WorldWideScience

Sample records for blood recirculating devices

  1. CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER IN CYCLONE DEVICE WITH EXTERNAL GAS RECIRCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Karpov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the convective heat transfer on the surface of a hollow cylinder or several billets in a cyclone device with the new principle of external gas recirculation. According to this principle, transport of coolant from the lateral surface of the chamber, where the temperature is the highest, in the axial region is being fulfilled due to the pressure drop between the wall and axial areas of cyclonic flow. Dependency analysis of average and local heat transfer coefficients from operational and geometrical parameters has been performed; the generalized similarity equations for the calculation of the latter have been suggested. It is demonstrated that in case of download of a cyclone chamber with several billets, the use of the considered scheme of the external recirculation due to the specific characteristics of aerodynamics practically does not lead to noticeable changes in the intensity of convective heat transfer. Both experimental data and the numerical simulation results obtained with the use of OpenFOAM platform were used in the work. The investigations fulfilled will expand the area of the use of cyclone heating devices.

  2. Performance of a Water Recirculation Loop Maintenance Device and Process for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, John W.; Rector, Tony; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Makinen, Janice

    2013-01-01

    A dual-bed device to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop has been designed and is undergoing testing. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing Sublimator technology. The driver for the development of a water recirculation maintenance device is to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessons-learned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a Hamilton Sundstrand military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provides a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Transport Water loop. The bed design further leverages a sorbent developed for ISS that introduces a biocide in a microgravity-compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a unique demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of manned spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) hardware.

  3. Design and Evaluation of a Water Recirculation Loop Maintenance Device for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, John W.; Rector, Tony; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Makinen, Janice

    2012-01-01

    A dual-bed device to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop has been designed and is undergoing testing. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing sublimator technology. The driver for the development of a water recirculation maintenance device is to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessons learned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a Hamilton Sundstrand military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provides a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high-capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Transport Water Loop. The bed design further leverages a sorbent developed for the ISS that introduces a biocide in a microgravity-compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System. The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a unique demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of crewed spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System hardware.

  4. Performance of a Water Recirculation Loop Maintenance Device and Process for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Tony; Steele, John W.; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Makinen, Janice

    2012-01-01

    A water loop maintenance device and process to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop has been undergoing a performance evaluation. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing Sublimator technology. The driver for the water recirculation maintenance device and process is to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessons-learned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a Hamilton Sundstrand military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provides a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Transport Water loop. The maintenance process further leverages a sorbent developed for ISS that introduces a biocide in a microgravity-compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a unique demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of manned spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) hardware. This

  5. Design and Evaluation of a Water Recirculation Loop Maintenance Device for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, John W.; Rector, Tony; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Makinen, Janice

    2011-01-01

    A dual-bed device to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop has been designed and is undergoing testing. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing Sublimator technology. The driver for the development of a water recirculation maintenance device is to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessons-learned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a Hamilton Sundstrand military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provides a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Transport Water loop. The bed design further leverages a sorbent developed for ISS that introduces a biocide in a microgravity-compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a clear demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of manned spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) hardware.

  6. Microfluidic Devices for Blood Fractionation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chwee Teck Lim

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Blood, a complex biological fluid, comprises 45% cellular components suspended in protein rich plasma. These different hematologic components perform distinct functions in vivo and thus the ability to efficiently fractionate blood into its individual components has innumerable applications in both clinical diagnosis and biological research. Yet, processing blood is not trivial. In the past decade, a flurry of new microfluidic based technologies has emerged to address this compelling problem. Microfluidics is an attractive solution for this application leveraging its numerous advantages to process clinical blood samples. This paper reviews the various microfluidic approaches realized to successfully fractionate one or more blood components. Techniques to separate plasma from hematologic cellular components as well as isolating blood cells of interest including certain rare cells are discussed. Comparisons based on common separation metrics including efficiency (sensitivity, purity (selectivity, and throughput will be presented. Finally, we will provide insights into the challenges associated with blood-based separation systems towards realizing true point-of-care (POC devices and provide future perspectives.

  7. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used...

  8. Ion suppression from blood collection devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselstrøm, Jørgen Bo; Sejr Gothelf, Aase

    The aim of the study was to examine the variation in ion suppression in ultra high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS-MS) methods when using different blood collection devices. Three different methods measuring 18 antidepressants and antipsychotics in total were...... studied. The blood collection devices were all designed to activate clot formation. They were made of glass with or without silicone coating or plastic containing silicate particles, thrombin or polystyrene particles coated with kaolin. The blood collection devises Venoject and Venosafe were supplied from...... Terumo, S-monovette from Sarstedt, Vacuette from Greiner Bio-One and three BD Vacutainer serum tubes from BD. These seven different blood collection devices were used to withdraw blood from five healthy drug free donors (n=35) in random order. The samples were centrifuged and serum from each sample...

  9. RECIRCULATING ACCELERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERG,J.S.; GARREN,A.A.; JOHNSTONE,C.

    2000-04-07

    This paper compares various types of recirculating accelerators, outlining the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches. The accelerators are characterized according to the types of arcs they use: whether there is a single arc for the entire recirculator or there are multiple arcs, and whether the arc(s) are isochronous or non-isochronous.

  10. Effects of fluid recirculation on mass transfer from the arterial surface to flowing blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Guo Zhang; Xi-Wen Zhang; Ying-Xi Liu

    2012-01-01

    The effect of disturbed flow on the mass transfer from arterial surface to flowing blood was studied numerically,and the results were compared with that of our previous work.The arterial wall was assumed to be viscoelastic and the blood was assumed to be incompressible and non-Newtonian fluid,which is more close to human arterial system.Numerical results indicated that the mass transfer from the arterial surface to flowing blood in regions of disturbed flow is positively related with the wall shear rates and it is significantly enhanced in regions of disturbed flow with a local minimum around the reattachment point which is higher than the average value of the downstream.Therefore,it may be implied that the accumulation of cholesterol or lipids within atheromatous plaques is not caused by the reduced efflux of cholesterol or lipids,but by the infiltration of the LDL (low-density lipoprotein) from the flowing blood to the arterial wall.

  11. Improved Whole-Blood-Staining Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, Clarence F.; Crucian, Brian; Paul, Bonnie; Melton, Shannon; Guess, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Dramatic improvements have been made in NASA s Whole Blood Staining Device (WBSD) since it was last described in "Whole-Blood-Staining Device," NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 23, No. 10 (October 1999), page 64. The new system has a longer shelf life, a simpler and more effective operational procedure, improved interface with instrumentation, and shorter processing time. More specifically, the improvements have targeted bag and locking clip materials, sampling ports, and air pocket prevention. The WBSD stains whole blood collected during spaceflight for subsequent flow cytometric analysis. In short, the main device stains white blood cells by use of monoclonal antibodies conjugated to various fluorochromes, followed by lysing and fixing of the cells by use of a commercial reagent that has been diluted according to NASA safety standards. This system is compact, robust, and does not require electric power, precise mixing, or precise incubation times. Figure 1 depicts the present improved version for staining applications, which is a poly(tetrafluoroethylene) bag with a Luer-lock port and plastic locking clips. An InterLink (or equivalent) intravenous- injection port screws into the Luer-lock port. The inflatable/collapsible nature of the bag facilitates loading and helps to minimize the amount of air trapped in the fully loaded bag. Some additional uses have been identified for the device beyond whole blood staining. The WBSD has been configured for functional assays that require culture of live cells by housing sterile culture media, mitogens, and fixatives prior to use [Figure 2(a)]. Simple injection of whole blood allows cell-stimulation culture to be performed in reduced gravity conditions, and product stabilization prior to storage, while protecting astronauts from liquid biohazardous materials. Also, the improved WBSD has reconstituted powdered injectable antibiotics by mixing them with diluent liquids [Figure 2(b)]. Although such mixing can readily be performed on

  12. FROZEN ASH BERRIES PROCESSING IN THE DEVICE WITH A NOZZLE CONTINUOUS VIBRATION, EQUIPPED WITH AN EXTERNAL RECIRCULATION LOOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Ivanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An external recirculation loop was used as the method of increasing the concentration of dry soluble substances in the obtained extract. The objective of the research is to determine the value of the external recirculation index (KR, which provides the optimal conditions for the process carrying out. The results of the conducted research show the increase in the concentration of dry soluble substances in the extract if the external recirculation index increases. It is conditioned by the extension of the interaction between the processed raw mate-rial and the extract, as well as by the decrease in the surface tension of the extracting agent, which results in improving the conditions of its penetration into the pores of particles. Such an opposite property of recirculation as the decrease in mass transfer rate was also ob-served. It causes the significant rise of dry soluble substances losses while discharging extraction cake, which leads to the performance degradation. According to the analytical evaluation of the obtained results, the maximum process results are observed if KR = 1 (without recirculation and KR = 2, the values of the optimality criterion are 5.02∙10-3 and 4.92∙10-3 % mass/W respectively. At the same time the operation of the apparatus with the recirculation loop at KR = 2 is characterized by 62%-increase in dry soluble substances concentration in the extract as compared to a pure extracting agent. The efficiency of recirculation at KR = 2 is proved by the saving of energy con-sumed on the evaporation of the extract obtained. The energy costs calculation for the production of 60l of 12 % mass dry soluble sub-stances concentration extract showed that if the initial dry soluble substances concentration is raised to 6 % mass (KR = 2, the amount of consumed saturated vapor is 104.1 kg less, which is 281685 kJ if the vapor specific enthalpy is 2706.29 kJ/kg.

  13. Microfluidic Device for Continuous Magnetophoretic Separation of Red Blood Cells

    CERN Document Server

    Iliescu, Ciprian; Avram, Marioara; Xu, G; Avram, Andrei

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a microfluidic device for magnetophoretic separation red blood cells from blood under contionous flow. The separation method consist of continous flow of a blood sample (diluted in PBS) through a microfluidic channel which presents on the bottom "dots" of feromagnetic layer. By appling a magnetic field perpendicular on the flowing direction, the feromagnetic "dots" generates a gradient of magnetic field which amplifies the magnetic force. As a result, the red blood cells are captured on the bottom of the microfluidic channel while the rest of the blood is collected at the outlet. Experimental results show that an average of 95 % of red blood cells are trapped in the device

  14. Validation for a recirculation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPuma, P T

    2001-04-01

    Recent Clean Air Act regulations designed to reduce volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions have placed new restrictions on painting operations. Treating large volumes of air which contain dilute quantities of VOCs can be expensive. Recirculating some fraction of the air allows an operator to comply with environmental regulations at reduced cost. However, there is a potential impact on employee safety because indoor pollutants will inevitably increase when air is recirculated. A computer model was developed, written in Microsoft Excel 97, to predict compliance costs and indoor air concentration changes with respect to changes in the level of recirculation for a given facility. The model predicts indoor air concentrations based on product usage and mass balance equations. This article validates the recirculation model using data collected from a C-130 aircraft painting facility at Hill Air Force Base, Utah. Air sampling data and air control cost quotes from vendors were collected for the Hill AFB painting facility and compared to the model's predictions. The model's predictions for strontium chromate and isocyanate air concentrations were generally between the maximum and minimum air sampling points with a tendency to predict near the maximum sampling points. The model's capital cost predictions for a thermal VOC control device ranged from a 14 percent underestimate to a 50 percent overestimate of the average cost quotes. A sensitivity analysis of the variables is also included. The model is demonstrated to be a good evaluation tool in understanding the impact of recirculation.

  15. 封闭循环水养殖中曝气系统设计及曝气器的选择%Aeration system design and aeration devices selection in Recirculating Aquaculture System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋奔奔; 吴凡; 倪琦; 张宇雷; 庄保陆

    2011-01-01

    随着水产养殖业逐渐向高密度、集约化方向的发展,对养殖水体溶解氧浓度的要求越来越高.目前对循环水高密度养殖水体中溶解氧收支平衡的基础研究较少.如何提高氧气的溶解效率、减少氧气的逸出、合理控制溶解氧水平等技术难关的突破,对循环水养殖技术的提高具有重大的意义.本文旨在通过阐述曝气技术的设计理论基础以及曝气设备的最近发展状况,比较各式曝气器的性能参数,从而为封闭循环水养殖曝气系统的设计和曝气器的选择提供理论支持,推动封闭式循环水养殖向精准化的环保节能方向发展.%Dissolved oxygen in water body plays an important role in recirculating aquaculture while developing to higher density and intensification. At present, it' s studied not so much about dissolved oxygen budget and mass balance in intensive recirculating aquaculture system. These problems such as how to improve oxygen dissolving efficiency, decrease oxygen loss and control dissolved oxygen in appropriate level are growing more prominent in recirculating aquaculture system technology. Aeration theory and designing principles, aeration devices characteristics are illustrated and elaborated in this paper to improve the design of recirculating aquaculture aeration system and the selecting of aeration devices, promoting recirculating aquaculture system technology to more environment-friendly and energy conservation.

  16. Development of a wireless blood pressure measuring device with smart mobile device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İlhan, İlhan; Yıldız, İbrahim; Kayrak, Mehmet

    2016-03-01

    Today, smart mobile devices (telephones and tablets) are very commonly used due to their powerful hardware and useful features. According to an eMarketer report, in 2014 there were 1.76 billion smartphone users (excluding users of tablets) in the world; it is predicted that this number will rise by 15.9% to 2.04 billion in 2015. It is thought that these devices can be used successfully in biomedical applications. A wireless blood pressure measuring device used together with a smart mobile device was developed in this study. By means of an interface developed for smart mobile devices with Android and iOS operating systems, a smart mobile device was used both as an indicator and as a control device. The cuff communicating with this device through Bluetooth was designed to measure blood pressure via the arm. A digital filter was used on the cuff instead of the traditional analog signal processing and filtering circuit. The newly developed blood pressure measuring device was tested on 18 patients and 20 healthy individuals of different ages under a physician's supervision. When the test results were compared with the measurements made using a sphygmomanometer, it was shown that an average 93.52% accuracy in sick individuals and 94.53% accuracy in healthy individuals could be achieved with the new device.

  17. Heparin coatings for improving blood compatibility of medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biran, Roy; Pond, Daniel

    2016-12-29

    Blood contact with biomaterials triggers activation of multiple reactive mechanisms that can impair the performance of implantable medical devices and potentially cause serious adverse clinical events. This includes thrombosis and thromboembolic complications due to activation of platelets and the coagulation cascade, activation of the complement system, and inflammation. Numerous surface coatings have been developed to improve blood compatibility of biomaterials. For more than thirty years, the anticoagulant drug heparin has been employed as a covalently immobilized surface coating on a variety of medical devices. This review describes the fundamental principles of non-eluting heparin coatings, mechanisms of action, and clinical applications with focus on those technologies which have been commercialized. Because of its extensive publication history, there is emphasis on the CARMEDA(®) BioActive Surface (CBAS(®) Heparin Surface), a widely used commercialized technology for the covalent bonding of heparin.

  18. Wearable devices for blood purification: principles, miniaturization, and technical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armignacco, Paolo; Lorenzin, Anna; Neri, Mauro; Nalesso, Federico; Garzotto, Francesco; Ronco, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The prevalences of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and renal replacement therapy (RRT) continue to increase across the world imposing staggering costs on providers. Therefore, strategies to optimize the treatment and improve survival are of fundamental importance. Despite the benefits of daily dialysis, its implementation is difficult and wearable hemodialysis might represent an alternative by which frequent treatments can be delivered to ESRD patients with much less interference in their routines promoting better quality of life. The development of the wearable artificial kidney (WAK) requires incorporation of basic components of a dialysis system into a wearable device that allows mobility, miniaturization, and above all, patient-oriented management. The technical requirements necessary for WAK can be divided into the following broad categories: dialysis membranes, dialysis regeneration, vascular access, patient monitoring systems, and power sources. Pumping systems for blood and other fluids are the most critical components of the entire device.

  19. A multiple disk centrifugal pump as a blood flow device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G E; Etter, B D; Dorsi, J M

    1990-02-01

    A multiple disk, shear force, valveless centrifugal pump was studied to determine its suitability as a blood flow device. A pulsatile version of the Tesla viscous flow turbine was designed by modifying the original steady flow pump concept to produce physiological pressures and flows with the aid of controlling circuitry. Pressures and flows from this pump were compared to a Harvard Apparatus pulsatile piston pump. Both pumps were connected to an artificial circulatory system. Frequency and systolic duration were varied over a range of physiological conditions for both pumps. The results indicated that the Tesla pump, operating in a pulsatile mode, is capable of producing physiologic pressures and flows similar to the Harvard pump and other pulsatile blood pumps.

  20. Integrated separation of blood plasma from whole blood for microfluidic paper-based analytical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoxi; Forouzan, Omid; Brown, Theodore P; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S

    2012-01-21

    Many diagnostic tests in a conventional clinical laboratory are performed on blood plasma because changes in its composition often reflect the current status of pathological processes throughout the body. Recently, a significant research effort has been invested into the development of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) implementing these conventional laboratory tests for point-of-care diagnostics in resource-limited settings. This paper describes the use of red blood cell (RBC) agglutination for separating plasma from finger-prick volumes of whole blood directly in paper, and demonstrates the utility of this approach by integrating plasma separation and a colorimetric assay in a single μPAD. The μPAD was fabricated by printing its pattern onto chromatography paper with a solid ink (wax) printer and melting the ink to create hydrophobic barriers spanning through the entire thickness of the paper substrate. The μPAD was functionalized by spotting agglutinating antibodies onto the plasma separation zone in the center and the reagents of the colorimetric assay onto the test readout zones on the periphery of the device. To operate the μPAD, a drop of whole blood was placed directly onto the plasma separation zone of the device. RBCs in the whole blood sample agglutinated and remained in the central zone, while separated plasma wicked through the paper substrate into the test readout zones where analyte in plasma reacted with the reagents of the colorimetric assay to produce a visible color change. The color change was digitized with a portable scanner and converted to concentration values using a calibration curve. The purity and yield of separated plasma was sufficient for successful operation of the μPAD. This approach to plasma separation based on RBC agglutination will be particularly useful for designing fully integrated μPADs operating directly on small samples of whole blood.

  1. Oxygen absorption efficiency of gas/liquid mixing device in closed recirculating aquaculture systems%闭合循环水产养殖系统中气/液混合装置的增氧效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭洪新; 刘文畅; 孙大川; 罗国芝; 马念念

    2014-01-01

    ratio of gas to water flow rate within the gas transfer unit. When pure oxygen is in contact with water, the dissolved gases tend to come to equilibrium at saturation. If there is venting of off-gas from an oxygenation system, some of these other gases will be removed from the water. Choosing the appropriate oxygenation technology for recirculating systems depends on oxygen absorption efficiency (AE, mass of oxygen absorbed per mass of oxygen applied), oxygen transfer efficiency (mass of oxygen transferred per power required), ability to strip nitrogen and other gases, ability to treat flows containing suspended solids without plugging, system layout and intended location of the oxygenation process, and whether flow must be pumped through the unit or if gravity flow is adequate. The configuration of a recirculating system determines the appropriate type of oxygenation unit. Regulation of dissolved oxygen concentrations is typically carried out by means of gas transfer processes, and the gas transfer units commonly used to add pure oxygen within large recirculating aquaculture systems include U-tubes, oxygenation cones, and multi-staged low head oxygenators. The gas/liquid mixing device can inject pure oxygen into liquid, especially suited to applications in closed recirculating aquaculture systems with high carrying capacity, and it had recently been successfully used to provide supersaturate water with oxygen for increasing fish production in our pilot scale recirculating aquaculture system. In this study, AE of the gas/liquid mixing device was determined under conditions with different oxygen gas to liquid ratios (G/L) ranging from 0.333%to 3.333%(0.57-5.70 g/min) at different water temperatures from 30.5℃to 19.2℃) in order to assess application of pure oxygen in a closed recirculating aquaculture system. The AE of the gas/liquid mixing device averaged 94.00%-36.05%. Among conditions with different GL values, the AE under the condition with the G/L value of 0

  2. [Mobile Health: IEEE Standard for Wearable Cuffless Blood Pressure Measuring Devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xia; Wu, Wenli; Bao, Shudi

    2015-07-01

    IEEE Std 1708-2014 breaks through the traditional standards of cuff based blood pressure measuring devices and establishes a normative definition of wearable cuffless blood pressure measuring devices and the objective performance evaluation of this kind of devices. This study firstly introduces the background of the new standard. Then, the standard details will be described, and the impact of cuffless blood pressure measuring devices with the new standard on manufacturers and end users will be addressed.

  3. 底排装置底部压力和回流区特性研究%Numerical Investigation on Base Pressure and Recirculation Region Characteristics of Base Bleed Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗盟; 武晓松; 封锋; 谢爱元; 曹琪

    2013-01-01

    采用标准k-ω湍流模型和有限速率化学反应燃烧模型对二维轴对称雷诺平均N-S方程进行了数值计算,分析了超声速自由来流下冷流和H2-O210组分28步基元燃烧反应的底部排气近尾迹区流场特性,得到了不同排气参数下底部压力和回流区特性,与实验值相吻合.计算结果表明,在较小排气参数下添能比加质更有利于底压提高;随着排气总温的增加,最佳排气参数逐渐减小,回流区逐渐减小;回流区前滞止点位置随着排气参数、排气总温等因素变化而变化,而后滞止点位置几乎不变,但燃烧对回流区前后滞止点均产生了影响.%Numerical simulation was carried out to investigate the base flow field of a base bleed device with non-reacting gas and hydrogen-air combustion, and the combustion mechanism consisted of ten reactive species and twenty-eight reaction steps. The stand κ-ω turbulence model and finite-rate chemistry model were employed to calculate the Axisymmetric Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The computational results of the base pressure and recirculation region characteristics agreed well with the experiments. The calculation shows that the base pressure benefits much more from providing energy than adding injection at the low injection parameter. The optimum injection parameter and recirculation region decreased with the increase of total temperature of the injection gas. The forward stagnation point location of the recirculation region is highly depended on the injection parameter and injection total temperature while they show nearly no differences on the rear stagnation point. The external combustion has effects both on the forward stagnation point and rear stagnation point of the recirculation region.

  4. Beam Injection in Recirculator SALO

    CERN Document Server

    Guk, Ivan S; Dovbnya, Anatoly N; Kononenko, Stanislav; Peev, Fedor; Tarasenko, Alexander; Van der Wiel, Marnix

    2005-01-01

    Possible antetypes of injectors for electron recirculator SALO,* intended for nuclear-physical research, are analyzed. The plan injection of beams in recirculator is offered. Expected parameters of beams are designed.

  5. Washing of stored red blood cells by an autotransfusion device before transfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vroege, R.; Wildevuur, W. R.; Muradin, J. A. G.; Graves, D.; van Oeveren, W.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objectives The use of an autotransfusion device to wash blood of the incision site is increasing. After washing, this blood is retransfused without side effects caused by activated plasma factors and cell release products. This procedure could be extended to washing of donor blood, wh

  6. Thermal Blood Clot Formation and use in Microfluidic Device Valving Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Shi, Wendian (Inventor); Guo, Luke (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of forming a blood-clot microvalve by heating blood in a capillary tube of a microfluidic device. Also described are methods of modulating liquid flow in a capillary tube by forming and removing a blood-clot microvalve.

  7. Membrane concepts for blood purification : towards improved artificial kidney devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijink, M.S.L.

    2013-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis is about the fabrication and characterization of new membranes for blood purification. A novel membrane concept is proposed to combine diffusion and adsorption in one step to remove uremic retention solutes. A membrane with embedded functionalized particles, a s

  8. Is the antimicrobial removal device a cost-effective addition to conventional blood cultures?

    OpenAIRE

    R. Munro; Collignon, P J; Sorrell, T C; Tomlinson, P.

    1984-01-01

    Two hundred and thirty-four blood cultures from 140 patients receiving antibiotics were processed using the antimicrobial removal device (ARD) in parallel with conventional blood cultures. One hundred and seventy cultures were obtained from patients suspected to have bacteraemia and 64 from patients known to have a positive conventional blood culture within the preceding three days. A total of 38 (16.2%) ARD-processed cultures were positive, compared with 21 (8.9%) conventional cultures (p le...

  9. Blood coagulation screening using a paper-based microfluidic lateral flow device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Han, D; Pauletti, G M; Steckl, A J

    2014-10-21

    A simple approach to the evaluation of blood coagulation using a microfluidic paper-based lateral flow assay (LFA) device for point-of-care (POC) and self-monitoring screening is reported. The device utilizes whole blood, without the need for prior separation of plasma from red blood cells (RBC). Experiments were performed using animal (rabbit) blood treated with trisodium citrate to prevent coagulation. CaCl2 solutions of varying concentrations are added to citrated blood, producing Ca(2+) ions to re-establish the coagulation cascade and mimic different blood coagulation abilities in vitro. Blood samples are dispensed into a paper-based LFA device consisting of sample pad, analytical membrane and wicking pad. The porous nature of the cellulose membrane separates the aqueous plasma component from the large blood cells. Since the viscosity of blood changes with its coagulation ability, the distance RBCs travel in the membrane in a given time can be related to the blood clotting time. The distance of the RBC front is found to decrease linearly with increasing CaCl2 concentration, with a travel rate decreasing from 3.25 mm min(-1) for no added CaCl2 to 2.2 mm min(-1) for 500 mM solution. Compared to conventional plasma clotting analyzers, the LFA device is much simpler and it provides a significantly larger linear range of measurement. Using the red colour of RBCs as a visible marker, this approach can be utilized to produce a simple and clear indicator of whether the blood condition is within the appropriate range for the patient's condition.

  10. Platelet concentrates for topical use: bedside device and blood transfusion technology. Quality and versatility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzini, Piero; Balbo, Valeria; Mazzucco, Laura

    2012-06-01

    More or less after a decade of experimental and pioneering manual procedures to prepare platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for topical use, several portable and bedside devices were made available to prepare the PRP at the point-of-care. This technical opportunity increased the number of patients who got access to the treatment with autologous PRP and PRP-gel. Since topical treatment of tissue with PRP and PRP-gel was restricted to autologous preparation, blood transfusion centers that professionally prepare donor-derived platelet concentrates were not able to cover the overwhelming request for autologous PRP supply. Principally for logistic and organization reasons blood transfusion centers usually fail the challenge of prompt delivery of PRP to the physician over large territory. Nevertheless the blood bank production of platelet concentrates is associated with high standardization and quality controls not achievable from bedside and portable devices. Furthermore it easy to demonstrate that high-volume blood bank-produced platelet concentrates are less expensive than low-volume PRP produced by portable and bedside devices. Taking also in consideration the ever-increasing safety of the blood components, the relationship between bedside device-produced and blood-bank-produced PRP might be reconsidered. Here we discuss this topic concluding that the variety of sources of PRP production is an opportunity for versatility and that, ultimately, versatility is an opportunity for the patient's care.

  11. Impedimetric characterization of human blood using three-electrode based ECIS devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangadhar Pradhan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, three-electrode based electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS devices were used to study the electrical properties of blood and its constituents using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The three-electrode based ECIS devices were fabricated using micromachining technology with varying sizes for working, reference, and counter electrodes.  The blood and its constituents such as serum, plasma, and red blood cells (RBCs were prepared by conventional methods and stored for impedance measurement using fabricated microdevices. Equivalent circuits for blood, serum, plasma, and RBCs were proposed using the software package ZSimpWin to validate the experimental data. The proposed equivalent circuit models of blood and its components have excellent agreement up to a frequency of 1 MHz.  It is evident from the experimental results that blood and its components have specific impedance signatures that decrease with the increase of frequency. Blood shows higher impedance than the other samples in the lower frequency range (<50 kHz.  It was also found that above 50 kHz, the impedance value of RBCs is nearly the same as whole blood. The impedance of serum and plasma steadily decreases with the increase of frequency up to 100 kHz and flattens out after that. The minimum impedance value achieved for serum and plasma is much less than the value obtained for whole blood.

  12. Recirculation bubbler for glass melter apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Hector; Bickford, Dennis

    2007-06-05

    A gas bubbler device provides enhanced recirculation of molten glass within a glass melter apparatus. The bubbler device includes a tube member disposed within a pool of molten glass contained in the melter. The tube member includes a lower opening through which the molten glass enters and upper slots disposed close to (above or below) the upper surface of the pool of molten glass and from which the glass exits. A gas (air) line is disposed within the tube member and extends longitudinally thereof. A gas bubble distribution device, which is located adjacent to the lower end of the tube member and is connected to the lower end of the gas line, releases gas through openings therein so as to produce gas bubbles of a desired size in the molten glass and in a distributed pattern across the tube member.

  13. Fabrication and testing of novel blood separation devices based on microchannel bend structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattert, C.; Jurischka, R.; Schoth, A.; Kerth, P.; Menz, W.

    2005-02-01

    Most clinical chemistry tests are performed on cell-free serum or plasma. Therefore micro assay devices for blood tests require integrated on-chip microfluidics for separation of plasma or serum from blood. Polymers are ideally suited for these applications due to their material properties and their applicability for high volume production. These requirements are achieved by a new on-chip blood separation technique based on microchannel bend structures and a rapid processing technology for micro assay devices using injection molding or hot embossing. Different prototype polymer chips with channel dimensions down to 20 μm and aspect ratios of 4 have been fabricated by injection molding and hot embossing. The inserts for the molding tools were fabricated by an UV-LIGA technology. The separation efficiency of these chips has been tested with human blood samples. The results show different separation efficiencies up to 100 % for blood cells and plasma depending on microchannel geometry as well as cell concentration. As compared to present microfluidic devices for the separation of blood cells like filters, membranes or filtration by diffusion the microchannel bend is an integrated on-chip blood separation method. It combines the advantages of rapid separation times and a simple geometry that leads to cost-effective high volume production using injection molding.

  14. High-throughput blood cell focusing and plasma isolation using spiral inertial microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Nan; Ni, Zhonghua

    2015-12-01

    Herein, we explored the blood cell focusing and plasma isolation using a spiral inertial microfluidic device. First, the flow-rate and concentration effects on the migration dynamics of blood cells were systematically investigated to uncover the focusing mechanisms and steric crowding effects of cells in Dean-coupled inertial flows. A novel phenomenon that the focusing status of discoid red blood cells (RBCs) changes according to the channel height was discovered. These experimental data may provide valuable insights for the high-throughput processing of blood samples using inertial microfluidics. On the basis of the improved understandings on blood cell focusing, efficient isolation of plasma from whole blood with a 20-fold dilution was achieved at a throughput up to 700 μl/min. The purity of the isolated blood plasma was close to 100 %, and the plasma yield was calculated to be 38.5 %. As compared with previously-reported devices, our spiral inertial microfluidic device provides a balanced overall performance, and has overriding advantages in terms of processing throughput and operating efficiency.

  15. 3D microfilter device for viable circulating tumor cell (CTC) enrichment from blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Siyang; Lin, Henry K; Lu, Bo; Williams, Anthony; Datar, Ram; Cote, Richard J; Tai, Yu-Chong

    2011-02-01

    Detection of circulating tumor cells has emerged as a promising minimally invasive diagnostic and prognostic tool for patients with metastatic cancers. We report a novel three dimensional microfilter device that can enrich viable circulating tumor cells from blood. This device consists of two layers of parylene membrane with pores and gap precisely defined with photolithography. The positions of the pores are shifted between the top and bottom membranes. The bottom membrane supports captured cells and minimize the stress concentration on cell membrane and sustain cell viability during filtration. Viable cell capture on device was investigated with scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, and immunofluorescent staining using model systems of cultured tumor cells spiked in blood or saline. The paper presents and validates this new 3D microfiltration concept for circulation tumor cell enrichment application. The device provides a highly valuable tool for assessing and characterizing viable enriched circulating tumor cells in both research and clinical settings.

  16. Non-invasive blood glucose monitoring with Raman spectroscopy: prospects for device miniaturization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    The number of patients with diabetes has reached over 350 million, and still continues to increase. The need for regular blood glucose monitoring sparks the interest in the development of modern detection technologies. One of those methods, which allows for noninvasive measurements, is Raman spectroscopy. The ability of infrared light to penetrate deep into tissues allows for obtaining measurements through the skin without its perforation. This paper presents the limitations and possibilities of non-invasive blood glucose monitoring with Raman spectroscopy. Especially focusing on the possibilities for device miniaturization. Such device incorporates a Raman spectrometer, a fiber-optical probe, and a computing device (microcontroller, smartphone, etc.) which calculates the glucose concentration using specialized algorithms. Simplification of device design, as well as turbidity correction technique and a new proposed method of synchronized detection are described.

  17. Capillarity-driven blood plasma separation on paper-based devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Shantimoy; Maiti, Tapas Kumar; Chakraborty, Suman

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate capillarity-driven plasma separation from whole blood on simple paper-based H-channels. This methodology, unlike other reported techniques, does not necessitate elaborate and complex instrumentation, and the usage of expensive consumables. We believe that this technique will be ideally suited to be implemented in rapid and portable blood diagnostic devices designed to be operative at locations with limited resources.

  18. Device to determine the level of peripheral blood circulation and saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovska, Tetyana I.; Sander, Sergii V.; Zlepko, Sergii M.; Vasilenko, Valentina B.; Pavlov, Volodymyr S.; Dumenko, Victoria P.; Klapouschak, Andrii Yu.; Maciejewski, Marcin; DzierŻak, RóŻa; Surtel, Wojciech

    2016-09-01

    The paper evaluated the diagnostic value of laser photoplethysmography when examining patients with chronic lower limb ischemia. A statistical analysis of the research results was made, and diagrams of relationship between the degrees of ischemia and blood flow are presented. Development of the device to determine the level of peripheral blood circulation and saturation was presented. Also additional accessories in the form of optical fibers for different applications were suggested.

  19. Use Recirculator "SALO" in the Mode of the Neutron Source

    CERN Document Server

    Guk, Ivan S; Dovbnya, Anatoly N; Kononenko, Stanislav; Peev, Fedor; Tarasenko, Alexander; Van der Wiel, Marnix

    2005-01-01

    The opportunity of use developed in NSC KIPT recirculator SALO* with superconducting accelerating structure TESLA for reception of intensive neutron streams surveyed. As an injector it is supposed to use RF-gun with superconducting accelerating structure. An electron beam with the peak energy 130 ??? is transported on a target located apart of 100 m from recirculator. System of the focusing are designed allowing to gain on a target the required density of a beam. Tolerances on precision of an alignment of magnetooptical devices are calculated.

  20. Development of a microfluidic device for cell concentration and blood cell-plasma separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, M Sneha; Kumar, B S; Chandra, T S; Sen, A K

    2015-12-01

    This work presents design, fabrication and test of a microfluidic device which employs Fahraeus-Lindqvist and Zweifach-Fung effects for cell concentration and blood cell-plasma separation. The device design comprises a straight main channel with a series of branched channels placed symmetrically on both sides of the main channel. The design implements constrictions before each junction (branching point) in order to direct cells that would have migrated closer to the wall (naturally or after liquid extraction at a junction) towards the centre of the main channel. Theoretical and numerical analysis are performed for design of the microchannel network to ensure that a minimum flow rate ratio (of 2.5:1, main channel-to-side channels) is maintained at each junction and predict flow rate at the plasma outlet. The dimensions and location of the constrictions were determined using numerical simulations. The effect of presence of constrictions before the junctions was demonstrated by comparing the performances of the device with and without constrictions. To demonstrate the performance of the device, initial experiments were performed with polystyrene microbeads (10 and 15 μm size) and droplets. Finally, the device was used for concentration of HL60 cells and separation of plasma and cells in diluted blood samples. The cell concentration and blood-plasma purification efficiency was quantified using Haemocytometer and Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorter (FACS). A seven-fold cell concentration was obtained with HL60 cells and a purification efficiency of 70 % and plasma recovery of 80 % was observed for diluted (1:20) blood sample. FACS was used to identify cell lysis and the cell viability was checked using Trypan Blue test which showed that more than 99 % cells are alive indicating the suitability of the device for practical use. The proposed device has potential to be used as a sample preparation module in lab on chip based diagnostic platforms.

  1. System Design and Development of a Robotic Device for Automated Venipuncture and Diagnostic Blood Cell Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balter, Max L; Chen, Alvin I; Fromholtz, Alex; Gorshkov, Alex; Maguire, Tim J; Yarmush, Martin L

    2016-10-01

    Diagnostic blood testing is the most prevalent medical procedure performed in the world and forms the cornerstone of modern health care delivery. Yet blood tests are still predominantly carried out in centralized labs using large-volume samples acquired by manual venipuncture, and no end-to-end solution from blood draw to sample analysis exists today. Our group is developing a platform device that merges robotic phlebotomy with automated diagnostics to rapidly deliver patient information at the site of the blood draw. The system couples an image-guided venipuncture robot, designed to address the challenges of routine venous access, with a centrifuge-based blood analyzer to obtain quantitative measurements of hematology. In this paper, we first present the system design and architecture of the integrated device. We then perform a series of in vitro experiments to evaluate the cannulation accuracy of the system on blood vessel phantoms. Next, we assess the effects of vessel diameter, needle gauge, flow rate, and viscosity on the rate of sample collection. Finally, we demonstrate proof-of-concept of a white cell assay on the blood analyzer using in vitro human samples spiked with fluorescently labeled microbeads.

  2. Lagrangian methods for blood damage estimation in cardiovascular devices - How numerical implementation affects the results

    OpenAIRE

    Marom, Gil; Bluestein, Danny

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluated the influence of various numerical implementation assumptions on predicting blood damage in cardiovascular devices using Lagrangian methods with Eulerian computational fluid dynamics. The implementation assumptions that were tested included various seeding patterns, stochastic walk model, and simplified trajectory calculations with pathlines. Post processing implementation options that were evaluated included single passage and repeated passages stress accumulation and ti...

  3. The effect of flow recirculation on abdominal aortic aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taib, Ishkrizat; Amirnordin, Shahrin Hisham; Madon, Rais Hanizam; Mustafa, Norrizal; Osman, Kahar

    2012-06-01

    The presences of flow recirculation at the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) region yield the unpredictable failure of aneurismal wall. The failure of the aneurismal wall is closely related to the hemodynamic factor. Hemodynamic factor such as pressure and velocity distribution play a significance role of aneurysm growth and rupture. By using the computational approach, the influence of hemodynamic factor is investigated using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) method on the virtual AAA model. The virtual 3D AAAs model was reconstructed from Spiral Computed Tomography scan (CT-scan). The blood flow is assumed as being transient, laminar and Newtonian within a rigid section of the vessel. The blood flow also driven by an imposed of pressure gradient in the form of physiological waveform. The pulsating blood flow is also considered in this simulation. The results on pressure distribution and velocity profile are analyzed to interpret the behaviour of flow recirculation. The results show the forming of vortices is seen at the aneurysm bulge. This vortices is form at the aneurysm region then destroyed rapidly by flow recirculation. Flow recirculation is point out much higher at distal end of aneurysm closed to iliac bifurcation. This phenomenon is managed to increase the possibility of aneurysm growth and rupture.

  4. Polymer brushes interfacing blood as a route toward high performance blood contacting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surman, František; Riedel, Tomáš; Bruns, Michael; Kostina, Nina Yu; Sedláková, Zdeňka; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar

    2015-05-01

    In the current study, well-defined polymer brushes are shown as an effective surface modification to resist the adhesion of whole blood and its components. Poly[oligo(ethylene glycol)methylether methacrylate] (poly(MeOEGMA)), poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (poly(HEMA)), poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide] (poly(HPMA)), and poly(carboxybetaine acrylamide) (poly(CBAA)) brushes were grown by surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) and subsequently characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), dynamic contact angle measurements, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy. All brushes decreased the fouling from blood plasma over 95% and prevented the adhesion of platelets, erythrocytes, and leukocytes as evidenced by SPR and SEM measurements.

  5. Fabrication and Characterization of a Microfluidic Device to Ultrapurify Blood Samples

    KAUST Repository

    Tallerico, Marco

    2015-05-04

    The improvement of blood cell sorting techniques in recent years have attracted the attention of many researchers due to the possible benefits that these methods can lead in biology, regenerative medicine, materials science and therapeutic area. In this work a cell sorting technique based on filtration is described. The separation occurs by means of a microfluidic device, suitably designed, manufactured and tested, that is connected to an external experimental set-up. The fabrication process can be divided in two parts: at first it is described the manufacturing process of a filtering membrane, with holes of specific size that allow the passage of only certain cell types. Following the microfluidic device is fabricated through the mechanical micromilling. The membrane and the microdevice are suitably bonded and tested by means of an external connection with syringe pumps that inject blood samples at specific flow rates. The device is designed to separate blood cells and tumor cells only by using differences in size and shape. In particular during the first experiments red blood cells and platelets are sorted from white blood cells; in the other experiments red blood cells and platelets are separated from white blood cells and tumor cells. The microdevice has proven to be very efficient, in fact a capture efficiency of 99% is achieved. For this reason it could be used in identification and isolation of circulating tumor cells, a very rare cancer cell type whose presence in the bloodstream could be symptom of future solid tumor formation. The various experiments have also demonstrated that tumor cells survive even after the separation treatment, and then the suffered stress during the sorting process does not harm the biological sample.

  6. Device and method for automated separation of a sample of whole blood into aliquots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtis, Carl A.; Johnson, Wayne F.

    1989-01-01

    A device and a method for automated processing and separation of an unmeasured sample of whole blood into multiple aliquots of plasma. Capillaries are radially oriented on a rotor, with the rotor defining a sample chamber, transfer channels, overflow chamber, overflow channel, vent channel, cell chambers, and processing chambers. A sample of whole blood is placed in the sample chamber, and when the rotor is rotated, the blood moves outward through the transfer channels to the processing chambers where the blood is centrifugally separated into a solid cellular component and a liquid plasma component. When the rotor speed is decreased, the plasma component backfills the capillaries resulting in uniform aliquots of plasma which may be used for subsequent analytical procedures.

  7. Recirculation nursery systems for bivalves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamermans, P.; Blanco Garcia, A.; Joaquim, Sandra; Matias, Domitilia; Magnesen, Thorolf; Nicolas, J.; Petten, Bruno; Robert, Rene

    2016-01-01

    n order to increase production of bivalves in hatcheries and nurseries, the development of new technology and its integration into commercial bivalve hatcheries is important. Recirculation aquaculture systems (RASs) have several advantages: high densities of the species can be cultured resulting in

  8. A new resorbable device for ligation of blood vessels - A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borg Niklas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During surgery, controlled haemostasis to prevent blood loss is vital for a successful outcome. It can be difficult to ligate vessels located deep in the abdomen. A device that is easy to use and enables secure ligatures could be beneficial. Cable ties made of nylon have been used for ligation but the non-resorbable material caused tissue reactions. The objective of this study was to use a resorbable material to construct a device with a self-locking mechanism and to test its mechanical strength and ligation efficiency. Methods The device was manufactured by injection moulding of polydioxanone, a resorbable polymer used for suture materials. Polydioxanone with inherent viscosities of 1.9 dL/g and 1.3 dL/g were tested. The device consisted of a perforated flexible band which could be pulled through a case with a locking mechanism. After a first version of the device had been tested, some improvements were made. The locking case was downsized, corners were rounded off, the band was made thicker and the mould was redesigned to produce longer devices. Tensile tests were performed with the second version. The first version of the device was used to ligate the ovarian pedicle in a euthanized dog and to test echogenicity of the device with ultrasound. Compression of vessels of the ovarian pedicle was examined by histology. Both versions of the device were tested for haemostasis of and tissue grip on renal arteries in six anaesthetised pigs. Results The tensile strength of the flexible band of the devices with inherent viscosity of 1.9 dL/g was 50.1 ± 5.5 N (range 35.2-62.9 N, n = 11 and the devices with inherent viscosity of 1.3 dL/g had a tensile strength of 39.8 ± 8.1 N (range 18.6-54.2 N, n = 11. Injection moulding of the polymer with lower inherent viscosity resulted in a longer flow distance. Both versions of the device had an effective tissue grip and complete haemostasis of renal arteries was verified. The device attached

  9. A novel passive microfluidic device for preprocessing whole blood for point of care diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Pranjul Jaykumar; Dimaki, Maria; Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2009-01-01

    A novel strategy to sort the cells of interest (White Blood Cells (leukocytes)) by selectively lysing the Red Blood Cells (erythrocytes) in a miniaturized microfluidic device is presented. Various methods to lyse cells on a chip exist i.e. electrical, mechanical, chemical and thermal but they need...... integration of electrodes, traps, reservoirs, heaters, etc which is often difficult at microscale [1 – 4]. On the other hand, FACSlyse protocol uses only osmotic pressure to lyse erythrocytes allowing further isolation of leukocytes. This motivated us to develop a novel herringbone based lyser which works...

  10. Multiscale modeling of a Chemofilter device for filtering chemotherapy toxins from blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maani, Nazanin; Beyhaghi, Saman; Yee, Daryl; Nosonovsky, Micheal; Greer, Julia; Hetts, Steven; Rayz, Vitaliy

    2016-11-01

    Purpose: Chemotherapy drugs injected intra-arterially to treat cancer can cause systemic toxic effects. A catheter-based Chemofilter device, temporarily deployed in a vein during the procedure can filter excessive drug from the blood thus reducing chemotherapy side-effects. CFD modeling is used to design the membrane of the Chemofilter in order to optimize its hemodynamic performance. Methods: Multiscale approach is used to model blood flow through the Chemofilter. The toxins bind to the Chemofilter's membrane formed by a lattice of numerous micro cells deployed in a blood vessel of much larger size. A detailed model of the flow through a 2x2 microcell matrix with periodic boundary conditions is used to determine the permeability of the membrane. The results are used to simulate the flow through the whole device modeled as a uniform porous membrane. The finite-volume solver Fluent is used to obtain the numerical solution. Results: The micro cell matrix has a porosity of 0.92. The pressure drop across the resolved microcells was found to be 630 Pa, resulting in the permeability of 6.21 x10-11 m2 in the normal direction. These values were used to optimize the device geometry in order to increase the contact area of the membrane, while minimizing its obstruction to the flow. NIH NCI R01CA194533.

  11. Novel Wearable Device for Blood Leakage Detection during Hemodialysis Using an Array Sensing Patch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chun Du

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemodialysis (HD is a clinical treatment that requires the puncturing of the body surface. However, needle dislodgement can cause a high risk of blood leakage and can be fatal to patients. Previous studies proposed several devices for blood leakage detection using optical or electrical techniques. Nonetheless, these methods used single-point detection and the design was not suitable for multi-bed monitoring. This study proposed a novel wearable device for blood leakage monitoring during HD using an array sensing patch. The array sensing patch combined with a mapping circuit and a wireless module could measure and transmit risk levels. The different risk levels could improve the working process of healthcare workers, and enhance their work efficiency and reduce inconvenience due to false alarms. Experimental results showed that each point of the sensing array could detect up to 0.1 mL of blood leakage and the array sensing patch supports a risk level monitoring system up to 8 h to alert healthcare personnel of pertinent danger to the patients.

  12. Medical devices; immunology and microbiology devices; classification of multiplex nucleic acid assay for identification of microorganisms and resistance markers from positive blood cultures. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-27

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying multiplex nucleic acid assay for identification of microorganisms and resistance markers from positive blood cultures into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to this device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the multiplex nucleic acid assay for identification of microorganisms and resistance markers from positive blood cultures. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.

  13. Recirculated and Energy Recovered Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoffrey Krafft

    2003-05-01

    Linacs that are recirculated share many characteristics with ordinary linacs, including the ability to accelerate electron beams from an injector to high energy with relatively little (normalized) emittance growth and the ability to deliver ultrashort bunch duration pulses to users. When such linacs are energy recovered, the additional possibility of accelerating very high average beam current arises. Because this combination of beam properties is not possible from either a conventional linac, or from storage rings where emittance and pulse length are set by the equilibrium between radiation damping and quantum excitation of oscillations about the closed orbit, energy recovered linacs are being considered for an increasing variety of applications. These possibilities extend from high power free-electron lasers and recirculated linac light sources, to electron coolers for high energy colliders or actual electron-ion colliding- beam machines based on an energy recovered linac for the electrons.

  14. Optimization of recirculating laminar air flow in operating room air conditioning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver Yalcin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The laminar flow air-conditioning system with 100% fresh air is used in almost all operating rooms without discrimination in Turkey. The laminar flow device which is working with 100% fresh air should be absolutely used in Type 1A operating rooms. However, there is not mandatory to use of 100% fresh air for Type 1B defined as places performed simpler operation. Compared with recirculating laminar flow, energy needs of the laminar flow with 100 % fresh air has been emerged about 40% more than re-circulated air flow. Therefore, when a recirculating laminar flow device is operated instead of laminar flow system with 100% fresh air in the Type 1B operating room, annual energy consumption will be reduced. In this study, in an operating room with recirculating laminar flow, optimal conditions have been investigated in order to obtain laminar flow form by analyzing velocity distributions at various supply velocities by using computational fluid dynamics method (CFD.

  15. Accuracy of a new wrist cuff oscillometric blood pressure device: comparisons with intraarterial and mercury manometer measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, S; Wenzel, R R; di Matteo, C; Meier, B; Lüscher, T F

    1998-12-01

    Accurate measurement of arterial blood pressure is of great importance for the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension. Because of the chronic nature of antihypertensive drug therapy, the involvement of the patient in blood pressure control is desirable. Such an involvement, however, is only feasible if simple, user-friendly, and precise blood pressure measurement devices are available. In this study we tested a new wrist cuff oscillometric blood pressure measurement device in 100 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. Blood pressures were simultaneously taken intraarterially (axillary artery) and with a mercury manometer and stethoscope or noninvasive measurement device (OMRON R3). Intraarterial measurements were directly compared with two measurements taken in random order with either an arm cuff mercury manometer or the wrist cuff device. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure as assessed with the mercury manometer was higher, especially when compared with the intraarterial and the wrist cuff values, which were comparable. Correlations of blood pressure values with intraarterial measurement were 0.86 systolic and 0.75 diastolic (P mercury manometer measurements. Reproducibility of both measurements was good for the wrist cuff device ([systolic/diastolic]: r = 0.94/0.92; P mercury manometer (r = 0.97/0.88; P mercury manometer were higher than intraarterial values and those of the wrist cuff. Both noninvasive devices overestimated high diastolic values.

  16. Capillary flow-driven microfluidic device with wettability gradient and sedimentation effects for blood plasma separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, M. Sneha; Rakesh, P. E.; Chandra, T. S.; Sen, A. K.

    2017-01-01

    We report a capillary flow-driven microfluidic device for blood-plasma separation that comprises a cylindrical well between a pair of bottom and top channels. Exposure of the well to oxygen-plasma creates wettability gradient on its inner surface with its ends hydrophilic and middle portion hydrophobic. Due to capillary action, sample blood self-infuses into bottom channel and rises up the well. Separation of plasma occurs at the hydrophobic patch due to formation of a ‘self-built-in filter’ and sedimentation. Capillary velocity is predicted using a model and validated using experimental data. Sedimentation of RBCs is explained using modified Steinour’s model and correlation between settling velocity and liquid concentration is found. Variation of contact angle on inner surface of the well is characterized and effects of well diameter and height and dilution ratio on plasma separation rate are investigated. With a well of 1.0 mm diameter and 4.0 mm height, 2.0 μl of plasma was obtained (from <10 μl whole blood) in 15 min with a purification efficiency of 99.9%. Detection of glucose was demonstrated with the plasma obtained. Wetting property of channels was maintained by storing in DI water under vacuum and performance of the device was found to be unaffected over three weeks. PMID:28256564

  17. Development of a simple device for processing whole-blood samples into measured aliquots of plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtis, C A; Johnson, W F; Walker, W A

    1986-09-01

    A capillary processor and aliquoter has been designed and fabricated that is capable of accepting aliquots of whole blood and automatically processing them into discrete aliquots of plasma. The device consists of two disks, each of which contains 16 individual capillaries and a processing rotor. One disk accepts larger capillaries that hold approximately 100 microL of whole blood each. The second disk accepts 2.54-cm-long precision capillaries of various internal diameters, which provide exact sample volumes from 1 to 10 microL. The processing rotor contains 16 individual compartments and chambers to accept both disks. Applying centrifugal force transfers the aliquots of whole blood into their respective compartments, where they are separated into cellular and plasma fractions. As the rotor speed is slowly decreased, an aliquot of plasma is withdrawn by capillary action into each measuring capillary. The disk containing the 16 measured aliquots of plasma is then removed and placed into a modified rotor for conventional centrifugal analysis. This device can entrain and deliver microliter volumes of liquids with precision and accuracy (1-2%) near that of mechanical pipettes. Assays of the separated plasma aliquots also have acceptable precision (e.g., CVs approximately 3% for measurements of serum enzymes).

  18. 78 FR 38994 - Implanted Blood Access Devices for Hemodialysis; Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Implanted Blood Access Devices for Hemodialysis; Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing...

  19. Recirculación de la sangre durante la sesión de hemodiálisis en el catéter tunelizado PalindromeTM Blood recirculation during the haemodialysis session in the tunnelled catheter PalindromeTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Crehuet Rodríguez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los problemas más frecuentes que encontramos al utilizar los catéteres venosos tunelizados como acceso vascular para hemodiálisis, es un déficit de flujo sanguíneo, teniendo que invertir las líneas del circuito para poder continuar la sesión. Los investigadores, conscientes de que así puede aumentar la recirculación y derivar en una menor calidad de la técnica, han diseñado un nuevo modelo de catéter, para evitar en lo posible la recirculación de la sangre. Actualmente, este tipo de catéter es el que se implanta a nuestros pacientes; debido a esto y a la escasez de estudios publicados en estos nuevos catéteres sobre este tema, realizamos un estudio para calcular el porcentaje de recirculación que tienen dichos catéteres, tanto con las líneas del circuito en posición normal como en posición invertida. Calculamos este porcentaje analizando la determinación sérica de la urea, en 4 muestras de sangre, extraídas semanalmente, con las líneas del circuito de hemodiálisis en ambas posiciones y aplicamos la fórmula de recirculación: R = (BUN A2-BUN A1/BUN A2-BUN V x 100. Tras los resultados obtenidos podemos concluir, que el porcentaje de recirculación de la sangre en dichos catéteres es prácticamente el mismo, tanto con las líneas del circuito en una posición como en otra, habiéndose obtenido unas cifras más que aceptables para poder conseguir hemodiálisis de buena calidad, según los parámetros que aconsejan las guías de la sociedad española de nefrología de accesos vasculares.One of the most frequent problems we find when using tunnelled venous catheters as vascular access for haemodialysis is a shortfall in blood flow, making it necessary to invert the circuit lines in order to continue the session. Aware that this can increase recirculation and lead to a decreased quality of the technique, researchers have designed a new catheter model to avoid blood recirculation as much as possible. This is the type of

  20. A programmable and portable NMES device for drop foot correction and blood flow assist applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Paul P; Corley, Gavin J; O'Keeffe, Derek T; Conway, Richard; Olaighin, Gearóid

    2009-04-01

    The Duo-STIM, a new, programmable and portable neuromuscular stimulation system for drop foot correction and blood flow assist applications is presented. The system consists of a programmer unit and a portable, programmable stimulator unit. The portable stimulator features fully programmable, sensor-controlled, constant-voltage, dual-channel stimulation and accommodates a range of customized stimulation profiles. Trapezoidal and free-form adaptive stimulation intensity envelope algorithms are provided for drop foot correction applications, while time dependent and activity dependent algorithms are provided for blood flow assist applications. A variety of sensor types can be used with the portable unit, including force sensitive resistor-based foot switches and MEMS-based accelerometer and gyroscope devices. The paper provides a detailed description of the hardware and block-level system design for both units. The programming and operating procedures for the system are also presented. Finally, functional bench test results for the system are presented.

  1. Lagrangian methods for blood damage estimation in cardiovascular devices--How numerical implementation affects the results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marom, Gil; Bluestein, Danny

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluated the influence of various numerical implementation assumptions on predicting blood damage in cardiovascular devices using Lagrangian methods with Eulerian computational fluid dynamics. The implementation assumptions that were tested included various seeding patterns, stochastic walk model, and simplified trajectory calculations with pathlines. Post processing implementation options that were evaluated included single passage and repeated passages stress accumulation and time averaging. This study demonstrated that the implementation assumptions can significantly affect the resulting stress accumulation, i.e., the blood damage model predictions. Careful considerations should be taken in the use of Lagrangian models. Ultimately, the appropriate assumptions should be considered based the physics of the specific case and sensitivity analysis, similar to the ones presented here, should be employed.

  2. Modeling of Shear-Induced Red Blood Cell Migration for Guiding Microfluidic Device Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Eden; Higgins, Adam; Sharp, Kendra

    2014-11-01

    Through refinement and extension of a two-phase flow model previously reported for modeling blood in cylindrical flows (Gidaspow, 2009), we have developed a computational model for blood flow in complex microfluidic. Treating plasma as a Newtonian fluid and the Red Blood Cells (RBCs) as a granular phase, whose local concentrations are determined statistically, we have captured the migration of RBCs and concomitant formation of a cell free plasma layer at the channel walls. This model provides us with a three-dimensional distribution of RBCs and the development of the stead-state flow profile, and enables us to study the influence of complex microfluidic geometries, including flow obstacles and varying channel dimensions, on the rate and extent of RBC margination. Simulations on 50 and 100 micron square channels match observed trends including decreasing RBC margination rate in larger channels, increasing RBC margination rate with higher hematocrit, and decreasing cell free layer width with increasing hematocrit. This predictive capability will allow microfluidic devices to be tailored and optimized for specific biomedical applications such as separation of blood constituents.

  3. Effects of Sevoflurane and Propofol on Organ Blood Flow in Left Ventricular Assist Devices in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Morillas-Sendín

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of sevoflurane and propofol on organ blood flow in a porcine model with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD. Ten healthy minipigs were divided into 2 groups (5 per group according to the anesthetic received (sevoflurane or propofol. A Biomedicus centrifugal pump was implanted. Organ blood flow (measured using colored microspheres, markers of tissue injury, and hemodynamic parameters were assessed at baseline (pump off and after 30 minutes of partial support. Blood flow was significantly higher in the brain (both frontal lobes, heart (both ventricles, and liver after 30 minutes in the sevoflurane group, although no significant differences were recorded for the lung, kidney, or ileum. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and total bilirubin were significantly higher after 30 minutes in the propofol group, although no significant differences were detected between the groups for other parameters of liver function, kidney function, or lactic acid levels. The hemodynamic parameters were similar in both groups. We demonstrated that, compared with propofol, sevoflurane increases blood flow in the brain, liver, and heart after implantation of an LVAD under conditions of partial support.

  4. An Educational Device for a Hands-on Activity to Visualize the Effect of Atherosclerosis on Blood Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, J. P. P. G. L.; de Lima, J. L. M. P.

    2013-01-01

    An educational device was created to develop a hands-on activity to illustrate how atherosclerosis can dramatically reduce blood flow in human vessels. The device was conceived, designed, and built at the University of Coimbra, in response to a request from the Exploratorio Infante D. Henrique Science Centre Museum, where it is presently…

  5. Capillary flow-driven microfluidic device with wettability gradient and sedimentation effects for blood plasma separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, M. Sneha; Rakesh, P. E.; Chandra, T. S.; Sen, A. K.

    2017-03-01

    We report a capillary flow-driven microfluidic device for blood-plasma separation that comprises a cylindrical well between a pair of bottom and top channels. Exposure of the well to oxygen-plasma creates wettability gradient on its inner surface with its ends hydrophilic and middle portion hydrophobic. Due to capillary action, sample blood self-infuses into bottom channel and rises up the well. Separation of plasma occurs at the hydrophobic patch due to formation of a ‘self-built-in filter’ and sedimentation. Capillary velocity is predicted using a model and validated using experimental data. Sedimentation of RBCs is explained using modified Steinour’s model and correlation between settling velocity and liquid concentration is found. Variation of contact angle on inner surface of the well is characterized and effects of well diameter and height and dilution ratio on plasma separation rate are investigated. With a well of 1.0 mm diameter and 4.0 mm height, 2.0 μl of plasma was obtained (from purification efficiency of 99.9%. Detection of glucose was demonstrated with the plasma obtained. Wetting property of channels was maintained by storing in DI water under vacuum and performance of the device was found to be unaffected over three weeks.

  6. Centrifugal blood pump for temporary ventricular assist devices with low priming and ceramic bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leme, Juliana; da Silva, Cibele; Fonseca, Jeison; da Silva, Bruno Utiyama; Uebelhart, Beatriz; Biscegli, José F; Andrade, Aron

    2013-11-01

    A new model of centrifugal blood pump for temporary ventricular assist devices has been developed and evaluated. The design of the device is based on centrifugal pumping principles and the usage of ceramic bearings, resulting in a pump with reduced priming (35 ± 2 mL) that can be applied for up to 30 days. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis is an efficient tool to optimize flow path geometry, maximize hydraulic performance, and minimize shear stress, consequently decreasing hemolysis. Initial studies were conducted by analyzing flow behavior with different impellers, aiming to determine the best impeller design. After CFD studies, rapid prototyping technology was used for production of pump prototypes with three different impellers. In vitro experiments were performed with those prototypes, using a mock loop system composed of Tygon tubes, oxygenator, digital flow meter, pressure monitor, electronic driver, and adjustable clamp for flow control, filled with a solution (1/3 water, 1/3 glycerin, 1/3 alcohol) simulating blood viscosity and density. Flow-versus-pressure curves were obtained for rotational speeds of 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, and 3000 rpm. As the next step, the CFD analysis and hydrodynamic performance results will be compared with the results of flow visualization studies and hemolysis tests.

  7. Control performance of paper-based blood analysis devices through paper structure design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lizi; Huang, Xiaolei; Liu, Wen; Shen, Wei

    2014-12-10

    In this work, we investigated the influence of paper structure on the performance of paper-based analytical devices that are used for blood analysis. The question that we aimed to answer is how the fiber type (i.e., softwood and hardwood fibers) influences the fiber network structure of the paper, which affects the transport of red blood cells (RBCs) in paper. In the experimental design, we isolated the influence of fiber types on the paper structure from all other possible influencing factors by removing the fines from the pulps and not using any additives. Mercury porosimetry was employed to characterize the pore structures of the paper sheets. The results show that papers with a low basis weight that are made with short hardwood fibers have a higher porosity (i.e., void fraction) and simpler pore structures compared with papers made with long softwood fibers. RBC transport in paper carried by saline solution was investigated in two modes: lateral chromatographic elution and vertical flow-through. The results showed that the complexity of the paper's internal pore structure has a dominant influence on the transport of RBCs in paper. Hardwood fiber sheets with a low basis weight have a simple internal pore structure and allow for the easy transport of RBCs. Blood-typing sensors built with low basis weight hardwood fibers deliver high-clarity assays. Softwood fiber papers are found to have a more complex pore structure, which makes RBC transport more difficult, leading to blood-typing results of low clarity. This study provides the principle of paper sheet design for paper-based blood analysis sensors.

  8. Performance study of microfluidic devices for blood plasma separation—a designer’s perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Siddhartha; Bala Varun Kumar, Y. V.; Prabhakar, Amit; Joshi, Suhas S.; Agrawal, Amit

    2015-08-01

    In this work, design and experiments on various blood plasma microdevices based on hydrodynamic flow separation techniques is carried out. We study their performance as a function of dependent governing parameters such as flow rate, feed hematocrit, and microchannel geometry. This work focuses on understanding separation phenomena in simple geometries; subsequently, individual simple geometrical parameters and biophysical effects are combined to fabricate hybridized designs, resulting in higher separation efficiencies. The distinctive features of our microfluidic devices are that they employ elevated dimensions (of the order of hundreds of microns), and thereby can be operated continuously over sufficient duration without clogging, while simplicity of fabrication makes them cost effective. The microdevices have been experimentally demonstrated over the entire range of hematocrit (i.e. from Hct 7% to Hct 45%). A high separation efficiency of about (78.34  ±  2.7)% with pure blood is achieved in our best hybrid design. We believe that the theory and experimental results presented in this study will aid designers and researchers working in the field of blood plasma separation microdevices.

  9. Numerical study on the complete blood cell sorting using particle tracing and dielectrophoresis in a microfluidic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Haider; Park, Cheol Woo

    2016-11-01

    In this study, a numerical model of a microfluidic device with particle tracing and dielectrophoresis field-flow fractionation was employed to perform a complete and continuous blood cell sorting. A low voltage was applied to electrodes to separate the red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets based on their cell size. Blood cell sorting and counting were performed by evaluating the cell trajectories, displacements, residence times, and recovery rates in the device. A novel numerical technique was used to count the number of separated blood cells by estimating the displacement and residence time of the cells in a microfluidic device. For successful blood cell sorting, the value of cells displacement must be approximately equal to or higher than the corresponding maximum streamwise distance. The study also proposed different outlet designs to improve blood cell separation. The basic outlet design resulted in a higher cells recovery rate than the other outlets design. The recovery rate decreased as the number of inlet cells and flow rates increased because of the high particle-particle interactions and collisions with walls. The particle-particle interactions significantly affect blood cell sorting and must therefore be considered in future work.

  10. Measurement of Blood Pressure Using an Arterial Pulsimeter Equipped with a Hall Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Gu Choi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To measure precise blood pressure (BP and pulse rate without using a cuff, we have developed an arterial pulsimeter consisting of a small, portable apparatus incorporating a Hall device. Regression analysis of the pulse wave measured during testing of the arterial pulsimeter was conducted using two equations of the BP algorithm. The estimated values of BP obtained by the cuffless arterial pulsimeter over 5 s were compared with values obtained using electronic or liquid mercury BP meters. The standard deviation between the estimated values and the measured values for systolic and diastolic BP were 8.3 and 4.9, respectively, which are close to the range of values of the BP International Standard. Detailed analysis of the pulse wave measured by the cuffless radial artery pulsimeter by detecting changes in the magnetic field can be used to develop a new diagnostic algorithm for BP, which can be applied to new medical apparatus such as the radial artery pulsimeter.

  11. Napoleon Cybulski--Polish pioneer in developing of the device for measuring blood flow velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, W W; Konturek, S J; Bilski, R

    2006-04-01

    Napoleon Cybulski (1854-1919) was the most prominent Polish physiologist who chaired the Department of Physiology at the Faculty of Medicine of Jagiellonian University between 1885 and 1919. One of his greatest achievements was the construction of a device for precise measurements of blood movement in the vessels - the photohemotachometer, which provided a better insight into the physiology and pathophysiology of the circulatory system. In the field of endocrinology Cybulski together with Szymonowicz, found out that adrenal extracts contain biologically active substances that elevate blood pressure. He was also a constructor of an extremely clever microcalorimeter to measure the quantity of heat produced during isolated muscle contraction. He applied, for the first time, condensator discharges to stimulate nerves and analyzed changes in the excitability of the muscles. Cybulski proved that the cause of the electrical excitability of tissue depends on the electrical energy and the time of its duration. Together with Beck, he performed the experiments on the sensory centers in the central nervous system by means of the observations of the electrical evoked potentials. They discovered the continuous electrical oscillations in the brain - the brain waves and recorded the negative electrical potentials in certain brain areas induced by sensory impulses coming from the periphery. Using this technique Beck and Cybulski localized various centers in the brain of dogs and Macaccus rhesus monkeys. The names of Beck and Cybulski were quoted in many publications on neurophysiology and electroencephalography. The present paper describes Napoleon Cybulski as a constructor of an original instrument for studying the movement of blood under various experimental conditions an emphasizes the contribution of this invention to the development of physiology.

  12. Evaluation of the Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate released from polyvinyl chloride medical devices that contact blood

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Hongyu; Sun, Guangyu; Shi, Yanping; Shen, Yong; Xu, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Extraction methods that simulate those used in the clinic are recommended for obtaining extraction solutions. For polyvinyl chloride (PVC) medical devices that have contact with human blood, an alternative medium (ethanol/water mixture) is suggested as an extraction screening vehicle to evaluate the di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) released. A test comparing the extraction ability between the alternative medium and whole blood from three healthy volunteers has been conducted. An experimental ...

  13. Ventricular Assist Devices and Increased Blood Product Utilization for Cardiac Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Matthew L.; LaPar, Damien J.; Benrashid, Ehsan; Scalzo, David C.; Ailawadi, Gorav; Kron, Irving L.; Bergin, James D.; Blank, Randal S.; Kern, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim of Study The purpose of this study was to examine whether blood product utilization, one-year cell-mediated rejection rates, and mid-term survival significantly differ for ventricular assist device (VAD patients compared to non-VAD (NVAD) patients following cardiac transplantation. Methods From July 2004 to August 2011, 79 patients underwent cardiac transplantation at a single institution. Following exclusion of patients bridged to transplantation with VADs other than the HeartMate II® LVAD (n = 10), patients were stratified by VAD presence at transplantation: VAD patients (n = 35, age: 54.0 [48.0–59.0] years) vs. NVAD patients (n = 34, age: 52.5 [42.8–59.3] years). The primary outcomes of interest were blood product transfusion requirements, one-year cell-mediated rejection rates, and mid-term survival post-transplantation. Results Preoperative patient characteristics were similar for VAD and NVAD patients. NVAD patients presented with higher median preoperative creatinine levels compared to VAD patients (1.3 [1.1–1.6] vs. 1.1 [0.9–1.4], p = 0.004). VAD patients accrued higher intraoperative transfusion of all blood products (all p ≤ 0.001) compared to NVAD patients. The incidence of clinically significant cell-mediated rejection within the first posttransplant year was higher in VAD compared to NVAD patients (66.7% vs. 33.3%, p = 0.02). During a median follow-up period of 3.2 (2.0, 6.3) years, VAD patients demonstrated an increased postoperative mortality that did not reach statistical significance (20.0% vs. 8.8%, p = 0.20). Conclusions During the initial era as a bridge to transplantation, the HeartMate II® LVAD significantly increased blood product utilization and one-year cell-mediated rejection rates for cardiac transplantation. Further study is warranted to optimize anticoagulation strategies and to define causal relationships between these factors for the current era of cardiac transplantation. PMID:25529999

  14. Solids removal from a coldwater recirculating system - comparison of swirl separator and radial-flow settlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solids removal across two settling devices, i.e., a swirl separator and a radial-flow settler, and across a microscreen drum filter was evaluated in a fully recirculating system containing a single 150 m3 'Cornell-type' dual-drain tank during the production of food-size Arctic char and rainbow trout...

  15. EDTA-treated cotton-thread microfluidic device used for one-step whole blood plasma separation and assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulum, Mokhamad Fakhrul; Maylina, Leni; Noviana, Deni; Wicaksono, Dedy Hermawan Bagus

    2016-04-21

    This study aims to observe the wicking and separation characteristics of blood plasma in a cotton thread matrix functioning as a microfluidic thread-based analytical device (μTAD). We investigated several cotton thread treatment methods using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) anticoagulant solution for wicking whole blood samples and separating its plasma. The blood of healthy Indonesian thin tailed sheep was used in this study to understand the properties of horizontal wicking and separation on the EDTA-treated μTAD. The wicking distance and blood cell separation from its plasma was observed for 120 s and documented using a digital phone camera. The results show that untreated cotton-threads stopped the blood wicking process on the μTAD. On the other hand, the deposition of EDTA anticoagulant followed by its drying on the thread at room temperature for 10 s provides the longest blood wicking with gradual blood plasma separation. Furthermore, the best results in terms of the longest wicking and the clearest on-thread separation boundary between blood cells and its plasma were obtained using the μTAD treated with EDTA deposition followed by 60 min drying at refrigerated temperature (2-8 °C). The separation length of blood plasma in the μTADs treated with dried-EDTA at both room and refrigerated temperatures was not statistically different (P > 0.05). This separation occurs through the synergy of three factors, cotton fiber, EDTA anticoagulant and blood platelets, which induce the formation of a fibrin-filter via a partial coagulation process in the EDTA-treated μTAD. An albumin assay was employed to demonstrate the efficiency of this plasma separation method during a one-step assay on the μTAD. Albumin in blood is an important biomarker for kidney and heart disease. The μTAD has a slightly better limit of detection (LOD) than conventional blood analysis, with an LOD of 114 mg L(-1) compared to 133 mg L(-1), respectively. However, the μTAD performed

  16. Community-based blood pressure measurement by non-health workers using electronic devices: a validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D. Reidpath

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Population monitoring and screening of blood pressure is an important part of any population health strategy. Qualified health workers are expensive and often unavailable for screening. Non-health workers with electronic blood pressure monitors are increasingly used in community-based research. This approach is unvalidated. In a poor, urban community we compared blood pressure measurements taken by non-health workers using electronic devices against qualified health workers using mercury sphygmomanometers. Method: Fifty-six adult volunteers participated in the research. Data were collected by five qualified health workers, and six non-health workers. Participants were randomly allocated to have their blood pressure measured on four consecutive occasions by alternating a qualified health worker with a non-health worker. Descriptive statistics and graphs, and mixed effects linear models to account for the repeated measurement were used in the analysis. Results: Blood pressure readings by non-health workers were more reliable than those taken by qualified health workers. There was no significant difference between the readings taken by qualified health workers and those taken by non-health workers for systolic blood pressure. Non-health workers were, on average, 5–7 mmHg lower in their measures of blood pressure than the qualified health workers (95%HPD: −2.9 to −10.0 for diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion: The results provide empirical evidence that supports the practice of non-health workers using electronic devices for BP measurement in community-based research and screening. Non-health workers recorded blood pressures that differed from qualified health workers by no more than 10 mmHg. The approach is promising, but more research is needed to establish the generalisability of the results.

  17. Dynamics of blood flow in a microfluidic ladder network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddala, Jeevan; Zilberman-Rudenko, Jevgenia; McCarty, Owen

    The dynamics of a complex mixture of cells and proteins, such as blood, in perturbed shear flow remains ill-defined. Microfluidics is a promising technology for improving the understanding of blood flow under complex conditions of shear; as found in stent implants and in tortuous blood vessels. We model the fluid dynamics of blood flow in a microfluidic ladder network with dimensions mimicking venules. Interaction of blood cells was modeled using multiagent framework, where cells of different diameters were treated as spheres. This model served as the basis for predicting transition regions, collision pathways, re-circulation zones and residence times of cells dependent on their diameters and device architecture. Based on these insights from the model, we were able to predict the clot formation configurations at various locations in the device. These predictions were supported by the experiments using whole blood. To facilitate platelet aggregation, the devices were coated with fibrillar collagen and tissue factor. Blood was perfused through the microfluidic device for 9 min at a physiologically relevant venous shear rate of 600 s-1. Using fluorescent microscopy, we observed flow transitions near the channel intersections and at the areas of blood flow obstruction, which promoted larger thrombus formation. This study of integrating model predictions with experimental design, aids in defining the dynamics of blood flow in microvasculature and in development of novel biomedical devices.

  18. Controlled reattachment in separated flows: a variational approach to recirculation length reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Boujo, E

    2014-01-01

    A variational technique is used to derive analytical expressions for the sensitivity of recirculation length to steady forcing in separated flows. Linear sensitivity analysis is applied to the two-dimensional steady flow past a circular cylinder for Reynolds numbers $40 \\leq Re \\leq 120$, both in the subcritical and supercritical regimes. Regions which are the most sensitive to volume forcing and wall blowing/suction are identified. Control configurations which reduce the recirculation length are designed based on the sensitivity information, in particular small cylinders used as control devices in the wake of the main cylinder, and fluid suction at the cylinder wall. Validation against full non-linear Navier-Stokes calculations shows excellent agreement for small-amplitude control. The linear stability properties of the controlled flow are systematically investigated. At moderate Reynolds numbers, we observe that regions where control reduces the recirculation length correspond to regions where it has a stab...

  19. Development and testing of a new disposable sterile device for labelling white blood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Signore, A.; Glaudemans, A. W. J. M.; Malviya, G.; Lazzeri, E.; Prandini, N.; Viglietti, A. L.; De Vries, E. F. J.; Dierckx, R. A. J. O.

    2012-01-01

    Aim. White blood cell (WBC) labelling requires isolation of cells from patient's blood under sterile conditions using sterile materials, buffers and disposables under good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions. Till now, this limited the use of white blood cell scintigraphy (WBC-S) only to well eq

  20. Comparison of a new blood sampling device with the vacuum tube system for plasma and hematological analyses in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Brice S; Boudet, Karine G; Faucher, Mathieu R; Geffre, Anne; Germain, Claude; Lefebvre, Hervé P

    2008-01-01

    Pediatric devices based on a capillary system may provide an alternative to vacuum tubes for canine blood sampling. The potential advantages are absence of vein collapse, limited blood volume sampled, and improved safety. The aim of this study was to compare routine plasma and hematological variables in seven healthy dogs using both techniques. Five biochemical analytes were measured, and a complete hematological examination and plasma exogenous creatinine clearance test were performed. No clinically relevant difference between the two techniques was observed for any variable or functional test assessed.

  1. Diagnostics For Recirculating And Energy Recovered Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoffrey A. Krafft; Jean-Claude Denard

    2002-12-18

    In this paper, the electron beam diagnostics developed for recirculating electron accelerators will be reviewed. The main novelties in dealing with such accelerators are: to have sufficient information and control possibilities for the longitudinal phase space, to have means to accurately set the recirculation path length, and to have a means to distinguish the beam passes on measurements of position in the linac proper. The solutions to these problems obtained at Jefferson Laboratory and elsewhere will be discussed. In addition, more standard instrumentation (profiling and emittance measurements) will be reviewed in the context of recirculating linacs. Finally, and looking forward, electron beam diagnostics for applications to high current energy recovered linacs will be discussed.

  2. Development of Multiscale Materials in Microfluidic Devices: Case Study for Viral Separation from Whole Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surawathanawises, Krissada

    such as blood cells, and the nanoscale pores promote permeation for affinity capture of bionanoparticles. Consequently, particles with a size difference of 3--4 orders of magnitude can be separated in a simple flow-through process. Computational analyses are employed to study the effect of micropattern shape and layout. A half-ring pattern is shown to reduce flow resistance and promote fluid permeation compared to a circular pattern. In the experiment, the micropatterned porous arrays yield around 4 times higher viral capture from whole blood compared with a micropatterned solid array. The micropatterned porous devices are capable of handling a large volume of fluid sample without clogging by cells. Therefore they can be used for nanoparticle concentration. Our study also indicates that the layout of micropatterns can be adjusted to improve the capture yield. For example, an increase in pattern radius, or a decrease in gap distance between each post and in width of half ring will enhance fluid permeation in the porous structure. When combined with downstream detection, these materials integrated into microfluidic platforms can be created as point-of-care diagnostics, as well as other applications for particle separation and analysis. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  3. Penile rehabilitation with a vacuum erectile device in an animal model is related to an antihypoxic mechanism: blood gas evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hao-Cheng; Yang, Wen-Li; Zhang, Jun-Lan; Dai, Yu-Tian; Wang, Run

    2013-05-01

    Our previous study showed that vacuum erectile device (VED) therapy has improved erectile function in rats with bilateral cavernous nerve crush (BCNC) injuries. This study was designed to explore the mechanism of VED in penile rehabilitation by analyzing cavernous oxygen saturation (SO2) and to examine the effect of VED therapy on preventing penile shrinkage after BCNC. Thirty adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into three groups: group 1, sham surgery; group 2, BCNC; and group 3, BCNC+VED. Penile length and diameter were measured on a weekly basis. After 4 weeks of therapy, the penile blood was extracted by three methods for blood gas analysis (BGA): method 1, cavernous blood was aspirated at the flaccid state; method 2, cavernous blood was aspirated at the traction state; and method 3, cavernous blood was aspirated immediately after applying VED. SO2 values were tested by the blood gas analyzer. The results showed that VED therapy is effective in preventing penile shrinkage induced by BCNC (Penile shortening: BCNC group 1.9±1.1 mm; VED group 0.3±1.0 mm; P<0.01. Penile diameter reduction: BCNC group 0.28±0.14 mm; VED group 0.04±0.14 mm; P<0.01). The mean SO2±s.d. values were increased by VED application (88.25%±4.94%) compared to the flaccid (76.53%±4.16%) or traction groups (78.93%±2.56%) (P<0.05). The calculated blood constructs in the corpus cavernosum right after VED application were 62% arterial and 38% venous blood. These findings suggest that VED therapy can effectively preserve penile size in rats with BCNC injury. The beneficial effect of VED therapy is related to antihypoxia by increasing cavernous blood SO2.

  4. Design and Testing of a Minimally Invasive Blood Clot Removal Device ConstructedWith Elements of Superelastic Nitinol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puffer, Andrew J.

    Many vascular system problems stem from insufficient blood return flow to the heart. One of the main causes is a blockage within veins or arteries known as a blood clot, or thrombus. This can occur after trauma, surgery, or other phenomenological reasons. Each year in the U.S. more than 175,000 bypass procedures and more than 160,000 amputations resulting from peripheral vessel disease are performed. Clinical data indicates that clot removal devices and procedures can reduce the need for an amputation by 80 percent. Percutaneous thrombectomy refers to the removal of thrombus using catheter based non-surgical methods. The ultimate goal of any modality to treat these conditions of the arterial or venous system is to restore patency, quickly, safely, and cost effectively. Catheter directed thrombectomy and thrombolysis is less traumatic and avoids the morbidity and mortality associated with conventional surgical technique. As a result, there has been a push recently for the use of percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy (PMT) devices. However, all devices have their own set of drawbacks: distal embolization, vessel wall trauma, hemolysis, to name a few. Ongoing efforts have been made to create a prototype thrombectomy device that uses elements of superelastic nitinol (a type of shape memory alloy), that seeks to address some of the drawbacks of current devices. The prototype was designed and tested in a simulated human circulatory system along side a commercially available device (The DiverCE Clot Extraction Catheter). The test evaluated how well the devices minimized distal embolization of a human blood clot created in vitro.. Results of the testing showed that the prototype device created significantly less embolization when compared to the DiverCE particles greater than 102mum (p = 0.0332). Means were statistically not different for particles between 25mum and 102mum (p = 0.2454), and particles between 5mum and 25mum (p = 0.6524). In addition the prototype was shown

  5. Sodium recirculation and isotonic transport in toad small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Signe Nielsen; Larsen, Erik Hviid; Ussing, Hans H.

    1999-01-01

    Small intestine; leaky epithelia; solute-coupled water transport; Na*O+ recirculation; lateral intercellular space; flux ratio analysi......Small intestine; leaky epithelia; solute-coupled water transport; Na*O+ recirculation; lateral intercellular space; flux ratio analysi...

  6. Simultaneous forward and reverse ABO blood group typing using a paper-based device and barcode-like interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songjaroen, Temsiri; Laiwattanapaisal, Wanida

    2016-05-19

    A new platform of a paper-based analytical device (PAD) for simultaneous forward and reverse ABO blood group typing has been reported. This platform can overcome the discrepancy results as influenced by the individual haematocrit. The test and the control of non-haemagglutination on each channel were performed in parallel. The PAD was fabricated by printing six parallel channels with wax onto Whatman No. 4 filter paper. An LF1 blood separation membrane was used for the separation of plasma from whole blood for reverse grouping. The blood group was identified by haemagglutination of the corresponding antigen-antibody. For forward grouping, Anti-A, -B and -A,B were treated on the test line of PAD, and inactivated Anti-A, -B and -A,B were immobilized on the control line. For reverse grouping, 30% standard A-cells, B- and O- were added to the test channel after plasma separation, and O-cells were used as a control. Then, 0.9% normal saline (NSS) containing 1% Tween-20 was bi-functionally used for dilution of the blood sample and elution of the non-agglutinated RBCs within the channels. The distance of agglutinated RBCs in each test line was compared with the distance of non-agglutinated RBCs in the parallel control line. The forward and reverse patterns of blood groups A, B, AB and O were a barcode-like chart in which the results can be visually analysed. The PAD has excellent reproducibility when 10 replications of the A, B, AB or O blood groups were performed. The results of both forward and reverse grouping were highly correlated with conventional methods compared with the slide method and tube method, respectively (n = 76). Thus, this ABO typing PAD holds great potential for future applications in blood typing point-of-care testing.

  7. Glucometer as a chairside device to assess blood glucose in periodontal patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G N Bala Raghavendra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a common finding in the medical history of patients receiving treatment for periodontal disease. The incidence of diabetes is on the rise worldwide. Virtually, every dentist and especially the periodontist are likely to encounter an increasing number of undiagnosed diabetic patients. The conventional laboratory methods employed to detect blood glucose are time consuming and require elaborative equipment. The advent of blood glucose monitors allows the clinician to assess blood glucose at the chair side. Materials and Methods: The use of gingival capillary blood as a marker for blood glucose estimation using glucometer against the conventional laboratory method has been assessed in 60 diabetics and 70 controls. Results: The correlation between gingival and finger-stick blood was r = 0.996, P<0.001 in diabetics and controls. Correlation between gingival and laboratory method was r = 0.994, P<0.001 in cases and controls. Conclusion: The results suggest that capillary blood from the outer surface of gingiva provide an acceptable source for measuring blood glucose.

  8. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also, blood is either Rh-positive or Rh-negative. So if you have type A blood, it's either A positive or A negative. Which type you are is important if you need a blood transfusion. And your Rh factor could be important ...

  9. Validation of Omron RS8, RS6, and RS3 home blood pressure monitoring devices, in accordance with the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi H

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Hakuo Takahashi, Masamichi Yoshika, Toyohiko YokoiDepartment of Clinical Sciences and Laboratory Medicine, Kansai Medical University, Hirakata, Osaka, JapanBackground: Allowing patients to measure their blood pressure at home is recognized as being of clinical value. However, it is not known how often these measurements are taken correctly. Blood pressure monitors for home use fall into two types based on the position of the cuff, ie, at the upper arm or the wrist. The latter is particularly convenient, as measurements can be taken fully clothed. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the wrist-type blood pressure monitors Omron RS8 (HEM-6310F-E, Omron RS6 (HEM-6221-E, and Omron RS3 (HEM-6130-E.Methods: A team of three trained doctors validated the performance of these devices by comparing the measurements obtained from these devices with those taken using a standard mercury sphygmomanometer. All the devices met the validation requirements of the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.Results: The difference in blood pressure readings between the tested device and the standard mercury sphygmomanometer was within 3 mmHg, which is acceptable according to the European Society of Hypertension guidelines.Conclusion: All the home devices tested were found to be suitable for measuring blood pressure at home because their performance fulfilled the requirement of the guidelines.Keywords: blood pressure, device, European Society of Hypertension, guideline, measurement, validation

  10. Preoperational test report, recirculation condenser cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-04

    This represents a preoperational test report for Recirculation Condenser Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The four system provide condenser cooling water for vapor space cooling of tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. Each system consists of a valved piping loop, a pair of redundant recirculation pumps, a closed-loop evaporative cooling tower, and supporting instrumentation; equipment is located outside the farm on concrete slabs. Piping is routed to the each ventilation condenser inside the farm via below-grade concrete trenches. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  11. Calibration of a prototype NIRS oximeter against two commercial devices on a blood-lipid phantom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Kleiser, Stefan; Wolf, Martin

    2013-01-01

    In a blood-lipid liquid phantom the prototype near-infrared spectroscopy oximeter OxyPrem was calibrated against the INVOS® 5100c adult sensor in respect to values of regional tissue oxygen haemoglobin saturation (rStO2) for possible inclusion in the randomised clinical trial - SafeBoosC. In addi......In a blood-lipid liquid phantom the prototype near-infrared spectroscopy oximeter OxyPrem was calibrated against the INVOS® 5100c adult sensor in respect to values of regional tissue oxygen haemoglobin saturation (rStO2) for possible inclusion in the randomised clinical trial - SafeBoos...

  12. High Power Picosecond Laser Pulse Recirculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shverdin, M Y; Jovanovic, I; Semenov, V A; Betts, S M; Brown, C; Gibson, D J; Shuttlesworth, R M; Hartemann, F V; Siders, C W; Barty, C P

    2010-04-12

    We demonstrate a nonlinear crystal-based short pulse recirculation cavity for trapping the second harmonic of an incident high power laser pulse. This scheme aims to increase the efficiency and flux of Compton-scattering based light sources. We demonstrate up to 36x average power enhancement of frequency doubled sub-millijoule picosecond pulses, and 17x average power enhancement of 177 mJ, 10 ps, 10 Hz pulses.

  13. High-power picosecond laser pulse recirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shverdin, M Y; Jovanovic, I; Semenov, V A; Betts, S M; Brown, C; Gibson, D J; Shuttlesworth, R M; Hartemann, F V; Siders, C W; Barty, C P J

    2010-07-01

    We demonstrate a nonlinear crystal-based short pulse recirculation cavity for trapping the second harmonic of an incident high-power laser pulse. This scheme aims to increase the efficiency and flux of Compton-scattering-based light sources. We demonstrate up to 40x average power enhancement of frequency-doubled submillijoule picosecond pulses, and 17x average power enhancement of 177 mJ, 10 ps, 10 Hz pulses.

  14. A new portable device for automatic controlled-gradient cryopreservation of blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, L; Albeck, G; Hansen, B

    1993-01-01

    , which has proved suitable for field conditions. We report here the development and testing of a similar micro-controller regulated device, allowing unattended and automatic controlled-gradient cell freezing. The equipment exploits the temperature gradient present between the liquid N2 surface...

  15. Assessment of whole blood thrombosis in a microfluidic device lined by fixed human endothelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jain, Abhishek; Meer, van der Andries D.; Papa, Anne-Laure; Barrile, Riccardo; Lai, Angela; Schlechter, Benjamin L.; Otieno, Monicah A.; Louden, Calvert S.; Hamilton, Geraldine A.; Michelson, Alan D.; Frelinger, Andrew L.; Ingber, Donald E.

    2016-01-01

    The vascular endothelium and shear stress are critical determinants of physiological hemostasis and platelet function in vivo, yet current diagnostic and monitoring devices do not fully incorporate endothelial function under flow in their assessment and, therefore, they can be unreliable and inaccur

  16. Hysterography and menstrual blood loss in women using the T Cu 200 device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefnawi, F; Hamed, A F; Younis, N; El-sheikha, Z; Sherif, H

    1980-01-01

    A study was conducted using 32 women who had Copper T 200 IUDs inserted at the family planning clinic at Al-Ashar University Hospital in Cairo, Egypt. The study was conducted to determine the association between menstrual blood loss following IUD insertion, the shape and size of the uterine cavity, and the position and orientation of the IUD within the uterus. A preinsertion measurement of blood loss was used as a control. Hysterographic measurement was then done for the 1st 3 cycles postinsertion and at the 6th, 9th, and 12th cycles. Additionally, X-ray measurement was done after the 12th cycle. All findings are tabulated, graphed, diagrammed, and/or pictured. 1 group of women was found to have had no increase in menstrual loss; the other had an increase. Almost 95% of the women with increased blood loss had a large uterine cavity as compared to only 61.5% of the group with no increase. This difference, however, was not statistically significant. The group having conical uterine cavities with medium fundus had a statistically significant greater blood loss than women with conical narrow fundus. Increased bleeding had no relation to the orientation or displacement of the IUD within the uterine cavity or to the presence or absence of anchorage.

  17. High gradient magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal via upwardly directed recirculating fluidization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissenberg, David M.; Liu, Yin-An

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved device and method for the high gradient magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal, for the purpose of removing sulfur and ash from the coal whereby the product is a dry environmentally acceptable, low-sulfur fuel. The process involves upwardly directed recirculating air fluidization of selectively sized powdered coal in a separator having sections of increasing diameters in the direction of air flow, with magnetic field and flow rates chosen for optimum separations depending upon particulate size.

  18. Development of an Automated and Sensitive Microfluidic Device for Capturing and Characterizing Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs from Clinical Blood Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Gogoi

    Full Text Available Current analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs is hindered by sub-optimal sensitivity and specificity of devices or assays as well as lack of capability of characterization of CTCs with clinical biomarkers. Here, we validate a novel technology to enrich and characterize CTCs from blood samples of patients with metastatic breast, prostate and colorectal cancers using a microfluidic chip which is processed by using an automated staining and scanning system from sample preparation to image processing. The Celsee system allowed for the detection of CTCs with apparent high sensitivity and specificity (94% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Moreover, the system facilitated rapid capture of CTCs from blood samples and also allowed for downstream characterization of the captured cells by immunohistochemistry, DNA and mRNA fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH. In a subset of patients with prostate cancer we compared the technology with a FDA-approved CTC device, CellSearch and found a higher degree of sensitivity with the Celsee instrument. In conclusion, the integrated Celsee system represents a promising CTC technology for enumeration and molecular characterization.

  19. A SYSTEM AND A DEVICE FOR ISOLATING CIRCULATING TUMOR CELLS FROM THE PERIPHERAL BLOOD IN VIVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Mego

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTC play a crucial role in disseminating tumors and in the metastatic cascade. CTCs are found only in small numbers, and the limited amount of isolated CTCs makes it impossible to characterize them closely. This paper presents a proposal for a new system for isolating CTCs from the peripheral blood in vivo. The system enables CTCs to be isolated from the whole blood volume for further research and applications. The proposed system consists of magnetic nanoparticles covered by monoclonal antibodies against a common epithelial antigen, large supermagnets, which are used to control the position of the nanoparticles within the human body, and a special wire made of a magnetic core wrapped in a non-magnetic shell. The system could be used not only for isolating CTCs, but also for in vivo isolation of other rare cells from the peripheral blood, including hematopoietic and/or mesenchymal stem cells, with applications in regenerative medicine and/or in stem cell transplantation.

  20. Effect of a distal protection device on epicardial blood flow and myocardial perfusion in primary percutaneous coronary intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The beneficial effect of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been well established, but there is the problem of no-reflow phenomenon which is an adverse prognostic factor in primary PCI. In the present study the effect of a distal protection device (PercuSurge GuardWire; GW) on epicardial blood flow and myocardial perfusion was evaluated. Methods and Results: Patients with AMI were randomly divided into 2 groups, the GW and the control groups. The GW group included 52 patients with AMI who underwent primary PCI with GW protection and the control group included 60 patients who underwent primary PCI without GW protection. Epicardial blood flow in the infarct-related artery (IRA) and myocardial perfusion were evaluated according to the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow grade and the myocardial blush grade (MBG). We found TIMI score of 3 was obtained significantly more frequently in the GW group (96%) than in the control group (80%). The MBG score of 3 was obtained also significantly greater in the GW group (65%) than in the control group (33%). Conclusion: Primary PCI with GW protection can significantly improve epicardial blood flow and myocardial perfusion.

  1. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles as smart and safe devices for regulating blood biomolecule levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Stimuli-responsive end-capped MSN materials are promising drug carriers that securely deliver a large payload of drug molecules without degradation or premature release. A general review of the recent progress in this field is presented, including a summary of a series of hard and soft caps for drug encapsulation and a variety of internal and external stimuli for controlled release of different therapeutics, a discussion of the biocompatibility of MSN both in vitro and in vivo, and a description of the sophisticated stimuli-responsive systems with novel capping agents and controlled release mechanism. The unique internal and external surfaces of MSN were utilized for the development of a glucose-responsive double delivery system end-capped with insulin. This unique system consists of functionalized MSNs capable of releasing insulin when the concentration of sugar in blood exceeds healthy levels. The insulin-free nanoparticles are then up taken by pancreatic cells, and release inside of them another biomolecule that stimulates the production of more insulin. The in vivo application of this system for the treatment of diabetes requires further understanding on the biological behaviors of these nanoparticles in blood vessels. The research presented in this dissertation demonstrated the size and surface effects on the interaction of MSNs with red blood cell membranes, and discovered how the surface of the nanoparticles can be modified to improve their compatibility with red blood cells and avoid their dangerous side effects. In order to optimize the properties of MSN for applying them as efficient intracellular drug carriers it is necessary to understand the factors that can regulate their internalization into and exocytosis out of the cells. The correlation between the particle morphology and aggregation of MSNs to the effectiveness of cellular uptake is discussed and compared with different cell lines. The differences in the degree of exocytosis of MSNs between

  2. Performance of Water Recirculation Loop Maintentance Components for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Tony; Peyton, Barbara; Steele, John W.; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Makinen, Janice

    2014-01-01

    Water loop maintenance components to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop have undergone a comparative performance evaluation with a second SWME water recirculation loop with no water quality maintenance. Results show the benefits of periodic water maintenance. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing Sublimator technology. The driver for the evaluation of water recirculation maintenance components was to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessonslearned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a UTAS military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provided a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Transport Water loop. The maintenance cycle included the use of a biocide delivery component developed for ISS to introduce a biocide in a microgravity-compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a unique demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of manned spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) hardware.

  3. Performance of Water Recirculation Loop Maintenance Components for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Tony; Peyton, Barbara M.; Steele, John W.; Makinen, Janice; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Water loop maintenance components to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop have undergone a comparative performance evaluation with a second SWME water recirculation loop with no water quality maintenance. Results show the benefits of periodic water maintenance. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing Sublimator technology. The driver for the evaluation of water recirculation maintenance components was to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessons learned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a UTAS military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provided a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Transport Water loop. The maintenance cycle included the use of a biocide delivery component developed for ISS to introduce a biocide in a microgravity compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a unique demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of manned spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) hardware.

  4. Exhaust gas recirculation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Kevin P.; Kieser, Andrew J.; Rodman, Anthony; Liechty, Michael P.; Hergart, Carl-Anders; Hardy, William L.

    2008-05-27

    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operates by injecting liquid fuel directly in a combustion chamber, and mixing the fuel with recirculated exhaust and fresh air through an auto ignition condition of the fuel. The engine includes at least one turbocharger for extracting energy from the engine exhaust and using that energy to boost intake pressure of recirculated exhaust gas and fresh air. Elevated proportions of exhaust gas recirculated to the engine are attained by throttling the fresh air inlet supply. These elevated exhaust gas recirculation rates allow the HCCI engine to be operated at higher speeds and loads rendering the HCCI engine a more viable alternative to a conventional diesel engine.

  5. The bio-ethanol production with the thin stillage recirculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rakin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the bioethanol production with the thin stillage recirculation in mashing was investigated. The mashing was performed with recirculation of: 0, 10, 20 and 30 % of the thin stillage. The thin stillage recirculation was repeated six times. In the experiment without the thin stillage, the recirculation bioethanol yield (compared to the theoretical yield was 97.96 %, which implicates that the experiment conditions were chosen and performed well. With the addition of the thin stillage, the bioethanol yield increased and was above 100 %. Higher bioethanol yield than 100 % can be explained by the fact that the thin stillage contains carbohydrates, amino acids and yeast cells degradation products. The bioethanol yield increased with the increased number of thin stillage recirculation cycles. Dry matter content in fermenting slurry increased with the increased thin stillage quantity and the number of the thin stillage recirculation cycles (8.04 % for the first and 9.40 % for the sixth cycle. Dry matter content in thin stillage increased with the increased thin stillage quantity and the number of thin stillage recirculation cycles. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that thin stillage recirculation increased the bioethanol yield. The highest bioethanol yields were obtained with recirculation of 10% thin stillage.

  6. Multi-frequency recirculating planar magnetrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greening, Geoffrey B.; Jordan, Nicholas M.; Exelby, Steven C.; Simon, David H.; Lau, Y. Y.; Gilgenbach, Ronald M.

    2016-08-01

    The multi-frequency recirculating planar magnetron (MFRPM) is the first magnetron capable of simultaneous generation of significantly different output frequencies (1 and 2 GHz) in a single operating pulse. Design and simulation of a prototype MFRPM were followed by hardware fabrication and experimental verification using the Michigan Electron Long Beam Accelerator with a Ceramic insulator at -300 kV, 1-5 kA, and 0.14-0.23 T axial magnetic field. Preliminary results demonstrated simultaneous generation of microwave pulses near 1 GHz and 2 GHz at powers up to 44 MW and 21 MW, respectively, with peak total efficiencies up to 9%.

  7. In-tank recirculating arsenic treatment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Patrick V.; Dwyer, Brian P.; Krumhansl, James L.; Chwirka, Joseph D.

    2009-04-07

    A low-cost, water treatment system and method for reducing arsenic contamination in small community water storage tanks. Arsenic is removed by using a submersible pump, sitting at the bottom of the tank, which continuously recirculates (at a low flow rate) arsenic-contaminated water through an attached and enclosed filter bed containing arsenic-sorbing media. The pump and treatment column can be either placed inside the tank (In-Tank) by manually-lowering through an access hole, or attached to the outside of the tank (Out-of-Tank), for easy replacement of the sorption media.

  8. Preoperational test report, recirculation ventilation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-11

    This represents a preoperational test report for Recirculation Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides vapor space cooling of tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102 and supports the ability to exhaust air from each tank. Each system consists of a valved piping loop, a fan, condenser, and moisture separator; equipment is located inside each respective tank farm in its own hardened building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  9. Triplet Focusing for Recirculating Linear Muon Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Keil, Eberhard

    2001-01-01

    Focusing by symmetrical triplets is studied for the linear accelerator lattices in recirculating muon accelerators with several passes where the ratio of final to initial muon energy is about four. Triplet and FODO lattices are compared. At similar acceptance, triplet lattices have straight sections for the RF cavities that are about twice as long as in FODO lat-tices. For the same energy gain, the total lengths of the linear accelerators with triplet lattices are about the same as of those with FODO lattices.

  10. Electroosmotic oscillatory flow of micropolar fluid in microchannels:application to dynamics of blood flow in microfluidic devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JC MISRA; S CHANDRA; GC SHIT; PK KUNDU

    2014-01-01

    The electroosmotic flow of a micropolar fluid in a microchannel bounded by two parallel porous plates undergoing periodic vibration is studied. The equations for conservation of linear and angular momentums and Gauss’s law of charge distribution are solved within the framework of the Debye-H¨uckel approximation. The fluid velocity and microrotation are assumed to depend linearly on the Reynolds number. The study shows that the amplitude of microrotation is highly sensitive to the changes in the magnitude of the suction velocity and the width of the microchannel. An increase in the micropolar parameter gives rise to a decrease in the amplitude of microrotation. Numerical estimates reveal that the microrotation of the suspended microelements in blood also plays an important role in controlling the electro-osmotically actuated flow dynamics in micro-bio-fluidic devices.

  11. Production of market size pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) in a pilot recirculation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, E.; Philipsen, E.

    2003-01-01

    A pilot recirculation system was designed and constructed to investigate the production characteristics of pikeperch in recirculation systems. The design is based on a recirculation system for eel production.

  12. Effect of self recirculation casing treatment on the performance of a turbocharger centrifugal compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gancedo, Matthieu

    Increase in emission regulations in the transport industry brings the need to have more efficient engines. A path followed by the automobile industry is to downsize the size of the internal combustion engine and increase the air density at the intake to keep the engine power when needed. Typically a centrifugal compressor is used to force the air into the engine, it can be powered from the engine shaft (superchargers) or extracting energy contained into the hot exhaust gases with a turbine (turbochargers). The flow range of the compressor needs to match the one of the engine. However compressors mass flow operating range is limited by choke on the high end and surge on the low end. In order to extend the operation at low mass flow rates, the use of passive devices for turbocharger centrifugal compressors was explored since the late 80's. Hence, casing treatments including flow recirculation from the inducer part of the compressor have been shown to move the surge limit to lower flows. Yet, the working mechanisms are still not well understood and thus, to optimize the design of this by-pass system, it is necessary to determine the nature of the changes induced by the device both on the dynamic stability of the pressure delivery and on the flow at the inlet. The compressor studied here features a self-recirculating casing treatment at the inlet. The recirculation passage could be blocked to carry a direct comparison between the cases with and without the flow feature. To grasp the effect on compressor stability, pressure measurements were taken in the different constituting elements of the compressor. The study of the mean pressure variations across the operating map showed that the tongue region is a limiting element. Dynamic pressure measurements revealed that the instabilities generated near the inducer when the recirculation is blocked increase the overall instability levels at the compressor outlet and propagating pressure waves starting at the tongue occurred

  13. 40 CFR 1065.127 - Exhaust gas recirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas recirculation. 1065.127 Section 1065.127 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.127 Exhaust gas recirculation. Use...

  14. Beam Dynamics Studies in Recirculating Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Pellegrini, Dario; Latina, A

    The LHeC and the CLIC Drive Beam share not only the high-current beams that make them prone to show instabilities, but also unconventional lattice topologies and operational schemes in which the time sequence of the bunches varies along the machine. In order to asses the feasibility of these projects, realistic simulations taking into account the most worrisome effects and their interplays, are crucial. These include linear and non-linear optics with time dependent elements, incoherent and coherent synchrotron radiation, short and long-range wakefields, beam-beam effect and ion cloud. In order to investigate multi-bunch effects in recirculating machines, a new version of the tracking code PLACET has been developed from scratch. PLACET2, already integrates most of the effects mentioned before and can easily receive additional physics. Its innovative design allows to describe complex lattices and track one or more bunches accordingly to the machine operation, reproducing the bunch train splitting and recombinat...

  15. Potent Stimulation of Blood Flow in Fingers of Volunteers after Local Short-Term Treatment with Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields from a Novel Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard H. W. Funk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel hand-held low-frequency magnetic stimulator (MagCell-SR was tested for its ability to stimulate microcirculation in fingers of healthy volunteers. Blood flow during and after 5 minutes exposure was quantified using Laser Doppler Perfusion Imaging Technique. The device was positioned between the wrist and the dorsal part of the backhand. Because the increase in blood flow could be caused by a release of nitric oxide (NO from the vascular endothelial cells we tested NO production with a fluorescence marker and quantified the measurements in cell cultures of human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC. Exposure increased blood flow significantly, persisted several minutes, and then disappeared gradually. In order to assess the effect of a static magnetic field, the measurements were also carried out with the device shutoff. Here, only a small increase in blood flow was noted. The application of the rotating MagCell-SR to the HUVEC cultures leads to a rapid onset and a significant increase of NO release after 15 minutes. Thus, frequencies between 4 and 12 Hz supplied by the device improve microcirculation significantly. Therefore, this device can be used in all clinical situations where an improvement of the microcirculation is useful like in chronic wound healing deficits.

  16. Effect of device-guided breathing exercises on blood pressure in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logtenberg, Susan J.; Kleefstra, Nanne; Houweling, Sebastlaan T.; Groenier, Klaas H.; Bilo, Henk J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), it is hard to reach treatment objectives for blood pressure (BP) with classical treatment options. Recently, reducing breathing frequency has been advocated as a method to reduce BP. We examined if an electronic device such as Resperate, by

  17. Freeze drying of red blood cells: the use of directional freezing and a new radio frequency lyophilization device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arav, Amir; Natan, Dity

    2012-08-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) units are administered routinely into patients expressing a wide range of acute and chronic conditions (e.g., anemia, traumatic bleeding, chronic diseases, and surgery). The modern blood banking system has been designed to answer this need and assure a continuous, high quality blood supply to patients. However, RBCs units can be stored under hypothermic conditions for only up to 42 days, which leads to periodic shortages. Cryopreservation can solve these shortages, but current freezing methods employ high glycerol concentrations, which need to be removed and the cells washed prior to transfusion, resulting in a long (more than 1 hour) and cumbersome washing step. Thus, frozen RBCs have limited use in acute and trauma situations. In addition, transportation of frozen samples is complicated and costly. Freeze drying (lyophilization) of RBCs has been suggested as a solution for these problems, since it will allow for a low weight sample to be stored at room temperature, but reaching this goal is not a simple task. We studied the effect of different solutions (IMT2 and IMT3) containing trehalose and antioxidants or trehalose and human serum albumin, respectively, on freezing/thawing and freeze drying of RBCs. In addition, we evaluated the effect of cells concentrations and cooling rates on the post thaw and post rehydration recoveries of the RBCs. Finally, we developed a new radio frequency (RF) lyophilization device for a more rapid and homogeneous sublimation process of the frozen RBCs samples. Recovery and free Hb were measured as well as oxygen association/dissociation and cell's deformability. We found that IMT3 (0.3 M trehalose and 10% HSA) solution that was directionally frozen at a rapid interface velocity of 1 mm/sec (resulting in a cooling rate of 150°C/min) yielded the best results (better than IMT2 solution and slow interface velocity). Freeze thawing gave 100% survival, while freeze drying followed by rehydration with 20% dextran-40k

  18. Engine with pulse-suppressed dedicated exhaust gas recirculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Edward J.; Baker, Rodney E.

    2016-06-07

    An engine assembly includes an intake assembly, a spark-ignited internal combustion engine, and an exhaust assembly. The intake assembly includes a charge air cooler disposed between an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) mixer and a backpressure valve. The charge air cooler has both an inlet and an outlet, and the back pressure valve is configured to maintain a minimum pressure difference between the inlet of the charge air cooler and an outlet of the backpressure valve. A dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system is provided in fluid communication with at least one cylinder and with the EGR mixer. The dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system is configured to route all of the exhaust gas from the at least one cylinder to the EGR mixer for recirculation back to the engine.

  19. Modeling and simulation of the bioprocess with recirculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žerajić Stanko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The bioprocess models with recirculation present an integration of the model of continuous bioreaction system and the model of separation system. The reaction bioprocess is integrated with separation the biomass, formed product, no consumed substrate or inhibitory substance. In this paper the simulation model of recirculation bioprocess was developed, which may be applied for increasing the biomass productivity and product biosynthesis increasing the conversion of a substrate-to-product, mixing efficiency and secondary C02 separation. The goal of the work is optimal bioprocess configuration, which is determined by simulation optimization. The optimal hemostat state was used as referent. Step-by-step simulation method is necessary because the initial bioprocess state is changing with recirculation in each step. The simulation experiment confirms that at the recirculation ratio a. = 0.275 and the concentration factor C = 4 the maximum glucose conversion to ethanol and at a dilution rate ten times larger.

  20. Developments of Optical Resonators and Optical Recirculators for Compton X/γ Ray Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, A.; , Mightylaser, Thomx Collaboration; Eurogammas Association

    2015-10-01

    Optical resonators and optical recirculators are key elements of Compton X/γ ray machines. With regard to their use in laser physics or in time-frequency metrology, these devices have to obey severe constraints when implemented in the vaccum of an electron accelerator. Our group has developed both types of devices. In this proceedings an original recirculator design, that was developed within the European proposal to the ELI-NP γ ray source call for tender, is described. This is an aberration free device which allows reciculating 32 times a short and high intensity laser pulse. It also allows synchronizing each of the 32 passes with the electron RF cavities within 100 fs. The second topic of these proceedings is a description of our R & D on optical resonators dedicated to laser-electron interactions. We have locked two different picosecond laser oscillators to the highest cavity finesse F=30000 ever reached in pulsed regime. We also designed and build a new kind of non-planar cavity, tetrahedron shape, providing circularly polarized eigen modes. This cavity was installed in the ATF accelerator of KEK and successfully used to produce a high gamma ray flux. Thanks to an original fibre amplifier, we succeed in stacking 100 kW of average power inside the cavity.

  1. A closed recirculated sea-water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    Study of a virus disease in the chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) necessitated the use of a marine environment to study the long range effects of the disease and to complete the life cycle of its etiologic agent. A closed recirculated sea-water system was designed for use under experimental laboratory conditions so that controlled studies of the disease could be made. As others may wish to do marine environment studies in the laboratory, the design and operation of our system are presented. Other systems currently in use have been described by Chin (1959), DeWitt and Salo (1960), McCrimmon and Berst (1966), and the authors of collected papers edited by Clark and Clark (1964). Preparatory to the design and construction of the system in use in this laboratory, visits were made to marine systems in use at the University of Washington's College of Fisheries, Seattle, -washington, and Friday Harbor Laboratory, San Juan Island, Washington; the Washington State Department of Fisheries' Point whitney Shellfish Laboratory, Brinnon, Washington; Humboldt State College, Arcata, California; and the Steinhart Aquarium of the California Academy of Science, San Francisco, California.

  2. Hematocrit analysis through the use of an inexpensive centrifugal polyester-toner device with finger-to-chip blood loading capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Brandon L.; Gilbert, Rachel J. [Department of Chemistry, McCormick Road, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Mejia, Maximo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineer' s Way, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Shukla, Nishant [Department of Computer Science, Engineer' s Way, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Haverstick, Doris M. [Department of Pathology, University of Virginia Health Science Center, Charlottesville, VA 22908 (United States); Garner, Gavin T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineer' s Way, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Landers, James P., E-mail: landers@virginia.edu [Department of Chemistry, McCormick Road, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineer' s Way, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Department of Pathology, University of Virginia Health Science Center, Charlottesville, VA 22908 (United States)

    2016-06-14

    Hematocrit (HCT) measurements are important clinical diagnostic variables that help physicians diagnose and treat various medical conditions, ailments, and diseases. In this work, we present the HCT Disc, a centrifugal microdevice fabricated by a Print, Cut and Laminate (PCL) method to generate a 12-sample HCT device from materials costing <0.5 USD (polyester and toner or PeT). Following introduction from a drop of blood (finger stick), whole blood metering and cell sedimentation are controlled by centrifugal force, only requiring a CD player motor as external hardware and, ultimately, a cell phone for detection. The sedimented volume from patient blood in the HCT Disc was analyzed using a conventional scanner/custom algorithm for analysis of the image to determine a hematocrit value, and these were compared to values generated in a clinical laboratory, which correlated well. To enhance portability and assure simplicity of the HCT measurement, values from image analysis by a cell phone using a custom application was compared to the scanner. Fifteen samples were analyzed with cell phone image analysis system and were found to be within 4% of the HCT values determined in the clinical lab. We demonstrate the feasibility of the PeT device for HCT measurement, and highlight its uniquely low cost (<0.5 USD), speed (sample-to-answer <8 min), multiplexability (12 samples), low volume whole blood requirement (<3 μL), rotation speeds (<4000 rpm) needed for effective measurement as well as the direct finger-to-chip sample loading capability. - Highlights: • A 12-sample hematocrit device was developed from polyester-toner materials. • The device can analyze a patient's hematocrit within 8 min from 3 μL of blood. • Cell phone image analysis is used to correctly determine clinical hematocrits.

  3. A self-priming microfluidic diaphragm pump capable of recirculation fabricated by combining soft lithography and traditional machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Aaron; Reardon, Christopher F; Shuler, Michael L

    2004-02-05

    Fluid transport is crucial in the development of microanalytical devices. While there are many micropump designs available, most are incapable of sustaining recirculation of fluid at microL/min to mL/min levels. We have designed and fabricated a positive displacement micropump by combining soft lithography with traditional bulk machining. The micropump is actuated through pneumatic pressure. The pump is self-priming and is suitable for recirculating fluid through a microfluidic device containing mammalian cell culture. By custom designing the volume of the pumping chamber, tight control of the output flow rate can be obtained by changing the actuation frequency. It can also be fabricated easily on plastic substrates without access to expensive microfabrication equipment.

  4. Modeling of TAN in recirculating aquaculture systems by AQUASIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Modeling of total ammonium nitrogen (TAN) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) contribute to identifying and quantifying the most important processes and their relative contribution to removal of TAN. AQUASIM is a flexible modular simulation system for water quality in natural and technical...... systems developed by EAWAG (Reichert, 1994). AQUASIM allows simulating complex biological, chemical and physical processes in standardized hydraulic systems. We used AQUASIM to model the steady state TAN concentrations in 12 experimental recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) operated by DTU AQUA...

  5. The Impact of Tropical Recirculation on Polar Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahan, S. E.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Steenrod, S. D.

    2009-01-01

    We derive the tropical modal age of air from an analysis of the water vapor tape recorder. We combine the observationally derived modal age with mean age of air from CO2 and SF6 to create diagnostics for the independent evaluation of the vertical transport rate and horizontal recirculation into the tropics between 16-32 km. These diagnostics are applied to two Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemistry and transport model (CTM) age tracer simulations to give new insights into the tropical transport characteristics of the meteorological fields from the GEOS4-GCM and the GEOS4-DAS. Both simulations are found to have modal ages that are in reasonable agreement with the empirically derived age (i.e ., transit times) over the entire altitude range. Both simulations show too little horizontal recirculation into the tropics above 22 km, with the GEOS4-DAS fields having greater recirculation. Using CH4 as a proxy for mean age, comparisons between HALOE and model CH4 in the Antarctic demonstrate how the strength of tropical recirculation affects polar composition in both CTM experiments. Better tropical recirculation tends to improve the CH4 simulation in the Antarctic. However, mean age in the Antarctic lower stratosphere can be compromised by poor representation of tropical ascent, tropical recirculation, or vortex barrier strength. The connection between polar and tropical composition shown in this study demonstrates the importance of diagnosing each of these processes separately in order to verify the adequate representation of the processes contributing to polar composition in models.

  6. Selection оf Parameters for System of Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas Recirculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kukharionok

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research results of various methods for recirculation of diesel engine exhaust gases. An influence of recirculation parameters on economic and ecological diesel engine characteristics has been evaluated in the paper. The paper considers an influence of turbocharger configuration on the intensity of gas recirculation. Specific features of the recirculation system operation in dynamic modes have been shown in the paper. The paper provides recommendations for selection of a diesel engine exhaust gas recirculation system.

  7. The CentriMag centrifugal blood pump as a benchmark for in vitro testing of hemocompatibility in implantable ventricular assist devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chris H H; Pieper, Ina Laura; Hambly, Rebecca; Radley, Gemma; Jones, Alyssa; Friedmann, Yasmin; Hawkins, Karl M; Westaby, Stephen; Foster, Graham; Thornton, Catherine A

    2015-02-01

    Implantable ventricular assist devices (VADs) have proven efficient in advanced heart failure patients as a bridge-to-transplant or destination therapy. However, VAD usage often leads to infection, bleeding, and thrombosis, side effects attributable to the damage to blood cells and plasma proteins. Measuring hemolysis alone does not provide sufficient information to understand total blood damage, and research exploring the impact of currently available pumps on a wider range of blood cell types and plasma proteins such as von Willebrand factor (vWF) is required to further our understanding of safer pump design. The extracorporeal CentriMag (Thoratec Corporation, Pleasanton, CA, USA) has a hemolysis profile within published standards of normalized index of hemolysis levels of less than 0.01 g/100 L at 100 mm Hg but the effect on leukocytes, vWF multimers, and platelets is unknown. Here, the CentriMag was tested using bovine blood (n = 15) under constant hemodynamic conditions in comparison with a static control for total blood cell counts, hemolysis, leukocyte death, vWF multimers, microparticles, platelet activation, and apoptosis. The CentriMag decreased the levels of healthy leukocytes (P pump which could be used as a standard in blood damage assays to inform the design of new implantable blood pumps.

  8. A Comparison of Proximal Tibia, Proximal Humerus and Distal Femur Infusion Rates of Blood Under High Pressure Using the EX IO Intraosseous Device in the Adult Swine (Sus scrofa) Hypovolemic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    of Blood Under High Pressure Using the EZ IO Intraosseous Device on the Adult Swine (Sus scrofa ) hypovolemic Model.” 4. Principal Investigator...femur infusion rates of blood under high pressure using the EZ 10 intraosseous device in the 00. UI1AIIII IIIUIVII:IC:I1 adult swine (Sus scrofa ...hypovolemic (sus scrofa ). METHOD:3 groups of animals; 14 per group were intubated and ventilated. Central vein and arterjallines were placed, blood

  9. A numerical performance assessment of a commercial cardiopulmonary by-pass blood heat exchanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolo, Filippo; Fiore, Gianfranco B; Pelosi, Alessandra; Reggiani, Stefano; Redaelli, Alberto

    2015-06-01

    We developed a numerical model, based on multi-physics computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, to assist the design process of a plastic hollow-fiber bundle blood heat exchanger (BHE) integrated within the INSPIRE(TM), a blood oxygenator (OXY) for cardiopulmonary by-pass procedures, recently released by Sorin Group Italia. In a comparative study, we analyzed five different geometrical design solutions of the BHE module. Quantitative geometrical-dependent parameters providing a comprehensive evaluation of both the hemo- and thermo-dynamics performance of the device were extracted to identify the best-performing prototypical solution. A convenient design configuration was identified, characterized by (i) a uniform blood flow pattern within the fiber bundle, preventing blood flow shunting and the onset of stagnation/recirculation areas and/or high velocity pathways, (ii) an enhanced blood heating efficiency, and (iii) a reduced blood pressure drop. The selected design configuration was then prototyped and tested to experimentally characterize the device performance. Experimental results confirmed numerical predictions, proving the effectiveness of CFD modeling as a reliable tool for in silico identification of suitable working conditions of blood handling medical devices. Notably, the numerical approach limited the need for extensive prototyping, thus reducing the corresponding machinery costs and time-to-market.

  10. Estimating mechanical blood trauma in a centrifugal blood pump: laser Doppler anemometer measurements of the mean velocity field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinotti, M; Paone, N

    1996-06-01

    A laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) was used to obtain the mean velocity and the Reynolds stress fields in the inner channels of a well-known centrifugal vaneless pump (Bio-pump). Effects of the excessive flow resistance against which an occlusive pump operates in some surgical situations, such as cardiopulmonary bypass, are illustrated. The velocity vector field obtained from LDA measurements reveals that the constraint-forced vortex provides pumping action in a restricted area in the core of the pump. In such situations, recirculating zones dominate the flow and consequently increase the damage to blood cells and raise the risk of thrombus formation in the device. Reynolds normal and shear stress fields were obtained in the entry flow for the channel formed by two rotating cones to illustrate the effects of flow disturbances on the potential for blood cell damage.

  11. Glytube: a conical tube and parafilm M-based method as a simplified device to artificially blood-feed the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Costa-da-Silva

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue virus, requires a blood meal to produce eggs. Although live animals are still the main blood source for laboratory colonies, many artificial feeders are available. These feeders are also the best method for experimental oral infection of Ae. aegypti with Dengue viruses. However, most of them are expensive or laborious to construct. Based on principle of Rutledge-type feeder, a conventional conical tube, glycerol and Parafilm-M were used to develop a simple in-house feeder device. The blood feeding efficiency of this apparatus was compared to a live blood source, mice, and no significant differences (p = 0.1189 were observed between artificial-fed (51.3% of engorgement and mice-fed groups (40.6%. Thus, an easy to assemble and cost-effective artificial feeder, designated "Glytube" was developed in this report. This simple and efficient feeding device can be built with common laboratory materials for research on Ae. aegypti.

  12. Unravelling the potential of nitric acid as a surface modifier for improving the hemocompatibility of metallocene polyethylene for blood contacting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellayappan, Muthu Vignesh; Muhamad, Ida Idayu

    2016-01-01

    Design of blood compatible surfaces is obligatory to minimize platelet surface interactions and improve the thromboresistance of foreign surfaces when they are utilized as biomaterials particularly for blood contacting devices. Pure metallocene polyethylene (mPE) and nitric acid (HNO3) treated mPE antithrombogenicity and hydrophilicity were investigated. The contact angle of the mPE treated with HNO3 decreased. Surface of mPE and HNO3 treated mPE investigated with FTIR revealed no major changes in its functional groups. 3D Hirox digital microscopy, SEM and AFM images show increased porosity and surface roughness. Blood coagulation assays prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were delayed significantly (P hemocompatibility of HNO3 treated mPE. To determine that HNO3 does not deteriorate elastic modulus of mPE, the elastic modulus of mPE and HNO3 treated mPE was compared and the result shows no significant difference. Hence, the overall observation suggests that the novel HNO3 treated mPE may hold great promises to be exploited for blood contacting devices like grafts, catheters, and etc. PMID:26819837

  13. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of an Axial Rotary Blood Pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüle, Chan Yong; Thamsen, Bente; Blümel, Bastian; Lommel, Michael; Karakaya, Tamer; Paschereit, Christian Oliver; Affeld, Klaus; Kertzscher, Ulrich

    2016-04-18

    Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have become a standard therapy for patients with severe heart failure. As low blood trauma in LVADs is important for a good clinical outcome, the assessment of the fluid loads inside the pump is critical. More specifically, the flow features on the surfaces where the interaction between blood and artificial material happens is of great importance. Therefore, experimental data for the near-wall flows in an axial rotary blood pump were collected and directly compared to computational fluid dynamic results. For this, the flow fields based on unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations-computational fluid dynamics (URANS-CFD) of an axial rotary blood pump were calculated and compared with experimental flow data at one typical state of operation in an enlarged model of the pump. The focus was set on the assessment of wall shear stresses (WSS) at the housing wall and rotor gap region by means of the wall-particle image velocimetry technique, and the visualization of near-wall flow structures on the inner pump surfaces by a paint erosion method. Additionally, maximum WSS and tip leakage volume flows were measured for 13 different states of operation. Good agreement between CFD and experimental data was found, which includes the location, magnitude, and direction of the maximum and minimum WSS and the presence of recirculation zones on the pump stators. The maximum WSS increased linearly with pressure head. They occurred at the upstream third of the impeller blades and exceeded the critical values with respect to hemolysis. Regions of very high shear stresses and recirculation zones could be identified and were in good agreement with simulations. URANS-CFD, which is often used for pump performance and blood damage prediction, seems to be, therefore, a valid tool for the assessment of flow fields in axial rotary blood pumps. The magnitude of maximum WSS could be confirmed and were in the order of several hundred Pascal.

  14. Influence of leachate recirculation on aerobic and anaerobic decomposition of solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilgili, M. Sinan [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: mbilgili@yildiz.edu.tr; Demir, Ahmet [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: ahmetd@yildiz.edu.tr; Ozkaya, Bestamin [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: bozkaya@yildiz.edu.tr

    2007-05-08

    In this study, the effect of leachate recirculation on aerobic and anaerobic degradation of municipal solid wastes is determined by four laboratory-scale landfill reactors. The options studied and compared with the traditional anaerobic landfill are: leachate recirculation, landfill aeration, and aeration with leachate recirculation. Leachate quality is regularly monitored by the means of pH, alkalinity, total dissolved solids, conductivity, oxidation-reduction potential, chloride, chemical oxygen demand, ammonia, and total Kjeldahl nitrogen, in addition to generated leachate quantity. Aerobic leachate recirculated landfill appears to be the most effective option in the removal of organic matter and ammonia. The main difference between aerobic recirculated and non-recirculated landfill options is determined at leachate quantity. Recirculation is more effective on anaerobic degradation of solid waste than aerobic degradation. Further studies are going on to determine the optimum operational conditions for aeration and leachate recirculation rates, also with the operational costs of aeration and recirculation.

  15. Sulphur recirculation for reduced boiler corrosion; Minskad pannkorrosion med svavelrecirkulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sven; Karlsson, Martin (Goetaverken Miljoe AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Blomqvist, Evalena; Baefver, Linda; Claesson, Frida; Davidsson, Kent (SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Boraas (Sweden)); Froitzheim, Jan; Pettersson, Jesper; Steenari, Britt-Marie (Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola, Oorganisk miljoekemi, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2010-03-15

    Sulphur recirculation is a new technology for reducing boiler corrosion and dioxin formation, which was demonstrated in full-scale tests performed at the Renova Waste to Energy plant at Saevenaes in Goeteborg (Sweden). Sulphur is recirculated from the flue gas cleaning back to the boiler, which reduces the chloride content of the deposits, which in turn reduces boiler corrosion and dioxin formation. Sulphur dioxide was separated from the flue gas in a wet scrubber by adding hydrogen peroxide, producing sulphuric acid. The sulphuric acid was injected into the furnace using nozzles with atomization air, surrounded by recirculated flue gas for improved mixing. By recirculating the sulphur, the sulphur dioxide concentration was increased in the boiler. Each sulphur atom passed the boiler several times and no external sulphur had to be added. Dioxin, ash, deposits and particle samplings together with 1000 h corrosion probe measurements were performed for normal operation (reference) and with sulphur recirculation respectively. During spring 2009, reference measurements were made and the recirculation system was installed and tested. During autumn 2009, a long term test with sulphur recirculation was made. An SO{sub 2} concentration of approximately 800 mg/m3 (n, d.g.) was maintained in the boiler by the system except during a period of extremely low sulphur content in the waste. The sulphur dioxide stack concentrations have been far below the emission limit. Sulphuric acid dew point measurements have shown that the sulphuric acid dosage did not lead to elevated SO{sub 3} concentrations, which may otherwise lead to low temperature corrosion. The chlorine content of both fly ash and boiler ash decreased and the sulphur content increased during the sulphur recirculation tests. The molar chlorine/sulphur ratio (Cl/S) decreased by two thirds in the fly ash as well as in the boiler ash, except for one sample. With sulphur recirculation in operation, the deposit growth was

  16. Effect of stocking density on performances of juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) in recirculating aquaculture systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xian; LIU Ying; Jean-Paul BLANCHETON

    2013-01-01

    Limited information has been available about the influence of loading density on the performances of Scophthalmus maximus,especially in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS).In this study,turbot (13.84±2.74 g; average weight±SD) were reared at four different initial densities (low 0.66,medium 1.26,sub-high 2.56,high 4.00 kg/m2) for 10 weeks in RAS at 23±1℃.Final densities were 4.67,7.25,14.16,and 17.47 kg/m2,respectively,which translate to 82,108,214,and 282 percent coverage of the tank bottom.Density had both negative and independent impacts on growth.The final mean weight,specific growth rate (SGR),and voluntary feed intake significantly decreased and the coefficient of variation (CV) of final body weight increased with increase in stocking density.The medium and sub-high density groups did not differ significantly in SGR,mean weight,CV,food conversion rate (FCR),feed intake,blood parameters,and digestive enzymes.The protease activities of the digestive tract at pH 7,8.5,9,and 10 were significantly higher for the highest density group,but tended to be lower (not significantly) at pH 4 and 8.5for the lowest density group.The intensity of protease activity was inversely related to feed intake at the different densities.Catalase activity was higher (but not significantly) at the highest density,perhaps because high density started to induce an oxidative effect in turbot.In conclusion,turbot can be cultured in RAS at a density of less than 17.47 kg/m2.With good water quality and no feed limitation,initial density between 1.26 and 2.56 kg/m2 (final:7.25 and 14.16 kg/m2) would not negatively affect the turbot cultured in RAS.For culture at higher density,multi-level feeding devices are suggested to ease feeding competition.

  17. Effect of stocking density on performances of juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus) in recirculating aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian; Liu, Ying; Blancheton, Jean-Paul

    2013-05-01

    Limited information has been available about the influence of loading density on the performances of Scophthalmus maximus, especially in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). In this study, turbot (13.84±2.74 g; average weight±SD) were reared at four different initial densities (low 0.66, medium 1.26, sub-high 2.56, high 4.00 kg/m2) for 10 weeks in RAS at 23±1°C. Final densities were 4.67, 7.25, 14.16, and 17.47 kg/m2, respectively, which translate to 82, 108, 214, and 282 percent coverage of the tank bottom. Density had both negative and independent impacts on growth. The final mean weight, specific growth rate (SGR), and voluntary feed intake significantly decreased and the coefficient of variation (CV) of final body weight increased with increase in stocking density. The medium and sub-high density groups did not differ significantly in SGR, mean weight, CV, food conversion rate (FCR), feed intake, blood parameters, and digestive enzymes. The protease activities of the digestive tract at pH 7, 8.5, 9, and 10 were significantly higher for the highest density group, but tended to be lower (not significantly) at pH 4 and 8.5 for the lowest density group. The intensity of protease activity was inversely related to feed intake at the different densities. Catalase activity was higher (but not significantly) at the highest density, perhaps because high density started to induce an oxidative effect in turbot. In conclusion, turbot can be cultured in RAS at a density of less than 17.47 kg/m2. With good water quality and no feed limitation, initial density between 1.26 and 2.56 kg/m2 (final: 7.25 and 14.16 kg/m2) would not negatively affect the turbot cultured in RAS. For culture at higher density, multi-level feeding devices are suggested to ease feeding competition.

  18. Acceleration schedules for a recirculating heavy-ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, W.M.; Grote, D.P.

    2002-05-01

    Recent advances in solid-state switches have made it feasible to design programmable, high-repetition-rate pulsers for induction accelerators. These switches could lower the cost of recirculating induction accelerators, such as the ''small recirculator'' at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), by substantially reducing the number of induction modules. Numerical work is reported here to determine what effects the use of fewer pulsers at higher voltage would have on the beam quality of the LLNL small recirculator. Lattices with different numbers of pulsers are examined using the fluid/envelope code CIRCE, and several schedules for acceleration and compression are compared for each configuration. For selected schedules, the phase-space dynamics is also studied using the particle-in-cell code WARP3d.

  19. The impact of tropical recirculation on polar composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Strahan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We derive the tropical modal age of air from an analysis of the water vapor tape recorder. We combine the observationally derived modal age with mean age of air from CO2 and SF6 to create diagnostics for the independent evaluation of the vertical transport rate and horizontal recirculation into the tropics between 16–32 km. These diagnostics are applied to two Global Modeling Initiative (GMI chemistry and transport model (CTM age tracer simulations to give new insights into the tropical transport characteristics of the meteorological fields from the GEOS4-GCM and the GEOS4-DAS. Both simulations are found to have modal ages that are in reasonable agreement with the empirically derived age (i.e., transit times over the entire altitude range. Both simulations show too little horizontal recirculation into the tropics above 22 km, with the GEOS4-DAS fields having greater recirculation. Using CH4 as a proxy for mean age, comparisons between HALOE and model CH4 in the Antarctic demonstrate how the strength of tropical recirculation affects polar composition in both CTM experiments. Better tropical recirculation tends to improve the CH4 simulation in the Antarctic. However, mean age in the Antarctic lower stratosphere can be compromised by poor representation of tropical ascent, tropical recirculation, or vortex barrier strength. The connection between polar and tropical composition shown in this study demonstrates the importance of diagnosing each of these processes separately in order to verify the adequate representation of the processes contributing to polar composition in models.

  20. The impact of tropical recirculation on polar composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Strahan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We derive the tropical modal age of air from an analysis of the water vapor tape recorder. We combine the observationally derived modal age with mean age of air from CO2 and SF6 to create diagnostics for the independent evaluation of the vertical transport rate and horizontal recirculation into the tropics between 16–32 km. These diagnostics are applied to two Global Modeling Initiative (GMI chemistry and transport model (CTM age tracer simulations to give new insights into the tropical transport characteristics of the meteorological fields from the GEOS4-GCM and the GEOS4-DAS. Both simulations are found to have modal ages that are in reasonable agreement with the empirically derived age (i.e., transit times over the entire altitude range. Both simulations show too little horizontal recirculation into the tropics above 22 km, with the GEOS4-DAS fields having greater recirculation. Using CH4 as a proxy for mean age, comparisons between HALOE and model CH4 in the Antarctic demonstrate how the strength of tropical recirculation affects polar composition in both CTM experiments. The better the tropical recirculation is simulated, the better the CH4 simulation is in the Antarctic. Mean age in the Antarctic lower stratosphere can be compromised by poor representation of tropical ascent, tropical recirculation, or vortex barrier strength. The connection between polar and tropical composition shown in this study demonstrates the importance of diagnosing each of these processes separately in order to verify the adequate representation of the processes contributing to polar composition in models.

  1. A recirculating cooling system for improved topical cardiac hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeldt, F L; Fambiatos, A; Pastoriza-Pinol, J; Stirling, G R

    1981-10-01

    A simple system is described that recirculates cooling fluid for topical cardiac hypothermia. This disposable system can produce a flow of 1,500 ml/min at 2 degrees to 4 degrees C. The recirculating cooler produced significantly lower myocardial temperatures than a conventional fluid-discard system in 22 patients having coronary operation. This system has been used as part of the technique of hypothermic cardioplegia in more than 600 patients. During various cardiac procedures, septal temperatures were maintained well below 20 degrees C for 60 minutes or more without the need to reinfuse the cardioplegic solution.

  2. Efficiency enhancement in gasoline reforming through the recirculation of reformate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, J. [DaimlerChrysler AG, RBP/AS, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Sommer, M. [DaimlerChrysler AG, RTC/A, 70567 Stuttgart (Germany); Diezinger, S.; Trimis, D.; Durst, F. [FAU Erlangen-Nurnberg, LSTM, 91031 Erlangen (Germany)

    2006-03-21

    Fuel processors for on-board hydrogen production have to meet numerous technical demands. They should be efficient, compact and lightweight, capable of different loads and able to perform cold start ups. In this paper, the recirculation of reformate is proposed as a means of efficiency enhancement. Different system configurations based on this idea are introduced and simulated. The resulting effect on the system's efficiency, the water balance as well as the impact of recirculation on the system's volume and weight are discussed. (author)

  3. Microfluidic Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Zheng, Siyang (Inventor); Lin, Jeffrey Chun-Hui (Inventor); Kasdan, Harvey L. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Described herein are particular embodiments relating to a microfluidic device that may be utilized for cell sensing, counting, and/or sorting. Particular aspects relate to a microfabricated device that is capable of differentiating single cell types from dense cell populations. One particular embodiment relates a device and methods of using the same for sensing, counting, and/or sorting leukocytes from whole, undiluted blood samples.

  4. Identification of differentially expressed transcripts and pathways in blood one week and six months following implant of left ventricular assist devices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Mitchell

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (LVADs are an established therapy for patients with end-stage heart failure. The short- and long-term impact of these devices on peripheral blood gene expression has not been characterized, and may provide insight into the molecular pathways mediated in response to left ventricular remodeling and an improvement in overall systemic circulation. We performed RNA sequencing to identify genes and pathways influenced by these devices. METHODS: RNA was extracted from blood of 9 heart failure patients (8 male prior to LVAD implantation, and at 7 and 180 days postoperatively. Libraries were sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq2000 and sequences mapped to the human Ensembl GRCh37.67 genome assembly. RESULTS: A specific set of genes involved in regulating cellular immune response, antigen presentation, and T cell activation and survival were down-regulated 7 days after LVAD placement. 6 months following LVAD placement, the expression levels of these genes were significantly increased; yet importantly, remained significantly lower than age and sex-matched samples from healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, this genomic analysis identified a significant decrease in the expression of genes that promote a healthy immune response in patients with heart failure that was partially restored 6 months following LVAD implant.

  5. Blood collection tubes as medical devices: The potential to affect assays and proposed verification and validation processes for the clinical laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Raffick A R; Adcock, Dorothy M

    2016-12-01

    Blood collection tubes (BCTs) are an often under-recognized variable in the preanalytical phase of clinical laboratory testing. Unfortunately, even the best-designed and manufactured BCTs may not work well in all clinical settings. Clinical laboratories, in collaboration with healthcare providers, should carefully evaluate BCTs prior to putting them into clinical use to determine their limitations and ensure that patients are not placed at risk because of inaccuracies due to poor tube performance. Selection of the best BCTs can be achieved through comparing advertising materials, reviewing the literature, observing the device at a scientific meeting, receiving a demonstration, evaluating the device under simulated conditions, or testing the device with patient samples. Although many publications have discussed method validations, few detail how to perform experiments for tube verification and validation. This article highlights the most common and impactful variables related to BCTs and discusses the validation studies that a typical clinical laboratory should perform when selecting BCTs. We also present a brief review of how in vitro diagnostic devices, particularly BCTs, are regulated in the United States, the European Union, and Canada. The verification and validation of BCTs will help to avoid the economic and human costs associated with incorrect test results, including poor patient care, unnecessary testing, and delays in test results. We urge laboratorians, tube manufacturers, diagnostic companies, and other researchers to take all the necessary steps to protect against the adverse effects of BCT components and their additives on clinical assays.

  6. Penile rehabilitation with a vacuum erectile device in an animal model is related to an antihypoxic mechanism:blood gas evidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao-Cheng Lin; Wen-Li Yang; Jun-Lan Zhang; Yu-Tian Dai; Run Wang

    2013-01-01

    Our previous study showed that vacuum erectile device (VED) therapy has improved erectile function in rats with bilateral cavernous nerve crush (BCNC) injuries.This study was designed to explore the mechanism of VED in penile rehabilitation by analyzing cavernous oxygen saturation (S02) and to examine the effect of VED therapy on preventing penile shrinkage after BCNC.Thirty adult SpragueDawley rats were randomly assigned into three groups:group 1,sham surgery; group 2,BCNC; and group 3,BCNC+VED.Penile length and diameter were measured on a weekly basis.After 4 weeks of therapy,the penile blood was extracted by three methods for blood gas analysis (BGA):method 1,cavernous blood was aspirated at the flaccid state; method 2,cavernous blood was aspirated at the traction state; and method 3,cavernous blood was aspirated immediately after applying VED.SO2 values were tested by the blood gas analyzer.The results showed that VED therapy is effective in preventing penile shrinkage induced by BCNC (Penile shortening:BCNC group 1.9±1.1 mm; VED group 0.3±1.0 mm; P<0.01.Penile diameter reduction:BCNC group 0.28±0.14 mm; VED group 0.04±0.14 mm; P<0.0 1).The mean S02±s.d.values were increased by VED application (88.25%±4.94%) compared to the flaccid (76.53%±4.16%) or traction groups (78.93%±2.56%) (P<0.05).The calculated blood constructs in the corpus cavernosum right after VED application were 62% arterial and 38% venous blood.These findings suggest that VED therapy can effectively preserve penile size in rats with BCNC injury.The beneficial effect of VED therapy is related to antihypexia by increasing cavernous blood S02.

  7. Design and Simulation of the Recirculating Crossed-Field Planar Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exelby, Steven; Greening, Geoffrey; Jordan, Nicholas; Simon, David; Lau, Yue Ying; Gilgenbach, Ronald; Hoff, Brad

    2016-10-01

    The Recirculating Planar Crossed-Field Amplifier (RPCFA) is a high power microwave device adapted from the Recirculating Planar Magnetron1, developed at the University of Michigan. A travelling-wave, rectangular, meander-line design has been developed in simulation that amplifies a 1.3 MW signal at 3 GHz to approximately 29 MW (13.5 dB) with nearly 53% electronic efficiency. Simulation also shows that the RPCFA is zero-drive stable, e.g., output of any appreciable power is dependent on the presence of an input RF signal. The amplifier was designed to be driven by the Michigan Electron Long Beam Accelerator (MELBA), which is currently configured to deliver a -300 kV, 1-10 kA, 0.3-1.0 µs pulse. Taking these parameters into consideration, a slow wave structure, cathode, and housing were designed using the finite element frequency domain code Ansys HFSS. The cold tube characteristics and RF field structures were then verified using the particle in cell code, MAGIC. Hot tube simulations on MAGIC were also run to calculate the RPCFA's performance, including gain and efficiency. Future work will include building a prototype RPCFA, cold testing, and performing experiments to verify the hot tube simulations. This work was supported by the AFOSR Grant FA9550-15-1-0097.

  8. The Tin Coatings Utilisation As Blood Contact Surface Modification In Implantable Rotary Left Ventricle Assist Device Religaheart Rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kustosz R.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Constructions of the mechanical-bearingless centrifugal blood pumps utilize different types of non-contact physical bearings, which allows to balance the forces that have an impact on the pump impeller, stabilizing its position in the pump house without wall contact. The paper presents investigations of the hybrid (passive magnetic bearings and hydrodynamic bearings suspension system for the centrifugal blood pump. Numerical simulations were used to evaluate the hydrodynamic bearing lifting force and magnetic bearing forces interaction. An important aspect of rotor suspension system design was the nominal gap in hydrodynamic bearing area in order to reduce the blood damage risk in this region. The analyses results confirmed that for a small diameter centrifugal pump, the nominal operating hydrodynamic bearing gap could be established within the range from 0.033 to 0.072 mm.

  9. Use of low temperature blowers for recirculation of hot gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maru, H.C.; Forooque, M.

    1982-08-19

    An apparatus is described for maintaining motors at low operating temperatures during recirculation of hot gases in fuel cell operations and chemical processes such as fluidized bed coal gasification. The apparatus includes a means for separating the hot process gas from the motor using a secondary lower temperature gas, thereby minimizing the temperature increase of the motor and associated accessories.

  10. Microorganisms in recirculating aquaculture systems and their management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rurangwa, E.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Recirculation aquaculture systems (RASs) are increasingly considered as production systems of the future with a minimum ecological impact for the production of aquatic food. To maintain a good water quality and to produce quality and healthy fishery products, the systems depend on a diverse microbia

  11. Constrained control of a once-through boiler with recirculation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, K

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing need to operate power plants at low load for longer periods of time. When a once-through boiler operates at a sufficiently low load, recirculation is introduced, significantly altering the control structure. This paper illustrates the possibilities for using constrained con...

  12. Understanding heat transfer in 2D channel flows including recirculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkse, M.H.; Loon, van W.K.P.; Stigter, J.D.; Bot, G.P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Inviscid, irrotational two-dimensional flows can be modelled using the Schwarz¿Christoffel integral. Although bounded flows including boundary layer separation and recirculation are not irrotational, a model is presented that uses the Schwarz¿Christoffel integral to model these flows. The model sepa

  13. Effect of device-guided breathing exercises on blood pressure in patients with hypertension : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altena, Mariette R.; Kleefstra, Nanne; Logtenberg, Susan J.; Groenier, Klaas H.; Houweling, Sebastiaan T.; Bilo, Henk J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective. Hypertension is a chronic disorder with a high prevalence worldwide. Despite considerable efforts, it is sometimes hard to reach treatment goals for blood pressure (BP) with classical treatment options. Reducing breathing frequency has been advocated as a method to reduce BP. Methods. A r

  14. Hematocrit analysis through the use of an inexpensive centrifugal polyester-toner device with finger-to-chip blood loading capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Brandon L; Gilbert, Rachel J; Mejia, Maximo; Shukla, Nishant; Haverstick, Doris M; Garner, Gavin T; Landers, James P

    2016-06-14

    Hematocrit (HCT) measurements are important clinical diagnostic variables that help physicians diagnose and treat various medical conditions, ailments, and diseases. In this work, we present the HCT Disc, a centrifugal microdevice fabricated by a Print, Cut and Laminate (PCL) method to generate a 12-sample HCT device from materials costing centrifugal force, only requiring a CD player motor as external hardware and, ultimately, a cell phone for detection. The sedimented volume from patient blood in the HCT Disc was analyzed using a conventional scanner/custom algorithm for analysis of the image to determine a hematocrit value, and these were compared to values generated in a clinical laboratory, which correlated well. To enhance portability and assure simplicity of the HCT measurement, values from image analysis by a cell phone using a custom application was compared to the scanner. Fifteen samples were analyzed with cell phone image analysis system and were found to be within 4% of the HCT values determined in the clinical lab. We demonstrate the feasibility of the PeT device for HCT measurement, and highlight its uniquely low cost (<0.5 USD), speed (sample-to-answer <8 min), multiplexability (12 samples), low volume whole blood requirement (<3 μL), rotation speeds (<4000 rpm) needed for effective measurement as well as the direct finger-to-chip sample loading capability.

  15. Current status of the gyro centrifugal blood pump--development of the permanently implantable centrifugal blood pump as a biventricular assist device (NEDO project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosé, Yukihiko; Furukawa, Kojiro

    2004-10-01

    The New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) project was started in 1995. The goal is the development of a multipurpose, totally implantable biventricular assist device (BVAD) that can be used for any patient who suffers from severe heart failure. Our C1E3 (two-week pump) centrifugal pump, called the Gyro pump, has three design characteristics: a magnetic coupling and double pivot bearing system, an eccentric inlet port, and secondary vanes on the bottom of the impeller. The pump was miniaturized. The C1E3 evolved into the NEDO PI-601, a totally implantable centrifugal pump for BVAD. The current NEDO PI-710 pump (five-year pump) system includes a centrifugal pump with pivot bearings, a hydraulically-levitated impeller, an rpm-controlled miniaturized actuator (all-in-one actuator plus controller), an emergency clamp on the left outflow, and a Frank-Starling-type flow control. The final mass production model is now finalized, and the final animal study and two-year endurance studies are ongoing.

  16. Five-week use of a monopivot centrifugal blood pump as a right ventricular assist device in severe dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takamichi; Kitamura, Tadashi; Torii, Shinzo; Hanayama, Naoji; Oka, Norihiko; Itatani, Keiichi; Tomoyasu, Takahiro; Irisawa, Yusuke; Shibata, Miyuki; Hayashi, Hidenori; Ono, Minoru; Miyaji, Kagami

    2014-03-01

    Right heart failure is a critical complication in patients requiring mechanical ventricular support. However, it is often difficult to provide adequate right ventricular support in the acute phase. A 41-year-old woman diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy with severe right heart failure underwent implantation of a paracorporeal pulsatile left ventricular assist device (LVAD, Nipro Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) and a MERA monopivot centrifugal pump (Senko Medical Instrument Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) as a right ventricular assist device (RVAD). The patient developed ischemic enteritis 3 weeks after surgery, necessitating fasting and reversal of anticoagulation therapy. A target international normalized ratio of 1.5 was selected, and aspirin administration was discontinued. Following recovery without thromboembolic events, the patient failed the RVAD discontinuation test. Five weeks after surgery, the monopivot centrifugal pump was exchanged for a pulsatile pump. No thrombus was evident on the centrifugal pump. The patient was undergoing cardiac rehabilitation at the time of this writing and awaiting heart transplantation.

  17. Context classification during blood pressure self-measurement using the sensor seat and the audio classification device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Stefan Rahr; Rasmussen, Niels Holm; Ahrendt, Peter

    2012-01-01

    pressure (BP) devices cannot verify whether the patient has followed these recommendations or not. As a result, the data quality of BP measurements could be biased. We present a proof-of-concept demonstration prototype that uses audio context classification for detecting speech during the measurement...... process, as well as a sensor seat for measuring patient posture and activity before and during the BPSM process....

  18. An Impact Velocity Device Design for Blood Spatter Pattern Generation with Considerations for High-Speed Video Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotesbury, Theresa; Illes, Mike; Vreugdenhil, Andrew J

    2016-03-01

    A mechanical device that uses gravitational and spring compression forces to create spatter patterns of known impact velocities is presented and discussed. The custom-made device uses either two or four springs (k1 = 267.8 N/m, k2 = 535.5 N/m) in parallel to create seventeen reproducible impact velocities between 2.1 and 4.0 m/s. The impactor is held at several known spring extensions using an electromagnet. Trigger inputs to the high-speed video camera allow the user to control the magnet's release while capturing video footage simultaneously. A polycarbonate base is used to allow for simultaneous monitoring of the side and bottom views of the impact event. Twenty-four patterns were created across the impact velocity range and analyzed using HemoSpat. Area of origin estimations fell within an acceptable range (ΔXav = -5.5 ± 1.9 cm, ΔYav = -2.6 ± 2.8 cm, ΔZav = +5.5 ± 3.8 cm), supporting distribution analysis for the use in research or bloodstain pattern training. This work provides a framework for those interested in developing a robust impact device.

  19. Modeling Condensation, Hydro- and Pepto-affinity of Surfaces in Medical Implant Devices and Surgical Lenses: Effect of Blood Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett-Kennett, Ross; Herbots, Nicole; Murphy, Ashlee; Sell, David; Kutz, Tyler; Benitez, Sophia; Acharya, Ajjya; Hughes, Brett; Watson, Clarizza; Culbertson, Eric; Sell, Clive; Kwong, H.

    2012-10-01

    Surgical lenses in laparoscopes and arthroscopes ``fog'' during surgery. Fogging increases by up to 40% surgery duration, infection rates, and scarring due to exposure from repeated scopes withdrawal for cleaning. Modeling nucleation on surfaces shows that 2-D layer-by-layer condensation maintains transparency while 3-D droplets refract at gas/fluid interfaces leading to opacity or ``fogging.'' This ProteinKnoxmodel for lenses made from bio-compatible polymers, and silica led us to a nano-scale molecular mesh applied as a bio-identical emulsion. ProteinKnox[1-5] meets a 100% success rate in eliminating fogging for up to 240 minutes over 300 experiments. Twenty surgical trials in the OR yield a success rate of 90%, with loss of vision due to the presence of blood or blood proteins, not fogging. We studied the common blood protein, heparin, which prevents coagulation, with the ProteinKnoxmodel. Heparin behaves like H2O on hydrophobic surfaces. It does not prevent fogging nor interferes with 2-D condensatio. Next, we investigated fibrinogen as agonist agent because it causes coagulation. Fibrinogen applied to various surfaces in emulsions prepared in accordance with the ProteinKnoxmodel can prevent not only

  20. Ozone degradation of alkylbenzene sulfonate in aqueous solutions using a stirred tank reactor with recirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado-Alameda, Encarnación; Vicaria, José M; Altmajer-Vaz, Deisi; Luzón, Germán; Jiménez-Pérez, José L; Moya-Ramírez, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    The degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) in aqueous solutions by ozone has been investigated. The ozonation process was performed in a stirred tank reactor with recirculation which simulates the clean-in-place process used in many industrial facilities. The gas-liquid mass transfer of ozone in a buffer solution at different temperatures (25-55°C) was also studied in the same device, revealing that ozone decomposition can be considered negligible under the experimental conditions assayed. The effect of the initial LAS concentration, temperature, and ozone concentration on the concentration of homologues and total LAS were analysed as a function of time. Both concentrations diminished with time, this effect being more significant when higher temperatures were assayed. The relative proportion of homologues shows that the homologues of higher chain length are degraded in a greater proportion than are the homologues with shorter chain lengths.

  1. The Search for High-Impact Diagnostic and Management Tools for Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Self-Powered Low-Cost Blood Pressure Measurement Device Powered by a Solid-State Vibration Energy Harvester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgen, Onur; Kenerson, John G; Akpinar-Elci, Muge; Hattery, Rebecca; Hanson, Lisbet M

    2015-08-01

    The World Health Organization has established recommendations for blood pressure measurement devices for use in low-resource venues, setting the "triple A" expectations of Accuracy, Affordability, and Availability. Because of issues related to training and assessment of proficiency, the pendulum has swung away from manual blood pressure devices and auscultatory techniques towards automatic oscillometric devices. As a result of power challenges in the developing world, there has also been a push towards semiautomatic devices that are not dependent on external power sources or batteries. Beyond solar solutions, disruptive technology related to solid-state vibrational energy harvesting may be the next iterative solution to attain the ultimate goal of a self-powered low-cost validated device that is simple to use and reliable.

  2. The impact of arm position and pulse pressure on the validation of a wrist-cuff blood pressure measurement device in a high risk population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Khoshdel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ali Reza Khoshdel1,2, Shane Carney2, Alastair Gillies21Faculty of Medicine, Aja University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran; 2John Hunter Hospital, Faculty of Health, The University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NS W, AustraliaAbstract: Despite the increasing popularity of blood pressure (BP wrist monitors for self-BP measurement at home, device validation and the effect of arm position remains an issue. This study focused on the validation of the Omron HEM-609 wrist BP device, including an evaluation of the impact of arm position and pulse pressure on BP measurement validation. Fifty patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease were selected (age 65 ± 10 years. Each patient had two measurements with a mercury sphygmomanometer and three measurements with the wrist BP device (wrist at the heart level while the horizontal arm supported [HORIZONTAL], hand supported on the opposite shoulder [SHOULDER], and elbow placed on a desk [DESK], in random order. The achieved systolic BP (SBP and diastolic BP (DBP wrist-cuff readings were compared to the mercury device and the frequencies of the readings within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg of the gold standard were computed and compared with the British Hypertension Society (BHS and Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI protocols. The results showed while SBP readings with HORIZONTAL and SHOULDER positions were significantly different from the mercury device (mean difference = 7.1 and 13.3 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05, the DESK position created the closest reading to mercury (mean difference = 3.8, P > 0.1. Approximately 71% of SBP readings with the DESK position were within ±10 mmHg, whereas it was 62.5% and 34% for HORIZONTAL and SHOULDER positions, respectively. Wrist DBP attained category D with BHS criteria with all three arm positions. Bland–Altman plots illustrated that the wrist monitor systematically underestimated SBP and DBP values. However a reading adjustment of 5 and 10 mm

  3. Portable Heat Pump Testing Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kłosowiak R.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the design and working principle of a portable testing device for heat pumps in the energy recirculation system. The presented test stand can be used for any refrigerating/reverse flow cycle device to calculate the device energy balance. The equipment is made of two portable containers of the capacity of 250 liters to simulate the air heat source and ground heat source with a system of temperature stabilization, compressor heat pump of the coefficient of performance (COP of = 4.3, a failsafe system and a control and measurement system.

  4. C2R2. Compact Compound Recirculator/Recuperator for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficient Thermochemical Processing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermanoski, Ivan [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Orozco, Adrian [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    In this report we present the development of a packed particle bed recirculator and heat exchanger. The device is intended to create countercurrent flows of packed particle beds and exchange heat between the flows. The project focused on the design, fabrication, demonstration, and modifications of a simple prototype, in order to attain high levels of heat exchange between particle flows while maintaining an effective particle conveying rate in a scalable package. Despite heat losses in a package not optimized for heat retention, 50% heat recovery was achieved, at a particle conveying efficiency of 40%.

  5. Cortisol and testosterone accumulation in a low pH recirculating aquaculture system for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    OpenAIRE

    Mota, Vasco C.; Catarina I M Martins; Eding, Ep H.; Canário, Adelino V.M.; Verreth, Johan A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Steroids accumulate in recirculating aquaculture system (RAS), although explanatory factors for such accumulation are still poorly explored. This study investigated the effect of water exchange rate and pH in six replicated RAS on the concentration of the stress hormone cortisol in rainbow trout blood plasma and in the holding water and of the sex steroids testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and 17,20β-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one (17,20β-P) over a 70-day experimental period. Three combina...

  6. Control of synchrotron radiation effects during recirculation with bunch compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, David [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Benson, Stephen [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Li, Rui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Roblin, Yves [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Tennant, Christopher [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Krafft, Geoffrey [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Terzic, Balsa [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Tsai, Cheng [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Studies of beam quality during recirculation have been extended to an arc providing bunch compression with positive momentum compaction. It controls both incoherent and coherent synchrotron radiation (ISR and CSR) using methods including optics balance and generates little microbunching gain. We detail the dynamical basis for the design, discuss the design process, give an example, and provide simulations of ISR and CSR effects. Reference will be made to a complete analysis of microbunching effects.

  7. Tracking studies in eRHIC energy-recovery recirculator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Brooks, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ptitsyn, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trbojevic, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tsoupas, N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-07-13

    Beam and polarization tracking studies in eRHIC energy recovery electron recirculator are presented, based on a very preliminary design of the FFAG lattice. These simulations provide examples of some of the beam and spin optics aspects of the linear FFAG lattice concept and its application in eRHIC, they provide code benchmarking for synchrotron radiation and spin diffusion in addition, and pave the way towards end-to-end 6-D(phasespace)+3D(spin) tracking simulations.

  8. Hydroxyl time series and recirculation in turbulent nonpremixed swirling flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guttenfelder, Walter A.; Laurendeau, Normand M.; Ji, Jun; King, Galen B.; Gore, Jay P. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1288 (United States); Renfro, Michael W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3139 (United States)

    2006-10-15

    Time-series measurements of OH, as related to accompanying flow structures, are reported using picosecond time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (PITLIF) and particle-imaging velocimetry (PIV) for turbulent, swirling, nonpremixed methane-air flames. The [OH] data portray a primary reaction zone surrounding the internal recirculation zone, with residual OH in the recirculation zone approaching chemical equilibrium. Modeling of the OH electronic quenching environment, when compared to fluorescence lifetime measurements, offers additional evidence that the reaction zone burns as a partially premixed flame. A time-series analysis affirms the presence of thin flamelet-like regions based on the relation between swirl-induced turbulence and fluctuations of [OH] in the reaction and recirculation zones. The OH integral time-scales are found to correspond qualitatively to local mean velocities. Furthermore, quantitative dependencies can be established with respect to axial position, Reynolds number, and global equivalence ratio. Given these relationships, the OH time-scales, and thus the primary reaction zone, appear to be dominated by convection-driven fluctuations. Surprisingly, the OH time-scales for these nominally swirling flames demonstrate significant similarities to previous PITLIF results in nonpremixed jet flames. (author)

  9. Filter System Performance in a Tilapia Recirculating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Savin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It is known that recirculating aquaculture systems, although has some advantages, production costs resulting from these production systems are quite high and is mainly due to the filtration system of technological water. Tilapia is one of the most important species in world aquaculture, the second production after carp, because of the advantages it has being reared in any production system: ponds, net-pens, cages, raceways, recirculating systems. Aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a filter system in a tilapia recirculating system. Experiments were conducted during October – December 2011, during which feeding was done only with feed, Nutra category, ageappropriate granulation. Main physical – chemical parameters of technological water were monitored, pH, dissolved oxygen, nitrite, ammonia and ammonium, both the water entry in the filter and the exit from the filter. Filtration efficiency varied from 2-3% and up to 50-60%, mainly due to rapid loading of the filter and its need for cleaning.

  10. A Case of Ruptured Blood Blister-like Aneurysm Treated with Pipeline Embolization Device: Clinical Significance of Fetal-type Posterior Communicating Artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki-Su; Son, Won-Soo; Park, Jaechan; Kim, Young-Sun; Kim, Byung Moon

    2017-01-01

    Blood-blister like aneurysms (BBAs) are challenging lesions because of their wide fragile neck. Flow-diverting stents (FDSs), such as the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED), have been applied to treat BBAs less amenable to more established techniques of treatment. However, the use of FDSs, including the PED, in acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) still remains controversial. We report a case of aneurysm regrowth following PED application for a ruptured BBA that overlapped the origin of the dominant posterior communicating artery (PCoA), which was successfully treated after coil trapping of the origin of the fetal-type PCoA. And, we discuss the clinical significance of the fetal-type PCoA communicating with a BBA in terms of PED failure. PMID:28316868

  11. Evaluation of a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mikyss) culture water recirculating system

    OpenAIRE

    Iván Sánchez O; Wilmer Sanguino O.; Ariel Gómez C.; Roberto García C

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjective. To evaluate a water recirculation system for rainbow trout fish cultures at the recirculating laboratory of the Aquaculture Engineering Production Program of University of Nariño. Materials and Methods. 324 rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mikyss) fries were cultured in 12 plastic tanks with a capacity of 250 L in an aquaculture recirculating system the treatment system of which was made up by a conventional sedimentation tank, a fixed stand upflow biofilter with recycled PVC tu...

  12. Laser scanning of a recirculation zone on the Bolund escarpment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Jakob; Angelou, Nikolas; Sjöholm, Mikael;

    2012-01-01

    Rapid variations in the height of the recirculation zone are measured with a scanning wind lidar over a small escarpment on the Bolund Peninsula. The lidar is essentially a continuous-wave laser Doppler anemometer with the capability of rapidly changing the focus distance and the beam direction....... The instrument measures the line-ofsight velocity 390 times per second and scans ten wind profiles from the ground up to seven meters per second. The results will be used to test computational fluid dynamics models for flow over terrain, and has relevance for wind energy. The development of multiple lidar...

  13. A power recirculating test rig for ball screw endurance tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giberti Hermes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A conceptual design of an innovative test rig for endurance tests of ball screws is presented in this paper. The test rig layout is based on the power recirculating principle and it also allows to overtake the main critical issues of the ball screw endurance tests. Among these there are the high power required to make the test, the lengthy duration of the same and the high loads between the screw and the frame that holds it. The article describes the test rig designed scheme, the kinematic expedients to be adopted in order to obtain the required performance and functionality and the sizing procedure to choose the actuation system.

  14. Microscreen effects on water quality in replicated recirculating aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Paulo; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of three microscreen mesh sizes (100, 60 and 20 μm) on water quality and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) performance compared to a control group without microscreens, in triplicated recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Operational conditions were kept....... Fish performed similarly in all treatments. Preliminary screening of trout gills did not reveal any pathological changes related to microscreen filtration and the resulting water quality. Biofilter performance was also unaffected, with 0′-order nitrification rates (k0a) being equivalent for all twelve...

  15. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

    2014-05-13

    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  16. A high temperature granulation process for ecological ash recirculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundqvist, Thomas

    1999-07-01

    This thesis is a summary of three papers dealing with new technologies for facilitating ecological biomass ash recirculation back to forest and farm lands. The present outtake of biomass for paper and energy production may be incompatible with a sustainable forestry. The cycle of nutrients contained in the biomass extracted must be closed by ash recirculation in an environmental compatible way. This implies stabilization of the loose ashes/rest-products to a product with low heavy metal contents, controlled leaching properties and a high spreadability. In the present work, two different techniques were evaluated for the possibilities to separate heavy metals from the nutrient elements by utilizing high process temperatures to vaporize the unwanted metals from the condensed bulk materials. The results indicated that direct in-situ separation in fluidized bed combustion systems is possible, but requires too high process temperatures to be practically attractive. On the other hand, the new proposed high temperature treatment method for granulated raw materials was found to significantly separate As, Cd and Pb, with separation efficiencies exceeding 90 % at optimal operating conditions. In addition, the results indicated that the treatment method could be used to significantly delay and control the leaching characteristics, as well as the content of products of incomplete combustion of the produced granules.

  17. Design validation and performance of closed loop gas recirculation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmani, S. D.; Joshi, A. V.; Majumder, G.; Mondal, N. K.; Shinde, R. R.

    2016-11-01

    A pilot experimental set up of the India Based Neutrino Observatory's ICAL detector has been operational for the last 4 years at TIFR, Mumbai. Twelve glass RPC detectors of size 2 × 2 m2, with a gas gap of 2 mm are under test in a closed loop gas recirculation system. These RPCs are continuously purged individually, with a gas mixture of R134a (C2H2F4), isobutane (iC4H10) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) at a steady rate of 360 ml/h to maintain about one volume change a day. To economize gas mixture consumption and to reduce the effluents from being released into the atmosphere, a closed loop system has been designed, fabricated and installed at TIFR. The pressure and flow rate in the loop is controlled by mass flow controllers and pressure transmitters. The performance and integrity of RPCs in the pilot experimental set up is being monitored to assess the effect of periodic fluctuation and transients in atmospheric pressure and temperature, room pressure variation, flow pulsations, uniformity of gas distribution and power failures. The capability of closed loop gas recirculation system to respond to these changes is also studied. The conclusions from the above experiment are presented. The validations of the first design considerations and subsequent modifications have provided improved guidelines for the future design of the engineering module gas system.

  18. Designing and Testing of Self-Cleaning Recirculating Zebrafish Tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nema, Shubham; Bhargava, Yogesh

    2016-08-01

    Maintenance of large number of zebrafish in captive conditions is a daunting task. This can be eased by the use of recirculating racks with self-cleaning zebrafish tanks. Commercially available systems are costly, and compatibility of intercompany products has never been investigated. Although various cost-effective designs and methods of construction of custom-made recirculating zebrafish racks are available in literature, the design of self-cleaning zebrafish tanks is still not available. In this study, we report the design and method of construction of the self-cleaning unit, which can be fitted in any zebrafish tank. We validated the design by investigating sediment cleaning process in rectangular and cylindrical tank geometries using time lapse imaging. Our results suggest that for both tank geometries, the tanks fitted with self-cleaning unit provided superior sediment cleaning than the tanks fitted with overflow-drain unit. Although the self-cleaning unit could clean the sediment completely from both geometries over prolonged period, the cleaning of sediments was faster in the cylindrical tank than the rectangular tank. In conclusion, cost and efforts of zebrafish maintenance could be significantly reduced through the installation of our self-cleaning unit in any custom-made zebrafish tank.

  19. Turbulent characteristics of shear-thinning fluids in recirculating flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, A.S. [Inst. Superior de Engenharia do Porto (Portugal). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Pinho, F.T. [Centro de Estudos de Fenomenos de Transporte, Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica e Gestao Industrial, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal)

    2000-03-01

    A miniaturised fibre optic laser-Doppler anemometer was used to carry out a detailed hydrodynamic investigation of the flow downstream of a sudden expansion with 0.1-0.2% by weight shear-thinning aqueous solutions of xanthan gum. Upstream of the sudden expansion the pipe flow was fully-developed and the xanthan gum solutions exhibited drag reduction with corresponding lower radial and tangential normal Reynolds stresses, but higher axial Reynolds stress near the wall and a flatter axial mean velocity profile in comparison with Newtonian flow. The recirculation bubble length was reduced by more than 20% relative to the high Reynolds number Newtonian flow, and this was attributed to the occurrence further upstream of high turbulence for the non-Newtonian solutions, because of advection of turbulence and earlier high turbulence production in the shear layer. Comparisons with the measurements of Escudier and Smith (1999) with similar fluids emphasized the dominating role of inlet turbulence. The present was less anisotropic, and had lower maximum axial Reynolds stresses (by 16%) but higher radial turbulence (20%) than theirs. They reported considerably longer recirculating bubble lengths than we do for similar non-Newtonian fluids and Reynolds numbers. (orig.)

  20. Comparative performance of lab tests and blood testing device to monitor glucose, total cholesterol and triacylglycerol in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Zubioli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The performance of lab tests (LT and blood testing devices (BTD to monitor glycemia vs. glycated hemoglobin A1c (A1c were compared. In addition, the performance of blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC and triacylglycerol measured by LT and BDT were compared. All parameters were measured based on the same blood samples from overnight fasted type 2 diabetic patients (T2DP. Linear regression analysis was used for all comparisons. The results showed that A1c correlated better with LT-glucose (r = 0.58 than BTD-glucose (r = 0.42. Moreover, LT vs. BTD showed r values of 0.90, 0.82 and 0.92 for glucose, TC and triacylglycerol, respectively. It was concluded that the performance of LT-glucose was better than BDT-glucose. Moreover, since triacylycerol and TC measured by BTD correlated better with LT compared to BDT-glucose vs. LT-glucose, the inclusion of BTD-TC and BTD-triacylglycerol for detecting and monitoring hyperlipidemia in T2DP should be considered.Comparou-se a performance de avaliação da glicemia através de dosagens laboratoriais (DL ou dispositivo para teste de sangue capilar (DTSC vs. hemoglobina glicada A1c (A1c. Comparou-se ainda a performance de avaliação da glicemia, colesterol total (CT e triacilglicerol (DL vs. DTSC. Avaliou-se estes parametros a partir das mesmas amostras de sangue coletadas em pacientes diabéticos tipo 2 (PDT2 em jejum noturno, sendo as comparações realizadas através de análise de regressão linear. A A1c correlacionou-se melhor com a glicemia-DL (r = 0,58 em relação a glicemia-DTSC (r = 0,42. Comparou-se DL vs. DTSC obtendo se r = 0,90, 0,82 e 0,92 para glicemia, CT e triacilglicerol, respectivamente. Concluiu-se que houve melhor performance da glicose-DL em relação a glicose-DTSC. Além disso, considerando que o triacilglicerol e TC avaliado através de DTSC correlaciona-se melhor com DL em comparação a DTSC-glicose vs. DL-glicose, a inclusão de DTSC-TC e DTSC-triacilglicerol visando detectar e

  1. Coastal recirculation potential affecting air pollutants in Portugal: The role of circulation weather types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ana; Gouveia, Célia; Levy, Ilan; Dayan, Uri; Jerez, Sonia; Mendes, Manuel; Trigo, Ricardo

    2016-06-01

    Coastal zones are under increasing development and experience air pollution episodes regularly. These episodes are often related to peaks in local emissions from industry or transportation, but can also be associated with regional transport from neighbour urban areas influenced by land-sea breeze recirculation. This study intends to analyze the relation between circulation weather patterns, air mass recirculation and pollution levels in three coastal airsheds of Portugal (Lisbon, Porto and Sines) based on the application of an objective quantitative measure of potential recirculation. Although ventilation events have a dominant presence throughout the studied 9-yrs period on all the three airsheds, recirculation and stagnation conditions occur frequently. The association between NO2, SO2 and O3 levels and recirculation potential is evident during summer months. Under high average recirculation potential and high variability, NO2 and SO2 levels are higher for the three airsheds, whilst for O3 each airshed responds differently. This indicates a high heterogeneity among the three airsheds in (1) the type of emission - traffic or industry - prevailing for each contaminant, and (2) the response to the various circulation weather patterns and recirculation situations. Irrespectively of that, the proposed methodology, based on iterative K-means clustering, allows to identify which prevailing patterns are associated with high recirculation potential, having the advantage of being applicable to any geographical location.

  2. Daily micro particle distribution of an experimental recirculating aquaculture system – A case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Paulo; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2014-01-01

    The particle size distribution (PSD) in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) was investigated duringa 24-h cycle. PSD was analyzed in water sampled at several locations in a recirculation loop containing a60-m drum filter, a submerged fixed-bed biofilter and a trickling filter.In relation to ...

  3. Low Load Model of a Once-through Boiler with Recirculation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    A dynamic simulation model of a once-through boiler in low to medium load is developed. When the system is in low load, water from the evaporator is recirculated through a bottle. This recirculation system is included in the model, which is then shown to fit closed-loop data from a real plant...

  4. Unit process engineering for water quality control and biosecurity in marine water recirculating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-intensity systems that treat and recirculate water must maintain a culture environment that can sustain near optimum fish health and growth at the design carrying capacity. Water recirculating systems that use centralized treatment systems can benefit from the economies of scale to decrease th...

  5. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... maternity. Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma ... About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity ...

  6. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) during anaerobic digestion with recirculation of ozonated digested sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal-Martinez, Arodi; Patureau, Dominique; Delgenes, Jean-Philippe [INRA, UR 050, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l' Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, Narbonne F11100 (France); Carrere, Helene [INRA, UR 050, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l' Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, Narbonne F11100 (France)], E-mail: carrere@supagro.inra.fr

    2009-03-15

    PAH are particularly monitored because of their carcinogenic properties and their ubiquity in the environment. Their presence in municipal sewage sludge is a major problem due to the environmental risks associated with the sludge spreading on agricultural soils. The objective of this work was to asses the removal of PAH naturally present in sludge by continuous anaerobic digestion with recirculation of ozonated sludge. Recirculation of ozonated digested sludge allowed to enhance PAH removals, the highest efficiency was obtained with the highest ozone dose (0.11 g O{sub 3}/g{sub TS}). In order to study the effect of recirculation, a reactor was operated without recirculation but was fed with a mixture of raw and ozonated digested sludge. This process led to the best performances in terms of PAH and solid removals. This pointed out some accumulation of nonbiodegradable or recalcitrant compounds during recirculation assay. Smallest and most soluble compounds presented the highest biodegradation efficiencies.

  7. Pulsed-focusing recirculating linacs for muon acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States)

    2014-12-31

    Since the muon has a short lifetime, fast acceleration is essential for high-energy applications such as muon colliders, Higgs factories, or neutrino factories. The best one can do is to make a linear accelerator with the highest possible accelerating gradient to make the accelerating time as short as possible. However, the cost of such a single linear accelerator is prohibitively large due to expensive power sources, cavities, tunnels, and related infrastructure. As was demonstrated in the Thomas Jefferson Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF), an elegant solution to reduce cost is to use magnetic return arcs to recirculate the beam through the accelerating RF cavities many times, where they gain energy on each pass. In such a Recirculating Linear Accelerator (RLA), the magnetic focusing strength diminishes as the beam energy increases in a conventional linac that has constant strength quadrupoles. After some number of passes the focusing strength is insufficient to keep the beam from going unstable and being lost. In this project, the use of fast pulsed quadrupoles in the linac sections was considered for stronger focusing as a function of time to allow more successive passes of a muon beam in a recirculating linear accelerator. In one simulation, it was shown that the number of passes could be increased from 8 to 12 using pulsed magnet designs that have been developed and tested. This could reduce the cost of linac sections of a muon RLA by 8/12, where more improvement is still possible. The expense of a greater number of passes and corresponding number of return arcs was also addressed in this project by exploring the use of ramped or FFAG-style magnets in the return arcs. A better solution, invented in this project, is to use combined-function dipole-quadrupole magnets to simultaneously transport two beams of different energies through one magnet string to reduce costs of return arcs by almost a factor of

  8. PULSED-FOCUSING RECIRCULATING LINACS FOR MUON ACCELERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland PAUL

    2014-12-31

    Since the muon has a short lifetime, fast acceleration is essential for high-energy applications such as muon colliders, Higgs factories, or neutrino factories. The best one can do is to make a linear accelerator with the highest possible accelerating gradient to make the accelerating time as short as possible. However, the cost of such a single linear accelerator is prohibitively large due to expensive power sources, cavities, tunnels, and related infrastructure. As was demonstrated in the Thomas Jefferson Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF), an elegant solution to reduce cost is to use magnetic return arcs to recirculate the beam through the accelerating RF cavities many times, where they gain energy on each pass. In such a Recirculating Linear Accelerator (RLA), the magnetic focusing strength diminishes as the beam energy increases in a conventional linac that has constant strength quadrupoles. After some number of passes the focusing strength is insufficient to keep the beam from going unstable and being lost. In this project, the use of fast pulsed quadrupoles in the linac sections was considered for stronger focusing as a function of time to allow more successive passes of a muon beam in a recirculating linear accelerator. In one simulation, it was shown that the number of passes could be increased from 8 to 12 using pulsed magnet designs that have been developed and tested. This could reduce the cost of linac sections of a muon RLA by 8/12, where more improvement is still possible. The expense of a greater number of passes and corresponding number of return arcs was also addressed in this project by exploring the use of ramped or FFAG-style magnets in the return arcs. A better solution, invented in this project, is to use combined-function dipole-quadrupole magnets to simultaneously transport two beams of different energies through one magnet string to reduce costs of return arcs by almost a factor of

  9. Performance model of a recirculating stack nickel hydrogen cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Albert H.

    1994-01-01

    A theoretical model of the nickel hydrogen battery cell has been utilized to describe the chemical and physical changes during charge and overcharge in a recirculating stack nickel hydrogen cell. In particular, the movement of gas and electrolyte have been examined as a function of the amount of electrolyte put into the cell stack during cell activation, and as a function of flooding in regions of the gas screen in this cell design. Additionally, a two-dimensional variation on this model has been utilized to describe the effects of non-uniform loading in the nickel-electrode on the movement of gas and electrolyte within the recirculating stack nickel hydrogen cell. The type of nonuniform loading that has been examined here is that associated with higher than average loading near the surface of the sintered nickel electrode, a condition present to some degree in many nickel electrodes made by electrochemical impregnation methods. The effects of high surface loading were examined primarily under conditions of overcharge, since the movement of gas and electrolyte in the overcharging condition was typically where the greatest effects of non-uniform loading were found. The results indicate that significant changes in the capillary forces between cell components occur as the percentage of free volume in the stack filled by electrolyte becomes very high. These changes create large gradients in gas-filled space and oxygen concentrations near the boundary between the separator and the hydrogen electrode when the electrolyte fill is much greater than about 95 percent of the stack free volume. At lower electrolyte fill levels, these gaseous and electrolyte gradients become less extreme, and shift through the separator towards the nickel electrode. Similarly, flooding of areas in the gas screen cause higher concentrations of oxygen gas to approach the platinum/hydrogen electrode that is opposite the back side of the nickel electrode. These results illustrate the need for

  10. PIV measurements of the flow at the inlet of a turbocharger centrifugal compressor with recirculation casing treatment near the inducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gancedo, Matthieu; Gutmark, Ephraim; Guillou, Erwann

    2016-02-01

    Turbocharging reciprocating engines is a viable solution in order to meet the new regulations for emissions and fuel efficiency in part because turbochargers allow to use smaller, more efficient engines (downsizing) while maintaining power. A major challenge is to match the flow range of a dynamic turbomachine (the centrifugal compressor in the turbocharger) with a positive displacement pump (the engine) as the flow range of the latter is typically higher. The operating range of the compressor is thus of prime interest. At low mass flow rate (MFR), the compressor range is limited by the occurrence of surge. To control and improve it, numerous and varied methods have been used. Yet, an automotive application requires that the solution remains relatively simple and preferably passive. A common feature that has been demonstrated to improve the surge line is the use of flow recirculation in the inducer region through a circumferential bleed slot around the shroud, also called "ported shroud", similar to what has been developed for axial compressors in the past. The compressor studied here features such a device. In order to better understand the effect of the recirculation slot on the compressor functioning, flow measurements were performed at the inlet using particle image velocimetry and the results were correlated with pressure measurements nearby. Measurements were taken on a compressor with and without recirculation and across the full range of normal operation and during surge using a phase-locking method to obtain average flow fields throughout the entire surge cycle. When the recirculation is blocked, it was found that strong backflow develops at low MFR perturbing the incoming flow and inducing significant preswirl. The slot eliminated most of the backflow in front of the inducer making the compressor operation more stable. The measurements performed during surge showed strong backflow occurring periodically during the outlet pressure drop and when the

  11. Mobile Health:IEEE Standard for Wearable Cuflfess Blood Pressure Measuring Devices%移动医疗:IEEE可穿戴无袖带血压测量仪标准

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周霞; 吴文莉; 鲍淑娣

    2015-01-01

    IEEE Std 1708-2014突破了传统袖带式血压测量仪标准,建立了可穿戴无袖带血压测量仪的规范性定义及其客观性能评估方法。该文首先介绍新标准的出台背景;然后描述新标准的具体内容,并基于其特点阐述无袖带血压仪及其移动医疗应用给制造商和用户带来的影响。%IEEE Std 1708-2014 breaks through the traditional standards of cuff based blood pressure measuring devices and establishes a normative definition of wearable cuffless blood pressure measuring devices and the objective performance evaluation of this kind of devices. This study firstly introduces the background of the new standard. Then, the standard details wil be described, and the impact of cuffless blood pressure measuring devices with the new standard on manufacturers and end users wil be addressed.

  12. Numerical investigation of recirculation in the UTSI MHD combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, R.J.; Lee, J.J.; Giel, T.V. Jr.

    1983-09-01

    Numerical studies were carried out to investigate the gross structure of flow in cylindrical combustors. The combustor configurations studied are variations of a working design used at the University of Tennessee Space Institute to burn pulverized coal at temperatures in excess of 3000K for generation of a plasma feeding a magnetohydrodynamic channel. The numerical studies were conducted for an isothermal fluid; the main objective of the calculations was to study the effect of the oxidant injection pattern on the gross structure of recirculating flows within the combustor. The calculations illustrate the basic features of the flow in combustors of this type and suggest implications for the injection of coal and oxidizer in this type of combustor.

  13. Dynamics of microorganism populations in recirculating nutrient solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, R. F.

    1994-11-01

    This overview covers the basic microbial ecology of recirculating hydroponic solutions. Examples from NASA and Soviet CELSS tests and the commercial hydroponic industry will be used. The sources of microorganisms in nutrient solutions include air, water, seeds, plant containers and plumbing, biological vectors, and personnel. Microbial fates include growth, death, and emigration. Important microbial habitats within nutrient delivery systems are root surfaces, hardware surfaces (biofilms), and solution suspension. Numbers of bacteria on root surfaces usually exceed those from the other habitats by several orders of magnitude. Gram negative bacteria dominate the microflora with fungal counts usually much lower. Trends typically show a decrease in counts with increasing time unless stressed plants increase root exudates. Important microbial activities include carbon mineralization and nitrogen transformations. Important detrimental interactions include competition with plants, and human and plant pathogenesis.

  14. Removal of Pollutants of Landfill Leachate by Recirculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ye; WANG Lina; ZHENG Shizhong

    2008-01-01

    S After leached from municipal solid waste landfill was treated by recirculation, the concentration of pollutants decreases greatly, and the moisture content of the solid waste in landfill site was increased and waste stabilization rate was accelerated. Compared with traditional treatment methods, this method offers more important practical values, including short investment, enhanced treatment efficiency and facilitated operation and management. The experimental results indicated that a 99.9% removel of ammonia nitrogen and an 80.5% removal of COD were obtained, when hydraulic power surface load is 15.92 L/m2·d, and organic surface load is 25.54 g/m2·d.

  15. Experiments With Recirculating Target for F-18 Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, M. Y.

    2003-08-01

    Approximately 10 ml of O-18 water was loaded in an apparatus containing a 5 ml storage vessel, pump, silver target attached to a cyclotron, filter, backpressure regulator, conductivity meter, several valves and ion exchange cartridges. The water was continuously pumped through the target during proton bombardment at a rate 5 ml/min. Continuous irradiation with beam current ranging from 10 to 50 uA was conducted while pressure, temperature and conductivity were continuously monitored. The results indicate that recirculating of the target water can increase production of F-18 in relation to consumed O-18 water material. It can also increase productivity by eliminating idle periods for re-filling the target. A backpressure regulator can precisely control target pressure. This method also allows for continuous monitoring of the target material temperature, pressure, conductivity and accumulated radioactivity. Results of these observations provide important information about target performance and physical processes taking place inside the target.

  16. Exergetic performance analysis of a recirculating aquaculture system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucuk, Haydar [Mechanical Engineering Department, Guemueshane University, 29000 Guemueshane (Turkey); Midilli, Adnan [Energy Division, Mechanical Engineering Department. Nigde University, 51000 Nigde (Turkey); Oezdemir, Atilla; Cakmak, Eyuep [Central Fisheries Research Institute, Ministry of Agricultural and Rural Affairs, Trabzon (Turkey); Dincer, Ibrahim [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ont. (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    This paper examines exergetic aspects of a Recirculation Aquaculture System (RAS) for Black Sea trout (Salmo trutta labrax) fingerling rearing at the Trabzon Central Fisheries Research Institute, Turkey. In its thermodynamic analysis, each component of the RAS is treated as a steady-state steady flow system and its exergetic efficiencies are studied. In addition, the following parameters are measured and recorded in experiments: the mass flow rates, inlet and outlet temperatures and of the system components, surrounding temperatures, and electrical work utilized by the components in the RAS. Based on these experimental data, inlet and outlet exergy values, exergy losses, and exergetic efficiencies of each component in the system are determined to assess their performance. Moreover, the overall system exergy efficiency is determined. The results show that exergy efficiencies of the system components are highly affected by varying input exergy flows as a function of the surrounding temperature and chiller's operating period. (author)

  17. Validation of four devices: Omron M6 Comfort, Omron HEM-7420, Withings BP-800, and Polygreen KP-7670 for home blood pressure measurement according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topouchian J

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Jirar Topouchian,1 Davide Agnoletti,1 Jacques Blacher,1 Ahmed Youssef,1 Mirna N Chahine,2,3 Isabel Ibanez,3 Nathalie Assemani,3 Roland Asmar1–31Centre de Diagnostic, Hôpital Hôtel-Dieu, Paris, France; 2Faculty of Medicine of the Lebanese University, 3Foundation-Medical Research Institutes, Beirut, LebanonBackground: Four oscillometric devices, including the Omron M6 Comfort, Omron HEM-7420, Withings BP-800, and Polygreen KP-7670, designed for self-blood pressure measurement (SBPM were evaluated according to the European Society of Hypertension (ESH International Protocol Revision 2010 in four separate studies.Methods: The four devices measure brachial blood pressure (BP using the oscillometric method. The Withings BP-800 has to be connected to an Apple® iOS device such as an iPhone®, iPad®, or iPod®. The ESH International Protocol Revision 2010 includes a total number of 33 subjects. The difference between observer and device BP values was calculated for each measure. Ninety-nine pairs of BP differences were classified into three categories (≤5 mmHg, ≤10 mmHg, ≤15 mmHg. The protocol procedures were followed precisely in each of the four studies.Results: All four tested devices passed the validation process. The mean differences between the device and mercury readings were: −1.8±5.1 mmHg and −0.4±2.8 mmHg for systolic and diastolic BP, respectively, using the Omron M6 Comfort device; 2.5±4.6 mmHg and −1.2±4.3 mmHg for the Omron HEM-7420 device; −0.2±5.0 mmHg and 0.4±4.2 mmHg for the Withings BP-800 device; and 3.0±5.3 mmHg and 0.3±5.2 mmHg for the Polygreen KP-7670 device.Conclusion: Omron M6 Comfort, Omron HEM-7420, Withings BP-800, and Polygreen KP-7670 readings differing by less than 5 mmHg, 10 mmHg, and 15 mmHg fulfill the ESH International Protocol Revision 2010 requirements, and therefore are suitable for use by patients for SBPM, if used correctly.Keywords: Omron M6 Comfort, Omron HEM-7420, Withings BP-800

  18. Development Study of Turbulent Kappa-Epsilon Model for Recirculation flow III : Two Dimension Recirculation Flow in a Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Syahril B. Kusuma

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of recirculation flow in Jatiluhur reservoir is conducted based on two dimensions turbulent K-e model. The numerical model was developed using finite difference method where hydrodynamic equation was solved by the combination of Mc Cormack and splitting methods. The K-e equation is solved using quickest scheme in convection term, central scheme in diffusion term and Euler scheme in reaction term. The simulations were done for maximum incoming flow during the rainy season and the dry season. Model results for the rainy season case have shown good agreement with those found by field measurement. The rainy season case generated a much recirculted flow and higher concentration of DO in the reservoir than that of the dry season case. Denser grid and high courant number is needed to avoid it from becoming oscillating and unstable and for achieving a more accurate results for the case with less average velocity.

  19. 21 CFR 864.6550 - Occult blood test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Occult blood test. 864.6550 Section 864.6550 Food... DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6550 Occult blood test. (a) Identification. An occult blood test is a device used to detect occult blood in urine or feces. (Occult blood...

  20. Sulfur recirculation for increased electricity production in Waste-to-Energy plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Sven; Blomqvist, Evalena W; Bäfver, Linda; Jones, Frida; Davidsson, Kent; Froitzheim, Jan; Karlsson, Martin; Larsson, Erik; Liske, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur recirculation is a new technology for reducing boiler corrosion and dioxin formation. It was demonstrated in full-scale tests at a Waste to Energy plant in Göteborg (Sweden) during nearly two months of operation. Sulfur was recirculated as sulfuric acid from the flue gas cleaning back to the boiler, thus creating a sulfur loop. The new technology was evaluated by extensive measurement campaigns during operation under normal conditions (reference case) and operation with sulfur recirculation. The chlorine content of both fly ash and boiler ash decreased and the sulfur content increased during the sulfur recirculation tests. The deposit growth and the particle concentration decreased with sulfur recirculation and the dioxin concentration (I-TEQ) of the flue gas was reduced by approximately 25%. Sulfuric acid dew point measurements showed that the sulfuric acid dosage did not lead to elevated SO3 concentrations, which may otherwise induce low temperature corrosion. In the sulfur recirculation corrosion probe exposures, the corrosion rate decreased for all tested materials (16Mo3, Sanicro 28 and Inconel 625) and material temperatures (450 °C and 525 °C) compared to the reference exposure. The corrosion rates were reduced by 60-90%. Sulfur recirculation prevented the formation of transition metal chlorides at the metal/oxide interface, formation of chromate and reduced the presence of zinc in the corrosion products. Furthermore, measured corrosion rates at 525 °C with sulfur recirculation in operation were similar or lower compared to those measured at 450 °C material temperature in reference conditions, which corresponds to normal operation at normal steam temperatures. This implies that sulfur recirculation allows for higher steam data and electricity production without increasing corrosion.

  1. Long term/low dose formalin exposure to small-scale recirculation aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg; Nielsen, Jeppe L.

    2010-01-01

    Repetitive long term formalin application at low dose was investigated to determine the effect on formaldehyde removal rate, biofilter nitrification and the microbial composition in small-scale recirculation aquaculture biofilters. Six pilot-scale recirculation aquaculture systems holding rainbow...... Nitrobacter sp. was not detected. The relative abundances of AOB and NOB in the untreated system were generally higher compared to the system exposed to formalin. Low dose formalin in recirculated aquaculture systems proved to be a possible treatment strategy, as the effect on nitrification was minimal. Since...

  2. 紫外线对水产养殖循环水的杀菌效果%Bacterial inactivation effect of UV in aquaculture recirculating water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑荣进; 向坤; 朱松明

    2011-01-01

    In a recirculating aquaculture system with single-lamp UV devices, experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of UV light on fecal coliform inactivation. The research results showed that UV intensity, recirculating flow rate and UV transmittance of water were three important factors for UV inactivation efficiency. It was found that the higher UV intensity, recirculating flow rate and UV transmittance of water made UV devices more effective. Based on the experimental data, a bacterial inactivation model of UV light for recirculating systems was presented and the first-order inactivation rate constant was found to be 0.0062 m2/J for UV inactivation of fecal coliform. Simulation results indicated that, for disinfecting microorganisms with a lower inactivation rate, increasing UV intensity was more effective than increasing daily cycle number. The obtained results could be used for design and operation of UV inactivation in recirculating aquaculture systems.%为了研究循环水水产养殖系统紫外杀菌的效果,在循环水系统中对单灯管紫外装置杀灭养殖水中粪大肠菌群的效果进行了试验,研究了紫外灯功率、循环水流速和水的紫外光线透射率对杀菌效果的影响.结果表明,单位水体的紫外线功率越大,杀菌效果越好;水体通过紫外灯杀菌器的流速越大,单次通过杀菌器的杀菌量减少,但由于水体循环次数增加,总杀菌效果加大;254 nm紫外线透射率越大,杀菌效果越好.在理论分析和试验数据的基础上,建立了循环水紫外线杀菌系统的模型,并得到了粪大肠菌群的一价失活系数为0.0062 m2/J.对失活速率常数较小的菌群,增大紫外灯功率杀灭效果较好,而增加日循环次数杀灭效果提高不明显.该研究的结果可为循环水系统紫外线杀菌系统的设计和运行提供依据.

  3. Analysis the causes of suspicious results for BECKMAN PK 7300 automatic blood inspection device%BECKM AN PK7300全自动血型检测系统可疑结果的原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淼; 王霞; 潘彤

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨BECKMAN PK7300全自动血型检测系统在血站实验室用于血型筛查时出现结果可疑的原因以及应用中的注意事项。方法选取天津市血液中心2015年5月至2015年8月ABO及Rh血型经微板法鉴定后的无偿献血者的标本14417例,再由PK7300进行检测,统计分析ABO及Rh血型结果判读的正确率、错误率以及对可疑结果的原因进行分析。结果ABO血型结果一次性判读正确率为99.01%,失败率0.99%(其中正反定型不符0.48%),无错误判读;Rh(D)血型正确判读率100%。结论 BECKMAN PK7300全自动血型检测系统结果准确可靠,实现了血型检测的自动化、标准化,减少人为因素对实验的影响,反应图像可长期保存,保证结果的可溯性,节约成本,适用于血站实验室血型批量化检测需要。%Objective To investigate the causes of suspicious results for BECKMAN PK 7300 automatic blood inspection device on blood typing in blood station and the application notes .Methods A total of 11417 samples from unpaid blood donors were re‐cruited from Tianjin Blood Center between May 2015 and August 2015 .Microplate assay was applied in ABO and Rh(D)blood typ‐ing .All the samples were tested by BECKMAN PK7300 automatic blood inspection device .The accuracy and error rates were calcu‐lated for ABO and Rh(D)blood group and causes of suspicious results were analyzed .Results The accuracy and failure rate of ABO blood group were 99 .01% and 0 .99% (of which the inconsistent rate of positive and reverse ABO blood typing was 0 .48% )and there was no false reading .Its accuracy was 100% in Rh(D)blood grouping .Conclusion The results of BECKMAN PK7300 auto‐matic blood inspection device were accurate and reliable .The whole system achieved automation and standardization and reduced the artificial factors for experiments ,which images could be saved for a long period of time ,saving the cost .The

  4. High-Power Laser Pulse Recirculation for Inverse Compton Scattering-Produced Gamma-Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanovic, I; Shverdin, M; Gibson, D; Brown, C

    2007-04-17

    Inverse Compton scattering of high-power laser pulses on relativistic electron bunches represents an attractive method for high-brightness, quasi-monoenergetic {gamma}-ray production. The efficiency of {gamma}-ray generation via inverse Compton scattering is severely constrained by the small Thomson scattering cross section. Furthermore, repetition rates of high-energy short-pulse lasers are poorly matched with those available from electron accelerators, resulting in low repetition rates for generated {gamma}-rays. Laser recirculation has been proposed as a method to address those limitations, but has been limited to only small pulse energies and peak powers. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate an alternative method for laser pulse recirculation that is uniquely capable of recirculating short pulses with energies exceeding 1 J. Inverse Compton scattering of recirculated Joule-level laser pulses has a potential to produce unprecedented peak and average {gamma}-ray brightness in the next generation of sources.

  5. Dietary carbohydrate composition can change waste production and biofilter load in recirculating aquaculture systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meriac, A.; Eding, E.H.; Schrama, J.W.; Kamstra, A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of dietary carbohydrate composition on the production, recovery and degradability of fecal waste from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Dietary carbohydrate composition was altered by substituting starch with non-starch

  6. The influence of preliminary aerobic treatment on the efficacy of waste stabilisation under leachate recirculation conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Suchowska-Kisielewicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the changes in the chemical composition of leachate and the concentrations and quantity of methane production in each individual decomposition phases, determined for untreated and after aerobic treatment of waste stabilised in anaerobic reactors with and without leachate recirculation. The research results demonstrate that leachate recirculation intensifies the decomposition of both aerobically treated and untreated waste. The methane production in the reactor with untreated, stabilised waste with recirculation was 28% higher; and in the reactor with aerobically treated waste, the methane production was 24% higher than in the reactors without recirculation. An important finding of the study is that aerobic treatment of waste prior to landfilling effectively reduces the quantity of pollutant emissions in leachate and biogas from waste and increases the availability for methane micro-organisms of organic substrates from difficult-to-decompose organic substances.

  7. Considerations upon energetic efficiency of a recirculating aquatic system (RAS for super intensive fish culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru David

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of the aquaculture using recirculating systems depends on many factors among which the most important it is the energy consumption of the system. To assure a high levelenergy conservation in an aquatic recirculating system, the intensity of water recirculation must be maximized, but this leads to a increasing of the consumed energy for water circulation. That is why is required a rigorous analysis for the energetic consumption for a system of this type and establishment of optimum solutions to minimize the consumption. This paperwork presents a detailed analysis of the energy consumption for a recirculating aquatic system for fish breeding, as well as considerations and solutions for optimization of the energy consumption.

  8. Aircraft Recirculation Filter for Air-Quality and Incident Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckels, Steven J.; Jones, Byron; Mann, Garrett; Mohan, Krishnan R.; Weisel, Clifford P.

    2015-01-01

    The current research examines the possibility of using recirculation filters from aircraft to document the nature of air-quality incidents on aircraft. These filters are highly effective at collecting solid and liquid particulates. Identification of engine oil contaminants arriving through the bleed air system on the filter was chosen as the initial focus. A two-step study was undertaken. First, a compressor/bleed air simulator was developed to simulate an engine oil leak, and samples were analyzed with gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. These samples provided a concrete link between tricresyl phosphates and a homologous series of synthetic pentaerythritol esters from oil and contaminants found on the sample paper. The second step was to test 184 used aircraft filters with the same gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry system; of that total, 107 were standard filters, and 77 were nonstandard. Four of the standard filters had both markers for oil, with the homologous series synthetic pentaerythritol esters being the less common marker. It was also found that 90% of the filters had some detectable level of tricresyl phosphates. Of the 77 nonstandard filters, 30 had both markers for oil, a significantly higher percent than the standard filters. PMID:25641977

  9. Biological flocculation treatment on distillery wastewater and recirculation of wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Xiong, Rongchun; Wei, Gang

    2009-12-30

    In the present study, a wastewater treatment system for the ethanol fermentation industry was developed by recycling distillery wastewater. The waste was able to be recycled for the next fermentation after being treated with bio-flocculation process. The bio-flocculation process contains three steps: screening, treatment with polyaspartic acid and filtration. When the filtrate from this process was recycled, the average ethanol production yield was very close to that in the conventional process using tap water. In contrast, the recycle of wastewater without flocculation and with chemical flocculation showed negative effects on ethanol yield as recycling was repeated. This new process was confirmed to have stable operation over ten recycles. Hazardous materials influencing distillery wastewater recycles on fermentation were also considered. It was found that the content of suspended solids (SS), volatile acid and Fe ions inhibited fermentation and resulted in a decreased ethanol yield. Bio-flocculation was shown to be an effective way to diminish the content of inhibitory compounds drastically when the waste was recirculated.

  10. Recirculation of Chilean copper smelting dust with high impurities contents to the smelting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, H.; Fujisawa, T. [Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan). EcoTopia Science Inst.; Montenegro, V. [Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Dust generated during the copper smelting process is generally stabilized using hydrometallurgical methods as it contains high concentrations of arsenic. In this laboratory study, dust was recirculated during the smelting process in order to recover more copper and decrease dust emissions while recovering more copper. The behaviour of impurities and their influence on matte quality was also investigated. Industrial matte, flue dust, slag, and copper concentrates from a Chilean smelter were used as test materials. Dust recirculation tests were conducted in a simulated electric furnace. Off-gases were collected in a reaction tube, and the condensed volatile matter, slag, and matte phases were analyzed for their elemental content by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The distribution of arsenic (As); antimony (Sb), bismuth (Bi), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) were investigated by varying the amounts of dust recirculating to the smelting stage with 21 per cent of the oxygen. Results showed that distributions of all analyzed elements increased with recirculation. It was concluded that copper can be recovered using the dust recirculation technique. However, impurities may limit the efficacy of the dust recirculation process. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  11. An implantable blood glucose monitoring device for laboratory animals%植入式实验动物血糖动态监测装置的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田云杰; 卓俊骐; 王磊; 沙洪

    2016-01-01

    was 2-34 mmol/L (r=0.996 7),and the average standard error of measurement was 0.193 mmol/L with the sensitivity of 9.24 nA/(mmol/L).The system was proved to meet all the design requirements.Conclusions The size of the dynamic blood glucose monitoring system is small enough to be implanted fully subcutaneously in laboratory animals.The device is proved in accordance with design and standards by in vitro experiment in range of measurement,accuracy,sensitivity and standard error.The system may provide a significant technical support for the study on diabetes pathogenesis and pharmacodynamics.

  12. A functional form for injected MRI Gd-chelate contrast agent concentration incorporating recirculation, extravasation and excretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsfield, Mark A [Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, Leicester Royal Infirmary, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 5WW (United Kingdom); Thornton, John S; Jager, H Rolf [Lysholm Department of Neuroradiology, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London WC1N 3BG (United Kingdom); Gill, Andrew; Priest, Andrew N [Department of Radiology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Hills Rd, Cambridge CB2 2QQ (United Kingdom); Morgan, Bruno [Department of Cancer Studies, Leicester Royal Infirmary, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 5WW (United Kingdom)], E-mail: mah5@le.ac.uk

    2009-05-07

    A functional form for the vascular concentration of MRI contrast agent after intravenous bolus injection was developed that can be used to model the concentration at any vascular site at which contrast concentration can be measured. The form is based on previous models of blood circulation, and is consistent with previously measured data at long post-injection times, when the contrast agent is fully and evenly dispersed in the blood. It allows the first-pass and recirculation peaks of contrast agent to be modelled, and measurement of the absolute concentration of contrast agent at a single time point allows the whole time course to be rescaled to give absolute contrast agent concentration values. This measure of absolute concentration could be performed at a long post-injection time using either MRI or blood-sampling methods. In order to provide a model that is consistent with measured data, it was necessary to include both rapid and slow extravasation, together with excretion via the kidneys. The model was tested on T{sub 1}-weighted data from the descending aorta and hepatic portal vein, and on T*{sub 2}-weighted data from the cerebral arteries. Fitting of the model was successful for all datasets, but there was a considerable variation in fit parameters between subjects, which suggests that the formation of a meaningful population-averaged vascular concentration function is precluded.

  13. A Study on the Adverse Effect of AOVs in AFWS Recirculation Paths on Plant Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huong, Ho Thi Thanh [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Dae-Wook [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Auxiliary feedwater system (AFWS) recirculation flow paths adopted air operated valves (AOVs) which could fail close on loss of instrument air (LOIA) event. So the AOVs and recirculation paths are closed on LOIA event, which could result in Auxiliary feedwater (AFW) pump(s) damage, which contributes greatly to core damage frequency (CDF).. On February 2002, the USNRC issued an inspection finding related to potential common cause failure of AOVs in AFWS recirculation flow paths on loss of instrument air system in Point Beach nuclear power plant (Pt. Beach). The AOVs have been removed from AFWS recirculation paths in the design of Korea standard nuclear power plant (KSNP). So, there is no possibility of above mentioned failure event in KSNP. It would be beneficial to evaluate the significance of adverse effect of AOVs in AFWS recirculation paths to realize the importance of maintaining AFWS recirculation paths always open. In this study, the AFWS modeling of Ulchin unit 3 and 4 was modified to model the AOVs in AFW recirculation flow paths to evaluate the change in CDF, which is caused by the adverse effect of AOV with operation mode of 'fails close' on LOIA event. It is concluded that the existence of AOV with 'fail close' design in AFWS MDP recirculation paths results in CDF increase of 131%, which is significant adverse effect on plant safety.. In this regard, the improved Westinghouse design and KSNP design had removed the AOVs from AFWS MDP recirculation paths. However, a couple of units with old Westinghouse design, Kori 1 and 2, still have AOVs in AFWS MDP recirculation paths and throttle back operation of AFWS is in effect. Although those AOVs adopt 'fail open' design to prevent above mentioned inadvertent closure, considering the big increase in CDF, there still exists considerable risk from the possibility of 'failure to open' during this throttle back operation. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that any

  14. Closed recirculating system for shrimp-mollusk polyculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with a new system of aquaculture, i.e., a closed recirculating system for shrimp-mollusk polyculture. The culture system consisted of several shrimp ponds, a mollusk water-purifying pond and a reservoir. During the production cycle, water circulated between the shrimp and mollusk ponds, and the reservoir compensated for water loss from seepage and evaporation. Constricted tagelus, Sinonovacula constricta, was selected as the cultured mollusk, and Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, as the cultured shrimp. The main managing measures during the production cycle were: setting and using the aerators; introducing the probiotic products timely into the shrimp ponds; adopting a "pen-closing" method for controlling shrimp viral epidemics; setting the flow diversion barriers in the mollusk pond to keep the circulating water flowing through the pond along a sine-like curve and serve as substrate for biofilm; no direct feeding was necessary for the cultured mollusk until the co-cultured shrimp was harvested; natural foods in the water from the shrimp ponds was used for their foods. Two sets of the system were used in the experiment in 2002 and satisfactory results were achieved. The average yield of the shrimp was 11 943.5 kg/hm2, and that of the mollusk was 16 965kg/hm2. After converting the mollusk yield into shrimp yield at their market price ratio, the food coefficient of the entire system averaged at as low as 0.81. The water quality in the ponds was maintained at a desirable level and no viral epidemics were discovered during the production cycle.

  15. Progress toward a prototype recirculating ion induction accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, A.; Barnard, J.J.; Cable, M.D. [and others

    1996-06-01

    The U.S. Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) Program is developing the physics and technology of ion induction accelerators, with the goal of electric power production by means of heavy ion beam-driven inertial fusion (commonly called heavy ion fusion, or HIF). Such accelerators are the principal candidates for inertial fusion power production applications, because they are expected to enjoy high efficiency, inherently high pulse repetition frequency (power plants are expected to inject and burn several fusion targets per second), and high reliability. In addition (and in contrast with laser beams, which are focused with optical lenses) heavy-ion beams will be focused onto the target by magnetic fields, which cannot be damaged by target explosions. Laser beams are used in present-day and planned near-term facilities (such as LLNUs Nova and the National Ignition Facility, which is being designed) because they can focus beams onto very small, intensely illuminated spots for scaled experiments and because the laser technology is already available. An induction accelerator works by passing the beam through a series of accelerating modules, each of which applies an electromotive force to the beam as it goes by; effectively, the beam acts as the secondary winding of a series of efficient one-turn transformers. The authors present plans for and progress toward the development of a small (4.5-m-diam) prototype recirculator, which will accelerate singly charged potassium ions through 15 laps, increasing the ion energy from 80 to 320 keV and the beam current from 2 to 8 mA. Beam confinement and bending are effected with permanent-magnet quadrupoles and electric dipoles, respectively. The design is based on scaling laws and on extensive particle and fluid simulations of the behavior of the space charge-dominated beam.

  16. IC ENGINE SUPERCHARGING AND EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION USING JET COMPRESSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhimoulame Kalaisselvane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercharging is a process which is used to improve the performance of an engine by increasing the specific power output whereas exhaust gas recirculation reduces the NOx produced by engine because of supercharging. In a conventional engine, supercharger functions as a compressor for the forced induction of the charge taking mechanical power from the engine crankshaft. In this study, supercharging is achieved using a jet compressor. In the jet compressor, the exhaust gas is used as the motive stream and the atmospheric air as the propelled stream. When high pressure motive stream from the engine exhaust is expanded in the nozzle, a low pressure is created at the nozzle exit. Due to this low pressure, atmospheric air is sucked into the expansion chamber of the compressor, where it is mixed and pressurized with the motive stream. The pressure of the mixed stream is further increased in the diverging section of the jet compressor. A percentage volume of the pressurized air mixture is then inducted back into the engine as supercharged air and the balance is let out as exhaust. This process not only saves the mechanical power required for supercharging but also dilutes the constituents of the engine exhaust gas thereby reducing the emission and the noise level generated from the engine exhaust. The geometrical design parameters of the jet compressor were obtained by solving the governing equations using the method of constant rate of momentum change. Using the theoretical design parameters of the jet compressor, a computational fluid dinamics analysis using FLUENT software was made to evaluate the performance of the jet compressor for the application of supercharging an IC engine. This evaluation turned out to be an efficient diagnostic tool for determining performance optimization and design of the jet compressor. A jet compressor was also fabricated for the application of supercharging and its performance was studied.

  17. Evaluation on Biofilter in Recirculating Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sumoharjo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture pays more attention as a bio-integrated food production system that serves as a model of sustainable aquaculture, minimizes waste discharge, increases diversity and yields multiple products. The objectives of this research were to analyze the efficiency of total ammonia nitrogen biofiltration and its effect on carrying capacity of fish rearing units. Pilot-scale bioreactor was designed with eight run-raceways (two meters of each that assembled in series. Race 1-3 were used to stock silky worm (Tubifex sp as detrivorous converter, then race 4-8 were used to plant three species of leaf-vegetable as photoautotrophic converters, i.e; spinach (Ipomoea reptana, green mustard (Brassica juncea and basil (Ocimum basilicum. The three plants were placed in randomized block design based on water flow direction. Mass balance of nutrient analysis, was applied to figure out the efficiency of bio-filtration and its effect on carrying capacity of rearing units. The result of the experiment showed that 86.5 % of total ammonia nitrogen removal was achieved in 32 days of culturing period. This efficiency able to support the carrying capacity of the fish tank up to 25.95 kg/lpm with maximum density was 62.69 kg/m3 of fish biomass productionDoi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/ijse.4.2.2013.80-85 [How to cite this article: Sumoharjo, S.  and Maidie, A. (2013. Evaluation on Biofilter in Recirculating Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture.  International Journal of  Science and Engineering, 4(2,80-85. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/ijse.4.2.2013.80-85

  18. Closed recirculating system for shrimp-mollusk polyculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiongfei; Zhao, Zhidong; Li, Deshang; Chang, Kangmei; Tong, Zhuanshang; Si, Liegang; Xu, Kaichong; Ge, Bailin

    2005-12-01

    This paper deals with a new system of aquaculture, i.e., a closed recirculating system for shrimp-mollusk polyculture. The culture system consisted of several shrimp ponds, a mollusk water-purifying pond and a reservoir. During the production cycle, water circulated between the shrimp and mollusk ponds, and the reservoir compensated for water loss from seepage and evaporation. Constricted tagelus, Sinonovacula constricta, was selected as the cultured mollusk, and Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, as the cultured shrimp. The main managing measures during the production cycle were: setting and using the aerators; introducting the probiotic products timely into the shrimp ponds; adopting a “pen-closing” method for controlling shrimp viral epidemics; setting the flow diversion barriers in the mollusk pond to keep the circulating water flowing through the pond along a sine-like curve and serve as substrate for biofilm; no direct feeding was necessary for the cultured mollusk until the co-cultured shrimp was harvested; natural foods in the water from the shrimp ponds was used for their foods. Two sets of the system were used in the experiment in 2002 and satisfactory results were achieved. The average yield of the shrimp was 11 943.5 kg/hm2, and that of the mollusk was 16 965 kg/hm2. After converting the mollusk yield into shrimp yield at their market price ratio, the food coefficient of the entire system averaged at as low as 0.81. The water quality in the ponds was maintained at a desirable level and no viral epidemics were discovered during the production cycle.

  19. Xeno- and auto-perfusion of rabbit kidney. Machine perfusion with blood at 37 degrees C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, K A; Kemp, E; Barfort, P;

    1985-01-01

    Five rabbit kidneys were perfused with human blood and another five with their own blood in a re-circulating oxygenated system at 37 degrees C. The flow decreased to 2 ml/min. within 30 min. in all xenoperfusions, while none of the autoperfused had decreased to this level by 60 min. Endothelial...

  20. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  1. Survival predictors in patients treated with a molecular adsorbent recirculating system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taru Kantola; Anna-Maria Koivusalo; Satu Parmanen; Krister Hockerstedt; Helena Isoniemi

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To identify prognostic factors for survival in patients with liver failure treated with a molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS). METHODS: MARS is a liver-assisting device that has been used in the treatment of liver failure to enable native liver recovery, and as a bridge to liver transplantation (LTX). We analyzed the 1-year outcomes of 188 patients treated with MARS, from 2001 to 2007, in an intensive care unit specializing in liver disease. Demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters were recorded before and after each treatment. One-year survival and the number of LTXs were recorded. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine factors predicting survival. RESULTS: The study included 113 patients with acute liver failure (ALF), 62 with acute-on-chronic liver failure (AOCLF), 11 with graft failure (GF), and six with miscellaneous liver failure. LTX was performed for 29% of patients with ALF, 18% with AOCLF and 55% with GF. The overall 1-year survival rate was 74% for ALF,27% for AOCLF, and 73% for GF. The poorest survival rate, 6%, was noted in non-transplanted patients with alcohol-related AOCLF and cirrhosis, whereas, patients with enlarged and steatotic liver had 55% survival. The etiology of liver failure was the most important predictor of survival (P < 0.0001). Other prognostic factors were encephalopathy (P = 0.001) in paracetamol-related ALF, coagulation factors (P = 0.049) and encephalopathy (P = 0.064) in non-paracetamol-related toxic ALF, and alanine aminotransferase (P = 0.013) and factor V levels (P = 0.022) in ALF of unknown etiology. CONCLUSION: The etiology of liver disease was the most important prognostic factor. MARS treatment appears to be ineffective in AOCLF with end-stage cirrhosis without an LTX option.

  2. The simulation of air recirculation and fire/explosion phenomena within a semiconductor factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    I, Yet-Pole; Chiu, Yi-Long; Wu, Shi-Jen

    2009-04-30

    The semiconductor industry is the collection of capital-intensive firms that employ a variety of hazardous chemicals and engage in the design and fabrication of semiconductor devices. Owing to its processing characteristics, the fully confined structure of the fabrication area (fab) and the vertical airflow ventilation design restrict the applications of traditional consequence analysis techniques that are commonly used in other industries. The adverse situation also limits the advancement of a fire/explosion prevention design for the industry. In this research, a realistic model of a semiconductor factory with a fab, sub-fabrication area, supply air plenum, and return air plenum structures was constructed and the computational fluid dynamics algorithm was employed to simulate the possible fire/explosion range and its severity. The semiconductor factory has fan module units with high efficiency particulate air filters that can keep the airflow uniform within the cleanroom. This condition was modeled by 25 fans, three layers of porous ceiling, and one layer of porous floor. The obtained results predicted very well the real airflow pattern in the semiconductor factory. Different released gases, leak locations, and leak rates were applied to investigate their influence on the hazard range and severity. Common mitigation measures such as a water spray system and a pressure relief panel were also provided to study their potential effectiveness to relieve thermal radiation and overpressure hazards within a fab. The semiconductor industry can use this simulation procedure as a reference on how to implement a consequence analysis for a flammable gas release accident within an air recirculation cleanroom.

  3. Blood sugar test - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood glucose level ( hypoglycemia ) may be due to: Hypopituitarism (a pituitary gland disorder) Underactive thyroid gland or ... tonic-clonic seizure Glucagon blood test Glucagonoma Hyperthyroidism Hypopituitarism Hypothyroidism Insulinoma Low blood sugar Multiple endocrine neoplasia ( ...

  4. Mineral and organic compounds in leachate from landfill with concentrate recirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talalaj, Izabela Anna

    2015-02-01

    The effect of a reverse osmosis concentrate recirculation on the mineral and organic compounds in a landfill leachate was investigated. Investigated was the quality of a leachate from two landfills operated for different periods (a 20-year-old Cell A and a 1-year-old Cell B), where the concentrate was recirculated. Examined were general parameters (conductivity, pH), organic compounds (biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic nitrogen, BOD/COD), and inorganic compounds (nitrogen ammonia, sulfite, sulfate, cyanide, boron, chloride, ferrous, zinc, chrome, copper). The findings from the first year of investigation showed that over the initial period of recirculation, the concentration of organic compounds (BOD, COD) increased, but after 6 months their values stabilized. It indicates that the concentrate recirculation accelerated organic decomposition, especially in the new landfill Cell. The analysis of inorganic parameters showed that recirculation landfills produce a leachate with a higher concentration of N-NH4, and Cl(-). In case of the old landfill Cell, an increase in B and Fe was also noticeable. These compounds are cyclically washed out from a waste dump and require an additional pretreatment in order to exclude them from recirculation cycle. The increased concentration of Cu, Zn, and Fe was noticed during the initial months of recirculation and in the season of intense atmospheric precipitation in the leachate from both Cells. Higher values of electro conductivity, Cl(-), N-NH4 (+), B, and Fe in the leachate from the old field indicate that the attenuation capacity of this landfill is close to exhaustion.

  5. 21 CFR 864.8200 - Blood cell diluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood cell diluent. 864.8200 Section 864.8200 Food... DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8200 Blood cell diluent. (a) Identification. A blood cell diluent is a device used to dilute blood for further testing, such as blood...

  6. Conditioning out-of-date bank-stored red blood cells using a cell-saver auto-transfusion device: effects on numbers of red cells and quality of suspension fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, M S; Coles, P; Pomeroy, M; Anderson, E; Aziz, M I

    2014-11-01

    We investigated the utility of a cell-saver device for processing out-of-date red blood cells, by washing twenty bags of red blood cells that had been stored for between 36 and 55 days. The volume of recovered cells, and the characteristics of the suspension fluid, were measured before and after treatment. The ratio of free haemoglobin to total haemoglobin was up to 0.02 before processing, and up to 0.011 afterwards, changing by between -0.013 and +0.003. This ratio met the current standard for free haemoglobin (less than 0.008 in more than 75% of samples), both before and after processing. Ninety-three percent of red blood cells survived the process. Potassium ion concentration fell from above 15 mmol.l(-1) in all cases, to a mean of 6.4 mmol.l(-1) (p red blood cells remained intact after conditioning using a cell-saver, and the process lowered concentrations of potentially toxic solutes in the fluid in which they were suspended.

  7. Enhancing treatment efficiency of swine wastewater by effluent recirculation in vertical-flow constructed wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Livestock wastewater has been a major contributor to Chinese cultural eutrophication of surface waters. Constructed wetlands are under study as a best management practice to treat wastewater from dairy and swine operations, but the removal efficiency of pollutants is relatively low. Enhancing the treatment efficiency of livestock wastewater by effluent recirculation was investigated in a pilot-scale vertical-flow constructed wetland. The wetland system was composed of downflow and upflow stages, on which narrow-leafPhragmites communis and common reed Phragmites Typhia are planted, respectively; each stage has a dimension of4 m2 (2 m × 2 m). Wastewater from facultative pond was fed into the system intermittently at a flow rate of 0.4 m3/d. Recirculation rates of 0, 25%, 50%, 100% and 150% were adopted to evaluate the effect of the recirculation rate on pollutants removal. It shows that with effluent recirculation the average removal efficiencies of NH4-N, biological oxygen demand (BOD5) and suspended solids(SS)obviously increase to 61.7%, 81.3%, and 77.1%, respectively, in comparison with the values of 35.6%, 50.2%, and 49.3% without effluent recirculation. But the improvement of TP removal is slight, only from 42.3% to 48.9%. The variations of NH4-N, dissolved oxygen(DO) and oxidation-reduction potential(ORP) of inflow and outflow reveal that the adoption of effluent recirculation is beneficial to the formation of oxide environment in wetland. The exponential relationships with excellent correlation coefficients (R2 >0.93)are found between the removal rates of NH4-N and BOD5 and the recirculation rates. With recirculation the pH value of the outflow decreases as the alkalinity is consumed by gradually enhanced nitrification process. When recirculation rate is kept constant 100%, the ambient temperature appears to affect NH4-N removal, but does not have significant influence on BOD5 removal.

  8. Applying rotary jet heads for mixing and mass transfer in a forced recirculation tank reactor system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkvist, Mikkel; Grotkjær, Thomas; Hummer, J.S.

    2003-01-01

    An approximation to an ideally mixed tank reactor can be obtained by vigorous stirring with mechanical mixers. For an aerated reactor the gas dispersion contributes to the mixing process. Mixing can also be achieved by recirculation of a portion of the liquid through either an internal or an exte......An approximation to an ideally mixed tank reactor can be obtained by vigorous stirring with mechanical mixers. For an aerated reactor the gas dispersion contributes to the mixing process. Mixing can also be achieved by recirculation of a portion of the liquid through either an internal...... or an external loop.In this study, we determine mixing times in water and CMC solutions and oxygen mass transfer coefficients in water for a tank reactor system where a small fraction of the total liquid volume is rapidly circulated through an external loop and injected through the nozzles of rotary jet heads...... at 1-9 bar gauge pressure into the bulk liquid. Liquid feed can be added to the bulk volume or it may be injected into the pressurized recirculation loop. Gas is always fed to the recirculation loop, and the heat of reaction is removed in a plate-type heat exchanger inserted in the recirculation loop...

  9. Noscapine recirculates enterohepatically and induces self-clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukkavilli, Rao; Gundala, Sushma R; Yang, Chunhua; Jadhav, Gajanan R; Vangala, Subrahmanyam; Reid, Michelle D; Aneja, Ritu

    2015-09-18

    Noscapine (Nos), an antitussive benzylisoquinoline opium alkaloid, is a non-toxic tubulin-binding agent currently in Phase II clinical trials for cancer chemotherapy. While preclinical studies have established its tumor-inhibitory properties in various cancers, poor absorptivity and rapid first-pass metabolism producing several uncharacterized metabolites for efficacy, present an impediment in translating its efficacy in humans. Here we report novel formulations of Nos in combination with dietary agents like capsaicin (Cap), piperine (Pip), eugenol (Eu) and curcumin (Cur) known for modulating Phase I and II drug metabolizing enzymes. In vivo pharmacokinetic (PK), organ toxicity evaluation of combinations, microsomal stability and in vitro cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibition effects of Nos, Cap and Pip using human liver microsomes were performed. Single-dose PK screening of combinations revealed that the relative exposure of Nos (2 μg h/mL) was enhanced by 2-fold (4 μg h/mL) by Cap and Pip and their plasma concentration-time profiles showed multiple peaking phenomena for Nos indicating enterohepatic recirculation or differential absorption from intestine. CYP inhibition studies confirmed that Nos, Cap and Pip are not potent CYP inhibitors (IC50>1 μM). Repeated oral dosing of Nos, Nos+Cap and Nos+Pip showed lower exposure (Cmax and AUClast) of Nos on day 7 compared to day 1. Nos Cmax decreased from 3087 ng/mL to 684 ng/mL and AUClast from 1024 ng h/mL to 508 ng h/mL. In presence of Cap and Pip, the decrease in Cmax and AUClast of Nos was similar. This may be due to potential enzyme induction leading to rapid clearance of Nos as the trend was observed in Nos alone group also. The lack of effect on intrinsic clearance of Nos suggests that the potential drug biotransformation modulators employed in this study did not contribute toward increased exposure of Nos on repeated dosing. We envision that Nos-induced enzyme induction could alter the therapeutic efficacy of co

  10. Control oriented modeling of ejector in anode gas recirculation solid oxygen fuel cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Yinhai, E-mail: yinhai.zhu@gmail.co [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Li Yanzhong, E-mail: yzli-epe@mail.xjtu.edu.c [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Cai Wenjian [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2011-04-15

    A one-equation model is proposed for fuel ejector in anode gas recirculation solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. Firstly, the fundamental governing equations are established by employing the thermodynamic, fluid dynamic principles and chemical constraints inside the ejector; secondly, the one-equation model is derived by using the parameter analysis and lumped-parameter method. Finally, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique is employed to obtain the source data for determining the model parameters. The effectiveness of the model is studied under a wide range of operation conditions. The effect of ejector performance on the anode gas recirculation SOFC system is also discussed. The presented model, which only contains four constant parameters, is useful in real-time control and optimization of fuel ejector in the anode gas recirculation SOFC system.

  11. Thermodynamic Model for Updraft Gasifier with External Recirculation of Pyrolysis Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajri Vidian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the thermodynamic modeling of gasification for updraft gasifier uses one process of decomposition (decomposition of fuel. In the present study, a thermodynamic model which uses two processes of decomposition (decomposition of fuel and char is used. The model is implemented in modification of updraft gasifier with external recirculation of pyrolysis gas to the combustion zone and the gas flowing out from the side stream (reduction zone in the updraft gasifier. The goal of the model obtains the influences of amount of recirculation pyrolysis gas fraction to combustion zone on combustible gas and tar. The significant results of modification updraft are that the increases amount of recirculation of pyrolysis gas will increase the composition of H2 and reduce the composition of tar; then the composition of CO and CH4 is dependent on equivalence ratio. The results of the model for combustible gas composition are compared with previous study.

  12. Saponification pretreatment and solids recirculation as a new anaerobic process for the treatment of slaughterhouse waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affes, R; Palatsi, J; Flotats, X; Carrère, H; Steyer, J P; Battimelli, A

    2013-03-01

    Different configurations of anaerobic process, adapted to the treatment of solid slaughterhouse fatty waste, were proposed and evaluated in this study. The tested configurations are based on the combination of anaerobic digestion with/without waste saponification pretreatment (70 °C during 60 min) and with/without recirculation of the digestate solid fraction (ratio=20% w/w). After an acclimation period of substrate pulses-feeding cycles, the reactors were operated in a semi-continuous feeding mode, increasing organic loading rates along experimental time. The degradation of the raw substrate was shown to be the bottleneck of the whole process, obtaining the best performance and process yields in the reactor equipped with waste pretreatment and solids recirculation. Saponification promoted the emulsification and bioavailability of solid fatty residues, while recirculation of solids minimized the substrate/biomass wash-out and induced microbial adaptation to the treatment of fatty substrates.

  13. Recurrent amoebic gill infestation in rainbow trout cultured in a semiclosed water recirculation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, A.C.; Herman, R.L.; Noga, E.J.; Bullock, G.L.

    1997-01-01

    Five lots of commercially purchased juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (17-44 g) stocked in a continuous-production water recirculation system became infested with gilt amoebae. The amoebae were introduced into the recirculation system, as evidenced by their presence on gills of fish held in quarantine tanks. Based on their morphology, as seen in histological sections and by electron microscopy, the amoebae appeared to be more closely related to the family Cochliopodiidae than to other taxa of free living amoebae. Attempts to culture the amoebae in different media, at different temperatures of incubation, and in fish cell culture were not successful. Initial treatment of the recirculation system with formalin at 167 parts per million (ppm) for 1 h eliminated amoebae from the gills. Subsequent treatments of the entire system with formalin at 50-167 ppm reduced the intensity of further infestations.

  14. Method and apparatus for control of coherent synchrotron radiation effects during recirculation with bunch compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, David R; Tennant, Christopher

    2015-11-10

    A modulated-bending recirculating system that avoids CSR-driven breakdown in emittance compensation by redistributing the bending along the beamline. The modulated-bending recirculating system includes a) larger angles of bending in initial FODO cells, thereby enhancing the impact of CSR early on in the beam line while the bunch is long, and 2) a decreased bending angle in the final FODO cells, reducing the effect of CSR while the bunch is short. The invention describes a method for controlling the effects of CSR during recirculation and bunch compression including a) correcting chromatic aberrations, b) correcting lattice and CSR-induced curvature in the longitudinal phase space by compensating T.sub.566, and c) using lattice perturbations to compensate obvious linear correlations x-dp/p and x'-dp/p.

  15. DISPERSION COMPENSATION CFBG IN 100km 10Gbit/s RECIRCULATING SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Aiying; Wang Ziyu; Zhang Zhaoyi; Chen Zhangyuan; Wu Deming

    2003-01-01

    A 10 Gbit/s recirculating system is configured with Chirped Fiber Bragg Grating (CFBG) for the dispersion compensation. For the first time, the transmission distance in the loop reaches 1000km with bit error rate of 10-9. The effect of the group delay ripple of the fiber grating is also investigated in the recirculating systems, and it is shown that the transmission distance is limited to 4 cycles (4× 167.1km ) in the loop with the power penalty fluctuation below 1.0dB. Thus the group delay ripple should be reduced to allow for the wavelength drift of ±5GHz.At the end of this letter, the principles are given for designing long haul recirculating systems with dispersion compensation CFBG.

  16. Investigation of hydrocarbon oil transformation by gliding arc discharge: comparison of batch and recirculated configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, J. Christopher; Prantsidou, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The degradation of liquid dodecane was studied in a gliding arc discharge (GAD) of humid argon or nitrogen. A batch or recirculating configuration was used. The products in the gaseous and liquid phase were analysed by infrared and chromatography and optical emission spectroscopy was used to identify the excited species in the discharge. The best degradation performance comes from the use of humid N2 but a GAD of humid argon produces fewer gas-phase products but more liquid-phase end-products. A wide range of products such as heavier saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbons both aliphatic and aromatic, and oxidation products mainly alcohols, but also aldehydes, ketones and esters are produced in the liquid-phase. The recirculating treatment mode is more effective than the batch mode increasing the reactivity and changing the product selectivities. Overall, the study shows promising results for the organic liquid waste treatment, especially in the recirculating mode.

  17. The Two Branches of the Recirculation of Atlantic Water in Fram Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Appen, Wilken-Jon; Schauer, Ursula; Hattermann, Tore; Albretsen, Jon

    2016-04-01

    The Fram Strait between Greenland and Svalbard is one of the two gateways by which warm Atlantic Water enters the Arctic Ocean providing oceanic heat. The West Spitsbergen Current advects the warm water northward in the eastern Fram Strait. However, only some of this water stays in the boundary current and enters the Arctic Ocean. Another part leaves the boundary current and flows westward across Fram Strait before turning southward in the East Greenland Current. This recirculation of Atlantic Water corresponds with the ice edge in Fram Strait and the two likely depend on each other. Here we present results from a high resolution regional numerical model that shows the recirculation to consist of two branches. The northern branch depends on eddy fluxes while the southern branch exhibits less high frequency variability. We also present a compilation of different observational data in the center of Fram Strait around 0°EW that give insight into the structure of the southern recirculation branch near the ice edge. A glider section resolves the small horizontal scale over which the geostrophic flow occurs. Several meridional CTD sections capture the differences and similarities between different summers. Moorings and Argo floats provide information in winter as well. These observations are compared to the representation of the recirculation in the numerical model. We show that the southern recirculation occurs over a small horizontal distance of about 20km in the vicinity of 79°N and is significantly stronger in winter than in summer. While there is cold freshwater at the surface north of the front, the temperature down to 500m is much higher in the recirculation than further south.

  18. THE APPLICATION RESEARCH OF RECIRCULATION FUMIGATION IN HORIZONTAL VENTILATION SYSTEM%环流熏蒸在横向通风系统中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈邦灶; 王飞

    2016-01-01

    Horizontal recirculation fumigation was adopt to early indica rice under film by using mobile recircula‐tion device combined with horizontal ventilation system in warehouse ,to explore the technical features ,op‐eration technology and application effect of the recirculation fumigation in warehouse within the horizontal ventilation system . Experiments show s that using horizontal velitation system can make phosphine gases a‐chieve the minimum and maximum concentration ratio of 0 .6 within 3 hours after the end of recirculation fumigation application , it also can quickly and evenly make an effective concentration of phosphine gases in grain bulk , grately alleviate working intensity , enhance the effect of fumigation and emergency manage‐ment ability .%对平房仓储藏的早籼稻谷采用移动式环流装置结合横向通风系统进行膜下横向环流熏蒸,探究平房仓环流熏蒸在横向通风系统中的技术特点、操作工艺和应用效果。试验表明,利用横向通风系统可使P H3气体在结束环流施药后3 h内,达到最低与最高浓度比0.6的要求,可以在粮堆内快速而均匀地形成有效浓度,大幅减轻劳动强度,增强熏蒸效果和应急情况的处理。

  19. Low-dose hydrogen peroxide application in closed recirculating aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Good, C.; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to simulate water treatment practices with hydrogen peroxide (HP) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Six identical 1,700-L pilot-scale RAS were divided into two experimental groups based on daily feed allocation and operated under constant conditions...... and contradict prevailing notions that HP cannot be used safely in RAS that employ biofiltration. The development of effective new HP treatment protocols for recirculating aquaculture could reduce the current dependence on formalin to improve water quality and control parasitic loads...

  20. Performance of the prototype gas recirculation system with built-in RGA for INO RPC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhuyan, M. [Department of High Energy Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Datar, V.M. [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Joshi, A. [Alpha Pneumatics, 11-Krishna Kutir, Madanlal Dhingra Road, Thane 400602 (India); Kalmani, S.D., E-mail: kalmani@tifr.res.in [Department of High Energy Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Mondal, N.K. [Department of High Energy Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Rahman, M.A. [Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Satyanarayana, B.; Verma, P. [Department of High Energy Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2012-01-01

    An open loop gas recovery and recirculation system has been developed for the INO RPC system. The gas mixture coming from RPC exhaust is first desiccated by passing through molecular sieve (3 Angstrom-Sign +4 Angstrom-Sign ). Subsequent scrubbing over basic active alumina removes toxic and acidic contaminants. The Isobutane and Freon are then separated by diffusion and liquefied by fractional condensation by cooling up to -26{sup Ring-Operator }C. A Residual Gas Analyser (RGA) is being used in the loop to study the performance of the recirculation system. The results of the RGA analysis will be discussed.

  1. Cleaning and recirculation of perfluorohexane ($C_{6} F_{14}$) in the STAR-RICH detector

    CERN Document Server

    Andrés, Yu; Cozza, D; Davenport, M; De Cataldo, G; Dell'Olio, L; Di Bari, D; Di Mauro, A; Dunlop, J C; Finch, E; Fraissard, Daniel; Franco, A; Gans, J; Ghidini, B; Harris, J W; Horsley, M; Kunde, G J; Lasiuk, B; Lesenechal, Y; Majka, R D; Martinengo, P; Morsch, Andreas; Nappi, E; Paic, G; Piuz, François; Posa, F; Raynaud, J; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Santiard, Jean-Claude; Satinover, J; Schyns, E M; Smirnov, N; Van Beelen, J; Williams, T D; Xu, Z

    2002-01-01

    A RICH detector with a CsI photo-cathode and liquid perfluorohexane radiator has been installed in the STAR experiment at RHIC. The liquid is continuously cleaned and distributed to a quartz containment vessel within the detector by a closed recirculation system. A VUV spectrometer is connected to the system which monitors the optical transparency of the liquid. This measurement provides one of the pieces of information necessary to model the number of Cherenkov photons which reach the pad plane. A description of the liquid recirculation system and the cleaning procedure for the liquid as well as the spectrometer is presented along with results of their performance. (23 refs).

  2. Use of planted biofilters in integrated recirculating aquaculture-hydroponics systems in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trang, N.T.D.; Brix, Hans

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of using planted biofilters for purification of recirculated aquaculture water in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam was assessed. The plant trenches were able to clean tilapia aquaculture water and to maintain good water quality in the fish tanks without renewal of the water. NH4-N was ...... rates of 725 kg N and 234 kg P ha-1 year-1. This research demonstrates that integrated recirculating aquaculture-hydroponics (aquaponics) systems provide significant water savings and nutrient recycling as compared with traditional fish ponds. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd....

  3. NUTRIENTS DYNIMIC IN AN AQUAPONIC RECIRCULATING SYSTEM FOR STURGEON AND LETTUCE (LACTUCA SATIVA PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LORENA SFETCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquaponics are modern production systems, which integrate the aquaculture technology with hydroponic systems (vegetable production without soil with a goal of fructification of residual nutrients resulted from metabolic activity of fish biomass as high quality vegetable biomass sealable as ecological products. In the present study, as a first step in aquaponic recirculating systems evaluation, the authors aim to compare two types of recirculating systems: classical (hereby noted with RAS and integrated/aquaponic (RAS_A regarding water quality parameters generally, and TAN (total ammonia nitrogen production and transformation, particularly.

  4. Application of the Na+ recirculation theory to ion coupled water transport in low- and high resistance osmoregulatory epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Møbjerg, Nadja; Nielsen, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The theory of Na+ recirculation for isosmotic fluid absorption follows logically from Hertz's convection-diffusion equation applied to the exit of water and solutes from the lateral intercellular space. Experimental evidence is discussed indicating Na+ recirculation based upon the following...

  5. The accumulation of substances in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) affects embryonic and larval development in common carp Cyprinus carpio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, C.I.; Pristin, M.G.; Ende, S.S.W.; Eding, E.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2009-01-01

    The accumulation of substances in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) may impair the growth and welfare of fish. To test the severity of contaminants accumulated in RAS, early-life stages of fish were used. Ultrafiltered water from two Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS), one RAS with a high

  6. Analytical model of solutions of (2+1)-D heat convection equations in a shape memory alloy device immersed in a blood vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher Abourabia, Aly; Hassan, Kawsar Mohammad; Abo-Elghar, Eman Mohammad

    2015-02-01

    We investigate a bio-system composed of a shape memory alloy (SMA) immersed and subjected to heat convection in a blood vessel, affected by heart beats that create a wave motion of long wavelength. The tackled model in (2+1)-D is based on the continuity and momentum equations for the fluid phase, besides; the state of the SMA are described via previous works in the form of statistical distributions of energy for both Martensite and Austenite phases. The solution based on the reductive perturbation technique gives a thermal diffusion-like equation as a key for expressing the temperature and velocity components of the blood. In terms of two cases concerning the difference between the wave numbers in the perpendicular directions, it is found that the system's temperature increases nonlinearly from a minimum initial temperature 293 K (20 °C) up to a maximum value about 316.68 K (43.68 °C), then tends to decrease along the blood flow (anisotropy of K and L) direction. In both cases it is observed that the SMA acquires most of this temperature raising not the blood because of its conventional biological limits (37-40 °C). The range of the heart beats wave numbers characteristic for each person plays an important role in realizing phase changes in the anisotropic case leading to the formation of the hysteresis loops Martensite-Austenite-Martensite or vice versa, according to the energy variation. The entropy generation σ is investigated for the system (Blood + SMA), it predicts that along the flow direction the system gains energy convectively up to a maximum value, then reverses his tendency to gradually loosing energy passing by the equilibrium state, then the system looses energy to the surroundings by the same amount which was gained beforehand. The loss diminishes but stops before arriving to equilibrium again. For certain differences in wave numbers the system starts to store energy again after it passes by the state of equilibrium for the second time. In the

  7. Entropic electrokinetics: recirculation, particle separation, and negative mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malgaretti, Paolo; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Rubi, J Miguel

    2014-09-19

    We show that when particles are suspended in an electrolyte confined between corrugated charged surfaces, electrokinetic flows lead to a new set of phenomena such as particle separation, mixing for low-Reynolds micro- and nanometric devices, and negative mobility. Our analysis shows that such phenomena arise, for incompressible fluids, due to the interplay between the electrostatic double layer and the corrugated geometrical confinement and that they are magnified when the width of the channel is comparable to the Debye length. Our characterization allows us to understand the physical origin of such phenomena, therefore, shedding light on their possible relevance in a wide variety of situations ranging from nano- and microfluidic devices to biological systems.

  8. Exhaust Gas Recirculation Control for Large Diesel Engines - Achievable Performance with SISO Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Mahler; Blanke, Mogens; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates control possibilities for Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on large diesel engines. The goal is to reduce the amount of NOx in the exhaust gas by reducing the oxygen concentration available for combustion. Control limitations imposed by the system are assessed using linear...

  9. Researchers evaluate low-energy recirculating system for inland production of marine finfish juveniles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The low-energy recirculating aquaculture system consists of nine separate modules which utilize the double drain fish culture tank paired to a moving bed biofilter. The nine fiberglass tanks are five feet in diameter and normal water depth is about three feet for a total tank volume of approximately...

  10. Gas transfer rates from airlifts used for concurrent aeration, carbon dioxide stripping, and recirculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airlifts simplify recirculating aquaculture systems and can potentially reduce capital costs and minimize maintenance issues. Airlifts have the ability to move and aerate water as well as degass the water of any carbon dioxide. This study evaluated the oxygen transfer and carbon dioxide removal abil...

  11. Removal of nitrogen by Algal Turf Scrubber Technology in recirculating aquaculture system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valeta, J.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing research in recirculation aquaculture focuses on evaluating and improving the purification potential of different types of filters. Algal Turf Scrubber (ATS) are special as they combine sedimentation and biofiltration. An ATS was subjected to high nutrient loads of catfish effluent to examin

  12. Building America Case Study: Control Retrofits for Multifamily Domestic Hot Water Recirculation Systems, Brooklyn, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-12-01

    Domestic hot water (DHW) heating is the second largest energy end use in U.S. buildings, exceeded only by space conditioning. Recirculation systems consisting of a pump and piping loop(s) are commonly used in multifamily buildings to reduce wait time for hot water at faucets; however, constant pumping increases energy consumption by exposing supply and return line piping to continuous heat loss, even during periods when there is no demand for hot water. In this study, ARIES installed and tested two types of recirculation controls in a pair of buildings in order to evaluate their energy savings potential. Demand control, temperature modulation controls, and the simultaneous operation of both were compared to the baseline case of constant recirculation. Additionally, interactive effects between DHW control fuel reductions and space conditioning (heating and cooling) were estimated in order to make more realistic predictions of the payback and financial viability of retrofitting DHW systems with these controls. Results showed that DHW fuel consumption reduced by 7 percent after implementing the demand control technique, 2 percent after implementing temperature modulation, and 15 percent after implementing demand control and temperature modulation techniques simultaneously; recirculation pump runtime was reduced to 14 minutes or less per day. With space heating and cooling interactions included, the estimated annual cost savings were 8 percent, 1 percent, and 14 percent for the respective control techniques. Possible complications in the installation, commissioning and operation of the controls were identified and solutions offered.

  13. Geophysical monitoring of recirculation of leachate on landfill sites in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruiver, P.P.; Westerhoff, R.S.; Noorlandt, R.P.; Hoekstra, N.N.; Woelders, H.; Vossen, W.J. van

    2009-01-01

    Geophysical investigations were carried out on two modern landfill sites in the Netherlands. The objective of the geo-electrical and EM31 measurements was to reveal the effect of recirculation of leachate on homogenising moisture content in the waste to stimulate the process of attenuation. At Vlagh

  14. Nitrate removal effectiveness of fluidized sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification biofilters for recirculating aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a need to develop practical methods to reduce nitrate -nitrogen loads from recirculating aqua-culture systems to facilitate increased food protein production simultaneously with attainment of water quality goals. The most common wastewater denitrification treatment systems utilize methanol-...

  15. Experimental Bleaching of a Reef-Building Coral Using a Simplified Recirculating Laboratory Exposure System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determining stressor-response relationships in reef building corals is a critical need for researchers because of global declines in coral reef ecosystems. A simplified recirculating coral exposure system for laboratory testing of a diversity of species and morphologies of reef b...

  16. The benefits of powdered activated carbon recirculation for micropollutant removal in advanced wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinel, F; Zietzschmann, F; Ruhl, A S; Sperlich, A; Jekel, M

    2016-03-15

    PAC adsorption is a widespread option for the removal of organic micropollutants (OMP) from secondary effluent. For an optimal exploitation of the adsorption capacity, PAC recirculation is nowadays a common practice, although the mechanistic interrelations of the complex recirculation process are not fully resolved. In this work, extensive multi-stage batch adsorption testing with repeated PAC and coagulant dosage was performed to evaluate the continuous-flow recirculation system. Partly loaded PAC showed a distinct amount of remaining capacity, as OMP and DOC removals considerably increased with each additional adsorption stage. At a low PAC dose of 10 mg PAC L(-1), removals of benzotriazole and carbamazepine were shown to rise from 80% in the 11th stage at 30 min adsorption time per stage. At a high PAC dose of 30 mg PAC L(-1), OMP and DOC removals were significantly higher and reached 98% (for benzotriazole and carbamazepine) after 11 stages. Coagulant dosage showed no influence on OMP removal, whereas a major part of DOC removal can be attributed to coagulation. Multi-stage adsorption is particularly beneficial for small PAC doses and significant PAC savings are feasible. A new model approach for predicting multi-stage OMP adsorption on the basis of a single-stage adsorption experiment was developed. It proved to predict OMP removals and PAC loadings accurately and thus contributes towards understanding the PAC recirculation process.

  17. Mixing and Recirculation Characteristics of A double COncentric Burner with Bluff—Body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.K.Ma; C.H.Chiou; 等

    1993-01-01

    The concentric bluff-body jet burner is widely used in industrial combustion systems.This kind of burner often generates a considerably complex recirculation zone behind the bluff body.As a result,the fuel often remains in the recirculation zone,achieving stability of flame.This study investigates,by means of experiments,the variations of the aerodynamics as the fluid is injected into a combustion chamber through a doble concentric burner with a bluff-body.The observation and measurement of the aerodynamics in our experiment are conducted under a cold flow.The controlled parameters in our experiment are:variations in the blockage ratio of the center bluff body,the cone angle of the bluff body,and the velocity ratio(Us/Up) of the secondary jet and primary jet;the injection of helium bubbles into the primary and secondary jets to observe the recirculation zone behind the bluff body;using Tufts for obseving the characteristics of corner recirculation zone in a combustion chamber,measuring the average velocity of each point within the aerodynamics by the 5-hole pitot tube;measuring the distribution of static pressure of the combustion chamber walls with a static pressure tap.

  18. Evaluation of a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mikyss culture water recirculating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Sánchez O.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate a water recirculation system for rainbow trout fish cultures at the recirculating laboratory of the Aquaculture Engineering Production Program of University of Nariño. Materials and Methods. 324 rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mikyss fries were cultured in 12 plastic tanks with a capacity of 250 L in an aquaculture recirculating system the treatment system of which was made up by a conventional sedimentation tank, a fixed stand upflow biofilter with recycled PVC tube pieces and a natural degassing system; the sedimentation unit effluent was pumped up to a reservoir tank using a 2 HP centrifugal pump after being subject to gravity through the biofilter and to be then distributed to the 12 culture units to which a constant amount of air from a blower was injected. Results. The water treatment system removed 31% of total suspended solids, 9.5% of total ammonia nitrogen, and increased dissolved oxygen to the final effluent in 6.5%. An increase of 305% in biomass was calculated during 75 days, the mortality percentage registered throughout the study period was 4.9%. Conclusions. The water treatment system maintained the physicochemical water quality parameters within the values recommended for the species. The increase in weight and size, food conversion, mortality and biomass production reported normal values for rainbow trout fish culture in recirculating systems.

  19. Recirculating linacs for a neutrino factory--Arc optics design and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Bogacz, S A

    2001-01-01

    A conceptual lattice design for a muon accelerator based on recirculating linacs (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 472 (2001) 499, these proceedings) is presented here. The challenge of accelerating and transporting a large phase space of short-lived muons is answered here by presenting a proof-of-principle lattice design for a recirculating linac accelerator. It is the centerpiece of a chain of accelerators consisting of a 3 GeV linac and two consecutive recirculating linear accelerators, which facilitates acceleration starting after ionization cooling at 190 MeV/c and proceeding to 50 GeV. Beam transport issues for large-momentum-spread beams are accommodated by appropriate lattice design choices. The resulting arc optics is further optimized with a sextupole correction to suppress chromatic effects contributing to the emittance dilution. The presented proof-of-principle design of the arc optics with horizontal separation of multi-pass beams can be extended to all passes in both recirculating linacs.

  20. Influence of fixed and moving bed biofilters on micro particle dynamics in a recirculating aquaculture system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Paulo; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation of fine particulate organic matter in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) is a balancebetween system input (from feed to waste), internal transformation, removal and dilution. The mecha-nisms leading to fine particle accumulation in RAS are not fully understood, and neither is th...

  1. Geosmin causes off-flavour in arctic charr in recirculating aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The “earthy” and “muddy” off-flavors in pond-reared fish are due to the presence of geosmin or 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) in the flesh of the fish. Similar off-flavors have been reported in fish raised in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS); however, little information is available regarding the ...

  2. Investigation of proper modeling of very dense granular flows in the recirculation system of CFBs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aristeidis Nikolopoulos; Nikos Nikolopoulos; Nikos Varveris; Sotirios Karellas; Panagiotis Grammelis; Emmanuel Kakaras

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the development of new models and/or the improvement of existing numerical models,used for simulating granular flow in CFB (circulating fluidized bed) recirculation systems.Most recent models follow the TFM (two-fluid model) methodology,but they cannot effectively simulate the inter-particle friction forces in the recirculation system,because the respective stress tensor does not incorporate compressibility of flow due to change of effective particle density.As a consequence,the induced normal and shear stresses are not modeled appropriately during the flow of the granular phase in the CFB recirculation system.The failure of conventional models,such as that of von Mises/Coulomb,is mainly caused by false approximation of the yield criterion which is not applicable to the CFB recirculation system.The present work adopts an alternative yield function,used for the first time in TFM Eulerian modeling.The proposed model is based on the Pitman-Schaeffer-Gray-Stiles yield criterion.Both the temporal deformation of the solid granular phase and the repose angle that the granular phase forms are more accurately simulated by this model.The numerical results of the proposed model agree well with experimental data,implying that frictional forces are efficiently simulated by the new model.

  3. Adoption of Recirculating Aquaculture Systems in Pangasius Farms: A Choice Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, T.A.N.; Gielen-Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Le, T.T.; Bosma, R.H.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of European customers’ demands certified pangasius such as ASC in order to ensure sustainable production. Implementing Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) contributes to an improved water quality, a key issue in achieving ASC certification. This study uses a choice experiment to

  4. Adoption of Recirculating Aquaculture Systems in Large Pangasius Farms: A Choice Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, T.A.N.; Gielen-Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Le, T.C.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Bosma, R.H.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of European customers’ demands certified pangasius such as ASC in order to ensure sustainable production. Implementing Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) contributes to an improved water quality, a key issue in achieving ASC certification. This study uses a choice experiment to

  5. Multi-point optimization of recirculation flow type casing treatment in centrifugal compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tun, Min Thaw; Sakaguchi, Daisaku

    2016-06-01

    High-pressure ratio and wide operating range are highly required for a turbocharger in diesel engines. A recirculation flow type casing treatment is effective for flow range enhancement of centrifugal compressors. Two ring grooves on a suction pipe and a shroud casing wall are connected by means of an annular passage and stable recirculation flow is formed at small flow rates from the downstream groove toward the upstream groove through the annular bypass. The shape of baseline recirculation flow type casing is modified and optimized by using a multi-point optimization code with a metamodel assisted evolutionary algorithm embedding a commercial CFD code CFX from ANSYS. The numerical optimization results give the optimized design of casing with improving adiabatic efficiency in wide operating flow rate range. Sensitivity analysis of design parameters as a function of efficiency has been performed. It is found that the optimized casing design provides optimized recirculation flow rate, in which an increment of entropy rise is minimized at grooves and passages of the rotating impeller.

  6. Performance evaluation of Large Eddy Simulation for recirculating and swirling flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Cheol Hong; Lee, Chang Eon [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-04-15

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficiency and the prediction accuracy of developed Large Eddy Simulation (LES) program for complex turbulent flows, such as recirculating and swirling flows. To save the computational cost, a Beowulf cluster system consisting 16 processors was constructed. The flows in backward-facing step and dump combustor were examined as representative recirculating and swirling flows. Firstly, a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) for laminar backward-facing step flows was previously conducted to validate the overall performance of program. Then LES was carried out for turbulent backward-facing step flows. The results of laminar flow showed a qualitative and quantitative agreement between simulations and experiments. The simulations of the turbulent flow also showed reasonable results. Secondly, LES results for non-swirling and swirling flows in a dump combustor were compared with the results of Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) using standard {kappa}-{epsilon} model. The results show that LES has a better performance in predicting the mean axial and azimuthal velocities, Corner Recirculation Zone (CRZ) and Center Toroidal Recirculation Zone (CTRZ) than those of RANS. Finally, it was examined the capability of LES for the description of unsteady phenomena.

  7. Control-Oriented Model of Molar Scavenge Oxygen Fraction for Exhaust Recirculation in Large Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kræn Vodder; Blanke, Mogens; Eriksson, Lars;

    2016-01-01

    Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems have been introduced to large marine engines in order to reduce NOx formation. Adequate modelling for control design is one of the bottlenecks to design EGR control that also meets emission requirements during transient loading conditions. This paper...

  8. Optimization of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) seed culture using recirculation aquaculture systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanco Garcia, A.; Kamermans, P.

    2015-01-01

    By introducing recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS) in the nursery phase of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) (17–18 mm), we aimed at a similar growth and survival and a similar water quality compared to the commonly used flow-through systems (FTS). To calculate water flow and size of the biofilte

  9. CCR7 Controls Thymus Recirculation, but Not Production and Emigration, of Foxp3(+) T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Jennifer E; McCarthy, Nicholas I; Anderson, Graham

    2016-02-09

    Current models of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cell (Treg) development involve CCR7-mediated migration of thymocytes into the thymus medulla to enable essential interactions with medullary epithelium. However, increased Foxp3(+) thymic Treg numbers in Ccr7(-/-) mice challenge this view, and the role of CCR7 in Treg development, emigration, and/or recirculation is unknown. Here, we have examined CCR7 and Rag2pGFP levels during Treg development and generated Rag2pGFPCcr7(-/-) mice to study its impact on the intrathymic Treg pool. We reveal surprising developmental heterogeneity in thymocytes described as Treg precursors, showing that they contain recirculating CCR6(+)CCR7(-)Rag2pGFP(-) T cells. Although CCR7 defines bona fide Rag2GFP(+) Treg precursors, it is not required for Treg production and emigration. Rather, we show that lack of CCR7 renders the thymus more receptive to Treg thymus homing. Our study reveals a role for CCR7 in limiting Treg recirculation back to the thymus and enables separation of the mechanisms controlling Treg production and thymic recirculation.

  10. Access recirculation in a native fistula in spite of a seemingly adequate access flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, Mark; Spargo, Benjamin H.; Wit, Ernst-Jan C.; Meehan, Shane M.

    2000-01-01

    True access recirculation (AR) measured by ultrasound dilution technique is usually absent in well-working shunts. It occurs with low access flows (Qa). High access flow rates are assumed to prevent AR. Two major exceptions to these rules are known: presence of intra-access strictures and inadverten

  11. Improving sustainability of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) farming in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam through recirculation technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Nhut

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to document improvements in sustainability indicators of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, Sauvage, 1878) production through the application of recirculation and waste treatment techniques. To be able to document improvements in sustainability, in each system s

  12. HRT and nutrients affect bacterial communities grown on recirculation aquaculture system effluents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, O.; Chabrillon-Popelka, M.; Smidt, H.; Haenen, O.L.M.; Sereti, V.; Eding, E.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    In a recirculation aquaculture system the drumfilter effluent can be used as substrate for heterotrophic bacterial production, which can be recycled as feed. Because the bacteria might contain pathogens, which could reduce its suitability as feed, it is important to characterize these communities. B

  13. The impact of building recirculation rates on secondary organic aerosols generated by indoor chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuraimi, M.S.; Weschler, Charles J.; Tham, K.W.

    2007-01-01

    reactions between indoor limonene and ozone. The experiments were conducted in a large environmental chamber using four recirculation rates (11, 14, 19 and 24 air change per hour (ACH)) and a constant outdoor air exchange rate (I ACH) as well as constant emission rates for limonene and ozone...

  14. The Effect of Effluent Recirculation in a Semi-Continuous Two-Stage Anaerobic Digestion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik Rajendran

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of recirculation in increasing organic loading rate (OLR and decreasing hydraulic retention time (HRT in a semi-continuous two-stage anaerobic digestion system using stirred tank reactor (CSTR and an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB was evaluated. Two-parallel processes were in operation for 100 days, one with recirculation (closed system and the other without recirculation (open system. For this purpose, two structurally different carbohydrate-based substrates were used; starch and cotton. The digestion of starch and cotton in the closed system resulted in production of 91% and 80% of the theoretical methane yield during the first 60 days. In contrast, in the open system the methane yield was decreased to 82% and 56% of the theoretical value, for starch and cotton, respectively. The OLR could successfully be increased to 4 gVS/L/day for cotton and 10 gVS/L/day for starch. It is concluded that the recirculation supports the microorganisms for effective hydrolysis of polyhydrocarbons in CSTR and to preserve the nutrients in the system at higher OLRs, thereby improving the overall performance and stability of the process.

  15. Pilot-scale study of powdered activated carbon recirculation for micropollutant removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinel, F; Sperlich, A; Jekel, M

    Adsorption onto powdered activated carbon (PAC) is a promising technique for the removal of organic micropollutants (OMPs) from treated wastewater. To enhance the adsorption efficiency, PAC is recycled back into the adsorption stage. This technique was examined in pilot scale in comparison to a reference without recirculation. Coagulation with Fe(3+) was carried out simultaneously to adsorption. Extensive OMP measurements showed that recirculation significantly increased OMP eliminations. Thus, significant PAC savings were feasible. The PAC concentration in the contact reactor proved to be an important operating parameter that can be surrogated by the easily measurable total suspended solids (TSS) concentration. OMP eliminations increased with increasing TSS concentrations. At 20 mg PAC L(-1) and 2.8 g TSS L(-1) in the contact reactor, well-adsorbable carbamazepine was eliminated by 97%, moderately adsorbable diclofenac was eliminated by 92% and poorly-adsorbable acesulfame was eliminated by 54% in comparison to 49%, 35% and 18%, respectively, without recirculation. The recirculation system represents an efficient technique, as the PAC's adsorption capacity is practically completely used. Small PAC dosages yield high OMP eliminations. Poorly-adsorbable gabapentin was eliminated to an unexpectedly high degree. A laboratory-scale biomass inhibition study showed that aerobic biodegradation removed gabapentin in addition to adsorption.

  16. Effect of high oral doses of nitrate on salivary recirculation of nitrates and nitrites and on bacterial diversity in the saliva of young pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisi, P; Casini, L; Nisi, I; Messori, S; Bosi, P

    2011-04-01

    Ingested nitrate is absorbed in the small intestine, recirculated into the saliva and reduced to nitrite by oral bacteria. In pigs receiving a moderate dietary addition of nitrate, the recirculation into the saliva is modest, so we aimed to assess the effect of higher nitrate doses to find out how the animal reacts to this new situation and to evaluate if a higher nitrate level could enhance the nitrate reduction process, improving the nitrite production Trial 1. Six piglets received 100 g of a commercial diet with 2.45% KNO(3) . In relation to baseline values, nitrate in blood serum and saliva increased 15 times, and declined after 6 h vs. 2 h. Salivary nitrite increased seven times after the addition and declined after 6 h vs. 2 h. Trial 2. Six piglets were fed a diet with or without 1.22% KNO(3) for 2 weeks. Salivary nitrate and nitrite increased with the addition of KNO3: nitrate increased from d0 to the end of the trial, nitrite increased 15 times after 1 week, but decreased after 2 weeks to 4.5-fold the control. After 2 weeks, nitrate reduced Shan diversity index of salivary microbiota. The present results indicate that the long exposure to high quantities of nitrates impairs the oral reduction of nitrate to nitrite and engenders a reduction of the mouth's microbiota diversity.

  17. 21 CFR 870.1120 - Blood pressure cuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure cuff. 870.1120 Section 870.1120...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1120 Blood pressure cuff. (a) Identification. A blood pressure cuff is a device that has an inflatable bladder in an...

  18. Investigation of Saltwater Intrusion and Recirculation of Seawater at a Coastal Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motz, L. H.; Sedighi, A.

    2012-12-01

    Numerical experiments were conducted to investigate saltwater intrusion and recirculation of seawater at a coastal boundary. A field-scale two-dimensional cross-section was simulated in which freshwater inflow occurred at an upgradient boundary, and saltwater inflow and freshwater outflow and recirculated seawater outflow occurred at a downgradient coastal boundary. The upgradient boundary is a specified-flux boundary with a zero freshwater concentration, and the downgradient boundary is a specified-head boundary with a specified saltwater concentration. This problem was solved using the numerical groundwater flow and transport code SEAWAT for two conditions, i.e., first for the uncoupled condition in which the fluid density is constant and thus the flow and transport equations are uncoupled in a constant-density flowfield, and then for the coupled condition in which the fluid density is a function of the total dissolved solids concentration and thus the flow and transport equations are coupled in a variable-density flowfield. Equivalent freshwater heads were specified at the downstream boundary for both conditions to account for density differences between freshwater and saltwater at the downstream boundary. A range of results for the landward extent of saltwater intrusion and the amount of recirculation of seawater at the coastal boundary was obtained by varying the independent dimensionless ratio of the freshwater inflow relative to the density-driven buoyancy flux, defined as az. For both coupled and uncoupled conditions, it was determined that saltwater intrusion and seawater recirculation are decreased significantly as az is increased. However, the extent of saltwater intrusion is less and the degree of seawater recirculation is greater for the uncoupled condition compared to the coupled condition at smaller values of az, indicating that significant differences can occur between uncoupled and coupled simulations. For the experiments conducted in this

  19. Hydraulic study of parallel channels coupled to recirculation loops; Estudio hidraulico de canales paralelos acoplados a lazos de recirculacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos G, R. M.; Cecenas F, M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Av. Reforma 113, Col. Palmira, 62490 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)], e-mail: rmcampos@iie.org.mx

    2009-10-15

    In this work is integrated a model of recirculation loops that allows to characterize each loop for separate and with which is possible to analyze events as shot of recirculation bombs or its transfer of high to low speed. The recirculation pattern is integrated to a model of 36 channels in parallel that represents the core of a BWR. Because the core reactor is conformed by fuel assemblies physically prepared in a parallel arrangement, it is natural to obtain a parallel application of complete pattern, where are have 36 channels tasks more other two tasks that calculates recirculation and punctual kinetics, respectively. As initial test of system, which even it is found in development, was analyzed a discharge of both recirculation pumps. In this test transitory it is only verified the hydraulic behavior, the power is imposed artificially as frontier condition that is function of flow in the calculated core by the recirculation pattern. The pattern of thermal hydraulics channel and the recirculation loops are programmed in language C, the neutronic pattern is programmed in Fortran 77. For the simulations was used a work station Alpha Station DS20E with operative system Unix and the communication system Parallel Virtual Machine, that allows to a heterogeneous collection of computers in net to work like a virtual computer in parallel. (Author)

  20. Simultaneous water desalination and electricity generation in a microbial desalination cell with electrolyte recirculation for pH control

    KAUST Repository

    Qu, Youpeng

    2012-02-01

    A recirculation microbial desalination cell (rMDC) was designed and operated to allow recirculation of solutions between the anode and cathode chambers. This recirculation avoided pH imbalances that could inhibit bacterial metabolism. The maximum power density was 931±29mW/m 2 with a 50mM phosphate buffer solution (PBS) and 776±30mW/m 2 with 25mM PBS. These power densities were higher than those obtained without recirculation of 698±10mW/m 2 (50mM PBS) and 508±11mW/m 2 (25mM PBS). The salt solution (20g/L NaCl) was reduced in salinity by 34±1% (50mM) and 37±2% (25mM) with recirculation (rMDC), and by 39±1% (50mM) and 25±3% (25mM) without recirculation (MDC). These results show that electrolyte recirculation using an rMDC is an effective method to increase power and achieve efficient desalination by eliminating pH imbalances. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Particle-based methods for multiscale modeling of blood flow in the circulation and in devices: challenges and future directions. Sixth International Bio-Fluid Mechanics Symposium and Workshop March 28-30, 2008 Pasadena, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Takami; Ishikawa, Takuji; Imai, Y; Matsuki, N; Xenos, Mikhail; Deng, Yuefan; Bluestein, Danny

    2010-03-01

    A major computational challenge for a multiscale modeling is the coupling of disparate length and timescales between molecular mechanics and macroscopic transport, spanning the spatial and temporal scales characterizing the complex processes taking place in flow-induced blood clotting. Flow and pressure effects on a cell-like platelet can be well represented by a continuum mechanics model down to the order of the micrometer level. However, the molecular effects of adhesion/aggregation bonds are on the order of nanometer. A successful multiscale model of platelet response to flow stresses in devices and the ensuing clotting responses should be able to characterize the clotting reactions and their interactions with the flow. This paper attempts to describe a few of the computational methods that were developed in recent years and became available to researchers in the field. They differ from traditional approaches that dominate the field by expanding on prevailing continuum-based approaches, or by completely departing from them, yielding an expanding toolkit that may facilitate further elucidation of the underlying mechanisms of blood flow and the cellular response to it. We offer a paradigm shift by adopting a multidisciplinary approach with fluid dynamics simulations coupled to biophysical and biochemical transport.

  2. Blood damage through a bileaflet mechanical heart valve: a quantitative computational study using a multiscale suspension flow solver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min Yun, B; Aidun, Cyrus K; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2014-10-01

    Bileaflet mechanical heart valves (BMHVs) are among the most popular prostheses to replace defective native valves. However, complex flow phenomena caused by the prosthesis are thought to induce serious thromboembolic complications. This study aims at employing a novel multiscale numerical method that models realistic sized suspended platelets for assessing blood damage potential in flow through BMHVs. A previously validated lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM) is used to simulate pulsatile flow through a 23 mm St. Jude Medical (SJM) Regent™ valve in the aortic position at very high spatiotemporal resolution with the presence of thousands of suspended platelets. Platelet damage is modeled for both the systolic and diastolic phases of the cardiac cycle. No platelets exceed activation thresholds for any of the simulations. Platelet damage is determined to be particularly high for suspended elements trapped in recirculation zones, which suggests a shift of focus in blood damage studies away from instantaneous flow fields and toward high flow mixing regions. In the diastolic phase, leakage flow through the b-datum gap is shown to cause highest damage to platelets. This multiscale numerical method may be used as a generic solver for evaluating blood damage in other cardiovascular flows and devices.

  3. Heart failure - surgeries and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is weakened, gets too large, and does not pump blood very well, you are at high risk for abnormal heartbeats that can lead to sudden cardiac death. An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is a device that detects ...

  4. Evaluating the Need for and Effect of Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty on Arteriovenous Fistulas by Using Total Recirculation Rate per Dialysis Session (“Clearance Gap”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugawa,Toyomu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The functioning of an arteriovenous fistula (AVF used for vascular access during hemodialysis has been assessed mainly by dilution methods. Although these techniques indicate the immediate recirculation rate, the results obtained may not correlate with Kt/V. In contrast, the clearance gap (CL-Gap method provides the total recirculation rate per dialysis session and correlates well with Kt/V. We assessed the correlation between Kt/V and CL-Gap as well as the change in radial artery (RA blood flow speed in the fistula before percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA in 45 patients undergoing continuous hemodialysis. The dialysis dose during the determination of CL-Gap was 1.2 to 1.4 Kt/V. Patients with a 10% elevation or more than a 10% relative increase in CL-Gap underwent PTA (n=45, and the values obtained for Kt/V and CL-Gap before PTA were compared with those obtained immediately afterward. The mean RA blood flow speed improved significantly (from 52.9 to 97.5cm/sec after PTA, as did Kt/V (1.07 to 1.30 and CL-Gap (14.1% to -0.2%. A significant correlation between these differences was apparent (r=-0.436 and p=0.003. These findings suggest that calculating CL-Gap may be useful for determining when PTA is required and for assessing the effectiveness of PTA, toward obtaining better dialysis.

  5. Insertion devices

    CERN Document Server

    Bahrdt, J

    2006-01-01

    The interaction of an insertion device with the electron beam in a storage ring is discussed. The radiation property including brightness, ux and polarization of an ideal and real planar and helical / elliptical device is described. The magnet design of planar, helical, quasiperiodic devices and of devices with a reduced on axis power density are resumed.

  6. Conservation principles suspended solids distribution modeling to support ATS introduction on a recirculating WWTP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist Victor Bernard; Nielsen, M.K.; Thornberg, D.;

    2004-01-01

    the potential benefit of ATS implementation on a full-scale recirculating WWTP. A reduction of the maximum SS peak load to the secondary clarifiers with 24.9% was obtained with ATS, whereas the cumulative SS load to the clarifiers is foreseen to be reduced with 22.5% for short rain events (4 hours duration......) and with 16.6% for long rain events (24 hours duration). The SS distribution model is a useful tool for off-line studies of the potential benefits to be obtained by introducing ATS on a recirculating WWTP. Finally, the successful operation of the ATS process on the full-scale plant is illustrated with data....

  7. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of external recirculation flow at updraft gasifier using ejector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidiana, Fajri; Surjosatyo, Adi; Nugroho, Yulianto Sulistyo

    2012-06-01

    Gasification process at updraft gasifier produces the amount of more tar than the other gasifier type. To reduce tar at updraft gasifier, it is carried out recirculation of pirolysis gas into combustion zone. Ejector is an equipment used to entrain the secondary fluid flow by moving momentum and energy from high velocity of primary flow (jet). Research carries out the simulation of isothermal 3D using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to obtain the maximum of recirculation flow at updraft gasifier using ejector. The result of simulation shows that change of nozzle diameter gives great influence at change of total flow for resirculation compared with the change of diameter and length of mixing area and nozzle exit position (NXP). The maximum of resirculation flow 81 lpm at nozzle diameter 0.75 cm.

  8. Implementation of Exhaust Gas Recirculation for Double Stage Waste Heat Recovery System on Large Container Vessel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Morten; Marissal, Matthieu; Sørensen, Kim;

    2014-01-01

    of recovering some of the waste heat from the exhaust gas. This heat is converted into electrical energy used on-board instead of using auxiliary engines. Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) systems, are recirculating a part of the exhaust gas through the engine combustion chamber to reduce emissions. WHRS combined......Concerned to push ships to have a lower impact on the environment, the International Maritime Organization are implementing stricter regulation of NOx and SOx emissions, called Tier III, within emission control areas (ECAs). Waste Heat Recovery Systems (WHRS) on container ships consist...... with EGR is a potential way to improve system efficiency while reducing emissions. This paper investigates the feasibility of combining the two systems. EGR dilutes the fuel, lowering the combustion temperature and thereby the formation of NOx, to reach Tier III limitation. A double stage WHRS is set up...

  9. Design of multifamily solar domestic hot water systems using recirculating distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedekind, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a study designed to quantify the effect of daily domestic hot water loads and system design on the performance of solar domestic hot water systems employing a recirculating distribution system. A solar domestic hot water system judged representative of the systems funded by the HUD Solar Demonstration Program, along with a modification to this system, was modeled using the TRNSYS simulation computer program. Results of simulations over a representative climatic period show that daily domestic hot water usage significantly affects solar system performance. Notable improvement in system performance can be obtained by the use of a recirculation return to solar storage system configuration within a specific range of daily domestic hot water loads. An optimum system was developed from parametric variations of system design and modeled on an annual basis. Comparison is made to modeled system performance of the original design.

  10. Experimental study on velocity characteristics of recirculation zone in humid air non-premixed flame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To examine the effect of the flow field within the recirculation zone on flame structure,the characteristic velocity fields of methane/humid air flame in nonpremixed combustion behind a disc bluff-body burner were experimentally studied by particle image velocimeter (PIV).The results show that two stagnation points exist on the centerline in the recirculation zone flame.However,the distance of the two stagnation points in humid air combustion shortens,and the minimal dimensionless velocity increases compared with the conventional nonhumid air combustion.In addition,the positional curves of the minimal velocities can be partitioned into three phases representing three different flame patterns.The analysis of axial minimal velocities on the centerline and their positions under different co-flow air velocity conditions reveals that fuel-to-air velocity ratio is the crucial parameter that governs humid air combustion flame characteristics.

  11. LUX - A recirculating linac-based ultrafast X-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corlett, J.N.; Barletta, W.A.; DeSantis, S.; Doolittle, L.; Fawley, W.M.; Green, M.A.; Heimann, P.; Leone, S.R.; Lidia, S.; Li, D.; Parmigiani, F.; Ratti, A.; Robinson, K.; Schoenlein, R.; Staples, J.; Wan, W.; Wells, R.; Wilcox, R.; Wolski, A.; Zholents, A.

    2003-08-01

    We describe the design of a proposed source of ultra-fast synchrotron radiation x-ray pulses based on a recirculating superconducting linac, with an integrated array of ultrafast laser systems. The source produces x-ray pulses with duration of 10-50 fs at a 10 kHz repetition rate, with tunability from EUV to hard x-ray regimes, and optimized for the study of ultra-fast dynamics. A high-brightness rf photocathode provides electron bunches. An injector linac accelerates the beam to the 100 MeV range, and is followed by four passes through a 700 MeV recirculating linac. Ultrafast hard x-ray pulses are obtained by a combination of electron bunch manipulation, transverse temporal correlation of the electrons, and x-ray pulse compression. EUV and soft x-ray pulses as short as 10 fs are generated in a harmonic-cascade free electron laser scheme.

  12. Peripheral regulatory T lymphocytes recirculating to the thymus suppress the development of their precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiault, Nicolas; Darrigues, Julie; Adoue, Véronique; Gros, Marine; Binet, Bénédicte; Perals, Corine; Leobon, Bertrand; Fazilleau, Nicolas; Joffre, Olivier P; Robey, Ellen A; van Meerwijk, Joost P M; Romagnoli, Paola

    2015-06-01

    Most T lymphocytes, including regulatory T cells (Treg cells), differentiate in the thymus. The age-dependent involution of this organ leads to decreasing production of T cells. Here we found that the output of new Treg cells from the thymus decreased substantially more than that of conventional T cells. Peripheral mouse and human Treg cells recirculated back to the thymus, where they constituted a large proportion of the pool of Treg cells and displayed an activated and differentiated phenotype. In the thymus, the recirculating cells exerted their regulatory function by inhibiting interleukin 2 (IL-2)-dependent de novo differentiation of Treg cells. Thus, Treg cell development is controlled by a negative feedback loop in which mature progeny cells return to the thymus and restrain development of precursors of Treg cells.

  13. Design and Experimentation of Collector based Solar Dryer with Recirculation for Spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Ganesh There

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sun drying system is very common method of preserving agricultural product. Solar energy is used for heating of air and to dry food substance. In open sun drying food is unprotected from rain, wind-borne dirt and dust, infestation by insects, rodents and other animal. This process is practically attractive and environmentally sound. Shell life of agricultural product is improve by drying. This paper present design and construction of active solar dryer with recirculation technique. It consists of solar collector, drying chamber with netted trays and recirculation arrangement. Air is allowed through inlet and it is heated up in collector. Then it is circulated in drying chamber where it is utilize for drying. The design based on geographical location Wardha and meteorological data were obtained for proper design specification. Locally available materials were used for construction such as polyurethane glass, mild steel metal sheet, plywood sheet and insulating material.

  14. Thermal-hydraulic tests of a recirculation cooling installation for the Rostov nuclear power station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balunov, B. F.; Balashov, V. A.; Il'in, V. A.; Krayushnikov, V. V.; Lychakov, V. D.; Meshalkin, V. V.; Ustinov, A. N.; Shcheglov, A. A.

    2013-09-01

    Results obtained from thermal-hydraulic tests of the recirculation cooling installation used as part of the air cooling system under the containments of the Rostov nuclear power station Units 3 and 4 are presented. The operating modes of the installation during normal operation (air cooling on the surface of finned tubes), under the conditions of anticipated operational occurrences (air cooling and steam condensation from a steam-air mixture), and during an accident (condensation of pure steam) are considered. Agreement is obtained between the results of tests and calculations carried out according to the recommendations given in the relevant regulatory documents. A procedure of carrying out thermal calculation for the case of steam condensation from a steam-air mixture on the surface of fins is proposed. The possibility of efficient use of the recirculation cooling installation in the system for reducing emergency pressure under the containment of a nuclear power station is demonstrated.

  15. The impact of recirculation, ventilation and filters on secondary organic aerosols generated by indoor chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadeyi, M.O.; Weschler, Charles J.; Tham, K.W.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the impact of recirculation rates (7 and 14 h(-1)), ventilation rates (1 and 2 h(-1)), and filtration on secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) generated by ozone of outdoor origin reacting with limonene of indoor origin. Experiments were conducted within a recirculating air handling...... system that serviced an unoccupied, 236 m(3) environmental chamber configured to simulate an office; either no filter, a new filter or a used filter was located downstream of where outdoor air mixed with return air. For otherwise comparable conditions, the SOA number and mass concentrations......, but this was more than offset by the increased dilution of SOA derived from ozone-initiated chemistry. The presence of a particle filter (new or used) strikingly lowered SOA number and mass concentrations compared with conditions when no filter was present. Even though the particle filter in this study had only 35...

  16. Manipulating flow separation: sensitivity of stagnation points, separatrix angles and recirculation area to steady actuation

    CERN Document Server

    Boujo, Edouard

    2014-01-01

    A variational technique is used to derive analytical expressions for the sensitivity of several geometric indicators of flow separation to steady actuation. Considering the boundary layer flow above a wall-mounted bump, the six following representative quantities are considered: the locations of the separation point and reattachment point connected by the separatrix, the separation angles at these stagnation points, the backflow area and the recirculation area. For each geometric quantity, linear sensitivity analysis allows us to identify regions which are the most sensitive to volume forcing and wall blowing/suction. Validations against full non-linear Navier-Stokes calculations show excellent agreement for small-amplitude control for all considered indicators. With very resemblant sensitivity maps, the reattachment point, the backflow and recirculation areas are seen to be easily manipulated. In contrast, the upstream separation point and the separatrix angles are seen to remain extremely robust with respec...

  17. Mathematical and experimental investigations on dispersion and recirculation of plumes from dry cooling towers at Wyodak Power Plant in Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Y.; Trent, D.S.

    1976-02-01

    The study presented was conducted (1) to develop a two-dimensional mathematical simulation model for determination of plume dispersion and recirculation from an existing code; (2) to investigate experimentally and mathematically the recirculation and temperature distributions of plumes from two dry cooling towers at the Wyodak Plant in Wyoming; and (3) to elucidate the effects of wind velocity, temperature of heated effluent, adjacent cooling towers and local topography on plume dispersion and recirculation. The mathematical model is based on solution of the steady flow momentum and energy equations using the stream function-vorticity technique. Experiments were conducted in a 10-foot-wide hydraulic flume, using water as a model flow. The study shows that plume recirculation and dispersion are strongly influenced by local topography and nearby structures such as adjacent cooling towers and buildings, as well as by the ambient wind velocity and effluent exit temperature.

  18. STUDIES REGARDING THE PRESENCE OF THE PATHOGENS BACTERIA INTO A RECIRCULATING SYSTEM OF BELUGA STURGEON INTENSIVE REARING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGELICA DOCAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recirculating aquaculture offers good potential for successful fish farming since is often independent of environmental conditions. Maintaining healthy fish in a recirculating system involves establishing adequate dissolved oxygen levels, removal of solid wastes, and sufficient ammonia nitrification to assure optimal rearing conditions. Neglecting these, the fish immune system will depress, the facultative pathogen germs will be able to provoke important disease outbreaks into cultured biomass, as was happened in our recirculating pilot system. In this study are presented the pathological aspects registered to the beluga sturgeon of 1 year, reared into our recirculating pilot system, pathological aspects generated by a haemorrhagic bacterial septicaemia which was manifested in the conditions of low concentrations of DO. The disease was diagnosed to the affected fish through anatomopathological and clinical exam, haematological exam and microbiological exam.

  19. Nonlinear Adaptive Control of Exhaust Gas Recirculation for Large Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kræn Vodder; Blanke, Mogens; Vejlgaard-Laursen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    A nonlinear adaptive controller is proposed for the exhaust gas recirculation systemon large two-stroke diesel engines. The control design is based on a control oriented model ofthe nonlinear dynamics at hand that incorporates load and engine speed changes as knowndisturbances to the exhaust gas...... will make the system converge exponentiallyto the best achievable state. Simulation examples confirm convergence and good disturbancerejection over relevant operational ranges of the engine....

  20. The ecology of chalk-stream invertebrates studied in a recirculating stream

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    To study and qualify the factors influencing interactions between various trophic levels in natural hard-water streams, a recirculating artificial stream channel was constructed. This structure has enabled patterns of population change of stream fauna to be observed under partially controlled physical and chemical conditions. Initial colonization of the substratum by invertebrates and subsequent succession was studied along with depth distribution and growth and production studies of inverteb...

  1. Conditions for coherent-synchrotron-radiation-induced microbunching suppression in multibend beam transport or recirculation arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, C.-Y.; Di Mitri, S.; Douglas, D.; Li, R.; Tennant, C.

    2017-02-01

    The coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) of a high-brightness electron beam traversing a series of dipoles, such as transport or recirculation arcs, may result in beam phase space degradation. On one hand, CSR can perturb electron transverse motion in dispersive regions along the beam line and possibly cause emittance growth. On the other hand, the CSR effect on the longitudinal beam dynamics could result in microbunching instability. For transport arcs, several schemes have been proposed to suppress the CSR-induced emittance growth. Correspondingly, a few scenarios have been introduced to suppress CSR-induced microbunching instability, which however mostly aim for linac-based machines. In this paper we provide sufficient conditions for suppression of CSR-induced microbunching instability along transport or recirculation arcs. Examples are presented with the relevant microbunching analyses carried out by our developed semianalytical Vlasov solver [C.-Y. Tsai, D. Douglas, R. Li, and C. Tennant, Linear microbunching analysis for recirculation machines, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 19, 114401 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.19.114401]. The example lattices include low-energy (˜100 MeV ) and high-energy (˜1 GeV ) recirculation arcs, and medium-energy compressor arcs. Our studies show that lattices satisfying the proposed conditions indeed have microbunching gain suppressed. Beam current dependences of maximal CSR microbunching gains are also demonstrated, which should help outline a beam line design for different scales of nominal currents. We expect this analysis can shed light on the lattice design approach that aims to control the CSR-induced microbunching.

  2. The potential use of constructed wetlands in a recirculating aquaculture system for shrimp culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Y.-F.; Jing, S.-R.; Lee, D.-Y

    2003-05-01

    Constructed wetlands improved water qualities and consequently increased the shrimp growth and survival in a recirculating system. - A pilot-scale constructed wetland unit, consisting of free water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SF) constructed wetlands arranged in series, was integrated into an outdoor recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) for culturing Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). This study evaluated the performance of the wetland unit in treating the recirculating wastewater and examined the effect of improvement in water quality of the culture tank on the growth and survival of shrimp postlarvae. During an 80-day culture period, the wetland unit operated at a mean hydraulic loading rate of 0.3 m/day and effectively reduced the influent concentrations of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD{sub 5}, 24%), suspended solids (SS, 71%), chlorophyll a (chl-a, 88%), total ammonium (TAN, 57%), nitrite nitrogen (NO{sub 2}-N, 90%) and nitrate nitrogen (NO{sub 3}-N, 68%). Phosphate (PO{sub 4}-P) reduction was the least efficient (5.4%). The concentrations of SS, Chl-a, turbidity and NO{sub 3}-N in the culture tank water in RAS were significantly (P{<=}0.05) lower than those in a control aquaculture system (CAS) that simulated static pond culture without wetland treatment. However, no significant difference (P{<=}0.05) in BOD{sub 5}, TAN and NO{sub 2}-N was found between the two systems. At the end of the study, the harvest results showed that shrimp weight and survival rate in the RAS (3.8{+-}1.8 g/shrimp and 90%) significantly (P{<=}0.01) exceeded those in the CAS (2.3{+-}1.5 g/shrimp and 71%). This study concludes that constructed wetlands can improve the water quality and provide a good culture environment, consequently increasing the shrimp growth and survival without water exchange, in a recirculating system.

  3. Experimental Bleaching of a Reef-Building Coral Using a Simplified Recirculating Laboratory Exposure System

    OpenAIRE

    Barron, Mace G.; Cheryl J. McGill; Courtney, Lee A.; Marcovich, Dragoslav T

    2010-01-01

    Determining stressor-response relationships in reef building corals continues to be a critical research need due to global declines in coral reef ecosystems and projected declines for the future. A simplified recirculating coral exposure system was coupled to a solar simulator to allow laboratory testing of a diversity of species and morphologies of reef building corals under ecologically relevant conditions of temperature and solar radiation. Combinations of lamps and attenuating filters al...

  4. Mechanical design of the recirculating, terminal pumping in the Lund Pelletron, and experimental experience

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Hellborg; K Håkansson; M Faarinen; M Kiisk; P Persson; G Skog; K Stenström

    2002-11-01

    A recirculating terminal pumping system has been installed in the 3 MV Pelletron tandem accelerator in Lund. An extremly limited space in the high voltage terminal and the absence of electrical power in the terminal, forced us to provide a unique design for the installation and powering of the new pumps. Details of the technical design, as well as experience of the use of the new system for accelerator mass spectrometry, will be given.

  5. Blood smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some red blood cells shaped like spheres ( hereditary spherocytosis ) Increased breakdown of RBCs Presence of RBCs with ... normal Red blood cells, elliptocytosis Red blood cells, spherocytosis Acute lymphocytic leukemia - photomicrograph Red blood cells, multiple ...

  6. Blood culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  7. Blood Thinners

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have some kinds of heart or blood vessel disease, or if you have poor blood flow to your brain, your doctor may recommend that you take a blood thinner. Blood thinners reduce the risk of heart ...

  8. Blood transfusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000431.htm Blood transfusions To use the sharing features on this ... several sources of blood which are described below. Blood From the Public (Volunteer Blood Donation) The most ...

  9. Computations of longitudinal electron dynamics in the recirculating cw RF accelerator-recuperator for the high average power FEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, A. S.; Vinokurov, N. A.

    1994-03-01

    The use of optimal longitudinal phase-energy motion conditions for bunched electrons in a recirculating RF accelerator gives the possibility to increase the final electron peak current and, correspondingly, the FEL gain. The computer code RECFEL, developed for simulations of the longitudinal compression of electron bunches with high average current, essentially loading the cw RF cavities of the recirculator-recuperator, is briefly described and illustrated by some computational results.

  10. Mixer assembly for a gas turbine engine having a pilot mixer with a corner flame stabilizing recirculation zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhongtao (Inventor); Cohen, Jeffrey M. (Inventor); Fotache, Catalin G. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A mixer assembly for a gas turbine engine is provided, including a main mixer, and a pilot mixer having an annular housing in which a corner is formed between an aft portion of the housing and a bulkhead wall in which a corner recirculation zone is located to stabilize and anchor the flame of the pilot mixer. The pilot mixer can further include features to cool the annular housing, including in the area of the corner recirculation zone.

  11. Advanced Horizontal Well Recirculation Systems for Geothermal Energy Recovery in Sedimentary and Crystalline Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, Mike S. [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); Detwiler, Russell L. [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); Lao, Kang [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); Serajian, Vahid [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); Elkhoury, Jean [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); Diessl, Julia [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); White, Nicky [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada)

    2012-12-13

    There is increased recognition that geothermal energy resources are more widespread than previously thought, with potential for providing a significant amount of sustainable clean energy worldwide. Recent advances in drilling, completion, and production technology from the oil and gas industry can now be applied to unlock vast new geothermal resources, with some estimates for potential electricity generation from geothermal energy now on the order of 2 million megawatts. The primary objectives of this DOE research effort are to develop and document optimum design configurations and operating practices to produce geothermal power from hot permeable sedimentary and crystalline formations using advanced horizontal well recirculation systems. During Phase I of this research project Terralog Technologies USA and The University of California, Irvine (UCI), have completed preliminary investigations and documentation of advanced design concepts for paired horizontal well recirculation systems, optimally configured for geothermal energy recovery in permeable sedimentary and crystalline formations of varying structure and material properties. We have also identified significant geologic resources appropriate for application of such technology. The main challenge for such recirculation systems is to optimize both the design configuration and the operating practices for cost-effective geothermal energy recovery. These will be strongly influenced by sedimentary formation properties, including thickness and dip, temperature, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, permeability, and porosity; and by working fluid properties.

  12. Biofouling reduction in recirculating cooling systems through biofiltration of process water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesters, K P H; Van Groenestijn, J W; Gerritse, J

    2003-02-01

    Biofouling is a serious problem in industrial recirculating cooling systems. It damages equipment, through biocorrosion, and causes clogging and increased energy consumption, through decreased heat transfer. In this research a fixed-bed biofilter was developed which removed assimilable organic carbon (AOC) from process water, thus limiting the major substrate for the growth of biofouling. The biofilter was tested in a laboratory model recirculating cooling water system, including a heat exchanger and a cooling tower. A second identical model system without a biofilter served as a reference. Both installations were challenged with organic carbon (sucrose and yeast extract) to provoke biofouling. The biofilter improved the quality of the recirculating cooling water by reducing the AOC content, the ATP concentration, bacterial numbers (30-40 fold) and the turbidity (OD660). The process of biofouling in the heat exchangers, the process water pipelines and the cooling towers, was monitored by protein increase, heat transfer resistance, and chlorine demanded for maintenance. This revealed that biofouling was lower in the system with the biofilter compared to the reference installation. It was concluded that AOC removal through biofiltration provides an attractive, environmental-friendly means to reduce biofouling in industrial cooling systems.

  13. A ZigBee Wireless Sensor Network for Monitoring an Aquaculture Recirculating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Espinosa-Faller

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A ZigBee wireless sensor network was developed for monitoring an experimental aquaculture recirculating system.Temperature, dissolved oxygen, water and air pressure as well as electric current sensors were included in the setup.The high fish densities required in these systems to become economically viable present a case where sensornetworks can be applied to preserve a healthy livestock and to reduce the risk of failures that end up in the loss ofproduction. Modules for reading and transmitting sensor values through a ZigBee wireless network were developedand tested. The modules were installed in an aquaculture recirculating system to transmit sensor values to thenetwork coordinator. A monitoring program was created in order to display and store sensor values and to comparethem with reference limits. An alert is emitted in case reference limits have been reached. E-mail and an SMSmessage alert can also be sent to the cellular phone of the system administrator, so immediate action can be taken. Aweb interface allows Internet access to the sensor values. The present work demonstrates the applicability of ZigBeewireless sensor network technology to aquaculture recirculating systems.

  14. Investigation of a combined gas-steam system with flue gas recirculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmielniak Tadeusz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents changes in the operating parameters of a combined gas-steam cycle with a CO2 capture installation and flue gas recirculation. Parametric equations are solved in a purpose-built mathematical model of the system using the Ebsilon Professional code. Recirculated flue gases from the heat recovery boiler outlet, after being cooled and dried, are fed together with primary air into the mixer and then into the gas turbine compressor. This leads to an increase in carbon dioxide concentration in the flue gases fed into the CO2 capture installation from 7.12 to 15.7%. As a consequence, there is a reduction in the demand for heat in the form of steam extracted from the turbine for the amine solution regeneration in the CO2 capture reactor. In addition, the flue gas recirculation involves a rise in the flue gas temperature (by 18 K at the heat recovery boiler inlet and makes it possible to produce more steam. These changes contribute to an increase in net electricity generation efficiency by 1%. The proposed model and the obtained results of numerical simulations are useful in the analysis of combined gas-steam cycles integrated with carbon dioxide separation from flue gases.

  15. Performance of the Full-scale Loop Hybrid Reactor Treating Coal Gasification Wastewater under Different Recirculation Modes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Zhao; Hongjun Han; Fang Fang; Wang Bing

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the simultaneous removal efficiencies of both COD and nitrogen in a single reactor treating coal gasification wastewater ( CGW ) . A novel loop hybrid reactor was developed and operated under different recirculation modes in order to achieve simultaneous removal of refractory compounds and total nitrogen ( TN) in a full⁃scale CGW treatment plant. Mid⁃ditch recirculation was superior to other operational modes in terms of the NH3⁃N and TN removal, resulting in a TN removal efficiency of 52. 3%. Although the system achieved equal COD removal rates under different recirculation modes, hydrophobic acid ( HPO⁃A) fraction of effluent dissolved organic matter ( DOMef) in mid⁃ditch recirculation mode accounted for 35.7%, compared to the proportions of 59. 2%, 45. 3% and 39. 4% for the other modes. The ultraviolet absorbance to dissolved organic carbon ratio test revealed that effluent under mid⁃ditch recirculation mode contained more non⁃aromatic hydrophilic components. Furthermore, appropriate recirculation and anoxic/oxic ( A/O) partitions were also demonstrated to remove some refractory metabolites ( phenols, alkanes, aniline, etc.), which reduced the chromaticity and improved the biodegradability.

  16. Approaches for Controlling the Level in Water/steam Separators of a DSG Solar Field Configured in Recirculation Mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenzuela, L.; Zarza, E.; Leon, J.

    2006-07-01

    The DISS plant located at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) serves as test bed to investigate under real solar conditions the direct steam generation (DSG) in a parabolic trough collectors field working as the boiler and superheater of a Rankine steam cycle. This solar field can be configured in different operation modes (recirculation, once-TROUGH and injection modes) being the recirculation mode the most efficient from the stability and control points of view. Within the INDITEP project, financed by the EU Commission (2002-2005), one of the tasks performed has been testing new components for the solar field with the system configured in recirculation mode. One disadvantage of this configuration is the cost of the facility; it is needed a middle water-steam separator in the solar field, which separates evaporation and superheating sections, and a recirculation pump. Reduction of the liquid inventory in the process, i.e. the volume of the middle separator tank, will reduce the cost and parasitic loads of the solar field but it requires an efficient control of the liquid level inside the separator and, with the current layout of the solar field, that means an efficient control of the inlet water flow to the solar field, affecting also to the recirculation ratio (ratio between the recirculation flow and feed water flow) established for nominal conditions. The paper presents simulation and experimental results obtained using different classical and advanced control strategies. (Author)

  17. The recirculation of the intermediate western boundary current at the Tubarão Bight - Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Vladimir S.; Mill, Guilherme N.; Gabioux, Mariela; Grossmann-Matheson, Guisela S.; Paiva, Afonso M.

    2017-02-01

    Lagrangian floats and current meter measurements from two moored arrays are analyzed, in combination with altimetry data, in order to investigate the recirculation of Antarctic Intermediate Waters (AAIW), and of the Intermediate Western Boundary Current (IWBC) at the Tubarão Bight, in the vicinity of the Vitória-Trindade Ridge (VTR), Brazil. Results from a high-resolution numerical simulation provide a complementary view of the flow at intermediate and surface levels. The data depict a topographically-induced cyclonic recirculation at intermediate levels, and five Argo floats are successively trapped inside the bight for two-and-a-half years, performing a total of 10 closed clockwise gyres during this period of time. In situ measurements at the western side of the bight show an intense alongshore flow at intermediate levels, with averaged velocities at 800 m of 30 cm/s, and peak velocities exceeding 50 cm/s, magnitudes comparable to the Brazil Current (BC) flow at surface levels. The recirculation extends from at least 1000 m deep up to 370 m, reaching sometimes depths as shallow as 150 m, but is mostly uncoupled from the surface flow during the one-and-a-half year long current meter record. Three different flow patterns are observed, and simulated, at surface levels inside the bight during the time the recirculation is well established at intermediate levels: a shallow cyclonic circulation, somewhat akin to the Vitória Eddy; a recurrent anticyclonic flow that encompasses the entire bight; and a southwestward-oriented circulation, associated with the BC being reorganized in a coherent flow after negotiating its way through the VTR channels. A significant portion (about 50% according to the model) of the inflow of intermediate waters recirculates, enhancing the flow of the IWBC within the bight, and increasing the age of AAIW that will eventually cross the VTR on its way to lower latitudes. Although the data are not conclusive about a preferential pathway of the

  18. Two Devices for Removing Sludge From Bioreactor Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Shivaun; Hitchens, G. DUncan; Jabs, Harry; Cross, Jennifer; Pilkinton, Michelle; Taylor, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Two devices a magnetic separator and a special filter denoted a self-regenerating separator (SRS) have been developed for separating sludge from the stream of wastewater from a bioreactor. These devices were originally intended for use in microgravity, but have also been demonstrated to function in normal Earth gravity. The magnetic separator (see Figure 1) includes a thin-walled nonmagnetic, stainless-steel cylindrical drum that rotates within a cylindrical housing. The wastewater enters the separator through a recirculation inlet, and about 80 percent of the wastewater flow leaves through a recirculation outlet. Inside the drum, a magnet holder positions strong permanent magnets stationary and, except near a recirculation outlet, close to the inner drum surface. To enable magnetic separation, magnetite (a ferromagnetic and magnetically soft iron oxide) powder is mixed into the bioreactor wastewater. The magnetite becomes incorporated into the sludge by condensation, onto the powder particles, of microbe flocks that constitute the sludge. As a result, the magnets inside the drum magnetically attract the sludge onto the outer surface of the drum.

  19. 21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section 864...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7100 Red blood cell enzyme assay. (a) Identification. Red blood cell enzyme assay is a device used to measure the activity...

  20. Photovoltaic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, Jason A; Keenihan, James R; Gaston, Ryan S; Kauffmann, Keith L; Langmaid, Joseph A; Lopez, Leonardo; Maak, Kevin D; Mills, Michael E; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R

    2017-03-21

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly and a body portion joined at an interface region and including an intermediate layer, at least one interconnecting structural member, relieving feature, unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  1. Photovoltaic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-06-02

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly and a body portion joined at an interface region and including an intermediate layer, at least one interconnecting structural member, relieving feature, unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  2. Photovoltaic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-09-01

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device (10) with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly (100) and a body portion (200) joined at an interface region (410) and including an intermediate layer (500), at least one interconnecting structural member (1500), relieving feature (2500), unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  3. 21 CFR 864.9145 - Processing system for frozen blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processing system for frozen blood. 864.9145... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9145 Processing system for frozen blood. (a) Identification. A processing system for frozen blood is a device used to glycerolize red blood cells prior to freezing to...

  4. Blood Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tests and Procedures Blood donation By Mayo Clinic Staff Blood donation is a voluntary procedure. You agree to have blood drawn so that it can ... have a disease that requires blood components. Blood donation makes all of this possible. There are several ...

  5. Development of a large recirculating boundary-layer wind tunnel%大型回流边界层风洞研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余世策; 蒋建群; 楼文娟; 孙炳楠

    2014-01-01

    风洞是风工程与空气动力学领域的重要实验装备。以浙江大学ZD-1边界层风洞的研制为背景,详细介绍了大型回流边界层风洞的技术参数确定、气动轮廓及立式结构设计方案、附属装置、动力控制系统、风洞维护方案、监控系统等内容,并对风洞建设与运行情况进行了说明。实践证明,大型回流边界层风洞的研制是成功的,可为今后类似风洞的研制提供参考。%The wind tunnel is an important experimental device in the field of wind engineering and aerodynamics . Taking the development of Zhejiang University ZD-1 boundary-layer wind tunnel as the background ,the technical requirement ,aerodynamic contour and vertical structure plan ,accessory facilities , power control system ,maintenance system and monitoring system of the large recirculating boundary-layer wind tunnel are introduced in detail .The wind tunnel construction process and operation situation are also described .Experience has proved that the development of a large recirculating boundary-layer wind tunnel is successful ,and it provides a reference for the design and construction of similar wind tunnels .

  6. 21 CFR 864.7500 - Whole blood hemoglobin assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole blood hemoglobin assays. 864.7500 Section... blood hemoglobin assays. (a) Identification. A whole blood hemoglobin assay is a device consisting or... hemoglobin content of whole blood for the detection of anemia. This generic device category does not...

  7. Donating Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can't get an infection or disease from giving blood. The needles and other equipment used are sterile ... part of blood (plasma) within 72 hours after giving blood. It generally takes about 4–8 weeks to ...

  8. One- and two-phase anaerobic digestion of ley crop silage with and without liquid recirculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordberg, Aa.

    1996-10-01

    In this study the effects of liquid recirculation on hydrolysis and methanogenesis in one- and two-phase biogas processes were investigated in comparison with water-diluted processes. The operation of a water-diluted one-phase process resulted in process imbalances at a low loading rate. In a water-diluted two-phase process the fibre degrading capability was lost. The reason for the poor process performance was due to a deficiency in trace elements, since the supplementation of cobalt resulted in an increased conversion rate of acetate. The recirculation of process liquid resulted in an accumulation of different compounds which initially stabilized one-phase processes and stimulated the hydrolysis and the methane production in the liquefaction-acidogenesis stage of a two-phase process. However, upon continuous recirculation the concentration of free ammonia reached toxic levels, which resulted in a decrease in the methane yield both in the methanogenic reactor of the two-phase process and in the one-phase process. Due to the decreased methane production, acids started to accumulate which subsequently inhibited the hydrolysis in the one-phase process. The systematic variation in the processes were evaluated using principal component analysis and principal component regression. The interpretation of the dynamic behaviour of the processes was facilitated by the use of score plots and loading plots. The results indicate that ley crops do not meet the nutrient requirements of the bacteria in anaerobic digestion. Thus, the low content of trace elements and the high content of protein which subsequently will cause toxic levels of ammonia in digesting system with low water consumption, suggests co-digestion with supplementary feedstocks. 95 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  9. Cost-utility of molecular adsorbent recirculating system treatment in acute liver failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taru; Kantola; Suvi; Mklin; Anna-Maria; Koivusalo; Pirjo; Rsnen; Anne; Rissanen; Risto; Roine; Harri; Sintonen; Krister; Hckerstedt; Helena; Isoniemi

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To determine the short-term cost-utility of mo-lecular adsorbent recirculating system(MARS) treatment in acute liver failure(ALF).METHODS:A controlled retrospective study was conducted with 90 ALF patients treated with MARS from 2001 to 2005.Comparisons were made with a historical control group of 17 ALF patients treated from 2000 to 2001 in the same intensive care unit(ICU) specializing in liver diseases.The 3-year outcomes and number of liver transplantations were recorded.All direct liver disease-rel...

  10. Reduction of indoor particles concentration using re-circulating filtration units in Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spilak, Michal; Frederiksen, Marie; Karottki, Gabriela D.;

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to particulate matter has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. The indoor environment contributes significantly to the total exposure to air pollution because of the many hours spent here, quantity of sources and low ventilation....... This exposure can be reduced by using re-circulating filtration units, limiting the impact of outdoor pollution penetration, indoor emissions and decomposition of dust on heated surfaces. The objective of this study was to investigate whether reducing the indoor particulate concentration, by means of specially...

  11. Characterising organic matter in recirculating aquaculture systems with fluorescence EEM spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hambly, Adam; Arvin, Erik; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming;

    2015-01-01

    The potential of recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) in the aquaculture industry is increasingly being acknowledged. Along with intensified application, the need to better characterise and understand the accumulated dissolved organic matter (DOM) within these systems increases. Mature RASs...... there was considerable variation between the five fluorescence components with respect to the degree of accumulation with feed loading. The five components were found to originate from three sources: the feed; the influent tap water (groundwater); and processes related to the fish and the water treatment system...

  12. An Rf-gun-driven recirculated linac as injector and FEL driver.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, A.; Biedron, S.; Eriksson, M.; Freund, H.; Werin, S.

    1999-08-23

    A new pre-injector for the MAX-Laboratory is under design and construction. A thermionic rf gun, designed to operate at medium currents with low back bombardment power, is under construction. The gun will, via a magnetic compressor and energy filter, feed a recirculated linac consisting of two SLED-equipped structures giving 125 MeV each. The first will be delivered in 1999. The system is aimed as a pre-injector for the existing storage rings at MAX-Lab, but will also open up possibilities for a SASE FEL in the UV reaching above 100 MW below 100 run.

  13. Improved optical packet switching structure with recirculation buffer and feedback tunable wavelength converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Wu; Shilin Xiao

    2009-01-01

    The performance of an optical switching network is mainly determined by its core node structure.An improved optical packet switching(OPS)node structure based on recirculation optical fiber delay line(FDL)and feedback tunable wavelength converter(TWC),and a specific scheduling algorithm for the node structure are presented.This switching structure supports both point-to-point and point-to-multi-points broadcasting transmission with superior capacity expansion performance.Its superiority in packet loss probability is proved by simulation.

  14. Alternative Solution for Consumption Hot Water Recirculation for the Civil Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodor Mateescu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The sanitary comfort and the effective cost of maintenance in the civil buildings (block of flats are badly affected by the absence of the consumption hot water recirculation. From the technical point of view, the classical solution imposes the doubling of the transport and distribution pipes on the entire route, between the source and the consumption points. The materialization of the solution requires important financial investment, discouraging most of the time and the postponement of the problem solving with important consequences. This paper proposes an alternative technical solution which limits to a minimum the intervention, only in the interior hot water distribution system.

  15. Anaerobic Digestion of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste With Recirculation of Process Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, H.; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2001-01-01

    A new concept of a wet anaerobic digestion treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is investigated. Once the waste is diluted with water, the entire liquid fraction of the effluent is recirculated and used as process water for dilution of the waste. This enables a well......-mixed process without additional water supply. A methane yield of 400 and 445 ml/gVS from OFMSW was achieved in batch and reactor experiments, respectively. Reactor performance with 15 days retention time and an organic loading rate of 4.5 gVS/ld was stable with low VFA concentrations and a VS reduction of 70...

  16. A Study of NO{sub x} Reduction by Fuel Injection Recirculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feese, J.J.; Turns, S.R.

    1996-08-01

    Flue-gas recirculation (FGR) is a well-known method used to control oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub X}) in industrial burner applications. Recent small- and large-scale experiments in natural-gas fired boilers have shown that introducing the recirculated flue gases with the fuel results in a much greater reduction in NO{sub X}, per unit mass of gas recirculated, in comparison to introducing the flue gases with the combustion air. That fuel injection recirculation (FIR) is more effective than windbox FGR is quite remarkable. At present, however, there is no definitive understanding of why FIR is more effective than conventional FGR. The objective of the present investigation is to ascertain whether or not chemical and/or molecular transport effects alone can explain the differences in NO{sub X} reduction observed between FIR and FGR by studying laminar diffusion flames. The purpose of studying laminar flames is to isolate chemical effects from the effects of turbulent mixing and heat transfer, which are inherent in practical boilers. Numerical simulations of H{sub 2}-air and CH{sub 4}-air counterflow diffusion flames using full kinetics were performed and NO{sub X} emission indices calculated for various conditions. Studies were conducted in which a N{sub 2} diluent was added either on the fuel- or air-side of the flame for conditions of either fixed initial velocities or fixed fuel mass flux. Results from these simulation studies indicate that a major factor in diluent effectiveness is the differential effect on flame zone residence times associated with fuel-side verses air-side dilution. Simulations in which flow velocities were fixed as diluent was added either to the air or fuel stream showed lower NO{sub X} emissions for air-side dilution; however, if instead, fuel mass fluxes were fixed as diluent was added, which results in an increase in the velocity of the streams, fuel-side dilution was more effective. These results were independent of whether H{sub 2} or Ch

  17. An advanced anaerobic biofilter with effluent recirculation for phenol removal and methane production in treatment of coal gasification wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yajie; Tabassum, Salma; Zhang, Zhenjia

    2016-09-01

    An advanced anaerobic biofilter (AF) was introduced for the treatment of coal gasification wastewater (CGW), and effluent recirculation was adopted to enhance phenol removal and methane production. The results indicated that AF was reliable in treating diluted CGW, while its efficiency and stability were seriously reduced when directly treating raw CGW. However, its performance could be greatly enhanced by effluent recirculation. Under optimal effluent recirculation of 0.5 to the influent, concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phenol in the effluent could reach as low as 234.0 and 14.2mg/L, respectively. Also, the rate of methane production reached 169.0mLCH4/L/day. Though CGW seemed to restrain the growth of anaerobic microorganisms, especially methanogens, the inhibition was temporary and reversible, and anaerobic bacteria presented strong tolerance. The activities of methanogens cultivated in CGW could quickly recover on feeding with glucose wastewater (GW). However, the adaptability of anaerobic bacteria to the CGW was very poor and the activity of methanogens could not be improved by long-term domestication. By analysis using the Haldane model, it was further confirmed that high effluent recirculation could result in high activity for hydrolytic bacteria and substrate affinity for toxic matters, but only suitable effluent recirculation could result in high methanogenic activity.

  18. Efficiency analysis of a hydrogen-fueled solid oxide fuel cell system with anode off-gas recirculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Roland; Deja, Robert; Engelbracht, Maximilian; Frank, Matthias; Nguyen, Van Nhu; Blum, Ludger; Stolten, Detlef

    2016-10-01

    This study analyzes different hydrogen-fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system layouts. It begins with a simple system layout without any anode off-gas recirculation, continues with a configuration equipped with off-gas recirculation, including steam condensation and then considers a layout with a dead-end anode off-gas loop. Operational parameters such as stack fuel utilization, as well as the recirculation rate, are modified, with the aim of achieving the highest efficiency values. Drawing on experiments and the accumulated experience of the SOFC group at the Forschungszentrum Jülich, a set of operational parameters were defined and applied to the simulations. It was found that anode off-gas recirculation, including steam condensation, improves electrical efficiency by up to 11.9 percentage-points compared to a layout without recirculation of the same stack fuel utilization. A system layout with a dead-end anode off-gas loop was also found to be capable of reaching electrical efficiencies of more than 61%.

  19. Anode gas recirculation for improving the performance and cost of a 5-kW solid oxide fuel cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Ryohei; Tachikawa, Yuya; Sasaki, Kazunari; Ito, Kohei

    2016-09-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have the potential to efficiently convert chemical energy into electricity and heat and are expected to be implemented in stationary combined heat and power (CHP) systems. This paper presents the heat balance analysis for a 5-kW medium-sized integrated SOFC system and the evaluation of the effect of anode gas recirculation on the system performance. The risk of carbon deposition on an SOFC anode due to anode gas recirculation is also assessed using the C-H-O diagram obtained from thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. These results suggest that a higher recirculation ratio increases net fuel utilization and improves the electrical efficiency of the SOFC system. Furthermore, cost simulation of the SOFC system and comparison with the cost of electricity supply by a power grid indicates that the capital cost is sufficiently low to popularize the SOFC system in terms of the total cost over one decade.

  20. Optimizing cost and minimizing energy loss in the recirculating race-track design of the LHeC electron linac

    CERN Document Server

    Skrabacz, J

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this project is to propose an optimal design of a recirculating electron linac for a future LHC-based e-p collider_the LHeC [1, 2]. Primary considerations are the cost, structure, shape, and size of the recirculating track, the optimal number of revolutions through which the e-beam should be accelerated, and radiative energy loss in the bends. Secondary considerations are transverse emittance growth due to radiation, the number of dipoles needed in order to maintain an upper bound on the emittance growth, the average length of such dipoles, and the maximum bending dipole field needed to recirculate the beam. These effects will be studied macroscopically with respect to the overall structure, in that smaller effects related to machine optics of the lattice structure will be neglected. The scope of the optimization problem is, in essence, a "first order" insight into optimal dimensions, centered on minimizing the most important parameter_cost.

  1. Medical device-induced thrombosis: what causes it and how can we prevent it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffer, I H; Fredenburgh, J C; Hirsh, J; Weitz, J I

    2015-06-01

    Blood-contacting medical devices, such as vascular grafts, stents, heart valves, and catheters, are often used to treat cardiovascular diseases. Thrombus formation is a common cause of failure of these devices. This study (i) examines the interface between devices and blood, (ii) reviews the pathogenesis of clotting on blood-contacting medical devices, (iii) describes contemporary methods to prevent thrombosis on blood-contacting medical devices, (iv) explains why some anticoagulants are better than others for prevention of thrombosis on medical devices, and (v) identifies future directions in biomaterial research for prevention of thrombosis on blood-contacting medical devices.

  2. Effect of flue gas recirculation on heat transfer in a supercritical circulating fluidized bed combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błaszczuk Artur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on assessment of the effect of flue gas recirculation (FGR on heat transfer behavior in 1296t/h supercritical coal-fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB combustor. The performance test in supercritical CFB combustor with capacity 966 MWth was performed with the low level of flue gas recirculation rate 6.9% into furnace chamber, for 80% unit load at the bed pressure of 7.7 kPa and the ratio of secondary air to the primary air SA/PA = 0.33. Heat transfer behavior in a supercritical CFB furnace between the active heat transfer surfaces (membrane wall and superheater and bed material has been analyzed for Geldart B particle with Sauter mean diameters of 0.219 and 0.246 mm. Bed material used in the heat transfer experiments had particle density of 2700 kg/m3. A mechanistic heat transfer model based on cluster renewal approach was used in this work. A heat transfer analysis of CFB combustion system with detailed consideration of bed-to-wall heat transfer coefficient distributions along furnace height is investigated. Heat transfer data for FGR test were compared with the data obtained for representative conditions without recycled flue gases back to the furnace through star-up burners.

  3. Fuzzy Control of Nitrate Recirculation and External Carbon Addition in A/O Nitrogen Removal Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马勇; 彭永臻; 王淑莹; 王晓莲

    2005-01-01

    Nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations of effluent water must be taken into account for the design and operation of wastewater treatment plants. In addition, the requirement for effluent quality is becoming strict.Therefore, intelligent control approaches are recently required in removing biological nutrient. In this study, fuzzy control has been successfully applied to improve the nitrogen removal. Experimental results showed that a close relationship between nitrate concentration and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) at the end of anoxic zone was found for anoxic/oxic (A/O) nitrogen removal process treating synthetic wastewater. ORP can be used as online fuzzy control parazneter of nitrate recirculation and external carbon addition. The established fuzzy logic controller that includes two inputs and one output can maintain ORP value at-86 mV and -90 mV by adjusting the nitrate recirculation flow and external carbon dosage respectively to realize the optimal control of nitrogen removal, improving the effluent quality and reducing the operating cost.

  4. Conceptual design of the cryogenic system and estimation of the recirculated power for CFETR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaogang; Qiu, Lilong; Li, Junjun; Wang, Zhaoliang; Ren, Yong; Wang, Xianwei; Li, Guoqiang; Gao, Xiang; Bi, Yanfang

    2017-01-01

    The China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is the next tokamak in China’s roadmap for realizing commercial fusion energy. The CFETR cryogenic system is crucial to creating and maintaining operational conditions for its superconducting magnet system and thermal shields. The preliminary conceptual design of the CFETR cryogenic system has been carried out with reference to that of ITER. It will provide an average capacity of 75 to 80 kW at 4.5 K and a peak capacity of 1300 kW at 80 K. The electric power consumption of the cryogenic system is estimated to be 24 MW, and the gross building area is about 7000 m2. The relationships among the auxiliary power consumed by the cryogenic system, the fusion power gain and the recirculated power of CFETR are discussed, with the suggestion that about 52% of the electric power produced by CFETR in phase II must be recirculated to run the fusion test reactor.

  5. 2-Methylisoborneol and geosmin uptake by organic sludge derived from a recirculating aquaculture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttman, Lior; van Rijn, Jaap

    2009-02-01

    In a previous study on a recirculating fish culture system, levels of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol were found to decrease when culture water was recirculated through the anaerobic sludge digestion treatment stage of the system. This finding led us to the present study in which the geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol removal capacity of the sludge derived from this treatment stage was examined in vitro. It was found that reduction of off-flavor compounds by the sludge was mediated by both chemical/physical sorption and biological degradation. At geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol concentrations within the range of those experienced in fish culture systems, chemical/physical sorption by the sludge was found to account for a 93% reduction in geosmin and a 79% reduction in 2-methylisoborneol from the overlying water within 48h of incubation. Combined with the biological degradation taking place in the sludge, a complete removal of these compounds from the water phase occurred within 9 days of incubation. By means of repeated washing of the geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol contaminate sludge with clean water, relatively small amounts of these compounds were released from the sludge, a possible indication for the fact that absorption, rather than adsorption, underlies the chemical/physical removal process.

  6. Recirculation pump discharge line break tests at ROSA-III for a boiling water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, M.; Anoda, Y.; Kumamaru, H.; Nakamura, H.; Shiba, M.; Tasaka, K.

    1985-08-01

    Three loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) tests were conducted at the Rig of Safety Assessment (ROSA)-III test facility, which simulates boiling water reactor (BWR)/6-251 with a volumetric scaling factor of 1/424. The fundamental features of the recirculation pump discharge line break LOCA and the effects of break areas on the features are investigated. It has been confirmed experimentally that the LOCA phenomena in the discharge line break are analogous to those in the suction line break with the same effective choking flow area, which is a sum of the least choking flow areas along the break flow paths and controls the system pressure responses. In general, the maximum effective choking flow area is (A /SUB j/ + A /SUB p/ ) for discharge line breaks and (A /SUB j/ + A /SUB o/ ) for suction line breaks, where A /SUB j/ , A /SUB p/ , and A /SUB o/ are the flow areas of the jet pump drive nozzles, the main recirculation pump discharge nozzle, and the break, respectively. The similarity between the ROSA-III test and a BWR LOCA has been confirmed in the key phenomena by the analyses using the RELAP5/MOD1 code. An atypical behavior is observed in the fuel rod surface temperature transient in the early phase of blowdown due to the limitation of the ROSA-III initial core power.

  7. Mathematical modelling of nutrient balance of a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn. recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeep Puthravilakom Sadasivan Nair

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn. recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS has been developed. The GRAS consisted of a culture tank, a screen filter and a foam fractionator for removal of particulate and dissolved solids and a trickling filter for conversion of ammonium- and nitrite-nitrogen to relatively harmless nitrate-nitrogen. The culture of goldfish at a stocking density of 1.08 kg/m3 was continued for a period of two and half months. Based on mass balance analysis of ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen and assuming the trickling filter to be a plug flow reactor, a model was formulated to determine the necessary recirculation flow rate at different times of culture for maintaining the major nutrients, viz., ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen below their permissible limits. The model was calibrated and validated using the real time data obtained from the experimental run. The high values of coefficient of determination and low values of root mean square error show the effectiveness of the model.

  8. Constructions of Optical Queues With a Limited Number of Recirculations--Part II: Optimal Constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Xuan-Chao

    2010-01-01

    One of the main problems in all-optical packet-switched networks is the lack of optical buffers, and one feasible technology for the constructions of optical buffers is to use optical crossbar Switches and fiber Delay Lines (SDL). In this two-part paper, we consider SDL constructions of optical queues with a limited number of recirculations through the optical switches and the fiber delay lines. Such a problem arises from practical feasibility considerations. In Part I, we have proposed a class of greedy constructions for certain types of optical queues, including linear compressors, linear decompressors, and 2-to-1 FIFO multiplexers, and have shown that every optimal construction among our previous constructions of these types of optical queues under the constraint of a limited number of recirculations must be a greedy construction. In Part II, the present paper, we further show that there are at most two optimal constructions and give a simple algorithm to obtain the optimal construction(s). The main idea i...

  9. Association between trichodiniasis in eel ( Anguilla anguilla ) and water quality in recirculation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, H.C.K.; Buchmann, K.; Mellergaard, Stig

    2000-01-01

    Association between various water quality parameters and the infection level of Trichodina jadranica in cultured eels were examined in nine recirculation farms in Denmark. Production units suffering from trichodiniasis (n = 4) had relatively high contents of organic dry matter (13-65 mg l(-1)), l...... by reducing the content of organic dry matter in the process water. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved......Association between various water quality parameters and the infection level of Trichodina jadranica in cultured eels were examined in nine recirculation farms in Denmark. Production units suffering from trichodiniasis (n = 4) had relatively high contents of organic dry matter (13-65 mg l(-1)), low...... concentrations of nitrate (150-500 mg NO3 l(-1)) and high pH (6.2-7.4) in the process water compared to farms without Trichodina problems (n = 5), which had a relatively low load of organic dry matter (9-16 mg l(-1)), high nitrate concentration (250-900 mg NO3 l(-1)) and a low pH (5.3-6.9). More detailed studies...

  10. Experimental Gasification of Biomass in an Updraft Gasifier with External Recirculation of Pyrolysis Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Surjosatyo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The updraft gasifier is a simple type of reactor for the gasification of biomass that is easy to operate and has high conversion efficiency, although it produces high levels of tar. This study attempts to observe the performance of a modified updraft gasifier. A modified updraft gasifier that recirculates the pyrolysis gases from drying zone back to the combustion zone and gas outlet at reduction zone was used. In this study, the level of pyrolysis gases that returned to the combustion zone was varied, and as well as measurements of gas composition, lower heating value and tar content. The results showed that an increase in the amount of pyrolysis gases that returned to the combustion zone resulted in a decrease in the amount of tar produced. An increase in the amount of recirculated gases tended to increase the concentrations of H2 and CH4 and reduce the concentration of CO with the primary (gasification air flow held constant. Increasing the primary air flow tended to increase the amount of CO and decrease the amount of H2. The maximum of lower heating value was 4.9 MJ/m3.

  11. Effect of flue gas recirculation on heat transfer in a supercritical circulating fluidized bed combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczuk, Artur

    2015-09-01

    This paper focuses on assessment of the effect of flue gas recirculation (FGR) on heat transfer behavior in 1296t/h supercritical coal-fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustor. The performance test in supercritical CFB combustor with capacity 966 MWth was performed with the low level of flue gas recirculation rate 6.9% into furnace chamber, for 80% unit load at the bed pressure of 7.7 kPa and the ratio of secondary air to the primary air SA/PA = 0.33. Heat transfer behavior in a supercritical CFB furnace between the active heat transfer surfaces (membrane wall and superheater) and bed material has been analyzed for Geldart B particle with Sauter mean diameters of 0.219 and 0.246 mm. Bed material used in the heat transfer experiments had particle density of 2700 kg/m3. A mechanistic heat transfer model based on cluster renewal approach was used in this work. A heat transfer analysis of CFB combustion system with detailed consideration of bed-to-wall heat transfer coefficient distributions along furnace height is investigated. Heat transfer data for FGR test were compared with the data obtained for representative conditions without recycled flue gases back to the furnace through star-up burners.

  12. Recirculation zones induce non-Fickian transport in three-dimensional periodic porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crevacore, Eleonora; Tosco, Tiziana; Sethi, Rajandrea; Boccardo, Gianluca; Marchisio, Daniele L.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the influence of pore space geometry on solute transport in porous media is investigated performing computational fluid dynamics pore-scale simulations of fluid flow and solute transport. The three-dimensional periodic domains are obtained from three different pore structure configurations, namely, face-centered-cubic (fcc), body-centered-cubic (bcc), and sphere-in-cube (sic) arrangements of spherical grains. Although transport simulations are performed with media having the same grain size and the same porosity (in fcc and bcc configurations), the resulting breakthrough curves present noteworthy differences, such as enhanced tailing. The cause of such differences is ascribed to the presence of recirculation zones, even at low Reynolds numbers. Various methods to readily identify recirculation zones and quantify their magnitude using pore-scale data are proposed. The information gained from this analysis is then used to define macroscale models able to provide an appropriate description of the observed anomalous transport. A mass transfer model is applied to estimate relevant macroscale parameters (hydrodynamic dispersion above all) and their spatial variation in the medium; a functional relation describing the spatial variation of such macroscale parameters is then proposed.

  13. [Blood Count Specimen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Takako

    2015-12-01

    The circulating blood volume accounts for 8% of the body weight, of which 45% comprises cellular components (blood cells) and 55% liquid components. We can measure the number and morphological features of blood cells (leukocytes, red blood cells, platelets), or count the amount of hemoglobin in a complete blood count: (CBC). Blood counts are often used to detect inflammatory diseases such as infection, anemia, a bleeding tendency, and abnormal cell screening of blood disease. This count is widely used as a basic data item of health examination. In recent years, clinical tests before consultation have become common among outpatient clinics, and the influence of laboratory values on consultation has grown. CBC, which is intended to count the number of raw cells and to check morphological features, is easily influenced by the environment, techniques, etc., during specimen collection procedures and transportation. Therefore, special attention is necessary to read laboratory data. Providing correct test values that accurately reflect a patient's condition from the laboratory to clinical side is crucial. Inappropriate medical treatment caused by erroneous values resulting from altered specimens should be avoided. In order to provide correct test values, the daily management of devices is a matter of course, and comprehending data variables and positively providing information to the clinical side are important. In this chapter, concerning sampling collection, blood collection tubes, dealing with specimens, transportation, and storage, I will discuss their effects on CBC, along with management or handling methods.

  14. Pumps in wearable ultrafiltration devices: pumps in wuf devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armignacco, Paolo; Garzotto, Francesco; Bellini, Corrado; Neri, Mauro; Lorenzin, Anna; Sartori, Marco; Ronco, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The wearable artificial kidney (WAK) is a device that is supposed to operate like a real kidney, which permits prolonged, frequent, and continuous dialysis treatments for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Its functioning is mainly related to its pumping system, as well as to its dialysate-generating and alarm/shutoff ones. A pump is defined as a device that moves fluids by mechanical action. In such a context, blood pumps pull blood from the access side of the dialysis catheter and return the blood at the same rate of flow. The main aim of this paper is to review the current literature on blood pumps, describing the way they have been functioning thus far and how they are being engineered, giving details about the most important parameters that define their quality, thus allowing the production of a radar comparative graph, and listing ideal pumps' features.

  15. Cleaning and recirculation of perfluorohexane (C sub 6 F sub 1 sub 4) in the STAR-RICH detector

    CERN Document Server

    Andrés, Yu; Cozza, D; Davenport, M; De Cataldo, G; Dell-Olio, L; Di Bari, D; Di Mauro, A; Dunlop, J C; Finch, E; Fraissard, Daniel; Franco, A; Gans, J; Ghidini, B; Harris, J W; Horsley, M; Kunde, G J; Lasiuk, B; Lesenechal, Y; Majka, R D; Martinengo, P; Morsch, Andreas; Nappi, E; Paic, G; Piuz, François; Posa, F; Raynaud, J; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Santiard, Jean-Claude; Satinover, J; Schyns, E; Smirnov, N; Van Beelen, J; Williams, T D; Xu, Z

    2002-01-01

    A RICH detector with a CsI photo-cathode and liquid perfluorohexane radiator has been installed in the STAR experiment at RHIC. The liquid is continuously cleaned and distributed to a quartz containment vessel within the detector by a closed recirculation system. A VUV spectrometer is connected to the system which monitors the optical transparency of the liquid. This measurement provides one of the pieces of information necessary to model the number of Cherenkov photons which reach the pad plane. A description of the liquid recirculation system and the cleaning procedure for the liquid as well as the spectrometer is presented along with results of their performance.

  16. Development of a Turbulence-Resolving, Three-dimensional, Free Water Surface Numerical Model for Recirculation Eddies in Grand Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akahori, R.; Schmeeckle, M. W.

    2005-12-01

    In the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, sand bars, which are built in recirculation areas downstream of channel expansions are valuable resources, particularly as natural habitat for endangered native fish and recreation sites for recreation. Since the closure of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963, there has been a reduction in the size of recirculation eddy bars. Simulated floods in the Colorado after tributary flood sediment input from the Paria River are being investigated as a method of rebuilding recirculation eddy beaches. Time-averaged, two-dimensional (and quasi- three-dimensional) numerical models have been employed to predict deposition during these beach/habit-building test flows. However, behind channel expansion areas, flows are strongly three-dimensional and the cross-channel flow is driven primarily by upwelling boils along the eddy fence that are neither stationary in time or space. Furthermore, these strong vertical motions along the eddy fence preclude use of the hydrostatic assumption. In this study, a non-hydrostatic three-dimensional numerical model is presented in order to calculate flow velocity in channels having rapid channel expansions. This model employs the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulence modeling technique. LES uses spatial filtering to separate flows into gird scale and sub-gird scale rather than time averaging, thus it directly calculates large-scale turbulent motions. Also, this model employs a moving grid system and the Body Fitted Coordinate (BFC) system. These grid and coordinate systems allow the model to calculate time-dependent free water surface levels induced by large-scale turbulent motions. The model_fs calculation results are compared to existing experimental results of an open channel flow expansion in a laboratory flume. The comparison shows that the model succeeds to reproduce several key features of the flow, such as the temporally- and vertically-averaged horizontal recirculation eddy structure, and the time-averaged cross

  17. Artificial blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Suman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  18. Artificial blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Suman

    2008-07-01

    Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  19. Removal of urea in a wearable dialysis device: a reappraisal of electro-oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Maarten; Simonis, Frank; Lachkar, Nadia; Wodzig, Will K; Meuwissen, Frank J; Kooman, Jeroen P; Boer, Walther H; Joles, Jaap A; Gerritsen, Karin G

    2014-12-01

    A major challenge for a wearable dialysis device is removal of urea, as urea is difficult to adsorb while daily production is very high. Electro-oxidation (EO) seems attractive because electrodes are durable, small, and inexpensive. We studied the efficacy of urea oxidation, generation of chlorine by-products, and their removal by activated carbon (AC). EO units were designed. Three electrode materials (platinum, ruthenium oxide, and graphite) were compared in single pass experiments using urea in saline solution. Chlorine removal by AC in series with EO by graphite electrodes was tested. Finally, urea-spiked bovine blood was dialyzed and dialysate was recirculated in a dialysate circuit with AC in series with an EO unit containing graphite electrodes. Platinum electrodes degraded more urea (21 ± 2 mmol/h) than ruthenium oxide (13 ± 2 mmol/h) or graphite electrodes (13 ± 1 mmol/h). Chlorine generation was much lower with graphite (13 ± 4 mg/h) than with platinum (231 ± 22 mg/h) or ruthenium oxide electrodes (129 ± 12 mg/h). Platinum and ruthenium oxide electrodes released platinum (4.1 [3.9-8.1] umol/h) and ruthenium (83 [77-107] nmol/h), respectively. AC potently reduced dialysate chlorine levels to Urea was removed from blood by EO at constant rate (9.5 ± 1.0 mmol/h). EO by graphite electrodes combined with AC shows promising urea removal and chlorine release complying with Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation standards, and may be worth further exploring for dialysate regeneration in a wearable system.

  20. 21 CFR 864.9245 - Automated blood cell separator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated blood cell separator. 864.9245 Section... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9245 Automated blood cell separator. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell separator is a device that uses a centrifugal or filtration separation principle...

  1. Evaluation of a Shaker Dust Collector for Use in a Recirculating Ventilation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Thomas M; Sawvel, Russell A; Park, Jae Hong; Anthony, T Renée

    2015-01-01

    General ventilation with recirculated air may be cost-effective to control the concentration of low-toxicity, contaminants in workplaces with diffuse, dusty operations, such as in agriculture. Such systems are, however, rarely adopted with little evidence showing improved air quality and ability to operate under harsh conditions. The goal of this work was to examine the initial and long-term performance of a fabric-filter shaker dust collector (SDC) in laboratory tests and as deployed within a recirculating ventilation system in an agricultural building. In laboratory tests, collection efficiency and pressure drop were tracked over several filter loading cycles, and the recovery of filter capacity (pressure drop) from filter shaking was examined. Collection efficiencies of particles larger than 5 μm was high (>95%) even when the filter was pristine, showing effective collection of large particles that dominate inhalable concentrations typical of agricultural dusts. For respirable-sized particles, collection efficiencies were low when the filter was pristine (e.g., 27% for 1 μm) but much higher when a dust cake developed on the filter (>99% for all size particles), even after shaking (e.g., 90% for 1 μm). The first shake of a filter was observed to recovery a substantial fraction of filter capacity, with subsequent shakes providing little benefit. In field tests, the SDC performed effectively over a period of three months in winter when incorporated in a recirculating ventilation system of a swine farrowing room. Trends in collection efficiency and pressure drop with loading were similar to those observed in the laboratory with overall collection efficiencies high (>80%) when pressure drop exceeded 230 Pa, or 23% of the maximum loading recommended by the manufacturer. This work shows that the SDC can function effectively over the harsh winter in swine rearing operations. Together with findings of improved air quality in the farrowing room reported in a

  2. Ferroelectric devices

    CERN Document Server

    Uchino, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Updating its bestselling predecessor, Ferroelectric Devices, Second Edition assesses the last decade of developments-and setbacks-in the commercialization of ferroelectricity. Field pioneer and esteemed author Uchino provides insight into why this relatively nascent and interdisciplinary process has failed so far without a systematic accumulation of fundamental knowledge regarding materials and device development.Filling the informational void, this collection of information reviews state-of-the-art research and development trends reflecting nano and optical technologies, environmental regulat

  3. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or prevent blood clots from dissolving properly. Risk factors for excessive blood clotting include Certain genetic disorders Atherosclerosis Diabetes Atrial fibrillation Overweight, obesity, and metabolic syndrome Some medicines Smoking deep vein ...

  4. Blood Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to their work or home. The availability of plastic bags that can have one or more satellite bags ... in preparing the donated blood. The use of plastic bags allows the blood center to make a variety ...

  5. Cortisol and testosterone accumulation in a low pH recirculating aquaculture system for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mota, Vasco C.; Martins, Catarina I.M.; Eding, Ep H.; Canário, Adelino V.M.; Verreth, Johan A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Steroids accumulate in recirculating aquaculture system (RAS), although explanatory factors for such accumulation are still poorly explored. This study investigated the effect of water exchange rate and pH in six replicated RAS on the concentration of the stress hormone cortisol in rainbow trout blo

  6. Demonstration of Cascaded In-Line Single-Pump Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifiers in Recirculating Loop Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Ozolins, Oskars; An, Yi

    2012-01-01

    The performance of cascaded single-pump fiber optical parametric amplifiers (FOPAs) is experimentally studied for the first time using recirculating loop transmission with 80-km dispersion managed spans. Error-free performance has been achieved over 320 km for 40-Gbit/s CSRZ-OOK and CSRZ...

  7. End-to-end 9-D polarized bunch transport in eRHIC energy-recovery recirculator, some aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Brooks, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Ptitsyn, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Trbojevic, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Tsoupas, N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2015-05-03

    This paper is a brief overview of some of the numerous beam and spin dynamics investigations undertaken in the framework of the design of the FFAG based electron energy recovery re-circulator ring of the eRHIC electron-ion collider project

  8. The impact of water exchange rate on the health and performance of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in recirculation aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish mortality in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) has been observed by the authors to increase when RAS are managed at low makeup water exchange rates with relatively high feed loading. The precise etiology of this elevated mortality was unknown, all typical water quality parameters were wit...

  9. The effects of carbon dioxide on performance and histopathology of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in water recirculation aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic exposure to elevated levels of dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) has been linked to reduced growth, physiological disturbances and negative health outcomes in intensively reared fish. Although pumping to a degassing tower can lower concentrations of dissolved CO2 in water recirculation aquacult...

  10. Effect of inoculum addition modes and leachate recirculation on anaerobic digestion of solid cattle manure in an accumulation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Mashad, H.M.; Loon, van W.K.P.; Zeeman, G.; Bot, G.P.A.; Lettinga, G.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of both leachate recirculation (at 40 and 50 °C) and the mode of inoculum addition (at 50 °C) on the performance of a non-mixed accumulation (i.e. fed batch) system treating solid cattle wastes was investigated, using laboratory scale reactors at a filling time of 60 days. A relatively hi

  11. Preliminary studies on the depuration of common off-flavors from fish raised in recirculating aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    “Off-flavor” problems can adversely impact the growth of the aquaculture industry. Fish raised in recirculating systems have the potential to develop the common off-flavors “earthy” and “musty” due to accumulation of the microbial metabolites geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) in the fish flesh. ...

  12. The effect of aeration and recirculation on a sand-based hybrid constructed wetland treating low-strength domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapater-Pereyra, M; Kyomukama, E; Namakula, V; van Bruggen, J J A; Lens, P N L

    2016-08-01

    The Duplex-constructed wetland (CW) is a hybrid system composed of a vertical flow (VF) CW on top of a horizontal flow filter (HFF). Each compartment is designed to play a different role: aerobic treatment in the VF CW due to intermittent feeding and anoxic treatment in the HFF due to saturated conditions. Three Duplex-CWs were used in this study: Control, Aerated and Recirculating. The role of each compartment was tested for pollutant removal and micro-invertebrate abundance. In all systems, the VF CW removed mainly organic matter, solids and NH4(+)-N. Pathogens were removed in both compartments. Likewise, total nitrogen removal occurred in both compartments, only the Recirculating HFF was not able to denitrify the nitrogen due to the slightly more oxic conditions as compared to the other systems. All systems met discharge guidelines for organic matter, but only the Control and Aerated systems met those for total nitrogen. At the applied loading rates, the pollutant removal was not significantly enhanced by the use of aeration and recirculation. Therefore, operation as in the Control system, without aeration or recirculation, is recommended for the tested Duplex-CWs. If artificial aeration will be used in CWs, the support material should be carefully selected to allow a proper air distribution.

  13. The effect of sludge recirculation rate on a UASB-digester treating domestic sewage at 15 °C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Kampman, C.; Zeeman, G.; Temmink, B.G.; Weiguang Li,; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2012-01-01

    The anaerobic treatment of low strength domestic sewage at low temperature is an attractive and important topic at present. The upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB)-digester system is one of the anaerobic systems to challenge low temperature and concentrations. The effect of sludge recirculation rate

  14. Systemic granuloma observed in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar raised to market size in a freshwater recirculation aquaculture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Systemic granuloma was observed in sampled adult Atlantic salmon Salmo salar raised to harvest size in a freshwater recirculation aquaculture system. The prevalence of this condition was estimated at 10-20% of the population, with affected individuals grossly demonstrating pathology in varying degre...

  15. Control-Oriented Model of Molar Scavenge Oxygen Fraction for Exhaust Recirculation in Large Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kræn Vodder; Blanke, Mogens; Eriksson, Lars

    2016-01-01

    therefore focus on deriving and validating a mean-value model of a large two-stroke crosshead diesel engines with EGR. The model introduces a number of amendments and extensions to previous, complex models and shows in theory and practice that a simplified nonlinear model captures all essential dynamics...... the behavior of the scavenge oxygen fraction well over the entire envelope of load and blower speed range that are relevant for EGR. The simplicity of the new model makes it suitable for observer and control design, which are essential steps to meet the emission requirements for marine diesel engines that take......Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems have been introduced to large marine engines in order to reduce NOx formation. Adequate modelling for control design is one of the bottlenecks to design EGR control that also meets emission requirements during transient loading conditions. This paper...

  16. Effects of feed loading on nitrogen balances and fish performance in replicated recirculating aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Suhr, Karin Isabel; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang

    2012-01-01

    /L at steady state, and the concentration of nitrogenous compounds and organic matter were all positively correlated to feed loading.The TAN loading to the RAS from the specific feed type was assessed in a separate mass-balance study and used as input in a descriptive mathematical model (AQUASIM® software......This study investigated the effects of applying four fixed feed loadings to three replicated recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) on water quality changes, nitrogenous balances and growth performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).Feed loadings ranged from 1.6 to 6.3kgfeed/m3 make......) developed to simulate processes affecting N mass-balances in the RAS. Nitrification kinetic rate constants were applied to the biofilter, and fractions of nitrifiers in suspended solids in the water phase were estimated based on existing information from waste water treatment processes. Two model scenarios...

  17. Development of fluorocarbon evaporative cooling recirculators and controls for the ATLAS inner silicon tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Bayer, C; Bonneau, P; Bosteels, Michel; Burckhart, H J; Cragg, D; English, R; Hallewell, G D; Hallgren, Björn I; Ilie, S; Kersten, S; Kind, P; Langedrag, K; Lindsay, S; Merkel, M; Stapnes, Steinar; Thadome, J; Vacek, V

    2000-01-01

    We report on the development of evaporative fluorocarbon cooling recirculators and their control systems for the ATLAS inner silicon tracker. We have developed a prototype circulator using a dry, hermetic compressor with C/sub 3/F/sup 8/ refrigerant, and have prototyped the remote-control analog pneumatic links for the regulation of coolant mass flows and operating temperatures that will be necessary in the magnetic field and radiation environment around ATLAS. pressure and flow measurement and control use 150+ channels of standard ATLAS LMB ("Local Monitor Board") DAQ and DACs on a multi-drop CAN network administered through a BridgeVIEW user interface. A hardwired thermal interlock system has been developed to cut power to individual silicon modules should their temperatures exceed safe values. Highly satisfactory performance of the circulator under steady state, partial-load and transient conditions was seen, with proportional fluid flow tuned to varying circuit power. Future developments, including a 6 kW...

  18. Experiments on the formation of a recirculation zone in swirling coaxial jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, F. H.; Kromat, S.

    The near flow field of coaxial air jets, with swirl in the outer one, was studied using flow visualization and hot-wire anemometry. The flow is sensitive to both the swirl number and the mass flow ratio between the outer and inner jets. A necessary condition for the formation of an internal recirculation zone (IRZ) is that the swirl number must exceed a minimum value which depends on the mass flow ratio. Spectral analysis of the velocity fluctuations indicates that the formation of an IRZ in the present flow does not appear to be related to the growth of convective flow instabilities. Analysis of the flow visualization and X-wire data indicates that the vorticity dynamics model for vortex breakdown proposed by Brown and Lopez [J Fluid Mech (1990) 222: 553] provides a plausible mechanism for the formation of an IRZ in this flow.

  19. A feasibility study of a NBI photoneutralizer based on nonlinear gating laser recirculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassina, A.; Pretato, F.; Barbisan, M.; Giudicotti, L.; Pasqualotto, R.

    2016-02-01

    The neutralization efficiency of negative ion neutral beam injectors is a major issue for future fusion reactors. Photon neutralization might be a valid alternative to present gas neutralizers, but still with several challenges for a valid implementation. Some concepts have been presented so far but none has been validated yet. A novel photoneutralization concept is discussed here, based on an annular cavity and a duplicated frequency laser beam (recirculation injection by nonlinear gating). The choice of lithium triborate as the material for the second harmonic extractor is discussed and a possible cooling method via crystal slicing is presented; laser intensity enhancement within the cavity is evaluated in order to quantify the achievable neutralization rate. Mockups of the critical components are proposed as intermediate steps toward system realization.

  20. Experimental investigation of reactive turbulent recirculating jet mixing in a dump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. D.; Giel, T. V.; Catalano, C. G.

    1980-01-01

    A ducted, subsonic, hydrogen air turbulent jet mixing flowfield was investigated, both with and without combustion. The geometric configuration was representative of a sudden expansion or dump combustor, with a central air jet surrounded by a low velocity hydrogen stream at an overall equivalence ratio of 0.12. The ratio of the duct to inner nozzle diameter was 2.5. Radial distributions of mean axial and radial velocity, axial and radial turbulent intensity, velocity cross correlation, gas composition, static temperature and total pressure, as well as axial distributions of wall static pressure, were obtained for axial stations from zero to six duct diameters from the combustor entrance. The data indicate that mixing is slower in the chemically reactive flow field than in the nonreactive flow field, and that the presence of combustion has a significant effect on the size and location of the recirculation zone within the mixing duct.

  1. A Computer Code for Swirling Turbulent Axisymmetric Recirculating Flows in Practical Isothermal Combustor Geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, D. G.; Rhode, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    A primitive pressure-velocity variable finite difference computer code was developed to predict swirling recirculating inert turbulent flows in axisymmetric combustors in general, and for application to a specific idealized combustion chamber with sudden or gradual expansion. The technique involves a staggered grid system for axial and radial velocities, a line relaxation procedure for efficient solution of the equations, a two-equation k-epsilon turbulence model, a stairstep boundary representation of the expansion flow, and realistic accommodation of swirl effects. A user's manual, dealing with the computational problem, showing how the mathematical basis and computational scheme may be translated into a computer program is presented. A flow chart, FORTRAN IV listing, notes about various subroutines and a user's guide are supplied as an aid to prospective users of the code.

  2. Association of mycobacteria in recirculating aquaculture systems and mycobacterial disease in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanong, Roy P E; Pouder, Deborah B; Falkinham, Joseph O

    2010-12-01

    Mycobacterium marinum isolates cultivated from tissue containing granulomatous lesions in Florida pompano Trachinotus carolinus and from biofilm samples collected from their tank and water recirculating system had identical (L1 of 11 bands) repetitive-sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) DNA fingerprints. A second M. marinum clone sharing 4 of 11 rep-PCR bands with the first clone was isolated from some fish tissues but not from system samples. Water samples yielded low numbers of colonies of mycobacteria (0.08-1.3/mL), but high numbers were recovered from biofilms (260-12,000/swab) and filters (63-21,000/ filter). Mycobacterium hemophilum, M. chelonae, M. trivale, M. gastri, and M. gordonae were isolated from system samples alone.

  3. Recent advances within intensive Recirculated Aquaculture System cultivation of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Per Meyer; Højgaard, Jacob Kring; Drillet, Guillaume;

    2014-01-01

    Danish aquaculture has within recent years focused upon rearing of new marine fish species. A major challenge for rearing of marine fish species is relevant diets for their fish larvae. Copepods and their larvae stage “nauplii” are well documented as the ideal live feed for a variety of marine...... and the nauplii can be feed to marine fish larvae. A restriction is that copepod cultures for producing eggs are after 30 years of research still not stable and in large enough scale for bulk production of eggs. Recently a unique copepod Recirculated Aquaculture System (RAS) at Roskilde University (Denmark......) was constructed as a part of the IMPAQ project “IMProvement of AQuaculture high quality fish fry production”. We present recent advance within RAS culture for copepods, and lesson learned from rearing the specie. Further we present physical and biological culture restrictions in terms of water quality (NH3...

  4. Parameter choices for a muon recirculating linear accelerator from 5 to 63 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-06-19

    A recirculating linear accelerator (RLA) has been proposed to accelerate muons from 5 to 63 GeV for a muon collider. It should be usable both for a Higgs factory and as a stage for a higher energy collider. First, the constraints due to the beam loading are computed. Next, an expression for the longitudinal emittance growth to lowest order in the longitudinal emittance is worked out. After finding the longitudinal expression, a simplified model that describes the arcs and their approximate expression for the time of flight dependence on energy in those arcs is found. Finally, these results are used to estimate the parameters required for the RLA arcs and the linac phase.

  5. An Experiment for Generating the 14-Tone Stable Carriers Using Recirculating Frequency Shifter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Feng; ZHANG Xiao-Guang; LI Jian-Ping; XI Li-Xia

    2010-01-01

    @@ In experiment,the generation of 14-tone stable carriers with recirculating frequency shifter is realized.Some factors that impact the performance of the carrier generation are discussed.It is experimentally found that the balance and the insertion loss of the inphase/quadrature (l/Q,) modulator,the accurate π /2 phase difference and equal power level of two rf signals which are applied to the two ports of the I/Q modulator,the gain of the optical amplifier,the bandwidth and sharp window spectrum of the tunable filter and the stability of the optical signals' states of polarization fed into I/Q modulator,play important roles in the generation of a stable multi-tone carrier source.By employing appropriate techniques we obtain 14-tone stable carriers in the experiment.

  6. Modeling dry-scrubbing of gaseous HCl with hydrated lime in cyclones with and without recirculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chibante, Vania G., E-mail: vaniachi@fe.up.pt [DEQ/LEPAE, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias s/n, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Fonseca, Ana M., E-mail: afonseca@ufp.pt [CIAGEB, Universidade Fernando Pessoa, Praca 9 Abril 349, 4249-004 Porto (Portugal); Salcedo, Romualdo R., E-mail: rsalcedo@fe.up.pt [DEQ/LEPAE, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias s/n, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Advanced Cyclone Systems S.A., Rua de Salazares, 842, Ed. Promonet, Porto (Portugal)

    2010-06-15

    A mathematical model describing the dry-scrubbing of gaseous hydrogen chloride (HCl) with solid hydrated lime particles (Ca(OH){sub 2}) was developed and experimentally verified. The model applies to cyclone systems with and without recirculation, where reaction and particle collection occurs in the same processing unit. The Modified Grain Model was selected to describe the behavior of the reaction process and it was assumed that the gas and the solid particles flow in the reactor with a plug flow. In this work, this behavior is approximated by a cascade of N CSTRs in series. Some of the model parameters were estimated by optimization taking into account the experimental results obtained. A good agreement was observed between the experimental results and those predicted by the model, where the main control resistance is the diffusion of the gaseous reactant in the layer of solid product formed.

  7. A new reactor for denitrification and micro-particle removal in recirculated aquaculture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boley, A; Korshun, G; Boley, S; Jung-Schroers, V; Adamek, M; Steinhagen, D; Richter, S

    2017-03-01

    A 'membrane-denitrification' reactor (MDR) was developed and tested in a semi-technical recirculation aquaculture system in comparison to a double - without MDR - as reference system. The MDR consisted of a reactor with an ultrafiltration membrane unit for removal of micro-particles (e.g. sludge flocs, bacteria and parasites). Specific carrier material provided surfaces for biofilm growth in a fluidized bed reactor with ethanol as carbon source for denitrification. The continuous motion of these carriers cleaned the membrane surface. With online and laboratory measurements of water parameters and operational data the feasibility of the concept was verified. An advantage is that no chemicals are needed to clean the membranes. Examinations of the fish and water analyses proved an MDR can positively influence cortisol, as a stress marker, and the microflora of the aquatic system.

  8. CSR induced microbunching gain estimation including transient effects in transport and recirculation arcs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Cheng [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States); Douglas, David R. [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States); Li, Rui [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) of a high brightness electron beam traversing a series of dipoles, such as transport or recirculation arcs, may result in the microbunching instability (μBI). To accurately quantify the direct consequence of this effect, we further extend our previously developed semi-analytical Vlasov solver to include more relevant coherent radiation models than the steady-state free-space CSR impedance, such as the entrance and exit transient effects derived from upstream beam entering to and exiting from individual dipoles. The resultant microbunching gain functions and spectra for our example lattices are presented and compared with particle tracking simulation. Some underlying physics with inclusion of these effects are also discussed.

  9. CSR induced microbunching gain estimation including transient effects in transport and recirculation arcs

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, Cheng-Ying; Li, Rui; Tennant, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) of a high brightness electron beam traversing a series of dipoles, such as transport or recirculation arcs, may result in the microbunching instability ({\\mu}BI). To accurately quantify the direct consequence of this effect, we further extend our previously developed semi-analytical Vlasov solver [C. -Y. Tsai et al., FEL Conference 2014 (THP022)] to include more relevant coherent radiation models than the steady-state free-space CSR impedance, such as the entrance and exit transient effects derived from upstream beam entering to and exiting from individual dipoles. The resultant microbunching gain functions and spectra for our example lattices are presented and compared with particle tracking simulation. Some underlying physics with inclusion of these effects are also discussed.

  10. Enhancement of centrifugal compressor stable operation using an internal recirculation channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Růžička M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Centrifugal compressors with a high pressure ratio are widely used in small aircraft turbine engines and turbocharges. At high rotational speeds they have a narrow stable operating region and the commonly used impellers with back swept blades are not able to ensure requested stability. In order to achieve a wider stable operating region, some other anti-surge measures can be used such as an Internal Recirculation Channel (IRC located in the inlet area of the compressor impeller. This paper analyses the influence of various IRC inlet slot geometries on air flow parameters. The flow velocity profiles downstream of the IRC outlet slot are evaluated and the influence of various channel configurations on compressor performance map is shown. Results from experiments as well as CFD simulations enable us to analyse the airflow in IRC and find out its most suitable geometry.

  11. REARING EFFICIENCY AND NUTRITIONAL QUALITY ASSESSMENT FOR CARP SAPLING (CYPRINUS CARPIO LINNE, 1758 FROM RECIRCULATING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELPIDA PALTENEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. of 8 months older, rearing in recirculation system during 107 days period - he has been analysed from the point of view of feeding efficiency and nutritional quality of carp carcass. The stocking of breeding ponds has been made at 12.17 kg/m3 density, the initial average weight of fishes has been 82.2 g/ex., biochemical composition of carp carcass has been following: protein 14.35%, fat 1.10%, ash 1.67% and moisture 82.22%. Weekly, there has been analysed biochemical composition of meat and protein efficiency coefficient (PER, protein using efficiency (PUE, retained protein (RP. The nutritional quality of fish meat and appreciation coefficients of fish rearing they indicate a good capitalization of delivered food.

  12. A feasibility study of a NBI photoneutralizer based on nonlinear gating laser recirculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fassina, A., E-mail: alessandro.fassina@igi.cnr.it; Barbisan, M.; Pasqualotto, R. [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Pretato, F.; Giudicotti, L. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica, Università degli Studi di Padova, Via 8 Febbraio 1848, 2, 35122 Padova (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    The neutralization efficiency of negative ion neutral beam injectors is a major issue for future fusion reactors. Photon neutralization might be a valid alternative to present gas neutralizers, but still with several challenges for a valid implementation. Some concepts have been presented so far but none has been validated yet. A novel photoneutralization concept is discussed here, based on an annular cavity and a duplicated frequency laser beam (recirculation injection by nonlinear gating). The choice of lithium triborate as the material for the second harmonic extractor is discussed and a possible cooling method via crystal slicing is presented; laser intensity enhancement within the cavity is evaluated in order to quantify the achievable neutralization rate. Mockups of the critical components are proposed as intermediate steps toward system realization.

  13. Influence of the anodic recirculation transient behaviour on the SOFC hybrid system performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, Mario L.; Traverso, Alberto; Magistri, Loredana; Massardo, Aristide F. [Thermochemical Power Group (TPG), Dipartimento di Macchine, Sistemi Energetici e Trasporti, Universita di Genova (Italy)

    2005-09-26

    This paper addresses the off-design and transient response of a high efficiency hybrid system based on the coupling of a recuperated micro-gas turbine (mGT) with a tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) reactor. The work focuses on the anodic side where an ejector exploits the pressure energy of the fuel to recirculate part of the exhaust gas, in order to maintain a proper value for the steam-to-carbon ratio (STCR) and to support the reforming reactions. Two different stand-alone time-dependent ejector models are presented and validated against experimental data. Then, the most suitable model for cycle simulations, in term of calculation time, has been employed for the transient analysis of the entire hybrid system. The SOFC hybrid system transient behaviour is presented and discussed at several operating conditions from an electrochemical, fluid dynamic and thermal point of view. (author)

  14. Influence of the anodic recirculation transient behaviour on the SOFC hybrid system performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Mario L.; Traverso, Alberto; Magistri, Loredana; Massardo, Aristide F.

    This paper addresses the off-design and transient response of a high efficiency hybrid system based on the coupling of a recuperated micro-gas turbine (mGT) with a tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) reactor. The work focuses on the anodic side where an ejector exploits the pressure energy of the fuel to recirculate part of the exhaust gas, in order to maintain a proper value for the steam-to-carbon ratio (STCR) and to support the reforming reactions. Two different stand-alone time-dependent ejector models are presented and validated against experimental data. Then, the most suitable model for cycle simulations, in term of calculation time, has been employed for the transient analysis of the entire hybrid system. The SOFC hybrid system transient behaviour is presented and discussed at several operating conditions from an electrochemical, fluid dynamic and thermal point of view.

  15. Kuosheng BWR/6 containment pressure and temperature responses after recirculation line break using GOTHIC code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, A.; Wang, J-R.; Chen, Y-S., E-mail: samuellin1999@iner.gov.tw, E-mail: jrwang@iner.gov.tw, E-mail: yschen@iner.gov.tw [Inst. of Nuclear Energy Research Atomic Energy Council (China); Shih, C., E-mail: ckshih@ess.nthu.edu.tw [National Tsing Hua Univ., Dept. of Engineering and System Science (China)

    2011-07-01

    In this study, we presented the calculated results of the containment P/T (pressure and temperature) response after the recirculation line break (RCLB) accident of a GE-designed twin-unit BWR/6 plant, which can be served as the design basis for the containment system. During the simulation, a power of SPU (stretch power uprate) range was used and a model of the Mark III type containment was built using the GOTHIC (Generation of Thermal-Hydraulic Information for Containments) code. The calculated results, similar to the FSAR (Final Safety Analysis Report) results, indicate the GOTHIC code has the capability to simulate the containment P/T response to the RCLB accident. (author)

  16. EFFECTS OF COOLED EXTERNAL EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION ON DIESEL HOMOGENEOUS CHARGE COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Lei; CUI Yi; DENG Kangyao

    2007-01-01

    The effects of cooled external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on the combustion and emission performance of diesel fuel homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) are studied. Homogeneous mixture is formed by injecting fuel in-cylinder in the negative valve overlap (NVO) period. So, the HCCI combustion which has low NOx and smoke emission is achieved. Cooled external EGR can delay the start of combustion effectively, which is very useful for high cetane fuel (diesel) HCCI, because these fuels can easily self-ignition, which makes the start of combustion more early. External EGR can avoid the knock combustion of HCCI at high load which means that the EGR can expand the high load limit. HCCI maintains low smoke emission at various EGR rate and various load compared with conventional diesel engine because there is no fuel-rich area in cylinder.

  17. Treatment of fishpond water by recirculating horizontal and vertical flow constructed wetlands in the tropics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konnerup, Dennis; Trang, Ngo Thuy Diem; Brix, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Common practice of aquaculture in Vietnam and other countries in South East Asia involves frequent discharge of polluted water into rivers which results in eutrophication and degradation of receiving water bodies. There is therefore a need to develop improved aquaculture systems which have a more...... efficient use of water and less environmental impact. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of using constructed wetlands (CWs) for the treatment of fishpond water in a recirculating aquaculture system in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. Water from a fishpond stocked with Nile tilapia (Oreochromis...... in the outlets. The ornamental Canna×generalis planted in the CWs grew faster and took up more N and P in the vertical flow CWs. The aquaculture fish had a feed conversion ratio of 1.53 based on feed dry weight, and 31% and 34% of N and P input, respectively, were incorporated into fish biomass. Only minor...

  18. Fate of water borne therapeutic agents and associated effects on nitrifying biofilters in recirculating aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    Recent discharge restrictions on antibiotics and chemotherapeutant residuals used in aquaculture have several implications to the aquaculture industry. Better management practices have to be adopted, and documentation and further knowledge of the chemical fate is required for proper administration...... and to support the ongoing development of a sustainable aquaculture industry. A focal point of this thesis concerns formaldehyde (FA), a commonly used chemical additive with versatile aquaculture applications. FA is safe for use with fish and has a high treatment efficiency against fungal and parasite infections...... of these agents on biofilter nitrification performance. All experiments were conducted through addition of chemical additives to closed pilot scale recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) with fixed media submerged biofilters under controlled operating conditions with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss...

  19. The effect of the expansion ratio on a turbulent non-Newtonian recirculating flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, A.S. [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto (Portugal); Pinho, F.T. [Centro de Estudos de Fenomenos de Transporte, DEMEGI, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto (Portugal)

    2002-04-01

    Measurements of the mean and turbulent flow characteristics of shear-thinning moderately elastic 0.1% and 0.2% xanthan gum aqueous solutions were carried out in a sudden expansion having a diameter ratio of 2. The inlet flow was turbulent and fully developed, and the results were compared with data for water in the same geometry and with previous published Newtonian and non-Newtonian data in a smaller expansion of diameter ratio equal to 1.538. An increase in expansion ratio led to an increase in the recirculation length and in the axial normal Reynolds stress at identical normalised locations, but the difference between Newtonian and non-Newtonian characteristics was less intense than in the smaller expansion. An extensive comparison of mean and turbulent flow characteristics was carried out in order to understand the variation of flow features. (orig.)

  20. The effects of leachate recirculation with supplemental water addition on methane production and waste decomposition in a simulated tropical landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanphoti, N; Towprayoon, S; Chaiprasert, P; Nopharatana, A

    2006-10-01

    In order to increase methane production efficiency, leachate recirculation is applied in landfills to increase moisture content and circulate organic matter back into the landfill cell. In the case of tropical landfills, where high temperature and evaporation occurs, leachate recirculation may not be enough to maintain the moisture content, therefore supplemental water addition into the cell is an option that could help stabilize moisture levels as well as stimulate biological activity. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of leachate recirculation and supplemental water addition on municipal solid waste decomposition and methane production in three anaerobic digestion reactors. Anaerobic digestion with leachate recirculation and supplemental water addition showed the highest performance in terms of cumulative methane production and the stabilization period time required. It produced an accumulated methane production of 54.87 l/kg dry weight of MSW at an average rate of 0.58 l/kg dry weight/d and reached the stabilization phase on day 180. The leachate recirculation reactor provided 17.04 l/kg dry weight at a rate of 0.14l/kg dry weight/d and reached the stabilization phase on day 290. The control reactor provided 9.02 l/kg dry weight at a rate of 0.10 l/kg dry weight/d, and reached the stabilization phase on day 270. Increasing the organic loading rate (OLR) after the waste had reached the stabilization phase made it possible to increase the methane content of the gas, the methane production rate, and the COD removal. Comparison of the reactors' efficiencies at maximum OLR (5 kgCOD/m(3)/d) in terms of the methane production rate showed that the reactor using leachate recirculation with supplemental water addition still gave the highest performance (1.56 l/kg dry weight/d), whereas the leachate recirculation reactor and the control reactor provided 0.69 l/kg dry weight/d and 0.43 l/kg dry weight/d, respectively. However, when considering

  1. Analysis of pH on Water Temperature in the Recirculation Sump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Nyung; Yoon, Hyoung Ju [Kyunghee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    During a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a pressurized water reactor (PWR), remedial actions initiated automatically include actuation of the containment spray system (CSS) in most plants and actuation of the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) to provide an emergency supply of borated water from the in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST). The reactor coolant, containment spray, and borated water injected by the ECCS drain to the floor of the containment building and are collected by the recirculation sump. After the initiation of these actions, the recirculation sump would contain boric acid and tri-sodium phosphate (TSP) that is held dry in the sump to neutralize the boric acid. These materials have influence on pH and the sump pH is dependent on the amount of TSP under the variable conditions such as sump water level, boron concentration for each water source and sump water temperature. The equilibrium sump solution pH should be above 7.0 according to the Standard Review Plan. The purpose of controlling the sump pH is to provide assurance that significant long-term iodine revolution does not occur, and to be within material compatibility constraints. It has been the domestic practice that the pH value of sump water following a LOCA was computed by a chemical equilibrium calculation involving equilibrium constants or ionization constants. However, in this paper, the sump pH analysis has been performed by the modified SOLGASMIX-PV program which computes thermodynamic equilibrium compositions involving the Gibbs free energy and pH for each sump condition

  2. Purification Performance and Production of a Re-circulating Pond Aquaculture System Based on Paddy Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Li

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Developing improved aquaculture systems with a more efficient use of water and less environmental impact is becoming a crying need. A re-circulating aquaculture system consisting of paddy field and fish pond is a new culture mode due to aquaculture combing with agriculture. The present study focused on the purification capacity of the paddy field on nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter, the fluctuation trend of water quality conditions during the whole rearing process and the culture efficacy of the main culture species of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella. The results were as follows: under a flow rate of 1.4-5.5 m3/h for the recirculation treatment, the average removal rate of ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and biochemical oxygen demand for the aquaculture effluent amounted to 40.5, 43.5, 31.9, 23.9, 20.7 and 52.4%, respectively, But the dissolved oxygen content in the rice fields increased obviously. During the whole process of fish rearing, the main physicochemical parameters of water quality for the experimental ponds were all maintained at a suitable level for the growth of the grass carp. In addition, there were significant differences (p<0.05 in DO, TSS, NH4+ -N, NO--N, BOD5 and Chl-&alpha between the experimental and control ponds. As far as the yield per unit and survival rate was concerned, the level of the experimental ponds was obviously higher than that of the control, while the feed conversion ratio displayed the opposite trend. Overall, the new aquaculture system realized the double aims of water reuse and the reduction of waste water discharge.

  3. Recirculation in the Fram Strait and transports of water in and north of the Fram Strait derived from CTD data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marnela

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The volume, heat and freshwater transports in the Fram Strait are estimated from geostrophic computations based on summer hydrographic data from 1984, 1997, 2002 and 2004. In these years, in addition to the usually sampled section along 79° N, a section between Greenland and Svalbard was sampled further north. Quasi-closed boxes bounded by the two sections and Greenland and Svalbard can then be formed. Applying conservation constraints on these boxes provides barotropic reference velocities. The net volume flux is southward and varies between 2 and 4 Sv. The recirculation of Atlantic water is about 2 Sv. Heat is lost to the atmosphere and the heat loss from the area between the sections averaged over the four years is about 10 TW. The net heat (temperature transport is 20 TW northward into the Arctic Ocean, with large interannual differences. The mean net freshwater added between the sections is 40 mSv and the mean freshwater transport southward across 79° N is less than 60 mSv, indicating that most of the liquid freshwater leaving the Arctic Ocean through Fram Strait in summer is derived from sea ice melt in the northern vicinity of the strait. In 1997, 2001 and 2003 meridional sections along 0° longitude were sampled and in 2003 two smaller boxes can be formed, and the recirculation of Atlantic water in the strait is estimated by geostrophic computations and continuity constraints. The recirculation is weaker close to 80° N than close to 78° N, indicating that the recirculation is mainly confined to the south of 80° N. This is supported by the observations in 1997 and 2001, when only the northern part of the meridional section, from 79° N to 80° N, can be computed with the constraints applied. The recirculation is found strongest close to 79° N.

  4. Recirculation in the Fram Strait and transports of water in and north of the Fram Strait derived from CTD data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marnela

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The volume, heat and freshwater transports in the Fram Strait are estimated from geostrophic computations based on summer hydrographical data from 1984, 1997, 2002 and 2004. In these years, in addition to the usually sampled section along 79° N, a section between Greenland and Svalbard was sampled further north. Quasi-closed boxes bounded by the two sections and Greenland and Svalbard can then be formed and conservation constraints applied on the boxes. The net volume flux is southward and varies between 2 and 4 Sv. The recirculation of Atlantic water is about 2 Sv. Heat is lost to the atmosphere and the heat loss averaged for the four boxes is about 10 TW and the net heat (temperature transport is 20 TW northward into the Arctic Ocean, with large interannual differences. The mean net freshwater added between the sections is 40 mSv and the mean freshwater transport southward across 79° N is less than 60 mSv, indicating that most of the liquid freshwater leaving the Arctic Ocean through Fram Strait in summer derives from sea ice melt in the northern vicinity of the strait.

    In 1997, 2001 and 2003 meridional sections along 0° longitude were sampled and in 2003 two smaller boxes can be formed, and the recirculation of Atlantic water in the strait is estimated by geostrophic computations and continuity constraints. The recirculation is weaker close to 80° N than close to 78° N, indicating that the recirculation is mainly confined to south of 80° N. This is supported by the observations in 1997 and 2001, when only the northern part of the meridional section, from 79° N to 80° N, can be computed with the constraints applied. The recirculation is found strongest close to 79° N.

  5. Blood Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts and Statistics Printable Version Blood Facts and Statistics Facts about blood needs Facts about the blood ... to Top Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells ...

  6. Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abroun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord blood is a sample of blood taken from a newborn baby's umbilical cord. It is a rich source of stem cells, umbilical cord blood and tissue are collected from material that normally has no use following a child’s birth. Umbilical cord blood and tissue cells are rich sources of stem cells, which have been used in the treatment of over 80 diseases including leukemia, lymphoma and anemia as bone marrow stem cell potency.  The most common disease category has been leukemia. The next largest group is inherited diseases. Patients with lymphoma, myelodysplasia and severe aplastic anemia have also been successfully transplanted with cord blood. Cord blood is obtained by syringing out the placenta through the umbilical cord at the time of childbirth, after the cord has been detached from the newborn. Collecting stem cells from umbilical blood and tissue is ethical, pain-free, safe and simple. When they are needed to treat your child later in life, there will be no rejection or incompatibility issues, as the procedure will be using their own cells. In contrast, stem cells from donors do have these potential problems. By consider about cord blood potency, cord blood banks (familial or public were established. In IRAN, four cord blood banks has activity, Shariati BMT center cord blood bank, Royan familial cord blood banks, Royan public cord blood banks and Iranian Blood Transfusion Organ cord blood banks. Despite 50,000 sample which storage in these banks, but the

  7. Mixing in polymeric microfluidic devices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunk, Peter Randall; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Davis, Robert H. (University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO); Brotherton, Christopher M. (University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO)

    2006-04-01

    This SAND report describes progress made during a Sandia National Laboratories sponsored graduate fellowship. The fellowship was funded through an LDRD proposal. The goal of this project is development and characterization of mixing strategies for polymeric microfluidic devices. The mixing strategies under investigation include electroosmotic flow focusing, hydrodynamic focusing, physical constrictions and porous polymer monoliths. For electroosmotic flow focusing, simulations were performed to determine the effect of electroosmotic flow in a microchannel with heterogeneous surface potential. The heterogeneous surface potential caused recirculations to form within the microchannel. These recirculations could then be used to restrict two mixing streams and reduce the characteristic diffusion length. Maximum mixing occurred when the ratio of the mixing region surface potential to the average channel surface potential was made large in magnitude and negative in sign, and when the ratio of the characteristic convection time to the characteristic diffusion time was minimized. Based on these results, experiments were performed to evaluate the manipulation of surface potential using living-radical photopolymerization. The material chosen to manipulate typically exhibits a negative surface potential. Using living-radical surface grafting, a positive surface potential was produced using 2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate and a neutral surface was produced using a poly(ethylene glycol) surface graft. Simulations investigating hydrodynamic focusing were also performed. For this technique, mixing is enhanced by using a tertiary fluid stream to constrict the two mixing streams and reduce the characteristic diffusion length. Maximum mixing occurred when the ratio of the tertiary flow stream flow-rate to the mixing streams flow-rate was maximized. Also, like the electroosmotic focusing mixer, mixing was also maximized when the ratio of the characteristic convection time to the

  8. Ventricular assist device

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAD; RVAD; LVAD; BVAD; Right ventricular assist device; Left ventricular assist device; Biventricular assist device; Heart pump; Left ventricular assist system; LVAS; Implantable ventricular assist device

  9. Validation of two automatic devices for the self-measurement of blood pressure according to the ANSI/AAMI/ISO81060-2:2009 guidelines: the Omron BP765 (HEM-7311-ZSA and the Omron BP760N (HEM-7320-Z

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi H

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hakuo Takahashi, Masamichi Yoshika, Toyohiko Yokoi Department of Clinical Sciences and Laboratory Medicine, Kansai Medical University, Hirakata Osaka, Japan Background: Allowing patients to measure their blood pressure (BP at home will be the standard for evaluating the disease state as the process of clinical diagnosis, and it is recognized as having great clinical utility. To measure BP as accurately as possible, innovative techniques have been incorporated into home BP measurement devices. Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the performance of the Omron BP765 (HEM-7311-ZSA and the Omron BP760N (HEM-7320-Z, which are equipped with functions to detect irregular pulses and arm movement that lead to inaccurate BP readings. Methods: A team of three trained medical doctors validated the performance of these devices by comparing the data alternatively obtained from both devices with those from a standard mercury sphygmomanometer. Results: The magnitude of the difference in BP readings between the tested device and the standard mercury sphygmomanometer in the Omron BP765 and BP760N was within the range of ±3 mmHg (mean allowed by the American National Standards Institute, Inc/Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation/International Organization for Standardization (ANSI/AAMI/ISO 81060-2:2009 guidelines. Conclusion: The Omron BP765 and BP760N were found useful for the self-measurement of BP at home, and their performance fulfilled the requirement of the ANSI/AAMI/ISO 81060-2:2009 guidelines. Keywords: blood pressure, self-measurement, device, validation, ANSI/AAMI/ISO 81060-2:2009

  10. The cost of assistive devices for children with mobility limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpela, R A; Siirtola, T O; Koivikko, M J

    1992-10-01

    This study evaluated the costs of assistive devices for children with motor limitations at home, in day care, and in school, and the effect of diagnosis and severity of disabilities on costs. 201 children (mean age 7.4 years) who used 1274 various assistive devices (85.7% at home, 6.1% in day care, and 8.2% in school) were studied. The cost per device varied from $8.14 to $8138 with an average value of $539 per device. The distribution of costs per capita was unequal: 52.2% of children used 15.6% of total costs and 4.5% of children used 20.8% of total costs. The severity of motor impairment and the age of the child were the most important indicators associated with the need and cost of assistive devices. Assistive devices for basic needs, such as sitting, mobility, and personal hygiene, had a relatively low effect on costs in comparison with the high-technology devices, like powered wheelchairs and computers. Better cooperation with day care and school professionals, better assessment of needs, follow-up and recirculation of assistive devices are ways to promote rehabilitation services and partly solve the discrepancies between the costs of available technology and the resources to pay for it.

  11. Electrochemical device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Patrick G.; Einstein, Harry; Bellows, Richard J.

    1988-01-12

    A tunnel protected electrochemical device features channels fluidically communicating between manifold, tunnels and cells. The channels are designed to provide the most efficient use of auxiliary power. The channels have a greater hydraulic pressure drop and electrical resistance than the manifold. This will provide a design with the optimum auxiliary energy requirements.

  12. Assistive Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a number of assistive devices. These are tools, products or types of equipment that help you perform tasks and activities. They may help you move around, see, communicate, eat, or get dressed. Some are high-tech tools, such as computers. Others are much simpler, ...

  13. Printing Device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den M.J.; Markies, P.R.; Zuilhof, H.

    2014-01-01

    An ink jetprinting device includes a pressure chamber formed by a plurality of wall segments, a first aperture extending through a wall segment and communicating with an ink jet orifice and a second aperture extending through a wall segment and communicating with an ink supply duct. The pressure cha

  14. Detection device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.E.

    1981-02-27

    The present invention is directed to a detection device comprising: (1) an entrance chamber; (2) a central chamber; and (3) an exit chamber. The central chamber includes an ionizing gas, anode, and means for connecting the anode with an external power supply and pulse counter.

  15. Separating device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, T.P.R.

    2001-01-01

    A sorting device (1) suitable for sorting wire from a waste stream, comprising a body (2) that moves when in use, and provided with spikes or similar projections. The body is embodied as a rotatable roll (2), which oscillates axially during its rotation. The roll is coupled to an oscillation engine

  16. Optimization of Energy Saving for Petrochemistry Enterprise Recirculating Cooling Water System%石化企业循环冷却水系统节能优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴罗刚; 周勇

    2012-01-01

    对目前石化企业循环冷却水系统存在的问题,提出强化传热和循环冷却水的串级利用的方法,加强生产和水质管理,以降低循环冷却水系统能耗。%Based on the problem of the petrochemistry enterprise recirculating cooling water system, propose the method of heat transfer enhancement and recirculated cooling water cascade utilization, strengthen management, so as to reduce the recirculating cooling water system energy consumption.

  17. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis; Amyloidosis - electrophoresis serum; Multiple myeloma - serum electrophoresis; Waldenström - serum electrophoresis

  18. The impact of level of the stocking density on the haematological parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss reared in recirculating aquaculture systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Docan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Hematological indices are important parameters for the evaluation of fish physiological status.The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate how level of the stocking density influence the bloodphysiology of of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss reared in a recirculating system. Theexperiment was conducted over a period of 33 days. A number of 254 rainbow trout with an averageweight of 29.51 ± 1.32 g were divided into four rearing units in order to create different stockingdensities: in B1-2.64 kg/m3, with an average weight of 31.68 g/ex, B2 – 5.16 kg/m3 with an averageweight of 30.39 g/ex, B3 – 7.12 kg/m3 with an average weight of 28.52 g/ex and B4- 9.42 kg/m3 with anaverage weight of 27.46 g. The sampling of O. mykiss blood from the four variants before and after theexperimental trial allowed determination of hematological indices. Red blood cell counts (RBCc,haematocrit values (Ht, haemoglobin concentration (Hb, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, meancorpuscular haemoglobin (MCH and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC weremeasured and analyzed, with routine methods used in fish hematology (Blaxhall & Daisley 1973;Svobodova 2001. Some hematological indicators (Hb, MCV, MCH had been influenced by the stockingdensity. The results of our research provide a contribution to the knowledge of the hematologicalparameters of the rainbow trout reared in different level of stocking densities, under the recirculatingsystems condition.

  19. Understanding Blood Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lab and Imaging Tests Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts SHARE: Print Glossary Blood cell counts give ... your blood that's occupied by red cells. Normal Blood Counts Normal blood counts fall within a range ...

  20. Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of the Enterohepatic Recirculation of Fimasartan in Rats, Dogs, and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hwan; Shin, Soyoung; Landersdorfer, Cornelia B; Chi, Yong Ha; Paik, Soo Heui; Myung, Jayhyuk; Yadav, Rajbharan; Horkovics-Kovats, Stefan; Bulitta, Jürgen B; Shin, Beom Soo

    2015-09-01

    Enterohepatic recirculation (EHC) can greatly enhance plasma drug exposures and therapeutic effects. This study aimed to develop a population pharmacokinetic model that can simultaneously characterize the extent and time-course of EHC in three species using fimasartan, a novel angiotensin II receptor blocker, as a model drug. All fimasartan plasma concentration profiles in 32 rats (intravenous doses, 0.3-3 mg/kg; oral doses, 1-10 mg/kg), 34 dogs (intravenous doses, 0.3-1 mg/kg; oral doses, 1-10 mg/kg), and 42 healthy volunteers (single or multiple oral doses, 20-480 mg) were determined via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and simultaneously modeled in S-ADAPT. The proposed model quantitatively characterized EHC in three species after oral and intravenous dosing. The median (range) fraction of drug undergoing recirculation was 76.3% (64.9-88.7%) in rats, 33.3% (24.0-45.9%) in dogs, and 65.6% (56.5-72.0%) in humans. In the presence compared with the absence of EHC, the area under the curve in plasma was predicted to be 4.22-fold (2.85-8.85) as high in rats, 1.50-fold (1.32-1.85) in dogs, and 2.91-fold (2.30-3.57) in humans. The modeled oral bioavailability in rats (median (range), 38.7% (20.0-59.8%)) and dogs (median, 7.13% to 15.4%, depending on the formulation) matched the non-compartmental estimates well. In humans, the predicted oral bioavailability was 25.1% (15.1-43.9%) under fasting and 18.2% (12.2-31.0%) under fed conditions. The allometrically scaled area under the curve predicted from rats was 420 ng·h/mL for 60 mg fimasartan compared with 424 ± 63 ng·h/mL observed in humans. The developed population pharmacokinetic model can be utilized to characterize the impact of EHC on plasma drug exposure in animals and humans.

  1. LUX - a recirculating linac-based facility for ultrafast X-ray science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corlett, J.N.; Barletta, W.A.; DeSantis, S.; Doolittle, L.; Fawley, W.M.; Heimann, P.; Leone, S.; Lidia, S.; Li, D.; Penn, G.; Ratti, A.; Reinsch, M.; Schoenlein, R.; Staples, J.; Stover, G.; Virostek, S.; Wan, W.; Wells, R.; Wilcox, R.; Wolski, A.; Wurtele, J.; Zholents, A.

    2004-06-29

    We present recent developments in design concepts for LUX - a source of ultra-short synchrotron radiation pulses based on a recirculating superconducting linac. The source produces high-flux x-ray pulses with duration of 100 fs or less at a 10 kHz repetition rate, optimized for the study of ultra-fast dynamics across many fields of science [1]. Cascaded harmonic generation in free-electron lasers (FEL's) produces coherent radiation in the VUV-soft x-ray regime, and a specialized technique is used to compress spontaneous emission for ultra-short-pulse photon production in the 1-10 keV range. High-brightness electron bunches of 2-3 mm-mrad emittance at 1 nC charge in 30 ps duration are produced in an rf photocathode gun and compressed to 3 ps duration following an injector linac, and recirculated three times through a 1 GeV main linac. In each return path, independently tunable harmonic cascades are inserted to produce seeded FEL radiation in selected photon energy ranges from approximately 20 eV with a single stage of harmonic generation, to 1 keV with a four-stage cascade. The lattice is designed to minimize emittance growth from effects such as coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR), and resistive wall wakefields. Timing jitter between pump lasers and x-ray pulses is minimized by use of a stable optical master oscillator, distributing timing signals over actively stabilized fiber-optic, phase-locking all lasers to the master oscillator, and generating all rf signals from the master oscillator. We describe technical developments including techniques for minimizing power dissipation in a high repetition rate rf photocathode gun, beam dynamics in two injector configurations, independently tunable beamlines for VUV and soft x-ray production by cascaded harmonic generation, a fast kicker design, timing systems for providing synchronization between experimental pump lasers and the x-ray pulse, and beamline design for maintaining nm-scale density modulation.

  2. "Distinvar" device

    CERN Multimedia

    1965-01-01

    The alignment of one of the accelerator magnets being checked by the AR Division survey group. A "distinvar" device, invented by the group, using calibrated invar wires stretched between the fixed survey pillar (on the left) and a fixed point on the magnet. In two days it is thus possible to measure the alignment of the 100 magnets with an accuracy better than 1/10.

  3. Magnetohydrodynamic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorlin, S.M.; Ljubimov, G.A.; Bitjurin, V.A.; Kovbasjuk, V.I.; Maximenko, V.I.; Medin, S.A.; Barshak, A.E.

    1979-12-25

    A magnetohydrodynamic device having a duct for a conducting gas to flow at an angle with the direction of the magnetic field induction vector is described. The duct is situated in the magnetic system and is provided with a plurality of electrodes adapted to interact electrically with the gas, whereas the cross-sectional shape of the duct working space is bounded by a closed contour formed by a curve inscribed into a rectangle. 1 claim.

  4. BLOOD DONATION

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

  5. Blood donation

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A blood donation is organised by the Cantonal Hospital of Geneva On Thursday 19 March 2009 from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT 2 Number of donations during the last blood donations :135 donors in July 2008 122 donors in November 2008 Let’s do better in 2009 !!! Give 30 minutes of your time to save lives...

  6. Hybrid Back Surface Reflector GaInAsSb Thermophotovoltaic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Robin K.; Wang, Christine A.; Connors, Michael K.; Turner, George W.; Dashiell, Michael

    2004-11-01

    Back surface reflectors have the potential to improve thermophotovoltaic (TPV) device performance though the recirculation of infrared photons. The "hybrid" back-surface reflector (BSR) TPV cell approach allows one to construct BSRs for TPV devices using conventional, high efficiency, GaInAsSb-based TPV material. The design, fabrication, and measurements of hybrid BSR-TPV cells are described. The BSR was shown to provide a 4 mV improvement in open-circuit voltage under a constant short-circuit current, which is comparable to the 5 mV improvement theoretically predicted. Larger improvements in open-circuit voltage are expected in the future with materials improvements.

  7. Tainted blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Ida; Sheikh, Zainab Afshan; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    study of the historical rise and current workings of safety practices in the Danish blood system. Here, we identify a strong focus on contamination in order to avoid 'tainted blood', at the expense of working with risks that could be avoided through enhanced blood monitoring practices. Of further...... significance to this focus are the social dynamics found at the heart of safety practices aimed at avoiding contamination. We argue that such dynamics need more attention, in order to achieve good health outcomes in transfusion medicine. Thus, we conclude that, to ensure continuously safe blood systems, we...... need to move beyond the bifurcation of the social and medical aspects of blood supply as two separate issues and approach social dynamics as key medical safety questions....

  8. Improving methane production and phosphorus release in anaerobic digestion of particulate saline sludge from a brackish aquaculture recirculation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuedong; Ferreira, Rui B; Hu, Jianmei; Spanjers, Henri; van Lier, Jules B

    2014-06-01

    In this study, batch tests were conducted to examine the effects of trehalose and glycine betaine as well as potassium on the specific methanogenic activity (SMA), acid and alkaline phosphatase activity of anaerobic biomass and phosphorus release in anaerobic digestion of saline sludge from a brackish recirculation aquaculture system. The results of ANOVA and Tukey's HSD (honestly significant difference) tests showed that glycine betaine and trehalose enhanced SMA of anaerobic biomass and reactive phosphorus release from the particulate waste. Moreover, SMA tests revealed that methanogenic sludge, which was long-term acclimatized to a salinity level of 17 g/L was severely affected by the increase in salinity to values exceeding 35 g/L. Addition of compatible solutes, such as glycine betaine and trehalose, could be used to enhance the specific methane production rate and phosphorus release in anaerobic digestion from particulate organic waste produced in marine or brackish aquaculture recirculation systems.

  9. Impact of water boundary layer diffusion on the nitrification rate of submerged biofilter elements from a recirculating aquaculture system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prehn, Jonas; Waul, Christopher Kevin; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    2012-01-01

    Total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) removal by microbial nitrification is an essential process in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). In order to protect the aquatic environment and fish health, it is important to be able to predict the nitrification rates in RAS’s. The aim of this study...... was to determine the impact of hydraulic film diffusion on the nitrification rate in a submerged biofilter. Using an experimental batch reactor setup with recirculation, active nitrifying biofilter units from a RAS were exposed to a range of hydraulic flow velocities. Corresponding nitrification rates were...... measured following ammonium chloride, NH4Cl, spikes and the impact of hydraulic film diffusion was quantified. The nitrification performance of the tested biofilter could be significantly increased by increasing the hydraulic flow velocity in the filter. Area based first order nitrification rate constants...

  10. Effect of increasing salinity on biogas production in waste landfills with leachate recirculation: A lab-scale model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Yuka; Ishigaki, Tomonori; Nakagawa, Mikako; Yamada, Masato

    2016-06-01

    The effects of salinity on anaerobic waste degradation and microbial communities were investigated, in order to propose an appropriate leachate recirculation process in a waste landfill in a tropical region. A salt concentration of 21 mS cm(-1) of electrical conductivity (EC) did not affect waste degradation, but a salt concentration of 35 mS cm(-1) of EC inhibited CH4 generation. A higher salt concentration of 80 mS cm(-1) of EC inhibited not only CH4 and CO2 generation, but also degradation of organic compounds. The bacterial and archaeal community compositions were affected by high salinity. High salinity can exert selective pressure on bacterial communities, resulting in a change in bacterial community structure. Ammonium caused strong, dominant inhibition of biogas production in the salt concentration range of this study. Quality control, especially of ammonium levels, will be essential for the promotion of waste biodegradation in landfills with leachate recirculation.

  11. Peracetic acid is a suitable disinfectant for recirculating fish-microalgae integrated multi-trophic aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dibo; Behrens, Sascha; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    2016-01-01

    tIntegrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) is a promising direction for the sustainable developmentof aquaculture. Microalgae have good potential to be integrated with recirculating aquaculture sys-tems because they can use the nitrogen excreted from fish and share the same optimal pH value asin...... aquaculture. As a byproduct, the microalgae biomass can be used for fish feed or biofuel. How-ever, the recirculating fish-microalgae IMTA system is under constant threat from fish pathogens andphytoplankton-lytic bacteria. Therefore, it is necessary to apply proper disinfectants as prophylaxis ortreatment...... which are effective against these threats, but safe to fish and microalgae. For this purpose,peracetic acid (PAA) is a valid option because it is highly effective against fish pathogens and bacteria atlow concentrations and degrades spontaneously to harmless residues. In the present study, we exposedthe...

  12. Enhancing biogas production from anaerobic biodegradation of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste through leachate blending and recirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Arjun; Sartaj, Majid; Kennedy, Kevin; Coelho, Nuno M G

    2014-10-01

    Leachate recirculation has a profound advantage on biodegradation of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in landfills. Mature leachate from older sections of landfills (>10 years) and young leachate were blended and added to organic fraction of municipal solid waste in a series of biomethane potential assay experiments with different mixing ratios of mature and young leachate and their effect on biogas production was monitored. The improvement in biogas production was in the range of 19%-41% depending on the ratio of mixing old and new leachate. The results are conclusive that the biogas generation could be improved by blending the old and new leachate in a bioreactor landfill system as compared with a conventional system employed in bioreactor landfills today for recirculating the same age leachate.

  13. Blood Vessel Tension Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    In the photo, a medical researcher is using a specially designed laboratory apparatus for measuring blood vessel tension. It was designed by Langley Research Center as a service to researchers of Norfolk General Hospital and Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, Virginia. The investigators are studying how vascular smooth muscle-muscle in the walls of blood vessels-reacts to various stimulants, such as coffee, tea, alcohol or drugs. They sought help from Langley Research Center in devising a method of measuring the tension in blood vessel segments subjected to various stimuli. The task was complicated by the extremely small size of the specimens to be tested, blood vessel "loops" resembling small rubber bands, some only half a millimeter in diameter. Langley's Instrumentation Development Section responded with a miniaturized system whose key components are a "micropositioner" for stretching a length of blood vessel and a strain gage for measuring the smooth muscle tension developed. The micropositioner is a two-pronged holder. The loop of Mood vessel is hooked over the prongs and it is stretched by increasing the distance between the prongs in minute increments, fractions of a millimeter. At each increase, the tension developed is carefully measured. In some experiments, the holder and specimen are lowered into the test tubes shown, which contain a saline solution simulating body fluid; the effect of the compound on developed tension is then measured. The device has functioned well and the investigators say it has saved several months research time.

  14. Assessing peracetic acid as a means to control post-vaccination Saprolegniasis in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar parr in recirculation aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land-based closed containment facilities, utilizing recirculation aquaculture system (RAS) technologies, can reduce or eliminate the introduction of obligate fish pathogens. Regardless, the presence of opportunistic pathogens must be assumed, and these agents can cause disease during unfavorable con...

  15. 21 CFR 864.5240 - Automated blood cell diluting apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. 864.5240... § 864.5240 Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell diluting apparatus is a fully automated or semi-automated device used to make appropriate dilutions of a blood...

  16. What Happens to Donated Blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... week. Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma ... About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity ...

  17. Effect of exhaust gas recirculation on diesel engine nitrogen oxide reduction operating with jojoba methyl ester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, H.E. [Mechanical Power Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mattaria, Helwan University, 9 k Eltaaweniat, Nasr Road, P.O. Box 11718, Cairo (Egypt)

    2009-10-15

    Jojoba methyl ester (JME) has been used as a renewable fuel in numerous studies evaluating its potential use in diesel engines. These studies showed that this fuel is good gas oil substitute but an increase in the nitrogenous oxides emissions was observed at all operating conditions. The aim of this study mainly was to quantify the efficiency of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) when using JME fuel in a fully instrumented, two-cylinder, naturally aspirated, four-stroke direct injection diesel engine. The tests were carried out in three sections. Firstly, the measured performance and exhaust emissions of the diesel engine operating with diesel fuel and JME at various speeds under full load are determined and compared. Secondly, tests were performed at constant speed with two loads to investigate the EGR effect on engine performance and exhaust emissions including nitrogenous oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC) and exhaust gas temperatures. Thirdly, the effect of cooled EGR with high ratio at full load on engine performance and emissions was examined. The results showed that EGR is an effective technique for reducing NO{sub x} emissions with JME fuel especially in light-duty diesel engines. With the application of the EGR method, the CO and HC concentration in the engine-out emissions increased. For all operating conditions, a better trade-off between HC, CO and NO{sub x} emissions can be attained within a limited EGR rate of 5-15% with very little economy penalty. (author)

  18. Broodstock management of the fine flounder Paralichthys adspersus (Steindachner, 1867 using recirculating aquaculture systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Carrera

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the methodology used at IMARPE for the capture, acclimation and management of P. adspersus broodstock using recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS. RAS improved the water quality and maintained the environmental parameters during the acclimation period, temperature (17.2±1°C, oxygen (8.1±0.7 mg L-1, pH (7.3±0.2, ammonia (0.004±0.003 mg L-1, nitrite (0.52±0.2 mg L-1 and nitrate (3.45±2.6 mg L-1. Fish began to be fed normally from day 15 post-capture, once or twice a day using live fish (Odonthestes regia regia, Mugil cephalus, crustacean (Emerita analoga, fresh food (Engraulis ringens and Dosidicus gigas and artificial feed. A significant loss in the weight of the fish was registered during the first days of captivity, followed by a continuous increase in both sexes. The specific growth rate was positive from the third month of captivity, being the relative growth rate 24.5% and 16.2% in August 2010 in males and females, respectively. Different internal and external parasites were detected in the fish, being Entobdella sp. and Philometra sp. the prevailing parasites observed during samplings.

  19. Control scheme for direct steam generation in parabolic troughs under recirculation operation mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenzuela, L.; Zarza, E. [CIEMAT, Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Ctra. Senes s/n, P.O. Box 22, E-04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain); Berenguel, M. [Universidad de Almeria, Dpto. Lenguajes y Computacion, Ctra. Sacramento s/n, E-04120 Almeria (Spain); Camacho, E.F. [Universidad de Sevilla, Dpto. de Ingenieria de Sistemas y Automatica, Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2006-01-15

    Electricity production using solar thermal energy is one of the main research areas at present in the field of renewable energies, these systems being characterised by the need of reliable control systems aimed at maintaining desired operating conditions in the face of changes in solar radiation, which is the main source of energy. A new prototype of solar system with parabolic trough collectors was implemented at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA, South-East Spain) to investigate the direct steam generation process under real solar conditions in the parabolic solar collector field of a thermal power plant prototype. This paper presents details and some results of the application of a control scheme designed and tested for the recirculation operation mode, for which the main objective is to obtain steam at constant temperature and pressure at the outlet of the solar field, so that changes produced in the inlet water conditions and/or solar radiation will only affect the amount of steam produced by the solar field. The steam quality and consequently the nominal efficiency of the plant are thus maintained. (author)

  20. Biomethanation and microbial community changes in a digester treating sludge from a brackish aquaculture recirculation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuedong; Tao, Yu; Hu, Jianmei; Liu, Gang; Spanjers, Henri; van Lier, Jules B

    2016-08-01

    Using a high-salinity-adapted inoculum and a moderate stepwise-increased organic loading rate (OLR), a stable digester performance was achieved in treating sludge from a brackish aquaculture recirculation system. The specific methane yield was distinctly enhanced, reaching 0.203LCH4/gCODadded, compared to literature values (0.140-0.154LCH4/gCODadded) from the salty sludges. OLR adjustment and the fecal substrate substantially influenced population changes in the digester. Within the bacterial subpopulations, the relative abundance of Bacillus and Bacteroides declined, accompanied by the increase of Clostridium and Trigonala over time. The results show Trigonala was derived from the substrate and accumulated inside the digester. The most abundant methanogen was Methanosarcina in the inoculum and the digestates. The Methanosarcina proliferation can be ascribed to its metabolic versatility, probably a feature of crucial importance for high-salinity environments. Other frequently observed methanogens were outcompeted. The population similarity at the genus level between inoculum and digestates declined during the initial stage and afterwards increased.

  1. Consequences of bounds on longitudinal emittance growth for the design of recirculating linear accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2015-05-03

    Recirculating linear accelerators (RLAs) are a cost-effective method for the acceleration of muons for a muon collider in energy ranges from a couple GeV to a few 10s of GeV. Muon beams generally have longitudinal emittances that are large for the RF frequency that is used, and it is important to limit the growth of that longitudinal emittance. This has particular consequences for the arc design of the RLAs. I estimate the longitudinal emittance growth in an RLA arising from the RF nonlinearity. Given an emittance growth limitation and other design parameters, one can then compute the maximum momentum compaction in the arcs. I describe how to obtain an approximate arc design satisfying these requirements based on the deisgn in [1]. Longitudinal dynamics also determine the energy spread in the beam, and this has consequences on the transverse phase advance in the linac. This in turn has consequences for the arc design due to the need to match beta functions. I combine these considerations to discuss design parameters for the acceleration of muons for a collider in an RLA from 5 to 63 GeV.

  2. Quantitative role of shrimp fecal bacteria in organic matter fluxes in a recirculating shrimp aquaculture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardsley, Christine; Moss, Shaun; Malfatti, Francesca; Azam, Farooq

    2011-07-01

    Microorganisms play integral roles in the cycling of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) for fish and shellfish production. We quantified the pathways of shrimp fecal bacterial activities and their role in C- and N-flux partitioning relevant to culturing Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, in RAS. Freshly produced feces from P. vannamei contained 0.6-7 × 10(10) bacteria g(-1) dry wt belonging to Bacteroidetes (7%), Alphaproteobacteria (4%), and, within the Gammaproteobacteria, almost exclusively to the genus Vibrio (61%). Because of partial disintegration of the feces (up to 27% within 12 h), the experimental seawater became inoculated with fecal bacteria. Bacteria grew rapidly in the feces and in the seawater, and exhibited high levels of aminopeptidase, chitinase, chitobiase, alkaline phosphatase, α- and β-glucosidase, and lipase activities. Moreover, fecal bacteria enriched the protein content of the feces within 12 h, potentially enriching the feces for the coprophagous shrimp. The bacterial turnover time was much faster in feces (1-10 h) than in mature RAS water (350 h). Thus, shrimp fecal bacteria not only inoculate RAS water but also contribute to bacterial abundance and productivity, and regulate system processes important for shrimp health.

  3. NO x Reduction in the Iron Ore Sintering Process with Flue Gas Recirculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhiyuan; Fan, Xiaohui; Gan, Min; Chen, Xuling; Lv, Wei

    2017-02-01

    Flue gas recirculation (FGR) has been implemented for exhaust gas emissions reduction in iron ore sintering. However, the mechanism of NO x reduction through FGR is still unclear. In this paper, the laboratory pot-grate sintering test showed a 30% reduction in gas flow and 15.51% reduction in NO x emissions achieved with a 30% FGR ratio, and the sinter indexes almost matched those of the conventional process. In the sinter zone, NO-CO catalytic reduction occurs in the range of 500-900°C. When the sinter temperature is 700°C, the highest nitrogen reduction ratio (NRR) achieved is 8%; however, the NO x reduction is inhibited as the post-combustion of CO starts when the temperature increases beyond 700°C. NO x in the flue gas is mainly a product of the fuel combustion in the combustion zone, as the nitrogen conversion rate reaches 50-60%, because the N-containing intermediates exist during the fuel combustion. The existence of NO in the FGR gas inhibits the NO x generation from the fuel combustion, and the NO elimination—through the NO-carbon reaction—is significant in the combustion zone. The NRR in the combustion zone reaches a range of 18-20%.

  4. Commercial production of tiger puffer ( Takifugu rubripes) in winter using a recirculating aquaculture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhongling; Wang, Hua; Yu, Chunyan; Lv, Fenghe; Liu, Hengming; Zhang, Tao

    2017-02-01

    Tiger puffer ( Takifugu rubripes) is a promising species for aquaculture production because of its high value and limited supply. However, in the north of China, using sea cages to culture this species in winter is hampered by the fact that the seawater temperature is extremely low. Here, a large scale commercial production of tiger puffer has been successfully realized using a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) from 3 October 2012 to 31 May 2013. The RAS was comprised of nine culture tanks (total water volume 200 m3) and stocked with approximately a total of 14400 fish (initial mean weight 160 g). The tiger puffer was hand-fed at a rate of 0.7% of total body weight per day, and the feed conversion rate was (1.21 ± 0.3) kg kg-1. The recycle water in RAS was treated by a sieve bend screen, a foam fractionator, a submerged biofilter, an UV sterilizer and a submersible aerator. During the whole culture period, an excellent water quality control was achieved in RAS. At the end of this experiment, the survival rate of tiger puffer was more than 98%. The final tank densities averaged 31.2 kg m-3, and the final individual mean weight was 440 g.

  5. Stokes flow paths separation and recirculation cells in X-junctions of varying angle

    CERN Document Server

    Cachile, Mario; Gomba, Juan M; Hulin, Jean-Pierre; Auradou, Harold

    2012-01-01

    Fluid and solute transfer in X-junctions between straight channels is shown to depend critically on the junction angle in the Stokes flow regime. Experimentally, water and a water-dye solution are injected at equal flow rates in two facing channels of the junction: Planar Laser Induced fluorescence (PLIF) measurements show that the largest part of each injected fluid "bounces back" preferentially into the outlet channel at the lowest angle to the injection; this is opposite to the inertial case and requires a high curvature of the corresponding streamlines. The proportion of this fluid in the other channel decreases from 50% at 90\\degree to zero at a threshold angle. These counterintuitive features reflect the minimization of energy dissipation for Stokes flows. Finite elements numerical simulations of a 2D Stokes flow of equivalent geometry con rm these results and show that, below the threshold angle 33.8\\degree recirculation cells are present in the center part of the junction and separate the two injected...

  6. Alteration of the enterohepatic recirculation of bile acids in rats after exposure to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanff, P.; Souidi, M.; Grison, S.; Griffiths, N.M.; Gourmelon, P. [Inst. de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, (IRSN), Direction de la RadioProtection de l' Homme, Service de Radiobiologie et d' Epidemiologie, Fontenay-aux-Roses, CEDEX (France)]. E-mail: pascale.scanff@irsn.fr

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this work was to study acute alterations of the enterohepatic recirculation (EHR) of bile acids 3 days after an 8-Gy radiation exposure in vivo in the rat by a washout technique. Using this technique in association with HPLC analysis, the EHR of the major individual bile acids was determined in control and irradiated animals. Ex vivo ileal taurocholate absorption was also studied in Ussing chambers. Major hepatic enzyme activities involved in bile acid synthesis were also measured. Measurements of bile acid intestinal content and intestinal absorption efficiency calculation from washout showed reduced intestinal absorption with significant differences from one bile acid to another: absorption of taurocholate and tauromuricholate was decreased, whereas absorption of the more hydrophobic taurochenodeoxycholate was increased, suggesting that intestinal passive diffusion was enhanced, whereas ileal active transport might be reduced. Basal hepatic secretion was increased only for taurocholate, in accordance with the marked increase of CYP8B1 activity in the liver. The results are clearly demonstrate that concomitantly with radiation-induced intestinal bile acid malabsorption, hepatic bile acid synthesis and secretion are also changed. A current working model for pathophysiological changes in enterohepatic recycling after irradiation is thus proposed. (author)

  7. Design and development of desiccant seed dryer with airflow inversion and recirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, R S; Singh, Sukhmeet; Singh, Parm Pal

    2014-11-01

    A desiccant seed dryer has been developed to dry seed in deep bed at safe temperatures for good shelf life and germination. The dryer consists of two chambers viz., air conditioning control unit and seed drying chamber. It operates in seed drying mode and desiccant regeneration mode. It has provision for recirculation of the drying air to minimise the moisture removal from drying air. Also, it has provision of airflow inversion through deep seed bed for uniform drying. Moisture removal from drying air has been done using silica gel desiccant. Chilly 'Punjab Surakh', Chilly 'Punjab Guchhedaar', Paddy, Coriander, Fenugreek and Radish seeds was dried with hot air at 38 °C from initial moisture content of 26.9 to 5 % (wb) in 2 h, 46.52 to 4.19 % (wb) in 4.25 h, 13.3 to 2.61 % (wb) in 4 h, 13.4 to 10.08 % (wb) in 3 h, 12.4 to 8.22 % (wb) in 4¼ h and 10.6 to 6.08 % (wb) in 4 h respectively. The statistical analysis based on paired t-test showed that seed drying in this dryer has no adverse effect on seed germination.

  8. Theoretical investigation of coherent synchrotron radiation induced microbunching instability in transport and recirculation arcs

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, Cheng-Ying; Li, Rui; Tennant, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) of a high brightness electron beam traversing a series of dipoles, such as recirculation or transport arcs, may lead to the microbunching instability. We extend and develop a semi-analytical approach of the CSR-induced microbunching instability for a general lattice, based on the previous formulation with 1-D CSR model [Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 5, 064401 (2002)] and apply it to investigate the physical processes of microbunching amplification for two example transport arc lattices. We find that the microbunching instability in transport arcs has a distinguishing feature of multistage amplification (e.g, up to 6th stage for our example arcs in contrast to two stage amplification for a 3-dipole chicane). By further extending the concept of stage gain as proposed by Huang and Kim [Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 5, 074401 (2002)], we developed a method to quantitatively characterize the microbunching amplification in terms of iterative or staged orders that allows the compar...

  9. Conditioning of broodstock of tiger grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, in a recirculating aquaculture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem Mustafa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Closing the cycle of commercial species of fish in a recirculating aquaculture system is gaining importance for a number of practical advantages. Founder broodstock originating from the wild population is conditioned to live in hatchery tanks under suitable environmental and feeding conditions and is induced to breed. The juveniles are grown to maturity and facilitated to spawn in captivity to close the life cycle in the hatchery. This experiment was carried out on tiger grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus. After preliminary observations, it was possible to identify appropriate environmental conditions in terms of water quality parameters, volume of broodstock tanks and ration. Growth was nearly isometric (growth exponent = 2.9185 and the condition factor = 1.86. This reflected good management conditions. Cues that trigger sex reversal in this protogynous fish in the hatchery were different from those that operate in nature. It appears that the differentiation of some individuals of a cohort into male sex is linked to socio-demographic cues as well as internal condition of the fish because it related to age and physiological condition. This view was reinforced by a lack of response in young fish to similar cues. The information generated through this study defines what is required for optimum conditioning of tiger grouper broodstock and explains the cues involved in sex differentiation.

  10. THE WATER QUALITY MONITORING IN THE RECIRCULATING SYSTEMS FOR INTENSIVE STURGEON CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. SAVIN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The major modification of those parameters go to apparition of the biological and physico-chemical imbalance of water environment who produce disturbance to normal way of vital function, that respond through the primary physiological modification (endocrine follow by secondary physiological modification (hormonal, with direct influence over the growing parameters and the pathological condition. The rearing experiments were lasting 60 days and have been achieved on young beluga sturgeon (Huso huso in two different locations, with two different recirculating pilot systems. Was analyzed the main physico-chemical parameters of sturgeon culture, obtaining 23 - 25°C temperature, 4 – 5 mg/l dissolved oxygen, 7,6 upH pH, 0,02 – 0,23 mg/l ammonia, 0,13 – 0,17 mg/l ammonium, 0,09 – 0,45 mg/l nitrite and 10,55 – 72,06 mg/l nitrate.

  11. Formation of disinfection byproducts in a recirculating mariculture system: emerging concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Zhimin; Zhang, Haiting; Dong, Huiyu; Adams, Craig; Luan, Gang; Wang, Lei

    2015-02-01

    Disinfection is commonly employed in recirculating mariculture systems (RMS) to control animal diseases and improve seawater quality; however, little is known about the occurrence of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) formed in such RMS. Beijing Aquarium is a typical RMS with artificially prepared seawater and mainly adopts a decentralized treatment strategy for different animal tanks, including sand filtration, foam fractionation, and disinfection (O3, UV, and O3/ClO2). This study reveals that the adopted disinfection processes were highly effective in controlling marine heterotrophic bacteria; however, some concerns were raised on the formation of various kinds of DBPs, including secondary oxidants, inorganic oxyanions, and hazardous organic species. Free chlorine and free bromine were generated from ozonation at health-relevant concentrations. High concentrations of BrO3(-) and ClO3(-) were formed in mammal tanks, which exceeded the USEPA-regulated maximum contaminant level (MCL) for drinking water by 19-25 and 52-54 times, respectively. Extremely high concentrations of NO3(-) were detected in mammal tanks, which considerably exceeded the MCL regulated by the Sea Water Quality Standard of China for the mariculture industry (Class II) by about 1100 times. Undoubtedly, the presence of various DBPs poses serious health threats to aquarium animals. To solve these problems, potential control measures for DBPs are proposed.

  12. Frank-Starling mechanism retains recirculation fraction of myocardial Ca(2+) in the beating heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, J; Araki, J; Mohri, S; Minami, H; Doi, Y; Fujinaka, W; Miyaji, K; Kiyooka, T; Oshima, Y; Iribe, G; Hirakawa, M; Suga, H

    2001-12-01

    Myocardial Ca(2+) handling in excitation-contraction coupling is the second primary determinant of energy or O(2) demand in a working heart. The intracellular and extracellular routes remove myocardial Ca(2+) that was released into the sarcoplasma with different Ca(2+): ATP stoichiometries. The intracellular route is twice as economical as the extracellular route. Therefore the fraction of total Ca(2+) removed via the sarcoplasmic reticulum, i.e., the recirculation fraction of intracellular Ca(2+) (RF), determines the economy of myocardial Ca(2+) handling. RF has conventionally been estimated as the exponential decay rate of postextrasystolic potentiation (PESP). However, we have found that PESP usually decays in alternans, but not exponentially in the canine left ventricle beating above 100 beats/min. We have succeeded in estimating RF from the exponential decay component of an alternans PESP. We previously found that the Frank-Starling mechanism or varied ventricular preload did not affect the economy of myocardial Ca(2+) handling. Then, to account for this important finding, we hypothesized that the Frank-Starling mechanism would not affect RF at a constant heart rate. We tested this hypothesis and found its supportive evidence in 11 canine left ventricles. We conclude that RF at a constant heart rate would remain constant, independent of the Frank-Starling mechanism.

  13. Inferring heat recirculation and albedo for exoplanetary atmospheres: Comparing optical phase curves and secondary eclipse data

    CERN Document Server

    von Paris, P; Bordé, P; Selsis, F

    2015-01-01

    Basic atmospheric properties such as albedo and heat redistribution between day and nightside have been inferred for a number of planets using observations of secondary eclipses and thermal phase curves. Optical phase curves have not yet been used to constrain these atmospheric properties consistently. We re-model previously published phase curves of CoRoT-1b, TrES-2b and HAT-P-7b and infer albedos and recirculation efficiencies. These are then compared to previous estimates based on secondary eclipse data. We use a physically consistent model to construct optical phase curves. This model takes Lambertian reflection, thermal emission, ellipsoidal variations and Doppler boosting into account. CoRoT-1b shows a non-negligible scattering albedo (0.11

  14. A polarimeter for GeV protons of recirculating synchrotron beams

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, F

    1999-01-01

    A polarimeter for use in recirculating beams of proton synchrotrons with energies from 300 MeV up to several GeV has been developed. The polarimetry is based on the asymmetry measurement of elastic p->p scattering on an internal CH sub 2 fiber target. The forward going protons are detected with two scintillator systems on either side of the beam pipe close to the angle THETA sub f of maximum analyzing power A sub N. Each one operates in coincidence with a broad (DELTA THETA sub b =21.4 deg. ), segmented detector system for the recoil proton of kinematically varying direction THETA sub b; this position resolution is also used for a concurrent measurement of the p->C and nonelastic p->p background. The CH sub 2 fiber can be replaced by a carbon fiber for detailed background studies; 'false' asymmetries are accounted for with a rotation of the polarimeter around the beam axis. Polarimetry has been performed in the internal beam of the Cooler Synchrotron COSY at fixed energies as well as during proton acceleratio...

  15. 21 CFR 864.9275 - Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9275 Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use. (a) Identification. A blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use is a device used only to separate blood...

  16. Extraction of vanadium from hardest refractory stone coal using recirculating fluidized roasting and pressure leaching technology%循环流态化焙烧-加压浸出从极难浸石煤中提取钒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯雅丽; 蔡震雷; 李浩然; 汪平; 刘欣伟; 杨志超

    2012-01-01

    .11%. Meanwhile, the pressure leaching kinetic model, the leaching control step and the leaching apparent activation energy of the recirculating fluidized blank roasting sample were studied. The discharging problem of harmful gas like Cl2 and HC1 from sodium treated roasting can be avoided by using recirculating fluidized blank roasting. Based on the innovational application of the roasting reaction device, the exploration of experimental techniques will provide some references and judgments for the industrial utilization of the hardest refractory stone coal.

  17. Estimation of ash recirculation effect upon ash collector efficiency by the example of a TsBR-150U-1280 multicyclone collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsukov, V. K.; Latushkina, S. V.

    2014-10-01

    Problems of the mathematical estimation of the amount of recirculating ash and its effect upon the efficiency of gas treating within ash collectors with the scroll and semiscroll gas supply, which are equipped by a gas and ash recirculation system, are considered. Based on the analysis of various publications and operational experience, a conclusion is drawn regarding the complex and substantial effect of the recirculation system upon the ash collector efficiency. The following research tasks are posed: computational determination of ash weight at the ash collector inlet subject to its recirculation, development of measures for enhancement of the ash collector, and estimation of these measures. A computation procedure for consumption of recirculating ash in the ash collector and its sections with the use of formulas of the geometrical progression is represented. Based on the represented procedure as applied to a TsBR-150U-1280 multicyclone collector collecting ash of coal of an Irsha-Borodinsk coalfield, corresponding ash consumptions are determined, including that at which the effective operation of the ash collector is provided. Various variants of the modernization of the mentioned multicyclone collector are developed and estimated. Conclusions are drawn regarding the necessity for further investigations for improvement of the represented procedure, in particular, the effect of the gas speed (boiler load) upon the efficiency of various ash collector units, recirculating ash consumption, and clogging their cyclone units.

  18. Electrooptical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, C. E.

    1980-03-01

    This report covers work carried out with support of the Department of the Air Force during the period 1 October 1979 through 31 March 1980. A part of this support was provided by the Rome Air Development Center. CW operation at temperatures up to 55 C has been achieved for GaInAsP/InP double-heterostructure (DH) lasers emitting at 1.5 micrometers, which were grown without a GaInAsP buffer layer. These devices are of interest for use as sources in fiber-optics communications systems, since the lowest transmission loss reported for fused-silica optical fibers occurs at 1.55 micrometers. Surface passivation techniques developed for InP and GaInAsP avalanche photodiodes have resulted in reductions of dark current as large as four orders of magnitude, to values as low as .0000016 A/sq cm at 0.9 V(b) where V(b) is the breakdown voltage. Devices consisting entirely of InP have been passivated with plasma-deposited Si3N4, and those with a GaInAsP layer but with the p-n junction in InP have been passivated with polyimide. Neither of these techniques successfully reduces dark currents in devices with the p-n junction in the GaInAsP, but a film of photoresist sprayed with SF6 as the propellant has given excellent results. The electrical characteristics in InP ion implanted with Sn, Ge, Si, and C have been investigated. All of these column IV elements yielded n-type conductivity and Sn, Ge, and Si showed high electrical activation; however, implanted C was found to have a net electrical activation of only about 5 percent.

  19. DIGITAL BLOOD PRESSURE MONITOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fuentes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present a blood pressure monitor which measures both the high blood pressure (systolic pressure,and the low blood pressure (diastolic pressure. It is a semiautomatic meter because the inflation of the occlusivecuff is carried out in a manual way. The transducer used is a piezoresistive silicon pressure sensor integrated onchip which provides a proportional voltage to the input pressure, with a measurement range from 0 to 50 kPa (0–7.3 PSI. The oscillometric method is employed, which consists on detecting the oscillometric signal on brachialartery, being processed at each pressure step, when the cuff is gradually deflated. Signal sampling is carried out ata rate determined by the heart rate.In order to program the digital electronics of the circuit we used Altera tools, with the compiler MAX-PLUS II, andthe device selected to implement the design was an EPM7128SLC84-15 CPLD (Complex Programmable LogicDevice

  20. Scalable devices

    KAUST Repository

    Krüger, Jens J.

    2014-01-01

    In computer science in general and in particular the field of high performance computing and supercomputing the term scalable plays an important role. It indicates that a piece of hardware, a concept, an algorithm, or an entire system scales with the size of the problem, i.e., it can not only be used in a very specific setting but it\\'s applicable for a wide range of problems. From small scenarios to possibly very large settings. In this spirit, there exist a number of fixed areas of research on scalability. There are works on scalable algorithms, scalable architectures but what are scalable devices? In the context of this chapter, we are interested in a whole range of display devices, ranging from small scale hardware such as tablet computers, pads, smart-phones etc. up to large tiled display walls. What interests us mostly is not so much the hardware setup but mostly the visualization algorithms behind these display systems that scale from your average smart phone up to the largest gigapixel display walls.

  1. Blood Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you need repeated transfusions, as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia patients do. If blood transfusions are not closely ... the News Article Index About This Site Send Us Your Comments For ...

  2. Blood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people with blood disorders. Magnitude of the Problem Complications from deep vein thrombosis (DVT) kill more people each year than breast cancer, motor vehicle accidents, and HIV combined. Sickle cell trait ...

  3. What's Blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rh" because scientists found it while studying Rhesus monkeys. If your blood is positive, you have this ... doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, ...

  4. Artificial blood.

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    #Blood substitutes have been developed for almost a century. The various type of artificial blood was continuously available on the market. The theme of this report is to identify the best substitute in emergency situation for some patients and science students. The definition of best is given; thus, as the vital part of the report, the comparison between them is described and discussed. Modified hemoglobin, bovine-based hemoglobin and PFCs are three basic types. In terms of the perfor...

  5. Practical microwave electron devices

    CERN Document Server

    Meurant, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Practical Microwave Electron Devices provides an understanding of microwave electron devices and their applications. All areas of microwave electron devices are covered. These include microwave solid-state devices, including popular microwave transistors and both passive and active diodes; quantum electron devices; thermionic devices (including relativistic thermionic devices); and ferrimagnetic electron devices. The design of each of these devices is discussed as well as their applications, including oscillation, amplification, switching, modulation, demodulation, and parametric interactions.

  6. Blood Transfusion and Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... receiving the blood transfusion. To keep blood safe, blood banks carefully screen donated blood. The risk of catching ... one or more times before the surgery. A blood bank will store your blood for your use. NIH: ...

  7. Blood (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Blood KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood A A A What's ... about the mysterious, life-sustaining fluid called blood. Blood Basics Two types of blood vessels carry blood ...

  8. Catecholamine blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norepinephrine -- blood; Epinephrine -- blood; Adrenalin -- blood; Dopamine -- blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... the test. This is especially true if both blood and urine catecholamines are to be measured. You ...

  9. Biology of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here for the Professional Version Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Resources In This ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  10. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  11. Personal view: current role of artificial liver support devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, J

    2006-06-01

    Enthusiasm for liver support devices, particularly cell-based biological systems and albumin dialysis, increased over the last decade and there has been considerable clinical activity both within and without the construct of clinical trials. Most data have been generated on patients with acute liver failure or in patients with decompensation of chronic liver disease, often referred to as acute-on-chronic liver failure. In acute liver failure liver, liver support devices are more realistically being used as a 'bridge' to liver transplantation rather than to transplant-free survival. In acute-on-chronic liver failure the clinical objective of attaining clinical stability with treatment appears more achievable. The so-called bioartificial liver device, based on porcine hepatocytes, is the most extensively evaluated biological device. A sizeable clinical trial failed to demonstrate efficacy, but secondary analyses suggest it would be unwise to assume futility had been established with this device. Molecular adsorbent recirculating system leads the way in the non-biological category in terms of the number of patients treated, but data from large clinical trials are not yet available. One of the strongest conclusions of this review is that the amount of high-quality data available on liver support devices dramatically understates the effort and money that have been expended in their assessment. It is very clear that randomized controlled trials are mandatory to establish clinical efficacy, but it is less clear how the ideal trial should be constructed.

  12. Selective NOx Recirculation for Stationary Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigel N. Clark

    2006-12-31

    Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) generated by internal combustion (IC) engines are implicated in adverse environmental and health effects. Even though lean-burn natural gas engines have traditionally emitted lower oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions compared to their diesel counterparts, natural gas engines are being further challenged to reduce NOx emissions to 0.1 g/bhp-hr. The Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) approach for NOx reduction involves cooling the engine exhaust gas and then adsorbing the NOx from the exhaust stream, followed by the periodic desorption of NOx. By sending the desorbed NOx back into the intake and through the engine, a percentage of the NOx can be decomposed during the combustion process. SNR technology has the support of the Department of Energy (DOE), under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES) program to reduce NOx emissions to under 0.1 g/bhp-hr from stationary natural gas engines by 2010. The NO decomposition phenomenon was studied using two Cummins L10G natural gas fueled spark-ignited (SI) engines in three experimental campaigns. It was observed that the air/fuel ratio ({lambda}), injected NO quantity, added exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) percentage, and engine operating points affected NOx decomposition rates within the engine. Chemical kinetic model predictions using the software package CHEMKIN were performed to relate the experimental data with established rate and equilibrium models. The model was used to predict NO decomposition during lean-burn, stoichiometric burn, and slightly rich-burn cases with added EGR. NOx decomposition rates were estimated from the model to be from 35 to 42% for the lean-burn cases and from 50 to 70% for the rich-burn cases. The modeling results provided an insight as to how to maximize NOx decomposition rates for the experimental engine. Results from this experiment along with chemical kinetic modeling solutions prompted the investigation of rich-burn operating conditions

  13. Next Generation Pressurized Oxy-Coal Combustion: High Efficiency and No Flue Gas Recirculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rue, David

    2013-09-30

    The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) has developed a pressurized oxy-coal fired molten bed boiler (MBB) concept, in which coal and oxygen are fired directly into a bed of molten coal slag through burners located on the bottom of the boiler and fired upward. Circulation of heat by the molten slag eliminates the need for a flue gas recirculation loop and provides excellent heat transfer to steam tubes in the boiler walls. Advantages of the MBB technology over other boilers include higher efficiency (from eliminating flue gas recirculation), a smaller and less expensive boiler, modular design leading to direct scalability, decreased fines carryover and handling costs, smaller exhaust duct size, and smaller emissions control equipment sizes. The objective of this project was to conduct techno-economic analyses and an engineering design of the MBB project and to support this work with thermodynamic analyses and oxy-coal burner testing. Techno-economic analyses of GTI’s pressurized oxy-coal fired MBB technology found that the overall plant with compressed CO2 has an efficiency of 31.6%. This is a significant increase over calculated 29.2% efficiency of first generation oxy-coal plants. Cost of electricity (COE) for the pressurized MBB supercritical steam power plant with CO2 capture and compression was calculated to be 134% of the COE for an air-coal supercritical steam power plant with no CO2 capture. This compares positively with a calculated COE for first generation oxy-coal supercritical steam power plants with CO2 capture and compression of 164%. The COE for the MBB power plant is found to meet the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) target of 135%, before any plant optimization. The MBB power plant was also determined to be simpler than other oxy-coal power plants with a 17% lower capital cost. No other known combustion technology can produce higher efficiencies or lower COE when CO2 capture and compression are included. A thermodynamic enthalpy and exergy analysis

  14. Electrophoresis device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, P. H.; Snyder, R. S. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A device for separating cellular particles of a sample substance into fractionated streams of different cellular species includes a casing having a distribution chamber, a separation chamber, and a collection chamber. The electrode chambers are separated from the separation chamber interior by means of passages such that flow variations and membrane variations around the slotted portion of the electrode chamber do not enduce flow perturbations into the laminar buffer curtain flowing in the separation chamber. The cellular particles of the sample are separated under the influence of the electrical field and the separation chamber into streams of different cellular species. The streams of separated cells enter a partition array in the collection chamber where they are fractionated and collected.

  15. Stratification devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    2008-01-01

    heating system. High temperatures in the top of the storage tank established by the energy from the solar collector reduce the use of auxiliary energy. Low temperatures in the bottom of the storage tank improve the operation conditions for the solar collector. Using thermal stratified heat storages...... results in longer operation periods and improved utilization of the solar collector. Thermal stratification can be achieved, for example by using inlet stratification devices at all inlets to the storage tank. This paper presents how thermal stratification is established and utilized by means of inlet......Thermal stratification in the storage tank is extremely important in order to achieve high thermal performance of a solar heating system. High temperatures in the top of the storage tank and low temperatures in the bottom of the storage tank lead to the best operation conditions for any solar...

  16. The influence of pellets quality on the growth of sterlet, in recirculating aquaculture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Sion

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some aspects regarding the influence of food quality on the breeding of sterlet, Acipenser ruthenus Linnaeus, 1758, in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS. The experiment took place over 30 days, in four pilot breeding units type aquaria of 300 liters in volume. Two kind of variants were compared, with repetition, V1 with 46% crude protein and V2 with 30% crude protein, respectively. The stocking density was of 14 fish/unit. The same feeding level of 8 g/kg metabolic weight (1.5% from total biomass was used in every unit. The technological indicators that showed up at the end of the experiment revealed the following: the mean biomass gain in V1 was of 0.74 kg/m3 compared to 0.39 kg/m3in V2; this was nearly perfectly correlated with the food quality. The growth rate (GR variated from 6.70 to 8.13 g/day in V1 and 3.63-4.17 g/day in V2; the specific growth rate (SGR, calculated as a mean value of the two repetitions of each variant, was of 1.11 g%/day in V1 and 0.63 g%/day in V2; the feed conversion ratio (FCR, calculated as the mean value of the two repetitions from the two variants, was of 1.49 in V1 and of 2.81 in V2. The parameters of fish breeding showed that changing the quality of fodder, the fish growing was positively influenced. This experiment showed also that sterlet is a sturgeon with a moderate growth rate and it is possible to obtain an increase of fish biomass using pellets with 30-46 % crude protein.

  17. Feasibility study for a recirculating linac-based facility for femtosecond dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corlett, J.N.; Barry, W.; Barletta, W.A.; Byrd, J.M.; DeSantis, S.; Doolittle, L.; Fawley, W.; Green, M.A.; Hartman, N.; Heimann, P.; Kairan, D.; Kujawski, E.; Li, D.; Lidia, S.; Luft, P.; McClure, R.; Parmigiani, F.; Petroff, Y.; Pirkl, W.; Placidi, M.; Reavill, D.; Reichel, I.; Rimmer, R.A.; Ratti, A.; Robinson, K.E.; Sannibale, F.; Schoenlein, R.; Staples, J.; Tanabe, J.; Truchlikova, D.; Wan, W.; Wang, S.; Wells, R.; Wolski, A.; Zholents, A.

    2002-12-21

    LBNL is pursuing design studies and the scientific program for a facility dedicated to the production of x-ray pulses with ultra-short time duration, for application in dynamical studies of processes in physics, biology, and chemistry. The proposed x-ray facility has the short x-ray pulse length ({approx}60 fs FWHM) necessary to study very fast dynamics, high flux (up to approximately 10E11 photons/sec/0.1 percentBW) to study weakly scattering systems, and tuneability over 1-12 keV photon energy. The hard x-ray photon production section of the machine accommodates seven 2-m long undulators. Design studies for longer wavelength sources, using high-gain harmonic generation, are in progress. The x-ray pulse repetition rate of 10 kHz is matched to studies of dynamical processes (initiated by ultra-short laser pulses) that typically have a long recovery time or are not generally cyclic or reversible and need time to allow relaxation, replacement, or flow of the sample. The technique for producing ultra-short x-ray pulses uses relatively long electron bunches to minimize high-peak-current collective effects, and the ultimate x-ray duration is achieved by a combination of bunch manipulation and optical compression. Synchronization of x-ray pulses to sample excitation signals is expected to be of order 50 - 100 fs. Techniques for making use of the recirculating geometry to provide beam-based signals from early passes through the machine are being studied.

  18. Numerical simulation of the hydrodynamics within octagonal tanks in recirculating aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao; Liu, Baoliang; Lei, Jilin; Guan, Changtao; Huang, Bin

    2016-07-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model was established to simulate the hydrodynamics within an octagonal tank of a recirculating aquaculture system. The realizable k-ɛ turbulence model was applied to describe the flow, the discrete phase model (DPM) was applied to generate particle trajectories, and the governing equations are solved using the finite volume method. To validate this model, the numerical results were compared with data obtained from a full-scale physical model. The results show that: (1) the realizable k-ɛ model applied for turbulence modeling describes well the flow pattern in octagonal tanks, giving an average relative error of velocities between simulated and measured values of 18% from contour maps of velocity magnitudes; (2) the DPM was applied to obtain particle trajectories and to simulate the rate of particle removal from the tank. The average relative error of the removal rates between simulated and measured values was 11%. The DPM can be used to assess the self-cleaning capability of an octagonal tank; (3) a comprehensive account of the hydrodynamics within an octagonal tank can be assessed from simulations. The velocity distribution was uniform with an average velocity of 15 cm/s; the velocity reached 0.8 m/s near the inlet pipe, which can result in energy losses and cause wall abrasion; the velocity in tank corners was more than 15 cm/s, which suggests good water mixing, and there was no particle sedimentation. The percentage of particle removal for octagonal tanks was 90% with the exception of a little accumulation of ≤ 5 mm particle in the area between the inlet pipe and the wall. This study demonstrated a consistent numerical model of the hydrodynamics within octagonal tanks that can be further used in their design and optimization as well as promote the wide use of computational fluid dynamics in aquaculture engineering.

  19. Performance of different biofilters in a recirculating system for rainbow trout farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Sánchez O

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the performance of different biofilters in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS for trout farming. Materials and methods. It was used a 1m3 plastic tank for fries farming; fabric bags to solids retention; a submersible pump; a constant water level and flow distribution box; six up flow biofilters in 3” PVC tube; sand of D10=0.45mm as carrier. The reactors were operated at local temperature and with hydraulic retention time (HRT of 11 min, the biofilters were inoculated in the next way: R1-Control: RAS water; R2-Fish culture farm sludges; R3- Water from aerated lagoon of Antanas landfill (AL; R4-Aquarium sediments; R5- Aerated lagoon of AL sludges; R6-Sludges from sulfidogenic reactor of AL. The weight gain (WG and the food conversion (FC were evaluated, some physic-chemical parameters were monitored and the nitrogen and suspended solids removal efficiency were evaluated. Results. The WG of the cultured animals was 1.58 g/d and the FC was 1.41. There were no differences for ammonium and nitrite removal between the reactors; the average removal efficiencies were: ammonium 4.78%, nitrite 27.2%, nitrate 32.3%, suspended solids 37.5%; R4 and R5 reactors presented the best performance on nitrate removal, with average efficiencies of 47.4% and 42.8%. R3 presented the best SS removal with an average of 58.2%. Conclusions. The RAS water treatment system guaranteed appropriated liquid quality conditions for trout farming; the most efficient reactor for removal of the different forms of nitrogen was the inoculated with the aerated lagoon of AL sludges.

  20. Managing your blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control; Blood glucose - managing ... Know how to: Recognize and treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Recognize and treat high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) ...

  1. Anti-thrombotic technologies for medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavery, Karen S; Rhodes, Candace; Mcgraw, Adam; Eppihimer, Michael J

    2016-08-03

    Thrombosis associated with medical devices may lead to dramatic increases in morbidity, mortality and increased health care costs. Innovative strategies are being developed to reduce this complication and provide a safe biocompatible interface between device and blood. This article aims to describe the biological phenomena underlying device-associated thrombosis, and surveys the literature describing current and developing technologies designed to overcome this challenge. To reduce thrombosis, biomaterials with varying topographical properties and incorporating anti-thrombogenic substances on their surface have demonstrated potential. Overall, there is extensive literature describing technical solutions to reduce thrombosis associated with medical devices, but clinical results are required to demonstrate significant long-term benefits.

  2. A monitoring device for pressurised-air-driven diaphragm-based artificial heart assist devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeben, F.P.; Mul, de F.F.M.; Stokkink, H.S.D.; Koelink, M.H.; Greve, J.

    1992-01-01

    A non-invasive device has been developed to monitor the diaphragm position and the blood flow in artificial heart assist devices equipped with a pressurised-air-driven diaphragm. Light scattering from the diaphragm is used as a mechanism for measuring. Information about the position of several point

  3. Prediction of Viscoelastic Behavior of Blood Flow in Plaque Deposited Capillaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Anwar Solangi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the viscoelastic behaviour of blood over low value of elasticity, to analyse the influence of inertia in the presence of elasticity. For viscoelastic fluids shear-thinning and strainsoftening PTT (Phan-Thien/Tanner constitutive model is employed to identify the influence of elasticity. The computational method adopted is based on a finite element semi-implicit time stepping Taylor- Galerkin/pressure-correction scheme. Simulations are conducted via atherosclerotic vessels along with various percentages of deposition at distinct values of Reynolds numbers. The numerical simulations are performed for recirculation flow structure and development of recirculation length to investigate the impact of atherosclerosis on partially blocked plaque deposited vessels.

  4. Laser device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jill R.; Tremblay, Paul L.

    2007-07-10

    A laser device includes a target position, an optical component separated a distance J from the target position, and a laser energy source separated a distance H from the optical component, distance H being greater than distance J. A laser source manipulation mechanism exhibits a mechanical resolution of positioning the laser source. The mechanical resolution is less than a spatial resolution of laser energy at the target position as directed through the optical component. A vertical and a lateral index that intersect at an origin can be defined for the optical component. The manipulation mechanism can auto align laser aim through the origin during laser source motion. The laser source manipulation mechanism can include a mechanical index. The mechanical index can include a pivot point for laser source lateral motion and a reference point for laser source vertical motion. The target position can be located within an adverse environment including at least one of a high magnetic field, a vacuum system, a high pressure system, and a hazardous zone. The laser source and an electro-mechanical part of the manipulation mechanism can be located outside the adverse environment. The manipulation mechanism can include a Peaucellier linkage.

  5. Transmyocardial revascularization devices: technology update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kindzelski BA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bogdan A Kindzelski, Yifu Zhou, Keith A Horvath Cardiothoracic Surgery Research Program, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA Abstract: Transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMR emerged as treatment modality for patients with diffuse coronary artery disease not amendable to percutaneous or surgical revascularization. The procedure entails the creation of laser channels within ischemic myocardium in an effort to better perfuse these areas. Currently, two laser devices are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for TMR – holmium:yttrium–aluminum–garnet and CO2. The two devices differ in regard to energy outputs, wavelengths, ability to synchronize with the heart cycle, and laser–tissue interactions. These differences have led to studies showing different efficacies between the two laser devices. Over 50,000 procedures have been performed worldwide using TMR. Improvements in angina stages, quality of life, and perfusion of the myocardium have been demonstrated with TMR. Although several mechanisms for these improvements have been suggested, evidence points to new blood vessel formation, or angiogenesis, within the treated myocardium, as the major contributory factor. TMR has been used as sole therapy and in combination with coronary artery bypass grafting. Clinical studies have demonstrated that TMR is both safe and effective in angina relief long term. The objective of this review is to present the two approved laser devices and evidence for the safety and efficacy of TMR, along with future directions with this technology. Keywords: laser, revascularization, angiogenesis, coronary artery disease

  6. Hydraulic retention time impact of treated recirculated leachate on the hydrolytic kinetic rate of coffee pulp in an acidogenic reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houbron, E; González-López, G I; Cano-Lozano, V; Rustrían, E

    2008-01-01

    This study attempted to investigate the impact of HRT of treated leachate recirculation on hydrolysis solubilization rate of coffee pulp in an acidogenic reactor. Coffee pulp presents more than 70% of organic matter and around of 30% of lignin and cellulose. Five lab scale reactors of 20 litres were used. Each reactor was fed with 5 kg of fresh coffee pulp and anaerobic sludge was used as inoculate. HRT of 0.5, 1, 3 and 10 days were applied. Each experiment shows that Total, Soluble and VFA COD appear rapidly in the removed leachate. HRT have a great impact on hydrolytic rate with an optimal value of 32,000 mg x L(-1) x d(-1).Low HRT increases hydrolysis rate and in consequence reduces duration of the hydrolytic phase. Also composition and concentration of VFA are influenced by HRT. Low ones favour acetic acid production and high ones permit the production of butyric. Low HRT generates leachate more easily fermentable. Efficiency of solubilization and acidification are independent of the HRT and present average values of 78% and 65% respectively. By batch feeding solid and continuous recirculation of treated leachate, HRT and SRT could be dissociated, where solid had a very high retention without problems of load, mixing and inhibition, and liquid could be recirculated with a very high rate. Under these low HRT condition, the first reactor of a two stage anaerobic system could reduces the hydrolysis duration of organic solid waste like coffee pulp and generate an optimal leachate for the methanization process.

  7. Blood Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of ASH ASH Meeting on Hematologic Malignancies Consultative Hematology Course ASH Meeting on Lymphoma Biology ASH Workshop on Genome Editing Publications Blood The Hematologist ASH Clinical News ASH Self-Assessment Program Hematology , ASH Education Program About Awards Membership ASH Foundation ...

  8. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of ASH ASH Meeting on Hematologic Malignancies Consultative Hematology Course ASH Meeting on Lymphoma Biology ASH Workshop on Genome Editing Publications Blood The Hematologist ASH Clinical News ASH Self-Assessment Program Hematology , ASH Education Program About Awards Membership ASH Foundation ...

  9. 21 CFR 864.9100 - Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components. 864.9100 Section 864.9100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments...

  10. Growth of juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua in land-based recirculation systems: Effects of feeding regime, photoperiod and diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fülberth, Michael; Moran, Damian; Jarlbæk, Henrik;

    2009-01-01

    . Three RAS units were used to simultaneously test three feed/photoperiod regimes that might be encountered in the wild or aquaculture; LightDark (LD) 24:0, LD12:11 (+ 1 h crepuscular periods) and LD6:6 (+ 12 h crepuscular periods). Feed was administered during the light period every 30 min for a 3 min...... feeding duration. In each RAS unit three diets (A, B and C) were tested, which were broadly similar in composition but from different manufacturers. Water exchange rate averaged 10–19% in the three recirculation systems, and key water quality parameters such as NH4+ and CO2 remained at low effect...

  11. Characteristics of three-phase internal loop airlift bioreactors with complete gas recirculation for non-Newtonian fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jianping; Jia, Xiaoqiang; Cheng, Xianrui; Yang, Peng

    2005-05-01

    Hydrodynamic and gas-liquid mass transfer characteristics, such as liquid velocity, gas holdup, solid holdup and gas-liquid volumetric mass transfer coefficient, in the riser and downcomer of the gas-liquid-solid three-phase internal loop airlift bioreactors with complete gas recirculation for non-Newtonian fluids, were investigated. A mathematical model for the description of flow behavior and gas-liquid mass transfer of these bioreactors was developed. The predicted results of this model agreed well with the experimental data.

  12. Energy Analysis of n-Dodecane Combustion in a Hetero/Homogeneous Heat-Recirculating Microreactor for Portable Power Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waits, C. M.; Tolmachoff, E. D.; Allmon, W. R.; Zecher-Freeman, N. E.

    2016-11-01

    An energy analysis is presented for n-dodecane/air combustion in a heat recirculating Inconel microreactor under vacuum conditions. Microreactor channels are partially coated with platinum enabling operating with coupled heterogeneous and homogeneous reactions. The radiant efficiency, important for thermophotovoltaic energy conversion, was found to decrease from 57% to 52% over 5 different runs covering 377 min of operation. A similar decrease in combustion efficiency was observed with 6%-8% energy lost to incomplete combustion and 5%- 6% lost through sensible heat in the exhaust. The remaining thermal loss is from unusable radiation and conduction through inlet and outlet tubing. Changes in the Inconel microreactor geometry and emissivity properties were observed.

  13. Effectiveness of Floating Micro-Bead Bio-Filter for Ornamental Fish in a Re-Circulating Aquaculture System

    OpenAIRE

    R Fadhil

    2011-01-01

    Bio-filtration has been widely used in re-circulating aquaculture system to remove waste and to convert toxic ammonia andnitrite into safe end products ornamental fish and other aquatic organisms. However, the study of micro-bead usage as the filter medium has not yet been broadened and thoroughly developed. Therefore, the aim of this study is to construct a biological filter made from polyethylene micro-bead as the filter medium and to analyze its effectiveness in removingwaste as well as in...

  14. Trichodina sp. ( Ciliophora: Peritrichida ) in eel Anguilla anguilla in recirculation systems in Denmark : host-parasite relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, H.C.K.; Buchmann, Kurt; Mellergaard, Stig

    2000-01-01

    Farmed eel cultured in recirculation systems in Denmark were found infected by Trichodina jadranica Raabe, 1958. Associations between parasite abundance and fish size was examined in 2 different production systems. In one system, stocked with relatively well-nourished eels (3 to 31 g), most...... of the parasites (66%) were found on the dorsal part on the skin and relatively few were found on the gills (approx. 8%). The infection level was significantly positively correlated both with fish weight and length. In the other system, stocked with relatively malnourished small eels (0.5 to 4 g), significantly...

  15. Emission characteristics of iso-propanol/gasoline blends in a spark-ignition engine combined with exhaust gas re-circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Jing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out in a spark-ignition engine fueled with iso-propanol/gasoline blends. Emission characteristics of this engine were investigated experimentally, including gaseous emissions (HC, CO, NOx and particulate matter emission in term of number and size distributions. The effects of different iso-propanol percentages, loads and exhaust gas recirculation rates on emissions were analyzed. Results show that the introduction of exhaust gas recirculation reduces the NOx emission and NOx emission gives the highest value at full load condition. HC and CO emissions present inconspicuous variations at all the loads except the load of 10%. Additionally, HC emission shows a sharp increase for pure propanol when the exhaust gas recirculation rate is up to 5%, while little variation is observed at lager exhaust gas recirculation rates. Moreover, the particulate matter number concentration increases monotonically with the increase of load and the decrease of exhaust gas recirculation rate. There exists a critical spark timing that produces the highest particulate matter number concentration at all the blending ratios.

  16. Sustainable Zero-Valent Metal (ZVM Water Treatment Associated with Diffusion, Infiltration, Abstraction, and Recirculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David D.J. Antia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Socio-economic, climate and agricultural stress on water resources have resulted in increased global demand for water while at the same time the proportion of potential water resources which are adversely affected by sodification/salinisation, metals, nitrates, and organic chemicals has increased. Nano-zero-valent metal (n-ZVM injection or placement in aquifers offers a potential partial solution. However, n-ZVM application results in a substantial reduction in aquifer permeability, which in turn can reduce the amount of water that can be abstracted from the aquifer. This study using static diffusion and continuous flow reactors containing n-ZVM and m-ZVM (ZVM filaments, filings and punchings has established that the use of m-ZVM does not result in a reduction in aquifer permeability. The experimental results are used to design and model m-ZVM treatment programs for an aquifer (using recirculation or static diffusion. They also provide a predictive model for water quality associated with specific abstraction rates and infiltration/injection into an aquifer. The study demonstrates that m-ZVM treatment requires 1% of the weight required for n-ZVM treatment for a specific flow rate. It is observed that 1 t Fe0 will process 23,500 m3 of abstracted or infiltrating water. m-ZVM is able to remove >80% of nitrates from flowing water and adjust the water composition (by reduction in an aquifer to optimize removal of nitrates, metals and organic compounds. The experiments demonstrate that ZVM treatment of an aquifer can be used to reduce groundwater salinity by 20 –> 45% and that an aquifer remediation program can be designed to desalinate an aquifer. Modeling indicates that widespread application of m-ZVM water treatment may reduce global socio-economic, climate and agricultural stress on water resources. The rate of oxygen formation during water reduction [by ZVM (Fe0, Al0 and Cu0] controls aquifer permeability, the associated aquifer pH, aquifer Eh

  17. Vibration-type particle separation device with piezoceramic vibrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooe, Katsutoshi; Doi, Akihiro

    2008-12-01

    During hemanalysis, it is necessary to separate blood cells from whole blood. Many blood separation methods, for example, centrifugation and filtering, are in practical use. However, the use of these methods involves problems from the perspectives of processing speed and processing volume. We develop new types of blood separation devices that use piezo-ceramic vibrators. The first device uses a capillary. One end of the capillary is fixed to the device frame, and the other is fixed to a piezo-ceramic vibrator. The vibrator transmits bending waves to the capillary. This device can process only a small amount of solution; therefore, it is not suitable for hemanalysis. In order to solve this problem, we developed a second device; this device has a pair of thin glass plates with a small gap as a substitute for the capillary used in the first device. These devices are based on the fact that particles heavier than water move toward transverse velocity antinodes while those lighter than water move toward velocity nodes. In this report, we demonstrate the highspeed separation of silica microbeads and 50-vol% glycerol water by using these devices. The first device can separate the abovementioned solution within 3 min while the second can separate it within 1 min. Both devices are driven by a rectangular wave of 15 to 20 Vpp. Furthermore, it has been confirmed that red blood cells are separated from diluted whole blood using the first device within approximately 1 min. These devices have transparency, so they can compose as the analysis system with the chemical analyzer easily.

  18. [The VAMP device. Benefits for the critical patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Morón, Nuria; Chacón Jordán, Encarnación; Fernández Moreno, Inmaculada; Granero Lázaro, Alberto

    2003-09-01

    Taking blood samples by means of conventional intravascular devices requires throwing away an initial volume of mixed blood and serum which comprises between 24-26% of the volume of blood extracted from the patient admitted into an intensive care ward. At present time there exists a device with a reservoir, VAMP, which permits one to obtain blood samples without having to waste this initial volume. The working hypothesis poses that the use of the VAMP device decreases the risk of transfusion. This study has a random prospective design. This study subjects are 58 patients admitted in the intensive care ward at the Parc Taulí Corporation distributed in a control group which made use of a conventional device and a VAMP group which made use of the device having a reservoir. The study used a data recordsheet. Statistical calculations were carried out on the SPSS program.

  19. Medical devices: US medical device regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarow, Jonathan P; Baxley, John H

    2015-03-01

    Medical devices are regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) within the Center for Devices and Radiological Health. Center for Devices and Radiological Health is responsible for protecting and promoting the public health by ensuring the safety, effectiveness, and quality of medical devices, ensuring the safety of radiation-emitting products, fostering innovation, and providing the public with accurate, science-based information about the products we oversee, throughout the total product life cycle. The FDA was granted the authority to regulate the manufacturing and marketing of medical devices in 1976. It does not regulate the practice of medicine. Devices are classified based on complexity and level of risk, and "pre-1976" devices were allowed to remain on the market after being classified without FDA review. Post-1976 devices of lower complexity and risk that are substantially equivalent to a marketed "predicate" device may be cleared through the 510(k) premarket notification process. Clinical data are typically not needed for 510(k) clearance. In contrast, higher-risk devices typically require premarket approval. Premarket approval applications must contain data demonstrating reasonable assurance of safety and efficacy, and this information typically includes clinical data. For novel devices that are not high risk, the de novo process allows FDA to simultaneously review and classify new devices. Devices that are not legally marketed are permitted to be used for clinical investigation purposes in the United States under the Investigational Device Exemptions regulation.

  20. Blood pressure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diastolic blood pressure; Systolic blood pressure; Blood pressure reading; Measuring blood pressure ... or your health care provider will wrap the blood pressure cuff snugly around your upper arm. The lower ...