autotrophic growth and showed that the ability to use gas mixtures for growth decreases or is lost upon prolonged culturing under heterotrophic conditions. The metabolic flexibility of C. difficile (heterotrophic growth on various substrates as well as autotrophy could allow the organism in the gut to avoid competition by niche differentiation and contribute to its survival when stressed or in unfavorable conditions that cause death to other bacteria. This may be an important trait for the pathogenicity of C. difficile.
Janowicz, Diane M; Li, Wei; Bauer, Margaret E
Haemophilus ducreyi, the causative agent of the sexually transmitted infection chancroid, is primarily a pathogen of human skin. During infection, H. ducreyi thrives extracellularly in a milieu of professional phagocytes and other antibacterial components of the innate and adaptive immune responses. This review summarizes our understanding of the interplay between this pathogen and its host that leads to development and persistence of disease. H. ducreyi expresses key virulence mechanisms to resist host defenses. The secreted LspA proteins are tyrosine-phosphorylated by host kinases, which may contribute to their antiphagocytic effector function. The serum resistance and adherence functions of DsrA map to separate domains of this multifunctional virulence factor. An influx transporter protects H. ducreyi from killing by the antimicrobial peptide LL37. Regulatory genes have been identified that may coordinate virulence factor expression during disease. Dendritic cells and natural killer cells respond to H. ducreyi and may be involved in determining the differential outcomes of infection observed in humans. A human model of H. ducreyi infection has provided insights into virulence mechanisms that allow this human-specific pathogen to survive immune pressures. Components of the human innate immune system may also determine the ultimate fate of H. ducreyi infection by driving either clearance of the organism or an ineffective response that allows disease progression.
Kaloriti, Despoina; Tillmann, Anna; Cook, Emily; Jacobsen, Mette; You, Tao; Lenardon, Megan; Ames, Lauren; Barahona, Mauricio; Chandrasekaran, Komelapriya; Coghill, George; Goodman, Daniel; Gow, Neil A. R.; Grebogi, Celso; Ho, Hsueh-Lui; Ingram, Piers; McDonagh, Andrew; De Moura, Alessandro P. S.; Pang, Wei; Puttnam, Melanie; Radmaneshfar, Elahe; Romano, Maria Carmen; Silk, Daniel; Stark, Jaroslav; Stumpf, Michael; Thiel, Marco; Thorne, Thomas; Usher, Jane; Yin, Zhikang; Haynes, Ken; Brown, Alistair J. P.
Pathogenic microbes exist in dynamic niches and have evolved robust adaptive responses to promote survival in their hosts. The major fungal pathogens of humans, Candida albicans and Candida glabrata, are exposed to a range of environmental stresses in their hosts including osmotic, oxidative and nitrosative stresses. Significant efforts have been devoted to the characterization of the adaptive responses to each of these stresses. In the wild, cells are frequently exposed simultaneously to combinations of these stresses and yet the effects of such combinatorial stresses have not been explored. We have developed a common experimental platform to facilitate the comparison of combinatorial stress responses in C. glabrata and C. albicans. This platform is based on the growth of cells in buffered rich medium at 30°C, and was used to define relatively low, medium and high doses of osmotic (NaCl), oxidative (H 2O2) and nitrosative stresses (e.g., dipropylenetriamine (DPTA)-NONOate). The effects of combinatorial stresses were compared with the corresponding individual stresses under these growth conditions. We show for the first time that certain combinations of combinatorial stress are especially potent in terms of their ability to kill C. albicans and C. glabrata and/or inhibit their growth. This was the case for combinations of osmotic plus oxidative stress and for oxidative plus nitrosative stress. We predict that combinatorial stresses may be highly signif cant in host defences against these pathogenic yeasts. PMID:22463109
Full Text Available Venturia inaequalis is the causal agent of apple scab, a devastating disease of apple. We outline several unique features of this pathogen which are useful for molecular genetics studies intended to understand plant-pathogen interactions. The pathogenicity mechanisms of the pathogen and overview of apple defense responses, monogenic and polygenic resistance, and their utilization in scab resistance breeding programs are also reviewed.
Microbial plant pathogens impose a continuous threat on global food production. Similar to disease resistance in mammals, an innate immune system allows plants to recognise pathogens and swiftly activate defence. For the work described in this thesis, the interaction between tomato and the extracellular fungal pathogen Cladosporium fulvum serves as a model system to study host resistance and susceptibility in plant-pathogen interactions. Resistance to C. fulvum in tomato plants follows the ge...
Wright, Aaron T.
Bacterial pathogen-secreted proteases may play a key role in inhibiting a potentially widespread host-pathogen interaction. Activity-based protein profiling enabled the identification of a major Vibrio cholerae serine protease that limits the ability of a host-derived intestinal lectin to bind to the bacterial pathogen in vivo.
Ceratocystis fimbriata sensu lato(s.l.) is an important pathogen of Eucalyptus. Pathogenicity of isolates has typically been evaluated by inoculating seedlings under greenhouse conditions. It is, however, not clear how accurately this reflects pathogenicity under field conditions. In this study, five techniques to potentially ...
Juneja, Vijay K.
The increasing numbers of illnesses associated with foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7, has renewed concerns about food safety because of consumer preferences for minimally processed foods that offer convenience in availability and preparation. Accordingly, the need for better control of foodborne pathogens has been paramount in recent years. Mechanical removal of microorganisms from food can be accomplished by centrifugation, filtration, trimming and washing. Cleaning and sanitation strategies can be used for minimizing the access of microorganisms in foods from various sources. Other strategies for control of foodborne pathogens include established physical microbiocidal treatments such as ionizing radiation and heating. Research has continued to demonstrate that food irradiation is a suitable process to control and possibly eliminate foodborne pathogens, for example Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7, from a number of raw and cooked meat and poultry products. Heat treatment is the most common method in use today for the inactivation of microorganisms. Microorganisms can also be destroyed by nonthermal treatments, such as application of high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric fields, oscillating magnetic fields or a combination of physical processes such as heat-irradiation, or heat-high hydrostatic pressure, etc. Each of the non-thermal technologies has specific applications in terms of the types of food that can be processed. Both conventional and newly developed physical treatments can be used in combination for controlling foodborne pathogens and enhancing the safety and shelf life of foods. Recent research has focused on combining traditional preservation factors with emerging intervention technologies. However, many key issues still need to be addressed for combination preservation factors or technologies to be useful in the food industry to meet public demands for foods with enhanced safety
Sepehri, Mitra; Sejersen, Tobias; Qvortrup, Klaus; Lerche, Catharina M; Serup, Jørgen
Tattoo pigments are deposited in the skin and known to distribute to regional lymph nodes. Tattoo pigments are small particles and may be hypothesized to reach the blood stream and become distributed to peripheral organs. This has not been studied in the past. The aim of the study was to trace tattoo pigments in internal organs in mice extensively tattooed with 2 different tattoo ink products. Three groups of mice were studied, i.e., 10 tattooed black, 10 tattooed red, and 5 untreated controls. They were tattooed on the entire back with commercial tattoo inks, black and red. Mice were sacrificed after 1 year. Samples were isolated from tattooed skin, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, kidney, and lung. Samples were examined for deposits of tattoo pigments by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM identified intracellular tattoo pigments in the skin and in lymph nodes. TEM in both groups of tattooed mice showed tattoo pigment deposits in the Kupffer cells in the liver, which is a new observation. TEM detected no pigment in other internal organs. Light microscopy showed dense pigment in the skin and in lymph nodes but not in internal organs. The study demonstrated black and red tattoo pigment deposits in the liver; thus, tattoo pigment distributed from the tattooed skin via the blood stream to this important organ of detoxification. The finding adds a new dimension to tattoo pigment distribution in the body, i.e., as observed via the blood in addition to the lymphatic pathway. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Sepehri, Mitra; Steen Sejersen, Tobias; Qvortrup, Klaus
AIM: Tattoo pigments are deposited in the skin and known to distribute to regional lymph nodes. Tattoo pigments are small particles and may be hypothesized to reach the blood stream and become distributed to peripheral organs. This has not been studied in the past. The aim of the study was to trace....... Mice were sacrificed after 1 year. Samples were isolated from tattooed skin, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, kidney, and lung. Samples were examined for deposits of tattoo pigments by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). RESULTS: TEM identified intracellular tattoo pigments...... in the skin and in lymph nodes. TEM in both groups of tattooed mice showed tattoo pigment deposits in the Kupffer cells in the liver, which is a new observation. TEM detected no pigment in other internal organs. Light microscopy showed dense pigment in the skin and in lymph nodes but not in internal organs...
Reyes-Urueña, Juliana; Brugal, M Teresa; Majo, Xavier; Domingo-Salvany, Antonia; Caylà, Joan A
The study's aim was to estimate the self-reported prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), and to describe their associated risk factors in a population of users of illicit drugs recruited in Catalonia- Spain, during 2012. Cross-sectional study. People with illicit drugs use were selected in three different types of healthcare centres. The questionnaire was a piloted, structured ad hoc instrument. An analysis was made to identify factors associated to self-reported HCV, HIV and co-infection. Correlates of reported infections were determined using univariate and multivariate Poisson regression (with robust variance). Among 512 participants, 39.65% self-reported positive serostatus for HCV and 14.84% for HIV, co-infection was reported by 13.48%. Among the 224 injecting drug users (IDUs), 187 (83.48%), 68 (30.36%) and 66 (29.46%) reported being positive for HCV, HIV and co-infection, respectively. A higher proportion of HIV-infected cases was observed among women, (18.33% vs. 13.78% in men). Prevalence of HCV, HIV and co-infection were higher among participants with early onset of drug consumption, long periods of drug injection or who were unemployed. A positive serostatus was self-reported by 21(7.34%) participants who did not report any injection; among them 16 and eight, reported being positive for HCV and HIV, respectively; three reported co-infection. Only two people declared exchanging sex for money. For those that reported a negative test, the median time since the last HIV test was 11.41 months (inter-quartile range (IQR) 4-12) and for the HCV test was 4.5 months (IQR 2-7). Among drug users in Catalonia, HIV, HCV and co-infection prevalence are still a big issue especially among IDUs. Women and drug users who have never injected drugs are groups with a significant risk of infection; this might be related to their high-risk behaviours and to being unaware of their serological status.
Salvo, Vanessa-Sarah; Fabiano, Mauro
Sediments of five Ligurian beaches in compliance with European Union bathing water regulations were studied based on the characteristics of the fungal assemblage during the tourism season. Among the 179 taxa of filamentous fungi isolated, 120 were opportunistic pathogens, such as Acremonium sp., and the genus Penicillium was also present as the pathogenic species P. citrinum. Furthermore, 5% of the total filamentous fungi belonged to the dermatophyte genus Microsporum, whose species can cause mycoses. Beach sediments showed elevated densities of opportunistic pathogens, of pathogenic filamentous fungi, and of yeasts during the tourism season. Although monitoring of beach sediments for microbiological contamination is not mandatory, and disease transmission from sediments has not yet been demonstrated, our study suggests that beach sediments may act as a reservoir of potential pathogens, including fungi. In addition, the mycoflora displayed high sensitivity to critical environmental situations in the beaches studied. Therefore, the fungal community can be a useful tool for assessing the quality of sandy beaches in terms of sanitary and environmental quality.
Korva, Miša; Knap, Nataša; Resman Rus, Katarina; Fajs, Luka; Grubelnik, Gašper; Bremec, Matejka; Knapič, Tea; Trilar, Tomi; Avšič Županc, Tatjana
Slovenia is a very diverse country from a natural geography point of view, with many different habitats within a relatively small area, in addition to major geological and climatic differences. It is therefore not surprising that several small mammal species have been confirmed to harbour hantaviruses: A. flavicollis (Dobrava virus), A. agrarius (Dobrava virus–Kurkino), M. glareolus (Puumala virus), S. areanus (Seewis virus), M. agrestis, M. arvalis and M. subterraneus (Tula virus). Three of the viruses, namely the Dobrava, Dobrava–Kurkino and Puumala viruses, cause disease in humans, with significant differences in the severity of symptoms. Due to changes in haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome cases (HFRS) epidemiology, a detailed study on phylogenetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of pathogenic and non-pathogenic hantaviruses circulating in ecologically diverse endemic regions was performed. The study presents one of the largest collections of hantavirus L, M and S sequences obtained from hosts and patients within a single country. Several genetic lineages were determined for each hantavirus species, with higher diversity among non-pathogenic compared to pathogenic viruses. For pathogenic hantaviruses, a significant geographic clustering of human- and rodent-derived sequences was confirmed. Several geographic and ecological factors were recognized as influencing and limiting the formation of endemic areas. PMID:24335778
Delaunois, Bertrand; Jeandet, Philippe; Clément, Christophe; Baillieul, Fabienne; Dorey, Stéphan; Cordelier, Sylvain
Plant pathogens have evolved by developing different strategies to infect their host, which in turn have elaborated immune responses to counter the pathogen invasion. The apoplast, including the cell wall and extracellular space outside the plasma membrane, is one of the first compartments where pathogen-host interaction occurs. The plant cell wall is composed of a complex network of polysaccharides polymers and glycoproteins and serves as a natural physical barrier against pathogen invasion. The apoplastic fluid, circulating through the cell wall and intercellular spaces, provides a means for delivering molecules and facilitating intercellular communications. Some plant-pathogen interactions lead to plant cell wall degradation allowing pathogens to penetrate into the cells. In turn, the plant immune system recognizes microbial- or damage-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs or DAMPs) and initiates a set of basal immune responses, including the strengthening of the plant cell wall. The establishment of defense requires the regulation of a wide variety of proteins that are involved at different levels, from receptor perception of the pathogen via signaling mechanisms to the strengthening of the cell wall or degradation of the pathogen itself. A fine regulation of apoplastic proteins is therefore essential for rapid and effective pathogen perception and for maintaining cell wall integrity. This review aims to provide insight into analyses using proteomic approaches of the apoplast to highlight the modulation of the apoplastic protein patterns during pathogen infection and to unravel the key players involved in plant-pathogen interaction.
Full Text Available High-throughput sequencing technologies have made it possible to study bacteria through analyzing their genome sequences. For instance, comparative genome sequence analyses can reveal the phenomenon such as gene loss, gene gain, or gene exchange in a genome. By analyzing pathogenic bacterial genomes, we can discover that pathogenic genomic regions in many pathogenic bacteria are horizontally transferred from other bacteria, and these regions are also known as pathogenicity islands (PAIs. PAIs have some detectable properties, such as having different genomic signatures than the rest of the host genomes, and containing mobility genes so that they can be integrated into the host genome. In this review, we will discuss various pathogenicity island-associated features and current computational approaches for the identification of PAIs. Existing pathogenicity island databases and related computational resources will also be discussed, so that researchers may find it to be useful for the studies of bacterial evolution and pathogenicity mechanisms.
Möller, Mareike; Stukenbrock, Eva H
The fungal kingdom comprises some of the most devastating plant pathogens. Sequencing the genomes of fungal pathogens has shown a remarkable variability in genome size and architecture. Population genomic data enable us to understand the mechanisms and the history of changes in genome size and adaptive evolution in plant pathogens. Although transposable elements predominantly have negative effects on their host, fungal pathogens provide prominent examples of advantageous associations between rapidly evolving transposable elements and virulence genes that cause variation in virulence phenotypes. By providing homogeneous environments at large regional scales, managed ecosystems, such as modern agriculture, can be conducive for the rapid evolution and dispersal of pathogens. In this Review, we summarize key examples from fungal plant pathogen genomics and discuss evolutionary processes in pathogenic fungi in the context of molecular evolution, population genomics and agriculture.
Patra, Kailash P; Choudhury, Biswa; Matthias, Michael M; Baga, Sheyenne; Bandyopadhya, Keya; Vinetz, Joseph M
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are complex, amphipathic biomolecules that constitute the major surface component of Gram-negative bacteria. Leptospira, unlike other human-pathogenic spirochetes, produce LPS, which is fundamental to the taxonomy of the genus, involved in host-adaption and also the target of diagnostic antibodies. Despite its significance, little is known of Leptospira LPS composition and carbohydrate structure among different serovars. LPS from Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni strain L1-130, a pathogenic species, and L. licerasiae serovar Varillal strain VAR 010, an intermediately pathogenic species, were studied. LPS prepared from aqueous and phenol phases were analyzed separately. L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni has additional sugars not found in L. licerasiae serovar Varillal, including fucose (2.7%), a high amount of GlcNAc (12.3%), and two different types of dideoxy HexNAc. SDS-PAGE indicated that L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni LPS had a far higher molecular weight and complexity than that of L. licerasiae serovar Varillal. Chemical composition showed that L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni LPS has an extended O-antigenic polysaccharide consisting of sugars, not present in L. licerasiae serovar Varillal. Arabinose, xylose, mannose, galactose and L-glycero-D-mannoheptose were detected in both the species. Fatty acid analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed the presence of hydroxypalmitate (3-OH-C16:0) only in L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni. Negative staining electron microscopic examination of LPS showed different filamentous morphologies in L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni vs. L. licerasiae serovar Varillal. This comparative biochemical analysis of pathogenic and intermediately pathogenic Leptospira LPS reveals important carbohydrate and lipid differences that underlie future work in understanding the mechanisms of host-adaptation, pathogenicity and vaccine development in leptospirosis.
Li, L; Redding, S; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, A
Following the widespread use of immunosuppressive therapy and broad-spectrum antimycotic prophylaxis, C. glabrata has emerged as an important opportunistic pathogen in the oral mucosa. In the past, studies on the virulence factors and host-pathogen interactions of this organism were scarce, but continued to rise in recent years. Denture-wearing, immunosuppression, antibiotic therapy, and aging are risk factors for oral colonization or infection with C. glabrata. Compared with C. albicans, C. glabrata exhibits lower oral keratinocyte-adherence capacity, but higher denture-surface-adherence ability. The role of extracellular hydrolase production in the virulence of this organism does not appear to be as important as it is in C. albicans pathogenesis. Although traditionally thought of as a non-transforming yeast organism, both phenotypic switching and pseudohyphal formation have recently been identified in C. glabrata, but their role in pathogenesis is not known. With the exception of granulocyte monocyte colony-stimulating factor, C. glabrata triggers a lower proinflammatory cytokine response in oral epithelial cells than does C. albicans, in a strain-dependent manner. C. glabrata is less susceptible to killing by human beta-defensins than is C. albicans and exhibits various degrees of resistance to the antifungal activity of salivary histatins and mucins. In addition, C. glabrata possesses both innate and acquired resistance against antifungal drugs, due to its ability to modify ergosterol biosynthesis, mitochondrial function, or antifungal efflux. This resistance allows for its relative overgrowth over other susceptible species and may contribute to the recent emergence of C. glabrata infections in chronically immunocompromised populations. Further investigations on the virulence and host-pathogen interactions of C. glabrata are needed to better define the pathogenesis of oral C. glabrata infection in susceptible hosts.
The threats of bio-terrorism and newly emerging infectious diseases pose serious challenges to the national security infrastructure. Rapid detection and diagnosis of infectious disease in human populations, as well as characterizing pathogen biology, are critical for reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with such threats. One of the key challenges in managing an infectious disease outbreak, whether through natural causes or acts of overt terrorism, is detection early enough to initiate effective countermeasures. Much recent attention has been directed towards the utility of biomarkers or molecular signatures that result from the interaction of the pathogen with the host for improving our ability to diagnose and mitigate the impact of a developing infection during the time window when effective countermeasures can be instituted. Host responses may provide early signals in blood even from localized infections. Multiple innate and adaptive immune molecules, in combination with other biochemical markers, may provide disease-specific information and new targets for countermeasures. The presence of pathogen specific markers and an understanding of the molecular capabilities and adaptations of the pathogen when it interacts with its host may likewise assist in early detection and provide opportunities for targeting countermeasures. An important question that needs to be addressed is whether these molecular-based approaches will prove useful for early diagnosis, complement current methods of direct agent detection, and aid development and use of countermeasures. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will host a workshop to explore the utility of host- and pathogen-based molecular diagnostics, prioritize key research issues, and determine the critical steps needed to transition host-pathogen research to tools that can be applied towards a more effective national bio-defense strategy. The workshop will bring together leading researchers/scientists in the
Plaza, Nicolás; Castillo Bermúdez, Daniel Elías; Perez-Reytor, Diliana
constitute a continuing threat for aquaculture. Moreover, the continuous use of antibiotics has been accompanied by an emergence of antibiotic resistance in Vibrio species, implying a necessity for efficient treatments. One promising alternative that emerges is the use of lytic bacteriophages; however......, there are some drawbacks that should be overcome to make phage therapy a widely accepted method. In this work, we discuss about the major pathogenic Vibrio species and the progress, benefits and disadvantages that have been detected during the experimental use of bacteriophages to their control....
A total of 7194 faecal samples collected over a 1-year period from patients presenting with diarrhoea were screened for Campylobacter spp. using EntericBio(®) , a multiplex-PCR system. Of 349 Campylobacter-positive samples, 23.8% were shown to be Campylobacter ureolyticus, using a combination of 16S rRNA gene analysis and highly specific primers targeting the HSP60 gene of this organism. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of C. ureolyticus in the faeces of patients presenting with gastroenteritis and may suggest a role for this organism as an emerging enteric pathogen.
provide a game changing component that shapes the interaction in quite a unique way. This thesis explores some of the aspects of biology of host-pathogen interaction between red wood ants, F. polyctena, and the fungus P. formicae. First, the taxonomy of the fungus is studied and some nomenclatural issues...... that ants actively remove fungus-killed cadavers is documented and further explored in this thesis. I establish the effect of this behavior on raw numbers of cadavers present around an ant colony by detailed mapping of colony surroundings for three subsequent days, twice a day, three times during the season...
Injection safety is therefore critical in preventing occupational exposure and infection from blood borne pathogens, hence prevention is a vital part of any ... safety among clinical healthcare workers at the Garissa Provincial General Hospital.
Full Text Available Commercially processed, untreated chicken feathers are biologically hazardous due to the presence of blood-borne pathogens. Prior to valorisation, it is crucial that they are decontaminated to remove the microbial contamination. The present study...
occupational infection by HIV and other blood borne pathogens. Key Words: HIV .... percent of health care personnel report adverse events while taking ... hypersensitivity reactions. tAvailable as a .... blood and tissue donors. Transfusion 1995;.
Kasweck, K.L.; Fliermans, C.B.
The results of the sampling in both Par Pond and Clark Hill Reservoir are given. The frequency of isolation is a qualitative parameter which indicates how often the specified bacterium was isolated from each habitat. Initial scoping experiments demonstrated that a wider variety of pathogenic bacteria occur in Par Pond than in Clark Hill Reservoir. Such findings are interesting because Par Pond does not receive any human wastes directly, yet bacteria generally associated with human wastes are more frequently isolated from Par Pond. Previous studies have demonstrated that certain non-spore-forming enteric bacteria do not survive the intense heat associated with the cooling water when the reactor is operating. However, even when the reactor is not operating, cooling water, consisting of 10% makeup water from Savannah River, continues to flow into Par Pond. This flow provides a source of bacteria which inoculate Par Pond. Once the reactor is again operating, these same bacteria appear to be able to survive and grow within the Par Pond system. Thus, Par Pond and the associated lakes and canals of the Par Pond system provide a pool of pathogens that normally would not survive in natural waters
Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a halophilic gram negative, motile, oxidase positive, straight or curved rod-shaped, facultative anaerobic bacteria that occur naturally in the marine environment. They form part of the indigenous microflora of aquatic habitats of various salinity and are the major causative agents for some of the most serious diseases in fish, shellfish and penacid shrimp. This human pathogen causes acute gastroenteritis characterized by diarrhea, vomiting and abdominal cramps through consumption of contaminated raw fish or shellfish. V. parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of gastroenteritis due to the consumption of seafood worldwide. The incidence of V. parahaemolyticus infection has been increasing in many parts of the world, due to the emergence of O3:K6 serotype carrying the tdh gene which is responsible for most outbreaks worldwide. The pathogenicity of this organism is closely correlated with the Kanagawa phenomenon (KP + due to production of Kanagawa hemolysin or the thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH. The TDH and TRH (TDH-related hemolysin encoded by tdh and trh genes are considered to be important virulence factors. [Vet. World 2012; 5(1.000: 48-63
Srivastava, Shikha; Kadooka, Chris; Uchida, Janice Y
The recent surge in demand for exotic ornamental crops such as orchids has led to a rise in international production, and a sharp increase in the number of plant and plant products moving between countries. Along with the plants, diseases are also being transported and introduced into new areas. Fusarium is one of the major diseases causing pathogens infecting orchids that is spreading through international trade. Studies have identified several species of Fusarium associated with orchids, some are pathogenic and cause symptoms such as leaf and flower spots, leaf or sheath blights, pseudostem or root rots, and wilts. Infection and damage caused by Fusarium reduces the quality of plants and flowers, and can cause severe economic losses. This review documents the current status of the Fusarium-orchid interaction, and illustrates challenges and future perspectives based on the available literature. This review is the first of Fusarium and orchid interactions, and integrates diverse results that both furthers the understanding and knowledge of this disease complex, and will enable the development of effective disease management practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Bednar, B; Duke, M C
Overall, the bloodborne pathogen rule constitutes a reasonable response to a significant threat to workplace safety. The risks to dialysis workers from HBV and HIV must be minimized or eliminated and the rule is generally consistent with the consensus approach. Unfortunately for dialysis providers, the rule is not exempt from the law of unintended consequences: government regulation will always have impact beyond its object. Promulgation of the final rule will immediately increase the expenses of dialysis providers. Additionally, the enormity of the HBV and HIV problem coupled with the open-ended nature of the rule's key provisions will almost certainly bring additional costs. So long as dialysis reimbursement remains flat, the unintended consequence of the bloodborne pathogen rule may be to quicken the pace of consolidation in the dialysis service market. The added burden of compliance may be too much for small independent facilities. Only large chains may have the resources to comply and survive. To forestall this effect and to provide employees with maximum protection, all dialysis providers should plan now for compliance.
Wirth, Fernanda; Goldani, Luciano Z.
This is an updated paper focusing on the general epidemiological aspects of Rhodotorula in humans, animals, and the environment. Previously considered nonpathogenic, Rhodotorula species have emerged as opportunistic pathogens that have the ability to colonise and infect susceptible patients. Rhodotorula species are ubiquitous saprophytic yeasts that can be recovered from many environmental sources. Several authors describe the isolation of this fungus from different ecosystems, including sites with unfavourable conditions. Compared to R. mucilaginosa, R. glutinis and R. minuta are less frequently isolated from natural environments. Among the few references to the pathogenicity of Rhodotorula spp. in animals, there are several reports of an outbreak of skin infections in chickens and sea animals and lung infections and otitis in sheep and cattle. Most of the cases of infection due to Rhodotorula in humans were fungemia associated with central venous catheter (CVC) use. The most common underlying diseases included solid and haematologic malignancies in patients who were receiving corticosteroids and cytotoxic drugs, the presence of CVC, and the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Unlike fungemia, some of the other localised infections caused by Rhodotorula, including meningeal, skin, ocular, peritoneal, and prosthetic joint infections, are not necessarily linked to the use of CVCs or immunosuppression. PMID:23091485
Syed Ab Rahman, Sharifah Farhana; Singh, Eugenie; Pieterse, Corné M J; Schenk, Peer M
To address food security, agricultural yields must increase to match the growing human population in the near future. There is now a strong push to develop low-input and more sustainable agricultural practices that include alternatives to chemicals for controlling pests and diseases, a major factor of heavy losses in agricultural production. Based on the adverse effects of some chemicals on human health, the environment and living organisms, researchers are focusing on potential biological control microbes as viable alternatives for the management of pests and plant pathogens. There is a growing body of evidence that demonstrates the potential of leaf and root-associated microbiomes to increase plant efficiency and yield in cropping systems. It is important to understand the role of these microbes in promoting growth and controlling diseases, and their application as biofertilizers and biopesticides whose success in the field is still inconsistent. This review focusses on how biocontrol microbes modulate plant defense mechanisms, deploy biocontrol actions in plants and offer new strategies to control plant pathogens. Apart from simply applying individual biocontrol microbes, there are now efforts to improve, facilitate and maintain long-term plant colonization. In particular, great hopes are associated with the new approaches of using "plant-optimized microbiomes" (microbiome engineering) and establishing the genetic basis of beneficial plant-microbe interactions to enable breeding of "microbe-optimized crops". Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ham, Jong Hyun; Melanson, Rebecca A; Rush, Milton C
Burkholderia glumae causes bacterial panicle blight of rice, which is an increasingly important disease problem in global rice production. Toxoflavin and lipase are known to be major virulence factors of this pathogen, and their production is dependent on the TofI/TofR quorum-sensing system, which is mediated by N-octanoyl homoserine lactone. Flagellar biogenesis and a type III secretion system are also required for full virulence of B. glumae. Bacterial panicle blight is thought to be caused by seed-borne B. glumae; however, its disease cycle is not fully understood. In spite of its economic importance, neither effective control measures for bacterial panicle blight nor rice varieties showing complete resistance to the disease are currently available. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying B. glumae virulence and of the rice defence mechanisms against the pathogen would lead to the development of better methods of disease control for bacterial panicle blight. Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Betaproteobacteria; Burkholderiales; Burkholderiaceae; Burkholderia. Gram-negative, capsulated, motile, lophotrichous flagella, pectolytic. Aborted seed, empty grains as a result of failure of grain filling, brown spots on panicles, seedling rot. Seed sterilization, planting partially resistant lines (no completely resistant line is available). KNOWN VIRULENCE FACTORS: Toxoflavin, lipase, type III effectors. © 2010 LSU AGCENTER. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2010 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.
Zhang, C; Crasta, O; Cammer, S; Will, R; Kenyon, R; Sullivan, D; Yu, Q; Sun, W; Jha, R; Liu, D; Xue, T; Zhang, Y; Moore, M; McGarvey, P; Huang, H; Chen, Y; Zhang, J; Mazumder, R; Wu, C; Sobral, B
The NIAID-funded Biodefense Proteomics Resource Center (RC) provides storage, dissemination, visualization and analysis capabilities for the experimental data deposited by seven Proteomics Research Centers (PRCs). The data and its publication is to support researchers working to discover candidates for the next generation of vaccines, therapeutics and diagnostics against NIAID's Category A, B and C priority pathogens. The data includes transcriptional profiles, protein profiles, protein structural data and host-pathogen protein interactions, in the context of the pathogen life cycle in vivo and in vitro. The database has stored and supported host or pathogen data derived from Bacillus, Brucella, Cryptosporidium, Salmonella, SARS, Toxoplasma, Vibrio and Yersinia, human tissue libraries, and mouse macrophages. These publicly available data cover diverse data types such as mass spectrometry, yeast two-hybrid (Y2H), gene expression profiles, X-ray and NMR determined protein structures and protein expression clones. The growing database covers over 23 000 unique genes/proteins from different experiments and organisms. All of the genes/proteins are annotated and integrated across experiments using UniProt Knowledgebase (UniProtKB) accession numbers. The web-interface for the database enables searching, querying and downloading at the level of experiment, group and individual gene(s)/protein(s) via UniProtKB accession numbers or protein function keywords. The system is accessible at http://www.proteomicsresource.org/.
Ackerveken, van den G.F.J.M.
The molecular understanding of host-pathogen interactions and particularly of specificity forms the basis for studying plant resistance. Understanding why a certain plant species or cultivar is susceptible and why other species or cultivars are resistant is of great importance in order to
Shewanella marisflavi isolate AP629 was characterized as a novel pathogen of sea cucumber. The LD50 values (14 days) in sea cucumber and swordtail fish were 3.89 × 106 and 4.85 × 104 CFU g-1 body weight, respectively. Studies on S. marisflavi had been conducted, including morphology, physiological a...
Pálková, Z.; Váchová, Libuše
Roč. 57, SEP (2016), s. 110-119 ISSN 1084-9521 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-08605S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Pathogenic yeasts * Biofilms and colonies * Cell differentiation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 6.614, year: 2016
Doxey, Andrew C; McConkey, Brendan J
Molecular mimicry of host proteins is a common strategy adopted by bacterial pathogens to interfere with and exploit host processes. Despite the availability of pathogen genomes, few studies have attempted to predict virulence-associated mimicry relationships directly from genomic sequences. Here, we analyzed the proteomes of 62 pathogenic and 66 non-pathogenic bacterial species, and screened for the top pathogen-specific or pathogen-enriched sequence similarities to human proteins. The screen identified approximately 100 potential mimicry relationships including well-characterized examples among the top-scoring hits (e.g., RalF, internalin, yopH, and others), with about 1/3 of predicted relationships supported by existing literature. Examination of homology to virulence factors, statistically enriched functions, and comparison with literature indicated that the detected mimics target key host structures (e.g., extracellular matrix, ECM) and pathways (e.g., cell adhesion, lipid metabolism, and immune signaling). The top-scoring and most widespread mimicry pattern detected among pathogens consisted of elevated sequence similarities to ECM proteins including collagens and leucine-rich repeat proteins. Unexpectedly, analysis of the pathogen counterparts of these proteins revealed that they have evolved independently in different species of bacterial pathogens from separate repeat amplifications. Thus, our analysis provides evidence for two classes of mimics: complex proteins such as enzymes that have been acquired by eukaryote-to-pathogen horizontal transfer, and simpler repeat proteins that have independently evolved to mimic the host ECM. Ultimately, computational detection of pathogen-specific and pathogen-enriched similarities to host proteins provides insights into potentially novel mimicry-mediated virulence mechanisms of pathogenic bacteria.
Liu, Xiaoping; Tang, Wei-Hua; Zhao, Xing-Ming; Chen, Luonan
Fusarium graminearum is the pathogenic agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB), which is a destructive disease on wheat and barley, thereby causing huge economic loss and health problems to human by contaminating foods. Identifying pathogenic genes can shed light on pathogenesis underlying the interaction between F. graminearum and its plant host. However, it is difficult to detect pathogenic genes for this destructive pathogen by time-consuming and expensive molecular biological experiments in lab. On the other hand, computational methods provide an alternative way to solve this problem. Since pathogenesis is a complicated procedure that involves complex regulations and interactions, the molecular interaction network of F. graminearum can give clues to potential pathogenic genes. Furthermore, the gene expression data of F. graminearum before and after its invasion into plant host can also provide useful information. In this paper, a novel systems biology approach is presented to predict pathogenic genes of F. graminearum based on molecular interaction network and gene expression data. With a small number of known pathogenic genes as seed genes, a subnetwork that consists of potential pathogenic genes is identified from the protein-protein interaction network (PPIN) of F. graminearum, where the genes in the subnetwork are further required to be differentially expressed before and after the invasion of the pathogenic fungus. Therefore, the candidate genes in the subnetwork are expected to be involved in the same biological processes as seed genes, which imply that they are potential pathogenic genes. The prediction results show that most of the pathogenic genes of F. graminearum are enriched in two important signal transduction pathways, including G protein coupled receptor pathway and MAPK signaling pathway, which are known related to pathogenesis in other fungi. In addition, several pathogenic genes predicted by our method are verified in other pathogenic fungi, which
Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila has been recognized as the major cause of legionellosis since the discovery of the deadly disease. Legionella spp. other than L. pneumophila were later found to be responsible to many non-pneumophila infections. The non-L. pneumophila infections are likely under-detected because of a lack of effective diagnosis. In this report, we have sequenced the 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS of 10 Legionella species and subspecies, including L. anisa, L. bozemanii, L. dumoffii, L. fairfieldensis, L. gormanii, L. jordanis, L. maceachernii, L. micdadei, L. pneumophila subspp. fraseri and L. pneumophila subspp. pasculleii, and developed a rapid oligonucleotide microarray detection technique accordingly to identify 12 most common Legionella spp., which consist of 11 pathogenic species of L. anisa, L. bozemanii, L. dumoffii, L. gormanii, L. jordanis, L. longbeachae, L. maceachernii, L. micdadei, and L. pneumophila (including subspp. pneumophila, subspp. fraseri, and subspp. pasculleii and one non-pathogenic species, L. fairfieldensis. Twenty-nine probes that reproducibly detected multiple Legionella species with high specificity were included in the array. A total of 52 strains, including 30 target pathogens and 22 non-target bacteria, were used to verify the oligonucleotide microarray assay. The sensitivity of the detection was at 1.0 ng with genomic DNA or 13 CFU/100 mL with Legionella cultures. The microarray detected seven samples of air conditioner-condensed water with 100% accuracy, validating the technique as a promising method for applications in basic microbiology, clinical diagnosis, food safety, and epidemiological surveillance. The phylogenetic study based on the ITS has also revealed that the non-pathogenic L. fairfieldensis is the closest to L. pneumophila than the nine other pathogenic Legionella spp.
Cao, Boyang; Liu, Xiangqian; Yu, Xiang; Chen, Min; Feng, Lu; Wang, Lei
Legionella pneumophila has been recognized as the major cause of legionellosis since the discovery of the deadly disease. Legionella spp. other than L. pneumophila were later found to be responsible to many non-pneumophila infections. The non-L. pneumophila infections are likely under-detected because of a lack of effective diagnosis. In this report, we have sequenced the 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of 10 Legionella species and subspecies, including L. anisa, L. bozemanii, L. dumoffii, L. fairfieldensis, L. gormanii, L. jordanis, L. maceachernii, L. micdadei, L. pneumophila subspp. fraseri and L. pneumophila subspp. pasculleii, and developed a rapid oligonucleotide microarray detection technique accordingly to identify 12 most common Legionella spp., which consist of 11 pathogenic species of L. anisa, L. bozemanii, L. dumoffii, L. gormanii, L. jordanis, L. longbeachae, L. maceachernii, L. micdadei, and L. pneumophila (including subspp. pneumophila, subspp. fraseri, and subspp. pasculleii) and one non-pathogenic species, L. fairfieldensis. Twenty-nine probes that reproducibly detected multiple Legionella species with high specificity were included in the array. A total of 52 strains, including 30 target pathogens and 22 non-target bacteria, were used to verify the oligonucleotide microarray assay. The sensitivity of the detection was at 1.0 ng with genomic DNA or 13 CFU/100 mL with Legionella cultures. The microarray detected seven samples of air conditioner-condensed water with 100% accuracy, validating the technique as a promising method for applications in basic microbiology, clinical diagnosis, food safety, and epidemiological surveillance. The phylogenetic study based on the ITS has also revealed that the non-pathogenic L. fairfieldensis is the closest to L. pneumophila than the nine other pathogenic Legionella spp. PMID:25469776
Patel, Ronak Y; Shah, Neethu; Jackson, Andrew R; Ghosh, Rajarshi; Pawliczek, Piotr; Paithankar, Sameer; Baker, Aaron; Riehle, Kevin; Chen, Hailin; Milosavljevic, Sofia; Bizon, Chris; Rynearson, Shawn; Nelson, Tristan; Jarvik, Gail P; Rehm, Heidi L; Harrison, Steven M; Azzariti, Danielle; Powell, Bradford; Babb, Larry; Plon, Sharon E; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar
The success of the clinical use of sequencing based tests (from single gene to genomes) depends on the accuracy and consistency of variant interpretation. Aiming to improve the interpretation process through practice guidelines, the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) and the Association for Molecular Pathology (AMP) have published standards and guidelines for the interpretation of sequence variants. However, manual application of the guidelines is tedious and prone to human error. Web-based tools and software systems may not only address this problem but also document reasoning and supporting evidence, thus enabling transparency of evidence-based reasoning and resolution of discordant interpretations. In this report, we describe the design, implementation, and initial testing of the Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen) Pathogenicity Calculator, a configurable system and web service for the assessment of pathogenicity of Mendelian germline sequence variants. The system allows users to enter the applicable ACMG/AMP-style evidence tags for a specific allele with links to supporting data for each tag and generate guideline-based pathogenicity assessment for the allele. Through automation and comprehensive documentation of evidence codes, the system facilitates more accurate application of the ACMG/AMP guidelines, improves standardization in variant classification, and facilitates collaborative resolution of discordances. The rules of reasoning are configurable with gene-specific or disease-specific guideline variations (e.g. cardiomyopathy-specific frequency thresholds and functional assays). The software is modular, equipped with robust application program interfaces (APIs), and available under a free open source license and as a cloud-hosted web service, thus facilitating both stand-alone use and integration with existing variant curation and interpretation systems. The Pathogenicity Calculator is accessible at http
Mumtaz, Shamim; Ahmad, Mumtaz; Aftab, Irum; Akhtar, Naeem; ul Hassan, Masood; Hamid, Abdul
The vaginal flora is a complicated environment, containing dozens of microbiological species in variable quantities and relative proportions. The frequent cause of vaginal discharge is an infection or colonization with different microorganisms. Some pathologic conditions causing vaginitis are well defined yet, 7-72% of women with vaginitis may remain undiagnosed and such forms of abnormal vaginal flora neither considered as normal, nor can be called bacterial vaginosis have been termed as 'intermediate flora' and its management probably differ from that of bacterial vaginosis. It is of crucial importance in pregnant females at risk of preterm delivery. The present study has been conducted especially to elucidate this type of aerobic vaginal isolates and their culture and sensitivity towards currently used antibiotics. This study was conducted at the Microbiology Department of Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi over a period of two years (April 2004-March 2006). One thousand, nine hundred and twenty three high vaginal swabs, both from indoor and outdoor patients were collected, cultured and their susceptibility to various antibiotics was determined. Significant growth was obtained in 731 samples. The highest frequency of infection (39.5%) was observed at 31-40 years followed by 41-50 years (35.8%). About 76% were from outdoor and 24% were from indoor patients. Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent vaginal pathogen at 11-60 yrs & with highest prevalence at 31-40 years followed by 41-50 years. It was a predominant pathogen in both indoor (35%) as well as outdoor (41.6%) patients, followed by enteric gram-negative bacilli and other gram-positive cocci. There were very few antibiotics among the conventionally available aminoglycosides, third generation cephalosporins, penicillin, quinolones, sulfonamides and tetracyclines possessing good sensitivity (> 80%) against any one the common aerobic vaginal pathogens. The effective chemotherapeutics agents belong to
Boysen, Anders; Borch, Jonas; Krogh, Thøger Jensen
Comparative studies of pathogenic bacteria and their non-pathogenic counterparts has led to the discovery of important virulence factors thereby generating insight into mechanisms of pathogenesis. Protein-based antigens for vaccine development are primarily selected among unique virulence...... experimental approach. In addition we find proteins that are not unique to the pathogenic strains but expressed at levels different from the commensal strain, including the colonization factor YghJ and the surface adhesin antigen 43, which is involved in pathogenesis of other Gram-negative bacteria......-related factors produced by the pathogen of interest. However, recent work indicates that proteins that are not unique to the pathogen but instead selectively expressed compared to its non-pathogenic counterpart could also be vaccine candidates or targets for drug development. Modern methods in quantitative...
Full Text Available Data about symptomatology, pathogenicity and bacteriological characteristics of Pseudomonas syringae, and PCR methods for fast and reliable detection of the pathogen are given in this paper. P. syringae has been experimentaly proved as a pathogen of pear, apple, apricot, plum cherry, and raspberry, and pathogen strains have also been isolated from necrotic peach buds. Two pathogen varieties, syringae and morsprunorum, were found in our research in Serbia, the former being dominant on fruit trees.The most reliable method for detection of this bacteria is PCR, using BOX and REP primers. This method has also revealed significant differences among the strains originating from fruit trees in Serbia. Thus, it was proved that the population of P. syringae in Serbia is heterogeneous, which is very important for future epidemiologocal studies. Control of this pathogen includes mechanical, cultural and chemical measures, but integrated approach is very important for sustainable control.
Larissa D Cunha
Full Text Available Activation of the inflammasome occurs in response to a notably high number of pathogenic microbes and is a broad innate immune response that effectively contributes to restriction of pathogen replication and generation of adaptive immunity. Activation of these platforms leads to caspase-1- and/or caspase-11-dependent secretion of proteins, including cytokines, and induction of a specific form of cell death called pyroptosis, which directly or indirectly contribute for restriction of pathogen replication. Not surprisingly, bona fide intracellular pathogens developed strategies for manipulation of cell death to guarantee intracellular replication. In this sense, the remarkable advances in the knowledge of the inflammasome field have been accompanied by several reports characterizing the inhibition of this platform by several pathogenic bacteria. Herein, we review some processes used by pathogenic bacteria, including Yersinia spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Chlamydia trachomatis, Francisella tularensis, Shigella flexneri, Legionella pneumophila and Coxiella burnetii to evade the activation of the inflammasome and the induction of pyroptosis.
Diseases and pathogens are receiving increasing recognition as sources of mortality in animal populations. Immune system strength is clearly important in fending off pathogen attack. Physical barriers to pathogen entry are also important. Various individual behaviors are efficacious in reducing contact with diseases and pests. This paper focuses on a fourth mode of defense: social barriers to transmission. Various social behaviors have pathogen transmission consequences. Selective pressures on these social behaviors may therefore exist. Effects on pathogen transmission of mating strategies, social avoidance, group size, group isolation, and other behaviors are explored. It is concluded that many of these behaviors may have been affected by selection pressures to reduce transmission of pathogens. 84 refs., 1 tab.
Youngsteadt, Elsa; Appler, R. Holden; L?pez-Uribe, Margarita M.; Tarpy, David R.; Frank, Steven D.
Given the role of infectious disease in global pollinator decline, there is a need to understand factors that shape pathogen susceptibility and transmission in bees. Here we ask how urbanization affects the immune response and pathogen load of feral and managed colonies of honey bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus), the predominant economically important pollinator worldwide. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we measured expression of 4 immune genes and relative abundance of 10 honey bee pathogens....
Municipal wastewater is one of the most important pollution sources for water supply resources. Identification and enumeration of pathogenic agents particularly pathogenic Vibrios are beneficial for controlling and prevention planning of the infectious diseases. This research was carried out to identify the distribution of the recognized pathogenic Vibrios with emphasizing on identification of Vibrio cholera in the wastewater of Kermanshah city western Iran in 2002. The method of study was cr...
Bäumler, Andreas J.; Sperandio, Vanessa
The microbiome has an important role in human health. Changes in the microbiota can confer resistance to or promote infection by pathogenic bacteria. Antibiotics have a profound impact on the microbiota that alters the nutritional landscape of the gut and can lead to the expansion of pathogenic populations. Pathogenic bacteria exploit microbiota-derived sources of carbon and nitrogen as nutrients and regulatory signals to promote their own growth and virulence. By eliciting inflammation, thes...
Asrat, Seblewongel; de Jesús, Dennise A; Hempstead, Andrew D; Ramabhadran, Vinay; Isberg, Ralph R
Pathogens use a vast number of strategies to alter host membrane dynamics. Targeting the host membrane machinery is important for the survival and pathogenesis of several extracellular, vacuolar, and cytosolic bacteria. Membrane manipulation promotes bacterial replication while suppressing host responses, allowing the bacterium to thrive in a hostile environment. This review provides a comprehensive summary of various strategies used by both extracellular and intracellular bacteria to hijack host membrane trafficking machinery. We start with mechanisms used by bacteria to alter the plasma membrane, delve into the hijacking of various vesicle trafficking pathways, and conclude by summarizing bacterial adaptation to host immune responses. Understanding bacterial manipulation of host membrane trafficking provides insights into bacterial pathogenesis and uncovers the molecular mechanisms behind various processes within a eukaryotic cell.
Full Text Available The objective of this article is to present an overview on bacterial pathogens associated with shellfish in Grenada and other countries including the authors’ experience. Although there have been considerable published work on vibrios, there is a lack of information on Salmonella serovars associated with various shellfish. In Grenada, for instance the blue land crabs collected from their habitats were found to harbor several Salmonella serovars. Also, it is notable that only minimal research has been done on shellfish such as conchs and whelks, which are common in the Caribbean and West Indies. Information on anaerobic bacteria, particularly, non-spore forming bacteria associated with shellfish, in general, is also scanty. This review re-examines this globally important topic based on the recent findings as well as past observations. Strategies for reduction of bacteria in oysters are briefly mentioned because of the fact that oysters are consumed commonly without complete cooking.
Stephen Allen Morse
Full Text Available Events over the past 15 years have resulted in the promulgation of regulations in the United States to enhance biosecurity by restricting the access of pathogens and toxins (i.e., biological select agents and toxins [BSAT], which pose a severe threat to human, animal or plant health or to animal or plant products, to qualified institutions, laboratories, and scientists. These regulations also reduce biosafety concerns by imposing specific requirements on laboratories working with BSATs. Furthermore, they provide a legal framework for prosecuting someone who possesses a BSAT illegally. With the implementation of these regulations has come a discussion in the scientific community about the potential of these regulations to affect the cost of doing BSAT research and international collaborations, or whether it would stop someone with a microbiological background from isolating many of the select agents from nature.
Morse, Stephen A
Events over the past 15 years have resulted in the promulgation of regulations in the United States to enhance biosecurity by restricting the access to pathogens and toxins (i.e., biological select agents and toxins [BSATs]), which pose a severe threat to human being, animal, or plant health or to animal or plant products, to qualified institutions, laboratories, and scientists. These regulations also reduce biosafety concerns by imposing specific requirements on laboratories working with BSATs. Furthermore, they provide a legal framework for prosecuting someone who possesses a BSAT illegally. With the implementation of these regulations has come discussion in the scientific community about the potential of these regulations to affect the cost of doing BSAT research, hamper research and international collaborations, or whether it would stop someone with a microbiological background from isolating many of the select agents from nature.
Full Text Available Infectious diseases constitute a major public health burden, particularly in developing countries. Amongst the pathogens afflicting humans, malaria, HIV, shigellosis and tuberculosis (TB cause a large number of deaths. Whilst antivirals, antibiotics and antiparasitic drugs have all helped to reduce the burden of disease, problems of drug resistance are increasingly common, presenting the need to come up with alternative approaches to disease prevention. Ideally, effective prophylactic vaccines would be developed against each of these infections, but unfortunately with the exception of TB, no vaccine is currently available against the other three infections. Baring a breakthrough, coming for example from the application of newer more potent adjuvants to vaccine candidates, new paradigms are needed to help tackle these infectious diseases.
Chitpatima, S T; Settachan, D; Pornsilpatip, J; Visawapoka, U [Pramongkutklao College of Medicine, Bangkok (Thailand). Molecular Biology Lab.; Dvorak, D R [Amersham International Ltd., Singapore (Singapore)
In recent years, significant advances in the knowledge of DNA and its make up have led to the development of a powerful technique called polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Since the advent of PCR, laboratories around the globe have been exploiting this technology to bridge limitations or to overcome common problems encountered in molecular biology techniques. In addition, this technology has been employed successfully in diagnostic and basic scientific research and development. The true potentials of this technology is realized in early detection of pathogens and genetic abnormalities. In this paper two PCR protocols are described. The first is for detection of HIV-1 DNA in blood, the other for detection of rabies virus RNA in brain cells. 6 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab.
Ana edo Vale
Full Text Available Bacterial toxins are virulence factors that manipulate host cell functions and take over the control of vital processes of living organisms to favour microbial infection. Some toxins directly target innate immune cells, thereby annihilating a major branch of the host immune response. In this review we will focus on bacterial toxins that act from the extracellular milieu and hinder the function of macrophages and neutrophils. In particular, we will concentrate on toxins from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria that manipulate cell signalling or induce cell death by either imposing direct damage to the host cells cytoplasmic membrane or enzymatically modifying key eukaryotic targets. Outcomes regarding pathogen dissemination, host damage and disease progression will be discussed.
Mysak, Jaroslav; Podzimek, Stepan; Sommerova, Pavla; Lyuya-Mi, Yelena; Bartova, Jirina; Janatova, Tatjana; Prochazkova, Jarmila; Duskova, Jana
Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative oral anaerobe that is involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis and is a member of more than 500 bacterial species that live in the oral cavity. This anaerobic bacterium is a natural member of the oral microbiome, yet it can become highly destructive (termed pathobiont) and proliferate to high cell numbers in periodontal lesions: this is attributed to its arsenal of specialized virulence factors. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of one of the main periodontal pathogens—Porphyromonas gingivalis. This bacterium, along with Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia, constitute the “red complex,” a prototype polybacterial pathogenic consortium in periodontitis. This review outlines Porphyromonas gingivalis structure, its metabolism, its ability to colonize the epithelial cells, and its influence upon the host immunity. PMID:24741603
Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative oral anaerobe that is involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis and is a member of more than 500 bacterial species that live in the oral cavity. This anaerobic bacterium is a natural member of the oral microbiome, yet it can become highly destructive (termed pathobiont and proliferate to high cell numbers in periodontal lesions: this is attributed to its arsenal of specialized virulence factors. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of one of the main periodontal pathogens—Porphyromonas gingivalis. This bacterium, along with Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia, constitute the “red complex,” a prototype polybacterial pathogenic consortium in periodontitis. This review outlines Porphyromonas gingivalis structure, its metabolism, its ability to colonize the epithelial cells, and its influence upon the host immunity.
The heterogenetic and sporadic nature of colorectal cancer has led to many epidemiological associations with causes of this disease. As our understanding of the underlying molecular processes in colorectal-cancer develops, the concept of microbial-epithelial interactions as an oncogenic trigger might provide a plausible hypothesis for the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. By contrast with other cancers of the gastrointestinal tract (gastric carcinoma, mucosa-associated lymphoid-tissue lymphoma), a direct causal link between microbial infection (bacteria and viruses) and colorectal carcinoma has not been established. Studies support the involvement of these organisms in oncogenesis, however, in colorectal cancer, clinical data are lacking. Here, we discuss current evidence (both in vitro and clinical studies), and focus on a putative role for bacterial and viral pathogens as a cause of colorectal cancer.
The heterogenetic and sporadic nature of colorectal cancer has led to many epidemiological associations with causes of this disease. As our understanding of the underlying molecular processes in colorectal-cancer develops, the concept of microbial-epithelial interactions as an oncogenic trigger might provide a plausible hypothesis for the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. By contrast with other cancers of the gastrointestinal tract (gastric carcinoma, mucosa-associated lymphoid-tissue lymphoma), a direct causal link between microbial infection (bacteria and viruses) and colorectal carcinoma has not been established. Studies support the involvement of these organisms in oncogenesis, however, in colorectal cancer, clinical data are lacking. Here, we discuss current evidence (both in vitro and clinical studies), and focus on a putative role for bacterial and viral pathogens as a cause of colorectal cancer.
Full Text Available The powdery mildew and leaf rust caused by Blumeria graminis and Puccinia recondita (respectively are common diseases of wheat throughout the world. These fungal diseases greatly affect crop productivity. Incorporation of effective and durable disease resistance is an important breeding objective for wheat improvement. We have evaluated resistance of four bread wheat (Triticum aestivum and four spelt wheat (Triticum spelta cultivars. Chitinases occurrence as well as their activity was determined in leaf tissues. There was no correlation between resistance rating and activity of chitinase. The pattern of chitinases reveals four isoforms with different size in eight wheat cultivars. A detailed understanding of the molecular events that take place during a plant–pathogen interaction is an essential goal for disease control in the future.
Cascioferro, Stella; Cusimano, Maria Grazia; Schillaci, Domenico
A fundamental step of Gram-positive pathogenesis is the bacterial adhesion to the host tissue involving interaction between bacterial surface molecules and host ligands. This review is focused on antivirulence compounds that target Gram-positive adhesins and on their potential development as therapeutic agents alternative or complementary to conventional antibiotics in the contrast of pathogens. In particular, compounds that target the sortase A, wall theicoic acid inhibitors, carbohydrates able to bind bacterial proteins and proteins capable of influencing the bacterial adhesion, were described. We further discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this strategy in the development of novel antimicrobials and the future perspective of this research field still at its first steps.
The final food and environmental safety assessment of agriculture product irradiation can only be determined by product history. Product history will be used for future research and development, regulations, commercial practices and implementation of agriculture and food irradiation on a regional basis. The commercial irradiator treats large varieties and amounts of products that are used in various environments. it, in time, will generate a large data base of product history. Field product monitoring begins when food irradiation progresses from the pilot/demonstration phase to the commercial phase. At that time, it is important that there be in place a monitoring system to collect and analyze field data. The systems managers, public health authorities and exotic disease specialists will use this information to assess the reduction of food pathogens on the populace and the environment. (author)
João P. S. Cabral
Full Text Available Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water—cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery—is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases’ characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers. Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters.
Cabral, João P S
Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water-cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery-is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases' characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment) and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers). Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters.
A. O. Ogunleye
Full Text Available The pathogenicity of Salmonella Paratyphi A isolated at Debiwise Poultry Farm during a fulminating outbreak was tested. Twenty 16-week-old pullets were inoculated orally with 0.5 ml of 1.3 x 108 CFU/bird Salmonella Paratyphi A, while 20 others of the same age served as uninfected control. By the fourth day postinoculation (p.i. dullness, ruffled and unkempt feathers, somnolence, yellowish- green diarrhea, decreased water and feed consumption were observed in the infected birds; mortality was 95% by day 16 p.i. Remarkable pathological lesions were recorded between days 7 and 14 p.i. The liver was moderately enlarged, with multiple necrotic foci, and dark brown to bronze coloration. The kidneys were swollen, with widespread focal pale necrotic areas, while the spleen was slightly enlarged. Histopathologically, the proventriculus showed focal glandular necrosis, mononuclear cell infiltration and moderate perivascular leucocytic infiltration. There was mucosal hemorrhage, matting of intestinal villi with reduction of villous height and presence of epithelial debris in the lumen with increased leucocytic infiltration in the lamina propriae. The liver showed moderate, diffuse congestion of the sinusoid and central veins, as well as multiple foci of necrosis of hepatocytes, mononuclear infiltration and perivascular cellular infiltration. There was diffuse lymphoid depletion in the nodule and around the splenic arterioles as well as throughout the parenchyma. The kidneys were congested with tubular epithelial necrosis characterized by karyorrhexis of the nuclei. The organism was recovered from the liver, spleen, heart, heart blood and bone marrow of infected birds. No clinical sign or gross lesion or pathogen was observed in the negative control.
Newburg, D S
Breast-fed infants have lower incidence of diarrhea, respiratory disease, and otitis media. The protection by human milk has long been attributed to the presence of secretory IgA. However, human milk contains large numbers and amounts of complex carbohydrates, including glycoproteins, glycolipids, glycosaminoglycans, mucins, and especially oligosaccharides. The oligosaccharides comprise the third most abundant solid constituent of human milk, and contain a myriad of structures. Complex carbohydrate moieties of glycoconjugates and oligosaccharides are synthesized by the many glycosyltransferases in the mammary gland; those with homology to cell surface glycoconjugate pathogen receptors may inhibit pathogen binding, thereby protecting the nursing infant. Several examples are reviewed: A fucosyloligosaccharide inhibits the diarrheagenic effect of stable toxin of Escherichia coli. A different fucosyloligosaccharide inhibits infection by Campylobacter jejuni. Binding of Streptococcus pneumoniae and of enteropathogenic E. coli to their respective receptors is inhibited by human milk oligosaccharides. The 46-kD glycoprotein, lactadherin, inhibits rotavirus binding and infectivity. Low levels of lactadherin in human milk are associated with a higher incidence of symptomatic rotavirus in breast-fed infants. A mannosylated glycopeptide inhibits binding by enterohemorrhagic E. coli. A glycosaminoglycan inhibits binding of gp120 to CD4, the first step in HIV infection. Human milk mucin inhibits binding by S-fimbriated E. coli. The ganglioside, GM1, reduces diarrhea production by cholera toxin and labile toxin of E. coli. The neutral glycosphingolipid, Gb3, binds to Shigatoxin. Thus, many complex carbohydrates of human milk may be novel antipathogenic agents, and the milk glycoconjugates and oligosaccharides may be a major source of protection for breastfeeding infants.
Xu, Wenji; Liu, Zhongshu; Bao, Quncha; Qian, Zhikan
Esophageal cancer (EC) is the eighth most prevalent malignant tumor and the sixth leading cause of cancer mortality throughout the world. Despite the technical developments in diagnosis and treatment, the 5-year survival rate is still low. The etiology of EC remains poorly understood; multiple risk factors may be involved and account for the great variation in EC incidence in different geographic regions. Infection with carcinogenetic pathogens has been proposed as a risk factor for EC. This review explores the recent studies on the association of human papillomavirus (HPV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Helicobacter pylori and esophageal bacterial biota with EC. Among the above-mentioned pathogens, HPV most likely contributes to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in high-risk populations. New techniques are being applied to studies on the role of infection in EC, which will inevitably bring novel ideas to the field in the near future. Multiple meta-analyses support the finding of a higher HPV detection rate in regions associated with high risk for ESCC compared to low-risk areas. A potential role of HPV in the rise of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) was proposed recently. However, further studies are required before a firm conclusion can be drawn. Less work has been done in studying the association between EBV and ESCC, and the results are quite controversial. H. pylori infection is found to be inversely related to EC, which is probably due to the reduced incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Analysis of the esophageal bacterial biota revealed distinct clusters of bacteria in normal and diseased esophagi. A type II microbiome rich in Gram-negative bacteria potentially contributes to EAC by inducing chronic inflammation. Novel findings from such studies as these may benefit public health by justifying anti-infection measures to prevent EC.
Anderson Messias Rodrigues
Full Text Available Sporotrichosis is a chronic (subcutaneous infection caused by thermodimorphic fungi in the order, Ophiostomatales. These fungi are characterized by major differences in routes of transmission, host predilections, species virulence, and susceptibilities to antifungals. Sporothrix species emerge in the form of outbreaks. Large zoonoses and sapronoses are ongoing in Brazil and China, respectively. Current diagnostic methods based on morphology and physiology are inaccurate due to closely related phenotypes with overlapping components between pathogenic and non-pathogenic Sporothrix. There is a critical need for new diagnostic tools that are specific, sensitive, and cost-effective.We developed a panel of novel markers, based on calmodulin (CAL gene sequences, for the large-scale diagnosis and epidemiology of clinically relevant members of the Sporothrix genus, and its relative, Ophiostoma. We identified specific PCR-based markers for S. brasiliensis, S. schenckii, S. globosa, S. mexicana, S. pallida, and O. stenoceras. We employed a murine model of disseminated sporotrichosis to optimize a PCR assay for detecting Sporothrix in clinical specimens.Primer-BLAST searches revealed candidate sequences that were conserved within a single species. Species-specific primers showed no significant homology with human, mouse, or microorganisms outside the Sporothrix genus. The detection limit was 10-100 fg of DNA in a single round of PCR for identifying S. brasiliensis, S. schenckii, S. globosa, S. mexicana, and S. pallida. A simple, direct PCR assay, with conidia as a source of DNA, was effective for rapid, low-cost genotyping. Samples from a murine model of disseminated sporotrichosis confirmed the feasibility of detecting S. brasiliensis and S. schenckii DNA in spleen, liver, lungs, heart, brain, kidney, tail, and feces of infected animals.This PCR-based method could successfully detect and identify a single species in samples from cultures and from clinical
Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; de Hoog, G. Sybren; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires
Background Sporotrichosis is a chronic (sub)cutaneous infection caused by thermodimorphic fungi in the order, Ophiostomatales. These fungi are characterized by major differences in routes of transmission, host predilections, species virulence, and susceptibilities to antifungals. Sporothrix species emerge in the form of outbreaks. Large zoonoses and sapronoses are ongoing in Brazil and China, respectively. Current diagnostic methods based on morphology and physiology are inaccurate due to closely related phenotypes with overlapping components between pathogenic and non-pathogenic Sporothrix. There is a critical need for new diagnostic tools that are specific, sensitive, and cost-effective. Methodology We developed a panel of novel markers, based on calmodulin (CAL) gene sequences, for the large-scale diagnosis and epidemiology of clinically relevant members of the Sporothrix genus, and its relative, Ophiostoma. We identified specific PCR-based markers for S. brasiliensis, S. schenckii, S. globosa, S. mexicana, S. pallida, and O. stenoceras. We employed a murine model of disseminated sporotrichosis to optimize a PCR assay for detecting Sporothrix in clinical specimens. Results Primer-BLAST searches revealed candidate sequences that were conserved within a single species. Species-specific primers showed no significant homology with human, mouse, or microorganisms outside the Sporothrix genus. The detection limit was 10–100 fg of DNA in a single round of PCR for identifying S. brasiliensis, S. schenckii, S. globosa, S. mexicana, and S. pallida. A simple, direct PCR assay, with conidia as a source of DNA, was effective for rapid, low-cost genotyping. Samples from a murine model of disseminated sporotrichosis confirmed the feasibility of detecting S. brasiliensis and S. schenckii DNA in spleen, liver, lungs, heart, brain, kidney, tail, and feces of infected animals. Conclusions This PCR-based method could successfully detect and identify a single species in samples
Pappalardo, Morena; Collu, Francesca; Macpherson, James; Michaelis, Martin; Fraternali, Franca; Wass, Mark N
Ebolaviruses have been known to cause deadly disease in humans for 40 years and have recently been demonstrated in West Africa to be able to cause large outbreaks. Four Ebolavirus species cause severe disease associated with high mortality in humans. Reston viruses are the only Ebolaviruses that do not cause disease in humans. Conserved amino acid changes in the Reston virus protein VP24 compared to VP24 of other Ebolaviruses have been suggested to alter VP24 binding to host cell karyopherins resulting in impaired inhibition of interferon signalling, which may explain the difference in human pathogenicity. Here we used protein structural analysis and molecular dynamics to further elucidate the interaction between VP24 and KPNA5. As a control experiment, we compared the interaction of wild-type and R137A-mutant (known to affect KPNA5 binding) Ebola virus VP24 with KPNA5. Results confirmed that the R137A mutation weakens direct VP24-KPNA5 binding and enables water molecules to penetrate at the interface. Similarly, Reston virus VP24 displayed a weaker interaction with KPNA5 than Ebola virus VP24, which is likely to reduce the ability of Reston virus VP24 to prevent host cell interferon signalling. Our results provide novel molecular detail on the interaction of Reston virus VP24 and Ebola virus VP24 with human KPNA5. The results indicate a weaker interaction of Reston virus VP24 with KPNA5 than Ebola virus VP24, which is probably associated with a decreased ability to interfere with the host cell interferon response. Hence, our study provides further evidence that VP24 is a key player in determining Ebolavirus pathogenicity.
Goren, Moran; Yosef, Ido; Qimron, Udi
The extensive use of antibiotics over the last century has resulted in a significant artificial selection pressure for antibiotic-resistant pathogens to evolve. Various strategies to fight these pathogens have been introduced including new antibiotics, naturally-derived enzymes/peptides that specifically target pathogens and bacteriophages that lyse these pathogens. A new tool has recently been introduced in the fight against drug-resistant pathogens-the prokaryotic defense mechanism-clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR associated (CRISPR-Cas) system. The CRISPR-Cas system acts as a nuclease that can be guided to cleave any target DNA, allowing sophisticated, yet feasible, manipulations of pathogens. Here, we review pioneering studies that use the CRISPR-Cas system to specifically edit bacterial populations, eliminate their resistance genes and combine these two strategies in order to produce an artificial selection pressure for antibiotic-sensitive pathogens. We suggest that intelligent design of this system, along with efficient delivery tools into pathogens, may significantly reduce the threat of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Plant pathogens are a serious problem for seed export, plant disease control and plant quarantine. Rapid and accurate screening tests are urgently required to protect and prevent plant diseases spreading worldwide. A novel multiplex detection method was developed based on microsphere immunoassays to simultaneously detect four important plant pathogens: a fruit blotch bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac, chilli vein-banding mottle virus (CVbMV, potyvirus, watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV, tospovirus serogroup IV and melon yellow spot virus (MYSV, tospovirus. An antibody for each plant pathogen was linked on a fluorescence-coded magnetic microsphere set which was used to capture corresponding pathogen. The presence of pathogens was detected by R-phycoerythrin (RPE-labeled antibodies specific to the pathogens. The assay conditions were optimized by identifying appropriate antibody pairs, blocking buffer, concentration of RPE-labeled antibodies and assay time. Once conditions were optimized, the assay was able to detect all four plant pathogens precisely and accurately with substantially higher sensitivity than enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA when spiked in buffer and in healthy watermelon leaf extract. The assay time of the microsphere immunoassay (1 hour was much shorter than that of ELISA (4 hours. This system was also shown to be capable of detecting the pathogens in naturally infected plant samples and is a major advancement in plant pathogen detection.
Charlermroj, Ratthaphol; Himananto, Orawan; Seepiban, Channarong; Kumpoosiri, Mallika; Warin, Nuchnard; Oplatowska, Michalina; Gajanandana, Oraprapai; Grant, Irene R; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara; Elliott, Christopher T
Plant pathogens are a serious problem for seed export, plant disease control and plant quarantine. Rapid and accurate screening tests are urgently required to protect and prevent plant diseases spreading worldwide. A novel multiplex detection method was developed based on microsphere immunoassays to simultaneously detect four important plant pathogens: a fruit blotch bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac), chilli vein-banding mottle virus (CVbMV, potyvirus), watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV, tospovirus serogroup IV) and melon yellow spot virus (MYSV, tospovirus). An antibody for each plant pathogen was linked on a fluorescence-coded magnetic microsphere set which was used to capture corresponding pathogen. The presence of pathogens was detected by R-phycoerythrin (RPE)-labeled antibodies specific to the pathogens. The assay conditions were optimized by identifying appropriate antibody pairs, blocking buffer, concentration of RPE-labeled antibodies and assay time. Once conditions were optimized, the assay was able to detect all four plant pathogens precisely and accurately with substantially higher sensitivity than enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) when spiked in buffer and in healthy watermelon leaf extract. The assay time of the microsphere immunoassay (1 hour) was much shorter than that of ELISA (4 hours). This system was also shown to be capable of detecting the pathogens in naturally infected plant samples and is a major advancement in plant pathogen detection.
Kavaliers, Martin; Choleris, Elena
The acquisition and use of social information are integral to social behaviour and parasite/pathogen avoidance. This involves social cognition which encompasses mechanisms for acquiring, processing, retaining and acting on social information. Social cognition entails the acquisition of social information about others (i.e. social recognition) and from others (i.e. social learning). Social cognition involves assessing other individuals and their infection status and the pathogen and parasite threat they pose and deciding about when and how to interact with them. Social cognition provides a framework for examining pathogen and parasite avoidance behaviours and their associated neurobiological mechanisms. Here, we briefly consider the relationships between social cognition and olfactory-mediated pathogen and parasite avoidance behaviours. We briefly discuss aspects of (i) social recognition of actual and potentially infected individuals and the impact of parasite/pathogen threat on mate and social partner choice; (ii) the roles of 'out-groups' (strangers, unfamiliar individuals) and 'in-groups' (familiar individuals) in the expression of parasite/pathogen avoidance behaviours; (iii) individual and social learning, i.e. the utilization of the pathogen recognition and avoidance responses of others; and (iv) the neurobiological mechanisms, in particular the roles of the nonapeptide, oxytocin and steroid hormones (oestrogens) associated with social cognition and parasite/pathogen avoidance.This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Evolution of pathogen and parasite avoidance behaviours'. © 2018 The Author(s).
Powell, Jennifer R; Ausubel, Frederick M
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a simple model host for studying the relationship between the animal innate immune system and a variety of bacterial and fungal pathogens. Extensive genetic and molecular tools are available in C. elegans, facilitating an in-depth analysis of host defense factors and pathogen virulence factors. Many of these factors are conserved in insects and mammals, indicating the relevance of the nematode model to the vertebrate innate immune response. Here, we describe pathogen assays for a selection of the most commonly studied bacterial and fungal pathogens using the C. elegans model system.
Abdelwhab, El-Sayed M; Veits, Jutta; Mettenleiter, Thomas C
Avian influenza viruses (AIV) of H5 and H7 subtypes exhibit two different pathotypes in poultry: infection with low pathogenic (LP) strains results in minimal, if any, health disturbances, whereas highly pathogenic (HP) strains cause severe morbidity and mortality. LPAIV of H5 and H7 subtypes can spontaneously mutate into HPAIV. Ten outbreaks caused by HPAIV are known to have been preceded by circulation of a predecessor LPAIV in poultry. Three of them were caused by H5N2 subtype and seven involved H7 subtype in combination with N1, N3, or N7. Here, we review those outbreaks and summarize the genetic changes which resulted in the transformation of LPAIV to HPAIV under natural conditions. Mutations that were found directly in those outbreaks are more likely to be linked to virulence, pathogenesis, and early adaptation of AIV. PMID:23863606
Jason A Corwin
Full Text Available The most established model of the eukaryotic innate immune system is derived from examples of large effect monogenic quantitative resistance to pathogens. However, many host-pathogen interactions involve many genes of small to medium effect and exhibit quantitative resistance. We used the Arabidopsis-Botrytis pathosystem to explore the quantitative genetic architecture underlying host innate immune system in a population of Arabidopsis thaliana. By infecting a diverse panel of Arabidopsis accessions with four phenotypically and genotypically distinct isolates of the fungal necrotroph B. cinerea, we identified a total of 2,982 genes associated with quantitative resistance using lesion area and 3,354 genes associated with camalexin production as measures of the interaction. Most genes were associated with resistance to a specific Botrytis isolate, which demonstrates the influence of pathogen genetic variation in analyzing host quantitative resistance. While known resistance genes, such as receptor-like kinases (RLKs and nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat proteins (NLRs, were found to be enriched among associated genes, they only account for a small fraction of the total genes associated with quantitative resistance. Using publically available co-expression data, we condensed the quantitative resistance associated genes into co-expressed gene networks. GO analysis of these networks implicated several biological processes commonly connected to disease resistance, including defense hormone signaling and ROS production, as well as novel processes, such as leaf development. Validation of single gene T-DNA knockouts in a Col-0 background demonstrate a high success rate (60% when accounting for differences in environmental and Botrytis genetic variation. This study shows that the genetic architecture underlying host innate immune system is extremely complex and is likely able to sense and respond to differential virulence among pathogen
Moran, Gary P
Because most fungi have evolved to be free-living in the environment and because the infections they cause are usually opportunistic in nature, it is often difficult to identify specific traits that contribute to fungal pathogenesis. In recent years, there has been a surge in the number of sequenced genomes of human fungal pathogens, and comparison of these sequences has proved to be an excellent resource for exploring commonalities and differences in how these species interact with their hosts. In order to survive in the human body, fungi must be able to adapt to new nutrient sources and environmental stresses. Therefore, genes involved in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism and transport and genes encoding secondary metabolites tend to be overrepresented in pathogenic species (e.g., Aspergillus fumigatus). However, it is clear that human commensal yeast species such as Candida albicans have also evolved a range of specific factors that facilitate direct interaction with host tissues. The evolution of virulence across the human pathogenic fungi has occurred largely through very similar mechanisms. One of the most important mechanisms is gene duplication and the expansion of gene families, particularly in subtelomeric regions. Unlike the case for prokaryotic pathogens, horizontal transfer of genes between species and other genera does not seem to have played a significant role in the evolution of fungal virulence. New sequencing technologies promise the prospect of even greater numbers of genome sequences, facilitating the sequencing of multiple genomes and transcriptomes within individual species, and will undoubtedly contribute to a deeper insight into fungal pathogenesis.
Dubey, Balram; Dubey, Preeti; Dubey, Uma S.
Many common and emergent infectious diseases like Influenza, SARS, Hepatitis, Ebola etc. are caused by viral pathogens. These infections can be controlled or prevented by understanding the dynamics of pathogen-immune interaction in vivo. In this paper, interaction of pathogens with uninfected and infected cells in presence or absence of immune response are considered in four different cases. In the first case, the model considers the saturated nonlinear infection rate and linear cure rate without absorption of pathogens into uninfected cells and without immune response. The next model considers the effect of absorption of pathogens into uninfected cells while all other terms are same as in the first case. The third model incorporates innate immune response, humoral immune response and Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) mediated immune response with cure rate and without absorption of pathogens into uninfected cells. The last model is an extension of the third model in which the effect of absorption of pathogens into uninfected cells has been considered. Positivity and boundedness of solutions are established to ensure the well-posedness of the problem. It has been found that all the four models have two equilibria, namely, pathogen-free equilibrium point and pathogen-present equilibrium point. In each case, stability analysis of each equilibrium point is investigated. Pathogen-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable when basic reproduction number is less or equal to unity. This implies that control or prevention of infection is independent of initial concentration of uninfected cells, infected cells, pathogens and immune responses in the body. The proposed models show that introduction of immune response and cure rate strongly affects the stability behavior of the system. Further, on computing basic reproduction number, it has been found to be minimum for the fourth model vis-a-vis other models. The analytical findings of each model have been exemplified by
Cassells, Alan C
The ability to establish and grow plant cell, organ, and tissue cultures has been widely exploited for basic and applied research, and for the commercial production of plants (micro-propagation). Regardless of whether the application is for research or commerce, it is essential that the cultures be established in vitro free of biological contamination and be maintained as aseptic cultures during manipulation, growth, and storage. The risks from microbial contamination are spurious experimental results due to the effects of latent contaminants or losses of valuable experimental or commercial cultures. Much of the emphasis in culture contamination management historically focussed on the elimination of phytopathogens and the maintenance of cultures free from laboratory contamination by environmental bacteria, fungi (collectively referred to as "vitro pathogens", i.e. pathogens or environmental micro-organisms which cause culture losses), and micro-arthropods ("vitro pests"). Microbial contamination of plant tissue cultures is due to the high nutrient availability in the almost universally used Murashige and Skoog (Physiol Plant 15:473-497, 1962) basal medium or variants of it. In recent years, it has been shown that many plants, especially perennials, are at least locally endophytically colonized intercellularly by bacteria. The latter, and intracellular pathogenic bacteria and viruses/viroids, may pass latently into culture and be spread horizontally and vertically in cultures. Growth of some potentially cultivable endophytes may be suppressed by the high salt and sugar content of the Murashige and Skoog basal medium and suboptimal temperatures for their growth in plant tissue growth rooms. The management of contamination in tissue culture involves three stages: disease screening (syn. disease indexing) of the stock plants with disease and endophyte elimination where detected; establishment and pathogen and contaminant screening of established initial cultures
Knogge, W.; Gierlich, A.; Max-Planck-Institute for Plant Breeding,; Van't Slot, K.A.E.; Papavoine, T.
Full text: Induction of plant defence reactions and, hence, genotype-specific disease resistance results from the interaction of highly specific plant resistance (R) genes with matching pathogen avirulence (Avr) genes (gene-for-gene interactions). More than thirty R genes acting against different types of pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, oomycetes, nematodes) have been isolated from various plants species. However, with few exceptions it remains to be shown how their products recognise the complementary Avr gene products. To date, Avr genes and their products have been characterised from only three fungal species. These include the NIP1 gene from Rhynchosporium secalis, the causal agent of barley leaf scald. It encodes a small, secreted protein, NIP1, that triggers defence reactions exclusively in barley cultivars expressing the R gene Rrs1. NIP1 also non-specifically stimulates the H + -ATPase activity in barley plasma membranes, suggesting that the host recognition system targets a putative fungal virulence factor. Virulent fungal strains lack the gene or carry an allele encoding a non-functional product. Four NIP1 iso-forms have been characterised; NIP1-I and NIP1-II although both elicitor-active display different levels of activity, whereas the isoforms NIP1-III and NIP1-IV are inactive. After establishing a heterologous expression system, the single amino acids specifying NIP1-III and NIP1-IV were integrated into the NIP1-I sequence and yielded the inactive mutant proteins NIP1-III* and NIP1-IV*. The elicitor-inactive isoforms were also unable to stimulate the H + -ATPase, suggesting that both functions of NIP1 are mediated by a single plant receptor. The 3D structure of NIP1-I has been elucidated by 1 H- and 15 N-NMR spectroscopy. Binding studies using 125 I-NIP1-I revealed a single class of high-affinity binding sites on membranes from both Rrs1- and rrs1-cultivars, suggesting that NIP1-binding is not sufficient for defence triggering and that an
Harris, M. Camille; Miles, A. Keith; Pearce, John M.; Prosser, Diann J.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Whalen, Mary E.
Avian influenza viruses are naturally occurring in wild birds such as ducks, geese, swans, and gulls. These viruses generally do not cause illness in wild birds, however, when spread to poultry they can be highly pathogenic and cause illness and death in backyard and commercial farms. Outbreaks may cause devastating agricultural economic losses and some viral strains have the potential to infect people directly. Furthermore, the combination of avian influenza viruses with mammalian viruses can result in strains with the ability to transmit from person to person, possibly leading to viruses with pandemic potential. All known pandemic influenza viruses have had some genetic material of avian origin. Since 1996, a strain of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, H5N1, has caused infection in wild birds, losses to poultry farms in Eurasia and North Africa, and led to the deaths of several hundred people. Spread of the H5N1 virus and other influenza strains from China was likely facilitated by migratory birds. In December 2014, HPAI was detected in poultry in Canada and migratory birds in the United States. Since then, HPAI viruses have spread to large parts of the United States and will likely continue to spread through migratory bird flyways and other mechanisms throughout North America. In the United States, HPAI viruses have severely affected the poultry industry with millions of domestic birds dead or culled. These strains of HPAI are not known to cause disease in humans; however, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advise caution when in close contact with infected birds. Experts agree that HPAI strains currently circulating in wild birds of North America will likely persist for the next few years. This unprecedented situation presents risks to the poultry industry, natural resource management, and potentially human health. Scientific knowledge and decision support tools are urgently needed to understand factors affecting the persistence
Pathogenic leptospires colonize the renal tubules of reservoir hosts of infection, including cattle, and are excreted via urine. In order to identify circulating serovars of pathogenic leptospires in beef cattle, and their associated rates of urinary excretion, a cross sectional study was performed....
Pandey, Pramod K; Soupir, Michelle L; Ikenberry, Charles
The transport of animal waste pathogens from crop land to streams can potentially elevate pathogen levels in stream water. Applying animal manure into crop land as fertilizers is a common practice in developing as well as in developed countries. Manure application into the crop land, however, can cause potential human health. To control pathogen levels in ambient water bodies such as streams, improving our understanding of pathogen transport at farm scale as well as at watershed scale is required. To understand the impacts of crop land receiving animal waste as fertilizers on stream's pathogen levels, here we investigate pathogen indicator transport at watershed scale. We exploited watershed scale hydrological model to estimate the transport of pathogens from the crop land to streams. Pathogen indicator levels (i.e., E. coli levels) in the stream water were predicted. With certain assumptions, model results are reasonable. This study can be used as guidelines for developing the models for calculating the impacts of crop land's animal manure on stream water
Bertl, Kristina; Zijnge, Vincent; Zatorska, Beata; Leonhard, Matthias; Schneider-Stickler, Berit; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.
BACKGROUND: A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method has been used to identify oral anaerobic pathogens in biofilms on voice prostheses. The purpose of the present study was to determine the location of those pathogens inside the biofilms. METHODS: Biofilms of 15 voice prostheses were sampled
Park, Justin H.; Schaller, Mark; Crandall, Christian S.
Humans possess pathogen-avoidance mechanisms that respond to the visual perception of morphological anomalies in others. We investigated whether obesity may trigger these mechanisms. Study I revealed that people who are chronically concerned about pathogen transmission have more negative attitudes
Havelaar, A.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072306122; Haagsma, J.A.; Mangen, M.J.J.; Kemmeren, J.M.; Verhoef, L.; Vijgen, S.M.; Wilson, M; Friesema, I.H.; Kortbeek, L.M.; van Duynhoven, Y.T.; van Pelt, W.
To inform risk management decisions on control, prevention and surveillance of foodborne disease, the disease burden of foodborne pathogens is estimated using Disability Adjusted Life Years as a summary metric of public health. Fourteen pathogens that can be transmitted by food are included in the
Forty-five isolates of HPC bacteria, most of which express virulence-related characteristics are being tested for pathogenicity in immunocompromised mice. All forty-five were negative for facultative intracellular pathogenicity. All twenty-three isolates tested thus far were a...
The contamination of lettuce, spinach and basil with pathogenic E. coli has caused numerous illnesses over the past decade. E. coli O157:H7, E. coli O104:H4 and avian pathogenic E. coli (APECstx- and APECstx+) were inoculated on basil plants and in promix soiless substrate using drip and overhead ir...
Tsui, C.K.M.; Wang, B.; Schoen, C.D.; Hamelin, R.C.
Fungi are important pathogens of human diseases, as well as to agricultural crop and trees. Molecular diagnostics can detect diseases early, and improve identification accuracy and follow-up disease management. The use of padlock probe is effective to facilitate these detections and pathogen
Mycosphaerella is one of the largest genera of plant-pathogenic fungi with more than 1,000 named species, many of which are important pathogens causing leaf spotting diseases in a wide variety of crops including cereals, citrus, banana, eucalypts, soft fruits and horticultural crops. A few species
Kema, G.H.; Dunkle, L.D.; Churchill, A.C.; Carlier, J.; James, A.; Souza, M.T.; Crous, P.W.; Roux, N.; Lee, T.A. van der; Wiitenberg, A.; Lindquist, E.; Grigoriev, I.; Bristow, J.; Goodwin, S.B.
Mycosphaerella is one of the largest genera of plant pathogenic fungi with more than 1,000 named species, many of which are important pathogens causing leaf spotting diseases in a wide variety of crops including cereals, citrus, banana, eucalypts, soft fruits, and horticultural crops. A few species
The pathogenicity of the fungus and its cross-infection potential were determined on mango, avocado, papaya and banana fruits. The sensitivity of the pathogen to fungicides was determined by assessing radial mycelial growth on potato dextrose agar (PDA) amended with nine different fungicides (Bendazim, Funguran, ...
Rep, M.; Kistler, H.C.
Comparative genomics is a powerful tool to infer the molecular basis of fungal pathogenicity and its evolution by identifying differences in gene content and genomic organization between fungi with different hosts or modes of infection. Through comparative analysis, pathogenicity-related chromosomes
... the antibiotic resistance tests revealed varied, but interesting susceptibility patterns. Our findings does highlight the fact that there exist obvious vehicles for pathogenic bacteria proliferation within our abattoirs, and hence, the need for caution. Key words: Abattoirs, Bos taurus, Pathogenic bacteria, Antibiotics, Resistance ...
Niemand, J G
The Salmonella scare reinforced the importance of never taking chances when it comes to controlling pathogens. The issue has been resolved by radurisation. The article deals with the various pathogens that can effect food and argues the case for radurisation in dealing with them. It also looks at some of the other food products that can be treated using this process.
The interaction of ticks with its environment as well as its natural hosts predisposes it to acquiring pathogens that could pose animal and human health risks. Identifying these pathogens could alert dog owners and others to reassess the predisposing factors and ensure control. The aim of the study was to identify the species ...
Margaryan, Ashot; Hansen, Henrik B.; Rasmussen, Simon
Recent ancient DNA (aDNA) studies of human pathogens have provided invaluable insights into their evolutionary history and prevalence in space and time. Most of these studies were based on DNA extracted from teeth or postcranial bones. In contrast, no pathogen DNA has been reported from the petro...
van Diepeningen, Anne D; de Hoog, G Sybren
Fusarium species are emerging human pathogens, next to being plant pathogens. Problems with Fusarium are in their diagnostics and in their difficult treatment, but also in what are actual Fusarium species or rather Fusarium-like species. In this issue Guevara-Suarez et al. (Mycopathologia. doi:
The epizootiology of the highly pathogenic avian influenza prior to the anticipated pandemic of the early twenty first century. ... Transmission of highly pathogenic H5N1 from domestic fowls back to migratory waterfowl in western China has increased the geographic spread. This has grave consequences for the poultry ...
The biosolids from municipal wastewater treatment plant contains several enteric microbial pathogens, predominantly Salmonella and Escherichia species in the range of 15-18 x 104 CFU/g and 11-12 x 104 CFU/g respectively. The present study investigates the influence of earthworm, Lampito mauritii on enteric pathogen ...
Teng, Jun; Yuan, Fang; Ye, Yingwang; Zheng, Lei; Yao, Li; Xue, Feng; Chen, Wei; Li, Baoguang
Aptamers are single stranded DNA or RNA ligands, which can be selected by a method called systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX); and they can specifically recognize and bind to their targets. These unique characteristics of aptamers offer great potentials in applications such as pathogen detection and biomolecular screening. Pathogen detection is the critical means in detecting and identifying the problems related to public health and food safety; and only the rapid, sensitive and efficient detection technologies can enable the users to make the accurate assessments on the risks of infections (humans and animals) or contaminations (foods and other commodities) caused by various pathogens. This article reviews the development in the field of the aptamer-based approaches for pathogen detection, including whole-cell SELEX and Genomic SELEX. Nowadays, a variety of aptamer-based biosensors have been developed for pathogen detection. Thus, in this review, we also cover the development in aptamer-based biosensors including optical biosensors for multiple pathogen detection by multiple-labeling or label-free models such as fluorescence detection and surface plasmon resonance, electrochemical biosensors and lateral chromatography test strips, and their applications in pathogen detection and biomolecular screening. While notable progress has been made in the field in the last decade, challenges or drawbacks in their applications such as pathogen detection and biomolecular screening remain to be overcome.
Tran Van Nhieu, Guy; Arbibe, Laurence
During the course of infection, pathogens often induce changes in gene expression in host cells and these changes can be long lasting and global or transient and of limited amplitude. Defining how, when, and why bacterial pathogens reprogram host cells represents an exciting challenge that opens up the opportunity to grasp the essence of pathogenesis and its molecular details.
Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Sakata, Kazuki; Ueda, Masashi
The biotransformation of terpenoids using the plant pathogenic fungus as a biocatalyst to produce useful novel organic compounds was investigated. The biotransformation of sesquiterpen alcohol, (-)-isolongifolol (1) was investigated using plant pathogenic fungus Glomerella cingulata as a biocatalyst. Compound 1 was converted to (-)-(3R)-3-hydroxy-isolongifolol and (-)-(9R)-9-hydroxy-isolongifolol by G. cingulata.
Milošević Mirjana B.
Full Text Available Lyophilization (freeze-drying is one of the most suitable methods used for a long term preservation of pathogens. The aim of this paper was the application of lyophilization for storage of three significant plant pathogens: Fusarium graminearum, Helminthosporium gramineum, and Pseudomonas syringae pv. gylicinea, respectively. The plant material was collected continuously (during a four year period 2002-2006, depending on a plant development stage, from different localities in Vojvodina. Pathogens were isolated from diseased parts with characteristic symptoms, and placed on nutritive media specific for a certain pathogen, using standard phytopathological methods. Lyophilization was carried out in marked and coded ampoules by freezing and drying of pathogen suspension and nutritive medium. Revitalization of lyophilized isolates was done after four days. High percentage of revitalization was characteristic for all studied isolates, and it ranged from 85-92%, confirming that lyophilized pathogens would be capable of keeping viability for a long time in the collection. Besides above mentioned pathogens, there were 200 isolates in the collection, originating mostly from field and vegetable crops. Each isolate that was put into the Collection, was followed by all the necessary data such as: name of the pathogen, number of isolates, locality, host plant year of isolation, name of the researcher and other relevant data.
Forsberg, Kevin J.; Reyes, Alejandro; Wang, Bin
protocol to assemble short-read sequence data after antibiotic selection experiments, using 12 different drugs in all antibiotic classes, and compared antibiotic resistance gene sequences between soil bacteria and clinically occurring pathogens. Sixteen sequences, representing seven gene products, were...... discovered in farmland soil bacteria within long stretches of perfect nucleotide identity with pathogenic proteobacteria....
Full Text Available Aptamers are single stranded DNA or RNA ligands, which can be selected by a method called systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX; and they can specifically recognize and bind to their targets. These unique characteristics of aptamers offer great potentials in applications such as pathogen detection and biomolecular screening. Pathogen detection is the first and critical means in detecting and identifying the problems related to public health and food safety; and only the rapid, sensitive and efficient detection technologies can enable the users to make to accurate assessments on the risk of infections (humans and animals or contaminations (foods and other commodities caused by various pathogens. This article reviews the developments in the field of the aptamer-based approaches for pathogen detection, including whole-cell SELEX and Genomic SELEX. Nowadays, a variety of aptamer-based biosensors have been developed for pathogen detection. Thus, in this review, we also cover the development of aptamer-based biosensors including optical biosensors for multiple pathogen detection in multiple-labeling or label-free models such as fluorescence detection and surface plasmon resonance, electrochemical biosensors, and lateral chromatography test strips, and their applications in the pathogen detection and biomolecular screening. While notable progress has been made in the field in the last decade, challenges or drawbacks in their applications such as pathogen detection and biomolecular screening, remain to be overcome.
Hall, Jeffrey S.; Dusek, Robert J.; Spackman, Erica
The movement of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N8) virus across Eurasia and into North America and the virus’ propensity to reassort with co-circulating low pathogenicity viruses raise concerns among poultry producers, wildlife biologists, aviculturists, and public health personnel worldwide. Surveillance, modeling, and experimental research will provide the knowledge required for intelligent policy and management decisions.
Improvement in the care and treatment of neonates had contributed to their increased survival. Nosocomial infection remains an important problem in intensive care units. Hospital wards had been shown to act as reservoirs of pathogenic microorganisms associated with infection. To assess the prevalence of pathogenic ...
van der Geest, L.P.S.; Ciancio, A.; Mukerji, K.G.
An overview is given of diseases in mites, caused by infectious microorganisms. Many pathogens play an important role in the regulation of natural populations of mite populations and are for this reason subject of research on the feasibility to develop such pathogens to biological control agents.
This study aimed at elucidating the inactivation mechanisms of pathogenic bacteria in drinking water during chlorine and solar disinfection using a simple plating method. The well-known bacterial model Escherichia coli was used as pathogenic bacteria for the experiments. The damage mechanisms of E. coli were ...
This PhD study has evaluated hydrochars derived from biowastes as adsorbents for pathogen removal in water treatment. Pathogen removal experiments were conducted by carrying out breakthrough analysis using a simple sand filtration set-up. Glass columns packed by 10 cm sand bed supplemented with
Microbial plant pathogens impose a continuous threat on global food production. Similar to disease resistance in mammals, an innate immune system allows plants to recognise pathogens and swiftly activate defence. For the work described in this thesis, the interaction between tomato and the
extremely high genome sequence similarity between non-pathogenic and pathogenic strains by targeting small sequence variations present in the...Microbiol 2011, 14(5):524-531. 46. Bikard D, Euler CW, Jiang W, Nussenzweig PM, Goldberg GW, Duportet X, Fischetti VA, Marraffini LA: Exploiting
C.L. Searle; S.S. Gervasi; J. Hua; J.I. Hammond; R.A. Relyea; D.H. Olson; A.R. Blaustein
The amphibian fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has received considerable attention due to its role in amphibian population declines worldwide. Although many amphibian species appear to be affected by Bd, there is little information on species-specific differences in susceptibility to this pathogen. We used a comparative...
The public health implications of pathogens in polluted aquatic ecosystems: a review. ... Pathogen contamination in water sources and related diseases constitute ... of public water supply and most importantly, increased rate of human mortality. ... illnesses related to respiratory, gastrointestinal and dermatological systems, ...
Zhu, Yunwo; Xiao, Liying; Shen, Da; Hao, Yuqing
To investigate the competition between probiotics in bio-yogurt and periodontal pathogens in vitro. The antimicrobial activity of bio-yogurt was studied by agar diffusion assays, using eight species of putative periodontal pathogens and a 'protective bacteria' as indicator strains. Four probiotic bacterial species (Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Bifidobacterium) were isolated from yogurt and used to rate the competitive exclusion between probiotics and periodontal pathogens. Fresh yogurt inhibited all the periodontal pathogens included in this work, showing inhibition zones ranging from 9.3 (standard deviation 0.6) mm to 17.3 (standard deviation 1.7) mm, whereas heat-treated yogurt showed lower antimicrobial activity. In addition, neither fresh yogurt nor heat-treated yogurt inhibited the 'protective bacteria', Streptococcus sanguinis. The competition between yogurt probiotics and periodontal pathogens depended on the sequence of inoculation. When probiotics were inoculated first, Bifidobacterium inhibited Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas circumdentaria, and Prevotella nigrescens; L. acidophilus inhibited P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. circumdentaria, P. nigrescens, and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius; L. bulgaricus inhibited P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, and P. nigrescens; and S. thermophilus inhibited P. gingivalis, F. nucleatum, and P. nigrescens. However, their antimicrobial properties were reduced when both species (probiotics and periodontal pathogens) were inoculated simultaneously. When periodontal pathogens were inoculated first, Prevotella intermedia inhibited Bifidobacterium and S. thermophilus. The results demonstrated that bio-yogurt and the probiotics that it contains are capable of inhibiting specific periodontal pathogens but have no effect on the periodontal protective bacteria.
Ned Klopfenstein; Brian Geils
Damage caused by invasive forest pathogens is widely viewed as more severe, long-term, widespread, and difficult to restore than that caused by any other biological disturbance agent. In the last century, pathogens introduced into our native forests have threatened extinction of native tree species and critically degraded many different ecosystems across North America...
Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan
cloning. Yet these studies have used mobile insertion elements (e.g. IS 6110 in tuberculosis) or conserved loci (e.g. 16S) to detect the presence of pathogens, and very similar or identical sequences have been reported from environmental bacteria (Gilbert et al. 2004). For example, Rollo & Marota (1999......We agree with Donoghue & Spigelman (2005) that, although pathogen studies hold great potential, any discussion requires a critical assessment of the results to date. However, we did note, as did Pääbo et al. (2004), that the field of ancient pathogen DNA still lacks a series of well......-controlled and rigorous studies that address technical issues and reliability criteria. This is unfortunate, as the rapid evolutionary rate of many pathogens offers a unique means to establish the authenticity of ancient pathogen sequences-since they should clearly be ancestral to modern genetic diversity (e.g. Reid et...
Since 1976 three newly recognized human pathogens have become familiar to the drinking water industry as waterborne disease agents. These are: the legionnaires disease agent, Legionella pneumophila and related species; and two protozoan pathogens, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum, both of which form highly disinfectant resistant cysts that are shed in the feces of infected individuals. The question frequently arises - are there other emerging waterborne pathogens that may pose a human health problem that the drinking water industry will have to deal with. The paper will review the current state of knowledge of the occurrence and incidence of pathogens and opportunistic pathogens other than Legionella, Giardia and Cryptosporidium in treated and untreated drinking water. Bacterial agents that will be reviewed include Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Campylobacter, Mycobacterium, Yersinia and Plesiomonas. Aspects of detection of these agents including detection methods and feasibility of monitoring will be addressed.
Malheiros Veruska de João
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To comparatively detect A. actinomycetemcomitans and F. nucleatum from periodontal and healthy sites. METHODS: Subgingival clinical samples from 50 periodontitis adult patients and 50 healthy subjects were analyzed. Both organisms were isolated using a trypticase soy agar-bacitracin-vancomycin (TSBV medium and detected by PCR. Conventional biochemical tests were used for bacteria identification. RESULTS: A. actinomycetemcomitans and F. nucleatum were isolated in 18% and 20% of the patients, respectively, and in 2% and 24% of healthy subjects. Among A. actinomycetemcomitans isolates, biotype II was the most prevalent. Primer pair AA was 100% sensitive in the detection of A. actinomycetemcomitans from both subject groups. Primers ASH and FU were also 100% sensitive to detect this organism in healthy subject samples. Primer pair FN5047 was more sensitive to detect F. nucleatum in patients or in healthy samples than primer 5059S. Primers ASH and 5059S were more specific in the detection of A. actinomycetemcomitans and F. nucleatum, respectively, in patients and in healthy subject samples. CONCLUSIONS: PCR is an effective tool for detecting periodontal pathogens in subgingival samples, providing a faster and safer diagnostic tool of periodontal diseases. The method's sensitivity and specificity is conditioned by the choice of the set of primers used.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Actinobaculum schaalii was first described as a causative agent for human infection in 1997. Since then it has mainly been reported causing urinary tract infections (UTI in elderly individuals with underlying urological diseases. Isolation and identification is challenging and often needs molecular techniques. A. schaalii is increasingly reported as a cause of infection in humans, however data in children is very limited. Case presentation We present the case of an 8-month-old Caucasian boy suffering from myelomeningocele and neurogenic bladder who presented with a UTI. An ultrasound of the urinary tract was unremarkable. Urinalysis and microscopy showed an elevated leukocyte esterase test, pyuria and a high number of bacteria. Empiric treatment with oral co-trimoxazole was started. Growth of small colonies of Gram-positive rods was observed after 48 h. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene confirmed an A. schaalii infection 9 days later. Treatment was changed to oral amoxicillin for 14 days. On follow-up urinalysis was normal and urine cultures were negative. Conclusions A.schaalii is an emerging pathogen in adults and children. Colonization and subsequent infection seem to be influenced by the age of the patient. In young children with high suspicion of UTI who use diapers or in children who have known abnormalities of their urogenital tract, infection with A. schaalii should be considered and empiric antimicrobial therapy chosen accordingly.
Belgrader, P.; Benett, W.; Langlois, R.; Long, G.; Mariella, R.; Milanovich, F.; Miles, R.; Nelson, W.; Venkateswaran, K.
This purpose of this project is to build a prototype instrument that will, running unattended, detect, identify, and quantify BW agents. In order to accomplish this, we have chosen to start with the world s leading, proven, assays for pathogens: surface-molecular recognition assays, such as antibody-based assays, implemented on a high-performance, identification (ID)-capable flow cytometer, and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for nucleic-acid based assays. With these assays, we must integrate the capability to: l collect samples from aerosols, water, or surfaces; l perform sample preparation prior to the assays; l incubate the prepared samples, if necessary, for a period of time; l transport the prepared, incubated samples to the assays; l perform the assays; l interpret and report the results of the assays. Issues such as reliability, sensitivity and accuracy, quantity of consumables, maintenance schedule, etc. must be addressed satisfactorily to the end user. The highest possible sensitivity and specificity of the assay must be combined with no false alarms. Today, we have assays that can, in under 30 minutes, detect and identify stimulants for BW agents at concentrations of a few hundred colony-forming units per ml of solution. If the bio-aerosol sampler of this system collects 1000 Ymin and concentrates the respirable particles into 1 ml of solution with 70% processing efficiency over a period of 5 minutes, then this translates to a detection/ID capability of under 0.1 agent-containing particle/liter of air
Olivares, Jorge; Bernardini, Alejandra; Garcia-Leon, Guillermo; Corona, Fernando; B Sanchez, Maria; Martinez, Jose L
Intrinsically resistant bacteria have emerged as a relevant health problem in the last years. Those bacterial species, several of them with an environmental origin, present naturally low-level susceptibility to several drugs. It has been proposed that intrinsic resistance is mainly the consequence of the impermeability of cellular envelopes, the activity of multidrug efflux pumps or the lack of appropriate targets for a given family of drugs. However, recently published articles indicate that the characteristic phenotype of susceptibility to antibiotics of a given bacterial species depends on the concerted activity of several elements, what has been named as intrinsic resistome. These determinants comprise not just classical resistance genes. Other elements, several of them involved in basic bacterial metabolic processes, are of relevance for the intrinsic resistance of bacterial pathogens. In the present review we analyze recent publications on the intrinsic resistomes of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We present as well information on the role that global regulators of bacterial metabolism, as Crc from P. aeruginosa, may have on modulating bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics. Finally, we discuss the possibility of searching inhibitors of the intrinsic resistome in the aim of improving the activity of drugs currently in use for clinical practice.
Jorge Andrés Olivares Pacheco
Full Text Available Intrinsically resistant bacteria have emerged as a relevant health problem in the last years. Those bacterial species, several of them with an environmental origin, present naturally a low-level susceptibility to several drugs. It has been proposed that intrinsic resistance is mainly the consequence of the impermeability of cellular envelopes, the activity of multidrug efflux pumps or the lack of appropriate targets for a given family of drugs. However, recently published articles indicate that the characteristic phenotype of susceptibility to antibiotics of a given bacterial species depends on the concerted activity of several elements, what has been named as intrinsic resistome. These determinants comprise not just classical resistance genes. Other elements, several of them involved in basic bacterial metabolic processes, are of relevance for the intrinsic resistance of bacterial pathogens. In the present review we analyse recent publications on the intrinsic resistomes of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We present as well information on the role that global regulators of bacterial metabolism, as Crc from P. aeruginosa, may have on modulating bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics. Finally, we discuss the possibility of searching inhibitors of the intrinsic resistome in the aim of improving the activity of drugs currently in use for clinical practice.
Xu, Ping; Alves, Joao M; Kitten, Todd; Brown, Arunsri; Chen, Zhenming; Ozaki, Luiz S; Manque, Patricio; Ge, Xiuchun; Serrano, Myrna G; Puiu, Daniela; Hendricks, Stephanie; Wang, Yingping; Chaplin, Michael D; Akan, Doruk; Paik, Sehmi; Peterson, Darrell L; Macrina, Francis L; Buck, Gregory A
The genome of Streptococcus sanguinis is a circular DNA molecule consisting of 2,388,435 bp and is 177 to 590 kb larger than the other 21 streptococcal genomes that have been sequenced. The G+C content of the S. sanguinis genome is 43.4%, which is considerably higher than the G+C contents of other streptococci. The genome encodes 2,274 predicted proteins, 61 tRNAs, and four rRNA operons. A 70-kb region encoding pathways for vitamin B(12) biosynthesis and degradation of ethanolamine and propanediol was apparently acquired by horizontal gene transfer. The gene complement suggests new hypotheses for the pathogenesis and virulence of S. sanguinis and differs from the gene complements of other pathogenic and nonpathogenic streptococci. In particular, S. sanguinis possesses a remarkable abundance of putative surface proteins, which may permit it to be a primary colonizer of the oral cavity and agent of streptococcal endocarditis and infection in neutropenic patients.
Simon, Carole; Wolf, G.; Walther, M.; Winkler, K.; Finke, M.; Hüttenberger, D.; Bischoff, Markus; Seitz, B.; Cullum, J.; Foth, H.-J.
The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance requires new approaches also for the treatment of infectious keratitis. Photodynamic Inactivation (PDI) using the photosensitizer (PS) Chlorin e6 (Ce6) was investigated as an alternative to antibiotic treatment. An in-vitro cornea model was established using porcine eyes. The uptake of Ce6 by bacteria and the diffusion of the PS in the individual layers of corneal tissue were investigated by fluorescence. After removal of the cornea's epithelium Ce6-concentrations tested in liquid culture against different concentrations of Ce6 (1 - 512 μM) using 10 minutes irradiation (E = 18 J/cm2 ). This demonstrated that a complete inactivation of the pathogen strains were feasible whereby SA was slightly more susceptible than PA. 3909 mutants of the Keio collection of Escherichia coli (E.coli) were screened for potential resistance factors. The sensitive mutants can be grouped into three categories: transport mutants, mutants in lipopolysaccharide synthesis and mutants in the bacterial SOS-response. In conclusion PDI is seen as a promising therapy concept for infectious keratitis.
Full Text Available Bacteria with intrinsic resistance to antibiotics are a worrisome health problem. It is widely believed that intrinsic antibiotic resistance of bacterial pathogens is mainly the consequence of cellular impermeability and activity of efflux pumps. However, the analysis of transposon-tagged Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants presented in this article shows that this phenotype emerges from the action of numerous proteins from all functional categories. Mutations in some genes make P. aeruginosa more susceptible to antibiotics and thereby represent new targets. Mutations in other genes make P. aeruginosa more resistant and therefore define novel mechanisms for mutation-driven acquisition of antibiotic resistance, opening a new research field based in the prediction of resistance before it emerges in clinical environments. Antibiotics are not just weapons against bacterial competitors, but also natural signalling molecules. Our results demonstrate that antibiotic resistance genes are not merely protective shields and offer a more comprehensive view of the role of antibiotic resistance genes in the clinic and in nature.
Gurtler, Joshua B
The purpose of this review is to delineate means of decontaminating soil. This information might be used to mitigate soil-associated risks of foodborne pathogens. The majority of the research in the published literature involves inactivation of plant pathogens in soil, i.e., those pathogens harmful to fruit and vegetable production and ornamental plants. Very little has been published regarding the inactivation of foodborne human pathogens in crop soil. Nevertheless, because decontamination techniques for plant pathogens might also be useful methods for eliminating foodborne pathogens, this review also includes inactivation of plant pathogens, with appropriate discussion and comparisons, in the hopes that these methods may one day be validated against foodborne pathogens. Some of the major soil decontamination methods that have been investigated and are covered include chemical decontamination (chemigation), solarization, steaming, biofumigation, bacterial competitive exclusion, torch flaming, microwave treatment, and amendment with biochar. Other innovative means of inactivating foodborne pathogens in soils may be discovered and explored in the future, provided that these techniques are economically feasible in terms of chemicals, equipment, and labor. Food microbiology and food safety researchers should reach out to soil scientists and plant pathologists to create links where they do not currently exist and strengthen relationships where they do exist to take advantage of multidisciplinary skills. In time, agricultural output and the demand for fresh produce will increase. With advances in the sensitivity of pathogen testing and epidemiological tracebacks, the need to mitigate preharvest bacterial contamination of fresh produce will become paramount. Hence, soil decontamination technologies may become more economically feasible and practical in light of increasing the microbial safety of fresh produce.
Full Text Available New pathogen-host interaction mechanisms can be revealed by integrating mutant phenotype data with genetic information. PHI-base is a multi-species manually curated database combining peer-reviewed published phenotype data from plant and animal pathogens and gene/protein information in a single database.
Full Text Available Fusarium graminearum is the pathogenic agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB, which is a destructive disease on wheat and barley, thereby causing huge economic loss and health problems to human by contaminating foods. Identifying pathogenic genes can shed light on pathogenesis underlying the interaction between F. graminearum and its plant host. However, it is difficult to detect pathogenic genes for this destructive pathogen by time-consuming and expensive molecular biological experiments in lab. On the other hand, computational methods provide an alternative way to solve this problem. Since pathogenesis is a complicated procedure that involves complex regulations and interactions, the molecular interaction network of F. graminearum can give clues to potential pathogenic genes. Furthermore, the gene expression data of F. graminearum before and after its invasion into plant host can also provide useful information. In this paper, a novel systems biology approach is presented to predict pathogenic genes of F. graminearum based on molecular interaction network and gene expression data. With a small number of known pathogenic genes as seed genes, a subnetwork that consists of potential pathogenic genes is identified from the protein-protein interaction network (PPIN of F. graminearum, where the genes in the subnetwork are further required to be differentially expressed before and after the invasion of the pathogenic fungus. Therefore, the candidate genes in the subnetwork are expected to be involved in the same biological processes as seed genes, which imply that they are potential pathogenic genes. The prediction results show that most of the pathogenic genes of F. graminearum are enriched in two important signal transduction pathways, including G protein coupled receptor pathway and MAPK signaling pathway, which are known related to pathogenesis in other fungi. In addition, several pathogenic genes predicted by our method are verified in other
Dijk, J.G.B. van
Zoonotic pathogens may pose a serious threat for humans, requiring a better understanding of the ecology and transmission of these pathogens in their natural (wildlife) hosts. The zoonotic pathogen studied in this thesis is low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV). This pathogen circulates
Nunvar, Jaroslav; Kalferstova, Lucie; Bloodworth, Ruhi A M; Kolar, Michal; Degrossi, Jose; Lubovich, Silvina; Cardona, Silvia T; Drevinek, Pavel
Several bacterial species from the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) are feared opportunistic pathogens that lead to debilitating lung infections with a high risk of developing fatal septicemia in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. However, the pathogenic potential of other Bcc species is yet unknown. To elucidate clinical relevance of Burkholderia contaminans, a species frequently isolated from CF respiratory samples in Ibero-American countries, we aimed to identify its key virulence factors possibly linked with an unfavorable clinical outcome. We performed a genome-wide comparative analysis of two isolates of B. contaminans ST872 from sputum and blood culture of a female CF patient in Argentina. RNA-seq data showed significant changes in expression for quorum sensing-regulated virulence factors and motility and chemotaxis. Furthermore, we detected expression changes in a recently described low-oxygen-activated (lxa) locus which encodes stress-related proteins, and for two clusters responsible for the biosynthesis of antifungal and hemolytic compounds pyrrolnitrin and occidiofungin. Based on phenotypic assays that confirmed changes in motility and in proteolytic, hemolytic and antifungal activities, we were able to distinguish two phenotypes of B. contaminans that coexisted in the host and entered her bloodstream. Whole genome sequencing revealed that the sputum and bloodstream isolates (each representing a distinct phenotype) differed by over 1,400 mutations as a result of a mismatch repair-deficient hypermutable state of the sputum isolate. The inferred lack of purifying selection against nonsynonymous mutations and the high rate of pseudogenization in the derived isolate indicated limited evolutionary pressure during evolution in the nutrient-rich, stable CF sputum environment. The present study is the first to examine the genomic and transcriptomic differences between longitudinal isolates of B. contaminans. Detected activity of a number of putative virulence
Rothenburger, Jamie L; Himsworth, Chelsea H; Nemeth, Nicole M; Pearl, David L; Jardine, Claire M
Knowledge of pathogen ecology, including the impacts of environmental factors on pathogen and host dynamics, is essential for determining the risk that zoonotic pathogens pose to people. This review synthesizes the scientific literature on environmental factors that influence the ecology and epidemiology of zoonotic microparasites (bacteria, viruses and protozoa) in globally invasive urban exploiter wildlife species (i.e., rock doves [Columba livia domestica], European starlings [Sturnus vulgaris], house sparrows [Passer domesticus], Norway rats [Rattus norvegicus], black rats [R. rattus] and house mice [Mus musculus]). Pathogen ecology, including prevalence and pathogen characteristics, is influenced by geographical location, habitat, season and weather. The prevalence of zoonotic pathogens in mice and rats varies markedly over short geographical distances, but tends to be highest in ports, disadvantaged (e.g., low income) and residential areas. Future research should use epidemiological approaches, including random sampling and robust statistical analyses, to evaluate a range of biotic and abiotic environmental factors at spatial scales suitable for host home range sizes. Moving beyond descriptive studies to uncover the causal factors contributing to uneven pathogen distribution among wildlife hosts in urban environments may lead to targeted surveillance and intervention strategies. Application of this knowledge to urban maintenance and planning may reduce the potential impacts of urban wildlife-associated zoonotic diseases on people.
Hettinga, K A; van Valenberg, H J F; Lam, T J G M; van Hooijdonk, A C M
The ability to detect mastitis pathogens based on their volatile metabolites was studied. Milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis, caused by Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Escherichia coli were collected. In addition, samples from cows without clinical mastitis and with low somatic cell count (SCC) were collected for comparison. All mastitis samples were examined by using classical microbiological methods, followed by headspace analysis for volatile metabolites. Milk from culture-negative samples contained a lower number and amount of volatile components compared with cows with clinical mastitis. Because of variability between samples within a group, comparisons between pathogens were not sufficient for classification of the samples by univariate statistics. Therefore, an artificial neural network was trained to classify the pathogen in the milk samples based on the bacterial metabolites. The trained network differentiated milk from uninfected and infected quarters very well. When comparing pathogens, Staph. aureus produced a very different pattern of volatile metabolites compared with the other samples. Samples with coagulase-negative staphylococci and E. coli had enough dissimilarity with the other pathogens, making it possible to separate these 2 pathogens from each other and from the other samples. The 2 streptococcus species did not show significant differences between each other but could be identified as a different group from the other pathogens. Five groups can thus be identified based on the volatile bacterial metabolites: Staph. aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, streptococci (Strep. uberis and Strep. dysgalactiae as one group), E. coli, and uninfected quarters.
Full Text Available Certain pathogenic bacteria adopt an intracellular lifestyle and proliferate in eukaryotic host cells. The intracellular niche protects the bacteria from cellular and humoral components of the mammalian immune system, and at the same time, allows the bacteria to gain access to otherwise restricted nutrient sources. Yet, intracellular protection and access to nutrients comes with a price, i.e. the bacteria need to overcome cell-autonomous defense mechanisms, such as the bactericidal endocytic pathway. While a few bacteria rupture the early phagosome and escape into the host cytoplasm, most intracellular pathogens form a distinct, degradation-resistant and replication-permissive membranous compartment. Intracellular bacteria that form unique pathogen vacuoles include Legionella, Mycobacterium, Chlamydia, Simkania and Salmonella species. In order to understand the formation of these pathogen niches on a global scale and in a comprehensive and quantitative manner, an inventory of compartment-associated host factors is required. To this end, the intact pathogen compartments need to be isolated, purified and biochemically characterized. Here, we review recent progress on the isolation and purification of pathogen-modified vacuoles and membranes, as well as their proteomic characterization by mass spectrometry and different validation approaches. These studies provide the basis for further investigations on the specific mechanisms of pathogen-driven compartment formation.
Dehay, Benjamin; Bové, Jordi; Rodríguez-Muela, Natalia; Perier, Celine; Recasens, Ariadna; Boya, Patricia; Vila, Miquel
Mounting evidence suggests a role for autophagy dysregulation in Parkinson's disease (PD). The bulk degradation of cytoplasmic proteins (including α-synuclein) and organelles (such as mitochondria) is mediated by macroautophagy, which involves the sequestration of cytosolic components into autophagosomes (AP) and its delivery to lysosomes. Accumulation of AP occurs in postmortem brain samples from PD patients, which has been widely attributed to an induction of autophagy. However, the cause and pathogenic significance of these changes remain unknown. Here we found in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse model of PD that AP accumulation and dopaminergic cell death are preceded by a marked decrease in the amount of lysosomes within dopaminergic neurons. Lysosomal depletion was secondary to the abnormal permeabilization of lysosomal membranes induced by increased mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species. Lysosomal permeabilization resulted in a defective clearance and subsequent accumulation of undegraded AP and contributed directly to neurodegeneration by the ectopic release of lysosomal proteases into the cytosol. Lysosomal breakdown and AP accumulation also occurred in PD brain samples, where Lewy bodies were strongly immunoreactive for AP markers. Induction of lysosomal biogenesis by genetic or pharmacological activation of lysosomal transcription factor EB restored lysosomal levels, increased AP clearance and attenuated 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced cell death. Similarly, the autophagy-enhancer compound rapamycin attenuated PD-related dopaminergic neurodegeneration, both in vitro and in vivo, by restoring lysosomal levels. Our results indicate that AP accumulation in PD results from defective lysosomal-mediated AP clearance secondary to lysosomal depletion. Restoration of lysosomal levels and function may thus represent a novel neuroprotective strategy in PD.
Mahmoud Z. Sitohy
Full Text Available Background: It is likely that both human nutrition and the nutrition of livestock are benefited by the presence of bioactive proteins within their respective diet regimes. Bioactive proteins have been defined as specific protein fragments that positively impact bodily functions or conditions and may, ultimately, influence overall human health. The ingestion of bioactive proteins may have an effect on the major body systems—namely, the cardiovascular, digestive, immune and nervous systems. According to their functional properties, bioactive proteins may be classified as antimicrobial, antithrombotic, antihypertensive, opioid, immune-modulatory, mineral binding and anti-oxidative. There are many examples of biologically active food proteins and active peptides that can be obtained from various food protein sources. They have a physiological significance beyond the pure nutritional requirements; in other wordsthey have the acquisition of nitrogen for normal growth and maintenance. Objective: This study aims to specify and characterize the extent and mode of action of bioactive proteins in their native form, (glycinin, glycinin basic sub-unit and β-conglycinin against specific main pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. We will be using standard media while identifying the main constituents responsible for this action. Methods: Glycinin, basic sub-unit and β-conglycinin were isolated from soybean protein and tested for their antimicrobial action against pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, They were thencompared to the properties of penicillin. Methylated soybean protein and also methylated chickpea protein (MSP and MCP, with isoelectric points around pI 8, were prepared by esterifying. 83 % of their free carboxyl groups and their interactions with Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were examined. Results: The three divisions of cationic proteins exhibited antibacterial
Full Text Available Recent advances in climate research together with a better understanding of tick-pathogen interactions, the distribution of ticks and the diagnosis of tick-borne pathogens raise questions about the impact of environmental factors on tick abundance and spread and the prevalence and transmission of tick-borne pathogens. While undoubtedly climate plays a role in the changes in distribution and seasonal abundance of ticks, it is always difficult to disentangle factors impacting on the abundance of tick hosts from those exerted by human habits. All together, climate, host abundance and social factors may explain the upsurge of epidemics transmitted by ticks to humans. Herein we focused on tick-borne pathogens that affect humans with pandemic potential. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. (Lyme disease, Anaplasma phagocytophilum (human granulocytic anaplasmosis and tick-borne encephalitis virus (tick-borne encephalitis are transmitted by Ixodes spp. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is transmitted by Hyalomma spp. In this review, we discussed how vector tick species occupy the habitat as a function of different climatic factors, and how these factors impact on tick survival and seasonality. How molecular events at the tick-pathogen interface impact on pathogen transmission is also discussed. Results from statistically and biologically derived models are compared to show that while statistical models are able to outline basic information about tick distributions, biologically derived models are necessary to evaluate pathogen transmission rates and understand the effect of climatic variables and host abundance patterns on pathogen transmission. The results of these studies could be used to build early alert systems able to identify the main factors driving the subtle changes in tick distribution and seasonality and the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens.
Cha, Elva; Smith, Rebecca L; Kristensen, Anders R; Hertl, Julia A; Schukken, Ynte H; Tauer, Loren W; Welcome, Frank L; Gröhn, Yrjö T
The objective of this study was to determine the economic value of obtaining timely and more accurate clinical mastitis (CM) test results for optimal treatment of cows. Typically CM is first identified when the farmer observes recognisable outward signs. Further information of whether the pathogen causing CM is Gram-positive, Gram-negative or other (including no growth) can be determined by using on-farm culture methods. The most detailed level of information for mastitis diagnostics is obtainable by sending milk samples for culture to an external laboratory. Knowing the exact pathogen permits the treatment method to be specifically targeted to the causation pathogen, resulting in less discarded milk. The disadvantages are the additional waiting time to receive test results, which delays treating cows, and the cost of the culture test. Net returns per year (NR) for various levels of information were estimated using a dynamic programming model. The Value of Information (VOI) was then calculated as the difference in NR using a specific level of information as compared to more detailed information on the CM causative agent. The highest VOI was observed where the farmer assumed the pathogen causing CM was the one with the highest incidence in the herd and no pathogen specific CM information was obtained. The VOI of pathogen specific information, compared with non-optimal treatment of Staphylococcus aureus where recurrence and spread occurred due to lack of treatment efficacy, was $20.43 when the same incorrect treatment was applied to recurrent cases, and $30.52 when recurrent cases were assumed to be the next highest incidence pathogen and treated accordingly. This indicates that negative consequences associated with choosing the wrong CM treatment can make additional information cost-effective if pathogen identification is assessed at the generic information level and if the pathogen can spread to other cows if not treated appropriately.
Rotariu, Ovidiu; Ogden, Iain D; MacRae, Marion; Udrea, Laura Elena; Strachan, Norval J C
The standard method of immunomagnetic separation for isolating pathogenic bacteria from food and environmental matrices processes 1 ml volumes. Pathogens present at low levels ( 97% recovery of polydisperse magnetic particles (diameter range 1 to 8 μm) containing 29-33% w/w Fe 3 O 4 content. Between 70 and 130 times more of the pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli O157 is recovered from PBS compared with the standard 1 ml method. Also, the recovery of E. coli O157 from beef mince homogenates, after a 4 h incubation at 42 deg. C, is between 80 and 180 times higher than the standard 1 ml method
Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Nielsen, Xiaohui Chen; Johansen, Ulla
for identification of isolates from the Burkholderia complex to the species level. DNA typing by PFGE, which can be used for any bacterial pathogen, is described as it is employed for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A commercially available ELISA method is described for measuring IgG antibodies against P. aeruginosa in CF......Many bacteria can be detected in CF sputum, pathogenic and commensal. Modified Koch's criteria for identification of established and emerging CF pathogens are therefore described. Methods are described to isolate bacteria and to detect bacterial biofilms in sputum or lung tissue from CF patients...
Otsuki, Koichi; Ito, Toshihiro
Since 1979, the group belonging to Departments of Veterinary Microbiology, Veterinary Public Health and the Avian Zoonoses Research Centre, Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University is continuing isolation of avian influenza virus from such migratory waterfowls as whistling swan, pintail and tufted dugs flying from Siberia and/or northern China. They have already isolated many interesting influenza viruses. Serotype of the isolates is various; some H5 and H7 and human types of viruses were also isolated; and its pathogenicity for chickens is not high. It was interested that low pathogenic H5N3 virus isolated from whistling swan acquired severe pathogenicity during passage in chicks.
Ding, Bo; Wang, Guo-Liang
To defend against pathogens, plants have developed a sophisticated innate immunity that includes effector recognition, signal transduction, and rapid defense responses. Recent evidence has demonstrated that plants utilize the epigenetic control of gene expression to fine-tune their defense when challenged by pathogens. In this review, we highlight the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms of histone modifications (i.e., methylation, acetylation, and ubiquitination) and chromatin remodeling that contribute to plant immunity against pathogens. Functions of key histone-modifying and chromatin remodeling enzymes are discussed. PMID:26388882
Ravoet, Jorgen; De Smet, Lina; Meeus, Ivan; Smagghe, Guy; Wenseleers, Tom; de Graaf, Dirk C
Solitary bees and honey bees from a neighbouring apiary were screened for a broad set of putative pathogens including protists, fungi, spiroplasmas and viruses. Most sampled bees appeared to be infected with multiple parasites. Interestingly, viruses exclusively known from honey bees such as Apis mellifera Filamentous Virus and Varroa destructor Macula-like Virus were also discovered in solitary bees. A microsporidium found in Andrena vaga showed most resemblance to Nosema thomsoni. Our results suggest that bee hives represent a putative source of pathogens for other pollinators. Similarly, solitary bees may act as a reservoir of honey bee pathogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Eskew, Evan A; Todd, Brian D
Pathogenic fungi have substantial effects on global biodiversity, and 2 emerging pathogenic species-the chytridiomycete Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, which causes chytridiomycosis in amphibians, and the ascomycete Geomyces destructans, which causes white-nose syndrome in hibernating bats-are implicated in the widespread decline of their vertebrate hosts. We synthesized current knowledge for chytridiomycosis and white-nose syndrome regarding disease emergence, environmental reservoirs, life history characteristics of the host, and host-pathogen interactions. We found striking similarities between these aspects of chytridiomycosis and white-nose syndrome, and the research that we review and propose should help guide management of future emerging fungal diseases.
Climate change, among other factors, will impact waterborne pathogen concentrations in surface water worldwide, possibly increasing the risk of diseases caused by these pathogens. So far, the impacts are only determined qualitatively and thorough quantitative estimates of future pathogen
Lee, Boyoung; Lee, Soohyun; Ryu, Choong-Min
Plants modulate defence signalling networks in response to different biotic stresses. The present study evaluated the effect of a phloem-sucking aphid on plant defence mechanisms in pepper (Capsicum annuum) during subsequent pathogen attacks on leaves and rhizosphere bacteria on roots. Plants were pretreated with aphids and/or the chemical trigger benzothiadiazol (BTH) 7 d before being challenged with two pathogenic bacteria, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria (Xav) as a compatible pathogen and X. axonopodis pv. glycines (Xag) as an incompatible (non-host) pathogen. Disease severity was noticeably lower in aphid- and BTH + aphid-treated plants than in controls. Although treatment with BTH or aphids alone did not affect the hypersensitive response (HR) against Xag strain 8ra, the combination treatment had a synergistic effect on the HR. The aphid population was reduced by BTH pretreatment and by combination treatment with BTH and bacterial pathogens in a synergistic manner. Analysis of the expression of the defence-related genes Capsicum annum pathogenesis-related gene 9 (CaPR9), chitinase 2 (CaCHI2), SAR8·2 and Lipoxygenase1 (CaLOX1) revealed that aphid infestation resulted in the priming of the systemic defence responses against compatible and incompatible pathogens. Conversely, pre-challenge with the compatible pathogen Xav on pepper leaves significantly reduced aphid numbers. Aphid infestation increased the population of the beneficial Bacillus subtilis GB03 but reduced that of the pathogenic Ralstonia solanacearum SL1931. The expression of defence-related genes in the root and leaf after aphid feeding indicated that the above-ground aphid infestation elicited salicylic acid and jasmonic acid signalling throughout the whole plant. The findings of this study show that aphid feeding elicits plant resistance responses and attracts beneficial bacterial populations to help the plant cope with subsequent pathogen attacks.
Ghys, R.; Vandergoten, R.; Paquette, J.-C.; Fredette, V.; Plante, C.; Pavilanis, V.; Gilker, J.-C.
The authors exposed to gamma rays from a MCo source (''Gammacell 220'' from Atomic Energy of Canada, Ltd.) various pathogenic micro-organisms: a slow-growing aerobic bacterium (Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 10 varieties of the strain B. C. G.), a fast-growing anaerobic bacterium (Clostridium perfringens, strain SWG-121) and 4 strains of influenza virus (2 from group A and 2 from group B). In the case of B. C. G., an LD 90 of 29 ± 1 kR is reported for bacilli irradiated immediately before subculture and subsequently cultivated for at most 14 days. If the microbes are cultivated for 28 days, the yield from cultures after exposures of up to 50 kR is at least equal to that of control specimens; it then decreases rapidly, and a dose of 140 kR inhibits bacterial growth completely. It is reported that the LD 90 of the strain of Cl. perfringens used in the study is very much dependent on die culture conditions and die conditions under which die microbe growth measurements are made; 24 h after irradiation it is at least 1 MR. Although no spores are seen in the microscope, this would seem to demonstrate the presence in the cultures of extremely radioresistant sporulated individuals. Group A influenza viruses are found to be more radioresistant than those of group B. The LD 90 of relatively low radiation doses varies between 75 and 100 kR, and is higher if irradiation is performed at -78.5°C. It is very difficult to inactivate the last virus particles; multiplicity reactivation seems to occur in certain experimental conditions. Haemagglutinant activity does not vary, even after die highest exposures used (4 MR). Two important practical conclusions are drawn: (1) The use of a single dose (e. g. 2.5 Mrad) for radiosterilization gives an exposure which is unnecessarily high in some cases and insufficient in others, and (2) Selective radiosterilization is sometimes possible: the viability of a micro-organism used, for example, to produce a vaccine may not be
Farnoud, Amir M; Toledo, Alvaro M; Konopka, James B; Del Poeta, Maurizio; London, Erwin
The lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane is thought to be compartmentalized by the presence of lipid-protein microdomains. In eukaryotic cells, microdomains composed of sterols and sphingolipids, commonly known as lipid rafts, are believed to exist, and reports on the presence of sterol- or protein-mediated microdomains in bacterial cell membranes are also appearing. Despite increasing attention, little is known about microdomains in the plasma membrane of pathogenic microorganisms. This review attempts to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of lipid rafts in pathogenic fungi and bacteria. The current literature on characterization of microdomains in pathogens is reviewed, and their potential role in growth, pathogenesis, and drug resistance is discussed. Better insight into the structure and function of membrane microdomains in pathogenic microorganisms might lead to a better understanding of their pathogenesis and development of raft-mediated approaches for therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kucharski, Adam; Andreasen, Viggo; Gog, Julia
Pathogens that consist of multiple antigenic variants are a serious public health concern. These infections, which include dengue virus, influenza and malaria, generate substantial morbidity and mortality. However, there are considerable theoretical challenges involved in modelling such infection...
Lazebnik, J.; Frago, E.; Dicke, M.; Loon, van J.J.A.
Induced plant defenses against either pathogens or herbivore attackers are regulated by phytohormones. These phytohormones are increasingly recognized as important mediators of interactions between organisms associated with plants. In this review, we discuss the role of plant defense hormones in
Warinner, Christina; Matias Rodrigues, João F.; Vyas, Rounak; Trachsel, Christian; Shved, Natallia; Grossmann, Jonas; Radini, Anita; Hancock, Y.; Tito, Raul Y.; Fiddyment, Sarah; Speller, Camilla; Hendy, Jessica; Charlton, Sophy; Luder, Hans Ulrich; Salazar-García, Domingo C.; Eppler, Elisabeth; Seiler, Roger; Hansen, Lars; Samaniego Castruita, José Alfredo; Barkow-Oesterreicher, Simon; Teoh, Kai Yik; Kelstrup, Christian; Olsen, Jesper V.; Nanni, Paolo; Kawai, Toshihisa; Willerslev, Eske; von Mering, Christian; Lewis, Cecil M.; Collins, Matthew J.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Rühli, Frank; Cappellini, Enrico
Calcified dental plaque (dental calculus) preserves for millennia and entraps biomolecules from all domains of life and viruses. We report the first high-resolution taxonomic and protein functional characterization of the ancient oral microbiome and demonstrate that the oral cavity has long served as a reservoir for bacteria implicated in both local and systemic disease. We characterize: (i) the ancient oral microbiome in a diseased state, (ii) 40 opportunistic pathogens, (iii) the first evidence of ancient human-associated putative antibiotic resistance genes, (iv) a genome reconstruction of the periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia, (v) 239 bacterial and 43 human proteins, allowing confirmation of a long-term association between host immune factors, “red-complex” pathogens, and periodontal disease, and (vi) DNA sequences matching dietary sources. Directly datable and nearly ubiquitous, dental calculus permits the simultaneous investigation of pathogen activity, host immunity, and diet, thereby extending the direct investigation of common diseases into the human evolutionary past. PMID:24562188
Bäumler, Andreas J; Sperandio, Vanessa
The microbiome has an important role in human health. Changes in the microbiota can confer resistance to or promote infection by pathogenic bacteria. Antibiotics have a profound impact on the microbiota that alters the nutritional landscape of the gut and can lead to the expansion of pathogenic populations. Pathogenic bacteria exploit microbiota-derived sources of carbon and nitrogen as nutrients and regulatory signals to promote their own growth and virulence. By eliciting inflammation, these bacteria alter the intestinal environment and use unique systems for respiration and metal acquisition to drive their expansion. Unravelling the interactions between the microbiota, the host and pathogenic bacteria will produce strategies for manipulating the microbiota against infectious diseases.
Sandrini, Michael; Shannon, O.; Clausen, A.R.
Common bacterial pathogens are becoming progressively more resistant to traditional antibiotics, representing a major public-health crisis. Therefore, there is a need for a variety of antibiotics with alternative modes of action. In our study, several nucleoside analogs were tested against pathog...... alternative for combating pathogenic bacteria.......Common bacterial pathogens are becoming progressively more resistant to traditional antibiotics, representing a major public-health crisis. Therefore, there is a need for a variety of antibiotics with alternative modes of action. In our study, several nucleoside analogs were tested against...... pathogenic staphylococci and streptococci. We show that pyrimidine-based nucleoside analogs, like 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) and 2',2'-difluoro-2'deoxycytidine (gemcitabine), are specifically activated by the endogenous bacterial deoxyribonucleoside kinases, leading to cell death. Deoxyribonucleoside...
Jul 4, 2008 ... varies depending on bacterial species and type of extract. The average ... more species of bacteria. The most ..... 12 types of food borne bacteria including pathogens. ... the production of human collagen I, a protein associated.
Christopher N. LaRock
Full Text Available Inflammation mediated by the inflammasome and the cytokine IL-1β are some of the earliest and most important alarms to infection. These pathways are responsive to the virulence factors that pathogens use to subvert immune processes, and thus are typically activated only by microbes with potential to cause severe disease. Among the most serious human infections are those caused by the pathogenic streptococci, in part because these species numerous strategies for immune evasion. Since the virulence factor armament of each pathogen is unique, the role of IL-1β and the pathways leading to its activation varies for each infection. This review summarizes the role of IL-1β during infections caused by streptococcal pathogens, with emphasis on emergent mechanisms and concepts countering paradigms determined for other organisms.
Oct 20, 2008 ... associated/acquired infections) are those infections that develop in a patient during ... nosocomial pathogens that cause infections can come either from ... aeruginosa is a regular cause of nosocomial pneumonia, urinary tract ...
Two regulatory T cell clones (Tregs) were used in this study. Treg1 cells were clone-derived from the previously described. Keywords. methylation; cDNA microarray; type 1 diabetes; pathogenic T cells; .... Gender-specific differences in.
Rhipicephalus decoloratus) to variable intensities of electromagnetic field for different periods of time was examined on their pathogenicity on tick. Some bacterial isolates from the macerate of tick cadavers were used in the infection of healthy engorged ...
Association of the pitch canker pathogen Fusarium circinatum with grass hosts in commercial pine production areas of South Africa. Cassandra L Swett, Bernice Porter, Gerda Fourie, Emma T Steenkamp, Thomas R Gordon, Michael J Wingfield ...
Antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens causing meningitis in children at Harare Central Hospital, Zimbabwe. M Gudza-Mugabe, R.T. Mavenyengwa, M.P. Mapingure, S Mtapuri-Zinyowera, A Tarupiwa, V.J. Robertson ...
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A review of current literature on the occurrence of waterborne pathogens in DW systems. This dataset is not publicly accessible because: I am using published data...
Stobernack, Tim; Glasner, Corinna; Junker, Sabryna; Gabarrini, Giorgio; de Smit, Menke; de Jong, Anne; Otto, Andreas; Becher, Doerte; van Winkelhoff, Arie Jan; van Dijl, Jan Maarten
Porphyromonas gingivalis is an oral pathogen associated with the inflammatory disease periodontitis. Periodontitis and P. gingivalis have been associated with rheumatoid arthritis. One of the hallmarks of rheumatoid arthritis is the loss of tolerance against citrullinated proteins. Citrullination is
related tradeoffs is that they are mediated via the conflict- ... Keywords. life-history evolution; tradeoff; development time; immune function; pathogen; Drosophila. Journal of Genetics .... This work was supported in parts by funds from Depart-.
Hettinga, K.A.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.
The ability to detect mastitis pathogens based on their volatile metabolites was studied. Milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis, caused by Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Escherichia coli were collected. In
Gagneux, Sebastien; DeRiemer, Kathryn; Van, Tran; Kato-Maeda, Midori; Jong, Bouke C de; Narayanan, Sujatha; Nicol, Mark; Niemann, Stefan; Kremer, Kristin; Gutierrez, M Cristina; Hilty, Markus; Hopewell, Philip C; Small, Peter M
Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Studies have reported human pathogens to have geographically structured population genetics, some of which have been linked to ancient human migrations. However, no study has addressed the potential evolutionary
Mesquita, Inês; Varela, Patrícia; Belinha, Ana; Gaifem, Joana; Laforge, Mireille; Vergnes, Baptiste; Estaquier, Jérôme; Silvestre, Ricardo
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) is a vital molecule found in all living cells. NAD(+) intracellular levels are dictated by its synthesis, using the de novo and/or salvage pathway, and through its catabolic use as co-enzyme or co-substrate. The regulation of NAD(+) metabolism has proven to be an adequate drug target for several diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative or inflammatory diseases. Increasing interest has been given to NAD(+) metabolism during innate and adaptive immune responses suggesting that its modulation could also be relevant during host-pathogen interactions. While the maintenance of NAD(+) homeostatic levels assures an adequate environment for host cell survival and proliferation, fluctuations in NAD(+) or biosynthetic precursors bioavailability have been described during host-pathogen interactions, which will interfere with pathogen persistence or clearance. Here, we review the double-edged sword of NAD(+) metabolism during host-pathogen interactions emphasizing its potential for treatment of infectious diseases.
Liu, F.; Cai, L.; Crous, P.W.; Damm, U.
The anthracnose pathogen of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is usually identified as Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, while anthracnose of potato (Solanum tuberosum), peppers (Capsicum annuum), tomato (S. lycopersicum) and several other crop plants is often attributed to C. coccodes. In order to
Bäumler, Andreas J.; Sperandio, Vanessa
The microbiome has an important role in human health. Changes in the microbiota can confer resistance to or promote infection by pathogenic bacteria. Antibiotics have a profound impact on the microbiota that alters the nutritional landscape of the gut and can lead to the expansion of pathogenic populations. Pathogenic bacteria exploit microbiota-derived sources of carbon and nitrogen as nutrients and regulatory signals to promote their own growth and virulence. By eliciting inflammation, these bacteria alter the intestinal environment and use unique systems for respiration and metal acquisition to drive their expansion. Unravelling the interactions between the microbiota, the host and pathogenic bacteria will produce strategies for manipulating the microbiota against infectious diseases. PMID:27383983
Potentially pathogenic fungi are present in the sand taken from sandpits in Łódź. This fact poses a significant threat to child health and therefore proper maintenance and periodic checking of sandpits are of great importance.
Dr Oboro VO
AFRICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY JANUARY 2010. ISBN 1595-689X ... NON-ATTENUATION OF HIGHLY PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA. H5N1 BY .... Diagnostic PCR was conducted to determine ...
Chaturvedi, Kaveri S.; Henderson, Jeffrey P.
Recent findings suggest that both host and pathogen manipulate copper content in infected host niches during infections. In this review, we summarize recent developments that implicate copper resistance as an important determinant of bacterial fitness at the host-pathogen interface. An essential mammalian nutrient, copper cycles between copper (I) (Cu+) in its reduced form and copper (II) (Cu2+) in its oxidized form under physiologic conditions. Cu+ is significantly more bactericidal than Cu2+ due to its ability to freely penetrate bacterial membranes and inactivate intracellular iron-sulfur clusters. Copper ions can also catalyze reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which may further contribute to their toxicity. Transporters, chaperones, redox proteins, receptors and transcription factors and even siderophores affect copper accumulation and distribution in both pathogenic microbes and their human hosts. This review will briefly cover evidence for copper as a mammalian antibacterial effector, the possible reasons for this toxicity, and pathogenic resistance mechanisms directed against it. PMID:24551598
Ramaiah, N.; Kolhe, V.; Sadhasivan, A
As a part of environmental assessment in the Mumbai Harbour region, where large numbers of ships either take in ballast from- or discharge their ballast, many groups of indicator and human pathogenic bacteria were quantified. Samples (water...
Since the green revolution, agricultural production has increased tremendously due to synthetic fertilizers, chemical crop protectants and high yielding plant varieties. However, soilborne pathogens remain yield-limiting factors in agricultural production. Hardly any sustainable solutions are
The General Safety and Waste Management page offers section-specific safety and waste management details for the pathogens included in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery (SAM).
Mycobacteria, a genus within Actinobacteria Phylum, are well known for two pathogens that cause human diseases: leprosy and tuberculosis. Other than the obligate human mycobacteria, there is a group of bacteria that are present in the environment
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains simulated pathogen concentrations in locally-collected greywater and wastewater. Each .zip file includes 21 .csv files, each containing 10,000...
Hampson David J
Full Text Available Abstract Anaerobic spirochaetes of the genus Brachyspira have long been known as important gut pathogens of pigs, but increasingly they are recognised as causing disease in birds and other animal species, including human beings. The genome sequence of the major swine pathogen Brachyspira hyodysenteriae was recently published, and this revealed extensive genome optimisation that leads to adaptation to the complex environment of the colon. The genome sequences of other pathogenic and non-pathogenic Brachyspira species are becoming available, and this data will help to reveal how these species have evolved and adapted to varied lifestyles in the large intestines of different species, and why some but not others can induce colitis and diarrhoea.
Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Mataragas, Marios; Jespersen, Lene
In recent years and with the significant advancements in instrumentation for molecular biology methods, the focus of food microbiologists, dealing with pathogenic microorganisms in foods, is shifting. Scientists specifically aim at elucidating the effect that the food composition, as well...
Peacock, Lori; Bailey, Mick; Carrington, Mark; Gibson, Wendy
Summary In eukaryote pathogens, sex is an important driving force in spreading genes for drug resistance, pathogenicity, and virulence . For the parasitic trypanosomes that cause African sleeping sickness, mating occurs during transmission by the tsetse vector [2, 3] and involves meiosis , but haploid gametes have not yet been identified. Here, we show that meiosis is a normal part of development in the insect salivary glands for all subspecies of Trypanosoma brucei, including the human...
Dara A Satterfield
Full Text Available Many pathogens, including those infecting insects, are transmitted via dormant stages shed into the environment, where they must persist until encountering a susceptible host. Understanding how abiotic conditions influence environmental persistence and how these factors influence pathogen spread are crucial for predicting patterns of infection risk. Here, we explored the consequences of environmental transmission for infection dynamics of a debilitating protozoan parasite (Ophryocystis elektroscirrha that infects monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus. We first conducted an experiment to observe the persistence of protozoan spores exposed to natural conditions. Experimental results showed that, contrary to our expectations, pathogen doses maintained high infectivity even after 16 days in the environment, although pathogens did yield infections with lower parasite loads after environmental exposure. Because pathogen longevity exceeded the time span of our experiment, we developed a mechanistic model to better explore environmental persistence for this host-pathogen system. Model analysis showed that, in general, longer spore persistence led to higher infection prevalence and slightly smaller monarch population sizes. The model indicated that typical parasite doses shed onto milkweed plants must remain viable for a minimum of 3 weeks for prevalence to increase during the summer-breeding season, and for 11 weeks or longer to match levels of infection commonly reported from the wild, assuming moderate values for parasite shedding rate. Our findings showed that transmission stages of this butterfly pathogen are long-lived and indicated that this is a necessary condition for the protozoan to persist in local monarch populations. This study provides a modeling framework for future work examining the dynamics of an ecologically important pathogen in an iconic insect.
Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora is a bacterial phytopathogen that causes soft rot in various agronomically important crop plants. A genetically specified resistance to E. carotovora has not been defined, and plant resistance to this pathogen is established through nonspecific activation of basal defense responses. This, together with the broad host range, makes this pathogen a good model for studying the activation of plant defenses. Production and secretion of plant cell wall-degrading ...
Brookes, Justin D; Antenucci, Jason; Hipsey, Matthew; Burch, Michael D; Ashbolt, Nicholas J; Ferguson, Christobel
Outbreaks of water-borne disease via public water supplies continue to be reported in developed countries even though there is increased awareness of, and treatment for, pathogen contamination. Pathogen episodes in lakes and reservoirs are often associated with rain events, and the riverine inflow is considered to be major source of pathogens. Consequently, the behaviour of these inflows is of particular importance in determining pathogen transport and distribution. Inflows are controlled by their density relative to that of the lake, such that warm inflows will flow over the surface of the lake as a buoyant surface flow and cold, dense inflows will sink beneath the lake water where they will flow along the bathymetry towards the deepest point. The fate of pathogens is determined by loss processes including settling and inactivation by temperature, UV and grazing. The general trend is for the insertion timescale to be shortest, followed by sedimentation losses and temperature inactivity. The fate of Cryptosporidium due to UV light inactivation can occur at opposite ends of the scale, depending on the location of the oocysts in the water column and the extinction coefficient for UV light. For this reason, the extinction coefficient for UV light appears to be a vitally important parameter for determining the risk of Cryptosporidium contamination. For risk assessment of pathogens in supply reservoirs, it is important to understand the role of hydrodynamics in determining the timescale of transport to the off-take relative to the timescale of inactivation. The characteristics of the riverine intrusion must also be considered when designing a sampling program for pathogens. A risk management framework is presented that accounts for pathogen fate and transport for reservoirs.
van Diepeningen, Anne D; de Hoog, G Sybren
Fusarium species are emerging human pathogens, next to being plant pathogens. Problems with Fusarium are in their diagnostics and in their difficult treatment, but also in what are actual Fusarium species or rather Fusarium-like species. In this issue Guevara-Suarez et al. (Mycopathologia. doi: 10.1007/s11046-016-9983-9 , 2016) characterized 89 isolates of Fusarium from Colombia showing especially lineages within the Fusarium solani and oxysporum species complexes to be responsible for onychomycosis.
Mehta, Sanjay R.; Vinterbo, Staal A.; Little, Susan J.
Rapid growth in the genetic sequencing of pathogens in recent years has led to the creation of large sequence databases. This aggregated sequence data can be very useful for tracking and predicting epidemics of infectious diseases. However, the balance between the potential public health benefit and the risk to personal privacy for individuals whose genetic data (personal or pathogen) are included in such work has been difficult to delineate, because neither the true benefit nor the actual ri...
transfusion. Our project proposes to determine the efficacy of using a pathogen inactivation technique (Mirasol) coupled with a platelet additive solution (PAS...technology, platelet additive solution, platelet recovery and survival, platelet storage, platelet storage solution, platelets, thrombocytopenia, transfusion...Platelets Report to 2017 Military Health System Research Symposium ……………………………………………………………….. 29 Extended Storage of Pathogen-Reduced Platelet Concentrates
Follmann, Dean; Huang, Chiung-Yu
Assessment of vaccine efficacy as a function of the similarity of the infecting pathogen to the vaccine is an important scientific goal. Characterization of pathogen strains for which vaccine efficacy is low can increase understanding of the vaccine's mechanism of action and offer targets for vaccine improvement. Traditional sieve analysis estimates differential vaccine efficacy using a single identifiable pathogen for each subject. The similarity between this single entity and the vaccine immunogen is quantified, for example, by exact match or number of mismatched amino acids. With new technology, we can now obtain the actual count of genetically distinct pathogens that infect an individual. Let F be the number of distinct features of a species of pathogen. We assume a log-linear model for the expected number of infecting pathogens with feature "f," f=1,…,F. The model can be used directly in studies with passive surveillance of infections where the count of each type of pathogen is recorded at the end of some interval, or active surveillance where the time of infection is known. For active surveillance, we additionally assume that a proportional intensity model applies to the time of potentially infectious exposures and derive product and weighted estimating equation (WEE) estimators for the regression parameters in the log-linear model. The WEE estimator explicitly allows for waning vaccine efficacy and time-varying distributions of pathogens. We give conditions where sieve parameters have a per-exposure interpretation under passive surveillance. We evaluate the methods by simulation and analyze a phase III trial of a malaria vaccine. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.
Mehta, Angela; Brasileiro, Ana C. M.; Souza, Djair S. L.; Romano, Eduardo; Campos, Magnólia A.; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F.; Silva, Marília S.; Franco, Octávio L.; Fragoso, Rodrigo R.; Bevitori, Rosangela; Rocha, Thales L.
Over the years, several studies have been performed to analyse plant–pathogen interactions. Recently, functional genomic strategies, including proteomics and transcriptomics, have contributed to the effort of defining gene and protein function and expression profiles. Using these ‘omic’ approaches, pathogenicity- and defence-related genes and proteins expressed during phytopathogen infections have been identified and enormous datasets have been accumulated. However, the unde...
Hofmeester, Tim R.
Diseases that are transmitted by arthropod vectors from animal hosts to humans – so called zoonotic vector-borne diseases – have increased in incidence in the last decades. In North America and Europe, tick-borne pathogens cause the majority of vector-borne diseases, including Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis. The pathogens causing these diseases are transmitted by tick species within the Ixodes ricinus complex. These are generalist ticks that have a multi-year lifecycle with thre...
Ovchinnikov, Ilya S.; Tuchin, Valery V.
The work is devoted to an analysis of pre-clinical and clinical experiments on photodynamic action of HeNe laser radiation in aggregate with a cation thiazinium dye Methylene Blue (MB) on a mix of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic aerobic bacteria being activators of pyoinflammatory diseases of oral cavity. Concentration of photosensitizes at which there is no own bactericidal influence on dying microflora, and parameters of influence at which the efficiency of irradiated microflora defeat reaches 99 % are determined.
Marija Ravlić; Renata Baličević
Biological control is the use of live beneficial organisms and products of their metabolism in the pests control. Plant pathogens can be used for weed control in three different ways: as classical, conservation and augmentative (inoculative and inundated) biological control. Inundated biological control involves the use of bioherbicides (mycoherbicides) or artificial breeding of pathogens and application in specific stages of crops and weeds. Biological control of weeds can be used where chem...
Costa-Hurtado, Mar; Shepherd, Eric; DeJesus, Eric; Smith, Diane; Spackman, Erica; Kapczynski, Darrell R.; Suarez, David L.; Stallknecht, David E.; Swayne, David E.
ABSTRACT Wild aquatic birds have been associated with the intercontinental spread of H5 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the A/goose/Guangdong/1/96 (Gs/GD) lineage during 2005, 2010, and 2014, but dispersion by wild waterfowl has not been implicated with spread of other HPAI viruses. To better understand why Gs/GD H5 HPAI viruses infect and transmit more efficiently in waterfowl than other HPAI viruses, groups of mallard ducks were challenged with one of 14 different H5 and H7 HPAI viruses, including a Gs/GD lineage H5N1 (clade 2.2) virus from Mongolia, part of the 2005 dispersion, and the H5N8 and H5N2 index HPAI viruses (clade 22.214.171.124) from the United States, part of the 2014 dispersion. All virus-inoculated ducks and contact exposed ducks became infected and shed moderate to high titers of the viruses, with the exception that mallards were resistant to Ck/Pennsylvania/83 and Ck/Queretaro/95 H5N2 HPAI virus infection. Clinical signs were only observed in ducks challenged with the H5N1 2005 virus, which all died, and with the H5N8 and H5N2 2014 viruses, which had decreased weight gain and fever. These three viruses were also shed in higher titers by the ducks, which could facilitate virus transmission and spread. This study highlights the possible role of wild waterfowl in the spread of HPAI viruses. IMPORTANCE The spread of H5 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the Gs/GD lineage by migratory waterfowl is a serious concern for animal and public health. H5 and H7 HPAI viruses are considered to be adapted to gallinaceous species (chickens, turkeys, quail, etc.) and less likely to infect and transmit in wild ducks. In order to understand why this is different with certain Gs/GD lineage H5 HPAI viruses, we compared the pathogenicity and transmission of several H5 and H7 HPAI viruses from previous poultry outbreaks to Gs/GD lineage H5 viruses, including H5N1 (clade 2.2), H5N8 and H5N2 (clade 126.96.36.199) viruses, in
Ma, Li Jun; van der Does, H. C.; Borkovich, Katherine A.; Coleman, Jeffrey J.; Daboussi, Marie-Jose; Di Pietro, Antonio; Dufresne, Marie; Freitag, Michael; Grabherr, Manfred; Henrissat, Bernard; Houterman, Petra M.; Kang, Seogchan; Shim, Won-Bo; Wolochuk, Charles; Xie, Xiaohui; Xu, Jin Rong; Antoniw, John; Baker, Scott E.; Bluhm, Burton H.; Breakspear, Andrew; Brown, Daren W.; Butchko, Robert A.; Chapman, Sinead; Coulson, Richard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Danchin, Etienne G.; Diener, Andrew; Gale, Liane R.; Gardiner, Donald; Goff, Steven; Hammond-Kossack, Kim; Hilburn, Karen; Hua-Van, Aurelie; Jonkers, Wilfried; Kazan, Kemal; Kodira, Chinnappa D.; Koehrsen, Michael; Kumar, Lokesh; Lee, Yong Hwan; Li, Liande; Manners, John M.; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego; Mukherjee, Mala; Park, Gyungsoon; Park, Jongsun; Park, Sook Young; Proctor, Robert H.; Regev, Aviv; Ruiz-Roldan, M. C.; Sain, Divya; Sakthikumar, Sharadha; Sykes, Sean; Schwartz, David C.; Turgeon, Barbara G.; Wapinski, Ilan; Yoder, Olen; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Zhou, Shiguo; Galagan, James; Cuomo, Christina A.; Kistler, H. Corby; Rep, Martijn
Fusarium species are among the most important phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi, having significant impact on crop production and animal health. Distinctively, members of the F. oxysporum species complex exhibit wide host range but discontinuously distributed host specificity, reflecting remarkable genetic adaptability. To understand the molecular underpinnings of diverse phenotypic traits and their evolution in Fusarium, we compared the genomes of three economically important and phylogenetically related, yet phenotypically diverse plant-pathogenic species, F. graminearum, F. verticillioides and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Our analysis revealed greatly expanded lineage-specific (LS) genomic regions in F. oxysporum that include four entire chromosomes, accounting for more than one-quarter of the genome. LS regions are rich in transposons and genes with distinct evolutionary profiles but related to pathogenicity. Experimentally, we demonstrate for the first time the transfer of two LS chromosomes between strains of F. oxysporum, resulting in the conversion of a non-pathogenic strain into a pathogen. Transfer of LS chromosomes between otherwise genetically isolated strains explains the polyphyletic origin of host specificity and the emergence of new pathogenic lineages in the F. oxysporum species complex, putting the evolution of fungal pathogenicity into a new perspective.
Storisteanu, Daniel M L; Pocock, Joanna M; Cowburn, Andrew S; Juss, Jatinder K; Nadesalingam, Angalee; Nizet, Victor; Chilvers, Edwin R
The release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is a major immune mechanism intended to capture pathogens. These histone- and protease-coated DNA structures are released by neutrophils in response to a variety of stimuli, including respiratory pathogens, and have been identified in the airways of patients with respiratory infection, cystic fibrosis, acute lung injury, primary graft dysfunction, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. NET production has been demonstrated in the lungs of mice infected with Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Aspergillus fumigatus. Since the discovery of NETs over a decade ago, evidence that "NET evasion" might act as an immune protection strategy among respiratory pathogens, including group A Streptococcus, Bordetella pertussis, and Haemophilus influenzae, has been growing, with the majority of these studies being published in the past 2 years. Evasion strategies fall into three main categories: inhibition of NET release by down-regulating host inflammatory responses; degradation of NETs using pathogen-derived DNases; and resistance to the microbicidal components of NETs, which involves a variety of mechanisms, including encapsulation. Hence, the evasion of NETs appears to be a widespread strategy to allow pathogen proliferation and dissemination, and is currently a topic of intense research interest. This article outlines the evidence supporting the three main strategies of NET evasion-inhibition, degradation, and resistance-with particular reference to common respiratory pathogens.
Whitmore, Sarah E; Lamont, Richard J
The mitis group streptococci (MGS) are widespread in the oral cavity and are traditionally associated with oral health. However, these organisms have many attributes that contribute to the development of pathogenic oral communities. MGS adhere rapidly to saliva-coated tooth surfaces, thereby providing an attachment substratum for more overtly pathogenic organisms such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, and the two species assemble into heterotypic communities. Close physical association facilitates physiologic support, and pathogens such as Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans display resource partitioning to favour carbon sources generated by streptococcal metabolism. MGS exchange information with community members through a number of interspecies signalling systems including AI-2 and contact dependent mechanisms. Signal transduction systems induced in P. gingivalis are based on protein dephosphorylation mediated by the tyrosine phosphatase Ltp1, and converge on a LuxR-family transcriptional regulator, CdhR. Phenotypic responses in P. gingivalis include regulation of hemin uptake systems and gingipain activity, processes that are intimately linked to the virulence of the organism. Furthermore, communities of S. gordonii with P. gingivalis or with A. actinomycetemcomitans are more pathogenic in animal models than the constituent species alone. We propose that MGS should be considered accessory pathogens, organisms whose pathogenic potential only becomes evident in the context of a heterotypic microbial community. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Beatriz S. Stolf
Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS production by immunological cells is known to cause damage to pathogens. Increasing evidence accumulated in the last decade has shown, however, that ROS (and redox signals functionally regulate different cellular pathways in the host-pathogen interaction. These especially affect (i pathogen entry through protein redox switches and redox modification (i.e., intra- and interdisulfide and cysteine oxidation and (ii phagocytic ROS production via Nox family NADPH oxidase enzyme and the control of phagolysosome function with key implications for antigen processing. The protein disulfide isomerase (PDI family of redox chaperones is closely involved in both processes and is also implicated in protein unfolding and trafficking across the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and towards the cytosol, a thiol-based redox locus for antigen processing. Here, we summarise examples of the cellular association of host PDI with different pathogens and explore the possible roles of pathogen PDIs in infection. A better understanding of these complex regulatory steps will provide insightful information on the redox role and coevolutional biological process, and assist the development of more specific therapeutic strategies in pathogen-mediated infections.
Mancini, Valeria; Romanazzi, Gianfranco
Vegetable crops are frequently infected by fungal pathogens, which can include seedborne fungi. In such cases, the pathogen is already present within or on the seed surface, and can thus cause seed rot and seedling damping-off. Treatment of vegetable seeds has been shown to prevent plant disease epidemics caused by seedborne fungal pathogens. Furthermore, seed treatments can be useful in reducing the amounts of pesticides required to manage a disease, because effective seed treatments can eliminate the need for foliar application of fungicides later in the season. Although the application of fungicides is almost always effective, their non-target environmental impact and the development of pathogen resistance have led to the search for alternative methods, especially in the past few years. Physical treatments that have already been used in the past and treatments with biopesticides, such as plant extracts, natural compounds and biocontrol agents, have proved to be effective in controlling seedborne pathogens. These have been applied alone or in combination, and they are widely used owing to their broad spectrum in terms of disease control and production yield. In this review, the effectiveness of different seed treatments against the main seedborne pathogens of some important vegetable crops is critically discussed. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
Butt, T M; Coates, C J; Dubovskiy, I M; Ratcliffe, N A
Although many insects successfully live in dangerous environments exposed to diverse communities of microbes, they are often exploited and killed by specialist pathogens. Studies of host-pathogen interactions (HPI) provide valuable insights into the dynamics of the highly aggressive coevolutionary arms race between entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) and their arthropod hosts. The host defenses are designed to exclude the pathogen or mitigate the damage inflicted while the pathogen responds with immune evasion and utilization of host resources. EPF neutralize their immediate surroundings on the insect integument and benefit from the physiochemical properties of the cuticle and its compounds that exclude competing microbes. EPF also exhibit adaptations aimed at minimizing trauma that can be deleterious to both host and pathogen (eg, melanization of hemolymph), form narrow penetration pegs that alleviate host dehydration and produce blastospores that lack immunogenic sugars/enzymes but facilitate rapid assimilation of hemolymph nutrients. In response, insects deploy an extensive armory of hemocytes and macromolecules, such as lectins and phenoloxidase, that repel, immobilize, and kill EPF. New evidence suggests that immune bioactives work synergistically (eg, lysozyme with antimicrobial peptides) to combat infections. Some proteins, including transferrin and apolipophorin III, also demonstrate multifunctional properties, participating in metabolism, homeostasis, and pathogen recognition. This review discusses the molecular intricacies of these HPI, highlighting the interplay between immunity, stress management, and metabolism. Increased knowledge in this area could enhance the efficacy of EPF, ensuring their future in integrated pest management programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gelfman, Sahar; Wang, Quanli; McSweeney, K Melodi; Ren, Zhong; La Carpia, Francesca; Halvorsen, Matt; Schoch, Kelly; Ratzon, Fanni; Heinzen, Erin L; Boland, Michael J; Petrovski, Slavé; Goldstein, David B
Identifying the underlying causes of disease requires accurate interpretation of genetic variants. Current methods ineffectively capture pathogenic non-coding variants in genic regions, resulting in overlooking synonymous and intronic variants when searching for disease risk. Here we present the Transcript-inferred Pathogenicity (TraP) score, which uses sequence context alterations to reliably identify non-coding variation that causes disease. High TraP scores single out extremely rare variants with lower minor allele frequencies than missense variants. TraP accurately distinguishes known pathogenic and benign variants in synonymous (AUC = 0.88) and intronic (AUC = 0.83) public datasets, dismissing benign variants with exceptionally high specificity. TraP analysis of 843 exomes from epilepsy family trios identifies synonymous variants in known epilepsy genes, thus pinpointing risk factors of disease from non-coding sequence data. TraP outperforms leading methods in identifying non-coding variants that are pathogenic and is therefore a valuable tool for use in gene discovery and the interpretation of personal genomes.While non-coding synonymous and intronic variants are often not under strong selective constraint, they can be pathogenic through affecting splicing or transcription. Here, the authors develop a score that uses sequence context alterations to predict pathogenicity of synonymous and non-coding genetic variants, and provide a web server of pre-computed scores.
Laukkanen-Ninios, Riikka; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Maijala, Riitta; Korkeala, Hannu
Samples from pork cuts for minced meat and cheeks from processing plants and a slaughterhouse, and modified atmosphere (MA) packaged pork from retail were studied to estimate the prevalence of pathogenic, i.e. virulence plasmid bearing, Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in pork, as well as to quantify pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in pork cuts. Pathogenic (virF-positive) Y. enterocolitica was isolated from 17 pig cheeks (23%) but not from any of the MA-packaged 54 retail pork samples and only from one of the 155 pork cut (0.6%). Most (16/17) of the cheek samples were contaminated with pathogenic Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 and one with bioserotype 2/O:9. No Y. pseudotuberculosis was isolated. The prevalence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica was clearly higher (39%) in 155 pork cuts when studied with nested PCR targeting yadA on the virulence plasmid pYV although the contamination level was low varying between 0.1 and 1.6 MPN/g. Raw pork cuts and especially pig cheeks may serve as possible sources for yersiniosis caused by pathogenic Y. enterocolitica. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Soda, Kosuke; Cheng, Ming-Chu; Yoshida, Hiromi; Endo, Mayumi; Lee, Shu-Hwae; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Wang, Ching-Ho; Kida, Hiroshi
H5N2 viruses were isolated from cloacal swab samples of apparently healthy chickens in Taiwan in 2003 and 2008 during surveillance of avian influenza. Each of the viruses was eradicated by stamping out. The official diagnosis report indicated that the Intravenous Pathogenicity Indexes (IVPIs) of the isolates were 0.00 and 0.89, respectively, indicating that these were low pathogenic strains, although the hemagglutinin of the strain isolated in 2008 (Taiwan08) had multibasic amino acid residue...
Full Text Available Penicillium capsulatum is a rare Penicillium species used in paper manufacturing, but recently it has been reported to cause invasive infection. To research the pathogenicity of the clinical Penicillium strain, we sequenced the genomes and transcriptome of the clinical and environmental strains of P. capsulatum. Comparative analyses of these two P. capsulatum strains and close related strains belonging to Eurotiales were performed. The assembled genome sizes of P. capsulatum are approximately 34.4 Mbp in length and encode 11,080 predicted genes. The different isolates of P. capsulatum are highly similar, with the exception of several unique genes, INDELs or SNP in the genes coding for glycosyl hydrolases, amino acid transporters and circumsporozoite protein. A phylogenomic analysis was performed based on the whole genome data of 38 strains belonging to Eurotiales. By comparing the whole genome sequences and the virulence-related genes from 20 important related species, including fungal pathogens and non-human pathogens belonging to Eurotiales, we found meaningful pathogenicity characteristics between P. capsulatum and its closely related species. Our research indicated that P. capsulatum may be a neglected opportunistic pathogen. This study is beneficial for mycologists, geneticists and epidemiologists to achieve a deeper understanding of the genetic basis of the role of P. capsulatum as a newly reported fungal pathogen.
Jing, Ming; Wang, Lei
In the study, 454-pyrosequencing technology was employed to investigate the species of pathogenic bacteria and the proportion of each pathogen in secondary effluent. Culture-based, qPCR and Q-RT-PCR methods were employed to analyze the removal of indicator (E. coli) and pathogen (Salmonella and Mycobacterium) by ultraviolet (UV) disinfection at a dose of 60 mJ x Cm(-2). The results showed that 11 kinds of pathogenic bacteria were found and the most abundant potentially pathogenic bacteria in the secondary effluent were affiliated with the genera of Clostridium (2.96%), Arcobacter (0.82%) and Mycobacterium (0.36%). 99.9% of culturable E. coli and Salmonella were removed by UV disinfection (60 mJ x cm(-2), however, less than 90% of culturable Mycobacterium were removed. The removal efficiencies of viable E. coli, Salmonella and Mycobacterium were low. Q-RT-PCR seemed to be a promising method for evaluating viable microorganisms in samples. Besides, pathogenic bacteria entered into VBNC state at a UV dose of 60 mJ x cm(-2). Other advanced treatment processes were needed to ensure safe utilization of reclaimed water.
Sperschneider, Jana; Gardiner, Donald M.; Thatcher, Louise F.; Lyons, Rebecca; Singh, Karam B.; Manners, John M.; Taylor, Jennifer M.
Pathogens and hosts are in an ongoing arms race and genes involved in host–pathogen interactions are likely to undergo diversifying selection. Fusarium plant pathogens have evolved diverse infection strategies, but how they interact with their hosts in the biotrophic infection stage remains puzzling. To address this, we analyzed the genomes of three Fusarium plant pathogens for genes that are under diversifying selection. We found a two-speed genome structure both on the chromosome and gene group level. Diversifying selection acts strongly on the dispensable chromosomes in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and on distinct core chromosome regions in Fusarium graminearum, all of which have associations with virulence. Members of two gene groups evolve rapidly, namely those that encode proteins with an N-terminal [SG]-P-C-[KR]-P sequence motif and proteins that are conserved predominantly in pathogens. Specifically, 29 F. graminearum genes are rapidly evolving, in planta induced and encode secreted proteins, strongly pointing toward effector function. In summary, diversifying selection in Fusarium is strongly reflected as genomic footprints and can be used to predict a small gene set likely to be involved in host–pathogen interactions for experimental verification. PMID:25994930
Harder, Robin; Heimersson, Sara; Svanström, Magdalena; Peters, Gregory M
The environmental performance of wastewater and sewage sludge management is commonly assessed using life cycle assessment (LCA), whereas pathogen risk is evaluated with quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). This study explored the application of QMRA methodology with intent to include pathogen risk in LCA and facilitate a comparison with other potential impacts on human health considered in LCA. Pathogen risk was estimated for a model wastewater treatment system (WWTS) located in an industrialized country and consisting of primary, secondary, and tertiary wastewater treatment, anaerobic sludge digestion, and land application of sewage sludge. The estimation was based on eight previous QMRA studies as well as parameter values taken from the literature. A total pathogen risk (expressed as burden of disease) on the order of 0.2-9 disability-adjusted life years (DALY) per year of operation was estimated for the model WWTS serving 28,600 persons and for the pathogens and exposure pathways included in this study. The comparison of pathogen risk with other potential impacts on human health considered in LCA is detailed in part 2 of this article series.
Koseki, Shige; Mizuno, Yasuko; Sotome, Itaru
The objective of the present study was to develop a mathematical model of pathogenic bacterial inactivation kinetics in a gastric environment in order to further understand a part of the infectious dose-response mechanism. The major bacterial pathogens Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella spp. were examined by using simulated gastric fluid adjusted to various pH values. To correspond to the various pHs in a stomach during digestion, a modified logistic differential equation model and the Weibull differential equation model were examined. The specific inactivation rate for each pathogen was successfully described by a square-root model as a function of pH. The square-root models were combined with the modified logistic differential equation to obtain a complete inactivation curve. Both the modified logistic and Weibull models provided a highly accurate fitting of the static pH conditions for every pathogen. However, while the residuals plots of the modified logistic model indicated no systematic bias and/or regional prediction problems, the residuals plots of the Weibull model showed a systematic bias. The modified logistic model appropriately predicted the pathogen behavior in the simulated gastric digestion process with actual food, including cut lettuce, minced tuna, hamburger, and scrambled egg. Although the developed model enabled us to predict pathogen inactivation during gastric digestion, its results also suggested that the ingested bacteria in the stomach would barely be inactivated in the real digestion process. The results of this study will provide important information on a part of the dose-response mechanism of bacterial pathogens.
Koseki, Shige; Mizuno, Yasuko; Sotome, Itaru
The objective of the present study was to develop a mathematical model of pathogenic bacterial inactivation kinetics in a gastric environment in order to further understand a part of the infectious dose-response mechanism. The major bacterial pathogens Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella spp. were examined by using simulated gastric fluid adjusted to various pH values. To correspond to the various pHs in a stomach during digestion, a modified logistic differential equation model and the Weibull differential equation model were examined. The specific inactivation rate for each pathogen was successfully described by a square-root model as a function of pH. The square-root models were combined with the modified logistic differential equation to obtain a complete inactivation curve. Both the modified logistic and Weibull models provided a highly accurate fitting of the static pH conditions for every pathogen. However, while the residuals plots of the modified logistic model indicated no systematic bias and/or regional prediction problems, the residuals plots of the Weibull model showed a systematic bias. The modified logistic model appropriately predicted the pathogen behavior in the simulated gastric digestion process with actual food, including cut lettuce, minced tuna, hamburger, and scrambled egg. Although the developed model enabled us to predict pathogen inactivation during gastric digestion, its results also suggested that the ingested bacteria in the stomach would barely be inactivated in the real digestion process. The results of this study will provide important information on a part of the dose-response mechanism of bacterial pathogens. PMID:21131530
Wang, Yanzhuo; Zhuang, Xuran; Zhong, Yi; Zhang, Cuicai; Zhang, Yan; Zeng, Lingbing; Zhu, Yongzhang; He, Ping; Dong, Ke; Pal, Utpal; Guo, Xiaokui; Qin, Jinhong
Leptospirosis, caused by pathogenic Leptospira, is a worldwide zoonotic infection. The genus Leptospira includes at least 21 species clustered into three groups--pathogens, non-pathogens, and intermediates--based on 16S rRNA phylogeny. Research on Leptospira is difficult due to slow growth and poor transformability of the pathogens. Recent identification of extrachromosomal elements besides the two chromosomes in L. interrogans has provided new insight into genome complexity of the genus Leptospira. The large size, low copy number, and high similarity of the sequence of these extrachromosomal elements with the chromosomes present challenges in isolating and detecting them without careful genome assembly. In this study, two extrachromosomal elements were identified in L. borgpetersenii serovar Ballum strain 56604 through whole genome assembly combined with S1 nuclease digestion following pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (S1-PFGE) analysis. Further, extrachromosomal elements in additional 15 Chinese epidemic strains of Leptospira, comprising L. borgpetersenii, L. weilii, and L. interrogans, were successfully separated and identified, independent of genome sequence data. Southern blot hybridization with extrachromosomal element-specific probes, designated as lcp1, lcp2 and lcp3-rep, further confirmed their occurrences as extrachromosomal elements. In total, 24 plasmids were detected in 13 out of 15 tested strains, among which 11 can hybridize with the lcp1-rep probe and 11 with the lcp2-rep probe, whereas two can hybridize with the lcp3-rep probe. None of them are likely to be species-specific. Blastp search of the lcp1, lcp2, and lcp3-rep genes with a nonredundant protein database of Leptospira species genomes showed that their homologous sequences are widely distributed among clades of pathogens but not non-pathogens or intermediates. These results suggest that the plasmids are widely distributed in Leptospira species, and further elucidation of their biological
Forero-Reyes, Consuelo M; Alvarado-Fernández, Angela M; Ceballos-Rojas, Ana M; González-Carmona, Lady C; Linares-Linares, Melva Y; Castañeda-Salazar, Rubiela; Pulido-Villamarín, Adriana; Góngora-Medina, Manuel E; Cortés-Vecino, Jesús A; Rodríguez-Bocanegra, María X
The genus Fusarium is widely recognized for its phytopathogenic capacity. However, it has been reported as an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Thus, it can be considered a microorganism of interest in pathogenicity studies on different hosts. Therefore, this work evaluated the pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. isolates from different origins in plants and animals (murine hosts). Twelve isolates of Fusarium spp. from plants, animal superficial mycoses, and human superficial and systemic mycoses were inoculated in tomato, passion fruit and carnation plants, and in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed BALB/c mice. Pathogenicity tests in plants did not show all the symptoms associated with vascular wilt in the three plant models; however, colonization and necrosis of the vascular bundles, regardless of the species and origin of the isolates, showed the infective potential of Fusarium spp. in different plant species. Moreover, the pathogenicity tests in the murine model revealed behavioral changes. It was noteworthy that only five isolates (different origin and species) caused mortality. Additionally, it was observed that all isolates infected and colonized different organs, regardless of the species and origin of the isolates or host immune status. In contrast, the superficial inoculation test showed no evidence of epidermal injury or colonization. The observed results in plant and murine models suggest the pathogenic potential of Fusarium spp. isolates in different types of hosts. However, further studies on pathogenicity are needed to confirm the multihost capacity of this genus. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Blum, Shlomo E.; Heller, Elimelech D.; Sela, Shlomo; Elad, Daniel; Edery, Nir; Leitner, Gabriel
Escherichia coli is a major etiological agent of intra-mammary infections (IMI) in cows, leading to acute mastitis and causing great economic losses in dairy production worldwide. Particular strains cause persistent IMI, leading to recurrent mastitis. Virulence factors of mammary pathogenic E. coli (MPEC) involved pathogenesis of mastitis as well as those differentiating strains causing acute or persistent mastitis are largely unknown. This study aimed to identify virulence markers in MPEC through whole genome and phenome comparative analysis. MPEC strains causing acute (VL2874 and P4) or persistent (VL2732) mastitis were compared to an environmental strain (K71) and to the genomes of strains representing different E. coli pathotypes. Intra-mammary challenge in mice confirmed experimentally that the strains studied here have different pathogenic potential, and that the environmental strain K71 is non-pathogenic in the mammary gland. Analysis of whole genome sequences and predicted proteomes revealed high similarity among MPEC, whereas MPEC significantly differed from the non-mammary pathogenic strain K71, and from E. coli genomes from other pathotypes. Functional features identified in MPEC genomes and lacking in the non-mammary pathogenic strain were associated with synthesis of lipopolysaccharide and other membrane antigens, ferric-dicitrate iron acquisition and sugars metabolism. Features associated with cytotoxicity or intra-cellular survival were found specifically in the genomes of strains from severe and acute (VL2874) or persistent (VL2732) mastitis, respectively. MPEC genomes were relatively similar to strain K-12, which was subsequently shown here to be possibly pathogenic in the mammary gland. Phenome analysis showed that the persistent MPEC was the most versatile in terms of nutrients metabolized and acute MPEC the least. Among phenotypes unique to MPEC compared to the non-mammary pathogenic strain were uric acid and D-serine metabolism. This study
Atwill, E. R.; Watanabe, N.; Li, X.; Hou, L.; Harter, T.; Bergamaschi, B.
Intense animal husbandry is of growing concern as a potential contamination source of enteric pathogens as well as antibiotics. To assess the public health risk from pathogens and their hydrologic pathways, we hypothesize that the animal farm is not a homogeneous diffuse source, but that pathogen loading to the soil and, therefore, to groundwater varies significantly between the various management units of a farm. A dairy farm, for example, may include an area with calf hutches, corrals for heifers of various ages, freestalls and exercise yards for milking cows, separate freestalls for dry cows, a hospital barn, a yard for collection of solid manure, a liquid manure storage lagoon, and fields receiving various amounts of liquid and solid manure. Pathogen shedding and, hence, therapeutic and preventive pharmaceutical treatments vary between these management units. We are implementing a field reconnaissance program to determine the occurrence of three different pathogens ( E. coli, Salmonella, Campylobacter) and one indicator organism ( Enterococcus) at the ground-surface and in shallow groundwater of seven different management units on each of two farms, and in each of four seasons (spring/dry season, summer/irrigation season, fall/dry season, winter/rainy season). Initial results indicate that significant differences exist in the occurrence of these pathogens between management units and between organisms. These differences are weakly reflected in their occurrence in groundwater, despite the similarity of the shallow geologic environment across these sites. Our results indicate the importance of differentiating sources within a dairy farm and the importance of understanding subsurface transport processes for these pathogens.
Teague, Nathan S; Srijan, Apichai; Wongstitwilairoong, Boonchai; Poramathikul, Kamonporn; Champathai, Thanaporn; Ruksasiri, Supaporn; Pavlin, Julie; Mason, Carl J
Travelers' diarrhea (TD) is the most prevalent disorder affecting travelers to developing countries. Thailand is considered "moderately risky" for TD acquisition, but the risk by city visited or behavior of the visitor has yet to be definitely defined. Restaurant eating is consistently associated with the acquisition of diarrhea while traveling, and pathogen-free meals serve as a marker of public health success. This study seeks to ascertain a traveler's risk of exposure to certain bacterial gastric pathogens while eating at Bangkok restaurants recommended in popular tourist guide books. A cross-sectional tourist restaurant survey was conducted. Thirty-five restaurants recommended in the two top selling Bangkok guidebooks on Amazon.com were sampled for bacterial pathogens known to cause diarrhea in Thailand, namely Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Arcobacter (a Campylobacter-like organism). A total of 70 samples from two meals at each restaurant were obtained. Suspected bacterial pathogens were isolated by differential culture and tested for antibiotic resistance. Salmonella group E was isolated from one meal (2%), and Arcobacter butzleri from nine meals (13%). Campylobacter spp. were not found. The large majority of A butzleri isolates were resistant to azithromycin but susceptible to ciprofloxacin and an aminoglycoside. A traveler's risk of exposure to established bacterial pathogens, Salmonella and Campylobacter, by eating in recommended restaurants is small. Arcobacter butzleri exposure risk is 13% per meal eaten, and rises to 75% when 10 meals are eaten. All restaurants, regardless of price, appear to be equally "risky." Current evidence points to Arcobacter being pathogenic in humans; however, further research is needed to conclusively define pathogenicity. Routine prophylaxis for diarrhea is not recommended; however, travelers should be aware of the risk and come prepared with adequate and appropriate self-treatment medications.
Narin, I.; Gedik, H.; Voss, A.
This review of last year's literature on blood-borne pathogens (= pathogenic microorganisms that are found in human blood) focuses on hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as the most common pathogens, despite the fact that other microorganisms may cause
Full Text Available Bacteria in the genus Vibrio produce extracellular proteolytic enzymes to obtain nutrients via digestion of various protein substrates. However, the enzymes secreted by human pathogenic species have been documented to modulate the bacterial virulence. Several species including Vibrio cholerae and V. vulnificus are known to produce thermolysin-like metalloproteases termed vibriolysin. The vibriolysin from V. vulnificus, a causative agent of serious systemic infection, is a major toxic factor eliciting the secondary skin damage characterized by formation of the hemorrhagic brae. The vibriolysin from intestinal pathogens may play indirect roles in pathogenicity because it can activate protein toxins and hemagglutinin by the limited proteolysis and can affect the bacterial attachment to or detachment from the intestinal surface by degradation of the mucus layer. Two species causing wound infections, V. alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus, produce another metalloproteases so-called collagenases. Although the detailed pathological roles have not been studied, the collagenase is potent to accelerate the bacterial dissemination through digestion of the protein components of the extracellular matrix. Some species produce cymotrypsin-like serine proteases, which may also affect the bacterial virulence potential. The intestinal pathogens produce sufficient amounts of the metalloprotease at the small intestinal temperature; however, the metalloprotease production by extra-intestinal pathogens is much higher around the body surface temperature. On the other hand, the serine protease is expressed only in the absence of the metalloprotease.
Full Text Available Given the role of infectious disease in global pollinator decline, there is a need to understand factors that shape pathogen susceptibility and transmission in bees. Here we ask how urbanization affects the immune response and pathogen load of feral and managed colonies of honey bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus, the predominant economically important pollinator worldwide. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we measured expression of 4 immune genes and relative abundance of 10 honey bee pathogens. We also measured worker survival in a laboratory bioassay. We found that pathogen pressure on honey bees increased with urbanization and management, and the probability of worker survival declined 3-fold along our urbanization gradient. The effect of management on pathogens appears to be mediated by immunity, with feral bees expressing immune genes at nearly twice the levels of managed bees following an immune challenge. The effect of urbanization, however, was not linked with immunity; instead, urbanization may favor viability and transmission of some disease agents. Feral colonies, with lower disease burdens and stronger immune responses, may illuminate ways to improve honey bee management. The previously unexamined effects of urbanization on honey-bee disease are concerning, suggesting that urban areas may favor problematic diseases of pollinators.
Youngsteadt, Elsa; Appler, R Holden; López-Uribe, Margarita M; Tarpy, David R; Frank, Steven D
Given the role of infectious disease in global pollinator decline, there is a need to understand factors that shape pathogen susceptibility and transmission in bees. Here we ask how urbanization affects the immune response and pathogen load of feral and managed colonies of honey bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus), the predominant economically important pollinator worldwide. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we measured expression of 4 immune genes and relative abundance of 10 honey bee pathogens. We also measured worker survival in a laboratory bioassay. We found that pathogen pressure on honey bees increased with urbanization and management, and the probability of worker survival declined 3-fold along our urbanization gradient. The effect of management on pathogens appears to be mediated by immunity, with feral bees expressing immune genes at nearly twice the levels of managed bees following an immune challenge. The effect of urbanization, however, was not linked with immunity; instead, urbanization may favor viability and transmission of some disease agents. Feral colonies, with lower disease burdens and stronger immune responses, may illuminate ways to improve honey bee management. The previously unexamined effects of urbanization on honey-bee disease are concerning, suggesting that urban areas may favor problematic diseases of pollinators.
Barelli, Larissa; Moonjely, Soumya; Behie, Scott W; Bidochka, Michael J
This review examines the symbiotic, evolutionary, proteomic and genetic basis for a group of fungi that occupy a specialized niche as insect pathogens as well as endophytes. We focus primarily on species in the genera Metarhizium and Beauveria, traditionally recognized as insect pathogenic fungi but are also found as plant symbionts. Phylogenetic evidence suggests that these fungi are more closely related to grass endophytes and diverged from that lineage ca. 100 MYA. We explore how the dual life cycles of these fungi as insect pathogens and endophytes are coupled. We discuss the evolution of insect pathogenesis while maintaining an endophytic lifestyle and provide examples of genes that may be involved in the transition toward insect pathogenicity. That is, some genes for insect pathogenesis may have been co-opted from genes involved in endophytic colonization. Other genes may be multifunctional and serve in both lifestyle capacities. We suggest that their evolution as insect pathogens allowed them to effectively barter a specialized nitrogen source (i.e. insects) with host plants for photosynthate. These ubiquitous fungi may play an important role as plant growth promoters and have a potential reservoir of secondary metabolites.
Kandan, A; Radjacommare, R; Ramanathan, A; Raguchander, T; Balasubramanian, P; Samiyappan, R
The pathogenicity of Ganoderma boninense was tested on coconut seedlings under greenhouse conditions and infection confirmed by using immunological and molecular diagnostic tools. Desiccation of older leaves and the emergence of sporophores were observed from pathogen-inoculated seedlings, whereas a control seedling does not show any pathogenic symptoms. Mature sporophores were formed within 10-13 weeks after inoculation. Polyclonal antibodies raised against mycelial proteins of Ganoderma were used for detection of Ganoderma in infected field palm and seedlings through indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. We adopted dot-immunobinding assay for the detection of Ganoderma from greenhouse and field samples. Under nucleic-acid-based diagnosis, G. boninense (167 bp) was detected from artificially inoculated seedlings and infected field palms by polymerase chain reaction. Apart from these, histopathological studies also support the Ganoderma pathogenicity in coconut seedlings. The pathogenicity test and combination of all the three diagnostic methods for Ganoderma could be highly reliable, rapid, sensitive and effective screening of resistance in planting material in the future.
Nahar, Kamrun; Goyer, Claudia; Zebarth, Bernie J; Burton, David L; Whitney, Sean
Potato cultivars vary in their tolerance to common scab (CS), however how they affect CS-causing Streptomyces spp. populations over time is poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of potato cultivar on pathogenic Streptomyces spp. abundance, measured using quantitative PCR, in three spatial locations in a CS-infested field: 1) soil close to the plant (SCP); 2) rhizosphere (RS); and 3) geocaulosphere (GS) soils. Two tolerant (Gold Rush, Hindenburg) and two susceptible cultivars (Green Mountain, Agria) were tested. The abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp. significantly increased in late August compared with other dates in RS of susceptible cultivars in both years. Abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp., when averaged over locations and time, was significantly greater in susceptible cultivars compared with tolerant cultivars in 2014. Principal coordinates analysis showed that SCP and RS soil properties (pH, organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations) explained 68% and 76% of total variation in Streptomyces spp. abundance among cultivars in 2013, respectively, suggesting that cultivars influenced CS pathogen growth conditions. The results suggested that the genetic background of potato cultivars influenced the abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp., with 5 to 6 times more abundant Streptomyces spp. in RS of susceptible cultivars compared with tolerant cultivars, which would result in substantially more inoculum left in the field after harvest. .
Seabloom, Eric W; Borer, Elizabeth T; Gross, Kevin; Kendig, Amy E; Lacroix, Christelle; Mitchell, Charles E; Mordecai, Erin A; Power, Alison G
Disease and community ecology share conceptual and theoretical lineages, and there has been a resurgence of interest in strengthening links between these fields. Building on recent syntheses focused on the effects of host community composition on single pathogen systems, we examine pathogen (microparasite) communities using a stochastic metacommunity model as a starting point to bridge community and disease ecology perspectives. Such models incorporate the effects of core community processes, such as ecological drift, selection and dispersal, but have not been extended to incorporate host-pathogen interactions, such as immunosuppression or synergistic mortality, that are central to disease ecology. We use a two-pathogen susceptible-infected (SI) model to fill these gaps in the metacommunity approach; however, SI models can be intractable for examining species-diverse, spatially structured systems. By placing disease into a framework developed for community ecology, our synthesis highlights areas ripe for progress, including a theoretical framework that incorporates host dynamics, spatial structuring and evolutionary processes, as well as the data needed to test the predictions of such a model. Our synthesis points the way for this framework and demonstrates that a deeper understanding of pathogen community dynamics will emerge from approaches working at the interface of disease and community ecology. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.
Full Text Available Ticks are hematophagous arachnids transmitting a wide variety of pathogens including viruses, bacteria, and protozoans to their vertebrate hosts. The tick vector competence has to be intimately linked to the ability of transmitted pathogens to evade tick defense mechanisms encountered on their route through the tick body comprising midgut, hemolymph, salivary glands or ovaries. Tick innate immunity is, like in other invertebrates, based on an orchestrated action of humoral and cellular immune responses. The direct antimicrobial defense in ticks is accomplished by a variety of small molecules such as defensins, lysozymes or by tick-specific antimicrobial compounds such as microplusin/hebraein or 5.3-kDa family proteins. Phagocytosis of the invading microbes by tick hemocytes seems to be mediated by the primordial complement-like system composed of thioester-containing proteins, fibrinogen-related lectins and convertase-like factors. Moreover, an important role in survival of the ingested microbes seems to be played by host proteins and redox balance maintenance in the tick midgut. Here, we summarize recent knowledge about the major components of tick immune system and focus on their interaction with the relevant tick-transmitted pathogens, represented by spirochetes (Borrelia, rickettsiae (Anaplasma, and protozoans (Babesia. Availability of the tick genomic database and feasibility of functional genomics based on RNA interference greatly contribute to the understanding of molecular and cellular interplay at the tick-pathogen interface and may provide new targets for blocking the transmission of tick pathogens.
Parkinson, Louisamarie E; Shivas, Roger G; Dann, Elizabeth K
Black root rot is a severe disease of young avocado trees in Australia causing black necrotic roots, tree stunting, and leaf drop prior to tree death. Nectriaceous fungi (Nectriaceae, Hypocreales), are commonly isolated from symptomatic roots. This research tested the pathogenicity of 19 isolates from Calonectria, Cylindrocladiella, Dactylonectria, Gliocladiopsis, and Ilyonectria, spp. collected from young avocado trees and other hosts. Glasshouse pathogenicity tests with 'Reed' avocado (Persea americana) seedlings confirmed that Calonectria ilicicola is a severe pathogen of avocado, causing stunting, wilting, and seedling death within 5 weeks of inoculation. Isolates of C. ilicicola from peanut, papaya, and custard apple were also shown to be aggressive pathogens of avocado, demonstrating a broad host range. An isolate of a Calonectria sp. from blueberry and avocado isolates of Dactylonectria macrodidyma, D. novozelandica, D. pauciseptata, and D. anthuriicola caused significant root rot but not stunting within 5 to 9 weeks of inoculation. An isolate of an Ilyonectria sp. from grapevine closely related to Ilyonectria liriodendri, and avocado isolates of Cylindrocladiella pseudoinfestans, Gliocladiopsis peggii, and an Ilyonectria sp. were not pathogenic to avocado.
Full Text Available Twenty isolates of fungi of the genus Fusarium collected in the period 1980-1982 from various organs of diseased soybean plants were investigated. Eight of them proved pathogenic to soybean seedlings. The species F. culmorum was most numerously represented among the isolated (4 of 8 pathogens. Isolates of F. sambucinum were also pathogenic (2 of 4 and those of F. soloni (1 of 3, too. The only isolate of F. avenaceum also caused seedling blight. Two isolates of F. oxysporum and two of F. arthrosporioides were not pathogenic. Numerous isolates affected seed gernination and one greatly inhibited growth of the infected seedlings. Pathogenicity was tested in the laboratory in Petri plates on isolate cultures and on filter paper imbibed with fungal inoculum and, in the greenhouse on a peat and perlite substrate. The degree of infection and the character of the disease symptoms depended on the experimental conditions. The results of experiments in plates and in the greenhouse supplemented one another.
Jørgensen, Steffen L; Kudirkiene, Egle; Li, Lili
Escherichia coli causing infection outside the gastrointestinal system are referred to as extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli. Avian pathogenic E. coli is a subgroup of extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli and infections due to avian pathogenic E. coli have major impact on poultry production econo...
Amaya, Moushimi; Baranova, Ancha; van Hoek, Monique L
Post translational modifications are required for proteins to be fully functional. The three step process, prenylation, leads to farnesylation or geranylgeranylation, which increase the hydrophobicity of the prenylated protein for efficient anchoring into plasma membranes and/or organellar membranes. Prenylated proteins function in a number of signaling and regulatory pathways that are responsible for basic cell operations. Well characterized prenylated proteins include Ras, Rac and Rho. Recently, pathogenic prokaryotic proteins, such as SifA and AnkB, have been shown to be prenylated by eukaryotic host cell machinery, but their functions remain elusive. The identification of other bacterial proteins undergoing this type of host-directed post-translational modification shows promise in elucidating host-pathogen interactions to develop new therapeutics. This review incorporates new advances in the study of protein prenylation into a broader aspect of biology with a focus on host-pathogen interaction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Meat is a rich nutrient matrix that allows the proper environment for diverse microorganisms’ proliferation, deteriorative and pathogen. E. coli O157 and non-O157, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes are among the pathogen ones. On other hand, the growing demand for “fresh-like” products with high sanitary, organoleptic and nutritional quality had drive the development of alternative technologies to traditional or thermal, to satisfy consumers’ demand. In the last decades new food preservation techniques with no effect on nutritional or organoleptic characteristics had been developed, maintaining or improving microbiological stability and quality. This work is review of the most common pathogen microorganisms in meat and meat products, and the emerging technologies like high hydrostatic pressure, radiation, intelligent and active packages, and the use of natutal compounds for their control.
Elbashir, S; Parveen, S; Schwarz, J; Rippen, T; Jahncke, M; DePaola, A
Seafood-borne diseases are a major public health hazard in the United States and worldwide. Per capita, seafood consumption has increased globally during recent decades. Seafood importation and domestic aquaculture farming has also increased. Moreover, several recent outbreaks of human gastroenteritis have been linked to the consumption of contaminated seafood. Investigation of seafood-borne illnesses caused by norovirus, and Vibrio, and other bacteria and viruses require a concrete knowledge about the pathogenicity and virulence properties of the etiologic agents. This review explores pathogens that have been associated with seafood and resulting outbreaks in the U.S. and other countries as well as the presence of antimicrobial resistance in the reviewed pathogens. The spectrum of such resistance is widening due to the overuse, misuse, and sub-therapeutic application of antimicrobials in humans and animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
For many years an increase in cases of urethritis has been observed in western Europe. In order to be able to combat this continuous rise, the perception of sexually transmitted diseases must be promoted, the clarification and screening must be intensified and therapy must be rapidly and correctly carried out. In addition to the commonest pathogens causing urethritis, namely chlamydia and gonococci, many other pathogenic microbes must be taken into consideration in the diagnostics. With respect to therapy, apart from the increasing resistance formation of Mycoplasma genitalium, the decreasing effectiveness of standard forms of treatment of other microbes must be emphasized. For chronic and recurrent urethritis in particular a broad clarification of the pathogen should be carried out to enable targeted treatment and also partner treatment. Priority must again be given to primary prevention.
Peretz, Avi; Koiefman, Anna; Dinisman, Eleonora; Brodsky, Diana; Labay, Kozitta
Transmission of nosocomial pathogens has been linked to transient colonization of health care workers, medical devices and other constituents of patients' environment. In this paper we present our findings concerning the presence of pathogenic bacteria on wheelchairs, and the possibility that wheelchairs constitute a reservoir of these bacteria and a means of spreading them. In this work we examined four wheelchairs, each from a different location: the internal medicine ward, the emergency department, the general surgery ward and wheelchair stockpile of the transportation unit of the hospital. The samples were collected and cultured on different media. Bacterial identification and antimicrobial sensitivity testing were carried out using accepted practices in the microbiology laboratory. We found that wheelchairs are contaminated with several pathogenic bacteria, among them antibiotic-resistant strains such as MRSA, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanni etc. Since there is no specific guideline protocol that deals with disinfection and cleaning frequency of wheelchairs in hospitals, we suggest each hospital to write one.
Mayer, Fabiana Quoos; Dos Reis, Emily Marques; Bezerra, André Vinícius Andrade; Cerva, Cristine; Rosa, Júlio; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Lima, Francisco Esmaile Sales; Pacheco, Susi Missel; Rodrigues, Rogério Oliveira
The present study aimed to investigate the frequency of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in Brazilian bats and to determine possible risk factors associated to it. Ninety two bats of 12 species were evaluated. Whole genomic DNA from kidneys was extracted and real-time PCR specific to pathogenic Leptospira spp. was applied. Association between the frequency of specimens positive for Leptospira spp. and sex, age, bat species or family, season of collection, geographic localization and feeding habits was evaluated. The results showed that 39.13% of analyzed bats were found positive for Leptospira spp. Nine bat species had at least one positive result. There was no association among the evaluated variables and frequency of pathogenic Leptospira spp. Although the limitations due to lack of Leptospira spp. isolation, leptospiral carriage was demonstrated in bats of different species from southern Brazil, which reinforces the need for surveillance of infectious agents in wild animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rylev, Mette; Kilian, Mogens
putative periodontal pathogens and particular subsets of these species vary between ethnic groups. Few of these differences can, with the limited information available, be directly related to differences in periodontal disease prevalence. Asian populations are regularly colonized with Actinobacillus...... actinomycetemcomitans serotype c with questionable pathogenic potential. Conversely, the JP2 clone of A. actinomycetemcomitans has enhanced virulence and causes significantly higher prevalence of aggressive periodontitis in adolescents whose descent can be traced back to the Mediterranean and Western parts of Africa....... Some genetically distinct types of Porphyromonas gingivalis are more associated with disease than others, but additional work is required to relate this to clinical differences. CONCLUSIONS: Studies that take into account differences linked to the genetics of both patients and potential pathogens...
. The present review discusses the reasons for the increasing interest in rapid methods; current developments in the field, the research needs, and the future trends. The advent of biotechnology has introduced new technologies that led to the emergence of rapid diagnostic methods and altered food testing...... of rapid methods is for fast screening of large number of samples, where most of them are expected to be test-negative, leading to faster product release for sale. This has been the main strength of rapid methods such as real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Enrichment PCR, where a primary culture...... of pathogen in a contaminated product. Another key issue is automation, where the key drivers are miniaturization and multiple testing, which mean that not only one instrument is flexible enough to test for many pathogens but also many pathogens can be detected with one test. The review is mainly based...
Jones, Simon R. M.; Bruno, David W.; Madsen, Lone
that increased risk of exposure to neighbouring farms is inversely related to distance from and directly related to biomass at the source of infection. Epidemiological techniques integrating data from oceanography, diagnostics and pathogen shedding rates and viability contribute to improved understanding...... management thresholds. For wild populations, risk of pathogen spillback is estimated from farm-based epidemiological data; however, validation, particularly for ISAV and SAV, is required using direct surveillance....... of pathogen transmission pathways among farms and permit the designation of areas of risk associated with sources of infection. Occupation of an area of risk may increase the likelihood of exposure, infection and disease among susceptible fish. Disease mitigation in mariculture occurs at 2 scales: area...
Cui, Haitao; Tsuda, Kenichi; Parker, Jane E
In plant innate immunity, individual cells have the capacity to sense and respond to pathogen attack. Intracellular recognition mechanisms have evolved to intercept perturbations by pathogen virulence factors (effectors) early in host infection and convert it to rapid defense. One key to resistance success is a polymorphic family of intracellular nucleotide-binding/leucine-rich-repeat (NLR) receptors that detect effector interference in different parts of the cell. Effector-activated NLRs connect, in various ways, to a conserved basal resistance network in order to transcriptionally boost defense programs. Effector-triggered immunity displays remarkable robustness against pathogen disturbance, in part by employing compensatory mechanisms within the defense network. Also, the mobility of some NLRs and coordination of resistance pathways across cell compartments provides flexibility to fine-tune immune outputs. Furthermore, a number of NLRs function close to the nuclear chromatin by balancing actions of defense-repressing and defense-activating transcription factors to program cells dynamically for effective disease resistance.
Plant pathogenic bacteria cause diseases in important crops and seriously and negatively impact agricultural production. Therefore, an understanding of the mechanisms by which plants resist bacterial infection at the stage of the basal immune response or mount a successful specific R-dependent defense response is crucial since a better understanding of the biochemical and cellular mechanisms underlying these interactions will enable molecular and transgenic approaches to crops with increased biotic resistance. In recent years, proteomics has been used to gain in-depth understanding of many aspects of the host defense against pathogens and has allowed monitoring differences in abundance of proteins as well as posttranscriptional and posttranslational processes, protein activation/inactivation, and turnover. Proteomics also offers a window to study protein trafficking and routes of communication between organelles. Here, we summarize and discuss current progress in proteomics of the basal and specific host defense responses elicited by bacterial pathogens. Copyright 2011 Tamara Zimaro et al.
Zimaro, Tamara; Gottig, Natalia; Garavaglia, Betiana S.; Gehring, Christoph A; Ottado, Jorgelina
Plant pathogenic bacteria cause diseases in important crops and seriously and negatively impact agricultural production. Therefore, an understanding of the mechanisms by which plants resist bacterial infection at the stage of the basal immune response or mount a successful specific R-dependent defense response is crucial since a better understanding of the biochemical and cellular mechanisms underlying these interactions will enable molecular and transgenic approaches to crops with increased biotic resistance. In recent years, proteomics has been used to gain in-depth understanding of many aspects of the host defense against pathogens and has allowed monitoring differences in abundance of proteins as well as posttranscriptional and posttranslational processes, protein activation/inactivation, and turnover. Proteomics also offers a window to study protein trafficking and routes of communication between organelles. Here, we summarize and discuss current progress in proteomics of the basal and specific host defense responses elicited by bacterial pathogens. Copyright 2011 Tamara Zimaro et al.
Lion, Sébastien; Metz, Johan A J
A widespread tenet is that evolution of pathogens maximises their basic reproduction ratio, R 0 . The breakdown of this principle is typically discussed as exception. Here, we argue that a radically different stance is needed, based on evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) arguments that take account of the 'dimension of the environmental feedback loop'. The R 0 maximisation paradigm requires this feedback loop to be one-dimensional, which notably excludes pathogen diversification. By contrast, almost all realistic ecological ingredients of host-pathogen interactions (density-dependent mortality, multiple infections, limited cross-immunity, multiple transmission routes, host heterogeneity, and spatial structure) will lead to multidimensional feedbacks. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Three common systemic human fungal pathogens--Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus--have retained all the machinery to engage in sexual reproduction, and yet their populations are often clonal with limited evidence for recombination. Striking parallels have emerged with four protozoan parasites that infect humans: Toxoplasma gondii, Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi and Plasmodium falciparum. Limiting sexual reproduction appears to be a common virulence strategy, enabling generation of clonal populations well adapted to host and environmental niches, yet retaining the ability to engage in sexual or parasexual reproduction and respond to selective pressure. Continued investigation of the sexual nature of microbial pathogens should facilitate both laboratory investigation and an understanding of the complex interplay between pathogens, hosts, vectors, and their environments.
Palková, Zdena; Váchová, Libuše
Yeasts, historically considered to be single-cell organisms, are able to activate different differentiation processes. Individual yeast cells can change their life-styles by processes of phenotypic switching such as the switch from yeast-shaped cells to filamentous cells (pseudohyphae or true hyphae) and the transition among opaque, white and gray cell-types. Yeasts can also create organized multicellular structures such as colonies and biofilms, and the latter are often observed as contaminants on surfaces in industry and medical care and are formed during infections of the human body. Multicellular structures are formed mostly of stationary-phase or slow-growing cells that diversify into specific cell subpopulations that have unique metabolic properties and can fulfill specific tasks. In addition to the development of multiple protective mechanisms, processes of metabolic reprogramming that reflect a changed environment help differentiated individual cells and/or community cell constituents to survive harmful environmental attacks and/or to escape the host immune system. This review aims to provide an overview of differentiation processes so far identified in individual yeast cells as well as in multicellular communities of yeast pathogens of the Candida and Cryptococcus spp. and the Candida albicans close relative, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Molecular mechanisms and extracellular signals potentially involved in differentiation processes are also briefly mentioned. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Redman, Regina S.; Rodriguez, Rusty J.
Extracellular enzymes play an important role in the pathogenicity and virulence of phytopathogenic fungi. Several isolates of Colletotrichum coccodes causal agent of anthracnose on tomato, were screened to determine the relationship between protease activity and virulence. A direct relationship was observed between extracellular protease activity and the induction of disease symptoms of fruit and mortality in plants. Isolate Cc155 exhibited the highest protease activity after five days of growth in protease induction medium and produced an extracellular serine protease (sp78) that was 78 kDa, auto-degradative, glucose repressible, and non-glycosylated. To determine the role of sp78 in pathogenicity, a UV-induced extracellular protease deficient mutant (np155) was generated from the wildtype isolate Cc155. Np155 maintained growth rates comparable to Cc155 and produced wildtype levels of extracellular cellulase but did not produce extracellular protease. Unlike Cc155, np155 caused no disease symptoms on tomato fruit and 0% mortality on tomato seedlings. These results suggest that extracellular protease activity is required for pathogenicity and virulence of C. coccodes and that the elimination of protease activity transforms a virulent pathogen to a non-pathogenic endophyte.
Duffy, Sandra; Sykes, Melissa L; Jones, Amy J; Shelper, Todd B; Simpson, Moana; Lang, Rebecca; Poulsen, Sally-Ann; Sleebs, Brad E; Avery, Vicky M
Open-access drug discovery provides a substantial resource for diseases primarily affecting the poor and disadvantaged. The open-access Pathogen Box collection is comprised of compounds with demonstrated biological activity against specific pathogenic organisms. The supply of this resource by the Medicines for Malaria Venture has the potential to provide new chemical starting points for a number of tropical and neglected diseases, through repurposing of these compounds for use in drug discovery campaigns for these additional pathogens. We tested the Pathogen Box against kinetoplastid parasites and malaria life cycle stages in vitro Consequently, chemical starting points for malaria, human African trypanosomiasis, Chagas disease, and leishmaniasis drug discovery efforts have been identified. Inclusive of this in vitro biological evaluation, outcomes from extensive literature reviews and database searches are provided. This information encompasses commercial availability, literature reference citations, other aliases and ChEMBL number with associated biological activity, where available. The release of this new data for the Pathogen Box collection into the public domain will aid the open-source model of drug discovery. Importantly, this will provide novel chemical starting points for drug discovery and target identification in tropical disease research. Copyright © 2017 Duffy et al.
Lee, Soo Chan; Li, Alicia; Calo, Silvia; Inoue, Makoto; Tonthat, Nam K; Bain, Judith M; Louw, Johanna; Shinohara, Mari L; Erwig, Lars P; Schumacher, Maria A; Ko, Dennis C; Heitman, Joseph
Calcineurin plays essential roles in virulence and growth of pathogenic fungi and is a target of the natural products FK506 and Cyclosporine A. In the pathogenic mucoralean fungus Mucor circinelloides, calcineurin mutation or inhibition confers a yeast-locked phenotype indicating that calcineurin governs the dimorphic transition. Genetic analysis in this study reveals that two calcineurin A catalytic subunits (out of three) are functionally diverged. Homology modeling illustrates modes of resistance resulting from amino substitutions in the interface between each calcineurin subunit and the inhibitory drugs. In addition, we show how the dimorphic transition orchestrated by calcineurin programs different outcomes during host-pathogen interactions. For example, when macrophages phagocytose Mucor yeast, subsequent phagosomal maturation occurs, indicating host cells respond appropriately to control the pathogen. On the other hand, upon phagocytosis of spores, macrophages fail to form mature phagosomes. Cytokine production from immune cells differs following exposure to yeast versus spores (which germinate into hyphae). Thus, the morphogenic transition can be targeted as an efficient treatment option against Mucor infection. In addition, genetic analysis (including gene disruption and mutational studies) further strengthens the understanding of calcineurin and provides a foundation to develop antifungal agents targeting calcineurin to deploy against Mucor and other pathogenic fungi. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Several lyssavirus species occur in Africa (Rabies virus, Lagos bat virus, Mokola virus, Duvenhage virus, Shimoni bat virus and Ikoma lyssavirus, displaying a high sequence diversity between isolates belonging to the same species. There is limited information about comparative pathogenesis of these African lyssaviruses and this precludes authoritative opinion on the potential public and veterinary health impact. In this study, an analysis of representative African lyssaviruses attempted to correlate viral genomic sequence similarities and differences with the corresponding pathogenic profiles observed in mice. The study demonstrated that the virus isolates evaluated could be lethal to mice when introduced intramuscularly and that different isolates of the same lyssavirus species differ in their virulence. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR, viral RNA was detected in brain tissue, but no viral RNA was detected in the salivary glands or blood of mice that succumbed to infection. Comparison of known pathogenic domains indicated that pathogenicity is likely to be dependent on multiple domains. Cumulatively, our results re-emphasised the realisation that the pathogenicity of a lyssavirus species cannot be deduced based on studies of only a single isolate of the species or a single pathogenic domain.
Troxell, Bryan; Hassan, Hosni M
In the ancient anaerobic environment, ferrous iron (Fe(2+)) was one of the first metal cofactors. Oxygenation of the ancient world challenged bacteria to acquire the insoluble ferric iron (Fe(3+)) and later to defend against reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by the Fenton chemistry. To acquire Fe(3+), bacteria produce low-molecular weight compounds, known as siderophores, which have extremely high affinity for Fe(3+). However, during infection the host restricts iron from pathogens by producing iron- and siderophore-chelating proteins, by exporting iron from intracellular pathogen-containing compartments, and by limiting absorption of dietary iron. Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur) is a transcription factor which utilizes Fe(2+) as a corepressor and represses siderophore synthesis in pathogens. Fur, directly or indirectly, controls expression of enzymes that protect against ROS damage. Thus, the challenges of iron homeostasis and defense against ROS are addressed via Fur. Although the role of Fur as a repressor is well-documented, emerging evidence demonstrates that Fur can function as an activator. Fur activation can occur through three distinct mechanisms (1) indirectly via small RNAs, (2) binding at cis regulatory elements that enhance recruitment of the RNA polymerase holoenzyme (RNAP), and (3) functioning as an antirepressor by removing or blocking DNA binding of a repressor of transcription. In addition, Fur homologs control defense against peroxide stress (PerR) and control uptake of other metals such as zinc (Zur) and manganese (Mur) in pathogenic bacteria. Fur family members are important for virulence within bacterial pathogens since mutants of fur, perR, or zur exhibit reduced virulence within numerous animal and plant models of infection. This review focuses on the breadth of Fur regulation in pathogenic bacteria.
Full Text Available The rust fungi (order: Pucciniales are a group of widely distributed fungal plant pathogens, which can infect representatives of all vascular plant groups. Rust diseases significantly impact several crop species and considerable research focuses on understanding the basis of host specificity and nonhost resistance. Like many pathogens, rust fungi vary considerably in the number of hosts they can infect, such as wheat leaf rust (Puccinia triticina, which can only infect species in the genera Triticum and Aegilops, whereas Asian soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi is known to infect over 95 species from over 42 genera. A greater understanding of the genetic basis determining host range has the potential to identify sources of durable resistance for agronomically important crops. Delimiting the boundary between host and nonhost has been complicated by the quantitative nature of phenotypes in the transition between these two states. Plant-pathogen interactions in this intermediate state are characterized either by (1 the majority of accessions of a species being resistant to the rust or (2 the rust only being able to partially complete key components of its life cycle. This leads to a continuum of disease phenotypes in the interaction with different plant species, observed as a range from compatibility (host to complete immunity within a species (nonhost. In this review we will highlight how the quantitative nature of disease resistance in these intermediate interactions is caused by a continuum of defense barriers, which a pathogen needs to overcome for successfully establishing itself in the host. To illustrate continua as this underlying principle, we will discuss the advances that have been made in studying nonhost resistance towards rust pathogens, particularly cereal rust pathogens.
The current theory that sexual selection results from female preference for males with good genes suffers from several problems. An alternative explanation, the pathogen transmission avoidance hypothesis, argues that the primary function of showy traits is to provide a reliable signal of current disease status, so that sick individuals can be avoided during mating. This study shows that a significant risk of pathogen transmission occurs during mating and that showy traits are reliable indicators of current disease status. The origin of female choosiness is argued to lie in a general tendency to avoid sick individuals, even in the absence of showy traits, which originate as exaggerations of normal traits that are indicative of good health (bright feathers, vigorous movement, large size). Thus, in this new model the origins of both showy traits and female choosiness are not problematic and there is no threshold effect. This model predicts that when the possession of male showy traits does not help to reduce disease in the female, showy traits are unlikely to occur. This case corresponds to thorough exposure of every animal to all group pathogens, on average, in large groups. Such species are shown with a large data set on birds to be less likely to exhibit showy traits. The good-genes model does not make this prediction. The pathogen transmission avoidance model can also lead to the evolution of showy traits even when selection is not effective against a given pathogen (e.g., when there is no heritable variation for resistance), but can result in selection for resistance if such genes are present. Monogamy is argued to reduce selection pressures for showy traits; data show monogamous species to be both less parasitized and less showy. In the context of reduction of pathogen transmission rates in showy populations, selection pressure becomes inversely frequency-dependent, which makes showy traits likely to be self-limiting rather than runaway.
Loehle, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Logofet, D.O. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Laboratory of Mathematical Ecology
The current theory that sexual selection results from female choice for good genes suffers from several problems. An alternative explanation is proposed. The pathogen avoidance hypothesis argues that the primary function of showy traits is to provide a reliable signal of current disease status so that sick individuals may be avoided during mating. Our studies shown that a significant risk of pathogen transmission occurs during mating and that showy traits are reliable indicators of current disease status. The origin of female choosiness is argued to lie in a general tendency to avoid sick individuals, even in the absence of showy traits. The showy traits are argued to originate as simple exaggerations of normal traits that are indicative of good health (bright feathers; vigorous movement; large size). Thus the origins of both showy traits and female choosiness are not problematic in this theory. A game theory analysis is employed to formalize the theory. Results of the game theory model support the theory. In particular, when the possession of male showy traits does not help reduce disease in the female, then showy traits are unlikely to occur. This case corresponds to the situation in large flocks or herds in which every animal is thoroughly exposed to all group pathogens on average. Such species do not exhibit showy traits. The good genes model does not make this prediction. The pathogen avoidance model can also lead to the evolution of showy traits even when selection is not effective against a given pathogen (e.g., when there is no heritable variation for resistance) but will lead to selection for resistance if such genes are present. Overall, the pathogen avoidance hypothesis provides a complete alternative to the good genes theory.
Full Text Available The sustainable use of multicomponent treatments such as combination therapies, combination vaccines/chemicals, and plants carrying multigenic resistance requires an understanding of how their population-wide deployment affects the speed of the pathogen adaptation. Here, we develop a stochastic model describing the emergence of a mutant pathogen and its dynamics in a heterogeneous host population split into various types by the management strategy. Based on a multi-type Markov birth and death process, the model can be used to provide a basic understanding of how the life-cycle parameters of the pathogen population, and the controllable parameters of a management strategy affect the speed at which a pathogen adapts to a multicomponent treatment. Our results reveal the importance of coupling stochastic mutation and migration processes, and illustrate how their stochasticity can alter our view of the principles of managing pathogen adaptive dynamics at the population level. In particular, we identify the growth and migration rates that allow pathogens to adapt to a multicomponent treatment even if it is deployed on only small proportions of the host. In contrast to the accepted view, our model suggests that treatment durability should not systematically be identified with mutation cost. We show also that associating a multicomponent treatment with defeated monocomponent treatments can be more durable than associating it with intermediate treatments including only some of the components. We conclude that the explicit modelling of stochastic processes underlying evolutionary dynamics could help to elucidate the principles of the sustainable use of multicomponent treatments in population-wide management strategies intended to impede the evolution of harmful populations.
Newkirk, M M; Rioux, J D
The human antibody response to foreign pathogens is generated to a relatively small number of target surface proteins and carbohydrates that nonetheless have an extensive array of epitopes. The study of human monoclonal antibodies to different pathogens shows that there are a diversity of mechanisms used to generate a sufficient repertoire of antibodies to combat the invading pathogens. Although many different immunoglobulin gene elements are used to construct the anti-pathogen response, some elements are used more often than would be expected if all elements were used randomly. For example, the immune response to Haemophilus influenzae polysaccharide appears to be quite narrow, being restricted primarily to a specific heavy-chain gene, 3-15, and a lambda light-chain family II member, 4A. In contrast, for the immune response to cytomegalovirus proteins, a wider group of gene elements is needed. It is also surprising that despite an investigator bias for IgG- rather than IgM-secreting immortal B cells (because of their high affinity and neutralizing abilities), 26% of light chains and 13% of heavy chains showed a very low level of somatic mutation, equivalent to an IgM molecule that has not undergone affinity maturation. Although some highly mutated IgG molecules are present in the anti-pathogen response, most of the monoclonal antibodies specific for viruses or bacteria have a level of somatic hypermutation similar to that of the adult IgM repertoire. A number of studies have shown that there are similarities in the antibody responses to pathogens and to self (autoantibodies).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Full Text Available There have been a number of cases of foodborne illness among humans that are caused by pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, etc. The current practices to detect such pathogenic agents are cell culturing, immunoassays, or polymerase chain reactions (PCRs. These methods are essentially laboratory-based methods that are not at all real-time and thus unavailable for early-monitoring of such pathogens. They are also very difficult to implement in the field. Lab-on-a-chip biosensors, however, have a strong potential to be used in the field since they can be miniaturized and automated; they are also potentially fast and very sensitive. These lab-on-a-chip biosensors can detect pathogens in farms, packaging/processing facilities, delivery/distribution systems, and at the consumer level. There are still several issues to be resolved before applying these lab-on-a-chip sensors to field applications, including the pre-treatment of a sample, proper storage of reagents, full integration into a battery-powered system, and demonstration of very high sensitivity, which are addressed in this review article. Several different types of lab-on-a-chip biosensors, including immunoassay- and PCR-based, have been developed and tested for detecting foodborne pathogens. Their assay performance, including detection limit and assay time, are also summarized. Finally, the use of optical fibers or optical waveguide is discussed as a means to improve the portability and sensitivity of lab-on-a-chip pathogen sensors.
Bettgenhaeuser, Jan; Gilbert, Brian; Ayliffe, Michael; Moscou, Matthew J.
The rust fungi (order: Pucciniales) are a group of widely distributed fungal plant pathogens, which can infect representatives of all vascular plant groups. Rust diseases significantly impact several crop species and considerable research focuses on understanding the basis of host specificity and nonhost resistance. Like many pathogens, rust fungi vary considerably in the number of hosts they can infect, such as wheat leaf rust (Puccinia triticina), which can only infect species in the genera Triticum and Aegilops, whereas Asian soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi) is known to infect over 95 species from over 42 genera. A greater understanding of the genetic basis determining host range has the potential to identify sources of durable resistance for agronomically important crops. Delimiting the boundary between host and nonhost has been complicated by the quantitative nature of phenotypes in the transition between these two states. Plant–pathogen interactions in this intermediate state are characterized either by (1) the majority of accessions of a species being resistant to the rust or (2) the rust only being able to partially complete key components of its life cycle. This leads to a continuum of disease phenotypes in the interaction with different plant species, observed as a range from compatibility (host) to complete immunity within a species (nonhost). In this review we will highlight how the quantitative nature of disease resistance in these intermediate interactions is caused by a continuum of defense barriers, which a pathogen needs to overcome for successfully establishing itself in the host. To illustrate continua as this underlying principle, we will discuss the advances that have been made in studying nonhost resistance towards rust pathogens, particularly cereal rust pathogens. PMID:25566270
Bettgenhaeuser, Jan; Gilbert, Brian; Ayliffe, Michael; Moscou, Matthew J
The rust fungi (order: Pucciniales) are a group of widely distributed fungal plant pathogens, which can infect representatives of all vascular plant groups. Rust diseases significantly impact several crop species and considerable research focuses on understanding the basis of host specificity and nonhost resistance. Like many pathogens, rust fungi vary considerably in the number of hosts they can infect, such as wheat leaf rust (Puccinia triticina), which can only infect species in the genera Triticum and Aegilops, whereas Asian soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi) is known to infect over 95 species from over 42 genera. A greater understanding of the genetic basis determining host range has the potential to identify sources of durable resistance for agronomically important crops. Delimiting the boundary between host and nonhost has been complicated by the quantitative nature of phenotypes in the transition between these two states. Plant-pathogen interactions in this intermediate state are characterized either by (1) the majority of accessions of a species being resistant to the rust or (2) the rust only being able to partially complete key components of its life cycle. This leads to a continuum of disease phenotypes in the interaction with different plant species, observed as a range from compatibility (host) to complete immunity within a species (nonhost). In this review we will highlight how the quantitative nature of disease resistance in these intermediate interactions is caused by a continuum of defense barriers, which a pathogen needs to overcome for successfully establishing itself in the host. To illustrate continua as this underlying principle, we will discuss the advances that have been made in studying nonhost resistance towards rust pathogens, particularly cereal rust pathogens.
Allain, J-P; Goodrich, R
To collect information on pathogen reduction applied to whole blood. Pathogen reduction (PR) of blood components has been developed over the past two decades, and pathogen-reduced fresh-frozen plasma and platelet concentrates are currently in clinical use. High cost and incomplete coverage of components make PR out of reach for low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). However, should PR become applicable to whole blood (WB), the main product transfused in sub-Saharan Africa, and be compatible with the preparation of clinically suitable components, cost would be minimised, and a range of safety measures in place at high cost in developed areas would become redundant. All articles called with "pathogen reduction", "pathogen inactivation" and "whole blood" were retrieved from Medline. References in articles were utilised. One such PR technology (PRT) applied to WB has been developed and has shown efficacious against viruses, bacteria and parasites in vitro; and has been able to inactivate nucleated blood cells whilst retaining the ability to prepare components with acceptable characteristics. The efficacy of this WB PRT has been demonstrated in vivo using the inactivation of Plasmodium falciparum as a model and showing a high degree of correlation between in vitro and in vivo data. Obtaining further evidence of efficacy on other suitable targets is warranted. Shortening of the process, which is currently around 50 min, or increasing the number of units simultaneously processed would be necessary to make PRT WB conducive to LMIC blood services' needs. Even if not 100% effective against agents that are present in high pathogen load titres, WB PRT could massively impact blood safety in LMIC by providing safer products at an affordable cost. © 2017 British Blood Transfusion Society.
Full Text Available Foodborne outbreaks are a serious public health and food safety concern worldwide. There is a great demand for rapid, sensitive, specific, and accurate methods to detect microbial pathogens in foods. Conventional methods based on cultivation of pathogens have been the gold standard protocols; however, they take up to a week to complete. Molecular assays such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR, sequencing, microarray technologies have been widely used in detection of foodborne pathogens. Among molecular assays, PCR technology conventional and real-time PCR (qPCR is most commonly used in the foodborne pathogen detection because of its high sensitivity and specificity. However, a major drawback of PCR is its inability to differentiate the DNA from dead and viable cells, and this is a critical factor for the food industry, regulatory agencies and the consumer. To remedy this shortcoming, researchers have used biological dyes such as ethidium monoazide (EMA and propidium monoazide (PMA to pretreat samples before DNA extraction to intercalate the DNA of dead cells in food samples, and then proceed with regular DNA preparation and qPCR. By combining PMA treatment with qPCR (PMA-qPCR, scientists have applied this technology to detect viable cells of various bacterial pathogens in foods. The incorporation of PMA into PCR-based assays for viability detection of pathogens in foods has increased significantly in the last decade. On the other hand, some downsides with this approach have been noted, particularly to achieve complete suppression of signal of DNA from the dead cells present in some particular food matrix. Nowadays, there is a tendency of more and more researchers adapting this approach for viability detection; and a few commercial kits based on PMA are available in the market. As time goes on, more scientists apply this approach to a broader range of pathogen detections, this viability approach (PMA or other chemicals such as platinum compound
The spread of bacterial infectious diseases due to the development of resistance to antibiotic drugs in pathogenic bacteria is an emerging global concern. Therefore, the efficacious management and prevention of bacterial infections are major public health challenges. RecA is a pleiotropic recombinase protein that has been demonstrated to be implicated strongly in the bacterial drug resistance, survival and pathogenicity. In this minireview, RecA's role in the development of antibiotic resistance and its potential as an antimicrobial drug target are discussed.
Food technology and food processing techniques have made tremendous advances in preservation of food and ensuring safety of food by killing food-borne pathogens. In addition to old techniques such as pasteurization, canning, dehydration, fermentation and salting, a number of new techniques such as radiation processing, high pressure technology and pulsed electric field technology are being applied for preservation of food and to ensure food safety. Total Quality Management (TQM) concepts have been developed to take care of food safety from farm to table. Hazard Analysis at Critical Control Points (HACCP) is being applied for mass scale production of food to make food free from pathogens. Despite these advances, food-borne diseases have become one of the most widespread public health problems in the world. About two thirds of all the outbreaks are traced to microbial contaminated food. According to World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, food-borne and waterborne diarrhoeal diseases kill an estimated 2 million people annually, including many children. Food safety is a major concern not only for developing countries but also for the developed countries. A number of factors such as emergence of new food-borne pathogens, development of drug resistance in pathogens, changing life style, globalization of the food supply etc. are responsible for the continuous persistence of food-borne diseases. The food-borne disease outbreaks due to E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella and Campylobacter, are responsible for recall of many foods resulting in heavy losses to food industry. Due to consumer demand, a number of Ready-To-Eat (RTE) minimally processed foods are increasingly marketed; however, there is increased risk of foodborne diseases with these products. Food Technology Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, has been working on food-borne bacterial pathogens particularly Salmonella, Campylobacter, Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio and Aeromonasf