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Sample records for blood respiratory functions

  1. Features of infringement of respiratory blood function at persons, damaged after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onopchuk, J.N.; Guzhovskaya, N.V.; Stepanenko, I.V.; Yakhnenko, G.M.

    1996-01-01

    The study of gears of infringement of biochemical parameters, connected with maintenance of main function of respiratory system-delivery of metabolic tissues and conclusions forming in constitution carbonic-acid at ills with postradiation encephalopathy is interesting and little-learning task in connection with complexity of metabolic changes at effects of ionizing radiation, availability of neurochemical conversions as a result of such effect, infringement of regulatory gears of constitution. With the purpose of study of influence of infringements some biochemical parameters on maintenance respiratory the processing was conducted of function of blood at ills with postradiation encephalopathy the biochemical analyses 110 patients, damaged at liquidation of Chernobyl accident. The change of biochemical parameters at various expressing of infringements of pressure of oxygen and carbon-dioxide in veinous blood was evaluated. The conducted mathematical simulation permits to receive the additional criteria of character of clinical course of post-radiation encephalopathy in dynamics of treatment. (author)

  2. Influence of age on respiratory modulation of muscle sympathetic nerve activity, blood pressure and baroreflex function in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantsila, Alena; McIntyre, David B; Lip, Gregory Y H; Fadel, Paul J; Paton, Julian F R; Pickering, Anthony E; Fisher, James P

    2015-09-01

    What is the central question of this study? Does ageing influence the respiratory-related bursting of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and the association between the rhythmic fluctuations in MSNA and blood pressure (Traube-Hering waves) that occur with respiration? What is the main finding and its importance? Despite the age-related elevation in MSNA, the cyclical inhibition of MSNA during respiration is similar between young and older individuals. Furthermore, central respiratory-sympathetic coupling plays a role in the generation of Traube-Hering waves in both young and older humans. Healthy ageing and alterations in respiratory-sympathetic coupling have been independently linked with heightened sympathetic neural vasoconstrictor activity. We investigated how age influences the respiratory-related modulation of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and the association between the rhythmic fluctuations in MSNA and blood pressure that occur with respiration (Traube-Hering waves; THW). Ten young (22 ± 2 years; mean ± SD) and 10 older healthy men (58 ± 6 years) were studied while resting supine and breathing spontaneously. MSNA, blood pressure and respiration were recorded simultaneously. Resting values were ascertained and respiratory cycle-triggered averaging of MSNA and blood pressure measurements performed. The MSNA burst incidence was higher in older individuals [22.7 ± 9.2 versus 42.2 ± 13.7 bursts (100 heart beats)(-1), P respiratory-related MSNA and the magnitude of Traube-Hering waves was observed in all young (100%) and most older subjects (80%). These data suggest that the strength of the cyclical inhibition of MSNA during respiration is similar between young and older individuals; thus, alterations in respiratory-sympathetic coupling appear not to contribute to the age-related elevation in MSNA. Furthermore, central respiratory-sympathetic coupling plays a role in the generation of Traube-Hering waves in both healthy young and older

  3. Effects of acupuncture on declined cerebral blood flow, impaired mitochondrial respiratory function and oxidative stress in multi-infarct dementia rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuezhu; Wu, Bangqi; Nie, Kun; Jia, Yujie; Yu, Jianchun

    2014-01-01

    Brain energy disorders and oxidative stress due to chronic hypoperfusion were considered to be the major risk factors in the pathogenesis of dementia. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that acupuncture treatment improved cognitive function of VaD patients and multi-infarct dementia (MID) rats. Acupuncture therapy also increased the activities of glycometabolic enzymes in the brain. But it is not clear whether acupuncture treatment compensates neuronal energy deficit after cerebral ischemic through enhancing the activities of glucose metabolic enzymes and preserving mitochondrial function, and whether acupuncture neuroprotective effect is associated with activations of mitochondrial antioxidative defense system. So, the effect of acupuncture therapy on cognitive function, cerebral blood flow (CBF), mitochondrial respiratory function and oxidative stress in the brain of MID rats was investigated in this study. The results showed that acupuncture treatment significantly improved cognitive abilities and increased regional CBF of MID rats. Acupuncture elevated the activities of total SOD, CuZnSOD and MnSOD, decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide anion, regulated the ratio of reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) in mitochondria, and raised the level of the respiratory control index (RCI) and P/O ratio and the activities of mitochondrial respiratory enzymes of MID rats. These results indicated that acupuncture treatment improved cognitive function of MID rats; and this improvement might be due to increased CBF, which ameliorated mitochondrial dysfunction induced by ischemia and endogenous oxidative stress system of brain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of two different respiratory physiotherapy methods after thoracoscopy with regard to arterial blood gas, respiratory function test, number of days until discharge, cost analysis, comfort and pain control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunay, S; Eser, I; Ozbey, M; Agar, M; Koruk, I; Kurkcuoglu, I C

    2016-01-01

    Although the methods used in thoracic surgery have been developing rapidly over the last five decades, postoperative pulmonary complications are seen in this field more than in other surgical branches. We aimed at comparing the acute effects of incentive spirometry (IS) and breathing retraining exercises by a respiratory physiotherapist or experienced physiotherapist. Patients were randomized into two groups as spirometry and physiotherapist. Combined respiratory exercises were implemented through IS inspirometry group and by a physiotherapist in physiotherapist group. Blood gas, respiratory function tests, survey results of the Burford pain thermometer, discharge days, and cost analyses of both groups were examined just before the beginning of physiotherapy and on the 3rd day of therapy. There were no statistical difference in first and last values of pH and PCO2and also there were no difference between groups (P > 0.05). Forced expiratory volume one second (FEV1) values are statistically increased compared to basal levels in both groups and mean difference in FEV1values was statistically increased in physiotherapist group compared to spirometry group (P 0.05). Cost analysis was not statistically different, mean hospitalization day and mean pain score were statistically decreased in physiotherapist group. Based on the outcome of this study, respiratory physiotherapy methods carried out by a respiratory physiotherapist are more effective in acute cardiothoracic conditions after thoracotomy compared to IS by patients.

  5. Orexin, cardio-respiratory function, and hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Aihua; Nattie, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    In this review we focus on the role of orexin in cardio-respiratory functions and its potential link to hypertension. (1) Orexin, cardiovascular function, and hypertension. In normal rats, central administration of orexin can induce significant increases in arterial blood pressure (ABP) and sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), which can be blocked by orexin receptor antagonists. In spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), antagonizing orexin receptors can significantly lower blood pressure under ...

  6. Assessing Respiratory System Mechanical Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Ruben D; Serrato, Diana M; Adasme, Rodrigo

    2016-12-01

    The main goals of assessing respiratory system mechanical function are to evaluate the lung function through a variety of methods and to detect early signs of abnormalities that could affect the patient's outcomes. In ventilated patients, it has become increasingly important to recognize whether respiratory function has improved or deteriorated, whether the ventilator settings match the patient's demand, and whether the selection of ventilator parameters follows a lung-protective strategy. Ventilator graphics, esophageal pressure, intra-abdominal pressure, and electric impedance tomography are some of the best-known monitoring tools to obtain measurements and adequately evaluate the respiratory system mechanical function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of adjuvant noninvasive positive pressure ventilation on blood gas parameters, cardiac function and inflammatory state in patients with COPD and type II respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Ming Zhu1

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: T o analyze the effect of adjuvant noninvasive positive pressure ventilation on blood gas parameters, cardiac function and inflammatory state in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and type II respiratory failure. Methods: 90 patients with COPD and type II respiratory failure were randomly divided into observation group and control group (n=45. Control group received conventional therapy, observation group received conventional therapy + adjuvant noninvasive positive pressure ventilation, and differences in blood gas parameters, cardiac function, inflammatory state, etc., were compared between two groups of patients 2 weeks after treatment. Results: Arterial blood gas parameters pH and alveolar-arterial partial pressure of oxygen [P(A-aO2] levels of observation group were higher than those of control group while, potassium ion (K+, chloride ion (Cl﹣ and carbon dioxide combining power (CO2CP levels were lower than those of control group 2 weeks after treatment; echocardiography parameters Doppler-derived tricuspid lateral annular systolic velocity (DTIS and pulmonary arterial velocity (PAV levels were lower than those of control group (P<0.05 while pulmonary artery accelerating time (PAACT, left ventricular enddiastolic dimension (LVDd and right atrioventricular tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE levels were higher than those of control group (P<0.05; serum cardiac function indexes adiponectin (APN, Copeptin, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP, cystatin C (CysC, growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15 and heart type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP content were lower than those of control group (P<0.05; serum inflammatory factors hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, IL-8, IL-10, and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 content were lower than those of control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Adjuvant

  8. Effect Of Garlic Oil On Haematological Parameters, Blood Respiratory Functions And Serum Testosterone In Male Rats Exposed To An Electromagnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-SHAFEY, A.A.; ALI, E.A.; MARZOOK, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the biological effects of exposure to an electromagnetic field (EMF, 900 MHz) emitted from mobile base station antenna for 4 weeks on haematological parameters, respiratory function of blood (blood gases, acid-base status) and oxygen equilibrium curves beside the levels of serum testosterone and possible protective role of garlic oil (250 mg/kg b.w/day for 4 weeks) in male albino rats. The results revealed significant reductions in haemoglobin (Hb) contents, total leucocytes (WBC) count, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and haematocrit value (Hct %) in rats exposed to EMF (GI). These reductions have been ameliorated by garlic oil treatment (GII). Significant increases in oxygen partial pressure (PO 2 ) were observed in arterial (a) and alveolar (A) blood. These increases were reduced by garlic oil treatment. The percent oxygen saturation (% O 2 sat) was significantly decreased in arterial while it was increased significantly in venous blood in both treated groups. There was a significant reduction in carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO 2 ) in the arterial blood after exposure to EMF (GI) which was decreased by garlic oil treatment. Significant reductions were recorded in arterial blood pH, bicarbonate (HCO - 3 ), total carbon dioxide (TCO 2 ) and arterial and venous blood base excess (BE). These reductions were decreased by garlic oil treatment in GII. The blood oxygen equilibrium curves (OEC) of (GI) and (GII) were shifted to the right compared to that of control group with non-significant increases in P 50 . The level of serum testosterone was highly significantly decreased in GI. This reduction was decreased in garlic oil treated group (GII). It can be concluded that garlic oil has a protective role against the hazardous effects of EMF.

  9. Cross-sectional study on respiratory effect of toner-exposed work in manufacturing plants, Japan: pulmonary function, blood cells, and biochemical markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, H; Terunuma, N; Kurosaki, S; Hata, K; Ide, R; Kuga, H; Kakiuchi, N; Masuda, M; Totsuzaki, T; Osato, A; Uchino, B; Kitahara, K; Iwasaki, A; Yoshizumi, K; Morimoto, Y; Kasai, H; Murase, T; Higashi, T

    2009-06-01

    The aim of the study is to examine the relationship between toner-exposed work and health indices related to respiratory disorders and to confirm the baseline of a cohort study to clarify the effect of toner exposure in manufacturing plants. Subjects were 1614 male workers (809 toner-exposed workers and 805 referents) who were engaged in toner manufacturing plants in Japan (Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd). The age of subjects was from 19 to 59 years, and the average age was 40.2 years(median 40 years, SD 7.67). We conducted a pulmonary function test (PEFR, VC, FVC, FEV(1.0)%, V25/Ht) and a blood cell test (RBC, Hb, Hct, Plt, WBC, cell contents of WBC) and measured biochemical indices in blood (ALT, AST, gamma-GTP, CRP, IgE) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in urine. Student t-test and logistic regression analysis were applied to compare between the toner-exposed workers and the referents and to analyze the relationship among indices of effects and independent factors. There was no significant difference between the two groups in blood cell count and biochemical indices. Inflammation- and allergy-related markers such as 8OHdG and IgE also showed no significant difference between toner-exposed workers and the referents. The influence of smoking on pulmonary function indices was observed, but there was no relationship between the pulmonary function and toner-exposed work. In this article, we report a preliminary cross-sectional analysis in the subjects of a cohort study. No difference in pulmonary function indices was observed between the toner-exposed workers and the referents, and there was no consistent relationship between the exposure status and examined indices; however, the prevalence of subjective respiratory symptoms was higher in the exposed workers as presented in another report. Further analysis is important in the ongoing cohort study to clarify the effect of toner exposure on respiratory systems.

  10. Effect of respiratory function training on respiratory function of patients with severe cerebrovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming GUO

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of respiratory function training on respiratory function and conscious state of patients with severe cerebrovascular disease (SCVD.  Methods A total of 27 patients with SCVD were divided into control group (N = 17 and observation group (N = 10. Control group received routine drug and rehabilitation treatment, and observation group was added respiratory function training based on routine treatment. The respiratory rate, tidal volume (TV, heart rate, blood pressure and artery oxygen saturation (SaO2 of patients were monitored by breathing machine before and after 4-week treatment. Meanwhile, arterial blood gas analysis was used to detect arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2, oxygenation index, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2 and pH value. At the same time, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS was used to evaluate the conscious state of patients.  Results All patients successfully completed 4-week rehabilitation training, without asphyxia, arrhythmia or other adverse events. Compared with before training, the respiratory rate (P = 0.006 and pH value (P = 0.010 were significantly decreased, while SaO2 (P = 0.001, oxygenation index (P = 0.000 and GCS scores (P = 0.004, 0.017 were significantly increased in both groups of patients after training. There was no statistically significant difference between 2 groups on respiratory function indexes and GCS scores after training (P > 0.05, for all. Conclusions Respiratory function training did not significantly improve the respiratory function and conscious state of patients with SCVD, yet to be further studied. Randomized controlled clinical trials with larger, layered samples and long-term prognosis observation are needed. Examination method of respiratory function of SCVD patients is also a topic to be explored.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.04.007

  11. Respiratory properties of blood and hemoglobin solutions from the piranha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, S.C.; Weber, Roy E.; Powers, D.

    1979-01-01

    1. Respiratory properties of piranha blood are distinguished from those of other fish primarily by the high CO2 buffering capacity (?HCO3/-?pH= 19.6mmol/l for oxygenated blood and 39.1 mmol/l for deoxygenated blood). 2. The concentration of nucleoside triphosphates (NTP) and the half-saturation t......) lowered the oxygen affinity of purified hemoglobin solutions, accounting for the size-dependent correlation ofP50 and NTP concentration in whole blood. 5. While similar in concentration in red cells, GTP is more potent than ATP as an allosteric modifier of hemoglobin function....

  12. Respiratory function among Malaysian aboriginals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, A. E.; Bolton, J. M.; Ganendran, A.

    1971-01-01

    Respiratory function tests have been performed on 43 Malaysian aboriginals. The forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were considerably below, and the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) slightly below, the predicted values. The FEV1 and PEFR decreased more rapidly with advancing age than predicted from western standards. These findings may be due to physiological differences or may be the result of chronic purulent bronchitis which is common among the aboriginals. Images PMID:5144653

  13. Perioperative modifications of respiratory function.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duggan, Michelle

    2012-01-31

    Postoperative pulmonary complications contribute considerably to morbidity and mortality, especially after major thoracic or abdominal surgery. Clinically relevant pulmonary complications include the exacerbation of underlying chronic lung disease, bronchospasm, atelectasis, pneumonia and respiratory failure with prolonged mechanical ventilation. Risk factors for postoperative pulmonary complications include patient-related risk factors (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tobacco smoking and increasing age) as well as procedure-related risk factors (e.g., site of surgery, duration of surgery and general vs. regional anaesthesia). Careful history taking and a thorough physical examination may be the most sensitive ways to identify at-risk patients. Pulmonary function tests are not suitable as a general screen to assess risk of postoperative pulmonary complications. Strategies to reduce the risk of postoperative pulmonary complications include smoking cessation, inspiratory muscle training, optimising nutritional status and intra-operative strategies. Postoperative care should include lung expansion manoeuvres and adequate pain control.

  14. Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory function impairment among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: One hundred and forty (140) workers in a wood furniture factory in Kaduna, a city within the Savannah belt of Northern Nigeria, were studied for presence of respiratory symptoms and /or ventilatory function impairment using the MRC questionnaire on respiratory symptoms and an electronic Spirometer.

  15. The impact of "Ramadan fasting period" on total and differential white blood cells, haematological indices, inflammatory biomarker, respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function tests of healthy and asthmatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, V R; Alavinezhad, A; Boskabady, M H

    2016-01-01

    There is no conclusive evidence regarding the effect of fasting on different features in asthmatic patients. In the present study, the effect of Ramadan fasting in asthmatic patients and healthy control was studied. Haematological indices, inflammatory mediators, pulmonary function tests (PFT) and respiratory symptoms were evaluated in 15 asthmatic patients compared to 14 healthy matched control group before and after the one-month fasting period in Ramadan. The change in each parameter from the beginning to the end of Ramadan was calculated and referred to as "variation during Ramadan". The values of MCH, MCHC in both groups and monocyte counts in asthmatic patients, were significantly increased but platelet count was reduced in asthmatic and controls respectively compared to pre-Ramadan fasting period (Pfasting month (Pfasting month in both groups were non-significantly higher compared to pre-fasting values except FVC. Respiratory symptoms in asthmatic patients were non-significantly but wheeze-o was significantly reduced after Ramadan fasting period in asthma group (Pfasting period between two groups, although reduction of hs-CRP in asthmatic group was non-significantly higher than control group. These results show that Ramadan fasting period has no negative impact on asthma and may have some positive effect on asthma severity with regard to reduction of hs-CRP concentration and chest wheeze. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Respiratory functions after partial laryngectomy surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Gökhan Demir

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: In our study, various degrees of restrictive and/or obstructive findings were observed in the respiratory functions after partial surgeries. It was determined that such findings increased as long as the amount of the removed larynx tissue increased. We recommend that patients undergo a respiratory function test after partial laryngectomy and treated according to the findings as restrictive and obstructive findings affect patients' survival.

  17. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV RNA loads in peripheral blood correlates with disease severity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres Juan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV infection is usually restricted to the respiratory epithelium. Few studies have documented the presence of RSV in the systemic circulation, however there is no consistent information whether virus detection in the blood correlates with disease severity. Methods Balb/c mice were inoculated with live RSV, heat-inactivated RSV or medium. A subset of RSV-infected mice was treated with anti-RSV antibody 72 h post-inoculation. RSV RNA loads were measured by PCR in peripheral blood from day 1-21 post-inoculation and were correlated with upper and lower respiratory tract viral loads, the systemic cytokine response, lung inflammation and pulmonary function. Immunohistochemical staining was used to define the localization of RSV antigens in the respiratory tract and peripheral blood. Results RSV RNA loads were detected in peripheral blood from day 1 to 14 post-inoculation, peaked on day 5 and significantly correlated with nasal and lung RSV loads, airway obstruction, and blood CCL2 and CXCL1 expression. Treatment with anti-RSV antibody reduced blood RSV RNA loads and improved airway obstruction. Immunostaining identified RSV antigens in alveolar macrophages and peripheral blood monocytes. Conclusions RSV RNA was detected in peripheral blood upon infection with live RSV, followed a time-course parallel to viral loads assessed in the respiratory tract and was significantly correlated with RSV-induced airway disease.

  18. Respiratory Symptoms and Pulmonary Function Impairment among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The industrial process of detergent production could be deleterious to lung function. This study describes respiratory symptoms and ventilatory function impairment among detergent workers in Jos, Northern Nigeria. Methods: Two hundred detergent plant workers and controls were studied for the presence of ...

  19. Respiratory function in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlgemuth, M; Horlings, C G C; van der Kooi, E L; Gilhuis, H J; Hendriks, J C M; van der Maarel, S M; van Engelen, B G M; Heijdra, Y F; Padberg, G W

    2017-06-01

    To test the hypothesis that wheelchair dependency and (kypho-)scoliosis are risk factors for developing respiratory insufficiency in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy, we examined 81 patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy 1 of varying degrees of severity ranging from ambulatory patients to wheelchair-bound patients. We examined the patients neurologically and by conducting pulmonary function tests: Forced Vital Capacity, Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second, and static maximal inspiratory and expiratory mouth pressures. We did not find pulmonary function test abnormalities in ambulant facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy patients. Even though none of the patients complained of respiratory dysfunction, mild to severe respiratory insufficiency was found in more than one third of the wheelchair-dependent patients. Maximal inspiratory pressures and maximal expiratory pressures were decreased in most patients, with a trend that maximal expiratory pressures were more affected than maximal inspiratory pressures. Wheelchair-dependent patients with (kypho-)scoliosis showed the most restricted lung function. Wheelchair-dependent patients with (kypho-)scoliosis are at risk for developing respiratory function impairment. We advise examining this group of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy patients periodically, even in the absence of symptoms of respiratory insufficiency, given its frequency and impact on daily life and the therapeutic consequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Respiratory muscle function in interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walterspacher, Stephan; Schlager, Daniel; Walker, David J; Müller-Quernheim, Joachim; Windisch, Wolfram; Kabitz, Hans-Joachim

    2013-07-01

    Interstitial lung diseases limit daily activities, impair quality of life and result in (exertional) dyspnoea. This has mainly been attributed to a decline in lung function and impaired gas exchange. However, the contribution of respiratory muscle dysfunction to these limitations remains to be conclusively investigated. Interstitial lung disease patients and matched controls performed body plethysmography, a standardised 6-min walk test, volitional tests (respiratory drive (P0.1), global maximal inspiratory mouth occlusion pressure (PImax), sniff nasal pressure (SnPna) and inspiratory muscle load) and nonvolitional tests on respiratory muscle function and strength (twitch mouth and transdiaphragmatic pressure during bilateral magnetic phrenic nerve stimulation (TwPmo and TwPdi)). 25 patients and 24 controls were included in the study. PImax and SnPna remained unaltered (both p>0.05), whereas P0.1 and the load on the inspiratory muscles were higher (both prespiratory muscle strength remains preserved. Central respiratory drive and the load imposed on the inspiratory muscles are increased. Whether impaired respiratory muscle function impacts morbidity and mortality in interstitial lung disease patients needs to be investigated in future studies.

  1. Respiratory function and functional capacity in chronic stroke patients 1

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Anna Cláudia Martinez; Silva, Nathália Grasielle Marinho; Diniz, Gisele do Carmo Leite; Pessoa, Bruno Porto; Scalzo, Paula Luciana

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) or stroke results in weakness of the trunk muscles and physical unfitness. Objectives: To evaluate respiratory changes caused by stroke and correlate them with the functional capacity of chronic stroke patients who were treated at the Clinical Center of Physical Therapy of the Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais, Betim. Methods: Fifteen patients were recruited for assessment of respiratory function and functional capacity. W...

  2. Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory functions among quarry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Workers in the quarry industries are exposed to hazards resulting from the inhalation of air borne particulates. The study determined the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and assessed ventilatory functions among quarry workers in Edo state, Nigeria Methods: Quarry workers (site workers and office workers) ...

  3. Effects of dexamethasone treatment and respiratory vaccination on rectal temperature, complete blood count, and functional capacities of neutrophils in beef steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to examine the effects of dexamethasone (DEX) treatment on various aspects of immunity following administration of a multivalent respiratory vaccine, using a model intended to mimic acute versus chronic stress. Angus × Hereford steers (n = 32; 209 ± 8 kg) were str...

  4. [Late respiratory function complications following burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernesto, S; Marduel, Y; Freymond, N; Pacheco, Y; Devouassoux, G

    2008-03-01

    Twenty five per cent of thermal injuries are associated with secondary respiratory events linked to several mechanisms. In the acute phase of the accident oedema of the airways, the fume inhalation syndrome and ARDS are the most common causes responsible for death in 60% of cases. Late respiratory complications are little known and neglected. They comprise obstructive ventilatory defects due to the inhalation syndrome and restrictive defects secondary to ARDS or to dermal injury. We report the case of a female patient, extensively burnt 2 years previously, admitted to hospital with severe acute respiratory failure complicating COPD. The presence of both restrictive and obstructive defects led to the suggestion of alternative underlying mechanisms such as the pulmonary consequences of ARDS and extensive dermal scars. The latter were responsible for an armour like thickening of the skin of the thorax compatible with the restrictive defect. These functional abnormalities and the potential severity of acute respiratory failure are indications for regular pulmonary follow-up of patients with severe circumferential scarring of the thorax who are at high risk for respiratory complications.

  5. Atorvastatin affects negatively respiratory function of isolated endothelial mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broniarek, Izabela; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to elucidate the direct effects of two popular blood cholesterol-lowering drugs used to treat cardiovascular diseases, atorvastatin and pravastatin, on respiratory function, membrane potential, and reactive oxygen species formation in mitochondria isolated from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (EA.hy926 cell line). Hydrophilic pravastatin did not significantly affect endothelial mitochondria function. In contrast, hydrophobic calcium-containing atorvastatin induced a loss of outer mitochondrial membrane integrity, an increase in hydrogen peroxide formation, and reductions in maximal (phosphorylating or uncoupled) respiratory rate, membrane potential and oxidative phosphorylation efficiency. The atorvastatin-induced changes indicate an impairment of mitochondrial function at the level of ATP synthesis and at the level of the respiratory chain, likely at complex I and complex III. The atorvastatin action on endothelial mitochondria was highly dependent on calcium ions and led to a disturbance in mitochondrial calcium homeostasis. Uptake of calcium ions included in atorvastatin molecule induced mitochondrial uncoupling that enhanced the inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain by atorvastatin. Our results indicate that hydrophobic calcium-containing atorvastatin, widely used as anti-atherosclerotic agent, has a direct negative action on isolated endothelial mitochondria. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Respiratory symptoms and functions in barn workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ege Gulec Balbay

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and aim. The presented study was undertaken to investigate the respiratory health problems in family barns with one or more cows and at least one family member working in the barn. Methods. 150 workers (128 female, 22 male from 4 villages of Yığılca district near the city of Düzce in north-west Turkey were enrolled in this study between October – December 2011. An Occupational and Environmental Chest Diseases questionnaire developed by the American Thoracic Society, pulmonary function test, physical examination and investigation for nasal eosinophil were performed in all subjects. Results. The mean age of workers was 47.7 ± 14.2 years. Cough was present in 24% of subjects. The rates of phlegm, wheezing, chest tightness and dyspnea were 13.3%, 6%, 6% and 27.3%, respectively. Obstructive ventilatory pattern was observed in 37 workers (24.6%. 43 workers (28.6% showed restrictive ventilatory pattern. Nasal eosinophilia was detected in 47.3% (71/150 of the subjects. Pulmonary functions of workers with nasal eosinophilia did not differ from the other workers. There were statistically significant negative correlations between the duration of working in barns and respiratory functions. Conclusions. Pulmonary functions of barn workers have been found to be decreased related to the duration of barn working. Furthermore, respiratory symptoms increased in relation with both barn working and biomass consumption. Precautions should therefore be taken to ventilate both barns and houses.

  7. LUNG FUNCTION AND RESPIRATORY MUSCLE STRENGTH IN OBESE IN CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    E. G. Furman; A. M. Yarulina; L. V. Sofronova

    2015-01-01

    Background. It is known that obesity may influence the state of respiratory function and it is associated with a number of diseases of the respiratory system. Obesity in itself, even in the absence of other known causes, can cause a feeling of shortness of breath at rest. At the same time, the cardinal symptom of respiratory muscle weakness is shortness of breath, which promotes the reduction of exercise tolerance. At the moment the problem state of respiratory function and respiratory muscle...

  8. Determinants of respiratory pump function in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassios, Theodore

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory failure constitutes the major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF). Respiratory failure could either be due to lung parenchyma damage or to insufficiency of the respiratory pump which consists of the respiratory muscles, the rib cage and the neuromuscular transmission pathways. Airway obstruction, hyperinflation and malnutrition have been historically recognised as the major determinants of respiratory pump dysfunction in CF. Recent research has identified chronic infection, genetic predisposition, dietary and pharmaceutical interventions as possible additional determinants of this impairment. Furthermore, new methodological approaches in assessing respiratory pump function have led to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of respiratory pump failure in CF. Finally, respiratory muscle function could be partially preserved in CF patients with structured interventions such as aerobic exercise, inspiratory muscle training and non-invasive ventilation and CF patients could consequently be relatively protected from respiratory fatigue and respiratory failure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pulmonary Function Tests and Work-Related Respiratory and Allergic

    OpenAIRE

    Boskabady Mohammad Hosein; Taheri Ehsan; Ahmadi Sina; Ebrahimi Kolsoumeh; Soudaneh Malihe; Mohammadi Fatemeh; Sabourhasanzadeh Alireza

    2009-01-01

    Bakers are frequently exposed to various irritant chemicals during work which can induce respiratory problems. In this study, pulmonary function tests and self-reported respiratory and allergic symptoms in bakers were compared with matched control subjects. The frequency of respiratory and allergic symptoms was evaluated in a sample of 58 Iranian bakers and 58 control subjects using a questionnaire. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) were also measured in all participants. All respiratory symptom...

  10. [Cannabis use and impairment of respiratory function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underner, M; Urban, T; Perriot, J; Peiffer, G; Meurice, J-C

    2013-04-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly smoked illicit substance in many countries including France. It can be smoked alone in plant form (marijuana) but in our country it is mainly smoked in the form of cannabis resin mixed with tobacco. The technique of inhaling cannabis differs from that of tobacco, increasing the time that the smoke spends in contact with the bronchial mucosal and its impact on respiratory function. One cigarette composed of cannabis and tobacco is much more harmful than a cigarette containing only tobacco. In cannabis smokers there is an increased incidence of respiratory symptoms and episodes of acute bronchitis. Cannabis produces a rapid bronchodilator effect; chronic use provokes a reduction in specific conductance and increase in airways resistance. Studies on the decline of Forced Expiratory Volume are discordant. Cannabis smoke and tetrahydrocannabinol irritate the bronchial tree. They bring about histological signs of airways inflammation and alter the fungicidal and antibacterial activity of alveolar macrophages. Inhalation of cannabis smoke is a risk factor for lung cancer. Stopping smoking cannabis will bring about important benefits for lung function. This should encourage clinicians to offer patients support in quitting smoking. Copyright © 2013 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Surfactant therapy for maternal blood aspiration: an unusual cause of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Istemi Han; Demirel, Gamze; Canpolat, Fuat Emre; Erdeve, Omer; Dilmen, Ugur

    2012-10-01

    Surfactant replacement therapy is the main treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. However, surfactant therapy has been shown to be effective in the treatment of other diseases causing neonatal respiratory diseases such as pulmonary hemorrhage, meconium aspiration syndrome, pneumonia/sepsis, pulmonary edema or acute lung injury resulting a secondary surfactant deficiency (SSD). Rarely, as like as in the present patient, exogenous blood aspiration such as breast milk or formula aspiration may lead to SSD. Blood in alveolus leads to a significant biochemical and functional disturbance of the surfactant system and inhibits surfactant production. Here, the authors report a preterm infant of 33 wk gestational age with secondary surfactant deficiency due to maternal blood aspiration because of abruptio placentae. She was received two courses of beractant, a natural bovine surfactant, therapy in 24 h. She was extubated on second day and did not require oxygen on 4(th) day. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of SSD due to maternal blood aspiration treated with surfactant. In conditions such as abruptio placentae, infant should be protected from blood aspiration and if respiratory distress occurs, surfactant inhibition and need for surfactant administration should be considered.

  12. Mitochondrial respiratory function induces endogenous hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Sara; Kim, Ara; Yoshihara, Toshitada; Tobita, Seiji; Takeuchi, Toshiyuki; Higuchi, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia influences many key biological functions. In cancer, it is generally believed that hypoxic condition is generated deep inside the tumor because of the lack of oxygen supply. However, consumption of oxygen by cancer should be one of the key means of regulating oxygen concentration to induce hypoxia but has not been well studied. Here, we provide direct evidence of the mitochondrial role in the induction of intracellular hypoxia. We used Acetylacetonatobis [2-(2'-benzothienyl) pyridinato-kN, kC3'] iridium (III) (BTP), a novel oxygen sensor, to detect intracellular hypoxia in living cells via microscopy. The well-differentiated cancer cell lines, LNCaP and MCF-7, showed intracellular hypoxia without exogenous hypoxia in an open environment. This may be caused by high oxygen consumption, low oxygen diffusion in water, and low oxygen incorporation to the cells. In contrast, the poorly-differentiated cancer cell lines: PC-3 and MDAMB231 exhibited intracellular normoxia by low oxygen consumption. The specific complex I inhibitor, rotenone, and the reduction of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content reduced intracellular hypoxia, indicating that intracellular oxygen concentration is regulated by the consumption of oxygen by mitochondria. HIF-1α was activated in endogenously hypoxic LNCaP and the activation was dependent on mitochondrial respiratory function. Intracellular hypoxic status is regulated by glucose by parabolic dose response. The low concentration of glucose (0.045 mg/ml) induced strongest intracellular hypoxia possibly because of the Crabtree effect. Addition of FCS to the media induced intracellular hypoxia in LNCaP, and this effect was partially mimicked by an androgen analog, R1881, and inhibited by the anti-androgen, flutamide. These results indicate that mitochondrial respiratory function determines intracellular hypoxic status and may regulate oxygen-dependent biological functions.

  13. Mitochondrial respiratory function induces endogenous hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Prior

    Full Text Available Hypoxia influences many key biological functions. In cancer, it is generally believed that hypoxic condition is generated deep inside the tumor because of the lack of oxygen supply. However, consumption of oxygen by cancer should be one of the key means of regulating oxygen concentration to induce hypoxia but has not been well studied. Here, we provide direct evidence of the mitochondrial role in the induction of intracellular hypoxia. We used Acetylacetonatobis [2-(2'-benzothienyl pyridinato-kN, kC3'] iridium (III (BTP, a novel oxygen sensor, to detect intracellular hypoxia in living cells via microscopy. The well-differentiated cancer cell lines, LNCaP and MCF-7, showed intracellular hypoxia without exogenous hypoxia in an open environment. This may be caused by high oxygen consumption, low oxygen diffusion in water, and low oxygen incorporation to the cells. In contrast, the poorly-differentiated cancer cell lines: PC-3 and MDAMB231 exhibited intracellular normoxia by low oxygen consumption. The specific complex I inhibitor, rotenone, and the reduction of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA content reduced intracellular hypoxia, indicating that intracellular oxygen concentration is regulated by the consumption of oxygen by mitochondria. HIF-1α was activated in endogenously hypoxic LNCaP and the activation was dependent on mitochondrial respiratory function. Intracellular hypoxic status is regulated by glucose by parabolic dose response. The low concentration of glucose (0.045 mg/ml induced strongest intracellular hypoxia possibly because of the Crabtree effect. Addition of FCS to the media induced intracellular hypoxia in LNCaP, and this effect was partially mimicked by an androgen analog, R1881, and inhibited by the anti-androgen, flutamide. These results indicate that mitochondrial respiratory function determines intracellular hypoxic status and may regulate oxygen-dependent biological functions.

  14. The influence of a fentanyl and dexmedetomidine combination on external respiratory functions in acute hemorrhage model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay G. Vengerovich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The synthetic opioid analgesic fentanyl is widely used for prophylaxis and therapy of traumatic shock associated with massive bleeding. Its side effects – skeletal muscle rigidity and respiratory center depression – are especially pronounced with repeated administration. It is rational to apply fentanyl in diminished doses in combination with non-opioid analgesics in order to reduce respiratory disturbances risk.Aim. The aim of the work is to justify the influence of opioid analgesic fentanyl and α2 -adrenomimetic dexmedetomidine combination on external respiratory functions in acute hemorrhage model.Materials and methods. Acute loss of 35–40% of circulating blood volume was modeled in experiments on 75 white mongrel male rats. The external respiratory functions (respiratory rate, respiratory volume, breath volume per minute were estimated in animals of 5 groups: 1 – rats without analgesic help (controls; 2–3 – rats receiving a single fentanyl intramuscular injection (ED99 98,96 mcg/kg or fentanyl together with dexme detomidine (ED99 of combination 67,94 mcg/kg 15 min after acute blood loss; 4–5 – rats receiving the same drugs 15 min, 30, 45 and 60 min later.Results. In experimental acute loss of 35–40% of circulating blood volume, 15 min later a secondary acute respiratory failure developed with a drop of respiratory rate, respiratory volume and volume of breath per minute by 30%, 21 and 47% (p < 0,05. The external respiratory functions recoverеd after 4 h mainly due to the increase of respiratory volume. A single intramuscular injection of fentanyl caused respiratory depression 15 min after experimental blood loss which resulted in the decrease of breath volume per minute to 30–61% (p < 0,05 for 90 min. Four intramuscular injections of fentanyl 15 min, 30, 45 and 60 min after hemorrhage caused a severe respiratory dysfunction, accompanied by apnea periods and Biot’s respiration. Respiratory rate was reduced

  15. LUNG FUNCTION AND RESPIRATORY MUSCLE STRENGTH IN OBESE IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Furman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is known that obesity may influence the state of respiratory function and it is associated with a number of diseases of the respiratory system. Obesity in itself, even in the absence of other known causes, can cause a feeling of shortness of breath at rest. At the same time, the cardinal symptom of respiratory muscle weakness is shortness of breath, which promotes the reduction of exercise tolerance. At the moment the problem state of respiratory function and respiratory muscles in children with different degrees of obesity is relevant and understudied. Aim. Investigation of lung function and respiratory muscle strength in obese in children. Methods. 46 children with obesity were examined, with a prevalence of obesity of mixed origin with progressive, aged 7 to 16 years. We evaluated the lung function and strength of respiratory muscles in the form of maximum inspiratory pressure at the mouth (MIP, maximal expiratory pressure at the mouth (MEP and nasal inspiratory pressure in the sniff-test (SNIP. Results. The children with obesity complained of dyspnea. The respiratory muscle dysfunction observed in the form of reduction of its forces. Reduced respiratory muscle strength ( 80% of the norm was in 44% of patients on the MIP and 38% on the MEP and was increased with increasing body mass index. Conclusion. Children with obesity need to monitor the lung function and evaluate the strength of the respiratory muscles for early detection of functional disorders of the respiratory system. 

  16. Placebo responses on cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory organ functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Karin

    2014-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that placebo responses are accompanied by physiological changes in the central nervous system, but little is known about placebo responses on end organ functions. The present chapter aims to fill this gap by reviewing the literature on peripheral placebo responses. Overall, there is a wide range of placebo and nocebo responses on various organ functions of the cardiovascular, the gastrointestinal system, and the respiratory system. Most of these studies used expectation paradigms to elicit placebo and nocebo responses. Expectations can affect heart rate, blood pressure, coronary diameter, gastric motility, bowel motility, and lung function. Classical conditioning can induce placebo respiratory depression after prior exposure to opioid drugs, and habitual coffee drinkers show physiological arousal in response to coffee-associated stimuli. Similar to findings in placebo pain research, peripheral placebo responses can be target specific. The autonomic nervous system is a likely candidate to mediate peripheral placebo responses. Further studies are necessary to identify the brain mechanisms and pathways involved in peripheral placebo responses.

  17. Functional impact of sarcopenia in respiratory muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Jonathan E; Greising, Sarah M; Mantilla, Carlos B; Sieck, Gary C

    2016-06-01

    The risk for respiratory complications and infections is substantially increased in old age, which may be due, in part, to sarcopenia (aging-related weakness and atrophy) of the diaphragm muscle (DIAm), reducing its force generating capacity and impairing the ability to perform expulsive non-ventilatory motor behaviors critical for airway clearance. The aging-related reduction in DIAm force generating capacity is due to selective atrophy of higher force generating type IIx and/or IIb muscle fibers, whereas lower force generating type I and IIa muscle fiber sizes are preserved. Fiber type specific DIAm atrophy is also seen following unilateral phrenic nerve denervation and in other neurodegenerative disorders. Accordingly, the effect of aging on DIAm function resembles that of neurodegeneration and suggests possible common mechanisms, such as the involvement of several neurotrophic factors in mediating DIAm sarcopenia. This review will focus on changes in two neurotrophic signaling pathways that represent potential mechanisms underlying the aging-related fiber type specific DIAm atrophy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Peripheral Muscle Strength Indicates Respiratory Function Testing in Renal Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulubay, Gaye; Uyanik, Saliha; Er Dedekarginoglu, Balam; Serifoglu, Irem; Kupeli, Elif; Savas Bozbas, Serife; Sezer, Siren; Haberal, Mehmet

    2017-02-01

    Muscle wasting occurs in renal recipients due to decreased physical performance, and decreased respiratory muscle strength may occur due to changes in structure and function. Data are scarce regarding the roles of sarcopenia and nutritional status on respiratory muscle function in these patients. Here, we evaluated interactions among peripheral muscle strength, sarcopenia, nutritional parameters, and respiratory muscle function in renal transplant recipients. Ninety-nine patients were prospectively enrolled between September and April 2016 at Baskent University. Forced vital capacity values (via pulmonary function tests), respiratory muscle strength (via maximal static inspiratory and expiratory pressures), and peripheral muscle strength (via hand grip strength test) were recorded. Nutritional parameters, fat weight, arm circumference, waist circumference, and C-reactive protein levels were also recorded. Of 99 patients, 68 were renal transplant recipients (43 men, mean age: 39.09 ± 10.70 y) and 31 were healthy participants (14 men, mean age: 34.94 ± 10.95 y). Forced vital capacity (P .05). No statistically significant relation was observed between biochemical parameters and maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures (P ? .05). Respiratory function and peripheral muscle strength were significantly related in renal transplant recipients, with significantly lower peripheral muscle strength suggesting the presence of inadequate respiratory function. Peripheral and respiratory muscle training and nutritional replacement strategies could help to improve postoperative respiratory function.

  19. Correlation between thoracolumbar curvatures and respiratory function in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman NNAA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nor Najwatul Akmal Ab Rahman,1 Devinder Kaur Ajit Singh,1 Raymond Lee2 1Physiotherapy Programme, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2School of Applied Sciences, London South Bank University, London, UK Abstract: Aging is associated with alterations in thoracolumbar curvatures and respiratory function. Research information regarding the correlation between thoracolumbar curvatures and a comprehensive examination of respiratory function parameters in older adults is limited. The aim of the present study was to examine the correlation between thoracolumbar curvatures and respiratory function in community-dwelling older adults. Thoracolumbar curvatures (thoracic and lumbar were measured using a motion tracker. Respiratory function parameters such as lung function, respiratory rate, respiratory muscle strength and respiratory muscle thickness (diaphragm and intercostal were measured using a spirometer, triaxial accelerometer, respiratory pressure meter and ultrasound imaging, respectively. Sixty-eight community-dwelling older males and females from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, with mean (standard deviation age of 66.63 (5.16 years participated in this cross-sectional study. The results showed that mean (standard deviation thoracic curvature angle and lumbar curvature angles were -46.30° (14.66° and 14.10° (10.58°, respectively. There was a significant negative correlation between thoracic curvature angle and lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second: r=-0.23, P<0.05; forced vital capacity: r=-0.32, P<0.05, quiet expiration intercostal thickness (r=-0.22, P<0.05 and deep expiration diaphragm muscle thickness (r=-0.21, P<0.05. The lumbar curvature angle had a significant negative correlation with respiratory muscle strength (r=-0.29, P<0.05 and diaphragm muscle thickness at deep inspiration (r=-0.22, P<0.05. However, respiratory rate

  20. Respiratory motor function in individuals with centronuclear myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Barbara K; Renno, Markus S; Green, Meghan M; Sexton, Terry M; Lawson, Lee Ann; Martin, Anatole D; Corti, Manuela; Byrne, Barry J

    2016-02-01

    I NTRODUCTION: Individuals with X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM) and other centronuclear myopathies (CNMs) frequently have profound respiratory insufficiency that requires support early in life. Still, few quantitative data exist to characterize respiratory motor function in CNM. We evaluated the reliance upon mechanical ventilation (MV), ventilatory kinematics, unassisted tidal volumes, and maximal respiratory pressures in 14 individuals with CNMs, including 10 boys with XLMTM. Thirteen participants required full-time, invasive MV. Maximal inspiratory pressures were higher in subjects who breathed unsupported at least 1 hour/day as compared with 24-hour MV users [33.7 (11.9-42.3) vs. 8.4 (6.0-10.9) cm H(2)O, P Respiratory function in CNMs may be related to deconditioning from prolonged MV and/or differences in residual respiratory muscle strength. Results from this study may assist in evaluating severe respiratory insufficiency in neuromuscular clinical care and research. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Correlation between thoracolumbar curvatures and respiratory function in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Nor Najwatul Akmal Ab; Singh, Devinder Kaur Ajit; Lee, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    Aging is associated with alterations in thoracolumbar curvatures and respiratory function. Research information regarding the correlation between thoracolumbar curvatures and a comprehensive examination of respiratory function parameters in older adults is limited. The aim of the present study was to examine the correlation between thoracolumbar curvatures and respiratory function in community-dwelling older adults. Thoracolumbar curvatures (thoracic and lumbar) were measured using a motion tracker. Respiratory function parameters such as lung function, respiratory rate, respiratory muscle strength and respiratory muscle thickness (diaphragm and intercostal) were measured using a spirometer, triaxial accelerometer, respiratory pressure meter and ultrasound imaging, respectively. Sixty-eight community-dwelling older males and females from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, with mean (standard deviation) age of 66.63 (5.16) years participated in this cross-sectional study. The results showed that mean (standard deviation) thoracic curvature angle and lumbar curvature angles were -46.30° (14.66°) and 14.10° (10.58°), respectively. There was a significant negative correlation between thoracic curvature angle and lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second: r =-0.23, P <0.05; forced vital capacity: r =-0.32, P <0.05), quiet expiration intercostal thickness ( r =-0.22, P <0.05) and deep expiration diaphragm muscle thickness ( r =-0.21, P <0.05). The lumbar curvature angle had a significant negative correlation with respiratory muscle strength ( r =-0.29, P <0.05) and diaphragm muscle thickness at deep inspiration ( r =-0.22, P <0.05). However, respiratory rate was correlated neither with thoracic nor with lumbar curvatures. The findings of this study suggest that increase in both thoracic and lumbar curvatures is correlated with decrease in respiratory muscle strength, respiratory muscle thickness and some parameters of lung function. Clinically, both thoracic and

  2. Influence of smoking on respiratory symptoms and lung function ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was done to assess the influence of smoking on respiratory symptoms and respiratory function in sawmill workers in Benin City. 150 sawmill workers who were all males and aged between 18 and 50 years, and had been in continuous employment in sawmill factories for a minimum of one year were studied.

  3. Patients with sepsis exhibit increased mitochondrial respiratory capacity in peripheral blood immune cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjövall, Fredrik; Morota, Saori; Persson, Johan Mikael

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In sepsis, mitochondria have been associated with both initial dysfunction and subsequent upregulation (biogenesis). However, the evolvement of mitochondrial function in sepsis over time is largely unknown, and we therefore investigated mitochondrial respiration in peripheral blood...... immune cells (PBICs) in sepsis patients during the first week after admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: PBICs from 20 patients with severe sepsis or septic shock were analyzed with high-resolution respirometry 3 times after admission to the ICU (within 48 hours, days 3 to 4 and days 6...... indicators were found at days 6 to 7; P sepsis displayed higher mitochondrial respiratory capacities compared with controls, due...

  4. Type 2 diabetes affects sleep quality by disrupting the respiratory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbay, Gulcan; Cetin, Mustafa; Colbay, Mehmet; Berker, Dilek; Guler, Serdar

    2015-09-01

    The effects of diabetes on the respiratory system were investigated with arterial blood gas, sleep quality index and respiratory functions tests. Fifty-three patients with type II diabetes and 41 healthy cases were included. Their biochemical data, demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements and echocardiographic findings were collected from polyclinic records. Respiratory function tests were performed for all subjects and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire was conducted. Aforementioned data were compared between these two groups. The age, body weight and body mass index were similar but oxygen pressure, oxygen saturation, forced vital capacity (FVC; %), and sleep quality were decreased in patients with diabetes. Sleep quality was correlated with the presence of diabetes and hypertension, duration of diabetes, fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels, homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance, Glycosylated hemoglobin levels, and FVC. Half of the diabetic patients exhibited respiratory failure during sleep. Especially diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy, experienced a more severe and prolonged decrease in oxygen saturation. Blood gas, respiratory functions and sleep quality, which need to be evaluated as a whole, were affected in patients with diabetes. Assessment of sleep and its quality requires special attention in patients with diabetes. © 2014 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory function impairment among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both upper and lower respiratory tract diseaes have been noticed and described. Several publications are found in the literature on these but no such report has come from the Savannah belt with its peculiar climatic conditions. Methods: One hundred and forty (140) workers in a wood furniture factory in Kaduna, a city within ...

  6. Shedding light on restoring respiratory function after spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren J Alilain

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Loss of respiratory function is one of the leading causes of death following spinal cord injury. Because of this, much work has been done in studying ways to restore respiratory function following SCI - including pharmacological and regeneration strategies. With the emergence of new and powerful tools from molecular neuroscience, new therapeutically relevant alternatives to these approaches have become available, including expression of light sensitive proteins called channelrhodopsins. In this article we briefly review the history of various attempts to restore breathing after C2 hemisection, and focus on our recent work using the activation of light sensitive channels to restore respiratory function after experimental spinal cord injury. We also discuss how such light induced activity can help shed light on the inner workings of the central nervous system respiratory circuitry that controls diaphragmatic function.

  7. Respiratory Muscle Training and Cognitive Function Exercising at Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quackenbush, Joseph; Duquin, Aubrey; Helfer, Samuel; Pendergast, David R

    2016-01-01

    Hiking and trekking often occur at altitudes up to 12,000 ft altitude. The hypoxia-induced hyperventilation at altitude paradoxically reduces arterial CO2 (Paco2). A reduction in Paco2 results in vasoconstriction of the blood vessels of the brain and thus in local hypoxia. The local hypoxia likely affects cognitive function, which may result in reduced performance and altitude accidents. Recent publications have demonstrated that voluntary isocapnic hyperventilatory training of the respiratory muscles (VIHT) can markedly enhance exercise endurance as it is associated with reduced ventilation and its energy cost. VIHT may be useful in blunting the altitude-induced hyperventilation leading to higher Paco2 and improved cognitive function. This study examined the effects of VIHT, compared to control (C) and placebo (PVIHT) groups, on selected measures of executive functioning, including working memory and processing speed (i.e., Stroop Test, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, and Digit Span Forward) at simulated altitude up to 12,000 ft. Associated physiological parameters were also measured. The Digit Span Forward Test did not show improvements after VIHT in any group. The VIHT group, but not C or PVIHT groups, improved significantly (17-30%) on the Stroop Test. Similarly the VIHT group, but not the C and PVIHT groups, improved correct responses (26%) and number of attempts (24%) on the Symbol Digit Modalities Test. In addition, reaction time was also improved (16%). VIHT improved processing speed and working memory during exercise at altitude.

  8. Lung and respiratory muscle function in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stübgen, Joerg-Patrick; Schultz, Cedric

    2009-06-01

    Pulmonary dysfunction is not a well-recognized feature of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence and type of pulmonary and respiratory muscle dysfunction in FSHD. Sixteen patients with moderately advanced FSHD and 16 healthy controls were evaluated. Standard lung and respiratory muscle function tests were performed. Diaphragm muscle inspiratory action was evaluated with transdiaphragmatic pressure measurements. Lung function tests showed an increased residual volume in five patients. There was a significant difference in global respiratory muscle function in patients versus controls; weakness was mild, and it affected expiratory more than inspiratory muscles. There was no significant difference in the diaphragm inspiratory action of patients versus controls. The dystrophic process that underlies FSHD did not significantly involve the muscles of the diaphragm, but it caused mild global respiratory muscle weakness that affected expiratory more than inspiratory muscles. It is probably not necessary to routinely monitor respiratory muscle function in ambulant FSHD patients who lack symptoms or signs of respiratory impairment.

  9. Respiratory muscle function in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassios, Theodore; Katelari, Anna; Doudounakis, Stavros; Mantagos, Stefanos; Dimitriou, Gabriel

    2013-09-01

    Respiratory muscle function in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) can be assessed by measurement of maximal inspiratory pressure (Pimax ), maximal expiratory pressure (Pemax ), and pressure-time index of the respiratory muscles (PTImus ). We investigated the differences in maximal respiratory pressures and PTImus between CF patients with no gross hyperinflation and healthy controls and described the effects of pulmonary function and nutrition impairment on respiratory muscle function in this group of CF patients. Forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1 ), forced vital capacity (FVC) and maximal expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of VC (MEF25-75 ), body mass index (BMI), upper arm muscle area (UAMA), Pimax , Pemax , and PTImus were assessed in 140 CF patients and in a control group of 140 healthy subjects matched for age and gender. Median Pimax and Pemax were significantly lower in CF patients compared to the controls [Pimax  = 74 (57-94) in CF vs. 84 (66-102) in controls, P = 0.009], [Pemax  = 71 (50-95) in CF vs. 84 (66-102) in controls, P function. In CF patients, PTImus was significantly negatively related to upper arm muscle area (r = 0.184, P = 0.031). These findings suggest that CF patients with no severe lung disease compared to healthy subjects exhibit impaired respiratory muscle function, while CF patients with impaired pulmonary function and nutrition indices exhibit higher PTImus values. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Respiratory and lower limb muscle function in interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotou, Marios; Polychronopoulos, Vlasis; Strange, Charlie

    2016-05-01

    Growing evidence suggests that respiratory and limb muscle function may be impaired in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). Importantly, muscle dysfunction could promote dyspnoea, fatigue and functional limitation all of which are cardinal features of ILD. This article examines the risk factors for skeletal muscle dysfunction in ILD, reviews the current evidence on overall respiratory and limb muscle function and focuses on the occurrence and implications of skeletal muscle dysfunction in ILD. Research limitations and pathways to address the current knowledge gaps are highlighted. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Air ions and respiratory function outcomes: a comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background From a mechanistic or physical perspective there is no basis to suspect that electric charges on clusters of air molecules (air ions) would have beneficial or deleterious effects on respiratory function. Yet, there is a large lay and scientific literature spanning 80 years that asserts exposure to air ions affects the respiratory system and has other biological effects. Aims This review evaluates the scientific evidence in published human experimental studies regarding the effects of exposure to air ions on respiratory performance and symptoms. Methods We identified 23 studies (published 1933–1993) that met our inclusion criteria. Relevant data pertaining to study population characteristics, study design, experimental methods, statistical techniques, and study results were assessed. Where relevant, random effects meta-analysis models were utilized to quantify similar exposure and outcome groupings. Results The included studies examined the therapeutic benefits of exposure to negative air ions on respiratory outcomes, such as ventilatory function and asthmatic symptoms. Study specific sample sizes ranged between 7 and 23, and studies varied considerably by subject characteristics (e.g., infants with asthma, adults with emphysema), experimental method, outcomes measured (e.g., subjective symptoms, sensitivity, clinical pulmonary function), analytical design, and statistical reporting. Conclusions Despite numerous experimental and analytical differences across studies, the literature does not clearly support a beneficial role in exposure to negative air ions and respiratory function or asthmatic symptom alleviation. Further, collectively, the human experimental studies do not indicate a significant detrimental effect of exposure to positive air ions on respiratory measures. Exposure to negative or positive air ions does not appear to play an appreciable role in respiratory function. PMID:24016271

  12. Evaluation Criteria for the Respiratory Function of the Divers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanciu Tamara

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The respiratory effort in hyperbaric conditions is of particular nature, leading to an increase of the respiratory flow of the diver and to the change of their pulmonary volumes. There are important criteria in the selection process of the most suitable divers. Some of these criteria are related to the respiratory function. In order to evaluate the divers respiratory function an examination of the pulmonary volumes is performed in regards to their variations measured by spirometry, of the increased oxygen consumption in hyperbaric conditions and of the production of carbon dioxide during the unitary dive at the depth of work using air as a respiratory mixture. The physical and physiological phenomena involved in the hyperbaric respiration have been studied in cooperation with “Ovidius” University of Constanta, Faculty of Medicine. A specific medical method of evaluation of the pulmonary ventilation, spirometry, the measurement of forced expiratory volume in the first second of a forced expiration, Tiffneau index, have been adapted to the under pressure breathing environment. The parameters have been studied as experimental determinations on diver groups, during simulated diving, using air as a respiratory mixture, at 50 [mH2O] in the Hyperbaric Complex of the Diving Centre

  13. Respiratory symptoms and lung function in bauxite miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, J R; de Klerk, N H; Fritschi, L; Sim, M R; Musk, A W; Benke, G; Abramson, M J; McNeil, J J

    2001-09-01

    To determine whether cumulative bauxite exposure is associated with respiratory symptoms or changes in lung function in a group of bauxite miners. Current employees at three bauxite mines in Australia were invited to participate in a survey comprising: questionnaire on demographic details, respiratory symptoms, and work history; skin prick tests for four common aeroallergens; and spirometry. A task exposure matrix was constructed for bauxite exposure in all tasks in all jobs based on monitoring data. Data were examined for associations between cumulative bauxite exposure, and respiratory symptoms and lung function, by regression analyses. The participation rate was 86%. Self-reported work-related respiratory symptoms were reported by relatively few subjects (1.5%-11.8%). After adjustment for age and smoking no significant differences in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms were identified between subjects, in the quartiles of cumulative bauxite exposure distribution. The forced expiratory volume in I s (FEV1) of the exposed group was found to be significantly lower than that for the unexposed group. After adjustment for age, height, and smoking there were no statistically significant differences between quartiles in FEVI, forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEVl/FVC ratio. These data provide little evidence of a serious adverse effect on respiratory health associated with exposure to bauxite in an open-cut bauxite mine in present day conditions.

  14. Respiratory function in the prune-belly syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, C H; MacLusky, I B; Geary, D F

    1993-01-01

    Respiratory function was evaluated in 11 patients with prune-belly syndrome. Nine had evidence of gas trapping and six of restrictive lung disease. These abnormalities of lung function appear to be secondary to the musculoskeletal disorder associated with prune-belly syndrome rather than parenchymal lung disease. PMID:8503677

  15. Respiratory function in the prune-belly syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Crompton, C H; MacLusky, I B; Geary, D F

    1993-01-01

    Respiratory function was evaluated in 11 patients with prune-belly syndrome. Nine had evidence of gas trapping and six of restrictive lung disease. These abnormalities of lung function appear to be secondary to the musculoskeletal disorder associated with prune-belly syndrome rather than parenchymal lung disease.

  16. Neutrophil functions in late preterm neonates with respiratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Further studies are recommended to elucidate the exact mechanisms by which RDS can affect neutrophil functions and whether these effects are associated with increased incidence of infections. Keywords: Neutrophils, function, respiratory distress syndrome, late preterm, innate immunity, infections, adhesion molecules ...

  17. Respiratory ammonia output and blood ammonia concentration during incremental exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ament, W; Huizenga, [No Value; Kort, E; van der Mark, TW; Grevink, RG; Verkerke, GJ

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the increase of ammonia concentration and lactate concentration in blood was accompanied by an increased expiration of ammonia during graded exercise. Eleven healthy subjects performed an incremental cycle ergometer test. Blood ammonia, blood lactate

  18. Pathomorphological changes of lungs and functional biochemical parameters of respiratory function in patients with intracerebral hemorrhages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Tertyishniy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary complications and closely related with them systemic functional-biochemical abnormalities are the most common complications of cerebral stroke. The purpose of the work was to research functional-biochemical parameters of respiratory function and to find it’s association with morphological changes in the lungs because of intracerebral hemorrhage. 37 sectional observations in patients who die of intracerebral hemorrhage were analized. It was conducted analysis of morphological transformations and retrospective analysis of functional-biochemical findings of respiratory functions, in order to detect changes of systemic hemodynamics, oxygen balance and ion-osmotic one and acid-alkaline status. The results of the study. The changes of blood gas composition and acid-alkaline status are registered in the lungs in the background of microcirculation disturbance from the first hours of development of intracerebral hemorrhage. During the first days of the onset of disease the partial oxygen pressure in arterial blood (РаО2 decreased 50,88% in comparison with the calculated normative findings. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (РаСО2 in the arterial blood rosed by 52,17%. Without conducting artificial lung ventilation PO2 in venous blood decreased by 45,9%, and PCO2 increased by 40%. I has been marked a decrease in the oxygen capacity of the blood, due to the reduction of hemoglobin content in the blood to 103,7 minus 2 g/l and the concomitant decline in hematocrit up to 0,24-0,3. Deficit of the foundations has averaged from -6 to -10 mmol/l. These changes have led to a impression of the respiratory and metabolic acidosis, with a significant increase in the concentration of hydrogen ions. In the first day after the development of the disease with a rapid growing marks of swelling of the brain with concomitant dislocation of the brain stem, blood pH was 7,28 minus 0,02. It has been histologically determined interstitial edema, that

  19. Health outcomes associated with lung function decline and respiratory symptoms and disease in a community cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baughman, Penelope; Marott, Jacob L; Lange, Peter

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In workplace respiratory disease prevention, a thorough understanding is needed of the relative contributions of lung function loss and respiratory symptoms in predicting adverse health outcomes. METHODS: Copenhagen City Heart Study respiratory data collected at 4 examinations (1976...

  20. The combination of exercise and respiratory training improves respiratory muscle function in pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabitz, Hans-Joachim; Bremer, Hinrich-Cordt; Schwoerer, Anja; Sonntag, Florian; Walterspacher, Stephan; Walker, David Johannes; Ehlken, Nicola; Staehler, Gerd; Windisch, Wolfram; Grünig, Ekkehard

    2014-04-01

    Increased dyspnea and reduced exercise capacity in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) can be partly attributed to impaired respiratory muscle function. This prospective study was designed to assess the impact of exercise and respiratory training on respiratory muscle strength and 6-min walking distance (6MWD) in PAH patients. Patients with invasively confirmed PAH underwent 3 weeks of in-hospital exercise and respiratory training, which was continued at home for another 12 weeks. Medication remained constant during the study period. Blinded observers assessed efficacy parameters at baseline (I) and after 3 (II) and 15 weeks (III). Respiratory muscle function was assessed by twitch mouth pressure (TwPmo) during nonvolitional supramaximal magnetic phrenic nerve stimulation. Seven PAH patients (4 women; mean pulmonary artery pressure 45 ± 11 mmHg, median WHO functional class 3.1 ± 0.4, idiopathic/associated PAH n = 5/2) were included. The training program was feasible and well tolerated by all patients with excellent compliance. TwPmo was I: 0.86 ± 0.37 kPa, II: 1.04 ± 0.29 kPa, and III: 1.27 ± 0.44 kPa, respectively. 6MWD was I: 417 ± 51 m, II: 509 ± 39 m, and III: 498 ± 39 m, respectively. Both TwPmo (+0.41 ± 0.34 kPa, +56 ± 39 %) and 6MWD (+81 ± 30 m, +20 ± 9 %) increased significantly in the period between baseline and the final assessment (pairwise comparison: p = 0.012/respiratory training as an adjunct to medical therapy may be effective in patients with PAH to improve respiratory muscle strength and exercise capacity. Future, randomized, controlled trials should be carried out to further investigate these findings.

  1. Assessment of respiratory symptoms and lung function among textile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The smokers among the exposed and unexposed workers had significantly lower lung function values than nonsmokers. Conclusion: Respiratory symptoms were more prevalent among workers in most dusty sections of the factory. Use of protective mask should be enforced. Workers in the spinning and weaving sections of ...

  2. Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary functions among masons and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development and urbanization has increased construction of houses and roads in Nigeria and this has directly increased the number of workers exposed to cement dust. Our objective is to determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and ventilatory functions among masons and office workers in Benin City, Nigeria.

  3. Does Exercise Alter Immune Function and Respiratory Infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieman, David C.

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines whether physical activity influences immune function as a consequence risk of infection from the common cold and other upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) and whether the immune system responds differently to moderate versus intense physical exertion. Research indicates that people who participate in regular moderate…

  4. Respiratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    The words "respiratory" and "respiration" refer to the lungs and breathing. ... Boron WF. Organization of the respiratory system. In: Boron WF, Boulpaep EL, eds. Medical Physiology . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 26.

  5. Respiratory Muscle Training Improves Diaphragm Citrate Synthase Activity and Hemodynamic Function in Rats with Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenisch, Rodrigo Boemo; Bertagnolli, Mariane; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Arena, Ross; Lago, Pedro Dal

    2017-01-01

    Enhanced respiratory muscle strength in patients with heart failure positively alters the clinical trajectory of heart failure. In an experimental model, respiratory muscle training in rats with heart failure has been shown to improve cardiopulmonary function through mechanisms yet to be entirely elucidated. The present report aimed to evaluate the respiratory muscle training effects in diaphragm citrate synthase activity and hemodynamic function in rats with heart failure. Wistar rats were divided into four experimental groups: sedentary sham (Sed-Sham, n=8), trained sham (RMT-Sham, n=8), sedentary heart failure (Sed-HF, n=7) and trained heart failure (RMT-HF, n=7). The animals were submitted to a RMT protocol performed 30 minutes a day, 5 days/week, for 6 weeks. In rats with heart failure, respiratory muscle training decreased pulmonary congestion and right ventricular hypertrophy. Deleterious alterations in left ventricular pressures, as well as left ventricular contractility and relaxation, were assuaged by respiratory muscle training in heart failure rats. Citrate synthase activity, which was significantly reduced in heart failure rats, was preserved by respiratory muscle training. Additionally, a negative correlation was found between citrate synthase and left ventricular end diastolic pressure and positive correlation was found between citrate synthase and left ventricular systolic pressure. Respiratory muscle training produces beneficial adaptations in the diaphragmatic musculature, which is linked to improvements in left ventricular hemodynamics and blood pressure in heart failure rats. The RMT-induced improvements in cardiac architecture and the oxidative capacity of the diaphragm may improve the clinical trajectory of patients with heart failure.

  6. Respiratory properties of blood in the harbor porpoise, Phocoena phocoena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soegaard, Lisette B; Hansen, Marie N; van Elk, Cornelis

    2012-01-01

    Harbor porpoises are active divers that exchange O(2) and CO(2) with the environment during a fast single breath upon surfacing. We investigated blood O(2)-transporting properties, buffer characteristics, Cl(-) transport via the erythrocyte anion exchanger (AE1), circulating nitric oxide metaboli......Harbor porpoises are active divers that exchange O(2) and CO(2) with the environment during a fast single breath upon surfacing. We investigated blood O(2)-transporting properties, buffer characteristics, Cl(-) transport via the erythrocyte anion exchanger (AE1), circulating nitric oxide....... The true plasma non-bicarbonate buffer value was moderately higher than in terrestrial mammals and increased upon deoxygenation. Plasma bicarbonate was also relatively high, contributing to increase the overall buffer capacity. The apparent Cl(-) permeability of harbor porpoise erythrocytes was similar......, plasma nitrate and hemoglobin-mediated nitrite reduction were elevated compared with mammalian standards, suggesting that increased nitric oxide bioavailability and nitrite-derived nitric oxide could play important roles in diving physiology....

  7. Respiratory syncytial virus neutralizing antibodies in cord blood, respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization, and recurrent wheeze

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, Lone Graff; Ravn, Henrik; Kristensen, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Cohort, we selected a subcohort of 459 randomly selected children, 408 children with RSV hospitalization, 408 children with recurrent wheeze, and all 289 children who experienced both RSV hospitalization and recurrent wheeze. The influence of cord blood RSV neutralizing antibodies was examined...

  8. Haematological and blood biochemical alterations associated with respiratory disease in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Šoltésová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory diseases of cattle, particularly in young animals, represent the most important health and economic problem of cattle rearing. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the changes of selected blood indices in 25 calves aged 2–9 months suffering from etiologically undifferentiated chronic respiratory diseases. Blood samples were analysed for haematological indices and selected serum biochemistry variables. The results found in sick animals were compared with results from 25 healthy animals of the same age, housing and feeding system. Significant differences in means between the groups of clinically healthy and sick calves were found in 13 out of 24 evaluated indicators. In sick animals we found significantly higher mean concentrations of haemoglobin and total number of white blood cells (P P P P P P P P < 0.05. The presented results suggest the effect of respiratory diseases in calves on several changes of haematological and selected serum biochemical indicators. They indicate that respiratory diseases did not lead only to direct disturbance of gas exchange and acid-base balance, but they also indirectly affect some other variables of blood biochemistry.

  9. Thoracic gunshot wounds: alterations to pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydur, Ahmet; Inaba, Kenji; Barmparas, Galinos; Teixeira, Pedro; Julianne, Awrey; Bukur, Marko; Talving, Peep; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2010-10-01

    The impact on respiratory function of gunshot injuries to the chest is unknown. The objective is to assess pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength (RMS) in patients who have recently sustained an isolated gunshot injury to the chest. After institutional review board approval, patients with isolated gunshot injuries to the chest were prospectively identified. Study patients underwent pulmonary function testing and an assessment of RMS and gas exchange. Ten male patients sustaining an isolated pulmonary gunshot wound were prospectively enrolled with a mean age of 29 years ± 10 years and mean Injury Severity Score of 15 ± 5. All patients had an associated pneumothorax (n = 1), hemothorax (n = 4), or a combination of both (n = 5). After removal of all thoracostomy tubes and before discharge [7.4 days ± 5.4 days (range, 2-21 days)], patients underwent respiratory function testing. Lung volume subdivisions were reduced by 25% to 60% of predicted and diffusion capacity by 37% with preservation of the normal ratio of diffusion capacity to alveolar volume. In the six subjects able to perform spirometry in seated and supine postures, forced vital capacity decreased by 20% when changing posture (p = 0.046). Arterial blood gas analysis showed significant reduction in the P(AO)₂/FIO₂ ratio (or increase in AaDO₂). Maximal respiratory pressures were severely reduced from predicted values, the maximal inspiratory pressure by 60% and the maximal expiratory pressure by 78%. Lung volumes and RMS are decreased moderately to severely in patients who have sustained an isolated pulmonary gunshot wound. Expiratory muscle force generation is more severely affected than inspiratory muscle force. Further investigation of the long-term impact of these injuries on respiratory function is warranted.

  10. Integrative approaches for modeling regulation and function of the respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Tal, Alona; Tawhai, Merryn H

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical models have been central to understanding the interaction between neural control and breathing. Models of the entire respiratory system-which comprises the lungs and the neural circuitry that controls their ventilation-have been derived using simplifying assumptions to compartmentalize each component of the system and to define the interactions between components. These full system models often rely-through necessity-on empirically derived relationships or parameters, in addition to physiological values. In parallel with the development of whole respiratory system models are mathematical models that focus on furthering a detailed understanding of the neural control network, or of the several functions that contribute to gas exchange within the lung. These models are biophysically based, and rely on physiological parameters. They include single-unit models for a breathing lung or neural circuit, through to spatially distributed models of ventilation and perfusion, or multicircuit models for neural control. The challenge is to bring together these more recent advances in models of neural control with models of lung function, into a full simulation for the respiratory system that builds upon the more detailed models but remains computationally tractable. This requires first understanding the mathematical models that have been developed for the respiratory system at different levels, and which could be used to study how physiological levels of O2 and CO2 in the blood are maintained. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Association of circulating angiotensin converting enzyme activity with respiratory muscle function in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onufriou Anny

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE gene contains a polymorphism, consisting of either the presence (I or absence (D of a 287 base pair fragment. Deletion (D is associated with increased circulating ACE (cACE activity. It has been suggested that the D-allele of ACE genotype is associated with power-oriented performance and that cACE activity is correlated with muscle strength. Respiratory muscle function may be similarly influenced. Respiratory muscle strength in infants can be assessed specifically by measurement of the maximum inspiratory pressure during crying (Pimax. Pressure-time index of the respiratory muscles (PTImus is a non-invasive method, which assesses the load to capacity ratio of the respiratory muscles. The objective of this study was to determine whether increased cACE activity in infants could be related to greater respiratory muscle strength and to investigate the potential association of cACE with PTImus measurements as well as the association of ACE genotypes with cACE activity and respiratory muscle strength in this population. Methods Serum ACE activity was assayed by using a UV-kinetic method. ACE genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction amplification, using DNA from peripheral blood. PTImus was calculated as (Pimean/Pimax × (Ti/Ttot, where Pimean was the mean inspiratory pressure estimated from airway pressure, generated 100 milliseconds after an occlusion (P0.1, Pimax was the maximum inspiratory pressure and Ti/Ttot was the ratio of the inspiratory time to the total respiratory cycle time. Pimax was the largest pressure generated during brief airway occlusions performed at the end of a spontaneous crying effort. Results A hundred and ten infants were studied. Infants with D/D genotype had significantly higher serum ACE activity than infants with I/I or I/D genotypes. cACE activity was significantly related to Pimax and inversely related to PTImus. No association between ACE genotypes and

  12. Association between smoking and respiratory function before and after menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayatbakhsh, Mohammad R; Najman, Jake M; O'Callaghan, Michael J; Williams, Gail M; Paydar, Anita; Clavarino, Alexandra

    2011-02-01

    There is a lack of evidence about whether menopausal status influences the effect of smoking on lung function. This study examined the association between smoking and menopausal status and lung function independent of each other. Data were from a cohort of women attending the 21-year follow-up of the Mater University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy. The study was based on 2020 women who provided data on respiratory function, smoking, and menopausal status. A Spirobank G spirometer system was used to measure forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV(1)), and forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of forced vital capacity (FEF(25-75)). Smoking and menopausal status were assessed by self-report. Respiratory function was associated with cigarette smoking, menopausal status, and hormone replacement therapy. Regardless of smoking status, postmenopausal women had poorer lung function when compared with premenopausal women. In multivariate analysis, cigarette smoking was associated with lower FVC, FEV(1), and FEF(25-75), with the magnitude of effect being stronger for women who were postmenopausal. The data suggest that the impact of smoking intensifies after menopause. It seems plausible that effective quit-smoking programs, particularly after menopause, may lead to better lung function and reduced morbidity and mortality in women.

  13. Influence of smoking on respiratory symptoms and lung function indices in sawmill workers in Benin City, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugheoke, A J; Ebomoyi, M I; Iyawe, V I

    2006-01-01

    The study was done to assess the influence of smoking on respiratory symptoms and respiratory function in sawmill workers in Benin City. 150 sawmill workers who were all males and aged between 18 and 50 years, and had been in continuous employment in sawmill factories for a minimum of one year were studied. They were selected by a two-stage random sampling process from sawmills in Benin City. These were compared to 150 age and sex matched controls in order to determine the effect of sawdust exposure on the respiratory system. Questionnaire was used to elicit morbidity patterns and anthropometric measurements were also made. Respiratory rates, Peak Expiratory Flow Rates and Blood Pressures were measured in both groups. Respiratory symptoms were more common among sawmill workers compared to the controls. Smoking by some of these workers further aggravated their respiratory symptoms. Although blood pressure was similar in both groups, Respiratory rates were higher and Peak Flow Rates were lower in the sawmill workers compared to the controls (20.83 +/- 2.02 cycles/minute and 516.72 +/- 38.48 L/minute for the sawmill workers; 15.45 +/- 1.23 cycles/minute and 575.37 +/- 27.34 L/minute for the controls, respectively). Less than 5% of the sawmill workers wore protective devices/clothing, and health and safety standards were neither practiced nor enforced. The findings suggest that respiratory symptoms especially sputum production and chest pain are common in sawmill workers. Respiratory function is compromised in these workers.

  14. Rejuvenating cellular respiration for optimizing respiratory function: targeting mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Anurag; Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan

    2016-01-15

    Altered bioenergetics with increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and degradation of epithelial function are key aspects of pathogenesis in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This motif is not unique to obstructive airway disease, reported in related airway diseases such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia and parenchymal diseases such as pulmonary fibrosis. Similarly, mitochondrial dysfunction in vascular endothelium or skeletal muscles contributes to the development of pulmonary hypertension and systemic manifestations of lung disease. In experimental models of COPD or asthma, the use of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants, such as MitoQ, has substantially improved mitochondrial health and restored respiratory function. Modulation of noncoding RNA or protein regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics, or degradation has been found to be effective in models of fibrosis, emphysema, asthma, and pulmonary hypertension. Transfer of healthy mitochondria to epithelial cells has been associated with remarkable therapeutic efficacy in models of acute lung injury and asthma. Together, these form a 3R model--repair, reprogramming, and replacement--for mitochondria-targeted therapies in lung disease. This review highlights the key role of mitochondrial function in lung health and disease, with a focus on asthma and COPD, and provides an overview of mitochondria-targeted strategies for rejuvenating cellular respiration and optimizing respiratory function in lung diseases. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Lung Function in Wheezing Infants after Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infection and Its Association with Respiratory Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Yuan Qi

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Impaired lung function was present in wheezing infants with ALRTI and the deficits persisted. In addition, the lower level of TPTEF/TE and VPTEF/VE was a risk factor for poor respiratory outcome.

  16. Desmin Cytoskeleton Linked to Muscle Mitochondrial Distribution and Respiratory Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Derek J.; Mavroidis, Manolis; Weisleder, Noah; Capetanaki, Yassemi

    2000-01-01

    Ultrastructural studies have previously suggested potential association of intermediate filaments (IFs) with mitochondria. Thus, we have investigated mitochondrial distribution and function in muscle lacking the IF protein desmin. Immunostaining of skeletal muscle tissue sections, as well as histochemical staining for the mitochondrial marker enzymes cytochrome C oxidase and succinate dehydrogenase, demonstrate abnormal accumulation of subsarcolemmal clumps of mitochondria in predominantly slow twitch skeletal muscle of desmin-null mice. Ultrastructural observation of desmin-null cardiac muscle demonstrates in addition to clumping, extensive mitochondrial proliferation in a significant fraction of the myocytes, particularly after work overload. These alterations are frequently associated with swelling and degeneration of the mitochondrial matrix. Mitochondrial abnormalities can be detected very early, before other structural defects become obvious. To investigate related changes in mitochondrial function, we have analyzed ADP-stimulated respiration of isolated muscle mitochondria, and ADP-stimulated mitochondrial respiration in situ using saponin skinned muscle fibers. The in vitro maximal rates of respiration in isolated cardiac mitochondria from desmin-null and wild-type mice were similar. However, mitochondrial respiration in situ is significantly altered in desmin-null muscle. Both the maximal rate of ADP-stimulated oxygen consumption and the dissociation constant (K m) for ADP are significantly reduced in desmin-null cardiac and soleus muscle compared with controls. Respiratory parameters for desmin-null fast twitch gastrocnemius muscle were unaffected. Additionally, respiratory measurements in the presence of creatine indicate that coupling of creatine kinase and the adenine translocator is lost in desmin-null soleus muscle. This coupling is unaffected in cardiac muscle from desmin-null animals. All of these studies indicate that desmin IFs play a significant

  17. Assessment of blood gas analysis results and degree of infection in children with severe pneumonia and respiratory failure after NCPAP therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Luo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the blood gas analysis results and degree of infection in children with severe pneumonia and respiratory failure after NCPAP therapy. Methods: A total of 60 cases of children with severe pneumonia and respiratory failure who were treated in our hospital from August 2013 to August 2015 were included in the study and randomly divided into observation group and control group (n=30. Control group received routine anti-infection and oxygen inhalation by nasal tube, observation group received additional NCPAP therapy, and then differences in values of blood gas and oxygen metabolism indexes, resting pulmonary function, respiratory mechanics indexes and serum infection-related parameters were compared between two groups. Results: After observation group received NCPAP therapy, PaO2, PH, CaO2, DO2 and SaO2 values were higher than those of control group while PaCO2 and VO2 values were lower than those of control group; VC%, FVC%, FEV1%, PEF%, MMEF% and MVV% values were higher than those of control group; respiratory mechanics parameters PIP, PP, Pm, VE and R values were lower than those of control group; serum CHE and PA values were higher than those of control group while sTREM-1 and HMGB-1 values were lower than those of control group. Conclusion: NCPAP therapy can significantly optimize the respiratory function and promote the recovery from infection in children with severe pneumonia and respiratory failure, and it has positive clinical significance.

  18. Can daytime measures of lung function predict respiratory failure in children with neuromuscular disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, C A; Waters, K; Jones, K J; Young, H; Fitzgerald, D A

    2015-09-01

    Neuromuscular disorders in children are a heterogeneous group of conditions with a variable age of presentation and overlapping clinical manifestations, many of which have progressive respiratory morbidity. Respiratory insufficiency occurs as a consequence of an imbalance between demands on the respiratory system and respiratory muscle capacity. Daytime measures of pulmonary function are used routinely in these children to assess respiratory status and monitor the consequences of the progression of muscle weakness. This review describes the current evidence for daytime pulmonary function tests and their ability to predict imminent respiratory morbidity. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Comparison analysis of blood pressure, obesity, and cardio-respiratory fitness in schoolchildren].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Miria Suzana; Reuter, Cézane Priscila; Burgos, Leandro Tibiriçá; Pohl, Hildegard Hedwig; Pauli, Liane Teresinha Schuh; Horta, Jorge André; Reckziegel, Miriam Beatris; Franke, Silvia Isabel Rech; Prá, Daniel; Camargo, Marcelo

    2010-06-01

    During childhood and adolescence, physical inactivity, excess weight, and poor nutrition are risk factors for chronic diseases, especially obesity, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Early intervention can prevent the development of these complications. To determine the presence of cardiovascular risk (obesity and hypertension) in schoolchildren and its potential interactions with cardio-respiratory fitness. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in a stratified cluster sample of 1,666 schoolchildren, aged between 7 and 17 years, 873 (52.4%) of them male and 793 (47.6%) of them female. The following variables were evaluated: systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF %), and cardio-respiratory fitness. SBP and DBP were correlated with waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), sum of skin folds (SigmaSF), and cardio-respiratory fitness. A BMI assessment of the students showed that 26.7% of them were overweight or obese, and 35.9% had body fat percentage over moderately high. As to blood pressure, we found that 13.9% and 12.1% of the students were borderline or hypertensive, for SBP and DBP, respectively. There was an association among hypertension, obesity, and cardio-respiratory fitness. There was a significant correlation of SBP and DBP with all variables, and also a weak to moderate correlation with age, weight, height, BMI, and waist circumference. The presence of hypertension associated with obesity and its effects on cardio-respiratory fitness stress the importance of recommending, since childhood, a more active and healthy lifestyle.

  20. No relation between sympathetic outflow to muscles and respiratory function in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindo, Kazumasa; Tsuchiya, Mai; Ichinose, Yuta; Onohara, Akiko; Fukumoto, Megumi; Koh, Kishin; Takaki, Ryusuke; Yamashiro, Nobuo; Kobayashi, Fumikazu; Nagasaka, Takamura; Takiyama, Yoshihisa

    2015-11-15

    In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), not only impairment of motor neurons but also impairment of the autonomic nervous system has been demonstrated by previous physiological studies. Several investigators have reported a correlation between autonomic dysfunction and respiratory dysfunction in ALS. This study analyzed the relation between parameters of respiratory function and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in a large number of ALS patients. In 50 patients with ALS (mean age (SD): 62.1 (11.7) years), MSNA, heart rate (HR), and blood pressure (BP) were recorded simultaneously. The arterial oxygen content (PaO2), arterial carbon dioxide content (PaCO2), and forced vital capacity expressed as a percentage of the predicted value for healthy controls (%VC) were determined as parameters of respiratory function. There were no significant correlations between MSNA and PaO2, PaCO2, %VC, or the disability score. Analysis of chronological changes in 14 patients examined twice showed that the disability score and PaCO2 were significantly increased, and %VC was significantly more decreased at the second examination compared with the first examination (prespiratory function in ALS patients is not associated with changes of quantitative MSNA parameters, which may suggest that abnormality of the autonomic nervous system is a primary feature of ALS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function in Poultry Confinement Workers in Western Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley P Kirychuk

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether poultry production methods impact respiratory health, and whether poultry farmers have more respiratory symptoms and lower lung function than comparison control groups.

  2. Effect of mechanical pressure-controlled ventilation in patients with disturbed respiratory function during laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šurbatović Maja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is considered to be the gold standard for laparoscopic surgical procedures. In ASA III patients with concomitant respiratory diseases, however, creation of pneumoperitoneum and the position of patients during surgery exert additional negative effect on intraoperative respiratory function, thus making a higher challenge for the anesthesiologist than for the surgeon. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV and pressure controlled ventilation (PCV during general anesthesia on respiratory function in ASA III patients submitted to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods. The study included 60 patients randomized into two groups depending on the mode of ventilation: IPPV or PCV. Respiratory volume (VT, peak inspiratory pressure (PIP, compliance (C, end-tidal CO2 pressure (PETCO2, oxygen saturation (SpO2, partial pressures of O2, CO2 (PaO2 and PaCO2 and pH of arterial blood were recorded within four time intervals. Results. There were no statistically significant differences in VT, SpO2, PaO2, PaCO2 and pH values neither within nor between the two groups. In time interval t1 there were no statistically significant differences in PIP, C, PETCO2 values between the IPPV and the PCV group. But, in the next three time intervals there was a difference in PIP, C, and PETCO2 values between the two groups which ranged from statistically significant to highly significant; PIP was lower, C and PETCO2 were higher in the PCV group. Conclusion. Pressure controlled ventilation better maintains stability regarding intraoperative ventilatory parameters in ASA III patients with concomitant respiratory diseases during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  3. [Effects of blood transfusion on vital signs and heart function in preterm infants with anemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ying-Nian; Tong, Xiao-Mei; Liu, Yun-Feng

    2015-04-01

    To explore the effects of blood transfusion on the vital signs and heart function in preterm infants with anemia. A total of 40 anemic preterm infants with gestational age less than 34 weeks who accepted blood transfusion one week after birth were enrolled for a prospective cohort study. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), fractional shortening (FS), stroke volume (SV), and cardiac output (CO) were determined with portable ultrasonic equipment before blood transfusion and within 24 hours after blood transfusion. Apnea was detected and the times of apnea were recorded within 24 hours before and after blood transfusion. The resting body temperature and blood pressure were also determined before and after blood transfusion. Additionally the resting heart rate, respiratory rate, and transcutaneous oxygen saturation were recorded within 4 hours before and after blood transfusion. The heart rate and respiratory rate decreased significantly within 4 hours after blood transfusion (Ptransfusion, and nobody had apnea within 24 hours after blood transfusion. The systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, mean arterial pressure, and body temperature showed no significant changes after blood transfusion (P>0.05), and the LVEF, SV, CO, and FS showed no significant changes after blood transfusion as well (P>0.05). Blood transfusion can improve the clinical symptoms and shows no significant effect on the heart function in preterm infants with anemia.

  4. Contribution of respiratory muscle blood flow to exercise-induced diaphragmatic fatigue in trained cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Athanasopoulos, Dimitris; Boushel, Robert Christopher

    2008-01-01

    We investigated whether the greater degree of exercise-induced diaphragmatic fatigue previously reported in highly trained athletes in hypoxia (compared with normoxia) could have a contribution from limited respiratory muscle blood flow. Seven trained cyclists completed three constant load 5 min...... exercise tests at inspired O(2) fractions (FIO2) of 0.13, 0.21 and 1.00 in balanced order. Work rates were selected to produce the same tidal volume, breathing frequency and respiratory muscle load at each FIO2 (63 +/- 1, 78 +/- 1 and 87 +/- 1% of normoxic maximal work rate, respectively). Intercostals...... and quadriceps muscle blood flow (IMBF and QMBF, respectively) were measured by near-infrared spectroscopy over the left 7th intercostal space and the left vastus lateralis muscle, respectively, using indocyanine green dye. The mean pressure time product of the diaphragm and the work of breathing did not differ...

  5. Blood flow index using near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green as a minimally invasive tool to assess respiratory muscle blood flow in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guenette, Jordan A; Henderson, William R; Dominelli, Paolo B

    2011-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in combination with indocyanine green (ICG) dye has recently been used to measure respiratory muscle blood flow (RMBF) in humans. This method is based on the Fick principle and is determined by measuring ICG in the respiratory muscles using transcutaneous NIRS in...

  6. Cow's Milk and Immune Function in the Respiratory Tract: Potential Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdijk, Olaf; van Splunter, Marloes; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Brugman, Sylvia; van Neerven, R J Joost

    2018-01-01

    During the last decades, the world has witnessed a dramatic increase in allergy prevalence. Epidemiological evidence shows that growing up on a farm is a protective factor, which is partly explained by the consumption of raw cow's milk. Indeed, recent studies show inverse associations between raw cow's milk consumption in early life and asthma, hay fever, and rhinitis. A similar association of raw cow's milk consumption with respiratory tract infections is recently found. In line with these findings, controlled studies in infants with milk components such as lactoferrin, milk fat globule membrane, and colostrum IgG have shown to reduce respiratory infections. However, for ethical reasons, it is not possible to conduct controlled studies with raw cow's milk in infants, so formal proof is lacking to date. Because viral respiratory tract infections and aeroallergen exposure in children may be causally linked to the development of asthma, it is of interest to investigate whether cow's milk components can modulate human immune function in the respiratory tract and via which mechanisms. Inhaled allergens and viruses trigger local immune responses in the upper airways in both nasal and oral lymphoid tissue. The components present in raw cow's milk are able to promote a local microenvironment in which mucosal immune responses are modified and the epithelial barrier is enforced. In addition, such responses may also be triggered in the gut after exposure to allergens and viruses in the nasal cavity that become available in the GI tract after swallowing. However, these immune cells that come into contact with cow's milk components in the gut must recirculate into the blood and home to the (upper and lower) respiratory tract to regulate immune responses locally. Expression of the tissue homing-associated markers α4β7 and CCR9 or CCR10 on lymphocytes can be influenced by vitamin A and vitamin D3, respectively. Since both vitamins are present in milk, we speculate that raw

  7. Cow’s Milk and Immune Function in the Respiratory Tract: Potential Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Perdijk

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, the world has witnessed a dramatic increase in allergy prevalence. Epidemiological evidence shows that growing up on a farm is a protective factor, which is partly explained by the consumption of raw cow’s milk. Indeed, recent studies show inverse associations between raw cow’s milk consumption in early life and asthma, hay fever, and rhinitis. A similar association of raw cow’s milk consumption with respiratory tract infections is recently found. In line with these findings, controlled studies in infants with milk components such as lactoferrin, milk fat globule membrane, and colostrum IgG have shown to reduce respiratory infections. However, for ethical reasons, it is not possible to conduct controlled studies with raw cow’s milk in infants, so formal proof is lacking to date. Because viral respiratory tract infections and aeroallergen exposure in children may be causally linked to the development of asthma, it is of interest to investigate whether cow’s milk components can modulate human immune function in the respiratory tract and via which mechanisms. Inhaled allergens and viruses trigger local immune responses in the upper airways in both nasal and oral lymphoid tissue. The components present in raw cow’s milk are able to promote a local microenvironment in which mucosal immune responses are modified and the epithelial barrier is enforced. In addition, such responses may also be triggered in the gut after exposure to allergens and viruses in the nasal cavity that become available in the GI tract after swallowing. However, these immune cells that come into contact with cow’s milk components in the gut must recirculate into the blood and home to the (upper and lower respiratory tract to regulate immune responses locally. Expression of the tissue homing-associated markers α4β7 and CCR9 or CCR10 on lymphocytes can be influenced by vitamin A and vitamin D3, respectively. Since both vitamins are present

  8. Respiratory Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respiratory failure happens when not enough oxygen passes from your lungs into your blood. Your body's organs, such as ... need oxygen-rich blood to work well. Respiratory failure also can happen if your lungs can't ...

  9. Combined respiratory and cardiac triggering improves blood pool contrast-enhanced pediatric cardiovascular MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasanawala, Shreyas S.; Newman, Beverley; Chan, Frandics P.; Alley, Marcus T.

    2011-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced cardiac MRA suffers from cardiac motion artifacts and often requires a breath-hold. This work develops and evaluates a blood pool contrast-enhanced combined respiratory- and ECG-triggered MRA method. An SPGR sequence was modified to enable combined cardiac and respiratory triggering on a 1.5-T scanner. Twenty-three consecutive children referred for pediatric heart disease receiving gadofosveset were recruited in HIPAA-compliant fashion with IRB approval and informed consent. Children underwent standard non-triggered contrast-enhanced MRA with or without suspended respiration. Additionally, a free-breathing-triggered MRA was acquired. Triggered and non-triggered studies were presented in blinded random order independently to two radiologists twice. Anatomical structure delineation was graded for each triggered and non-triggered acquisition and the visual quality on triggered MRA was compared directly to that on non-triggered MRA. Triggered images received higher scores from each radiologist for all anatomical structures on each of the two reading sessions (Wilcoxon rank sum test, P < 0.05). In direct comparison, triggered images were preferred over non-triggered images for delineating cardiac structures, with most comparisons reaching statistical significance (binomial test, P < 0.05). Combined cardiac and respiratory triggering, enabled by a blood pool contrast agent, improves delineation of most anatomical structures in pediatric cardiovascular MRA. (orig.)

  10. Experimental determination of the absorption rate of unattached radon progeny from respiratory tract to blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterweck, G.; Schuler, Ch.; Vessl, G.; Mueller, R.; Marsh, J.W.; Thrift, S.; Birchall, A.

    2002-01-01

    An exposure methodology was developed for the determination of the absorption rate of unattached radon progeny deposited in the human respiratory tract to blood. Twenty-one volunteers were exposed in a radon chamber during well-controlled aerosol and radon progeny conditions, with predominantly unattached radon daughters. Special efforts were made to restrict the dose to the volunteers to an absolute maximum of 0.08 mSv. Measurements of radon gas and radon progeny in blood samples of these volunteers indicated absorption half times of 20 min to 60 min. Former determinations, mainly performed with much larger aerosol particles of diameters between 100 nm and 1000 nm, implied absorption half times around 10 h. This indicates that the absorption of radon decay products from ciliated airways into blood is dependent upon particle size and particle composition. (author)

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of respiratory movement and lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetzlaff, R.; Eichinger, M.

    2009-01-01

    Lung function measurements are the domain of spirometry or plethysmography. These methods have proven their value in clinical practice, nevertheless, being global measurements the functional indices only describe the sum of all functional units of the lung. Impairment of only a single component of the respiratory pump or of a small part of lung parenchyma can be compensated by unaffected lung tissue. Dynamic imaging can help to detect such local changes and lead to earlier adapted therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) seems to be perfect for this application as it is not hampered by image distortion as is projection radiography and it does not expose the patient to potentially harmful radiation like computed tomography. Unfortunately, lung parenchyma is not easy to image using MRI due to its low signal intensity. For this reason first applications of MRI in lung function measurements concentrated on the movement of the thoracic wall and the diaphragm. Recent technical advances in MRI however might allow measurements of regional dynamics of the lungs. (orig.) [de

  12. Short-term effects of humidification devices on respiratory pattern and arterial blood gases during noninvasive ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lellouche, François; Pignataro, Claudia; Maggiore, Salvatore Maurizio; Girou, Emmanuelle; Deye, Nicolas; Taillé, Solenne; Fischler, Marc; Brochard, Laurent

    2012-11-01

    The impact of humidification devices on ventilatory and arterial blood gases parameters during noninvasive ventilation (NIV) remains controversial. The aim of the study was to compare the short-term impact of heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) and heated humidifiers (HHs) during NIV for either hypercapnic or hypoxemic acute respiratory failure. Consecutive subjects receiving NIV were successively treated with HME and HH in randomized order for 30 min each. At the end of each period, arterial blood gases were measured and ventilatory parameters were recorded. Eighty-one subjects were enrolled, of whom 52 were hypercapnic (with or without acidosis) and 29 hypoxemic. Minute ventilation was greater with the HME, in comparison with the HH (15 [12-18] vs 12 [10-16] median [interquartile range], P < .001), while P(aCO(2)) was increased when using HME, indicating a dead space effect. This effect was observed in all subjects, but was more pronounced in hypercapnic subjects (P(aCO(2)) 62 ± 17 mm Hg with HME vs 57 ± 14 with HH, P < .001). In a subgroup of 19 subjects with respiratory acidosis, alveolar hypoventilation improved only with the HH. The amplitude of the dead space impact was a function of the degree of hypercapnia. Use of an HME decreased CO(2) elimination during NIV, despite increased minute ventilation, especially in hypercapnic subjects.

  13. Changes in Respiratory Rate, Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Variability in Rabbits during Orthostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mokrý

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the changes of respiratory rate, systemic blood pressure and heart rate variability parameters (HRV during orthostasis in anaesthetized rabbits. Furthermore, these changes were influenced by affecting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA system and autonomic nervous system (ANS to study the mechanisms participating in activity of spectral frequency bands of HRV in rabbits. Ten adult rabbits (Chinchilla were anaesthetized by ketamine and flunitrazepam. The systemic blood pressure, tidal volume and respiratory rate were measured. HRV was evaluated by microcomputer system VariaPulse TF3E. The R-R intervals were derived from the electrocardiogram signal from subcutaneous needle electrodes. The evaluation of HRV in very low (VLF; 0.01-0.05 Hz, low (LF; 0.05-0.15 Hz and high frequency bands (HF; 0.15-2.0 Hz was made and parameters of frequency and time analysis were calculated. The measurements were made in horizontal (supine position, in orthostasis (the angle of 60 ° and again in supine position before and after enalapril (0.5 mg/kg b.w., metipranolol (0.2 mg/kg b.w., and after subsequent bilateral cervical vagotomy. The orthostasis in anaesthetized rabbits is accompanied by depression of respiratory rate reversed only by vagotomy. Furthermore, decrease of systemic blood pressure, unchanged heart rate and increased characteristics of heart rate variability were found, with predominant increase of spectral power in LF and VLF bands. This elevation can be eliminated only by complete blockade of ANS. Although the participation of ANS or RAA system in modification of individual HRV frequency bands is not as specific as in humans, we confirmed the participation of RAA system in determination of the VLF band.

  14. Do current sports brassiere designs impede respiratory function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Kelly-Ann; Steele, Julie R; Chaunchaiyakul, Rungchai

    2005-09-01

    Although sports brassieres are more effective in limiting breast motion and related breast pain when compared with standard fashion brassieres, some females do not wear sports brassieres during physical activity, as they perceive them to be too tight around the torso, possibly impeding their performance during physical activity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether breast hypertrophy, breast momentum, and/or wearing a sports brassiere impeded respiratory function at rest and during physical activity. Twenty-two active women completed standard resting spirometry maneuvers while not wearing a brassiere. All subjects then completed maximal cycle ergometer testing in two breast support conditions (sports brassiere and no brassiere (NB)), followed by submaximal treadmill exercise tests under three breast support conditions (sports brassiere, no brassiere and fashion brassiere) while standard spirometry, brassiere pressure and comfort were measured. The sports brassiere imparted significantly more pressure on smaller breasted females' torsos when compared with the fashion brassiere (0.861 +/- 0.247 and 0.672 +/- 0.254 N.cm(-2), respectively), although this increased pressure did not appear to significantly affect measured lung volumes or brassiere comfort scores. Brassiere size affected maximal exercise ability (relative VO(2peak): smaller breasted NB: 49.84 +/- 6.15 mL.kg(-1).min(-1); larger breasted NB: 40.76 +/- 4.47 mL.kg(-1).min(-1)) as well as some temporal measures of resting and submaximal respiration. However, no significant difference was found between the no brassiere and brassiere conditions in regards to measured lung volumes. As no significant restriction to exercise performance or respiratory mechanics was found when subjects wore sports brassieres, it was concluded that active females should wear a sports brassiere during physical activity to reduce breast motion and related breast pain.

  15. Assessment of blood gas parameters and the degree of inflammation in noninvasive positive pressure ventilation combined with aminophylline treatment of COPD complicated with type II respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ru Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the effect of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation combined with aminophylline therapy on blood gas parameters and the degree of inflammation in patients with COPD and type II respiratory failure. Methods: A total of 80 patients with COPD and type Ⅱ respiratory failure were randomly divided into observation group and control group (n=40, control group received symptomatic treatment + aminophylline treatment, observation group received symptomatic treatment + aminophylline + noninvasive positive pressure ventilation treatment, and then differences in blood gas parameters, pulmonary function parameters, hemorheology parameters and inflammatory factor levels were compared between two groups of patients after treatment. Results: Radial artery pH and PO2 values of observation group after treatment were higher than those of control group while PCO2, Cl- and CO2CP values were lower than those of control group; pulmonary function parameters FVC, FEV1, FEF25-75, MMF, PEF and FRC values of observation group after treatment were higher than those of control group; whole blood viscosity (150 s- and 10 s-, plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, erythrocyte aggregation index and erythrocyte rigidity index values in peripheral venous blood of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group; serum IL-17, IL-33, TREM-1, sICAM-1 and PGE2 levels of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group. Conclusion: Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation combined with aminophylline can optimize the respiratory function of patients with COPD and type II respiratory failure and improve blood gas parameters and the degree of inflammation.

  16. Correlations between respiratory and functional variables in heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Cangeri Di Naso

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Respiratory alterations can impact on the functional performance of patients with heart failure. Aim: To correlate maximum inspiratory muscular force and lung function variables with functional capacity in heart failure patients. Methods: A transversal study January-July 2007 with 42 chronic heart disease patients (28 males with no prior pulmonary illness. The patients were in New York Heart Association Functional Class I, II and III. The variables used were maximum inspiratory pressure, forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in the first second. Respiratory variables measured were distance covered in the six-minute walk test, NYHA functional class and the physical functioning domain of the Short Form-36 Quality of Life Questionnaire. Results: Maximum inspiratory pressure correlated with the six-minute walk test (r = 0.543 and p < 0.001, functional capacity (r = −0.566 and p < 0.001 and the physical functioning domain score of the Short Form-36 (r = 0.459 and p = 0.002. The same was true of forced vital capacity and the six-minute walk test (r = 0.501 and p = 0.001, functional capacity (r = −0.477 and p = 0.001 and Short Form-36 (r = 0.314 and p = 0.043 variables. Forced expiratory volume correlated with the distance covered in the six-minute walk test (r = 0.514 and p < 0.001 and functional capacity (r = −0.383 and p = 0.012. Conclusion: Lung function and inspiratory muscular force respiratory variables correlated with functional variables in patients with heart failure. Resumo: Fundamento: Alterações respiratórias podem influenciar o desempenho funcional em doentes com insuficiência cardíaca (IC. Objectivo: Correlacionar a força muscular inspiratória máxima (PImax e as variáveis da função pulmonar com a capacidade funcional em doentes com IC. Métodos: Estudo transversal

  17. Chair-sitting exercise intervention does not improve respiratory muscle function in mechanically ventilated intensive care unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mei-Yu; Chang, Li-Yin; Huang, Yi-Chia; Lin, Kuei-Man; Cheng, Chien-Hsiang

    2011-10-01

    Chair-sitting may allow for more readily activated scalene, sternocleidomastoid, and parasternal intercostal muscles, and may raise and enlarge the upper thoracic cage, thereby allowing the thoracic cage to be more easily compressed. To evaluate the effect of chair-sitting during exercise training on respiratory muscle function in mechanically ventilated patients. We randomized 16 patients to a control group and 18 patients to a chair-sitting group. The patients in the chair-sitting group were transferred by 2 intensive care unit nurses from bed to armchair and rested for at least 30 min, based on the individual patient's tolerance. We measured heart rate, blood pressure, S(pO(2)), and respiratory rate. In the treatment group, before transferring the patient from bed to armchair, and 30 min after the completion of chair-sitting we measured respiratory muscle function variables, including the ratio of respiratory rate (f) to tidal volume (V(T)), S(pO(2)), maximum inspiratory pressure (P(Imax)) and maximum expiratory pressure (P(Emax)). In the control patients we took those same measurements while the patient was in semirecumbent position, before and after treatments, for at least 6 days or until the patient was discharged from the intensive care unit or died. The 2 groups did not significantly differ in age, sex, or clinical outcomes. Respiratory rate, V(T), f/V(T), S(pO(2)), P(Imax), and P(Emax) were not significantly better in the chair-sitting group. The study period significantly improved respiratory rate, V(T), P(Imax), and P(Emax) (all P chair-sitting exercise training did not significantly improve respiratory muscle function in mechanically ventilated patients.

  18. Citrate metabolism in blood transfusions and its relationship due to metabolic alkalosis and respiratory acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Xu, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic alkalosis commonly results from excessive hydrochloric acid (HCl), potassium (K(+)) and water (H2O) loss from the stomach or through the urine. The plasma anion gap increases in non-hypoproteinemic metabolic alkalosis due to an increased negative charge equivalent on albumin and the free ionized calcium (Ca(++)) content of plasma decreases. The mean citrate load in all patients was 8740±7027 mg from 6937±6603 mL of transfused blood products. The citrate load was significantly higher in patients with alkalosis (9164±4870 vs. 7809±3967, P metabolism causes intracellular acidosis. As a result of intracellular acidosis compensation, decompensated metabolic alkalosis + respiratory acidosis and electrolyte imbalance may develop, blood transfusions may result in certain complications.

  19. [Cerebral blood flow assessment of preterm infants during respiratory therapy with the expiratory flow increase technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassani, Mariana Almada; Caldas, Jamil Pedro Siqueira; Netto, Abimael Aranha; Marba, Sérgio Tadeu Martins

    2016-06-01

    To assess the impact of respiratory therapy with the expiratory flow increase technique on cerebral hemodynamics of premature newborns. This is an intervention study, which included 40 preterm infants (≤34 weeks) aged 8-15 days of life, clinically stable in ambient air or oxygen catheter use. Children with heart defects, diagnosis of brain lesion and/or those using vasoactive drugs were excluded. Ultrasonographic assessments with transcranial Doppler flowmetry were performed before, during and after the increase in expiratory flow session, which lasted 5minutes. Cerebral blood flow velocity and resistance and pulsatility indices in the pericallosal artery were assessed. Respiratory physical therapy did not significantly alter flow velocity at the systolic peak (p=0.50), the end diastolic flow velocity (p=0.17), the mean flow velocity (p=0.07), the resistance index (p=0.41) and the pulsatility index (p=0.67) over time. The expiratory flow increase technique did not affect cerebral blood flow in clinically-stable preterm infants. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Cerebral blood flow assessment of preterm infants during respiratory therapy with the expiratory flow increase technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Almada Bassani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To assess the impact of respiratory therapy with the expiratory flow increase technique on cerebral hemodynamics of premature newborns. Methods: This is an intervention study, which included 40 preterm infants (≤34 weeks aged 8-15 days of life, clinically stable in ambient air or oxygen catheter use. Children with heart defects, diagnosis of brain lesion and/or those using vasoactive drugs were excluded. Ultrasonographic assessments with transcranial Doppler flowmetry were performed before, during and after the increase in expiratory flow session, which lasted 5min. Cerebral blood flow velocity and resistance and pulsatility indices in the pericallosal artery were assessed. Results: Respiratory physical therapy did not significantly alter flow velocity at the systolic peak (p=0.50, the end diastolic flow velocity (p=0.17, the mean flow velocity (p=0.07, the resistance index (p=0.41 and the pulsatility index (p=0.67 over time. Conclusions: The expiratory flow increase technique did not affect cerebral blood flow in clinically-stable preterm infants.

  1. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation and elevates blood cotinine in cigarette smoke exposed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Ha

    Full Text Available Addition of menthol to cigarettes may be associated with increased initiation of smoking. The potential mechanisms underlying this association are not known. Menthol, likely due to its effects on cold-sensing peripheral sensory neurons, is known to inhibit the sensation of irritation elicited by respiratory irritants. However, it remains unclear whether menthol modulates cigarette smoke irritancy and nicotine absorption during initial exposures to cigarettes, thereby facilitating smoking initiation. Using plethysmography in a C57Bl/6J mouse model, we examined the effects of L-menthol, the menthol isomer added to cigarettes, on the respiratory sensory irritation response to primary smoke irritants (acrolein and cyclohexanone and smoke of Kentucky reference 2R4 cigarettes. We also studied L-menthol's effect on blood levels of the nicotine metabolite, cotinine, immediately after exposure to cigarette smoke. L-menthol suppressed the irritation response to acrolein with an apparent IC₅₀ of 4 ppm. Suppression was observed even at acrolein levels well above those necessary to produce a maximal response. Cigarette smoke, at exposure levels of 10 mg/m³ or higher, caused an immediate and marked sensory irritation response in mice. This response was significantly suppressed by L-menthol even at smoke concentrations as high as 300 mg/m³. Counterirritation by L-menthol was abolished by treatment with a selective inhibitor of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8, the neuronal cold/menthol receptor. Inclusion of menthol in the cigarette smoke resulted in roughly a 1.5-fold increase in plasma cotinine levels over those observed in mice exposed to smoke without added menthol. These findings document that, L-menthol, through TRPM8, is a strong suppressor of respiratory irritation responses, even during highly noxious exposures to cigarette smoke or smoke irritants, and increases blood cotinine. Therefore, L-menthol, as a cigarette additive, may

  2. Revisiting 'Respiratory Function in Emphysema in Relation to Prognosis'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David V Bates

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 1956 paper by DV Bates, JMS Knott and RV Christie, "Respiratory function in emphysema in relation to prognosis" Quart J Med 1956;97:137-157 is largely reprinted with a commentary by the first author, Dr David Bates. Although the pathology of emphysema was well recognized at the time, the clinical diagnosis and assessment of its severity were known to be imprecise; physiological measurements assessing and following the clinical course had not been established. The study aimed to follow systematically a group of patients, selected by clinical criteria using standardized clinical and physiological techniques, over four years and correlate physiological and clinical changes in relation to prognosis and eventually to postmortem findings. Fifty-nine patients were recruited to an emphysema clinic at St Bartholomew's Hospital, London, England. Inclusion criteria were dyspnea without other causes and no cor pulmonale present. Patients' symptoms were assessed by a standardized questionnaire, and measurements were taken of lung volumes, maximal ventilatory volume, carbon monoxide diffusing capacity at rest, exercise and oxygen saturation by oximetry.  During the four years of the study, 17 patients died (actuarial expected - four and 13 presented with signs of pulmonary heart failure. All postmortem examinations (n=9 showed advanced emphysema. A seasonal variation in dyspnea was established (the period included the infamous 1952 London smog. Four patients improved, and the remainder were unchanged or deteriorated. Close relationships were shown between dyspnea and function results, particularly for the diffusing capacity of lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO. A comparison among a group of patients with chronic bronchitis without dyspnea showed that the DLCO discriminated between them. A loss of the normal increase in DLCO during exercise was shown in emphysema.

  3. Umbilical cord blood and neonatal endothelin-1 levels in preterm newborns with and without respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.W. Benjamin

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Increased pulmonary vascular resistance in preterm newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome is suggested, and endothelin-1 plays an important role in pulmonary vascular reactivity in newborns. We determined umbilical cord blood and neonatal (second sample levels of endothelin-1 in 18 preterm newborns with respiratory distress syndrome who had no clinical or echocardiographic diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension and 22 without respiratory distress syndrome (gestational ages: 31.4 ± 1.6 and 29.3 ± 2.3 weeks, respectively. Umbilical cord blood and a second blood sample taken 18 to 40 h after birth were used for endothelin-1 determination by enzyme immunoassay. Median umbilical cord blood endothelin-1 levels were similar in both groups (control: 10.9 and respiratory distress syndrome: 11.4 pg/mL and were significantly higher than in the second sample (control: 1.7 pg/mL and respiratory distress syndrome: 3.5 pg/mL, P < 0.001 for both groups. Median endothelin-1 levels in the second sample were significantly higher in children with respiratory distress syndrome than in control infants (P < 0.001. There were significant positive correlations between second sample endothelin-1 and Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology and Perinatal Extension II (r = 0.36, P = 0.02, and duration of mechanical ventilation (r = 0.64, P = 0.02. A slower decline of endothelin-1 from birth to 40 h of life was observed in newborns with respiratory distress syndrome when compared to controls. A significant correlation between neonatal endothelin-1 levels and some illness-severity signs suggests that endothelin-1 plays a role in the natural course of respiratory distress syndrome in preterm newborns.

  4. Clinical-Functional State of Respiratory Organs of Chemical Production Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabit S. Shorin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The clinical-functional research has allowed to identify the functional state of respiratory organs of production workers. The pathology is formed through stages (healthy –unhealthy individuals.

  5. Impact of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection on Respiratory Muscle Function in Adult Cystic Fibrosis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnet, Friederike Sophie; Callegari, Jens; Dieninghoff, Doris; Spielmanns, Marc; Storre, Jan Hendrik; Schmoor, Claudia; Windisch, Wolfram

    2017-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection impairs respiratory muscle function in adolescents with cystic fibrosis, but its impact on adult patients has not been characterised. To investigate respiratory muscle function in adult cystic fibrosis patients according to P. aeruginosa status (repetitive samples over 12 months). The pressure-time index of the respiratory muscles (PTImus), a measure of their efficiency, served as the primary outcome. In addition, respiratory load and maximal respiratory muscle strength were assessed. In 51 patients examined (65% female; median age 32 years, IQR 24-40), a median of 3.0 (IQR 2-4) different pathogens was found in each patient. The PTImus was 0.113 and 0.126 in Pseudomonas-positive (n = 33) and -negative (n = 18) patients, respectively (p = 0.53). Univariate analysis showed a lower PTImus in male than in female patients (p = 0.006). Respiratory muscle load and strength were otherwise comparable, with the exception of higher nasal sniff pressures in Pseudomonas-positive patients who were chronically infected (>50% of positive samples). Quality of Life (according to the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire-Revised) was higher if both respiratory load and the PTImus were low (high respiratory muscle efficiency). Chronic P. aeruginosa infection does not influence respiratory muscle efficiency in adult cystic fibrosis patients with otherwise multiple co-infections. In addition, patients with reduced respiratory muscle efficiency had worse Quality of Life. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Motor function and respiratory capacity in patients with late-onset pompe disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illes, Zsolt; Mike, Andrea; Trauninger, Anita; Várdi, Katalin; Váczi, Márk

    2014-04-01

    The relationship between skeletal muscle strength and respiratory dysfunction in Pompe disease has not been examined by quantitative methods. We investigated correlations among lower extremity proximal muscle strength, respiratory function, and motor performance. Concentric strength of the knee extensor and flexor muscles was measured with a dynamometer, and pulmonary function was evaluated using spirometry in 7 adult patients. The 6-minute walk test and the 4-step stair-climb test were used for assessing aerobic endurance and anaerobic power, respectively. Anaerobic motor performance correlated with strength of both thigh muscles. Respiratory function did not correlate with either muscle strength or motor function performance. Respiratory and lower extremity proximal muscles could be affected differentially by the disease in individual patients. Motor performance is influenced by thigh muscle strength and is less dependent of respiratory capacity in our cohort of ambulatory patients. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. [The pulmonary function and respiratory muscle power in multiple systemic atrophy and Parkinson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Zhang, Ying-dong; Gao, Li; Lu, Jie; Gu, Hao; Sun, Li-hua; Tan, Yan; Liu, Yun; Zhang, Jian-ping

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the characteristics of pulmonary function and respiratory muscle performance in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength were evaluated in 16 MSA patients and 20 PD patients. Another 17 age and sex-matched healthy volunteers were recruited as controls. Carbon monoxide diffusion capacity (DLCO) was significantly decreased in MSA group compared with PD group [(62.86 ± 15.66)% vs (76.67 ± 18.98)%, respectively, P respiratory dysfunction is involved in MSA and PD. The reduction of respiratory muscle strength is remarkable. The insufficiency of pulmonary diffusion function is more severe in MSA than in PD. More attention should be paid to the compromised respiratory function in neurodegenerative disorders.

  8. Effect of metabolic alkalosis on respiratory function in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, R.; Goldstein, M.; Phillipson, E.; Ho, M.; Hammeke, M.; Feldman, R.; Handelsman, S.; Halperin, M.

    1977-01-01

    Eleven instances of a mixed acid-base disorder consisting of chronic respiratory acidosis and metabolic alkalosis were recognized in eight patients with chronic obstructive lung disease and carbon dioxide retention. Correction of the metabolic alkalosis led to substantial improvement in blood gas values and clinical symptoms. Patients with mixed chronic respiratory acidosis and metabolic alkalosis constitute a common subgroup of patients with chronic obstructive lung disease and carbon dioxide retention; these patients benefit from correction of the metabolic alkalosis. PMID:21028

  9. Cerebral blood flow response to functional activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulson, Olaf B; Hasselbalch, Steen G; Rostrup, Egill

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate are normally coupled, that is an increase in metabolic demand will lead to an increase in flow. However, during functional activation, CBF and glucose metabolism remain coupled as they increase in proportion, whereas oxygen metabolism only...... most distant from the capillaries, whereas other studies point to a shift toward a higher degree of non-oxidative glucose consumption during activation. In this review, we argue that the key mechanism responsible for the regional CBF (rCBF) increase during functional activation is a tight coupling...... between rCBF and glucose metabolism. We assert that uncoupling of rCBF and oxidative metabolism is a consequence of a less pronounced increase in oxygen consumption. On the basis of earlier studies, we take into consideration the functional recruitment of capillaries and attempt to accommodate...

  10. Blood flow restricted exercise and vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Masahiro; Okita, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    It is established that regular aerobic training improves vascular function, for example, endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and arterial stiffness or compliance and thereby constitutes a preventative measure against cardiovascular disease. In contrast, high-intensity resistance training impairs vascular function, while the influence of moderate-intensity resistance training on vascular function is still controversial. However, aerobic training is insufficient to inhibit loss in muscular strength with advancing age; thus, resistance training is recommended to prevent sarcopenia. Recently, several lines of study have provided compelling data showing that exercise and training with blood flow restriction (BFR) leads to muscle hypertrophy and strength increase. As such, BFR training might be a novel means of overcoming the contradiction between aerobic and high-intensity resistance training. Although it is not enough evidence to obtain consensus about impact of BFR training on vascular function, available evidences suggested that BFR training did not change coagulation factors and arterial compliance though with inconsistence results in endothelial function. This paper is a review of the literature on the impact of BFR exercise and training on vascular function, such as endothelial function, arterial compliance, or other potential factors in comparison with those of aerobic and resistance training.

  11. Blood Flow Restricted Exercise and Vascular Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Horiuchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is established that regular aerobic training improves vascular function, for example, endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and arterial stiffness or compliance and thereby constitutes a preventative measure against cardiovascular disease. In contrast, high-intensity resistance training impairs vascular function, while the influence of moderate-intensity resistance training on vascular function is still controversial. However, aerobic training is insufficient to inhibit loss in muscular strength with advancing age; thus, resistance training is recommended to prevent sarcopenia. Recently, several lines of study have provided compelling data showing that exercise and training with blood flow restriction (BFR leads to muscle hypertrophy and strength increase. As such, BFR training might be a novel means of overcoming the contradiction between aerobic and high-intensity resistance training. Although it is not enough evidence to obtain consensus about impact of BFR training on vascular function, available evidences suggested that BFR training did not change coagulation factors and arterial compliance though with inconsistence results in endothelial function. This paper is a review of the literature on the impact of BFR exercise and training on vascular function, such as endothelial function, arterial compliance, or other potential factors in comparison with those of aerobic and resistance training.

  12. Respiratory function after selective respiratory motor neuron death from intrapleural CTB-saporin injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Nicole L; Vinit, Stéphane; Bauernschmidt, Lorene; Mitchell, Gordon S

    2015-05-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) causes progressive motor neuron degeneration, paralysis and death by ventilatory failure. In rodent ALS models: 1) breathing capacity is preserved until late in disease progression despite major respiratory motor neuron death, suggesting unknown forms of compensatory respiratory plasticity; and 2) spinal microglia become activated in association with motor neuron cell death. Here, we report a novel experimental model to study the impact of respiratory motor neuron death on compensatory responses without many complications attendant to spontaneous motor neuron disease. In specific, we used intrapleural injections of cholera toxin B fragment conjugated to saporin (CTB-SAP) to selectively kill motor neurons with access to the pleural space. Motor neuron survival, CD11b labeling (microglia), ventilatory capacity and phrenic motor output were assessed in rats 3-28days after intrapleural injections of: 1) CTB-SAP (25 and 50μg), or 2) unconjugated CTB and SAP (i.e. control; (CTB+SAP). CTB-SAP elicited dose-dependent phrenic and intercostal motor neuron death; 7days post-25μg CTB-SAP, motor neuron survival approximated that in end-stage ALS rats (phrenic: 36±7%; intercostal: 56±10% of controls; n=9; pmotor nucleus, indicating microglial activation; 2) decreased breathing during maximal chemoreceptor stimulation; and 3) diminished phrenic motor output in anesthetized rats (7days post-25μg, 0.3±0.07V; CTB+SAP: 1.5±0.3; n=9; pmotor neuron death and provides an opportunity to study compensation for respiratory motor neuron loss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of zero-balanced ultrafiltration on procalcitonin and respiratory function after cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, L O U; Yinglong, L I U; Jinping, L I U

    2007-09-01

    The abnormal conditions to which blood is subjected during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) trigger an activation of the inflammatory response and cause pulmonary dysfunction. It has been suggested that high-volume, zero-balanced ultrafiltration (ZBUF) facilitates clearance of inflammatory mediators and improves post-operative pulmonary function. Procalcitonin, a newly discovered inflammatory mediator, has been found to be increased after CPB and has been proven to be an appropriate parameter for predicting pulmonary dysfunction secondary to CPB. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of zero-balanced ultrafiltration (ZBUF) on procalcitonin (PCT) and respiratory function of infants with Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) after CPB. Twenty infants with TOF undergoing open-heart total surgical correction were randomly assigned to two groups. The trial group was given ZBUF (50 ml/kg) and conventional ultrafiltration (CUF), while the control group was given CUF only. Plasma PCT and pulmonary function were monitored and compared between the two groups before the operation (T1), before rewarming (T2), at the end of the operation (T3), and at 12 h, 24 h and 48 h after the operation (T4-T6). PCT was decreased in the trial group between 12 h and 48 h post-operatively, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. The trial group's pulmonary compliance was higher at 12 h post-operatively (p 0.05). Intubation time was shorter in the trial group (P < 0.01). A positive correlation was found between peak PCT concentration and intubation time. ZBUF appeared to improve ventilation and shorten intubation time. The improved respiratory function may be due to the lower plasma PCT.

  14. A study of the barrier function of the upper respiratory tract covering epithelium in the event of combined respiratory tract injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Z.; Kolev, K.; Dermendzhiev, Kh.; Nikolova, M.; Kantardzhiev, V.

    1976-01-01

    Functional and morphologic impairment of upper respiratory tract mucous membranes after chronic exposure to the three major occupational noxious agents in ore mining - radon-222, silica dust, and respirable dust - has been studied experimentally. Over a 6-month period, rats were given daily treatments, with the agents applied either individually or in combination. Radon-222 (at 1 x 10 -10 Ci/l, corresponding to the maximum permissible concentrotion in uranium mine atmospheres) and respirable dust (dispersed silicogen at 100 mg/m 3 ) were administered four hours daily in toxicological chambers. Monodisperse silica dust was given by tracheal tube, at 50 mg in 1 ml of saline per rat. At the end of the treatment period, the barrier function of the respiratory epithelium was tested, and found to have been affected, by measuring beta radioactivity in blood following introduction into -the animal's nasopharynx of a 32 P-labelled staphylococcus culture. The most severe degree if impairment was found to result from simultaneous exposure to radon and respirable dust. Any of ti'e agents given individually caused a similar degree of impairment. Intratracheal administration of silicic acid anhydride appeared to have no deleterious consequences. The evidence for functional impairment was supported by histologic findings, indicating Jevelopment of ulcerous bronchitis, metaplasia of cylindrical epithelium, etc., after both individual and combined radon exposure. (A.B.)

  15. Relationships between Respiratory Muscle Strength and Daily Living Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Yi; Chen, Chien-Chih; Hsiao, Shih-Fen

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a common childhood disorder characterized by motor disability. Children with CP are at risk of developing significant respiratory problems associated with insufficient respiratory muscle strength. It is crucial to identify important factors which are associated with the limitations in daily living function in such children.…

  16. Respiratory muscle function and exercise limitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charususin, Noppawan; Dacha, Sauwaluk; Gosselink, Rik; Decramer, Marc; Von Leupoldt, Andreas; Reijnders, Thomas; Louvaris, Zafeiris; Langer, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Respiratory muscle dysfunction is common and contributes to dyspnea and exercise limitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Improving dynamic function of respiratory muscles during exercise might help to reduce symptoms and improve exercise capacity. Areas covered: The aims of this review are to 1) summarize physiological mechanisms linking respiratory muscle dysfunction to dyspnea and exercise limitation; 2) provide an overview of available therapeutic approaches to better maintain load-capacity balance of respiratory muscles during exercise; and 3) to summarize current knowledge on potential mechanisms explaining effects of interventions aimed at optimizing dynamic respiratory muscle function with a special focus on inspiratory muscle training. Expert commentary: Several mechanisms which are potentially linking improvements in dynamic respiratory muscle function to symptomatic and functional benefits have not been studied so far in COPD patients. Examples of underexplored areas include the study of neural processes related to the relief of acute dyspnea and the competition between respiratory and peripheral muscles for limited energy supplies during exercise. Novel methodologies are available to non-invasively study these mechanisms. Better insights into the consequences of dynamic respiratory muscle dysfunction will hopefully contribute to further refine and individualize therapeutic approaches in patients with COPD.

  17. Surfactant nebulisation prevents the adverse effects of surfactant therapy on blood pressure and cerebral blood flow in rabbits with severe respiratory failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Peter H.; Heikamp, A; Bambang Oetomo, Sidarto

    1997-01-01

    Objective: Surfactant replacement therapy for the neonatal respiratory distress syndrome has shown beneficial effects on lung function and survival. Recently, rapid fluctuations of haemodynamics and cerebral perfusion following surfactant instillation have beer, described and an association with the

  18. Respiratory impairment and the aging lung: a novel paradigm for assessing pulmonary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz Fragoso, Carlos A; Gill, Thomas M

    2012-03-01

    Older persons have an increased risk of developing respiratory impairment because the aging lung is likely to have experienced exposures to environmental toxins as well as reductions in physiological capacity. Systematic review of risk factors and measures of pulmonary function that are most often considered when defining respiratory impairment in aging populations. Across the adult life span, there are frequent exposures to environmental toxins, including tobacco smoke, respiratory infections, air pollution, and occupational dusts. Concurrently, there are reductions in physiological capacity that may adversely affect ventilatory control, respiratory muscle strength, respiratory mechanics, and gas exchange. Recent work has provided a strong rationale for defining respiratory impairment as an age-adjusted reduction in spirometric measures of pulmonary function that are independently associated with adverse health outcomes. Specifically, establishing respiratory impairment based on spirometric Z-scores has been shown to be strongly associated with respiratory symptoms, frailty, and mortality. Alternatively, respiratory impairment may be defined by the peak expiratory flow, as measured by a peak flow meter. The peak expiratory flow, when expressed as a Z-score, has been shown to be strongly associated with disability and mortality. However, because it has a reduced diagnostic accuracy, peak expiratory flow should only define respiratory impairment when spirometry is not readily available or an older person cannot adequately perform spirometry. Aging is associated with an increased risk of developing respiratory impairment, which is best defined by spirometric Z-scores. Alternatively, in selected cases, respiratory impairment may be defined by peak expiratory flow, also expressed as a Z-score.

  19. Cocoa, Blood Pressure, and Vascular Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludovici, Valeria; Barthelmes, Jens; Nägele, Matthias P.; Enseleit, Frank; Ferri, Claudio; Flammer, Andreas J.; Ruschitzka, Frank; Sudano, Isabella

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents the most common cause of death worldwide. The consumption of natural polyphenol-rich foods, and cocoa in particular, has been related to a reduced risk of CVD, including coronary heart disease and stroke. Intervention studies strongly suggest that cocoa exerts a beneficial impact on cardiovascular health, through the reduction of blood pressure (BP), improvement of vascular function, modulation of lipid and glucose metabolism, and reduction of platelet aggregation. These potentially beneficial effects have been shown in healthy subjects as well as in patients with risk factors (arterial hypertension, diabetes, and smoking) or established CVD (coronary heart disease or heart failure). Several potential mechanisms are supposed to be responsible for the positive effect of cocoa; among them activation of nitric oxide (NO) synthase, increased bioavailability of NO as well as antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. It is the aim of this review to summarize the findings of cocoa and chocolate on BP and vascular function. PMID:28824916

  20. Systematic Analysis of Blood Cell Transcriptome in End-Stage Chronic Respiratory Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botturi, Karine; Reynaud-Gaubert, Martine; Mussot, Sacha; Stern, Marc; Danner-Boucher, Isabelle; Mornex, Jean-François; Pison, Christophe; Dromer, Claire; Kessler, Romain; Dahan, Marcel; Brugière, Olivier; Le Pavec, Jérôme; Perros, Frédéric; Humbert, Marc; Gomez, Carine; Brouard, Sophie; Magnan, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Background End-stage chronic respiratory diseases (CRD) have systemic consequences, such as weight loss and susceptibility to infection. However the mechanisms of such dysfunctions are as yet poorly explained. We hypothesized that the genes putatively involved in these mechanisms would emerge from a systematic analysis of blood mRNA profiles from pre-transplant patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), pulmonary hypertension (PAH), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods Whole blood was first collected from 13 patients with PAH, 23 patients with CF, and 28 Healthy Controls (HC). Microarray results were validated by quantitative PCR on a second and independent group (7PAH, 9CF, and 11HC). Twelve pre-transplant COPD patients were added to validate the common signature shared by patients with CRD for all causes. To further clarify a role for hypoxia in the candidate gene dysregulation, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HC were analysed for their mRNA profile under hypoxia. Results Unsupervised hierarchical clustering allowed the identification of 3 gene signatures related to CRD. One was common to CF and PAH, another specific to CF, and the final one was specific to PAH. With the common signature, we validated T-Cell Factor 7 (TCF-7) and Interleukin 7 Receptor (IL-7R), two genes related to T lymphocyte activation, as being under-expressed. We showed a strong impact of the hypoxia on modulation of TCF-7 and IL-7R expression in PBMCs from HC under hypoxia or PBMCs from CRD. In addition, we identified and validated genes upregulated in PAH or CF, including Lectin Galactoside-binding Soluble 3 and Toll Like Receptor 4, respectively. Conclusions Systematic analysis of blood cell transcriptome in CRD patients identified common and specific signatures relevant to the systemic pathologies. TCF-7 and IL-7R were downregulated whatever the cause of CRD and this could play a role in the higher susceptibility to infection of these patients. PMID:25329529

  1. Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function Patterns in Workers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: 'Mai suya' is a common job in the most northern Nigeria in which there is significant exposures to wood smoke and oil fumes. The respiratory impact of these dual exposures on workers engaged in this work has not been previously documented, hence this study was carried out. Aim: The aim is to study the ...

  2. Respiratory symptoms and lung function impairment in underground ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This is the first study in Ghana in the Obuasi gold mines where the silica content of the respirable dust is 10%, less than in previously studied gold mines, with only 23% of the miners having ever smoked. Objectives: The study was to assess the prevalence of respiratory impairment in the Ghanaian gold miner ...

  3. Assessment of respiratory symptoms and lung function among textile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-06

    Apr 6, 2011 ... Background: The number of textile industries in Nigeria with large work force is on the rise. There is ... in printing, spinning, weaving, dying, and maintenance .... Table 1: Prevalence of respiratory symptoms in textile workers by nature of job. Nature of work. No. of workers (%). No. with symptoms (%). Printers.

  4. Respiratory failure in diabetic ketoacidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinov, Nikifor K; Rohrscheib, Mark; Agaba, Emmanuel I; Dorin, Richard I; Murata, Glen H; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory failure complicating the course of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a source of increased morbidity and mortality. Detection of respiratory failure in DKA requires focused clinical monitoring, careful interpretation of arterial blood gases, and investigation for conditions that can affect adversely the respiration. Conditions that compromise respiratory function caused by DKA can be detected at presentation but are usually more prevalent during treatment. These conditions include deficits of potassium, magnesium and phosphate and hydrostatic or non-hydrostatic pulmonary edema. Conditions not caused by DKA that can worsen respiratory function under the added stress of DKA include infections of the respiratory system, pre-existing respiratory or neuromuscular disease and miscellaneous other conditions. Prompt recognition and management of the conditions that can lead to respiratory failure in DKA may prevent respiratory failure and improve mortality from DKA. PMID:26240698

  5. Pulmonary function tests and work-related respiratory and allergic symptoms in Iranian bakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hosein; Taheri, Ehsan; Ahmadi, Sina; Ebrahimi, Kolsoumeh; Soudaneh, Malihe; Mohammadi, Fatemeh; Sabourhasanzadeh, Alireza

    2009-06-01

    Bakers are frequently exposed to various irritant chemicals during work which can induce respiratory problems. In this study, pulmonary function tests and self-reported respiratory and allergic symptoms in bakers were compared with matched control subjects. The frequency of respiratory and allergic symptoms was evaluated in a sample of 58 Iranian bakers and 58 control subjects using a questionnaire. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) were also measured in all participants. All respiratory symptoms were significantly higher in bakers than control croup (pbakers were also significantly greater than control group (pbakers compared to rest period (pbakers than control subjects (pbakers have a higher frequency of work related respiratory symptoms and to a lesser extend allergic symptoms particularly during the work period. PFT values were also significantly reduced among bakers.

  6. The association of early blood oxygenation with child development in preterm infants with acute respiratory disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karen E; Keeney, Susan; Zhang, Lifang; Perez-Polo, J Regino; Rassin, David K

    2008-02-01

    The potential negative impact of early blood oxygenation on development of specific cognitive and motor outcomes in children born at very low birth weight (VLBW; 1000-1500g) has not been examined even though these infants are exposed to varying durations and amounts of oxygen as part of their neonatal care. While this is the largest group of preterm infants, they receive much less research attention than extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW<1000g). Although neonatologists are questioning the routine use of oxygen therapy for all neonates, research has focused primarily on the more medically fragile ELBW infants. To date there are no systematic studies available to guide decision making for oxygen supplementation for a large segment of the preterm infant population. The aim of the present study was to determine if there is an association between blood oxygenation in the first 4h of life and specific cognitive and motor skills in preterm infants with acute respiratory disorders but no severe intracranial insult using a selected cohort from a longitudinal study children recruited in 1991 and 1992 designed to examine the role of biological immaturity as defined by gestational age and parenting in development. From this cohort, 55 children had acute respiratory disorders without severe intracranial insult. Of these, 35 children had at least one partial pressure of oxygen obtained from arterial blood (PaO2) during the first 4h of life as part of their clinical care. Higher early PaO2 values were associated with lower impulse control and attention skills in the elementary school age period. Models that were examined for relations between PaO2 values that also included birth weight and parenting quality across the first year of life revealed that higher PaO2 remained associated with impulse control but not attention skills. Birth weight was not associated with any outcomes. These results suggest that hyperoxia may be a risk factor for developmental problems that are

  7. Motor function and respiratory capacity in patients with late-onset pompe disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illes, Zsolt; Mike, Andrea; Trauninger, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The relationship between skeletal muscle strength and respiratory dysfunction in Pompe disease has not been examined by quantitative methods. We investigated correlations among lower extremity proximal muscle strength, respiratory function, and motor performance. Methods: Concentric......: Anaerobic motor performance correlated with strength of both thigh muscles. Respiratory function did not correlate with either muscle strength or motor function performance. Conclusions: Respiratory and lower extremity proximal muscles could be differentially affected by the disease in individual patients...... strength of the knee extensor and flexor muscles were measured with a dynamometer, and pulmonary function was evaluated using spirometry in 7 adult patients. The six-minute walk test and the four-step stair-climb test were used for assessing aerobic endurance and anaerobic power, respectively. Results...

  8. Severe impaired respiratory ciliary function in Wegener granulomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, S; Gustke, H; Lamprecht, P; Gross, W L; Schumacher, U; Ambrosch, P; Laudien, M

    2009-06-01

    The pathogenesis of granulomatous inflammation in the respiratory tract and autoimmunity in Wegener granulomatosis (WG) are poorly understood. Since mucociliar clearance represents the first major line of defence in the respiratory tract and its breakdown facilitates chronic inflammation, we investigated ciliary beat frequency (CBF) in WG. Nasal epithelial cells were obtained from 30 patients with WG with involvement of the upper respiratory tract, 12 patients with other inflammatory rheumatic disease and 10 healthy controls. CBF was measured at 5 and 24 h after collection. were correlated with clinical data. Results: CBF was significantly reduced in WG compared to disease and healthy controls after 5 and 24 h. In WG, CBF almost stagnated after 24 h. Reduction of CBF correlated with the cumulative number of immunosuppressive agents in WG, but not in disease controls. No correlation was found between CBF impairment and cyclophosphamide levels, disease extent, disease activity, disease duration, serological and microbiological findings, or inflammation markers. CBF is severely impaired in WG, potentially influenced by immunosuppressive treatment. To what extent CBF impairment and subsequent barrier dysfunction are caused by other factors still has to be elucidated. Supportive measures to improve mucociliary clearance should be discussed in patients with WG.

  9. Respiratory Function Under Intrathecal Baclofen Therapy in Patients With Spastic Tetraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishima, Haruhiko; Yanagisawa, Takufumi; Goto, Yuko; Oshino, Satoru; Maruo, Tomoyuki; Tani, Naoki; Khoo, Hui Ming; Hosomi, Koichi; Hirata, Masayuki; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2016-08-01

    Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy is an effective treatment for patients with severe spasticity. However, the effect of ITB therapy on respiratory function has not been reported in detail. In this study we quantitatively analyzed the effects of ITB on the respiratory function of patients with spastic tetraplegia. We retrospectively reviewed 23 patients who were administrated ITB therapy from January 2009 to December 2012. Six of these 23 patients, who had spastic tetraplegia and were able to undergo spirometric testing, were included this study. The spasticity derived from cervical spinal cord injury in four patients and cerebral palsy (CP) in two patients. Patients' Ashworth Scale scores and spirometer measurements obtained before and 1-6 months after the start of ITB therapy were evaluated and compared. Before ITB therapy, %FVC of all six patients was below 80%, and a restrictive respiratory disorder was diagnosed in five patients and a combined respiratory disorder in one patient. Ashworth Scale scores for both the lower and upper extremities improved significantly with ITB therapy. Forced vital capacity (FVC), %FVC, and forced expiratory volume at one sec also improved significantly with ITB therapy. Respiratory disorders were indeed present in our SCI and CP patients with spastic tetraplegia, and the respiratory function of these patients improved with ITB therapy. Our results suggest that ITB therapy is safe and efficacious in patients with spastic tetraplegia and respiratory dysfunction. © 2016 International Neuromodulation Society.

  10. Pivotal debates and controversies on the structure and function of the avian respiratory system: setting the record straight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, John N

    2017-08-01

    Among the extant air-breathing vertebrates, the avian respiratory system is structurally the most complex and functionally the most efficient gas exchanger. Having been investigated for over four centuries, some aspects of its biology have been extremely challenging and highly contentious and others still remain unresolved. Here, while assessing the most recent findings, four notable aspects of the structure and function of the avian respiratory system are examined critically to highlight the questions, speculations, controversies and debates that have arisen from past research. The innovative techniques and experiments that were performed to answer particular research questions are emphasised. The features that are outlined here concern the arrangement of the airways, the path followed by the inspired air, structural features of the lung and the air and blood capillaries, and the level of cellular defence in the avian respiratory system. Hitherto, based on association with the proven efficiency of naturally evolved and human-made counter-current exchange systems rather than on definite experimental evidence, a counter-current gas exchange system was suggested to exist in the avian respiratory system and was used to explain its exceptional efficiency. However, by means of an elegant experiment in which the direction of the air-flow in the lung was reversed, a cross-current system was shown to be in operation instead. Studies of the arrangement of the airways and the blood vessels corroborated the existence of a cross-current system in the avian lung. While the avian respiratory system is ventilated tidally, like most other invaginated gas exchangers, the lung, specifically the paleopulmonic parabronchi, is ventilated unidirectionally and continuously in a caudocranial (back-to-front) direction by synchronized actions of the air sacs. The path followed by the inspired air in the lung-air sac system is now known to be controlled by a mechanism of aerodynamic valving

  11. Blood flow/pump rotation ratio as an artificial lung performance monitoring tool during extracorporeal respiratory support using centrifugal pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Marcelo; Mendes, Pedro Vitale; Hirota, Adriana Sayuri; dos Santos, Edzangela Vasconcelos; Costa, Eduardo Leite Vieira; Azevedo, Luciano Cesar Pontes

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the correlations of the blood flow/pump rotation ratio and the transmembrane pressure, CO2 and O2 transfer during the extracorporeal respiratory support. Five animals were instrumented and submitted to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in a five-step protocol, including abdominal sepsis and lung injury. This study showed that blood flow/pump rotations ratio variations are dependent on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation blood flow in a positive logarithmic fashion. Blood flow/pump rotation ratio variations are negatively associated with transmembrane pressure (R2 = 0.5 for blood flow = 1500mL/minute and R2 = 0.4 for blood flow = 3500mL/minute, both with p 6L/minute, p = 0.006), and the blood flow/pump rotation ratio is not associated with O2 transfer variations (R2 = 0.01 for blood flow = 1500mL/minute, p = 0.19, and R2 = - 0.01 for blood flow = 3500 mL/minute, p = 0.46). Blood flow/pump rotation ratio variation is negatively associated with transmembrane pressure and positively associated with CO2 transfer in this animal model. According to the clinical situation, a decrease in the blood flow/pump rotation ratio can indicate artificial lung dysfunction without the occurrence of hypoxemia.

  12. The physiology of dinosaurs: circulatory and respiratory function in the largest animals ever to walk the earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, David J

    2009-07-01

    The cardiopulmonary physiology of dinosaurs-and especially of the long-necked sauropods, which grew much larger than any land animals before or since-should be inherently fascinating to anyone involved in respiratory care. What would the blood pressure be in an animal 12 m (40 ft) tall? How could airway resistance and dead space be overcome while breathing through a trachea 9 m (30 ft) long? The last decade has seen a dramatic increase in evidence bearing on these questions. Insight has come not only from new fossil discoveries but also from comparative studies of living species, clarification of evolutionary relationships, new evaluation techniques, computer modeling, and discoveries about the earth's ancient atmosphere. Pumping a vertical column of blood 8 m (26 ft) above the heart would probably require an arterial blood pressure > 600 mm Hg, and the implications of this for cardiac size and function have led to the proposal of several alternative cardiopulmonary designs. Diverse lines of evidence suggest that the giant sauropods were probably warm-blooded and metabolically active when young, but slowed their metabolism as they approached adult size, which diminished the load on the circulatory system. Circulatory considerations leave little doubt that the dinosaurs had 4-chambered hearts. Birds evolved from dinosaurs, and the avian-type air-sac respiratory system, which is more efficient than its mammalian counterpart, may hold the answer to the breathing problems posed by the sauropods' very long necks. Geochemical and other data indicate that, at the time the dinosaurs first appeared, the atmospheric oxygen concentration was only about half of what it is today, and development of the avian-type respiratory system may have been key in the dinosaurs' evolutionary success, enabling them to out-compete the mammals and dominate the land for 150 million years.

  13. Effects of smoking on chest expansion, lung function, and respiratory muscle strength of youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantisuwat, Anong; Thaveeratitham, Premtip

    2014-02-01

    [Purpose] Smoking has a direct effect on the respiratory system. The rate of cigarette smoking among young people has continued to increase steadily. The present study quantified and compared the respiratory function of smoking and non-smoking youths. [Subjects] Smoking and non-smoking male participants aged between 15 to 18 years were recruited (n=34 per group). [Methods] Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire relating to smoking habits and the Fagerström test for nicotine dependence questionnaire, and their respiratory function was tested (measurement of chest expansion, lung function test with a spirometer, and assessment of respiratory muscle strength). [Results] All respiratory function tests demonstrated significant differences between the smoking and non-smoking groups. Smokers initiated cigarette smoking between the ages of 15 to 18 years. The most common duration of cigarette smoking was 1-3 years and the degree of nicotine dependence among the youths was at a low level. [Conclusion] This study's findings show that the early effects of cigarette smoking found in youths can lead to problems with the respiratory system. Such information can be used to illustrate the harm of smoking and should be used to encourage young people to quit or avoid cigarette smoking.

  14. Deposition of inhaled particles in the respiratory tract as a function of age at exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.G.; Healy, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    A respiratory tract deposition model was developed that would accommodate age 1 month to adulthood as an initial step in calculating radiation dose following inhalation during environmental exposures. The approach to changing respiratory tract and physiological parameters to be applicable to children was to derive an analytical function describing the ratio of the child value to the value for a reference adult with the desired characteristics. A computer program was written to carry out the tracing of airflow through the respiratory tract and deposition in each of the sections for monodispersed particles of known density and diameter. 7 references

  15. Noncontact Detection and Analysis of Respiratory Function Using Microwave Doppler Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Siong Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Real-time respiratory measurement with Doppler Radar has an important advantage in the monitoring of certain conditions such as sleep apnoea, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS, and many other general clinical uses requiring fast nonwearable and non-contact measurement of the respiratory function. In this paper, we demonstrate the feasibility of using Doppler Radar in measuring the basic respiratory frequencies (via fast Fourier transform for four different types of breathing scenarios: normal breathing, rapid breathing, slow inhalation-fast exhalation, and fast inhalation-slow exhalation conducted in a laboratory environment. A high correlation factor was achieved between the Doppler Radar-based measurements and the conventional measurement device, a respiration strap. We also extended this work from basic signal acquisition to extracting detailed features of breathing function (I : E ratio. This facilitated additional insights into breathing activity and is likely to trigger a number of new applications in respiratory medicine.

  16. Effects of Smoking on Chest Expansion, Lung Function, and Respiratory Muscle Strength of Youths

    OpenAIRE

    Tantisuwat, Anong; Thaveeratitham, Premtip

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Smoking has a direct effect on the respiratory system. The rate of cigarette smoking among young people has continued to increase steadily. The present study quantified and compared the respiratory function of smoking and non-smoking youths. [Subjects] Smoking and non-smoking male participants aged between 15 to 18 years were recruited (n=34 per group). [Methods] Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire relating to smoking habits and the Fagerström test for nicotine depen...

  17. Respiratory function in iron deficiency anaemia before and after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanliev, P; Tzanev, B; Prokopov, V; Gigova, D

    1975-01-01

    The present studies concern the basic ventilatory indices, the arterial blood gases, the indices of the acid-base balance and the indices of the alveolar-capillary diffusion (DLCO, SS, Dm, theta Vc) in anemia before and after treatment. Substantial changes are recorded after treatment mainly in DLCO, SS and theta Vc. These changes are predominantly due to changes in the concentration of Hb. An evaluation of both methods for the standardization of DLCO at 14,6 g Hb/100 ml blood is also presented.

  18. Longitudinal course of lung function and respiratory muscle strength in spinal muscular atrophy type 2 and 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khirani, Sonia; Colella, Marina; Caldarelli, Valeria; Aubertin, Guillaume; Boulé, Michèle; Forin, Véronique; Ramirez, Adriana; Fauroux, Brigitte

    2013-11-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a common genetic disorder that causes severe hypotonia and weakness, and often fatal restrictive lung disease. The aim of the study was to describe the natural history of the respiratory involvement in patients with SMA type 2 and 3 in order to assess the relevance of the clinical classification and identify the parameters associated with the earliest and most rapid decline over time. Thirty-one patients aged 3-21 years were followed over a 10-year period. Lung function, blood gases, respiratory mechanics and muscle strength with recording of oesogastric pressures were measured during routine follow-up. At least two measurements were available in 16 patients (seven type 2 and nine type 3). Among all the volitional and non-volitional, invasive and non-invasive tests, forced vital capacity (FVC) and sniff nasal inspiratory pressure (SNIP) were shown to be the most informative parameters, showing lower values in SMA type 2, with however a similar rate of decline in patients with SMA type 2 and 3. Our results confirm an earlier decline in lung and respiratory muscle function in patients classified as SMA type 2 as compared with patients classified as type 3. This decline can be assessed by two simple non-invasive tests, FVC and SNIP, with the last maneuver being feasible and reliable in the youngest children, underlying its interest for the monitoring of children with SMA. Copyright © 2013 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Respiratory functional and motor control deficits in children with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Goutam; Behrman, Andrea L; Aslan, Sevda C; Trimble, Shelley; Ovechkin, Alexander V

    2018-01-01

    Children with spinal cord injury (SCI) are at high risk for developing complications due to respiratory motor control deficits. However, underlying mechanisms of these abnormalities with respect to age, development, and injury characteristics are unclear. To evaluate the effect of SCI and age on respiratory motor control in children with SCI, we compared pulmonary function and respiratory motor control outcome measures in healthy typically developing (TD) children to age-matched children with chronic SCI. We hypothesized that the deficits in respiratory functional performance in children with SCI are due to the abnormal and age-dependent respiratory muscle activation patterns. Fourteen TD (age 7±2 yrs., Mean±SD) and twelve children with SCI (age 6±1 yrs.) were evaluated by assessing Forced Vital Capacity (FVC); Forced Expiratory Volume in 1sec (FEV 1 ); and respiratory electromyographic activity during maximum inspiratory and maximum expiratory airway pressure measurements (PI max and PE max ). The results indicate a significant reduction (prespiratory muscles below the neurological level of injury (rectus abdominous and external oblique muscles). In addition, children with SCI had significantly increased (prespiratory functional and motor control deficits in children are age-dependent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Changes in blood lactate and respiratory gas exchange measures in sports with discontinuous load profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smekal, Gerhard; von Duvillard, Serge P; Pokan, Rochus; Tschan, Harald; Baron, Ramon; Hofmann, Peter; Wonisch, Manfred; Bachl, Norbert

    2003-06-01

    This study compares two different sport events (orienteering = OTC; tennis = TEC) with discontinuous load profiles and different activity/recovery patterns by means of blood lactate (LA), heart rate (HR), and respiratory gas exchange measures (RGME) determined via a portable respiratory system. During the TEC, 20 tennis-ranked male subjects [age: 26.0 (3.7) years; height: 181.0 (5.7) cm; weight: 73.2 (6.8) kg; maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2)max): 57.3 (5.1) ml.kg(-1).min(-1)] played ten matches of 50 min. During the OTC, 11 male members of the Austrian National Team [age: 23.5 (3.9) years; height: 183.6 (6.8) cm; weight: 72.4 (3.9) kg; VO(2)max: 67.9 (3.8) ml.kg(-1).min(-1)] performed a simulated OTC (six sections; average length: 10.090 m). In both studies data from the maximal treadmill tests (TT) were used as reference values for the comparison of energy expenditure of OTC and TEC. During TEC, the average VO(2) was considerably lower [29.1 (5.6) ml(.)kg(-1.)min(-1)] or 51.1 (10.9)% of VO(2)max and 64.8.0 (13.3)% of VO(2) determined at the individual anaerobic threshold (IAT) on the TT. The short high-intensity periods (activity/recovery = 1/6) did not result in higher LA levels [average LA of games: 2.07 (0.9) mmol.l(-1)]. The highest average VO(2 )value for a whole game was 47.8 ml.kg(-1.)min(-1) and may provide a reference for energy demands required to sustain high-intensity periods of tennis predominantly via aerobic mechanism of energy delivery. During OTC, we found an average VO(2) of 56.4 (4.5) ml.kg(-1).min(-1) or 83.0 (3.8)% of VO(2)max and 94.6 (5.2)% of VO(2) at IAT. In contrast to TEC, LA were relatively high [5.16 (1.5) mmol.l(-1)) although the average VO(2) was significantly lower than VO(2) at IAT. Our data suggest that portable RGEM provides valuable information concerning the energy expenditure in sports that cannot be interpreted from LA or HR measures alone. Portable RGEM systems provide valuable assessment of under- or over-estimation of

  1. Respiratory muscle function in infants with spinal muscular atrophy type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Richard S; Weiner, Daniel J; Mayer, Oscar H; McDonough, Joseph M; Panitch, Howard B

    2014-12-01

    To determine the feasibility and safety of respiratory muscle function testing in weak infants with a progressive neuromuscular disorder. Respiratory insufficiency is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants with spinal muscular atrophy type I (SMA-I). Tests of respiratory muscle strength, endurance, and breathing patterns can be performed safely in SMA-I infants. Useful data can be collected which parallels the clinical course of pulmonary function in SMA-I. An exploratory study of respiratory muscle function testing and breathing patterns in seven infants with SMA-I seen in our neuromuscular clinic. Measurements were made at initial study visit and, where possible, longitudinally over time. We measured maximal inspiratory (MIP) and transdiaphragmatic pressures, mean transdiaphragmatic pressure, airway occlusion pressure at 100 msec of inspiration, inspiratory and total respiratory cycle time, and aspects of relative thoracoabdominal motion using respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP). The tension time index of the diaphragm and of the respiratory muscles, phase angle (Φ), phase relation during the total breath, and labored breathing index were calculated. Age at baseline study was 54-237 (median 131) days. Reliable data were obtained safely for MIP, phase angle, labored breathing index, and the invasive and non-invasive tension time indices, even in very weak infants. Data obtained corresponded to the clinical estimate of severity and predicted the need for respiratory support. The testing employed was both safe and feasible. Measurements of MIP and RIP are easily performed tests that are well tolerated and provide clinically useful information for infants with SMA-I. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Long-term change in respiratory function following spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Silfhout, L; Peters, A E J; Berlowitz, D J; Schembri, R; Thijssen, D; Graco, M

    2016-09-01

    Retrospective study. To model the effect of time since injury on longitudinal respiratory function measures in spinal cord injured-individuals and to investigate the effect of patient characteristics. A total of 173 people who sustained a spinal cord injury between 1966 and April 2013 and who had previously participated in research or who underwent clinically indicated outpatient respiratory function tests at the Austin Hospital in Melbourne, Australia, were included in the study. At least two measurements over time were available for analysis in 59 patients. Longitudinal data analysis was performed using generalised linear regression models to determine changes in respiratory function following spinal cord injury from immediately post injury to many years later. Secondly, we explored whether injury severity, age, gender and body mass index (BMI) at injury altered the time-dependent change in respiratory function. The generalised linear regression model showed no significant change (P=0.276) in respiratory function measured in (forced) vital capacity ((F)VC) after the spinal cord injury. However, significant (P30 kg m(-2).

  3. Does oral supplementation of a fermented papaya preparation correct respiratory burst function of innate immune cells in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Ryan; Banerjee, Jaideep; Rauckhorst, Adam; Pfeiffer, Douglas R; Gordillo, Gayle M; Khanna, Savita; Osei, Kwame; Roy, Sashwati

    2015-02-01

    Fermented papaya preparation (FPP) is a nutritional supplement reported to act as an antioxidant by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and removing "bad ROS," while inducing "respiratory burst" production of necessary "good ROS." We sought to investigate the safety of oral administration of FPP (9 g/day, 6 weeks) to T2D patients with regard to its effect on the hyperglycemia status of these patients. Peripheral blood was collected during a baseline visit, followed by subsequent collections both during and after supplementation. Induced "respiratory burst" ROS production was measured at each visit in addition to fasting blood glucose, lipid profile, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and lipid/protein peroxidation. Oral FPP supplementation induced "respiratory burst" in peripheral blood mononuclear cells while not influencing other blood parameters studied. When human monocytic THP-1 cells were supplemented with sugar-based FPP, cellular ATP and NADPH concentrations were increased while matched glucose alone did not produce similar effects, suggesting a glucose-independent component of FPP to be responsible for increasing cellular energetics. THP-1 cells supplemented with FPP also exhibited higher mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) and oxygen consumption as compared with cells treated with glucose alone. Taken together, our observations lead to the hypothesis that FPP corrects inducible "respiratory burst" function in type 2 diabetes patients.

  4. Activity of the Respiratory Chain Enzymes of Blood Leucocytes’ Mitochondria Under the Conditions of Toxic Hepatitis Induced Against the Background Alimentary Deprivation of Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.N. Voloshchuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Full functioning of the leucocytes’ energy supply system is one of the essential factors for the immune surveillance system effective work. The pivotal enzymes of the leucocytes’ energy biotransformation system are NADH-ubiquitin reductase, a marker of the Complex I of respiratory chain activity, and succinate dehydrogenase, key enzyme of the Complex II of respiratory chain. The aim of research – to study the NADH-ubiquitin reductase and succinate dehydrogenase activity of the blood leucocytes’ mitochondria under the conditions of toxic hepatitis induced against the background alimentary deprivation of protein. It is shown, that under the conditions of acetaminophen-induced hepatitis a reduction of the NADH-ubiquitin reductase enzymatic activity is observed on the background activation of the succinate-dependent way of the mitochondrial oxidation. Conclusion was made that alimentary deprivation or protein is a factor, aggravating the misbalance of the energy biotransformation system in the leucocytes of rats with toxic hepatitis. Established activity changes of the leucocytes’ mitochondria respiratory chain key enzymes may be considered as one of the mechanisms, directed on the maintenance of leucocytes energy supply on a level, sufficient for their functioning. Research results may be used for the biochemical rationale of the therapeutic approaches to the elimination and correction of the leucocytes’ energy metabolism disturbances consequences under the conditions of acetaminophen-induced hepatitis, aggravated by the alimentary protein deprivation.

  5. Survival and function of phagocytes in blood culture media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, T K; Prag, J; Kharazmi, A

    1999-01-01

    The survival and function of human phagocytes in sterile aerobic and anaerobic blood culture media were investigated using neutrophil morphology, white blood cell count in a haemoanalyser, flow cytometry, oxidative burst response, and bactericidal effect in Colorbact and Septi-Chek blood culture...

  6. Work-related respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function tests in Iranian printers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskabady, Mohammad H; Rezaiyan, Majid K; Navabi, Iman; Shafiei, Sara; Shafiei, Shahideh

    2009-09-01

    To assess lung function tests and self-reported frequency of work related respiratory and allergic symptoms among subjects working as printers. This study was carried out from June to October 2007 in Mashhad city, Iran. The frequency of work-related respiratory and allergy symptoms was studied in a sample of 73 printers (group I), and 73 matched controls (group II) using a questionnaire in the past year. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) were also measured in group I and group II. A total of 30 (41%) subjects from group I reported work-related respiratory symptoms. Breathlessness (30%) and cough (27%) was the most common symptoms, and 16.5% in group I reported wheezing during work. All respiratory symptoms in group I were significantly greater than those in group II (p=0.04 to p=0.002). Allergic symptoms (except urticaria) were also significantly greater in group I than those in group II (p=0.048 to p=0.009). In addition, respiratory and allergic symptoms were greater during work compared with the rest period, which was significant for cough, breathlessness, and runny nose (p<0.21 to p<0.049 for all cases). All PFT values were also significantly lower in group I compared to group II (p=0.006 to p<0.0001). Printing work is associated with a high frequency of work related respiratory and allergic symptoms particularly during work period. The PFT values were also significantly reduced among subjects in group I.

  7. Evaluation of pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in pyrochlore mine workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Ritta de Cássia Canedo Oliveira; Barros, José Cerqueira; Oliveira, Fabrício Borges; Brunherotti, Marisa Andrade; Quemelo, Paulo Roberto Veiga

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To identify respiratory symptoms and evaluate lung function in mine workers. Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study involving production sector workers of a pyrochlore mining company. The subjects completed the British Medical Research Council questionnaire, which is designed to evaluate respiratory symptoms, occupational exposure factors, and smoking status. In addition, they underwent pulmonary function tests with a portable spirometer. Results: The study involved 147 workers (all male). The mean age was 41.37 ± 8.71 years, and the mean duration of occupational exposure was 12.26 ± 7.09 years. We found that 33 (22.44%) of the workers had respiratory symptoms and that 26 (17.69%) showed abnormalities in the spirometry results. However, we found that the spirometry results did not correlate significantly with the presence of respiratory symptoms or with the duration of occupational exposure. Conclusions: The frequencies of respiratory symptoms and spirometric changes were low when compared with those reported in other studies involving occupational exposure to dust. No significant associations were observed between respiratory symptoms and spirometry results. PMID:27832236

  8. Respiratory function and near infrared spectroscopy recording during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in an extremely preterm newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Elliott S; Cheung, Po-Yin; Pichler, Gerhard; Aziz, Khalid; Schmölzer, Georg M

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case highlighting several controversial and important topics regarding neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Current neonatal guidelines recommend a 3:1 compression:ventilation ratio; however, the most effective ratio of delivering chest compressions (CC) remains controversial. We report a case of a male infant at 24 weeks' postmenstrual age weighing 650 g on a background of preterm labor. At initial assessment the infant appeared floppy and apneic with a heart rate (HR) of 50-60 beats/min. Mask ventilation was ineffective, thus continuous CC (90/min) with asynchronous ventilations (60/min) was started. HR, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, cerebral oxygenation, respiratory function, and exhaled carbon dioxide (ECO2) were continuously measured during CPR. Return of spontaneous circulation defined as HR >60/min was achieved after 90 s of CPR. Mask leak significantly increased during CC. During bradycardia (HR ∼50/min), ECO2 indicated correct tube placement and an increase of ECO2 >12 mm Hg was associated with rapid increase in HR >60/min. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Evaluation of respiratory muscles activity by means of cross mutual information function at different levels of ventilatory effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Joan Francesc; Mañanas, Miguel A; Hoyer, Dirk; Topor, Zbigniew L; Bruce, Eugene N

    2007-09-01

    Analysis of respiratory muscles activity is an effective technique for the study of pulmonary diseases such as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Respiratory diseases, especially those associated with changes in the mechanical properties of the respiratory apparatus, are often associated with disruptions of the normally highly coordinated contractions of respiratory muscles. Due to the complexity of the respiratory control, the assessment of OSAS related dysfunctions by linear methods are not sufficient. Therefore, the objective of this study was the detection of diagnostically relevant nonlinear complex respiratory mechanisms. Two aims of this work were: (1) to assess coordination of respiratory muscles contractions through evaluation of interactions between respiratory signals and myographic signals through nonlinear analysis by means of cross mutual information function (CMIF); (2) to differentiate between functioning of respiratory muscles in patients with OSAS and in normal subjects. Electromyographic (EMG) and mechanomyographic (MMG) signals were recorded from three respiratory muscles: genioglossus, sternomastoid and diaphragm. Inspiratory pressure and flow were also acquired. All signals were measured in eight patients with OSAS and eight healthy subjects during an increased respiratory effort while awake. Several variables were defined and calculated from CMIF in order to describe correlation between signals. The results indicate different nonlinear couplings of respiratory muscles in both populations. This effect is progressively more evident at higher levels of respiratory effort.

  10. Effects of Exercise on Cervical Angle and Respiratory Function in Smartphone Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Na Kyung; Jung, Sang In; Lee, Do Youn; Kang, Kyung Woo

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether exercises can change the cervical angle and respiratory function in smartphone users. Thirty healthy volunteers were recruited. The subjects were randomly divided into an exercise group and a control group. All participants used a smartphone for 1 hour while maintaining a sitting posture. Then, each group performed their assigned activity. The exercise group performed two types of exercises and the control group maintained routine activities for 20 minutes. To investigate the changes in cervical angle and respiratory function, we measured the craniovertebral angle by using a spirometer. Statistically significant differences were noted in the craniovertebral angle, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC ratio, peak expiratory flow, maximal inspiratory pressure, and maximal expiratory pressure of the two groups ( p exercise could be a good method of improving the cervical angle and respiratory function in smartphone users.

  11. Relationship between frailty and respiratory function in the community-dwelling elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegorari, Maycon S; Ruas, Gualberto; Patrizzi, Lislei J

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of frailty on respiratory function in a community- dwelling elderly. 51 community-dwelling elderly were evaluated (mean age of 73±6 years), being 29 men (56.7%) and 22 women (43.3%). We collect the following variables: sociodemographic characteristics, frailty phenotype, pulmonary function test and assessment of the respiratory muscles using an analog manometer. The statistical analysis was performed using the Kolmogorov and Smirnov tests, one-way ANOVA, Paired Student's t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient (prespiratory pressures may decrease according to the frailty condition among the non-frail, pre-frail and frail elderly. Furthermore, it also indicated a positive correlation between inspiratory muscle strength, expiratory muscle strength and hand grip strength in pre-frail elderly. Further investigation with regards to prevention or intervention programs that incorporate actions to minimize the loss of respiratory function are necessary in order to reverse or prevent the progression of the frailty condition.

  12. The effect of smartphone usage time on posture and respiratory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sang In; Lee, Na Kyung; Kang, Kyung Woo; Kim, Kyoung; Lee, Do Youn

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in posture and respiratory functions depending on the duration of smartphone usage. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were randomly allocated to 2 groups: group 1 (subjects who used smartphones for smartphones for >4 hours/day, n=25). The craniovertebral angles of all participants were measured and scapular indices were calculated to assess the change in posture and forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity, and peak expiratory flow were measured to assess changes in respiratory function. [Results] There were significant differences in the craniovertebral angle, scapular index, and peak expiratory flow depending on the duration of smartphone usage. [Conclusion] The result of this study showed that prolonged use of smartphones could negatively affect both, posture and respiratory function.

  13. Clinical study of respiratory function in patients with late-onset glycogen storage disease typeⅡ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-na JIN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Late-onset glycogen storage disease typeⅡ(GSDⅡ, Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive disease exhibiting progressive proximal skeletal muscle weakness and respiratory muscle involvement, caused by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme acid α-glucosidase (GAA. Most of patients died of respiratory failure.  Methods Eleven patients with late-onset glycogen storage disease type Ⅱ underwent respiratory function evaluation, whose diagnosis was confirmed by muscle pathology, GAA activity assay and gene analysis. Respiratory function evaluation included upright and supine position of forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume at the first second (FEV1, maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP, maximal expiratory pressure (MEP and cough peak flow (CPF. All data were compared with predicted value. The decreased value between upright and supine position FVC ( △ FVC were calculated. The correlation between respiratory function and the age of onset, disease course, motor function, GAA activity were analyzed.  Results All of 11 patients with late-onset glycogen storage disease type Ⅱ showed declined respiratory function compared with predicted value. The upright FVC, upright FEV1, △ FVC, MIP, MEP and CPF declined in 10, 10, 8, 11, 10, and 10 patients, respectively. All patients had normal FEV1/FVC in both upright and supine position. There was no correlation between upright FVC, △ FVC and the onset age, disease course, motor function, GAA activity statistically.  Conclusions Pulmonary dysfunction is common in late-onset glycogen storage disease type Ⅱ, with restrictive ventilatory impairment more predominant, which is caused by inspiratory muscle weakness. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.05.007

  14. Respiratory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The general anatomy and function of the human respiratory system is summarized. Breathing movements, control of breathing, lung volumes and capacities, mechanical relations, and factors relevant to respiratory support and equipment design are discussed.

  15. Lung Function, Respiratory Muscle Strength, and Thoracoabdominal Mobility in Women With Fibromyalgia Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forti, Meire; Zamunér, Antonio R; Andrade, Carolina P; Silva, Ester

    2016-10-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is associated with a variety of symptoms, such as fatigue and dyspnea, which may be related to changes in the respiratory system. The objective of this work was to evaluate pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength, and thoracoabdominal mobility in women with FMS and its association with clinical manifestations. The study included 23 women with FMS and 23 healthy women (control group). Pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength, and thoracoabdominal mobility were assessed in all participants. Clinical manifestations such as number of active tender points, pain, fatigue, well-being, and general pressure pain threshold and pressure pain threshold in regions involved in respiratory function were also assessed. For data analysis, the Mann-Whitney test and Spearman correlation coefficient were used. The FMS group showed lower values of maximum voluntary ventilation (P = .030), maximal inspiratory pressure (P = .003), and cirtometry at the axillary and xiphoid levels (P respiratory muscle endurance, inspiratory muscle strength, and thoracic mobility than healthy subjects. In addition, inspiratory muscle strength was associated with the number of active tender points, fatigue, and axillary mobility. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  16. Panel studies of air pollution on children's lung function and respiratory symptoms: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanshan; Williams, Gail; Jalaludin, Bin; Baker, Peter

    2012-11-01

    This article reviews panel studies of air pollution on children's respiratory health and proposes future research directions. The PubMed electronic database was used to search published original epidemiological studies in peer-reviewed journals from 2000 to November 2011. Children's age was limited to ≤18 years old. A total of 33 relevant articles were obtained, with 20 articles relating to lung function, 21 articles relating to respiratory symptoms, and 8 articles examining both. Most studies suggested the adverse effects of air pollution on children's lung function and respiratory symptoms. Particles and NO(2) showed more significant results, whereas effects of SO(2) were not consistent. A few studies indicated that O(3) interacted with temperature and sometimes seemed to be a protective factor for children's respiratory health. Negative associations between air pollutants and pulmonary health were more serious in asthmatic children than in healthy subjects. However, many outcomes depended on the number of lag days. Peak expiratory flow (PEF) was the most usual measurement for children's lung function, followed by forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)). There are significant adverse effects of air pollution on children's pulmonary health, especially for asthmatics. Future studies need to examine the lag effects of air pollution on children's lung function and respiratory symptoms. Ambient temperature is predicted to change worldwide due to climate change, which will threaten population health. Further research is needed to examine the effects of ambient temperature and the interactive effects between air pollution and ambient temperature on children's lung function and respiratory symptoms.

  17. Evaluation of cardiorespiratory fitness and respiratory muscle function in the obese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Ross; Cahalin, Lawrence P

    2014-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is one of the most important health metrics in apparently healthy individuals, those at increased risk for cardiovascular (CV) disease and virtually all patient populations. In addition to CRF, a host of other variables obtained from aerobic exercise testing provides clinically valuable information. Individuals classified as obese (i.e. a body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2)) have varying degrees of CV, pulmonary and skeletal muscle dysfunction that impact CRF and other key aerobic exercise testing variables. Moreover, there is now evidence indicating inspiratory and expiratory respiratory muscle function, even in the absence of interstitial lung disease, is potentially compromised as a result of obesity. When obesity-induced respiratory muscle dysfunction is present, it has the potential to contribute to the limitations in CRF. The current review will discuss aerobic exercise testing and the assessment of respiratory muscle function in the obese population. © 2014.

  18. Impact of gas emboli and hyperbaric treatment on respiratory function of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugues, Cyril; Crespo-Picazo, Jose Luis; García-Párraga, Daniel; Altimiras, Jordi; Lorenzo, Teresa; Borque-Espinosa, Alicia; Fahlman, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Fisheries interactions are the most serious threats for sea turtle populations. Despite the existence of some rescue centres providing post-traumatic care and rehabilitation, adequate treatment is hampered by the lack of understanding of the problems incurred while turtles remain entrapped in fishing gears. Recently it was shown that bycaught loggerhead sea turtles ( Caretta caretta ) could experience formation of gas emboli (GE) and develop decompression sickness (DCS) after trawl and gillnet interaction. This condition could be reversed by hyperbaric O 2 treatment (HBOT). The goal of this study was to assess how GE alters respiratory function in bycaught turtles before recompression therapy and measure the improvement after this treatment. Specifically, we assessed the effect of DCS on breath duration, expiratory and inspiratory flow and tidal volume ( V T ), and the effectiveness of HBOT to improve these parameters. HBOT significantly increased respiratory flows by 32-45% while V T increased by 33-35% immediately after HBOT. Repeated lung function testing indicated a temporal increase in both respiratory flow and V T for all bycaught turtles, but the changes were smaller than those seen immediately following HBOT. The current study suggests that respiratory function is significantly compromised in bycaught turtles with GE and that HBOT effectively restores lung function. Lung function testing may provide a novel means to help diagnose the presence of GE, be used to assess treatment efficacy, and contribute to sea turtle conservation efforts.

  19. Impact of short term forced oral breathing induced by nasal occlusion on respiratory function in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiaxing; Xi, Yin; Zhang, Qingling; Lai, Kefang; Zhong, Nanshan

    2015-01-01

    Inconsistent findings regarding the experimental nasal obstruction on respiratory functions in small animals have been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of short term forced oral breathing on respiratory functions as well as the therapeutic implication of esophageal intubation in BALB/c mice. Thirty BALB/c mice were randomized equally to two groups: an experimental group and control group. Oral breathing was induced by applying petrolatum ointment in nostrils for occlusion both nasal cavities. Esophageal tube was inserted to enlarge the oropharyngeal airway in the experimental mice. Respiratory parameters were measured by barometric whole-body plethysmography (WBP) in the following condition: normal nasal breathing; nasal breathing loading in a soft bag; forced oral breathing loading in a soft bag; forced oral breathing loading in a soft bag after undergoing esophageal intubation. After applying petrolatum ointment of nostrils, all the mice switch to oral breathing with apparent discomfort (bradypnea). Nasal occlusion was associated with a decrease in the average respiratory rate (268±36 vs. 90±10 breaths/min; Poral breathing with less discomfort. Compared with the control mice, respiratory rate (175±25 vs. 90±10) was higher; the Penh (8.84±1.05 vs. 18.09±2.03; Poral breathing induced by nasal occlusion caused respiratory insufficiency in mice. Stenotic oropharyngeal airway was supposed to be one of the most important factors. Enlarging oropharyngeal airway by esophagus intubation could improve the respiratory insufficiency under nasal occlusion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Respiratory function, physical activity and body composition in adult rural population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Rożek-Piechura

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate functioning of the respiratory system and to estimate the correlation between the function parameters of the respiratory system and the level of physical activity and body composition in the adult rural population. The study involved a group of 116 people from rural population aged 35–60 years, staying on 3-week rehabilitation camps. They were divided into two groups: men (29 and women (87. The somatic features: body height, body weight, Body Mass Index (BMI and body copmposition were analysed, on the status of smoking and declared level of physical activity (PA was checked. For the evaluation of the functional parameters of the respiratory system the pattern of flow volume curve was used. The following parameters were determined: vital capacity (VC, forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, peak expiratory flow (PEF, MEF50 (maximum expiratory flow at 50% of VC and Tiffenau index. Hand grip and maximum torque of the knee join flexor and extensor muscles was measured. As expected, men had significantly higher levels of respiratory parameters. In analyzing the status of smoking cigarettes, it can be stated that the majority of subjects are smokers. conclusions. The values of functional parameters of the respiratory system were suitable for the age they were within the norm and did not show lung ventilation disorder. Most subjects of the study declared low physical activity which may be due to manual work on the farm. Smoking cigarettes significantly lowered the value of such parameters as FEV1, PEF and MEF50 only in the male group but the values did not indicate ventilatory disorder. Parameters of the respiratory system show the highest correlations with the parameters of muscle strength. Significant correlations with body compositions parameters (FFM, water have been noticed too.

  1. The role of visual feedback in respiratory muscle activation and pulmonary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Han-Kyu; Kim, Yeong-Ju; Kim, Tae-Ho

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] It is well known that visual feedback is an important factor contributing to balance and postural control. Nevertheless, there has been little discussion about the effects of visual feedback on pulmonary function. This study was conducted to investigate the role of visual feedback on respiratory muscle activation and pulmonary function. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 37 healthy adults who consented to participate in this study. The study measured the muscular activation of the trunk and pulmonary function according to the absence or presence of visual feedback. [Results] The results revealed significant changes in muscular activation and pulmonary function with the use of visual feedback. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that visual feedback may play a role in increasing respiratory muscle activity and pulmonary function.

  2. [A comparison of the effects of PAV, PSV and IPPV on cardiopulmonary function in patients with acute respiratory failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Z; Niu, S; Zhu, L

    2001-05-01

    Comparing the effects of proportional assist ventilation (PAV), pressure support ventilation (PSV), and intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) on cardiopulmonary function in patients with acute respiratory failure, in particular, evaluating the clinical significance of PAV. Ten patients with acute respiratory failure were firstly ventilated with IPPV. Elaslance (Ers) and Resistance (Rrs) were measured and calculated. Then PSV mode was adapted. Based on the parameters of IPPV, inspiratory positive airway pressure was adjusted to maintain the same tidal volume (V(T)) as that in IPPV. Finally PAV mode was used. According to the parameters of PSV, the assist ratio was adjusted to maintain the same V(T) and peak pressure peak, as those in PSV. Respiratory mechanics, arterial blood gas and hemodynamics were recorded during above three modes of ventilation. Comparing with PSV and IPPV mode, PAV created a significantly lower peak, less work of breathing of patients (WoBp) and work of breathing of ventilation (WoBv) under the similar V(T); Central venous pressure (CVP) and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) were significantly lower in PAV mode as compared with those in IPPV; While comparing with PSV, V(T), mean blood pressure (mBP) and cardiac output (CO) were higher and mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), WoBp were lower in patients with PAV under similar peak. Among them the fall of WoBp was statistically significant. In patients receiving three modes of ventilation, PAV presents with lower airway pressure, less WoBp and less effect on hemodynamics as compared with those with PSV or IPPV.

  3. Effects of nephrectomy on respiratory function and quality of life of living donors: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Karen; Paisani, Denise M; Pacheco, Nathália C T; Chiavegato, Luciana D

    2015-01-01

    A living donor transplant improves the survival and quality of life of a transplant patient. However, the impact of transplantation on postoperative lung function and respiratory muscular strength in kidney donors remains unknown. To evaluate pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength, quality of life and the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) in kidney donors undergoing nephrectomy. This prospective cohort enrolled 110 consecutive kidney donors undergoing nephrectomy. Subjects underwent pulmonary function (using spirometry) and respiratory muscular strength (using manovacuometry) assessments on the day prior to surgery and 1, 2, 3 and 5 days postoperatively. Quality of life (measured by the SF-36) was evaluated preoperatively and 30 days postoperatively. PPCs were assessed daily by a blinded assessor. Donors exhibited a decrease of 27% in forced vital capacity, 58% in maximum inspiratory capacity and 51% in maximum expiratory pressure on the 1stpostoperative day (pfunctional capacity, physical role, pain, vitality and social functioning (pfunction, respiratory muscular strength and quality of life, most of which were improving toward pre-surgical levels.

  4. Postoperative Respiratory Function and Survival After Pneumonectomy in Dogs and Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeski, Stephanie A; Steffey, Michele A; Mayhew, Philipp D; Hunt, Geraldine B; Holt, David E; Runge, Jeffrey J; Kass, Philip H; Mellema, Matthew

    2016-08-01

    To describe indications for, and outcomes after, pneumonectomy in dogs and cats, including assessment of immediate postoperative respiratory function in comparison to dogs undergoing single lung lobectomy. Retrospective case series. Dogs (n=16) and cats (n=7) with naturally occurring pulmonary disease. Medical records (1990-2014) of dogs and cats undergoing right or left pneumonectomy were reviewed. Data retrieved included signalment, history, preoperative diagnostics, operative descriptions, postoperative data including respiratory function, and postdischarge outcomes. For respiratory function comparisons, medical records of dogs having undergone a single lung lobectomy via median sternotomy (n=15) or intercostal thoracotomy (n=15) were reviewed. Twenty-three cases (16 dogs, 7 cats) were included. Pneumonectomy was performed for congenital (1 dog, 1 cat), neoplastic (8 dogs, 1 cat), and infectious (7 dogs, 5 cats) disease. Postoperative aspiration pneumonia occurred in 2 dogs; 15 of 16 dogs (94%) and 6/7 cats (86%) survived to hospital discharge. After pneumonectomy, dogs had a significantly higher postoperative PaO2 on 21% oxygen (P=.033) and lower postoperative A-a gradient (P=.004) compared to dogs undergoing single lung lobectomy. Survival times (right-censored at last follow-up) for dogs ranged from 2 days to 7 years (estimated median=1,868 days) and for cats from 1-585 days. Dogs and cats have acceptable respiratory function immediately postoperatively and most have protracted long-term survival after pneumonectomy for a variety of pulmonary diseases. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  5. Long-term change in respiratory function following spinal cord injury.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silfhout, L. van; Peters, A.E.; Berlowitz, D.J.; Schembri, R.; Thijssen, D.H.; Graco, M.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. OBJECTIVES: To model the effect of time since injury on longitudinal respiratory function measures in spinal cord injured-individuals and to investigate the effect of patient characteristics. SETTING: A total of 173 people who sustained a spinal cord injury between

  6. Functional connectivity and information flow of the respiratory neural network in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lianchun; De Mazancourt, Marine; Hess, Agathe; Ashadi, Fakhrul R; Klein, Isabelle; Mal, Hervé; Courbage, Maurice; Mangin, Laurence

    2016-08-01

    Breathing involves a complex interplay between the brainstem automatic network and cortical voluntary command. How these brain regions communicate at rest or during inspiratory loading is unknown. This issue is crucial for several reasons: (i) increased respiratory loading is a major feature of several respiratory diseases, (ii) failure of the voluntary motor and cortical sensory processing drives is among the mechanisms that precede acute respiratory failure, (iii) several cerebral structures involved in responding to inspiratory loading participate in the perception of dyspnea, a distressing symptom in many disease. We studied functional connectivity and Granger causality of the respiratory network in controls and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), at rest and during inspiratory loading. Compared with those of controls, the motor cortex area of patients exhibited decreased connectivity with their contralateral counterparts and no connectivity with the brainstem. In the patients, the information flow was reversed at rest with the source of the network shifted from the medulla towards the motor cortex. During inspiratory loading, the system was overwhelmed and the motor cortex became the sink of the network. This major finding may help to understand why some patients with COPD are prone to acute respiratory failure. Network connectivity and causality were related to lung function and illness severity. We validated our connectivity and causality results with a mathematical model of neural network. Our findings suggest a new therapeutic strategy involving the modulation of brain activity to increase motor cortex functional connectivity and improve respiratory muscles performance in patients. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2736-2754, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Assessment and management of respiratory function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: current and emerging options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LoMauro A

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Antonella LoMauro,1 Maria Grazia D’Angelo,2 Andrea Aliverti1 1Department of Electronics, Information and Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano, Milan, 2IRCCS Eugenio Medea, Bosisio Parini, Italy Abstract: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is an X-linked myopathy resulting in progressive weakness and wasting of all the striated muscles including the respiratory muscles. The consequences are loss of ambulation before teen ages, cardiac involvement and breathing difficulties, the main cause of death. A cure for DMD is not currently available. In the last decades the survival of patients with DMD has improved because the natural history of the disease can be changed thanks to a more comprehensive therapeutic approach. This comprises interventions targeted to the manifestations and complications of the disease, particularly in the respiratory care. These include: 1 pharmacological intervention, namely corticosteroids and idebenone that significantly reduce the decline of spirometric parameters; 2 rehabilitative intervention, namely lung volume recruitment techniques that help prevent atelectasis and slows the rate of decline of pulmonary function; 3 scoliosis treatment, namely steroid therapy that is used to reduce muscle inflammation/degeneration and prolong ambulation in order to delay the onset of scoliosis, being an additional contribution to the restrictive lung pattern; 4 cough assisted devices that improve airway clearance thus reducing the risk of pulmonary infections; and 5 non-invasive mechanical ventilation that is essential to treat nocturnal hypoventilation, sleep disordered breathing, and ultimately respiratory failure. Without any intervention death occurs within the first 2 decades, however, thanks to this multidisciplinary therapeutic approach life expectancy of a newborn with DMD nowadays can be significantly prolonged up to his fourth decade. This review is aimed at providing state-of-the-art methods and techniques for the

  8. Resting respiratory behavior in minimally instrumented toads - effects of very long apneas on blood gases and pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Coelho

    Full Text Available Resting respiratory behavior of Bufo marinus in minimally instrumented toads is described for a period of 24 hours in which the animals are left undisturbed. Torpor-related long apneas are described and their implications for blood gas levels are investigated. Results show that the resting ventilation rate of Bufo marinus is much lower than that reported so far. Levels of arterial oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH are monitored during artificial long apneas induced by anesthesia. The toads showed an unexpected ability to unload carbon dioxide by non-respiratory means, even while being kept on dry plastic box with no access to water. Oxygen arterial partial pressure dropped to very low levels after one hour of apnea. This suggests that these animals may endure very well severe hypoxia for long periods of time while in torpor.

  9. Resting respiratory behavior in minimally instrumented toads - effects of very long apneas on blood gases and pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho F. C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Resting respiratory behavior of Bufo marinus in minimally instrumented toads is described for a period of 24 hours in which the animals are left undisturbed. Torpor-related long apneas are described and their implications for blood gas levels are investigated. Results show that the resting ventilation rate of Bufo marinus is much lower than that reported so far. Levels of arterial oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH are monitored during artificial long apneas induced by anesthesia. The toads showed an unexpected ability to unload carbon dioxide by non-respiratory means, even while being kept on dry plastic box with no access to water. Oxygen arterial partial pressure dropped to very low levels after one hour of apnea. This suggests that these animals may endure very well severe hypoxia for long periods of time while in torpor.

  10. Low cord-serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are associated with poor lung function performance and increased respiratory infection in infancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Hao Lai

    Full Text Available Perinatal vitamin D deficiency is associated with a higher risk of wheezing in childhood. However, the relationship between vitamin D levels and lung function in infancy has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of perinatal vitamin D levels on respiratory function and disease outcome in infancy.Full-term infants without any chronic diseases or major anomalies were enrolled in the Prediction of Allergies in Taiwanese Children cohort study. Maternal and cord blood were collected for determining the 25(OHD level. Questionnaires were recorded at birth and 6 months of age. Infant lung function, including tidal breathing analysis, respiratory mechanics, and forced tidal expiration, was tested at 6 months of age.A total of 122 mother-infant pairs were enrolled in this study, and 71 infants underwent lung function testing at 6 months of age. 25(OHD levels in maternal and cord serum were highly correlated (r2 = 0.457, p < 0.0001. Infants with lower cord serum 25(OHD levels (< 13.7 ng/ml had higher resistance of respiratory system (p < 0.01 and a higher risk of a respiratory tract infection before the age of 6 months (p < 0.01.Although a high correlation was found between maternal and cord vitamin D levels, the effect on respiratory outcome was different. Our study is the first to show that low cord 25(OHD levels significantly relationship with poorer lung function performance and higher likelihood of a respiratory tract infection before 6 months of age.

  11. Functional capacity, pulmonary and respiratory muscle strength in individuals undergoing hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Regina Posser

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD undergoing hemodialysis (HD present low cardiorespiratory fitness and functional capacity. Metabolic changes, due to the disease, can result in a variety of pathophysiological conditions that favor the development of respiratory muscle weakness. However, very little is known about the performance of the respiratory muscles and the influence of HD on them. Aim: To evaluate and correlate pulmonary function, functional capacity and respiratory muscle strength in patients with CKD undergoing HD. Methods: Cross-sectional study comprising 23 patients with CKD, that met the following inclusion criteria: patients of both genders, who perform HD three times a week for a minimum period of three months. Respiratory muscle strength was evaluated using a respiratory pressure meter, lung function through spirometry and functional capacity through the 6-minute walk test (6MWT before the HD session. Results: All patients were male and mean age was 50.2 ± 15.8 years. The median duration of HD was 3 (1.5 to 6.0 years. The mean values obtained in comparison to those predicted were MIP% 36.0 ± 13.6, MEP% 49.5 ± 15.8, FVC% 93.8 ± 21.1, FEV1% 93.7 ± 21.1, FVC/VEF1% 104.1 ± 10.3, and 6MWT% 66.33 ± 20.53. A statistically significant positive correlation was observed between the 6MWT and MIP (r = .63, p =.001 and MEP (r = .67, p < .001, between the MIP and MEP (r =.79, p < .001 and between the FEV1 and FVC (r = .91, p < .001. Conclusion: Patients with CKD undergoing HD present changes in respiratory muscle strength, with the predicted values decreasing for age and gender, as well as the distance covered in the 6MWT, although, with normal spirometric values. Functional capacity was dependent on respiratory muscle strength, as well as the values of MIP and MEP, and the values of FVC and FEV1.

  12. Respiratory Symptoms and Pulmonary Functions of Workers Employed in Turkish Textile Dyeing Factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevin Baser

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Dyes are known to be a causative agent of occupational asthma in workers exposed to them. We have evaluated respiratory symptoms among textile workers. The study population comprised 106 exposed workers and a control (unexposed group. Data were collected by a questionnaire. PFTs (Pulmonary Function Test were performed. Among the exposed workers 36.8% defined phlegm. Respiratory symptoms were not significantly different between two groups. The employment duration of the exposed workers with phlegm was longer than those without phlegm (p = 0.027. The mean % predicted of FEF25–75 of the exposed workers was found to be significantly lower than the control (unexposed group (p = 0.01. Our study suggests that textile dyeing might cause respiratory symptoms in workers.

  13. Expression and function of serotonin 2A and 2B receptors in the mammalian respiratory network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Niebert

    Full Text Available Neurons of the respiratory network in the lower brainstem express a variety of serotonin receptors (5-HTRs that act primarily through adenylyl cyclase. However, there is one receptor family including 5-HT(2A, 5-HT(2B, and 5-HT(2C receptors that are directed towards protein kinase C (PKC. In contrast to 5-HT(2ARs, expression and function of 5-HT(2BRs within the respiratory network are still unclear. 5-HT(2BR utilizes a Gq-mediated signaling cascade involving calcium and leading to activation of phospholipase C and IP3/DAG pathways. Based on previous studies, this signal pathway appears to mediate excitatory actions on respiration. In the present study, we analyzed receptor expression in pontine and medullary regions of the respiratory network both at the transcriptional and translational level using quantitative RT-PCR and self-made as well as commercially available antibodies, respectively. In addition we measured effects of selective agonists and antagonists for 5-HT(2ARs and 5-HT(2BRs given intra-arterially on phrenic nerve discharges in juvenile rats using the perfused brainstem preparation. The drugs caused significant changes in discharge activity. Co-administration of both agonists revealed a dominance of the 5-HT(2BR. Given the nature of the signaling pathways, we investigated whether intracellular calcium may explain effects observed in the respiratory network. Taken together, the results of this study suggest a significant role of both receptors in respiratory network modulation.

  14. Respiratory System Function in Patients After Minimally Invasive Aortic Valve Replacement Surgery: A Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoliński, Jarosław; Musiał, Robert; Plicner, Dariusz; Andres, Janusz

    The aim of the study was to comparatively analyze respiratory system function after minimally invasive, through right minithoracotomy aortic valve replacement (RT-AVR) to conventional AVR. Analysis of 201 patients scheduled for RT-AVR and 316 for AVR between January 2010 and November 2013. Complications of the respiratory system and pulmonary functional status are presented. Complications of the respiratory system occurred in 16.8% of AVR and 11.0% of RT-AVR patients (P = 0.067). The rate of pleural effusions, thoracenteses, pneumonias, or phrenic nerve dysfunctions was not significantly different between groups. Perioperative mortality was 1.9% in AVR and 1.0% in RT-AVR (P = 0.417). Mechanical ventilation time after surgery was 9.7 ± 5.9 hours for AVR and 7.2 ± 3.2 hours for RT-AVR patients (P respiratory system complications. Spirometry examinations revealed that pulmonary functional status was more impaired after AVR in comparison with RT-AVR surgery.

  15. A control system for automatic electrical stimulation of abdominal muscles to assist respiratory function in tetraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollee, H; Hunt, K J; Allan, D B; Fraser, M H; McLean, A N

    2007-09-01

    People with tetraplegia have poor respiratory function leading to limited tidal volume (V(T)) and reduced cough peak flow (CPF). These problems may cause respiratory failure during the initial admission or subsequent intercurrent illness. Electrical stimulation of the abdominal muscles during expiration can improve respiratory function by increasing V(T) and CPF. We developed a novel control system to automatically trigger muscle stimulation, synchronised with the subject's voluntary respiratory activity. The system was tested in four subjects with a functionally complete lesion at level C4 to C6, aged between 16 and 46 years, 3 months to 5 years post injury, who were breathing spontaneously. The algorithm delivered automatic stimulation patterns, detecting cough and quiet breathing while suppressing stimulation during other activities such as speaking. Marked increases in V(T) (between 9% and 71% of baseline) and CPF (between 31% and 54% of baseline) were observed, suggesting that the technique may have potential use in both acute and established tetraplegia to increase minute ventilation and to improve cough clearance of secretions.

  16. Respiratory muscle function during a six-week period of normocapnic hyperpnoea training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, David Johannes; Ertl, Thomas; Walterspacher, Stephan; Schlager, Daniel; Roecker, Kai; Windisch, Wolfram; Kabitz, Hans-Joachim

    2013-08-15

    Respiratory muscle endurance training (normocapnic hyperpnoea, RMET) improves maximal volitional ventilation (MVV) and respiratory muscle endurance while volitionally-assessed respiratory muscle strength remains unchanged (prior-to-post comparison). What remains unclear is how respiratory muscle function changes/adapts during a defined period of RMET in highly-trained subjects. This study assessed respiratory muscle function during a six-week period of RMET in 13 highly-trained, healthy subjects. Weekly-assessed twitch mouth pressure (prior/post 2.20 ± 0.41 kPa vs. 2.43 ± 0.61 kPa; p=0.14); twitch transdiaphragmatic pressure (prior/post 3.04 ± 0.58 kPa vs. 3.13 ± 0.48 kPa; p=0.58) and maximal inspiratory pressure (prior/post 12.6 ± 3.6 kPa vs. 13.9 ± 3.8 kPa; p=0.06) did not increase. MVV (prior/post 175 ± 18 l/min vs. 207 ± 30 l/min; p=0.001), sniff nasal pressure (prior/post 11.8 ± 2.8 kPa vs. 14.0 ± 2.9 kPa; p=0.003) and maximal expiratory pressure (prior/post 16.9 ± 5.8 kPa vs. 20.9 ± 4.9 kPa; p=0.006) each increased. In conclusion, non-volitionally assessed diaphragmatic strength does not increase during six weeks of RMET in highly-trained subjects, while expiratory muscle strength and MVV rose. Future studies should clarify if these findings apply when assessed during respiratory muscle strength rather than endurance training. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Determining the relationship of kinesiophobia with respiratory functions and functional capacity in ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Göktuğ; AngIn, Ender

    2017-07-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a common inflammatory rheumatic disease that affects the axial skeleton, causes inflammatory lower back pain, and structural and functional disorders, which affect quality of life negatively.The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of kinesiophobia in AS on pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and functional performance.Thirty-one individuals with AS (n = 19 male, n = 12 female) who were suitable on the basis of the Modified New York (MNY) criteria were included in the study. The participants were given the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI), in addition to the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TKS), PFTs, respiratory muscle strength, pain evaluation, and 6-minute walking test (6MWT).The mean values were found as the following: TKS, 41.65 ± 7.59; pain visual analog scale (VAS) score, 6.23 ± 2.86; forced vital capacity (%) (FVC), 75.35% ± 17.92%; forced expiratory volume in first second (%) (FEV1), 73.45% ± 17.20%; FEV1/FVC (%), 75.58% ± 15.99%; peak expiratory flow (%) (PEF), 54,90% ± 20.21%; forced expiratory flow at 25% to 75% (FEF25-75), 77.71% ± 27.05%; maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), 62.06 ± 31.68; maximal expiratory pressure (MEP), 95.94 ± 36.60; 6MWT, 445.88 ± 99.48. The scores obtained in TKS were found related to the values of FVC (%), FEV1 (%), chest expansion, BASFI, modified Schober test, lumbar lateral flexion, cervical rotation, and total BASMI score (r = -0.43, -0.36, -0.41, 0.42, -0.49, -0.56, -0.52, 0.56, respectively; P < .05).Kinesiophobia is a condition that may arise in individuals with AS, which has negative effects. Physiotherapists have a responsibility to eliminate kinesiophobia beliefs and prefer therapy method in line with this responsibility.

  18. Determining the relationship of kinesiophobia with respiratory functions and functional capacity in ankylosing spondylitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Göktuğ; AngIn, Ender

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a common inflammatory rheumatic disease that affects the axial skeleton, causes inflammatory lower back pain, and structural and functional disorders, which affect quality of life negatively. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of kinesiophobia in AS on pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and functional performance. Thirty-one individuals with AS (n = 19 male, n = 12 female) who were suitable on the basis of the Modified New York (MNY) criteria were included in the study. The participants were given the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI), in addition to the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TKS), PFTs, respiratory muscle strength, pain evaluation, and 6-minute walking test (6MWT). The mean values were found as the following: TKS, 41.65 ± 7.59; pain visual analog scale (VAS) score, 6.23 ± 2.86; forced vital capacity (%) (FVC), 75.35% ± 17.92%; forced expiratory volume in first second (%) (FEV1), 73.45% ± 17.20%; FEV1/FVC (%), 75.58% ± 15.99%; peak expiratory flow (%) (PEF), 54,90% ± 20.21%; forced expiratory flow at 25% to 75% (FEF25–75), 77.71% ± 27.05%; maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), 62.06 ± 31.68; maximal expiratory pressure (MEP), 95.94 ± 36.60; 6MWT, 445.88 ± 99.48. The scores obtained in TKS were found related to the values of FVC (%), FEV1 (%), chest expansion, BASFI, modified Schober test, lumbar lateral flexion, cervical rotation, and total BASMI score (r = −0.43, −0.36, −0.41, 0.42, −0.49, −0.56, −0.52, 0.56, respectively; P < .05). Kinesiophobia is a condition that may arise in individuals with AS, which has negative effects. Physiotherapists have a responsibility to eliminate kinesiophobia beliefs and prefer therapy method in line with this responsibility. PMID:28723759

  19. Whole-Genome saliva and blood DNA methylation profiling in individuals with a respiratory allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langie, Sabine A. S.; Szic, Katarzyna Szarc vel; Declerck, Ken

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of respiratory allergies (RA) can be partly explained by DNA methylation changes caused by adverse environmental and lifestyle factors experienced early in life. Longitudinal, prospective studies can aid in the unravelment of the epigenetic mechanisms involved in the disease developm......The etiology of respiratory allergies (RA) can be partly explained by DNA methylation changes caused by adverse environmental and lifestyle factors experienced early in life. Longitudinal, prospective studies can aid in the unravelment of the epigenetic mechanisms involved in the disease...... Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited....

  20. Monitoring respiratory muscle strength assists in early diagnosis of respiratory dysfunction as opposed to the isolated use of pulmonary function evaluation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregonezi, Guilherme; Araújo, Palomma Russelly Saldanha; Macêdo, Tathiana Lindemberg Ferreira; Dourado Junior, Mario Emilio; Resqueti, Vanessa Regiane; Andrade, Armele de Fátima Dornelas de

    2013-03-01

    It was study the relationship between respiratory muscle strength and forced vital capacity (FVC) in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) versus healthy subjects. Pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength [maximal inspiratory (PImax), maximal expiratory (PEmax) and sniff nasal inspiratory pressure (SNIP)] were assessed in patients with ALS and healthy subjects, matched using cutoffs established in the literature for impaired pulmonary function and respiratory muscle weakness. Twenty-eight ALS patients and 28 healthy subjects were studied. We found sensitivity and specificity for PImax, PEmax and SNIP of 75/58%, 81/67% and 75/67%. The Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (ROC curve) indicated that the variables PImax, PEmax and SNIP can identify differences in respiratory muscle strength between ALS and healthy individuals at 0.89, 0.9 and 0.82, respectively. A positive correlation was recorded between FVC (%) versus SNIP, PImax and PEmax. In ALS, monitoring respiratory muscle strength assists in early diagnosis of respiratory dysfunction as opposed to the isolated use of FVC.

  1. Respiratory alkalosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a condition marked by a low level of carbon dioxide in the blood due to breathing excessively. ... aimed at the condition that causes respiratory alkalosis. Breathing ... dioxide -- sometimes helps reduce symptoms when anxiety is the ...

  2. Functional Imaging of Dolphin Brain Metabolism and Blood Flow

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ridgway, Sam; Finneran, James; Carder, Don; Keogh, Mandy; Van Bonn, William; Smith, Cynthia; Scadeng, Miriam; Dubowitz, David; Mattrey, Robert; Hoh, Carl

    2006-01-01

    .... Diazepam has been shown to induce unihemispheric slow waves (USW), therefore we used functional imaging of dolphins with and without diazepam to observe hemispheric differences in brain metabolism and blood flow...

  3. Exposure to Cigarette Smoke Reduces Vitamin D3 in the Blood Stream and Respiratory Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Published Online: April 2, 2014 Cigarette smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke have long been known to exacerbate respiratory diseases ... the inflammatory effects of cigarette smoke. In conclusion, exposure to ... exposed to secondhand smoke, or who have chronic sinusitis with nasal ...

  4. Voluntary respiratory control and cerebral blood flow velocity upon ice-water immersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantoni, Teit; Rasmussen, Jakob Højlund; Belhage, Bo

    2008-01-01

    in respiratory rate (from 12 +/- 3 to 21 +/- 5 breaths, min(-1)) and tidal volume (1022 +/- 142 to 1992 +/- 253 ml). Though end-tidal carbon dioxide tension decreased from 4.9 +/- 0.13 to 3.9 +/- 0.21 kPa, CBFV was insignificantly reduced by 7 +/- 4% during immersion with a brief nadir of 21 +/- 4%. DISCUSSION...

  5. Heavy metals in PM2.5 and in blood, and children's respiratory symptoms and asthma from an e-waste recycling area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, Xiang; Xu, Xijin; Zheng, Xiangbin; Reponen, Tiina; Chen, Aimin; Huo, Xia

    This study was to investigate the levels of heavy metals in PM2.5 and in blood, the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and asthma, and the related factors to them. Lead and cadmium in both PM2.5 and blood were significant higher in Guiyu (exposed area) than Haojiang (reference area) (p <0.05),

  6. Comparison of respiratory functions of athletes engaged in different individual sports branches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülin Atan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: It was aimed to research pulmonary functionsof sedentary males and athletes who engaged in differentindividual sports branches in the same age group.Methods: 50 male athletes in 15-16 age group in the starcategory participated from each of the branches of judo,athletics, wrestling, taekwondo, table tennis and swimmingand 50 sedentary males participated as well; beingin total 350 subjects. Among respiratory functions tests;vital capacity (VC, forced vital capacity (FVC and maximumvoluntary ventilation (MVV values were measured.Results were compared.Results: As a result of measurement, VC values of wrestlers,swimmer and taekwondo athletes were significantlyhigher than the values of sedentary males in statisticalsize (p<0.05 and p<0.01. VC values of swimmers weresignificantly higher than athletes of judo, track and fieldand table tennis athletes (p<0.01. It was determinedthat FVC and FEV1 values of swimmers and wrestlershave significantly higher values than sedentary subjects(p<0.05. FVIC values of swimmers were significantlyhigher than athletes, table tennis players and sedanters(p<0.05 and p<0.01. MVV values of swimmers were significantlyhigher than judo, track and field and table tennisathletes (p<0.05. When the respiration rate (RR was analyzed,RR value of table tennis players were significantlyhigher than wrestlers (p<0.05.Conclusion: As a result it was determined that respiratoryfunctions were higher among subjects who do exercisecompared to those who do not. That the respiratoryparameters of athletes doing exercise from differentbranches of star category are higher than those who donot shows the effect of training on respiratory system. Inaddition to this, the difference of respiratory functions betweenbranches shows that the sport branch influencesthe respiratory capacity.Key words: Respiratory functions, athletes, sport branches.

  7. Phenotype and functions of memory Tfh cells in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Nathalie; Bentebibel, Salah-Eddine; Ueno, Hideki

    2014-09-01

    Our understanding of the origin and functions of human blood CXCR5(+) CD4(+) T cells found in human blood has changed dramatically in the past years. These cells are currently considered to represent a circulating memory compartment of T follicular helper (Tfh) lineage cells. Recent studies have shown that blood memory Tfh cells are composed of phenotypically and functionally distinct subsets. Here, we review the current understanding of human blood memory Tfh cells and the subsets within this compartment. We present a strategy to define these subsets based on cell surface profiles. Finally, we discuss how increased understanding of the biology of blood memory Tfh cells may contribute insight into the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and the mode of action of vaccines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Measurement of lung volume by lung perfusion scanning using SPECT and prediction of postoperative respiratory function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andou, Akio; Shimizu, Nobuyosi; Maruyama, Shuichiro

    1992-01-01

    Measurement of lung volume by lung perfusion scanning using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and its usefulness for the prediction of respiratory function after lung resection were investigated. The lung volumes calculated in 5 patients by SPECT (threshold level 20%) using 99m Tc-macroaggregated albumin (MAA), related very closely to the actually measured lung volumes. This results prompted us to calculate the total lung volume and the volume of the lobe to be resected in 18 patients with lung cancer by SPECT. Based on the data obtained, postoperative respiratory function was predicted. The predicted values of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume (FEV 1.0 ), and maximum vital volume (MVV) showed closer correlations with the actually measured postoperative values (FVC, FEV 1.0 , MVV : r=0.944, r=0.917, r=0.795 respectively), than the values predicted by the ordinary lung perfusion scanning. This method facilitates more detailed evaluation of local lung function on a lobe-by-lobe basis, and can be applied clinically to predict postoperative respiratory function. (author)

  9. Impact of backpack type on respiratory muscle strength and lung function in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Ana Christina; Ribeiro, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    We examine the influence of backpack type on lung function and respiratory muscle strength in children. Thirty-seven children were assessed for lung function and inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength under four randomly determined conditions: unloaded erect standing and three conditions carrying 15% of the child's body weight. In these three conditions, children carried the weight on a backpack with bilateral shoulder straps carried over both shoulders, on a backpack with bilateral shoulder straps carried over one shoulder and on a backpack with a mono shoulder strap. Significantly lower forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second and maximal expiratory pressure were observed when children carried a backpack with a mono shoulder strap compared to the unloaded standing position. In conclusion, the restrictive effect and the decrease in expiratory muscle strength were more pronounced for the backpack with a mono shoulder strap, suggesting that a double strap backpack is preferable to a mono shoulder strap backpack. Practitioner summary: There is little known about the effect of schoolbags on respiratory muscle function. We investigated the influence of backpack type on lung function and respiratory muscle strength. A backpack with a mono shoulder strap created a restrictive effect and a decrease in strength, suggesting that a double strap backpack is preferable to a mono shoulder strap backpack.

  10. Aim24 and MICOS modulate respiratory function, tafazzin-related cardiolipin modification and mitochondrial architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harner, Max Emanuel; Unger, Ann-Katrin; Izawa, Toshiaki; Walther, Dirk M; Ozbalci, Cagakan; Geimer, Stefan; Reggiori, Fulvio; Brügger, Britta; Mann, Matthias; Westermann, Benedikt; Neupert, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Structure and function of mitochondria are intimately linked. In a search for components that participate in building the elaborate architecture of this complex organelle we have identified Aim24, an inner membrane protein. Aim24 interacts with the MICOS complex that is required for the formation of crista junctions and contact sites between inner and outer membranes. Aim24 is necessary for the integrity of the MICOS complex, for normal respiratory growth and mitochondrial ultrastructure. Modification of MICOS subunits Mic12 or Mic26 by His-tags in the absence of Aim24 leads to complete loss of cristae and respiratory complexes. In addition, the level of tafazzin, a cardiolipin transacylase, is drastically reduced and the composition of cardiolipin is modified like in mutants lacking tafazzin. In conclusion, Aim24 by interacting with the MICOS complex plays a key role in mitochondrial architecture, composition and function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01684.001.

  11. Determinants of functional coupling between astrocytes and respiratory neurons in the pre-Bötzinger complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schnell

    Full Text Available Respiratory neuronal network activity is thought to require efficient functioning of astrocytes. Here, we analyzed neuron-astrocyte communication in the pre-Bötzinger Complex (preBötC of rhythmic slice preparations from neonatal mice. In astrocytes that exhibited rhythmic potassium fluxes and glutamate transporter currents, we did not find a translation of respiratory neuronal activity into phase-locked astroglial calcium signals. In up to 20% of astrocytes, 2-photon calcium imaging revealed spontaneous calcium fluctuations, although with no correlation to neuronal activity. Calcium signals could be elicited in preBötC astrocytes by metabotropic glutamate receptor activation or after inhibition of glial glutamate uptake. In the latter case, astrocyte calcium elevation preceded a surge of respiratory neuron discharge activity followed by network failure. We conclude that astrocytes do not exhibit respiratory-rhythmic calcium fluctuations when they are able to prevent synaptic glutamate accumulation. Calcium signaling is, however, observed when glutamate transport processes in astrocytes are suppressed or neuronal discharge activity is excessive.

  12. Measurement and monitoring of electrocardiogram belt tension in premature infants for assessment of respiratory function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegyi Thomas

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monitoring of the electrocardiogram (ECG in premature infants with conventional adhesive-backed electrodes can harm their sensitive skin. Use of an electrode belt prevents skin irritation, but the effect of belt pressure on respiratory function is unknown. A strain gauge sensor is described which measures applied belt tension. Method The device frame was comprised of an aluminum housing and slide to minimize the device weight. Velcro tabs connected housing and slide to opposite tabs located at the electrode belt ends. The slide was connected to a leaf spring, to which were bonded two piezoresistive transducers in a half-bridge circuit configuration. The device was tested for linearity and calibrated. The effect on infant respiratory function of constant belt tension in the normal range (30 g–90 g was determined. Results The mechanical response to a step input was second order (fn = 401 Hz, ζ = 0.08. The relationship between applied tension and output voltage was linear in the range 25–225 gm of applied tension (r2 = 0.99. Measured device sensitivity was 2.18 mV/gm tension using a 5 V bridge excitation voltage. When belt tension was increased in the normal range from 30 gm to 90 gm, there was no significant change in heart rate and most respiratory functions during monitoring. At an intermediate level of tension of 50 gm, pulmonary resistance and work of breathing significantly decreased. Conclusion The mechanical and electrical design of a device for monitoring electrocardiogram electrode belt tension is described. Within the typical range of application tension, cardiovascular and respiratory function are not substantially negatively affected by electrode belt force.

  13. Relationship between locations of rib defects and loss of respiratory function - a biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Asako; Nagasao, Tomohisa; Cho, Yasunori; Shimizu, Yusuke; Takano, Naoki; Kaneko, Tsuyoshi; Kishi, Kazuo

    2014-06-01

    The present study elucidates the relationship between the locations of rib defects and loss of respiratory function. Ten sets of three-dimensional finite element models were produced from computed tomography data of 10 persons and categorized as normal type models. These models were modified by removing part of the ribs, and the resultant models were categorized as defect type models. Varying the location of the defects, six types of defect model were produced from each of the 10 normal models; the defects were made on the anterior-superior, anterior-inferior, lateral-superior, lateral-inferior, posterior-superior, and posterior-inferior regions of the thorax. To simulate respiration, contracture forces were applied to nonlinear springs modeling respiratory muscles for each of the normal and defect models. Difference in volume of the thoracic cavity between inspiration and expiration phases was viewed as the indicator of respiratory function and was defined as ΔV. The values of ΔV were compared between normal type models and their corresponding defect type models. Among the six types of defect, the degree of functional loss was greatest with those defects on the lateral-inferior part of the thorax, where ΔV of the affected side hemithorax drops to 38 to 45% of normal values, whereas ΔV was 62 to 88% with other defect models. Thoraces that have defects on their lateral-inferior regions present lower respiratory functioning than thoraces with other defect locations. Hence, in treating clinical cases where defects are expected to occur in this region, effort should be made to minimize the area of the defect. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Aim24 and MICOS modulate respiratory function, tafazzin-related cardiolipin modification and mitochondrial architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Harner, Max Emanuel; Unger, Ann-Katrin; Izawa, Toshiaki; Walther, Dirk M; Ozbalci, Cagakan; Geimer, Stefan; Reggiori, Fulvio; Brügger, Britta; Mann, Matthias; Westermann, Benedikt; Neupert, Walter; Reggiori, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    Structure and function of mitochondria are intimately linked. In a search for components that participate in building the elaborate architecture of this complex organelle we have identified Aim24, an inner membrane protein. Aim24 interacts with the MICOS complex that is required for the formation of crista junctions and contact sites between inner and outer membranes. Aim24 is necessary for the integrity of the MICOS complex, for normal respiratory growth and mitochondrial ultrastructure. Mod...

  15. Potential benefits of exercise on blood pressure and vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sebely; Radavelli-Bagatini, Simone; Ho, Suleen

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity seems to enhance cardiovascular fitness during the course of the lifecycle, improve blood pressure, and is associated with decreased prevalence of hypertension and coronary heart disease. It may also delay or prevent age-related increases in arterial stiffness. It is unclear if specific exercise types (aerobic, resistance, or combination) have a better effect on blood pressure and vascular function. This review was written based on previous original articles, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses indexed on PubMed from years 1975 to 2012 to identify studies on different types of exercise and the associations or effects on blood pressure and vascular function. In summary, aerobic exercise (30 to 40 minutes of training at 60% to 85% of predicted maximal heart rate, most days of the week) appears to significantly improve blood pressure and reduce augmentation index. Resistance training (three to four sets of eight to 12 repetitions at 10 repetition maximum, 3 days a week) appears to significantly improve blood pressure, whereas combination exercise training (15 minutes of aerobic and 15 minutes of resistance, 5 days a week) is beneficial to vascular function, but at a lower scale. Aerobic exercise seems to better benefit blood pressure and vascular function. Copyright © 2013 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A versatile hydraulically operated respiratory servo system for ventilation and lung function testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M; Slama, H

    1983-09-01

    A description is given of the design and performance of a microcomputer-controlled respiratory servo system that incorporates the characteristics of a mechanical ventilator and also allows the performance of a multitude of test procedures required for assessment of pulmonary function in paralyzed animals. The device consists of a hydraulically operated cylinder-piston assembly and solenoid valves that direct inspiratory and expiratory gas flow and also enable switching to different test gas sources. The system operates as a volume-flow-preset ventilator but may be switched to other operational cycling modes. Gas flow rates may be constant or variable. The system operates as an assister-controller and, combined with a gas analyzer, can function as a "demand" ventilator allowing for set-point control of end-tidal PCO2 and PO2. Complex breathing maneuvers for a variety of single- and multiple-breath lung function tests are automatically performed. Because of the flexibility in selection and timing of respiratory parameters, the system is particularly suitable for respiratory gas studies.

  17. Respiratory symptoms and functional impairments induced by occupational exposure to formaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Choobineh

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimsThe main purpose of this study was to assess the acute and chronic effects of occupational exposure to low levels of formaldehyde on respiratory health.MethodsThis historical cohort study was conducted at a local melamine-formaldehyde resin producing plant. The study population consisted of seventy exposed and 24 non-exposed (referent employees. In this study, a questionnaire was used to evaluate and determined the prevalence of respiratory symptoms. Atmospheric concentrations of formaldehyde were measured at different areas of the plant. Similarly, using a spirometer, the parameters of pulmonary function were measured during exposure and a few days after exposure ceased.ResultsAtmospheric concentrations of formaldehyde marginally exceeded current permissible levels. Additionally, significant decrements in some parameters of pulmonary function, both during and after exposure were noted. However, a relative recovery in lungfunctional capacity observed following temporary cessation of exposure. Furthermore, exposed workers had higher prevalencerates of regular cough, wheezing, phlegm, shortness of breath, chest tightness and episodes of chest illness associated with cold.ConclusionThe findings of this study indicate that exposure to formaldehyde may induce respiratory symptoms, acute partially reversible and chronic irreversible functional impairments of the lungs.

  18. Effect of individualized physical rehabilitation programs on respiratory function in women with post-mastectomy syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odinets, Tatiana; Briskin, Yuriy; Pityn, Maryan

    2018-02-26

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an individualized physical rehabilitation programs aimed at improving respiratory function in women with post-mastectomy syndrome. In a randomized controlled trial 50 women with post-mastectomy syndrome were enrolled in the experimental group (EG, n = 25) or the comparison group (CG, n = 25). The program for the EG included: aqua aerobics (i.e. aqua jogging, aqua building, and aqua stretching); conditional swimming; and recreational aerobics. The program for the CG included: conditional swimming and Pilates exercises. Both intervention groups attended individualized physical rehabilitation programs three times per week for 48 weeks. The primary outcome measure was spirometry of the patients measured before, 6 and 12 months after the intervention. This study demonstrated that most of the respiratory function parameters increased significantly in both groups over the year of exercise training. After the year of training the individualized physical rehabilitation program for the EG was significantly better (p < 0.01) as compared with the CG, except for inspiratory reserve volume and maximal voluntary ventilation, which were not statistically different. The results of the study suggest that individual programs of physical rehabilitation could be considered effective for the improvement of respiratory function of the patients with post-mastectomy syndrome. The results obtained could serve as a basis for more widespread clinical program development.

  19. [Effects of water deficiency on mitochondrial functions and polymorphism of respiratory enzymes in plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmankulova, Z F; Shuĭskaia, E V; Rogozhnikova, E S

    2013-01-01

    In plants, adaptive-compensatory responses to stress always entail additional energy expenditure. A suggestion was brought forward that in plants growing under conditions of water stress there is a relationship between genetic variability of respiratory enzymes and their functional significance. With Kochia prostrate (L.) Schrad. as a case study, intraspecies genetic polymorphism under the conditions of drought has been analyzed using typical protein markers which, considering their functional importance, can be viewed as respiratory enzymes. Out of eight protein markers examined, four enzymes were singled out for which dominating combination of genotypes Dia B (a), G6pd (a), Gdh (c), and Mdh A (a) was incidental. In all populations from arid and semiarid zone, these genotypes frequency of occurrence was in the range of 0.53-1.0, i.e., it comprised more than 50% of the whole variety of combinations. Thus, it seems plausible that this combination of genotypes can be an "adaptive collection" for K. prostrata populations growing in arid habitats. A characteristic feature of the picked out enzymes is their belonging to NAD(P)(+)-depending oxidoreductases that play a key role in functioning and redox-regulation of respiratory metabolism in course of adapting to water deficiency. It is suggested that the presence of such well-balanced co-adaptive genotype combinations, that provide enzymes important in terms of energetics, determine the formation of energetic and redox-balances during the process of adaptation to water stress.

  20. Effects of inspiratory muscle training on respiratory function and repetitive sprint performance in wheelchair basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goosey-Tolfrey, V; Foden, E; Perret, C; Degens, H

    2010-07-01

    There is considerable evidence that respiratory muscle training improves pulmonary function, quality of life and exercise performance in healthy athletic populations. The benefits for wheelchair athletes are less well understood. Therefore, in the present study, influence of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on respiratory function and repetitive propulsive sprint performance in wheelchair basketball players was examined. Using a placebo-controlled design, 16 wheelchair athletes were divided to an experimental (IMT; n=8) or placebo (sham-IMT; n=8) group based on selective grouping criteria. 30 dynamic breaths were performed by the IMT group twice daily at a resistance equivalent to 50% maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP), and 60 slow breaths were performed by the sham-IMT group once a day at 15% MIP for a period of 6 weeks. In the IMT group, both MIP and maximum expiratory pressure (17% and 23%, respectively; ptraining device suggested "less breathlessness" and "less tightness in the chest during the training". Although there was no improvement in sprint performance, an improved respiratory muscle function and quality of life were reported by participants in both the IMT and sham-IMT groups.

  1. Blood pressure in children in relation to relative body fat composition and cardio-respiratory fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Linda P; Shield, Julian P H; Cooper, Ashley R; Ness, Andy R; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2011-08-01

    To examine whether higher physical fitness is associated with lower levels of blood pressure independent of adiposity in an established cohort of children. We explored how the method used to adjust fitness for body size would influence the findings. Blood pressure, adiposity (DXA scan) and fitness (predicted work capacity at a heart rate of 170 bpm [PWC170]) were assessed in children aged 9 years (n = 3594). Separate regression analyses for boys and girls yielded strong linear relationships between blood pressure (dependent variable) and ratio of fat to lean + bone (independent variable; all P fitness was assessed by adding PWC170 to the above models. Blood pressure was strongly inversely related to PWC170 when the latter was first adjusted for size in the conventional way (division by weight; all P fitness, mean blood pressure differed by 1 [95% CI 0?3] mm Hg for boys and 3 [95% CI 2?4] mm Hg for girls. Fitness is not associated with systolic blood pressure independent of levels of adiposity but there is a small but independent association with diastolic blood pressure.

  2. Examination of relationship between 30 second wingate test performance and spirometric respiratory functions in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Arslan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This work has been planed to investigate whether the correlation between one of the important component of the sports performance spirometric respiratory function (SRF and 30 s Wingate Test (WT parameters of young adults who have different physical fitness level. Materials and Methods: This work included a total of 166 subjects those are 98 young boys (20.30±1.93 and 68 young girls (19.65±2.18. The subjects were divided into two groups namely regular exercises group (EG who make a regular exercises during 4.0±1.50 years and sedentary groups (SG. Both group’s subjects have similar age, height, weight and body mass index (BMI kg/m2. All the subjects were performed spirometric respiratory function test and WT power performance test. Statistical analyses were performed by SPSS computer program and the groups were compared to each other by using Independent Samples t test calculation and the correlation relation levels were calculated by using linear regression analysis. Results: In the view of physical peculiarities, it has not been found any difference between research groups that EG and SG (P>0.05. In the meaning of the measured spirometric respiratory functions and WT power performance, with the advantage of making regular sports, according to SG groups, the boys and girls EG groups showed differences (P<0.05. The correlational relationship between the spirometric and WT power parameters; it has been observed significant correlation between peak power (PP, mean power (MP, peak power/weight (PP/Wkg, mean power/weight (MP/Wkg form WT parameters and VC, FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC (% FEF25-75, PEF and MVV form respiration function (P<0.05 and P<0.001. On the other hand, it has not been found any significant correlation between WT anaerobic fatigue index (AFI % and respiratory functions (P<0.05. Conclusion: In this work, the tested spirometric respiratory functions have got an active role in the WT power parameters. It has been confirmed that

  3. Relationship of obesity with respiratory symptoms and decreased functional capacity in adults without established COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zutler, Moshe; Singer, Jonathan P; Omachi, Theodore A; Eisner, Mark; Iribarren, Carlos; Katz, Patricia; Blanc, Paul D

    2012-06-01

    Obesity contributes to respiratory symptoms and exercise limitation, but the relationships between obesity, airflow obstruction (AO), respiratory symptoms and functional limitation are complex. To determine the relationship of obesity with airflow obstruction (AO) and respiratory symptoms in adults without a previous diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We analysed data for potential referents recruited to be healthy controls for an ongoing study of COPD. The potential referents had no prior diagnosis of COPD or healthcare utilisation attributed to COPD in the 12 months prior to recruitment. Subjects completed a structured interview and a clinical assessment including body mass index, spirometry, six-minute walk test (SMWT), and the Short Performance Physical Battery (SPPB). Multiple regression analyses were used to test the associations of obesity (body mass index >30 kg/m2) and smoking with AO (forced expiratory volume in 1s/forced vital capacity ratio obesity with respiratory symptoms and impaired functional capacity (SPPB, SMWT), adjusting for AO. Of 371 subjects (aged 40-65 years), 69 (19%) had AO. In multivariate analysis, smoking was positively associated with AO (per 10 pack-years, OR 1.24; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.49) while obesity was negatively associated with AO (OR 0.54; 95% CI 0.30 to 0.98). Obesity was associated with increased odds of reporting dyspnoea on exertion (OR 3.6; 95% CI 2.0 to 6.4), productive cough (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.1 to 6.0), and with decrements in SMWT distance (67 ± 9 m; 95% CI 50 to 84 m) and SPPB score (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.1 to 3.5). None of these outcomes was associated with AO. Although AO and obesity are both common among adults without an established COPD diagnosis, obesity (but not AO) is linked to a higher risk of reporting dyspnoea on exertion, productive cough, and poorer functional capacity.

  4. Effect of singing on respiratory function, voice, and mood after quadriplegia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamplin, Jeanette; Baker, Felicity A; Grocke, Denise; Brazzale, Danny J; Pretto, Jeffrey J; Ruehland, Warren R; Buttifant, Mary; Brown, Douglas J; Berlowitz, David J

    2013-03-01

    To explore the effects of singing training on respiratory function, voice, mood, and quality of life for people with quadriplegia. Randomized controlled trial. Large, university-affiliated public hospital, Victoria, Australia. Participants (N=24) with chronic quadriplegia (C4-8, American Spinal Injury Association grades A and B). The experimental group (n=13) received group singing training 3 times weekly for 12 weeks. The control group (n=11) received group music appreciation and relaxation for 12 weeks. Assessments were conducted pre, mid-, immediately post-, and 6-months postintervention. Standard respiratory function testing, surface electromyographic activity from accessory respiratory muscles, sound pressure levels during vocal tasks, assessments of voice quality (Perceptual Voice Profile, Multidimensional Voice Profile), and Voice Handicap Index, Profile of Mood States, and Assessment of Quality of Life instruments. The singing group increased projected speech intensity (P=.028) and maximum phonation length (P=.007) significantly more than the control group. Trends for improvements in respiratory function, muscle strength, and recruitment were also evident for the singing group. These effects were limited by small sample sizes with large intersubject variability. Both groups demonstrated an improvement in mood (P=.002), which was maintained in the music appreciation and relaxation group after 6 months (P=.017). Group music therapy can have a positive effect on not only physical outcomes, but also can improve mood, energy, social participation, and quality of life for an at-risk population, such as those with quadriplegia. Specific singing therapy can augment these general improvements by improving vocal intensity. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Effects of Leukocyte Filtration on Cell Salvaged Autologous Blood Transfusion on Lung Function and Lung Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Reactions in Elderly Patients Undergoing Lumbar Spinal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lili; Shen, Jianjun; Sun, Jianliang; McQuillan, Patrick M; Hu, Zhiyong

    2018-02-21

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of leukocyte filtration of autologous salvaged blood on lung function, lung inflammatory reaction, and oxidative stress reaction in elderly patients undergoing lumbar spinal surgery. Sixty elderly patients undergoing lumbar spinal surgery were randomly divided into 2 groups: Leukocyte Filter group and Control group. Serum levels of inflammatory markers including white blood cell and polymorphonuclear count, neutrophil elastase, serum surfactant protein A, methane dicarboxylic aldehyde, superoxide dismutase, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α, and respiratory function markers including dynamic respiratory system compliance, oxygenation index, and respiratory index were measured immediately before induction of anesthesia (T0), immediately before blood transfusion (T1), and 1 (T2), 6 (T3), and 12 hours (T4) after end of blood transfusion. The Leukocyte Filter group had higher dynamic respiratory system compliance at T2, oxygenation index at T2 and T3, respiratory index and superoxide dismutase at T2, T3, and T4 than those in the Control group (P<0.05). The Leukocyte Filter group had lower white blood cell, polymorphonuclear count, neutrophil elastase, serum surfactant protein A, methane dicarboxylic aldehyde, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α at T2, T3, and T4 than those in the Control group (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in adverse reactions related specifically to blood transfusion or postoperative respiratory complications within 72 hours. Salvaged autologous blood leukocyte filtration can improve ventilation, promote gas exchange and oxygenation, and inhibit lung inflammatory and oxidative stress reactions in elderly patients undergoing lumbar spinal surgery.

  6. Subclinical respiratory dysfunction in chronic cervical cord compression: a pulmonary function test correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagavatula, Indira Devi; Bhat, Dhananjaya I; Sasidharan, Gopalakrishnan M; Mishra, Rakesh Kumar; Maste, Praful Suresh; Vilanilam, George C; Sathyaprabha, Talakkad N

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Respiratory abnormalities are well documented in acute spinal cord injury; however, the literature available for respiratory dysfunction in chronic compressive myelopathy (CCM) is limited. Respiratory dysfunction in CCM is often subtle and subclinical. The authors studied the pattern of respiratory dysfunction in patients with chronic cord compression by using spirometry, and the clinical and surgical implications of this dysfunction. In this study they also attempted to address the postoperative respiratory function in these patients. METHODS A prospective study was done in 30 patients in whom cervical CCM due to either cervical spondylosis or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) was diagnosed. Thirty age-matched healthy volunteers were recruited as controls. None of the patients included in the study had any symptoms or signs of respiratory dysfunction. After clinical and radiological diagnosis, all patients underwent pulmonary function tests (PFTs) performed using a standardized Spirometry Kit Micro before and after surgery. The data were analyzed using Statistical Software SPSS version 13.0. Comparison between the 2 groups was done using the Student t-test. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used for PFT results and Nurick classification scores. A p value compression (n = 21, 70%) followed by OPLL (n = 9, 30%). The average patient age was 45.06 years. Degenerative cervical spine disease has a relatively younger onset in the Indian population. The majority of the patients (n = 28, 93.3%) had compression at or above the C-5 level. Ten patients (33.3%) underwent an anterior approach and discectomy, 11 patients (36.7%) underwent decompressive laminectomy, and the remaining 9 underwent either corpectomy with fusion or laminoplasty. The mean preoperative forced vital capacity (FVC) (65%) of the patients was significantly lower than that of the controls (88%) (p < 0.001). The mean postoperative FVC (73.7%) in the patients showed

  7. Relationship of structure and function of the avian respiratory system to disease susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedde, M R

    1998-08-01

    The avian respiratory system exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide between the gas and the blood utilizing a relatively small, rigid, flow-through lung, and a system of air sacs that act as bellows to move the gas through the lung. Gas movement through the paleopulmonic parabronchi, the main gas exchanging bronchi, in the lung is in the same direction during both inspiration and expiration, i.e., from the mediodorsal secondary bronchi to the medioventral secondary bronchi. During inspiration, acceleration of the gas at the segmentum accelerans of the primary bronchus increases gas velocity so it does not enter the medioventral secondary bronchi. During expiration, airway resistance is increased in he intrapulmonary primary bronchus because of dynamic compression causing gas to enter the mediodorsal secondary bronchi. Reduction in air flow velocity may decrease the efficiency of this aerodynamic valving and thereby decrease the efficiency of gas exchange. The convective gas flow in the avian parabronchus is orientated at a 90 degree angle with respect to the parabronchial blood flow; hence, the cross-current designation of this gas exchanger. With this design, the partial pressure of oxygen in the blood leaving the parabronchus can be higher than that in the gas exiting this structure, giving the avian lung a high gas exchange efficacy. The relationship of the partial pressure of oxygen in the moist inspired gas to that in the blood leaving the lung is dependent on he rate of ventilation. A low ventilation rate may produce a ow oxygen partial pressure in part of the parabronchus, thereby inducing hypoxic vasoconstriction in the pulmonary arterioles supplying this region. Inhaled foreign particles are removed by nasal mucociliary action, by escalator in the trachea, primary bronchi, and secondary bronchi. Small particles that enter parabronchi appear to be phagocytized by the epithelial cells in eh atria and infundibulum. These particles can e transported to

  8. ABO blood group is associated with response to inhaled nitric oxide in neonates with respiratory failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George T El-Ferzli

    Full Text Available Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO reduces death or need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO in infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN. However, the response to iNO is variable and only 50-60% of infants demonstrate a response to iNO. It is not known why only some infants respond to iNO. Adults and children with blood groups B or AB do not respond as well to iNO as those with blood groups O/A.To determine if blood group was associated with iNO response in newborn infants, a retrospective medical record review was done of infants admitted to a regional NICU from 2002-9 with a diagnosis of PPHN. Data were collected during the first twelve hours post-initiation of treatment. Of 86 infants diagnosed with PPHN, 23 infants had blood group A [18 received iNO], 21 had group B [18 with iNO], 40 had group O [36 with iNO], and 2 had group AB [both received iNO]. Change in PaO(2/FiO(2 was less in infants with blood group A, of whom less than half were responders (ΔPaO(2/FiO(2>20% at 12 h versus 90% of infants with either O or B. Race, sex, birth weight, gestational age, Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes, and baseline PaO(2/FiO(2 were similar among groups. Outcomes including need for ECMO, death, length of ventilatory support, length of iNO use, and hospital stay were statistically not different by blood groups.Our results indicate that blood group influences iNO response in neonates. We hypothesize that either there is genetic linkage of the ABO gene locus with vasoregulatory genes, or that blood group antigens directly affect vascular reactivity.

  9. Functional and histopathological identification of the respiratory failure in a DMSXL transgenic mouse model of myotonic dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrica-Adrian Panaite

    2013-05-01

    Acute and chronic respiratory failure is one of the major and potentially life-threatening features in individuals with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1. Despite several clinical demonstrations showing respiratory problems in DM1 patients, the mechanisms are still not completely understood. This study was designed to investigate whether the DMSXL transgenic mouse model for DM1 exhibits respiratory disorders and, if so, to identify the pathological changes underlying these respiratory problems. Using pressure plethysmography, we assessed the breathing function in control mice and DMSXL mice generated after large expansions of the CTG repeat in successive generations of DM1 transgenic mice. Statistical analysis of breathing function measurements revealed a significant decrease in the most relevant respiratory parameters in DMSXL mice, indicating impaired respiratory function. Histological and morphometric analysis showed pathological changes in diaphragmatic muscle of DMSXL mice, characterized by an increase in the percentage of type I muscle fibers, the presence of central nuclei, partial denervation of end-plates (EPs and a significant reduction in their size, shape complexity and density of acetylcholine receptors, all of which reflect a possible breakdown in communication between the diaphragmatic muscles fibers and the nerve terminals. Diaphragm muscle abnormalities were accompanied by an accumulation of mutant DMPK RNA foci in muscle fiber nuclei. Moreover, in DMSXL mice, the unmyelinated phrenic afferents are significantly lower. Also in these mice, significant neuronopathy was not detected in either cervical phrenic motor neurons or brainstem respiratory neurons. Because EPs are involved in the transmission of action potentials and the unmyelinated phrenic afferents exert a modulating influence on the respiratory drive, the pathological alterations affecting these structures might underlie the respiratory impairment detected in DMSXL mice. Understanding

  10. Respiratory function parameters in ventilated newborn infants undergoing whole body hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassios, Theodore; Austin, Topun

    2014-02-01

    Whole body hypothermia (WBH) exerts proven neuroprotective effects in infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE). Our aim was to describe how WBH could impact on respiratory function in mechanically ventilated newborn infants, by recording primary and composite indices of oxygenation and ventilation before, during and after WBH. The medical notes of 31 mechanically ventilated full-term newborn infants who underwent WBH for HIE were retrospectively reviewed. Fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2), tidal volume (TV), mean airway Pressure (MAP), minute ventilation (MV), static compliance of the respiratory system (C(statRS)), ventilation efficiency index (VEI), alveolar-arterial gradient (A-a gradient) and oxygenation index (OI) were documented before and during hypothermic treatment, as well as during and after rewarming. Fraction of inspired oxygen, MAP, OI and A-a gradient decreased during induction of hypothermia and tended to increase during rewarming. C(statRS), VEI and TV increased during induction of hypothermia and tended to decrease during rewarming. None of the changes achieved statistical significance. These results suggest that WBH might affect respiratory function in mechanically ventilated infants with HIE. Oxygenation might be enhanced by hypothermia, probably as a result of decreased metabolism, while ventilation might also be facilitated as a result of the effect of hypothermia on lung mechanics. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Minimally spaced electrode positions for multi-functional chest sensors: ECG and respiratory signal estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klum Michael

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Unobtrusive medical instrumentation is a key in continuous patient monitoring. To increase compliance, multi-functional sensor concepts and measurement sites different from gold-standards are used. In this work, we aim to combine both approaches. We focus on minimally spaced electrode positions with high signal correlations to gold-standards. We present twofold experimental data from six and eleven healthy volunteers and provide chest positions with individual correlations up to 0.83 ± 0.06 for ECG and 0.73 ± 0.28 for the respiratory frequency. Using a performance index, we assess positions with correlations up to 0.77 ± 0.12 for ECG and 0.65 ± 0.35 for the respiratory frequency with 24 mm electrode distance.

  12. Clinical and pathophysiological clues of respiratory dysfunction in late-onset Pompe disease: New insights from a comparative study by MRI and respiratory function assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeta, Michele; Musumeci, Olimpia; Mondello, Stefania; Ruggeri, Paolo; Montagnese, Federica; Cucinotta, Maria; Vinci, Sergio; Milardi, Demetrio; Toscano, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    Respiratory insufficiency commonly develops in patients with Late Onset Pompe Disease (LOPD). It is conceivable that a timely starting of enzyme replacement therapy could avoid this life-threatening complication. Respiratory function in LOPD is commonly evaluated with standard pulmonary tests which do not extensively provide an accurate definition of the muscular pathophysiology. In eleven patients with LOPD and five healthy subjects, we compared pulmonary function results with MRI data, based on scans of the right lung acquired on maximum expiration and inspiration. We observed that variations in the cranio-caudal lung height and of lung areas in inspiration and expiration (lung delta) as well as the area of diaphragmatic movement strongly correlated with pulmonary function results. Moreover, MRI data confirmed that development of respiratory insufficiency in LOPD is mainly due to the diaphragmatic weakness with sparing of the antero-posterior chest expansion related to the activity of the intercostal muscles. These results suggest that respiratory muscle MRI is a quick, useful and reproducible tool for patient management as well as a reliable outcome measure for future LOPD therapeutic trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Blood or Urine IP-10 Cannot Discriminate between Active Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases Different from Tuberculosis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Petrone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Interferon-γ inducible protein 10 (IP-10, either in blood or in urine, has been proposed as a tuberculosis (TB biomarker for adults. This study aims to evaluate the potential of IP-10 diagnostics in children from Uganda, a high TB-endemic country. Methods. IP-10 was measured in the blood and urine concomitantly taken from children who were prospectively enrolled with suspected active TB, with or without HIV infection. Clinical/microbiological parameters and commercially available TB-immune assays (tuberculin skin test (TST and QuantiFERON TB-Gold In-Tube (QFT-IT were concomitantly evaluated. Results. One hundred twenty-eight children were prospectively enrolled. The analysis was performed on 111 children: 80 (72% of them were HIV-uninfected and 31 (27.9% were HIV-infected. Thirty-three healthy adult donors (HAD were included as controls. The data showed that IP-10 is detectable in the urine and blood of children with active TB, independent of HIV status and age. However, although IP-10 levels were higher in active TB children compared to HAD, the accuracy of identifying “active TB” was low and similar to the TST and QFT-IT. Conclusion. IP-10 levels are higher in children with respiratory illness compared to controls, independent of “TB status” suggesting that the evaluation of this parameter can be used as an inflammatory marker more than a TB test.

  14. Prediction of intraventricular haemorrhage in preterm infants using time series analysis of blood pressure and respiratory signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huvanandana, Jacqueline; Nguyen, Chinh; Thamrin, Cindy; Tracy, Mark; Hinder, Murray; McEwan, Alistair L.

    2017-04-01

    Despite the decline in mortality rates of extremely preterm infants, intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) remains common in survivors. The need for resuscitation and cardiorespiratory management, particularly within the first 24 hours of life, are important factors in the incidence and timing of IVH. Variability analyses of heart rate and blood pressure data has demonstrated potential approaches to predictive monitoring. In this study, we investigated the early identification of infants at a high risk of developing IVH, using time series analysis of blood pressure and respiratory data. We also explore approaches to improving model performance, such as the inclusion of multiple variables and signal pre-processing to enhance the results from detrended fluctuation analysis. Of the models we evaluated, the highest area under receiver-operator characteristic curve (5th, 95th percentile) achieved was 0.921 (0.82, 1.00) by mean diastolic blood pressure and the long-term scaling exponent of pulse interval (PI α2), exhibiting a sensitivity of >90% at a specificity of 75%. Following evaluation in a larger population, our approach may be useful in predictive monitoring to identify infants at high risk of developing IVH, offering caregivers more time to adjust intensive care treatment.

  15. Regulation and function of versatile aerobic and anaerobic respiratory metabolism in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki eArai

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitously distributed opportunistic pathogen that inhabits soil and water as well as animal-, human-, and plant-host-associated environments. The ubiquity would be attributed to its very versatile energy metabolism. P. aeruginosa has a highly branched respiratory chain terminated by multiple terminal oxidases and denitrification enzymes. Five terminal oxidases for aerobic respiration have been identified in the P. aeruginosa cells. Three of them, the cbb3-1 oxidase, the cbb3-2 oxidase, and the aa3 oxidase, are cytochrome c oxidases and the other two, the bo3 oxidase and the cyanide-insensitive oxidase, are quinol oxidases. Each oxidase has a specific affinity for oxygen, efficiency of energy coupling, and tolerance to various stresses such as cyanide and reactive nitrogen species. These terminal oxidases are used differentially according to the environmental conditions. P. aeruginosa also has a complete set of the denitrification enzymes that reduce nitrate to molecular nitrogen via nitrite, nitric oxide (NO, and nitrous oxide. These nitrogen oxides function as alternative electron acceptors and enable P. aeruginosa to grow under anaerobic conditions. One of the denitrification enzymes, NO reductase, is also expected to function for detoxification of NO produced by the host immune defense system. The control of the expression of these aerobic and anaerobic respiratory enzymes would contribute to the adaptation of P. aeruginosa to a wide range of environmental conditions including in the infected hosts. Characteristics of these respiratory enzymes and the regulatory system that controls the expression of the respiratory genes in the P. aeruginosa cells are overviewed in this article.

  16. Assessment and management of respiratory function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: current and emerging options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoMauro, Antonella; D'Angelo, Maria Grazia; Aliverti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked myopathy resulting in progressive weakness and wasting of all the striated muscles including the respiratory muscles. The consequences are loss of ambulation before teen ages, cardiac involvement and breathing difficulties, the main cause of death. A cure for DMD is not currently available. In the last decades the survival of patients with DMD has improved because the natural history of the disease can be changed thanks to a more comprehensive therapeutic approach. This comprises interventions targeted to the manifestations and complications of the disease, particularly in the respiratory care. These include: 1) pharmacological intervention, namely corticosteroids and idebenone that significantly reduce the decline of spirometric parameters; 2) rehabilitative intervention, namely lung volume recruitment techniques that help prevent atelectasis and slows the rate of decline of pulmonary function; 3) scoliosis treatment, namely steroid therapy that is used to reduce muscle inflammation/degeneration and prolong ambulation in order to delay the onset of scoliosis, being an additional contribution to the restrictive lung pattern; 4) cough assisted devices that improve airway clearance thus reducing the risk of pulmonary infections; and 5) non-invasive mechanical ventilation that is essential to treat nocturnal hypoventilation, sleep disordered breathing, and ultimately respiratory failure. Without any intervention death occurs within the first 2 decades, however, thanks to this multidisciplinary therapeutic approach life expectancy of a newborn with DMD nowadays can be significantly prolonged up to his fourth decade. This review is aimed at providing state-of-the-art methods and techniques for the assessment and management of respiratory function in DMD patients.

  17. Assessment and management of respiratory function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: current and emerging options

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoMauro, Antonella; D’Angelo, Maria Grazia; Aliverti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked myopathy resulting in progressive weakness and wasting of all the striated muscles including the respiratory muscles. The consequences are loss of ambulation before teen ages, cardiac involvement and breathing difficulties, the main cause of death. A cure for DMD is not currently available. In the last decades the survival of patients with DMD has improved because the natural history of the disease can be changed thanks to a more comprehensive therapeutic approach. This comprises interventions targeted to the manifestations and complications of the disease, particularly in the respiratory care. These include: 1) pharmacological intervention, namely corticosteroids and idebenone that significantly reduce the decline of spirometric parameters; 2) rehabilitative intervention, namely lung volume recruitment techniques that help prevent atelectasis and slows the rate of decline of pulmonary function; 3) scoliosis treatment, namely steroid therapy that is used to reduce muscle inflammation/degeneration and prolong ambulation in order to delay the onset of scoliosis, being an additional contribution to the restrictive lung pattern; 4) cough assisted devices that improve airway clearance thus reducing the risk of pulmonary infections; and 5) non-invasive mechanical ventilation that is essential to treat nocturnal hypoventilation, sleep disordered breathing, and ultimately respiratory failure. Without any intervention death occurs within the first 2 decades, however, thanks to this multidisciplinary therapeutic approach life expectancy of a newborn with DMD nowadays can be significantly prolonged up to his fourth decade. This review is aimed at providing state-of-the-art methods and techniques for the assessment and management of respiratory function in DMD patients. PMID:26451113

  18. Correlation between pulmonary functions and respiratory muscle activity in patients with forward head posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeong-Il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to determine the effect that secondary postural deformities and chronic postural abnormalities have on lung capacity, as well as correlate the activity of the respiratory muscles. The results provide basic objective data about the forward head posture and respiratory muscle activity that can be used in clinical situations. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects used in this study were 24 patients aged 25 to 35 years old who visited a hospital in Jeollanam-do Province, Korea, between September 2015 and January 2016. The patients were diagnosed with forward head posture because the vertical line between the acromion process and the external acoustic meatus was at least 5 cm. We measured the craniovertebral angle, pulmonary functions, and respiratory muscle activity of the subjects for correlation analysis. [Results] A positive correlation was found between the craniovertebral angle and the forced vital capacity (r=0.63), while a negative correlation was found between the craniovertebral angle and the sternocleidomastoid muscle (r=-0.77). The craniovertebral angle and the anterior scalene muscle showed a negative correlation (r=-0.65). There were positive correlations between the forced vital capacity and the sternocleidomastoid muscle (r=0.71), and between the forced vital capacity and the anterior scalene muscle (r=0.59). [Conclusion] Severe forward head posture increased the activities of the sternocleidomastoid muscles and the anterior scalene muscles, and decreased the forced vital capacity. Thus, it is necessary to develop more efficient interventions for managing forward head posture based on pulmonary function and the activity of the respiratory synergist muscles.

  19. A 4-Year Follow-up Cohort Study of the Respiratory Functions in Toner-handling Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuaki Yanagi

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Our study does not suggest any toner exposure effects on respiratory function. However, the number of subjects was small in our study; studies of larger populations will be desired in the future.

  20. The effect of feedback respiratory training on pulmonary function of children with cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Young; Cha, Yong Jun; Kim, Kyoung

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the effect of feedback respiratory training on pulmonary function of children with cerebral palsy. Randomized controlled experimental study. Outpatient rehabilitation hospital. Twenty-two children with cerebral palsy were randomly assigned to two groups: the experimental group (feedback respiratory training) and the control group. Feedback respiratory training and comprehensive rehabilitation therapy were performed by children in the experimental group. Comprehensive rehabilitation therapy was performed by children in the control group. Children in both groups received training three times per week for a period of four weeks. Forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume at one second, peak expiratory flow, vital capacity, tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume and expiratory reserve volume were assessed before and after four weeks training period. Significant improvements in pulmonary function were observed after training in the experimental group (P function after training (P > 0.05). Participation in feedback respiratory training resulted in improvement of pulmonary function of children with cerebral palsy. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. A cross-sectional study of lung function and respiratory symptoms among chemical workers producing diacetyl for food flavourings.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooy, F.G.; Smit, L.A.; Houba, R.; Zaat, V.A.; Rooijackers, J.M.; Heederik, D.J.J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Four diacetyl workers were found to have bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. Exposures, respiratory symptoms, lung function and exposure-response relationships were investigated. METHODS: 175 workers from a plant producing diacetyl between 1960 and 2003 were investigated. Exposure data

  2. The effects of breathing exercise types on respiratory muscle activity and body function in patients with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Jeong-il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Fragmentary studies on characteristics of respiratory muscles are being done to increase respiratory capacity by classifying exercises into voluntary respiratory exercise which relieves symptoms and prevents COPD and exercise using breathing exercise equipment. But this study found changes on respiratory pattern through changes on the activity pattern of agonist and synergist respiratory muscles and studied what effect they can have on body function improvement. [Subjects and Method...

  3. Aging, regional cerebral blood flow, and neuropsychological functioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacInnes, W.D.; Golden, C.J.; Gillen, R.W.; Sawicki, R.F.; Quaife, M.; Uhl, H.S.; Greenhouse, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    Previous studies found changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) patterns related to both age and various cognitive tasks. However, no study has yet demonstrated a relationship between rCBF and performance on the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery (LNNB) in an elderly group. Seventy-nine elderly volunteers (56-88 years old), both healthy and demented, underwent the 133 xenon inhalation rCBF procedure and were given the LNNB. The decrements in the gray-matter blood flow paralleled decrements in performance on the LNNB. Using partial correlations, a significant proportion of shared variance was observed between gray-matter blood flow and the LNNB scales. However, there was much less of a relationship between white-matter blood flow and performance on the LNNB. This study suggests that even within a restricted age sample rCBF is related in a global way to neuropsychological functioning

  4. Voluntary respiratory control and cerebral blood flow velocity upon ice-water immersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantoni, Teit; Rasmussen, Jakob Højlund; Belhage, Bo

    2008-01-01

    In non-habituated subjects, cold-shock response to cold-water immersion causes rapid reduction in cerebral blood flow velocity (approximately 50%) due to hyperventilation, increasing risk of syncope, aspiration, and drowning. Adaptation to the response is possible, but requires several cold immer...

  5. Voluntary respiratory control and cerebral blood flow velocity upon ice-water immersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantoni, Teit; Rasmussen, Jakob Højlund; Belhage, Bo

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In non-habituated subjects, cold-shock response to cold-water immersion causes rapid reduction in cerebral blood flow velocity (approximately 50%) due to hyperventilation, increasing risk of syncope, aspiration, and drowning. Adaptation to the response is possible, but requires seve...

  6. Dapagliflozin-lowered blood glucose reduces respiratory Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åstrand, Annika; Wingren, Cecilia; Benjamin, Audra; Tregoning, John S; Garnett, James P; Groves, Helen; Gill, Simren; Orogo-Wenn, Maria; Lundqvist, Anders J; Walters, Dafydd; Smith, David M; Taylor, John D; Baker, Emma H; Baines, Deborah L

    2017-05-01

    Hyperglycaemia increases glucose concentrations in airway surface liquid and increases the risk of pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. We determined whether reduction of blood and airway glucose concentrations by the anti-diabetic drug dapagliflozin could reduce P. aeruginosa growth/survival in the lungs of diabetic mice. The effect of dapagliflozin on blood and airway glucose concentration, the inflammatory response and infection were investigated in C57BL/6J (wild type, WT) or leptin receptor-deficient (db/db) mice, treated orally with dapagliflozin prior to intranasal dosing with LPS or inoculation with P. aeruginosa. Pulmonary glucose transport and fluid absorption were investigated in Wistar rats using the perfused fluid-filled lung technique. Fasting blood, airway glucose and lactate concentrations were elevated in the db/db mouse lung. LPS challenge increased inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from WT and db/db mice with and without dapagliflozin treatment. P. aeruginosa colony-forming units (CFU) were increased in db/db lungs. Pretreatment with dapagliflozin reduced blood and bronchoalveolar lavage glucose concentrations and P. aeruginosa CFU in db/db mice towards those seen in WT. Dapagliflozin had no adverse effects on the inflammatory response in the mouse or pulmonary glucose transport or fluid absorption in the rat lung. Pharmacological lowering of blood glucose with dapagliflozin effectively reduced P. aeruginosa infection in the lungs of diabetic mice and had no adverse pulmonary effects in the rat. Dapagliflozin has potential to reduce the use, or augment the effect, of antimicrobials in the prevention or treatment of pulmonary infection. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Pharmacological Society.

  7. Putative Structural and Functional Coupling of the Mitochondrial BKCa Channel to the Respiratory Chain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bednarczyk

    Full Text Available Potassium channels have been found in the inner mitochondrial membranes of various cells. These channels regulate the mitochondrial membrane potential, the matrix volume and respiration. The activation of these channels is cytoprotective. In our study, the single-channel activity of a large-conductance Ca(2+-regulated potassium channel (mitoBKCa channel was measured by patch-clamping mitoplasts isolated from the human astrocytoma (glioblastoma U-87 MG cell line. A potassium-selective current was recorded with a mean conductance of 290 pS in symmetrical 150 mM KCl solution. The channel was activated by Ca(2+ at micromolar concentrations and by the potassium channel opener NS1619. The channel was inhibited by paxilline and iberiotoxin, known inhibitors of BKCa channels. Western blot analysis, immuno-gold electron microscopy, high-resolution immunofluorescence assays and polymerase chain reaction demonstrated the presence of the BKCa channel β4 subunit in the inner mitochondrial membrane of the human astrocytoma cells. We showed that substrates of the respiratory chain, such as NADH, succinate, and glutamate/malate, decrease the activity of the channel at positive voltages. This effect was abolished by rotenone, antimycin and cyanide, inhibitors of the respiratory chain. The putative interaction of the β4 subunit of mitoBKCa with cytochrome c oxidase was demonstrated using blue native electrophoresis. Our findings indicate possible structural and functional coupling of the mitoBKCa channel with the mitochondrial respiratory chain in human astrocytoma U-87 MG cells.

  8. Pentobarbital dose-dependently increases respiratory genioglossus muscle activity while impairing diaphragmatic function in anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikermann, Matthias; Fassbender, Philipp; Zaremba, Sebastian; Jordan, Amy S; Rosow, Carl; Malhotra, Atul; Chamberlin, Nancy L

    2009-06-01

    Anesthetics depress both ventilatory and upper airway dilator muscle activity and thus put the upper airway at risk for collapse. However, these effects are agent-dependent and may involve upper airway and diaphragm muscles to varying degrees. The authors assessed the effects of pentobarbital on upper airway dilator and respiratory pump muscle function in rats and compared these results with the effects of normal sleep. Tracheostomized rats were given increasing doses of pentobarbital to produce deep sedation then light and deep anesthesia, and negative pressure airway stimuli were applied (n = 11). To compare the effects of pentobarbital with those of natural sleep, the authors chronically instrumented rats (n = 10) with genioglossus and neck electromyogram and electroencephalogram electrodes and compared genioglossus activity during wakefulness, sleep (rapid eye movement and non-rapid eye movement), and pentobarbital anesthesia. Pentobarbital caused a dose-dependent decrease in ventilation and in phasic diaphragmatic electromyogram by 11 +/- 0.1%, but it increased phasic genioglossus electromyogram by 23 +/- 0.2%. Natural non-rapid eye movement sleep and pentobarbital anesthesia (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally) decreased respiratory genioglossus electromyogram by 61 +/- 29% and 45 +/- 35%, respectively, and natural rapid eye movement sleep caused the greatest decrease in phasic genioglossus electromyogram (95 +/- 0.3%). Pentobarbital in rats impairs respiratory genioglossus activity compared to the awake state, but the decrease is no greater than seen during natural sleep. During anesthesia, in the absence of pharyngeal airflow, phasic genioglossus activity is increased in a dose-dependent fashion.

  9. EFFECTS OF A RESPIRATORY PHYSIOTHERAPY PROTOCOL ON PULMONARY CAPACITY, FUNCTIONAL CAPACITY AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Taynara dos Santos Ribeiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease and own dialysis can result in changes in almost all body systems. In the respiratory system, the changes affect the respiratory drive, lung mechanics, muscle strength and gas exchange. Respiratory physiotherapy may be an important strategy in improving lung function and welfare and satisfaction of patients. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of a program of respiratory physiotherapy in lung capacity, functional capacity and quality of life of patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis. The lung capacity, functional capacity and quality of life were evaluated by the manovacuometer, chest cirtometry, functional capacity's questionnaire (HAQ-20 and specific questionnaire of quality of life for kidney disease (KDOQOL-SF. Patients were evaluated before and after eight weeks of application of respiratory physiotherapy protocol, performed once a week. The study included five patients, four men and one woman, mean age 60 ± 11,29 and an average of hemodialysis treatment of 24 ± 20.35 months. The values obtained in lung capacity and functional capacity presented unchanged. It was observed that the respiratory physiotherapy influenced the improvement of the KDQOL-SF's scores, of the dimensions "Sleep", "Dialysis Staff Encouragement" and "Physical Functioning".

  10. Effects of a respiratory physiotherapy protocol on pulmonary capacity, functional capacity and quality of life in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Taynara dos Santos Ribeiro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease and own dialysis can result in changes in almost all body systems. In the respiratory system, the changes affect the respiratory drive, lung mechanics, muscle strength and gas exchange. Respiratory physiotherapy may be an important strategy in improving lung function and welfare and satisfaction of patients. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of a program of respiratory physiotherapy in lung capacity, functional capacity and quality of life of patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis. The lung capacity, functional capacity and quality of life were evaluated by the manovacuometer, chest cirtometry, functional capacity's questionnaire (HAQ-20 and specific questionnaire of quality of life for kidney disease (KDOQOL-SF. Patients were evaluated before and after eight weeks of application of respiratory physiotherapy protocol, performed once a week. The study included five patients, four men and one woman, mean age 60 ± 11,29 and an average of hemodialysis treatment of 24 ± 20.35 months. The values obtained in lung capacity and functional capacity presented unchanged. It was observed that the respiratory physiotherapy influenced the improvement of the KDQOL-SF's scores, of the dimensions "Sleep", "Dialysis Staff Encouragement" and "Physical Functioning".

  11. Functional and genetic predisposition to rhinovirus lower respiratory tract infections in prematurely born infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drysdale, Simon B; Alcazar, Mireia; Wilson, Theresa; Smith, Melvyn; Zuckerman, Mark; Hodemaekers, Hennie M; Janssen, Riny; Bont, Louis; Johnston, Sebastian L; Greenough, Anne

    2016-12-01

    Term born infants are predisposed to human rhinovirus (HRV) lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) by reduced neonatal lung function and genetic susceptibility. Our aim was to investigate whether prematurely born infants were similarly predisposed to HRV LRTIs or any other viral LRTIs. Infants born less than 36 weeks of gestational age were recruited. Prior to neonatal/maternity unit discharge, lung function (functional residual capacity by helium gas dilution and multiple breath washout, lung clearance index and compliance (C rs ), and resistance (R rs ) of the respiratory system) was assessed and DNA samples assessed for eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven genes: ADAM33, IL10, MMP16 NFκB1A,SFTPC, VDR, and NOS2A. Infants were prospectively followed until 1 year corrected age. Nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) were sent whenever an infant developed a LRTI and tested for 13 viruses. One hundred and thirty-nine infants were included in the analysis. Infants who developed HRV LRTIs had reduced C rs (1.6 versus 1.2 mL/cmH 2 O/kg, p = 0.044) at 36 weeks postmenstrual age. A SNP in the gene coding for the vitamin D receptor was associated with the development of HRV LRTIs and any viral LRTIs (p = 0.02). Prematurely born infants may have both a functional and genetic predisposition to HRV LRTIs. What is Known: • Term born infants are predisposed to rhinovirus lower respiratory tract (HRV LRTIs) infection by reduced neonatal lung function. • Term born infants requiring hospitalisation due to HRV bronchiolitis were more likely to have single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the IL-10 gene. What is New: • Prematurely born infants who developed a HRV LRTI had lower C rs before maternity unit discharge. • A SNP in the gene coding for the vitamin D receptor was associated with the development of HRV LRTIs and overall respiratory viral LRTIs in prematurely born infants.

  12. Chest physiotherapy during anesthesia for children with cystic fibrosis: effects on respiratory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, E; Prasad, S A; Dinwiddie, R; Main, Eleanor

    2007-12-01

    Physiotherapists sometimes use elective surgical procedures for children with cystic fibrosis as an opportunity to perform physiotherapy treatments during anesthesia. These treatments theoretically facilitate direct endotracheal airway clearance and compensate for any post-operative respiratory deterioration related to the anaesthetic and surgery. MATERIALS, PATIENTS, AND METHODS: Children were randomized either to receive physiotherapy or not following anesthesia and intubation. Respiratory mechanics (C(rs) and R(rs)), tidal volume, and peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) were measured immediately before and after physiotherapy. FEV(1) was measured before and after surgery and post-operative physiotherapy requirements were recorded. Eighteen patients, mean age 12 years (range 2.8-15 years) were recruited, with nine in each group. Both groups showed a non-significant decline in FEV(1) the day after surgery compared with pre-operative values (-5.8%: physiotherapy and -7.1%: control). Both PIP and R(rs) increased significantly following physiotherapy (within- and between-groups, P physiotherapy which approached significance between-groups (P = 0.07). There were no significant within- or between-group differences in tidal volume following treatment in either group. The unanticipated decline in respiratory function immediately following physiotherapy was short-lived and not discernible in longer term outcomes measured by FEV(1) or physiotherapy requirements post-operatively. If respiratory physiotherapy under anesthesia is considered necessary and the benefits of removing secretions are deemed to outweigh the short-term risks, it may be necessary for the anaesthetist to consider modifying ventilatory support to counteract any short-term negative effects of the treatment.

  13. Impaired Mitochondrial Respiratory Functions and Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subbuswamy K. Prabu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown a tissue-specific increase in oxidative stress in the early stages of streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. In this study, we investigated oxidative stress-related long-term complications and mitochondrial dysfunctions in the different tissues of STZ-induced diabetic rats (>15 mM blood glucose for 8 weeks. These animals showed a persistent increase in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively production. Oxidative protein carbonylation was also increased with the maximum effect observed in the pancreas of diabetic rats. The activities of mitochondrial respiratory enzymes ubiquinol: cytochrome c oxidoreductase (Complex III and cytochrome c oxidase (Complex IV were significantly decreased while that of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I and succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex II were moderately increased in diabetic rats, which was confirmed by the increased expression of the 70 kDa Complex II sub-unit. Mitochondrial matrix aconitase, a ROS sensitive enzyme, was markedly inhibited in the diabetic rat tissues. Increased expression of oxidative stress marker proteins Hsp-70 and HO-1 was also observed along with increased expression of nitric oxide synthase. These results suggest that mitochondrial respiratory complexes may play a critical role in ROS/RNS homeostasis and oxidative stress related changes in type 1 diabetes and may have implications in the etiology of diabetes and its complications.

  14. Respiratory mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Theodore A

    2016-01-01

    This book thoroughly covers each subfield of respiratory mechanics: pulmonary mechanics, the respiratory pump, and flow. It presents the current understanding of the field and serves as a guide to the scientific literature from the golden age of respiratory mechanics, 1960 - 2010. Specific topics covered include the contributions of surface tension and tissue forces to lung recoil, the gravitational deformation of the lung, and the interdependence forces that act on pulmonary airways and blood vessels. The geometry and kinematics of the ribs is also covered in detail, as well as the respiratory action of the external and internal intercostal muscles, the mechanics of the diaphragm, and the quantitative compartmental models of the chest wall is also described. Additionally, flow in the airways is covered thoroughly, including the wave-speed and viscous expiratory flow-limiting mechanisms; convection, diffusion and the stationary front; and the distribution of ventilation. This is an ideal book for respiratory ...

  15. Heavy metals in PM2.5 and in blood, and children's respiratory symptoms and asthma from an e-waste recycling area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiang; Xu, Xijin; Zheng, Xiangbin; Reponen, Tiina; Chen, Aimin; Huo, Xia

    2016-03-01

    This study was to investigate the levels of heavy metals in PM2.5 and in blood, the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and asthma, and the related factors to them. Lead and cadmium in both PM2.5 and blood were significant higher in Guiyu (exposed area) than Haojiang (reference area) (p 5 μg/dL was significantly associated with asthma (OR, 9.50; 95% CI, 1.16-77.49). Higher blood chromium and blood manganese were associated with more cough and wheeze, respectively. Our data suggest that living in e-waste exposed area may lead to increased levels of heavy metals, and accelerated prevalence of respiratory symptoms and asthma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of glucocorticoids and idebenone on respiratory function in patients with duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyse, Gunnar M; Goemans, Nathalie; van den Hauwe, Marleen; Meier, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) progressive weakness of respiratory muscles leads to a restrictive pulmonary syndrome that contributes to early morbidity and mortality. Currently no curative treatment exists for DMD. In a Phase II randomized placebo-controlled study (DELPHI) in 21 DMD boys at age 8-16 years, idebenone (450 mg/d) showed trends of efficacy for cardiac and respiratory endpoints. Since the DELPHI study population comprised both glucocorticoid-naïve subjects and glucocorticoid-users, we now report a post-hoc analysis investigating the effects of glucocorticoids and idebenone on markers of respiratory weakness, particularly peak expiratory flow (PEF) percent predicted (PEF%p). Baseline values of PEF%p correlated well with the percent predicted values for maximal inspiratory mouth pressure (MIP%p), forced vital capacity (FVC%p), and forced expired volume in 1 sec (FEV1%p). Baseline PEF%p and FVC%p were significantly higher in patients on concomitant glucocorticoids compared to glucocorticoid-naïve patients. In the latter subgroup, idebenone caused a 8.0 ± 12.1% improvement in PEF%p, whilst patients on placebo declined by -12.3 ± 17.9% (P glucocorticoids, PEF%p remained stable (-0.4 ± 14.6%) in the idebenone group compared to a decline by -6.2 ± 12.4% (P = 0.24) in the placebo group. Idebenone showed a trend for efficacy on FVC%p only in glucocorticoid-naïve patients. Because of the study limitations, these data are exploratory and preclude any firm conclusions. In conclusion, PEF appears to be a sensitive respiratory function parameter that could be a valid and clinically relevant endpoint in intervention studies in DMD. In DELPHI the effect size of idebenone on PEF%p was significantly larger in steroid-naive patients, possibly indicating a maximum treatment effect reached by steroids or steroid-mediated suppression of idebenone's effects. The impact of standard care glucocorticoids on respiratory function will have

  17. [Neuroimaging and Blood Biomarkers in Functional Prognosis after Stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, João Paulo; Costa, Joana Santos; Sargento-Freitas, João; Oliveira, Sandra; Mendes, Bruno; Laíns, Jorge; Pinheiro, João

    2016-11-01

    Stroke remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality around the world and it is associated with an important long-term functional disability. Some neuroimaging resources and certain peripheral blood or cerebrospinal fluid proteins can give important information about etiology, therapeutic approach, follow-up and functional prognosis in acute ischemic stroke patients. However, among the scientific community, there is currently more interest in the stroke vital prognosis over the functional prognosis. Predicting the functional prognosis during acute phase would allow more objective rehabilitation programs and better management of the available resources. The aim of this work is to review the potential role of acute phase neuroimaging and blood biomarkers as functional recovery predictors after ischemic stroke. Review of the literature published between 2005 and 2015, in English, using the terms "ischemic stroke", "neuroimaging" e "blood biomarkers". We included nine studies, based on abstract reading. Computerized tomography, transcranial doppler ultrasound and diffuse magnetic resonance imaging show potential predictive value, based on the blood flow study and the evaluation of stroke's volume and localization, especially when combined with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. Several biomarkers have been studied as diagnostic, risk stratification and prognostic tools, namely the S100 calcium binding protein B, C-reactive protein, matrix metalloproteinases and cerebral natriuretic peptide. Although some biomarkers and neuroimaging techniques have potential predictive value, none of the studies were able to support its use, alone or in association, as a clinically useful functionality predictor model. All the evaluated markers were considered insufficient to predict functional prognosis at three months, when applied in the first hours after stroke. Additional studies are necessary to identify reliable predictive markers for functional

  18. Post-mortem brain pathology is related to declining respiratory function in community-dwelling older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aron S. Buchman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Damage to brain structures which constitute the distributed neural network that integrates respiratory muscle and pulmonary functions, can impair adequate ventilation and its volitional control. We tested the hypothesis that the level of brain pathology in older adults is associated with declining respiratory function measured during life.1,409 older adults had annual testing with spirometry and respiratory muscle strength based on maximal inspiratory and maximal expiratory pressures. Those who died underwent structured brain autopsy. On average, during 5 years of follow-up, spirometry and respiratory muscle strength showed progressive decline which was moderately correlated (ρ=0.57, p<0.001. Among decedents (N=447, indices of brain neuropathologies showed differential associations with declining spirometry and respiratory muscle strength. Nigral neuronal loss was associated with the person-specific decline in spirometry (Estimate, -0.016 unit/year, S.E. 0.006, p=0.009 and reduction of the slope variance was equal to 4%. By contrast, Alzheimer’s disease (AD pathology (Estimate, -0.030 unit/year, S.E. 0.009, p<0.001 and macroscopic infarcts (-0.033 unit/year, S.E., 0.011, p=0.003 were associated with the person-specific decline in respiratory muscle strength and reduction of the slope variance was equal to 7%. These results suggest that brain pathology is associated with the rate of declining respiratory function in older adults.

  19. Late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD): correlations between respiratory muscles CT and MRI features and pulmonary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeta, Michele; Barca, Emanuele; Ruggeri, Paolo; Minutoli, Fabio; Rodolico, Carmelo; Mazziotti, Silvio; Milardi, Demetrio; Musumeci, Olimpia; Toscano, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    Late onset Pompe disease (LOPD) is a rare muscle disorder often characterized, along the disease course, by severe respiratory failure. We describe herein respiratory muscles and lung abnormalities in LOPD patients using MR imaging and CT examinations correlated to pulmonary function tests. Ten LOPD patients were studied: 6 with a limb-girdle muscle weakness, 1 with myalgias, 2 with exertional dyspnoea and 1 with isolated hyperckemia. Respiratory function was measured using forced vital capacity (FVC) in both upright and supine positions, maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) and peak cough flow (PCF) tests. The involvement (atrophy) of diaphragms, abdominal respiratory muscles and intercostal muscles was ranked by CT and MRI examinations using appropriate scales. Height of lungs and band-like atelectasis presence were also recorded. Seven out of 10 patients showed a functional diaphragmatic weakness (FVC drop percentage >25%). In 8 out of 10 patients, involvement of both diaphragms and of other respiratory muscles was seen. The mean height of lungs in patients was significantly reduced when compared to a control group. Marked elevation of the diaphragms (lung height respiratory insufficiency in LOPD patients. Early recognition of respiratory muscles involvement, using imaging data, could allow an early start of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in LOPD. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function tests in security and safety products plant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbay, Ege Gulec; Toru, Umran; Arbak, Peri; Balbay, Oner; Suner, Kezban Ozmen; Annakkaya, Ali Nihat

    2014-01-01

    Lock and key factory workers are under the risk of metal pneumoconiosis and occupational asthma. In this cross-sectional study, it's aimed to evaluate the relationship between metal dust exposure and respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests of workers in different section of lock and key factory. 54 male workers (mean age, 32.8 ± 5.4) in a security and safety products plant were evaluated for respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests and smoking habits. Results have been interpreted by comparison of the painting (28/54) and grinding group workers (26/54). There was no significant difference between painting (32.1 ± 4.8) and grinding (33.6 ± 6.1) groups regarding mean age (P > 0.05). Smokers were in significantly higher in grinding group (18/26). Cough and sputum were reported 14.3% (4/28) in painting and 3.8% (1/26) in grinding workers (P > 0.05). Chest tightness was seen in 7.1% and 7.7% of painting and grinding workers, respectively (P > 0.05). But no chest tightness was reported in both groups when they were away work. Breathlessness was seen in 10.7% and 7.7% of painting and grinding workers, respectively (P > 0.05). Breathlessness was similar in both groups (7.1% vs. 3.8%) when they were away work. When comparing painting and grinding workers respiratory functions no significant difference observed. Chest radiography in painting and grinding workers showed hyperlucency (3.6% vs.11.4%), respectively. Painting groups in lock and key factory workers had more but statistically insignificantrespiratory complaints. Interestingly, chest tightness was only observed when both groups were at work. It was thought that ventilation and using personal protective equipment in factory could provide significant benefits.

  1. Function of the Respiratory System in Elderly Patients After Aortic Valve Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoliński, Jarosław; Plicner, Dariusz; Gawęda, Bogusław; Musiał, Robert; Fijorek, Kamil; Wąsowicz, Marcin; Andres, Janusz; Kapelak, Bogusław

    2016-10-01

    To compare the function of the respiratory system after aortic valve replacement through median sternotomy (AVR) or the minimally invasive right anterior minithoracotomy (RAT-AVR) approach among elderly (aged≥75 years) patients. Observational cohort study. University hospital. The study included 65 elderly patients scheduled for RAT-AVR and 82 for standard AVR. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) were performed preoperatively, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after surgery. In addition, respiratory complications were analyzed. Respiratory complications occurred in 12.3% of patients in the RAT-AVR group and 18.3% of patients in the AVR group (p = 0.445). Mechanical ventilation time in the intensive care unit was 7.7±3.6 hours for RAT-AVR patients and 9.7±5.4 hours for AVR patients (p = 0.003). Most PFT were worse in the AVR group than in the RAT-AVR group when performed 1 week after surgery. After 1 month, forced expiratory volume in the first second, vital capacity, and total lung capacity differed significantly in favor of the RAT-AVR group (p = 0.002, p<0.001, and p = 0.001, respectively). After 3 months, the PFT parameters still had not returned to preoperative values, but the differences were no longer significant between the RAT-AVR and AVR groups. The multivariable median regression analysis demonstrated that RAT-AVR surgery was a key factor in a patient's higher postoperative PFT parameter values. RAT-AVR surgery resulted in shorter postoperative mechanical ventilation time and improved the recovery of pulmonary function in elderly patients, but it did not reduce the incidence of pulmonary complications when compared with surgery performed through a median sternotomy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Respiratory properties of blood in the harbor porpoise, Phocoena phocoena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soegaard, Lisette B.; Hansen, Marie Niemann; van Elk, Cornelis

    2012-01-01

    Harbor porpoises are active divers that exchange O2 and CO2 with the environment during a fast single breath upon surfacing. We investigated blood O2-transporting properties, buffer characteristics, Cl– transport via the erythrocyte anion exchanger (AE1), circulating nitric oxide metabolites and ...... reduction were elevated compared with mammalian standards, suggesting that increased nitric oxide bioavailability and nitrite-derived nitric oxide could play important roles in diving physiology....... and hemoglobin nitrite reduction in harbor porpoises with the aim to evaluate traits that are adaptive for diving behavior. Blood O2 affinity was higher in harbor porpoises than in similar sized terrestrial mammals, as supported by our parallel recordings of O2 equilibria in sheep and pig blood. Further, O2...... affinity tended to increase with increasing body mass. A high O2 affinity favors O2 extraction from the lungs, but a normal Bohr effect (ΔlogP50/ΔpH = –0.46) gradually lowers O2 affinity during dives (where CO2 accumulates) to assist O2 off-loading to perfused tissues. The true plasma non...

  3. DNA Damage in Healthy Individuals and Respiratory Patients after Treating Whole Blood In vitro with the Bulk and Nano Forms of NSAIDs

    OpenAIRE

    Najafzadeh, Mojgan; Normington, Charmaine; Jacob, Badie K.; Isreb, Mohammad; Gopalan, Rajendran C.; Anderson, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit COX enzyme activity which affects the inflammatory response. Inflammation is associated with increasing cancer incidence. Pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown that NSAID treatment could cause an anti-tumor effect in cancers. In the present study, blood was taken from healthy individuals (n = 17) and patients with respiratory diseases or lung cancer (n = 36). White blood cells (WBC) were treated with either a micro-suspension, i.e....

  4. Dose calculations for the respiratory tract from inhaled natural radioactive nuclides as a function of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, W.; Steinhaeusler, F.; Pohl, E.

    1979-01-01

    The deposition and retention models and the anatomical and physiological data as proposed by the ICRP Task Groups on Lung Dynamics and Reference Man are valid only for adult dosimetry. However, the change of the growing organism causes an age-dependent variation of the radiation burden to the respiratory tract. Therefore, age-dependent functions of anatomical and physiological parameters were defined. For this purpose data were either interpolated from literature or calculated from theoretical modeling. With these functions and defined aerosol composition, age-dependent deposition probabilities in the single regions of the respiratory tract were determined. For the demonstration of lung dosimetry as a function of age the naturally occurring radon daughters were used as an example. By applying typical mean nuclide concentrations found in the atmosphere of an urban environment and defined age-dependent daily life patterns, the annual inhaled amount of radioactivity was computed. With the above data, dose calculations for the single ICRP lung model compartments were performed. This revealed that the inhaled dose in both the tracheobronchial and pulmonary regions showed a strong dependence on age; a pronounced maximum value was reached at the age of about 6 yr for radon and thoron decay products. (author)

  5. Effects of chest physiotherapy on the respiratory function of postoperative gastroplasty patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forti, Eli; Ike, Daniela; Barbalho-Moulim, Marcela; Rasera, Irineu; Costa, Dirceu

    2009-01-01

    Bariatric surgery has become increasingly more recommended for the treatment of morbidly obese individuals for whom it is possible to identify co-morbidities other than alterations in pulmonary function. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of conventional chest physiotherapy (CCP) and of conventional physiotherapy associated with transcutaneous electrical diaphragmatic stimulation (CCP+TEDS) on pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength in patients who have undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. In total, 44 female patients with an average age of 37 +/- 7.3 years and an average body mass index (BMI) of 47.4 +/- 6.5 K/m(2) were selected as candidates for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass laparoscopy. They were evaluated for pulmonary volume and flow using spirometry and maximum respiratory pressure through manovacuometry during the preoperative period and on the fifteenth and thirtieth postoperative days. No differences were detected between CCP and CCP + TEDS, and both factors contributed to the maintenance of pulmonary flow and volume as well as inhalation muscle strength. Exhalation muscle strength was not maintained in the CCP group at fifteen or thirty days postoperative, but it was maintained in patients treated with conventional chest physiotherapy + transcutaneous electric diaphragmatic stimulation. These results suggest that both conventional chest physiotherapy and conventional chest physiotherapy + transcutaneous electric diaphragmatic stimulation prevent the reduction of pulmonary function during the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass postoperative period, and that transcutaneous electric diaphragmatic stimulation also contributes to expiratory muscle strength.

  6. Maternal blood metal levels and fetal markers of metabolic function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Dodds, Linda; Arbuckle, Tye E.; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Shapiro, Gabriel D.; Fisher, Mandy; Taback, Shayne; Bouchard, Maryse F.; Monnier, Patricia; Dallaire, Renee; Fraser, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to metals commonly found in the environment has been hypothesized to be associated with measures of fetal growth but the epidemiological literature is limited. The Maternal–Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) study recruited 2001 women during the first trimester of pregnancy from 10 Canadian sites. Our objective was to assess the association between prenatal exposure to metals (lead, arsenic, cadmium, and mercury) and fetal metabolic function. Average maternal metal concentrations in 1st and 3rd trimester blood samples were used to represent prenatal metals exposure. Leptin and adiponectin were measured in 1363 cord blood samples and served as markers of fetal metabolic function. Polytomous logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between metals and both high (≥90%) and low (≤10%) fetal adiponectin and leptin levels. Leptin levels were significantly higher in female infants compared to males. A significant relationship between maternal blood cadmium and odds of high leptin was observed among males but not females in adjusted models. When adjusting for birth weight z-score, lead was associated with an increased odd of high leptin. No other significant associations were found at the top or bottom 10th percentile in either leptin or adiponectin models. This study supports the proposition that maternal levels of cadmium influence cord blood adipokine levels in a sex-dependent manner. Further investigation is required to confirm these findings and to determine how such findings at birth will translate into childhood anthropometric measures. - Highlights: • We determined relationships between maternal metal levels and cord blood adipokines. • Cord blood leptin levels were higher among female than male infants. • Maternal cadmium was associated with elevated leptin in male, not female infants. • No significant associations were observed between metals and

  7. Maternal blood metal levels and fetal markers of metabolic function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian [Perinatal Epidemiology Research Unit, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Dodds, Linda, E-mail: l.dodds@dal.ca [Perinatal Epidemiology Research Unit, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Arbuckle, Tye E. [Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Ettinger, Adrienne S. [Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Shapiro, Gabriel D. [University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); CHU Sainte-Justine Research Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Fisher, Mandy [Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Taback, Shayne [University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Bouchard, Maryse F. [University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Monnier, Patricia [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Dallaire, Renee [Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Fraser, William D. [University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); CHU Sainte-Justine Research Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2015-01-15

    Exposure to metals commonly found in the environment has been hypothesized to be associated with measures of fetal growth but the epidemiological literature is limited. The Maternal–Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) study recruited 2001 women during the first trimester of pregnancy from 10 Canadian sites. Our objective was to assess the association between prenatal exposure to metals (lead, arsenic, cadmium, and mercury) and fetal metabolic function. Average maternal metal concentrations in 1st and 3rd trimester blood samples were used to represent prenatal metals exposure. Leptin and adiponectin were measured in 1363 cord blood samples and served as markers of fetal metabolic function. Polytomous logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between metals and both high (≥90%) and low (≤10%) fetal adiponectin and leptin levels. Leptin levels were significantly higher in female infants compared to males. A significant relationship between maternal blood cadmium and odds of high leptin was observed among males but not females in adjusted models. When adjusting for birth weight z-score, lead was associated with an increased odd of high leptin. No other significant associations were found at the top or bottom 10th percentile in either leptin or adiponectin models. This study supports the proposition that maternal levels of cadmium influence cord blood adipokine levels in a sex-dependent manner. Further investigation is required to confirm these findings and to determine how such findings at birth will translate into childhood anthropometric measures. - Highlights: • We determined relationships between maternal metal levels and cord blood adipokines. • Cord blood leptin levels were higher among female than male infants. • Maternal cadmium was associated with elevated leptin in male, not female infants. • No significant associations were observed between metals and

  8. Immunochemical analysis of fumigaclavine mycotoxins in respiratory tissues and in blood serum of birds with confirmed aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Hadri; Gross, Madeleine; Fischer, Dominik; Lierz, Michael; Usleber, Ewald

    2015-11-01

    The ergoline alkaloid fumigaclavine A (FuA) is one of the major mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus fumigatus, the main causative fungal agent of avian aspergillosis. To study in situ production of FuA, post-mortem respiratory tissues of various avian species, as well as blood samples of falcons (Falco sp.), were analysed by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). At a detection limit of 1.5 ng/ml, FuA EIA positive results were obtained for tissue samples from seven (64%) out of 11 birds with confirmed aspergillosis, with a maximum concentration of 38 ng/g, while all controls (n = 7) were negative. No FuA could be detected in blood serum (detection limit 0.7 ng/ml) of 15 falcons, experimentally inoculated with A. fumigatus conidia. Fungal mycelium material from tissue of clinical aspergillosis cases, cultured on malt extract agar, was highly positive in the FuA EIA in milligrams per gram range. Chromatographic analysis of mycelium extracts revealed the co-presence of FuA and the structurally related fumigaclavine C (FuC). Alkaline hydrolysis of FuA and FuC yielded the corresponding deacetylation products, FuB and FuE. This is the first report showing that fumigaclavine alkaloids are produced by A. fumigatus in situ during the course of clinical aspergillosis in birds; however, the role of these compounds in the pathogenesis of this disease is still unknown.

  9. Host Transcription Profile in Nasal Epithelium and Whole Blood of Hospitalized Children Under 2 Years of Age With Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Do, Lien Anh Ha; Pellet, Johann; van Doorn, H. Rogier; Tran, Anh Tuan; Nguyen, Bach Hue; Tran, Thi Thu Loan; Tran, Quynh Huong; Vo, Quoc Bao; Tran Dac, Nguyen Anh; Trinh, Hong Nhien; Nguyen, Thi Thanh Hai; Le Binh, Bao Tinh; Nguyen, Huu Mai Khanh; Nguyen, Minh Tien; Thai, Quang Tung; Vo, Thanh Vu; Ngo, Ngoc Quang Minh; Dang, Thi Kim Huyen; Cao, Ngoc Huong; Tran, Thu Van; Ho, Lu Viet; de Meulder, Bertrand; Auffray, Charles; Hofstra, Jorrit-Jan; Farrar, Jeremy; Bryant, Juliet E.; de Jong, Menno; Hibberd, Martin L.

    2017-01-01

    Most insights into the cascade of immune events after acute respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection have been obtained from animal experiments or in vitro models. In this study, we investigated host gene expression profiles in nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs and whole blood samples during natural RSV

  10. Functional imaging of dolphin brain metabolism and blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Sam; Houser, Dorian; Finneran, James; Carder, Don; Keogh, Mandy; Van Bonn, William; Smith, Cynthia; Scadeng, Miriam; Dubowitz, David; Mattrey, Robert; Hoh, Carl

    2006-08-01

    This report documents the first use of magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of living dolphins to register functional brain scans, allowing for the exploration of potential mechanisms of unihemispheric sleep. Diazepam has been shown to induce unihemispheric slow waves (USW), therefore we used functional imaging of dolphins with and without diazepam to observe hemispheric differences in brain metabolism and blood flow. MRIs were used to register functional brain scans with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) in trained dolphins. Scans using SPECT revealed unihemispheric blood flow reduction following diazepam doses greater than 0.55 mg kg(-1) for these 180-200 kg animals. Scans using PET revealed hemispheric differences in brain glucose consumption when scans with and without diazepam were compared. The findings suggest that unihemispheric reduction in blood flow and glucose metabolism in the hemisphere showing USW are important features of unihemispheric sleep. Functional scans may also help to elucidate the degree of hemispheric laterality of sensory and motor systems as well as in neurotransmitter or molecular mechanisms of unihemispheric sleep in delphinoid cetaceans. The findings also demonstrate the potential value of functional scans to explore other aspects of dolphin brain physiology as well as pathology.

  11. Relationship between cardiac function and resting cerebral blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Otto M; Jensen, Lars T; Krabbe, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Although both impaired cardiac function and reduced cerebral blood flow are associated with ageing, current knowledge of the influence of cardiac function on resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effects of cardiac function on CBF. CBF......) and 2.4 l min(-1) m(-2), respectively, in females. No effects of cardiac output or cardiac index on CBF or structural signs of brain ageing were observed. However, fractional brain flow defined as the ratio of total brain flow to cardiac output was inversely correlated with cardiac index (r(2) = 0.22, P...... = 0.008) and furthermore lower in males than in females (8.6% versus 12.5%, P = 0.003). Fractional brain flow was also inversely correlated with cerebral white matter lesion grade, although this effect was not significant when adjusted for age. Frequency analysis of heart rate variability showed...

  12. Optical Assay of Erythrocyte Function in Banked Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaduri, Basanta; Kandel, Mikhail; Brugnara, Carlo; Tangella, Krishna; Popescu, Gabriel

    2014-09-01

    Stored red blood cells undergo numerous biochemical, structural, and functional changes, commonly referred to as storage lesion. How much these changes impede the ability of erythrocytes to perform their function and, as result, impact clinical outcomes in transfusion patients is unknown. In this study we investigate the effect of the storage on the erythrocyte membrane deformability and morphology. Using optical interferometry we imaged red blood cell (RBC) topography with nanometer sensitivity. Our time-lapse imaging quantifies membrane fluctuations at the nanometer scale, which in turn report on cell stiffness. This property directly impacts the cell's ability to transport oxygen in microvasculature. Interestingly, we found that cells which apparently maintain their normal shape (discocyte) throughout the storage period, stiffen progressively with storage time. By contrast, static parameters, such as mean cell hemoglobin content and morphology do not change during the same period. We propose that our method can be used as an effective assay for monitoring erythrocyte functionality during storage time.

  13. Respiratory functions in asthmatic and normal women during different phases of menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, D.B.; Sandhu, P.K.; Dhillon, S.; Arora, A.

    2015-01-01

    Menstrual cycle is an integral part of life of women. There is widespread agreement that changes in the levels of oestrogen and progesterone associated with menstrual cycle also affect different systems of the body besides reproductive system. Levels of oestrogen and progesterone are maximum in the secretory phase and minimum just before the menstruation .Bronchial asthma is one of the commonest chronic respiratory diseases. Premenstrual worsening of asthma symptoms has been reported to affect 33-40% of asthmatic women. This exacerbation of asthma symptoms has been correlated with the oestrogen and progesterone levels. The association between menstrual cycle and lung functions in normal females has also been recognised. The pathophysiology of this process is still not proved. The purpose of our study was to confirm the probable effects of the female hormones on lung functions in normal and asthmatic women in different phases of menstrual cycle and to compare them. Methods: The study was done on 40 normal and 40 asthmatic females in the age group of 15-45 years. Pulmonary function tests were done in three phases of menstrual cycle i.e. follicular, secretory and menstrual in all the subjects. Results: The mean value of lung functions, i.e., FVC, FEV, PEFR, FEF25-75%, FEF 200-1200 were significantly lower in asthmatic females than normal ones (p<0.01) in all three phases. The lung functions of both asthmatic and non-asthmatic females in secretory phase were significantly higher than in menstrual phase (p<0.005). The PFTs in menstrual phase were even lower than the follicular phase (p<0.04). Conclusion: Respiratory parameters of both asthmatic and non-asthmatic women in reproductive age group show significant variation in different phases of menstrual cycle. The smooth muscle relaxant effect of progesterone and probably oestrogen might have contributed to it. The lung function parameters in asthmatics were of lower value compared to normal women. (author)

  14. Occupation and three-year incidence of respiratory symptoms and lung function decline: the ARIC Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirabelli Maria C

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Specific occupations are associated with adverse respiratory health. Inhalation exposures encountered in these jobs may place workers at risk of new-onset respiratory disease. Methods We analyzed data from 8,967 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study, a longitudinal cohort study. Participants included in this analysis were free of chronic cough and phlegm, wheezing, asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and other chronic lung conditions at the baseline examination, when they were aged 45-64 years. Using data collected in the baseline and first follow-up examination, we evaluated associations between occupation and the three-year incidence of cough, phlegm, wheezing, and airway obstruction and changes in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC measured by spirometry. All associations were adjusted for age, cigarettes per day, race, smoking status, and study center. Results During the approximately three-year follow-up, the percentage of participants developing chronic cough was 3%; chronic phlegm, 3%; wheezing, 3%; and airway obstruction, defined as FEV1 1/FVC 1 and FVC were 56 mL and 66 mL, respectively, among men and 40 mL and 52 mL, respectively, among women. Relative to a referent category of managerial and administrative support occupations, elevated risks of new-onset chronic cough and chronic phlegm were observed for mechanics and repairers (chronic cough: RR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.02, 3.21; chronic phlegm: RR: 2.10, 95% CI: 1.23, 3.57 and cleaning and building service workers (chronic cough: RR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.01, 3.37; chronic phlegm: RR: 2.28, 95% CI: 1.27, 4.08. Despite the elevated risk of new-onset symptoms, employment in cleaning and building services was associated with attenuated lung function decline, particularly among men, who averaged annual declines in FEV1 and FVC of 14 mL and 23 mL, respectively, less than the declines observed in the

  15. Motor control exercises of the lumbar-pelvic region improve respiratory function in obese men. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezzoli, Emanuela; Andreotti, Dianne; Pianta, Lucia; Mascheroni, Martina; Piccinno, Lorena; Puricelli, Luca; Cimolin, Veronica; Salvadori, Alberto; Codecasa, Franco; Capodaglio, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    Obese subjects have decreased pulmonary function. The hypothesis of our study was that poor coordination of the lumbar-pelvic musculature secondary to obesity may hinder the synergic activation of the respiratory muscles. The aim of the paper was to evaluate whether specific motor control exercises of the lumbar-pelvic musculature were able to improve respiratory function. Twenty obese male patients underwent a rehabilitation program including adapted physical activity and respiratory physiotherapy. Patients were randomly assigned to a Specific Motor Control Exercise Group (SG) and a Control Group (CG). SG followed a protocol according to the SMARTERehab concept aimed at improving posture, intra-abdominal pressure, rib cage mobility, and perception of correct muscle activation. CG performed an exercise training protocol to improve aerobic capacity and muscle strength. After intervention, both groups showed similar changes in body weight, fat, and fat-free mass. Respiratory function indexes improved in SG due to improved proprioception and coordination of the deep lumbar-pelvic muscles. Our study provides preliminary evidence that breathing, postural control, and spinal stability are intertwined. Positive respiratory effects in obese men can be obtained by prescribing specific motor control exercises of the lumbar-pelvic muscles. Implications for rehabilitation Obese subjects present with decreased pulmonary function and postural changes. Poor coordination of the lumbar-pelvic muscles affects posture and the synergic activation of the respiratory muscles. Specific motor control exercises of the lumbar-pelvic musculature can improve respiratory function. Breathing and postural control are intertwined: positive respiratory effects can be obtained by enhancing motor control of the lumbar-pelvic muscles.

  16. Effect of respiratory muscle training on pulmonary function and aerobic endurance in soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Tarik; Gunes, Gokce Y; Ucar, Ilyas; Dogan, Hanife; Gafuroglu, Tuba U

    2017-05-01

    Few studies investigated the effects of the respiratory muscle training (RMT) in soccer although exhaustive high intensity exercise is known to lead to muscle fatigue in respiratory muscles. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of RMT on pulmonary function and aerobic endurance in soccer players. Eighteen male soccer players (mean age 22.2±1.4 years) participated in this study. Participants were assigned randomly to either an RMT or a control (CON) group. The RMT group performed a 15-minute endurance training of respiratory muscles twice a week for 5 weeks. The CON group did not receive RMT during this period. All participants were evaluated for aerobic endurance using 20-meter shuttle run test (20-MST), pulmonary function, maximal inspiratory mouth pressure (MIP), and maximal expiratory mouth pressure (MEP) using spirometry. There was a significant improvement in RMT group (14%) as compared to CON group (4%) in MIP measurement (P=0.04). No significant differences were observed in forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV), and MEP after a five week of RMT (P>0.05). Similarly, there was no difference in 20-MST in the RMT group compared to CON group (P>0.05). We concluded that a five week of RMT increased MIP, but FVC, FEV1, MVV, MEP and aerobic endurance did not improve in soccer players. The RMT in addition to soccer training may improve MIP but not the tolerance to high intensity exercise.

  17. Cellular changes in blood indicate severe respiratory disease during influenza infections in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Dengler

    Full Text Available Influenza A infection is a serious threat to human and animal health. Many of the biological mechanisms of the host-pathogen-interactions are still not well understood and reliable biomarkers indicating the course of the disease are missing. The mouse is a valuable model system enabling us to study the local inflammatory host response and the influence on blood parameters under controlled circumstances. Here, we compared the lung and peripheral changes after PR8 (H1N1 influenza A virus infection in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice using virus variants of different pathogenicity resulting in non-lethal and lethal disease. We monitored hematological and immunological parameters revealing that the granulocyte to lymphocyte ratio in the blood represents an early indicator of severe disease progression already two days after influenza A infection in mice. These findings might be relevant to optimize early diagnostic options of severe influenza disease and to monitor successful therapeutic treatment in humans.

  18. Anaesthesia for laparoscopic kidney transplantation: Influence of Trendelenburg position and CO 2 pneumoperitoneum on cardiovascular, respiratory and renal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Kandarp Parikh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy is a routine practice since 1995. Until now, the recipient has always undergone open surgery for transplantation. In our institute, laparoscopic kidney transplantation (LKT started in 2010. To facilitate this surgery, the patient must be in steep Trendelenburg position for a long duration. Hence, we decided to study the effect of CO2 pnuemoperitoneum and Trendelenburg position in chronic renal failure (CRF patients undergoing LKT. Methods: A total of 20 adult CRF patients having mean age of 31.7±10.36 years and body mass index 19.65±3.41 kg/m 2 without significant coronary artery disease were selected for the procedure. Cardiovascular parameters heart rate (HR, mean arterial pressure (MAP, Central venous pressure (CVP and respiratory parameters (ETCO 2 , peak airway pressure were noted at the time of induction, after induction, 15 min after creation of pnuemoperitoneum, 30 min after Trendelenburg position, 15 min after decompression of pnuemoperitonuem and after extubation. Arterial blood gas analysis was carried out after induction, 15 min after creation of pnuemoperitoneum, 30 min after Trendelenburg position and 15 min after clamp release. Total duration of surgery, anastomosis time, time for the establishment of urine output and total urine output were noted. Serum creatinine on the 1 st and 7 th post-operative day were recorded. Results: Significant increase in HR was observed after creation of CO 2 pneumoperitoneum and just before extubation. Significant increase in the MAP and CVP was noted after creation of pneumoperitoneum and after giving Trendelenburg position. No significant rise in the ETCO 2 and PaCO 2 was observed. Significant increase in the base deficit was observed after the clamp release, but none of the patients required correction. Conclusion: LKT performed in steep Trendelenburg position with CO 2 pneumoperitoneum significantly influenced cardiovascular and respiratory

  19. Survival and function of phagocytes in blood culture media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, T K; Prag, J; Kharazmi, A

    1999-01-01

    The survival and function of human phagocytes in sterile aerobic and anaerobic blood culture media were investigated using neutrophil morphology, white blood cell count in a haemoanalyser, flow cytometry, oxidative burst response, and bactericidal effect in Colorbact and Septi-Chek blood culture...... media and Bact/Alert. When comparing agitation to stationary incubation no difference in phagocytic activity was found. The methods showed the same trends demonstrating that the phagocytes' viability and activity were prolonged by oxygen and shortened by anaerobic conditions and sodium polyethanol...... sulfonate (SPS). Best preserved activity and viability were found in the aerobic media containing less than 0.5 g/l SPS, in which significant phagocyte oxidative burst and bactericidal activity were found up to 4 days after inoculation. Considering that the majority of bacteremias are due to aerobic...

  20. Functional organization of cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in cells infected by respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincheval, Vincent; Lelek, Mickael; Gault, Elyanne; Bouillier, Camille; Sitterlin, Delphine; Blouquit-Laye, Sabine; Galloux, Marie; Zimmer, Christophe; Eleouet, Jean-François; Rameix-Welti, Marie-Anne

    2017-09-15

    Infection of cells by respiratory syncytial virus induces the formation of cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (IBs) where all the components of the viral RNA polymerase complex are concentrated. However, the exact organization and function of these IBs remain unclear. In this study, we use conventional and super-resolution imaging to dissect the internal structure of IBs. We observe that newly synthetized viral mRNA and the viral transcription anti-terminator M2-1 concentrate in IB sub-compartments, which we term "IB-associated granules" (IBAGs). In contrast, viral genomic RNA, the nucleoprotein, the L polymerase and its cofactor P are excluded from IBAGs. Live imaging reveals that IBAGs are highly dynamic structures. Our data show that IBs are the main site of viral RNA synthesis. They further suggest that shortly after synthesis in IBs, viral mRNAs and M2-1 transiently concentrate in IBAGs before reaching the cytosol and suggest a novel post-transcriptional function for M2-1.Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) induces formation of inclusion bodies (IBs) sheltering viral RNA synthesis. Here, Rincheval et al. identify highly dynamic IB-associated granules (IBAGs) that accumulate newly synthetized viral mRNA and the viral M2-1 protein but exclude viral genomic RNA and RNA polymerase complexes.

  1. Postoperative pain and respiratory function in patients treated with electroacupuncture following coronary surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, Mehmet C; Kavakli, Ahmet; Kilinç, Abdulgani; Rahman, Ali

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate respiratory function and pain score in patients undergoing coronary bypass procedures during the first 7 postoperative days. The study was carried out as a case-control study between April 2008 and April 2009 in the Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Firat University Faculty of Medicine, Elazig, Turkey. Thirty patients, who had undergone a median sternotomy (MS) for coronary artery bypass graft, were randomized to either the electroacupuncture and pharmacologic analgesia (acupuncture) group, or the pharmacologic analgesia alone (control) group. In each group, severity of pain, analgesic intake, respiratory function, and pulmonary complications were recorded. Pethidine hydrochloride and metamizole sodium were administered. Of the 30 subjects, 15 were in the control group and 15 in the acupuncture group. There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups in terms of age and gender. Statistically significant differences in metamizole, pethidine, days 3, 5, 6, and 7 visual analogue scale scores were observed between the acupuncture and control groups. Postoperative complications (atelectasia) were observed in 2 (13.3%) patients, one (6.6%) in each group. The postoperative forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity value was higher than the preoperative value in the acupuncture group. Electroacupuncture was more effective than control treatments in decreasing pain and limiting opioid and non-opioid medication intake during the first 7 postoperative days following MS.

  2. Respiratory symptoms, lung function, and sensitisation to flour in a British bakery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musk, A W; Venables, K M; Crook, B; Nunn, A J; Hawkins, R; Crook, G D; Graneek, B J; Tee, R D; Farrer, N; Johnson, D A

    1989-01-01

    A survey of dust exposure, respiratory symptoms, lung function, and response to skin prick tests was conducted in a modern British bakery. Of the 318 bakery employees, 279 (88%) took part. Jobs were ranked from 0 to 10 by perceived dustiness and this ranking correlated well with total dust concentration measured in 79 personal dust samples. Nine samples had concentrations greater than 10 mg/m3, the exposure limit for nuisance dust. All participants completed a self administered questionnaire on symptoms and their relation to work. FEV1 and FVC were measured by a dry wedge spirometer and bronchial reactivity to methacholine was estimated. Skin prick tests were performed with three common allergens and with 11 allergens likely to be found in bakery dust, including mites and moulds. Of the participants in the main exposure group, 35% reported chest symptoms which in 13% were work related. The corresponding figures for nasal symptoms were 38% and 19%. Symptoms, lung function, bronchial reactivity, and response to skin prick tests were related to current or past exposure to dust using logistic or linear regression analysis as appropriate. Exposure rank was significantly associated with most of the response variables studied. The study shows that respiratory symptoms and sensitisation are common, even in a modern bakery. PMID:2789967

  3. Effects of expiratory muscle training on the frail elderly's respiratory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigira, Yusuke; Miyazaki, Ikuri; Izumi, Masataka; Oda, Takahiro

    2018-02-01

    [Purpose] The present study examined the effects of expiratory muscle training on elderly day care service users, who had been classified into Care Grades 1 and 2 based on Japan's long-term care insurance system. [Subjects and Methods] Intervention was provided for 29 Care Grade 1 or 2 day care service users. During intervention, expiratory muscle training was performed by slowly expiring using the abdominal muscles and a device after maximal inspiration. Each intervention session lasted for approximately 10 minutes, and 2 sessions were held weekly for 3 months to compare respiratory function test values before and after intervention. [Results] The results were favorable. The vital capacity (VC) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) significantly varied between before and after intervention. [Conclusion] Expiratory muscle training generally improved their respiratory function, particularly their VC and PEF that significantly varied between before and after intervention. As both of these items influence the cough capacity, they may be key to the prevention of aspiration pneumonia. Expiratory muscle training may also contribute to activities of daily living (ADL) and the quality of life, and it is expected to play an important role in rehabilitation as a field of preventive medicine.

  4. Redox state and mitochondrial respiratory chain function in skeletal muscle of LGMD2A patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats I Nilsson

    Full Text Available Calpain-3 deficiency causes oxidative and nitrosative stress-induced damage in skeletal muscle of LGMD2A patients, but mitochondrial respiratory chain function and anti-oxidant levels have not been systematically assessed in this clinical population previously.We identified 14 patients with phenotypes consistent with LGMD2A and performed CAPN3 gene sequencing, CAPN3 expression/autolysis measurements, and in silico predictions of pathogenicity. Oxidative damage, anti-oxidant capacity, and mitochondrial enzyme activities were determined in a subset of muscle biopsies.Twenty-one disease-causing variants were detected along the entire CAPN3 gene, five of which were novel (c.338 T>C, c.500 T>C, c.1525-1 G>T, c.2115+4 T>G, c.2366 T>A. Protein- and mRNA-based tests confirmed in silico predictions and the clinical diagnosis in 75% of patients. Reductions in antioxidant defense mechanisms (SOD-1 and NRF-2, but not SOD-2, coupled with increased lipid peroxidation and protein ubiquitination, were observed in calpain-3 deficient muscle, indicating a redox imbalance primarily affecting non-mitochondrial compartments. Although ATP synthase levels were significantly lower in LGMD2A patients, citrate synthase, cytochrome c oxidase, and complex I+III activities were not different from controls.Despite significant oxidative damage and redox imbalance in cytosolic/myofibrillar compartments, mitochondrial respiratory chain function is largely maintained in skeletal muscle of LGMD2A patients.

  5. [Usefulness of transcutaneous carbon dioxide pressure monitoring to measure blood gases in adults hospitalized for respiratory disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrejón, A; Inchaurraga, I; Palop, J; Ponce, S; Peris, R; Terrádez, M; Blanquer, R

    2006-05-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of transcutaneous carbon dioxide pressure (TcPCO2) monitoring in patients hospitalized for respiratory disease. We used a SenTec TcPCO2 monitor that also determines transcutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2) by means of a sensor placed behind the ear lobe at a temperature of 42 degrees C. We compared arterial blood gas measurements--PaCO2 and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2)--with transcutaneous measurements and analyzed the correlation, regression line, and agreement between the 2 methods. Thirty patients (20 men and 10 women) with various respiratory diseases and a mean (SD) age of 71 (13) years were included in the study. The median TcPCO2 was 43.25 mm Hg and the median PaCO2 was 42.6 mm Hg with no significant differences between the 2 measurements. The correlation was significant (rho=0.979; PTcPCO2=-2.475+1.058 PaCO2. The mean difference was 0.16 mm Hg (95% confidence interval [CI], --0.74 to 1.06). The lower limit of agreement (mean -1.96 SD) was -4.64 mm Hg, and the upper limit (mean +1.96 SD) was 4.96 mm Hg. For SaO2, the median was 94% and for SpO2, 95%. The difference between the 2 medians was significant (P< .004). The correlation was also significant (rho=0.822; P< .0001) with SpO2=4.427+0.97 SaO2. The mean difference was 1.14% (95% CI, 0.381% to 1.899%). The lower limit of agreement (mean -1.96 SD) was --2.93% and the upper limit (mean +1.96 SD) was 5.21% Transcutaneous determination of carbon dioxide pressure and oxygen saturation is useful for patients hospitalized for respiratory disease in view of its good correlation and agreement, although SpO2 does tend to overestimate SaO2.

  6. POSTOPERATIVE EFFECT OF PHYSICAL THERAPY RELATED TO FUNCTIONAL CAPACITY AND RESPIRATORY MUSCLE STRENGTH IN PATIENTS SUBMITTED TO BARIATRIC SURGERY

    OpenAIRE

    OLIVEIRA, Josélia Jucirema Jarschel de; FREITAS, Alexandre Coutinho Teixeira de; ALMEIDA, Andréa Adriana de

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Respiratory physiotherapy plays an important role preventing complications in bariatric surgery. Aim: To assess the effects of out-patient physiotherapy during post-operative period through respiratory pressures and functional capacity in individuals submitted to bariatric surgery. Method: A prospective longitudinal and controlled study was done in adults with body mass index (BMI) equal or greater than 40 kg/m², who have been submitted to bariatric surgery. They were ...

  7. Comparison of functional exercise capacity, pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength in patients with multiple sclerosis with different disability levels and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosnak-Guclu, Meral; Gunduz, Arzu Guclu; Nazliel, Bijen; Irkec, Ceyla

    2012-01-01

    To compare functional exercise capacity, pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength in fully ambulatory patients with multiple sclerosis with different disability levels and healthy controls, and to elucidate the determinant factors of functional exercise capacity. Forty-three fully ambulatory patients with multiple sclerosis and 30 healthy controls were included in the study. Patients were grouped according to Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS); Group I (EDSS 0-2), Group II (EDSS 2.5-4.5). Functional exercise capacity was evaluated using a six-minute walk test, and measurement of pulmonary function, and maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures (MIP, MEP). The Pulmonary Index was used as a clinical predictor of respiratory dysfunction. Respiratory muscle strength was lower in multiple sclerosis groups compared with controls, but the difference in MIP and %MIP did not reach statistical significance in Group I. The six-minute walk test distance was significantly shorter and peak expiratory flow was lower in multiple sclerosis groups (p Respiratory muscles are weakened, functional exercise capacity is reduced and pulmonary function is affected even in the early phase of multiple sclerosis. Ambulatory patients with multiple sclerosis who have a higher level of disability have lower pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and functional capacity than less disabled ones and controls. Neurological disability level, age, gender and heart rate difference on exertion are the determinants of functional exercise capacity.

  8. Evaluation of pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in pyrochlore mine workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Ritta de Cássia Canedo Oliveira; Barros, José Cerqueira; Oliveira, Fabrício Borges; Brunherotti, Marisa Andrade; Quemelo, Paulo Roberto Veiga

    2016-01-01

    To identify respiratory symptoms and evaluate lung function in mine workers. This was a cross-sectional observational study involving production sector workers of a pyrochlore mining company. The subjects completed the British Medical Research Council questionnaire, which is designed to evaluate respiratory symptoms, occupational exposure factors, and smoking status. In addition, they underwent pulmonary function tests with a portable spirometer. The study involved 147 workers (all male). The mean age was 41.37 ± 8.71 years, and the mean duration of occupational exposure was 12.26 ± 7.09 years. We found that 33 (22.44%) of the workers had respiratory symptoms and that 26 (17.69%) showed abnormalities in the spirometry results. However, we found that the spirometry results did not correlate significantly with the presence of respiratory symptoms or with the duration of occupational exposure. The frequencies of respiratory symptoms and spirometric changes were low when compared with those reported in other studies involving occupational exposure to dust. No significant associations were observed between respiratory symptoms and spirometry results. Determinar a presença de sintomas respiratórios e avaliar a função pulmonar de trabalhadores da mineração. Estudo observacional de caráter transversal realizado com trabalhadores do setor de produção de uma mineradora de pirocloro. Para avaliar os sintomas respiratórios, fatores de exposição ocupacional e tabagismo, foi aplicado o questionário de sintomas respiratórios British Medical Research Council, e a função pulmonar foi avaliada utilizando-se um espirômetro portátil. Participaram do estudo 147 trabalhadores, todos do sexo masculino, com média de idade de 41,37 ± 8,71 anos e com tempo de exposição ocupacional de 12,26 ± 7,09 anos. Foi observado que 33 (22,44%) dos trabalhadores apresentaram sintomas respiratórios e que 26 (17,69%) dos trabalhadores apresentaram alguma alteração nos

  9. The roles of complement receptors type 1 (CR1, CD35) and type 3 (CR3, CD11b/CD18) in the regulation of the immune complex-elicited respiratory burst of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in whole blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C H; Antonsen, S; Matthiesen, S H

    1997-01-01

    The binding of immune complexes (IC) to polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and the consequent respiratory burst (RB) were investigated in whole blood cell preparations suspended in 75% human serum, using flow cytometry. Blockade of the complement receptor (CR)1 receptor sites for C3b on whole blood...... and inhibited the IC binding to PMN in a whole blood cell preparation, with or without mAb 3D9, by approximately 40% from 15-40 min while reducing their RB over 40 min to approximately one third. Blockade of CR1 on either erythrocytes (E) or leukocytes, before mixing the populations, revealed...... that the potentiation of the RB by mAb 3D9 was associated with abrogation of E-CR1 function, whereas blockade of leukocyte-CR1 had a diminishing effect. Exposure to IC at high concentrations induced release of both specific and azurophilic granule contents from PMN. The latter was CR3 dependent in that blockade...

  10. The effects of breathing exercise types on respiratory muscle activity and body function in patients with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeong-Il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Fragmentary studies on characteristics of respiratory muscles are being done to increase respiratory capacity by classifying exercises into voluntary respiratory exercise which relieves symptoms and prevents COPD and exercise using breathing exercise equipment. But this study found changes on respiratory pattern through changes on the activity pattern of agonist and synergist respiratory muscles and studied what effect they can have on body function improvement. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen subjects in experimental group I that respiratory exercise of diaphragm and 15 subjects in experimental group II that feedback respiratory exercise were randomly selected among COPD patients to find the effective intervention method for COPD patients. And intervention program was conducted for 5 weeks, three times a week, once a day and 30 minutes a session. They were measured with BODE index using respiratory muscle activity, pulmonary function, the six-minute walking test, dyspnea criteria and BMI Then the results obtained were compared and analyzed. [Results] There was a significant difference in sternocleidomastoid muscle and scalene muscle and in 6-minute walk and BODE index for body function. Thus the group performing feedback respiratory had more effective results for mild COPD patients. [Conclusion] Therefore, the improvement was significant regarding the activity of respiratory muscles synergists when breathing before doing breathing exercise. Although, it is valuable to reduce too much mobilization of respiratory muscles synergists through the proper intervention it is necessary to study body function regarding improvement of respiratory function for patients with COPD.

  11. Respiratory symptoms/diseases, impaired lung function, and drug use in two Italian general population samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, Marzia; Carrozzi, Laura; Baldacci, Sandra; Borbotti, Marco; Pistelli, Francesco; Di Pede, Francesco; Maio, Sara; Angino, Anna; Viegi, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    Research and practice indicate that a sizeable amount of prescribed drugs is never used. To assess the habitual up-take of medicines in subjects with respiratory symptoms/diseases or impaired lung function in general population samples. Data regard 4010 subjects (8-88 years) from the rural area of Po River Delta (North Italy) and the urban area of Pisa (North-Central Italy). Analyses concern the habitual use of any or specific medicines (broncho-pulmonary, anti-allergic, cardio-vascular, diuretic) in subjects with asthma, chronic bronchitis/emphysema (COPD), COPD or chronic cough/phlegm (COPDsx), and airways obstruction (AO, FEV(1)/FVC<70%). Asthma, COPD, COPDsx, and AO were present in 6%, 5%, 21%, and 13% of cases, respectively. Only 37% and 21% of subjects with respiratory symptoms/diseases used any or specific medicines, respectively. The subjects with COPD exhibited the highest prevalence of assumption (59% for any drug, 38% for specific medicines), followed by asthmatics (42% and 30%), and subjects with AO (40% and 25%). After accounting for sex, age, residence area, smoking habit, education, and presence of comorbidity, the conditions significantly related to any medicine up-take were COPD (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.08-2.53) and asthma (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.01-2.12). Only asthma resulted significantly associated with the use of specific drugs (OR 3.11, 95% CI 1.94-4.97). Drug use was higher in the urban than in the rural area. The results indicate that most people in the general population do not use drugs, in spite of reported respiratory disorders. The underuse of medicines seems lower in the urban area.

  12. A 4-Year Follow-up Cohort Study of the Respiratory Functions in Toner-handling Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagi, Nobuaki; Kitamura, Hiroko; Mizuno, Mitsuhito; Hata, Koichi; Uchiyama, Tetsuro; Kuga, Hiroaki; Matsushita, Tetsuhiro; Kurosaki, Shizuka; Uehara, Masamichi; Ogami, Akira; Higashi, Toshiaki

    2014-12-01

    Focusing on the respiratory function for health effect indices, we conducted a cross-sectional study on workers who did and did not handle toner to compare the longitudinal changes. Among 116 individuals who worked for a Japanese business equipment manufacturer and participated in the study, the analysis included 69 male workers who we were able to follow up for 4 years. We categorized the 40 workers engaged in toner-handling work as the exposed group and the 29 workers not engaged in these tasks as the referent group, and compared their respiratory function test results: peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), vital capacity (VC), predicted vital capacity (%VC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and forced expiratory volume in 1 second as a percent of forced vital capacity (FEV1%). The cross-sectional study of the respiratory function test results at the baseline and at the 5(th) year showed no statistically significant differences in PEFR, VC, %VC, FEV1, and FEV1% between the exposed and referent workers. Also, respiratory function time-course for 4 years was calculated and compared between the groups. No statistically significant differences were shown. Our study does not suggest any toner exposure effects on respiratory function. However, the number of subjects was small in our study; studies of larger populations will be desired in the future.

  13. THE DIFFERENCE IN RESPIRATORY AND BLOOD GAS VALUES DURING RECOVERY AFTER EXERCISE WITH SPONTANEOUS VERSUS REDUCED BREATHING FREQUENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Kapus

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Extrapolation from post-exercise measurements has been used to estimate respiratory and blood gas parameters during exercise. This may not be accurate in exercise with reduced breathing frequency (RBF, since spontaneous breathing usually follows exercise. This study was performed to ascertain whether measurement of oxygen saturation and blood gases immediately after exercise accurately reflected their values during exercise with RBF. Eight healthy male subjects performed an incremental cycling test with RBF at 10 breaths per minute. A constant load test with RBF (B10 was then performed to exhaustion at the peak power output obtained during the incremental test. Finally, the subjects repeated the constant load test with spontaneous breathing (SB using the same protocol as B10. Pulmonary ventilation (VE, end-tidal oxygen (PETO2, and carbon dioxide pressures (PETCO2 and oxygen saturation (SaO2 were measured during both constant load tests. The partial pressures of oxygen (PO2 and carbon dioxide (PCO2 in capillary blood were measured during the last minute of exercise, immediately following exercise and during the third minute of recovery. At the end of exercise RBF resulted in lower PETO2, SaO2 and PO2, and higher PETCO2 and PCO2 when compared to spontaneous breathing during exercise. Lower SaO2 and PETO2 were detected only for the first 16s and 20s of recovery after B10 compared to the corresponding period in SB. There were no significant differences in PO2 between SB and B10 measured immediately after the exercise. During recovery from exercise, PETCO2 remained elevated for the first 120s in the B10 trial. There were also significant differences between SB and B10 in PCO2 immediately after exercise. We conclude that RBF during high intensity exercise results in hypoxia; however, due to post-exercise hyperpnoea, measurements of blood gas parameters taken 15s after cessation of exercise did not reflect the changes in PO2 and SaO2 seen during

  14. Mask versus Nasal Tube for Stabilization of Preterm Infants at Birth: Respiratory Function Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vonderen, Jeroen J; Kamlin, C Omar; Dawson, Jennifer A; Walther, Frans J; Davis, Peter G; te Pas, Arjan B

    2015-07-01

    To compare the nasal tube with face mask as interfaces for stabilization of very preterm infants at birth by using physiological measurements of leak, obstruction, and expired tidal volumes during positive pressure ventilation (PPV). In the delivery room, 43 infants mask. Respiratory function, heart rate, and oxygen saturation were measured. Occurrence of obstruction, amount of leak, and tidal volumes were compared using a Mann-Whitney U test or a Fisher exact test. The first 5 minutes after initiation of PPV were analyzed (1566 inflations in the nasal tube group and 1896 inflations in the face mask group). Spontaneous breathing coincided with PPV in 32% of nasal tube and 34% of face mask inflations. During inflations, higher leak was observed using nasal tube compared with face mask (98% [33%-100%] vs 14 [0%-39%]; P mask (0.0 [0.0-3.1] vs 9.9 [5.5-12.8] mL/kg; P 0.05). Heart rate was not significantly different between groups, but oxygen saturation was significantly lower in the nasal tube group the first 2 minutes after start of respiratory support. The use of a nasal tube led to large leak, more obstruction, and inadequate tidal volumes compared with face mask. Trial registration Registered with the Dutch Trial Registry (NTR 2061) and the Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ACTRN 12610000230055). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of chest physiotherapy on the respiratory function of postoperative gastroplasty patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Forti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Bariatric surgery has become increasingly more recommended for the treatment of morbidly obese individuals for whom it is possible to identify co-morbidities other than alterations in pulmonary function. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of conventional chest physiotherapy (CCP and of conventional physiotherapy associated with transcutaneous electrical diaphragmatic stimulation (CCP+TEDS on pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength in patients who have undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. METHODS: In total, 44 female patients with an average age of 37 ± 7.3 years and an average body mass index (BMI of 47.4 ± 6.5 K/m² were selected as candidates for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass laparoscopy. They were evaluated for pulmonary volume and flow using spirometry and maximum respiratory pressure through manovacuometry during the preoperative period and on the fifteenth and thirtieth postoperative days. RESULTS: No differences were detected between CCP and CCP+TEDS, and both factors contributed to the maintenance of pulmonary flow and volume as well as inhalation muscle strength. Exhalation muscle strength was not maintained in the CCP group at fifteen or thirty days postoperative, but it was maintained in patients treated with conventional chest physiotherapy + transcutaneous electric diaphragmatic stimulation. DISCUSSION: These results suggest that both conventional chest physiotherapy and conventional chest physiotherapy + transcutaneous electric diaphragmatic stimulation prevent the reduction of pulmonary function during the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass postoperative period, and that transcutaneous electric diaphragmatic stimulation also contributes to expiratory muscle strength.

  16. Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory functions among quarry workers in Edo state, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isara, Alphonsus Rukevwe; Adam, Vincent Yakubu; Aigbokhaode, Adesuwa Queen; Alenoghena, Innocent Osi

    2016-01-01

    Workers in the quarry industries are exposed to hazards resulting from the inhalation of air borne particulates. The study determined the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and assessed ventilatory functions among quarry workers in Edo state, Nigeria. Quarry workers (site workers and office workers) were interviewed using structured questionnaire. FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC and PEFR were measured using a KoKo Legend spirometer. A total of 113 quarry workers (76 exposure and 37 controls) were studied. The exposure group had significantly higher occurrence of chest tightness (35.5%) compared with 16.2% of the controls (p < 0.05). The occurrence of cough (23.7% versus 13.5%), sputum (21.1% versus 16.2%), and dyspnoea (7.9% versus 5.4%), were higher in exposure groups while wheeze (10.8% versus 10.5%) and nasal congestion (27.0% and 25.0%) were higher in the control groups. The mean (SD) FEV1, and FVC were significantly lower among the exposure compared with the control group; 2.77L (0.73) versus 3.14L (0.78), p < 0.05, and 3.48L (0.84) versus 3.89L (0.92), p < 0.05. In both groups, smokers had significantly lower mean (SD) FEV1, FVC and PEFR compared with non-smokers; 2.91L (0.77) versus 3.39L (0.69), p = 0.01, 3.61L (0.91) versus 4.26L (0.74), p < 0.05 and 6.56L (2.43) versus 7.98L (1.67), p < 0.05. Chronic exposure to quarry dust is associated with respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function indices among quarry workers. The enforcement of the use of PPEs and periodic evaluation the lung function status of quarry workers is advocated.

  17. The R of ALSFRS-R: does it really mirror functional respiratory involvement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Susana; de Carvalho, Mamede

    2015-03-01

    Clinical assessment of the respiratory function is critical in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). A standardized process is to monitor the respiratory subscore of the revised ALSFRS (RofALSFRS-R). We tested the utility of RofALSFRS-R and its individual questions in evaluating respiratory functionality. Three hundred and fifty-seven consecutive ALS patients were assessed at entry (T0), three and six months later (T1 and T2). ALSFRS and its subscores decayed significantly (p QR1) was found in about 10% of the patients in each period. Between T0 and T1 a significant negative correlation was found between decrease in gait score and QR1 (p = 0.021, r = -0.395) in the subgroup of ALS patients who showed QR1 improvement (n = 34). An improvement in the other respiratory questions was noticed in about 6% of the patients, related to non-invasive ventilation. Possibly, decreased mobility and metabolic demand can cause fewer respiratory symptoms in a subset of patients. The respiratory questions included in ALSFRS-R should be re-addressed by the ALS community.

  18. Time-courses of lung function and respiratory muscle pressure generating capacity after spinal cord injury: A prospective cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, G.; de Groot, S.; van der Woude, L.H.V.; Hopman, M.T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the time-courses of lung function and respiratory muscle pressure generating capacity after spinal cord injury. Design: Multi-centre, prospective cohort study. Subjects: One hundred and nine subjects with recent, motor complete spinal cord injury. Methods: Lung function and

  19. Time-courses of lung function and respiratory muscle pressure generating capacity after spinal cord injury : a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Gabi; de Groot, Sonja; van der Woude, Lucas; Hopman, Maria T E

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the time-courses of lung function and respiratory muscle pressure generating capacity after spinal cord injury. DESIGN: Multi-centre, prospective cohort study. SUBJECTS: One hundred and nine subjects with recent, motor complete spinal cord injury. METHODS: Lung function and

  20. Time-courses of lung function and respiratory muscle pressure generating capacity after spinal cord injury: a prospective cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, G.; Groot, S. de; Woude, L.H.V. van der; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the time-courses of lung function and respiratory muscle pressure generating capacity after spinal cord injury. DESIGN: Multi-centre, prospective cohort study. SUBJECTS: One hundred and nine subjects with recent, motor complete spinal cord injury. METHODS: Lung function and

  1. Host Transcription Profile in Nasal Epithelium and Whole Blood of Hospitalized Children Under 2 Years of Age With Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Lien Anh Ha; Pellet, Johann; van Doorn, H Rogier; Tran, Anh Tuan; Nguyen, Bach Hue; Tran, Thi Thu Loan; Tran, Quynh Huong; Vo, Quoc Bao; Tran Dac, Nguyen Anh; Trinh, Hong Nhien; Nguyen, Thi Thanh Hai; Le Binh, Bao Tinh; Nguyen, Huu Mai Khanh; Nguyen, Minh Tien; Thai, Quang Tung; Vo, Thanh Vu; Ngo, Ngoc Quang Minh; Dang, Thi Kim Huyen; Cao, Ngoc Huong; Tran, Thu Van; Ho, Lu Viet; De Meulder, Bertrand; Auffray, Charles; Hofstra, Jorrit-Jan; Farrar, Jeremy; Bryant, Juliet E; de Jong, Menno; Hibberd, Martin L

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Most insights into the cascade of immune events after acute respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection have been obtained from animal experiments or in vitro models. Methods In this study, we investigated host gene expression profiles in nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs and whole blood samples during natural RSV and rhinovirus (hRV) infection (acute versus early recovery phase) in 83 hospitalized patients <2 years old with lower respiratory tract infections. Results Respiratory syncytial virus infection induced strong and persistent innate immune responses including interferon signaling and pathways related to chemokine/cytokine signaling in both compartments. Interferon-α/β, NOTCH1 signaling pathways and potential biomarkers HIST1H4E, IL7R, ISG15 in NP samples, or BCL6, HIST2H2AC, CCNA1 in blood are leading pathways and hub genes that were associated with both RSV load and severity. The observed RSV-induced gene expression patterns did not differ significantly in NP swab and blood specimens. In contrast, hRV infection did not as strongly induce expression of innate immunity pathways, and significant differences were observed between NP swab and blood specimens. Conclusions We conclude that RSV induced strong and persistent innate immune responses and that RSV severity may be related to development of T follicular helper cells and antiviral inflammatory sequelae derived from high activation of BCL6. PMID:29029245

  2. Citrate metabolism and its complications in non-massive blood transfusions: association with decompensated metabolic alkalosis+respiratory acidosis and serum electrolyte levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bıçakçı, Zafer; Olcay, Lale

    2014-06-01

    Metabolic alkalosis, which is a non-massive blood transfusion complication, is not reported in the literature although metabolic alkalosis dependent on citrate metabolism is reported to be a massive blood transfusion complication. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of elevated carbon dioxide production due to citrate metabolism and serum electrolyte imbalance in patients who received frequent non-massive blood transfusions. Fifteen inpatients who were diagnosed with different conditions and who received frequent blood transfusions (10-30 ml/kg/day) were prospectively evaluated. Patients who had initial metabolic alkalosis (bicarbonate>26 mmol/l), who needed at least one intensive blood transfusion in one-to-three days for a period of at least 15 days, and whose total transfusion amount did not fit the massive blood transfusion definition (metabolic alkalosis+respiratory acidosis developed as a result of citrate metabolism. There was a positive correlation between cumulative amount of citrate and the use of fresh frozen plasma, venous blood pH, ionized calcium, serum-blood gas sodium and mortality, whereas there was a negative correlation between cumulative amount of citrate and serum calcium levels, serum phosphorus levels and amount of urine chloride. In non-massive, but frequent blood transfusions, elevated carbon dioxide production due to citrate metabolism causes intracellular acidosis. As a result of intracellular acidosis compensation, decompensated metabolic alkalosis+respiratory acidosis and electrolyte imbalance may develop. This situation may contribute to the increase in mortality. In conclusion, it should be noted that non-massive, but frequent blood transfusions may result in certain complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Respiratory function in patients with coronary heart disease in combination with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. С. Клинкова

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to assess the state of respiratory function (RF in patients with CHD and in patients with CHD combined with COPD. Also evaluated was the efficiency of pulmonary gas exchange, while taking into account the oxygen-utilization coefficient (OUC. RF was investigated in 73 patients with coronary heart disease (CHD and in 51 patients with CHD combined with COPD by means of a bodyplethysmography approach. In patients with CHD and COPD there was a significant reduction of the efficiency of pulmonary ventilation (OUC decreased by 24% as compared to the normal value against a background of bronchial conductivity. The patients with CHD without COPD showed a moderate decrease in RF reserves, with the effectiveness of pulmonary ventilation maintained at an optimal level.

  4. A Functional Approach towards Understanding the Role of the Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain in an Endomycorrhizal Symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercy, Louis; Lucic-Mercy, Eva; Nogales, Amaia; Poghosyan, Areg; Schneider, Carolin; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are crucial components of fertile soils, able to provide several ecosystem services for crop production. Current economic, social and legislative contexts should drive the so-called “second green revolution” by better exploiting these beneficial microorganisms. Many challenges still need to be overcome to better understand the mycorrhizal symbiosis, among which (i) the biotrophic nature of AMF, constraining their production, while (ii) phosphate acts as a limiting factor for the optimal mycorrhizal inoculum application and effectiveness. Organism fitness and adaptation to the changing environment can be driven by the modulation of mitochondrial respiratory chain, strongly connected to the phosphorus processing. Nevertheless, the role of the respiratory function in mycorrhiza remains largely unexplored. We hypothesized that the two mitochondrial respiratory chain components, alternative oxidase (AOX) and cytochrome oxidase (COX), are involved in specific mycorrhizal behavior. For this, a complex approach was developed. At the pre-symbiotic phase (axenic conditions), we studied phenotypic responses of Rhizoglomus irregulare spores with two AOX and COX inhibitors [respectively, salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) and potassium cyanide (KCN)] and two growth regulators (abscisic acid – ABA and gibberellic acid – Ga3). At the symbiotic phase, we analyzed phenotypic and transcriptomic (genes involved in respiration, transport, and fermentation) responses in Solanum tuberosum/Rhizoglomus irregulare biosystem (glasshouse conditions): we monitored the effects driven by ABA, and explored the modulations induced by SHAM and KCN under five phosphorus concentrations. KCN and SHAM inhibited in vitro spore germination while ABA and Ga3 induced differential spore germination and hyphal patterns. ABA promoted mycorrhizal colonization, strong arbuscule intensity and positive mycorrhizal growth dependency (MGD). In ABA treated plants, R. irregulare

  5. Effect of smoking on lung function, respiratory symptoms and respiratory diseases amongst HIV-positive subjects: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thabane Lehana

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking prevalence in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive subjects is about three times of that in the general population. However, whether the extremely high smoking prevalence in HIV-positive subjects affects their lung function is unclear, particularly whether smoking decreases lung function more in HIV-positive subjects, compared to the general population. We conducted this study to determine the association between smoking and lung function, respiratory symptoms and diseases amongst HIV-positive subjects. Results Of 120 enrolled HIV-positive subjects, 119 had an acceptable spirogram. Ninety-four (79% subjects were men, and 96 (81% were white. Mean (standard deviation [SD] age was 43.4 (8.4 years. Mean (SD of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 percent of age, gender, race and height predicted value (%FEV1 was 93.1% (15.7%. Seventy-five (63% subjects had smoked 24.0 (18.0 pack-years. For every ten pack-years of smoking increment, %FEV1 decreased by 2.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: -3.6%, -0.6%, after controlling for gender, race and restrictive lung function (R2 = 0.210. The loss of %FEV1 in our subjects was comparable to the general population. Compared to non-smokers, current smokers had higher odds of cough, sputum or breathlessness, after adjusting for highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART use, odds ratio OR = 4.9 (95% CI: 2.0, 11.8. However respiratory symptom presence was similar between non-smokers and former smokers, OR = 1.0 (95% CI: 0.3, 2.8. All four cases of COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had smoked. Four of ten cases of restrictive lung disease had smoked (p = 0.170, and three of five asthmatic subjects had smoked (p = 1.000. Conclusions Cumulative cigarette consumption was associated with worse lung function; however the loss of %FEV1 did not accelerate in HIV-positive population compared to the general population. Current smokers had higher odds of respiratory symptoms

  6. Work stress, anthropometry, lung function, blood pressure, and blood-based biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.; Westerlund, Hugo; Goldberg, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Work stress is a risk factor for cardio-metabolic diseases, but few large-scale studies have examined the clinical profile of individuals with work stress. To address this limitation, we conducted a cross-sectional study including 43,593 working adults from a French population-based sample aged 1......, creatinine, glucose levels or resting blood pressure measures. This indicates that work stress is associated altered metabolic profile, increased systemic inflammation, and, in men, poorer liver function, which is a marker of high alcohol consumption.......Work stress is a risk factor for cardio-metabolic diseases, but few large-scale studies have examined the clinical profile of individuals with work stress. To address this limitation, we conducted a cross-sectional study including 43,593 working adults from a French population-based sample aged 18......–72 years (the CONSTANCES cohort). According to the Effort-Reward Imbalance model, work stress was defined as an imbalance between perceived high efforts and low rewards at work. A standardized health examination included measures of anthropometry, lung function, blood pressure and standard blood...

  7. Impact of Cardiopulmonary Bypass on Respiratory Mucociliary Function in an Experimental Porcine Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Sánchez-Véliz

    Full Text Available The impact of cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB on the respiratory mucociliary function is unknown. This study evaluated the effects of CPB and interruption of mechanical ventilation on the respiratory mucociliary system.Twenty-two pigs were randomly assigned to the control (n = 10 or CPB group (n = 12. After the induction of anesthesia, a tracheostomy was performed, and tracheal tissue samples were excised (T0 from both groups. All animals underwent thoracotomy. In the CPB group, an aorto-bicaval CPB was installed and maintained for 90 minutes. During the CPB, mechanical ventilation was interrupted, and the tracheal tube was disconnected. A second tracheal tissue sample was obtained 180 minutes after the tracheostomy (T180. Mucus samples were collected from the trachea using a bronchoscope at T0, T90 and T180. Ciliary beat frequency (CBF and in situ mucociliary transport (MCT were studied in ex vivo tracheal epithelium. Mucus viscosity (MV was assessed using a cone-plate viscometer. Qualitative tracheal histological analysis was performed at T180 tissue samples.CBF decreased in the CPB group (13.1 ± 1.9 Hz vs. 11.1 ± 2.1 Hz, p < 0.05 but not in the control group (13.1 ± 1 Hz vs. 13 ± 2.9 Hz. At T90, viscosity was increased in the CPB group compared to the control (p < 0.05. No significant differences were observed in in situ MCT. Tracheal histology in the CPB group showed areas of ciliated epithelium loss, submucosal edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells.CPB acutely contributed to alterations in tracheal mucocilliary function.

  8. Cord blood PRF1 methylation patterns and risk of lower respiratory tract infections in infants: findings from the Ulm Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgizouli, Magdeldin; Logan, Chad; Nieters, Alexandra; Brenner, Hermann; Rothenbacher, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are a major cause of morbidity in children. DNA methylation provides a mechanism for transmitting environmental effects on the genome, but its potential role in LRTIs is not well studied. We investigated the methylation pattern of an enhancer region of the immune effector gene perforin-1 (PRF1), which encodes a cytolytic molecule of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer cells (NK), in cord blood DNA of children recruited in a German birth cohort in association with LRTIs in the first year of life.Pyrosequencing was used to determine the methylation levels of target cytosine-phosphate-guanines (CpGs) in a 2-stage case-control design. Cases were identified as children who developed ≥2 episodes of physician-recorded LRTIs during the first year of life and controls as children who had none. Discovery (n = 87) and replication (n = 90) sets were arranged in trios of 1 case and 2 controls matched for sex and season of birth.Logistic regression analysis revealed higher levels of methylation at a CpG that corresponds to a signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) responsive enhancer in the discovery (odds ratio [OR] per 1% methylation difference 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-1.50) and replication (OR per 1% methylation difference 1.25, 95% CI 1.04-1.50) sets. Adjustment for having siblings blood PRF1 enhancer methylation patterns and subsequent risk of LRTIs in infants. Methylation levels at specific CpGs of the PRF1 enhancer varied according to maternal and family environmental factors suggesting a role for DNA methylation in mediating environmental influences on gene function.

  9. The relationship between respiratory system impedance and lung function in asthmatics: A prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Takahiro; Kaneko, Masahiro; Tomioka, Hiromi

    2017-05-01

    The aim was to elucidate the relationship between the annual changes in respiratory system impedance, measured by FOT, and lung function tests in patients with asthma. Between March 2011 and March 2012, asthma outpatients who attended Kobe City Medical Center West Hospital were recruited. Lung function tests, FOT were conducted every 6 months until March 2016. The relationships between annual parameter changes were evaluated. Sixty-four patients were completed this study. The median follow-up period was 55 months. At enrollment, although resistance showed no relationship with forced expiratory volume in one second (%FEV 1 ), the reactance was moderately correlated with X5 (r=0.524, r 2 =0.275, <0.001), Fres (r=-0.498, r 2 =0.248, <0.001) and ALX (r=-0.416, r 2 =0.173, p=<0.001). By contrast, the annual resistance change at 5Hz (R5) was highly and significantly associated with%FEV 1 change (r=-0.564, r 2 =0.318, p<0.001). Longitudinal changes in airway resistance and reactance measured by FOT might be useful for the assessment of lung function in patients with asthma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Locomotor step training with body weight support improves respiratory motor function in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terson de Paleville, Daniela; McKay, William; Aslan, Sevda; Folz, Rodney; Sayenko, Dimitry; Ovechkin, Alexander

    2013-12-01

    This prospective case-controlled clinical study was undertaken to investigate to what extent the manually assisted treadmill stepping locomotor training with body weight support (LT) can change respiratory function in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Pulmonary function outcomes (forced vital capacity /FVC/, forced expiratory volume one second /FEV1/, maximum inspiratory pressure /PImax/, maximum expiratory pressure /PEmax/) and surface electromyographic (sEMG) measures of respiratory muscles activity during respiratory tasks were obtained from eight individuals with chronic C3-T12 SCI before and after 62±10 (mean±SD) sessions of the LT. FVC, FEV1, PImax, PEmax, amount of overall sEMG activity and rate of motor unit recruitment were significantly increased after LT (prespiratory muscles preserved after injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Lung structure-respiratory function relationships in experimentally-induced bronchiolitis, bronchopneumonia and interstitial pneumonia in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauderly, J.L.; Madron, E. de; Harkema, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Histopathology and respiratory function of rats with three different types and distributions of lower lung inflammation were compared to better understand lung structure-function relationships. Rats were exposed 21 h/day for 7 days to 0.8 ppm ozone (O 3 ), sham-exposed as controls, or given 5 mg/kg bacterial endotoxin either intratracheally (ITE) or intraperitoneally (IPE). Respiratory function was measured 24 h after the end of treatment, than the rats were sacrificed and the distribution of inflammation was evaluated morphometrically. Chronic centriacinar inflammation with formation of new respiratory bronchioles caused an obstructive functional impairment in the O 3 rats, which was clearly distinguished from the restrictive impairments resulting from acute inflammation in ITE and IPE rats. Only the magnitudes of changes related to the distribution of inflammation differentiated the ITE and IPE groups. Flow parameters previously thought sensitive to large airway resistance were changed in the O 3 rats. Alveolar luminal inflammatory exudate affected quasistatic compliance more than septal inflammation in ITE and IPE rats. Quasistatic chord compliance was the most sensitive of three indices of pressure-volume relationships. The findings in this study improve the basis for interpreting respiratory function changes of rats. (author)

  12. Effects of intermaxillary fixation during orthognathic surgery on respiratory function after general anesthesia.

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, H.

    2001-01-01

    I examined the relationship between preoperative breathing route (nasal and/or oral) and respiratory status in 29 patients who underwent orthognathic surgery and intermaxillary fixation (IMF) with general anesthesia and in 14 healthy, adult control volunteers who received IMF without surgery or anesthesia. The tidal volume (VT), minute respiratory volume (MV), respiratory rate, and end-tidal carbon dioxide concentration were measured for both nasal and oral breathing before and after IMF. Pul...

  13. Neuromuscular disease and respiratory physiology in children: putting lung function into perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauroux, Brigitte; Khirani, Sonia

    2014-08-01

    Neuromuscular diseases represent a heterogeneous group of disorders of the muscle, nerve or neuromuscular junction. The respiratory muscles are rarely spared in neuromuscular diseases even if the type of muscle involvement, severity and time course greatly varies among the different diseases. Diagnosis of respiratory muscle weakness is crucial because of the importance of respiratory morbidity and mortality. Presently, routine respiratory evaluation is based on non-invasive volitional tests, such as the measurement of lung volumes, spirometry and the maximal static pressures, which may be difficult or impossible to obtain in some young children. Other tools or parameters are thus needed to assess the respiratory muscle weakness and its consequences in young children. The measurement of oesogastric pressures can be helpful as they allow the diagnosis and quantification of paradoxical breathing, as well as the assessment of the strength of the inspiratory and expiratory muscles by means of the oesophageal pressure during a maximal sniff and of the gastric pressure during a maximal cough. Sleep assessment should also be part of the respiratory evaluation of children with neuromuscular disease with at least the recording of nocturnal gas exchange if polysomnography is not possible or unavailable. This improvement in the assessment of respiratory muscle performance may increase our understanding of the respiratory pathophysiology of the different neuromuscular diseases, improve patient care, and guide research and innovative therapies by identifying and validating respiratory parameters. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  14. Inspiratory high frequency airway oscillation attenuates resistive loaded dyspnea and modulates respiratory function in young healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Theresa; Sumners, David Paul; Green, David Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Direct chest-wall percussion can reduce breathlessness in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and respiratory function may be improved, in health and disease, by respiratory muscle training (RMT). We tested whether high-frequency airway oscillation (HFAO), a novel form of airflow oscillation generation can modulate induced dyspnoea and respiratory strength and/or patterns following 5 weeks of HFAO training (n = 20) compared to a SHAM-RMT (conventional flow-resistive RMT) device (n = 15) in healthy volunteers (13 males; aged 20-36 yrs). HFAO causes oscillations with peak-to-peak amplitude of 1 cm H2O, whereas the SHAM-RMT device was identical but created no pressure oscillation. Respiratory function, dyspnoea and ventilation during 3 minutes of spontaneous resting ventilation, 1 minute of maximal voluntary hyperventilation and 1 minute breathing against a moderate inspiratory resistance, were compared PRE and POST 5-weeks of training (2 × 30 breaths at 70% peak flow, 5 days a week). Training significantly reduced NRS dyspnoea scores during resistive loaded ventilation, both in the HFAO (p = 0.003) and SHAM-RMT (p = 0.005) groups. Maximum inspiratory static pressure (cm H2O) was significantly increased by HFAO training (vs. PRE; prespiratory manoeuvre performance in excess of flow-resistive IMT (SHAM-RMT) in healthy individuals without the respiratory discomfort associated with RMT.

  15. Form, shape and function: segmented blood flow in the choriocapillaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouache, M. A.; Eames, I.; Klettner, C. A.; Luthert, P. J.

    2016-10-01

    The development of fluid transport systems was a key event in the evolution of animals and plants. While within vertebrates branched geometries predominate, the choriocapillaris, which is the microvascular bed that is responsible for the maintenance of the outer retina, has evolved a planar topology. Here we examine the flow and mass transfer properties associated with this unusual geometry. We show that as a result of the form of the choriocapillaris, the blood flow is decomposed into a tessellation of functional vascular segments of various shapes delineated by separation surfaces across which there is no flow, and in the vicinity of which the transport of passive substances is diffusion-limited. The shape of each functional segment is determined by the distribution of arterioles and venules and their respective relative flow rates. We also show that, remarkably, the mass exchange with the outer retina is a function of the shape of each functional segment. In addition to introducing a novel framework in which the structure and function of the metabolite delivery system to the outer retina may be investigated in health and disease, the present work provides a general characterisation of the flow and transfers in multipole Hele-Shaw configurations.

  16. Reproduction Does Not Adversely Affect Liver Mitochondrial Respiratory Function but Results in Lipid Peroxidation and Increased Antioxidants in House Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowry, Annelise V; Kavazis, Andreas N; Sirman, Aubrey E; Potts, Wayne K; Hood, Wendy R

    2016-01-01

    Reproduction is thought to come at a cost to longevity. Based on the assumption that increased energy expenditure during reproduction is associated with increased free-radical production by mitochondria, oxidative damage has been suggested to drive this trade-off. We examined the impact of reproduction on liver mitochondrial function by utilizing post-reproductive and non-reproductive house mice (Mus musculus) living under semi-natural conditions. The age-matched post-reproductive and non-reproductive groups were compared after the reproductive females returned to a non-reproductive state, so that both groups were in the same physiological state at the time the liver was collected. Despite increased oxidative damage (p = 0.05) and elevated CuZnSOD (p = 0.002) and catalase (p = 0.04) protein levels, reproduction had no negative impacts on the respiratory function of liver mitochondria. Specifically, in a post-reproductive, maintenance state the mitochondrial coupling (i.e., respiratory control ratio) of mouse livers show no negative impacts of reproduction. In fact, there was a trend (p = 0.059) to suggest increased maximal oxygen consumption by liver mitochondria during the ADP stimulated state (i.e., state 3) in post-reproduction. These findings suggest that oxidative damage may not impair mitochondrial respiratory function and question the role of mitochondria in the trade-off between reproduction and longevity. In addition, the findings highlight the importance of quantifying the respiratory function of mitochondria in addition to measuring oxidative damage.

  17. Short-term respiratory physical therapy treatment in the PACU and influence on postoperative lung function in obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoremba, Martin; Dette, Frank; Gerlach, Laura; Wolf, Udo; Wulf, Hinnerk

    2009-10-01

    Even several days after surgery, obese patients exhibit a measureable amount of atelectasis and thus are predisposed to postoperative pulmonary complications. Particularly in ambulatory surgery, rapid recovery of pulmonary function is desired to ensure early discharge of the obese patient. In this study, we wanted to evaluate intensive short-term respiratory physical therapy treatment (incentive spirometry) in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) and its impact on pulmonary function in the obese. After ethics committee approval and informed consent, we prospectively studied 60 obese patients (BMI 30-40) undergoing minor peripheral surgery, half of which were randomly assigned to receive respiratory physiotherapy during their PACU stay, while the others received routine treatment. Premedication, general anesthesia, and respiratory settings were standardized. We measured arterial oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry on air breathing. Inspiratory and expiratory lung functions were measured preoperatively (baseline) and at 10 min, 1, 2, 6, and 24 h after extubation, with the patient supine, in a 30 degrees head-up position. The two groups were compared using repeated-measure analysis of variance and t test analysis. Statistical significance was considered to be P physiotherapy group was significantly better than the controls' (p respiratory physiotherapy during the PACU stay promotes more rapid recovery of postoperative lung function in the obese during the first 24 h.

  18. Evaluating of the relation among emphysematous changes detected by the chest CT, the smoking history and the respiratory function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayase, Taichiro; Higuchi, Tomoaki; Iwamoto, Tomohiro

    2008-01-01

    An influence of smoking on the respiratory function and pulmonary emphysema is well known. However, there are few reports evaluating the relation between smoking and emphysematous changes detected by the chest CT. In this study, we evaluated the relation among emphysematous changes detected by the chest CT, the smoking history and the respiratory function (%VC, FEV 1.0 %). Four hundred and sixty-six healthy members of Self-defense force (mean age; 50.1±5.32 years; all men) were recruited in this study. Emphysematous changes were confirmed by the chest CT in 26 subjects. (5.56%, group A) The remaining 440 subjects showed no emphysematous changes. (group B) On the other hand, 8 subjects (1.7%) were FEV 1.0 % 1.0 % was 76.7±4.7% in group A and 82.5±5.0% in group B (P<0.05). %VC was 117±11.3% in group A and 112±13.2% in group B (P<0.05). In addition, risk to show emphysematous changes in CT was high among the patients whose Brinkmann index (BI) value was over 600 (Odds ratio, 8.2; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.5 to 18.5). We conducted that it is possible to evaluate the influence of smoking on the respiratory function by the CT as well as respiratory function test. (author)

  19. [Effect of 2 pesticides indoors on the respiratory function of a Mexican population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico Méndez, F G; Ochoa Jiménez, L G; Ocaña Servín, H; Escobedo Arenas, G; Cabrera Ruiz, M A; Jacobo Avila, A

    2000-01-01

    The utilisation of pesticides in the large cities has been increased. Exist few studies that determine the damage in the respiratory appliance. Determined on a healthy population of Mexico City with two known products used for the control of the insecticides in household, with the main objective to determine the clinical and functional manifestations that its use implies. They were included 70 sound volunteers with residence in the City of Mexico that lived in apartments with 100 square meters of construction, tobacco negative and without previous antecedents of cardiovascular disease, without acute infectious process. They were split into 2 groups one that inhaled pesticides for combustion and the group b in electric form, In them I accomplished study espirometric to the beginning and during 3 exposed hours. The analysis by T Student. In group A was observed a meaningful difference of 0.01 in the first hour and of p disnea (57%) cough (43%) and headaches (28%). Group B with a small difference of the VEF-1 in the first hour p < 0.03 and without differences on the following hours. We haven't observed secondary effects according to this group. The analysis en both group we have only differences in the first hours with p < 0.004. The exposition to pesticides our group for combustion produces a lot of clinical and functional alterations than the electric pesticides.

  20. How do laryngeal and respiratory functions contribute to differentiate actors/actresses and untrained voices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Suely; Guzman, Marco; Azócar, Maria Josefina; Muñoz, Daniel; Bortnem, Cori

    2015-05-01

    The present study aimed to compare actors/actresses's voices and vocally trained subjects through aerodynamic and electroglottographic (EGG) analyses. We hypothesized that glottal and breathing functions would reflect technical and physiological differences between vocally trained and untrained subjects. Forty participants with normal voices participated in this study (20 professional theater actors and 20 untrained participants). In each group, 10 male and 10 female subjects were assessed. All participants underwent aerodynamic and EGG assessment of voice. From the Phonatory Aerodynamic System, three protocols were used: comfortable sustained phonation with EGG, voice efficiency with EGG, and running speech. Contact quotient was calculated from EGG. All phonatory tasks were produced at three different loudness levels. Mean sound pressure level and fundamental frequency were also assessed. Univariate, multivariate, and correlation statistical analyses were performed. Main differences between vocally trained and untrained participants were found in the following variables: mean sound pressure level, phonatory airflow, subglottic pressure, inspiratory airflow duration, inspiratory airflow, and inspiratory volume. These variables were greater for trained participants. Mean pitch was found to be lower for trained voices. The glottal source seemed to have a weak contribution when differentiating the training status in speaking voice. More prominent changes between vocally trained and untrained participants are demonstrated in respiratory-related variables. These findings may be related to better management of breathing function (better breath support). Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Genome Analysis of Structure-Function Relationships in Respiratory Complex I, an Ancient Bioenergetic Enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degli Esposti, Mauro

    2015-11-27

    Respiratory complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is a ubiquitous bioenergetic enzyme formed by over 40 subunits in eukaryotes and a minimum of 11 subunits in bacteria. Recently, crystal structures have greatly advanced our knowledge of complex I but have not clarified the details of its reaction with ubiquinone (Q). This reaction is essential for bioenergy production and takes place in a large cavity embedded within a conserved module that is homologous to the catalytic core of Ni-Fe hydrogenases. However, how a hydrogenase core has evolved into the protonmotive Q reductase module of complex I has remained unclear. This work has exploited the abundant genomic information that is currently available to deduce structure-function relationships in complex I that indicate the evolutionary steps of Q reactivity and its adaptation to natural Q substrates. The results provide answers to fundamental questions regarding various aspects of complex I reaction with Q and help re-defining the old concept that this reaction may involve two Q or inhibitor sites. The re-definition leads to a simplified classification of the plethora of complex I inhibitors while throwing a new light on the evolution of the enzyme function. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of respiratory movement and lung function; Magnetresonanztomographie der Atembewegung und Lungenfunktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tetzlaff, R. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Abteilung Radiologie (E010), Heidelberg (Germany); Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Abteilung Medizinische und Biologische Informatik, Heidelberg (Germany); Eichinger, M. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Abteilung Radiologie (E010), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    Lung function measurements are the domain of spirometry or plethysmography. These methods have proven their value in clinical practice, nevertheless, being global measurements the functional indices only describe the sum of all functional units of the lung. Impairment of only a single component of the respiratory pump or of a small part of lung parenchyma can be compensated by unaffected lung tissue. Dynamic imaging can help to detect such local changes and lead to earlier adapted therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) seems to be perfect for this application as it is not hampered by image distortion as is projection radiography and it does not expose the patient to potentially harmful radiation like computed tomography. Unfortunately, lung parenchyma is not easy to image using MRI due to its low signal intensity. For this reason first applications of MRI in lung function measurements concentrated on the movement of the thoracic wall and the diaphragm. Recent technical advances in MRI however might allow measurements of regional dynamics of the lungs. (orig.) [German] Die Lungenfunktion wird bislang hauptsaechlich durch die Spirometrie oder Plethysmographie untersucht. Diese Methoden sind zwar sehr leistungsfaehig zur Diagnostik von Lungenerkrankungen, sind jedoch globale Messmethoden, deren Messparameter immer die Summe aller funktionellen Einheiten der Lunge beschreiben. Veraenderungen, die auf eine Teilkomponente der Atempumpe beschraenkt sind oder kleine Teile des Lungengewebes betreffen, koennen durch gesunde Lungenanteile kompensiert werden. Mit dynamischen bildgebenden Verfahren koennten solche regionalen Veraenderungen erfasst und so eine fruehere Therapie ermoeglicht werden. Die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) bietet sich hier ideal an, da sie als Schnittbildverfahren weder die Probleme der Bildverzerrung, der Projektionsverfahren noch die Strahlenbelastung der Computertomographie hat. Allerdings wird die MRT der Lunge durch das geringe Signal des

  3. Functional morphology of the avian respiratory system, the lung–air ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The lung is ventilated continuously and unidirectionally in a craniocaudal direction by synchronised bellows-like movements of the air sacs. Affixed to the ribs, the lung is virtually rigid. This has allowed for intense subdivision of the exchange tissue into very small respiratory units, the air capillaries, optimising the respiratory ...

  4. An Official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society Workshop Report: Evaluation of Respiratory Mechanics and Function in the Pediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care Units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peterson-Carmichael, Stacey; Seddon, Paul C.; Cheifetz, Ira M.; Frerichs, Inéz; Hall, Graham L.; Hammer, Jürg; Hantos, Zoltán; van Kaam, Anton H.; McEvoy, Cindy T.; Newth, Christopher J. L.; Pillow, J. Jane; Rafferty, Gerrard F.; Rosenfeld, Margaret; Stocks, Janet; Ranganathan, Sarath C.

    2016-01-01

    Ready access to physiologic measures, including respiratory mechanics, lung volumes, and ventilation/perfusion inhomogeneity, could optimize the clinical management of the critically ill pediatric or neonatal patient and minimize lung injury. There are many techniques for measuring respiratory

  5. Effects of cooking fuel smoke on respiratory symptoms and lung function in semi-rural women in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbatchou Ngahane, Bertrand Hugo; Afane Ze, Emmanuel; Chebu, Cyrille; Mapoure, Njankouo Yacouba; Temfack, Elvis; Nganda, Malea; Luma, Namme Henry

    2015-01-01

    Indoor air pollution is a major health problem in the developing world. In sub-Saharan Africa more than 90% of people rely on biomass to meet their domestic energy demands. Pollution from biomass fuel ranks 10th among preventable risk factors contributing to the global burden of diseases. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and the factors associated with reduced lung function in a population of women exposed to cooking fuel smoke. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a semi-rural area in Cameroon. We compared forced respiratory volume between women using wood (n = 145) and women using alternative sources of energy (n = 155) for cooking. Chronic bronchitis was found in 7·6% of the wood smoke group and 0·6% in the alternative fuels group. We observed two cases of airflow obstruction in the wood smoke group. Factors associated with lung function impairment were chronic bronchitis, use of wood as cooking fuel, age, and height. Respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function are more pronounced among women using wood as cooking fuel. Improved stoves technology should be developed to reduce the effects of wood smoke on respiratory health.

  6. Immediate effects of breathing re-education on respiratory function and range of motion in chronic neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeampattanaporn, Orawan; Mekhora, Keerin; Jalayondeja, Wattana; Wongsathikun, Jatuporn

    2014-07-01

    Neck pain is associated with certain breathingpatterns and may lead to altered respiratory function. Moreover the altered breathing patterns may cause neck pain symptoms. This study has determined the effects of respiratory muscle reeducation on neck pain symptoms and respiratory function. Subjects with chronic neck pain (n = 36) were re-educated with three breathing patterns for 30 min. The pain intensity at rest and at the end-of-range of each neck movement, the cervical range of motion (CROM) measured from photographic images and the chest expansion during full inhalation and exhalation recorded using videography were evaluated before and after breathing re-education. Upper trapezius, anterior scalene, and sternocleidomastoid activity were evaluated during normal and deep breathing using surface electromyography, and the respiratory function measured by a spirometer was also evaluated during the same period. The pain intensity and the muscle activity were significantly decreased after re-education. The CROM and chest expansion at lower rib cage were significantly increased after re-education. Breathing re-education can change breathing patterns and increase chest expansion. This change leads to an improvement in CROM Positive consequences may result from the improvement in diaphragm contraction or reduced activity of accessory muscles.

  7. Inspiratory High Frequency Airway Oscillation Attenuates Resistive Loaded Dyspnea and Modulates Respiratory Function in Young Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Theresa; Sumners, David Paul; Green, David Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Direct chest-wall percussion can reduce breathlessness in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and respiratory function may be improved, in health and disease, by respiratory muscle training (RMT). We tested whether high-frequency airway oscillation (HFAO), a novel form of airflow oscillation generation can modulate induced dyspnoea and respiratory strength and/or patterns following 5 weeks of HFAO training (n = 20) compared to a SHAM-RMT (conventional flow-resistive RMT) device (n = 15) in healthy volunteers (13 males; aged 20–36 yrs). HFAO causes oscillations with peak-to-peak amplitude of 1 cm H2O, whereas the SHAM-RMT device was identical but created no pressure oscillation. Respiratory function, dyspnoea and ventilation during 3 minutes of spontaneous resting ventilation, 1 minute of maximal voluntary hyperventilation and 1 minute breathing against a moderate inspiratory resistance, were compared PRE and POST 5-weeks of training (2×30 breaths at 70% peak flow, 5 days a week). Training significantly reduced NRS dyspnoea scores during resistive loaded ventilation, both in the HFAO (p = 0.003) and SHAM-RMT (p = 0.005) groups. Maximum inspiratory static pressure (cm H2O) was significantly increased by HFAO training (vs. PRE; pinspiratory dynamic pressure was increased by training in both the HFAO (vs. PRE; pinspiratory flow rate (L.s−1) achieved during the maximum inspiratory dynamic pressure manoeuvre increased significantly POST (vs. PRE; p = 0.001) in the HFAO group only. HFAO reduced inspiratory resistive loading–induced dyspnoea and augments static and dynamic maximal respiratory manoeuvre performance in excess of flow-resistive IMT (SHAM-RMT) in healthy individuals without the respiratory discomfort associated with RMT. PMID:24651392

  8. Inspiratory high frequency airway oscillation attenuates resistive loaded dyspnea and modulates respiratory function in young healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Morris

    Full Text Available Direct chest-wall percussion can reduce breathlessness in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and respiratory function may be improved, in health and disease, by respiratory muscle training (RMT. We tested whether high-frequency airway oscillation (HFAO, a novel form of airflow oscillation generation can modulate induced dyspnoea and respiratory strength and/or patterns following 5 weeks of HFAO training (n = 20 compared to a SHAM-RMT (conventional flow-resistive RMT device (n = 15 in healthy volunteers (13 males; aged 20-36 yrs. HFAO causes oscillations with peak-to-peak amplitude of 1 cm H2O, whereas the SHAM-RMT device was identical but created no pressure oscillation. Respiratory function, dyspnoea and ventilation during 3 minutes of spontaneous resting ventilation, 1 minute of maximal voluntary hyperventilation and 1 minute breathing against a moderate inspiratory resistance, were compared PRE and POST 5-weeks of training (2 × 30 breaths at 70% peak flow, 5 days a week. Training significantly reduced NRS dyspnoea scores during resistive loaded ventilation, both in the HFAO (p = 0.003 and SHAM-RMT (p = 0.005 groups. Maximum inspiratory static pressure (cm H2O was significantly increased by HFAO training (vs. PRE; p<0.001. Maximum inspiratory dynamic pressure was increased by training in both the HFAO (vs. PRE; p<0.001 and SHAM-RMT (vs. PRE; p = 0.021 groups. Peak inspiratory flow rate (L.s(-1 achieved during the maximum inspiratory dynamic pressure manoeuvre increased significantly POST (vs. PRE; p = 0.001 in the HFAO group only. HFAO reduced inspiratory resistive loading-induced dyspnoea and augments static and dynamic maximal respiratory manoeuvre performance in excess of flow-resistive IMT (SHAM-RMT in healthy individuals without the respiratory discomfort associated with RMT.

  9. Blood-aqueous Barrier Function in a Patient With Choroideremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh-Shy Chen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to determine whether there was a breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier in a patient with choroideremia. A 27-year-old man with typical choroideremia underwent standardized ophthalmo-logical evaluation, including quantitative measurement of aqueous flare intensity, by a laser flare-cell meter. The results showed areas of atrophy of the choriocapillaries and retinal pigment epithelium in the mid-periphery and posterior pole, although not in the macula. Fluorescein angiography showed areas of loss of the choriocapillaries and retinal pigment epithelium. The fovea was spared with a surrounding zone of hy-perfluorescence. Electroretinography showed a subnormal photopic amplitude and extinguished scotopic response. Electrooculography revealed that the light peak/dark trough ratio was reduced. Goldmann perimetry showed constricted peripheral fields. Laser photometry showed an increase in the aqueous flare intensity in both eyes, as compared with normal subjects. We conclude that the function of the blood-aqueous barrier might be affected in patients with choroideremia.

  10. Lung function reduction and chronic respiratory symptoms among workers in the cement industry: a follow up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeleke Zeyede K

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are only a few follow-up studies of respiratory function among cement workers. The main aims of this study were to measure total dust exposure, to examine chronic respiratory symptoms and changes in lung function among cement factory workers and controls that were followed for one year. Methods The study was conducted in two cement factories in Ethiopia. Totally, 262 personal measurements of total dust among 105 randomly selected workers were performed. Samples of total dust were collected on 37-mm cellulose acetate filters placed in closed faced Millipore-cassettes. Totally 127 workers; 56 cleaners, 44 cement production workers and 27 controls were randomly selected from two factories and examined for lung function and interviewed for chronic respiratory symptoms in 2009. Of these, 91 workers; 38 cement cleaners (mean age 32 years, 33 cement production workers (36 years and 20 controls (38 years were examined with the same measurements in 2010. Results Total geometric mean dust exposure among cleaners was 432 mg/m3. The fraction of samples exceeding the Threshold Limit Value (TLV of 10 mg/m3 for the cleaners varied from 84-97% in the four departments. The levels were considerably lower among the production workers (GM = 8.2 mg/m3, but still 48% exceeded 10 mg/m3. The prevalence of all the chronic respiratory symptoms among both cleaners and production workers was significantly higher than among the controls. Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1 and FEV1/Forced Vital Capacity (FEV1/FVC were significantly reduced from 2009 to 2010 among the cleaners (p Conclusions The high prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms and reduction in lung function is probably associated with high cement dust exposure. Preventive measures are needed to reduce the dust exposure.

  11. A 3D machine vision method for non-invasive assessment of respiratory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L N; Smith, M L; Fletcher, M E; Henderson, A J

    2016-06-01

    Respiratory function testing is important for detecting and monitoring illness, however, it is difficult for some patients, such as the young and severely ill, to perform conventional tests that require cooperation and/or patient contact. A new method was developed for non-contact breathing measurement, employing photometric stereo to capture the surface topography of the torso of an unconstrained subject. The surface is integrated to calculate time-dependent volume changes during respiration. The method provides a useful means of continuously measuring volume changes during respiration with high spatial and temporal resolution. The system was tested by comparison with pneumotachometry equipment and a clear periodic signal, of a frequency corresponding to the reference data, was observed. The approach is unique in performing breathing monitoring (with potential diagnostic capability) for unconstrained patients in virtually any lighting conditions (including darkness during sleep) and in a non-contact, unobtrusive (i.e. using imperceptible light) fashion. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Pulmonary Function and Incidence of Selected Respiratory Diseases Depending on the Exposure to Ambient PM10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Badyda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It is essential in pulmonary disease research to take into account traffic-related air pollutant exposure among urban inhabitants. In our study, 4985 people were examined for spirometric parameters in the presented research which was conducted in the years 2008–2012. The research group was divided into urban and rural residents. Traffic density, traffic structure and velocity, as well as concentrations of selected air pollutants (CO, NO2 and PM10 were measured at selected areas. Among people who live in the city, lower percentages of predicted values of spirometric parameters were noticed in comparison to residents of rural areas. Taking into account that the difference in the five-year mean concentration of PM10 in the considered city and rural areas was over 17 μg/m3, each increase of PM10 by 10 μg/m3 is associated with the decline in FEV1 (forced expiratory volume during the first second of expiration by 1.68%. These findings demonstrate that traffic-related air pollutants may have a significant influence on the decline of pulmonary function and the growing rate of respiratory diseases.

  13. Functional assessment of the hepatic arterial blood flow by pharmacoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stellamor, K.; Hruby, W.; Peschl, L.; Krankenanstalt der Stadt Wien Rudolfstiftung

    1981-01-01

    By means of celiacography it was possible to demonstrate that parenteral medication with parathormone creates a selective dilatation of the liver vessels in man, provided that they are dilatable. This hemodynamic hormone effect could not be traced in the other mesenteric vessels. The increase of portal hypertension resulting from cirrhosis leads to a loss of the dilating ability of liver vessels. This regressive reaction is well demonstrated on the parathormone-celiacogram. Thus a functional assessment of the hepatic blood flow is possible. The extent of the dilatability of the liver artery seems to be of great importance for the prognosis and indication of the porto-systemic shunt-operation. Moreover we could show that an increase in the liver perfusion demonstrates pathologic liver processes in a better way. (orig.) [de

  14. Functional assessment of the hepatic arterial blood flow by pharmacoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stellamor, K.; Hruby, W.; Peschl, L.

    1981-12-01

    By means of celiacography it was possible to demonstrate that parenteral medication with parathormone creates a selective dilatation of the liver vessels in man, provided that they are dilatable. This hemodynamic hormone effect could not be traced in the other mesenteric vessels. The increase of portal hypertension resulting from cirrhosis leads to a loss of the dilating ability of liver vessels. This regressive reaction is well demonstrated on the parathormone-celiacogram. Thus a functional assessment of the hepatic blood flow is possible. The extent of the dilatability of the liver artery seems to be of great importance for the prognosis and indication of the porto-systemic shunt-operation. Moreover we could show that an increase in the liver perfusion demonstrates pathologic liver processes in a better way.

  15. Respiratory Biomechanics, Intrapulmonary Water, and Pulmonary Oxygenizing Function During Uncomplicated Operations under Extracorporeal Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kozlov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the time course of changes in the respiratory biomechanics, extravascular water of the lung (EVWL and its oxygenizing function and their relationship at different stages of surgical interventions under extracorporeal circulation (EC. Subjects and methods. 29 patients aged 37 to 72 years were examined during uncomplicated operations under EC. The parameters of artificial ventilation (AV and lung biomechanics were recorded in real time on a Servo-I monitoring apparatus. PaO2/FiO2, Qs/Qt, and body mass index (BMI were calculated. The EVWL index (EVWLI was determined by the transpulmonary thermodilution technique. Studies were conducted at stages: 1 after tracheal intubation and the initiation of AV; 2 before sternotomy; 3 after sternal uniting at the end of surgery. Results. Pressures in the airways and their resistance were statistically significantly unchanged. There were significant reductions in Cdyn and Cst at the end of surgery (Stage 3. The mean values of PaO2/FiO2, Qs/Qt, and EVWLI did not undergo considerable changes. There was a significant correlation between PaO2/FiO2 and Qs/Qt (r=-0.5 to -0.8; p<0.05. At Stage 1, BMI proved to be a significant predictor of the level of PaO2/FiO2 and Qs/Qt (r=-0.5 and 0.65; p<0.05. A significant moderate relationship between Qs/Qt and Cdyn was found at Stage 3 (r=-0.44; p<0.05. There were no statistically significant correlations between the parameters of respiratory biomechanics, PaO2/FiO2, Qs/Qt, and EVWLI. At the end of surgery, pulmonary oxygenizing dysfunction (POD was detected in 5 (17.2% patients with increased BMI. Alveolar mobilization with a steady-state effect was used to correct POD. Conclusion. When cardiac surgery is uncomplicated and the AV and EC protocols are carefully followed, the rate of intraoperative POD is not greater than 20%, its leading causes are obesity and, most likely, microatelectasis under AV. Key words: pulmonary oxygenizing dysfunction

  16. Abnormal mitochondrial function in locomotor and respiratory muscles of COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente-Maestu, L; Pérez-Parra, J; Godoy, R; Moreno, N; Tejedor, A; González-Aragoneses, F; Bravo, J-L; Alvarez, F Villar; Camaño, S; Agustí, A

    2009-05-01

    Several cellular and molecular alterations have been described in skeletal and respiratory muscles of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but information on potential abnormalities of mitochondrial function is scarce. The aim of the present study was to investigate mitochondrial function in the vastus lateralis (VL) and external intercostalis (EI) of COPD patients. Biopsies from VL and EI were obtained during surgery for lung cancer in 13 patients with mild to moderate COPD (age 68+/-6 yrs, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) 66+/-15% predicted) and 19 control subjects (age 67+/-9 yrs, FEV(1) 95+/-18% pred). State 3 and 4 mitochondrial oxygen consumption (V'(O(2),m)), ATP synthesis, citrate synthase, cytochrome oxidase (COX) and complex I-III activities, as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, were determined. In COPD patients, in both muscles, COX activity (VL: COPD 3.0+/-0.8 versus control 2.0+/-0.8; EI: 3.7+/-1.6 versus 2.4+/-0.9 micromol min(-1) mg(-1)) and ROS production (VL: 1,643+/-290 versus 1,285+/-468; EI: 1,033+/-210 versus 848+/-288 arbitrary units) were increased, whereas state 3 V'(O(2),m) was reduced (VL: 2.9+/-0.3 versus 3.6+/-0.4; EI: 3.6+/-0.3 versus 4.1+/-0.4 mmol min(-1) kg(-1)). Skeletal muscle mitochondria of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease show electron transport chain blockade and excessive production of reactive oxygen species. The concurrent involvement of both vastus lateralis and external intercostalis suggests a systemic (rather than a local) mechanism(s) already occurring in relatively early stages (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage II) of the disease.

  17. Acute exposure to realistic acid fog: effects on respiratory function and airway responsiveness in asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, D; Fally, S; De Vuyst, P; Wollast, R; Yernault, J C

    1995-11-01

    Naturally occurring fogs in industrialized cities are contaminated by acidic air pollutants. In Brussels, Belgium, the pH of polluted fogwater may be as low as 3 with osmolarity as low as 30 mOsm. In order to explore short-term respiratory effects of a realistic acid-polluted fog, we collected samples of acid fog in Brussels, Belgium, which is a densely populated and industrialized city, we defined characteristics of this fog and exposed asthmatic volunteers at rest through a face mask to fogs with physical and chemical characteristics similar to those of natural fogs assessed in this urban area. Fogwater was sampled using a screen collector where droplets are collected by inertial impaction and chemical content of fogwater was assessed by measurement of conductivity, pH, visible colorimetry, high pressure liquid chromatography, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry over a period of one year. The fogwater composition was dominated by NH4+ and SO4- ions. First we evaluated the possible effect of fog acidity alone. For this purpose 14 subjects with asthma were exposed at rest for 1 hr [mass median aerodynamic diameter to a large-particle (MMAD), 9 microns] aerosol with H2SO4 concentration of 500 micrograms/m3 (pH 2.5) and osmolarity of 300 mOsm. We did not observe significant change in pulmonary function or bronchial responsiveness to metacholine. In the second part of the work, 10 asthmatic subjects were exposed to acid fog (MMAD, 7 microns) containing sulfate and ammonium ions (major ions recovered in naturally occurring fogs) with pH 3.5 and osmolarity 30 mOsm. Again, pulmonary function and bronchial reactivity were not modified after inhalation of this fog. It was concluded that short-term exposure to acid fog reproducing acidity and hypoosmolarity of natural polluted fogs does not induce bronchoconstriction and does not change bronchial responsiveness in asthmatics.

  18. Respiratory and Nasal Symptoms, Immunological Changes, and Lung Function in Industrial Bakers

    OpenAIRE

    Mijakoski, Dragan; Minov, Jordan; Stoleski, Saso

    2012-01-01

    Background: Several studies reported that occupational exposure in bakery may cause respiratory impairment in exposed workers.Aim: To assess the respiratory effects and immunological changes of occupational exposure in industrial bakers.Material and Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study including 43 industrial bakers (20 males and 23 females, aged 34-55 years) and an equal number of office workers, matched by sex, age and smoking status. Evaluation of examined subjects included comple...

  19. Sleep restriction impairs blood-brain barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Junyun; Hsuchou, Hung; He, Yi; Kastin, Abba J; Wang, Yuping; Pan, Weihong

    2014-10-29

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a large regulatory and exchange interface between the brain and peripheral circulation. We propose that changes of the BBB contribute to many pathophysiological processes in the brain of subjects with chronic sleep restriction (CSR). To achieve CSR that mimics a common pattern of human sleep loss, we quantified a new procedure of sleep disruption in mice by a week of consecutive sleep recording. We then tested the hypothesis that CSR compromises microvascular function. CSR not only diminished endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase, endothelin1, and glucose transporter expression in cerebral microvessels of the BBB, but it also decreased 2-deoxy-glucose uptake by the brain. The expression of several tight junction proteins also was decreased, whereas the level of cyclooxygenase-2 increased. This coincided with an increase of paracellular permeability of the BBB to the small tracers sodium fluorescein and biotin. CSR for 6 d was sufficient to impair BBB structure and function, although the increase of paracellular permeability returned to baseline after 24 h of recovery sleep. This merits attention not only in neuroscience research but also in public health policy and clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3414697-10$15.00/0.

  20. The effect of atomoxetine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, on respiratory arrest and cardiorespiratory function in the DBA/1 mouse model of SUDEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haiting; Cotten, Joseph F; Long, Xiaoyan; Feng, Hua-Jun

    2017-11-01

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a significant public health burden. The mechanisms of SUDEP are elusive, although cardiorespiratory dysfunction is a likely contributor. Clinical and animal studies indicate that seizure-induced respiratory arrest (S-IRA) is the primary event leading to death in many SUDEP cases. Our prior studies demonstrated that intraperitoneal (IP) injection of atomoxetine, a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI) widely used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, suppresses S-IRA in DBA/1 mice. In the current study, we injected atomoxetine intracerebroventricularly (ICV) and measured its effect on S-IRA in DBA/1 mice to determine its central effects. Additionally, to test our hypothesis that atomoxetine reduces S-IRA via altering cardiorespiratory function, we examined the effect of atomoxetine on respiratory and cardiac function using non-invasive plethysmography and ECG in anesthetized DBA/1 mice, and on blood pressure and heart rate using a tail-cuff system in conscious DBA/1 mice. ICV administration of atomoxetine at 200-250nmol significantly reduced S-IRA evoked by acoustic stimulation in DBA/1 mice, consistent with a central atomoxetine effect on S-IRA. Peripheral atomoxetine administration at a dosage that reduces S-IRA (15mg/kg, IP) slightly increased basal ventilation and the ventilatory response to 7% CO 2 , but exerted no effect on heart rate in anesthetized DBA/1 mice. IP injection of atomoxetine produced no effect on the heart rate and blood pressures in conscious mice. These data suggest that atomoxetine suppresses S-IRA through direct effects on the CNS and potentially through enhanced lung ventilation in DBA/1 mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Avian respiratory system disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Glenn H.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating respiratory diseases in avian species requires a basic knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of this system in birds. Differences between mammalian and avian respiratory system function, diagnosis, and treatment are highlighted.

  2. Role of the adrenal medulla in control of blood pressure and renal function during furosemide-induced volume depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasbak, Philip; Petersen, Jørgen Søberg; Shalmi, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Farmakologi, furosemide, adrenaline, renal function, adrenal medullectomy, arterial blood pressure......Farmakologi, furosemide, adrenaline, renal function, adrenal medullectomy, arterial blood pressure...

  3. Renal function evaluation in the aged with normal blood pressure and high blood pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob Filho, W.; Carvalho Filho, E.T. de; Papaleo Netto, M.; Baptista, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-four patients older than 65 years were divided into two groups according to their ages: I - 66 to 74 years (17 patients), II - 75 and over (17 patients). These elderly patients were also divided according to their arterial blood pressure level (BP): A - normal BP (14 patients), B high BP (20 patients). None of these patients presented any other disease that could affect kidney function, nor have used drugs that could interfere on the BP or on the kidney function. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasmatic flow (ERPF) were analysed by radioisotopic techniques. Furthermore the filtration fraction (FF) was evaluated by the GFR/ERPF ratio. The observed GFR, ERPF and FF variations in the age groups or in normotensive and hypertensive patients were not significant, but we could assume that the physiopathological mechanisms that cause a decreased GFR in consequence of age or of systemic hypertension could be of different origins. Thus in the old hypertensive patients, alterations in the autoregulated hemodynamic mechanism could occur. (author) [pt

  4. Effect of flow-resistive inspiratory loading on pulmonary and respiratory muscle function in sub-elite swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shei, Ren J; Lindley, Martin; Chatham, Ken; Mickleborough, Timothy D

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 12-week swim training and inspiratory muscle training program on respiratory muscle and pulmonary function in competitively trained sub-elite swimmers. A double-blind, parallel-group experimental design was employed to compare the effects of swim training alone, swim training with sham-inspiratory muscle training, and swim training with true inspiratory muscle training. Twenty-four competitively trained sub-elite swimmers combined swim training with either flow-resistive inspiratory muscle training set at 80% sustained maximal inspiratory pressure with progressively increased work-rest ratios until task failure for 3 days/week (swim training with inspiratory muscle training, N.=8), or swim training with sham-inspiratory muscle training (N.=8), or acted as controls (swim training only, N.=8). Measures of pulmonary and respiratory muscle function were assessed at the beginning and end of the 12-week study period. At baseline, there were no significant differences (P>0.05) in respiratory muscle and pulmonary function between groups. Following the 12-week training period, the swim training with inspiratory muscle training group demonstrated improvements in maximal inspiratory pressure, sustained maximal inspiratory pressure, maximal inspiratory muscle power output, inspiratory muscle work capacity, inspiratory time of contraction, time to fatigue, maximal voluntary ventilation in 12 seconds, and forced inspiratory volume in 1-second (Prespiratory muscle function were observed in the swim training only or swim training with sham-inspiratory muscle training groups (P>0.05). Inspiratory muscle training in conjunction with swim training improves respiratory muscle function in sub-elite swimmers when compared to swim training only.

  5. Whole-blood leukoreduction filters are a source for cryopreserved cells for phenotypic and functional investigations on peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Néron, Sonia; Dussault, Nathalie; Racine, Claudia

    2006-04-01

    Leukoreduction of blood is now widely performed by blood banks, and the possibility of recovering 10(8) to 10(9) white blood cells (WBCs) from leukoreduction filters, which are usually discarded, represents a promising source for normal human cells. Previous studies with these filters to prepare WBCs have performed their experimentation with fresh cells only. Whether these filter-derived cells could also be used to prepare frozen cell banks to facilitate work organization and open new avenues for their utilization as references in physiological studies and clinical investigations was investigated. Blood samples or whole-blood leukoreduction filters were obtained, after informed consent, from volunteers or blood donors, respectively. The proportions of CD3+, CD14+, CD16+, CD19+, and CD45+ cells within peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) were determined by flow cytometry from all samples. B cells were isolated and their functional responses were evaluated in vitro. The yield of PBMNCs recovered from whole-blood leukoreduction filters was lower (50%) than the one with fresh blood samples but still provided 2 x 10(8) to 4 x 10(8) PBMNCs per unit. After one cycle of freezing-thawing, the proportions of B- and T-cell populations were similar to normal blood values. Purified B cells issued from whole-blood leukoreduction filters displayed normal phenotypes and functions. Leukoreduction filters represent a valuable source of PBMNCs. These cells could be easily recovered to prepare frozen cell banks useful in basic phenotypic and functional analyses involving the main subsets of B cells and the global T-cell population.

  6. Altered Respiratory Physiology in Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Parameswaran

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The major respiratory complications of obesity include a heightened demand for ventilation, elevated work of breathing, respiratory muscle inefficiency and diminished respiratory compliance. The decreased functional residual capacity and expiratory reserve volume, with a high closing volume to functional residual capacity ratio of obesity, are associated with the closure of peripheral lung units, ventilation to perfusion ratio abnormalities and hypoxemia, especially in the supine position. Conventional respiratory function tests are only mildly affected by obesity except in extreme cases. The major circulatory complications are increased total and pulmonary blood volume, high cardiac output and elevated left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. Patients with obesity commonly develop hypoventilation and sleep apnea syndromes with attenuated hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responsiveness. The final result is hypoxemia, pulmonary hypertension and progressively worsening disability. Obese patients have increased dyspnea and decreased exercise capacity, which are vital to quality of life. Decreased muscle, increased joint pain and skin friction are important determinants of decreased exercise capacity, in addition to the cardiopulmonary effects of obesity. The effects of obesity on mortality in heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have not been definitively resolved. Whether obesity contributes to asthma and airway hyper-responsiveness is uncertain. Weight reduction and physical activity are effective means of reversing the respiratory complications of obesity.

  7. Ovarian function and ovarian blood supply following premenopausal abdominal hysterectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrazak, Khaled M.; Elbiaa, Assem A.M.; Farghali, Mohamed M.; Essam, Amr; Zhurabekova, Gulmira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The issue of conserving the ovaries at hysterectomy in premenopausal women with benign gynecologic disease has been the subject of considerable controversy. Some clinicians prefer prophylactic oophorectomy in premenopausal women during hysterectomy to prevent future development of malignant changes in conserved ovaries. Other clinicians prefer to conserve apparently normal ovaries, because bilateral oophorectomy in premenopausal women results in an abrupt imbalance, sudden onset of menopausal symptoms, decreased libido, increased cardiovascular risk and osteoporosis. Material and methods Two hundred and twenty multipara women (who had completed their families), with benign uterine pathology were included in this prospective study for abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral ovarian preservation. Pre-operative vaginal ultrasound, Doppler studies, diagnostic hysteroscopy and endometrial biopsy were done followed by laboratory studies including Anti-mullerian hormone (AMH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol for all studied women. Doppler studies, AMH, FSH and estradiol were repeated 6 and 12 months post-operative for assessment of the ovarian function and ovarian blood supply after hysterectomy. Results Pre-operative AMH, FSH and estradiol of the studied women were statistically insignificant compared to AMH, FSH and estradiol 6 and 12 months post-operative. Twelve months post-operative right and left ovarian volumes (6.92 ± 0.18 and 6.85 ± 0.19 cm3, respectively) were significantly larger than pre-operative right and left ovarian volumes (6.19 ± 0.22 and 5.86 ± 0.23 cm3, respectively), and, 12 months post-operative right and left ovarian pulsatility indices (2.92 ± 0.15 and 2.96 ± 0.16 cm/s, respectively) were significantly lower than pre-operative right and left ovarian pulsatility indices (3.45 ± 0.19 and 3.36 ± 0.2 cm/s, respectively). Eight (3.6%) cases of the studied women developed an ovarian cyst 6 months after hysterectomy, 3

  8. Acute respiratory distress after transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Jožef Gradišek

    2012-12-01

    Conclusions: Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI and transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO are clinical syndromes with predominant pulmonary injury and respiratory distress. Anaphylactic reaction, hemolytic transfusion reaction and transfusion of contaminated blood products also impair lung function but are less frequent. Transfusion in critically ill and injured patient is an independent risk factor for acute lung injury. It remains to be determined whether transfusion is the cause of increased mortality or only an indicator of disease severity

  9. Associations of symptoms related to isocyanate, ureaformol, and formophenolic exposures with respiratory symptoms and lung function in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, J.P.; Simon, V.; Chau, N. [Houilleres Bassin Lorraine, Freyming Merlebach (France)

    2007-04-15

    The respiratory effects of diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI)-based resins and ureaformol- and formophenolic-based resins, used in coal mining, are unknown. This cross-sectional study of 354 miners evaluated respiratory health in miners with MDI-related symptoms (IS) and ureaformol/formophenolic-related symptoms (UFS). The protocol included clinical examination, chest radiograph, questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, smoking habit, job history, resin handling, and spirometry. Resin handling concerned 27.7% of the miners. IS affected 5.6%, and 1.4% also after work. UFS affected 22.6%, and 2.3% also after work. Wheezing affected 35.6%; chronic cough, expectoration, or bronchitis about 10%; dyspnea 5.4%; and asthma 2.8%. The miners with UFS had significantly more frequent chronic cough, expectoration, chronic bronchitis, dyspnea, and wheezing, whereas those with IS at and after work had markedly lower FVC, FEV1, MMEF, FEF50% and FEF25%. These findings raise the possibility of deleterious effects of exposures to MDI and ureaformol/ ormophenolic resins on respiratory health and lung function in coal miners during their working life.

  10. Cardiopulmonary function of Young bronchitics (mostly mineworkers) before and after respiratory physiotherapy and physical training. Comparison with a control group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcq, M.; Minette, A.

    1981-01-01

    This article covers the effects of 4 weeks' treatment consisting of respiratory physiotherapy associated with physical training on cardiopulmonary function. It involved 12 patients (updated group) suffering from chronic bronchitis, still at an early stage in clinical terms. All patients showed signs of early broncho-destructive problems. This research was carried out with financial aid from the EEC (Agreement No. 7246-30-2-001). (32 refs.)

  11. Effects of salbutamol combined with ulinastatin on respiratory function, inflammation and oxidative stress in COPD patients with laparoscopic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei He

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the effects salbutamol combined with ulinastatin on respiratory function, inflammation and oxidative stress in COPD patients with laparoscopic surgery. Methods: A total of 76 cases of COPD patients were brought into the study. They were randomly divided into observation group (n=38 who accepted salbutamol combined with ulinastatin treatment and the control group (n=38 who accepted single salbutamol treatment. All patients’ respiratory function and inflammation levels and different levels of oxidative stress were tested. Results: After the treatment, the observation group patients’ in-surgery SpO2 and Compl levels were higher than the control group’s, while PETCO2, Paw and Raw levels were lower than those of the control group. The in-surgery AAT, ESR, NPT, AAG and SAA levels of the observation group patients were significantly lower than those of the control group. After the treatment, the observation group patients’ in-surgery GR, CAT, GPX1 and TXNL1 levels were higher than the control group’s, while LOX-1 level was lower than that of the control group. Conclusions: COPD patients receiving salbutamol combined with ulinastatin treatment can significantly improve the respiratory function in surgery, and reduce systemic inflammation and oxidative stress.

  12. Whole blood microarray analysis of pigs showing extreme phenotypes after a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Observed variability in pig response to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSv) infection, and recently demonstrated genetic control of such responses, suggest that it may be possible to reduce the economic impact of this disease by selecting more disease-resistant pig...

  13. Establishing presence of antibodies against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV, parainfluenza virus 3 (PI3 and bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV 1 in blood serum of cattle using indirect immunoenzyme probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šamanc Horea

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 92 samples of bovine blood serum were examined for the presence of antibodies against the bovine respiratory syncytial virus using indirect immunoenzyme probe - iELISA. Specific antibodies against the bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV were established in 46, or 50% blood serum samples. Investigations of the 92 blood serum samples of cattle for the presence of antibodies against the parainfluenza virus 3 (PI 3, revealed their presence in 77, or 83.69% of the samples, and the presence of antibodies against the bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV 1 was established in 19, or 20.65% of the samples.

  14. Respiratory acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventilatory failure; Respiratory failure; Acidosis - respiratory ... Causes of respiratory acidosis include: Diseases of the airways (such as asthma and COPD ) Diseases of the lung tissue (such as ...

  15. Neonatal Caffeine Treatment and Respiratory Function at 11 Years in Children under 1,251 g at Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Lex W; Ranganathan, Sarath; Cheong, Jeanie L Y

    2017-11-15

    Caffeine in the newborn period shortens the duration of assisted ventilation and reduces the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, but its effects on respiratory function in later childhood are unknown. To determine if children born with birth weight less than 1,251 g who were treated with neonatal caffeine had improved respiratory function at 11 years of age compared with children treated with placebo. Children enrolled in the CAP (Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity) randomized controlled trial and assessed at the Royal Women's Hospital in Melbourne at 11 years of age had expiratory flow rates measured according to the standards of the American Thoracic Society. Values were converted to z-scores predicted for age, height, ethnicity, and sex. Parents completed questionnaires related to their child's respiratory health. A total of 142 children had expiratory flows measured. Expiratory flows were better in the caffeine group, by approximately 0.5 SD for most variables (e.g., FEV 1 ; mean z-score, -1.00 vs. -1.53; mean difference, 0.54; 95% confidence interval, 0.14-0.94; P = 0.008). Fewer children in the caffeine group had values for FVC below the fifth centile (11% vs. 28%; odds ratio, 0.31; 95% confidence interval, 0.12-0.77; P = 0.012). When adjusted for bronchopulmonary dysplasia, the difference in flow rates between groups diminished. Caffeine treatment in the newborn period improves expiratory flow rates in midchildhood, which seems to be achieved by improving respiratory health in the newborn period. Follow-up lung function testing in adulthood is vital for these individuals. Future placebo-controlled randomized trials of neonatal caffeine are unlikely. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00182312).

  16. Functional proteomic analysis of Ankaferd® Blood Stopper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Özel Demiralp

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ankaferd® Blood Stopper (ABS comprises a standardized mixture of the plants Thymus vulgaris, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Vitis vinifera, Alpinia officinarum, and Urtica dioica. The basic mechanism of action for ABS is the formation of an encapsulated protein network that provides focal points for vital erythrocyte aggregation. ABS–induced protein network formation with blood cells, particularly erythrocytes, covers the primary and secondary hemostatic system without disturbing individual coagulation factors. Materials and Methods: To understand the effect mechanisms of ABS on hemostasis, a proteomic analysis using 2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometer was performed. Results: Proteins of plant origin in Ankaferd® were NADP-dependent-malic enzyme, ribulose bisphosphate-carboxylase-large chain, maturase K, ATP synthase subunit-beta, ATP synthase subunit-alpha, chalcone-flavanone isomerase-1, chalcone-flavanone isomerase-2, and actin-depolymerizing factor. Furthermore, functional proteomic studies revealed that proteins resembling human peptides have been detected within Ankaferd®, including ATP synthase, mucin-16 (CD164 sialomucin-like 2 protein, coiled-coil domain containing 141 hypothetical protein LOC283638 isoform 1, hypothetical protein LOC283638 isoform 2, dynactin 5, complex I intermediate-associated protein 30, mitochondrial, NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone 1 alpha subcomplex, TP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial actin binding 1 isoform, LIM domain and actin binding 1 isoform a, LIM domain and actin binding 1 isoform b, spectrin alpha non erythrocytic 1, prolactin releasing hormone receptor, utrophin, tet oncogene family member 2 isoform b, protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 12A, NIMA (never in mitosis gene a-related kinase, ATP-binding cassette protein C12, Homo sapiens malic enzyme 1, mitochondrial NADP(+-dependent malic enzyme 3, ME2 protein, nuclear factor 1 B-type, abhydrolase domain-containing protein 12B, E

  17. Platelet function in stored heparinised autologous blood is not superior to in patient platelet function during routine cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf C G Gallandat Huet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In cardiac surgery, cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB and unfractionated heparin have negative effects on blood platelet function. In acute normovolemic haemodilution autologous unfractionated heparinised blood is stored ex-vivo and retransfused at the end of the procedure to reduce (allogeneic transfusion requirements. In this observational study we assessed whether platelet function is better preserved in ex vivo stored autologous blood compared to platelet function in the patient during CPB. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We measured platelet aggregation responses pre-CPB, 5 min after the start of CPB, at the end of CPB, and after unfractionated heparin reversal, using multiple electrode aggregometry (Multiplate® with adenosine diphosphate (ADP, thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP and ristocetin activated test cells. We compared blood samples taken from the patient with samples taken from 100 ml ex-vivo stored blood, which we took to mimick blood storage during normovolemic haemodilution. Platelet function declined both in ex-vivo stored blood as well as in blood taken from the patient. At the end of CPB there were no differences in platelet aggregation responses between samples from the ex vivo stored blood and the patient. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Ex vivo preservation of autologous blood in unfractionated heparin does not seem to be profitable to preserve platelet function.

  18. Brca1/p53 deficient mouse breast tumor hemodynamics during hyperoxic respiratory challenge monitored by a novel wide-field functional imaging (WiFI) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Austin; Kim, Jae G.; Lee, Eva Y. H. P.; Tromberg, Bruce; Cerussi, Albert; Choi, Bernard

    2009-02-01

    Current imaging modalities allow precise visualization of tumors but do not enable quantitative characterization of the tumor metabolic state. Such quantitative information would enhance our understanding of tumor progression and response to treatment, and to our overall understanding of tumor biology. To address this problem, we have developed a wide-field functional imaging (WiFI) instrument which combines two optical imaging modalities, spatially modulated imaging (MI) and laser speckle imaging (LSI). Our current WiFI imaging protocol consists of multispectral imaging in the near infrared (650-980 nm) spectrum, over a wide (7 cm × 5 cm) field of view. Using MI, the spatially-resolved reflectance of sinusoidal patterns projected onto the tissue is assessed, and optical properties of the tissue are estimated using a Monte Carlo model. From the spatial maps of local absorption and reduced scattering coefficients, tissue composition information is extracted in the form of oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin concentrations, and percentage of lipid and water. Using LSI, the reflectance of a 785 nm laser speckle pattern on the tissue is acquired and analyzed to compute maps of blood perfusion in the tissue. Tissue metabolism state is estimated from the values of blood perfusion, volume and oxygenation state. We currently are employing the WiFI instrument to study tumor development in a BRCA1/p53 deficient mice breast tumor model. The animals are monitored with WiFI during hyperoxic respiratory challenge. At present, four tumors have been measured with WiFI, and preliminary data suggest that tumor metabolic changes during hyperoxic respiratory challenge can be determined.

  19. The effect of blood ozonation on mitochondrial function and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, high concentrations of ozone were damaging to the cells, but this effect was diminished by antioxidants present in plasma. It is not certain if the in vitro damage will be propagated when ozonated blood is injected back into individuals. One must bear in mind that only a fraction of the total blood volume is ozonated.

  20. Effect of environmental exposure to hydrogen sulfide on central nervous system and respiratory function: a systematic review of human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Eunjung; Mbowe, Omar; Lee, Angela S W; Davis, James

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of the health effects of low-level exposure to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on humans through experiments, industrial, and community studies has shown inconsistent results. To critically appraise available studies investigating the effect of H2S on the central nervous system (CNS) and on respiratory function. A search was conducted in 16 databases for articles published between January 1980 and July 2014. Two researchers independently evaluated potentially relevant papers based on a set of inclusion/exclusion criteria. Twenty-seven articles met the inclusion criteria: 6 experimental, 12 industry-based studies, and 10 community-based studies (one article included both experimental and industry-based studies). The results of the systematic review varied by study setting and quality. Several community-based studies reported associations between day-to-day variations in H2S levels and health outcomes among patients with chronic respiratory conditions. However, evidence from the largest and better-designed community-based studies did not support that chronic, ambient H2S exposure has health effects on the CNS or respiratory function. Results from industry-based studies varied, reflecting the diversity of settings and the broad range of H2S exposures. Most studies did not have individual measurements of H2S exposure. The results across studies were inconsistent, justifying the need for further research.

  1. Respiratory Failure Associated with the Lipodystrophy Syndrome in an HIV-Positive Patient with Compromised Lung Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Press

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Protease inhibitors, used as treatment in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, are associated with a syndrome of peripheral lipodystrophy, central adiposity, hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance. An HIV-positive patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is presented who developed the lipodystrophy syndrome that is associated with the use of protease inhibitors. It is postulated that the lipodystrophy syndrome further compromised his lung function, leading to respiratory failure. Patients who have pulmonary disease and are taking protease inhibitors require monitoring of clinical status and pulmonary function tests.

  2. [Spanish validation of the International Spinal Cord Injury Pulmonary Function Basic Data Set questionnaire for the study of the repercussion of spinal cord injury in the respiratory system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Garrido, Alba; León Espitia, Ana María; Montesinos Magraner, Lluïsa; Ramirez Galceran, Lucrecia; Soler Canudes, Emilia; González Viejo, Miguel Angel

    2015-12-07

    The dysfunction of the respiratory system and the breathing complications in persons with injured spinal cord has an effect on the morbidity and the mortality of the disease. The objectives were: 1) to translate to Spanish and validate the questionnaire of international consensus: International Spinal Cord Injury Pulmonary Function Basic Data Set, and 2) to determine the influence of chronic spinal cord injury in the respiratory system in terms of respiratory functionalism. Translation to Spanish and validation of the questionnaire of international consensus intended for the study of the pulmonary function in spinal cord injury disease. We tested the reliability of that questionnaire. We conducted a descriptive transversal study to determine the degree of involvement of the respiratory system in spinal cord injury. A percentage of 91.9 did not have any respiratory pathology before spinal cord injury and 54.8% of patients smoked. A percentage of 27.4 of patients presented breathing complications one year after the injury. Results of the respiratory function tests were: FVC 67%, FEV1 72% and PEF 70%. Concordance and reliability were 98%. The Spanish version of the questionnaire of international consensus about the pulmonary function is a useful tool for the study of the respiratory involvement in spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Methamphetamine Effects on Blood-Brain Barrier Structure and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Alia Northrop

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (Meth is a widely abuse psychostimulant. Traditionally, studies have focused on the neurotoxic effects of Meth on monoaminergic neurotransmitter terminals. Recently, both in vitro and in vivo studies have investigated the effects of Meth on the BBB and found that Meth produces a decrease in BBB structural proteins and an increase in BBB permeability to various molecules. Moreover, preclinical studies are validated by clinical studies in which human Meth users have increased concentrations of toxins in the brain. Therefore, this review will focus on the structural and functional disruption of the BBB caused by Meth and the mechanisms that contribute to Meth-induced BBB disruption. The review will reveal that the mechanisms by which Meth damages dopamine and serotonin terminals are similar to the mechanisms by which the blood-brain barrier (BBB is damaged. Furthermore, this review will cover the factors that are known to potentiate the effects of Meth on the BBB, such as stress and HIV, both of which are co-morbid conditions associated with Meth abuse. Overall, the goal of this review is to demonstrate that the scope of damage produced by Meth goes beyond damage to monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems to include BBB disruption as well as provide a rationale for investigating therapeutics to treat Meth-induced BBB disruption. Since a breach of the BBB can have a multitude of consequences, therapies directed towards the treatment of BBB disruption may help to ameliorate the long-term neurodegeneration and cognitive deficits produced by Meth and possibly even Meth addiction.

  4. Alterations in the coupling functions between cortical and cardio-respiratory oscillations due to anaesthesia with propofol and sevoflurane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankovski, Tomislav; Petkoski, Spase; Raeder, Johan; Smith, Andrew F.; McClintock, Peter V. E.; Stefanovska, Aneta

    2016-05-01

    The precise mechanisms underlying general anaesthesia pose important and still open questions. To address them, we have studied anaesthesia induced by the widely used (intravenous) propofol and (inhalational) sevoflurane anaesthetics, computing cross-frequency coupling functions between neuronal, cardiac and respiratory oscillations in order to determine their mutual interactions. The phase domain coupling function reveals the form of the function defining the mechanism of an interaction, as well as its coupling strength. Using a method based on dynamical Bayesian inference, we have thus identified and analysed the coupling functions for six relationships. By quantitative assessment of the forms and strengths of the couplings, we have revealed how these relationships are altered by anaesthesia, also showing that some of them are differently affected by propofol and sevoflurane. These findings, together with the novel coupling function analysis, offer a new direction in the assessment of general anaesthesia and neurophysiological interactions, in general.

  5. The effect of industry-related air pollution on lung function and respiratory symptoms in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstra, Arnold D; Brunekreef, Bert; Burdorf, Alex

    2018-03-27

    Heavy industry emits many potentially hazardous pollutants into the air which can affect health. However, the effects of air pollution from heavy industry on lung function and respiratory symptoms have been investigated scarcely. Our aim was to investigate the associations of long-term air pollution from heavy industry with lung function and respiratory symptoms in school children. A cross-sectional lung function study was conducted among school children (7-13 years) in the vicinity of an area with heavy industry. Lung function measurements were conducted during school hours. Parents of the children were asked to complete a questionnaire about the health of their children. A dispersion model was used to characterize the additional individual-level exposures to air pollutants from the industry in the area. Associations between PM 2.5 and NO X exposure with lung function and presence of respiratory symptoms were investigated by linear and/or logistic regression analysis. Participation in the lung function measurements and questionnaires was 84% (665/787) and 77% (603/787), respectively. The range of the elevated PM 2.5 and NO X five years average concentrations (2008-2012) due to heavy industry were 0.04-1.59 μg/m 3 and 0.74-11.33 μg/m 3 respectively. After adjustment for confounders higher exposure to PM 2.5 and NO X (per interquartile range of 0.56 and 7.43 μg/m 3 respectively) was associated with lower percent predicted peak expiratory flow (PEF) (B -2.80%, 95%CI -5.05% to - 0.55% and B -3.67%, 95%CI -6.93% to - 0.42% respectively). Higher exposure to NO X (per interquartile range of 7.43 μg/m 3 ) was also associated with lower percent forced vital capacity (FVC) and percent predicted forced expiration volume in 1 s (FEV1) (B -2.30, 95% CI -4.55 to - 0.05 and B -2.73, 95%CI -5.21 to - 0.25 respectively). No significant associations were found between the additional exposure to PM 2.5 or NO X and respiratory symptoms except for PM 2.5 and dry

  6. Comparative impact of AAV and enzyme replacement therapy on respiratory and cardiac function in adult Pompe mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin J Falk

    Full Text Available Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by a deficiency of the enzyme responsible for degradation of lysosomal glycogen (acid α-glucosidase (GAA. Cardiac dysfunction and respiratory muscle weakness are primary features of this disorder. To attenuate the progressive and rapid accumulation of glycogen resulting in cardiorespiratory dysfunction, adult Gaa−/− mice were administered a single systemic injection of rAAV2/9-DES-hGAA (AAV9-DES or bimonthly injections of recombinant human GAA (enzyme replacement therapy (ERT. Assessment of cardiac function and morphology was measured 1 and 3 months after initiation of treatment while whole-body plethysmography and diaphragmatic contractile function was evaluated at 3 months post-treatment in all groups. Gaa−/− animals receiving either AAV9-DES or ERT demonstrated a significant improvement in cardiac function and diaphragmatic contractile function as compared to control animals. AAV9-DES treatment resulted in a significant reduction in cardiac dimension (end diastolic left ventricular mass/gram wet weight; EDMc at 3 months postinjection. Neither AAV nor ERT therapy altered minute ventilation during quiet breathing (eupnea. However, breathing frequency and expiratory time were significantly improved in AAV9-DES animals. These results indicate systemic delivery of either strategy improves cardiac function but AAV9-DES alone improves respiratory parameters at 3 months post-treatment in a murine model of Pompe disease.

  7. Proteomic analysis of mitochondria in respiratory epithelial cells infected with human respiratory syncytial virus and functional implications for virus and cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, Diane C; Howell, Gareth; Barr, John N; Hiscox, Julian A

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to quantitatively characterise the mitochondrial proteome of airway epithelial cells infected with human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV), a major cause of paediatric illness. Quantitative proteomics, underpinned by stable isotope labelling with amino acids in cell culture, coupled to LC-MS/MS, was applied to mitochondrial fractions prepared from HRSV-infected and mock-infected cells 12 and 24 h post-infection. Datasets were analysed using ingenuity pathway analysis, and the results were validated and characterised using bioimaging, targeted inhibition and gene depletion. The data quantitatively indicated that antiviral signalling proteins converged on mitochondria during HRSV infection. The mitochondrial receptor protein Tom70 was found to act in an antiviral manner, while its chaperone, Hsp90, was confirmed to be a positive viral factor. Proteins associated with different organelles were also co-enriched in the mitochondrial fractions from HRSV-infected cells, suggesting that alterations in organelle dynamics and membrane associations occur during virus infection. Protein and pathway-specific alterations occur to the mitochondrial proteome in a spatial and temporal manner during HRSV infection, suggesting that this organelle may have altered functions. These could be targeted as part of potential therapeutic strategies to disrupt virus biology. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  8. Differences in respiratory pressure and pulmonary function among children with spastic diplegic and hemiplegic cerebral palsy in comparison with normal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong Hyun; Lee, Hye Young

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine differences in respiratory pressure and pulmonary function among children with spastic diplegic and hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) in comparison with children with normal development. [Subjects and Methods] Fourteen children with spastic diplegic CP, 11 children with hemiplegic CP, and 14 children with normal development were recruited. Respiratory pressure was measured and the pulmonary function test (PFT) was performed to evaluate the strength of the respiratory muscles and lung volumetric capacity. [Results] Regarding respiratory pressure, children with spastic diplegic and hemiplegic CP showed significantly lower functions in terms of MIP and MEP compared with children with normal development, although no significant differences were found between children with the two types of CP. In the pulmonary function test, children with spastic diplegic CP showed significantly higher pulmonary function than children with normal development in terms of only FVC and FEV1. [Conclusion] Children with CP showed relatively lower function in terms of respiratory pressure and lung capacity, in comparison with children with normal development. Therefore, respiratory function in children with CP should be carefully evaluated and should receive more attention in a rehabilitation setting.

  9. Impact of respiratory therapy in vital capacity and functionality of patients undergoing abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Shanlley Cristina da Silva; Santos, Rafaella Souza Dos; Giovanetti, Erica Albanez; Taniguchi, Corinne; Silva, Cilene Saghabi de Medeiros; Eid, Raquel Afonso Caserta; Timenetsky, Karina Tavares; Carnieli-Cazati, Denise

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the vital capacity after two chest therapy techniques in patients undergoing abdominal surgical. A prospective randomized study carried out with patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit after abdominal surgery. We checked vital capacity, muscular strength using the Medical Research Council scale, and functionality with the Functional Independence Measure the first time the patient was breathing spontaneously (D1), and also upon discharge from the Intensive Care Unit (Ddis). Between D1 and Ddis, respiratory therapy was carried out according to the randomized group. We included 38 patients, 20 randomized to Positive Intermittent Pressure Group and 18 to Volumetric Incentive Spirometer Group. There was no significant gain related to vital capacity of D1 and Ddis of Positive Intermittent Pressure Group (mean 1,410mL±547.2 versus 1,809mL±692.3; p=0.979), as in the Volumetric Incentive Spirometer Group (1,408.3mL±419.1 versus 1,838.8mL±621.3; p=0.889). We observed a significant improvement in vital capacity in D1 (pTerapia Intensiva após cirurgia abdominal. Verificamos a capacidade vital, a força muscular por meio da escala do Medical Research Council e funcionalidade pela Medida de Independência Funcional no primeiro momento em que o paciente encontrava-se em respiração espontânea (D1) e na alta da Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (Dalta). Entre D1 e Dalta, foi realizada a fisioterapia respiratória, conforme o grupo randomizado. Foram incluídos 38 pacientes, sendo 20 randomizados para Grupo Pressão Positiva Intermitente e 18 para o Grupo Incentivador Inspiratório a Volume. A capacidade vital entre o D1 e Dalta do Grupo Pressão Positiva Intermitente não teve ganho significativo (média de 1.410mL±547,2 versus 1.809mL±692,3; p=0,979), assim como no Grupo Incentivador Inspiratório a Volume (1.408,3mL±419,1 versus 1.838,8mL±621,3; p=0,889). Houve melhora significativa da capacidade vital no D1 (p<0,001) e na Dalta (p<0,001) e da Medida de

  10. Relationship between PPARα mRNA expression and mitochondrial respiratory function and ultrastructure of the skeletal muscle of patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Qing; Long, Xiang-Yu; Xie, Yu; Zhao, Zhi-Huan; Fang, Li-Zhou; Liu, Ling; Fu, Wei-Ping; Shu, Jing-Kui; Wu, Jiang-Hai; Dai, Lu-Ming

    2017-11-02

    Peripheral muscle dysfunction is an important complication in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between the levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) mRNA expression and the respiratory function and ultrastructure of mitochondria in the vastus lateralis of patients with COPD. Vastus lateralis biopsies were performed on 14 patients with COPD and 6 control subjects with normal lung function. PPARα mRNA levels in the muscle tissue were detected by real-time PCR. A Clark oxygen electrode was used to assess mitochondrial respiratory function. Mitochondrial number, fractional area in skeletal muscle cross-sections, and Z-line width were observed via transmission electron microscopy. The PPARα mRNA expression was significantly lower in COPD patients with low body mass index (BMIL) than in both COPD patients with normal body mass index (BMIN) and controls. Mitochondrial respiratory function (assessed by respiratory control ratio) was impaired in COPD patients, particularly in BMIL. Compared with that in the control group, mitochondrial number and fractional area were lower in the BMIL group, but were maintained in the BMIN group. Further, the Z-line became narrow in the BMIL group. PPARα mRNA expression was positively related to mitochondrial respiratory function and volume density. In COPD patients with BMIN, mitochondria volume density was maintained, while respiratory function decreased, whereas both volume density and respiratory function decreased in COPD patients with BMIL. PPARα mRNA expression levels are associated with decreased mitochondrial respiratory function and volume density, which may contribute to muscle dysfunction in COPD patients.

  11. Respiratory muscle training on pulmonary and swallowing function in patients with Huntington's disease: a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Alvaro; Cruickshank, Travis; Nosaka, Kazunori; Ziman, Mel

    2015-10-01

    To examine the effects of 4-month of respiratory muscle training on pulmonary and swallowing function, exercise capacity and dyspnoea in manifest patients with Huntington's disease. A pilot randomised controlled trial. Home based training program. Eighteen manifest Huntington's disease patients with a positive genetic test and clinically verified disease expression, were randomly assigned to control group (n=9) and training group (n=9). Both groups received home-based inspiratory (5 sets of 5 repetitions) and expiratory (5 sets of 5 repetitions) muscle training 6 times a week for 4 months. The control group used a fixed resistance of 9 centimeters of water, and the training group used a progressively increased resistance from 30% to 75% of each patient's maximum respiratory pressure. Spirometric indices, maximum inspiratory pressure, maximum expiratory pressure, six minutes walk test, dyspnoea, water-swallowing test and swallow quality of life questionnaire were assessed before, at 2 and 4 months after training. The magnitude of increases in maximum inspiratory (d=2.9) and expiratory pressures (d=1.5), forced vital capacity (d=0.8), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (d=0.9) and peak expiratory flow (d=0.8) was substantially greater for the training group in comparison to the control group. Changes in swallowing function, dyspnoea and exercise capacity were small (d ≤ 0.5) for both groups without substantial differences between groups. A home-based respiratory muscle training program appeared to be beneficial to improve pulmonary function in manifest Huntington's disease patients but provided small effects on swallowing function, dyspnoea and exercise capacity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Noninvasive radiographic assessment of cardiovascular function in acute and chronic respiratory failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.J.; Matthay, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    Noninvasive radiographic techniques have provided a means of studying the natural history and pathogenesis of cardiovascular performance in acute and chronic respiratory failure. Chest radiography, radionuclide angiocardiography and thallium-201 imaging, and M mode and cross-sectional echocardiography have been employed. Each of these techniques has specific uses, attributes and limitations. For example, measurement of descending pulmonary arterial diameters on the plain chest radiograph allows determination of the presence or absence of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Right and left ventricular performance can be evaluated at rest and during exercise using radionuclide angiocardiography. The biventricular response to exercise and to therapeutic interventions also can be assessed with this approach. Evaluation of the pulmonary valve echogram and echocardiographic right ventricular dimensions have been shown to reflect right ventricular hemodynamics and size. Each of these noninvasive techniques has been applied to the study of patients with respiratory failure and has provided important physiologic data

  13. Reference values for lung function tests: II. Maximal respiratory pressures and voluntary ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Neder

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The strength of the respiratory muscles can be evaluated from static measurements (maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures, MIP and MEP or inferred from dynamic maneuvers (maximal voluntary ventilation, MVV. Although these data could be suitable for a number of clinical and research applications, no previous studies have provided reference values for such tests using a healthy, randomly selected sample of the adult Brazilian population. With this main purpose, we prospectively evaluated 100 non-smoking subjects (50 males and 50 females, 20 to 80 years old, selected from more than 8,000 individuals. Gender-specific linear prediction equations for MIP, MEP and MVV were developed by multiple regression analysis: age and, secondarily, anthropometric measurements explained up to 56% of the variability of the dependent variables. The most cited previous studies using either Caucasian or non-Caucasian samples systematically underestimated the observed values of MIP (P<0.05. Interestingly, the self-reported level of regular physical activity and maximum aerobic power correlates strongly with both respiratory and peripheral muscular strength (knee extensor peak torque (P<0.01. Our results, therefore, provide a new frame of reference to evaluate the normalcy of some useful indexes of respiratory muscle strength in Brazilian males and females aged 20 to 80.

  14. Comparing the Planned Respiratory Cares and CPAP on Atelectasis and Arterial Blood Oxygen Levels of patients undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouya Farokhnezhad Afshar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of planned respiratory cares and Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP on atelectasis and arterial blood oxygen levels in Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG patients. pulmonary complications and oxygenation impairment after Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery (CABS are prevalent and lead to increased hospitalization and treatment costs. Planned respiratory cares and the application of ventilation with CPAP mode are among the proceedings that are conducted in most of the health centers, but there are not sufficient scientific evidences to confirm the effectiveness of one of these proceedings after CABS. The preset study was a three-group clinical trial with the sample size of 120 patients (40 patients in each group candidate for CABG based on permuted-block randomization. This study was conducted at ShahidRajaei Hospital, Iran in 2015. Patients in experimental group (1 received planned respiratory cares; patient in experimental group (2 received noninvasive ventilation with CPAP mode and; patients in control group received conventional respiratory cares. Other treatments were similar for all three groups. The groups of interest were compared regarding the percentages of measured arterial oxygen saturation before surgery and days one, two, and three after surgery. Also, chest X-rays of patients both before and after surgery (day 3 were compared in terms of atelectasis. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 using Chi-square tests, KruskalWallis, and Friedman. the results showed that there is not any significant difference between three groups in terms of demographic variables, disease background, and arterial oxygen saturation values before surgery. In day (1, before intervention in patients of group 3, the arterial oxygen saturation values were higher compared to other two groups (p=0.03 and (p=0.001. In the case of atelectasis incidence, patients in group 2 had lowest incidence rate compared to other groups

  15. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Applied Early After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting on Pulmonary Function, Respiratory Muscle Strength, and Functional Capacity: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Daniel L; Silva, Mayara Gabrielle; Silva, Luan Nascimento; Fortes, João Vyctor; Costa, Erika Thalita; Assunção, Rebeca Pessoa; Lima, Carlos Magno; da Silva Nina, Vinícius José; Bernardo-Filho, Mário; Caputo, Danúbia Sá

    2016-09-01

    Physical activity is beneficial in several clinical situations and recommended for patients with ischemic heart disease, as well as for those undergoing cardiac surgery. In a randomized controlled trial, 34 patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. A randomized control group (n = 15) submitted to conventional physiotherapy. The intervention group (n = 19) received the same protocol plus additional aerobic exercise with cycle ergometer. Pulmonary function by spirometry, respiratory muscle strength by manovacuometry, and functional capacity through 6-minute walking test was assessed before surgery and at hospital discharge. There was significant reduction in pulmonary function in both groups. In both groups, inspiratory muscle strength was maintained while expiratory muscle strength significantly decreased. Functional capacity was maintained in the intervention group (364.5 [324.5 to 428] vs. 348 [300.7 to 413.7] meters, P = .06), but it decreased significantly in control group patients (320 [288.5 to 393.0] vs. 292 [237.0 to 336.0] meters, P = .01). A significant difference in functional capacity was also found in intergroup analyses at hospital discharge (P = .03). Aerobic exercise applied early on coronary artery bypass grafting patients may promote maintenance of functional capacity, with no impact on pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength when compared with conventional physiotherapy.

  16. Whole blood microculture assay of human lymphocyte function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, J L; Han, T

    1976-11-01

    A whole blood microculture assay is described for measuring lymphocyte reactivity to mitogenic and antigenic stimulants. This assay employs heparinized whole blood, serum-free culture medium, microtiter plates, and a Multiple Automated Sample Harvester (MASH). When this assay is compared to other leukocyte assays, its major advantages include (1) the utilization of fewer lymphocytes per microculture, thuus reducing the amount of blood required per test while increasing the number of test agents and replicate cultures which can be employed in any given experiment; (2) the conservation of mitogens, antigens, drugs, enzymes, hormones, lymphokines, and other test agents, some of which are either expensive of difficult to prepare in large quantities; (3) the elimination of lymphocyte isolation and purification procedures which may disrupt the relative proportion of T cells, B cells and antigen-processing cells; and (4) the application of an automated harvester which simplifies and expedites procedures required for processing cells for liquid scintillation counting.

  17. Rib cage deformities alter respiratory muscle action and chest wall function in patients with severe osteogenesis imperfecta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella LoMauro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI is an inherited connective tissue disorder characterized by bone fragility, multiple fractures and significant chest wall deformities. Cardiopulmonary insufficiency is the leading cause of death in these patients. METHODS: Seven patients with severe OI type III, 15 with moderate OI type IV and 26 healthy subjects were studied. In addition to standard spirometry, rib cage geometry, breathing pattern and regional chest wall volume changes at rest in seated and supine position were assessed by opto-electronic plethysmography to investigate if structural modifications of the rib cage in OI have consequences on ventilatory pattern. One-way or two-way analysis of variance was performed to compare the results between the three groups and the two postures. RESULTS: Both OI type III and IV patients showed reduced FVC and FEV(1 compared to predicted values, on condition that updated reference equations are considered. In both positions, ventilation was lower in OI patients than control because of lower tidal volume (p<0.01. In contrast to OI type IV patients, whose chest wall geometry and function was normal, OI type III patients were characterized by reduced (p<0.01 angle at the sternum (pectus carinatum, paradoxical inspiratory inward motion of the pulmonary rib cage, significant thoraco-abdominal asynchronies and rib cage distortions in supine position (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the restrictive respiratory pattern of Osteogenesis Imperfecta is closely related to the severity of the disease and to the sternal deformities. Pectus carinatum characterizes OI type III patients and alters respiratory muscles coordination, leading to chest wall and rib cage distortions and an inefficient ventilator pattern. OI type IV is characterized by lower alterations in the respiratory function. These findings suggest that functional assessment and treatment of OI should be differentiated in these two forms of the

  18. The Effect of 4 Weeks Fixed and Mixed Intermittent Hypoxic Training (IHT) on Respiratory Metabolic and Acid-base Response of Capillary Blood During Submaximal Bicycle Exercise in Male Elite Taekwondo Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hun-Young; Sunoo, Sub; Nam, Sang-Seok

    2016-12-31

    The purpose of our study was to determine the effectiveness of 4 weeks fixed and mixed intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) and its difference from exercise training at sea-level on exercise load, respiratory metabolic and acid-base response of capillary blood during 80% maximal heart rate (HRmax) bicycle exercise in male elite Taekwondo players. Male elite Taekwondo players (n = 25 out of 33) were randomly assigned to training at sea-level (n = 8, control group), training at 16.5%O 2 (2000 m) simulated hypoxic condition (n = 9, fixed IHT group), and training at 14.5%O 2 (3000 m) up to 2 weeks and 16.5%O 2 (2000 m) simulated hypoxic condition (n = 8, mixed IHT group) for 3 weeks. We compared their average exercise load, respiratory metabolic, and acid-base response of the capillary blood during 80% HRmax submaximal bicycle exercise before and after 4 weeks training. Fixed and mixed IHT groups showed positive improvement in respiratory metabolic and acid-base response of the capillary blood during 80% HRmax submaximal bicycle exercise after 4 weeks training. However, all dependent variables showed no significant difference between fixed IHT and mix IHT. Results suggested that mixed and fixed IHT is effective in improving respiratory metabolic and acid-base response of capillary blood in male elite Taekwondo players. Thus, IHT could be a novel and effective method for improving exercise performance through respiratory metabolic and acid-base response.

  19. Abnormal pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength findings in Chinese patients with Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy--comparison with normal elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Shao, Wei-bo; Gao, Li; Lu, Jie; Gu, Hao; Sun, Li-hua; Tan, Yan; Zhang, Ying-dong

    2014-01-01

    There have been limited comparative data regarding the investigations on pulmonary and respiratory muscle function in the patients with different parkinsonism disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) versus normal elderly. The present study is aiming to characterize the performance of pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength in PD and MSA, and to investigate the association with severity of motor symptoms and disease duration. Pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength tests were performed in 30 patients with PD, 27 with MSA as well as in 20 age-, sex-, height-, weight-matched normal elderly controls. All the patients underwent United Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) or united multiple system atrophy rating scale (UMSARS) separately as diagnosed. Vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity decreased, residual volume and ratio of residual volume to total lung capacity increased in both PD and MSA groups compared to controls (pRespiratory muscle strength was lower in both PD and MSA groups than in controls (pfunction and respiratory muscle strength were found to have a negative linear correlation with mean score of UPDRS-III in PD and mean score of UMSARS-I in MSA. Respiratory muscle strength showed a negative linear correlation with the mean score of UMSARS-II and disease duration in MSA patients. These findings suggest that respiratory dysfunction is involved in PD and MSA. Respiratory muscle strength is remarkably reduced, and some of the parameters correlate with disease duration and illness severity. The compromised respiratory function in neurodegenerative disorders should be the focus of further researches.

  20. Association between cord blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and respiratory tract infections in the first 6 months of age in a Korean population: A birth cohort study (COCOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn Ho Shin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Previous studies suggest that the concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] in cord blood may show an inverse association with respiratory tract infections (RTI during childhood. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of 25(OHD concentrations in cord blood on infant RTI in a Korean birth cohort. Methods: The levels of 25(OHD in cord blood obtained from 525 Korean newborns in the prospective COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases were examined. The primary outcome variable of interest was the prevalence of RTI at 6-month follow-up, as diagnosed by pediatricians and pediatric allergy and pulmonology specialists. RTI included acute nasopharyngitis, rhinosinusitis, otitis media, croup, tracheobronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia. Results: The median concentration of 25(OHD in cord blood was 32.0 nmol/L (interquartile range, 21.4 to 53.2. One hundred and eighty neonates (34.3% showed 25(OHD concentrations less than 25.0 nmol/L, 292 (55.6% showed 25(OHD concentrations of 25.0&#8211;74.9 nmol/L, and 53 (10.1% showed concentrations of ?#247;5.0 nmol/L. Adjusting for the season of birth, multivitamin intake during pregnancy, and exposure to passive smoking during pregnancy, 25(OHD concentrations showed an inverse association with the risk of acquiring acute nasopharyngitis by 6 months of age (P for trend= 0.0004. Conclusion: The results show that 89.9% of healthy newborns in Korea are born with vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency (55.6% and 34.3%, respectively. Cord blood vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency in healthy neonates is associated with an increased risk of acute nasopharyngitis by 6 months of age. More time spent outdoors and more intensified vitamin D supplementation for pregnant women may be needed to prevent the onset of acute nasopharyngitis in infants.

  1. Effects of respiratory muscle and endurance training using an individualized training device on the pulmonary function and exercise capacity in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, JinHong; Park, Jun Hyuck; Yim, Jongeun

    2014-12-05

    Because respiratory muscle function plays a strong role in exercise capacity and cardiopulmonary response to exercise, systematic training and measurement of respiratory muscle function should be considered in stroke patients. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an individualized respiratory muscle training device combined with conventional physical therapy exercise can improve the pulmonary function and exercise capacity of stroke patients. Twenty stroke patients were randomly assigned to an exercise group (n=10) or a control group (n=10). Over 4 weeks, each group participated in exercise training interventions 3 times per week. In each session, the control group received basic exercise treatments for 30 min, followed by an automated full-body workout for 20 min. The exercise group performed the same exercise regimen as the control group, as well as an additional respiratory muscle training regimen using a respiratory exercise device for 20 min. Pulmonary function of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume at 1 s (FEV1), FEV1/FVC, and peak expiratory flow (PEF) and exercise capacity of a 6-min walking test and Shortness of Breath Modified Borg Dyspnea Scale (SBMBDS) scores were assessed before and after the training. A significant intergroup difference was observed in the FVC, FEV1, PEF, 6MWT, and SBMBDS scores (prespiratory muscles using an individualized respiratory device had a positive effect on pulmonary function and exercise capacity and may be used for breathing rehabilitation in stroke patients.

  2. Postoperative infection and natural killer cell function following blood transfusion in patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L S; Andersen, A J; Christiansen, P M

    1992-01-01

    The frequency of infection in 197 patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery and having either no blood transfusion, transfusion with whole blood, or filtered blood free from leucocytes and platelets was investigated in a prospective randomized trial. Natural killer cell function was measured...... before operation and 3, 7 and 30 days after surgery in 60 consecutive patients. Of the patients 104 required blood transfusion; 48 received filtered blood and 56 underwent whole blood transfusion. Postoperative infections developed in 13 patients transfused with whole blood (23 per cent, 95 per cent...... confidence interval 13-32 per cent), in one patient transfused with blood free from leucocytes and platelets (2 per cent, 95 per cent confidence interval 0.05-11 per cent) and in two non-transfused patients (2 per cent, 95 per cent confidence interval 0.3-8 per cent) (P less than 0.01). Natural killer cell...

  3. Physiorack: an integrated MRI safe/conditional, gas delivery, respiratory gating, and subject monitoring solution for structural and functional assessments of pulmonary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halaweish, Ahmed F; Charles, H Cecil

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the use of a modular MRI conditional respiratory monitoring and gating solution, designed to facilitate proper monitoring of subjects' vital signals and their respiratory efforts, during free-breathing and breathheld 19F, oxygen-enhanced, and Fourier-decomposition MRI-based acquisitions. All Imaging was performed on a Siemens TIM Trio 3 Tesla MRI scanner, following Institutional Review Board approval. Gas delivery is accomplished through the use of an MR compatible pneumotachometer, in conjunction with two three-way pneumatically controlled Hans Rudolph Valves. The pneumatic valves are connected to Douglas bags used as the gas source. A mouthpiece (+nose clip) or an oro-nasal Hans Rudolph disposable mask is connected following the pneumatic valve to minimize dead-space and provide an airtight seal. Continuous monitoring/sampling of inspiratory and expiratory oxygen and carbon dioxide levels at the mouthpiece/mask is achieved through the use of an Oxigraf gas analyzer. Forty-four imaging sessions were successfully monitored, during Fourier-decomposition (n=3), fluorine-enhanced (n=29), oxygen-enhanced, and ultra short echo (n=12) acquisitions. The collected waveforms, facilitated proper monitoring and coaching of the subjects. We demonstrate an inexpensive, off-the-shelf solution for monitoring these signals, facilitating assessments of lung function. Monitoring of respiratory efforts and exhaled gas concentrations assists in understanding the heterogeneity of lung function visualized by gas imaging. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Oxygen delivery and uptake in the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Lack of relationship when measured independently in patients with normal blood lactate concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annat, G; Viale, J P; Percival, C; Froment, M; Motin, J

    1986-06-01

    This study was designed to determine whether acute alterations in oxygen delivery (DO2) induced by the institution of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) would affect oxygen uptake (VO2) in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In 8 patients with ARDS who exhibited normal blood lactate concentrations, we evaluated the relationship between DO2 and VO2 during 3 consecutive periods: intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV), continuous positive pressure ventilation (CPPV) with a 10 cm H2O PEEP, and finally CPPV with volume loading. Oxygen uptake was measured directly with a mass spectrometer system. Oxygen delivery was calculated as the product of cardiac output (thermodilution) and arterial blood oxygen content (Lex-O2-Con analyzer). By comparison with the IPPV period, application of PEEP led to a decrease of DO2, which returned to baseline values when volume loading was added to PEEP. In none of the patients did VO2 parallel the changes of DO2. They demonstrated, therefore, a properly enhanced oxygen extraction during the PEEP-induced decrease of DO2. We conclude that, when measured independently, DO2 and VO2 are not correlated in patients with ARDS with normal blood lactate who are mechanically ventilated with PEEP.

  5. Evaluation of Respiratory Muscles Activity by means of Cross Mutual Information Function at Different Levels of Ventilatory Effort

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso López, Joan Francesc; Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Ángel; Hoyer, Dirk; Bruce, Eugene N.; Zbigniew L., Topor

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of respiratory muscles activity is an effective technique for the study of pulmonary diseases such as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Respiratory diseases, especially those associated with changes in the mechanical properties of the respiratory apparatus, are often associated with disruptions of the normally highly coordinated contractions of respiratory muscles. Due to the complexity of the respiratory control, the assessment of OSAS related dysfunctions by linear ...

  6. Some liver function indices and blood parameters in T. brucei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JTEkanem

    (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), and platelet count were determined using the automated haematologic analyzer SYSMEX KX21,a product of SYSMEX corporation, Japan employing the method described by Dacie and. Lewis17. Protein concentrations were determined using biuret method18 as described by Plummer19.

  7. The effect of blood ozonation on mitochondrial function and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-06

    Aug 6, 2007 ... These results indicated that the death of PBMC was probably through apoptosis. These effects were more ... One must bear in mind that only a fraction of the total blood volume is ozonated. Key words: O3-AHT, .... because of rapid degradation of ATP after cell death. WBC were seeded in a microtitre plate ...

  8. Effect of tDCS with an extracephalic reference electrode on cardio-respiratory and autonomic functions

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    Jamart Jacques

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is used in human physiological studies and for therapeutic trials in patients with abnormalities of cortical excitability. Its safety profile places tDCS in the pole-position for translating in real-world therapeutic application. However, an episode of transient respiratory depression in a subject receiving tDCS with an extracephalic electrode led to the suggestion that such an electrode montage could modulate the brainstem autonomic centres. We investigated whether tDCS applied over the midline frontal cortex in 30 healthy volunteers (sham n = 10, cathodal n = 10, anodal n = 10 with an extracephalic reference electrode would modulate brainstem activity as reflected by the monitoring and stringent analysis of vital parameters: heart rate (variability, respiratory rate, blood pressure and sympatho-vagal balance. We reasoned that this study could lead to two opposite but equally interesting outcomes: 1 If tDCS with an extracephalic electrode modulated vital parameters, it could be used as a new tool to explore the autonomic nervous system and, even, to modulate its activity for therapeutic purposes. 2 On the opposite, if applying tDCS with an extracephalic electrode had no effect, it could thus be used safely in healthy human subjects. This outcome would significantly impact the field of non-invasive brain stimulation with tDCS. Indeed, on the one hand, using an extracephalic electrode as a genuine neutral reference (as opposed to the classical "bi-cephalic" tDCS montages which deliver bi-polar stimulation of the brain would help to comfort the conclusions of several modern studies regarding the spatial location and polarity of tDCS. On the other hand, using an extracephalic reference electrode may impact differently on a given cortical target due to the change of direct current flow direction; this may enlarge the potential interventions with tDCS. Results Whereas the respiratory

  9. Respiratory muscle strength and pulmonary function in children with rhinitis and asthma after a six-minute walk test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Ana Alice de Almeida; Barros, Camila Moraes; Santos, Cássia Giulliane Costa; Dos Santos, Maria Renata Aragão; Silva, José Rodrigo Santos; Silva Junior, Walderi Monteiro da; Simões, Silvia de Magalhães

    2018-03-01

    Rhinitis and asthma decrease quality of life. Few studies have assessed the performance of children with asthma or rhinitis under submaximal exercise. We evaluated maximal respiratory pressures, spirometric parameters, and ability to sustain submaximal exercise in these children before and after the 6-minute walk test (6MWT), compared to healthy children. This cross-sectional, analytical study included 89 children aged 6-12 years in outpatient follow-up: 27 healthy (H), 31 with rhinitis (R), and 31 with mild asthma under control (A). Pulmonary function parameters and maximal respiratory pressures were measured before and 5, 10, and 30 minutes after the 6MWT. Wilcoxon test was used to compare numerical numerical variables between two groups and analysis of variance or Kruskal-Wallis test for comparison among three groups. Total distance traveled in the 6MWT was similar among the three groups. Compared to pre-test values, VEF1 (Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second), VEF0.75 (Forced Expiratory Volume in 0.75 second), and FEF25-75 (Forced Expiratory Flow 25-75% of the Forced Vital Capacity - CVF - curve) decreased significantly after the 6MWT in group A, and VEF0.75, FEF25-75, and VEF1/CVF decreased significantly in group R. Groups A and R had lower Maximum Inspiratory Pressure values than group H before and after the 6MWT at all time points assessed. The findings suggest that children with rhinitis and mild asthma present with alterations in respiratory muscle strength and pulmonary function not associated with clinical complaints, reinforcing the concept of the united airways.

  10. Detection of human rhinovirus C viral genome in blood among children with severe respiratory infections in the Philippines.

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    Naoko Fuji

    Full Text Available Human rhinovirus (HRV C was recently identified as the third species of HRV using a molecular technique. Infections caused by previously identified HRVs (A and B are thought to be limited to the respiratory tract; however, pathogenesis of HRVC is still largely unknown. A total of 816 nasopharyngeal swabs from hospitalized children with severe respiratory infections in the Philippines (May 2008-May 2009 were tested for HRV by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and 243 samples (29.8% were positive for HRV. Among these patients, serum samples were also tested to determine whether specific HRV species were associated with viremia. Only 30 serum samples (12.3% were positive for HRV. However, the HRV positive rates were different among HRV species, 3% (4/135 for HRVA, 0% (0/25 for HRVB, and 31% (26/83 for HRVC, and were the highest on 2 days after the onset of symptoms. These results suggest that HRVC may have a different pathogenicity and can more commonly cause viremia than HRVA and HRVB. Serum positive rates for HRV are affected by age, i.e., higher positive rates for those aged 1 year or more. HRVC that were detected from serum exhibited the same level of sequence diversity as those positive only for nasopharyngeal samples in phylogenetic analysis. However, all HRVA which were detected from serum were clustered in a monophyletic clade based on their 5' non-coding region (NCR sequences, which is closely related with a certain HRVC genotype (A2 in 5'-NCR. This finding suggests that the 5'NCR region may be associated with viremia.

  11. Blood-Feeding Induces Reversible Functional Changes in Flight Muscle Mitochondria of Aedes aegypti Mosquito

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Renata L. S.; Machado, Ana Carolina L.; Paiva-Silva, Gabriela O.; Sorgine, Marcos H. F.; Momoli, Marisa M.; Oliveira, Jose Henrique M.; Vannier-Santos, Marcos A.; Galina, Antonio; Oliveira, Pedro L.; Oliveira, Marcus F.

    2009-01-01

    Background Hematophagy poses a challenge to blood-feeding organisms since products of blood digestion can exert cellular deleterious effects. Mitochondria perform multiple roles in cell biology acting as the site of aerobic energy-transducing pathways, and also an important source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), modulating redox metabolism. Therefore, regulation of mitochondrial function should be relevant for hematophagous arthropods. Here, we investigated the effects of blood-feeding on flight muscle (FM) mitochondria from the mosquito Aedes aegypti, a vector of dengue and yellow fever. Methodology/Principal Findings Blood-feeding caused a reversible reduction in mitochondrial oxygen consumption, an event that was parallel to blood digestion. These changes were most intense at 24 h after blood meal (ABM), the peak of blood digestion, when oxygen consumption was inhibited by 68%. Cytochromes c and a+a 3 levels and cytochrome c oxidase activity of the electron transport chain were all reduced at 24 h ABM. Ultrastructural and molecular analyses of FM revealed that mitochondria fuse upon blood meal, a condition related to reduced ROS generation. Consistently, BF induced a reversible decrease in mitochondrial H2O2 formation during blood digestion, reaching their lowest values at 24 h ABM where a reduction of 51% was observed. Conclusion Blood-feeding triggers functional and structural changes in hematophagous insect mitochondria, which may represent an important adaptation to blood feeding. PMID:19924237

  12. Sensorimotor function of the upper-airway muscles and respiratory sensory processing in untreated obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Danny J; Lo, Yu L; Saboisky, Julian P; Jordan, Amy S; White, David P; Malhotra, Atul

    2011-12-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated upper-airway neuromuscular abnormalities during wakefulness in snorers and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. However, the functional role of sensorimotor impairment in OSA pathogenesis/disease progression and its potential effects on protective upper-airway reflexes, measures of respiratory sensory processing, and force characteristics remain unclear. This study aimed to gain physiological insight into the potential role of sensorimotor impairment in OSA pathogenesis/disease progression by comparing sensory processing properties (respiratory-related evoked potentials; RREP), functionally important protective reflexes (genioglossus and tensor palatini) across a range of negative pressures (brief pulses and entrained iron lung ventilation), and tongue force and time to task failure characteristics between 12 untreated OSA patients and 13 controls. We hypothesized that abnormalities in these measures would be present in OSA patients. Upper-airway reflexes (e.g., genioglossus onset latency, 20 ± 1 vs. 19 ± 2 ms, P = 0.82), early RREP components (e.g., P1 latency 25 ± 2 vs. 25 ± 1 ms, P = 0.78), and the slope of epiglottic pressure vs. genioglossus activity during iron lung ventilation (-0.68 ± 1.0 vs. -0.80 ± 2.0 cmH(2)O/%max, P = 0.59) were not different between patients and controls. Maximal tongue protrusion force was greater in OSA patients vs. controls (35 ± 2 vs. 27 ± 2 N, P muscles, which could contribute to disease progression.

  13. Rib cage deformities alter respiratory muscle action and chest wall function in patients with severe osteogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoMauro, Antonella; Pochintesta, Simona; Romei, Marianna; D'Angelo, Maria Grazia; Pedotti, Antonio; Turconi, Anna Carla; Aliverti, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is an inherited connective tissue disorder characterized by bone fragility, multiple fractures and significant chest wall deformities. Cardiopulmonary insufficiency is the leading cause of death in these patients. Seven patients with severe OI type III, 15 with moderate OI type IV and 26 healthy subjects were studied. In addition to standard spirometry, rib cage geometry, breathing pattern and regional chest wall volume changes at rest in seated and supine position were assessed by opto-electronic plethysmography to investigate if structural modifications of the rib cage in OI have consequences on ventilatory pattern. One-way or two-way analysis of variance was performed to compare the results between the three groups and the two postures. Both OI type III and IV patients showed reduced FVC and FEV(1) compared to predicted values, on condition that updated reference equations are considered. In both positions, ventilation was lower in OI patients than control because of lower tidal volume (pfunction was normal, OI type III patients were characterized by reduced (prespiratory pattern of Osteogenesis Imperfecta is closely related to the severity of the disease and to the sternal deformities. Pectus carinatum characterizes OI type III patients and alters respiratory muscles coordination, leading to chest wall and rib cage distortions and an inefficient ventilator pattern. OI type IV is characterized by lower alterations in the respiratory function. These findings suggest that functional assessment and treatment of OI should be differentiated in these two forms of the disease.

  14. Stomatin-like protein 2 is required for in vivo mitochondrial respiratory chain supercomplex formation and optimal cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsopoulos, Panagiotis; Chang, Yu-Han; Wai, Timothy; König, Tim; Dunn, Stanley D; Langer, Thomas; Madrenas, Joaquín

    2015-05-01

    Stomatin-like protein 2 (SLP-2) is a mainly mitochondrial protein that is widely expressed and is highly conserved across evolution. We have previously shown that SLP-2 binds the mitochondrial lipid cardiolipin and interacts with prohibitin-1 and -2 to form specialized membrane microdomains in the mitochondrial inner membrane, which are associated with optimal mitochondrial respiration. To determine how SLP-2 functions, we performed bioenergetic analysis of primary T cells from T cell-selective Slp-2 knockout mice under conditions that forced energy production to come almost exclusively from oxidative phosphorylation. These cells had a phenotype characterized by increased uncoupled mitochondrial respiration and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. Since formation of mitochondrial respiratory chain supercomplexes (RCS) may correlate with more efficient electron transfer during oxidative phosphorylation, we hypothesized that the defect in mitochondrial respiration in SLP-2-deficient T cells was due to deficient RCS formation. We found that in the absence of SLP-2, T cells had decreased levels and activities of complex I-III2 and I-III2-IV(1-3) RCS but no defects in assembly of individual respiratory complexes. Impaired RCS formation in SLP-2-deficient T cells correlated with significantly delayed T cell proliferation in response to activation under conditions of limiting glycolysis. Altogether, our findings identify SLP-2 as a key regulator of the formation of RCS in vivo and show that these supercomplexes are required for optimal cell function. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Restoration of Respiratory Gases and Acid-base Balance of Blood of Gamma Irradiated Rats Through Bone Marrow Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, S.M.; Roushdy, H.M.; Khamis, F. I.; Abu-Zeid, N.M.

    2000-01-01

    The present investigation aimed at elucidating the role played by bone marrow transplantation as a biological treatment against the deleterious effect of ionizing radiation. The parameters tested were PO2; PCO2; TCO2 and acid base balance encountering pH and (HCO3) in blood. Investigations were conducted 1,3,7,14 and 21 days post whole body gamma exposure at the dose levels 2 and 6 Gy. The data obtained showed highly significant changes in all tested parameters after whole body gamma irradiation. A higher depressant effect was more pronounced after exposure to higher radiation dose. Bone marrow transplantation to irradiated rats resulted in partial restoration or the radiation induced changes in both PO2 and PCO2 as recorded on the first week post treatment and succeeded to ameliorate the radiation induced changes in pH values and (HCO3) in blood

  16. Household Air Pollution Exposure and Influence of Lifestyle on Respiratory Health and Lung Function in Belizean Adults and Children: A Field Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie P. Kurti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Household air pollution (HAP contributes to the global burden of disease. Our primary purpose was to determine whether HAP exposure was associated with reduced lung function and respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms in Belizean adults and children. Our secondary purpose was to investigate whether lifestyle (physical activity (PA and fruit and vegetable consumption (FV is associated with reported symptoms. Belizean adults (n = 67, 19 Male and children (n = 23, 6 Male from San Ignacio Belize and surrounding areas participated in this cross-sectional study. Data collection took place at free walk-in clinics. Investigators performed initial screenings and administered questionnaires on (1 sources of HAP exposure; (2 reported respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms and (3 validated lifestyle questionnaires. Participants then performed pulmonary function tests (PFTs and exhaled breath carbon monoxide (CO. There were no significant associations between HAP exposure and pulmonary function in adults. Increased exhaled CO was associated with a significantly lower forced expiratory volume in 1-s divided by forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC in children. Exposed adults experienced headaches, burning eyes, wheezing and phlegm production more frequently than unexposed adults. Adults who met PA guidelines were less likely to experience tightness and pressure in the chest compared to those not meeting guidelines. In conclusion, adults exposed to HAP experienced greater respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms, which may be attenuated by lifestyle modifications.

  17. Riluzole promotes motor and respiratory recovery associated with enhanced neuronal survival and function following high cervical spinal hemisection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satkunendrarajah, K; Nassiri, F; Karadimas, S K; Lip, A; Yao, G; Fehlings, M G

    2016-02-01

    Cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) can result in devastating functional deficits that involve the respiratory and hand function. The mammalian spinal cord has limited ability to regenerate and restore meaningful functional recovery following SCI. Riluzole, 2-amino-6-trifluoromethoxybenzothiazole, an anti-glutamatergic drug has been shown to reduce excitotoxicity and confer neuroprotection at the site of injury following experimental SCI. Based on promising preclinical studies, riluzole is currently under Phase III clinical trial for the treatment of SCI (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01597518). Riluzole's anti-glutamatergic role has the potential to regulate neuronal function and provide neuroprotection and influence glutamatergic connections distal to the initial injury leading to enhanced functional recovery following SCI. In order to investigate this novel role of riluzole we used a high cervical hemisection model of SCI, which interrupts all descending input to motoneurons innervating the ipsilateral forelimb and diaphragm muscles. Following C2 spinal cord hemisection, animals were placed into one of two groups: one group received riluzole (8 mg/kg) 1 h after injury and every 12 h thereafter for 7 days at 6 mg/kg, while the second group of injured rats received vehicle solution for the same duration of time. A third group of sham injured rats underwent a C2 laminectomy without hemisection and served as uninjured control rats. Interestingly, this study reports a significant loss of motoneurons within the cervical spinal cord caudal to C2 hemisection injury. Disruption of descending input led to a decrease in glutamatergic synapses and motoneurons caudal to the injury while riluzole treatment significantly limited this decline. Functionally, Hoffmann reflex recordings revealed an increase in the excitability of the remaining ipsilateral cervical motoneurons and significant improvements in skilled and unskilled forelimb function and respiratory motor function in the

  18. Developmental change in the function of movement systems: transition of the pectoral fins between respiratory and locomotor roles in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Melina E

    2014-07-01

    An animal may experience strikingly different functional demands on its body's systems through development. One way of meeting those demands is with temporary, stage-specific adaptations. This strategy requires the animal to develop appropriate morphological states or physiological pathways that address transient functional demands as well as processes that transition morphology, physiology, and function to that of the mature form. Recent research on ray-finned (actinopterygian) fishes is a developmental transition in function of the pectoral fin, thereby providing an opportunity to examine how an organism copes with changes in the roles of its morphology between stages of its life history. As larvae, zebrafish alternate their pectoral fins in coordination with the body axis during slow swimming. The movements of their fins do not appear to contribute to the production of thrust or to stability but instead exchange fluid near the body for cutaneous respiration. The morphology of the larval fin includes a simple stage-specific endoskeletal disc overlaid by fan-shaped adductor and abductor muscles. In contrast, the musculoskeletal system of the mature fin consists of a suite of muscles and bones. Fins are extended laterally during slow swimming of the adult, without the distinct, high-amplitude left-right fin alternation of the larval fin. The morphological and functional transition of the pectoral fin occurs through juvenile development. Early in this period, at about 3 weeks post-fertilization, the gills take over respiratory function, presumably freeing the fins for other roles. Kinematic data suggest that the loss of respiratory function does not lead to a rapid switch in patterns of fin movement but rather that both morphology and movement transition gradually through the juvenile stage of development. Studies relating structure to function often focus on stable systems that are arguably well adapted for the roles they play. Examining how animals navigate

  19. Effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) on alveolar lung macrophage survival and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, Martin B.; Nielsen, Jens

    1999-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) recently emerged as an important cause of reproductive disorders and pneumonia in domestic pigs throughout the world. Acute cytocidal replication of PRRSV in alveolar lung macrophages causes the acute pneumonia; however, it remains largely...... analysis of cell size and membrane integrity) led to 40% reduction in the total number of phagocytozing cells. However, viable/uninfected macrophages in PRRSV-infected cultures exhibited normal phagocytic ability at 48 h, indicating that no soluble phagocytosis-suppressive mediators were induced by PRRSV...... infection in this system. In short, in our minimal system containing only a single cell type, phagocytosis-suppressive effects of PRRSV infection were detected, that acted at the culture level by reducing the total number of alveolar lung macrophages....

  20. The Effectiveness of Singing or Playing a Wind Instrument in Improving Respiratory Function in Patients with Long-Term Neurological Conditions: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Kexin; Maddocks, Matthew; Xu, Huiying; Higginson, Irene J

    2017-03-01

    Many long-term neurological conditions adversely affect respiratory function. Singing and playing wind instruments are relatively inexpensive interventions with potential for improving respiratory function; however, synthesis of current evidence is needed to inform research and clinical use of music in respiratory care. To critically appraise, analyze, and synthesize published evidence on the effectiveness of singing or playing a wind instrument to improve respiratory function in people with long-term neurological conditions. Systematic review of published randomized controlled trials and observational studies examining singing or playing wind instruments to improve respiratory function in individuals with long-term neurological conditions. Articles meeting specified inclusion criteria were identified through a search of the Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science, CAIRSS for Music, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform Search Portal, and AMED databases as early as 1806 through March 2015. Information on study design, clinical populations, interventions, and outcome measures was extracted and summarized using an electronic standardized coding form. Methodological quality was assessed and summarized across studies descriptively. From screening 584 references, 68 full texts were reviewed and five studies included. These concerned 109 participants. The studies were deemed of low quality, due to evidence of bias, in part due to intervention complexity. No adverse effects were reported. Overall, there was a trend toward improved respiratory function, but only one study on Parkinson's disease had significant between-group differences. The positive trend in respiratory function in people with long-term neurological conditions following singing or wind instrument therapy is of interest, and warrants further investigation. © the American Music Therapy Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. Respiratory function in voluntary participating Patagonia sea lions in sternal recumbency

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    Andreas Fahlman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We measured esophageal pressures (n=4, respiratory flow rates (n=5, and expired O2 and CO2 (n=4 in five adult Patagonia sea lions (Otaria flavescens, body mass range 94.3-286.0 kg during voluntary breaths while laying down. The data were used to estimate the dynamic specific lung compliance (sCL, cmH2O-1, the O2 consumption rate (VO2 and CO2 production rates (VCO2 during rest. Our results indicate that the resting tidal volume in Patagonia sea lions is approximately 47-73% of the estimated total lung capacity. The esophageal pressures indicated that expiration is passive during voluntary breaths. The average sCL of dolphins was 0.41±0.11 cmH2O−1, which is similar to those measured in anesthetized sea lions and awake cetaceans, and significantly higher as compared with humans (0.08 cmH2O−1. The average estimated and using breath-by-breath respirometry were 1.023 ± 0.327 L O2 min-1 (range: 0.695-1.514 L O2 min−1 and 0.777 ± 0.318 L CO2 min-1, (range: 0.510-1.235 L CO2 min-1, respectively, which is similar to previously published metabolic measurements from California and Steller sea lions using conventional flow-through respirometry. Our data provide end-tidal gas composition and provide novel data for respiratory physiology in pinnpeds, which may be important for clinical medicine and conservation efforts.

  2. Alternative oxidase in the branched mitochondrial respiratory network: an overview on structure, function, regulation, and role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sluse F.E.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants and some other organisms including protists possess a complex branched respiratory network in their mitochondria. Some pathways of this network are not energy-conserving and allow sites of energy conservation to be bypassed, leading to a decrease of the energy yield in the cells. It is a challenge to understand the regulation of the partitioning of electrons between the various energy-dissipating and -conserving pathways. This review is focused on the oxidase side of the respiratory chain that presents a cyanide-resistant energy-dissipating alternative oxidase (AOX besides the cytochrome pathway. The known structural properties of AOX are described including transmembrane topology, dimerization, and active sites. Regulation of the alternative oxidase activity is presented in detail because of its complexity. The alternative oxidase activity is dependent on substrate availability: total ubiquinone concentration and its redox state in the membrane and O2 concentration in the cell. The alternative oxidase activity can be long-term regulated (gene expression or short-term (post-translational modification, allosteric activation regulated. Electron distribution (partitioning between the alternative and cytochrome pathways during steady-state respiration is a crucial measurement to quantitatively analyze the effects of the various levels of regulation of the alternative oxidase. Three approaches are described with their specific domain of application and limitations: kinetic approach, oxygen isotope differential discrimination, and ADP/O method (thermokinetic approach. Lastly, the role of the alternative oxidase in non-thermogenic tissues is discussed in relation to the energy metabolism balance of the cell (supply in reducing equivalents/demand in energy and carbon and with harmful reactive oxygen species formation.

  3. Evaluation of resuscitation fluids on endothelial glycocalyx, venular blood flow, and coagulation function after hemorrhagic shock in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Luciana N; Sondeen, Jill L; Ji, Lisa; Dubick, Michael A; Torres Filho, Ivo

    2013-11-01

    Endothelial glycocalyx (EG) plays an essential role in endothelium integrity and may be compromised by hemorrhagic shock. The effects of currently available resuscitation fluids such as Hextend (HEX) or lactated Ringer's solution (LR) on vascular function and coagulation are not well understood. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) with HEX or LR in their ability to repair EG structure, promote volume expansion, increase blood flow, and prevent coagulopathy. A total of 121 microvessels from cremaster muscle were studied in 32 anesthetized instrumented rats. After baseline systemic and microvascular measurements, 40% hemorrhage followed by resuscitation was performed, and measurements were repeated. Coagulation was evaluated using ROTEM to assay clot formation time, clotting time, firmness, strength, and lysis. Velocity and "platelet component" of strength were calculated. Fluorescein isothiocyanate or Texas Red bound to Dextrans was injected to estimate EG thickness in vivo. Respiratory rate, blood pH, base excess, and lactate returned to near-baseline levels in all treatments. Hemodilution caused by LR and HEX decreased firmness, prolonged clotting time, and lowered platelet counts. EG thickness in HEX- and LR-treated rats was 50% lower, and plasma syndecan 1 was 50% higher than sham and FFP groups. Blood flow and shear rate were restored in the HEX group. Resuscitation with FFP improved coagulation and blood flow. Our findings support the concept of cardiovascular and microvascular stabilization by infused FFP, in which the increase in microvascular perfusion associated with restored EG is essential for an optimal resuscitation strategy.

  4. Multi-scale modeling of an upper respiratory airway: Effect of mucosal adhesion on Eustachian tube function in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Jennifer; Ghadiali, Samir N

    2018-01-27

    The Eustachian tube is a collapsible upper respiratory airway that is periodically opened to maintain a healthy middle ear. Young children, function in young children. Multi-scale finite element models were used to simulate the muscle-assisted opening of the Eustachian tube in healthy adults and young children. Airflow during opening was quantified as a function of adhesion strength, muscle forces and tissue mechanics. Although Eustachian tube function was sensitive to increased mucosal adhesion in both adults and children, young children developed Eustachian tube dysfunction at significantly lower values of mucosal adhesion. Specifically, the critical adhesion value was 2 orders of magnitude lower in young children as compared to healthy adults. Although increased adhesion did not alter the sensitivity of Eustachian tube function to tensor and levator veli palatini muscles forces, increased adhesion in young children did reduced the sensitivity of Eustachian tube function to changes in cartilage and mucosal tissue stiffness. These results indicate that increased mucosal adhesion can significantly alter the biomechanical mechanisms of Eustachian tube function in young children and that clinical assessment of adhesion levels may be important in therapy selection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Blood Pressure Variability and Cognitive Function in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hee-Won; Kim, Kwang-Il

    2013-04-01

    With the increase in the aging population, it is important to understand the individual diseases and their interactions which are prevalent and have a great impact on the health status of the elderly. Hypertension is one of the most common diseases in older age and may impact the health status because it is the main risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases such as heart failure and stroke. Recently, much evidence has been accumulated showing that hypertension plays an important role in the development and progression of cognitive impairment and dementia. Cerebral hypoperfusion secondary to severe atherosclerosis resulting from long-standing hypertension may be a major biological pathway linking high blood pressure (BP) to cognitive decline and dementia. Furthermore, increased BP variability has also been reported to be significantly associated with white matter hyperintensities and brain atrophy, which are predisposing conditions of dementia, depression, and falls in the elderly even after adjusting for BP levels and other confounding variables. Several mechanisms have been shown to be involved in the association between BP variability and cognitive impairment in elderly individuals. In addition to an increased cerebral blood flow fluctuation, neurohumoral activation, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and oxidative stress have been suggested to be the underlying mechanisms. However, clinical trials provide limited evidence for a protective effect of antihypertensive therapy against dementia and stroke-related cognitive decline. In this article, we aimed to review the existing evidence of the connection between BP variability and cognitive impairment in elderly people.

  6. The effect of tumor location and respiratory function on tumor movement estimated by real-time tracking radiotherapy (RTRT) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onimaru, Rikiya; Shirato, Hiroki; Fujino, Masaharu; Suzuki, Keishiro; Yamazaki, Kouichi; Nishimura, Masaharu; Dosaka-Akita, Hirotoshi; Miyasaka, Kazuo

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The effects of tumor location and pulmonary function on the motion of fiducial markers near lung tumors were evaluated to deduce simple guidelines for determining the internal margin in radiotherapy without fiducial markers. Methods and Materials: Pooled data collected by a real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy system on 42 markers in 39 patients were analyzed. The pulmonary functions of all patients were assessed before radiotherapy. Using chest X-ray film, the position of the marker was expressed relative to the geometry of the unilateral lung. Posterior location meant the area of the posterior half of the lung in a lateral chest X-ray film, and caudal location meant the caudal half of the chest X-ray film; these categories were determined by measuring the distance between the marker and anatomic landmarks, including the apex, costophrenic angle, midline of spinal canal, lateral, anterior, and posterior boundary of the lung. Results: Before the radiotherapy, 18 patients had obstructive respiratory dysfunction (ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity [FEV 1.0 /FVC] 1.0 /FVC and %VC were 97.0% and 66.5%, respectively. Median tumor movements in the x (left-right), y (anteroposterior), and z (craniocaudal) directions were 1.1 mm, 2.3 mm, and 5.4 mm, respectively. There was no significant correlation between respiratory function and magnitude of marker movement in any direction. Median marker movement in the z direction was 2.6 mm for the cranial location and 11.8 mm for the caudal location, respectively (p < 0.001). Median movement in the z direction was 11.8 mm for posterior location and 3.4 mm for anterior location, respectively (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Simple measurement of the relative location on plain chest X-ray film was related, but respiratory function test was not related, to the craniocaudal amplitude of the motion of the fiducial marker near lung tumors

  7. Vascular Function and Regulation of Blood Flow in Resting and Contracting Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin

    importance. The present work provides new insight in to vasodilator interactions important for exercise hyperemia and sheds light on mechanisms important for vascular function and regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow in essential hypertension (high blood pressure) and aging and identifies mechanisms...

  8. The Effect of Diaphragmatic Plication on Pulmonary Function Test, Dyspnea Score and Arterial Blood Gases: Analysis 11 Patients with Diaphragmatic Elevation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Toktas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Diaphragmatic evantration or paralysis in adults is associated with respiratory distress. In this study, we aimed to compare preoperative and postoperative pulmonary function tests, arterial blood gas analyses and dyspnea scores of the cases in whom plication had been performed for diaphragmatic elevation. Material and Methods: Between January 2004 and March 2010 eleven adult patients who had undergone diaphragmatic plication due to diaphragmatic paralysis and eventration were analyzed. There were 7 (63.63% men and 4 (36.37% women aged 28-65 (mean 38 ± 2.9. Diaphragmatic plication was performed. Pulmonary function test, dyspnea scores, and arterial blood gases in the preoperative and postoperative period were studied. Results: Dyspnea was present in all of the cases and a decrease in both FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC values of pulmonary function test and partial pressure of oxygen in the arterial blood were observed. In chest x-ray and thorax computed tomography, it was detected that right or left diaphragm was elevated. Diaphragmatic paralysis was detected by fluoroscopy in 6 patients. Transthoracally, diaphragmatic plication was performed to the cases. There were no postoperative complications or deaths. In postoperative six and twelve months, significant improvements in the symptoms, the values of pulmonary function tests, partial pressure of oxygen in the arterial blood and dyspnea scores of the patients were observed. Conclusions: Diaphragmatic plication is a safe and effective procedure for adult patients with dyspnea due to unilateral diaphragmatic elevation. Lung expansion is easily achieved by performing diaphragm plication.

  9. Newborn Respiratory Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermansen, Christian L; Mahajan, Anand

    2015-12-01

    Newborn respiratory distress presents a diagnostic and management challenge. Newborns with respiratory distress commonly exhibit tachypnea with a respiratory rate of more than 60 respirations per minute. They may present with grunting, retractions, nasal flaring, and cyanosis. Common causes include transient tachypnea of the newborn, respiratory distress syndrome, meconium aspiration syndrome, pneumonia, sepsis, pneumothorax, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, and delayed transition. Congenital heart defects, airway malformations, and inborn errors of metabolism are less common etiologies. Clinicians should be familiar with updated neonatal resuscitation guidelines. Initial evaluation includes a detailed history and physical examination. The clinician should monitor vital signs and measure oxygen saturation with pulse oximetry, and blood gas measurement may be considered. Chest radiography is helpful in the diagnosis. Blood cultures, serial complete blood counts, and C-reactive protein measurement are useful for the evaluation of sepsis. Most neonates with respiratory distress can be treated with respiratory support and noninvasive methods. Oxygen can be provided via bag/mask, nasal cannula, oxygen hood, and nasal continuous positive airway pressure. Ventilator support may be used in more severe cases. Surfactant is increasingly used for respiratory distress syndrome. Using the INSURE technique, the newborn is intubated, given surfactant, and quickly extubated to nasal continuous positive airway pressure. Newborns should be screened for critical congenital heart defects via pulse oximetry after 24 hours but before hospital discharge. Neonatology consultation is recommended if the illness exceeds the clinician's expertise and comfort level or when the diagnosis is unclear in a critically ill newborn.

  10. Blood-ocular and blood-brain barrier function in streptozocin-induced diabetes in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeepea, O.; Karlsson, C.; Alm, A.

    1984-01-01

    Edetic acid labeled with chromium 51 was injected intravenously in normal rats and in rats with streptozocin-induced diabetes. One hour after the injection the animals were killed and the concentrations of edetic acid 51Cr in vitreous body, retina, and brain were determined. No significant difference was observed between the two groups for either tissue. In a second series, a mixture of tritiated 1-glucose and aminohippuric acid tagged with carbon 14 was injected instead of edetic acid. A substantial accumulation of aminohippuric acid 14C compared with tritiated 1-glucose was observed in the vitreous body and the brain of diabetic rats in comparison with the control group. It is concluded that untreated streptozocin-induced diabetes in rats for one to two weeks will not cause a generalized increase in the permeability of the blood-ocular or the blood-brain barriers, but organic acids may accumulate in the vitreous body as well as in the brain as a consequence of reduced outward transport through these barriers

  11. Functional Imaging of Dolphin Brain Metabolism and Blood Flow

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ridgway, Sam; Finneran, James; Carder, Don; Keogh, Mandy; Van Bonn, William; Smith, Cynthia; Scadeng, Miriam; Dubowitz, David; Mattrey, Robert; Hoh, Carl

    2006-01-01

    This report documents the first use of magnetic resonance images (MRls) of living dolphins to register functional brain scans, allowing for the exploration of potential mechanisms of unihemispheric sleep...

  12. Partial recovery of respiratory function and diaphragm reinnervation following unilateral vagus nerve to phrenic nerve anastomosis in rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxiang Wen

    Full Text Available Respiratory dysfunction is the leading cause of mortality following upper cervical spinal cord injury (SCI. Reinnervation of the paralyzed diaphragm via an anastomosis between phrenic nerve and a donor nerve is a potential strategy to mitigate ventilatory deficits. In this study, anastomosis of vagus nerve (VN to phrenic nerve (PN in rabbits was performed to assess the potential capacity of the VN to compensate for lost PN inputs. At first, we compared spontaneous discharge pattern, nerve thickness and number of motor fibers between these nerves. The PN exhibited a highly rhythmic discharge while the VN exhibited a variable frequency discharge pattern. The rabbit VN had fewer motor axons (105.3±12.1 vs. 268.1±15.4. Nerve conduction and respiratory function were measured 20 weeks after left PN transection with or without left VN-PN anastomosis. Compared to rabbits subjected to unilateral phrenicotomy without VN-PN anastomosis, diaphragm muscle action potential (AP amplitude was improved by 292%, distal latency by 695%, peak inspiratory flow (PIF by 22.6%, peak expiratory flow (PRF by 36.4%, and tidal volume by 21.8% in the anastomosis group. However, PIF recovery was only 28.0%, PEF 28.2%, and tidal volume 31.2% of Control. Our results suggested that VN-PN anastomosis is a promising therapeutic strategy for partial restoration of diaphragm reinnervation, but further modification and improvements are necessary to realize the full potential of this technique.

  13. Partial recovery of respiratory function and diaphragm reinnervation following unilateral vagus nerve to phrenic nerve anastomosis in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Junxiang; Yang, Mingjie; Li, Lijun; Sun, Guixin; Tan, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory dysfunction is the leading cause of mortality following upper cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Reinnervation of the paralyzed diaphragm via an anastomosis between phrenic nerve and a donor nerve is a potential strategy to mitigate ventilatory deficits. In this study, anastomosis of vagus nerve (VN) to phrenic nerve (PN) in rabbits was performed to assess the potential capacity of the VN to compensate for lost PN inputs. At first, we compared spontaneous discharge pattern, nerve thickness and number of motor fibers between these nerves. The PN exhibited a highly rhythmic discharge while the VN exhibited a variable frequency discharge pattern. The rabbit VN had fewer motor axons (105.3±12.1 vs. 268.1±15.4). Nerve conduction and respiratory function were measured 20 weeks after left PN transection with or without left VN-PN anastomosis. Compared to rabbits subjected to unilateral phrenicotomy without VN-PN anastomosis, diaphragm muscle action potential (AP) amplitude was improved by 292%, distal latency by 695%, peak inspiratory flow (PIF) by 22.6%, peak expiratory flow (PRF) by 36.4%, and tidal volume by 21.8% in the anastomosis group. However, PIF recovery was only 28.0%, PEF 28.2%, and tidal volume 31.2% of Control. Our results suggested that VN-PN anastomosis is a promising therapeutic strategy for partial restoration of diaphragm reinnervation, but further modification and improvements are necessary to realize the full potential of this technique.

  14. Functional neuroanatomy in depressed patients with sexual dysfunction: blood oxygenation level dependent functional MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jong Chul [Chonnam National Univ. Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-06-15

    To demonstrate the functional neuroanatomy associated with sexual arousal visually evoked in depressed males who have underlying sexual dysfunction using Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent-based fMRI. Ten healthy volunteers (age range 21-55: mean 32.5 years), and 10 depressed subjects (age range 23-51: mean 34.4 years, mean Beck Depression Inventory score of 39.6 {+-} 5.9, mean Hamilton Rating Scale Depression (HAMD)-17 score of 33.5 {+-} 6.0) with sexual arousal dysfunction viewed erotic and neutral video films during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with 1.5 T MR scanner (GE Signa Horizon). The fMRI data were obtained from 7 oblique planes using gradient-echo EPI (flip angle/TR/TE=90 .deg. /6000 ms/50 ms). The visual stimulation paradigm began with 60 sec of black screen, 150 sec of neutral stimulation with a documentary video film, 30 sec of black screen, 150 sec of sexual stimulation with an erotic video film followed by 30 sec of black screen. The brain activation maps and their quantification were analyzed by SPM99 program. There was a significant difference of brain activation between two groups during visual sexual stimulation. In depressed subjects, the level of activation during the visually evoked sexual arousal was significantly less than that of healthy volunteers, especially in the cerebrocortical areas of the hypothalamus, thalamus, caudate nucleus, and inferior and superior temporal gyri. On the other hand, the cerebral activation patterns during the neutral condition in both groups showed no significant differences ({rho} < 0.01). This study is the first demonstration of the functional neuroanatomy of the brain associated with sexual dysfunction in depressed patients using fMRI. In order to validate our physiological neuroscience results, further studies that would include patients with other disorders and sexual dysfunction, and depressed patients without sexual dysfunction and their treatment response are needed.

  15. Functional neuroanatomy in depressed patients with sexual dysfunction: blood oxygenation level dependent functional MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jong Chul

    2004-01-01

    To demonstrate the functional neuroanatomy associated with sexual arousal visually evoked in depressed males who have underlying sexual dysfunction using Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent-based fMRI. Ten healthy volunteers (age range 21-55: mean 32.5 years), and 10 depressed subjects (age range 23-51: mean 34.4 years, mean Beck Depression Inventory score of 39.6 ± 5.9, mean Hamilton Rating Scale Depression (HAMD)-17 score of 33.5 ± 6.0) with sexual arousal dysfunction viewed erotic and neutral video films during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with 1.5 T MR scanner (GE Signa Horizon). The fMRI data were obtained from 7 oblique planes using gradient-echo EPI (flip angle/TR/TE=90 .deg. /6000 ms/50 ms). The visual stimulation paradigm began with 60 sec of black screen, 150 sec of neutral stimulation with a documentary video film, 30 sec of black screen, 150 sec of sexual stimulation with an erotic video film followed by 30 sec of black screen. The brain activation maps and their quantification were analyzed by SPM99 program. There was a significant difference of brain activation between two groups during visual sexual stimulation. In depressed subjects, the level of activation during the visually evoked sexual arousal was significantly less than that of healthy volunteers, especially in the cerebrocortical areas of the hypothalamus, thalamus, caudate nucleus, and inferior and superior temporal gyri. On the other hand, the cerebral activation patterns during the neutral condition in both groups showed no significant differences (ρ < 0.01). This study is the first demonstration of the functional neuroanatomy of the brain associated with sexual dysfunction in depressed patients using fMRI. In order to validate our physiological neuroscience results, further studies that would include patients with other disorders and sexual dysfunction, and depressed patients without sexual dysfunction and their treatment response are needed

  16. Hibiscus sabdariffa extract lowers blood pressure and improves endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joven, Jorge; March, Isabel; Espinel, Eugenia; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Rodríguez-Gallego, Esther; Aragonès, Gerard; Beltrán-Debón, Raúl; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Rios, Lidia; Martin-Paredero, Vicente; Menendez, Javier A; Micol, Vicente; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Camps, Jordi

    2014-06-01

    Polyphenols from Hibiscus sabdariffa calices were administered to patients with metabolic syndrome (125 mg/kg/day for 4 wk, n = 31) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (125 or 60 mg/kg in a single dose or daily for 1 wk, n = 8 for each experimental group). The H. sabdariffa extract improved metabolism, displayed potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, and significantly reduced blood pressure in both humans and rats. Diuresis and inhibition of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme were found to be less important mechanisms than those related to the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and endothelium-dependent effects to explain the beneficial actions. Notably, polyphenols induced a favorable endothelial response that should be considered in the management of metabolic cardiovascular risks. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Physiological changes in blood pressure impact peripheral endothelial function during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deda, Livia; Sochett, Etienne B; Mahmud, Farid H

    2015-04-01

    Reactive hyperemia index is a measure of endothelial function used to assess subclinical atherosclerosis. When evaluated in healthy adolescents, significant changes in endothelial function were correlated with advancing age, pubertal status, and blood pressure. Blood pressure was the principal contributor to reactive hyperemia index variability independent of age, lipid profile, body mass index, and/or pubertal status. Interpretation of this peripheral vascular marker should include age and maturational changes in paediatric patients.

  18. A functional supervised learning approach to the study of blood pressure data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papayiannis, Georgios I; Giakoumakis, Emmanuel A; Manios, Efstathios D; Moulopoulos, Spyros D; Stamatelopoulos, Kimon S; Toumanidis, Savvas T; Zakopoulos, Nikolaos A; Yannacopoulos, Athanasios N

    2018-04-15

    In this work, a functional supervised learning scheme is proposed for the classification of subjects into normotensive and hypertensive groups, using solely the 24-hour blood pressure data, relying on the concepts of Fréchet mean and Fréchet variance for appropriate deformable functional models for the blood pressure data. The schemes are trained on real clinical data, and their performance was assessed and found to be very satisfactory. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Functional short- and long-term effects of nasal CPAP with and without humidification on the ciliary function of the nasal respiratory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, J Ulrich; Kraus, Marius; Birk, Richard; Schultz, Johannes D; Hörmann, Karl; Stuck, Boris A

    2014-03-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the gold standard in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), but its impact on ciliary function is unclear to date. Furthermore, CPAP is associated with numerous side effects related to the nose and upper airway. Humidified CPAP is used to relieve these symptoms, but again, little is known regarding its effect on ciliary function of the nasal respiratory epithelium. In this prospective, randomized, crossover trial, 31 patients with OSA (AHI >15/h) were randomized to two treatment arms: nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) with humidification or nCPAP without humidification for one night in each modality to assess short-term effects of ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and mucus transport time (MTT) and consecutively for 8 weeks in each modality to assess long-term effects in a crossover fashion. The baseline CBF was 4.8 ± 0.6 Hz, and baseline MTT was 540 ± 221 s. After one night of CPAP with and without humidification, ciliary function increased moderately yet with statistical significance (p humidification did not differ statistically significant. Regarding long-term effects of CPAP, a statistically significant increase in ciliary function above the baseline level and above the short-term level was shown without humidification (7.2 ± 0.4 Hz; 402 ± 176 s; p humidification (9.3 ± 0.7 Hz; 313 ± 95 s; p humidification, nCPAP has moderate effects on short-term ciliary function of the nasal respiratory epithelium. However, a significant increase in ciliary function-both in terms of an increased CBF and a decreased MTT-was detected after long-term use. The effect was more pronounced when humidification was used during nCPAP.

  20. Impact of perioperative blood transfusion on immune function and prognosis in colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Li; Wang, Dao-Rong; Zhang, Xiang-Yun; Gao, Shan; Li, Xiao-Xia; Sun, Gong-Ping; Lu, Xiao-Bo

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the impacts of perioperative blood transfusion on the immune function and prognosis in colorectal cancer (CC) patients. A retrospective analysis was conducted in 1404 CC patients, including 1223 sporadic colorectal cancer (SCC) patients and 181 hereditary colorectal cancer (HCC) patients. Among them, 701 SCC and 102 HCC patients received perioperative blood transfusion. The amount of T lymphocyte subsets and natural killer (NK) cells was measured. All patients received a 10-year follow-up and relapse, metastasis and curative conditions were recorded. In SCC group, mortality, local recurrence and distant metastasis rate of transfused patients were significantly higher than non-transfused patients (all P transfused patients than non-transfused patients (P = 0.002). SCC patients transfused with ≥3 U of blood had significantly higher mortality than patients transfused with blood transfusion in SCC and HCC patients (all P blood transfusion (P blood transfusion had markedly lower 10-year survival rates as compared with those who did not receive (both P transfused with ≥3 U of blood had remarkably lower survival rates compared with SCC patients transfused with blood transfusion could impact immune function, increased postoperative mortality, local recurrence rate and distant metastasis rate in CC patients; and survival rate of CC patients is negatively related to blood transfusion volume. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Exposure to vehicular pollution and assessment of respiratory function in urban inhabitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Bhaskar Prasad; Mukherjee, AsitKumar; Mukherjee, Krishnendu; Roychowdhury, Amal

    2007-01-01

    Particulate matter less than PM(10) and aromatic chemicals formed during incomplete combustion of organic matter are major environmental pollutants because of their toxic potential. The present study reports on the respiratory morbidity pattern of people exposed to auto exhaust as a result of the traffic load consisting of three varieties of vehicles (heavy, medium, and light) at three different points: North (B), South (E), and Central (C) regions of Kolkata, India. Particle size distribution was analyzed by an Anderson cascade impactor and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analyzed by sorbent tube and capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detector. Levels of VOCs, particularly benzene and toluene (at B, 15.2 and 20.1 microg/m(3); at E, 67.4 and 74.6 microg/m(3), and at C, 40.7 and 61.3 microg/m(3), respectively), were found to be appreciably high in three sites in Kolkata compared with the values reported by the U.S. EPA. PM(10) concentrations also have been found to be higher than the Central Pollution Control Board of India's permissible standard (VOCs.

  2. Effect of endurance exercise on respiratory muscle function in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Charles C; Ward, Katie; Jolley, Caroline J; Frank, Lucy A; Elston, Caroline; Moxham, John; Rafferty, Gerrard F

    2012-03-15

    During exercise, patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) dynamically hyperinflate, which imposes both elastic and threshold loads on the inspiratory muscles and places them at a mechanical disadvantage due to muscle shortening. Conversely, dynamic hyperinflation imposes a progressively resistive load and lengthens the expiratory muscles potentially increasing their susceptibility to develop low frequency fatigue (LFF). The aim of the study was to determine whether high intensity endurance exercise leads to the development of LFF in either the diaphragm or expiratory abdominal wall muscles in patients with CF. Ten patients and ten healthy individuals were studied. Twitch transdiaphragmatic pressure (TwP(di)) and twitch abdominal pressure (TwT(10)) were measured before and after exhaustive endurance cycle exercise at 80% of their previously determined maximum work rate. There was no difference in TwP(di) or TwT(10) at 20, 40 or 60 min post exercise compared to pre-exercise resting values in any of the participants, indicating that overt LFF of the respiratory muscles did not develop. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Structural and Functional Analyses of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Endoribonuclease Nsp15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhardwaj, Kanchan; Palaninathan, Satheesh; Alcantara, Joanna Maria Ortiz; Yi, Lillian Li; Guarino, Linda; Sacchettini, James C.; Kao, C. Cheng (TAM)

    2008-03-31

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus encodes several RNA-processing enzymes that are unusual for RNA viruses, including Nsp15 (nonstructural protein 15), a hexameric endoribonuclease that preferentially cleaves 3' of uridines. We solved the structure of a catalytically inactive mutant version of Nsp15, which was crystallized as a hexamer. The structure contains unreported flexibility in the active site of each subunit. Substitutions in the active site residues serine 293 and proline 343 allowed Nsp15 to cleave at cytidylate, whereas mutation of leucine 345 rendered Nsp15 able to cleave at purines as well as pyrimidines. Mutations that targeted the residues involved in subunit interactions generally resulted in the formation of catalytically inactive monomers. The RNA-binding residues were mapped by a method linking reversible cross-linking, RNA affinity purification, and peptide fingerprinting. Alanine substitution of several residues in the RNA-contacting portion of Nsp15 did not affect hexamer formation but decreased the affinity of RNA binding and reduced endonuclease activity. This suggests a model for Nsp15 hexamer interaction with RNA.

  4. Effects of aerobic training combined with respiratory muscle stretching on the functional exercise capacity and thoracoabdominal kinematics in patients with COPD: a randomized and controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Juliano T; Borges-Santos, Erickson; Porras, Desiderio Cano; Paisani, Denise M; Cukier, Alberto; Lunardi, Adriana C; Carvalho, Celso Rf

    2016-01-01

    Patients with COPD present a major recruitment of the inspiratory muscles, predisposing to chest incoordination, increasing the degree of dyspnea and impairing their exercise capacity. Stretching techniques could decrease the respiratory muscle activity and improve their contractile capacity; however, the systemic effects of stretching remain unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic training combined with respiratory muscle stretching on functional exercise capacity and thoracoabdominal kinematics in patients with COPD. This study was a randomized and controlled trial. A total of 30 patients were allocated to a treatment group (TG) or a control group (CG; n=15, each group). The TG was engaged in respiratory muscle stretching and the CG in upper and lower limb muscle stretching. Both groups performed 24 sessions (twice a week, 12 weeks) of aerobic training. Functional exercise capacity (6-minute walk test), thoracoabdominal kinematics (optoelectronic plethysmography), and respiratory muscle activity (surface electromyography) were evaluated during exercise. Analysis of covariance was used to compare the groups at a significance level of 5%. After the intervention, the TG showed improved abdominal (ABD) contribution, compartmental volume, mobility, and functional exercise capacity with decreased dyspnea when compared with the CG ( P stretching increases the functional exercise capacity with decreased dyspnea in patients with COPD. These effects are associated with an increased efficacy of the respiratory muscles and participation of the ABD compartment.

  5. Impaired Nongas Exchange Functions of the Lung and Their Role in the Development of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Severe Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Churlyaev

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to examine the impact of the lung on the content of adrenaline, noradrenaline, serotonin, and lactic acid in systemic blood flow and to define their contribution to the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS in severe brain injury (SBI. Forty victims with severe brain injury were examined. A study group comprised 26 patients. On admission, the patients were found to have ARDSj, later on 12 patients of them were observed to have its progression and to develop pneumonia in its presence. A control group included 14 victims. There were no postoperative complications. During 7 days after brain injury, the time course of changes were determined in the mixed venous (pulmonary arterial and arterial (femoral arterial levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline by fluorometry and in those of serotonin and lactic acid by the fluorescence technique [8] and enzymatic assay, respectively. The performed studies have indicated that in SBI, a significant activation of the sympathicoadrenal system results in a noticeable humoral reaction, by increasing the concentration of biologically active substances in the blood flowing to the lung, which leads to a load and subsequent decompensation of nongas exchange functions of the lung in the inactivation of serotonin, noradrenaline, their absorption of lactate, which in the presence of neurodystrophic changes has a great impact on the development of ARDS in victims with SBI. In this case, the clinical, X-ray, and biochemical signs of the development of ARDS appear 12—36 hours after the detected nongas exchange dysfunctions are detectable.

  6. Functional blood flow patterns of the endolymphatic sac in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Morten; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Conclusion. Visualization of the endolymphatic sac vascular network under video fluorescence microscopy showed a typical microvascular organization. The microvascular arrangement and the microcirculation may reflect a functional state of the endolymphatic sac. Damage or change of the blood circul...... sac served as return paths for the microcirculation. The blood flow pattern was highly variable between rats.......Conclusion. Visualization of the endolymphatic sac vascular network under video fluorescence microscopy showed a typical microvascular organization. The microvascular arrangement and the microcirculation may reflect a functional state of the endolymphatic sac. Damage or change of the blood...

  7. Role of lymphotoxin and homeostatic chemokines in the development and function of local lymphoid tissues in the respiratory tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Moreno, Javier; Carragher, Damian; Randall, Troy D

    2007-01-01

    Secondary lymphoid organs are strategically placed to recruit locally activated antigen presenting cells (APCs) as well as naïve, recirculating T and B cells. The structure of secondary lymphoid organs - separated B and T zones, populations of specialized stromal cells, high endothelial venules and lymphatic vessles - has also evolved to maximize encounters between APCs and lymphocytes and to facilitate the expansion and differentiation of antigen-stimulated T and B cells. Many of the general mechanisms that govern the development and organization of secondary lymphoid organs have been identified over the last decade. However, the specific cellular and molecular interactions involved in the development and organization of each secondary lymphoid organ are slightly different and probably reflect the cell types available at that time and location. Here we review the mechanisms involved in the development, organization and function of local lymphoid tissues in the respiratory tract, including Nasal Associated Lymphoid Tissue (NALT) and inducible Bronchus Associated Lymphoid Tissue (iBALT).

  8. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... production of red blood cells, including: Iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia and ... inflammatory bowel disease are especially likely to have iron deficiency anemia. Anemia due to chronic disease. People with chronic ...

  9. Evaluation of mitochondrial respiratory function in highly glycolytic glioma cells reveals low ADP phosphorylation in relation to oxidative capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Silva, Erika; Siqueira-Santos, Edilene S; Ruas, Juliana S; Ignarro, Raffaela S; Figueira, Tiago R; Rogério, Fábio; Castilho, Roger F

    2017-07-01

    High-grade gliomas are aggressive and intensely glycolytic tumors. In the present study, we evaluated the mitochondrial respiratory function of glioma cells (T98G and U-87MG) and fresh human glioblastoma (GBM) tissue. To this end, measurements of oxygen consumption rate (OCR) were performed under various experimental conditions. The OCR of T98G and U-87MG cells was well coupled to ADP phosphorylation based on the ratio of ATP produced per oxygen consumed of ~2.5. In agreement, the basal OCR of GBM tissue was also partially associated with ADP phosphorylation. The basal respiration of intact T98G and U-87MG cells was not limited by the supply of endogenous substrates, as indicated by the increased OCR in response to a protonophore. These cells also displayed a high affinity for oxygen, as evidenced by the values of the partial pressure of oxygen when respiration is half maximal (p 50 ). In permeabilized glioma cells, ADP-stimulated OCR was only approximately 50% of that obtained in the presence of protonophore, revealing a significant limitation in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) relative to the activity of the electron transport system (ETS). This characteristic was maintained when the cells were grown under low glucose conditions. Flux control coefficient analyses demonstrated that the impaired OXPHOS was associated with the function of both mitochondrial ATP synthase and the adenine nucleotide translocator, but not the phosphate carrier. Altogether, these data indicate that the availability and metabolism of respiratory substrates and mitochondrial ETS are preserved in T98G and U-87MG glioma cells even though these cells possess a relatively restrained OXPHOS capability.

  10. In vivo fluorescence studies of whole blood after chitosan bio-functionalized gold nanorods administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garabagiu, Sorina [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Pestean, Cosmin [University of Agricultural Science and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Stefan, Razvan, E-mail: rstefan@usamvcluj.ro [University of Agricultural Science and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-15

    Gold nanorods (GNR) have been prepared by a seed mediated method and then functionalized with chitosan, in order to increase their biocompatibility. The interaction of GNR with whole blood has been assessed by means of fluorescence spectroscopy. The whole blood gives rise to a fluorescence emission peak with the maximum centered at 475 nm when a 410 nm excitation wavelength has been used. In vivo assessment of the existence of nanorods in the bloodstream is proven by the increase of the whole blood fluorescence due to metal enhanced fluorescence phenomenon, which leads to an increase of fluorescence emission in the close vicinity of noble metal anisotropic nanostructures. -- Highlights: • Gold nanorods have been synthesized and bio-functionalized with chitosan. • Chitosan–gold nanorods interaction was studied by UV–vis and FTIR spectroscopy. • Bio-functionalized gold nanorods solution was injected to a rabbit. • Fluorescence studies of whole blood in the presence of gold nanorods were performed.

  11. Impact evaluation of environmental factors on respiratory function of asthma patients living in urban territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veremchuk, Lyudmila V; Tsarouhas, Konstantinos; Vitkina, Tatyana I; Mineeva, Elena E; Gvozdenko, Tatyana A; Antonyuk, Marina V; Rakitskii, Valeri N; Sidletskaya, Karolina A; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Golokhvast, Kirill S

    2018-04-01

    Environmental pollution, local climatic conditions and their association with the prevalence and exacerbation of asthma are topics of intense current medical investigation. Air pollution in the area of Vladivostock was estimated both by the index of emission volumes of "air gaseous components" (nitrogen oxide and nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide) in urban atmosphere and by mass spectrometric analysis of precipitates in snow samples. A total of 172 local asthma patients (101 controlled-asthma patients-CAP and 71 non-controlled asthma patients - nCAP) were evaluated with the use of spirometry and body plethysmography. Airway obstruction reversibility was evaluated with the use of an inhaled bronchodilator. Using discriminant analysis the association of environmental parameters with clinical indices of asthma patients is explored and thresholds of impact are established. CAP presented high sensitivity to large-size suspended air particles and to several of the studied climatic parameters. Discriminant analysis showed high values of Wilks' lambda index (α = 0.69-0.81), which implies limited influence of environmental factors on the respiratory parameters of CAP. nCAP were more sensitive and susceptible to the majority of the environmental factors studied, including air suspended toxic metals particles (Cr, Zn and Ni). Air suspended particles showed higher tendency for pathogenicity in nCAP population than in the CAP, with a wider range of particle sizes being involved. Dust fractions ranging from 0 to 1 μm and from 50 to 100 μm were additionally implicated compared to CAP group. Considerably lowest thresholds levels of impact are calculated for nCAP. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Acute effects of tea on fasting and postprandial vascular function and blood pressure in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Jonathan M; Burke, Valerie; Puddey, Ian B

    2005-01-01

    Effects of regular exposure to polyphenolic compounds found in tea, leading to improved endothelial function and blood pressure, may reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Controlled trials in humans have found that ingestion of tea can improve endothelial function, but also cause a rapid onset acute increase in blood pressure. To examine the acute effects of tea consumption on fasting and postprandial vascular function and blood pressure. Endothelium-dependent dilatation of the brachial artery, assessed using ultrasound and blood pressure were measured in 20 participants with a history of coronary artery disease. Measurements were performed at baseline and at 3.5 h (blood pressure) and 4 h (endothelial function) after drinking three cups of black tea or hot water (consumed at time = 0, 1.5 and 3 h) with and without a high-fat (50 g) meal: a total of four treatments administered in random order. The high-fat meal did not impair endothelial function. In comparison to water alone, endothelium-dependent dilatation was increased by the meal with tea (1.7 (0.4, 3.0)%, P = 0.02), but was not significantly altered by the tea alone (0.7 (-0.6, 2.0)%, P = 0.32). Systolic blood pressure was significantly increased by tea alone in comparison to each of the other three groups: water alone (9.3 (4.5, 14.1) mmHg, P = 0.0003), meal with water (9.8 (5.0, 14.6) mmHg, P = 0.0001) and meal with tea (7.2 (2.4,12.0) mmHg, P = 0.004). Consumption of a meal negated the acute increase in systolic blood pressure found with tea in the fasting state. Consumption of food may alter the acute effects of tea on vascular function and blood pressure.

  13. Adenosine A1 receptor mRNA expression and the effects of systemic theophylline administration on respiratory function 4 months after C2 hemisection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantwi, Kwaku D; Basura, Gregory J; Goshgarian, Harry G

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that in an animal model of acute cervical spinal cord injury (SCI), respiratory function can be restored by theophylline. We also have shown that respiratory recovery occurs spontaneously after prolonged postinjury survival periods when a hemidiaphragm is paralyzed by an ipsilateral upper cervical (C2) spinal cord hemisection. Theophylline mediates functional recovery by central nervous system adenosine A1 receptor antagonism; however, it is unclear whether adenosine receptors are altered after prolonged postinjury periods and whether theophylline can further enhance restored respiratory function that occurs spontaneously. To assess putative effects of systemic theophylline administration on further enhancing spontaneous respiratory muscle recovery 4 months after C2 hemisection in rats and to determine whether adenosine A1 receptor mRNA expression is altered in these animals. Electrophysiologic assessment of respiratory activity in the phrenic nerves was conducted in C2 hemisected rats 4 months after hemisection under standardized conditions. Immediately thereafter, rats were killed and the cervical spinal cords were prepared for adenosine A1 receptor mRNA expression by in situ hybridization. Spontaneous recovery of respiratory activity in the ipsilateral phrenic nerve was detected in a majority (15/20) of C2 hemisected animals and amounted to 44.06% +/- 2.38% when expressed as a percentage of activity in the homolateral phrenic nerve in noninjured animals. At the optimal dosage used in the acute studies, theophylline (15 mg/kg) did not enhance, but rather unexpectedly blocked, recovered respiratory activity in 4 out of 5 animals tested. At dosages of 5 mg/kg and 2.5 mg/kg, the drug blocked recovered respiratory activity in 3 out of 4 and 3 out of 5 animals tested, respectively. Quantitative analysis of adenosine A1 receptor mRNA expression did not reveal a significant difference between experimental animals

  14. Acute effects of particulate matter on respiratory diseases, symptoms and functions:. epidemiological results of the Austrian Project on Health Effects of Particulate Matter (AUPHEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Manfred; Schimek, Michael G.; Horak, Friedrich; Moshammer, Hanns; Kundi, Michael; Frischer, Thomas; Gomiscek, Bostjan; Puxbaum, Hans; Hauck, Helger; Auphep-Team

    To examine hypotheses regarding health effects of particulate matter, we conducted time series studies in Austrian urban and rural areas. Of the pollutants measured, ambient PM 2.5 was most consistently associated with parameters of respiratory health. Time series studies applying semiparametric generalized additive models showed significant increases of respiratory hospital admissions (ICD 490-496) at age 65 and older. The early increase of 5.5% in Vienna at a lag of 2 days in males and of 5.6% per 10 μg/m 3 at a lag of 3 days in females was not observed in a nearby rural area. Another increase of respiratory admissions (mainly COPD) was observed after a lag of 10-11 days. A time series on a panel of 56 healthy preschool children showed a significant impact of the carbonaceous fraction of PM 2.5 on tidal breathing pattern assessed by inductive plethysmography. In repeated oscillometric measurements of respiratory resistance in 164 healthy elementary school children not only immediate responses to fine particulates were found but also latent ones, possibly indicating inflammatory changes in airways. It may be speculated that the improvements of urban air quality prevented measurable effects on respiratory mortality. More sensitive indicators, however, still show acute impairments of respiratory function and health in elderly and children which are associated with fine particulates and subfractions related to motor traffic.

  15. The effects of foot and facial massage on sleep induction, blood pressure, pulse and respiratory rate: crossover pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejindu, Anna

    2007-11-01

    The study aimed to compare the effects of facial massage with that of foot massage on sleep induction and vital signs of healthy adults and to test a methodology that could be used by a lone researcher in such a study. A randomised within-group crossover pilot study of six healthy female volunteers was conducted. The interventions were a 20min foot and a 20min facial massage using peach-kernel base oil Prunus persica. A drop in systolic blood pressure of 8.5mmHg was recorded immediately after facial massage compared to that of 1mmHg recorded after foot massage. Both treatments were equally effective in reducing subjective levels of alertness during the interventions, with face massage marginally better at producing subjective sleepiness. A lone researcher using these methods would be able objectively to measure vital signs before and after interventions, but not during; and would be able subjectively to measure sleep induction in non-sleep-laboratory contexts.

  16. Effects of inspiratory muscle training on pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and functional capacity in patients with atrial fibrillation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeren, Melih; Demir, Rengin; Yigit, Zerrin; Gurses, Hulya N

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the effects of inspiratory muscle training on pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and functional capacity in patients with atrial fibrillation. Prospective randomized controlled single-blind study. Cardiology department of a university hospital. A total of 38 patients with permanent atrial fibrillation were randomly allocated to either a treatment group (n = 19; age 66.2 years (8.8)) or a control group (n = 19; age 67.1 years (6.4)). The training group received inspiratory muscle training at 30% of maximal inspiratory pressure for 15 minutes twice a day, 7 days a week, for 12 weeks alongside the standard medical treatment. The control group received standard medical treatment only. Spirometry, maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures and 6-minute walking distance was measured at the beginning and end of the study. There was a significant increase in maximal inspiratory pressure (27.94 cmH 2 O (8.90)), maximal expiratory pressure (24.53 cmH 2 O (10.34)), forced vital capacity (10.29% (8.18) predicted), forced expiratory volume in one second (13.88% (13.42) predicted), forced expiratory flow 25%-75% (14.82% (12.44) predicted), peak expiratory flow (19.82% (15.62) predicted) and 6-minute walking distance (55.53 m (14.13)) in the training group (p  0.05). Inspiratory muscle training can improve pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and functional capacity in patients with atrial fibrillation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Impact of respiratory therapy in vital capacity and functionality of patients undergoing abdominal surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Shanlley Cristina da Silva; Santos, Rafaella Souza dos; Giovanetti, Erica Albanez; Taniguchi, Corinne; Silva, Cilene Saghabi de Medeiros; Eid, Raquel Afonso Caserta; Timenetsky, Karina Tavares; Carnieli-Cazati, Denise

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the vital capacity after two chest therapy techniques in patients undergoing abdominal surgical. Methods A prospective randomized study carried out with patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit after abdominal surgery. We checked vital capacity, muscular strength using the Medical Research Council scale, and functionality with the Functional Independence Measure the first time the patient was breathing spontaneously (D1), and also upon discharge from the...

  18. High blood pressure, antihypertensive medication and lung function in a general adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies showed that blood pressure and lung function are associated. Additionally, a potential effect of antihypertensive medication, especially beta-blockers, on lung function has been discussed. However, side effects of beta-blockers have been investigated mainly in patients with already reduced lung function. Thus, aim of this analysis is to determine whether hypertension and antihypertensive medication have an adverse effect on lung function in a general adult population. Methods Within the population-based KORA F4 study 1319 adults aged 40-65 years performed lung function tests and blood pressure measurements. Additionally, information on anthropometric measurements, medical history and use of antihypertensive medication was available. Multivariable regression models were applied to study the association between blood pressure, antihypertensive medication and lung function. Results High blood pressure as well as antihypertensive medication were associated with lower forced expiratory volume in one second (p = 0.02 respectively p = 0.05; R2: 0.65) and forced vital capacity values (p = 0.01 respectively p = 0.05, R2: 0.73). Furthermore, a detailed analysis of antihypertensive medication pointed out that only the use of beta-blockers was associated with reduced lung function, whereas other antihypertensive medication had no effect on lung function. The adverse effect of beta-blockers was significant for forced vital capacity (p = 0.04; R2: 0.65), while the association with forced expiratory volume in one second showed a trend toward significance (p = 0.07; R2: 0.73). In the same model high blood pressure was associated with reduced forced vital capacity (p = 0.01) and forced expiratory volume in one second (p = 0.03) values, too. Conclusion Our analysis indicates that both high blood pressure and the use of beta-blockers, but not the use of other antihypertensive medication, are associated with reduced lung function in a general adult

  19. Evolution of the respiratory function after irradiation of the two lungs (about 50 cases)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulier, Alain.

    1976-01-01

    Whole chest irradiation to a dose of 870 rets, i.e. 1500 rads in 4 sessions over 7 days, causes only minimal functional reduction in patients whose pulmonary function was normal prior to radiation therapy. This reduction is the result of combination of a mild restrictive syndrome (decreased vital capacity and residual volume) and a slight impairment in gas transfer. The changes in the gas transfer do not seem to be related to the restrictive syndrome. They would appear to be due to changes in the gas exchange zone other than a restriction of the gas exchange surface. A comparison of the results with those in the literature shows that there is a distinct relationship between the dose delivered to the lung and the functional reduction in the gas transfer zone. The reduction (DT) increases exponentially with the biologically active dose (in rets). The lungs tolerance dose calculated from the results of lung function studies corresponds to that evaluated by Abbatucci et al. on the basis of clinical and radiological criteria; it is very close to 900 rets. An increase in this dose would inevitably result in a deterioration in function that would rapidly become too severe: a 20% reduction in alveolararterial 'ductance' would be too great even for patients whose lung function was normal prior to radiation therapy. The recommended total dose of 870 rets already exposes the patient to a risk of a 5% (+-10%) reduction in gas exchange. Function studies prior to radiation therapy are indispensible: the radiotherapist remains, of course, the sole judge of the advisability of lung irradiation, but it is imperative that the physiologist participate in the post-irradiation follow-up [fr

  20. Complete failure of insulin-transmitted signaling, but not obesity-induced insulin resistance, impairs respiratory chain function in muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franko, A; von Kleist-Retzow, J C; Böse, M; Sanchez-Lasheras, C; Brodesser, S; Krut, O; Kunz, W S; Wiedermann, D; Hoehn, M; Stöhr, O; Moll, L; Freude, S; Krone, W; Schubert, M; Wiesner, R J

    2012-10-01

    The role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes remains controversial. In order to specifically define the relationship between insulin receptor (InsR) signaling, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and mitochondrial function, we analyzed mitochondrial performance of insulin-sensitive, slow-oxidative muscle in four different mouse models. In obese but normoglycemic ob/ob mice as well as in obese but diabetic mice under high-fat diet, mitochondrial performance remained unchanged even though intramyocellular diacylglycerols (DAGs), triacylglycerols (TAGs), and ceramides accumulated. In contrast, in muscle-specific InsR knockout (MIRKO) and streptozotocin (STZ)-treated hypoinsulinemic, hyperglycemic mice, levels of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes and mitochondrial function were markedly reduced. In STZ, but not in MIRKO mice, this was caused by reduced transcription of mitochondrial genes mediated via decreased PGC-1α expression. We conclude that mitochondrial dysfunction is not causally involved in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated insulin resistance under normoglycemic conditions. However, obesity-associated type 2 diabetes and accumulation of DAGs or TAGs is not associated with impaired mitochondrial function. In contrast, chronic hypoinsulinemia and hyperglycemia as seen in STZ-treated mice as well as InsR deficiency in muscle of MIRKO mice lead to mitochondrial dysfunction. We postulate that decreased mitochondrial mass and/or performance in skeletal muscle of non-diabetic, obese or type 2 diabetic, obese patients observed in clinical studies must be explained by genetic predisposition, physical inactivity, or other still unknown factors.

  1. Mycobacterium grossiae sp. nov., a rapidly growing, scotochromogenic species isolated from human clinical respiratory and blood culture specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniz-Mondolfi, Alberto Enrique; Greninger, Alexander L; Ladutko, Lynn; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Vasireddy, Ravikiran; Jakubiec, Wesley; Vasireddy, Sruthi; Wallace, Richard J; Simmon, Keith E; Dunn, Bruce E; Jackoway, Gary; Vora, Surabhi B; Quinn, Kevin K; Qin, Xuan; Campbell, Sheldon

    2017-11-01

    A previously undescribed, rapidly growing, scotochromogenic species of the genus Mycobacterium (represented by strains PB739 T and GK) was isolated from two clinical sources - the sputum of a 76-year-old patient with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, history of tuberculosis exposure and Mycobacterium avium complex isolated years prior; and the blood of a 15-year-old male with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia status post bone marrow transplant. The isolates grew as dark orange colonies at 25-37 °C after 5 days, sharing features in common with other closely related species. Analysis of the complete 16S rRNA gene sequence (1492 bp) of strain PB739 T demonstrated that the isolate shared 98.8 % relatedness with Mycobacterium wolinskyi. Partial 429 bp hsp65 and 744 bp rpoB region V sequence analyses revealed that the sequences of the novel isolate shared 94.8 and 92.1 % similarity with those of Mycobacterium neoaurum and Mycobacterium aurum, respectively. Biochemical profiling, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, HPLC/gas-liquid chromatography analyses and multilocus sequence typing support the taxonomic status of these isolates (PB739 T and GK) as representatives of a novel species. Both isolates were susceptible to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommended antimicrobials for susceptibility testing of rapidly growing mycobacteria including amikacin, ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, doxycycline/minocycline, imipenem, linezolid, clarithromycin and trimethropin/sulfamethoxazole. Both isolates PB739 T and GK showed intermediate susceptibility to cefoxitin. We propose the name Mycobacterium grossiae sp. nov. for this novel species and have deposited the type strain in the DSMZ and CIP culture collections. The type strain is PB739 T (=DSM 104744 T =CIP 111318 T ).

  2. [The changes in respiratory cycle, ventilation volume and blood analysis after bronchoalveolar lavage in dogs with steam inhalation injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, G; Xiong, L; Li, G

    1999-11-01

    The changes in respiration cycle, ventilation volume and blood analysis after bronchoalveolar lavage(BAL) in dogs with steam induced inhalation injury were investigated to explore ways of treating inhalation injury. A bronchoscope was introduced down to the openings of the tertiary-quarternary bronchioles, and controlled volume BAL with drugs was done. The inspiration time (Ti) and respiration cycle (Te) at 30, 60, 90 minutes after BAL were significantly lower than those of pre-BAL(P < 0.05), and respiration rate (RR) post-BAL at the same time points was markedly higher than that of pre-BAL(P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The inspiratory minute ventilation volume (Vi) and expiratory minute ventilation volume (Ve) at 30 to 60 minutes after BAL were obviously increased as compared to pre-BAL(P < 0.01-P < 0.05); Vi and Ve at 90 minutes after BAL were also higher than those of pre-BAL, but there was no significant difference between them. The PaO2 at 30 minutes after BAL declined obviously as compared to pre-BAL(P < 0.05), and then rose gradually to approach pre-BAL level compared with pre-BAL. No significant changes were found in the expiration time (Te), ration of Ti to Te (Ti/Te), inspiratory tidal volume (Vti), expiratory tidal volume (Vte), PaCO2 and pH between values before and after BAL at all time points. Controlled volume BAL with mixed drugs could improve lung alveolar ventilation, and it might have an excitory effect on respiration with potential clinical value.

  3. Effects of aerobic training combined with respiratory muscle stretching on the functional exercise capacity and thoracoabdominal kinematics in patients with COPD: a randomized and controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wada JT

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Juliano T Wada,1 Erickson Borges-Santos,1 Desiderio Cano Porras,1 Denise M Paisani,1 Alberto Cukier,2 Adriana C Lunardi,1 Celso RF Carvalho1 1Department of Physical Therapy, 2Department of Cardiopneumology, School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil Background: Patients with COPD present a major recruitment of the inspiratory muscles, predisposing to chest incoordination, increasing the degree of dyspnea and impairing their exercise capacity. Stretching techniques could decrease the respiratory muscle activity and improve their contractile capacity; however, the systemic effects of stretching remain unknown.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic training combined with respiratory muscle stretching on functional exercise capacity and thoracoabdominal kinematics in patients with COPD.Design: This study was a randomized and controlled trial.Participants: A total of 30 patients were allocated to a treatment group (TG or a control group (CG; n=15, each group.Intervention: The TG was engaged in respiratory muscle stretching and the CG in upper and lower limb muscle stretching. Both groups performed 24 sessions (twice a week, 12 weeks of aerobic training.Evaluations: Functional exercise capacity (6-minute walk test, thoracoabdominal kinematics (optoelectronic plethysmography, and respiratory muscle activity (surface electromyography were evaluated during exercise. Analysis of covariance was used to compare the groups at a significance level of 5%.Results: After the intervention, the TG showed improved abdominal (ABD contribution, compartmental volume, mobility, and functional exercise capacity with decreased dyspnea when compared with the CG (P<0.01. The TG also showed a decreased respiratory muscle effort required to obtain the same pulmonary volume compared to the CG (P<0.001.Conclusion: Our results suggest that aerobic training combined with respiratory muscle stretching increases the functional

  4. DNA damage in healthy individuals and respiratory patients after treating whole blood in vitro with the bulk and nano forms of NSAIDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Anderson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs inhibit COX enzyme activity which affects the inflammatory response. Inflammation is associated with increasing cancer incidence. Pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown that NSAID treatment could cause an anti-tumour effect in cancers. In the present study, blood was taken from healthy individuals (n=17 and patients with respiratory diseases or lung cancer (n=36. White blood cells (WBC were treated with either a micro-suspension, i.e. bulk (B or nano-suspension (N of aspirin (ASP or ibuprofen (IBU up to 500 µg/ml in the comet assay and up to 125 µg/ml in the micronucleus assay. In this study results were compared against untreated lymphocytes and their corresponding treated groups. The results showed, thgat NSAIDs in their nano form significantly reduced the DNA damage in WBCs from lung cancer patients in bulk and nano compared to untreated lymphocytes. Also, there was a decrease in the level of DNA damage in the comet assay after treating WBCs from healthy individuals, asthma and COPD groups with aspirin N (ASP N but not with IBU N. In addition, the number of micronuclei decreased after treatment with NSAIDs in their nano form (ASP N and IBU N in the healthy as well as in the lung cancer group. However, this was not the case for micronucleus frequency in asthma and COPD patients. These data show that lymphocytes from different groups respond differently to treatment with ASP and IBU as measured by comet assay and micronucleus assay, and that the size of the suspended particles of the drugs affects responses.

  5. Pulmonary function tests and respiratory symptoms among smokers in the city of mashhad (north east of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Boskabady

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of smoking was studied using a questionnaire. Pulmonary function tests and respiratory symptoms were evaluated in 176 smokers. The total studied population with family and co-workers were 13289. The number of smokers among studied population was 11.7%. The rate of smoking among male subjects was 17.2% and in female 2.5%. All values of PFTs in smokers were significantly lower (p < 0.001 and respiratory symptoms higher than in non smokers (p < 0.05 for cough and p < 0.001 for wheeze and tightness. There were significant negative correlations between smoking duration and rate with values of PFT (p < 0.05-p < 0.001. In this study the prevalence of smoking in population of Mashhad city was shown. The prevalence of smoking was higher among male than females. Smoking leads to increased respiratory symptoms and reduction of PFTs values. Resumen: A prevalência do acto de fumar foi estudada através de um questionário. Os testes de função pulmonar e sintomas respiratórios foram avaliados em 176 fumadores. O total da população estudada com família e colaboradores foi de 13289. O número de fumadores entre a população estudada foi de 11,7%. A taxa do acto de fumar entre os homens foi de 17,2% e de 2,5% entre as mulheres. Todos os valores de TFP nos fumadores foram significativamente inferiores (p < 0.001 e os sintomas respiratórios foram superiores em relação aos não fumadores (p < 0,05 para tosse e p < 0,001 para pieira e aperto torácico. Registaram-se correlações negativas significativas entre a duração do acto de fumar e a taxa com valores de TFP (p < 0,05-p < 0,001. Neste estudo, foi apresentada a prevalência do acto de fumar na população da cidade de Mashhad. A prevalência do acto de fumar foi maior entre os homens do que entre as mulheres. Fumar leva a um aumento de sintomas respiratórios e à redução dos valores de TFP. Keywords: Prevalence of smoking, smoking duration, smoking amount

  6. Sympathetic Activation Does Not Affect the Cardiac and Respiratory Contribution to the Relationship between Blood Pressure and Pial Artery Pulsation Oscillations in Healthy Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel J Winklewski

    Full Text Available Using a novel method called near-infrared transillumination backscattering sounding (NIR-T/BSS that allows for the non-invasive measurement of pial artery pulsation (cc-TQ and subarachnoid width (sas-TQ in humans, we assessed the influence of sympathetic activation on the cardiac and respiratory contribution to blood pressure (BP cc-TQ oscillations in healthy subjects.The pial artery and subarachnoid width response to handgrip (HGT and cold test (CT were studied in 20 healthy subjects. The cc-TQ and sas-TQ were measured using NIR-T/BSS; cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV was measured using Doppler ultrasound of the left internal carotid artery; heart rate (HR and beat-to-beat mean BP were recorded using a continuous finger-pulse photoplethysmography; respiratory rate (RR, minute ventilation (MV, end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2 and end-tidal O2 (EtO2 were measured using a metabolic and spirometry module of the medical monitoring system. Wavelet transform analysis was used to assess the relationship between BP and cc-TQ oscillations.HGT evoked an increase in BP (+15.9%; P<0.001, HR (14.7; P<0.001, SaO2 (+0.5; P<0.001 EtO2 (+2.1; P<0.05 RR (+9.2%; P = 0.05 and MV (+15.5%; P<0.001, while sas-TQ was diminished (-8.12%; P<0.001, and a clear trend toward cc-TQ decline was observed (-11.0%; NS. CBFV (+2.9%; NS and EtCO2 (-0.7; NS did not change during HGT. CT evoked an increase in BP (+7.4%; P<0.001, sas-TQ (+3.5%; P<0.05 and SaO2(+0.3%; P<0.05. HR (+2.3%; NS, CBFV (+2.0%; NS, EtO2 (-0.7%; NS and EtCO2 (+0.9%; NS remained unchanged. A trend toward decreased cc-TQ was observed (-5.1%; NS. The sas-TQ response was biphasic with elevation during the first 40 seconds (+8.8% vs. baseline; P<0.001 and subsequent decline (+4.1% vs. baseline; P<0.05. No change with respect to wavelet coherence and wavelet phase coherence was found between the BP and cc-TQ oscillations.Short sympathetic activation does not affect the cardiac and respiratory contribution to the relationship

  7. Cellular function reinstitution of offspring red blood cells cloned from the sickle cell disease patient blood post CRISPR genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jianguo; Tao, Wenjing; Hao, Suyang; Zu, Youli

    2017-06-13

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a disorder of red blood cells (RBCs) expressing abnormal hemoglobin-S (HbS) due to genetic inheritance of homologous HbS gene. However, people with the sickle cell trait (SCT) carry a single allele of HbS and do not usually suffer from SCD symptoms, thus providing a rationale to treat SCD. To validate gene therapy potential, hematopoietic stem cells were isolated from the SCD patient blood and treated with CRISPR/Cas9 approach. To precisely dissect genome-editing effects, erythroid progenitor cells were cloned from single colonies of CRISPR-treated cells and then expanded for simultaneous gene, protein, and cellular function studies. Genotyping and sequencing analysis revealed that the genome-edited erythroid progenitor colonies were converted to SCT genotype from SCD genotype. HPLC protein assays confirmed reinstallation of normal hemoglobin at a similar level with HbS in the cloned genome-edited erythroid progenitor cells. For cell function evaluation, in vitro RBC differentiation of the cloned erythroid progenitor cells was induced. As expected, cell sickling assays indicated function reinstitution of the genome-edited offspring SCD RBCs, which became more resistant to sickling under hypoxia condition. This study is an exploration of genome editing of SCD HSPCs.

  8. Cellular function reinstitution of offspring red blood cells cloned from the sickle cell disease patient blood post CRISPR genome editing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Wen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sickle cell disease (SCD is a disorder of red blood cells (RBCs expressing abnormal hemoglobin-S (HbS due to genetic inheritance of homologous HbS gene. However, people with the sickle cell trait (SCT carry a single allele of HbS and do not usually suffer from SCD symptoms, thus providing a rationale to treat SCD. Methods To validate gene therapy potential, hematopoietic stem cells were isolated from the SCD patient blood and treated with CRISPR/Cas9 approach. To precisely dissect genome-editing effects, erythroid progenitor cells were cloned from single colonies of CRISPR-treated cells and then expanded for simultaneous gene, protein, and cellular function studies. Results Genotyping and sequencing analysis revealed that the genome-edited erythroid progenitor colonies were converted to SCT genotype from SCD genotype. HPLC protein assays confirmed reinstallation of normal hemoglobin at a similar level with HbS in the cloned genome-edited erythroid progenitor cells. For cell function evaluation, in vitro RBC differentiation of the cloned erythroid progenitor cells was induced. As expected, cell sickling assays indicated function reinstitution of the genome-edited offspring SCD RBCs, which became more resistant to sickling under hypoxia condition. Conclusions This study is an exploration of genome editing of SCD HSPCs.

  9. Technology in respiratory medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Repro

    Respiratory medicine is the subspecialty in medicine which requires the most regu- lar and precise evaluation of physiological function for complete assessment of the patient. The very nature of respiratory physiology requires the availability of a range of technological devices. Physiological measurements that may be.

  10. Study of respiratory function in the elderly with different nutritional and cognitive status and functional ability assessed by plethysmographic and spirometric parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippi, Francesco; Tana, Francesco; Vanzati, Simona; Balzarini, Barbara; Galetti, Giuseppe

    2003-01-01

    From a sample of 265 elderly subjects (age 80.2 +/- 6.8 years) admitted to a geriatric care unit, free from cardiac and respiratory diseases, with normal chest X-ray and gas analysis, 53 subjects were selected and their respiratory functions (assessed by spirometric parameters and airway resistance 'Raw') were studied to correlate them with nutritional status, cognitive impairment, independence in everyday life activities and mood disorders, assessed, respectively, by the Mini Nutritional Assessment, rapid Mini Mental State test (MMSr), activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) evaluation, Barthel Index and Cornell Depression Scale. The enrolled subjects were able to perform normally a forced expiration, although most of them committed errors in this test, according to the American Thoracic Society (ATS) criteria. Thus, about 32% started at lung volume0.12 s); in 62% of the subjects expiration time was too short and in 58% the terminal plateau was cognitive and nutritional status did not seem to have any influence on spirometric performance; MMSr score was related to compliance with ATS criteria for acceptability of the forced manoeuvre; mental and mood disorders, nutritional conditions and disability did not seem to have any influence on error rates. Our data show that our geriatric enrolled patients were able to perform an imperfect, often unfinished, but acceptable forced expiration; dynamic index values were related to disability, while the errors in starting the test were related to the mental conditions.

  11. A comparison of blood nitric oxide metabolites and hemoglobin functional properties among diving mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fago, Angela; Parraga, Daniel Garcia; Petersen, Elin E.

    2017-01-01

    in regulating blood flow, we measured concentration of nitrite and S-nitrosothiols (SNO), two metabolites of the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO), in the blood of 5 species of marine mammals differing in their dive duration: bottlenose dolphin, South American sea lion, harbor seal, walrus and beluga whale. We also...... examined oxygen affinity, sensitivity to 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) and nitrite reductase activity of the hemoglobin (Hb) to search for possible adaptive variations in these functional properties. We found levels of plasma and red blood cells nitrite similar to those reported for terrestrial mammals...... in blood oxygen affinity among diving mammals likely derive from phenotypic variations in red blood cell DPG levels. The nitrite reductase activities of the Hbs were overall slightly higher than that of human Hb, with the Hb of beluga whale, capable of longest dives, having the highest activity. Taken...

  12. Lung function studied by servo-controlled ventilator and respiratory mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piiper, J.

    1987-01-01

    The gas exchange function of lungs is studied. The gas concentration, measured by mass spectrometry and the lung volume and rate of change of lung volume are discussed. A servo-controlled ventilator is presented. Several experimental projects performed on anesthetized paralyzed dogs are reported. (M.A.C.) [pt

  13. Aim24 and MICOS modulate respiratory function, tafazzin-related cardiolipin modification and mitochondrial architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harner, Max Emanuel; Unger, Ann-Katrin; Izawa, Toshiaki; Walther, Dirk M; Ozbalci, Cagakan; Geimer, Stefan; Reggiori, Fulvio; Brügger, Britta; Mann, Matthias; Westermann, Benedikt; Neupert, Walter; Reggiori, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    Structure and function of mitochondria are intimately linked. In a search for components that participate in building the elaborate architecture of this complex organelle we have identified Aim24, an inner membrane protein. Aim24 interacts with the MICOS complex that is required for the formation of

  14. Functional aspects of blood platelets in irradiated burros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M.D.

    1977-02-01

    In irradiated burros (Equus asinus), a delayed clinical syndrome characterized by a depletion of megakarocytes and platelets has been observed. To clarify the cause of this syndrome, the functional abilities of platelets in 7 irradiated and 3 control burros were studied in vitro. The irradiated burros were survivors (> 18 years) of total-body exposures to near-lethal doses of ..gamma..-radiation. Burro platelet aggregability induced with adenosine diphosphate and thrombin, and with a complex stimulator from burro aortas, was determined by means of a self-calibrating aggregometer. Data indicated that the aggregation responsiveness to adenosine diphosphate and thrombin of platelets from surviving irradiated and unirradiated burros is not defective. An extractible collagen-like stimulator of platelet aggregation was discovered in the aorta of a burro that had survived > 24 years after exposure to a total-body dose of 545 roentgens (R) of tantalum-182 ..gamma..-radiation. The platelet-aggregating ability of this stimulator from the vessel wall of the irradiated burro was nearly fourfold greater than that from the aorta of an unirradiated control. Perhaps a delayed radiation effect could be the cause of this vascular agent's high platelet-aggregating ability and could lead to a clinical syndrome marked by depletion of megakaryocytes and platelets.

  15. The Consequences of Preterm Birth and Chorioamnionitis on Brainstem Respiratory Centers: Implications for Neurochemical Development and Altered Functions by Inflammation and Prostaglandins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Stojanovska

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is a major cause for neonatal morbidity and mortality, and is frequently associated with adverse neurological outcomes. The transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life at birth is particularly challenging for preterm infants. The main physiological driver for extrauterine transition is the establishment of spontaneous breathing. However, preterm infants have difficulty clearing lung liquid, have insufficient surfactant levels, and underdeveloped lungs. Further, preterm infants have an underdeveloped brainstem, resulting in reduced respiratory drive. These factors facilitate the increased requirement for respiratory support. A principal cause of preterm birth is intrauterine infection/inflammation (chorioamnionitis, and infants with chorioamnionitis have an increased risk and severity of neurological damage, but also demonstrate impaired autoresuscitation capacity and prevalent apnoeic episodes. The brainstem contains vital respiratory centers which provide the neural drive for breathing, but the impact of preterm birth and/or chorioamnionitis on this brain region is not well understood. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the role and function of the brainstem respiratory centers, and to highlight the proposed mechanisms of how preterm birth and chorioamnionitis may affect central respiratory functions.

  16. The Consequences of Preterm Birth and Chorioamnionitis on Brainstem Respiratory Centers: Implications for Neurochemical Development and Altered Functions by Inflammation and Prostaglandins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovska, Vanesa; Miller, Suzanne L; Hooper, Stuart B; Polglase, Graeme R

    2018-01-01

    Preterm birth is a major cause for neonatal morbidity and mortality, and is frequently associated with adverse neurological outcomes. The transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life at birth is particularly challenging for preterm infants. The main physiological driver for extrauterine transition is the establishment of spontaneous breathing. However, preterm infants have difficulty clearing lung liquid, have insufficient surfactant levels, and underdeveloped lungs. Further, preterm infants have an underdeveloped brainstem, resulting in reduced respiratory drive. These factors facilitate the increased requirement for respiratory support. A principal cause of preterm birth is intrauterine infection/inflammation (chorioamnionitis), and infants with chorioamnionitis have an increased risk and severity of neurological damage, but also demonstrate impaired autoresuscitation capacity and prevalent apnoeic episodes. The brainstem contains vital respiratory centers which provide the neural drive for breathing, but the impact of preterm birth and/or chorioamnionitis on this brain region is not well understood. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the role and function of the brainstem respiratory centers, and to highlight the proposed mechanisms of how preterm birth and chorioamnionitis may affect central respiratory functions.

  17. Advantages of porcine blood plasma as a component of functional drinks

    OpenAIRE

    O. V. Kriger

    2014-01-01

    The composition and properties of blood plasma obtained from slaughtered farm animals and intended for use in the manufacturing of foods for the prevention of oxygen deficiency (hypoxia) are analyzed in the present paper. The use of aerated functional products (oxygen cocktails) is an efficient approach to hypoxia prevention. Protein-based foaming agents are known to form the most stable foams. Porcine blood plasma is a rich source of high molecular weight proteins. A method of processing of ...

  18. Visualization of mitochondrial respiratory function using cytochrome c oxidase/succinate dehydrogenase (COX/SDH) double-labeling histochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jaime M

    2011-11-23

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) defects are an important cause of disease and may underlie aging and aging-related alterations (1,2). The mitochondrial theory of aging suggests a role for mtDNA mutations, which can alter bioenergetics homeostasis and cellular function, in the aging process (3). A wealth of evidence has been compiled in support of this theory (1,4), an example being the mtDNA mutator mouse (5); however, the precise role of mtDNA damage in aging is not entirely understood (6,7). Observing the activity of respiratory enzymes is a straightforward approach for investigating mitochondrial dysfunction. Complex IV, or cytochrome c oxidase (COX), is essential for mitochondrial function. The catalytic subunits of COX are encoded by mtDNA and are essential for assembly of the complex (Figure 1). Thus, proper synthesis and function are largely based on mtDNA integrity (2). Although other respiratory complexes could be investigated, Complexes IV and II are the most amenable to histochemical examination (8,9). Complex II, or succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), is entirely encoded by nuclear DNA (Figure 1), and its activity is typically not affected by impaired mtDNA, although an increase might indicate mitochondrial biogenesis (10-12). The impaired mtDNA observed in mitochondrial diseases, aging, and age-related diseases often leads to the presence of cells with low or absent COX activity (2,12-14). Although COX and SDH activities can be investigated individually, the sequential double-labeling method (15,16) has proved to be advantageous in locating cells with mitochondrial dysfunction (12,17-21). Many of the optimal constitutions of the assay have been determined, such as substrate concentration, electron acceptors/donors, intermediate electron carriers, influence of pH, and reaction time (9,22,23). 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) is an effective and reliable electron donor (22). In cells with functioning COX, the brown indamine polymer product will localize in mitochondrial

  19. Respiratory and cardiovascular functions among smoking and nonsmoking girls from two regions with different air pollution degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnovska, Tanya H; Mandadzhieva, Stoilka K; Marinov, Blagoi I; Kostianev, Stefan S

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the respiratory and cardiovascular functions among smoking and nonsmoking girls attending two schools situated in regions with different levels of air pollution. The characteristic of air pollution is based on the data gathered by stations 1 and 2 belonging to the Uniform National System for Monitoring the Air Pollution in Bulgaria. The participants (n=108, 16.07+/-0.80 years) were separated in two groups: smokers (S1 - from school 1, S2 - from school 2) and nonsmokers (NS1 - from school 1, NS2 - from school 2). All of them performed pulmonary function testing and .cardiopulmonary exercise testing on a treadmill using our modification of the Balke protocol (Marinov et al., 2000). Reference values for European children, previously validated for the Bulgarian population, were used. There are no significant differences in mean levels of VC, IC, FEV1, MEF50 and MEF25 (as a percentage from the predicted value as well). The average level of the Tiffneau index is noticeably higher among nonsmokers from the two regions and is the lowest among smokers from the more polluted area, but a significant difference exists between S2 (88.7+/-5.9) and NS2 (92.6+/-4.7), p=0.047; T(L,CO)%pred: S1 (85.4+/-7.2) vs. S2 (86.7+/-8.2), p=0.048 and NS1 (88.3+/-8.2) vs. NS2 (92.8+/-14.5), p=0.037; V(E)%pred: S1 (127.5+/-9.6) vs. S2 (123.7+/-6.1), p=0.035; higher levels of total lung capacity (TLC%pred), S1 (107.3+/-9.2) vs. NS2 (104.3+/-9.1), p=0.009 and alveolar ventilation (VA), S1 (5.0+/-0.6) vs. NS2 (4.6+/-0.5), p=0.008. 1. The negative effects of the combined influence of tobacco smoking and air pollution on some respiratory and cardiovascular functions of adolescent girls are more pronounced than each influence alone. 2. The cardiopulmonary exercise test gives adequate information about the combined effect of air pollution and smoking and using it for preventive purposes is an advisable method.

  20. Improving Survival and Promoting Respiratory Motor Function After Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    care for cervical SCI patients so as to lead to an improved quality of life, better- quality health care management , and improved functional outcomes...to the standard of care for cervical SCI patients so as to lead to an improved quality of life, better- quality health care management , and improved...ventilator in order to survive. Use of the ventilator severely limits the quality of life of those injured and dramatically increases the demand for health

  1. Inspiratory muscle training improves respiratory muscle strength, functional capacity and quality of life in patients with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Irene Carlos de Medeiros

    2017-04-01

    Registration: PROSPERO (CRD 42015029986. [de Medeiros AIC, Fuzari HKB, Rattesa C, Brandão DC, de Melo Marinho PÉ (2017 Inspiratory muscle training improves respiratory muscle strength, functional capacity and quality of life in patients with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy 63: 76–83

  2. Executive Functions Impact the Relation between Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia and Frequency of Stuttering in Young Children Who Do and Do Not Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robin M.; Walden, Tedra A.; Conture, Edward G.; Erdemir, Aysu; Lambert, Warren E.; Porges, Stephen W.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study sought to determine whether respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and executive functions are associated with stuttered speech disfluencies of young children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS). Method: Thirty-six young CWS and 36 CWNS were exposed to neutral, negative, and positive emotion-inducing video clips, followed by…

  3. Expression of mitochondrial regulatory genes parallels respiratory capacity and contractile function in a rat model of hypoxia-induced right ventricular hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic hypobaric hypoxia (CHH) increases load on the right ventricle (RV) resulting in RV hypertrophy. We hypothesized that CHH elicits distinct responses, i.e., the hypertrophied RV, unlike the left ventricle (LV), displaying enhanced mitochondrial respiratory and contractile function. Wistar rats...

  4. Effects of passive inhalation of cigarette smoke on structural and functional parameters in the respiratory system of guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Brasileiro de Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effects of passive inhalation of cigarette smoke on the respiratory system of guinea pigs. Methods: Male guinea pigs were divided into two groups: control and passive smoking, the latter being exposed to the smoke of ten cigarettes for 20 min in the morning, afternoon and evening (30 cigarettes/day for five days. After that period, inflammatory parameters were studied by quantifying mesenteric mast cell degranulation, as well as oxidative stress, in BAL fluid. In addition, we determined MIP, MEP, and mucociliary transport (in vivo, as well as tracheal contractility response (in vitro. Results: In comparison with the control group, the passive smoking group showed a significant increase in mast cell degranulation (19.75 ± 3.77% vs. 42.53 ± 0.42%; p < 0.001 and in the levels of reduced glutathione (293.9 ± 19.21 vs. 723.7 ± 67.43 nM/g of tissue; p < 0.05; as well as a significant reduction in mucociliary clearance (p < 0.05, which caused significant changes in pulmonary function (in MIP and MEP; p < 0.05 for both and airway hyperreactivity. Conclusions: Passive inhalation of cigarette smoke caused significant increases in mast cell degranulation and oxidative stress. This inflammatory process seems to influence the decrease in mucociliary transport and to cause changes in pulmonary function, leading to tracheal hyperreactivity.

  5. Increased cerebral blood flow velocity in children with mild sleep-disordered breathing: a possible association with abnormal neuropsychological function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Catherine M; Hogan, Alexandra M; Onugha, Nwanneka; Harrison, Dawn; Cooper, Sara; McGrigor, Victoria J; Datta, Avijit; Kirkham, Fenella J

    2006-10-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing describes a spectrum of upper airway obstruction in sleep from simple primary snoring, estimated to affect 10% of preschool children, to the syndrome of obstructive sleep apnea. Emerging evidence has challenged previous assumptions that primary snoring is benign. A recent report identified reduced attention and higher levels of social problems and anxiety/depressive symptoms in snoring children compared with controls. Uncertainty persists regarding clinical thresholds for medical or surgical intervention in sleep-disordered breathing, underlining the need to better understand the pathophysiology of this condition. Adults with sleep-disordered breathing have an increased risk of cerebrovascular disease independent of atherosclerotic risk factors. There has been little focus on cerebrovascular function in children with sleep-disordered breathing, although this would seem an important line of investigation, because studies have identified abnormalities of the systemic vasculature. Raised cerebral blood flow velocities on transcranial Doppler, compatible with raised blood flow and/or vascular narrowing, are associated with neuropsychological deficits in children with sickle cell disease, a condition in which sleep-disordered breathing is common. We hypothesized that there would be cerebral blood flow velocity differences in sleep-disordered breathing children without sickle cell disease that might contribute to the association with neuropsychological deficits. Thirty-one snoring children aged 3 to 7 years were recruited from adenotonsillectomy waiting lists, and 17 control children were identified through a local Sunday school or as siblings of cases. Children with craniofacial abnormalities, neuromuscular disorders, moderate or severe learning disabilities, chronic respiratory/cardiac conditions, or allergic rhinitis were excluded. Severity of sleep-disordered breathing in snoring children was categorized by attended polysomnography. Weight

  6. Effect of Maixuekang capsule therapy on optic nerve function, blood coagulation function and cytokines in diabetic optic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Li Hao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the effect of Maixuekang capsule therapy on optic nerve function, blood coagulation function and cytokines in diabetic optic neuropathy. Methods: A total of 55 patients (82 eyes with diabetic optic neuropathy treated in our hospital between December 2013 and December 2015 were selected, and according to different therapeutic methods, they were divided into observation group (n=38 (49 eyes who received Maixuekang therapy and control group (n=17 (33 eyes who received compound vitamin therapy. Differences in optic nerve function, blood coagulation function and cytokine content were compared between two groups after 3 months of treatment. Results: After 3 months of treatment, optic nerve function indexes MS, RNFL thickness and AP100 levels of observation group were higher than those of control group while MD and LP100 levels were lower than those of control group; blood coagulation indexes WBV, PV and FBG levels were lower than those of control group while TT, PT and APTT levels were higher than those of control group; thrombelastogram parameters R value and K value levels were higher than those of control group while α angle, MA and CI levels were lower than those of control group; oxidative stress indexes ROS, MDA and CAT content in serum were lower than those of control group while SOD content was higher than that of control group. Conclusions: Maixuekang capsule can significantly optimize the optic nerve function in patients with DON, which is specifically directly related to its anticoagulation and anti-oxidative stress effect.

  7. Muscle endurance and mitochondrial function after chronic normobaric hypoxia: contrast of respiratory and limb muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa, Jorge L; Andrade, Francisco H

    2012-02-01

    Skeletal muscle adaptation to chronic hypoxia includes loss of oxidative capacity and decrease in fiber size. However, the diaphragm may adapt differently since its activity increases in response to hypoxia. Thus, we hypothesized that chronic hypoxia would not affect endurance, mitochondrial function, or fiber size in the mouse diaphragm. Adult male mice were kept in normoxia (control) or hypoxia (hypoxia, FIO(2) = 10%) for 4 weeks. After that time, muscles were collected for histological, biochemical, and functional analyses. Hypoxia soleus muscles fatigued faster (fatigue index higher in control, 21.5 ± 2.6% vs. 13.4 ± 2.4%, p muscles, but it was 25% smaller in diaphragm (p muscles were lower: state 2 decreased 19%, state 3 31%, and state 4 18% vs. control, p muscle mitochondria had lower content of complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase), while diaphragm mitochondria had higher content of complexes IV and V (F (1)/F (0) ATP synthase) and less uncoupling protein 3 (UCP-3). These data demonstrate that diaphragm retains its endurance during chronic hypoxia, apparently due to a combination of morphometric changes and optimization of mitochondrial energy production.

  8. Leg position influences early blood loss and functional recovery following total knee arthroplasty: A randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Yong-Ming, Lv; Pei-jian, Ding; Jia, Li; Ying-ze, Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Hidden blood loss is a major factor influencing functional recovery and quality of life in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. Special hip and knee flexion positions after have been reported to have promising results with respect to reducing perioperative blood loss. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of postoperative leg position on blood loss and functional recovery after total knee arthroplasty. We enrolled 46 consecutive patients with degenerative osteoarthritis of the knee in this prospective, randomized study. The patients were randomly allocated to a flexion or an extension group. In the flexion group, the affected leg was elevated by 60° at the hip, and the knee was flexed by 60°, while in the extension group, the affected knee was fully extended postoperatively. Blood loss, hemoglobin level, knee circumference and range of motion (ROM) were recorded to determine the influence of postoperative leg position on clinical outcomes. Although the transfusion rate was similar between the two groups (P > 0.05), other parameters related to blood loss (including calculated blood loss, hidden blood loss and postoperative knee circumference) were significantly lower in the flexion group than in the extension group (P group had gained a better ROM in the affected knee than had patients from the extension group (P = 0.04). At 6 months, however, the ROM of the affected knee was similar in both groups. The hospital stay was 1.9 days shorter in the flexion group than in the extension group. Wound infection rates were similar in both groups, and no proven case of deep vein thrombosis was observed in either group. Elevation of the hip by 60° with 60° knee flexion is an effective and simple method to reduce blood loss after primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty, and contributes to better recovery of the functional ROM in the early postoperative period. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  9. Differences in Whole Blood Gene Expression Associated with Infection Time-Course and Extent of Fetal Mortality in a Reproductive Model of Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Jamie M.; Ladinig, Andrea; Bao, Hua; Kommadath, Arun; Stothard, Paul; Lunney, Joan K.; Harding, John C. S.; Plastow, Graham S.

    2016-01-01

    Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) infection of pregnant females causes fetal death and increased piglet mortality, but there is substantial variation in the extent of reproductive pathology between individual dams. This study used RNA-sequencing to characterize the whole blood transcriptional response to type 2 PRRSV in pregnant gilts during the first week of infection (at 0, 2, and 6 days post-inoculation), and attempted to identify gene expression signatures associated with a low or high level of fetal mortality rates (LFM and HFM; n = 8/group) at necropsy, 21 days post-inoculation. The initial response to infection measured at 2 days post-inoculation saw an upregulation of genes involved in innate immunity, such as interferon-stimulated antiviral genes and inflammatory markers, and apoptosis. A concomitant decrease in expression of protein synthesis and T lymphocyte markers was observed. By day 6 the pattern had reversed, with a drop in innate immune signaling and an increase in the expression of genes involved in cell division and T cell signaling. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with extremes of litter mortality rate were identified at all three time-points. Among the 15 DEGs upregulated in LFM gilts on all three days were several genes involved in platelet function, including integrins ITGA2B and ITGB3, and the chemokine PF4 (CXCL4). LFM gilts exhibited a higher baseline expression of interferon-stimulated and pro-inflammatory genes prior to infection, and of T cell markers two days post-infection, indicative of a more rapid progression of the immune response to PRRSV. This study has increased our knowledge of the early response to PRRSV in the blood of pregnant gilts, and could ultimately lead to the development of a biomarker panel that can be used to predict PRRSV-associated reproductive pathology. PMID:27093427

  10. Differences in Whole Blood Gene Expression Associated with Infection Time-Course and Extent of Fetal Mortality in a Reproductive Model of Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie M Wilkinson

    Full Text Available Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV infection of pregnant females causes fetal death and increased piglet mortality, but there is substantial variation in the extent of reproductive pathology between individual dams. This study used RNA-sequencing to characterize the whole blood transcriptional response to type 2 PRRSV in pregnant gilts during the first week of infection (at 0, 2, and 6 days post-inoculation, and attempted to identify gene expression signatures associated with a low or high level of fetal mortality rates (LFM and HFM; n = 8/group at necropsy, 21 days post-inoculation. The initial response to infection measured at 2 days post-inoculation saw an upregulation of genes involved in innate immunity, such as interferon-stimulated antiviral genes and inflammatory markers, and apoptosis. A concomitant decrease in expression of protein synthesis and T lymphocyte markers was observed. By day 6 the pattern had reversed, with a drop in innate immune signaling and an increase in the expression of genes involved in cell division and T cell signaling. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs associated with extremes of litter mortality rate were identified at all three time-points. Among the 15 DEGs upregulated in LFM gilts on all three days were several genes involved in platelet function, including integrins ITGA2B and ITGB3, and the chemokine PF4 (CXCL4. LFM gilts exhibited a higher baseline expression of interferon-stimulated and pro-inflammatory genes prior to infection, and of T cell markers two days post-infection, indicative of a more rapid progression of the immune response to PRRSV. This study has increased our knowledge of the early response to PRRSV in the blood of pregnant gilts, and could ultimately lead to the development of a biomarker panel that can be used to predict PRRSV-associated reproductive pathology.

  11. Differences in Whole Blood Gene Expression Associated with Infection Time-Course and Extent of Fetal Mortality in a Reproductive Model of Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Jamie M; Ladinig, Andrea; Bao, Hua; Kommadath, Arun; Stothard, Paul; Lunney, Joan K; Harding, John C S; Plastow, Graham S

    2016-01-01

    Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) infection of pregnant females causes fetal death and increased piglet mortality, but there is substantial variation in the extent of reproductive pathology between individual dams. This study used RNA-sequencing to characterize the whole blood transcriptional response to type 2 PRRSV in pregnant gilts during the first week of infection (at 0, 2, and 6 days post-inoculation), and attempted to identify gene expression signatures associated with a low or high level of fetal mortality rates (LFM and HFM; n = 8/group) at necropsy, 21 days post-inoculation. The initial response to infection measured at 2 days post-inoculation saw an upregulation of genes involved in innate immunity, such as interferon-stimulated antiviral genes and inflammatory markers, and apoptosis. A concomitant decrease in expression of protein synthesis and T lymphocyte markers was observed. By day 6 the pattern had reversed, with a drop in innate immune signaling and an increase in the expression of genes involved in cell division and T cell signaling. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with extremes of litter mortality rate were identified at all three time-points. Among the 15 DEGs upregulated in LFM gilts on all three days were several genes involved in platelet function, including integrins ITGA2B and ITGB3, and the chemokine PF4 (CXCL4). LFM gilts exhibited a higher baseline expression of interferon-stimulated and pro-inflammatory genes prior to infection, and of T cell markers two days post-infection, indicative of a more rapid progression of the immune response to PRRSV. This study has increased our knowledge of the early response to PRRSV in the blood of pregnant gilts, and could ultimately lead to the development of a biomarker panel that can be used to predict PRRSV-associated reproductive pathology.

  12. Assessing the impacts of total liquid ventilation on left ventricular diastolic function in a model of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaël Sage

    Full Text Available Filling the lung with dense liquid perfluorocarbons during total liquid ventilation (TLV might compress the myocardium, a plausible explanation for the instability occasionally reported with this technique. Our objective is to assess the impacts of TLV on the cardiovascular system, particularly left ventricular diastolic function, in an ovine model of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome.Eight newborns lambs, 3.0 ± 0.4 days (3.2 ± 0.3kg were used in this crossover experimental study. Animals were intubated, anesthetized and paralyzed. Catheters were inserted in the femoral and pulmonary arteries. A high-fidelity pressure catheter was inserted into the left ventricle. Surfactant deficiency was induced by repeated lung lavages with normal saline. TLV was then conducted for 2 hours using a liquid ventilator prototype. Thoracic echocardiography and cardiac output assessment by thermodilution were performed before and during TLV.Left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP (9.3 ± 2.1 vs. 9.2 ± 2.4mmHg, p = 0.89 and dimension (1.90 ± 0.09 vs. 1.86 ± 0.12cm, p = 0.72, negative dP/dt (-2589 ± 691 vs. -3115 ± 866mmHg/s, p = 0.50 and cardiac output (436 ± 28 vs. 481 ± 59ml/kg/min, p = 0.26 were not affected by TLV initiation. Left ventricular relaxation time constant (tau slightly increased from 21.5 ± 3.3 to 24.9 ± 3.7ms (p = 0.03. Mean arterial systemic (48 ± 6 vs. 53 ± 7mmHg, p = 0.38 and pulmonary pressures (31.3 ± 2.5 vs. 30.4 ± 2.3mmHg, p = 0.61 were stable. As expected, the inspiratory phase of liquid cycling exhibited a small but significant effect on most variables (i.e. central venous pressure +2.6 ± 0.5mmHg, p = 0.001; LVEDP +1.18 ± 0.12mmHg, p<0.001.TLV was well tolerated in our neonatal lamb model of severe respiratory distress syndrome and had limited impact on left ventricle diastolic function when compared to conventional mechanical ventilation.

  13. Diaphragmatic mobility: relationship with lung function, respiratory muscle strength, dyspnea, and physical activity in daily life in patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Flávia Roberta; Brüggemann, Ana Karla Vieira; Francisco, Davi de Souza; Medeiros, Caroline Semprebom de; Rosal, Danielle; Paulin, Elaine

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate diaphragmatic mobility in relation to lung function, respiratory muscle strength, dyspnea, and physical activity in daily life (PADL) in patients with COPD. We included 25 patients with COPD, classified according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria, and 25 healthy individuals. For all of the participants, the following were evaluated: anthropometric variables, spirometric parameters, respiratory muscle strength, diaphragmatic mobility (by X-ray), PADL, and the perception of dyspnea. In the COPD group, diaphragmatic mobility was found to correlate with lung function variables, inspiratory muscle strength, and the perception of dyspnea, whereas it did not correlate with expiratory muscle strength or PADL. In patients with COPD, diaphragmatic mobility seems to be associated with airway obstruction and lung hyperinflation, as well as with ventilatory capacity and the perception of dyspnea, although not with PADL. Avaliar a relação da mobilidade diafragmática com a função pulmonar, força muscular respiratória, dispneia e atividade física de vida diária (AFVD) em pacientes com DPOC. Foram avaliados 25 pacientes com diagnóstico de DPOC, classificados de acordo com critérios da Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, e 25 indivíduos saudáveis. Todos foram submetidos às seguintes avaliações: mensuração antropométrica, espirometria, força muscular respiratória, mobilidade diafragmática (por radiografia), AFVD e percepção de dispneia. No grupo DPOC, houve correlações da mobilidade diafragmática com variáveis de função pulmonar, força muscular inspiratória e percepção de dispneia. Não houve correlações da mobilidade diafragmática com força muscular expiratória e AFVD. A mobilidade diafragmática parece estar associada tanto com a obstrução das vias aéreas quanto com a hiperinsuflação pulmonar em pacientes com DPOC, assim como com a capacidade ventilatória e percep

  14. Impact of blood products on platelet function in patients with traumatic injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Hanne Hee; Grand, Alexandra G.; Viggers, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    in function could be associated with the donor plasma/supernatant received. Methods PLT count and function were measured on admission to the emergency department and intensive care unit in severely injured patients expected to receive a transfusion. PLT function was measured by Multiplate aggregometry...... Severity Score was 23 (13, 29) and mortality 15%. PLT count and function were decreased from emergency department to intensive care unit admission by 25% and 58%, respectively. Decreases in function persisted after adjustment for count. Patients requiring large volumes of blood products had reductions...

  15. Effect of cannabis smoking on lung function and respiratory symptoms: a structured literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Luis IG; Ind, Philip W

    2016-01-01

    As cannabis use increases, physicians need to be familiar with the effects of both cannabis and tobacco on the lungs. However, there have been very few long-term studies of cannabis smoking, mostly due to legality issues and the confounding effects of tobacco. It was previously thought that cannabis and tobacco had similar long-term effects as both cause chronic bronchitis. However, recent large studies have shown that, instead of reducing forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity (FVC), marijuana smoking is associated with increased FVC. The cause of this is unclear, but acute bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory effects of cannabis may be relevant. Bullous lung disease, barotrauma and cannabis smoking have been recognised in case reports and small series. More work is needed to address the effects of cannabis on lung function, imaging and histological changes. PMID:27763599

  16. Deficient dopamine D2 receptor function causes renal inflammation independently of high blood pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanrong Zhang

    Full Text Available Renal dopamine receptors participate in the regulation of blood pressure. Genetic factors, including polymorphisms of the dopamine D(2 receptor gene (DRD2 are associated with essential hypertension, but the mechanisms of their contribution are incompletely understood. Mice lacking Drd2 (D(2-/- have elevated blood pressure, increased renal expression of inflammatory factors, and renal injury. We tested the hypothesis that decreased dopamine D(2 receptor (D(2R function increases vulnerability to renal inflammation independently of blood pressure, is an immediate cause of renal injury, and contributes to the subsequent development of hypertension. In D(2-/- mice, treatment with apocynin normalized blood pressure and decreased oxidative stress, but did not affect the expression of inflammatory factors. In mouse RPTCs Drd2 silencing increased the expression of TNFα and MCP-1, while treatment with a D(2R agonist abolished the angiotensin II-induced increase in TNF-α and MCP-1. In uni-nephrectomized wild-type mice, selective Drd2 silencing by subcapsular infusion of Drd2 siRNA into the remaining kidney produced the same increase in renal cytokines/chemokines that occurs after Drd2 deletion, increased the expression of markers of renal injury, and increased blood pressure. Moreover, in mice with two intact kidneys, short-term Drd2 silencing in one kidney, leaving the other kidney undisturbed, induced inflammatory factors and markers of renal injury in the treated kidney without increasing blood pressure. Our results demonstrate that the impact of decreased D(2R function on renal inflammation is a primary effect, not necessarily associated with enhanced oxidant activity, or blood pressure; renal damage is the cause, not the result, of hypertension. Deficient renal D(2R function may be of clinical relevance since common polymorphisms of the human DRD2 gene result in decreased D(2R expression and function.

  17. Deficient dopamine D2 receptor function causes renal inflammation independently of high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanrong; Cuevas, Santiago; Asico, Laureano D; Escano, Crisanto; Yang, Yu; Pascua, Annabelle M; Wang, Xiaoyan; Jones, John E; Grandy, David; Eisner, Gilbert; Jose, Pedro A; Armando, Ines

    2012-01-01

    Renal dopamine receptors participate in the regulation of blood pressure. Genetic factors, including polymorphisms of the dopamine D(2) receptor gene (DRD2) are associated with essential hypertension, but the mechanisms of their contribution are incompletely understood. Mice lacking Drd2 (D(2)-/-) have elevated blood pressure, increased renal expression of inflammatory factors, and renal injury. We tested the hypothesis that decreased dopamine D(2) receptor (D(2)R) function increases vulnerability to renal inflammation independently of blood pressure, is an immediate cause of renal injury, and contributes to the subsequent development of hypertension. In D(2)-/- mice, treatment with apocynin normalized blood pressure and decreased oxidative stress, but did not affect the expression of inflammatory factors. In mouse RPTCs Drd2 silencing increased the expression of TNFα and MCP-1, while treatment with a D(2)R agonist abolished the angiotensin II-induced increase in TNF-α and MCP-1. In uni-nephrectomized wild-type mice, selective Drd2 silencing by subcapsular infusion of Drd2 siRNA into the remaining kidney produced the same increase in renal cytokines/chemokines that occurs after Drd2 deletion, increased the expression of markers of renal injury, and increased blood pressure. Moreover, in mice with two intact kidneys, short-term Drd2 silencing in one kidney, leaving the other kidney undisturbed, induced inflammatory factors and markers of renal injury in the treated kidney without increasing blood pressure. Our results demonstrate that the impact of decreased D(2)R function on renal inflammation is a primary effect, not necessarily associated with enhanced oxidant activity, or blood pressure; renal damage is the cause, not the result, of hypertension. Deficient renal D(2)R function may be of clinical relevance since common polymorphisms of the human DRD2 gene result in decreased D(2)R expression and function.

  18. Renal rescue of dopamine D2 receptor function reverses renal injury and high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkalmatt, Prasad R.; Asico, Laureano D.; Zhang, Yanrong; Yang, Yu; Drachenberg, Cinthia; Zheng, Xiaoxu; Han, Fei; Jose, Pedro A.; Armando, Ines

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) deficiency increases renal inflammation and blood pressure in mice. We show here that long-term renal-selective silencing of Drd2 using siRNA increases renal expression of proinflammatory and profibrotic factors and blood pressure in mice. To determine the effects of renal-selective rescue of Drd2 expression in mice, the renal expression of DRD2 was first silenced using siRNA and 14 days later rescued by retrograde renal infusion of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector with DRD2. Renal Drd2 siRNA treatment decreased the renal expression of DRD2 protein by 55%, and DRD2 AAV treatment increased the renal expression of DRD2 protein by 7.5- to 10-fold. Renal-selective DRD2 rescue reduced the expression of proinflammatory factors and kidney injury, preserved renal function, and normalized systolic and diastolic blood pressure. These results demonstrate that the deleterious effects of renal-selective Drd2 silencing on renal function and blood pressure were rescued by renal-selective overexpression of DRD2. Moreover, the deleterious effects of 45-minute bilateral ischemia/reperfusion on renal function and blood pressure in mice were ameliorated by a renal-selective increase in DRD2 expression by the retrograde ureteral infusion of DRD2 AAV immediately after the induction of ischemia/reperfusion injury. Thus, 14 days after ischemia/reperfusion injury, the renal expression of profibrotic factors, serum creatinine, and blood pressure were lower in mice infused with DRD2 AAV than in those infused with control AAV. These results indicate an important role of renal DRD2 in limiting renal injury and preserving normal renal function and blood pressure. PMID:27358912

  19. Point-of-care washing of allogeneic red blood cells for the prevention of transfusion-related respiratory complications (WAR-PRC): a protocol for a multicenter randomised clinical trial in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Warner, Matthew A; Welsby, Ian J; Norris, Phillip J; Silliman, Christopher C; Armour, Sarah; Wittwer, Erica D; Santrach, Paula J; Meade, Laurie A; Liedl, Lavonne M; Nieuwenkamp, Chelsea M; Douthit, Brian; van Buskirk, Camille M; Schulte, Phillip J; Carter, Rickey E; Kor, Daryl J

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The transfusion-related respiratory complications, transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) and transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO), are leading causes of transfusion-related morbidity and mortality. At present, there are no effective preventive strategies with red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Although mechanisms remain incompletely defined, soluble biological response modifiers (BRMs) within the RBC storage solution may play an important role. Point-of-care ...

  20. Respiratory symptoms and lung function in relation to wood dust and monoterpene exposure in the wood pellet industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfstedt, Håkan; Hagström, Katja; Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss; Holmström, Mats; Rask-Andersen, Anna

    2017-06-01

    Wood pellets are used as a source of renewable energy for heating purposes. Common exposures are wood dust and monoterpenes, which are known to be hazardous for the airways. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of occupational exposure on respiratory health in wood pellet workers. Thirty-nine men working with wood pellet production at six plants were investigated with a questionnaire, medical examination, allergy screening, spirometry, and nasal peak expiratory flow (nasal PEF). Exposure to wood dust and monoterpenes was measured. The wood pellet workers reported a higher frequency of nasal symptoms, dry cough, and asthma medication compared to controls from the general population. There were no differences in nasal PEF between work and leisure time. A lower lung function than expected (vital capacity [VC], 95%; forced vital capacity in 1 second [FEV 1 ], 96% of predicted) was noted, but no changes were noted during shifts. There was no correlation between lung function and years working in pellet production. Personal measurements of wood dust at work showed high concentrations (0.16-19 mg/m 3 ), and exposure peaks when performing certain work tasks. Levels of monoterpenes were low (0.64-28 mg/m 3 ). There was no association between exposure and acute lung function effects. In this study of wood pellet workers, high levels of wood dust were observed, and that may have influenced the airways negatively as the study group reported upper airway symptoms and dry cough more frequently than expected. The wood pellet workers had both a lower VC and FEV 1 than expected. No cross-shift changes were found.

  1. Effects of inspiratory muscle training and yoga breathing exercises on respiratory muscle function in institutionalized frail older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebrià i Iranzo, Maria dels Àngels; Arnall, David Alan; Igual Camacho, Celedonia; Tomás, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    In older adults, respiratory function may be seriously compromised when a marked decrease of respiratory muscle